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Sample records for soil physico-chemical properties

  1. The impact of cement kiln dust on soil Physico-chemical properties ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of cement kiln dust on selected soil physico-chemical properties after 25 years of cement production by the Benue cement factory in Gboko, Nigeria were evaluated by comparing the cement-dust affected soils with non-affected soils. The study showed that at both soil depths of 0-20 and 20-40 cm exchangeable ...

  2. Effects of rumen digesta on the physico-chemical properties of soil in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In tropical and subtropical areas, the importance of organic manure in improving soil physico-chemical properties and crop production for food security cannot be overemphasized. A study was conducted during 2012/2013 crop years, to investigate the effects of rumen digesta on the physical and chemical properties of soil ...

  3. Physico-chemical properties

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Abstract. Xenogeneic bone procured from the slaughterhouse waste was deproteinated by heat treatment method intended for use as a bone substitute. The effect of heat treatment was investigated by thermal ana- lysis and by physico-chemical methods such as X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transformed.

  4. Changes in physico-chemical properties of soil by adding organic amendments in a tomato crop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez Navarro, A.; Marin Salneandro, P.; Delgado Iniesta, M. J.

    2009-01-01

    This study possible changes in the physico-chemical properties of soil under intensive cultivation of tomatoes after the addition of two different types of organic amendments: a natural as sheep manure and synthetic made. Trial plots that were designed are located in the NE of the province of Granada, in Puebla de Trial plots that were designed are located in the NE of the province of Granada, in Puebla de Don Fadrique, in the are that in recent years, change are very important in agriculture, from traditional farms extensive cultivation of rain-fed cereal crops such as intensive vegetale broccoli or tomatoes. (Author) 16 refs.

  5. Effect of phosphogypsum amendment on soil physico-chemical properties, microbial load and enzyme activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Soumya; Mishra, C S K; Guru, B C; Rath, Monalisa

    2011-09-01

    Phosphogypsum (PG) is produced as a solid waste from phosphatic fertilizer plants. The waste slurry is disposed off in settling ponds or in heaps. This solid waste is now increasingly being used as a calcium supplement in agriculture. This study reports the effectof PG amendmenton soil physico chemical properties, bacterial and fungal count and activities of soil enzymes such as invertase, cellulase and amylase over an incubation period of 28 days. The highest mean percent carbon loss (55.98%) was recorded in 15% PG amended soil followed by (55.28%) in 10% PG amended soil and the minimum (1.68%) in control soil. The highest number of bacterial colonies (47.4 CFU g(-1) soil), fungal count (17.8 CFU g(-1) soil), highest amylase activity (38.4 microg g(-1) soil hr(-1)) and cellulase activity (38.37 microg g(-1) soil hr(-1)) were recorded in 10% amended soil. Statistically significant difference (p<0.05) has been recorded in the activities of amylase and cellulase over the period of incubation irrespective of amendments. Considering the bacterial and fungal growth and the activities of the three soil enzymes in the control and amended sets, it appears that 10% PG amendment is optimal for microbial growth and soil enzyme activities.

  6. Prescribed fires effects on physico-chemical properties and quantity of runoff and soil erosion in a Mediterranean forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban Lucas-Borja, Manuel; Plaza Alvaréz, Pedro Antonio; Sagra, Javier; Alfaro Sánchez, Raquel; Moya, Daniel; Ferrandiz Gotor, Pablo; De las Heras Ibañez, Jorge

    2017-04-01

    Wildfires have an important influence in forest ecosystems. Contrary to high severity fire, which may have negative impacts on the ecosystems, low severity induce small changes on soil properties. Thus and in order to reduce fire risk, low-severity prescribed fires have been widely used as a fuel reduction tool and silvicultural treatment in Mediterranean forest ecosystems. However, fire may alter microsite conditions and little is known about the impact of prescribed burning on the physico-chemical properties of runoff. In this study, we compared the effects of prescribed burning on physico-chemical properties and quantity of runoff and soil erosion during twelve months after a low severity prescribed fire applied in twelve 16 m2 plot (6 burned plots and 6 control plots used for comparison) set up in the Lezuza forest (Albacete, central-eastern Spain). Physico-chemical properties and quantity of runoff and soil losses were monitored after each rainfall event (five rainfall events in total). Also, different forest stand characteristics (slope, tree density, basal area and shrub/herbal cover) affecting each plot were measured. Results showed that forest stand characteristics were very similar in all used plots. Also, physico-chemical runoff properties were highly modified after the prescribed fire, increasing water pH, carbonates, bicarbonates, total dissolved solids and organic matter content dissolved in water. Electrical conductivity, calcium, sodium, chloride and magnesium were not affected by prescribed fire. Soil losses were highly related to precipitation intensity and tree interception. Tree intercepted the rainfall and significantly reduced soil losses and also runoff quantity. In conclusion and after the first six-month experiment, the influence of prescribed fires on physico-chemical runoff properties should be taken into account for developing proper prescribed burnings guidelines.

  7. The influence of physico-chemical properties of soils on the bioavailability of 65Zn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochetkov, Ilia; Anisimov, Vyacheslav

    2014-05-01

    Stability of soils to the effects of man-made origin pollutants is determined by their buffer capaci-ty (the ability to inactivate pollutants in a soil - soil solution - plant system). Soils are character-ized by the same types of stability as the ecosystem as a whole. Increased migration activity of pollutants is a symptom of ecological trouble, due to the soil transformation in an unstable state. Thus, the problem of the stability of soil is one of the fundamental problems of modern science. The aim of the study was to estimate the buffering capacity of soil as a key factor of their ecological and geochemical stability with respect to a relatively long-lived radionuclides 65Zn (T1/2 = 224 days), representing the radiological hazard in the location of nuclear facilities. There was proposed a method for scoring the buffering capacity of soils as for 65Zn contamination. It's based on dependence between the main physico-chemical soil properties and accumulation of the radionuclide in the aboveground plant parts (barley kind of "Zazersky-85"). The role of the considered indicators of soil health in the accumulation of radiozinc by plants was defined. The essence of this technique was to assess the contribution of individual characteristics of the soil condition, which play the most important role in the regulation of mobility (and bioavailability) of radionuclides, using the method of stepwise multiple regression analysis. For this aim representative sampling was compiled (from 20 soil types and varieties belonging to different climatic zones of the European part of the Russian Federation), thus providing a wide range of variation of the studied physical and chemical parameters, and also vegetation model experiments using 65Zn were held. On the basis of the conducted statistical analysis was revealed that the dominant contribution to the variation of the effective trait (accumulation coefficient of 65Zn) make: CaCO3 content, mobile iron (Tamm extract) and pH. As a

  8. The bacterial and physico-chemical properties of hair salon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The bacterial and physico-chemical properties of hair salon wastewater and contaminated soil in Benin metropolis were investigated. Investigations were carried out on five hair salons from different locations in Benin City. The physico chemical analysis showed that Ugbowo samples had the highest chemical oxygen ...

  9. Physico-chemical Properties of Serendipity Berry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluates the physico-chemical properties of serendipity berry. Physico-chemical properties of the serendipity berries were analyzed. The total number of berries in a bunch of fruit ranged from 45 to 98. This depends on the size of the bunch. The results revealed the dry matter, moisture, soluble solids and vitamin ...

  10. Physico-chemical properties and fertility status of water eroded soils of Sharkul area of district Mansehra, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farmanullah Khan, A. Iqbal

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Soil degradation is the major threat to agricultural sustainability because it affects the soil productivity. Present study was conducted in 2008 to evaluate physico-chemical properties and fertility status of some eroded soil series of Sharkul area district Manshera, Hazara division, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Six soil series including slightly eroded (Dosera and Girari, moderately eroded (Nakholi and Sharkul and severely eroded (Ahl and Banser were selected. Soil samples were collected from surface (0-15 cm, subsurface (30-45 cm and substrata soil (60-75cm depths and were analyzed for various soil properties. Due to severity of erosion, bulk density increased, while total porosity, saturation percentage and organic matter decreased significantly. AB-DTPA extractable P, K, Fe, Cu, Zn, and Mn concentrations were decreased due to the severity of erosion in surface and sub surface soils, whereas in the substrata soils (60-75 cm depth, the effect of erosion was almost non significant. Sub-surface and sub-strata soils were found deficient in available P ( Zn > Fe > Mn. The physical and chemical properties of eroded soils varied significantly and the increasing severity of erosion resulted in corresponding deterioration of soil quality.

  11. Physico-Chemical and Microbiological Characterization of Soils ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Changes in microbial community content as well as physico-chemical properties of soil contaminated with tannery effluents in Sokoto metropolis were determined using standard procedures. The results showed that the soil sample contained a variety of microorganisms which include Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, ...

  12. Spatial Variability of Soil Morphorlogical and Physico- Chemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    The available moisture of soil was very low thus water holding capacity (WHC) and wilting point (WP) of ... cover crops, planting legumes, mulching ..... can thrive well if the field capacity can supply the required plant available water to the planted crops. 142. Variability of Soil Morphorlogical and Physico-Chemical Properties ...

  13. Spatial Variation of some Soil Physico-Chemical Properties of an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sampling spacing of 30 – 60 m is appropriate for soil fertility assessment in the test area. A sample size of 37 core samples per hectare is required to adequately predict the mean of soil properties with 5 % allowable error. Keywords: Spatial variability, Soil properties, Semivariogram, Southwestern Nigeria. Nigerian Journal ...

  14. Effects of rumen digesta on the physico-chemical properties of soils ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study found a significant reduction in the exchangeable aluminum (1.5 to 0.0 cmol/kg) and hydrogen content (3.7 to 2.2 cmol/kg) of the soils. It is recommended that farmers can improve the physical and chemical properties of soils by using rumen digesta as an alternative liming material. Key words: Rumen digesta, soil ...

  15. Decoupling the deep: crop rotations, fertilization and soil physico-chemical properties down the profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobley, Eleanor; Honermeier, Bernd; Don, Axel; Amelung, Wulf; Kögel-Knabner, Ingrid

    2017-04-01

    . This resulted in a reduction of N density at depth, which was not mirrored in C densities, indicating that fava beans decouple C and N cycles in the deep soil profile. We then tested whether these effects are a result of plant (i.e. enhanced rooting depth associated with lowered subsoil bulk density) or microbial (i.e. N-cycling and denitrification processes) activities, by investigating the isotopic signatures of C and N down the profile. Our results indicate that the selection of crop rotation influences soil C and N cycling and depth distribution. Although mineral N fertilizer has significant benefits for yield, the choice of crop rotation has a greater influence on soil C and N cycling and specifically the addition of leguminous plants into rotation can provide additional yield benefits and stability. Incorporating legumes into crop rotations affects soil physical and chemical properties and decouples C and N cycles in the deep soil profile, indicating different nutrient and water cycling processes in the deep soil profile.

  16. Effects of five earthworm species on some physico-chemical properties of soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhuri, P S; Pal, T K; Nath, Sabyasachi; Dey, S K

    2012-07-01

    An incubation experiment was conducted to study the changes that occur in organic carbon content, phosphorous and potassium availability and other soil properties with ingestion of soil mixed with rubber leaf litter and cow dung by five earthworm species viz. Pontoscolex corethrurus, Drawida assamensis, Drawida papillifer papillifer, Eutyphoeus comillahnus and Metaphire houlletiof rubber plantation in Tripura (India). Due to earthworm activity organic C (1.56-1.63%) and available P (14.71-27.60 mg 100 g(-1)) and K (43.50-49.0 mg 100 g(-1)) content of the soil increased significantly (p < 0.05) in most of the earthworm species studied. M. houlleti and D. papillifer papillifer had the highest P (27.60 mg 100 g ) and K (49.0 mg 100 g ) mobilization capacity, respectively. Earthworms, irrespective of the species, increased the pH (7.05-7.17) and electrical conductivity (663-1383 microS cm(-1)) of the soil significantly (p < 0.05).

  17. Spatial Variability of Soil Morphorlogical and Physico-Chemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spatial Variability of Soil Morphorlogical and Physico-Chemical Properties in Ladoke Akintola University of Technology Cashew Plantation, Ogbomoso. ... Colour (AP, B1 B2 and B3), structure (B2 and B3), stoniness (B1, B2 and B3), concretion (AP B1, B2 and B3) and boundary forms (B1, B2 and B3) have extremely ...

  18. Effects of rumen digesta on the physico-chemical properties of soils ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IFEOMA EDEH

    2015-06-03

    Jun 3, 2015 ... The soil samples collected from Opi, Nsukka were treated with four rates of rumen .... The soil is deep, coarse textured and low in organic matter with .... As the rate of rumen digesta application increased, the soil pH, exchangeable sodium (Na), exchangeable potassium (K), effective cation exchange ...

  19. Impact of Waste Materials Resulting from the Refining of Crude Oil on Some Soil Physico-Chemical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    pari asadi alasvand

    2017-02-01

    unpolluted soils were mostly gypseous and/or calcareous especially in the middle parts. Considering the surface and subsurface diagnostic horizons and the aridic-thermic soil moisture and temperature regimes, the studied soils were classified as Gypsids, Calcids or Cambids (Soil Survey Staff, 2014. However, due to the added oil waste compounds and presence of impermeable geomembrane in some of the polluted pedons, they were classified as Technosols in the WRB system (FAO, 2014. Noticeable effects of Pollutants in the soil were decreasing pH and increasing OM and EC. The surface horizons of the unpolluted soils contained less than 2 percent organic matter which regularly decreased by depth. However, In some horizons of the polluted soils, soil organic matter exceeded 12 percent. pH decreased by increasing organic matter (oil waste compounds possibly due to H+ dissociation from the oil compounds (Laurent et al., 2012. Electrical conductivity throughout the polluted soil horizons showed more limited variability than the unpolluted ones, probably due to their higher capability in water and liquid dynamics. Liquid limit and plasticity limit in polluted soils are higher than unpolluted soils . Plasticity index in polluted soils decreased with increasing the amount of pollutants. The results of mineralogical studies corroborated that dominant clay mineral in this soils is Smectite. Smectites have high swelling and shrinking capacity.So, the pollutants can intercalate between soil mineral layers and then increase d-spacing of clay minerals. The micromorphology of the polluted soils showed that low dielectric constant of petroleum caused flocculation and formation granular aggregates in soil. Studied soils are inactive in terms of activity of clay. Conclusion: As observed in the studied soils, their physico-chemical properties such as pH and electrical conductivity (EC of saturated paste extract, organic matter content, mineralogical and micro-morphological properties were severely

  20. Physico-Chemical Properties of Kaolin-Organic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeo S.W.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil with more than 20% of organic content is classified as organic soil in Malaysia. Contents of organic soil consist of different types of organic and inorganic matter. Each type of organic matter has its own characteristic and its effect on the properties of the soil is different. Hence, a good understanding on the effect of specific organic and inorganic matter on the physico-chemical characteristic of organic soils can serve as a guide for predicting the properties of organic soils. The main objective is to unveil the effect of organic acid on the physico-chemical properties of soil. Artificial organic soil (kaolin mixed with organic acid was utilized in order to minimize the geochemical variability of studied soil. The organic acid which consists of humic acid and fulvic acid was extracted from highly humificated plant–based compost. The effect of organic acid on the physico-chemical properties of soil was determined by varying the concentration of organic acid. The specific gravity, Atterberg limits, pH, bulk chemical composition and the functional group of kaolin-organic acid were determined. It was found that the plasticity index, specific gravity and pH value were decreased with lowered concentration of organic acid. However, the liquid limits and plastic limits were found to be increased with the concentration decrement of organic acid. The analysis of XRF on the bulk chemical composition and analysis of FTIR spectra on the functional group of artificial organic soils with different concentration have confirmed little geochemical variability between samples.

  1. Evaluation of physico-chemical parameters of agricultural soils ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of physico-chemical parameters of agricultural soils irrigated by the waters of the hydrolic basin of Sebou River and their influences on the transfer of trace elements into sugar crops (the case of sugar cane)

  2. Physico-chemical properties and sensory evaluation of jam made ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to investigate the possibility of producing jam from black-plum and to evaluate the physico-chemical properties, nutritional properties and consumer acceptability of the product. Black-plum jam was produced using traditional openkettle method. The physico-chemical analyses of black-plum fruit ...

  3. Changes in physico-chemical properties and flavour compounds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four types of Obushera, a fermented millet or sorghum beverage:Ekitiribita Obuteire, Obutoko and Enturire were analyzed for their physico-chemical properties, sugars, organic acids and volatile compounds during fermentation. Standard chemical methods were used to determine the physico-chemical properties of ...

  4. Physico-Chemical and Microbiological Characterization of Soils ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acer

    Rabah and Ibrahim; Physico-Chemical and Microbiological Characterization of Soils Laden with Tannery Effluents in Sokoto, Nigeria. 66 greenhouse effect and ... (2006). Soil samples were collected from three different tanneries located at ... 20ml of boric acid mixed indicator was pipetted and placed under the still set such ...

  5. Transuranium elements. Physico-chemical properties and environmental behavior. Behavior in soils, waters and sediments. Transfer to the aquatic biomass and to vegetals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angeletti, Livio.

    1979-07-01

    This report outlines the nuclear and physico-chemical properties of transuranians, such as criticity, formation of complexions hydrolysis and polymerization, disproportionation and radiolysis, the knowledge of which will be useful to radioecologists and will make easier the interpretation of results. Then, it reviews the bibliographical data concerning the behavior of transuranians (Np, 238 Pu, 239 Pu, 240 Pu, Am, Cm) in soils and in the aquatic environment, as well as their uptake by plants, and the transfer to the aquatic biomass. Conspectus tables bring together the present day knowledge on: the values of distribution and diffusion coefficients in the soil and sediments, the values of the factors of transfer in aquatic environment (fresh water, sea water, sand, biomass). A discussion about the influence of the different environmental parameters makes it possible to define the fields of experimental research to which the future efforts would have to be devoted [fr

  6. A greenhouse study on arsenic remediation potential of Vetiver grass (Vetiveria Zizanioides) as a function of soil physico-chemical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quispe, M. A.; Datta, R.; Sarkar, D.; Sharma, S.

    2006-05-01

    Arsenic is one of the most harmful and toxic metals, being a Group A human carcinogen. Mining activities as well as the use of arsenic-containing pesticides have resulted in the contamination of a wide variety of sites including mine tailings, cattle dip sites, wood treatment sites, pesticide treatment areas, golf courses, etc. Phytoremediation has emerged as a novel and promising technology, which uses plants to clean up contaminated soil and water taking advantage of plant's natural abilities to extract and accumulate various contaminants. This method has distinct advantages, since it maintains the biological properties and physical structure of the soil, is environment friendly, and above all, inexpensive. However, effective remediation of contaminated residential soils using a specific plant species is an immensely complex task whose success depends on a multitude of factors including the ability of the target plant to uptake, translocate, detoxify, and accumulate arsenic in its system. One of the major challenges in phytoremediation lies in identifying a fast- growing, high biomass plant that can accumulate the contaminant in its harvestable parts. vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides) is a fast-growing perennial grass with strong ecological adaptability and large biomass. While this plant is not a hyperaccumulator of arsenic, it has been reported to be able to tolerate and accumulate considerable amounts of arsenic. Being a high biomass, fast-growing plant, vetiver has the potential to be used for arsenic remediation. The present study investigates the potential of vetiver grass to tolerate and accumulate arsenic in soils with varying physico-chemical properties. A greenhouse study is in progress to study the uptake, tolerance and stress response of vetiver grass to inorganic arsenical pesticide. A column study was set up using 5 soils (Eufaula, Millhopper, Orelia, Orla, and Pahokee Muck) contaminated with sodium arsenite at 4 different concentrations of

  7. The physico-chemical properties and structural characteristics of artificial soil for cut slope restoration in Southwestern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shunan; Ai, Xiaoyan; Dong, Tengyun; Li, Binbin; Luo, Ruihong; Ai, Yingwei; Chen, Zhaoqiong; Li, Chuanren

    2016-02-01

    Cut slopes are frequently generated by construction work in hilly areas, and artificial soil is often sprayed onto them to promote ecological rehabilitation. The artificial soil properties are very important for effective management of the slopes. This paper uses fractal and moment methods to characterize soil particle size distribution (PSD) and aggregates composition. The fractal dimension (D) showed linear relationships between clay, silt, and sand contents, with coefficients of determination from 0.843 to 0.875, suggesting that using of D to evaluate the PSD of artificial soils is reasonable. The bias (CS) and peak convex (CE) coefficients showed significant correlations with structure failure rate, moisture content, and total porosity, which validated the moment method to quantitatively describe soil structure. Railway slope (RS) soil has lower organic carbon and soil moisture, and higher pH than natural slope soil. Overall, RS exhibited poor soil structure and physicochemical properties, increasing the risk of soil erosion. Hence, more effective management measures should be adopted to promote the restoration of cut slopes.

  8. Physico-chemical properties of starches isolated from potato cultivars grown in soils with different phosphorus availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonel, Magali; Carmo, Ezequiel L; Fernandes, Adalton M; Franco, Célia M L; Soratto, Rogério P

    2016-04-01

    Starch is the major component of potato tubers, amounting approximately to 150-200 g kg (-1) of the tuber weight. Starch is considered to be a major factor for the functionality of the potato in food applications. This study evaluated the physical characteristics of potato starches isolated from tubers of different potato cultivars grown in soil with three levels of phosphorus (P) availability. All potatoes were growing according the same method. The starches were isolated by physical methods and the samples were analyzed for the amylose, P content, paste properties (RVA) and thermal properties of gelatinization and retrogradation (DSC). Experimental data were analyzed considering the potato cultivars and the three soil P availability. For all measured parameters significant impact of cultivar and soil P availability was determined. Phosphorus contents in potato starches ranged from 0.252 to 0.647 g kg(-1) and amylose from 27.18 to 30.8%. Starches from different potato cultivars independent of soil showed a small range of gelatinization temperature. All starches showed low resistance heating and shear stress. The results showed the influence of growing conditions (soil P availability) and also of the differences between the potato cultivars on important characteristics of applicability of starches. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Physico-chemical properties and fertility status of some typic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physico-chemical properties and fertility status of some typic plinthaquults in bauchi loval government area of Bauchi state, Nigeria. S Mustapha. Abstract. No Abstract. IJOTAFS Vol. 1 (2) 2007: pp. 120-124. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  10. Evaluation of the physico-chemical properties of acid thinned ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of acid hydrolysis on the physico-chemical properties of cassava starch was investigated. The acid hydrolysed (acid thinned) starches were prepared from cassava starch with 0.1M solution of hydrochloric acid. The acid hydrolysis of starch samples were carried out at 60°C in a thermostatically controlled water ...

  11. Physico-chemical properties of topsoil under indigenous and exotic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluated selected physico-chemical properties of topsoil under monoculture plantation of an indigenous tree species - Nauclea diderrichii, and those of four exotic tree species – Theobroma cacao, Gmelina arborea, Pinus caribaea and Tectona grandis, located in Omo Biosphere Reserve, Ogun State, Nigeria.

  12. Comparative Studies of Physico-chemical Properties of Some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate some physico-chemical properties of four major general purpose cement (As, Br, De and Sk) sold in Nigerian market using standard methods; due to the persistent collapse of buildings. The results showed that Br cement recorded the least CaO content (56.17%) while De cement had ...

  13. Physico-chemical properties of Nigerian pumpkin ( Curcurbita pepo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physico-chemical properties of Nigerian pumpkin (Curcurbita pepo) seed oil. NC Ihediohanma, CN Ubbaonu, ENT Akobundu, EOI Banigo. Abstract. No Abstract. Nigerian Food Journal Vol. 24(1) 2006: 123-126. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  14. Physico-chemical properties and energy potential of wood wastes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physico-chemical properties and energy potential of wood wastes from sawmills in Benin metropolis, Nigeria. ... The results are indications that the wood wastes are suitable as feedstock for renewable energy generation with little or no threat to the environment. Keywords: Benin Metropolis; Bio-energy; Calorific value; ...

  15. Physico-chemical properties of a Haplic Acrisol in Southeastern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physico-chemical properties of a Haplic Acrisol in Southeastern Nigeria amended with rice mill waste and NPK fertilizer. ... conductivity (Ksat) and mean weight diameter (MWD) of water stable aggregates significantly by 41.1, 368.2 and 155.8%, respectively, and resulted in 20.9% significant decrease in bulk density (BD).

  16. INFLUENCE OF VERMICOMPOST ON THE PHYSICO-CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL PROPERTIES IN DIFFERENT TYPES OF SOIL ALONG WITH YIELD AND QUALITY OF THE PULSE CROP-BLACKGRAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Parthasarathi, M. Balamurugan, L. S. Ranganathan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Field experiments were conducted during 2002-2003 on clay loam, sandy loam and red loam soil at Sivapuri, Chidambaram, Tamil Nadu, to evaluate the efficacy of vermicompost on the physico-chemical and biological characteristics of the soils and on the yield and nutrient content of blackgram - Vigna mungo, in comparison to inorganic fertilizers nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium. Vermicompost had increased the pore space, reduced particle and bulk density, increased water holding capacity, cation exchange capacity, reduced pH and electrical conductivity, increased organic carbon content, available nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium and microbial population and activity in all the soil types, particularly clay loam. The yield and quality (protein and sugar content in seed of blackgram was enhanced in soils, particularly clay loam soil. On the contrary, the application of inorganic fertilizers has resulted in reduced porosity, compaction of soil, reduced carbon and reduced microbial activity.

  17. Some physico-chemical and functional properties of kariya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some physico-chemical and functional properties of kariya kernel flours were investigated with a view to exploiting its potentials as ingredients in food applications. Proximate composition showed that protein and crude fat were: 28.68 and 40.37 g/100 g for the full fat flour, and 39.20 and 3.75 g/100 g for the defatted flour ...

  18. Change in a ferralsol physico-chemical properties under pineapple ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2015-07-31

    Jul 31, 2015 ... Change in a ferralsol physico-chemical properties under pineapple cropping system in southern of. Benin. 1*Sossa E.L, 1Amadji G.L, 2Aholoukpè N.S.H, 1Hounsou B.M,1 Agbossou K.E, 1Hounhouigan. D. J.. 1 Faculty of Agronomic Sciences, University of Abomey-Calavi, BP 526 FSA/UAC, Cotonou, Benin ...

  19. Changes in physico-chemical properties of soil by adding organic amendments in a tomato crop; Cambios en la propiedades fisico-quimicas del suelo por adicion de enmiendas organicas en cultivo de tomate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez Navarro, A.; Marin Salneandro, P.; Delgado Iniesta, M. J.

    2009-07-01

    This study possible changes in the physico-chemical properties of soil under intensive cultivation of tomatoes after the addition of two different types of organic amendments: a natural as sheep manure and synthetic made. Trial plots that were designed are located in the NE of the province of Granada, in Puebla de Trial plots that were designed are located in the NE of the province of Granada, in Puebla de Don Fadrique, in the are that in recent years, change are very important in agriculture, from traditional farms extensive cultivation of rain-fed cereal crops such as intensive vegetale broccoli or tomatoes. (Author) 16 refs.

  20. Investigation into the physico-chemical properties and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    The physico-chemical and hydrochemical study of commercial borehole waters in Yenagoa, Bayelsa. State have been carried out. Eight commercial borehole water samples were analyze for various physico-chemical parameters using standard methods. The results obtained shows that the water samples quality examined ...

  1. Seasonal variations of physico-chemical properties of the Great ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was attempted on the physico-chemical variability of the Great Vedaranyam Swamp of the Point Calimere Wildlife Sanctuary, South-east coast of India. Seasonal variation study was carried out to examine level of varying physico-chemical parameters such as temperature, salinity, pH, dissolved oxygen, ...

  2. Physico-chemical properties of water in bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torikai, Yuji; Sato, Seichi; Ohashi, Hiroshi

    1994-01-01

    As a part of safety analysis on ground layer disposal, in order to estimate nuclides migration behavior from engineering shielding materials, it is required to modelize migration process of nuclides in bentonite and chemical species relating to corrosion, to estimate solubility and to specify application condition of geochemical calculation code. In this study, as a part of elucidation of nuclide migration process, physico-chemical properties of water in bentonite and montmorillonite using steam pressure method were determined. As a result, following items were found: (1) Even if 1/3 of water in bentonite is near free water, it is far from a region dealable with dilute solution in the electrolyte solution theory. And, (2) the water in bentonite has generally small activity in comparison with dilute solution, then has smaller solubility than estimation value of calculation code. (G.K.)

  3. physico-chemical properties of well water samples from some

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    chemical causes changes to the quality of the receiving water body. (Aremu et ... Sample collection, treatment and preservation: Water samples ... DEVIATION VALUES OF PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF. THE WELL WATER SAMPLES COMPARED WITH WHO STANDARD FOR DRINKING WATER. PARAMETER.

  4. Physico-chemical properties of different forms of bovine lactoferrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokkhim, Huma; Bansal, Nidhi; Grøndahl, Lisbeth; Bhandari, Bhesh

    2013-12-01

    Three forms of bovine lactoferrin (Lf), apo-, native- and holo- with 0.9%, 12.9% and 99.7% iron content, respectively, were characterised for their physico-chemical properties. Colour, surface tension, thermal properties, particle charge and rheological behaviour of Lf were found to be affected by the form of Lf. The surface tension of Lf tends to decrease with decrease in iron content. The Circular Dichroism (CD) spectra confirmed that all forms of Lf had similar secondary structures while the tertiary structure was different for holo-Lf. The Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC) analysis showed that the apo- and holo-Lf in aqueous solution displayed thermal denaturation temperatures of 71±0.2 and 91±0.5 °C, respectively, suggesting that the iron saturation of Lf tends to increase its thermal stability. The study of particle charge properties (ζ-potential) in 1 mM KCl salt solution showed that apo-Lf reached the net charge of zero in the pH range 5.5-6.5 whereas native and holo-Lf in the pH range 8.0-9.0. The apparent viscosity of 1% (wt/wt) solution of the different forms of Lf showed no difference between apo- and native-Lf (≈1.4 mPas) while the value was significantly higher (2.38 mPas) for holo-Lf. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Physico-chemical properties of South American iguanid albumins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, P J

    1980-12-15

    Except for a markedly reduced anodal electrophoretic mobility, the serum of the Galapagos marine iguana was physico-chemically identical to that of terrestrial iguanids. Reduction in albumin net charge may have facilitated the adaptation of this species to a semi-aquatic environment.

  6. Levels of Some Heavy Metals and Physico Chemical Properties of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the concentrations of selected heavy meyals and physico-chemical characteristics of effluents from a beverage company in Rivers State, Nigeria and those of the receiving Woji River were evaluated to ascertain the efficiency of the company's waste treatment processes. The results showed that the contents of ...

  7. Response of soil physico-chemical properties to restoration approaches and submergence in the water level fluctuation zone of the Danjiangkou Reservoir, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Xiao; Zhang, KeRong; Zhang, QuanFa; Wang, WeiBo

    2017-11-01

    With the completion of the Danjiangkou Dam, the impoundment and drainage of dams can significantly alter shorelines, hydrological regime, and sediment and can result in the loss of soil and original riparian vegetation. Revegetation may affect soil properties and have broad important implications both for ecological services and soil recovery. In this work, we investigated the soil properties under different restoration approaches, and before and after submergence in the water level fluctuation zone (WLFZ) of the Danjiangkou Reservoir. Soil physical (bulk density and soil moisture), chemical (pH, soil organic carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium contents), and heavy metals were determined. This study reported that restoration approaches have impacts on soil moisture, pH, N, soil organic carbon, P, K and heavy metals in the WLFZ of the Danjiangkou Reservoir. Our results indicated that different restoration approaches could increase the soil moisture while decrease soil pH. Higher soil organic carbon in propagule banks transplantation (PBT) and shrubs restoration (SR) indicate that PBT and SR may provide soil organic matter more quickly than trees restoration (TR). SR and TR could significantly improve the soil total P and available P. PBT and SR could improve the soil total K and available K. SR and TR could significantly promote Cu and Zn adsorption, and Pb and Fe release by plant. Submergence could significantly affect the soil pH, NO 3 - -N, NH 4 + -N, total P and available P. Submergence could promote NO 3 - -N and available P adsorption, and NH 4 + -N and total P release by soil. The soil quality index (SQI) values implied that TR and PBT greatly improved soil quality. The present study suggests that PBT and TR could be effective for soil restoration in WLFZ of the Danjiangkou Reservoir. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. THE CANOPY EFFECTS OF Prosopis juliflora (DC. AND Acacia tortilis (HAYNE TREES ON HERBACEOUS PLANTS SPECIES AND SOIL PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES IN NJEMPS FLATS, KENYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry C. Kahi

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The canopy effects of an exotic and indigenous tree species on soil properties and understorey herbaceous plant species were investigated on the Njemps Flats, Baringo district, Kenya. Samples of soil and herbaceous plant species were obtained within the canopies of systematically selected P. juliflora (exotic and A. tortilis (indigenous trees, and from adjacent open areas. Standing biomass, frequency and cover of understorey plant species were significantly (P

  9. Physico-chemical findings related to the resilience of different soils ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As part of an interdisciplinary study on Sustainable Agriculture in semiarid Areas (SASA) in south-central Tanzania, soils from five different locations were investigated for their mineralogical composition and physico-chemical characteristics in order to determine their resilience in relation to land use. The results of the ...

  10. Physico-chemical parameters of soil in some selected dumpsites in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physico-chemical parameters of soil were found to have influence on the availability of heavy metals in plants. pH values recorded in the control site ranges from 7.8 to 9.2 indicating that all the soils studied were alkaline. The control site has a value of 7.16. The conductivity values range from 4.2 x 10-2 to 4.0x105μScm-1 .

  11. Physico-chemical and antioxidant properties of four mango (Mangifera indica L.) cultivars in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feng-Xia; Fu, Shu-Fang; Bi, Xiu-Fang; Chen, Fang; Liao, Xiao-Jun; Hu, Xiao-Song; Wu, Ji-Hong

    2013-05-01

    Four principal mango cultivars (Tainong No.1, Irwin, JinHwang and Keitt) grown in southern China were selected, and their physico-chemical and antioxidant properties were characterized and compared. Of all the four cultivars, Tainong No.1 had highest content of total phenols, ρ-coumaric acid, sinapic acid, quercetin, titratable acidity, citric acid, malic acid, fructose, higher antioxidant activities (DPPH, FRAP) and L(*), lower pH, PPO activity and individual weight. Keitt mangoes showed significantly (pmangoes exhibited significantly (pmango cultivars to be differentiated clearly based on all these physico-chemical and antioxidant properties determined in the study. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Geotechnical and physico chemical properties of clays associated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative studies of geotechnical properties of soils from landslide scars within volcanic rocks in Alou Sub-Division located in the Bambouto caldera and from a major landslide scar within Precambrian metamorphic rocks (gneisses and granites) located at Kekem indicated a range of bulk densities of 0.93 to 1.12 g/ml ...

  13. Effect of drying methods on the physico-chemical properties of soyflour

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of drying methods on the physico-chemical properties of soyflour. JAV Famurewa, AO Raji. Abstract. This study investigated the relationship between the drying methods and the physicochemical properties of soybean during drying prior to converting it into flour. Three samples were prepared for each of Tax 1485 and ...

  14. evaluation of physico-chemical parameters of agricultural soils

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Benlkhoubi N, Saber S, Lebkiri A, Rifi El and Fahime El

    2016-05-01

    May 1, 2016 ... industries and which is estimated by 2000 units [4], can generate a metal pollution drained along these rivers that will be transferred to the soil through irrigation waters and subsequently into the crops. This work lists the physicochemical parameters of evaluation of agricultural soils in the city of Kenitra (Sidi ...

  15. PHYSICO-CHEMICAL STUDIES OF SOIL ALONG THE BANKS OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Global Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences ... The parameters investigated include pH, chloride, nitrate, sulphate, phosphate, Hydrocarbon, alkaline and heavy metal contents of the soil extracts and ... Hydrocarbon and lead contamination of soil along some parts of the banks of Mili stream was found to have occurred.

  16. Post harvest changes in physico-chemical properties and levels of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-03-22

    Mar 22, 2010 ... The oranges had high moisture content (>68%), moderate titratable acidity ... Romero-Rodriguez et al. (1994), respectively. A few reports on physico-chemical properties of Tanzania fruits include those on mango (Mamiro et al., 2007) ..... Lakshminarayana S, Alvarado Y, Sosa L, Barrientos Perez F (1979).

  17. Theoretical calculations of physico-chemical and spectroscopic properties of bioinorganic systems: current limits and perspectives

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rokob, Tibor András; Srnec, Martin; Rulíšek, Lubomír

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 19 (2012), s. 5754-5768 ISSN 1477-9226 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : DFT methods * theoretical spectroscopy * bioinorganic chemistry * physico-chemical properties * QM/MM calculations * wave-function methods Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.806, year: 2012

  18. Some aspect of the physico-chemical and biological properties of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some aspect of Physico-Chemical and Biological properties of Cross River was investigated once every month from May 2001-May 2002, measurements were made from the surface water at three locations, Ikot Okpora in Biase, Obubra, and Ikom. The temperature of the river varied from27.38±0.74°C at Ikot Okpora to ...

  19. Adhesion of coagulase-negative staphylococci grouped according to physico-chemical surface properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Mei, HC; van de Belt-Gritter, B; Reid, G; Bialkowska-Hobrzanska, H; Busscher, HJ

    1997-01-01

    Physico-chemical cell surface properties of 23 coagulase-negative staphylococcal strains, including contact angles, zeta potentials and elemental cell surface composition were measured, together with the adhesion of all strains to hexadecane, The data were employed in a hierarchical cluster

  20. Physico-Chemical and Structural Properties of DeNOx and SO2 Oxidation Catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masters, Stephen Grenville; Oehlers, Cord; Nielsen, Kurt

    1996-01-01

    Commercial catalysts for NOx removal and SO2 oxidation and their model systems have been investigated by spectroscopic, thermal, electrochemical and X-ray methods. Structural information on the vanadium complexes and compounds as well as physico-chemical properties for catalyst model systems have...

  1. Spatial Variability of Soil Morphorlogical and Physico- Chemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    condition, soil structure, stoniness, biological activities i.e presence of insects or animal burrowing and concretions. The samples were air dried ground and sieved to separate the fine earth particle fraction (less than 2 mm) from coarse fragments using ceramic mortar and pestle with a 2 mm sieve. The gravel content was the.

  2. Biochar physico-chemical properties as affected by environmental exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorrenti, Giovambattista; Masiello, Caroline A.; Dugan, Brandon; Toselli, Moreno

    2016-01-01

    To best use biochar as a sustainable soil management and carbon (C) sequestration technique, we must understand the effect of environmental exposure on its physical and chemical properties because they likely vary with time. These properties play an important role in biochar's environmental behavior and delivery of ecosystem services. We measured biochar before amendment and four years after amendment to a commercial nectarine orchard at rates of 5, 15 and 30 t ha −1 . We combined two pycnometry techniques to measure skeletal (ρ s ) and envelope (ρ e ) density and to estimate the total pore volume of biochar particles. We also examined imbibition, which can provide information about soil hydraulic conductivity. Finally, we investigated the chemical properties, surface, inner layers atomic composition and C1s bonding state of biochar fragments through X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Ageing increased biochar skeletal density and reduced the water imbibition rate within fragments as a consequence of partial pore clogging. However, porosity and the volume of water stored in particles remained unchanged. Exposure reduced biochar pH, EC, and total C, but enhanced total N, nitrate-N, and ammonium-N. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses showed an increase of O, Si, N, Na, Al, Ca, Mn, and Fe surface (0–5 nm) atomic composition (at%) and a reduction of C and K in aged particles, confirming the interactions of biochar with soil inorganic and organic phases. Oxidation of aged biochar fragments occurred mainly in the particle surface, and progressively decreased down to 75 nm. Biochar surface chemistry changes included the development of carbonyl and carboxylate functional groups, again mainly on the particle surface. However, changes were noticeable down to 75 nm, while no significant changes were measured in the deepest layer, up to 110 nm. Results show unequivocal shifts in biochar physical and chemical properties/characteristics over short (~ years

  3. Biochar physico-chemical properties as affected by environmental exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorrenti, Giovambattista, E-mail: g.sorrenti@unibo.it [Department of Agricultural Sciences, University of Bologna, viale G. Fanin 44, 40127 Bologna (Italy); Masiello, Caroline A., E-mail: masiello@rice.edu [Departments of Earth Science, BioSciences, and Chemistry, Rice University, Houston, TX 77005 (United States); Dugan, Brandon, E-mail: dugan@rice.edu [Department of Earth Science, Rice University, Houston, TX 77005 (United States); Toselli, Moreno, E-mail: moreno.toselli@unibo.it [Department of Agricultural Sciences, University of Bologna, viale G. Fanin 44, 40127 Bologna (Italy)

    2016-09-01

    To best use biochar as a sustainable soil management and carbon (C) sequestration technique, we must understand the effect of environmental exposure on its physical and chemical properties because they likely vary with time. These properties play an important role in biochar's environmental behavior and delivery of ecosystem services. We measured biochar before amendment and four years after amendment to a commercial nectarine orchard at rates of 5, 15 and 30 t ha{sup −1}. We combined two pycnometry techniques to measure skeletal (ρ{sub s}) and envelope (ρ{sub e}) density and to estimate the total pore volume of biochar particles. We also examined imbibition, which can provide information about soil hydraulic conductivity. Finally, we investigated the chemical properties, surface, inner layers atomic composition and C1s bonding state of biochar fragments through X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Ageing increased biochar skeletal density and reduced the water imbibition rate within fragments as a consequence of partial pore clogging. However, porosity and the volume of water stored in particles remained unchanged. Exposure reduced biochar pH, EC, and total C, but enhanced total N, nitrate-N, and ammonium-N. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses showed an increase of O, Si, N, Na, Al, Ca, Mn, and Fe surface (0–5 nm) atomic composition (at%) and a reduction of C and K in aged particles, confirming the interactions of biochar with soil inorganic and organic phases. Oxidation of aged biochar fragments occurred mainly in the particle surface, and progressively decreased down to 75 nm. Biochar surface chemistry changes included the development of carbonyl and carboxylate functional groups, again mainly on the particle surface. However, changes were noticeable down to 75 nm, while no significant changes were measured in the deepest layer, up to 110 nm. Results show unequivocal shifts in biochar physical and chemical properties/characteristics over

  4. Relating physico-chemical properties of frozen green peas (Pisum sativum L.) to sensory quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nleya, Kathleen M; Minnaar, Amanda; de Kock, Henriëtte L

    2014-03-30

    The acceptability of frozen green peas depends on their sensory quality. There is a need to relate physico-chemical parameters to sensory quality. In this research, six brands of frozen green peas representing product sold for retail and caterer's markets were purchased and subjected to descriptive sensory evaluation and physico-chemical analyses (including dry matter content, alcohol insoluble solids content, starch content, °Brix, residual peroxidase activity, size sorting, hardness using texture analysis and colour measurements) to assess and explain product quality. The sensory quality of frozen green peas, particularly texture properties, were well explained using physico-chemical methods of analysis notably alcohol insoluble solids, starch content, hardness and °Brix. Generally, retail class peas were of superior sensory quality to caterer's class peas although one caterer's brand was comparable to the retail brands. Retail class peas were sweeter, smaller, greener, more moist and more tender than the caterer's peas. Retail class peas also had higher °Brix, a(*) , hue and chroma values; lower starch, alcohol insoluble solids, dry matter content and hardness measured. The sensory quality of frozen green peas can be partially predicted by measuring physico-chemical parameters particularly °Brix and to a lesser extent hardness by texture analyser, alcohol insoluble solids, dry matter and starch content. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Estimation for Retention Factor of Isoflavones in Physico-Chemical Properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Ki; Row, Kyung Ho

    2003-01-01

    The estimation of retention factors by correlation equations with physico-chmical properties maybe helpful in chromatographic work. The physico-chemical properties were water solubility (S), hydrophobicity (P), total energy (Et), connectivity index 1 (1χ), hydrophilic-lipophlic balance (x) and hydrophilic surface area (h) of isoflavones. The retention factors were experimentally measured by RP-HPLC. Especially, the empirical regulations of water solubility and hydrophobicity were expressed in a linear form. The equation between retention factors and various physico-chemical properties of isoflavones was suggested as k = a0 + a 1 log S + a2 log P Q + a3 (E t ) + a4 ( 1 χ) + a5 (x) + a6 (h), and the correlation coefficients estimated were relatively higher than 0.95. The empirical equations might be successfully used for a prediction of the various chromatographic characteristics of substances, with a similar chemical structure

  6. Physico-chemical properties and cytotoxic effects of sugar-based surfactants: Impact of structural variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Biao; Vayssade, Muriel; Miao, Yong; Chagnault, Vincent; Grand, Eric; Wadouachi, Anne; Postel, Denis; Drelich, Audrey; Egles, Christophe; Pezron, Isabelle

    2016-09-01

    Surfactants derived from the biorefinery process can present interesting surface-active properties, low cytotoxicity, high biocompatibility and biodegradability. They are therefore considered as potential sustainable substitutes to currently used petroleum-based surfactants. To better understand and anticipate their performances, structure-property relationships need to be carefully investigated. For this reason, we applied a multidisciplinary approach to systematically explore the effect of subtle structural variations on both physico-chemical properties and biological effects. Four sugar-based surfactants, each with an eight carbon alkyl chain bound to a glucose or maltose head group by an amide linkage, were synthesized and evaluated together along with two commercially available standard surfactants. Physico-chemical properties including solubility, Krafft point, surface-tension lowering and critical micellar concentration (CMC) in water and biological medium were explored. Cytotoxicity evaluation by measuring proliferation index and metabolic activity against dermal fibroblasts showed that all surfactants studied may induce cell death at low concentrations (below their CMC). Results revealed significant differences in both physico-chemical properties and cytotoxic effects depending on molecule structural features, such as the position of the linkage on the sugar head-group, or the orientation of the amide linkage. Furthermore, the cytotoxic response increased with the reduction of surfactant CMC. This study underscores the relevance of a methodical and multidisciplinary approach that enables the consideration of surfactant solution properties when applied to biological materials. Overall, our results will contribute to a better understanding of the concomitant impact of surfactant structure at physico-chemical and biological levels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Physico-chemical properties of manufactured nanomaterials - Characterisation and relevant methods. An outlook based on the OECD Testing Programme.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rasmussen, Kirsten; Rauscher, Hubert; Mech, Agnieszka; Riego Sintes, Juan; Gilliland, Douglas; González, Mar; Kearns, Peter; Moss, Kenneth; Visser, Maaike; Groenewold, Monique; Bleeker, Eric A J

    Identifying and characterising nanomaterials require additional information on physico-chemical properties and test methods, compared to chemicals in general. Furthermore, regulatory decisions for chemicals are usually based upon certain toxicological properties, and these effects may not be

  8. Physico-chemical properties of municipal refuse in Lagos metropolis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the activities of micro organisms involved in the degradation of organic matter in solid wastes and their potential to produce cellulolytic enzymes. Soil samples of decomposing waste piles were collected from four designated landfill sites in Lagos metropolis and analyzed for physicochemical ...

  9. Effect of crosslinking on the physico-chemical properties of radiation grafted PEM fuel cell membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed Mahmoud Nasef; Hamdani Saidi

    2006-01-01

    The effect of crosslinking on the physico-chemical properties of radiation grafted proton conducting membranes (PFA-g-PSSA) was investigated. The membranes were prepared by radiation induced grafting of styrene/divinylbenzene (DVB) mixtures onto poly (tetrafluoroethylene-co-perfluorovinyl either) (PFA) films followed by sulfonation reactions. The variation of DVB content in the grafting mixture was in the range of 1-4 vol %. The equivalent weight, swelling, behavior and the proton conductivity of crosslinked membranes having equal degrees of grafting prepared found to be dependent predominantly on the level of crosslinking. The obtained membranes were found to posses a good combination of physico-chemical properties that is matching the commercial Nation 117 membranes

  10. physico-chemical properties and industrial potential of some clay ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DJFLEX

    Clay samples collected from 10 locations in Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria were evaluated to determine their suitability for industrial applications. The samples were pulverized, dried, sieved and quantitatively analyzed. Physical properties determined were viscosity (11-15 secs), density (1072-1769 kg m-3), plasticity ...

  11. Physico-chemical Properties of Marine Phospholipid Emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Henna Fung Sieng; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Baron, Caroline P.

    2012-01-01

    of this study was to investigate the emulsifying properties of various commercial marine PL and the feasibility of using them to prepare stable emulsions prepared with or without addition of fish oil. In addition, this study also investigated the relationship between chemical composition of marine PL...... by using marine PL of high purity, less TAG, more PL, cholesterol and higher antioxidant content....

  12. Physico-Chemical Properties of Drinking Water at Erinfun ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The properties of the drinking water from Erinfun community in Ado-Ekiti was investigated. A total of fourteen drinking water samples were collected from different sampling points in the community viz: Aba, DSA, Annex, Staff quarters, Health centre, Lagos male, Lagos female, Abuja central, Abuja hostel, SOE, Poli venture, ...

  13. physico-chemical properties, energy, mineral, vitamin and sensory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BARTH EKWUEME

    The chemical and physical properties, mineral, vitamin and sensory evaluation of breads based on wheat supplemented ... Supplementation of cereal-based foods with ..... plant –based diets. Journal of Nutrition. 137:1097-1100. Impar, M; Pucci, P.P and Elhadded, N.B., 1977. Composition and nutritive value of some breads.

  14. Physico-chemical properties and industrial potential of some clay ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Clay samples collected from 10 locations in Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria were evaluated to determine their suitability for industrial applications. The samples were pulverized, dried, sieved and quantitatively analyzed. Physical properties determined were viscosity (11-15 secs), density (1072-1769 kg m-3), plasticity ...

  15. Seasonal Variations of Some Physico-Chemical Properties of River ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL

    ABSTRACT: The influence of seasonal changes on the properties of water from Ethiope River at Abraka was investigated. Composite samples from six different sampling points were collected and assessed for both dry and wet seasons. The sampling points represent the villages within Abraka clan along the river. The.

  16. Seasonal Variations of Some Physico-Chemical Properties of River ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The influence of seasonal changes on the properties of water from Ethiope River at Abraka was investigated. Composite samples from six different sampling points were collected and assessed for both dry and wet seasons. The sampling points represent the villages within Abraka clan along the river. The seasonal ...

  17. Physico-chemical properties of perturbed water: facts and enigmas

    OpenAIRE

    Vittorio Elia

    2012-01-01

    Background The study of extremely diluted and agitated substances and solutions is strictly linked with the analysis of properties of water perturbed using different systems. This study is about the determination of the physical-chemical parameters of water, after the perturbations described. Methods The perturbed water was obtained using the three different protocols: · EDS (Extremely Diluted Solutions). Obtained through an iterative process of ...

  18. Physico-chemical properties of amphoteric, isoelectric, macroreticulate buffers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiari, M; Pagani, L; Righetti, P G

    1991-09-01

    We report here the properties of a new family of resins possessing an amphoteric character and able to strongly buffer at their pI values. They have been adopted as carriers for growth of cells in tissue culture and for hydroponics (Righetti et al. 1991; J. Biotechnol. 17, 169-176) but it is to be expected that such resins could have interesting chromatographic applications. It has been found that such beads [made by incorporating a pK 6.2 weak acrylamido base and a pK 4.6 weak acrylamido acid in a 2:1 ratio (thus with a pI of 6.2) into a neutral polyacrylamide backbone], independently from their initial conditioning (acid- or base-washed), spontaneously seek their equilibrium position (pI value) upon washing off excess titrant. Thus, upon potentiometric titration, they are seen to buffer in both directions of the pH scale (contrary to the behaviour of a pure carboxyl or a pure amino surface, which will exhibit only unidirectional buffering power). From the behaviour of these amphoteric beads when polymerized in the absence or in the presence of salts (0.2 M NaCl), it is hypothesized that, for exerting buffering power, both the buffering ion and its counterion must be incorporated non-randomly in the chain, but as a couple or in close proximity. Upon random incorporation of the two ions, buffering power is lost.

  19. Physico-chemical properties of (U,Ce)O2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, K.; Yamanaka, S.; Katsura, M.

    1998-01-01

    The high-temperature X-ray diffraction analysis of (U,Ce)O 2 with CeO 2 contents ranging from 0 to 20 mol.% CeO 2 was performed to obtain the variation of the linear thermal expansion coefficient with the CeO 2 content. Ultrasonic pulse-echo measurements were also carried out from room temperature to 673 K to estimate the change in the mechanical properties of (U,Ce)O 2 with the CeO 2 content. The variation in the linear thermal expansion coefficient at the low CeO 2 content region is more steep than that expected from the linear thermal expansion coefficient of UO 2 and CeO 2 . The Young's and shear moduli of all (U,Ce)O 2 were found to decrease with rising temperature. This was due to the increase of the bond length accompanied by the thermal expansion. Although the lattice parameter decreased with CeO 2 content, the moduli of (U,Ce)O 2 were found to decrease with increasing CeO 2 content at room temperature. These results show that in the range from 0 to 20 mol.% of CeO 2 , as CeO 2 content increases, the bottom of the potential energy in (U,Ce)O 2 is shallower and broader. (orig.)

  20. Physico-chemical characteristics of salt affected soils in Sindh Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naqvi, R.R.; Khattak, M.I.

    2005-01-01

    Physico-chemical characteristics of 13 typical soil profiles obtained from the salt affected areas of the Sindh provinces were determined to characterize the salinity of these soils. The soils are available in texture and highly calcareous in nature. From salinity point of view, the problem was found to be two fold. The soils contained not only high amounts of water soluble salts, but at certain places specially in Khairpur District: the Na/sup +/ ions had also entered the clay complexes and pH values at some places were above 8.5. According to the US salinity laboratory classification, the soils come under saline and saline sodic groups. The nature of soluble salts and reclamation measures have been desorbed and disused. The soils are mostly well drained and easily reclaimable. A salient feature of these soils is that good amount of reclamation. The saline soils can be reclaimed simply by leaching and cropping while salient alkali soils poor to leaching should be treated with required amount of gypsum or sulphur. Nearly 30 to 35 % of the salt affected soils need gypsum treatment. It is also suggested that Bajri Barseem or Rice Barseem rotation may be followed during the reclamation of highly saline and saline alkali soils. Further these would be the requirement of an effective drainage system, which is essential to lower the salt content and water table depth, especially at places, where salinity and water logging both occur together. (author)

  1. [Synthesis and physico-chemical properties of lonazolac-Ca, a new antiphlogistic/antirheumatic agent].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainer, G; Krüger, U; Klemm, K

    1981-01-01

    Calcium-[3-(p-chlorophenyl)-1-phenylpyrazole-4]-acetate (Lonazolac-Ca, active principle of Irritren) is a new antiinflammatory/antirheumatic agent whose synthesis and physico-chemical properties are described. The physical parameters measured (pKa, partition coefficient P, saturation concentration Cs, surface activity, protein binding) are held against the corresponding values of indomethacin, diclofenac, and phenylbutazone. The size of the permeability coefficient PM of the passive transport through artificial phospholipid collodion membranes as well as the invasion curves calculated from PM indicate a good absorption of lonazolac in man.

  2. Physico-chemical properties of the female sex pheromone of Heterodera schachtii (Nematoda: Heteroderidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aumann, J; Dietsche, E; Rutencrantz, S; Ladehoff, H

    1998-11-01

    Several physico-chemical properties of the female sex pheromone of the beet cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii were elucidated. At least one component of the pheromone can be extracted from aqueous solutions with diethyl ether. However, the pheromone has a higher solubility in water, as most of the pheromone activity remained in the water fraction. Ion exchange chromatography revealed that the pheromone or at least one of its components is positively charged, whereas another pheromone component may be negatively charged. Fractional distillation of pheromone extracts showed that it is, indeed, composed of at least two components. These components may interact additively rather than synergistically.

  3. Physico-Chemical Characteristics of the Grassland Soils of Yusmarg Hill Resort (Kashmir, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moieza Ashraf

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Physico-chemical analysis was carried out on the grassland soils of Yusmarg Hill Resort, Kashmir during the months of May, June, November and December 2010, at four micro sites with some minor variations in the abiotic and biotic factors including anthropogenic pressures. The following soil characteristics were examined: temperature, texture, moisture, organic matter, pH, and conductivity, content of calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, total phosphorus, and organic carbon. Soil texture analysis revealed the soils at all the study sites with major proportion being comprised by the sand fraction and having a sandy silt character. The moisture content was found to be directly related to the herbaceous vegetation cover with the highest value at Site 3 (fenced meadow area. The moisture content showed low percentage at Site 2, which was more affected by grazing and thus resulted in less cover of grasses and probably more evaporation of soil moisture from the exposed site. The soils at all sites were from acidic to mildly acidic in character. The amount of organic matter was fairly good except at Site 2 (non-fenced grazing area probably due to overgrazing during which much of herbage vegetation was picked up by the grazing animals like sheep and cattle. The values of important cations, such as Ca2+ and Mg2+, showed a gradual decrease from May to December except at Site 4 (transition between a coniferous forest and a meadow which may be attributed to a good cover of vegetation and good amount of organic matter.

  4. Modeling the accumulation of As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in grasses (Agrotis sp. and Poa sp. and stinging nettle (Urtica dioica on selected sites taking into account soil physico-chemical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boshoff M. C.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect of soil properties on the accumulation of metals in two vegetation types was evaluated at 10 sites with a wide variation in soil physicochemical properties pH, organic carbon, clay percentage , total soil metal concentration and exchangeable soil metal content. Accumulation modeling was conducted for grasses (Agrostis sp. and Poa sp. and stinging nettle (Urtica dioica.

  5. Evaluation of physico-chemical properties of electron beam-irradiated polycarbonate film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaleh, B.; Parvin, P.; Sheikh, N.; Ziaie, F.; Haghshenas, M.; Bozorg, L.

    2007-11-01

    In this work, polycarbonate (PC) film samples were irradiated with 10 MeV electrons at different doses ranging from 25 to 250 kGy. Characterization techniques viz. thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) were exploited to understand the induced changes in the physico-chemical properties of the polymer. An increase in the decomposition temperature with increasing dose was observed, while the crystallinity remained unchanged as a result of the formation of cross-link bond. EPR technique characterized the stability of the free radicals in the irradiated PC. The result showed that cross-linking process occurs at low absorbed doses, whereas polymer degradation happens at higher doses.

  6. Studies on physico-chemical and mechanical properties of the irradiated latex modified mortar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yassene, A.A.M.A.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis contains three chapter; chapter(I): Introduction and literature review on:- Introduction to polymer. - Mechanism of polymer-cement co-matrix formation.-Sulphate attack. - Solidification /stabilization of heavy metal in cement mortar. chapter(II): Materials and experimental techniques that include: 1- Preparation of latex polymer films from different polymer latices of styrene butadine rubber latex (SBR), poly (styrene-acrylic ester) latex (SAE) and vinylacetate /versatic -ester copolymer latex (C2A). The effect of γ-irradiation dose on the physico - chemical and mechanical properties of different latex polymer films was studied.2- Preparation of latex polymer-modified cement mortar with different ratios of cement: latex polymer and different curing method.3- Solidification /stabilization (S/S) of electroplating heavy metal precipitate in latex polymer- modified mortar with different cement /electroplating heavy metal sludge ratio. chapter(III) results and discussion

  7. The use of potato fibre to improve bread physico-chemical properties during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curti, Elena; Carini, Eleonora; Diantom, Agoura; Vittadini, Elena

    2016-03-15

    Bread staling reduction is a very important issue for the food industry. A fibre with high water holding capacity, extracted from potato peel, was studied for its ability to reduce bread staling even if employed at low level (0.4 g fibre/100 g flour). Physico-chemical properties (water activity, moisture content, frozen water content, amylopectin retrogradation) and (1)H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance molecular mobility were characterised in potato fibre added bread over 7 days of storage. Potato fibre addition in bread slightly affected water activity and moisture content, while increased frozen water content and resulted in a softer bread crumb, more importantly when the optimal amount of water was used in the formulation. Potato fibre also reduced (1)H NMR molecular mobility changes in bread crumb during storage. Potato fibre addition in bread contributed to reduce bread staling. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Comparison of some physico-chemical properties of irradiated cereal starches, separated or contained in flour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gambus, H.; Zamrozniak-Rys, I.; Achremowicz, B.

    1997-01-01

    In this study some physico-chemical properties of separated wheat starch from flour type 500 and 850, rye starch from flour type 720 and triticale starch from flour type 680 were compared. All starches were irradiated with medium doses of gamma rays: 2,3 and 5 kGy directly (after their separation from flour) and in flour. The water binding capacity of starches, their solubility in water and reduction capacity were found to depend on the dose applied and the method of irradiation, individually for each starch. Additional direct irradiation of all starches caused a smaller decrease in the viscosity of starch pastes and a stronger inhibition of the retrogradation process, in comparison to the starches separated from the irradiated flours. (author)

  9. Physico-chemical properties of blends of palm olein with other vegetable oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mobin Siddique, Bazlul

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Palm oil (olein was blended with other edible oils for the enhancement of its market acceptability in terms of melting point depression and shelf life. The physico-chemical properties like viscosity, density, melting behavior, peroxide value (PV, saponification value (SV and iodine value (IV of four different binary blends with four vegetable oils were evaluated. Palm olein was found to be more stable against rancidity than the other oils. For the stability against oxidation and melting point depression the palm olein-canola (PO/CO blend was found to be better than the others. The Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC thermogram of the melting behavior of the blends traces some new polymorphs of the triglyceride. This study will help the oil producing industry to find out the most economically viable oil blends for cooking purposes, with maximum nutrition as well as desirable physico-chemical properties.

    Aceite de palma (oleína fue mezclada con otros aceites comestibles para aumentar su aceptabilidad en el mercado en términos de descenso del punto de fusión y mejora de su almacenamiento. Las propiedades físico-químicas tales como viscosidad, densidad, comportamiento en la fusión, valor de peróxidos (PV, valor de saponificación (SV e índice de yodo (IV de cuatro diferentes mezclas binarias con cuatro aceites vegetales fueron evaluadas. La oleína de palma fue más estable frente a la rancidez que otros aceites. En la estabilidad frente la oxidación y el descenso del punto de fusión, la mezcla de oleína de palma/canola (PO/CO fue mejor que las otras. Los termogramas del calorímetro diferencial de barrido (DSC referidos al comportamiento de fusión de las mezclas indican algunos nuevos polimorfismos de los triglicéridos. Este estudio podría ayudar a las empresas que elaboran aceites a encontrar los aceites económicamente más viables para cocinar, con buenas propiedades nutricionales, así como con unas propiedades f

  10. Physico-chemical properties and amino acid profiles of sap from Tunisian date palm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ines Makhlouf-Gafsi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Date palm sap (Phoenix dactylifera L., also known as “legmi”, is a fresh juice extracted from date palm trees. The present study aimed to elucidate the effects of collection time (at the beginning of the tapping period and after seven days of collection on the amino acid profile and physico-chemical properties of date palm sap from both male and female trees. Dry matter, protein, amino acid, and sugar profiles were determined using the Kjeldahl method, High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC, and High-Performance Anion-Exchange Chromatography with Pulsed Amperometric Detection (HPAEC-PAD, respectively. Date palm sap from both male and female trees contained high levels of carbohydrates. HPLC analysis showed that this fraction was dominated by sucrose in the sap sample from female trees compared to that from male trees. Male date palm sap was noted to exhibit lower dry matter content than female date palm sap but higher protein, total polyphenol, ash, and amino acid contents. While the major essential amino acids in the sap from male trees consisted of valine and threonine, they were represented by lysine and phenylalanine in sap samples from female trees. Further, Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE analysis showed the presence of a proteinic band of 30 kDa only for the sap from male trees. Taken together, the sap from both male and female date palm trees had a number of properties that are highly valued by the functional food industry.

  11. Physico-chemical and microstructural properties of fish gelatin/agar bio-based blend films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohajer, Setareh; Rezaei, Masoud; Hosseini, Seyed Fakhreddin

    2017-02-10

    This study was conducted with the aim of improving the physico-chemical properties of fish gelatin (FG) based films. For this purpose, FG was blended with agar (AG) in different compositions to acquire biodegradable films (100:0, 80:20, 60:40, 50:50 & 0:100, FG:AG). The obtained results showed that the AG addition strongly increased the film rigidity and resistance to fracture, while reducing the film stretchability, mainly at 50FG: 50AG ratio. AG incorporation greatly reduced the water vapor permeability (WVP) and solubility of gelatin films, as this decline for the blend film with a 50:50 ratio of biopolymers has been about 41% and 66%, respectively (pfilms are the reduction of the UV-transmittance. Both polymers showed good compatibility, as demonstrated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) images. Therefore, the blend composition influenced the properties of FG/AG bio-based films. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Physico-chemical properties and fatty acid composition of pomegranate, cherry and pumpkin seed oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siano, Francesco; Straccia, Maria C; Paolucci, Marina; Fasulo, Gabriella; Boscaino, Floriana; Volpe, Maria G

    2016-03-30

    Nut and seed oils are often considered waste products but in recent years they have been receiving growing interest due to their high concentration of hydrophilic and lipophilic bioactive components, which have important pharmacological properties on human health. The aim of this work was to compare the physico-chemical and biochemical properties of pomegranate (Punicagranatum), sweet cherry (Prunusavium) and pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) seed oils obtained by solvent extraction. High amount of linoleic acid was found in the cherry and pumpkin seed oils, while pomegranate seed oil showed relevant content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) along to eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and nervonic acid. Pumpkin seed oil had high concentration of carotenoids, while pomegranate oil was the best absorber in the UV-A and UV-B ranges. Pomegranate, cherry and pumpkin seed oils can be an excellent source of bioactive molecules and antioxidant compounds such as polyphenols, carotenoids and unsaturated fatty acids. These seed oils can be included both as preservatives and functional ingredients in the food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic fields and can contribute to disease prevention and health promotion. Moreover, high absorbance of UV light indicates a potential use of these oils as filters from radiations in the food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic fields. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Prediction of Physico-chemical Properties of Bacteriostatic N1-Substituted Sulfonamides: Theoretical and Experimental Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikoofard, Hossein; Sargolzaei, Mohsen; Faridbod, Farnosh

    2017-12-01

    A computational study at the density functional theory (DFT) as well as electrochemical methods, was carried out on the structural and physico-chemical properties of a series of sulfonamide derivatives (SAs) as WHO essential medications in the treatment of basic health system. The B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) level of theory carried out on sulfadiazine (SDZ), sulfathiazole (STZ), sulfaquinoxaline (SQX), sulfacetamide (SAA), and the reference unsubstituted sulfonamide (SA) was discussed and rationalized in term of the N1-sulfonamide substituent. The geometric structures and the electronic properties related to the bacteriostatic reactivity were revealed to be affected by the steric and "push-pull" characteristics of the substituents. Electrochemical experiments on oxidation of SAs, using cyclic voltammetry are presented. The results obtained showed that the calculated ionization potentials (IPs) could be correlated linearly with the electro-oxidation potentials. From the molecules studied it is evident that SDZ act as the most electro-active agent, possessing the highest biological activity. DFT computations carried out using the standard molar enthalpies of formation in the gas phase predicted improvements in the thermodynamic stabilization of the SDZ, SQX, and SAA molecules and an unstabilization of STZ with respect to the parent molecule SA.

  14. PDE5 Inhibitors-Loaded Nanovesicles: Physico-Chemical Properties and In Vitro Antiproliferative Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta F. De Rose

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Novel therapeutic approaches are required for the less differentiated thyroid cancers which are non-responsive to the current treatment. In this study we tested an innovative formulation of nanoliposomes containing sildenafil citrate or tadalafil, phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors, on two human thyroid cancer cell lines (TPC-1 and BCPAP. Nanoliposomes were prepared by the thin layer evaporation and extrusion methods, solubilizing the hydrophilic compound sildenafil citrate in the aqueous phase during the hydration step and dissolving the lipophilic tadalafil in the organic phase. Nanoliposomes, made up of 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine monohydrate (DPPC, cholesterol, and N-(carbonyl-methoxypolyethylene glycol-2000-1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (DSPE-mPEG2000 (6:3:1 molar ratio, were characterized by a mean diameter of ~100 nm, a very low polydispersity index (~0.1 and a negative surface charge. The drugs did not influence the physico-chemical properties of the systems and were efficiently retained in the colloidal structure. By using cell count and MTT assay, we found a significant reduction of the viability in both cell lines following 24 h treatment with both nanoliposomal-encapsulated drugs, notably greater than the effect of the free drugs. Our findings demonstrate that nanoliposomes increase the antiproliferative activity of phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors, providing a useful novel formulation for the treatment of thyroid carcinoma.

  15. Physico-Chemical Characteristics and Rheolgical Properties of Different Wheat Varieties Grown in Sindh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chana, M.J.; Ghanghro, A.B.; Sheikh, S.A.; Nizamani, S.M.

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the physico-chemical and rheological properties of 17 wheat varieties (TJ-83, Jouhar, TD-1, Anmool, Mehran, Indus-66, Sindh B-1, Abadgar, Bhittai, Imdad, Mexi-Pak, Soughat, Blue Silver, Moomal, Marvi, Kiran, and Pak-70 ) commercially grown on experimental field of Agriculture Research Institute, Tandojam. The results revealed that moisture percentage were in range of 11 to 12 among all varieties, high protein content of about 15.2 percentage was found in Mehran and Blue silver varieties, starch was found high in Maxi-pak (70.6 percentage), high hardness values in Imdad (70.1percentage) and Jouhar (70.2 percentage). However, zeleny content was found high in Marvi, Abadgaar and Mehran i.e. 71 percentage. Amylographic results showed that among all varieties the Bhittai variety required maximum temperature up to 65.7 Degree C for the beginning of gelatinization as compared to other varieties. The highest gelatinization temperature was noted up to 96.7 Degree C in Moomal whereas others had temperature from 82.7 to 89.0 Degree C. Highest gelatinization maxima (1782AU) acquired by T.J-83 variety. The results of Farinograph showed that highest water absorption was noted in Anmool variety. The highest dough development time and dough stability were found highest in Kiran and Indus-66, respectively. T.D-1 and Jouhar varieties had highest break down time as well as highest Farinograph quality. (author)

  16. Evaluation of physico-chemical properties of Portland cements and MTA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Jorge Luis; Viapiana, Raqueli; Miranda, Carlos Eduardo Saraiva; Borges, Alvaro Henrique; Cruz Filho, Antônio Miranda da

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the hydrogenionic potential and electrical conductivity of Portland cements and MTA, as well as the amount of arsenic and calcium released from these materials. In Teflon molds, samples of each material were agitated and added to plastic flasks containing distilled water for 3, 24, 72 and 168 h. The results were analyzed with a Kruskal-Wallis non-parametric test for global comparisons and a Dunn-Tukey test for pairwise comparisons. The results revealed no significant differences in the pH of the materials (p > 0.05). The electrical conductivity of the cements were not statistically different (p > 0.05). White non-structural cement and MTA BIO released the largest amount of calcium ions into solution (p 0.05). The results indicated that the physico-chemical properties of Portland cements and MTA were similar. Furthermore, all materials produced an alkaline environment and can be considered safe for clinical use because arsenic was not released. The electrical conductivity and the amount of calcium ions released into solution increased over time.

  17. Physico-Chemical Characteristics and Rheolgical Properties of Different Wheat Varieties Grown in Sindh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahvish Jabeen Channa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate the physico-chemical and rheological properties of 17 wheat varieties (TJ-83, Jouhar, TD-1, Anmool, Mehran, Indus-66, Sindh B-1, Abadgar, Bhittai, Imdad, Mexi-Pak, Soughat, Blue Silver, Moomal, Marvi, Kiran, and Pak-70 commercially grown on experimental field of Agriculture Research Institute, Tandojam. The results revealed that moisture % were in range of 11 to 12 among all varieties, high protein content of about 15.2% was found in Mehran and Blue silver varieties, starch was found high in Maxi-pak (70.6%, high hardness values in Imdad (70.1% and Jouhar (70.2%. However, zeleny content was found high in Marvi, Abadgaar and Mehran i.e. 71%. Amylographic results showed that among all varieties the Bhittai variety required maximum temperature up to 65.7 oC for the beginning of gelatinization as compared to other varieties. The highest gelatinization temperature was noted up to 96.7 oC in Moomal whereas others had temperature from 82.7 to 89.0 oC. Highest gelatinization maxima (1782AU acquired by T.J-83 variety. The results of Farinograph showed that highest water absorption was noted in Anmool variety. The highest dough development time and dough stability were found highest in Kiran and Indus-66, respectively. T.D-1 and Jouhar varieties had highest break down time as well as highest Farinograph quality.

  18. The critical role of didodecyldimethylammonium bromide on physico-chemical, technological and biological properties of NLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, C; Campisi, A; Manno, D; Serra, A; Spatuzza, M; Musumeci, T; Bonfanti, R; Puglisi, G

    2014-09-01

    Exploiting the experimental factorial design and the potentiality of Turbiscan AG Station, we developed and characterized unmodified and DDAB-coated NLC prepared by a low energy organic solvent free phase inversion temperature technique. A 22 full factorial experimental design was developed in order to study the effects of two independent variables (DDAB and ferulic acid) and their interaction on mean particle size and zeta potential values. The factorial planning was validated by ANOVA analysis; the correspondence between the predicted values of size and zeta and those measured experimentally confirmed the validity of the design and the equation applied for its resolution. The DDAB-coated NLC were significantly affected in their physico-chemical properties by the presence of DDAB, as showed by the results of the experimental design. The coated NLC showed higher physical stability with no particles aggregation compared to the unmodified NLC, as demonstrated by Turbiscan(®) AGS measurements. X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and Cryo-TEM images allowed us to assert that DDAB plays a critical role in increasing the lipids structural order with a consequent enhancement of the NLC physical stability. Furthermore, the results of the in vitro biological studies allow the revisiting of the role of DDAB to the benefit of glioblastoma treatment, due to its efficacy in increasing the NLC uptake and reducing the viability of human glioblastoma cancer cells (U87MG). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Unified understanding of physico-chemical properties of activated sludge and fouling propensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, Mads Koustrup; Nierychlo, Marta; Nielsen, Asbjørn Haaning; Larsen, Poul; Christensen, Morten Lykkegaard; Nielsen, Per Halkjær

    2017-09-01

    A range of parameters affecting floc characteristics, sludge composition and filtration properties was investigated by analyzing 29 sludge samples from municipal and industrial conventional activated sludge systems and municipal membrane bioreactors (MBR). Samples were characterized by physico-chemical parameters, composition of ions and EPS, degree of flocculation, settling properties, dewatering properties, and filtration properties. By analyzing the interplay between various metrics instead of single parameters, a unified understanding of the influence of sludge composition and characteristics was developed. From this, a conceptual model was proposed to describe the interplay between sludge composition, characteristics, and filtration properties. The article shows three major results contributing to describe the interplay between sludge characteristics and fouling propensity: First, the degree of flocculation could be quantified by the ratio between floc size and residual turbidity and was a key parameter to assess fouling propensity. Second, extracted EPS to polyvalent cations ratio was used as an indicator of the flocculation. A high ratio combined with a high concentration of EPS resulted in large, loosely bound, and weak flocs that were easily deformed, hence giving compressible fouling layers. Finally, high amounts of carbohydrates in both total and extracted EPS resulted in more pronounced fouling, which may be explained by carbohydrates forming poorer flocs than humic substances and proteins. Accordingly, samples with high humic content showed lower specific resistance to filtration due to better floc structure. The amount of carbohydrates in EPS correlated positively to the influent COD/N ratio, which may explain why systems with high influent COD/N ratio demonstrated higher fouling propensity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Modelling physico-chemical properties of (benzo)triazoles, and screening for environmental partitioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhhatarai, B; Gramatica, P

    2011-01-01

    (Benzo)triazoles are distributed throughout the environment, mainly in water compartments, because of their wide use in industry where they are employed in pharmaceutical, agricultural and deicing products. They are hazardous chemicals that adversely affect humans and other non-target species, and are on the list of substances of very high concern (SVHC) in the new European regulation of chemicals - REACH (Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemical substances). Thus there is a vital need for further investigations to understand the behavior of these compounds in biota and the environment. In such a scenario, physico-chemical properties like aqueous solubility, hydrophobicity, vapor pressure and melting point can be useful. However, the limited availability and the high cost of lab testing prevents the acquisition of necessary experimental data that industry must submit for the registration of these chemicals. In such cases a preliminary analysis can be made using Quantitative Structure-Property Relationships (QSPR) models. For such an analysis, we propose Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) models based on theoretical molecular descriptors selected by Genetic Algorithm (GA). Training and prediction sets were prepared a priori by splitting the available experimental data, which were then used to derive statistically robust and predictive (both internally and externally) models. These models, after verification of their structural applicability domain (AD), were used to predict the properties of a total of 351 compounds, including those in the REACH preregistration list. Finally, Principal Component Analysis was applied to the predictions to rank the environmental partitioning properties (relevant for leaching and volatility) of new and untested (benzo)triazoles within the AD of each model. Our study using this approach highlighted compounds dangerous for the aquatic compartment. Similar analyses using predictions obtained by the EPI Suite and

  1. PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF THE SOLID AND LIQUID WASTE PRODUCTS FROM THE HEAVY METAL CONTAMINATED ENERGY CROPS GASIFICATION PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Werle

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of basic physico-chemical properties of solid (ash and liquid (tar waste products of the gasification process of the heavy metal contaminated energy crops. The gasification process has carried out in a laboratory fixed bed reactor. Three types of energy crops: Miscanthus x giganteus, Sida hermaphrodita and Spartina Pectinata were used. The experimental plots were established on heavy metal contaminated arable land located in Bytom (southern part of Poland, Silesian Voivodship.

  2. Comparison of amino acids physico-chemical properties and usage of late embryogenesis abundant proteins, hydrophilins and WHy domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaspard, Emmanuel; Hunault, Gilles

    2014-01-01

    Late Embryogenesis Abundant proteins (LEAPs) comprise several diverse protein families and are mostly involved in stress tolerance. Most of LEAPs are intrinsically disordered and thus poorly functionally characterized. LEAPs have been classified and a large number of their physico-chemical properties have been statistically analyzed. LEAPs were previously proposed to be a subset of a very wide family of proteins called hydrophilins, while a domain called WHy (Water stress and Hypersensitive response) was found in LEAP class 8 (according to our previous classification). Since little is known about hydrophilins and WHy domain, the cross-analysis of their amino acids physico-chemical properties and amino acids usage together with those of LEAPs helps to describe some of their structural features and to make hypothesis about their function. Physico-chemical properties of hydrophilins and WHy domain strongly suggest their role in dehydration tolerance, probably by interacting with water and small polar molecules. The computational analysis reveals that LEAP class 8 and hydrophilins are distinct protein families and that not all LEAPs are a protein subset of hydrophilins family as proposed earlier. Hydrophilins seem related to LEAP class 2 (also called dehydrins) and to Heat Shock Proteins 12 (HSP12). Hydrophilins are likely unstructured proteins while WHy domain is structured. LEAP class 2, hydrophilins and WHy domain are thus proposed to share a common physiological role by interacting with water or other polar/charged small molecules, hence contributing to dehydration tolerance.

  3. Influence of vacuum drying temperature on: physico-chemical composition and antioxidant properties of murta berries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murta (Ugni molinae T.) berries were vacuum dried at a constant pressure of 15 kPa. The effects of processing temperatures (50, 60, 70, 80 and 90 °C) on the physico-chemical characteristics, the phenolic and flavonoid compounds, the antioxidant activity (measured by DPPH and ORAC) and the sugar and ...

  4. Physico-chemical properties and biological effects of diesel and biomass particles

    KAUST Repository

    Longhin, Eleonora

    2016-05-15

    © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. Diesel combustion and solid biomass burning are the major sources of ultrafine particles (UFP) in urbanized areas. Cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases, including lung cancer, are possible outcomes of combustion particles exposure, but differences in particles properties seem to influence their biological effects.Here the physico-chemical properties and biological effects of diesel and biomass particles, produced under controlled laboratory conditions, have been characterized. Diesel UFP were sampled from a Euro 4 light duty vehicle without DPF fuelled by commercial diesel and run over a chassis dyno. Biomass UFP were collected from a modern automatic 25 kW boiler propelled by prime quality spruce pellet. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of both diesel and biomass samples showed aggregates of soot particles, but in biomass samples ash particles were also present. Chemical characterization showed that metals and PAHs total content was higher in diesel samples compared to biomass ones.Human bronchial epithelial (HBEC3) cells were exposed to particles for up to 2 weeks. Changes in the expression of genes involved in xenobiotic metabolism were observed after exposure to both UFP already after 24 h. However, only diesel particles modulated the expression of genes involved in inflammation, oxidative stress and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), increased the release of inflammatory mediators and caused phenotypical alterations, mostly after two weeks of exposure.These results show that diesel UFP affected cellular processes involved in lung and cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Biomass particles exerted low biological activity compared to diesel UFP. This evidence emphasizes that the study of different emission sources contribution to ambient PM toxicity may have a fundamental role in the development of more effective strategies for air quality improvement.

  5. Evaluation of various physico-chemical properties of Hibiscus sabdariffa and L. casei incorporated probiotic yoghurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasdhari, M; Parekh, T; Dave, N; Patel, V; Subhash, R

    2008-09-01

    The present investigation was carried out to examine the effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa Calyx extract on the physico-chemical properties, sensory attributes, texture and microbial analysis of L. casei incorporated in probiotic yoghurt after manufacture and during storage. Incorporation of Hibiscus sabdariffa Calyx extract into the probiotic yoghurt resulted into decrease in coagulation time by 25 min. The pH ranged from 4.39 to 4.59, TA 0.81 to 1.14%, moisture 3.05 to 3.37 g%, syneresis 18.85 to 24.90 mL/50 g of sample, % inhibition 12.32 to 59.43, TS 21.27 to 24.90 g% and beta-galactosidase activity 1.041 to 3.277. The protein content ranged between 4.11 and 4.14 g% while the fat content ranged between 3.43 and 3.49 g%. No major changes in sensory evaluation were observed on the day of manufacture and during storage for 7 days. Sabdariffa added yoghurt showed a higher score in almost all sensory attributes. Microbial analysis showed a total plate count ranging from 1.8 x 10(4) to 1.85 x 10(7) cfu mL(-1). Yeast and mold counts were negligible in the Sabdariffa yoghurts. Thus the study concludes that incorporation of Hibiscus sabdariffa extract in yoghurt improved the total antioxidant property, organoleptic qualities and decreased the exudation of whey proteins (Syneresis). Thus, Hibiscus sabdariffa Calyces has beneficial influence on the quality of L. casei incorporated probiotic yoghurt.

  6. Physico-chemical, structural, pasting and thermal properties of starches of fourteen Himalayan rice cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gani, Adil; Ashwar, Bilal Ahmad; Akhter, Gazalla; Shah, Asima; Wani, Idrees Ahmed; Masoodi, Farooq Ahmad

    2017-02-01

    Starch of fourteen rice cultivars grown in Himalayan region were evaluated for physico-chemical, structural, pasting and thermal properties. The rice cultivars selected showed a wide variation in apparent amylose content (AAC), ranging between 10.76%-26.87%, highest in CH-1039 and lowest in SKAU-292 starch. There were ten low, three intermediate and one high AAC rice. Resistant starch content varied significantly among the rice cultivars, ranging from 6.00% to 19.60%. Generally, high ACC starches presented high contents of resistant starch. Water absorption capacity (80.10-130.32%), swelling (5.73-9.61g/g) and solubility (0.037-0.090g/g) indices varied significantly among the rice cultivars. The rice starch granule morphology showed polyhedral or irregular shapes and granular sizes in the range of 1.8-6.7μm in different rice starches. Pasting profile of starch varied significantly among the rice cultivars, probably due to variations in their AAC. Thermal properties of the starches ranged considerably among different rice cultivars: onset temperature of gelatinization, T o (58.25-72.49°C), peak temperature of gelatinization, T p (69.93-93.26°C), conclusion temperature of gelatinization, T c (97.28±8.28-112.16°C) and gelatinization enthalpy ΔH G (14.29-29.63J/g). The ATR-FTIR spectroscopy of rice starches identified most of the α-1→4 glucosidic linkages within the absorption bands of 1149-1023cm -1 . Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Physico-chemical properties and biological effects of diesel and biomass particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhin, Eleonora; Gualtieri, Maurizio; Capasso, Laura; Bengalli, Rossella; Mollerup, Steen; Holme, Jørn A; Øvrevik, Johan; Casadei, Simone; Di Benedetto, Cristiano; Parenti, Paolo; Camatini, Marina

    2016-08-01

    Diesel combustion and solid biomass burning are the major sources of ultrafine particles (UFP) in urbanized areas. Cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases, including lung cancer, are possible outcomes of combustion particles exposure, but differences in particles properties seem to influence their biological effects. Here the physico-chemical properties and biological effects of diesel and biomass particles, produced under controlled laboratory conditions, have been characterized. Diesel UFP were sampled from a Euro 4 light duty vehicle without DPF fuelled by commercial diesel and run over a chassis dyno. Biomass UFP were collected from a modern automatic 25 kW boiler propelled by prime quality spruce pellet. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of both diesel and biomass samples showed aggregates of soot particles, but in biomass samples ash particles were also present. Chemical characterization showed that metals and PAHs total content was higher in diesel samples compared to biomass ones. Human bronchial epithelial (HBEC3) cells were exposed to particles for up to 2 weeks. Changes in the expression of genes involved in xenobiotic metabolism were observed after exposure to both UFP already after 24 h. However, only diesel particles modulated the expression of genes involved in inflammation, oxidative stress and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), increased the release of inflammatory mediators and caused phenotypical alterations, mostly after two weeks of exposure. These results show that diesel UFP affected cellular processes involved in lung and cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Biomass particles exerted low biological activity compared to diesel UFP. This evidence emphasizes that the study of different emission sources contribution to ambient PM toxicity may have a fundamental role in the development of more effective strategies for air quality improvement. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  8. Impact of Sulfuric Acid Treatment of Halloysite on Physico-Chemic Property Modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaaz, Tayser Sumer; Sulong, Abu Bakar; Kadhum, Abdul Amir H; Nassir, Mohamed H; Al-Amiery, Ahmed A

    2016-07-26

    Halloysite (HNT) is treated with sulfuric acid and the physico-chemical properties of its morphology, surface activity, physical and chemical properties have been investigated when HNT is exposed to sulfuric acid with treatment periods of 1 h (H1), 3 h (H3), 8 h (H8), and 21 h (H21). The significance of this and similar work lies in the importance of using HNT as a functional material in nanocomposites. The chemical structure was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The spectrum demonstrates that the hydroxyl groups were active for grafting modification using sulfuric acid, promoting a promising potential use for halloysite in ceramic applications as filler for novel clay-polymer nanocomposites. From the X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectrum, it can be seen that the sulfuric acid breaks down the HNT crystal structure and alters it into amorphous silica. In addition, the FESEM images reveal that the sulfuric acid treatment dissolves the AlO₆ octahedral layers and induces the disintegration of SiO₄ tetrahedral layers, resulting in porous nanorods. The Bruncher-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area and total pore volume of HNTs showed an increase. The reaction of the acid with both the outer and inner surfaces of the nanotubes causes the AlO₆ octahedral layers to dissolve, which leads to the breakdown and collapse of the tetrahedral layers of SiO₄. The multi-fold results presented in this paper serve as a guide for further HNT functional treatment for producing new and advanced nanocomposites.

  9. Physico-chemical properties of Pd nanoparticles produced by Pulsed Laser Ablation in different organic solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cristoforetti, Gabriele; Pitzalis, Emanuela; Spiniello, Roberto; Ishak, Randa; Giammanco, Francesco; Muniz-Miranda, Maurizio; Caporali, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    Palladium nanoparticles are arousing an increasing interest because of their strong activity in heterogeneous catalysis in a wide range of reactions. Driven by the interest of producing Pd nanoparticles to be deposited for catalysis over hydrophobic supports, we investigated their synthesis via Pulsed Laser Ablation in Liquid in several organic solvents, as acetone, ethanol, 2-propanol, toluene, n-hexane. The colloids were produced by using a Nd:YAG ns laser and without the addition of surfactant agents. The morphology, composition, stability and oxidation state of the obtained nanoparticles were investigated by TEM-EDS analysis, UV-vis spectroscopy, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The results evidence that the nature of the solvent influences both the yield and the physico-chemical properties of the produced nanoparticles. While in acetone and alcohols spheroidal, non aggregated and stable particles are obtained, in case of toluene and n-hexane few unstable particles surrounded by a gel-like material are produced. Raman/XPS measurements suggest the presence of amorphous or graphitic carbon onto crystalline Pd nanoparticles, which could have hindered their growth and determined the observed smaller sizes if compared to nanoparticles produced in water. The stability of Pd colloids obtained in acetone and alcohols was attributed to adsorbed anions like enolates or alcoholates; non polar solvents like toluene and n-hexane, unable to give rise to adsorbed anionic species, cannot provide any stabilization to the palladium nanoparticles. XPS analyses also evidenced a partial oxidation of particles surface, with a ratio Pd 2+ :Pd 0 of 1:2.5 and 1:4 in acetone and ethanol, respectively.

  10. Impacts of Land Use Types on Selected Soil Physico-Chemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Science, Technology and Arts Research Journal ... organic and inorganic fertilizers and crop rotation especially in the cultivated lands may enhance the productivity of the soils, implying the need for undertaking integrated soil fertility management in sustainable way to improve and maintain the favorable soil properties.

  11. Physico-chemical and Bio-chemical Controls on Soil C Saturation Behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Six, Johan [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States); Plante, Alain F. [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2011-05-31

    In this project, we tested through a multitude of lab and field experiments the concept of soil C stabilization and determined metrics for the level of C saturation across soils and soil organic matter fractions. The basic premise of the soil C saturation concept is that there is a maximum amount of C that can be stabilized within a soil, even when C input is further increased. In a first analysis, our results showed that linear regression models do not adequately predict maximal organic C stabilization by fine soil particles. Soil physical and chemical properties associated with soil clay mineralogy, such as specific surface area and organic C loading, should be incorporated into models for predicting maximal organic C stabilization. In a second analysis, we found significantly greater maximal C stabilization in the microaggregate-protected versus the non-microaggregate protected mineral fractions, which provides independent validation that microaggregation plays an important role in increasing the protection and stabilization of soil C leading to greater total soil C accumulation in these pools. In a third study, our results question the role of biochemical preference in mineral C stabilization and of the chemical recalcitrance of specific plant-derived compounds in non-protected soil C accumulation. Because C biochemical composition of slowly turning over mineral protected C pools does not change with C saturation, input C composition is unlikely to affect long-term C stabilization. Rather, C saturation and stabilization in soil is controlled only by the quantity of C input to the soil and the physical and chemical protection mechanisms at play in long-term C stabilization. In conclusion, we have further corroborated the concept of soil C saturation and elucidated several mechanisms underlying this soil C saturation.

  12. Exo-polysaccharides (eps) producing biofilm bacteria in improving physico-chemical characteristics of the salt- affected soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashraf, M.; Hussain, F.; Hasnain, S.

    2005-01-01

    A greenhouse study was conducted to compare the effect of inoculation of an EPS-producing bacterial strain (isolated from roots of wheat plants grown in a salt-affected soil) on the extent of soil aggregation around roots of wheat plants grown for 15 or 30 days in saline and non-saline soils. The results showed that the association of the inoculated EPS-producing bacterium was higher with roots of the inoculated wheat plants grown in saline than non-saline soil. This higher association of the EPS-producing bacterium with roots of wheat plants could be attributed to the effect of soluble salts content of the salt-affected soil. An increase in soil aggregation around roots of the inoculated wheat plants grown in saline soil over control could be beneficial in terms of improving physico-chemical characteristics of the salt-affected soils. Thus it could be concluded that inoculation of EPS- producing bacteria could help ameliorate fertility and productivity of the salt-affected. An enhanced productivity of the salt-affected soils would lead to improved environmental conditions of surroundings of the salt-affected lands. (author)

  13. Physico-chemical properties and the microflora of Moroccan black table olives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asehraou, A.

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available Eleven samples of Moroccan black table olives were analyzed for their microflora and the physico-chemical factors. A survey of the most frequent microorganisms including standard plate count (SPC, counts of the indicator microorganisms (total and fecal coliforms and enterococci, staphylococci. Salmonella, sporeforming bacteria (Clostridium and Bacillus and yeasts and molds was determined. The physico-chemical factors grouped pH, aw, NaCl concentration and the ADV (Acid degree value of the fatty matter. Results reported hereby showed a low microbial load except for the yeasts and molds. The values found for the physico-chemical factors (low for the pH and the aw and high for the ADV and salt content would suggest an inhibitory effect on the initial microflora charge of the black table olives.

    Se estudiaron la microflora y las propiedades físico-químicas de aceitunas negras de mesa en 11 muestras. Los microorganismos más abundantes contados incluyeron: flora mesofila total, indicadores de contaminación fecal (Coliformes totales y fecales, Enterococcus, Staphylococcus, Salmonella, esporulados (Bacillus y Clostridium y levaduras y mohos. Los análisis físico-químicos incluyeron: aw (actividad de agua, pH, índice de acidez de la materia grasa y concentración de NaCl. Los resultados nos demuestran perfiles microbianos bajos para todos los microorganismos excepto levaduras y mohos. Los valores bajos de pH y de aw, y otros elevados del índice de acidez y del contenido en sal, nos sugiere una Inhibición de estos factores sobre e! crecimiento y/o la supervivencia de la microflora de las aceitunas negras de mesa.

  14. Small pores in soils: Is the physico-chemical environment accurately reflected in biogeochemical models ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Tobias K. D.; Riedel, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Free water is a prerequesite to chemical reactions and biological activity in earth's upper crust essential to life. The void volume between the solid compounds provides space for water, air, and organisms that thrive on the consumption of minerals and organic matter thereby regulating soil carbon turnover. However, not all water in the pore space in soils and sediments is in its liquid state. This is a result of the adhesive forces which reduce the water activity in small pores and charged mineral surfaces. This water has a lower tendency to react chemically in solution as this additional binding energy lowers its activity. In this work, we estimated the amount of soil pore water that is thermodynamically different from a simple aqueous solution. The quantity of soil pore water with properties different to liquid water was found to systematically increase with increasing clay content. The significance of this is that the grain size and surface area apparently affects the thermodynamic state of water. This implies that current methods to determine the amount of water content, traditionally determined from bulk density or gravimetric water content after drying at 105°C overestimates the amount of free water in a soil especially at higher clay content. Our findings have consequences for biogeochemical processes in soils, e.g. nutrients may be contained in water which is not free which could enhance preservation. From water activity measurements on a set of various soils with 0 to 100 wt-% clay, we can show that 5 to 130 mg H2O per g of soil can generally be considered as unsuitable for microbial respiration. These results may therefore provide a unifying explanation for the grain size dependency of organic matter preservation in sedimentary environments and call for a revised view on the biogeochemical environment in soils and sediments. This could allow a different type of process oriented modelling.

  15. Fluid physico-chemical properties influence capture and diet in Nepenthes pitcher plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazile, Vincent; Le Moguédec, Gilles; Marshall, David J; Gaume, Laurence

    2015-03-01

    Nepenthes pitcher plants have evolved modified leaves with slippery surfaces and enzymatic fluids that trap and digest prey, faeces and/or plant detritus. Although the fluid's contribution to insect capture is recognized, the physico-chemical properties involved remain underexplored and may vary among species, influencing their diet type. This study investigates the contributions of acidity and viscoelasticity in the fluid's capture efficiency of two ant and two fly species in four Nepenthes species with different nutrition strategies. Four Nepenthes species were studied, namely N. rafflesiana, N. gracilis, N. hemsleyana and N. ampullaria. Fluid was collected from pitchers of varying ages from plants growing in the field and immediately transferred to glass vials, and individual ants (tribe Campotini, Fomicinae) and flies (Calliphora vomitoria and Drosophila melanogaster) were dropped in and observed for 5 min. Water-filled vials were used as controls. Survival and lifetime data were analysed using models applied to right-censored observations. Additional laboratory experiments were carried out in which C. vomitoria flies were immersed in pH-controlled aqueous solutions and observed for 5 min. Pitcher fluid differed among Nepenthes species as regards insect retention capacity and time-to-kill, with differences observed between prey types. Only the fluids of the reputedly insectivorous species were very acidic and/or viscoelastic and retained significantly more insects than the water controls. Viscoelastic fluids were fatal to flies and were able to trap the broadest diversity of insects. Younger viscoelastic fluids showed a better retention ability than older fluids, although with less rapid killing ability, suggesting that a chemical action follows a mechanical one. Insect retention increased exponentially with fluid viscoelasticity, and this happened more abruptly and at a lower threshold for flies compared with ants. Flies were more often retained if they

  16. Physico-chemical and microbiological properties of raw fermented sausages are not influenced by color differences of turkey breast meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, J; Krischek, C; Janisch, S; Wicke, M; Klein, G

    2013-05-01

    It has been suggested that the color of turkey breast meat influences both physico-chemical and microbiological properties of raw fermented sausages. In this study, raw fermented sausages were produced with turkey breast meat in 3 different colors (pale, normal, or dark), which were obtained from 2 fast-growing-genetic-line toms at 2 slaughterhouses. Prior to the sausage production, the breast muscles were sorted into color groups according to the lightness values determined at 24 h postmortem. This meat was subsequently processed to raw fermented sausages using 1.5 or 2.5% curing salt (CS). The pale meat had higher lightness, electrical conductivity, and drip loss, whereas the dark meat showed a darker color only. The physico-chemical (pH, water activity), visual (lightness, redness), and microbial (total plate count) properties of the sausages were not influenced by the color of the turkey breast meat. The sausage made with 2.5% CS had lower aw and higher ash and hardness values than the sausages produced with 1.5% CS. In conclusion, processing of differently colored turkey meat to raw fermented sausages does not influence the quality characteristics of the products. Based on these findings, there is no reason for the sausage producer to separate turkey breast muscles by color before producing raw fermented sausages.

  17. Development of corn starch based green composites reinforced with Saccharum spontaneum L fiber and graft copolymers--evaluation of thermal, physico-chemical and mechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaith, B S; Jindal, R; Jana, A K; Maiti, M

    2010-09-01

    In this paper, corn starch based green composites reinforced with graft copolymers of Saccharum spontaneum L. (Ss) fiber and methyl methacrylates (MMA) and its mixture with acrylamide (AAm), acrylonitrile (AN), acrylic acid (AA) were prepared. Resorcinol-formaldehyde (Rf) was used as the cross-linking agent in corn starch matrix and different physico-chemical, thermal and mechanical properties were evaluated. The matrix and composites were found to be thermally more stable than the natural corn starch backbone. Further the matrix and composites were subjected for biodegradation studies through soil composting method. Different stages of biodegradation were evaluated through FT-IR and scanning electron microscopic (SEM) techniques. S. spontaneum L fiber-reinforced composites were found to exhibit better tensile strength. On the other hand Ss-g-poly (MMA) reinforced composites showed maximum compressive strength and wear resistance than other graft copolymers reinforced composite and the basic matrix. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Physico-chemical and functional properties of spray-dried sourdough in breadmaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafti, Abolfazl Golshan; Peighambardoust, Seyed Hadi; Hesari, Javad; Bahrami, Akbar; Bonab, Elnaz Shakuoie

    2013-06-01

    In present study, spray-dried sourdough was produced using a pilot scale spray dryer and the physico-chemical and microbial characteristics of the obtained sourdough powder were investigated. The application of the spray-dried sourdough at different levels (3%, 6%, 9% and 15%) in breadmaking was also evaluated. Bulk density, wettability and suspensibility of the sourdough powder were 0.6 g/cm(3), 98 s and 29%, respectively. The most of the powder particles were in a range of 106-250 µm. The spray-dried sourdough had a moisture content and ash content of 3.72% and 1.9% (db), respectively. The pH and total titratable acidity of the sourdough powder were 3.26 and 59 (mL of 0.1 N NaOH/10 g powder), respectively. Spray drying reduced lactic acid bacteria population of the sourdough to 2 × 10(5) CFU/g compared to the initial value of 10(9) CFU/g. Iranian traditional flat bread (Sangak) made with different levels of the sourdough powder had significantly (p spray-dried sourdough delayed bread staling, as judged by sensory panel. The results suggest that spray-dried sourdough at the level of 9% can be successfully used for Sangak breadmaking, leading to bread with an improved flavor and delayed staling.

  19. Physico-chemical/biological properties of tripolyphosphate cross-linked chitosan based nanofibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkar, Soumi Dey; Farrugia, Brooke L.; Dargaville, Tim R.; Dhara, Santanu

    2013-01-01

    In this study, chitosan-PEO blend, prepared in a 15 M acetic acid, was electrospun into nanofibers (∼ 78 nm diameter) with bead free morphology. While investigating physico-chemical parameters of blend solutions, effect of yield stress on chitosan based nanofiber fabrication was clearly evidenced. Architectural stability of nanofiber mat in aqueous medium was achieved by ionotropic cross-linking of chitosan by tripolyphosphate (TPP) ions. The TPP cross-linked nanofiber mat showed swelling up to ∼ 300% in 1 h and ∼ 40% degradation during 30 day study period. 3T3 fibroblast cells showed good attachment, proliferation and viability on TPP treated chitosan based nanofiber mats. The results indicate non-toxic nature of TPP cross-linked chitosan based nanofibers and their potential to be explored as a tissue engineering matrix. - Highlights: ► Chitosan based nanofiber fabrication through electrospinning. ► Roles of solution viscosity and yield stress on spinnability of chitosan evidenced. ► Tripolyphosphate (TPP) cross-linking rendered structural stability to nanofibers. ► TPP cross-linking also improved cellular response on chitosan based nanofibers. ► Thus, chitosan based nanofibers are suitable for tissue engineering application

  20. Anti-biofilm potential of phenolic acids: the influence of environmental pH and intrinsic physico-chemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Sara; Costa, Eduardo M; Horta, Bruno; Calhau, Conceição; Morais, Rui M; Pintado, M Manuela

    2016-09-13

    Phenolic acids are a particular group of small phenolic compounds which have exhibited some anti-biofilm activity, although the link between their activity and their intrinsic pH is not clear. Therefore, the present work examined the anti-biofilm activity (inhibition of biomass and metabolic activity) of phenolic acids in relation to the environmental pH, as well as other physico-chemical properties. The results indicate that, while Escherichia coli was not inhibited by the phenolic acids, both methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis were susceptible to the action of all phenolic acids, with the pH playing a relevant role in the activity: a neutral pH favored MRSE inhibition, while acidic conditions favored MRSA inhibition. Some links between molecular polarity and size were associated only with their potential as metabolic inhibitors, with the overall interactions hinting at a membrane-based mechanism for MRSA and a cytoplasmic effect for MRSE.

  1. Investigation of Physico-Chemical Properties of Sand-Lime Products Modified of Diabase Aggregate and Chalcedonite Meal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dachowski, Ryszard; Komisarczyk, Katarzyna

    2017-10-01

    In the era of rapid development in the construction industry, particular attention is focused on harmless and natural materials. Some of the best materials for building masonry walls are sand-lime products. Silicates are obtained from a mixture of quartz, sand and a small amount of water. They emerge as a result of the hydrothermal treatment conducted under high pressure and at a temperature of app. 203 °C. Silicates were modified of different kinds of aggregates, glass or plastics, and the content of dry ingredients was changed because of this fact. The paper describes the studies where the combination of diabase aggregate and chalcedonite meal was used. Microstructure of the products was analyzed with the use of mercury intrusion porosimetry, SEM and XRD methods. Variable content of chalcedonite meal changes the internal structure and the physico-chemical properties.

  2. Influence of UF4 physico-chemical properties on the assessment of the chronic exposure to this compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ansoborlo, E.; Chalabreysse, J.

    1990-01-01

    A method was developed in order to assess uranium exposure hazards at work stations based on the industrial experience acquired by Comurhex Malvesi at Narbonne. Applied to uranium tetrafluoride (UF 4 ) the method involves 4 steps: 1. characterization of the industrial compound, including its physico-chemical properties (density, surface area, X-ray spectrum and uranium enrichment); 2. assessment of work station concentrations and particle size distribution (AMAD); 3. In vitro biological solubility with different synthetic fluids such as Gamble solutions with different gases or compounds added (oxygen or superoxide ions O 2 - ) in order to determine the solubility class D, W or Y; 4. workers' monitoring by routine measurements of urinary excretion completed, if necessary, by fecal excretion and γ-spectrometry. Results and present data on UF 4 are presented. 3 tabs., 4 figs [fr

  3. Evolution of an alumina-magnesia/self-forming spinel castable. Part II: physico-chemical and mechanical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gutiérrez-Campos D.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out in conjunction with the investigation, reported in Part I, on the microstructural characteristics of an alumina-spinel castable with several percentages of MgO content. Bulk density and cold crushing strength of samples were evaluated dried and at three fired states (1000, 1200, 1400 °C. Results indicate little influence of MgO additions on physico-chemical properties of the alumina-magnesia/self-forming spinel castable. Characteristics compared with those reported for conventional alumina-spinel castables did not show large difference in values. Therefore, the alumina-magnesia/self-forming spinel castable could be a possible material for substitution of the conventional alumina-spinel castable.

  4. Simultaneous incorporation of carbonate and fluoride in synthetic apatites: Effect on crystallographic and physico-chemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Fang; LeGeros, John P; LeGeros, Racquel Z

    2009-07-01

    The mineral in bone is an impure hydroxyapatite, with carbonate as the chief minor substituent. Fluoride has been shown to stimulate osteoblastic activity and inhibit osteoclastic resorption in vitro. CO(3)- and F-substituted apatite (CFA) has been considered as potential bone graft material for orthopedic and dental applications. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of simultaneously incorporated CO(3) and F on the crystallographic physico-chemical properties of apatite. The results showed that increasing CO(3) and Na content in apatites with relatively constant F concentration caused a decrease in crystallite size and an increase in the extent of calcium release; increasing F content in apatites with relatively constant CO(3) concentration caused an increase in crystallite size and a decrease in the extent of Ca release. These findings suggest that CFAs as bone graft materials of desired solubility can be prepared by manipulating the relative concentrations of CO(3) and F incorporated in the apatite.

  5. Analysis of uranium and its correlation with some physico-chemical properties of drinking water samples from Amritsar, Punjab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Surinder; Rani, Asha; Mahajan, Rakesh Kumar; Walia, Tejinder Pal Singh

    2003-12-01

    Fission track technique has been used for uranium estimation in drinking water samples collected from some areas of Amritsar District, Punjab, India. The uranium concentration in water samples is found to vary from 3.19 to 45.59 microg l(-1). Some of the physico-chemical properties such as pH, conductance and hardness and the content of calcium, magnesium, total dissolved solids (TDS), sodium, potassium, chloride, nitrate and heavy metals viz. zinc, cadmium, lead and copper have been determined in water samples. An attempt has been made to correlate uranium concentration with these water quality parameters. A positive correlation of conductance, nitrate, chloride, sodium, potassium, magnesium, TDS, calcium and hardness with uranium concentration has been observed. However, no correlation has been observed between the concentration of uranium and the heavy metals analysed.

  6. Mesoporous silica materials: From physico-chemical properties to enhanced dissolution of poorly water-soluble drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maleki, Aziz; Kettiger, Helene; Schoubben, Aurélie; Rosenholm, Jessica M; Ambrogi, Valeria; Hamidi, Mehrdad

    2017-09-28

    New approaches in pharmaceutical chemistry have resulted in more complex drug molecules in the quest to achieve higher affinity to their targets. However, these 'highly active' drugs can also suffer from poor water solubility. Hence, poorly water soluble drugs became a major challenge in drug formulation, and this problem is increasing, as currently about 40 of the marketed drugs and 90% of drug candidates are classified as poorly water soluble. Various approaches exist to circumvent poor water solubility and poor dissolution rate in aqueous environment, however, each having disadvantages and certain limitations. Recently, mesoporous silica materials (MSMs) have been proposed to be used as matrices for enhancing the apparent solubility and dissolution rate of different drug molecules. MSMs are ideal candidates for this purpose, as silica is a "generally regarded as safe" (GRAS) material, is biodegradable, and can be readily surface-modified in order to optimize drug loading and subsequent release in the human body. The major advantage of mesoporous silica as drug delivery systems (DDSs) for poorly water soluble drugs lies in their pore size, pore morphology, and versatility in alteration of the surface groups, which can result in optimized interactions between a drug candidate and MSM carrier by modifying the pore surfaces. Furthermore, the drug of interest can be loaded into these pores in a preferably amorphous state, which can increase the drug dissolution properties dramatically. The highlights of this review include a critical discussion about the modification of the physico-chemical properties of MSMs and how these physico-chemical modifications influence the drug loading and the subsequent dissolution of poorly water soluble drugs. It aims to further promote the use of MSMs as alternative strategy to common methods like solubility enhancement by cyclodextrins, micronization, or microemulsion techniques. This review can provide guidance on how to tailor MSMs

  7. Characterization of physico-chemical properties of cervical mucus in relation to parity and conception rate in Murrah buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. K. Verma

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To characterize the physico-chemical properties of estrual cervical mucus among different parities and analyse their association with conception rate in Murrah buffaloes. Materials and Methods: Cervical mucus was collected from the mid-cervix using sterile blue sheath before artificial insemination (AI in Murrah buffaloes (n=94 and examined for appearance (transparent/ translucent, consistency (thin/ moderate/ thick, Spinnbarkeit value, arborisation pattern (typical/ atypical/ nil, pH and electrical conductivity. Artificial insemination was carried out using frozen-thawed semen by recto-vaginal method and pregnancy was confirmed by per-rectal examination after 60 days of insemination. Furthermore, the conception rates were calculated and their relationship with physico-chemical properties of cervical mucus was studied. Results: Cervical mucus was clear and thin in 85.10% and 15.96 % of estrus periods, respectively. Typical arborisation pattern of cervical mucus was observed in 54.25% of the estruses. The Mean ± SEM of pH, electrical conductivity and Spinnbarkeit value of mucus were 7.82 ± 0.02, 14.00 ± 0.10 mS/cm and 14.18 ± 0.59 cm, respectively. Significantly (P< 0.05 higher conception rate (54.90% was observed in buffaloes inseminated with typical arborisation pattern of cervical mucus as compared to atypical arborisation pattern (20.00% and no conception was recorded in the estruses with nil arborisation pattern. Conclusion: The results of present investigation concluded that arborisation pattern has significant relationship with conception rate thus can be used as an important criteria to predict the right time of AI for improving conception rate in Murrah buffaloes.

  8. Some physico-chemical and Heavy metal levels in soils of waste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results show that the soils are moderately acidic with a mean pH value of 5.5 for the 1m subsoil and 5.8 for 30cm soil depth in the various dumpsites, while the total organic carbon (TOC) levels show that it was low with 3.41% and 2.90% for depths 30cm and 1m respectively. The cation exchange capacity (CEC) of the ...

  9. Mechanical, physico-chemical, and antimicrobial properties of gelatin-based film incorporated with catechin-lysozyme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rawdkuen Saroat

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microbial activity is a primary cause of deterioration in many foods and is often responsible for reduced quality and safety. Food-borne illnesses associated with E. coli O157:H7, S. aureus, S. enteritidis and L. monocytogenes are a major public health concern throughout the world. A number of methods have been employed to control or prevent the growth of these microorganisms in food. Antimicrobial packaging is one of the most promising active packaging systems for effectively retarding the growth of food spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms. The aim of this study was to determine the mechanical, physico-chemical properties and inhibitory effects of the fish gelatin films against selected food spoilage microorganisms when incorporated with catechin-lysozyme. Results The effect of the catechin-lysozyme combination addition (CLC: 0, 0.125, 0.25, and 0.5%, w/v on fish gelatin film properties was monitored. At the level of 0.5% addition, the CLC showed the greatest elongation at break (EAB at 143.17% with 0.039 mm thickness, and the lowest water vapor permeability (WVP at 6.5 x 10−8 g·mm·h-1·cm-2·Pa-1, whereas the control showed high tensile strength (TS and the highest WVP. Regarding color attributes, the gelatin film without CLC addition gave the highest lightness (L* 91.95 but lowest in redness (a*-1.29 and yellowness (b* 2.25 values. The light transmission of the film did not significantly decrease and nor did film transparency (p>0.05 with increased CLC. Incorporating CLC could not affect the film microstructure. The solubility of the gelatin based film incorporated with CLC was not affected, especially at a high level of addition (p>0.05. Inhibitory activity of the fish gelatin film against E.coli, S.aureus, L. innocua and S. cerevisiae was concentration dependent. Conclusions These findings suggested that CLC incorporation can improve mechanical, physico-chemical, and antimicrobial properties of the resulting films

  10. A comparative study of physico-chemical properties of CBD and SILAR grown ZnO thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jambure, S.B.; Patil, S.J.; Deshpande, A.R.; Lokhande, C.D.

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Schematic model indicating ZnO nanorods by CBD (Z 1 ) and nanograins by SILAR (Z 2 ). - Highlights: • Simple methods for the synthesis of ZnO thin films. • Comparative study of physico-chemical properties of ZnO thin films prepared by CBD and SILAR methods. • CBD outperforms SILAR method. - Abstract: In the present work, nanocrystalline zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films have been successfully deposited onto glass substrates by simple and economical chemical bath deposition (CBD) and successive ionic layer adsorption reaction (SILAR) methods. These films were further characterized for their structural, optical, surface morphological and wettability properties. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns for both CBD and SILAR deposited ZnO thin films reveal the highly crystalline hexagonal wurtzite structure. From optical studies, band gaps obtained are 2.9 and 3.0 eV for CBD and SILAR deposited thin films, respectively. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) patterns show growth of well defined randomly oriented nanorods and nanograins on the CBD and SILAR deposited samples, respectively. The resistivity of CBD deposited films (10 2 Ω cm) is lower than that of SILAR deposited films (10 5 Ω cm). Surface wettability studies show hydrophobic nature for both films. From the above results it can be concluded that CBD grown ZnO thin films show better properties as compared to SILAR method

  11. Physico-chemical properties, rheology and degree of esterification of passion fruit (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa) peel flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Emanuela M; de Azevêdo, Luciana C; Viana, Arão C; Ramos, Ingrid G; Gomes, Raquel G; Lima, Marcos Dos S; Umsza-Guez, Marcelo A

    2018-01-01

    The peel of yellow passion fruit is as an agro-industrial waste of great environmental impact, representing more than 50% of the total weight of the fruit. For this reason, and also considering its importance as a source of functional components such as pectin, this organic waste is increasingly attracting the attention of researchers. The aim of this study was to investigate the physico-chemical composition and physical properties of this material, which may be of interest to the food industry. We obtained two samples of passion fruit peel flour applying different processes: flour without treatment (FWOT) and flour with treatment by maceration (FWT). It was found that the flour samples contain, respectively, 372.4 g kg -1 and 246.7 kg -1 of soluble fiber and, according to the FTIR analysis, this material corresponds to high and low methoxyl pectins, respectively. The flour obtained by maceration (FWT) offers greater benefits for industrial use, with 60% fewer tannins and greater thermal stability. In addition, this sample does not reabsorb moisture as easily, although FWOT also shows potential for use in dietary products. Considering the pseudoplastic properties of the flours, the application of both samples could be expanded to many industrial sectors. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Effect of pulsed electric fields on microbial inactivation and physico-chemical properties of whole porcine blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulaaba, Annika; Egen, Nathalie; Klein, Günter

    2014-04-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the lethal effectiveness of pulsed electric fields on the inactivation of the porcine blood endogenous microflora. Furthermore, the impact of pulsed electric field application on physico-chemical and sensory properties in this medium should be proved. Blood samples from a commercial abattoir in Germany were processed by a continuous pilot plant-pulsed electric field system at electric field strength of 11 kV/cm for treatment times of 163 and 209 µs. The applied pulse frequencies of 134 and 175 Hz correspond to an energy input of 91 and 114 kJ/kg, respectively. In these conditions, the effectiveness of pulsed electric field processing on microbial inactivation was limited: 1.35 log10 CFU/mL reduction of total aerobic plate count (p pulsed electric field-treated blood samples. Pulsed electric field processing leads to a complete hemolysis of the red blood cells, in addition significant decreased L* (lightness), a* (redness) and b* (yellowness) values (p < 0.0001) were observed. Furthermore, changes in the sensory attributes color (changed from red to dark brown) and odor (changed from fresh to musty and tangy) were noticed.

  13. Resistant starch content, in vitro starch digestibility and physico-chemical properties of flour and starch from Thai bananas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nednapis Vatanasuchart

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Flour and starch were prepared from six Thai banana cultivars: Kluai Hom, Kluai Khai,Kluai Lebmuenang, Kluai Namwa, Kluai Hakmuk and Kluai Hin, and their resistant starch (RS, invitro starch digestibility and physico-chemical properties were determined. The RS content of theflour is 52.2-68.1%, with flour from Kluai Hin containing the highest amount of RS, followed by thatfrom Kluai Hakmuk. The starch has a higher RS content (70.1-79.2%, the highest value comingfrom Kluai Hakmuk starch, followed by Kluai Hom starch. A significant linear relationship betweenapparent amylose and RS was observed. Interestingly, most of the flour showed a slower rate of invitro starch digestibility than that of the starch, with Kluai Hin flour exhibiting the slowest rate,followed by Kluai Namwa. Rapid viscosity analysis showed significantly higher peak viscosity of thestarch than the flour, the highest final and setback viscosity being obtained from Kluai Hin starch.Differential scanning calorimetry showed an endothermic transition enthalpy over a range of 17.4 J/gfor Kluai Lebmuenang starch to 18.6 J/g for Kluai Hin starch. X-ray diffractograms of the starchesexhibited a typical B-pattern with Kluai Hin showing the highest degree of relative crystallinity(31.3% with a sharp peak at 5.5. The overall results seemed to indicate an effect of the BBgenotype on the resistance of banana starch granules to enzymatic digestion due to amylosemolecules and the crystallinity of amylopectin.

  14. Drug compartmentalization as strategy to improve the physico-chemical properties of diclofenac sodium loaded niosomes for topical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavano, Lorena; de Cindio, Bruno; Picci, Nevio; Ioele, Giuseppina; Muzzalupo, Rita

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this research was to study the effect of diclofenac sodium compartmentalization on the physico-chemical properties (such as size, drug entrapment efficiency and percutaneous permeation across rabbit skin) of niosomal vesicles used as carriers. Niosomes were prepared starting from nonionic commercial surfactants belonging to the class of Polysorbates and Pluronics: mixtures of Span 60/F127 and Tween 60/F127 at different ratios were used to obtain vesicles and all formulations were compared in terms of dimensions, morphology, polydispersity index and entrapment efficiency. Moreover, the enhancing effect of niosomes on the ex vivo percutaneous penetration of diclofenac sodium was investigated using Franz-type diffusion chambers and compared to that obtained by using the corresponding drug solution. Results demonstrated that niosomes were spherical and homogeneous in shape. Their size was found to be dependent on the hydrophile-lipophile balance of the surfactant mixture: increasing hydrophobicity resulted in smaller vesicles. Drug incorporation led to a significant variation in vesicle size dependently from the compartment in which the drug was located. The permeation of diclofenac from free solution used as control was found to be lower respect to that obtained for all niosomal formulations, that can be considered as percutaneous permeation enhancers. In particular, the results indicated that the highest cumulative amounts of diclofenac permeated across rabbit skin after 24 h were obtained by formulations in which the drug was located in the aqueous core.

  15. Effect of some prepared superplasticizers (Cyclohexanone Based on compressive strength and physico-chemical properties of oil well cement pastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Aiad

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Two different superplasticizers particularly cyclohexanone formaldehyde sulfanilate (CFS and cyclohexanone glyoxylic sulfanilate (CGS were prepared; also, their effect on mechanical and physico-chemical properties of oil well cement was assessed. The chemical structures were affirmed by FTIR technique. The designed chemical compounds were predestined as superplasticizers for cement pastes. The pastes were made by superplasticizer (CFS or CGS addition to cement by the ratios of 0, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, and l.00 as mass% of cement. The water of consistency, setting time, chemically combined water content (Wn, the hydration rate and compressive strength of the admixed hardened pastes were predestined at various time periods. The phase composition was intended by DSC and XRD techniques. The results revealed that as the admixture dose rate increases the demand cement paste water of consistency decreases. Also, as the admixture addition rate increases the chemically combined water content decreases, so the rate of hydration decreases; meanwhile compressive strength magnitudes increase accounting for the low water/cement (initial porosity of the sample.

  16. Fig (Ficus carica) Liquid Co-Products as New Potential Functional Ingredient: Physico-Chemical and In Vitro Antioxidant Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viuda-Martos, Manuel; Sendra, Esther; Sayas, Estrella; Pérez-Alvarez, José A; Fernández-López, Juana

    2015-07-01

    The aims of this study were to determine (i) the physico-chemical characteristics, (ii) the phenolic, flavonoid and anthocyanins profile, (iii) the organic acids and sugar content, and (iv) the antioxidant properties of the liquid co-product generated by the figs (FLC) processing industry in order to set standards for its applications as a potential ingredient of food products. The liquid co-products obtained from the peel and pulp of two fig varieties (colar and cuello de dama) were used. The polyphenolic profile and the organic acids and sugar were determined by HPLC. For the antioxidant activity, four different test systems were used (DPPH, FRAP, TBARS and FIC). The total phenolic, total flavonoid and total anthocyanin contents were also determined. The FLC from peel presented higher total phenolic, flavonoid and anthocyanin contents than FLC from pulp. The FLC obtained from peel and pulp had a high content of sugars, mainly glucose and fructose. As regards antioxidant activity, at all concentrations and with all methods, FLC obtained from peel presented higher antioxidant activity than the pulp FLC. FLC obtained from the peel and pulp could be an alternative for use as a natural preservative in food matrices due to its broad antioxidant activity.

  17. On the Use of Local and Global QSPRs for the Prediction of Physico-chemical Properties of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, Ester; Kovarich, Simona; Gramatica, Paola

    2011-03-14

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are persistent chemicals that have been among the most marketed flame retardants used all over the world in the last decades. PBDEs have been detected in all environmental compartments, as well as in humans and wildlife, where they are able to accumulate and exert their toxic effects. At present only a limited amount of experimental data is available to characterize the physico-chemical and toxicological behavior of PBDEs and similar brominated flame retardants. QSA(P)R approaches are very useful tools to predict missing data starting from the chemical structure of compounds. In this study several local QSPR models, developed specifically for the prediction of logKoa, logKow and melting point of PBDEs, were compared with predictions by global QSPR models, such as KoaWIN, KowWIN and MPBPWIN from the EPI Suite package, and AlogP and MlogP from DRAGON software, which were trained on heterogeneous and large datasets. The analysis addressed in the paper supported the identification of points of strength and weaknesses of both local models, and global models. The results are relevant to support decisions made by general QSAR users and regulators, when they have to select and apply one of the analyzed models to predict properties for PBDEs. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Effect of Araxa rockphosphate and simple superphosphate on some physico-chemical properties and on the available residual P of an oxic Paleudalf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urquiaga C, S.; Reichardt, K.; Libardi, P.L.

    The experiment was developed using soil samples (TRE, Oxic Paleudalfs) from the Experimental Field Station of ESALQ, located in Piracicaba, SP, Brazil. This soil had received during the period of three years 6 ton/ha of Araxa Rockphosphate (34.6% P 2 O 5 ) or 0.5 ton/ha of Simple Superphosphate (20% P 2 O 5 ) while three crops of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris, L.) were grown. This greenhouse experiment had the objective of evaluating the effect of these fertilizer applications on some physico-chemical properties of the soil, and also study the residual P effect through the Olsen and 'A value' methods. Results indicate that Araxa Rockphosphate (48.4% CaO), although applied at high rate, did not affect soil reaction. On the other hand, both fertilizers increased the exchangeable Ca 2+ level in approximately 0.5 me/100 g. In short therm (less than 3 years), the response of Araxa Rockphosphate corresponded to its 2% citric acid soluble P 2 O 5 content (4%) rather than to its total P 2 O 5 content. Through 'A values' (using KH 2 32 PO 4 ) it was shown that the residual effect of Simple Superphosphate (108.6 Kg P 2 O 5 /ha) was similar to the Araxa Rockphosphate (136.6 Kg P 2 O 5 /ha), but these were significantly greater than the natural P content of the soil (54.0 Kg P 2 O 5 /ha). The evaluation of available P in the soil (with and without fertilizer) by Olsen's method, had and efficiency of 64 and 94% (respectively) as compared to the 'A value' method. (Author) [pt

  19. New sol-gel bioactive glass and titania composites with enhanced physico-chemical and biological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlik, Justyna; Widziołek, Magdalena; Cholewa-Kowalska, Katarzyna; Łączka, Maria; Osyczka, Anna Maria

    2014-07-01

    We developed TiO2 matrix composites modified by sol-gel bioactive glasses (SBG) of either high CaO content (A2) or high SiO2 content (S2). The latter were mixed with titanium dioxide (TiO2) at 75:25, 50:50, and 25:75 weight ratios and sintered at 1250°C for 2 h. We examined the effects of various types (A2 or S2) and compositional TiO2 :SBG ratios on the mechanical properties of resulting composites, their bioactivity and human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) response. The chemistry of SBGs influenced the phase composition, mechanical and biological properties of the composites. Rutile and titanite prevailed in A2-TiO2 composites, and rutile and crystobalite in S2-TiO2 composites. Compressive strength increased significantly for 25A2-TiO2 composites (140 MPa) compared to matrix TiO2 (58 MPa). Composites containing 50-75 wt % of either SBG displayed bioactive properties as determined by simulated body fluid test. Compared to TiO2, human bone marrow stromal cell (BMSC) viability was enhanced on the composites containing 25 wt % of either SBG, whereas the composites modified by 25 wt % of S2 enhanced alkaline phosphatase activity and mineralization in cultures treated with osteogenic inducers-dexamethasone (Dex) or bone morphogenetic protein. Increasing amounts of A2 in TiO2 matrix decreased cell viability but increased collagen deposition and mineralized matrix production by BMSC. Considering the physico-chemical and biological properties of the presented composites, the modification of TiO2 with SBG may prove useful strategy in several bone tissue related regeneration strategies. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Addition of bioactive glass to glass ionomer cements: Effect on the physico-chemical properties and biocompatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Caluwé, T; Vercruysse, C W J; Ladik, I; Convents, R; Declercq, H; Martens, L C; Verbeeck, R M H

    2017-04-01

    Glass ionomer cements (GICs) are a subject of research because of their inferior mechanical properties, despite their advantages such as fluoride release and direct bonding to bone and teeth. Recent research aims to improve the bioactivity of the GICs and thereby improve mechanical properties on the long term. In this study, two types of bioactive glasses (BAG) (45S5F and CF9) are combined with GICs to evaluate the physico-chemical properties and biocompatibility of the BAG-GIC combinations. The effect of the addition of Al 3+ to the BAG composition and the use of smaller BAG particles on the BAG-GIC properties was also investigated. Conventional aluminosilicate glass (ASG) and (modified) BAG were synthesized by the melt method. BAG-GIC were investigated on setting time, compressive strength and bioactivity. Surface changes were evaluated by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), EDS and PO 4 3- -and Ca 2+ uptake in SBF. Biocompatibility of selected BAG-GICs was determined by a direct toxicity assay. The addition of BAG improves the bioactivity of the GIC, which can be observed by the formation of an apatite (Ap) layer, especially in CF9-containing GICs. More BAG leads to more bioactivity but decreases strength. The addition of Al 3+ to the BAG composition improves strength, but decreases bioactivity. BAGs with smaller particle sizes have no effect on bioactivity and decrease strength. The formation of an Ap layer seems beneficial to the biocompatibility of the BAG-GICs. Bioactive GICs may have several advantages over conventional GICs, such as remineralization of demineralized tissue, adhesion and proliferation of bone- and dental cells, allowing integration in surrounding tissue. CF9 BAG-GIC combinations containing maximum 10mol% Al 3+ are most promising, when added in ≤20wt% to a GIC. Copyright © 2017 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Prediction of physico-chemical properties for PCs/DFs using the UNIFAC model with an alternative approximation for group assignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuramochi, Hidetoshi; Ohsako, Masahiro; Maeda, Kouji; Sakai, Shinichi

    2002-10-01

    The original-type UNIFAC model was used to predict the environmentally important physico-chemical properties of PCDDs/DFs, such as aqueous solubility, Henry's law constant, and 1-octanol/water partition coefficient, through the UNIFAC-derived infinite dilution activity coefficient. In this application, we suggest an alternative approximation that the aromatic ether group AC-O in PCDD/DF molecules is replaced with the aliphatic ether group CH-O, because the AC-O group is not available in the conventional UNIFAC model. With this approximation, the ability of the UNIFAC model to predict those properties was examined by comparing with experimental data. The UNIFAC model provided comparatively good estimation results. From these results, it is shown that the alternative approximation is useful for the UNIFAC estimation of physico-chemical properties for PCDDs/DFs. Furthermore, the predicted solubilities of 2,3,7,8-T4CDD and O8CDD in organic solvents and the co-solvency effect on solubility of PCDDs in methanol/water mixture indicate that the UNIFAC calculation presented here could well predict the physico-chemical properties of PCDDs/DFs in various solution conditions.

  2. Physico-chemical properties, wax composition, aroma profiles, and antioxidant activity of granulated non-centrifugal sugars from sugarcane cultivars of Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Weerawatanakorn, Monthana; Asikin, Yonathan; Takahashi, Makoto; Tamaki, Hajime; Wada, Koji; Ho, Chi-Tang; Chuekittisak, Raweewan

    2016-01-01

    Non-centrifugal cane sugar (NCS) is globally consumed and has various health benefits. It is mostly produced in hardened block form, which is less convenient than in granulated form for food applications. In terms of the traditional processing of NCS, preparation of granulated products is difficult due to the impurities found in the cane juice extracted from the whole stalk. Therefore, the aim of this study was to characterize and determine the physico-chemical properties, wax composition (po...

  3. An Investigation into the Physico-chemical Properties of Transformer Oil Blends with Antioxidants extracted from Turmeric Powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dukhi, Veresha; Bissessur, Ajay; Ngila, Catherine Jane; Ijumba, Nelson Mutatina

    2013-07-01

    The blending of transformer oil (used mainly as an insulating oil) with appropriate synthetic antioxidants, such as BHT (2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol) and DBP (2,6-di-tert-butylphenol) have been previously reported. This article is focused on the use of antioxidant extracts from turmeric (Curcuma longa), a natural source. Turmeric is well known for its antimicrobial, antioxidant and anticarcinogenic properties owing to the active nature of its components. Extracts from powdered turmeric were subsequently blended into naphthenic-based uninhibited virgin transformer oil, hereinafter referred to as extract-oil blends (E-OB). Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) of the oil blends revealed that five components extracted from turmeric powder were successfully blended into the oil. Subsequent gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis confirmed the presence of the compounds: curcumene, sesquiphellandrene, ar-turmerone, turmerone and curlone. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) of the extract-oil blends, containing various levels of extracts, revealed an average temperature shift of ˜8.21°C in the initial onset of degradation in comparison to virgin non-blended oil. The 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay showed that an increase in the mass aliquot of turmeric extracts in the transformer oil increased the free radical scavenging activity of the oil. Electrical properties of the oil investigated showed that the dissipation factor in the blended oil was found to be lower than that of virgin transformer oil. Evidently, a lower dissipation value renders the oil blend as a superior insulator over normal virgin non-blended oil. This investigation elucidated improved physico-chemical properties of transformer oil blended with turmeric antioxidant extracts.

  4. Investigation of surface properties of physico-chemically modified natural fibres using inverse gas chromatography

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cordeiro, N

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Inverse gas chromatography (IGC) is a suitable method to determine surface energy of natural fibres when compared to wetting techniques. In the present study, the surface properties of raw and modified lignocellulosic fibres have been investigated...

  5. Sensory, Physico-Chemical and Water Sorption Properties of Corn Extrudates Enriched with Spirulina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tańska, Małgorzata; Konopka, Iwona; Ruszkowska, Millena

    2017-09-01

    This study compares the quality of extrudates made from corn grits with the addition of up to 8% of spirulina powder. The sensory properties (shape, color, aroma, taste and crispness), chemicals (content of water, protein, fat, ash, fiber, carbohydrates, carotenoids, chlorophyll and phycocyanin) and physical properties (color, water absorption index, expansion indices, texture and water sorption properties) were determined. It has been found that spirulina-enriched extrudates had slightly lower sensory scores, but the addition of spirulina improved their nutritional value. The contents of protein, ash, fiber and β-carotene increased in extrudates with 8% of spirulina by 34, 36, 140 and 1,260%, respectively. The increasing addition of spirulina caused a decrease in extrudates lightness, an increase in their greenness and yellowness accompanied by a decrease of expansion indices and an increase of softness. Only small differences were found in water sorption properties, suggesting a similar behavior of spirulina-enriched extrudates during storage.

  6. Effect of starch type on the physico-chemical properties of edible films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basiak, Ewelina; Lenart, Andrzej; Debeaufort, Frédéric

    2017-05-01

    Food preservation is mostly related to packaging in oil-based plastics, inducing environmental problems, but this drawback could be limited by using edible/biodegradable films and coatings. Physical and chemical properties were assessed and reflect the role of the starch type (wheat, corn or potato) and thus that of the amylose/amylopectin ratio, which influences thickness, colour, moisture, wettability, thermal, surface and mechanical properties. Higher amylose content in films induces higher moisture sensitivity, and thus affects the mechanical and barrier properties. Films made from potato starch constitute a greater barrier for oxygen and water vapour though they have weaker mechanical properties than wheat and corn starch films. Starch species with higher amylose content have lower wettability properties, and better mechanical resistance, which strongly depends on the water content due to the hydrophilic nature of starch films, so they could be used for products with higher water activity, such as cheese, fruits and vegetables. It especially concerns wheat starch systems, and the contact angle indicates less hydrophilic surfaces (above 90°) than those of corn and potato starch films (below 90°). The starch origin influences optical properties and thickness: with more amylose, films are opalescent and thicker; with less, they are transparent and thinner. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of electron beam irradiation on tribological and physico-chemical properties of Polyoxymethylene copolymer (POM-C)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, Md. Shahinur; Shaislamov, Ulugbek; Yang, Jong-Keun [Nuclear Fusion and Plasma Applications Laboratory, Department of Nuclear and Energy Engineering, Jeju National University, 102 Jejudaehak-ro, Jeju-si, Jeju 63243 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jong-Kuk [Plasma Processing Laboratory, Division of Surface Technology, Korea Institute of Materials Science, 797 Changwondaero, Sungsan-Gu, Changwon, Kyungnam 641-010 (Korea, Republic of); Yu, Young Hun [Department of Physics, Jeju National University, 102 Jejudaehak-ro, Jeju-si, Jeju 63243 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Sooseok [Nuclear Fusion and Plasma Applications Laboratory, Department of Nuclear and Energy Engineering, Jeju National University, 102 Jejudaehak-ro, Jeju-si, Jeju 63243 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Heon-Ju, E-mail: hjlee@jejunu.ac.kr [Nuclear Fusion and Plasma Applications Laboratory, Department of Nuclear and Energy Engineering, Jeju National University, 102 Jejudaehak-ro, Jeju-si, Jeju 63243 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Electron beam dose irradiation effect on tribology of POM-C was investigated. • Raman and FTIR-ATR spectra confirm the chemical structural modification. • 1 MeV, 100 kGy dose irradiation induced well suited carbonization and hydrophobicity. • Well suited carbonization and hydrophobicity reduced friction coefficient. - Abstract: Polyoxymethylene copolymer (POM-C) is an attractive and widely used engineering thermoplastic across many industrial sectors owing to outstanding physical, mechanical, self-lubricating and chemical properties. In this research work, the POM-C blocks were irradiated with 1 MeV electron beam energy in five doses (100, 200, 300, 500 and 700 kGy) in vacuum condition at room temperature. The tribological and physico-chemical properties of electron beam irradiated POM-C blocks have been analyzed using pin on disk tribometer, Raman spectroscopy, FTIR-ATR, gel content analysis, SEM-EDS (scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectroscopy), surface profiler and contact angle analyzer. Electron beam irradiation at a dose of 100 kGy resulted in decrease of the friction coefficient of POM-C block due to well suited carbonization, cross-linking, free radicals formation and partial physical modification. It also showed the lowest surface roughness and highest water contact angle among all unirradiated and irradiated POM-C blocks. The irradiation dose at 200 kGy resulted in increase of friction coefficient due to less effective cross-linking, but the irradiation doses at 300, 500 and 700 kGy resulted in increase of the friction coefficient as compared to unirradiated POM-C block due to severe chain scission, chemical and physical structural degradation. The degree of improvement for tribological attribute relies on the electron beam surface dose delivered (energy and dose rate).

  8. Effect of drying methods on the physico-chemical properties of soyflour

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-06-08

    Jun 8, 2011 ... properties of soybean during drying prior to converting it into flour. Three samples were prepared for each of Tax 1485 and mixed .... Values are means of three replicates; values in a column denoted by different letters differ significantly at p < 0.05. Table 3. Organoleptic evaluation of soy\\wheat bread from ...

  9. Effect of drying methods on the physico-chemical properties of soyflour

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-06-08

    Jun 8, 2011 ... 2Department of Agriculture and Environmental Engineering, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria. Accepted 1 November, 2010. This study investigated the relationship between the drying methods and the physicochemical properties of soybean during drying prior to converting it into flour. Three samples ...

  10. Identification of rheological parameters describing the physico-chemical properties of anaerobic sulphidogenic sludge suspensions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pevere, A.; Guibaud, G.; Hullebusch, van E.D.; Lens, P.N.L.

    2007-01-01

    This work determined rheological parameters able to describe the rheological properties of the flocculant sludge presents in sulphidogenic anaerobic bioreactors, i.e. a MBR (membrane bioreactor) and a CSTR (continuous stirred tank reactor). Both sludges displayed a non-Newtonian rheological

  11. The effect of scaffold-cell entrapment capacity and physico-chemical properties on cartilage regeneration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, J.A.A.; Moroni, Lorenzo; Riesle, J.U.; de Wijn, J.R.; van Blitterswijk, Clemens

    2013-01-01

    An important tenet in designing scaffolds for regenerative medicine consists in mimicking the dynamic mechanical properties of the tissues to be replaced to facilitate patient rehabilitation and restore daily activities. In addition, it is important to determine the contribution of the forming

  12. Phospholipids fatty acids of drinking water reservoir sedimentary microbial community: Structure and function responses to hydrostatic pressure and other physico-chemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Bei-Bei; Huang, Ting-Lin; Zhao, Xiao-Guang; Li, Ya-Jiao

    2015-07-01

    Microbial communities in three drinking water reservoirs, with different depth in Xi'an city, were quantified by phospholipids fatty acids analysis and multivariate statistical analysis was employed to interpret their response to different hydrostatic pressure and other physico-chemical properties of sediment and overlying water. Principle component analyses of sediment characteristics parameters showed that hydrostatic pressure was the most important effect factor to differentiate the overlying water quality from three drinking water reservoirs from each other. NH4+ content in overlying water was positive by related to hydrostatic pressure, while DO in water-sediment interface and sediment OC in sediment were negative by related with it. Three drinking water reservoir sediments were characterized by microbial communities dominated by common and facultative anaerobic Gram-positive bacteria, as well as, by sulfur oxidizing bacteria. Hydrostatic pressure and physico-chemical properties of sediments (such as sediment OC, sediment TN and sediment TP) were important effect factors to microbial community structure, especially hydrostatic pressure. It is also suggested that high hydrostatic pressure and low dissolved oxygen concentration stimulated Gram-positive and sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) bacterial population in drinking water reservoir sediment. This research supplied a successful application of phospholipids fatty acids and multivariate analysis to investigate microbial community composition response to different environmental factors. Thus, few physico-chemical factors can be used to estimate composition microbial of community as reflected by phospholipids fatty acids, which is difficult to detect.

  13. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF CHEMICAL COMPOSITION, PHYSICO-CHEMICAL AND ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTIES OF OILS EXTRACTED BY TRADITIONAL AND HEXANE METHODS FROM TERMINALIA CATAPPA L. KERNELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bérenger A. L. Ladele

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The comparative study of physico-chemical characteristics of Terminalia catappa L. kernel oils extracted by two methods has been done. The oil yields were 28.13 % and 61.78 % respectively for traditional and hexane methods and the fatty acid profiles showed palmitic acid (40.79 % and 40.03 % respectively oleic acid (25.55 % and 26.09 % respectively, linoleic acid (26.72 % and 26.64 % respectively and stearic acid (4.35 % and 4.49 % respectively as major components. The oils extracted by the two ways showed similar physico-chemical properties, good calorific values and non-toxicity against Artemia salina L. Oil obtained by traditional method exhibited more antioxidant capacity (1.40 than the hexane one (0.15. This traditional method helps to extract 45 % of the total oil. It gives oil free of organic solvent, with good physico-chemical properties that could be useful as edible oil and for industrial applications.

  14. Physico-chemical properties and possible photocatalytic applications of titanate nanotubes synthesized via hydrothermal method

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Titanate nanotubes (TNTs) were prepared from TiO2 P25 via hydrothermal method. The reaction temperature was 130 or 140?C and the reaction time was 24 or 48h. The samples were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetry and N2 adsorption as well as Raman, FTIR-DRS and UV-Vis/DR spectroscopy. The obtained samples exhibited similar properties, regardless of the preparation temperature and time. The most notable difference between pro...

  15. The influence of the addition of polymers on the physico-chemical properties of bentonite suspensions

    OpenAIRE

    Stojiljkovic S.; Miljkovic V.; Nikolic G.; Kostic D.; Arsic B.; Barber J.; Savic I.; Savic I.

    2014-01-01

    Bentonite clays have many applications in industries ranging from construction to cosmetics. Addition of polymers can profoundly influence the properties of bentonite suspensions and we now describe the influence of a range of different polymers. Whereas polyvinyl pyrolidone and soy isolate only slightly influenced the pH and the electrical conductivity of bentonite polymers in suspension, Carbopol solution caused decreases in both pH and electrical conduct...

  16. Physico-chemical study of new non-ionic surfactants. Influence of ions on aggregation properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coulombeau, H.

    2003-01-01

    New di-block thermo-sensitive metal chelating surfactants have been synthesised. They are based on polyethoxylated non-ionic surfactants (CiEj). A lysine block is linked either to the extremity of a CiEj (surfactant 2) or in a branched position (surfactant 1). These molecules retain the cloud point and the surface-active properties exhibited by the CiEj surfactants. Moreover they possess good complexing properties towards certain ions, which allows them to be successfully applied to cloud point extraction. In both cases, the cloud point and the area per headgroup at the air-water interface are higher than those of the analogous CiEj, which shows the hydrophilic contribution of the lysine block. Macroscopic properties (phase diagrams) and microscopic properties (shape of the aggregates and interactions between them) of the water-surfactant systems have been studied at ambient temperature. Small angle X-Rays scattering (SAXS) and small angle neutrons scattering (SANS) have shown that the new di-block surfactants form spherical micelles at low concentrations. The influence of non complexed salts on the new surfactants is the same as on classical CiEj: salting-in and salting-out phenomena occur according to the Hofmeister series. The effect of a complexed ion, uranyl cation, is however unusual: it leads to a sphere to rod transition, in turn lowering significantly the cloud point, which goes against the expectations on basis of the Hofmeister series. Finally, a preliminary study of ternary mixtures, water-surfactant 1-oil, is presented. It revealed the formation of microemulsions and pointed out that the surfactant film is then a lot more rigid than that formed with classical CiEj. (author)

  17. Physico-chemical properties of PDMS surfaces suitable as substrates for cell cultures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raczkowska, Joanna, E-mail: joanna.raczkowska@uj.edu.pl [The Marian Smoluchowski Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Łojasiewicza 11, 30-428 Kraków (Poland); Prauzner-Bechcicki, Szymon [Institute of Nuclear Physics Polish Academy of Sciences, Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Kraków (Poland); Lukes, Jaroslav; Sepitka, Josef [Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Technicka 4, 16607 Prague (Czech Republic); Bernasik, Andrzej [Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, AGH - University of Science and Technology, Reymonta 19, 30-049 Kraków (Poland); Awsiuk, Kamil [The Marian Smoluchowski Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Łojasiewicza 11, 30-428 Kraków (Poland); Paluszkiewicz, Czesława; Pabijan, Joanna; Lekka, Małgorzata [Institute of Nuclear Physics Polish Academy of Sciences, Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Kraków (Poland); Budkowski, Andrzej [The Marian Smoluchowski Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Łojasiewicza 11, 30-428 Kraków (Poland)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • Series of PDMS substrates with monotonically tuned elasticity were produced. • Method to estimate PDMS stiffness based on AFM force-distance curves was shown. • No change in surface properties of PDMS other than elasticity was demonstrated. • MTT performed for cancer cells showed impact of PDMS elasticity on cells behavior. - Abstract: Elastic properties of the substrate have profound effect on adhesion and proliferation of cells. Here, we introduce a method to produce polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrates with stiffness tuned monotonically from 1.67 to 0.24 MPa, by the time of UV irradiation adjusted up to 5 h. The Young’s modulus (determined by using nanoindenter) scales linearly with stiffness calculated using AFM-based force spectroscopy data. Such a relation enables the determination of the Young modulus from AFM force – distance curves also when the Herz model is not applicable. Our findings demonstrate that surface properties of PDMS substrates are not affected by the applied methodology of tuning substrate elasticity. Finally, the colorimetric proliferation assay (MTT) carried out for non-malignant (HCV29) and cancerous (T24) bladder cancer cells depicted a significant contribution of PDMS substrate elasticity to the behavior of cells. The softer PDMS substrate demonstrated excellent cytocompatibility whereas the stiff one is more cell-repellent.

  18. Effect of electromagnetic radiation on the physico-chemical properties of minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez M, A.; Delgadillo G, J. A.; Vega C, H. R.

    2014-08-01

    The electromagnetic radiation effect represented by gamma rays was investigated through; chemical analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (Sem) and magnetization when applied at a dose of 0.5704 Gy (0.5704 J/ kg) at a feed relation of 18.40 ± 1.13 mGy/ h., in different minerals; in order to characterize the impact of the same from 137 Cs in the physicochemical properties of these minerals. All the irradiated samples showed chemical stability at this stage undetectable other both in the XRD study and in the images analysis obtained by Sem; and at present almost the same chemical composition as the non-irradiated samples. So the same patterns of X-ray diffraction thereof, show a tendency to slightly lower the intensity of the most representative peaks of each mineral phase, which may be due to a decrease in crystallinity or preferential crystallographic orientation in crystals. In the micrographs analysis obtained by Sem on the irradiated samples, some holes (open pores) present in the particles were observed, mainly chalcopyrite and sphalerite lesser extent, seen this fact may be due to Compton Effect, in the radiation process. In relation to the magnetization property, a variation is obtained in the saturation magnetization (Ms) for the irradiated samples containing iron and more significantly in the chalcopyrite case. Therefore, with the radiation level used; slight changes occurring in the physical properties of minerals, whereas they remained stable chemically. These small changes may represent a signal that electromagnetic radiation applied at higher doses, is a viable option for improving the mineral processing. (author)

  19. Physico-chemical properties of isomeric forms of luminol in aqueous solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skripnikova, Tatiana A.; Lysova, Svetlana S.; Zevatskii, Yuriy E.; Myznikov, Leonid V.; Vorona, Svetlana V.; Artamonova, Tatiana V.

    2018-02-01

    Two luminol isomers, 2,4-diaminoisoindoline-1,3-dione and 8-amino-4-hydroxyphthalazin-1(2H)-one, have been obtained and described, their physical and chemical properties studied. Using UV-spectroscopy and fluorescence data, it has been shown that, in aqueous solutions, 2,4-diaminoisoindoline-1,3-dione isomerize into 8-amino-4-hydroxyphthalazin-1(2H)-one, with the speed of transition depending on the pH values. Thermodynamic dissociation constants for the 2,4-diaminoisoindoline-1,3-dione and 8-amino-4-hydroxyphthalazin-1(2H)-one luminol isomers have been determined.

  20. Construction costs and physico-chemical properties of the assimilatory organs of Nepenthes species in Northern Borneo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osunkoya, Olusegun O; Daud, Siti Dayanawati; Di-Giusto, Bruno; Wimmer, Franz L; Holige, Thippeswamy M

    2007-05-01

    Species of the Nepenthaceae family are under-represented in studies of leaf traits and the consequent view of mineral nutrition and limitation in carnivorous plants. This study is aimed to complement existing data on leaf traits of carnivorous plants. Physico-chemical properties, including construction costs (CC), of the assimilatory organs (leaf and pitcher) of a guild of lowland Nepenthes species inhabiting heath and/or peat swamp forests of Brunei, Northern Borneo were determined. Stoichiometry analyses indicate that Nepenthes species are nitrogen limited. Most traits vary appreciably across species, but greater variations exist between the assimilatory organs. Organ mass per unit area, dry matter tissue concentration (density), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), carbon, heat of combustion (H(c)) and CC values were higher in the leaf relative to the pitcher, while organ thickness, potassium (K) and ash showed the opposite trend. Cross-species correlations indicate that joint rather than individual consideration of the leaf and the pitcher give better predictive relationships between variables, signalling tight coupling and functional interdependence of the two assimilatory organs. Across species, mass-based CC did not vary with N or P, but increases significantly with tissue density, carbon and H(c), and decreases with K and ash contents. Area-based CC gave the same trends (though weaker in strength) in addition to a significant positive correlation with tissue mass per unit area. The lower CC value for the pitcher is in agreement with the concept of low marginal cost for carnivory relative to conventional autotrophy. The poor explanatory power of N, P or N : P ratio with CC suggests that factors other than production of expensive photosynthetic machinery (which calls for a high N input), including concentrations of lignin, wax/lipids or osmoregulatory ions like K(+), may give a better explanation of the CC variation across Nepenthes species.

  1. Physico-chemical, microbial and sensory properties of kunu zaki beverage sweetened with black velvet tamarind (Dialium guineense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Dauda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This work determined the physicochemical, microbial and sensory characteristics of kunu zaki sweetened with black velvet tamarind (Dialium guinnense flour. The outer covering and seed of black velvet was removed while the pulp was pulverized to obtain the flour. The tamarind pulp was analysed for its proximate and sugar contents. Kunu zaki was prepared according to standard method and 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 g of the black velvet pulp was added to 1000 ml each of kunu zaki along with a control sample. The kunu zaki samples were stored at refrigeration temperature (4 ºC for a period of 5 days. The physico-chemical properties (pH, ºbrix, total titratable acidity, color, beta-carotene and vitamin C, microbial load and sensory attributes of the kunu zaki were analysed. The black velvet tamarind pulp had 42.01 g/100 g of total solid. The addition of black velvet tamarind (Dialium guinnense to kunu zaki lowered the pH, thereby improving the keeping quality of the kunu zaki samples. The pH of kunu zaki ranged from 2.69-4.15 while the titratable acidity ranged from 5.44-10.06 %, the beta-carotene and vitamin C content were high with a range of 3.10–36.6 mg/100 g and 4.73–47.25 mg/100 g respectively. The bacterial count ranged from 1-8.8 × 103 cfu/mL and a fungal count of 1-4.9 × 103 cfu/mL. Kunu zaki with 50 g of black velvet tamarind was the most preferred in terms of taste, appearance, aroma and general acceptability.

  2. Chemical characterization and physico-chemical properties of aerosols at Villum Research Station, Greenland during spring 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasius, M.; Iversen, L. S.; Svendsen, S. B.; Hansen, A. M. K.; Nielsen, I. E.; Nøjgaard, J. K.; Zhang, H.; Goldstein, A. H.; Skov, H.; Massling, A.; Bilde, M.

    2015-12-01

    The effects of aerosols on the radiation balance and climate are of special concern in Arctic areas, which have experienced warming at twice the rate of the global average. As future scenarios include increased emissions of air pollution, including sulfate aerosols, from ship traffic and oil exploration in the Arctic, there is an urgent need to obtain the fundamental scientific knowledge to accurately assess the consequences of pollutants to environment and climate. In this work, we studied the chemistry of aerosols at the new Villum Research Station (81°36' N, 16°40' W) in north-east Greenland during the "inauguration campaign" in spring 2015. The chemical composition of sub-micrometer Arctic aerosols was investigated using a Soot Particle Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (SP-ToF-AMS). Aerosol samples were also collected on filters using both a high-volume sampler and a low-volume sampler equipped with a denuder for organic gases. Chemical analyses of filter samples include determination of inorganic anions and cations using ion-chromatography, and analysis of carboxylic acids and organosulfates of anthropogenic and biogenic origin using ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QTOF-MS). Previous studies found that organosulfates constitute a surprisingly high fraction of organic aerosols during the Arctic Haze period in winter and spring. Investigation of organic molecular tracers provides useful information on aerosol sources and atmospheric processes. The physico-chemical properties of Arctic aerosols are also under investigation. These measurements include particle number size distribution, water activity and surface tension of aerosol samples in order to deduct information on their hygroscopicity and cloud-forming potential. The results of this study are relevant to understanding aerosol sources and processes as well as climate effects in the Arctic, especially during the Arctic haze

  3. An IR and XPS spectroscopy assessment of the physico-chemical surface properties of alumina–YAG nanopowders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spina, Giulia; Bonelli, Barbara, E-mail: barbara.bonelli@polito.it; Palmero, Paola, E-mail: paola.palmero@polito.it; Montanaro, Laura

    2013-12-16

    Well-dispersed nano-crystalline transition alumina suspensions were mixed with yttrium chloride aqueous solutions, with the aim of producing by spray-drying Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}–Y{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12} (YAG) composite powders of increasing YAG vol.%. Two samples were prepared, with different Y content, corresponding to 5 and 20 YAG vol.%, respectively. Both samples were then treated at either 600 or 1150 °C. The obtained powders were characterized by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier Transform Infra Red (FT-IR) spectroscopy and compared to three reference samples: commercial nano-crystalline transition alumina, YAG and Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}. YAG powders were obtained by co-precipitation route whereas Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} powders were yielded by spray-drying of a yttrium chloride aqueous solution. Modification of physico-chemical properties of the surface of alumina nanoparticles were assessed by combining XPS and FT-IR spectroscopies. On the basis of the results obtained, a possible model is proposed for the structure of the obtained composites, in which Y basically reacts with more acidic hydroxyls of alumina, by forming Y-rich surface grains, the extension of which depends on the thermal treatment. - Highlights: • Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}–Y{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12} (YAG) composite nanopowders were prepared by spray drying. • Combined XPS and IR spectroscopy: effective tools to study surface modifications. • Y reacts with more acidic hydroxyls at alumina surface. • Y-rich surface grains form: their extension depends on the thermal treatment.

  4. Life cycle impact assessment modeling for particulate matter: A new approach based on physico-chemical particle properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notter, Dominic A

    2015-09-01

    Particulate matter (PM) causes severe damage to human health globally. Airborne PM is a mixture of solid and liquid droplets suspended in air. It consists of organic and inorganic components, and the particles of concern range in size from a few nanometers to approximately 10μm. The complexity of PM is considered to be the reason for the poor understanding of PM and may also be the reason why PM in environmental impact assessment is poorly defined. Currently, life cycle impact assessment is unable to differentiate highly toxic soot particles from relatively harmless sea salt. The aim of this article is to present a new impact assessment for PM where the impact of PM is modeled based on particle physico-chemical properties. With the new method, 2781 characterization factors that account for particle mass, particle number concentration, particle size, chemical composition and solubility were calculated. Because particle sizes vary over four orders of magnitudes, a sound assessment of PM requires that the exposure model includes deposition of particles in the lungs and that the fate model includes coagulation as a removal mechanism for ultrafine particles. The effects model combines effects from particle size, solubility and chemical composition. The first results from case studies suggest that PM that stems from emissions generally assumed to be highly toxic (e.g. biomass combustion and fossil fuel combustion) might lead to results that are similar compared with an assessment of PM using established methods. However, if harmless PM emissions are emitted, established methods enormously overestimate the damage. The new impact assessment allows a high resolution of the damage allocatable to different size fractions or chemical components. This feature supports a more efficient optimization of processes and products when combating air pollution. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The physico-chemical properties of chia seed polysaccharide and its microgel dispersion rheology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Kelvin Kim Tha; Matia-Merino, Lara; Chiang, Jie Hong; Quek, Ruisong; Soh, Stephanie Jun Bing; Lentle, Roger G

    2016-09-20

    The polysaccharide gel layer surrounding hydrated chia seeds was extracted using water and isolated by ethanol precipitation. The freeze-dried sample consisted of ∼95% non-starch polysaccharides (35% w/w neutral soluble fraction and 65% w/w negatively charged insoluble fraction). The soluble polysaccharide fraction has molar mass, root-mean square radius and intrinsic viscosity of ∼5×10(5)g/mol, 39nm and 719mL/g, respectively. The whole polysaccharide (included soluble and insoluble fractions) when dispersed in water showed presence of irregular shape, fibrous microgel particles with an average size (D4,3) of ∼700μm. Rheological measurements indicated a 'weak' viscoelastic gel and strong shear dependent properties even at low concentration (0.05% w/w). The viscosity of the dispersion was fairly resistant to variations in temperatures (20-80°C), pH (4-12), ionic strengths (0.01-0.5M NaCl) and cation types (MgCl2, CaCl2, NaCl and KCl). The swollen microgel particles dispersed in soluble polysaccharide continuous phase provided complex and potentially useful rheological properties in food systems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Physico-chemical and mechanical properties of microencapsulated phase change material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giro-Paloma, Jessica; Oncins, Gerard; Barreneche, Camila; Martínez, Mònica; Fernández, A. Inés; Cabeza, Luisa F.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Microencapsulated phase change material MPCM (Micronal∗ DS 5001) was evaluated in this study. ► Due to the reported microcapsules breakage, physical and mechanical properties were analysed. ► Mechanical response was evaluated by AFM with indentation mode under different temperatures. ► The main result is that stiffness of MPCM depends on the temperature assay and particle size. - Abstract: Microencapsulated phase change materials (MPCM) are well known in advanced technologies for the utilization in active and passive systems, which have the capacity to absorb and slowly release the latent heat involved in a phase change process. Microcapsules consist of little containers, which are made of polymer on the outside, and paraffin wax as PCM in the inside. The use of microencapsulated PCM has many advantages as microcapsules can handle phase change materials as core allowing the preparation of slurries. However there are some concerns about cycling of MPCM slurries because of the breakage of microcapsules during charging/discharging and the subsequent loss of effectiveness. This phenomenon motivates the study of the mechanical response when a force is applied to the microcapsule. The maximum force that Micronal® DS 5001 can afford before breaking was determined by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). To simulate real conditions in service, assays were done at different temperatures: with the PCM in solid state at 25 °C, and with the PCM melted at 45 °C and 80 °C. To better understand the behavior of these materials, Micronal® DS 5001 microcapsules were characterized using different physic-chemical techniques. Microcapsules Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) results showed the main vibrations corresponding to acrylic groups of the outside polymer. Thermal stability was studied by Thermogravimetrical Analysis (TGA), and X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) was used to characterize the resulting inorganic residue. The thermal properties were

  7. Improvement of Physico-Chemical Properties of Recycled (Elastomers /Thermoplastics) Composites using Ionizing Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, M.Y.E.A.

    2013-01-01

    Recycling of ground tire rubber (GRT) not only solves the waste disposal problem and maintains environmental quality, but also saves the valuable and limited resource of fossil feedstock. The major problem in the recycling of rubber-like materials such as tires is the cross linked molecular structure of already vulcanized rubber, which not only prevents the softening and processing of waste rubber particles but also inhibits binding of the powder surface to the virgin material. Several reclamation methods have proposed to overcome these barriers, which have basically followed two main approaches: (1) the de vulcanization of cured rubber and (2) the surface modifications of waste particles. The de vulcanization of rubber causes the cleavage of crosslinks via chemical treatments, which make used rubber suitable to be reformulated and recurred into new articles. In consequence, this work is mainly aimed to prepare of de vulcanized rubber (DR) and evaluating mechanical, thermal, and morphological properties of the thermoplastic vulcanizations (TPVs) based on de vulcanized rubber blended with polypropylene, EPDM using peroxide under the effect of radiation dose and DR feed ratio. The efficiency of the compounding process has been examined by infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The mechanical and thermal behaviors of the blends composed of de vulcanized rubber (DR) , high crystalline polypropylene (PP) and EPDM in different proportions were studied. Evaluation of the mechanical and thermal properties of the developed blends, unirradiated and gamma irradiated, was carried out using tensile strength (Ts), elongation at break (Eb), hardness, TGA and DSC measurements.

  8. Physico-Chemical Properties and Biodegradability of Genetically Modified Populus trichocarpa and Pinus taeda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmunds, Charles Warren

    Increasing concerns over greenhouse gas emissions and the finite supply of fossil fuels lead to the goal of utilizing lignocellulosic feedstocks for biofuels, platform chemicals, and biocomposites. Lignin is responsible for the recalcitrance of lignocellulosic biomass and is a major barrier to its deconstruction. Great progress has been made in mapping and modifying the lignin biosynthetic pathway. However, the link between the genetic modification, resulting chemical and physical properties of the wood, and how these properties influence the thermomechanical and recalcitrance to biological and chemical degradation needs further investigation. In this dissertation, the study of modified Populus trichocarpa and Pinus taeda were utilized to accomplish this goal. Thermo-mechanical properties of genetically modified P. trichocarpa with altered lignin content and/or lignin structure were measured with a series of tools including; dynamic mechanical analysis, nuclear magnetic resonance, and wet chemistry techniques. Results demonstrated lignin content and lignin structure likely influence the glass transition temperature (Tg), and that decreased lignin content and the corresponding higher proportion of cell wall carbohydrates may contribute to increased molecular mobility in the wood polymer structure. The effect of lignin biosynthetic pathway modification on biological degradation of these transgenic wood specimens was of interest. However, experimental methods for fungal treatment on small young greenhouse-grown wood specimens are not well established. Therefore, a project was undertaken to develop a method for fungal inoculation and incubation for these unique specimens. Several parameters were tested, and a fungal treatment method was identified with sufficient weight loss after decay and significant reduction in variation of weight loss between replicates compared to previous experiments by direct inoculation of wood with liquid malt extract fungal culture

  9. The physico-chemical properties of some citrus seeds and seed oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhaimi, Fahad A L; Matthäus, Bertrand; Özcan, Mehmet Musa; Ghafoor, Kashif

    2016-03-01

    The chemical properties, mineral contents, fatty acid and tocopherol contents of seed and seed oils of some citrus genus provided from several locations in Turkey and Saudi Arabia were determined. While Ca contents of seeds were between 5018 mg/kg (Kütdiken lemon) and 7619 mg/kg (kinnow mandarin), K contents of seeds varied between 7007 mg/kg (Orlando orange) and 10334 mg/kg (kinnow mandarin). Glucose and fructose contents of citrus seed samples varied between 3.75 g/kg and 5.75 g/kg, and 4.09 g/kg and 6.03 g/kg. Palmitic, oleic and linoleic acids were established as dominant fatty acids. Palmitic, oleic and linoleic acid contents of citrus seed oils varied between 19.6% (Kütdiken lemon) and 26.2% (pineapple orange), 21.3% (kinnow mandarin) and 31.4% (Kütdiken lemon) and 32.3% (Kütdiken lemon) and 43.7% (kinnow mandarin), respectively. The total amount of tocopherols of Turkish citrus oil varied between 0.5 mg/100 g (Fremont mandarin) and 18.8 mg/100 g (bitter orange).

  10. The influence of the addition of polymers on the physico-chemical properties of bentonite suspensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojiljkovic S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bentonite clays have many applications in industries ranging from construction to cosmetics. Addition of polymers can profoundly influence the properties of bentonite suspensions and we now describe the influence of a range of different polymers. Whereas polyvinyl pyrolidone and soy isolate only slightly influenced the pH and the electrical conductivity of bentonite polymers in suspension, Carbopol solution caused decreases in both pH and electrical conductivity. As expected, strong electrolytes like sodium chloride caused big changes in the electrical conductivity of the suspensions. When the temperature of the bentonite suspensions was increased, the pH was almost unchanged, but the electrical conductivity increased. Bentonite treated with polymer suspensions can be used in purifying polluted water; for example, our results suggest that high pH caused by phosphorous salts can be addressed using bentonite modified with Carbopol. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije: Stanisa Stojiljkovic, Vojkan Miljkovic, Goran Nikolic, Ivana Savic and Ivan Savic, TR 34020, Danijela Kostic 172047 and Biljana Arsic 174007

  11. Physico-chemical properties of biodiesel manufactured from waste frying oil using domestic adsorbents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Samir Abd-elmonem A.; Ali, Rehab Farouk M.

    2015-06-01

    We have evaluated the efficiency of sugar cane bagasse ash (SCBA), date palm seed carbon (DPSC), and rice husk ash (RHA) as natural adsorbents and compared them with the synthetic adsorbent Magnesol XL for improving the quality of waste frying oil (WFO) and for the impact on the physicochemical properties of the obtained biodiesel. We measured moisture content, refractive index (RI), density, acid value (AV), iodine value (IV), peroxide value (PV), and saponification value (SV), as well as fatty acid profile. Purification treatments with various levels of adsorbents caused significant (P ≤ 0.05) decreases in free fatty acids (FFAs), PVs, and IVs. The highest yields (86.45 and 87.80%) were observed for biodiesel samples produced from WFO treated with 2% Magnesol and 3% of RHA, respectively, followed by samples treated with 2 and 3% of DPSC or RHA. Pre-treatments caused a significant decrease in the content of C 18:2 linoleic acids, consistent with a significant increase in the content of monounsaturated and saturated fatty acids (MUFA) in the treated samples. The highest oxidation value (COX) (1.30) was observed for biodiesel samples produced from WFO without purification treatments. However, the lowest values (0.44-0.73) were observed for biodiesel samples produced from WFO treated with different levels of adsorbents. Our results indicate that pre-treatments with different levels of adsorbents regenerated the quality of WFO and improved the quality of the obtained biodiesel.

  12. Preparation and physico-chemical properties of hydrogels from carboxymethyl cassava starch crosslinked with citric acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonkham, Sasikan; Sangseethong, Kunruedee; Chatakanon, Pathama; Niamnuy, Chalida; Nakasaki, Kiyohiko; Sriroth, Klanarong

    2014-06-01

    Recently, environmentally friendly hydrogels prepared from renewable bio-based resources have drawn significant attention from both industrial and academic sectors. In this study, chemically crosslinked hydrogels have been developed from cassava starch which is a bio-based polymer using a non-toxic citric acid as a crosslinking agent. Cassava starch was first modified by carboxymethylation to improve its water absorbency property. The carboxymethyl cassava starch (CMCS) obtained was then crosslinked with citric acid at different concentrations and reaction times. The gel fraction of hydrogels increased progressively with increasing citric acid concentration. Free swelling capacity of hydrogels in de-ionized water, saline solution and buffers at various pHs as well as absorption under load were investigated. The results revealed that swelling behavior and mechanical characteristic of hydrogels depended on the citric acid concentration used in reaction. Increasing citric acid concentration resulted in hydrogels with stronger network but lower swelling and absorption capacity. The cassava starch hydrogels developed were sensitive to ionic strength and pH of surrounding medium, showing much reduced swelling capacity in saline salt solution and acidic buffers.

  13. Comparative study of physico-chemical properties of MTA-based and Portland cements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Alvaro H; Pedro, Fábio L M; Miranda, Carlos E S; Semenoff-Segundo, Alex; Pécora, Jesus D; Filho, Antônio M Cruz

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the physicochemical properties of gray and white structural and nonstructural Portland cement, gray and white ProRoot MTA and MTA BIO. The water/powder ratio, setting time, solubility and pH (hydrogen-ion potential) changes of the materials were evaluated. Tests followed specification #57 from the American National Standard Institute/American Dental Association (2000) for endodontic sealing materials and pH was determined by a digital pH meter. The test results were statistically analyzed by variance analyses for global comparison and by the complementary Tukey's test for pairwise comparisons (5%). Considering the water/powder ratio, no significant difference (p > 0.05) was observed among the cements. MTA BIO (33.10 +/- 2.30) had the lowest setting time (p Portland cement (2.55 +/- 0.08) had the highest solubility (p 0.05) was observed among materials when considering pH evaluation. The pH levels were highly alkaline immediately after immersion in solution, remaining stable throughout the test period. The authors conclude that the cements had similar water/powder proportions. MTA BIO had the shortest setting time and gray ProRoot MTA had the lowest solubility. All cements had similar behavior in the pH analysis.

  14. Changes in the physico-chemical properties of four lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. varieties during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Vargas-Arcila

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Lettuce, a popularly consumed leafy vegetable, is well known for its health and nutritional value. Thus, the current study focused on the qualitative changes of four lettuce varieties, namely Alpha, Parris Island, Graziella and Lollo Rossa, stored at 5.5 ºC and 90 % RH for 12 days. The analyzed parameters were water content, total soluble solids (TSS, titrable acidity (TA, vitamin C, total phenols, polyphenoloxidase (PPO, color and texture. Under storage conditions, the studied varieties exhibited different rates of water loss. TSS was found to increase until day 8 of storage, which is also when TA differences were observed. The Graziella variety showed the highest vitamin C levels. Total phenol content decreased significantly during the 12 days of storage. No significant PPO activity changes were found, except for those of the Lollo Rossa variety. Biplot analysis allowed observing not only positive and negative correlations between coordinates L*, a* and b*, but also the separavtion of the green lettuce varieties from the red one, together with color variations depending on leaf position. Although textural changes were recorded at the end of the study, foliage quality was not altered. In short, the studied parameters, which contribute to lettu-ce direct consumption properties, can be said to be variety-dependent and better preserved under refrigeration.

  15. Physico-Chemical Properties of Personal Care Products Containing Guava Scrub Granules as Exfoliating Agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahariah Ismail; Mohd Fadlly Jumadi; Nurdiyana Mohamed Johari

    2015-01-01

    Treated guava scrub granules (GSG) as an exfoliating agent were obtained from the decanter waste at Sime Darby Food and Beverages, Sungai Wangi, Perak (SDFB). The treated GSG and tocotrienol were the main active ingredients incorporated in a basic formulation containing 87 % palm-based derivatives. Guava body scrub (GBS) and guava facial scrub (GFS) lotions were developed at skin pH 5.5 and pH 5.6 respectively. Both products were found to be stable for three years due to the liquid crystalline structure in the emulsion system , having small particle size (490 nm and 880 nm) and high zeta potential values (-54 mv and -39 mv). The rheological properties showed that the GBS lotion had a viscosity at 900 Pas and a yield value at 98 Pa, whereas the GFS lotion 60 Pas and 6 Pa viscosity and yield values respectively. The formulations were designed to be soft and flowable, with the firmness force indicated at 111 g and 66 g for GBS lotion and GFS lotion respectively. Efficacy testing on 20 healthy subjects showed a significant decrease of 21 % and 22 % in skin sebum removal for GBS lotion and GFS lotion respectively. (author)

  16. Synthesis and investigation of physico-chemical, antibacterial, biomymetic properties of silver and zinc containing hydroxyapatite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuk, Ilya; Rasskazova, Lyudmila; Korotchenko, Natalia; Kozik, Vladimir; Kurzina, Irina

    2017-11-01

    In the work we carried out microwave synthesis of modified hydroxyapatites (HA) with different content of ions. A solid solution based on HA remains a single-phase sample when the calcium ions are substituted by silver and zinc ions up to 5 % by weight (0.5 mole fraction). The microstructure parameters, morphology and the particle powders size were studied by X-ray diffraction analysis, IR spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It is shown that the modification of HA by silver (AgHA) and zinc (ZnHA) ions increases the size of its particles, the degree of crystallinity, and the pore sizes of the samples while reducing their specific surface and uniformity of their forms. Elemental analysis and distribution of elements over the surface of HA, AgHA, and ZnHA powders were performed by X-ray spectral microanalysis (RSMA). The ratio of Ca/P is within the range of 1.66-1.77 and corresponds to the ratio of Ca/P in stoichiometric HA and the HA entering bone tissue. The ability of AgHA- and ZnHA-substrates to form on their surface a calcium-phosphate layer from the simulated body fluid (SBF) at 37 °C is determined. This ability decreases in the order: in ZnHA it is less than in AgHA, but greater than in HA. The antibacterial activity of the samples was analyzed. The AgHA sample has both bactericidal and persistent bacteriostatic properties in the case of direct contact with Escherichia coli cells.

  17. Physico-chemical properties and solubility behaviour of multi-substituted hydroxyapatite powders containing silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprio, S.; Tampieri, A.; Landi, E.; Sandri, M.; Martorana, S.; Celotti, G.; Logroscino, G.

    2008-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite powders characterized by ionic substitutions both in anionic and cationic sites were successfully prepared by synthesis in aqueous medium. The process parameters were set up to allow the simultaneous substitution of the foreign ions, namely carbonate, magnesium and silicon in the crystallographic site of calcium and phosphorus, keeping in count the competition which arises between atoms destined to occupy the same crystallographic site. The chemico-physical properties of the powders were investigated through several analytical techniques, i.e. X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, atomic emission spectroscopy and thermo-gravimetric analysis. The results show that the utilization of sodium hydrogen-carbonate as a reactant allows the entering of carbonate into the HA structure, mainly in phosphate position, while sodium is eliminated during the process of the powder washing. The entering of silicon in the HA structure progressively reduces its crystallinity, as also carbonate ions do. Silicate and carbonate ions can enter simultaneously into the HA structure, in biological-like amounts, although they compete for the occupation of the phosphate site; the powder crystallinity is strongly reduced as the content of the two substituting ions increases, so that a limit molar concentration exists where the apatite structure collapses and an amorphous phase forms with the simultaneous formation of crystalline calcium carbonate. Solubility tests, carried out at physiological conditions, reveal an increased calcium release in the HA powders containing silicon compared to the silicon-free HA; the solubility behaviour of the multi-substituted HA powders at physiological conditions makes these materials promising as bioactive bone scaffold, as they are able to continuously supply ions which are essential for the process of bone reconstruction

  18. Physico-chemical changes in dissolved organic matters in the rhizosphere of plants grown in soil amended with organic wastes: an in-situ investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djae, Tanalou; Bravin, Matthieu; Garnier, Cédric; Mayen, Jean-Fabien; Doelsch, Emmanuel

    2014-05-01

    In agricultural context, prerequisite condition to forecast trace metal phytodisponibility is to evaluate trace metal speciation in the rhizosphere solution, especially in soil amended with organic wastes. The most advanced trace metal speciation models (e.g. WHAM, NICA-DONNAN) take into account dissolved organic matter (DOM) reactivity toward trace metals. Generally, the scientific community uses, a fixed percentage of DOM reactivity, usually of 40 % to 80 %, to predict trace metal speciation. However, recent studies have demonstrated that the binding capacity of DOM towards trace metals is much larger than expected. The aim of our study was to investigate the mechanisms supporting the variability in DOM reactivity by assessing the physico-chemical changes of DOM in the bulk-soil and rhizosphere in context of agricultural recycling of organic wastes. An in-situ experiment was conducted in Reunion Island (Indian Ocean). Two plant species, i.e. a graminaceous species the fescue (Festuca rubra) and a dicotyledonous species the tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), were grown on a soil where we applied two types of organic wastes (pig manure compost and poultry manure compost) at three rates and a mineral fertilizer. Following this experiment, the soil either adhering to the roots (i.e. rhizosphere) or not (i.e. bulk-soil) was sampled and the soil solution was recovered by chemical extraction. DOM concentration, total acidity and DOM fluorescence were measured. Root activities and organic wastes induced variations in the physico-chemical parameters of DOM. DOM concentration tended to increase in bulk-soil with increasing organic waste application rate. DOM concentrations measured in rhizosphere are significantly greater than those in the bulk-soil especially when organic wastes were applied to soil. Preliminary results allow us to observe a decrease in the density of carboxylic-like (pKa

  19. Physico-chemical properties

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    indicate a need for an alternative. Allogeneic bone could overcome these limitations, but it bears the risk of infec- tions and immune response (Stevension 1999). So another possibility is to use material such as xenogeneic bone, which is morphologically and structurally similar to human bone. As compared to other methods ...

  20. Physico-chemical, sensory and microbiological qualities of yoghurt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to evaluate the physico-chemical, sensory and microbiological qualities of some yoghurt brands sold in Kano Metropolis using standard procedures. The physico-chemical characteristics (viscosity, specific gravity, pH, titratable acidity, fat content) and Sensory properties (color, flavor, smell) were ...

  1. Anthropogenic pollution impact on physico - chemical characteristics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anthropogenic activities such as industrial effluent, domestic and agricultural waste disposal constitute major sources of pollution in water. The effects of these pollutants on the physico-chemical properties of Lake Kivu, Rwanda were investigated at three locations (Gisenyi, Kibuye and Cyangugu) between February 2005 ...

  2. Evaluation of physico-chemical and antioxidant properties in different varieties of banana (musa acuminata), indigenous to pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azizuddin, A.; Ghafoor, S.; Mahmood, T.

    2014-01-01

    The antioxidant capacity, phenolic and flavonoid contents, and physico-chemical analysis on the pulp of three different varieties of Musa acuminata, were studied namely Cavendish basrai, Grand naine and Plantain, collected from Gharo, Adam Khas Kheli Road near Karachi (Pakistan). DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging, reducing power (RPA) and phosphomolybdenum assays were used for determination of their antioxidant capacity. Cavendish basrai characterized the highest antioxidant capacity among three varieties, DPPH (82.46 % inhibition at 0.1 mM conc.), RPA (43.59 mg/100 g) and phosphomolybdenum (38.90 mg/100 g) in methanolic extract and DPPH (67.27 % inhibition at 0.1 mM conc.), RPA (27.03 mg/100 g) and phosphomolybdenum (24.27 mg/100 g) in water extract. The phenolic (83.04 mg/100 g, 19.50 mg/100 g) and flavonoid contents (11.66 mg/100 g, 4.77 mg/100 g) were also high in Cavendish basrai in methanolic and water extracts, respectively showed the direct relation of antioxidant capacity to the phenolic and flavonoid contents, and the DPPH assay revealed more power full assay for determination of antioxidant capacity among these assays. In correlation with antioxidant capacity, Plantain showed comparatively high physico-chemical characteristics revealed high nutritional contents such as total dry matter, total sugar contents, TSS, titratable acidity and % NaCl. (author)

  3. Xanthine oxidase inhibitors beyond allopurinol and febuxostat; an overview and selection of potential leads based on in silico calculated physico-chemical properties, predicted pharmacokinetics and toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šmelcerović, Andrija; Tomović, Katarina; Šmelcerović, Žaklina; Petronijević, Živomir; Kocić, Gordana; Tomašič, Tihomir; Jakopin, Žiga; Anderluh, Marko

    2017-07-28

    Xanthine oxidase (XO), a versatile metalloflavoprotein enzyme, catalyzes the oxidative hydroxylation of hypoxanthine and xanthine to uric acid in purine catabolism while simultaneously producing reactive oxygen species. Both lead to the gout-causing hyperuricemia and oxidative damage of the tissues where overactivity of XO is present. Over the past years, significant progress and efforts towards the discovery and development of new XO inhibitors have been made and we believe that not only experts in the field, but also general readership would benefit from a review that addresses this topic. Accordingly, the aim of this article was to overview and select the most potent recently reported XO inhibitors and to compare their structures, mechanisms of action, potency and effectiveness of their inhibitory activity, in silico calculated physico-chemical properties as well as predicted pharmacokinetics and toxicity. Derivatives of imidazole, 1,3-thiazole and pyrimidine proved to be more potent than febuxostat while also displaying/possessing favorable predicted physico-chemical, pharmacokinetic and toxicological properties. Although being structurally similar to febuxostat, these optimized inhibitors bear some structural freshness and could be adopted as hits for hit-to-lead development and further evaluation by in vivo studies towards novel drug candidates, and represent valuable model structures for design of novel XO inhibitors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Denitrification potential and its correlation to physico-chemical and biological characteristics of saline wetland soils in semi-arid regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Huibin; Song, Yonghui; Xi, Beidou; Du, Erdeng; He, Xiaosong; Tu, Xiang

    2012-11-01

    Denitrification is an important pathway of NO(3)(-) removal depending on wetland soil characteristics. Most studies on denitrification have been conducted in the freshwater wetlands and coastal marshes, but little information is available on how soil and environmental factors affect denitrification of saline wetlands in semi-arid regions. We conducted a correlative study on denitrification potential in relation to the physico-chemical and biological characteristics. Composite soil samples of different depths were collected from different halophyte communities along a saline-impact gradient around Wuliangsuhai Lake, i.e. Comm. Salicornia europaea (CSE), Comm. Suaeda glauca (CSG), Comm. Kalidium foliatum (CKF) and Comm. Sophora alopecuroides (CSA). The CSA soil profile showed the fastest denitrification kinetics and tended to yield the largest amount of N(2)O, followed by the CKF, CSG and CSE. The mean of potential denitrification rates was the highest across all depths of the CSA soil profile, followed by the CKF, CSG, and CSE. Principal component analysis indicated that exchangeable sodium percentage was a key factor to denitrification potential, apart from organic carbon, nitrate and denitrifying bacteria. The results could have significant implication in integrated assessment and management of salined wetlands for treating nutrient-rich return water from farmland, industrial wastewater and domestic sewage in the diverted trunk drain used for the lakeshore restoration. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaluation of Physico-Chemical and Fungal Species Associated with Oil Contaminated Soil from Selected Automobile Garage in Sokoto Metropolis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Muhammad Maishanu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted with a view to evaluating the physicochemical and mycological properties of different oil contaminated soils collected from three different automobile garages in Sokoto Metropolis, and uncontaminated soil from the temporary site, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto (UDUS was used as the control. The pH was determined using pH meter model Hanna (H1991301, quantity of mineral elements was evaluated in accordance with Murphy and Fungi were isolated from the three oil contaminated samples (A, B. and C and the uncontaminated (sample D as control, this was done by standard procedure using the method of P. Ren, T. Jankun & B. Leaderer. The physical, chemical, and mineral elements from the oil-contaminated soils of the three automobile garages and control. The results of particle soil analysis revealed the high content of sandy soil (96.2 to 87.3 and silt is the lowest with (2.5–0.6. Magnesium had the highest concentration of studied minerals, ranging from 193 to 649.2 mg/kg. while PH result revealed that the soil samples were pH value ranged from (16.85–16.20 in oil Contaminated samples, while the control had 15.90, and electrical conductivity ranged from 12.8–13.8 % and 28 % in control, four fungal isolates Aspergillus sp., Penicillum sp., Mucor sp. and Sporobolomyces sp. were identified based on colonial, sexual and morphological characteristics. These fungal strains can be used in bioremediation process and oil pollution reduction in aquatic ecosystems.

  6. Technological, physico-chemical and sensory properties of raw and cooked meat batter incorporated with various levels of cold milled flaxseed powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yogesh, K; Langoo, B A; Sharma, S K; Yadav, D N

    2015-03-01

    Flaxseed has been proven for its multidimensional health benefits and can be used for development of emulsion type functional meat products. In view of this the incorporation of cold milled flaxseed powder (FSP) in meat batter at level 1-5 % was investigated. The results revealed that incorporation significantly (P batter. The surface and internal color values were differed significantly (P < 0.05) among treatments at initial as well as during refrigerated storage period. Texture values especially hardness and chewiness values were found less (P < 0.05) in FSP treated samples and textural properties in FSP treated samples were not deteriorated during storage as compared to control samples. Thus incorporation of FSP had some beneficial effects on physico-chemical properties and textural properties which were also stable during storage period. However the redness values and sensory scores were observed less in FSP treated samples.

  7. Physico-chemical and structural properties of the surfaces of Peptostreptococcus micros and Streptococcus mitis as compared to those of mutans streptococci, Streptococcus sanguis and Streptococcus salivarius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, M M; van der Mei, H C; Rouxhet, P G; Busscher, H J

    1992-12-01

    The surface properties of nine Streptococcus mitis and four Peptostreptococcus micros strains from the oral cavity were examined and compared with a large group of oral streptococci. Zeta potential and contact angle measurements were employed to determine physico-chemical cell surface properties. In addition, elemental surface concentration ratios were obtained via X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and surface structures were examined with transmission electron microscopy. The S. mitis and P. micros strains were found to have higher isoelectric points, higher hydrophobicities and higher N/C surface concentration ratios than some other oral streptococci. The combined data suggest that both species possess large amounts of surface protein. All the S. mitis strains displayed abundant surface fibrils in negative staining, but the P. micros strains were devoid of surface appendages indicating that surface protein is present in different forms in the two species. The surfaces of S. mitis and P. micros type strains differed significantly from the other strains examined.

  8. Do Nanoparticle Physico-Chemical Properties and Developmental Exposure Window Influence Nano ZnO Embryotoxicity in Xenopus laevis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfanti, Patrizia; Moschini, Elisa; Saibene, Melissa; Bacchetta, Renato; Rettighieri, Leonardo; Calabri, Lorenzo; Colombo, Anita; Mantecca, Paride

    2015-01-01

    The growing global production of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs) suggests a realistic increase in the environmental exposure to such a nanomaterial, making the knowledge of its biological reactivity and its safe-by-design synthesis mandatory. In this study, the embryotoxicity of ZnONPs (1–100 mg/L) specifically synthesized for industrial purposes with different sizes, shapes (round, rod) and surface coatings (PEG, PVP) was tested using the frog embryo teratogenesis assay-Xenopus (FETAX) to identify potential target tissues and the most sensitive developmental stages. The ZnONPs did not cause embryolethality, but induced a high incidence of malformations, in particular misfolded gut and abdominal edema. Smaller, round NPs were more effective than the bigger, rod ones, and PEGylation determined a reduction in embryotoxicity. Ingestion appeared to be the most relevant exposure route. Only the embryos exposed from the stomodeum opening showed anatomical and histological lesions to the intestine, mainly referable to a swelling of paracellular spaces among enterocytes. In conclusion, ZnONPs differing in shape and surface coating displayed similar toxicity in X. laevis embryos and shared the same target organ. Nevertheless, we cannot exclude that the physico-chemical characteristics may influence the severity of such effects. Further research efforts are mandatory to ensure the synthesis of safer nano-ZnO-containing products. PMID:26225989

  9. Do Nanoparticle Physico-Chemical Properties and Developmental Exposure Window Influence Nano ZnO Embryotoxicity in Xenopus laevis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Bonfanti

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The growing global production of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs suggests a realistic increase in the environmental exposure to such a nanomaterial, making the knowledge of its biological reactivity and its safe-by-design synthesis mandatory. In this study, the embryotoxicity of ZnONPs (1–100 mg/L specifically synthesized for industrial purposes with different sizes, shapes (round, rod and surface coatings (PEG, PVP was tested using the frog embryo teratogenesis assay-Xenopus (FETAX to identify potential target tissues and the most sensitive developmental stages. The ZnONPs did not cause embryolethality, but induced a high incidence of malformations, in particular misfolded gut and abdominal edema. Smaller, round NPs were more effective than the bigger, rod ones, and PEGylation determined a reduction in embryotoxicity. Ingestion appeared to be the most relevant exposure route. Only the embryos exposed from the stomodeum opening showed anatomical and histological lesions to the intestine, mainly referable to a swelling of paracellular spaces among enterocytes. In conclusion, ZnONPs differing in shape and surface coating displayed similar toxicity in X. laevis embryos and shared the same target organ. Nevertheless, we cannot exclude that the physico-chemical characteristics may influence the severity of such effects. Further research efforts are mandatory to ensure the synthesis of safer nano-ZnO-containing products.

  10. Chronic exposure to uranium compounds: medical surveillance problems related to their physico-chemical properties and their solubility: actual data and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ansoborlo, E.; Chalabreysse, J.C.

    1988-01-01

    A method was developped to assess uranium exposure hazards at work stations based on industrial experience acquired in Comurhex Malvesi at Narbonne. Applied to uranium tetrafluoride (UF4), the method involves five steps: 1/ Characterization of the industrial compound, including physico-chemical properties (density, surface area, X-ray spectrum and uranium enrichment). 2/ In vitro biological solubility with different synthetic fluids like Gamble solution added with differents gaz or compounds (Oxygen or hydrogen peroxyde), in order to determine the solubility class D, W or Y. 3/ Assessment of work station concentration in Bq m -3 and particle size distribution (AMAD). 4/ Monitoring workers by routine urinary excretion completed, if necessary, by fecal excretion and γ spectrometry. 5/ Use of individual protection filters or masks. Results and actual data on UF4 are presented and future prospects of studies on calcinated uranates are dealed with [fr

  11. Assessing electronic cigarette emissions: linking physico-chemical properties to product brand, e-liquid flavoring additives, operational voltage and user puffing patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jiayuan; Nelson, Jordan; Dada, Oluwabunmi; Pyrgiotakis, Georgios; Kavouras, Ilias G; Demokritou, Philip

    2018-02-01

    Users of electronic cigarettes (e-cigs) are exposed to particles and other gaseous pollutants. However, major knowledge gaps on the physico-chemical properties of such exposures and contradictory data in published literature prohibit health risk assessment. Here, the effects of product brand, type, e-liquid flavoring additives, operational voltage, and user puffing patterns on emissions were systematically assessed using a recently developed, versatile, e-cig exposure generation platform and state-of-the-art analytical methods. Parameters of interest in this systematic evaluation included two brands (A and B), three flavors (tobacco, menthol, and fruit), three types of e-cigs (disposable, pre-filled, and refillable tanks), two puffing protocols (4 and 2 s/puff), and four operational voltages (2.2-5.7 V). Particles were generated at a high number concentration (10 6 -10 7 particles/cm 3 ). The particle size distribution was bi-modal (∼200 nm and 1 µm). Furthermore, organic species (humectants propylene glycol and glycerin, nicotine) that were present in e-liquid and trace metals (potassium and sodium) that were present on e-cig heating coil were also released into the emission. In addition, combustion-related byproducts, such as benzene and toluene, were also detected in the range of 100-38,000 ppbv/puff. Parametric analyzes performed in this study show the importance of e-cig brand, type, flavor additives, user puffing pattern (duration and frequency), and voltage on physico-chemical properties of emissions. This observed influence is indicative of the complexity associated with the toxicological screening of emissions from e-cigs and needs to be taken into consideration.

  12. Effect of carriers on physico-chemical properties and activity of Pd nano-catalyst in n-hexane isomerization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loc Luu, Cam; Thoa Dao, Thi Kim; Nguyen, Tri; Huong Bui, Thanh; Yen Dang, Thi Ngoc; Hoang, Minh Nam; Thoang Ho, Si

    2013-12-01

    In this work zeolites HY, HZSM-5 and mixes of zeolites with γ-Al2O3 in different ratios were taken as carriers for 0.8 wt% Pd catalysts. Physico-chemical characteristics of the catalysts were determined by methods of Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET)-N2 adsorption, x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), temperature-programmed reduction (TPR), hydrogen pulse chemisorption (HPC) and NH3 adsorption-desorption. The activity of catalysts was studied at 225-450 °C, at 0.1 and 0.7 MPa with molar ratio of H2:n-C6H14 = 5.92 and n-hexane concentration 9.2 mol%. Mixing of γ-Al2O3 with zeolite made acidity of catalyst weaken and led to a decrease of Pd cluster size, to an increase of Pd dispersity and a reduction of the extent of Pd in the case of catalyst Pd/HY; but for the catalyst Pd/HZSM-5 such mixing led to the reverse effect. That is why the increase of activity in the first case and the decrease of activity in the second case have been observed. It has been found that the optimal ratio of mixed carrier is γ-Al2O3:HY = 2.5:1 and the optimal calcined temperature of NH4ZSM-5 to obtain HZSM-5 is 500-550 °C. An increase of reaction pressure from 0.1 to 0.7 MPa remarkably increased the activity, selectivity and stability of Pd-based catalysts.

  13. Oxidative Stability and Physico-chemical Properties of Meat from Broilers Fed with Dietary Neem Leaf Powder, Spirulina and their Combination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi KILLI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This 6 week study was conducted to evaluate the antioxidant potential, maintaining quality and sensory properties of broiler meat from birds fed on dietary neem leaf powder (NLP. A total of 90 Vencobb broiler chicks were randomly allotted to 6 groups of 15 birds in each. Dietary treatments consisted of normal diet (control Group I, feed containing terramycin-200 (TM-200* at the concentration of 0.05% (Group II, feed containing NLP of 0.2% (Group III, feed containing NLP of 0.2% and spirulina of 1% (Group IV, feed containing TM-200 at 0.05% and spirulina of 1% (Group V and feed containing spirulina of 1% (Group VI. At the end of the experiment liver, kidney and muscle samples were collected to evaluate the tissue peroxidation (TBARS and protein carbonyls and antioxidant markers (SOD. Physico-chemical quality determinants of both fresh and preserved meat viz. extract release volume (ERV, water holding capacity (WHC and pH were also studied. TBARS protein carbonyls indicated a significant (P < 0.05 decrease in all the treated groups when compared to control. Superoxide dismutase levels were found to be significantly increased in all the treated groups, in all the tissues collected. Compared to control group, favorable physico-chemical quality determinants were recorded in all the treated groups. The sensory attributes did not show significant (P < 0.05 differences for color, flavor, juiciness, tenderness and overall acceptability. This study indicates enhanced stress tolerance levels, improved meat quality with unaffected consumer acceptance levels of the meat observed in the study, from broilers fed with neem and spirulina either alone or in combinationsș this points out that neem at 0.2% level can be used in poultry diets instead of antibiotic growth promoters (AGP.

  14. Changes in the Treatment of Some Physico-Chemical Properties of Cassava Mill Effluents Using Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvester Chibueze Izah

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Cassava is majorly processed into gari by smallholders in Southern Nigeria. During processing, large volume of effluents are produced in the pressing stage of cassava tuber processing. The cassava mill effluents are discharged into the soil directly and it drain into nearby pits, surface water, and canals without treatment. Cassava mill effluents is known to alter the receiving soil and water characteristics and affects the biota in such environments, such as fishes (water, domestic animals, and vegetation (soil. This study investigated the potential of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to be used for the treatment of some physicochemical properties of cassava mill effluents. S. cerevisiae was isolated from palm wine and identified based on conventional microbiological techniques, viz. morphological, cultural, and physiological/biochemical characteristics. The S. cerevisiae was inoculated into sterile cassava mill effluents and incubated for 15 days. Triplicate samples were withdrawn from the setup after the fifth day of treatment. Portable equipment was used to analyze the in-situ parameters, viz. total dissolved solids (TDS, pH, dissolved oxygen (DO, conductivity, salinity, and turbidity. Anions (nitrate, sulphate, and phosphate and chemical oxygen demand (COD were analyzed using spectrophotometric and open reflux methods respectively. Results showed a decline of 37.62%, 22.96%, 29.63%, 20.49%, 21.44%, 1.70%, 53.48%, 68.00%, 100%, and 74.48% in pH, conductivity, DO, TDS, salinity, sulphate, nitrate, phosphate, and COD levels respectively, and elevation of 17.17% by turbidity. The study showed that S. cerevisiae could be used for the treatment of cassava mill effluents prior to being discharged into the environment so as to reduce the pollution or contamination and toxicity levels.

  15. Changes in the Treatment of Some Physico-Chemical Properties of Cassava Mill Effluents Using Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izah, Sylvester Chibueze; Bassey, Sunday Etim; Ohimain, Elijah Ige

    2017-10-16

    Cassava is majorly processed into gari by smallholders in Southern Nigeria. During processing, large volume of effluents are produced in the pressing stage of cassava tuber processing. The cassava mill effluents are discharged into the soil directly and it drain into nearby pits, surface water, and canals without treatment. Cassava mill effluents is known to alter the receiving soil and water characteristics and affects the biota in such environments, such as fishes (water), domestic animals, and vegetation (soil). This study investigated the potential of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to be used for the treatment of some physicochemical properties of cassava mill effluents. S. cerevisiae was isolated from palm wine and identified based on conventional microbiological techniques, viz. morphological, cultural, and physiological/biochemical characteristics. The S. cerevisiae was inoculated into sterile cassava mill effluents and incubated for 15 days. Triplicate samples were withdrawn from the setup after the fifth day of treatment. Portable equipment was used to analyze the in-situ parameters, viz. total dissolved solids (TDS), pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), conductivity, salinity, and turbidity. Anions (nitrate, sulphate, and phosphate) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) were analyzed using spectrophotometric and open reflux methods respectively. Results showed a decline of 37.62%, 22.96%, 29.63%, 20.49%, 21.44%, 1.70%, 53.48%, 68.00%, 100%, and 74.48% in pH, conductivity, DO, TDS, salinity, sulphate, nitrate, phosphate, and COD levels respectively, and elevation of 17.17% by turbidity. The study showed that S. cerevisiae could be used for the treatment of cassava mill effluents prior to being discharged into the environment so as to reduce the pollution or contamination and toxicity levels.

  16. Physico-chemical and optical properties of combustion-generated particles from coal-fired power plant, automobile and ship engine and charcoal kiln.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hwajin

    2015-04-01

    Similarities and differences in physico-chemical and optical properties of combustion generated particles from various sources were investigated. Coal-fired power plant, charcoal kiln, automobile and ship engine were major sources, representing combustions of coal, biomass and two different types of diesel, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) equipped with both SEM and HRTEM were used for physico-chemical analysis. Light absorbing properties were assessed using a spectrometer equipped with an integrating sphere. Particles generated from different combustion sources and conditions demonstrate great variability in their morphology, structure and composition. From coal-fired power plant, both fly ash and flue gas were mostly composed of heterogeneously mixed mineral ash spheres, suggesting that the complete combustion was occurred releasing carbonaceous species out at high temperature (1200-1300 °C). Both automobile and ship exhausts from diesel combustions show typical features of soot: concentric circles comprised of closely-packed graphene layers. However, heavy fuel oil (HFO) combusted particles from ship exhaust demonstrate more complex compositions containing different morphology of particles other than soot, e.g., spherical shape of char particles composed of minerals and carbon. Even for the soot aggregates, particles from HFO burning have different chemical compositions; carbon is dominated but Ca (29.8%), S (28.7%), Na(1%), and Mg(1%) are contained, respectively which were not found from particles of automobile emission. This indicates that chemical compositions and burning conditions are significant to determine the fate of particles. Finally, from biomass burning, amorphous and droplet-like carbonaceous particles with no crystallite structure are observed and they are generally formed by the condensation of low volatile species at low

  17. Long term corrosion of iron and non alloy or low alloy steels in clay soils. Physico-chemical characterisation and electrochemical study of archaeological analogues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pons, Emmanuelle

    2002-01-01

    Archaeological objects of Gallo-Roman and Merovingian time, and from a battlefield of World War 1, were studied to better understand long term corrosion phenomena of iron in clay soils. This study is part of the French national program about nuclear waste deep repository, conducted by the ANDRA (French national Agency for Radioactive Waste Management). Iron archaeological analogues make a valuable contribution to the specifying of containers for long lived and high level wastes (HLWs), because they provide access to the considered time scale. The experimental issue is divided into two major parts: - a physico-chemical characterisation of corrosion products, by Raman spectroscopy; - an electrochemical study of the behaviour of the different corrosion layers. Although the metallic material is different between ancient artefacts (ferrite) and 1914-1918 remains (hypo-eutectoid steels), the same stable phases are identified in their corrosion products: mainly iron oxides and oxi-hydroxides. From a macroscopic point of view, these products are staggered into two layers: an internal one, and an external one, which contains soil markers. Under the microscope, a complex composite structure appears. Goethite a-FeOOH, which was identified on each object, is frequently in contact with the metal core. The average corrosion rate in the burial environment, deduced from the layers thickness, highlights a significant slowdown of corrosion after the first burial time, about one century. The electrochemical study showed the predominant role of transport phenomena in the pores of corrosion layers. The behaviour of the metal - internal layer system is well explained by a model of porous electrode (De Levie theory). Despite its porosity, the internal layer is protective, as it leads to a significant decrease of the corrosion rate (about ten time). (author) [fr

  18. Physico-chemical wastewater treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mels, A.R.; Teerikangas, E.

    2002-01-01

    Wastewater reclamation strategies aimed at closing industrial water cycles and recovery of valuable components will in most cases require a combination of wastewater treatment unit operations. Biological unit operations are commonly applied as the core treatment. In addition, physico-chemical unit

  19. Physico-chemical, functional and rheological properties of milk protein concentrate 60 as affected by disodium phosphate addition, diafiltration and homogenization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meena, Ganga Sahay; Singh, Ashish Kumar; Arora, Sumit; Borad, Sanket; Sharma, Rajan; Gupta, Vijay Kumar

    2017-05-01

    Ultrafiltration and diafiltration of skim milk altered delicate salt equilibrium and composition of 5× UF retentate (5× UFR), and thus adversely affected the reconstitutional and functional properties of milk protein concentrate (MPC) powders. It might be due to interaction and aggregation of proteins during spray drying. Therefore, this study was envisaged to investigate the effect of disodium phosphate (DSP) addition, diafiltration and homogenization of retentates on physico-chemical, functional and rheological properties of MPC60 powders. Solubility of fresh control powder was significantly lower than MPC60-H powder; at par with that of MPC60-DSP and MPC60-Na-K, but remained minimum after 60 days of storage at 25 ± 1 °C. The pH (6.6) adjustment of 5× UFR with DSP, significantly enhanced the dispersability, wettability, specific surface area (SSA), heat coagulation time (HCT), emulsification capacity and stability; buffer index of MPC60-DSP powder over control. Diafiltration of 5× UFR with NaCl and KCl, significantly ( P  pseudoplastic behavior, best explained by Hershel Bulkley model. These MPC60 powders with improved functional properties can be used for the improvement of quality attributes of various food formulations.

  20. Crystallization characteristics and physico-chemical properties of glass–ceramics based on Li2O–ZnO–SiO2 system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saad M. Salman

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Glass materials based on lithium zinc silicate system of the composition 24Li2O–20ZnO–56SiO2 LZS (mol% were prepared and converted to glass–ceramics using controlled heat-treatment schedules. The LZS base glass system was modified by addition of Al2O3 and MO/ZnO replacements where MO = CaO, CdO and SrO oxides. Several crystalline phases were developed, including lithium zinc orthosilicate, α-quartz, β-spodumene solid solution, lithium meta and disilicate, Ca-wollastonite, Cd or Sr metasilicate, and Sr-zinc silicate of hardystonite type. The effects of crystallization process on some properties, like thermal expansion coefficient (TEC, chemical stability, and density of glass–ceramics were evaluated. The TEC of crystalline samples varied from 72 × 10−7 to 149 × 10−7 K−1, 25–600 and density values in the range, 2.67–3.29 g/cm3. The addition of Al2O3 and MO/ZnO replacements in the base glass led to improve the chemical durability of the glass–ceramics samples. As a result of the thermal and physico-chemical properties of the studied glass–ceramic, the materials acquire excellent properties and can be used to seal a variety of different metals and alloys.

  1. Investigation of the physico-chemical and mechanical properties of hard brittle shales from the Shahejie Formation in the Nanpu Sag, northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiangjun, Liu; Jian, Xiong; Lixi, Liang; Yi, Ding

    2017-06-01

    With increasing demand for energy and advances in exploration and development technologies, more attention is being devoted to exploration and development of deep oil and gas reservoirs. The Nanpu Sag contains huge reserves in deep oil and gas reservoirs and is a promising area. In this paper, the physico-chemical and mechanical properties of hard brittle shales from the Shahejie Formation in the Nanpu Sag in the Bohai Bay Basin of northern China were investigated using a variety of methods, including x-ray diffraction analysis, cation exchange capacity (CEC) analysis, contact angle measurements, scanning electron microscope observations, immersion experiments, ultrasonic testing and mechanical testing. The effects of the physico-chemical properties of the shales on wellbore instability were observed, and the effects of hydration of the shales on wellbore instability were also examined. The results show that the major mineral constituents of the investigated shales are quartz and clay minerals. The clay mineral contents range from 25.33% to 52.03%, and the quartz contents range from 20.03% to 46.45%. The clay minerals do not include montmorillonite, but large amounts of mixed-layer illite/smectite were observed. The CEC values of the shales range from 90 to 210 mmol kg-1, indicating that the shales are partly hydrated. The wettability of the shales is strongly water-wetted, indicating that water would enter the shales due to the capillary effect. Hydration of hard brittle shales can generate cracks, leading to changes in microstructure and increases in the acoustic value, which could generate damage in the shales and reduce their strength. With increasing hydration time, the shale hydration effect gradually becomes stronger, causing an increase in the range of the acoustic travel time and decreases in the ranges of cohesion and internal friction angles. For the hard brittle shales of the Nanpu Sag, drilling fluid systems should aim to enhance sealing ability

  2. Insight into the effect of inhibitor resistant S130G mutant on physico-chemical properties of SHV type beta-lactamase: a molecular dynamics study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Hassan Baig

    Full Text Available Bacterial resistance is a serious threat to human health. The production of β-lactamase, which inactivates β-lactams is most common cause of resistance to the β-lactam antibiotics. The Class A enzymes are most frequently encountered among the four β-lactamases in the clinic isolates. Mutations in class A β-lactamases play a crucial role in substrate and inhibitor specificity. SHV and TEM type are known to be most common class A β-lactamases. In the present study, we have analyzed the effect of inhibitor resistant S130G point mutation of SHV type Class-A β-lactamase using molecular dynamics and other in silico approaches. Our study involved the use of different in silico methods to investigate the affect of S130G point mutation on the major physico-chemical properties of SHV type class A β-lactamase. We have used molecular dynamics approach to compare the dynamic behaviour of native and S130G mutant form of SHV β-lactamase by analyzing different properties like root mean square deviation (RMSD, H-bond, Radius of gyration (Rg and RMS fluctuation of mutation. The results clearly suggest notable loss in the stability of S130G mutant that may further lead to decrease in substrate specificity of SHV. Molecular docking further indicates that S130G mutation decreases the binding affinity of all the three inhibitors in clinical practice.

  3. Calibration sets selection strategy for the construction of robust PLS models for prediction of biodiesel/diesel blends physico-chemical properties using NIR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palou, Anna; Miró, Aira; Blanco, Marcelo; Larraz, Rafael; Gómez, José Francisco; Martínez, Teresa; González, Josep Maria; Alcalà, Manel

    2017-06-01

    Even when the feasibility of using near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy combined with partial least squares (PLS) regression for prediction of physico-chemical properties of biodiesel/diesel blends has been widely demonstrated, inclusion in the calibration sets of the whole variability of diesel samples from diverse production origins still remains as an important challenge when constructing the models. This work presents a useful strategy for the systematic selection of calibration sets of samples of biodiesel/diesel blends from diverse origins, based on a binary code, principal components analysis (PCA) and the Kennard-Stones algorithm. Results show that using this methodology the models can keep their robustness over time. PLS calculations have been done using a specialized chemometric software as well as the software of the NIR instrument installed in plant, and both produced RMSEP under reproducibility values of the reference methods. The models have been proved for on-line simultaneous determination of seven properties: density, cetane index, fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) content, cloud point, boiling point at 95% of recovery, flash point and sulphur.

  4. Modeling of thermodynamic and physico-chemical properties of coumarins bioactivity against Candida albicans using a Levenberg–Marquardt neural network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyedeh Soghra Mousavi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Seyyedeh Soghra Mousavi1, Hanieh Bokharaie2, Shadi Rahimi3, Sima Azadi Soror4, Mehrdad Hamidi51Department of Biotechnology, School of Pharmacy, Zanjan University of Medical Science, Zanjan, Iran; 2Genetic Group, Biology Department, Faculty of Basic Sciences, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran; 3Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Tarbiat Moallem University, Tehran, Iran: 4Plant Protection Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan, Iran; 5Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy, Zanjan University of Medical Science, Zanjan, IranAbstract: In recent years, due to vital need for novel fungicidal agents, investigation on natural antifungal resources has been increased. The special features exhibited by neural ­network classifiers make them suitable for handling complex problems like analyzing ­different properties of candidate compounds in computer-aided drug design. In this study, by using a Levenberg–­Marquardt (LM neural network (the fastest of the training algorithms, the ­relation between some important thermodynamic and physico-chemical properties of coumarin compounds and their biological activities (tested against Candida albicans has been evaluated. A set of already reported antifungal bioactive coumarin and some well-known physical descriptors have been selected and using LM training algorithm the best architecture of neural model has been designed for forecasting the new bioactive compounds.Keywords: Levenberg–Marquardt algorithm, coumarin, neural network

  5. Correlation between some thermo-mechanical and physico-chemical properties in multi-component glasses of Se-Te-Sn-Cd system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Amit; Mehta, Neeraj [Banaras Hindu University, Department of Physics, Institute of Science, Varanasi (India)

    2017-06-15

    The glass transition phenomenon is guided by the swift cooling of a melt (glass-forming liquid). Consequently, the glass as a final product consists of a considerable number of micro-voids having the size of the order of atomic and/or molecular sizes. The model of free volume fluctuation helps in describing the diverse physico-chemical properties of amorphous materials (like glasses and polymers). This theory is based on the fraction of fluctuation free frozen at the glass transition temperature and it forms a basis for determination of various significant thermo-mechanical properties. In the present work, Vickers hardness test method is employed that provides useful information concerning the mechanical behavior of brittle solids. The present work emphasizes the results of micro-indentation measurements on recently synthesized novel Se{sub 78-x}Te{sub 20}Sn{sub 2}Cd{sub x} glassy system. Basic thermo-mechanical parameters such as micro-hardness, volume (V{sub h}), formation energy (E{sub h}) of micro-voids in the glassy network and modulus of elasticity (E) have been determined and their variation with glass composition has been investigated. (orig.)

  6. Physico-chemical properties based differential toxicity of graphene oxide/reduced graphene oxide in human lung cells mediated through oxidative stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Sandeep; Kumar, Veeresh; Dhiman, Nitesh; Chauhan, Lalit Kumar Singh; Pasricha, Renu; Pandey, Alok Kumar

    2016-12-01

    Goraphene derivatives (GD) are currently being evaluated for technological and biomedical applications owing to their unique physico-chemical properties over other carbon allotrope such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs). But, the possible association of their properties with underlying in vitro effects have not fully examined. Here, we assessed the comparative interaction of three GD - graphene oxide (GO), thermally reduced GO (TRGO) and chemically reduced GO (CRGO), which significantly differ in their lateral size and functional groups density, with phenotypically different human lung cells; bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) and alveolar epithelial cells (A549). The cellular studies demonstrate that GD significantly ineternalize and induce oxidative stress mediated cytotoxicity in both cells. The toxicity intensity was in line with the reduced lateral size and increased functional groups revealed more toxicity potential of TRGO and GO respectively. Further, A549 cells showed more susceptibility than BEAS-2B which reflected cell type dependent differential cellular response. Molecular studies revealed that GD induced differential cell death mechanism which was efficiently prevented by their respective inhibitors. This is prior study to the best of our knowledge involving TRGO for its safety evaluation which provided invaluable information and new opportunities for GD based biomedical applications.

  7. Effect of the incorporation of chitosan on the physico-chemical, mechanical properties and biological activity on a mixture of polycaprolactone and polyurethanes obtained from castor oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arévalo, Fabian; Uscategui, Yomaira L; Diaz, Luis; Cobo, Martha; Valero, Manuel F

    2016-11-01

    In the present study, polyurethane materials were obtained from castor oil, polycaprolactone and isophorone diisocyanate by incorporating different concentrations of chitosan (0.5, 1.0 and 2.0% w/w) as an additive to improve the mechanical properties and the biological activity of polyurethanes. The polyurethanes were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscopy, stress/strain fracture tests and swelling analysis, and the hydrophilic character of the surface was determined by contact angle trials. The objectives of the study were to evaluate the effect of the incorporation of chitosan on the changes of the physico-chemical and mechanical properties and the in vitro biological activity of the polyurethanes. It was found that the incorporation of chitosan enhances the ultimate tensile strength of the polyurethanes and does not affect the strain at fracture in polyurethanes with 5% w/w of polycaprolactone and concentrations of chitosan ranging from 0 to 2% w/w. In addition, PCL5-Q-PU formulations and their degradation products did not affect cell viability of L929 mouse fibroblast and 3T3, respectively. Polyurethane formulations showed antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli bacteria. The results of this study have highlighted the potential biomedical application of this polyurethanes related to soft and cardiovascular tissues. © The Author(s) 2016.

  8. Physico-chemical properties, wax composition, aroma profiles, and antioxidant activity of granulated non-centrifugal sugars from sugarcane cultivars of Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weerawatanakorn, Monthana; Asikin, Yonathan; Takahashi, Makoto; Tamaki, Hajime; Wada, Koji; Ho, Chi-Tang; Chuekittisak, Raweewan

    2016-11-01

    Non-centrifugal cane sugar (NCS) is globally consumed and has various health benefits. It is mostly produced in hardened block form, which is less convenient than in granulated form for food applications. In terms of the traditional processing of NCS, preparation of granulated products is difficult due to the impurities found in the cane juice extracted from the whole stalk. Therefore, the aim of this study was to characterize and determine the physico-chemical properties, wax composition (policosanols and long-chain aldehydes), volatile aroma profiles, and antioxidant activity of traditional NCS in granular form made from four different cane cultivars of Thailand. The total soluble solid, pH, color, and mineral content varied among the sugarcane cultivars, whereas there was no significant difference in the total sugar, phenolic and flavonoid content. The total policosanol, a cholesterol-lowering nutraceutical wax component, and long-chain aldehyde contents were similar in the NCS products amongst three cultivars, and ranged from 2.63 to 3.69 mg/100 g. The granulated NCS products, in which acetaldehyde and dimethyl sulfide were the main volatile compounds, gave less aroma components than traditional NCS. The use of different sugarcane cultivars thus influenced the quality attributes of granulated non-centrifugal sugar products.

  9. Physico-chemical properties and sensory profile of durum wheat Dittaino PDO (Protected Designation of Origin) bread and quality of re-milled semolina used for its production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannone, Virgilio; Giarnetti, Mariagrazia; Spina, Alfio; Todaro, Aldo; Pecorino, Biagio; Summo, Carmine; Caponio, Francesco; Paradiso, Vito Michele; Pasqualone, Antonella

    2018-02-15

    To help future quality checks, we characterized the physico-chemical and sensory properties of Dittaino bread, a sourdough-based durum wheat bread recently awarded with Protected Designation of Origin mark, along with the quality features of re-milled semolina used for its production. Semolina was checked for Falling Number (533-644s), protein content (12.0-12.3g/100gd.m.), gluten content (9.7-10.5g/100gd.m.), yellow index (18.0-21.0), water absorption (59.3-62.3g/100g), farinograph dough stability (171-327s), softening index (46-66B.U.), alveograph W (193×10 -4 -223×10 -4 J) and P/L (2.2-2.7). Accordingly, bread crumb was yellow, moderately hard (16.4-27.1N) and chewy (88.2-109.2N×mm), with low specific volume (2.28-3.03mL/g). Bread aroma profile showed ethanol and acetic acid, followed by hexanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, 2-phenylethanol, 3-methylbutanal, hexanal, benzaldehyde, and furfural. The sensory features were dominated by a thick brown crust, with marked toasted odor, coupled to yellow and consistent crumb, with coarse grain and well-perceivable sour taste and odor. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of fat replacement by olive oil on the physico-chemical properties, fatty acids, cholesterol and tocopherol content of pâté

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominguez, R.; Agregan, R.; GonCalves, A.; Lorenzo, J.M.

    2016-07-01

    The present study investigates the effects of olive oil when used as back fat replacers on the physico-chemical properties, fatty acids, cholesterol and α-tocopherol content of pâté. The replacement of back fat by olive oil at 50 and 100% did not affect the moisture, fat or protein contents, while it increased yellowness. According to texture parameters, reformulated pâté presented lower values for hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess and chewiness. The use of olive oil significantly (P<0.05) affected the fatty acid content. The amount of MUFA increased, while the content of SFA and PUFA decreased as the back fat was replaced by olive oil. The replacement of fat resulted in an improvement in all nutritional indexes. Atherogenic and thrombogenic indexes decreased while the h/H ratio increased with fat replacement. At the same time, the content of α-tocopherol increased and the amount of cholesterol decreased with the addition of olive oil. Therefore, olive oil provides pâté with high levels of C18:1n9c and MUFA, natural antioxidants such as α-tocopherol and reduces cholesterol levels. As a general conclusion, the replacement of back fat by olive oil allows us to obtain a healthier product. (Author)

  11. The effect of non-standard heat treatment of sheep's milk on physico-chemical properties, sensory characteristics, and the bacterial viability of classical and probiotic yogurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamberlin, Šimun; Samaržija, Dubravka

    2017-06-15

    Classical and probiotic set yogurt were made using non-standard heat treatment of sheep's milk at 60°C/5min. Physico-chemical properties, sensory characteristics, and the viability of bacteria that originated from cultures in classical and probiotic yogurt were analysed during 21days of storage at 4°C. For the production of yogurt, a standard yogurt culture and a probiotic strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG were used. At the end of storage time of the classical and probiotic yogurt the totals of non-denatured whey proteins were 92.31 and 91.03%. The viability of yogurt culture bacteria and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG were higher than 10 6 cfu/g. The total sensory score (maximum - 20) was 18.49 for the classical and 18.53 for the probiotic. In nutritional and functional terms it is possible to produce classical and probiotic sheep's milk yogurt by using a non-standard temperature of heat treatment with a shelf life of 21days. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Modification of Physico-Chemical Properties of Acryl-Coated Polypropylene Foils for Food Packaging by Reactive Particles from Oxygen Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislava Vukušić

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This investigation was focused on the influence of long-living neutral reactive oxygen species on the physico-chemical properties of acryl-coated polypropylene foils for food packaging. Reactive species were formed by passing molecular oxygen through a microwave discharge and leaking it to a processing chamber of a volume of 30 L, which was pumped by a rotary pump. The density of neutral O-atoms in the chamber was tuned by adjustment of both the effective pumping speed and the oxygen leak rate. The O-atom density was measured with a catalytic probe and was between 3 × 1018 and 5 × 1019 m−3. Commercial foils of biaxially oriented polypropylene (BOPP coated with acrylic/ poly(vinylidene chloride (AcPVDC were mounted in the chamber and treated at room temperature by O atoms at various conditions, with the fluence between 1 × 1021 and 3 × 1024 m−2. The evolution of the surface wettability versus the fluence was determined by water contact angle (WCA measurements, the formation of functional groups by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, and the morphology by atomic force microscopy (AFM. The WCA dropped from the initial 75° to approximately 40° after the fluence of a few 1022 m−2 and remained unchanged thereafter, except for fluences above 1024 m−2, where the WCA dropped to approximately 30°. XPS and AFM results allowed for drawing correlations between the wettability, surface composition, and morphology.

  13. Long-term influence of red mud on As mobility and soil physico-chemical and microbial parameters in a polluted sub-acidic soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garau, Giovanni; Silvetti, Margherita; Deiana, Salvatore; Deiana, Pietrino; Castaldi, Paola

    2011-01-30

    In this study we evaluated the efficiency of red muds (RM, a bauxite residue) to immobilize the arsenic present in a polluted sub-acidic soil (UP-soil; total As 2428 mg kg(-1)) and to influence some chemical, biochemical and microbiological properties after 2 years since RM addition. The RM addition caused a pH increase, a striking decrease of total organic carbon and a significant increase of water-soluble C, N and P. The analysis of As mobility through sequential extraction showed a reduction of the water-soluble arsenic in the RM-soil compared to the UP-soil (3.44% and 5.59% of the total As respectively) and a remarkable increase of the residual (non extractable) arsenic fraction in the RM-soil (>300% compared to UP-soil). RM addition increased significantly the microbial abundance and the activity of selected enzymes (dehydrogenase, urease) with respect to UP-soil while had a major influence on the structure of soil microbial communities as evaluated by the Biolog Community Level Physiological Profile. The reduced As mobility, together with an increase of C, N and P labile-pool (likely originating from a "de-structuring effect" of RM on the soil organic matter) were identified as the key factors affecting the biological activity in the RM-treated soil. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Contribution to the study of physico-chemical properties of surfaces modified by laser treatment. Application to the enhancement of localized corrosion resistance of stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacquentin, W.

    2011-01-01

    Metallic materials are more and more used in severe conditions with particularly strong request for improving their behavior in aggressive environment and especially over long periods. The objective of this PhD work is to estimate the potentiality of a laser surface melting treatment on the improvement of the stainless steel 304L corrosion resistance, surface treatments by laser can be revisited on the basis of a recent change in the laser technology. In the frame of this work, a nano-pulsed laser fiber was chosen: it allows the treated surface to be melted for few microns in depth, followed by an ultra-fast solidification occurring with cooling rates up to 1011 K/s. The combination of these processes leads to the elimination of the surface defects, the formation (trapping) of metastable phases, the segregation of chemical elements and the growth of a new oxide layer which properties are governed by the laser parameters. To correlate these latter to the electrochemical reactivity of the surface, the influence of two laser parameters on the physico-chemical properties of the surface was studied: the laser power and the overlap of the laser impacts. To support this approach, the pitting corrosion resistance of the samples was determined by standard electrochemical tests. For specific laser parameters, the pitting potential of a 304L stainless steel was increased by more than 500 mV corresponding to an important enhancement in localized corrosion resistance in chloride environment. The interdependence of the different phenomena resulting from the laser treatment lead to a quite complex prioritization of their role on the sensibility of the 304L. However, it was demonstrated that the nature of the thermal oxide formed during the laser surface melting and the induced defects are first-order parameters for the initiation of pits. (author) [fr

  15. Effect Of Neutron Activation Factor On The Physico-Chemical Properties Of Hydrophilic And Hydrophobic Polymer Formulation Of Matrix Tablets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim Ijang; Bohari Yaacob; Nordiana, N.R.

    2011-01-01

    This study was to investigate effect of neutron activation on the physicochemical properties and in vitro dissolution of sustained-release matrix tablets. The tablets incorporation of Samarium oxide (Sm 2 O 3 ) and were compared before and after irradiation with thermal neutron for 5 minutes at 1.2 x 10 12 neutron cm -2 s -1 . The neutron activation factor did not influence the compression properties of the tablets. The dissolution tests showed that irradiation increased the release of the model drug ketoprofen from the tablets. This effect might be explained by polymer degradation. Incorporation of Sm 2 O 3 in the matrix tablets did not influence the release. (author)

  16. Physico-chemical and techno-functional properties of proteins isolated from the green microalgae Tetraselmis sp.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwenzfeier, A.

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis, the mild isolation of an algae soluble protein isolate (ASPI) and the characterisation of its techno-functional properties are described. The ASPI was isolated from the green microalgae Tetraselmis sp. by beadmilling and subsequent anion exchange adsorption. The isolate obtained

  17. Effect of Gleditsia sinensis Lam. Extract on Physico-Chemical Properties of Emulsion-Type Pork Sausages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Sang-Keun; Yang, Han-Sul; Choi, Jung-Seok

    2017-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the effect of Gleditsia sinensis Lam. extract on the physicochemical properties of emulsion-type pork sausages during storage at 10°C for 4 wk. Treatments were as follows: (C, control; T1, sodium ascorbate 0.05%; T2, Gleditsia sinensis Lam. 0.05%; T3, Gleditsia sinensis Lam. 0.1%; T4, Gleditsia sinensis Lam. 0.2%; T5, Gleditsia sinensis Lam. 0.1% + sodium ascorbate 0.05%). The values of pH, moisture content, lightness, redness, and sensory attributes were all significantly decreased, while the yellowness, chroma, hue angle, and texture properties were increased during storage with increase of the Gleditsia sinensis Lam. extract added. In addition, the antioxidant activity and antimicrobial activity in the sausages displayed significant increases (psausages, it could be applied to meat products as a natural preservatives. PMID:28515651

  18. Effect of thermal processing on physico-chemical properties of dietary fibre in carrot and red beet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Elkner

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of thermal processing (boiling in water and steaming on changes in dietary fibre fractions and the functional properties of carrot and red beet fibre were studied. Boiling in water caused significantly larger changes in qualitative and quantitative composition of the vegetable fibre than steaming. It was observed that boiling resulted in an increase of the neutral detergent fibre (NDF, cellulose, a slight increase in lignin content and decrease of hemicellulose. Boiling of these vegetables in water, in comparison to steaming, affected the changes of functional properties of fibre. After boiling in water the ability of water holding capacity of fibre was increased, whereas the cation exchange capacity was decreased.

  19. Modifications in physico-chemical properties of 100 MeV oxygen ions irradiated polyimide Kapton-H polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sanjeev Kumar; Gupta, Rashi; Singh, Paramjit; Kumar, Vikas; Jaiswal, Manoj Kumar; Chakarvarti, S. K.; Kumar, Rajesh

    2017-09-01

    The optical, structural and chemical properties of polyimide Kapton-H polymer thin film samples were modified by irradiation with 100 MeV O7+ ions (in the fluence range of 1 × 1011 to 5 × 1012 ions/cm2) and the modifications of these properties were observed by UV-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy respectively. The band gap energy of the polymer decreased considerably with discrete increment of the ion fluence (different fluence for each sample) and effective change for the sample irradiated at a fluence of 5 × 1012 ions/cm2 was observed from that of pristine sample. The amorphous nature of the polymer was observed to be decreased with increase of ion fluence. The vibrations of Ctbnd C appeared at mid fluences but the stretching vibrations of Osbnd H bond disappeared at these fluences due to the high LET of the oxygen ions.

  20. Effect of Gleditsia sinensis Lam. Extract on Physico-Chemical Properties of Emulsion-Type Pork Sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Sang-Keun; Yang, Han-Sul; Choi, Jung-Seok

    2017-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the effect of Gleditsia sinensis Lam. extract on the physicochemical properties of emulsion-type pork sausages during storage at 10°C for 4 wk. Treatments were as follows: (C, control; T1, sodium ascorbate 0.05%; T2, Gleditsia sinensis Lam. 0.05%; T3, Gleditsia sinensis Lam. 0.1%; T4, Gleditsia sinensis Lam. 0.2%; T5, Gleditsia sinensis Lam. 0.1% + sodium ascorbate 0.05%). The values of pH, moisture content, lightness, redness, and sensory attributes were all significantly decreased, while the yellowness, chroma, hue angle, and texture properties were increased during storage with increase of the Gleditsia sinensis Lam. extract added. In addition, the antioxidant activity and antimicrobial activity in the sausages displayed significant increases ( p sinensis Lam. extract is not effective for improvement of the physical properties compared to chemical additives in sausages, it could be applied to meat products as a natural preservatives.

  1. Physico-chemical properties and degradability of non-woven hyaluronan benzylic esters as tissue engineering scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milella, E; Brescia, E; Massaro, C; Ramires, P A; Miglietta, M R; Fiori, V; Aversa, P

    2002-02-01

    The development of biocompatible materials which can be processed into three-dimensional scaffolds and the design of appropriate configurations in order to enable the cellular infiltration and proliferation is a major issue in the tissue engineering. The hyaluronan total benzyl ester (Hyaff 11) has been found to be suitable substrate to grow a variety of cell types. Since structural, physical, chemical and biological data can help for tailoring appropriate scaffold for tissue engineering, information on chemicophysical properties on degradability of hyaluronan total benzyl ester non-woven has been obtained. The thermal analysis, the evaluation of the surface chemical composition, the morphology, the mechanical behaviour and the swelling tests were carried out on these materials. The hyaluronan total benzyl ester non-woven showed a thermal stability up to 220 degrees C and the surface composition differed from that of the bulk for C-O and C-C contribution. No contaminant were detected. The non-woven swelled in culture medium. Moreover the mechanical tests showed that when submitted to a press treatment, the samples have best mechanical properties. The pressed Hyaff 11 non-woven undergoes degradation when exposed to DMEM. The frying and breaking of the fibres, a decrease of the mechanical properties and a molecular weight loss have been observed. First, the ester bond of the Hyaff 11 non-woven is hydrolysed and the benzylic alcohol is released and the low molecular weight values indicate that a cleavage of the polymer is promoted by the components of the culture medium. After 11 days, some fragments, constituted by hyaluronic acid with a molecular weight of 23,000 Da became soluble in the medium. No oligomer was detected.

  2. Evaluation of some physico-chemical properties of restructured trout and hake mince during cold gelation and chilled storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moreno, H.M.; Javier Borderias, A.; Baron, Caroline

    2010-01-01

    Cold gelation was carried out on trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) or on hake (Merluccius mertuccius) mince with or without addition of fish oil and using microbial transglutaminase (MTGase). Products were stored at 4 QC for 6 days and lipid oxidation, protein oxidation, texture, water binding capacity......, and colour were followed. Results indicated that MTGase was able to generate gels with good properties for both trout and hake. Gels prepared with trout were oxidised whilst gels prepared with hake were stable toward oxidation even in the presence of 5% fish oil. However, in the presence of oil...

  3. Physico-chemical and Microbiological Monitoring of Solotvino Salt Lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chonka Y.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Healing properties of salt lakes are due to physico-chemical and bacterial composition. So important is the study of physical and chemical properties of the water for the development of medical technologies and treatments of monitoring observations of the properties in terms of environmental issues.

  4. MoO3/SiO2-ZrO2 Catalyst: Eeffect of Calcination Temperature on Physico-chemical Properties and Activities in Nitration of Toluene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Madhavrao Kemdeo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available 12 wt % molybdena was deposited over 1:1 silica zirconia mixed oxide support and the resultant catalyst was calcined between the 500 to 700 oC range of temperature. The samples were characterized by XRD, FT-IR, BET, SEM, NH3-TPD and pyridine adsorbed FT-IR techniques.  Nitration of toluene was studied as a model reaction over the prepared catalysts and parameters like effect of reaction temperature, effect of various solvents, catalyst reusability are studied. It was found that conversion of toluene varies with the presence of Brönsted acid sites over the catalyst surface and para-nitrotoulene selectivity is associated with pore size of the catalyst. Over the same catalysts, nitration was extended for some other aromatics. Avoid of sulfuric acid in the present process is an interesting concern in view of green chemistry. Copyright © 2012 by BCREC UNDIP. All rights reservedKeywords: MoO3/SiO2-ZrO2; SO2-ZrO2; NH3-TPD; Nitration; ortho-nitro tolueneReceived: 19th May 2012, Revised: 24th May 2012, Accepted: 26th May 2012[How to Cite: S.M. Kemdeo. (2012. MoO3/SiO2-ZrO2 Catalyst: Effect of Calcination Temperature on Physico-chemical Properties and Activities in Nitration of Toluene. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 7 (2: 92-104. doi:10.9767/bcrec.7.2.3521.92-104] [How to Link / DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.7.2.3521.92-104 || or local: http://ejournal.undip.ac.id/index.php/bcrec/article/view/3521] | View in 

  5. Assessment Of Physico-Chemical Property Of Water Samples From Port Harcourt Bonny And Opobo Coastal Areas For Sustainable Coastal Tourism Development In Rivers State Nigeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obinwanne

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The study evaluated some physico-chemical properties of water samples from Port Harcourt Bonny and Opobo to determine the safety of water from the areas for sustainable coastal tourism development in Rivers State Nigeria. Three water samples were collected with three sterilized plastic containers with a capacity of 25cl which were subjected to laboratory tests to know their constituents. The parameters tested were appearance temperature colour turbidity conductivity PH alkalinity lead Pb Chromium Cr Cadmium Cd Ammonia BODs and Dissolved Oxygen. The results of the water samples were compared with World Health Organization WHO water quality standard and the Nigeria National Water Quality standard to determine the safety of the water for human consumption and tourism development. The study revealed that Port Harcourt site has more prospects for tourism development more than Opobo study site because the Ph alkalinity and BODs levels were lower than that of Opobo making the water safer except that the amount of dissolved oxygen was a little high in Opobo and turbidity was not detected in Opobo. The study revealed that Bonny water was very dense in appearance dark brown in colour highly turbid basic and with mean concentration of the heavy metals Lead chromium and cadmium higher than the recommended World Health Organization WHO water quality standard and the Nigeria National Water Quality standard and therefore not safe for drinking and swimming. Treated portable water should be provided for the people of Port Harcourt Opobo and Bonny especially people from Bonny area and development of tourism in the state to save the people and tourists from imminent danger of fecal contaminants and toxic substances.

  6. Effect of Modified Atmosphere Packaging on Aril Physico-chemical and Microbial Properties of Two Pomegranate Cultivars (Punica granatum L. Grown in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedighe Tavasoli Talarposhti

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Edible parts of pomegranate fruits are a rich source of bioactive compounds. The present research examines the effect of modified atmosphere packaging on the fruit physico-chemical and microbial properties of two commercial pomegranate cultivars grown in Iran. Materials and Methods: The arils were packaged and stored under four different atmospheres. All of the packaged samples were stored at 4 °C for 15 days. Results: The results revealed an increase in total acidity of all treatments. The highest total soluble solid (TSS was observed in ‘Yousef-Khani’­ stored in 10% O2 + 15% CO2, while ‘Malas-e-Saveh’ treated with 20% O2 + 5% CO2 showed the highest degree of TSS. The mean value of a* in ‘Malas-e-Saveh’ arils packed with normal and (15% O2 + 10% CO2 + 75% N2 atmosphere increased significantly. The L* showed a decrease in ‘Yousef-Khani’­. Total phenolic compounds gradually increased during storage. After storage, decreases in total anthocyanin contents ranged from 12 to 30% for ‘Yousef-Khani’­. The overall antioxidant activity of arils in ‘Yousef-Khani’ showed a 6-15% increase during storage. However, a reverse effect was observed for ‘Malas-e-Saveh’. The lowest microbial counts were recorded under the atmosphere containing 10 and 15% CO2. Conclusions: Packaging of ‘Malas-e-Saveh’ arils in 15% O2 + 10% CO2 and ‘Yousef-Khani’ in 15% O2 + 10% CO2 or 10% O2 + 15% CO2 is recommended to extend the shelf-life of ready-to-eat arils. Keywords: Pomegranate, Modified atmosphere, Phenolic compounds, Anthocyanin, Antioxidant activity

  7. Influence of sorbitol on mechanical and physico-chemical properties of soy protein-based bioplastics processed by injection molding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Felix

    Full Text Available Abstract Soy Protein Isolate (SPI has been evaluated as useful candidate for the development of protein-based bioplastic materials processed by injection molding. The influence of sorbitol (SB as plasticizer in mechanical properties and water uptake capacity was evaluated in SPI-based bioplastics. A mixing rheometer that allows monitoring torque and temperature during mixing and a small-scale-plunger-type injection molding machine were used to obtain SPI/Plasticizer blends and SPI-based bioplastics, respectively. Dynamic measurements were carried out to obtain mechanical spectra of different bioplastics. Moreover, the mechanical characterization was supplemented with uniaxial tensile tests. Additionally, the influence of SB in water uptake capacity was also evaluated. The introduction of SB leads to increase the rigidity of bioplastics as well as the water uptake capacity after 24h, however it involves a decrease in strain at break. Final bioplastics are plastic materials with both adequate properties for the substitution of conventional petroleum plastics and high biodegradability.

  8. Marine Phages As Tracers: Effects of Size, Morphology, and Physico-Chemical Surface Properties on Transport in a Porous Medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanem, Nawras; Kiesel, Bärbel; Kallies, René; Harms, Hauke; Chatzinotas, Antonis; Wick, Lukas Y

    2016-12-06

    Although several studies examined the transport of viruses in terrestrial systems only few studies exist on the use of marine phages (i.e., nonterrestrial viruses infecting marine host bacteria) as sensitively detectable microbial tracers for subsurface colloid transport and water flow. Here, we systematically quantified and compared for the first time the effects of size, morphology and physicochemical surface properties of six marine phages and two coliphages (MS2, T4) on transport in sand-filled percolated columns. Phage-sand interactions were described by colloidal filtration theory and the extended Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek approach (XDLVO), respectively. The phages belonged to different families and comprised four phages never used in transport studies (i.e., PSA-HM1, PSA-HP1, PSA-HS2, and H3/49). Phage transport was influenced by size, morphology and hydrophobicity in an approximate order of size > hydrophobicity ≥ morphology. Two phages PSA-HP1, PSA-HS2 (Podoviridae and Siphoviridae) exhibited similar mass recovery as commonly used coliphage MS2 and were 7-fold better transported than known marine phage vB_PSPS-H40/1. Differing properties of the marine phages may be used to trace transport of indigenous viruses, natural colloids or anthropogenic nanomaterials and, hence, contribute to better risk analysis. Our results underpin the potential role of marine phages as microbial tracer for transport of colloidal particles and water flow.

  9. Physico-chemical properties of Brazilian cocoa butter and industrial blends. Part I Chemical composition, solid fat content and consistency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ribeiro, A. P. B.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study of the primary properties of six cocoa butter samples, representative of industrial blends and cocoa butter extracted from fruits cultivated in different geographical areas in Brazil is presented. The samples were evaluated according to fatty acid composition, triacylglycerol composition, regiospecific distribution, melting point, solid fat content and consistency. The results allowed for differentiating the samples according to their chemical compositions, thermal resistance properties, hardness characteristics, as well as technological adequacies and potential use in regions with tropical climates.

    En este trabajo se presenta un estudio comparativo de las propiedades primarias de mantecas de cacao, representativas de las mezclas industriales, y de la manteca de cacao original de diferentes zonas geográficas de Brasil. Las muestras fueron evaluadas de acuerdo a la composición de ácidos grasos, composición de triglicéridos, distribución de los ácidos grasos en las moléculas de triglicéridos, punto de fusión, contenido de grasa sólida y consistencia. Los resultados permitieron diferenciar las muestras por su composición química, propiedades de resistencia térmica, características de dureza, así como en materia de adecuaciones tecnológicas y los usos potenciales en las regiones de clima tropical.

  10. Effect of different radiations on some physico-chemical properties of gum Arabic (Acacia senegal (L.) Wild)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elamin, R. M.

    2001-07-01

    Seven different Acacia senegal gum samples namely A1, A2, A3, A4, A5, A6, and A7 were collected from different trees in the same forest growing in Eldmazein season 1994/ 1995. Some physicochemical and functional properties were investigated i. e. moisture content, nitrogen content, specific rotation, molecular weight, emulsifying stability and water holding capacity. Also the effect of radiation from different sources gammaγ, ultraviolet (UV) and infra-red (IR) radiations with various doses i.e 150, 325 and 500 gray, 2,4 and 6 hours and 80, 105 and 140 C, respectively on some physicochemical and functional properties and component sugars of gum samples in solid from and solution of different concentrations were studied. Statistical analysis showed significant differences (P≤0.05) between all of these seven samples in their physicochemical and functional properties except in ph value. Also Ph values were not affected by different doses of γ, UV and IR radiations used in this study. Results showed that the moisture content, ash, nitrogen content and emulsifying stability were not affected γ( 60 (Co) irradiation where solid and aqueous solution of gum samples showed significant differences (P≤0.05) in specific rotation, intrinsic and molecular weight when exposed to various doses of γrays. Statistical analysis showed insignificant differences (P≤0.05) between the whole and irradiated solid gum by UV radiation on ash, nitrogen content and emulsifying stability. But there was a little decrease as radiation time increase on the moisture content. Reducing sugars and solubility were decreased from 1.88 % and 97.19 % of whole gum to 0.16 % and 84.1 % of gum irradiated by IR radiation at 140 C, respectively while moisture content reduced from 10.7 % to 0.4 %. Maximum absorbance of UV spectrum of the whole gum was reported at the wave length 280 nm. UV absorbance was not affected by Υand UV radiations while it increased of temperature. Thin layer chromatography

  11. Physico-chemical, mineralogical and chemical considerations in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... pH (5.17 – 6.90) and EC (16.53 – 149.20ìS/cm). Values from physico-chemical analyses, secondary minerals abundance index (SMAI) and chemical index of alteration (CIA) of the soils were reflective of particles with high potential for sliding. With major contributions from favourable slope, seismic and hydrologic forces, ...

  12. Physico-chemical Findin~ Related to the Resilience of Different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As part of an interdisciplinary study on Sustainable Agriculture in Semiarid Areq.s (SASA) in south-central Tanzania, soils from five different locations were investigatedfor their mineralogical com- position and physico-chemical characteristics in order to determine their resilience in relation to land use. The results of the ...

  13. Assessment of microbial population and physico-chemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The research was conducted in order to determine the effect of abattoir effluent on the microbiological and physico-chemical characteristics of the receiving soils in Ikpoba Hill and Oluku located in Benin City, Nigeria. Microbial analysis was carried out using standard microbiological techniques. The microorganisms isolated ...

  14. Effect of addition of nano-hydroxyapatite on physico-chemical and antibiofilm properties of calcium silicate cements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerreiro-Tanomaru, Juliane Maria; Vázquez-García, Fernando Antonio; Bosso-Martelo, Roberta; Bernardi, Maria Inês Basso; Faria, Gisele; Tanomaru, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA) is a calcium silicate cement composed of Portland cement (PC) and bismuth oxide. Hydroxyapatite has been incorporated to enhance mechanical and biological properties of dental materials. This study evaluated physicochemical and mechanical properties and antibiofilm activity of MTA and PC associated with zirconium oxide (ZrO2) and hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (HAn). White MTA (Angelus, Brazil); PC (70%)+ZrO2 (30%); PC (60%)+ZrO2 (30%)+HAn (10%); PC (50%)+ZrO2 (30%)+HAn (20%) were evaluated. The pH was assessed by a digital pH-meter and solubility by mass loss. Setting time was evaluated by using Gilmore needles. Compressive strength was analyzed by mechanical test. Samples were radiographed alongside an aluminum step wedge to evaluate radiopacity. For the antibiofilm evaluation, materials were placed in direct contact with E. faecalis biofilm induced on dentine blocks. The number of colony-forming units (CFU mL-1) in the remaining biolfilm was evaluated. The results were submitted to ANOVA and the Tukey test, with 5% significance. There was no difference in pH levels of PC+ZrO2, PC+ZrO2+HAn (10%) and PC+ZrO2+HAn (20%) (p>0.05) and these cements presented higher pH levels than MTA (p<0.05). The highest solubility was observed in PC+ZrO2+HAn (10%) and PC+ZrO2+HAn (20%) (p<0.05). MTA had the shortest initial setting time (p<0.05). All the materials showed radiopacity higher than 3 mmAl. PC+ZrO2 and MTA had the highest compressive strength (p<0.05). Materials did not completely neutralize the bacterial biofilm, but the association with HAn provided greater bacterial reduction than MTA and PC+ZrO2 (p<0.05) after the post-manipulation period of 2 days. The addition of HAn to PC associated with ZrO2 harmed the compressive strength and solubility. On the other hand, HAn did not change the pH and the initial setting time, but improved the radiopacity (HAn 10%), the final setting time and the E. faecalis antibiofilm activity of the cement.

  15. Effect of addition of nano-hydroxyapatite on physico-chemical and antibiofilm properties of calcium silicate cements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Maria GUERREIRO-TANOMARU

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA is a calcium silicate cement composed of Portland cement (PC and bismuth oxide. Hydroxyapatite has been incorporated to enhance mechanical and biological properties of dental materials. This study evaluated physicochemical and mechanical properties and antibiofilm activity of MTA and PC associated with zirconium oxide (ZrO2 and hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (HAn. Material and Methods White MTA (Angelus, Brazil; PC (70%+ZrO2 (30%; PC (60%+ZrO2 (30%+HAn (10%; PC (50%+ZrO2 (30%+HAn (20% were evaluated. The pH was assessed by a digital pH-meter and solubility by mass loss. Setting time was evaluated by using Gilmore needles. Compressive strength was analyzed by mechanical test. Samples were radiographed alongside an aluminum step wedge to evaluate radiopacity. For the antibiofilm evaluation, materials were placed in direct contact with E. faecalis biofilm induced on dentine blocks. The number of colony-forming units (CFU mL-1 in the remaining biolfilm was evaluated. The results were submitted to ANOVA and the Tukey test, with 5% significance. Results There was no difference in pH levels of PC+ZrO2, PC+ZrO2+HAn (10% and PC+ZrO2+HAn (20% (p>0.05 and these cements presented higher pH levels than MTA (p<0.05. The highest solubility was observed in PC+ZrO2+HAn (10% and PC+ZrO2+HAn (20% (p<0.05. MTA had the shortest initial setting time (p<0.05. All the materials showed radiopacity higher than 3 mmAl. PC+ZrO2 and MTA had the highest compressive strength (p<0.05. Materials did not completely neutralize the bacterial biofilm, but the association with HAn provided greater bacterial reduction than MTA and PC+ZrO2 (p<0.05 after the post-manipulation period of 2 days. Conclusions The addition of HAn to PC associated with ZrO2 harmed the compressive strength and solubility. On the other hand, HAn did not change the pH and the initial setting time, but improved the radiopacity (HAn 10%, the final setting time and

  16. Gamma radiation effects on microbiological, physico-chemical and antioxidant properties of Tunisian millet (Pennisetum Glaucum L.R.Br.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Mustapha, Maha; Bousselmi, Mehrez; Jerbi, Taïeb; Ben Bettaïeb, Nasreddine; Fattouch, Sami

    2014-07-01

    Hygienic quality of Tunisian pearl millet flour is always of major concern to consumers as well as all involved in the production, processing and distribution sectors. In the present study, the microbiological and biochemical properties of this food were examined following gamma-radiation. The D10-values for the Total Aerobic Plate Count, yeasts and moulds were respectively 1.5 and 3.7kGy. Furthermore, millet flour is commonly susceptible to mycotoxin contaminations, so the Ochratoxin A residues were also investigated; a reduction of 74% was observed with 10kGy. Moreover, the radiation process did not significantly alter fatty acids composition of the millet flour as obtained with Gas chromatography-flame ionisation detector technic. The peroxide value had increased from 26.16 to 34.43meqO2/kg with 3kGy. At 1kGy, we noticed an important loss of vitamin A of about 88.6%. In contrast, the total phenolic content, the ABTS-RSA and the DPPH-RSA of the radiated millet flour exhibited non-significant changes (p<0.05). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Physico-chemical and sensory properties of cookies made from blends of germinated pigeon pea, fermented sorghum, and cocoyam flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okpala, Laura; Okoli, Eric; Udensi, Emelem

    2013-01-01

    Cookies were produced from germinated pigeon pea, fermented sorghum, and cocoyam flour (CF) blends to determine their potentials in cookie manufacture. Ten flour formulations were produced and they were evaluated for their proximate and functional properties. Protein content ranged from 4.85% to 19.89% with 100% CF (100CF) having the least value, while 100% germinated pigeon pea flour (100GPF) had the highest value. Increase in levels of GPF to the flour blends resulted in increase in protein content of the blends. Cookies made with 100% fermented sorghum flour (100FSF) had the highest ash content of 2.73%, while cookies made with 100GPF had the least ash content. Energy values of the cookies ranged between 369.37 and 376.56 kcal/100 g, with cookie formulation 50%CF:50%FSF having the least value and cookies made with 16.7%CF:16.7%FSF:66.6GPF having the highest value. The control (cookies made with wheat) had the highest spread ratio of 24.13, while cookies made with 100FSF had the least spread ratio of 14.97. Cookies made with 100CF were the least fragile. Sensory ratings revealed that cookies containing up to 50% CF and above, compared favorably with those made with wheat flour.

  18. Effect of a proton conducting filler on the physico-chemical properties of SPEEK-based membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mecheri, B.; Chen, F.; Traversa, E. [Department of Chemical Science and Technology, University of Rome ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Roma (Italy); D' Epifanio, A. [Department of Chemical Science and Technology, University of Rome ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Roma (Italy); Hunter College of the City University of New York, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Pisani, L. [CRS4 Parco Scientifico e Tecnologico, POLARIS, 09010 Pula(CA) (Italy); Weise, F.C.; Greenbaum, S. [Hunter College of the City University of New York, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Licoccia, S.

    2009-08-15

    Composite membranes based on sulphonated polyetherether ketone (SPEEK) having a 60% degree of sulphonation (DS=0.6) and containing 23 and 50 wt.-% hydrated tin oxide (SnO{sub 2}.nH{sub 2}O) were prepared and characterised. The lower water uptake (WU) and the higher conductivity values recorded for the composite membranes with respect to pure SPEEK reference suggested the involvement of SnO{sub 2}.nH{sub 2}O in the proton conduction mechanism. Pulsed-field-gradient spin-echo (PFGSE) NMR was employed to obtain a direct measurement of water self-diffusion coefficient in the membranes. Differences were observed between the unfilled SPEEK and the composites, including departures from the normal correlation between water diffusivity and proton conductivity in the case of composites. To better understand the SnO{sub 2}.nH{sub 2}O effect on the proton transport properties of the SPEEK-based membrane, we employed an analytical model that predicts the membrane conductivity as a function of its hydration level and porous structure. The comparison of the model results with the experimental proton conductivity values demonstrated that the tin oxide phase provides additional paths between the water clusters for proton transport, resulting in reduced tortuosity and enhanced proton conductivity. Moreover, the composite showed reduced methanol crossover with respect to the unfilled membrane. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  19. Physico-chemical and thermal properties of chicken myofibrillar protein concentrate (CMPC) mixed with barley bran flour during frozen storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastanjević, Krešimir; Kovačević, Dragan

    2018-01-01

    Possible new additives for surimi-like products made from chicken meat, which could improve its functional properties during frozen storage, are the subject of much research. The use of dietary fibre in surimi-like products made from chicken meat has not been extensively studied. The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of barley bran flour in stabilizing chicken myofibrillar proteins during frozen storage and maintaining its functionality. Surimi-like material (chicken myofibrillar protein concentrate – CMPC) from mechanically deboned chicken meat was mixed with barley bran flour (0–6%) and stored in a freezer for 30, 60, 90 and 180 days. Instrumental color measurements (L*, a*, and b* values) were taken using a Hunter-Lab Mini ScanXE. Texture profile analysis (TPA) tests were performed using a TA.XT2i SMS Stable Micro Systems Texture Analyzer) equipped with an aluminium cylindrical probe P/75. Differential scanning calorim- etry (DSC) was used for the determination of denaturation temperatures and enthalpies. Denaturation enthalpies of CMPC increased when the mass fraction of barley bran was increased (w = 0–6%). Instrumental color parameters (L*, a* and b*) of CMPC gels were significantly (p storage. The increase in denaturation enthalpies and some instrumental textural and color parameters, indicate possible interactions of chicken myofibrillar proteins with barley bran.

  20. Effect of harvest time on physico-chemical properties and bioactive compounds of pulp and seeds of grape varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özcan, Mehmet Musa; Juhaimi, Fahad Al; Gülcü, Mehmet; Uslu, Nurhan; Geçgel, Ümit; Ghafoor, Kashif; Dursun, Nesim

    2017-07-01

    In this study, physicochemical properties and bioactive compounds of three grape varieties (Cardinal, Müşküle and Razaki) harvested at the three different harvest times (on time, one and two weeks earlier) were investigated. The highest antioxidant activity, total phenolic and flavonoid contents were observed in Razaki pulp and these were 82.854%, 127.422 mg/100 g, 3.873 mg/g, respectively. The contents of bioactive compounds in grape seeds were found higher than those in pulps. Similarly, seed of Razaki had higher antioxidant activity (91.267%) and total phenolic content (477.500 mg/100 g) when compared to results of other varieties. The key phenolic compounds of all grape variety and seeds were gallic acid, 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, (+)-catechin ve 1,2-dihydroxybenzene. The oil content of grape seeds ranged from 8.50% (Razaki harvested one week ago) to 19.024% (Müşküle harvested one week ago). The main fatty acids of grapeseed oils were linoleic, oleic and palmitic acids. In addition, the oil of Razaki seeds was rich in tocopherols when compared to the other varieties.

  1. Evaluation of the physico-chemical properties of nanocomposites of low density linear polyethylene and organophilic montmorillonite obtained by fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arndt, Aline; Sandrin, Bianca M.; Pezzin, A.P.T.; Meier, Marcia M.; Balzer, Palova S.; Tavares, Maria I.B.

    2016-01-01

    In this project they were produced and characterized nanocomposite organoclay applied to linear low density polyethylene in order to improve their physicochemical properties. Samples were produced by means of extrusion and injection process, varying proportions of nanoclay (2; 2.5; 3.0 and 3.5%) in LLDPE. Samples nanocomposites were characterized by TGA, DSC and Flammability test (UL-94). The TGA analysis showed that adding nanoclay increased thermal stability, especially for LLDPE / OMMT2,0 sample increased thermal stability at 4.4%. By DSC it was found that samples with nanoclay incorporation did not affect the Tm of LLDPE, though the increase of nanoclay raised the degree of crystallinity of the samples 52.7% in LLDPE / 2.5 OMMT sample. The flammability results show that the sample LLDPE / OMMT 2.0 showed a decrease of 37.77% in the flame propagation velocity. The NMR showed that the samples up LLDPE / 2.5 OM has an exfoliated nanocomposite formation. (author)

  2. Impact of temperature, pH, and salinity changes on the physico-chemical properties of model naphthenic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celsie, Alena; Parnis, J Mark; Mackay, Donald

    2016-03-01

    The effects of temperature, pH, and salinity change on naphthenic acids (NAs) present in oil-sands process wastewater were modeled for 55 representative NAs. COSMO-RS was used to estimate octanol-water (KOW) and octanol-air (KOA) partition ratios and Henry's law constants (H). Validation with experimental carboxylic acid data yielded log KOW and log H RMS errors of 0.45 and 0.55 respectively. Calculations of log KOW, (or log D, for pH-dependence), log KOA and log H (or log HD, for pH-dependence) were made for model NAs between -20 °C and 40 °C, pH between 0 and 14, and salinity between 0 and 3 g NaCl L(-1). Temperature increase by 60 °C resulted in 3-5 log unit increase in H and a similar magnitude decrease in KOA. pH increase above the NA pKa resulted in a dramatic decrease in both log D and log HD. Salinity increase over the 0-3 g NaCl L(-1) range resulted in a 0.3 log unit increase on average for KOW and H values. Log KOW values of the sodium salt and anion of the conjugate base were also estimated to examine their potential for contribution to the overall partitioning of NAs. Sodium salts and anions of naphthenic acids are predicted to have on average 4 log units and 6 log units lower log KOW values, respectively, with respect to the corresponding neutral NA. Partitioning properties are profoundly influenced by the by the relative prevailing pH and the substance's pKa at the relevant temperature. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The effect of radiation-sterilization conditions and preservation procedures on physico-chemical and biological properties of bone allografts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goclawska, A.D.; Kaminski, A.; Wasilewska, M.

    1999-01-01

    Radiation-sterilization of connective tissue allografts (bone including) with a dose of 35 kGy is routinely used in the Central Tissue Bank in Warsaw since 1963. This method of sterilization offers many advantages: good penetration ability, relatively low temperature rise, and possibility of sterilization of grafts in closed beforehand vials, which protects against secondary contamination. It should be kept in mind, however that high doses of ionizing radiation (in the range of 20-35 kGy) used for sterilization evoke many chemical and physical changes which may influence biological properties of grafts. These changes have been studied using various methodological approaches. Using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrometry it has been found that in radiation-sterilized bone two types of paramagnetic entities are generated: i/ coliagen radicals which are unstable and disappear completely in the presence of air oxygen, ii/ very stable at room temperature paramagnetic defects (centers) localized in the crystalline lattice of bone mineral. These stable paramagnetic defects have been treated as a new kind of markers and used for: a/ quantitative evaluation of remodeling process of radiation-sterilized bone allografts preserved by lyophilization or deep freezing; b/ estimation of the dose of ionizing radiation absorbed by living organism in the case of accidental exposure (skeleton serving as a dosimeter) and for control of radiation-sterilization process. The effect of radiation-sterilization and preservation procedures on bone allografts was studied using a model of heterotopically induced osteogenesis and measuring the solubility of bone collagen in vitro. It has been observed that lyophilized bone allografts irradiated at room temp. with doses of 35 and 50 kGy, respectively, were very quickly resorbed in vivo and did not induce osteogenesis, while lyophilized as well as deep-frozen matrices irradiated at -7OoC were slowly resorbed and induced de novo bone fon

  4. Effects of thermal treatments and germination on physico-chemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Certain physico-chemical properties including viscoelasticity, crystallinity and maltose content of corn depends on the gelatinization of starch under different treatments. Three different treatments were performed; boiling in water, steam heating, and germination. The effects of gelatinization on viscoelastic property of corn ...

  5. Evaluation of radiolabeling of annexin A5 with technetium-99m: influence of the labeling methods on physico-chemical and biological properties of the compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Josefina da Silva

    2009-01-01

    Annexin A5 (ANXA5) is an intracellular human protein of 36 kDa with high affinity for membrane-bound phosphatidylserine that is selectively exposed on the surface of cells undergoing apoptosis. Apoptosis is important in normal physiology and innumerous pathologic states. Clinical applications for ANXA5 imaging are being developed in oncology, organ transplantation and cardiovascular diseases. Many strategies to radiolabel the protein have been described, including direct labeling, derivatization through a bifunctional chelating agent (BFC), production of mutated protein or peptide analogs. Several 99 mTc-labeling techniques have been reported using different cores, including [Tc=O] +3 , [Tc]HYNIC, [Tc≡N]+2 and [Tc(CO 3 )] +1 . In this study, we evaluated the influence of 99 mTc cores on biological behavior and physico-chemical properties of radiolabeled annexin. Radiolabeling procedure using [Tc≡N] +2 core was a two-step procedure including the reaction of 99 mTcO4 - with SDH in the presence of SnCl 2 and PDTA to obtain the intermediate 99 mTcN-SDH, and successive addition of ANXA5. The results obtained were not satisfactory, despite the high efficiency in the production of the intermediate. The [Tc=O] +3 core was produced using the ethylene dicysteine (EC) as BFC. TSTU was employed in the derivatization to produce the corresponding hydroxysuccinimide ester. Different ANXA5:EC ratios were studied and all labeling conditions resulted in high radiochemical yield but with differences in lipophilicity, stability, biological distribution and affinity for apoptotic cells. The HYNIC-ANXA5 also produced the labeled protein with high radiochemical yield. The stability of the radiolabeled ANXA5 was evaluated after storing at room temperature, at 2 - 8 degree C and in human serum at 37 degree C. The analysis of these results showed that the 99 mTc-EC-ANXA5 (ratio 10-2) was the most stable compound in all the studied conditions. Partition coefficient assay resulted in

  6. Analysis of physico-chemical properties and heavy metals in drinking water from different sources in and around Ranchi, Jharkhand, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla Kerketta

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was undertaken to determine the physico-chemical properties and heavy metals in drinking water samples collected from different sources in and around Ranchi, Jharkhand, India. Materials and Methods: A total number of 100 water samples were collected from different sources like hand pumps (44, wells (27, taps (20, rivers (3 and ponds (6. The gross appearance, taste, odour, temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, alkalinity, conductivity, total dissolved solid, salinity and the concentration of lead and cadmium were analyzed. Results: Water samples were transparent, odourless and taste was agreeable except rivers and ponds. The mean value of temperature (24.8±0.416 to 30.7±0.819, pH (6.4±0.1 to 7.3±0.1, dissolved oxygen (3.9±0.05 to 8.95±0.15, biochemical oxygen demand (2.3±0.7 to 7.5±0.409, alkalinity (35±1 to 144.75±40.359, conductivity (83±1.15 to1508±0, total dissolved solid (73±1 to 1422±0 and salinity (0.016±.014. Mean levels (ppm of lead (Pb was (0.01±0.00 to 0.11±0.03 and cadmium (Cd was (0.04±0.01 to 0.11±0.03. Conclusion: Out of water samples collected from above mentioned sources, samples from ponds and rivers were highly contaminated. The pH of 6 water samples was more than prescribed level, dissolved oxygen in 11 was samples was below than 5 ppm, biochemical oxygen demand in 19 water samples was above 6 ppm, alkalinity in 14 samples were above 120 ppm, conductivity in 2 water samples were above1400 μS/cm, The levels of lead and cadmium was more than the permissible limits. [Vet World 2013; 6(7.000: 370-375

  7. Effect of fat replacement by olive oil on the physico-chemical properties, fatty acids, cholesterol and tocopherol content of pâté

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domínguez, R.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the effects of olive oil when used as back fat replacers on the physico-chemical properties, fatty acids, cholesterol and α-tocopherol content of p.t.. The replacement of back fat by olive oil at 50 and 100% did not affect the moisture, fat or protein contents, while it increased yellowness. According to texture parameters, reformulated p.t. presented lower values for hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess and chewiness. The use of olive oil significantly (P Este estudio se realizó para investigar el efecto del aceite de oliva como substituto de grasa dorsal sobre las propiedades físico-químicas, ácidos grasos y contenido en colesterol y α-tocoferol de pâté. La substitución de la grasa dorsal por aceite de oliva al 50% y al 100% no afectó al contenido de humedad, grasa y proteína, mientras que incrementó la intensidad de color amarillo. Con respecto a los parámetros de textura, el pâté reformulado presentó una menor dureza, cohesividad, gomosidad y masticabilidad. El uso de aceite de oliva también afectó significativamente al perfil de los ácidos grasos. El contenido de ácidos grasos monoinsaturados incrementó, mientras que el contenido de ácidos grasos saturados y poliinsaturados disminuyó a medida que la grasa dorsal fue reemplazada por aceite de oliva. El reemplazo de la grasa de cerdo mejoró todos los índices nutricionales, disminuyendo los índices aterogénico y trombogénico mientras que aumento el ratio h/H. A su vez, el contenido en α-tocoferol incrementó y la cantidad de colesterol disminuyó con la adición de aceite de oliva. Por tanto, el uso de aceite de oliva nos proporciona un pâté con altos niveles de C18:1n9c y ácidos grasos monoinsaturados, antioxidantes naturales como α-tocoferol y una menor cantidad de colesterol. Como conclusión general, el reemplazo de grasa por aceite de oliva nos permite obtener un producto más saludable.

  8. Alzheimer’s disease against peptides products of enzymatic cleavage APP protein: Biological, pathobiological and physico-chemical properties of fibrillating peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Marszałek

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Various peptides products of enzymatic cleavage of key for Alzheimer’s disease Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP are well known, but still are matter of scientific debate. The Aβ type products are especially challenging for experimental and medical research. This paper outlines several, still poorly known, biological and medical processes such as peptides biology, i.e., formation, biodistribution, translocation, transport and finally removal from brain compartments and body fluids like Intracellular Fluid (ICF, Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF, Interstitial Fluid (ISF, blood serum or urine. In addition, the following studies concerning AD patients might prove challenging and simultaneously promising: peptides translocation through Blood-Brain – Barrier (BBB and Blood–Cerebrospinal Fluid Barrier (BCSFB and their removal from the brain according to a new concept of glymphatic system; – diagnostic difficulties that stem from physico-chemical properties and the nature of proteins or fibrillating peptides itself like low concentration, short half-live and from experimental-technical problems as well like high adsorption or low solubility of Aβ, tau or amylin. The study of diagnostic parameters is very important, as it may better reflect early changes before the disease develops; one such parameter is the Aβ42/Aβ40 ratio, or the ratio with the total tau concentration combination and other new biomarkers like Aβ1-38; other factors include oxidative stress and inflammation process proteins, complement factor H, alpha-2-macroglobulin, or clusterin. The study of various forms of pathological amyloid deposits that emerge in different but specific brain regions AD patients seems to be crucial as well. The composition of the first initial pathological, pre-fibrillating monomers of fibrillating peptides and their role in AD development and disease progression have been described as well. They are even more challenging for science and simultaneously might be

  9. Externally predictive single-descriptor based QSPRs for physico-chemical properties of polychlorinated-naphthalenes: Exploring relationships of log SW, log KOA, and log KOW with electron-correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chayawan; Vikas

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Aqueous solubility and partition coefficient are modelled using single-parameter. • Electron-correlation observed as a vital predictorof physico-chemical properties. • For octanol-air partition coefficient, energy and polarizability yield best models. • Dipole-moment is found to be worst single-descriptor for the properties analysed. - Abstract: Quantitative structure–property relationships (QSPRs), based only on a single-parameter, are proposed for the prediction of physico-chemical properties, namely, aqueous solubility (log S W ), octanol–water partition coefficient (log K OW ) and octanol–air partition coefficient (log K OA ) of polychloronaphthalenes (PCNs) including all the 75 chloronaphthalene congeners. The QSPR models are developed using molecular descriptors computed through quantum mechanical methods including ab-initio as well as advanced semi-empirical methods. The predictivity of the developed models is tested through state-of-the-art external validation procedures employing an external prediction set of compounds. To analyse the role of instantaneous interactions between electrons (the electron-correlation), the models are also compared with those developed using only the electron-correlation contribution of the quantum chemical descriptor. The electron-correlation contribution towards the chemical hardness and the LUMO energy are observed to be the best predictors for octanol–water partition coefficient, whereas for the octanol–air partition coefficient, the total electronic energy and electron-correlation energy are found to be reliable descriptors, in fact, even better than the polarisability. For aqueous solubility of PCNs, the absolute electronegativity is observed to be the best predictor. This work suggests that the electron-correlation contribution of a quantum-chemical descriptor can be used as a reliable indicator for physico-chemical properties, particularly the partition coefficients

  10. Physico-chemical characterization and cytotoxicity studies of seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The seeds of Khaya senegalensis were extracted using petroleum ether and methanol with the aim of determining the physico-chemical properties of the seed oil and the cytotoxicity of the two extracts. The refractive index of the oil was found to be 1.458, while the relative density was 0.953. The iodine and saponification ...

  11. Physico-chemical and Mineralogical Characterisation of Subsurface ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies were carried out on subsurface sediments obtained around the Gaborone landfill area Botswana, in order to characterize their mineralogy and physico-chemistry, appraise any contaminant inputs from the landfill and assess their ability to attenuate contaminants from the landfill. Physico-chemical properties ...

  12. Collagen–curcumin interaction – A physico-chemical study

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Abstract. Curcumin is a widely used therapeutic agent with a wide spectrum of biological and physio- logical applications like wound healing and interacts with the skin protein, collagen. This work reports the effect of curcumin on various physico-chemical properties of collagen. The results suggest that signi- ficant changes ...

  13. Assessment of some Micro-Organisms and Physico-Chemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper investigated microorganisms and physico-chemical properties of floodwaters in some major streets in Benin City. Floodwater samples were collected from the selected streets and taken to the laboratory for analysis using AAS Model-Solaar 969 Unicam series with Air Acetylene flame. The increasing trends of ...

  14. Physico-chemical changes during storage of dehydrated plantain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The changes in some physico-chemical properties of dehydrated plantain slices packaged in polyethylene and polypropylene pouches and stored, at 37 oC and 75 per cent RH, for 6 months were studied. Moisture gain, non-enzymatic browning, colour changes, puncture force, pH, ascorbic acid and total acidity were ...

  15. Physico-chemical characterization and cytotoxicity studies of seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGO

    2007-04-02

    Apr 2, 2007 ... 1Samaru College of Agriculture, Division of Agricultural Colleges, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria. .... Fleming, 1971). Table 1. Physico-chemical characteristics of seed oil. (petroleum ether extract) of Khaya senegalensis. Properties of Oil. Values ... showed that the seed oil was of lower degree of.

  16. Changes of Soil Chemical Properties during Rice Straw Decomposition in Different Types of Acid Sulphate Soils

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Hairani; Ani Susilawati

    2013-01-01

    Organic residues often exhibit different physico-chemical properties and affect the soil ecosystem in different ways. Hence, the study of their impact on soil is essential to benefit from their potential as amendments and to avoid adverse environmental effects. It is required to study the role of rice straw in the changes of soil properties during decomposition processes in the rice field. The research was conducted on potential acid sulphate soil (PASS) and actual acid sulphate soil (AASS) i...

  17. Physico-chemical study of coating plasma duplex alumina/hydroxyapatite for medical applications relation elaboration/structure/properties(dissolution/adherence/residual constraints)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demonet, N.

    1998-01-01

    The physico-chemical behavior of porous ceramics depositing is studied in order to use them to favour the biological fixing of hip prosthesis fixed without cement. Alumina depositing, hydroxyapatite depositing and duplex (the both together) have been realized by plasma projection on a substrate in Ti-6Al-V. Tests of dissolution have been made. An original method of sound followed by radioactive tracers has allowed to establish an order of phases degradation and to consider the kinetics of calcium ions in function of several parameters of tests. (N.C.)

  18. Physico-Chemical Properties of Three Salt-Affected Soils in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    komla

    The climate in the study area is semi-arid tropical with average daily temperatures ranging 27–28 °C with no pronounced variation during the year. ... the coastal savanna zone of Ghana. The climatic conditions only support the growth of ...... Geomorphology of Keta Lagoon and its Environs. (BA Dissertation). University of ...

  19. Construction of collagen II/hyaluronate/chondroitin-6-sulfate tri-copolymer scaffold for nucleus pulposus tissue engineering and preliminary analysis of its physico-chemical properties and biocompatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chang-Qing; Huang, Bo; Luo, Gang; Zhang, Chuan-Zhi; Zhuang, Ying; Zhou, Yue

    2010-02-01

    To construct a novel scaffold for nucleus pulposus (NP) tissue engineering, The porous type II collagen (CII)/hyaluronate (HyA)-chondroitin-6-sulfate (6-CS) scaffold was prepared using 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-carbodiimide (EDC) and N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) cross-linking system. The physico-chemical properties and biocompatibility of CII/HyA-CS scaffolds were evaluated. The results suggested CII/HyA-CS scaffolds have a highly porous structure (porosity: 94.8 +/- 1.5%), high water-binding capacity (79.2 +/- 2.8%) and significantly improved mechanical stability by EDC/NHS crosslinking (denaturation temperature: 74.6 +/- 1.8 and 58.1 +/- 2.6 degrees C, respectively, for the crosslinked scaffolds and the non-crosslinked; collagenase degradation rate: 39.5 +/- 3.4 and 63.5 +/- 2.0%, respectively, for the crosslinked scaffolds and the non-crosslinked). The CII/HyA-CS scaffolds also showed satisfactory cytocompatibility and histocompatibility as well as low immunogenicity. These results indicate CII/HyA-CS scaffolds may be an alternative material for NP tissue engineering due to the similarity of its composition and physico-chemical properties to those of the extracellular matrices (ECM) of native NP.

  20. Physico-chemical composition and radicalscavenging activity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physico-chemical composition and radicalscavenging activity evaluation of the extracts of Aristolochia albida Duch. (Aristolochiaceae) of Benin. Félix F.D. Guinnin, Isabelle T. Sacramento, Jean-Marc Ategbo, Cocou Dossa Pascal Agbangnan ...

  1. Changes in soil properties and plant uptake of heavy metals on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    4.05 for Pb. The study therefore showed that changes in physico-chemical characteristics at dump sites could be attributed to interactions of different soil properties rather a single factor. Key words: Heavy metal contamination, seasonal changes, soil pH, soil texture, specific adsorption mechanism, transfer factor, food chain.

  2. Physiological and physico-chemical characterization of dietary fibre from the green seaweed Ulva fasciata Delile

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho,AFU.; Portela,MCC.; Sousa,MB.; Martins,FS.; Rocha,FC.; Farias,DF.; Feitosa,JPA.

    2009-01-01

    This work aims to assess the potential of the green seaweed Ulva fasciata Delile as an alternative source of dietary fibre (DF). Total DF content was determined, some of its physico-chemical properties described and the physiological effects of U. fasciata meal on rats fed a hypercholesterolemic diet were investigated. U. fasciata may be considered a potential alternative source of DF with a total content of about 400 g.kg-1 (dry basis) and interesting physico-chemical properties: water reten...

  3. Physico-chemical properties of quartz from industrial manufacturing and its cytotoxic effects on alveolar macrophages: The case of green sand mould casting for iron production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Benedetto, Francesco; Gazzano, Elena; Tomatis, Maura; Turci, Francesco; Pardi, Luca A; Bronco, Simona; Fornaciai, Gabriele; Innocenti, Massimo; Montegrossi, Giordano; Muniz Miranda, Maurizio; Zoleo, Alfonso; Capacci, Fabio; Fubini, Bice; Ghigo, Dario; Romanelli, Maurizio

    2016-07-15

    Industrial processing of materials containing quartz induces physico-chemical modifications that contribute to the variability of quartz hazard in different plants. Here, modifications affecting a quartz-rich sand during cast iron production, have been investigated. Composition, morphology, presence of radicals associated to quartz and reactivity in free radical generation were studied on a raw sand and on a dust recovered after mould dismantling. Additionally, cytotoxicity of the processed dust and ROS and NO generation were evaluated on MH-S macrophages. Particle morphology and size were marginally affected by casting processing, which caused only a slight increase of the amount of respirable fraction. The raw sand was able to catalyze OH and CO2(-) generation in cell-free test, even if in a lesser extent than the reference quartz (Min-U-Sil), and shows hAl radicals, conventionally found in any quartz-bearing raw materials. Enrichment in iron and extensive coverage with amorphous carbon were observed during processing. They likely contributed, respectively, to increasing the ability of processed dust to release CO2- and to suppressing OH generation respect to the raw sand. Carbon coverage and repeated thermal treatments during industrial processing also caused annealing of radiogenic hAl defects. Finally, no cellular responses were observed with the respirable fraction of the processed powder. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Wild blueberry polyphenol-protein food ingredients produced by three drying methods: Comparative physico-chemical properties, phytochemical content, and stability during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Roberta; Grace, Mary H; Esposito, Debora; Lila, Mary Ann

    2017-11-15

    Particulate colloidal aggregate food ingredients were prepared by complexing wheat flour, chickpea flour, coconut flour and soy protein isolate with aqueous wild blueberry pomace extracts, then spray drying, freeze drying, or vacuum oven drying to prepare dry, flour-like matrices. Physico-chemical attributes, phytochemical content and stability during storage were compared. Eighteen anthocyanins peaks were identified for samples. Spray dried matrices produced with soy protein isolate had the highest concentration of polyphenols (156.2mg GAE/g) and anthocyanins (13.4mg/g) and the most potent DPPH scavenging activity (714.1μmolesTE/g). Spray dried blueberry polyphenols complexed with protein were protected from degradation during 16weeks at 4°C and 20°C. Soy protein isolate more efficiently captured and stabilized wild blueberry pomace phytochemicals than other protein sources. Overall, spray drying the blueberry extracts complexed with protein proved to be an environment-friendly strategy to produce stable functional ingredients with multiple applications for the food industry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. PHYSICO-CHEMICAL ASSESSMENT OF POMACE EXHAUSTED ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    M’Sadak Y, Makhlouf M and El Amrouni S

    2016-05-01

    May 1, 2016 ... 2851. 6093. 3.1.2. Physico-chemical characterization. The physicochemical characteristics vary across different pomace oil extraction systems. (classic, press and continuous). Classical system. Table 2. Qualitative Characterization of pomace exhausted by the classical system. Parameters. Abbreviation.

  6. Physico-Chemical Characterization and Pollution Index ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physico-Chemical Characterization and Pollution Index Determination of Leachates from Warri Waste Dumpsite, Southern Nigeria. ... This study characterizes the leachates quality of an active dumpsite in Warri, Delta State and also analyses its contamination or pollution potential. Leachate Pollution Index (LPI) - a tool for ...

  7. ASSESSMENT OF PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    B. S. Chandravanshi

    analyzed for various physico-chemical parameters. The study indicated that the mean value of studied parameters, except electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, turbidity, total alkalinity, calcium ion, sulphate ion, and total phosphorus of the river water samples were within the permissible limit of WHO for drinking water ...

  8. Physico-chemical water characteristics and aquatic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physico-chemical water characteristics and aquatic macroinvertebrates of Lake Tsimanampesotse, south-western Madagascar. ... Water quality and aquatic invertebrates were investigated in April and August 2013 to provide baseline data in order to measure possible changes of the area in the future. Changes in water ...

  9. Characterization of Physico-Chemical Properties and Antioxidant Capacities of Bioactive Honey Produced from Australian Grown Agastache rugosa and its Correlation with Colour and Poly-Phenol Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushil Anand

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant and antimicrobial components of honey vary based on sourced of nectar. Medicinal plants with the therapeutic value have potential to produce honey with greater bioactivity. The aim of the present study was to characterize the physico-chemical and antioxidant capacities of Agastache honey produced from Agastache rugosa and compare them with other popular commercial honeys sold in Australia. The total phenolics, total flavonoids, moisture content, colour, pH, protein content and antioxidant capacity were evaluated for Agastache, Manuka, Jelly bush, Tea tree, Super manuka and Jarrah honeys. The results reveal that the moisture content ranged from 17–21%, pH ranged from 3.8–4.3 and estimated protein content ranged from 900–2200 µg/g. The DPPH•, ABTS•+, ORAC and FRAP methods were used to measure the antioxidant capacity of the honey samples. The DPPH• % inhibition, ABTS•+, ORAC and FRAP values for Agastache honey were 9.85 (±1.98 µmol TE/g, 26.88 (±0.32 µmol TE/g, 19.78 (±1.1 µmol TE/g and 3.61 (±0.02 µmol TE/g whereas the highest antioxidant capacity values obtained were 18.69 (±0.9 µmol TE/g, 30.72 (±0.27 µmol TE/g, 26.95 (±0.9 µmol TE/g and 3.68 (±0.04 µmol TE/g, respectively. There was a positive correlation between colour, total phenolic content and DPPH• scavenging activity for most of the honeys except Tea tree honey. However, there was no clear correlation with ABTS•+, ORAC and FRAP values. The measured antioxidant capacity of samples varied with the assays used. The DPPH• assay clearly indicated that the phenolic compounds contribute to the scavenging activity of the honeys. Nevertheless, all assays confirm that Agastache honey has significant antioxidant capacity. Therefore, Agastache honey can be important to human nutrition and health.

  10. Edaphic properties and soil cyanobacteria of South Western Saudi Arabia.

    OpenAIRE

    Arif, Ibrahim A.; El-Syed, A.M.A.

    1997-01-01

    Three sites at each of five localities, in the South Western Region of Saudi Arabia were surveyed during 1992, for their soil physico-chemical properties, and cyanobacterial communities. The soils were moderately calcareous, and characterized as sandy loam textured and alkaline. Electrical conductivity and total soluble salts ranged between 0.196-2.228 mmhos cm -1 and 137.2-1559.6 ppm, respectively. Calcium was the major soluble cation, and sulphate, chloride and bicarobonate were the princip...

  11. Satiating properties of diets rich in dietary fibre fed to sows asevaluated by physico-chemical properties, gastric emptying rate and physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Henry; Theil, Peter Kappel; Bach Knudsen, Knud Erik

    2010-01-01

    A study was carried out using 4 diets to evaluate satiating properties of sow diets: a barley/wheat control diet (Con) and three diets with added dietary fibre (DF) from potato pulp (PP), sugar beet pulp (SBP) and pectin residue (PR). Diets PP and SBP were characterized by having a high content...... of soluble DF, whereas PR was characterized by a high content of insoluble DF. Swelling and water binding capacity were highest in PP, followed by SBP, PR and lowest in the Con diet. Four dry sows were used in a 4 × 4 Latin Square design and gastric emptying parameters as lag phase and gastric emptying half...... and these satiating properties could be attributed to increased swelling and WBC in the stomach, which in turn delayed the gastric emptying rate of the liquid phase of gastric content. Measurements of gastric emptying turned out to be a practical tool for ranking of the ability of DF sources to reduce activity...

  12. Sol-gel route approach and improvisation in physico-chemical, structural, magnetic and electrical properties of BaCox/2Znx/2ZrxFe(12-2x)O19 ferrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur Jassal, Amanpreet; Mudsainiyan, R. K.; Chawla, S. K.; Anu; Bindra Narang, Sukhleen; Pubby, Kunal

    2018-02-01

    The structural and magnetic properties of Zn, Co and Zr cations doped barium hexaferrite [Ba(Znx/2Cox/2)xZrxFe(12-2x)O19] nanoparticles synthesized by sol-gel method have been investigated. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) were employed to investigate the physico-chemical properties of the obtained ferrite samples. XRD studies reveal that the magnetoplumbite structure for all sample (up to x = 0.8) have been formed and the crystallite size of nanoparticles lies in the range of 34-46 nm. At higher dopant concentration, other impurities (α-Fe2O3 and BaFe2O4 etc.) have been observed. Magnetic studies indicate that site occupancy and nature of dopant ions greatly affect the behavior of magnetic properties. The results of VSM and LCR analysis show that magnetic and electrical parameters vary with an increase in dopant concentration. The results of BET surface area of samples indicate that these types of materials could be used for catalytic properties. Dielectric constant, dielectric loss tangent and A.C. conductivity weremeasured using impedance analyzer over wide frequency range 20 Hz-120 MHz. All the three parameters increase significantly with increase in doping. Increase in dielectric constant proposes these materials for fabrication of microwave devices, while increase in dielectric loss tangent proposes these for applications such as attenuator, absorber etc.

  13. Physico-chemical standardization of Sitopaladi churna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhija, Inder Kumar; Shreedhara, Chandrashekara Shastry; Ram, Holavana Hally Nanjundaiah Setty Aswatha

    2012-01-01

    Background: Standardization of a compound Ayurvedic formulation is a critical and essential issue to be considered in assuring the therapeutic efficacy and safety and to rationalize their use in the health care. Sitopaladi churna is a reputed polyherbal formulation of Ayurveda. It is prescribed for the treatment of pleurodynia, intercostal neuralgia, cold, cough associated with bronchitis, pneumonia, tuberculosis, viral respiratory infection, and in pharyngeal and chest congestion. Objective: The present study aimed at physico-chemical standardization of in-house and two marketed brands of Sitopaladi churna. Materials and Methods: In our investigation, in-house churna and two commercial brands of Sitopaladi churna were standardized based on powder microscopy, physico-chemical evaluations, thin layer chromatography (TLC) and high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) finger printing as per standard procedures. Results: The set parameters were sufficient to evaluate the churna based on various physico-chemical parameters. Conclusion: The data evolved can be adopted for laying down the standards for the manufacturing units of Sitopaladi churna. PMID:23284216

  14. Fizičko-hemijske i detonacione karakteristike nitraminskih eksploziva - RDX, HMX i CL-20 / Physico-chemical and detonation properties of nitramine explosives: RDX, HMX and CL-20

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana Anđelković-Lukić

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available U radu su prikazane fizičko-hemijske i detonacione karakteristike nitraminskih brizantnih eksploziva, heksogena i oktogena, uporedene sa osobinama novog cikličnog nitraminskog eksploziva CL-20. Novi visokobrizantni eksploziv CL-20 postoji u četiri kristalne forme, stabilne na različitim temepraturama. Ima bolje detonacione karakteristike od heksogena i oktogena veću gustinu i brzinu detonacije, all mnogo veću osetljivost na udar i trenje, reda PETN. Zbog toga se ovaj eksploziv flegmatizuje sa polimerima etilenvinilacetatom (EVA i estanom. Da bi se povećale energetske performanse eksploziva i smanjila osetljivost na mehanička dejstva eksplozivu CL-20 dodaju se visokoenergetski materijali, fluoronitrojedinjenja (FEFO. / In this paper the physico-chemical and detonation properties of nitramine high explosives, hexogen and octogen, are presented and compared with a polycyclic nitramine high explosive CL-20. This new high explosive CL-20 exists in four crystalline forms, stable at different temperatures. CL-20 has better detonation properties than hexogen and octogen, higher density and detonation rate, but greater impact and friction sensitivity (of PETN class. So it is necessary to bond this explosive with polymers-ethylenvinil acetat (EVA and estane to reduce sensitivity to mechanical effects. CL-20 can be prepared by adding high energy materials-fluoro-nitro compounds (FEFO as regulators of energy performances.

  15. Effect of ultrasound treatment on the wet heating Maillard reaction between mung bean [Vigna radiate (L.)] protein isolates and glucose and on structural and physico-chemical properties of conjugates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhongjiang; Han, Feifei; Sui, Xiaonan; Qi, Baokun; Yang, Yong; Zhang, Hui; Wang, Rui; Li, Yang; Jiang, Lianzhou

    2016-03-30

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of ultrasound treatment on the wet heating Maillard reaction between mung bean protein isolates (MBPIs) and glucose, and on structural and physico-chemical properties of the conjugates. The degree of glycosylation of MBPI-glucose conjugates treated by ultrasound treatment and wet heating (MBPI-GUH) was higher than that of MBPI-glucose conjugates only treated by wet heating (MBPI-GH). Solubility, emulsification activity, emulsification stability and surface hydrophobicity of MBPI-GUH were higher than that of MBPI-GH. Grafted MBPIs had a lower content of α-helix and unordered coil, but a higher content of β-sheet and β-turn structure than MBPIs. No significant structural changes were observed in β-turn and random coil structure of MBPI-GUH, while α-helix content increased with ultrasonic time, and decreased at 300 W ultrasonic power with the increase of β-sheet. MBPI-GUH had a less compact tertiary structure compared to MBPI-GH and MBPI. Grafting MBPIs with glucose formed conjugates of higher molecular weight, while no significant changes were observed in electrophoresis profiles of MBPI-GUH. Ultrasound-assisted wet heating Maillard reaction between MBPIs and glucose could be a promising way to improve functional properties of MBPIs. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Primary productivity, phytoplankton standing crop and physico-chemical characteristics of the Antarctic and adjacent central Indian Ocean waters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    JiyalalRam, M.

    Primary productivity, phytoplankton pigments and physico-chemical properties were studied in Antarctic waters and adjoining Indian Ocean between 11 degrees and 67 degrees E longitudes from polynya region (60 degrees S) to equator during the austral...

  17. A review of current techniques of Physico-chemical and biological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In spite of this fact, the soil is constantly subjected to various forms of abuse, including heavy metals pollution. The ecological destructive effect, high cost, and intensive labour requirement associated with ex situ physico-chemical remediation methods make the search for in situ remediation techniques inevitable. This paper ...

  18. The Role of HIV-1 gp41 Glycoprotein in Infectious Tropism Inferred from Physico-Chemical Properties of its Amino Acid Sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, E.; Villarreal, C.; Huerta, L.; Cocho, G.

    2006-09-01

    We performed a statistical analysis of the amino acid sequence of the gp41 ectodomain of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1. We found strong correlations between physicochemical properties of highly variable residues and the viral infectious tropism.

  19. Physico chemical evaluation of coffee husk, wastes of enset (Enset ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physico chemical evaluation of coffee husk, wastes of enset (Enset ventricosum), vegetable and khat (Catha edulis) through vermicomposting employing an epigeic earthworm Dendrobaena veneta (Rosa, 1886)

  20. Influence of different water-ethanol solvent systems on the spectroscopic and physico-chemical properties of the macrocyclic compounds pheophytin and chlorophyll a

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, Leonardo M.; Rodrigues, Maira R.; Oliveira, Hueder P. M. de; Lima, Adriana; Soares, Rafael R. S.; Batistela, Vagner R.; Gerola, Adriana P.; Hioka, Noboru; Severino, Divinomar; Baptista, Mauricio S.; Machado, Antonio Eduardo da Hora

    2010-01-01

    This work focus on the influence of solvent on the photophysical properties of chlorophyll a and pheophytin. Both compounds are related to the photosynthesis process and are considered prototypes of photosensitizers in Photodynamic Therapy. Fluorescence measurements were developed using water/ethanol mixtures at different compositions, since both solvents could be employed in biological applications. The spectroscopic properties of these compounds undergo profound changes depending on water content in the ethanol due to auto-aggregation processes. The major hydrophobicity and the lower dielectric constant of ethanol when compared with water precluded significantly the auto-aggregation process of these compounds. (author)

  1. Effect of sweet grass (Hierochloe odorata) on the physico-chemical properties of liver cell membranes from rats intoxicated with ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrzyńska, Izabela; Szachowicz-Petelska, Barbara; Skrzydlewska, Elżbieta; Figaszewski, Zbigniew

    2013-03-01

    Changes in the composition and physicochemical properties of liver cell membranes due to ethanol intoxication are due mainly to reactive oxygen species (ROS). The destructive action of free radicals can be neutralized by administration of antioxidants. The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of sweet grass on the physicochemical and biochemical properties of the rat liver membrane altered by chronic ethanol intoxication. Qualitative and quantitative composition of phospholipids and proteins in the membrane were determined by HPLC. Ethanol increased phospholipid levels and altered the level of integral proteins as determined by decreased phenylalanine, cysteine and lysine. Ethanol significantly enhanced changes in the surface charge density of the liver cell membranes as determined by electrophoresis. Administration of sweet grass to rats intoxicated with ethanol significantly protects lipids and proteins against oxidative modifications. Therefore, sweet grass protects against some of the deleterious membrane changes associated with ethanol exposure. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Fibre from pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.) seeds and rinds: physico-chemical properties, antioxidant capacity and application as bakery product ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyam, K L; Lau, M; Tan, C P

    2013-04-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the proximate composition, functional properties and antioxidant activity of pumpkin seeds and rind. Besides, the effects of dietary fibre in pumpkin seeds and rinds on bread qualities and properties were evaluated. Formulations for bread substituted with 0%, 5% and 10% pumpkin seed and rind, respectively were produced. Sensory evaluation of the prepared bread samples for such attributes as appearance, aroma, flavour, texture and overall acceptability was undertaken. The physical properties of the bread samples, including dough expansion, loaf volume, crumb colour and bread texture, were determined. Proximate analysis and determination of antioxidant activity of the bread samples were also conducted. Crude fibre of the pumpkin seeds and pumpkin rinds was high at 31.48% and 14.83%, respectively. The total phenolic compound (TPC) and DPPH radical scavenging activity for the pumpkin rinds were 38.60 mg GAE/100 g dry weight and 69.38%, respectively, which were higher than those of pumpkin seeds. A 5% level of pumpkin rind bread gave the best overall acceptability and sensory attributes, followed by 5% pumpkin seed bread. Total dietary fibre, total phenolic compound and DPPH radical scavenging activity in breads substituted with 5% pumpkin seed and 5% pumpkin rind flour were higher than the values in control bread. Pumpkin seeds and rinds can be used as dietary fibre sources in bakery.

  3. Physico-chemical properties of binary mixtures of N,N-dimethylformamide with 1-octanol, 1-nonanol and 1-decanol at different temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AlTuwaim, Mohammad S.; Alkhaldi, Khaled H.A.E.; Al-Jimaz, Adel S.; Mohammad, Abubaker A.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Physical properties of binary mixtures of DMF+1-octanol, 1-nonanol or 1-decanol at different temperatures were investigated. ► Densities, refractive indices and speed of sound were measured. ► V E , K s E , u D and n D E were calculated using the experimental data. ► Speed of sound data were analyzed using different theories and relations. -- Abstract: The density, refractive index and speed of sound for binary mixtures of N,N-dimethylformamide with 1-octanol, 1-nonanol and 1-decanol were measured at several temperatures and atmospheric pressure over the entire range of mole fraction. Excess molar volumes, isentropic and excess isentropic compressibilities, excess refractive indices and deviations in speed of sound for the above systems were calculated from the experimental results. Furthermore, excess properties and deviations in speed of sound were fitted to the Redlich–Kister polynomial. The Lorentz–Lorenz, Dale–Gladstone, Eykman and Arago–Biot mixing rules were used to calculate the refractive indices of the binary mixtures. The speeds of sound have been analyzed in term of Schaaffs’ collision factor theory, Jacobson’s intermolecular free length theory of solutions, Nomoto relation and Van Deal ideal mixture relation. The calculated excess molar properties have been qualitatively used to explain the intermolecular interaction between the mixed components as well as the effects of n-alkanol chain length

  4. Influence of Pyrolysis Temperature on Physico-Chemical Properties of Corn Stover (Zea mays L. Biochar and Feasibility for Carbon Capture and Energy Balance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Khalid Rafiq

    Full Text Available This study examined the influence of pyrolysis temperature on biochar characteristics and evaluated its suitability for carbon capture and energy production. Biochar was produced from corn stover using slow pyrolysis at 300, 400 and 500°C and 2 hrs holding time. The experimental biochars were characterized by elemental analysis, BET, FTIR, TGA/DTA, NMR (C-13. Higher heating value (HHV of feedstock and biochars was measured using bomb calorimeter. Results show that carbon content of corn stover biochar increased from 45.5% to 64.5%, with increasing pyrolysis temperatures. A decrease in H:C and O:C ratios as well as volatile matter, coupled with increase in the concentration of aromatic carbon in the biochar as determined by FTIR and NMR (C-13 demonstrates a higher biochar carbon stability at 500°C. It was estimated that corn stover pyrolysed at 500°C could provide of 10.12 MJ/kg thermal energy. Pyrolysis is therefore a potential technology with its carbon-negative, energy positive and soil amendment benefits thus creating win- win scenario.

  5. Influence of Pyrolysis Temperature on Physico-Chemical Properties of Corn Stover (Zea mays L.) Biochar and Feasibility for Carbon Capture and Energy Balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiq, Muhammad Khalid; Bachmann, Robert Thomas; Rafiq, Muhammad Tariq; Shang, Zhanhuan; Joseph, Stephen; Long, Ruijun

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the influence of pyrolysis temperature on biochar characteristics and evaluated its suitability for carbon capture and energy production. Biochar was produced from corn stover using slow pyrolysis at 300, 400 and 500°C and 2 hrs holding time. The experimental biochars were characterized by elemental analysis, BET, FTIR, TGA/DTA, NMR (C-13). Higher heating value (HHV) of feedstock and biochars was measured using bomb calorimeter. Results show that carbon content of corn stover biochar increased from 45.5% to 64.5%, with increasing pyrolysis temperatures. A decrease in H:C and O:C ratios as well as volatile matter, coupled with increase in the concentration of aromatic carbon in the biochar as determined by FTIR and NMR (C-13) demonstrates a higher biochar carbon stability at 500°C. It was estimated that corn stover pyrolysed at 500°C could provide of 10.12 MJ/kg thermal energy. Pyrolysis is therefore a potential technology with its carbon-negative, energy positive and soil amendment benefits thus creating win- win scenario.

  6. Influence of Pyrolysis Temperature on Physico-Chemical Properties of Corn Stover (Zea mays L.) Biochar and Feasibility for Carbon Capture and Energy Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiq, Muhammad Khalid; Bachmann, Robert Thomas; Rafiq, Muhammad Tariq; Shang, Zhanhuan; Joseph, Stephen; Long, Ruijun

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the influence of pyrolysis temperature on biochar characteristics and evaluated its suitability for carbon capture and energy production. Biochar was produced from corn stover using slow pyrolysis at 300, 400 and 500°C and 2 hrs holding time. The experimental biochars were characterized by elemental analysis, BET, FTIR, TGA/DTA, NMR (C-13). Higher heating value (HHV) of feedstock and biochars was measured using bomb calorimeter. Results show that carbon content of corn stover biochar increased from 45.5% to 64.5%, with increasing pyrolysis temperatures. A decrease in H:C and O:C ratios as well as volatile matter, coupled with increase in the concentration of aromatic carbon in the biochar as determined by FTIR and NMR (C-13) demonstrates a higher biochar carbon stability at 500°C. It was estimated that corn stover pyrolysed at 500°C could provide of 10.12 MJ/kg thermal energy. Pyrolysis is therefore a potential technology with its carbon-negative, energy positive and soil amendment benefits thus creating win- win scenario. PMID:27327870

  7. Morphological, physico-chemical and structural characterization of mucilage isolated from the seeds of Buchanania lanzan Spreng

    OpenAIRE

    Sudarshan Singh; Sunil B Bothara

    2014-01-01

    Context: Mucilage isolated from the seeds of Buchanania lanzan a wild Indian plant. This mucilage can be commercially exploited, by evaluating physico-chemical properties of this mucilage. Materials and Methods: Various physico-chemical parameter using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), molecular weight, X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectrometry, zeta potential (ZP), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and 1D ( 1 H and 13 C) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) have been employed to chara...

  8. Effect of electromagnetic radiation on the physico-chemical properties of minerals; Efecto de la radiacion electromagnetica en las propiedades fisicoquimicas de los minerales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez M, A.; Delgadillo G, J. A. [Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, Instituto de Metalurgia, Doctorado Institucional de Ingenieria y Ciencia de Materiales, Av. Sierra Leona 550, 78210 San Luis Potosi (Mexico); Vega C, H. R., E-mail: alopezm6@yahoo.com.mx [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico)

    2014-08-15

    The electromagnetic radiation effect represented by gamma rays was investigated through; chemical analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (Sem) and magnetization when applied at a dose of 0.5704 Gy (0.5704 J/ kg) at a feed relation of 18.40 ± 1.13 mGy/ h., in different minerals; in order to characterize the impact of the same from {sup 137}Cs in the physicochemical properties of these minerals. All the irradiated samples showed chemical stability at this stage undetectable other both in the XRD study and in the images analysis obtained by Sem; and at present almost the same chemical composition as the non-irradiated samples. So the same patterns of X-ray diffraction thereof, show a tendency to slightly lower the intensity of the most representative peaks of each mineral phase, which may be due to a decrease in crystallinity or preferential crystallographic orientation in crystals. In the micrographs analysis obtained by Sem on the irradiated samples, some holes (open pores) present in the particles were observed, mainly chalcopyrite and sphalerite lesser extent, seen this fact may be due to Compton Effect, in the radiation process. In relation to the magnetization property, a variation is obtained in the saturation magnetization (Ms) for the irradiated samples containing iron and more significantly in the chalcopyrite case. Therefore, with the radiation level used; slight changes occurring in the physical properties of minerals, whereas they remained stable chemically. These small changes may represent a signal that electromagnetic radiation applied at higher doses, is a viable option for improving the mineral processing. (author)

  9. Anchovy mince (Engraulis ringens) enriched with polyphenol-rich grape pomace dietary fibre: In vitro polyphenols bioaccessibility, antioxidant and physico-chemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solari-Godiño, A; Pérez-Jiménez, J; Saura-Calixto, F; Borderías, A J; Moreno, H M

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate technological and antioxidant properties, including in vitro bioaccessibility of polyphenols, conferred on raw anchovy mince by the addition of polyphenol-rich grape pomace dietary fibre at different concentrations. For this purpose, headed and gutted anchovy was heat-flayed, deboned and mixed with 0%, 2%, 3%, 4% grape pomace dietary fibre. A significant increase (Panchovy as a means of increasing dietary intake of polyphenols with antioxidant capacity, especially considering the high concentration of polyphenols bioaccessible in the large intestine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Physico-chemical properties of Moringa oleifera seed oil enzymatically interesterified with palm stearin and palm kernel oil and its potential application in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dollah, Sarafhana; Abdulkarim, Sabo Mohammed; Ahmad, Siti Hajar; Khoramnia, Anahita; Mohd Ghazali, Hasanah

    2016-08-01

    High oleic acid Moringa oleifera seed oil (MoO) has been rarely applied in food products due to the low melting point and lack of plasticity. Enzymatic interesterification (EIE) of MoO with palm stearin (PS) and palm kernel oil (PKO) could yield harder fat stocks that may impart desirable nutritional and physical properties. Blends of MoO and PS or PKO were examined for triacylglycerol (TAG) composition, thermal properties and solid fat content (SFC). EIE caused rearrangement of TAGs, reduction of U3 and increase of U2 S in MoO/PS blends while reduction of U3 and S3 following increase of S2 U and U2 S in MoO/PKO blends (U, unsaturated and S, saturated fatty acids). SFC measurements revealed a wide range of plasticity, enhancements of spreadability, mouthfeel and cooling effect for interesterified MoO/PS, indicating the possible application of these blends in margarines. However, interesterified MoO/PKO was not suitable in margarine application, while ice-cream may be formulated from these blends. A soft margarine formulated from MoO/PS 70:30 revealed high oxidative stability during 8 weeks storage with no significant changes in peroxide and p-anisidine values. EIE of fats with MoO allowed nutritional and oxidative stable plastic fats to be obtained, suitable for possible use in industrial food applications. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Physico-chemical, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties and stability of hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna Jacq.) procyanidins microcapsules with inulin and maltodextrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyspiańska, Dorota; Kucharska, Alicja Z; Sokół-Łętowska, Anna; Kolniak-Ostek, Joanna

    2017-01-01

    Procyanidins from the bark of hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna Jacq.) were isolated and purified. Qualitative and quantitative composition was compared with that of the extract of hawthorn fruit (Crataegus monogyna Jacq.). Stability and antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of procyanidins before and after micro-encapsulation were estimated. The effects of the carrier type (inulin and maltodextrin) and procyanidins:carrier ratio (1:1, 1:3) and the influence of storage temperature (20 °C, -20 °C, -80 °C) on the content of procyanidins were evaluated. Samples before and after micro-encapsulation contained from 651 to 751 mg of procyanidins in 1 g. Among the procyanidins, (-)-epicatechin, dimer B2, and trimer C1 dominated. The use of inulin during spray drying resulted in greater efficiency of micro-encapsulation than the use of maltodextrin. During storage of the samples at 20 °C degradation of procyanidins was observed, whereas at -20 °C and -80 °C concentrations of them increased. The microcapsules with procyanidins from the bark of hawthorn, as well as the extract of procyanidins, have valuable biological activity, and strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. It is better to prepare microcapsules with a greater amount of carrier, with the procyanidin/carrier ratio 1:3. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Preparation and characterization of baru (Dipteryx alata Vog) nut protein isolate and comparison of its physico-chemical properties with commercial animal and plant protein isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Ângela A; Favaro, Simone P; Miranda, Cesar H B; Neves, Valdir A

    2017-01-01

    The Brazilian leguminous tree locally known in the Cerrado Biome as baru (Dipteryx alata Vog), provides a healthy edible oil source. The proteinaceous cake remaining after oil extraction could be transformed into new products to foodstuff development, such as protein concentrates and isolates, adding value to the production chain. In this study, it is described the preparation and characterization of baru nut protein isolate (BPI) from deffated baru flour, and measurements of its functional, nutritional, and thermal properties, in comparison to the more common vegetable (soybeans) and animal (casein and albumin) protein sources of the food industry. BPI presented higher protein content than soybean, casein and albumin commercial protein isolates, despite losses of albumins and low molecular weight globulins during the isolation procedure. Thermodynamics studies suggested that BPI has a well-conserved protein arrangement and lower thermostability than the other protein sources. BPI showed high in vitro digestibility and suitable and desirable functional properties such as water and oil absorption capacity, emulsifying activity, and foam formation and stability at mild and neutral pH. BPI could be used either as a substitute ingredient in oily food formulations or in the development of new products of its own. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Effect of Temperature on the Physico-Chemical Properties of a Room Temperature Ionic Liquid (1-Methyl-3-pentylimidazolium Hexafluorophosphate with Polyethylene Glycol Oligomer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Hao

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A systematic study of the effect of composition on the thermo-physical properties of the binary mixtures of 1-methyl-3-pentyl imidazolium hexafluorophosphate [MPI][PF6] with poly(ethylene glycol (PEG [Mw = 400] is presented. The excess molar volume, refractive index deviation, viscosity deviation, and surface tension deviation values were calculated from these experimental density, ρ, refractive index, n, viscosity, η, and surface tension, γ, over the whole concentration range, respectively. The excess molar volumes are negative and continue to become increasingly negative with increasing temperature; whereas the viscosity and surface tension deviation are negative and become less negative with increasing temperature. The surface thermodynamic functions, such as surface entropy, enthalpy, as well as standard molar entropy, Parachor, and molar enthalpy of vaporization for pure ionic liquid, have been derived from the temperature dependence of the surface tension values.

  14. Physico-chemical properties, oxidative stability and non-enzymatic browning in marine phospholipid emulsions and their use in food applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Henna Fung Sieng

    better bioavailability and ability to form liposomes. All these unique properties of marine PL make them an attractive choice as ingredients for food fortification. Nowadays, a wide range of food products fortified with n-3 triglycerides (TAG) are available worldwide. However, the feasibility of using...... marine PL for food fortification has not been explored. The main objective of the present Ph.D. study was to explore the feasibility of using marine PL for food fortification. The secondary objective was to study the physical and oxidative stability of marine PL emulsions while identifying the important...... be prepared by using 2-10 % marine PL. The high physical stability of these emulsions was most likely due to the coexistence of micelles, liposomes and emulsified oil droplets. However, there was a requirement for at least 3 % of marine PL (equivalent to 0.8 - 1.3 % of PC depending on the marine PL sources...

  15. Physico-chemical properties of meso-tetrakis(p-methoxyphenylporphyrin (TMPP incorporated into pluronicTM p-123 and f-127 polymeric micelles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno H. Vilsinski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The physicochemical properties (solubilization, structural organization and stability of meso-tetrakis(p-methoxyphenylporphyrin (TMPP, a promising photosensitizer for photodynamic therapy, solubilized in polymeric micelles of tri-block copolymers PluronicTM P-123 and F-127, were studied. The formulations obtained by the solid dispersion method led to monomerization of TMPP in these copolymers. Solubility studies showed that P-123 solubilizes double the photosensitizer than F-127. The self-aggregation phenomenon was affected by the [TMPP]/[poloxamer] ratio and medium temperature. The decrease in the temperature of these systems promoted the formation of different kinds of TMPP aggregates intrinsically connected with the structural changes occurring in the micelles.

  16. Influence of fat and oil type on the yield, physico-chemical properties, and microstructure of fat, oil, and grease (FOG) deposits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Mundo, Dann Marie N; Sutheerawattananonda, Manote

    2017-11-01

    Fat, oil, and grease (FOG) deposit, in the form of calcium soap, was found to cause sanitary sewer overflows due to its adhesion on pipe walls. To address this problem, laboratory-prepared calcium soaps have been used to investigate the formation mechanisms of FOG deposits. However, the fats and oils previously utilized were limited and some soap characteristics were not examined. This research attempted to probe through the properties of calcium soaps prepared from calcium chloride and the fats and oils of chicken, pork, palm olein, soybean, olive, and coconut to further understand FOG formation and stability. Results revealed that FOG deposits may occur as smooth, paste-like material or coarse, semi-solid substance depending on their exposure to excess fat/oil and calcium. The smooth soaps with more excess fat/oil demonstrated high apparent viscosity and consistency index, while the coarse soaps with large levels of calcium signified higher melting endset. Moreover, a soap microstructure showing evident networks and lesser void area displayed higher heat and rheological stability, respectively. Overall, fats and oils with higher oleic to palmitic acid ratio such as palm olein oil, olive oil, chicken fat, and pork fat produced soaps with greater yield and degree of saponification. Hence, establishments and authorities should be alert in managing and monitoring these wastes. On the other hand, soybean oil high in linoleic acid and coconut oil high in lauric acid do not pose an immediate threat to the sewer system since they only produced soaps in small quantity. However, their soaps showed high melting endset which could pose a serious effect when accumulated at large amount. On the whole, the fatty acid profile of fats and oils, the presence of excess fat/oil, and calcium content mainly dictate the appearance, melting, rheology, and microstructure of calcium soaps. Their distinct properties can be used as criteria in predicting the condition and stability of FOG

  17. Nucleoprotein complexes harboring an extrachromosomal DNA closely related to 7 S DNA of avian myeloblastosis virus: physico-chemical properties and representation of nucleic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riman, J.; Sulova, A.

    1997-01-01

    The source of avian myeloblastosis virus (AMV) DNA, an extrachromosomal small polydisperse DNA, present in the material forming the post-microsomal sediment (POMS) of lysed chicken leukemic myeloblasts (CHLMs) is organized into nucleoprotein (NP) complexes containing always RNA. This material, radioactively double-labelled for DNA and RNA, separated in isopycnic sucrose gradients into three POMS components (A,B,C) differing from one another in properties of labelling for DNA and RNA, sucrose densities (1.21, 1.18 and 1.08 g/cm 3 for components A, B and C, respectively) and sedimentation properties of NP complexes which constituted the individual POMS components. The NP complexes present in representative fractions of POMS components A, B and C sedimented at 37.3 and 27.3, at 15.3 and 7.4, and at 11.3 and 5.5, respectively. They differed also in the length of DNAs they were harboring. Radioactively double-labelled nucleic acids (NAs) of POMS components A, B and C sedimented at 9, 7 and 3.5 S, respectively, and the sedimentation characteristics of both labels corresponded with those significant for replication intermediates. Electrophoretic characteristics of these NAs indicated that we dealt with DNA and RNA products of a lagging DNA strand synthesis (LSS) taking place, evidently, on pieces of the lagging sites of replicating DNA strands that were cut out at predilected sites by nucleases. As regards the origin of AMV DNA, we show that the major and minor portions of this DNA might be descending from NAs harbored in NP complexes of POMS components B and C, respectively, pointing out selectivity of segregation of this DNA from the cell into AMV core

  18. Physico-Chemical, and Sensory Properties of Soy Based Gouda Cheese Analog Made from Different Concentration of Fat, Sodium Citrate and Various Cheese Starter Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Amar

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Gouda cheese analog (GCA was made using soy protein isolate (SPI, skim milk powder (SMP, fat (palm fat and butter fat, and water (W at optimal ratio of SPI : SMP : F : W = 14 : 6 : 20 : 60. The effects of butter fat, sodium citrate, and cheese starter culture on the sensory properties of ripened product were assessed by preference test, hedonic test, and the texture profile analysis (TPA of GCA. The free fatty acids, water-soluble nitrogen, and reduction in pH value of progel were also measured. The use of 100% butter fat (BF produced strong Gouda flavor. It could be due to the fatty acids content in BF; in contrast, product with 100% palm fat (PF produced tasteless GCA. It might be due to fatty acids content in PF, middle, and long chain fatty acids. Single cheese starter culture could not develop Gouda flavor during ripening. The use of mixed fat (50% BF and 50% PF and mixed cheese starter culture together with Brevibacterium linens developed a suitable characteristic flavor of Gouda product during ripening. The addition of 0.5% sodium citrate could improve the flavor; nevertheless, it reduced the stability of texture.

  19. Physico-chemical properties and gasification reactivity of co-pyrolysis char from different rank of coal blended with lignocellulosic biomass: Effects of the cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhiqiang; Wang, Shuzhong; Luo, Zhengyuan; Chen, Lin; Meng, Haiyu; Zhao, Jun

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, the influence of cellulose on the physicochemical properties and the gasification reactivity of co-pyrolysis char was investigated. A specific surface area analyzer and an X-ray diffraction system were used to characterize the pore structure and the micro-crystalline structure of char. Fractal theory and deconvolution method were applied to quantitatively investigate the influence of cellulose on the structure of co-pyrolysis char. The results indicate that the improvements in the pore structure due to the presence of cellulose are more pronounced in the case of anthracite char with respect to bituminous char. Cellulose promotes the ordering of micro-scale structure and the uniformity of both anthracite and bituminous char, while the negative synergetic effect was observed during gasification of co-pyrolysis char. The exponential relationships between fractal dimension and specific surface area were determined, along with the relations between the gasification reactivity index and the microcrystalline structure parameter. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Ultrasound assisted synthesis of PANI/ZnMoO4 nanocomposite for simultaneous improvement in anticorrosion, physico-chemical properties and its application in gas sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhanvase, B A; Darda, N S; Veerkar, N C; Shende, A S; Satpute, S R; Sonawane, S H

    2015-05-01

    Ultrasound assisted in-situ semi-batch emulsion polymerization has been used for the preparation of polyaniline (PANI) and PANI/ZnMoO4 nanocomposite with different loading of ZnMoO4 (ZM) nanoparticles. ZM nanoparticles were functionalized using Myristic acid (MA) for better compatibility with PANI. The cavitational effects induced due to ultrasonic irradiations have been shown significant enhancement in the dispersion of functionalized ZM nanoparticles into the PANI during ultrasound assisted in-situ emulsion polymerization process. TEM images of PANI/ZM nanocomposite particles give the direct evidence of fine dispersion and encapsulation of MA treated ZM nanoparticles in PANI matrix. The presence of ZM nanoparticles in PANI/ZM nanocomposite shows significant improvement in the mechanical (cross-cut adhesion), thermal, anticorrosion and sensing properties of PANI/ZM nanocomposite/alkyd coatings over PANI/alkyd and neat alkyd resin coating. Fine and uniform dispersion of ZM nanoparticles in PANI matrix using this novel synthesis method (PANI (p-type)/ZM (n-type) hetero-junction) improves LPG sensing ability and minimizes response time to sense LPG significantly compared with neat PANI. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Physico-chemical and sensory properties of reduced-fat mortadella prepared with blends of calcium, magnesium and potassium chloride as partial substitutes for sodium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horita, C N; Morgano, M A; Celeghini, R M S; Pollonio, M A R

    2011-12-01

    Blends of calcium, magnesium and potassium chloride were used to partially replace sodium chloride (50-75%) in reduced-fat mortadella formulations. The presence of calcium chloride reduced the emulsion stability, cooking yield, elasticity and cohesiveness and increased hardness; however, it yielded the best sensory acceptance when 50% NaCl was replaced by 25% CaCl(2) and 25% KCl. There was no effect of the salt substitutes on mortadella color, appearance and aroma. All salt combinations studied showed stable lipid oxidation during its shelf life. The use of a blend with 1% NaCl, 0.5% KCl and 0.5% MgCl(2) resulted in the best emulsion stability, but the worst scores for flavor. This study suggests that it is possible to reduce the sodium chloride concentration by 50% in reduced-fat mortadella using the studied salt combinations with necessary adjustments to optimize the sensory properties (MgCl(2) 25%; KCl 25%) or emulsion stability (CaCl(2) 25%; KCl 25%). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of Soybean Flour on Physico-chemical, Functional, and Rheological Properties of Composite Flour from Rice, Sweet Potato, and Potato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julianti, Elisa; Rusmarilin, Herla; Ridwansyah; Yusraini, Era

    2016-11-01

    Three composite flours were prepared by combining rice flour, potato starch, sweet potato flour, soybean flour, and xanthan gum in the ratio of 30: 15: 50: 4.5: 0.5; 30: 15: 45: 9.5: 0.5; and 30: 15: 40: 14.5: 0.5, were analysed for selected physical, chemical, functional, and rheological properties. Fat, protein, ash, and crude fibre content were found to increase with increase in the ratio of soybean flour and decrease in the ratio of sweet potato flour in the mixture. The composite flours were not significantly different in water and oil absorption capacity, swelling power, and baking expansion. There was a tendency for the relative viscosities of the composite flours to increase significantly with increasing proportion of the soybean flour and decreasing proportion of sweet potato flour in the mixture. Pasting viscosity measurements of the composite flours gave maximum (peak) viscosity values ranging from 582.00-668.67 cP. The pasting analysis results indicated increased level of setback and final viscosity, pasting temperature, setback and stability ratio while peak viscosity decreased with increasing proportion of soybean flour and decreasing proportion of sweet potato flour in the mixture.

  3. ASSESSMENT OF LOCAL METHODS OF PROCESSING FOR THE PRESERVATION OF THE PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES AND MICROBIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF TWO LOCAL CHEESES IN ILORIN, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolanle Kudirat Saliu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Nigerian locally produced cheese from milk, commonly known as wara is highly nutritious and highly prone to attack by spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms. Moist heat treatment and salting alone are the common methods used for processing. This study assessed the efficacy of these local processing methods in preserving the physicochemical properties and microbiological quality of wara. Samples were purchased from open markets in Ilorin; processed by boiling in water and with addition of salt; and stored at room temperature (28±2oC to mimic the local method. The samples were observed at 24 hrs interval for a period of 96 hrs, for changes in pH, color, odor and texture. Microbiological analysis was done following standard methods. The pH of most of the samples increased while the color, odor and texture deteriorated within 48 hrs of storage. The cheese samples were preserved most by boiling with salt. Many spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms were isolated. The bacterial isolates were Lactobaccillus acidophilus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus vulgaris, Enterococcus feacalis, Aerobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella, Aerococcus, Micrococcus and Streptococcus spp.; while the fungi were Aspergillus flavus, A. fumigatus, A. flavus, Candida tropicalis, Rhizopus arrhizus, Penicillium and Mucor spp. Some of the microorganisms were eliminated during treatments, others survived while some contaminated the samples during storage. Though boiling of wara with salt was shown to improve its keeping quality compared to other methods studied, further treatments such as frying, drying, and roasting; as well as storage at low temperature may significantly increase the shelf life.

  4. Influence of triblock copolymer (pluronic F127) on enhancing the physico-chemical properties and photocatalytic response of mesoporous TiO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsudin, Emy Marlina; Hamid, Sharifah Bee Abd; Juan, Joon Ching; Basirun, Wan Jefrey

    2015-11-01

    The utilization of triblock copolymer, pluronic F127 as a structure directing agent for the preparation of TiO2 played an important role in enhancing the photocatalytic degradation rate of atrazine by a factor of 1.7. The mesoporous F127-TiO2 showed significant modification of morphology, particle and crystallite size, and presence of defect energy belt within the catalyst forbidden band as proven via photoluminescence spectra and x-ray photon spectroscopy. Hence the photogenerated carriers have longer lifespan to migrate to the catalyst surface for redox activities. Furtherance, surface reactive {0 0 1} facets proven by the formation of new geometrical single crystal of square and rhombus surfaces in F127-TiO2 facilitates atrazine degradation as well. The increased surface area of F127-TiO2 promotes greater atrazine absorption, thus governs improved interaction between absorbed atrazine molecules and surface generated active radicals as a pre-requisite for good photocatalytic activity. Interestingly, using the same synthesis procedure, it was observed that the addition of pluronic F127 significantly affects anatase crystal structure as opposed to the more thermodynamically stable rutile, generating 61% and 25% of total crystallite size modification for anatase and rutile, respectively. However, there were no changes on the final composition of anatase and rutile crystal structure. In overall, enhancement of the photocatalytic degradation of atrazine is ruled out to the following factors (1) modification of geometrical structures and size, (2) narrowing of band gap due to defect energy belt, (3) longer lifespan of photoexcited charges to the catalyst surface, (4) enhanced surface textural properties and (5) increased exposure of reactive {0 0 1} facets, which were all observed in F127-TiO2.

  5. Comparison of the physico-chemical properties of NiO thin films deposited by chemical bath deposition and by spray pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berkat, L.; Cattin, L.; Reguig, A.; Regragui, M.; Bernede, J.C.

    2005-01-01

    Nickel oxide (NiO) thin films were obtained by two methods: chemical bath deposition (CBD) and spray pyrolysis. During the CBD deposition process, the bath was heated at 100 deg. C. The CBD as-deposited films corresponded to 3Ni(OH) 2 .2H 2 O. After an annealing time of 96 h at 350 deg. C, they became NiO. For the spray deposition, the nickel chloride hexahydrate (NiCl 2 .6H 2 O) was chosen as precursor, the glass substrates were heated at 350 deg. C. All the films were p-type semiconductors with a band gap of 3.5 eV. The X-ray diffraction diagrams revealed that all the films are crystallized in the cubic NiO phase with the expected value for the lattice parameters. Nevertheless, the orientation and the size of the grains depend on the deposition method. The films are oriented along the (1 1 1) plane in the case of spray, while they are oriented in the (1 1 1) and (2 0 0) planes in the case of CBD. The electron probe microanalysis and the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to measure the composition of the films. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy shows the presence of hydroxyl groups at the surface of the films, while the electron probe microanalysis shows that the films are stoichiometric in the bulk. The scanning electron microscope microphotographs show that all the films exhibit a rough surface with a presence of microstructural features in the case of CBD films. These properties are desired for an eventual application in microcrystalline solar cells

  6. Physico-chemical and bacteriological quality of rainwater in Egbema ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physico-chemical and bacteriological quality of rainwater in Egbema was determined with samples harvested directly, from zinc roof, thatched roof and asbestos roof, at different periods of the rainy season namely, Early, peak and late rains. The values of the physico-chemical parameters were on the higher side at the early ...

  7. Determination of physico-chemical parameters and heavy metals in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EJIRO

    Water samples from selected hand-dug wells and Ona River in Itaogbolu area of Akure, Ondo State,. Nigeria were collected, physico-chemical parameters and heavy metals were determined using standard analytical procedure. The results of the physico-chemical analysis were obtained in the following range; PH ...

  8. Physico-chemical evaluation of wastewater in Katsina metropolis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physico-chemical evaluation of wastewater in Katsina metropolis, Katsina Nigeria. A Abba, S Ibrahim, A.Y. Ugya. Abstract. The study was designed to assess the physico-chemical parameters of wastewater at Katsina metropolis from June-August, 2015. Water samples were collected twice in a month at three (3) sampling ...

  9. Physico-chemical and biotic factors influencing microalgal seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The growth of Chlorella vulgaris in open pond aquatic conditions poses serious challenges due to the interplay of both physico-chemical and biotic factors. We report here the monitoring of physico-chemical and biotic parameters affecting the propagation of C. vulgaris seed culture for inoculation of a large scale raceway ...

  10. Assessment of Physico-chemical and Microbiological qualities of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of Physico-chemical and Microbiological qualities of Abattoir Wastewater in Sokoto, Nigeria. AB Rabah, UJJ Ijah, SB Manga, ML Ibrahim. Abstract. Wastewater samples were collected from three different points in Sokoto (Nigeria) abattoir and the physico-chemical and the microbiological qualities were ...

  11. Microbiological and physico-chemical analysis of soymilk and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microbiological and physico-chemical analysis of soymilk and soyflour sold in Uyo metropolis, Nigeria. A. A. Brooks, N. U. Asamudo, F. C Udoukpo. Abstract. Ten samples each of unbranded soymilk and soyflour sold in Uyo metropolis were subjected to microbiological and physico-chemical studies. The microorganisms ...

  12. Physico-Chemical and Bacteriological Characteristics of Noyyal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to findout the physico-chemical and bacteriological characteristics of Noyyal River and ground water quality of Perur, India. The river water and ground water (bore well and open well) samples were collected in and around Perur and analyzed for various physico-chemical and bacteriological ...

  13. Microbiological and physico-chemical studies on irradiated dewatered sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilmy, N.; Suwirma, S.; Harsoyo; Suhadi, F.

    1987-01-01

    Microbiological and physico-chemical studies on irradiated dewatered sludge. Microbiological and physico-chemical dewatered have been carried out and non-irradiated dewatered sludge of Jakarta city, collected during the rainy and dry season. Total bacterial counts of non-irradiated dewatered sludge with water content of around 20%, were found to be about 7x10 8 per g during the rainy season and 7x10 6 up to 1.3x10 8 per g during the dry season, while coliform fecal Streptococcus and Pseudomonas were found to be 1.6x10 4 to 1.0x10 7 , 3x10 5 , and 5x10 3 per g, respectively. No Salmonella, Shigella and Vibrio were detected in all of the samples observed. About 10% of the total number of coliforms were found to be Escherichia coli. A dose of 6 kGy could eliminate the coliform, E. Coli, fecal Streptococcus and Pseudomonas from all of the dewatered sludge observed. The nutrient value of the sludge was sufficient, i.e. total nitrogen content ranged between 1 and 4,42%, phosphorus between 1.55 and 2.36%, and potassium between 0,1 and 0,2% of dry matter. Heavy metal contents were found a little bit high to be applied as animal feed, but it is still acceptable for soil conditioner. Combining 3 months storage at ambient environment and irradiation dose of 2.5 kGy were found to work synergistically to eliminate coliforms and E. Coli from sludge. (author). 8 figs, 17 refs

  14. The effect of intrinsic soil properties on soil quality assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Samuel-Rosa

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of soil quality is based on indicators and indices derived from soil properties. However, intrinsic soil properties may interfere with other soil properties that vary under different land uses and are used to calculate the indices. The aim of this study was to assess the extent to which intrinsic soil properties (clay and iron oxide contents explain variable soil properties (sum of bases, potential acidity, organic carbon, total porosity, and bulk density under different land uses (native forest, no-tillage and conventional agriculture on small family farms in Southern Brazil. The results showed that the five properties evaluated can be included in soil quality assessments and are not influenced by the clay and iron oxide contents. It was concluded that for little weathered 1:1 and 2:1 phyllosilicate rich-soils, if the difference between the maximum and the minimum clay content under the different land uses is less than about 200 g kg-1 and the iron oxide content less than about 15 g kg-1, the physico-chemical soil properties in the surface layer are determined mostly by the land use.

  15. THE INFLUENCE OF LITHOLOGY ON THE PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF SOILS FROM OAŞ MOUNTAINS (EASTERN CARPATHIAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Rusu

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The geological composition is essential for the pedogenetical processes. The Oas Mountains have a special complexity, caused by the subsequent magmatism. From a lithological point of view, we can mention the rhyolites and volcanic agglomerates followed by dacites, pyroxenic hyalodacites, porphyric, pyroxenic microgranodiorites, sands and clays with gravels intercalations, sandy clays and clays with coal lenses.

  16. Physico-chemical and organoleptic comparison of buffalo, cow and goat milk and their yogurt samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, N.; Elahi, S.

    2014-01-01

    The physico-chemical and organoleptic properties of buffalo, cow and goat milk and their respective yogurt samples were analyzed. Milk samples, 200ml each, were inoculated with sucrose, skimmed milk powder, carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) along with varying concentrations of starter culture and incubated at 45 degree C for 5 hours for yogurt preparation. The physico-chemical parameters studied were pH, tritable acidity, ash, moisture, fat, solid-non fat, total solids, crude protein, specific gravity and total energy, whereas the organoleptic analysis included texture, taste, colour and odor. Results revealed that commercial starter culture, sucrose, CMC and skimmed milk powder, in the concentrations of 0.05%, 0.5%, 0.075% and 0.5% respectively, was the best composition for fermentation. The milk and yogurt of buffalo was found to be physico-chemically and organoleptically superior. However, results showed that goat milk and yogurt could be a valuable substitute, especially in comparison to cow milk and yogurt. goat, milk, yogurt, physico-chemical analysis, organoleptic analysis, carboxymethyl cellulose. (author)

  17. Impact of physico-chemical parameters on the physiological growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Impact of physico-chemical parameters on the physiological growth of Arthrospira (Spirulina platensis) exogenous strain UTEXLB2340. Yahia Mustafa A Fagiri, Aisha Salleh, Saifeldin Ahmed F El-Nagerabi ...

  18. Impact of traditional processing methods on some physico chemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJB SERVER

    2006-10-16

    preservation methods on the physico-chemical and sensory quality of fermented cassava flour (Kpor umilin) in some areas of. Benue State, Nigeria. The physical, chemical and organoleptic qualities of the traditionally processed.

  19. On the physico-chemical characteristics of brines

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shirodkar, P.V.; Rao, P.V.S.S.D.P.; Singbal, S.Y.S.

    Analyses of the natural brines form the salt lakes, salt pans and the artificial brines obtained after the solar desalination of seawater respectively, showed wide differences in their physico-chemical characteristics. The natural brines are markEd...

  20. Group Chemical Changes and Physical Property Correlations in Refining of Lube Base Stocks. Physico-Chemical and Adsorption Chromatography Parameters Corrélations entre les propriétés physiques et les changements de composition chimique au cours du raffinage des huiles de base. Paramètres physico-chimiques et de chromatographie par adsorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh H.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Changes in twenty-two lubricating oil base stocks prepared from Darius and Assam Mix Crudes by different types of refining treatment and severity of refining have been investigated. Changes in the viscosity index with progressive refining in base stocks of different viscosity have been studied in relation to physico-chemical properties, structural analysis and saturate contents of the base oils. Correlations between the concentration of saturates, saturate-to-aromatic ratio and VI of the base stocks are reported.

  1. A comprehensive physico-chemical, mineralogical and morphological characterization of Indian mineral wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedam, Vidyadhar V; Jha, Rajesh; Labhasetwar, Pawan; Engelsen, Christian J

    2013-08-01

    This paper provides a comprehensive characterization of mineral waste such as fly ash, bottom ash, slag and construction demolition (C&D) collected from four different thermal power plants, three steel plants and three C&D waste generation sites in India. To determine utilisation potential and environmental concerns, as received fly ash, bottom ash, slag and C&D waste were analysed for physico-chemical, mineralogical and morphological properties. The physico-chemical properties analysed include pH, moisture content, acid insoluble residue, loss on ignition(LOI), carbon content, fineness, chloride content, sulphate content, reactive silica content, XRF and heavy metal analysis. Morphological and mineralogical characteristics were investigated using scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray. Particle size distribution was obtained using particle size analyser. The material analysed has different compositions and were selected with a view to determine their suitability for different applications in cement and concrete industry and for further research studies.

  2. Low strength ultrasonication positively affects the methanogenic granules toward higher AD performance. Part I: Physico-chemical characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cho, S. K.; Hwang, Yuhoon; Kim, D. H.

    2013-01-01

    To elucidate the correlation between enhanced biogas production and changed physico-chemical properties of methanogenic granules after low strength ultrasonication, in this study, the effects of low strength ultrasonication on the settling velocity, permeability, porosity, and fluid collection...... efficiency of the methanogenic granules were investigated. In addition, their morphological changes were visualized using a scanning electron microscopic technique. The experimental results indicate that low strength ultrasonication increased both the permeability (37%) and specific surface area (230...... to the ultrasonicated granules. The microbial community shift caused by the changed physico-chemical properties of the methanogenic granules will be further analyzed in part II of this study....

  3. Physico-chemical changes in tomato with modified atmosphere storage and UV treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vunnam, R; Hussain, A; Nair, G; Bandla, R; Gariepy, Y; Donnelly, D J; Kubow, S; Raghavan, G S V

    2014-09-01

    Physico-chemical changes in ripe tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) were analyzed on day 0 and 2 weeks after ultraviolet-C (UV-C) light treatment or modified atmosphere (MA) storage and combined UV-C + MA storage at 10 °C. Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) film was used to create MA conditions. The tomatoes were evaluated for surface colour, mass loss, firmness, respiration rate, total soluble solids and antioxidant capacity. The tomatoes treated with UV-C and MA storage underwent least changes in their physico-chemical properties, indicating that combination of UV-C and MA storage was successful in retaining the attributes of the fresh product. The increase in antioxidant capacity of the tomatoes during UV-C treatment suggested that UV treatment during post harvest handling may be successfully combined with MA storage, resulting in a product with better nutritive value.

  4. Physico-chemical characterization of grease interceptors with and without biological product addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xia; Osborne, Jason; de los Reyes, Francis L

    2012-03-01

    Hardened and insoluble fat, oil, and grease (FOG) deposits are the primary cause of sewer line blockages leading to sanitary sewer overflows (SSOs). However, there have been very few long-term assessments of the physico-chemical characteristics of full-scale grease interceptors (GIs), the first "line of defense" against FOG buildup in sewer lines. In this study, we assessed the physico-chemical characteristics of two full-scale GIs (at a restaurant and a retirement community kitchen) over a one-year period. Statistically significant differences between bioaugmented and untreated cycles were detected for several chemical and physical properties. The treated cycles had lower BOD and COD at the grease interceptor outlet. While the combined data for all treated cycles did not show lower FOG concentrations in the GI outlet compared to the combined data for all untreated cycles, comparison of specific individual treated and untreated cycles show a positive effect due to the addition of product.

  5. Estimation of The Physico-Chemical Parameters in Marine Environment (Yumurtalik Bight- Iskenderun Bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökhan Tamer Kayaalp

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to estimate the temperature, light intensity, salinity, Dissolved O2 (DO, pH values and the biotic parameter chlorophyll- a in the water column related with the depth. Because, the physico-chemical parameters affect greatly both primary and secondary producers in marine life. For this purpose the physico-chemical properties were determined day and night for 40 meter depth during the eight days. The means were compared by using the analysis of variance method and Duncan’s Multiple Comparison Test. Also physico-chemical parameters were estimated by using the analysis of regression and correlation. The effect of temperature and salinity were found significant according to the result of the analysis of variance during the day. Also the similar results were found for the night. While the effect of the depth on the chloropyll-a a was significant in the night, the effect of the depth on the DO was not significant in the day and night. The correlations among the depth and the parameters were defined. It was found the negative correlation between the depth and the temperature and light intensity. Determination coefficient of the model for salinity was also found different for day time. The correlation values among the depth and the temperature, salinity and pH were found different for the night.

  6. Microbiological and physico-chemical characteristic of Rwandese ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-07-05

    Jul 5, 2010 ... Full Length Research Paper. Microbiological and physico-chemical characteristic of .... Cultures and microscopic characteristics were examined and moulds were classified according to Barnett ... leaves of eucalyptus or banana tree, then the grains are spread out to support germination. The intermediate.

  7. Impacts of cage culture on physico-chemical and bacteriological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of cage fish farming on physico-chemical and bacteriological water quality in Lake Volta, Ghana, were investigated in 2013–2014. Farmed ... The bacteriological analysis, however, revealed contamination of the lake water by fish farming. ... Keywords: aquaculture, contamination, fish farming, large lake, pollution ...

  8. Physico-chemical and microbiological profile of bacterial and fungal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EJIRO

    This study examined the physico-chemical and microbiological profile of bacterial and fungal isolates of Ikpoba River between February 2013 and March 2013. The mean bacterial count for upstream water sample obtained in February was 2 × 102 ±1 cfu/ml while 1.09 × 104 ±3.6 was the count for treated industrial effluent ...

  9. Physico-chemical conditions and macroinvertebrate fauna in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the distribution of benthic macroinvertebrates in relation to physico-chemical conditions along 1 035km of the River Nile from Aswan High Dam to Al Kanater Barrage, Cairo. Total Dissolved Salts and several individual chemical variables showed positive linear regression with distance from Aswan.

  10. Optimization of physico-chemical and nutritional parameters for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Optimization of physico-chemical and nutritional parameters for pullulan production by a mutant of thermotolerant Aureobasidium pullulans, in fed batch ... minutes, having killing rate of 70% level, produced 6 g l-1 higher pullulan as compared to the wild type without loosing thermotolerant and non-melanin producing ability.

  11. PHYSICO-CHEMICAL STUDIES OF DISAZO DYES DERIVED ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DJFLEX

    with disazo disperse dyes on synthetic polymer-fibres. (Venkataraman, 1974; Otutu et al., 2008). In this present study, the physico-chemical studies of disazo dyes derived from p-aminophenol recently prepared by our research group is described. We also described the kinetics of the dyes on nylon 6 fibre. In another study.

  12. physico-chemical, sensory and microbiological qualities of yoghurt

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    of some yoghurt brands sold in Kano Metropolis using standard procedures. The physico-chemical ... except for yoghurt samples. (YB3, YB4, YB6 and YB7) microbiologically falls within the acceptable local and international standards. ..... for consumers based on European union regulations. Its presence in food generally ...

  13. Physico-chemical analysis and sensory evaluation of bread ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study carried out the physico-chemical analysis and sensory evaluation of bread produced using different indigenous yeast isolates in order to offer an insight into the overall quality of the bread. Four (4) different yeast species were isolated from sweet orange, pineapple and palm wine. The yeasts were characterized ...

  14. Physico-chemical characterisation of material fractions in household waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Götze, Ramona; Boldrin, Alessio; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    State-of-the-art environmental assessment of waste management systems rely on data for the physico-chemical composition of individual material fractions comprising the waste in question. To derive the necessary inventory data for different scopes and systems, literature data from different sources...

  15. Physico-chemical characteristics and Heavy metal levels in Drinking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    ABSTRAC: This study investigated the physico-chemical characteristics of drinking waters collected from tap, well and sachet in Sokoto metropolis in North Western Nigeria. Conductivity and pH values were determined by standard methods while elemental composition was analysed using X-ray Fluorescence spectroscopy ...

  16. Physico-chemical characteristics and Heavy metal levels in Drinking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physico-chemical characteristics and Heavy metal levels in Drinking Water sources in Sokoto metropolis in North-western Nigeria. ... Tap water samples had similar conductivity values (180 -190μS/m), sachet water samples had conductivity values ranging from 80μS/m to 260μS/m while well water samples had highest ...

  17. Physico-chemical characterization of groundwater of Kaltungo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physico-chemical characterization of groundwater of Kaltungo, Gombe state, Nigeria and treatment for flouride removal. ... Nigerian Journal of Technology ... This study was undertaken because the people of Kaltungo town depend on groundwater from hand dug wells and boreholes for their water needs and children who ...

  18. Determination of physico-chemical parameters and heavy metals in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EJIRO

    Full Length Research Paper. Determination of physico-chemical parameters and heavy metals in water samples from Itaogbolu area of. Ondo-State, Nigeria. S. O. Adefemi* and E. E. Awokunmi. Department of Chemistry, University of Ado Ekiti, P. M. B. 5363, Nigeria. Accepted 22 December, 2009. Water samples from ...

  19. Some physico-chemical parameters and phytoplankton biodiversity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Ithikkara River, Kerala, India is used for drinking, bathing and fisheries purposes. It is important to have information on the water quality of this river considering its importance to the inhabitants of Kerala. The study therefore determined some physico-chemical parameters and phytoplankton population of Ithikara River.

  20. Bacteriological and physico-chemical quality of drinking water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Accesses to safe water is a universal need however, many of the world's population lack access to adequate and safe water. Consumption of water contaminated causes health risk to the public and the situation is serous in rural areas. Objectives: To assess the bacteriological and physico-chemical quality of ...

  1. Planktonic Biodiversity and Physico-Chemical Parameters of Awba ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Awba reservoir is a major source of water for the University of Ibadan. This study determines the physcio-chemical parameters as well as the biodiversity of the planktons in relation to these parameters. Water samples were collected twice in a week for physico-chemical parameters determination and estimation of planktons ...

  2. Evaluation of physico-chemical, nutritional and microbiological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of physico-chemical, nutritional and microbiological quality of raw cow's milk usually Consumed in the central part of Côte d'Ivoire. ... Results showed that viscosity, dry matter, fat and chloride contents of milk of traditional cows, N'dama and Zebu are higher than the standard values. pH values and acid content of ...

  3. Physico-chemical analyses and corrosion effect of produced water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physico-chemical analyses and corrosion effect of produced water on low carbon steel. Akpofure Rim-Rukeh. Abstract. The corrosion effect of produced water on low carbon has been investigated using the weight loss technique. The composite produced water sample was found to contain pH (5.3), turbidity (82 NTU), ...

  4. Phytoplankton community in relation to physico-chemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phytoplankton community in relation to physico-chemical characteristics of the Talar River, Iran. ... The dominant zooplanktonic organisms determined were Paramecium, Daphnia, Cypris, Keratalla and Arachinous. The present study on ecology and the surface water of this fresh water river covered a number of aspects, ...

  5. Bacteriological And Physico-Chemical Qualities Of Waste Water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Waste water in the accumulation pond and final discharge point of Nigerian Bottling Company PLC in Owerri, Nigeria was analyzed to determine their bacteriological and physico-chemical characteristics. Species of organisms isolated included Staphyloccus, Bacillus, Lactobacillus, and Streptococcus. Others include ...

  6. Seasonal variability of physico-chemical characteristics of the Haldia ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 114; Issue 1. Seasonal variability of physico-chemical characteristics of the Haldia channel of Hooghly estuary, India. Y Sadhuram V V ... Strong currents exceeding 100 cm s-1 were observed during peak ebb and flood tide conditions irrespective of the season.

  7. Influence of sanitation on the physico-chemical and microbiological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was carried out in order to evaluate the effect of chlorinated and ozonized water on the physico-chemical characteristics of broccoli, produced under organic and conventional cultivation procedures. Organic and conventional broccolis were subjected to two sanitation treatments, using chlorine and ozone, ...

  8. Assessment of physico-chemical and bacteriological quality of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water quality is a critical factor affecting human health and welfare. This study aimed at examining the physico-chemical and bacteriological quality of drinking water in Adama town. A total of 107 triplicate water samples were examined; 1 from inlet point (raw water), 1 from outlet (the water after treatment, 1 from reservoir ...

  9. Relationships between algae taxa and physico-chemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study of algae flora was performed on 16 samples collected in different aquatic environments in Bamenda (Cameroon) in order to evidence the relationships between algae assemblages and physico-chemical parameters of the milieu. A total of 22 algae species were identified, the most represented class being ...

  10. Comparative assessment of physico-chemical quality of bottled and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Samples of various brands of bottled water sold in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania were analyzed for physicochemical water quality parameters. For comparison purposes, tap water was similarly examined. The results showed great variations in physico-chemical quality of bottled water, with some samples exceeding the ...

  11. Physico-chemical and microbiological characteristics of honey from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The physico-chemical and microbiological characteristics of honey from the sudano-guinean zone of West Cameroon were determined. The indices obtained were within their respective ranges recorded for honey in temperate countries, except for calcium content whose value was on the upper side of its reference range.

  12. Assessment of physico-chemical parameters of Tsaeda Agam River ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present work was conducted to assess the physico-chemical parameters of Tsada Agam River found in Mekelle, Tigray, Ethiopia and determine its suitability for domestic and irrigation purposes. Water samples were collected monthly for two consecutive months (February to March, 2013) at four sampling sites and ...

  13. Elucidation of physico-chemical characteristics and mycoflora of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Elucidation of physico-chemical characteristics and mycoflora of bovine milk available in selected area of Karachi, Pakistan. ... The concentrations of metals considered were estimated after wet digestion of samples using atomic absorption spectroscopy. The ranges of average concentration of Mg, Fe, Cu and Zn were found ...

  14. Comparison of traditional physico-chemical methods and molecular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was aim to review the efficiency of molecular markers and traditional physico-chemical methods for the identification of basmati rice. The study involved 44 promising varieties of Indica rices collected from geographically distant places and adapted to irrigated and aerobic agro-ecosystems. Quality data for ...

  15. Microbiological and Physico-chemical Characteristics of Saiga ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microbiological and Physico-chemical Characteristics of Saiga (Saiga tatarrica lineaus) Meat During Storage. W O Ogara. Abstract. No Abstract. Kenya Veterinarian Vol. 15 1991: pp. 85-90. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  16. Design, synthesis and physico-chemical investigation of a dinuclear ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 113; Issue 4. Design, synthesis and physico-chemical investigation of a dinuclear zinc(II) complex with a novel 'end-off' compartmental ligand. Anil D Naik Vidyanand K Revankar. Inorganic Volume 113 Issue 4 August 2001 pp 285-290 ...

  17. Seasonal variation in physico-chemical parameters of Tekeze ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tekeze reservoir is situated in the northern part of Ethiopia. Physico-chemical parameters of reservoir water such as temperature, dissolved oxygen (DO), pH, transparency, electric conductivity, total dissolved solids (TDS), alkalinity, total hardness, phosphate and sulphate levels was carried out from August 2013 to July ...

  18. Design, synthesis and physico-chemical investigation of a dinuclear ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Design, synthesis and physico-chemical investigation of a dinuclear zinc(II) complex with a novel 'end-off' compartmental ligand. ANIL D NAIK and VIDYANAND K REVANKAR*. Department of Chemistry, Karnatak University, Dharwad 580 003, India e-mail: vkrevankar@rediffmail.com. MS received 17 March 2001; revised 9 ...

  19. The Microbiological quality and some physico-chemical aspects of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to determine the bacteriological quality and some physico-chemical qualities of river, domestic and swimming pool water in Nairobi area. A total of 52 samples were analyzed. Out of these 20were from swimming pools, 18 were tap and 14 were river sample. The temperature means of swimming ...

  20. Physico-chemical parameters and heavy metal contents of Ibuya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The physico-chemical parameters and heavy metal contents of Ibuya River were investigated between September 2012 and August 2013 from four stations using standard methods to etermine acceptable water quality standards and evaluate possible sustainability of a thriving fisheries cum tourist sport fishing venture.

  1. The Influential of Physico-chemical Parameters on the Distributions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. MIKE HORSFALL

    1981), all the physico-chemical data were log10 transformed while the density of Limnodrilus sp. were fourth-root transformed. Afterwards,. Spearman's correlation analysis (CA) and multiple stepwise regression analysis (SRA) would be carried out based on the transformed data to find out the. Sampling area at. Selangor ...

  2. Physico-chemical and excess properties of the binary mixtures of methylcyclohexane + ethanol, + propan-1-ol, + propan-2-ol, + butan-1-ol, + 2-methyl-1-propanol, or 3-methyl-1-butanol at T = (298.15, 303.15, and 308.15) K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aralaguppi, Mrityunjaya I.; Baragi, Jagadish G.

    2006-01-01

    Physico-chemical properties viz., density, viscosity, and refractive index at temperatures = (298.15, 303.15, and 308.15) K and the speed of sound at T = 298.15 K are measured for the binary mixtures of methylcyclohexane with ethanol, propan1-ol, propan-2-ol, butan-1-ol, 2-methyl-1-propanol, and 3-methyl-1-butanol over the entire range of mixture composition. From these data, excess molar volume, deviations in viscosity, molar refraction, speed of sound, and isentropic compressibility have been calculated. These results are fitted to the polynomial equation to derive the coefficients and standard errors. The experimental and calculated quantities are used to study the nature of mixing behaviours between the mixture components

  3. Soil Properties Control Glyphosate Sorption in Soils Amended with Birch Wood Biochar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kahawaththa Gamage, Inoka Damayanthi Kumari; Moldrup, Per; Paradelo, Marcos

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Despite a contemporary interest in biochar application to agricultural fields to improve soil quality and long-term carbon sequestration, a number of potential side effects of biochar incorporation in field soils remain poorly understood, e.g., in relation to interactions...... with agrochemicals such as pesticides. In a fieldbased study at two experimental sites in Denmark (sandy loam soils at Risoe and Kalundborg), we investigated the influence of birch wood biochar with respect to application rate, aging (7–19 months), and physico- chemical soil properties on the sorption coefficient......, Kd (L kg−1), of the herbicide glyphosate. We measured Kd in equilibrium batch sorption experiments with triplicate soil samples from 20 field plots that received biochar at different application rates (0 to 100 Mg ha−1). The results showed that pure biochar had a lower glyphosate Kd value as compared...

  4. Physico-chemical properties, probiotic survivability, microstructure, and acceptability of a yogurt-like symbiotic oats-based product using pre-polymerized whey protein as a gelation agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Helen; Ross, Jane; Hendricks, Gregory; Guo, Mingruo

    2010-06-01

    Consumption of a food product containing prebiotics and probiotics has been recognized as an important factor in lowering risk of intestinal cancer and gastrointestinal diseases and risks associated with high cholesterol. An oats-based symbiotic yogurt-like food (Oagurt) was developed using oats and probiotics (Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei, and Bifidobacterium), with pre-polymerized whey protein (PWP) as a gelation agent. The product was also fortified with inulin to increase soluble fiber, minerals, and vitamins. Physico-chemical analyses and 9 wk shelf life for viability of probiotics and changes in pH and viscosity were carried out for formulations with (F) and without (C) fortification. Results of the shelf life study showed that both L. casei and Bifidobacterium remained at therapeutic levels: 4.8 x 10(6) CFU/g (F), 4.3 x 10(6) CFU/g (C) and 3.1 x 10(6) CFU/g (F), 3.17 x 10(6) CFU/g (C) after 9 wk. However L. acidophilus did not survive after 3 wk. Viscosity and pH decreased significantly during the study with the difference between formulations also significant for pH (P < 0.0001). Scanning electron microscopy of samples revealed that the pre-polymerized whey protein played a major role in the structure of the gel with an increased protein network structure visible at higher PWP levels. A consumer acceptability study showed that the product was "fair" for all organoleptic attributes.

  5. Some pungent arguments against the physico-chemical theories of the origin of the genetic code and corroborating the coevolution theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Giulio, Massimo

    2017-02-07

    Whereas it is extremely easy to prove that "if the biosynthetic relationships between amino acids were fundamental in the structuring of the genetic code, then their physico-chemical properties might also be revealed in the genetic code table"; it is, on the contrary, impossible to prove that "if the physico-chemical properties of amino acids were fundamental in the structuring of the genetic code, then the presence of the biosynthetic relationships between amino acids should not be revealed in the genetic code". And, given that in the genetic code table are mirrored both the biosynthetic relationships between amino acids and their physico-chemical properties, all this would be a test that would falsify the physico-chemical theories of the origin of the genetic code. That is to say, if the physico-chemical properties of amino acids had a fundamental role in organizing the genetic code, then we would not have duly revealed the presence - in the genetic code - of the biosynthetic relationships between amino acids, and on the contrary this has been observed. Therefore, this falsifies the physico-chemical theories of genetic code origin. Whereas, the coevolution theory of the origin of the genetic code would be corroborated by this analysis, because it would be able to give a description of evolution of the genetic code more coherent with the indisputable empirical observations that link both the biosynthetic relationships of amino acids and their physico-chemical properties to the evolutionary organization of the genetic code. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Physico - chemical stability of tomato products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouden, den F.W.C.

    1995-01-01

    The effect of some physical processes and enzymatic hydrolysis on the physicochemical properties of tomato suspensions was studied.

    Concentration degree has a large effect on the apparent viscosity and the storage modulus of suspensions after being diluted to a standardized water

  7. Physico-chemical characterisation of material fractions in household waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Götze, Ramona; Boldrin, Alessio; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    State-of-the-art environmental assessment of waste management systems rely on data for the physico-chemical composition of individual material fractions comprising the waste in question. To derive the necessary inventory data for different scopes and systems, literature data from different sources...... and backgrounds are consulted and combined. This study provides an overview of physico-chemical waste characterisation data for individual waste material fractions available in literature and thereby aims to support the selection of data fitting to a specific scope and the selection of uncertainty ranges related...... to the data selection from literature. Overall, 97 publications were reviewed with respect to employed characterisation method, regional origin of the waste, number of investigated parameters and material fractions and other qualitative aspects. Descriptive statistical analysis of the reported physico...

  8. Physico-chemical study on guar gum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoud, Nahla Mubarak

    2000-05-01

    Guar plant is an annual summer plant and it can resist diseases, pests and drought. Guar gum is used in a lot of industries. The present study deals with some physical properties of two commercial grade samples of guar gum cyamopsis tetragonoloba which where produced in 1996 and 1997 seasons (S 1 and S 2 respectively). Our analytical data are compared with those of previous workers in this area and international quality. Guar gum (S 2 ) is separated into water-insoluble components. Three fractions were obtained from the water-soluble components by fractional participation using acetone. Guar gum powder is yellowish white; the water-insoluble component is brownish white. Comparison study between gum samples (S 1 and S 2 ) and water-insoluble fraction (1) and water-soluble fractions are close to each other in their physico-properties. chemical All samples and fractions contain galactomannan polysaccharide as explained by infra-red spectra.Moisture contents for the gum samples were 5.2% and 7.8% and that for the water-insoluble fraction 4.7% while that for fraction samples were 5.2%-7.5% ash contents for the gum samples was 0.81% and 1.14% and for the water-insoluble component 0.88% while the contents in the fractions between 0.5%-0.66%. Nitrogen content determination showed that the gum samples had value of 0.678% and 0.732% and water -insoluble fraction had a value of 0.118%. The values decreased in the water-soluble fractions giving 0.049%, 0.053 and 0.056%. Water-soluble component and its fractions record the following results: pH measurements showed that the water-soluble component had pH 6.70 and 6.84 while its fractions had pH 5.90 and 7.00. Viscosity measurements showed that water-soluble fractions had intrinsic viscosity of 6.4 and 6.8 dL. g -1 . The fractions derived from water-soluble fraction had intrinsic viscosity of 6.6, 7 and 7.5 dl. g -1 . Using Mark-Howink equation, calculated average molecular weights for the water-soluble components were 7.01x10 5

  9. Preliminary assessment of the soil impact of charcoal production in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The charcoal business is rapidly spreading in Nigeria without adequate knowledge of the soil impact. This study examined the impact of charcoal production on selected soil physico-chemical properties and the spatial extent of such impacts. Soil samples were collected at the core of charcoal production sites and at 5m and ...

  10. Physico-chemical characterization of nano-emulsions in cosmetic matrix enriched on omega-3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linder Michel

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nano-emulsions, as non-equilibrium systems, present characteristics and properties which depend not only on composition but also on their method of preparation. To obtain better penetration, nanocosmeceuticals use nano-sized systems for the delivery of active ingredients to targeted cells. In this work, nano-emulsions composed of miglyol, rapeseed oil and salmon oil were developed as a cosmetic matrix. Measurements of different physico-chemical properties of nano-emulsions were taken according to size, electrophoretic mobility, conductivity, viscosity, turbidity, cristallization and melting point. The RHLB was calculated for each formulation in order to achieve maximum stability. Results Both tween 80 and soya lecithin were found to stabilize formulations. The results showed that rapeseed oil and miglyol are the predominant parameters for determining the expression of results concerning the characterization of emulsion. Based on the mixture design, we achieved the optimal point using the following formulation: 56.5% rapessed oil, 35.5% miglyol, and 8% salmon oil. We considered this formulation to be the best as a nanocosmeceutical product due to the small size, good turbidity, and average HLB. Conclusions This study demonstrates the influence of formulation on the physico-chemical properties of each nano-emulsion obtained by the mixture design.

  11. Physico-chemical characterization of nano-emulsions in cosmetic matrix enriched on omega-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabri, Tin-Hinan; Arab-Tehrany, Elmira; Belhaj, Nabila; Linder, Michel

    2011-09-21

    Nano-emulsions, as non-equilibrium systems, present characteristics and properties which depend not only on composition but also on their method of preparation. To obtain better penetration, nanocosmeceuticals use nano-sized systems for the delivery of active ingredients to targeted cells. In this work, nano-emulsions composed of miglyol, rapeseed oil and salmon oil were developed as a cosmetic matrix. Measurements of different physico-chemical properties of nano-emulsions were taken according to size, electrophoretic mobility, conductivity, viscosity, turbidity, cristallization and melting point. The RHLB was calculated for each formulation in order to achieve maximum stability. Both tween 80 and soya lecithin were found to stabilize formulations. The results showed that rapeseed oil and miglyol are the predominant parameters for determining the expression of results concerning the characterization of emulsion. Based on the mixture design, we achieved the optimal point using the following formulation: 56.5% rapessed oil, 35.5% miglyol, and 8% salmon oil. We considered this formulation to be the best as a nanocosmeceutical product due to the small size, good turbidity, and average HLB. This study demonstrates the influence of formulation on the physico-chemical properties of each nano-emulsion obtained by the mixture design.

  12. EVALUATION OF PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF AGRICULTURAL SOILS IRRIGATED BY THE WATERS OF THE HYDROLIC BASIN OF SEBOU RIVER AND THEIR INFLUENCES ON THE TRANSFER OF TRACE ELEMENTS INTO SUGAR CROPS (THE CASE OF SUGAR CANE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Benlkhoubi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted in Kenitra (northwestern Morocco to determine the physicochemical parameters and metallic concentrations at three levels: surface water of Sebou and Beht intended for irrigation, agricultural soils and sugarcane. The spectrometric analysis of source plasma emission (ICP has identified eight trace elements contained in the materials taken from zone 1 (As, Cd, Co, Zn, Ni, Pb, Cu and Cr.The obtained results showed that the interaction between the different physicochemical parameters of agricultural soils decides the transfer of the metal elements to the plants. Indeed, for the soil which is used in this agriculture (for sugar cane, its irrigation water, and the contents of Cr, Cd and As exceeds the accepted standards.The principal component analysis of the levels of trace metal supports in area 1, allowed to distinguish between the items with a high tolerance for bagasse (Zn, Cu, Ni, Cd and Pb, compared to Cr, Co, and As.

  13. Physiological and physico-chemical characterization of dietary fibre from the green seaweed Ulva fasciata Delile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, A F U; Portela, M C C; Sousa, M B; Martins, F S; Rocha, F C; Farias, D F; Feitosa, J P A

    2009-08-01

    This work aims to assess the potential of the green seaweed Ulva fasciata Delile as an alternative source of dietary fibre (DF). Total DF content was determined, some of its physico-chemical properties described and the physiological effects of U. fasciata meal on rats fed a hypercholesterolemic diet were investigated. U. fasciata may be considered a potential alternative source of DF with a total content of about 400 g.kg-1 (dry basis) and interesting physico-chemical properties: water retention capacity of 8.74 g/water.g-1 dry sample (seaweed meal) and 0.90 (seaweed carbohydrate extract), lipid adsorption capacity of 4.52 g/oil.g-1 dry sample (seaweed meal) and 5.70 (seaweed carbohydrate extract), intrinsic viscosity of 2.4 dl.g-1 (seaweed carbohydrate extract) and cation exchange capacity of 3.51 Eq.kg-1 (seaweed carbohydrate extract). The diet containing seaweed meal was able to keep rats' total cholesterol (TC) down without causing any undesirable increase in LDL-C fraction. No evidence of toxic and/or antinutritional components in the seaweed meal was detected. Rats showed a fecal volume much greater (13 g) than that fed on cellulose diet (7 g) (p seaweed the potential to be used in food technology for the acquisition of low-calorie food and might be important in body weight control, reduction of blood TC and LDL-C as well as in prevention of gastrointestinal diseases.

  14. Using soil properties to predict in vivo bioavailability of lead in soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijayawardena, M A Ayanka; Naidu, Ravi; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Lamb, Dane; Thavamani, Palanisami; Kuchel, Tim

    2015-11-01

    Soil plays a significant role in controlling the potential bioavailability of contaminants in the environment. In this study, eleven soils were used to investigate the relationship between soil properties and relative bioavailability (RB) of lead (Pb). To minimise the effect of source of Pb on in vivo bioavailability, uncontaminated study soils were spiked with 1500 mg Pb/kg soil and aged for 10-12 months prior to investigating the relationships between soil properties and in vivo RB of Pb using swine model. The biological responses to oral administration of Pb in aqueous phase or as spiked soils were compared by applying a two-compartment pharmacokinetic model to blood Pb concentration. The study revealed that RB of Pb from aged soils ranged from 30±9% to 83±7%. The very different RB of Pb in these soils was attributed to variations in the soils' physico-chemical properties. This was established using sorption studies showing: firstly, Freundlich partition coefficients that ranged from 21 to 234; and secondly, a strongly significant (R(2)=0.94, Pbioavailability of Pb in contaminated soils. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first such model derived using sorption partition coefficient to predict the relative bioavailability of Pb. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Formulation design of oral pediatric Acetazolamide suspension: dose uniformity and physico-chemical stability study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoveña, Ana; Suárez-González, Javier; Martín-Rodríguez, Cristina; Fariña, José B

    2017-03-01

    The formulation of an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) as oral solution or suspension in pediatrics is a habitual practice, due to the non-existence of many commercialized medicines in pediatric doses. It is also the simplest way to prepare and administer them to this vulnerable population. The design of a formulation that assures the dose and the system stability depends on the physico-chemical properties of the API. In this study, we formulate a class IV API, Acetazolamide (AZM) as suspension for oral administration to pediatric population. The suspension must comply attributes of quality, safety and efficacy for this route of administration. We use simple compounding procedures, as well as fewer pure excipients, as recommended for children. Mass and uniformity content assays and physical and chemical stability studies were performed. To quantify the API an UPLC method was used. We verified the physico-chemical stability of the suspensions and that they passed the mass test of the European Pharmacopeia (EP), but not the dose uniformity test. This reveals that AZM must be formulated as liquid forms with a more complex system of excipients (not usually indicated in pediatrics), or otherwise solid forms capable of assuring uniformity of mass and dose for every dosage unit.

  16. Heavy Metal Levels and Physico-Chemical Quality of Potable Water Supply in Warri, Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nduka, K.C.; Orisakwe, E.O.

    2007-01-01

    The interaction between man's activities and the environment is gaining world wide attention. Warri an oil producing community in Delta State of Nigeria is faced with environmental oil pollution. Since open and underground water bodies are regarded as final recipients of most environmental pollutants, this study sought to provide data on the levels of the physico-chemical parameters and contaminants in Warri metropolitan water supply. This study investigated the cadmium, lead and chromium using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer, physico - chemical properties such as pH, temperature, total suspended solid TSS, total dissolved solid TDS, electrical conductivity EC, biological oxygen demand BOD, dissolved oxygen DO, chemical oxygen demand COD, and total coliform count of potable water sources in Warri. Ekpan River was found to have 1.2 mg/L of cadmium, 1.0mg/L of chromium, 1.20 mg/L of lead and 2.0 mg/L of manganese. The heavy metals levels and the pollution parameters were lowest in the borehole water samples, except pH which is more acidic in borehole water samples and conductivity which is more in well water samples in all the sampling stations. Some of the parameters were above WHO standards

  17. Characterization of Olive Oil by Ultrasonic and Physico-chemical Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alouache, B.; Khechena, F. K.; Lecheb, F.; Boutkedjirt, T.

    Olive oil excels by its nutritional and medicinal benefits. It can be consumed without any treatment. However, its quality can be altered by inadequate storage conditions or if it is mixed with other kinds of oils. The objective of this work is to demonstrate the ability of ultrasonic methods to characterize and control olive oil quality. By using of a transducer of 2.25 MHz nominal frequency, in pulse echo mode, ultrasonic parameters, such as propagation velocity and attenuation,have been measured for pure olive oil and for its mixtures with sunflower oil at different proportions. Mechanical properties, such as density and viscosity, have also been determined. The results of ultrasonic measurements are consistent with those obtained by physico-chemical methods, such as rancidity degree, acid index, UV specific extinction coefficient and viscosity. They show that the ultrasonic method allows to distinguish between mixtures at different proportions. The study allows concluding that ultrasound techniques can be considered as a useful complement to existing physico-chemical analysis techniques.

  18. Physico-chemical characterisation of some samples of fresh milk and milk powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soceanu Alina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Milk consumption is important in the diet of all age groups because it provides important nutrients that are essential for humans. Children are the largest consumers of milk, thus, it’s very important that milk is free of toxic compounds that can be harmful for humans. Aim of the study was to determine the physico-chemical characteristics of some samples of milk powder for different stage of baby growing and for some samples of fresh milk: raw cow’s milk, milk trade and UHT type. The following physico-chemical properties: density, pH, acidity, the presence of acetone, enzymes, antiseptics, dry substance, the ash, total fat, saponification and peroxide index, total nitrogen and protein content were determined. Comparing the values of acidity for analyzed samples it can be concluded that the powder milk acidity value is much lower than the fresh milk. The presence of antiseptics and acetone was not identified, and amylase and peroxidase were found only in raw cow's milk. The highest protein content was found for milk powder (27.22%.

  19. Avaliação da retenção de sedimentos pela vegetação ripária pela caracterização morfológica e físico-química do solo Assessment of the retention of sediments by riparian forest by morphological and physico-chemical characterization of soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carloeme A. de Oliveira

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar a retenção de sedimentos por meio da caracterização morfológica e físico-química de um Latossolo Vermelho distrófico ao longo de uma transeção de 204 m demarcada no sentido do declive, iniciada no meio da encosta cultivada com algodão em sistema de preparo convencional e finalizada no interior da mata ciliar localizada a jusante da área cultivada em Panamá, GO. Todas as amostras de solo foram coletadas ao longo da transeção em camadas de 0-5, 5-10 e 10-20 cm. Na mata ciliar foram abertas quatro trincheiras para avaliação morfológica dos perfis de solo. A descrição morfológica das duas primeiras trincheiras abertas na entrada da mata indicou a presença de camadas de material não pedogenizado sobre o horizonte A, proveniente de sedimentos carreados da lavoura para a mata ciliar por processos erosivos. A interpretação das avaliações morfológicas dos perfis, associada aos resultados de análises do solo, revela que o cultivo intensivo altera os atributos físicos e químicos, especialmente a agregação e os teores de matéria orgânica e Ca.This study aimed to assess the efficiency of a riparian forest to retain runoff sediments from cropped areas by means of morphological and physico-chemical characterization of a Typic Haplustox Cerrado soil along a 204 m transect. All soil samples were collected from layers of 0-5, 5-10 and 10-20 cm on the cropped areas, ending on a riparian forest. The studied areas were cropped with cotton under conventional tillage system. For the morphological descriptions of soil profiles in the riparian forest, four trenches were opened. The first two descriptions done at the entrance of the forest showed the presence of non-pedogenic material over the A horizon, originated from sediments dragged off the cropped areas to the forest through erosive processes. Morphological assessment of soil profiles associated to soil analysis shows that intensive cropping

  20. Physico-chemical traits of raw and cooked fillets of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss from different strains and farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Martelli

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Fillets and cooking yields, water holding capacity, textural properties, colour, proximate composition, collagen and fatty acids of five strains (IT1, IT2, IT3, USA, UK of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, reared in three farms (F1, F2, F3, were measured before and after cooking. Physico-chemical parameters of the strains greatly differed both in raw and cooked state. IT2 and USA recorded the highest yields. IT2 distinguished from the other strains, showing lowest values of hardness, chewiness, gumminess and springiness. It also had brighter and less pigmented flesh with low fat, mainly in the raw state. USA strain showed the most valuable traits in terms of texture and colour, and had higher fat and collagen content in flesh. The physico-chemical profile of each strain was differently modified by cooking. USA strain maintained a positive texture and colour profile after cooking and its quality was the best.

  1. Retention of silver nano-particles and silver ions in calcareous soils: Influence of soil properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmatpour, Samaneh; Shirvani, Mehran; Mosaddeghi, Mohammad R; Bazarganipour, Mehdi

    2017-05-15

    The rapid production and application of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have led to significant release of AgNPs into the terrestrial environments. Once released into the soil, AgNPs could enter into different interactions with soil particles which play key roles in controlling the fate and transport of these nanoparticles. In spite of that, experimental studies on the retention of AgNPs in soils are very scarce. Hence, the key objective of this research was to find out the retention behavior of AgNPs and Ag(I) ions in a range of calcareous soils. A second objective was to determine the extent to which the physico-chemical properties of the soils influence the Ag retention parameters. To this end, isothermal batch experiments were used to determine the retention of Poly(vinylpyrrolidinone)-capped AgNPs (PVP-AgNPs) and Ag(I) ions by nine calcareous soils with a diversity of physico-chemical properties. The results revealed that the retention data for both PVP-AgNPs and Ag(I) ions were well described by the classical Freundlich and Langmuir isothermal equations. The retention of PVP-AgNPs and Ag(I) ions was positively correlated to clay and organic carbon (OC) contents as well as electrical conductivity (EC), pH, and cation exchange capacity (CEC) of the soils. Due to multicolinearity among the soil properties, principal component analysis (PCA) was used to group the soil properties which affect the retention of PVP-AgNPs and Ag(I) ions. Accordingly, we identified two groups of soil properties controlling retention of PVP-AgNPs and Ag(I) ions in the calcareous soils. The first group comprised soil solid phase parameters like clay, OC, and CEC, which generally control hetero-aggregation and adsorption reactions and the second group included soil solution variables such as EC and pH as well as Cl - and Ca 2+ concentrations, which are supposed to mainly affect homo-aggregation and precipitation reactions. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Physico-chemical reactions in the underground movement of radioactive isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gailledreau, C.

    The physico-chemical state of the radioelements moving underground can influence considerably their migration velocity. In the case of 90 Sr--held on by monmorillonites, apatites, activated aluminum oxide--the occurrence of electronegative colloids, sorbing selectively 90 Sr results in an immediate break-through of this isotope. This phenomenon has been demonstrated in the case of the calcite phosphate reaction. A high pH is generally favorable to 90 Sr sorption (apatite, aluminum oxide). The occurrence of Ca 2+ ions acts very unfavorably on 90 Sr sorption by minerals specifics of this isotope (apatite, aluminum oxide). The same thing occurs with organic matters 137 Cs sorption, attributed to illitic clays, is little sensitive to the nature of the solution. Ruthenium-106 seems to move underground chiefly as a nitrosylruthenium hydroxide complex. This complex would be weakly sorbed on soil colloids by London--Van der Waals forces

  3. Physico-chemical evaluation of Rosmarinus officinalis L. essential oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Atti-Santos

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Nineteen samples of Rosmarinus officinalis were extracted by steam distillation in a pilot plant and evaluated in terms of chemical compositions and physico-chemical characteristics. The volatile oil yields ranged from 0.37% (1999 harvest to 0.49% (1998 harvest. Twenty components were identified in the oils. The major components were alpha-pinene (40.55 to 45.10%, 1,8-cineole (17.40 to 19.35%, camphene (4.73 to 6.06% and verbenone (2.32 to 3.86%. The physico-chemical parameters averaged 0.8887 g/cm³ for specific gravity, 1.4689 for refractive index, and +11.82° for optical rotation, and there were no significant variations in either the chemical or physico-chemical data in the different years.Dezenove amostras de Rosmarinus officinalis foram extraídas por destilação por arraste a vapor em uma planta piloto e os óleos essenciais foram avaliados quanto a composição química e características físico-químicas. Os rendimentos de óleo essencial variaram de 0,37% (média de 1999 a 0,49% (média de 1998. Vinte componentes foram identificados nos óleos essenciais. Os componentes majoritários foram a-pineno (40,55 a 45,10%, 1,8-cineol (17,40 a 19,35%, canfeno (4,73 a 6,06% e verbenona (2,32 a 3,86%. A média por safra dos parâmetros físico-químicos avaliados resultaram em 0,8887g/cm³ para densidade específica, 1,4689 para índice de refração e +11,82º para rotação óptica, sendo que as variações encontradas para os parâmetros químicos e físico-químicos dos óleos essenciais não variaram significativamente em função do ano de produção.

  4. In vitro oral drug permeation models: the importance of taking physiological and physico-chemical factors into consideration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joubert, Ruan; Steyn, Johan Dewald; Heystek, Hendrik Jacobus; Steenekamp, Jan Harm; Du Preez, Jan Lourens; Hamman, Josias Hendrik

    2017-02-01

    The assessment of intestinal membrane permeability properties of new chemical entities is a crucial step in the drug discovery and development process and a variety of in vitro models, methods and techniques are available to estimate the extent of oral drug absorption in humans. However, variations in certain physiological and physico-chemical factors are often not reflected in the results and the complex dynamic interplay between these factors is sometimes oversimplified with in vitro models. Areas covered: In vitro models to evaluate drug pharmacokinetics are briefly outlined, while both physiological and physico-chemical factors that may have an influence on these techniques are critically reviewed. The shortcomings identified for some of the in vitro techniques are discussed in conjunction with novel ways to improve and thereby overcome some challenges. Expert opinion: Although conventional in vitro methods and theories are used as basic guidelines to predict drug absorption, critical evaluations have identified some shortcomings. Advancements in technology have made it possible to investigate and understand the role of physiological and physico-chemical factors in drug delivery more clearly, which can be used to improve and refine the techniques to more closely mimic the in vivo environment.

  5. Physico- chemical study of Ceratitis capitata rearing diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Sghiri, Mohamed Ali; Maddouri Fakri

    2005-01-01

    The inhibition of the microbial growth in the rearing diet of ceratitis capitata made it possible to increase the productivity in pupae. The follow-up of the microbial load and the physicochemical parameters of the diets used with varous microbial inhibitors (potassium sorbate in combination with sodium benzoate with varous amounts, on the one hand, and of another share, nipagine in combination with sodium benzoate also with varous amounts) during a rearing of ceratitis capitata on the laboratory scale made it possible to select the diet D as being the most favorable diet. Indeed, a stability of the physico chemical parameters as well as a weak evolution of the microbial load are noted in this diet. (author). 16 refs

  6. Formulation and physico-chemical characteristics of biolubricant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.I. Ahmed

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The interest in bio lubricant has grown over the past years due to its promising benefits such as environment-friendly, renewable, less toxic and readily biodegradable. In recent years, many studies explored the potential of bio lubricants for industrial applications. This study was dedicated to develop a new formulated bio lubricant having viscosity fitted to a commercialized industrial lubricant. From nine different samples, the blend having a mixture of 52.70 % (wt soybean oil, 40.55 % (wt mineral oil, and 6.75 (% additives produced the best results for the viscosity fitting. The selected blend was also tested for physico-chemical characteristics. The results on viscosity index, pour point, and flash point indicate positive characteristics for application in wider temperature change, cold weather, and safer transportation. Outcome of degradation test was also promising.

  7. Physico-chemical analysis of Logone River water at Moundou City ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The physico-chemical parameters and some heavy metal concentrations in the Logone River water at Moundou City, Chad, are studied for two stations from July 2013 to December 2014, one upstream and another downstream of the city. Standard methods are used. A total of twenty-two physico-chemical parameters were ...

  8. Physico-chemical behavior of radionuclides in fresh water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Yuichiro; Ogawa, Yoshihiro; Honda, Yoshihide; Katsurayama, Kosuke.

    1980-01-01

    In order to elucidate the physico-chemical behavior of the radionuclides such as 60 Co, 106 Ru and 144 Ce in fresh water, the effects of aging of the radionuclides in fresh water on their physico-chemical states were studied by high-voltage paper electrophoresis, and were also investigated by paper chromatography for nitrosylruthenium complexes. 60 Co showed not only cationic species, but also electroneutral species with aging in fresh water. 106 Ru in the original form of chloro complexes showed relatively a large number of well-defined species, with aging in fresh water, the negatively charged forms decreased slowly with changing of electroneutral forms. 106 Ru in the binuclear complexes of nitrosylruthenium was separated into four anionic, one neutral and one cationic species. The cationic fraction decreased with increasing anionic and with changing neutral. By paper chromatographic separation, about 90% of Ru appeared with Rf 106 Ru in the nitrato complexes was separated into two anionic, one neutral and one cationic species. The cationic fraction decreased with changing both neutral and anionic. More than 95% of Ru appeare with R sub(f) 106 Ru in the nitro complexes was separated into more than several anionic, one neutral and cationic species. The dinitro species with R sub(f) >= 0.8 decreased with increasing mono- and nonnitro species with R sub(f) 144 Ce in the original dilute HCl solution showed initially cationic species. However, the electroneutral species was formed with aging in fresh water. Colloidal or particulate and more or less adsorbable species of 144 Ce were also found. (author)

  9. Some physico-chemical and biological characteristics of soil and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL

    Bacteria are considered the primary colonizers of inanimate surfaces in both natural and man-made environments. The main types of bacteria associated with metallic corrosion in both ... organic acids and extra cellular polymeric substances. (EPS) or slime ... the conditions at a metal surface is the environment where the ...

  10. Physiological and physico-chemical characterization of dietary fibre from the green seaweed Ulva fasciata Delile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AFU. Carvalho

    Full Text Available This work aims to assess the potential of the green seaweed Ulva fasciata Delile as an alternative source of dietary fibre (DF. Total DF content was determined, some of its physico-chemical properties described and the physiological effects of U. fasciata meal on rats fed a hypercholesterolemic diet were investigated. U. fasciata may be considered a potential alternative source of DF with a total content of about 400 g.kg-1 (dry basis and interesting physico-chemical properties: water retention capacity of 8.74 g/water.g-1 dry sample (seaweed meal and 0.90 (seaweed carbohydrate extract, lipid adsorption capacity of 4.52 g/oil.g-1 dry sample (seaweed meal and 5.70 (seaweed carbohydrate extract, intrinsic viscosity of 2.4 dl.g-1 (seaweed carbohydrate extract and cation exchange capacity of 3.51 Eq.kg-1 (seaweed carbohydrate extract. The diet containing seaweed meal was able to keep rats' total cholesterol (TC down without causing any undesirable increase in LDL-C fraction. No evidence of toxic and/or antinutritional components in the seaweed meal was detected. Rats showed a fecal volume much greater (13 g than that fed on cellulose diet ( 7 g (p < 0.05. These properties confer on the seaweed the potential to be used in food technology for the acquisition of low-calorie food and might be important in body weight control, reduction of blood TC and LDL-C as well as in prevention of gastrointestinal diseases.

  11. Fossilization History of Fossil Resin from Jambi Province (Sumatra, Indonesia Based on Physico-Chemical Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Naglik

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A unique specimen of fossil resin originating from the Dipterocarpaceae tree family found in Miocene brown coal deposits in Jambi Province (Sumatra, Indonesia was investigated via microscopic observations, microhardness testing and infrared and Raman spectroscopic methods. Its form is rare in nature, being an aggregate of three varieties of resin differing in colour, transparency and internal structure. This suggests the formation of the resins at different stages. Further alteration processes, including fossilization and maturation of the resin in a swamp environment resulted in stepwise aromatization of the cyclohexane ring in steroids and cross-linking through formation of ester bonds as well as carbon–carbon bonds between steroid molecules. The various environmental and geological conditions affecting the formation processes of the resins were recorded in their physico-chemical properties. Additionally, heating conditions accelerated by volcanism were proposed as a factor determining the maturation grade of the resin.

  12. Relationship between physico-chemical characteristics and potential toxicity of PM10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megido, Laura; Suárez-Peña, Beatriz; Negral, Luis; Castrillón, Leonor; Suárez, Susana; Fernández-Nava, Yolanda; Marañón, Elena

    2016-11-01

    PM10 was sampled at a suburban location affected by traffic and industry in the north of Spain. The samples were analysed to determine the chemical components of PM10 (organic and elemental carbon, soluble chemical species and metals). The aim of this study was to assess the toxicity of PM10 in terms of the bulk analysis and the physico-chemical properties of the particles. Total carbon, sulphates, ammonium, chlorides and nitrates were found to be the major constituents of PM10. The contribution of the last of these was found to increase significantly with PM10 concentration (Pearson coefficient correlation of 0.7, p-value major risk to human health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Influence of the physico-chemical characteristics of chito-oligosaccharides (COS) on antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengíbar, Marian; Mateos-Aparicio, Inmaculada; Miralles, Beatriz; Heras, Angeles

    2013-09-12

    Chito-oligosaccharides (COS) are being used as important functional materials for many applications due to their bioactivities. The aim of this research has been to assess the relationship between the physico-chemical characteristics, average molecular weight (Mw), acetylation degree (DA), polymerization degree (DP) and specially sequence composition determined by MALDI-TOF MS and the antioxidant properties of COS. These oligosaccharides were obtained by enzymatic depolymerization with chitosanase and lysozyme using a specific chitosan and its reacetylated product. The COS fraction below 5 kDa obtained from chitosanase depolymerization showed the highest capacity to scavenge DPPH radicals and to reduce Fe(3+). A correlation was found between the relative amount of molecules with a given A/D (acetylated vs deacetylated units) ratio within the COS and their antioxidant activity, which could be used to predict the antioxidant behavior of a fraction of chito-oligosaccharides. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Physico-chemical characteristics of sulfated mixed oxides of Sn with some rare earth elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jyothi, T.M.; Mirakar, S.P.; Sreekumar, K.; Sugunan, S.; Talawar, M.B.

    2000-01-01

    A series of binary mixed oxides of tin with three rare earth elements viz. La, Ce and Sm were prepared by coprecipitation method and sulfate treatment was performed by treating the mixed hydroxides with sulfuric acid or ammonium sulfate. The physico-chemical characterization has been done by XRD, BET-SA, SEM, EDX, TG-DTA and IR spectroscopy. Adsorption of n-butylamine was used to probe the acidic properties of the catalysts. The strength and distribution of acid sites depend on the mixed metal oxide composition, as well as on the preparation method. The rare earth modified sulfated tin oxide catalysis are more active in the oxidative dehydrogenation of cyclohexanol and cyclohexane, compared to the corresponding mixed oxide systems and sulfated tin oxide. Among the different sulfated oxide systems investigated, cerium promoted catalysts displayed a better selectivity towards dehydrogenation products. (author)

  15. Physico-chemical impacts of cementitiously-derived calcium and silica on sodium montmorillonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinsela, Andrew S.; Tjitradjaja, Alice; Collins, Richard N.; Waite, T. David; Macdonald, Bennett C.T.; White, Ian; PAYNE, Timothy E.

    2012-01-01

    The storage of nuclear waste frequently involves the construction of a concrete encasement adjacent to an engineered clay barrier, which can expose the swelling clay to elevated concentrations of certain cations (particularly calcium) and very high alkalinity (pH 10 - 13). These conditions have the capacity to degrade the integrity of the clay layer and, as such, it is necessary to fully understand the effects of all possible biogeochemical interactions involved. In this study, the changes in hydraulic conductivities and other physico-chemical properties of Na-montmorillonite assemblages under the influence of both highly alkaline (pH 9 and 12) conditions and elevated concentrations of calcium and silica are examined. The Na-montmorillonite suspensions and filtration experimental method is presented, as well as the electrophoresis characterization technique

  16. Evaluation of the physico-chemical properties of nanocomposites of low density linear polyethylene and organophilic montmorillonite obtained by fusion; Avaliacao das propriedades fisico-quimicas de nanocompositos de polietileno linear de baixa densidade e montmorilonita organofilica obtidos por fusao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arndt, Aline; Sandrin, Bianca M.; Pezzin, A.P.T., E-mail: anapezzin@yahoo.com.br [Universidade da Regiao de Joinville (UNIVILLE), SC (Brazil); Meier, Marcia M. [Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina (UESC), Joinville, SC (Brazil). Departamento de Quimica; Balzer, Palova S. [Centro Universitario Unisociesc, Joinville, SC (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica; Tavares, Maria I.B. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Laboratorio de Solucoes em Ralaxometria

    2016-07-01

    In this project they were produced and characterized nanocomposite organoclay applied to linear low density polyethylene in order to improve their physicochemical properties. Samples were produced by means of extrusion and injection process, varying proportions of nanoclay (2; 2.5; 3.0 and 3.5%) in LLDPE. Samples nanocomposites were characterized by TGA, DSC and Flammability test (UL-94). The TGA analysis showed that adding nanoclay increased thermal stability, especially for LLDPE / OMMT2,0 sample increased thermal stability at 4.4%. By DSC it was found that samples with nanoclay incorporation did not affect the Tm of LLDPE, though the increase of nanoclay raised the degree of crystallinity of the samples 52.7% in LLDPE / 2.5 OMMT sample. The flammability results show that the sample LLDPE / OMMT 2.0 showed a decrease of 37.77% in the flame propagation velocity. The NMR showed that the samples up LLDPE / 2.5 OM has an exfoliated nanocomposite formation. (author)

  17. About the role of physico-chemical properties and hydrodynamics on the progress of a precipitation reaction: the case of cerium oxalate particles produced during the coalescence of drops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jehannin, Marie

    2015-01-01

    The nucleation and growth of solid particles resulting from a precipitation process is an important topic both for fundamental science and industrial applications. In a precipitation process, different reactants, which are individually soluble in the same solvent, get in contact and react to form insoluble solid particles (the precipitate). The properties of the produced particles are the result of a strong coupling between the chemical reaction and the reactants feed and mixing rates. The latter are mainly provided by diffusive and convective transport through a reaction-diffusion-convection process. In the emulsion precipitation process considered here the reactants are enclosed into droplets. The local transport conditions can be modified in many ways by tuning the relevant parameters and thus be used to control the properties of the precipitated particles. The aim of this study is to investigate the impact of local flow and mixing conditions during the coalescence on the precipitates properties, mainly their size, morphology and distribution. The test system consists of two coalescing droplets: one drop contains oxalic acid dissolved in an aqueous solution, while the other one contains cerium nitrate. Upon contact of the two miscible solutions a precipitate of cerium oxalate is formed. Besides, by adding chosen amounts of diols into the droplets, their surface tensions can be adjusted. Differences in surface tension cause a surface tension gradient in the section where both drops get in contact. This can lead to a Marangoni flow directed from the low surface tension interface to the high surface tension interface. This local convective flow will modify the local mixing conditions of the two solutions. This study focuses on how, where, when, which precipitate forms as function of the initial stoichiometry of the reactants and of the process conditions (e.g. the mixing conditions affected by the Marangoni flow). For this purpose, two configurations of coalescing

  18. Physico-chemical characteristics and market potential of sawdust charcoal briquette

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akowuah, Joseph O.; Kemausuor, Francis [Kwame Nkrumah Univ. of Science and Technology, Kumasi (Ghana). Dept. of Agricultural Engineering; Mitchual, Stephen J. [Univ. of Education, Winneba, Kumasi (Ghana). Dept. of Design and Technology Education

    2012-11-01

    In the absence of the widespread distribution of modern cooking fuels in developing countries, efforts are being made to utilise biomass residues which abound in most of these countries. This is intended to replace portions of firewood and charcoal and thereby reduce the cutting down of forests for fuel purposes. Briquettes from agro-residues have therefore been promoted as a better replacement to firewood and charcoals for heating, cooking and other industrial applications in both urban and rural communities. This study sought to assess the physico-chemical properties of charcoal briquettes produced in Ghana and also establish demand for and willingness of potential users to substitute charcoal and firewood with a charcoal briquette. A laboratory experiment was conducted to determine the physicochemical characteristics of the briquettes. This was done prior to the distribution of the briquette to potential users to collaborate their views or otherwise on the handling and burning characteristics of the charcoal briquette. A survey was undertaken a week later using questionnaires to access the willingness of the potential users to use the briquettes. Sixty respondents were purposively selected from households and the hospitality industry for the survey. Results of the physico-chemical assessment of the briquettes were as follows: length (75 to 120 mm), moisture content (5.7% dry basis), density (1.1 g/cm{sup 3}), ash content (2.6%), fixed carbon (20.7%), volatile matter (71%) and calorific value (4,820 kcal/kg). Responses from the survey indicated that the briquette is easy to ignite, has a long burning time and has good heat output. Respondents also observed that the briquettes did not give off sparks and had less smoke and ash content as compared to the regular charcoal they often used. Finally, 93% of the respondents indicated their willingness to use the briquettes if the price was comparable to charcoal. (orig.)

  19. Physico chemical and microbiological changes in nopal (Opuntia spp.) irradiated with gamma rays of cobalt 60

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez N, M.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this work is to study the physico-chemical and microbiological changes which take place in the nopal (Opuntia spp.) after they have been irradiated and stored at environment and refrigeration temperatures in order to determine the level of irradiation dose more adequate for getting them an increase in the storage life, as well as to determine the physico-chemical changes attributed to the irradiation doses used, comparing the obtained results with those ones of non-irradiated nopal samples, which are considered as control samples. The radiation source used was a GAMMABEAM-651 PT, property of the Nuclear Sciences Institute of UNAM. The nopals studied are of the variety (Milpa Alta, Opuntia ficus) which were cut and packed in polyethylene bags with and without nitrogen. In order to find the adequate dose level it was used a lot of 200 samples which were treated in sets of 10. They were irradiated in doses of 0.5 to 10 kGy at a dose reason of 3.7 kGy/h. The adequate doses for getting an increase in the storage life, where there was not darkness were of 1.5 and 2.0 kGy, allowed doses in the NOM-033-SSA1-1993, it was not found any change in acceptability by flavour, but so in the titled activity values and sugars. The lowest loss of weight was found in the 1.5 kGy dose without nitrogen and the highest in the 2.0 kGy with nitrogen dose. Likewise was determined that with the irradiation treatment in the recommended doses it is diminished the microorganisms growth, obtaining an improvement in the general appearance of the nopals during their storage period. (Author)

  20. Radiation preservation of tiger nut (Cyperus esculentus L.) with special reference to fungi and the effect of the physico-chemical properties of the nuts before and after irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agyeman, A.A.

    2011-01-01

    , Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry and flame photometry. Finally the consume acceptability of the milk prepared from the nuts was determined by a taste panel using the parameters of colour, taste, aroma, mouth fell and overall acceptability. Data were analysed statistically using SPSS (version 16.0) and GENSTAT (12 th edition). The sex distribution of respondents varied from one Region to another but was predominantly females. Generally, traders between the ages of 16 to 75 years sold tiger nuts but this varied from Region to Region. Majority of the dealers in tiger nut were illiterates in all the production and selling centres. The local names also varied depending on dialect and language used in communication. In the cosmopolitan Accra all the names were mentioned by respondents. There is a well-structured marketing strategy of tiger nuts in Ghana with markets in Accra receiving nuts from all over the country including the North. The nuts are stored in different packaging materials (jute sack, woven polypropylene, rattan baskets, grey baft sacks and card boxes depending on the Region). Majority of the sellers of tiger nuts knew its nutritional value but the most popular was the mil (Atadwe milk) which is a delicacy. The method of harvesting and cleaning of the nuts for storage varied in the Central and Eastern Regions. The tiger nuts were contaminated by 29 different fungi belonging to fourteen genera (aspergillus, Cladosproium, Fusarium, Mucor, Monoascus, Neosartorya, Neurospora, Paecilomyces, Penicillium, Rhizopus, Rhodotorula, Syncephalastrum, Torula and Saccharomyces). Aspergillus species predominated followed by Penicillium sp. Although their percentage occurrence varied from one cultivar to another, several potential toxin-producing species (A.flavus, A.alutaceus, A.sulphreus, A.terreus, Paecilomyces carneus, Penicillium digitatum, P.roqueforti, P.corylophilum) of public concern were isolated. These contaminating fungal species could be traced from the soil from

  1. Effect Of Soil Properties On The Geochemical Speciation Of Arsenic In Contaminated Soils: A Greenhouse Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, S.; Sarkar, D.; Datta, R.

    2005-05-01

    Land-applied arsenical pesticides have contributed elevated soil arsenic (As) levels. Many baseline risk assessments As-contaminated sites assume that all As present in the soil is bioavailable, thereby potentially overestimating the actual health risk. However, risk from As exposure is associated only with those forms of As that are potentially extractable by the human gastrointestinal juices. It has been demonstrated that As may exist in several geochemical forms depending on soil chemical properties, which may or may not be bioavailable. The current study aims at addressing the issue of soil variability on As bioavailability as a function of soil physico-chemical properties in a greenhouse setting involving dynamic interactions between soil, water and plants. Four different soils were chosen based on their potential differences with respect to As reactivity: Immokalee, an acid sand with low extractable Fe/Al, having minimal arsenic retention capacity; Millhopper, an acid sandy loam with high extractable Fe/Al oxides; Pahokee Muck soil with 85% soil organic matter (SOM) as well as high Fe/Al content; and Orelia soil with high clay and Fe/Al content. Soils were amended with sodium arsenate (675 and 1500 mg/Kg). Rice (Oryza sativa) was used as the test crop. A sequential extraction scheme was employed to identify the geochemical forms of As in soils (soluble, exchangeable, organic, Fe/Al-bound, Ca/Mg-bound, residual) immediately after spiking; after 3 mo; and after 6 mo of equilibration time. Concentrations of these As forms were correlated with the in-vitro bioavailable As fractions to identify those As fractions that are most likely to be bioavailable. Results from this study showed that there was little to no plant growth in the contaminated soils. Sequential extractions of the soil indicated that arsenic is strongly adsorbed onto soil amorphous iron/aluminum oxides, and the degree of arsenic retention is a direct function of equilibration time.

  2. Physico-Chemical Characteristics of Pork Sausage during Refrigerated Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Wilfred Ruban

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A study to compare the effectiveness of Tapioca Starch (TS and Potato Flour (PF for preparation of pork sausage with 50 per cent lean and 30 per cent low value meat (Head, Heart and Tongue in the ratio of 70:15:15 was carried out. Sausages were prepared with 5 per cent level of PF and 7 per cent of TS and were subjected to physico-chemical characteristics viz., pH, shear force, TBARS and TV to study the keeping quality at refrigerated storage (4±10C for 30 days. Inclusion of 30 per cent low value meat had not much effect compared to full meat sausages. The results revealed that during storage there was a highly significant (P<0.01 decrease in pH, hear force, and increase in TBARS and TV with the increase in storage days in both the treatments. Sausages prepared with 5 per cent PF and 7 per cent TS were acceptable upto 25 days of refrigerated storage (4±10C. Sausages with potato flour had lower values of TBARS and hence considered more acceptable compared to TS incorporated sausages. [Vet. World 2009; 2(3.000: 95-97

  3. Physico-chemical behavior of radionuclides in seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Yuichiro; Ogawa, Yoshihiro; Honda, Yoshihide; Katsurayama, Kosuke.

    1980-01-01

    To elucidate the physico-chemical states of radionuclides in seawater in relation to uptake by the marine biosphere, the physicochemical behavior of radiocobalt, radioruthenium and radiocerium in seawater was investigated by electrodialysis, high-voltage paper electrophoresis, and also by paper chromatography for nitrosylruthenium complexes. Most of the radiocobalt in seawater behaved as dialytic cations. However, these cationic species were not necessarily simple divalent, because their electrophoretic bands were rather diffuse and showed two peaks temporarily. The electroneutral form also increased with aging in seawater. The radioruthenium in seawater showed relatively a number of well-defined species which could be readily classified into anionic, cationic, electroneutral, colloidal or particulate, non-dialytic and more or less adsorbable species. The radioruthenium in the chloro and nitratonitrosylruthenium complexes occurred mainly electroneutral and anionic species, while nitro and binuclear oxygen-bridged nitratonitrosylruthenium complexes showed dominant anionic species. The hydrolysis of higher nitro and nitratonitrosylruthenium complexes to lower ones was demonstrated with aging in seawater by paper chromatography. The radiocerium in seawater showed initially cationic species. However, the electroneutral and anionic species were revealed with aging by electrodialysis. The radiocerium were strongly adsorbed on filter paper at the starting band in paper electrophoresis, presumably because of the formation of strongly adsorbable or insoluble hydrolytic species or particle formation. (author)

  4. Effect of soil properties on arsenic fractionation and bioaccessibility in cattle and sheep dipping vat sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, D; Makris, K C; Parra-Noonan, M T; Datta, R

    2007-02-01

    Historical use of high arsenic (As) concentrations in cattle/sheep dipping vat sites to treat ticks has resulted in severe contamination of soil and groundwater with this Group-A human carcinogen. In the absence of a universally applicable soil As bioaccessibility model, baseline risk assessment studies have traditionally used the extremely conservative estimate of 100% soil As bioaccessibility. Several in-vitro, as well as, in-vivo animal studies suggest that As bioaccessibility in soil can be lower than that in water. Arsenic in soils exists in several geochemical forms with varying degree of dissolution in the human digestive system, and thus, with highly varying As bioaccessibility. Earlier batch incubation studies with As-spiked soils have shown that As bioaccessibility is a function of soil physicochemical properties. We selected 12 dipping vat soils collected from USA and Australia to test the hypothesis that soil properties exert a significant effect on As bioaccessibility in As-contaminated sites. The 12 soils varied widely in terms of soil physico-chemical properties. They were subject to an As sequential fractionation scheme and two in-vitro tests (IVGS and IVGIA) to simulate soil As bioavailability in the human gastrointestinal system. Sequential As fractionation results showed that the majority of the As measured in the dipping vat soils resided either in the Fe/Al hydroxide fraction, or the Ca/Mg fractions, or in the residual fraction. Water-extractable As fraction of the 12 soils was typically vat site soils.

  5. Diurnal variation and evaluation of physico-chemical properties of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to evaluate the magnitude of diurnal variation of physicochemical parameters and potability of the Ikpoba River. Water samples were taken from stations 1 and 2 within the Reservoir and station 3 downstream. Water quality parameters showed significant diurnal, seasonal and spatial variations.

  6. Cytotoxic, antibacterial activity and physico-chemical properties of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... aromatic aldehydes and aromatic amine in ethanol under acidic conditions. The geometry of these Schiff bases was established using various spectroscopic methods like infrared (IR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and mass spectrometry. The conductivity studies reveal the non electrolytic behavior of Schiff bases.

  7. Evaluation of the physico-chemical properties of Ethiopian maize ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mean values were 11.74%, 64.15%, 4.51%, 10.23%, 6.53% and 2.81%, for moisture content, total starch, germ, gluten, husk and fibre, respectively on dry weight basis. The total starch obtained from wet milling was 91.8% pure starch by mass. The proximate analysis values of moisture, crude protein, crude fat, crude ...

  8. Physico-chemical properties of honeys produced by two stingless ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P) and sodium (Na) contents were 25.43%, 0.76%, and 12.67% for Trigona carbonaria honey and 26.51%, 1.03% and 11.96% for Melipona beecheii .The fructose, glucose, reducing sugar, higher sugar, sucrose and calorific value contents of Trigona carbonaria honey were 37.25%, 31.64%, ...

  9. Physico-chemical, thermal and electrical properties of the fabricated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We successfully fabricated polyurethane (PU) thin films deposited on glass substrates utilizing bio-based epoxidized soybean oil (ESBO) via spin coating technique. Prior to deposition, one-shot polymerization condensation reaction was made by reacting varied amount of ESBO-based polyols with isocyanate.

  10. Comparative Studies of Physico-chemical Properties of Some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Akorede

    cement (As, Br, De and Sk) sold in Nigerian market using standard methods; due to the persistent collapse of buildings. The results showed ... recommended standards for general purpose cement, with the exception of SR in As. The longest setting time for the ... hydration process that converts the dry cement into hardened.

  11. Evaluation of the physico-chemical properties of acid thinned ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    From the investigation, the acid modification of cassava starch at 60°C with 0.1M hydrochloric acid solutions for 1hr and 2hr gave pastes that are stable, and have workable viscosities and can form gel in food processing. Therefore, the results suggest that they are suitable for the food industry as food emulsifiers/stabilizers.

  12. Physico-chemical and rheological properties of prato cheese during ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aghomotsegin

    2015-06-17

    Jun 17, 2015 ... Science (Centro de Pesquisa em Alimentos da Escola de. Veterinária e Zootecnia) of the Federal University of Goiás, Goiânia,. GO, Brazil. Prior to cheese fabrication, ..... 97p. Furtado MM, Lourenço Neto JPM (1994). Tecnologia de Queijos: Manual Técnico para a Produção Industrial de Queijos [Cheese.

  13. Nutritional, physico-chemical and sensory properties of Robo (A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The vitamins – thiamine, riboflavin and niacin in the melon robo were 2.87, 0.65 and 1.28 mg/100 g while sesame robo contained 2.13, 1.05 and 0.56 mg/100 g respectively. The phytate and oxalate concentrations were relatively low in all the samples. The sensory evaluation results revealed that melon robo was rated ...

  14. Seasonal variations of physico-chemical properties of the Great ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    used for food production of all means that is agriculture, aquaculture, and animal farming. The quality of water in .... hydrographical characteristics of the marine and estuarine environments. In the present study, the .... phytoplankton as evidenced by high photosynthetic activity and also due to the neritic water dominance,.

  15. Physico-chemical properties of plasma-polymerized tetravinylsilane

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čech, V.; Studynka, J.; Conte, N.; Peřina, Vratislav

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 201, 9-11 (2007), s. 5512-5517 ISSN 0257-8972 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : nano -indentation Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 1.678, year: 2007

  16. Physico-chemical properties of substances used as molluscicides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyling, A. H.; Meyling, J.; Pitchford, R. J.

    1966-01-01

    Under field conditions molluscicides can undergo hydrolysis to compounds that have no molluscicidal action. In a continuation of laboratory studies on hydrolysis, investigations have been made on N-tritylmorpholine (Shell WL 8008). The rate of hydrolysis increases with decreasing pH, being rapid below pH 7. An emulsion prepared from an emulsifiable concentrate was found to be much more stable than an aqueous solution of the compound, presumably because of the protective effect of oil droplets. The stability of the compound as a wheat-germ bait was also studied; there was about a 10% decrease in concentration in 22 hours. The portion that dissolved in the water was almost completely hydrolysed, whereas that remaining in the bait was much less so. PMID:5297807

  17. extraction and physico chemical properties of some edible seed oils

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    ABSTRACT. Six edible seed samples were obtained from Yankura market in Kano metropolis, Kano state. The samples were subjected to extraction for their oil contents. The percentage oil yield from the seeds were 40.60% for Moringa oleifera, 49.39% for cashew, 47.80% for sesame, 11.92% for bitter kola,. 38.30% for ...

  18. Physico-chemical properties of a modified biomaterial from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was soluble in dilute HCl and HNO3 but practically insoluble in cold water and organic solvents. Its 10 % w/v aqueous dispersion has pH of 7.57. Whereas, lead, silver, cadmium, nickel, vanadium, mercury or barium were not detected, iron and some heavy metals were detected, though their levels were within ...

  19. Levels of Some Heavy Metals and Physico Chemical Properties of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL

    REFERENCES. Adeyinka, J S (1996). Waste water treatment through reverse osmosis. Env. Monitoring and. Assessment. 22-37. Adinna, E N ;Ekop, O B and Attah, V I (2003). Environmental pollution and management in the tropics. Metroprints Publishers – Uyo. 12 -21. Ansa – Asare, O D (1992). Chemical. Characterization.

  20. Production and evaluation of the physico-chemical properties of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The bulk densities, foam and emulsion capacities of the 'apula' significantly increased with supplementation of bambara groundnut in the blends. The values ranged from 0.75 – 0.80g/ml, 1.68 –2.85% and 3.38 – 4.95% for the bulk density, foam and emulsion capacities respectively. The samples exhibited good flow ...

  1. Physico-chemical properties of oil from some selected underutilized ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the feasibility of using some selected tropical seeds: palm kernel, breadfruit, groundnut, bambara groundnut, pumpkin, African oil bean, melon, sesame, coconut, soybean, Cucumeropsis manii, and Dacryodes edulis as sources of biodiesel production were investigated. These results suggest that these seeds ...

  2. Physico-chemical properties of indigenous micro organism ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Paddy husk (PH) and corn stalks (CS) residues are managed through burning. Besides contributing to environmental pollution, burning causes loss of vegetation cover, erosion, run off and loss of organic matter. In order to minimize this problem, a study was conducted to manage PH and CS residues through composting ...

  3. Physico chemical properties of irradiated i-SANEX diluents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mossini Eros

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of effective processes to recover minor actinides from spent nuclear fuel cannot leave out of consideration the evaluation of the impact of ionizing radiations on safety, fluid dynamics and extraction efficiency. It is common knowledge from the literature that radiation damage mainly affects the diluents and, indirectly, the extractants [1], but a lack of knowledge remains regarding the radiolytic behavior of innovative selective actinide extraction (i-SANEX diluents [2, 3]. As natural prosecution of the work already performed on diluted nitric acid solutions [4], 0.44 M nitric acid solutions were irradiated in contact with a mixture of kerosene + 5 vol.% 1-octanol by a Co-60 source at 2.5 kGy/h dose rate and up to 100 kGy absorbed dose, conditions of interest for the future industrial facility. Density, viscosity, acidity, nitrate anion concentration and phase transfers were systematically measured before and after γ-irradiation. This was performed because radiation-induced modifications of these parameters may induce alterations of both the fluid dynamics and the separation performances of the extracting system. The results suggest that the fluid-dynamics of the system should be unaltered. In fact, only slight alterations of the organic phase viscosity and of the aqueous phase acidity were measured after irradiation, suggesting the occurrence of limited phase transfers and of diluent by-products formation.

  4. Characterisation of microbiological and physico-chemical properties ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The most prevalent bacteria isolated were Escherichia coli, Streptococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and Clostridium perfringens with Penicillium digitatum as the only prevalent mould. The mean temperature ranges from 28.40 to 29.10 0C, pH from 7.80 to 9.03 and salinity level from 1.06 ...

  5. Geotechnical and physico chemical properties of clays associated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-12-03

    Dec 3, 2012 ... specific months of the landslide events which led to elevated groundwater levels with raised pore water pressure in the highly weathered and loose materials resulting in increased shear stress and reduced shear strength with the eventual failures of the slopes causing the landslide disasters witnessed in ...

  6. Physico-chemical properties of radionuclides emitted as particulate matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Kasper Grann

    2016-01-01

    . A methodology with associated parameters has been developed to improve modelling of the aerodynamic particle characteristics, and resultant deposition relations on different surface types, as well as estimates of resultant post-deposition environmental contaminant mobility/forced decontamination....

  7. Physico-chemical properties and heavy metal content of water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    The water quality examination in Ife–North Local Government of Osun State Nigeria was conducted by determining the physico–chemical parameters of 40 samples. Surface water, bore holes, wells and pipe borne water samples were collected from major towns in the Local Government Area and analyzed. Results showed ...

  8. Physico-chemical and functional properties of potato proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koningsveld, van G.A.

    2001-01-01

    Key words: potato proteins, patatin, protease inhibitors, solubility, structure, pH, temperature, ethanol, ionic strength, phenolic compounds, foams, emulsions

    In potato starch manufacture an aqueous byproduct remains that is called potato

  9. Transcobalamin from cow milk: isolation and physico-chemical properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fedosov, Sergey; Petersen, Torben Ellebæk; Nexø, Ebba

    1996-01-01

    The concentration of endogenous cobalamin (Cbl) in cow milk was 3.3 nM while the Cbl-binding capacity was 0.05 nM. Both endogenous and newly added Cbl showed similar quantitative distribution between a 280 kDa protein complex (45%) and a 43 kDa Cbl-binder (55%). Long time incubation, as well...... as urea treatment, was accompanied by a slow release of the 43 kDa Cbl-binder from the 280 kDa fraction. No other Cbl-binding proteins appeared after these procedures. The 43 kDa binder from cow milk, depleted of the ligand by urea treatment, reacted with Cbl even in the presence of a B12 analogue...... was significantly suppressed at pH 2.0. The N-terminal sequence of the purified 43 kDa Cbl-binder revealed homology with TC from human and rabbit plasma. In conclusion we have shown that TC is the main Cbl-binding protein in cow milk. This is surprising, since previous studies on human and rat milk have shown...

  10. Variation in physico-chemical properties of seed of selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-10-20

    Oct 20, 2008 ... seed, negative correlations were observed between the content of crude protein and carbohydrate (- ..... V9 = %ash, V10 = % carbohydrate, V11 = %Fat, V12 = water binding capacity, V13 = Viscosity, V14 = pasting time temperatureGel, V15 = %crude .... flatulent sugars than that found in soybean but its.

  11. Investigation into the physico-chemical properties and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results obtained shows that the water samples quality examined compared favourably with WHO (1998) standard for drinking water. ... The concentration of heavy metals; lead, copper, chromium, cadmium and arsenic (major sources of ground water pollution) were below detectable limit except at well 5, 6, and 7 where ...

  12. Some physico-chemical properties and mineral contents of sweet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-06-17

    Jun 17, 2009 ... The fruit and seed shape was expressed in terms of its sphericity index and aspect ratio. For the sphericity index Sc, the dimensions obtained for the 10 sweet cherry fruits were used to compute the index based on the recommendation of Mohsenin (1978) as Sc = (a. x b x c)1/3/a x 100. For the aspect ratio, ...

  13. Physico-chemical properties, energy, mineral, vitamin and sensory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ) and put in a polyethylene bag. Root, tuber and plantain were first peeled, sliced, sun-dried and milled into flour (40mm mesh screen) and also put in polyethylene bag. The flour batches were ... using standard techniques. The test breads had ...

  14. study of phytoplanktonin relation to physico- chemical properties

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phytoplanktons are first link in nearly all aquatic food chain. (Babatunde et al., 2014), without phytoplankton, the diversity and abundance of aquatic life would be impossible. Phytoplankton provide, food for a tremendous variety of organisms, including zooplankton (microscopic animal), bivalve molluscan, shellfish. (mussels ...

  15. Evaluation of the Physico-Chemical Properties of Produced Water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    It consists of formation water, which is water naturally present in the reservoir, or condensed, water in gas production. (Huishu Li, 2013). Besides elevated concentration of heavy metals such as barium, uranium, cadmium, chromium, strontium and lead, produced water contains dispersed oil droplets and dissolved organic.

  16. Physico-chemical Properties of Water Samples from Manipur River ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    the rivers indicating degradation of water quality during rainy season than summer. Values of DO was below the ... river system were within the WHO limits for drinking water and, therefore, may be suitable for domestic purposes. @ JASEM. ... help of a mercury thermometer, transparency with secchi disc, conductivity with ...

  17. Physico-chemical properties of Safou (Dacryodes edulis) fruits ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2016-09-30

    Sep 30, 2016 ... 2Laboratory of Biotechnology and Food Microbiology. Department of Food Science and Technology, ... Indeed, the pulp of safou. Journal of Applied Biosciences 105:10103 –10110. ISSN 1997–5902 ..... According to Bratte (2011), a meal of safou and starches. (cassava, bread) is a balanced ration.

  18. Comparative Analysis of Physico-Chemical Properties of Extracted ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acid value: palm oil; 4.217 mg KOH / g of oil and tallow; 1.113 mg KOH / g of oil. Saponification value: palm oil; 191.324 mg KOH / g of oil and tallow; 190.763 mg KOH / g of oil. Peroxide value: palm oil; Nil and tallow; Nil. Unsaponifiable matter: palm oil; 3.033g/kg and tallow; 1.133g/kg. Iodine value: palm oil; 53.870 and ...

  19. Levels of Some Heavy Metals and Physico Chemical Properties of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL

    discharge or sewage (ISO 14001, 2000). Nature has an amazing ability to cope with small amounts of water wastes and pollution, but it would be dangerous or detrimental if the billions of gallons of waste water and sewage produced every day are not treated before releasing them back to the environment. Treatment.

  20. Extraction and physico chemical properties of some edible seed oils ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Six edible seed samples were obtained from Yankura market in Kano metropolis, Kano state. The samples were subjected to extraction for their oil contents. The percentage oil yield from the seeds were 40.60% for Moringa oleifera, 49.39% for cashew, 47.80% for sesame, 11.92% for bitter kola, 38.30% for melon and ...

  1. Physico-chemical and rheological properties of prato cheese during ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The influence of storage temperature (6, 12 and 18°C) on texture parameters of Prato cheese were evaluated during 22 days of ripening. A reduction of firmness, gumminess and elasticity was observed; however, cohesiveness and adhesiveness increased. With the increasing temperature, firmness and gumminess ...

  2. physico-chemical properties and energy potential of wood wastes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    energy consumed in the European Union (EU) came from solid biomass (almost exclusively wood) [2]. In 2013, solid biomass accounted for 3% of the electricity produced in the EU and 15% of the heat produced in industrial sectors [2]. The use of woody biomass for energy generation can offset fuels such as coal, gasoline,.

  3. Soil properties and processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartemink, A.E.; McBratney, A.B.; White, R.E.

    2009-01-01

    This four-volume set, edited by leading experts in soil science, brings together in one collection a series of papers that have been fundamental to the development of soil science as a defined discipline. Tis volume 2 on Soil Properties and Processes covers: - Soil physics - Soil (bio)chemistry -

  4. Physico-chemical measurements of CL-20 for environmental applications. Comparison with RDX and HMX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteil-Rivera, Fanny; Paquet, Louise; Deschamps, Stéphane; Balakrishnan, Vimal K; Beaulieu, Chantale; Hawari, Jalal

    2004-01-30

    CL-20 is a polycyclic energetic nitramine, which may soon replace the monocyclic nitramines RDX and HMX, because of its superior explosive performance. Therefore, to predict its environmental fate, analytical and physico-chemical data must be made available. An HPLC technique was thus developed to measure CL-20 in soil samples based on the US Environmental Protection Agency method 8330. We found that the soil water content and aging (21 days) had no effect on the recoveries (>92%) of CL-20, provided that the extracts were kept acidic (pH 3). The aqueous solubility of CL-20 was poor (3.6 mg l(-1) at 25 degrees C) and increased with temperature to reach 18.5 mg l(-1) at 60 degrees C. The octanol-water partition coefficient of CL-20 (log KOW = 1.92) was higher than that of RDX (log KOW = 0.90) and HMX (log KOW = 0.16), indicating its higher affinity to organic matter. Finally, CL-20 was found to decompose in non-acidified water upon contact with glass containers to give NO2- (2 equiv.), N2O (2 equiv.), and HCOO- (2 equiv.). The experimental findings suggest that CL-20 should be less persistent in the environment than RDX and HMX.

  5. Iodide behaviour in hard clay rocks under controlled physico-chemical conditions at different concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frasca, B.; Savoye, S.; Wittebroodt, C.; Leupin, O.X.; Descostes, M.; Grenut, B.; Meier, P.; Michelot, J.L.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. With a half-life of 1.6 10 7 years, its high mobility and its potential to accumulate in the biosphere, iodine-129 is considered, from safety assessment calculations for radioactive waste repositories, to be one of the main radiological dose contributors. Based on the findings of previous studies, iodide, especially at low concentrations, seems to be migrating at a slower rate in clay rock than Cl-36. The cause of this retardation regarding the diffusion of iodide versus chloride is not yet understood but several hypotheses are point towards sorption on natural organic matter (NOM), pyrite or redox reactions. Oxidation of iodide would form IO 3 - which is known to have a higher sorption affinity on several soils and sediment samples than iodide. The present project aims at exploring the effect on the iodide behaviour of two parameters: (i) the initial concentration of iodide and (ii) the amount of NOM contained in the argillite samples. Such an investigation is carried out on Tournemire argillite by means of both batch and through-diffusion experiments. The main challenge is to exclude as much as possible the occurrence of any experimental artefact that could induce iodide uptake (oxygen contamination, dissolution/precipitation of carbonate phases). Regarding redox conditions and rock equilibrium, all the experiments were carried out under physico-chemical conditions as close as possible to those prevailing in field. Using a glove box with an atmosphere of N 2 /CO 2 (respectively 99.6% and 0.4%), we preserved the experiments from oxygen and maintained the calculated in-situ carbonate equilibrium. At first, four through-diffusion experiments with the non-sorbing tracers HTO and Cl-36 were performed to allow the diffusive parameters of each sample to be defined. Afterwards, iodide was injected in the diffusion cells at four different concentrations (10 -6 M to 10 -3 M). Thus, the comparison of the incoming fluxes of

  6. Relationships between soil properties and community structure of soil macroinvertebrates in oak-history forests along an acidic deposition gradient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuperman, R.G. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Assessment Div.

    1996-02-01

    Soil macroinvertebrate communities were studied in ecologically analogous oak-hickory forests across a three-state atmospheric pollution gradient in Illinois, Indiana, and Ohio. The goal was to investigate changes in the community structure of soil fauna in study sites receiving different amounts of acidic deposition for several decades and the possible relationships between these changes and physico-chemical properties of soil. The study revealed significant differences in the numbers of soil animals among the three study sites. The sharply differentiated pattern of soil macroinvertebrate fauna seems closely linked to soil chemistry. Significant correlations of the abundance of soil macroinvertebrates with soil parameters suggest that their populations could have been affected by acidic deposition in the region. Abundance of total soil macroinvertebrates decreased with the increased cumulative loading of acidic deposition. Among the groups most sensitive to deposition were: earthworms gastropods, dipteran larvae, termites, and predatory beetles. The results of the study support the hypothesis that chronic long-term acidic deposition could aversely affect the soil decomposer community which could cause lower organic matter turnover rates leading to an increase in soil organic matter content in high deposition sites.

  7. Organic Contaminant Content and Physico-Chemical Characteristics of Waste Materials Recycled in Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Rigby

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A range of wastes representative of materials currently applied, or with future potential to be applied, to agricultural land in the UK as fertilisers and soil improvers or used as animal bedding in livestock production, were investigated. In addition to full physico-chemical characterization, the materials were analysed for a suite of priority organic contaminants. In general, contaminants were present at relatively low concentrations. For example, for biosolids and compost-like-output (CLO, concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs were approximately 1−10 and 5–50 times lower, respectively, than various proposed or implemented European limit values for these contaminants in biosolids or composts applied to agricultural land. However, the technical basis for these limits may require re-evaluation in some cases. Polybrominated, and mixed halogenated, dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans are not currently considered in risk assessments of dioxins and dioxin-like chemicals, but were detected at relatively high concentrations compared with PCDD/Fs in the biosolids and CLOs and their potential contribution to the overall toxic equivalency is assessed. Other ‘emerging’ contaminants, such as organophosphate flame retardants, were detected in several of the waste materials, and their potential significance is discussed. The study is part of a wider research programme that will provide evidence that is expected to improve confidence in the use of waste-derived materials in agriculture and to establish guidelines to protect the food chain where necessary.

  8. Physico-chemical trends in the sediments of Agbede Wetlands, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirisu Abdul-Rahman

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the physico-chemical status of sediments in the Agbede Wetlands with the aim to create a reference archive for the Edo North catchment and to further identify the characteristics mostly influenced by the natural and anthropogenic activities going on at the watershed. Nutrients, zinc, nickel and lead were identified to be mostly of anthropogenic origin, while alkali metals and alkaline earth metals were from both anthropogenic and natural sources. The clustering of stations 1 and 4 indicates that the sediment quality in the lentic systems was not completely excluded from the lotic system, suggesting that principal component analysis (PCA and cluster analysis (CA techniques are invaluable tools for identifying factors influencing the sediment quality. The mean values of the particle size distribution were in the following order across the ecosystems: sand (61.86–80.53% > silt (9.75–30.34% > clay (7.83–13.89%. The contamination of the water bodies was primarily derived from agricultural run-offs and through geochemical weathering of the top soils. Therefore, our analysis indicates that the concentrations of cations, anions and nutrients in the sediments of the lotic and lentic ecosystems in Agbede Wetlands are not at an alarming level.

  9. Physico-chemical trends in the sediments of Agbede Wetlands, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirisu, Abdul-Rahman; Olomukoro, John Ovie; Ezenwa, Ifeanyi Maxwell

    2017-06-01

    This study assessed the physico-chemical status of sediments in the Agbede Wetlands with the aim to create a reference archive for the Edo North catchment and to further identify the characteristics mostly influenced by the natural and anthropogenic activities going on at the watershed. Nutrients, zinc, nickel and lead were identified to be mostly of anthropogenic origin, while alkali metals and alkaline earth metals were from both anthropogenic and natural sources. The clustering of stations 1 and 4 indicates that the sediment quality in the lentic systems was not completely excluded from the lotic system, suggesting that principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA) techniques are invaluable tools for identifying factors influencing the sediment quality. The mean values of the particle size distribution were in the following order across the ecosystems: sand (61.86-80.53%) > silt (9.75-30.34%) > clay (7.83-13.89%). The contamination of the water bodies was primarily derived from agricultural run-offs and through geochemical weathering of the top soils. Therefore, our analysis indicates that the concentrations of cations, anions and nutrients in the sediments of the lotic and lentic ecosystems in Agbede Wetlands are not at an alarming level.

  10. Physico-chemical study of coating plasma duplex alumina/hydroxyapatite for medical applications relation elaboration/structure/properties(dissolution/adherence/residual constraints); Etude physico-chimique de depots plasma duplex alumine/hydroxyapatite pour applications medicales relations elaboration/structure/proprietes (dissolution/adherence/contraintes residuelles)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demonet, N

    1998-11-19

    The physico-chemical behavior of porous ceramics depositing is studied in order to use them to favour the biological fixing of hip prosthesis fixed without cement. Alumina depositing, hydroxyapatite depositing and duplex (the both together) have been realized by plasma projection on a substrate in Ti-6Al-V. Tests of dissolution have been made. An original method of sound followed by radioactive tracers has allowed to establish an order of phases degradation and to consider the kinetics of calcium ions in function of several parameters of tests. (N.C.)

  11. Physico-chemical durability criteria of oils and linked bio-based polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irshad Ambreen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The oxidative stability or durability is an important indicator of performance that depends on the composition of the sample. The fatty oil or polymer degradation processes have generally been established as being free radical mechanism yielding primary oxidation products. We propose to explain in detail all the analytical methods and tools used for the determination of the initial physico-chemical properties of oils and the properties in ageing conditions. Chemical titrations for acid or peroxide value, Rancimat method or thermogravimetric measurements are discussed. Accelerated ageing tools for thermal or photochemical exposures are also shown. After the assessment of oil durability, the development of new bio-based polymer with vegetable oil is tackled because of its industrial interest. It is essential to understand the long term behavior of oils and biopolymers and to assess exactly the durability which is useful to produce life cycle analysis of materials. At last we underline the advantages of a new Fourier transform infrared (FTIR instrumentation with in-situ irradiation and gas cell to give a screening of the durability of various oils or polymers. Main durability criteria of oils and biopolymers are linked to the production of volatile organic compounds and the resistance to the oxidation process.

  12. Isolation and physico-chemical characterization of Butea parviflora seed oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaki, S. S.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The seeds of Butea parviflora were investigated for oil extraction and the oil was studied for complete physico-chemical properties. The fatty acid profile of the seed oil showed oleic acid (18:1 at 27.5%, linoleic acid (18:2 at 26.4%, palmitic acid (16:0 at 16.1% and behenic acid (22:0 at 14.1% as the major fatty acids. The physico-chemical characteristics of the seed oil were studied for parameters such as free fatty acids (0.71%, iodine value (76.2 g/100g, peroxide value (5.95 ppm, saponification value (177.32 mg KOH/g, unsaponifiable matter (0.82%, phosphorous content (197 ppm, triglyceride analysis, tocols, specific gravity and refractive index following standard procedures.Se ha estudiado la extracción de aceite de semillas de Butea parviflora así como las características físico-químicas completas del aceite. El perfil de ácidos grasos está compuesto de un 27,5% de ácido oleico (18:1, 26,4% de ácido linoleico (18:2, 16,1% de ácido palmítico (16:0 y 14.1% de behénico (22:0 como principales ácidos grasos. Se han estudiado las características físico-químicas del aceite de las semilla tales como los ácidos grasos libres (0,71%, índice de yodo (76,2 g/100 g, índice de peróxido (5,95 ppm, índice de saponificación (177,32 mg KOH/g, materia insaponificable (0,82%, contenido en fósforo (197 ppm, análisis de triglicéridos, gravedad específica e índice de refracción, siguiendo los protocolos recogidos en procedimientos estandarizados.

  13. Crystallization characteristics and physico-chemical properties of glass–ceramics based on Li2O–ZnO–SiO2 system; Características de cristalización y propiedades físico-químicas de los materiales vitrocerámicos compuestos a base del sistema Li2O-ZnO-SiO2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salman, Saad M.; Salama, Samia N.; Abo-Mosallam, Hany A.

    2017-11-01

    Glass materials based on lithium zinc silicate system of the composition 24Li2O–20ZnO–56SiO2 LZS (mol%) were prepared and converted to glass–ceramics using controlled heat-treatment schedules. The LZS base glass system was modified by addition of Al2O3 and MO/ZnO replacements where MO=CaO, CdO and SrO oxides. Several crystalline phases were developed, including lithium zinc orthosilicate, α-quartz, β-spodumene solid solution, lithium meta and disilicate, Ca-wollastonite, Cd or Sr metasilicate, and Sr-zinc silicate of hardystonite type. The effects of crystallization process on some properties, like thermal expansion coefficient (TEC), chemical stability, and density of glass–ceramics were evaluated. The TEC of crystalline samples varied from 72×10−7 to 149×10−7K−1, 25–600 and density values in the range, 2.67–3.29g/cm3. The addition of Al2O3 and MO/ZnO replacements in the base glass led to improve the chemical durability of the glass–ceramics samples. As a result of the thermal and physico-chemical properties of the studied glass–ceramic, the materials acquire excellent properties and can be used to seal a variety of different metals and alloys. [Spanish] Los materiales de vidrio compuestos a base del sistema de silicato de cinc y de litio, de la composición 24Li2O–20ZnO-56SiO2 LZS (mol %), se prepararon y se convirtieron en vitrocerámica con regímenes de tratamiento térmico controlado. El sistema de vidrio de base LZS se modificó mediante la adición de reemplazos de Al2O3 y MO/ZnO, donde MO=óxidos de CaO, CdO y SrO. Se desarrollaron varias fases cristalinas, incluyendo ortosilicato de cinc y de litio, de cuarzo α, solución sólida de espomudeno, metal litio y disilicato, Ca-wollastonita, metasilicato Cd o Sr, y silicato de cinc Sr de tipo hardistonita. Se evaluaron los efectos del proceso de cristalización en algunas propiedades, como el coeficiente de expansión térmica, la estabilidad química y la densidad de las vitrocer

  14. Water-stability of soil aggregates in relation to selected properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mbagwu, J.S.C.; Bazzoffi, P.; Unamba Oparah, I.

    1995-03-01

    The stability of soil aggregates in water is an important soil physical property for evaluating the potential of agricultural soils to erode and elucidating the mechanisms of soil erosion. In this study we used aggregates from 15 surface soil samples in Italy to evaluate the influence of intrinsic soil physical, chemical and mineralogical properties on aggregates stability (AS). The aim was to develop a model for predicting AS from a subset of these soil properties. The index of stability used is the mean-weight diameter of water-stable aggregates (MWD). The model developed with soil physical properties alone explained just 42% of variance in MWD and predicted AS in only 20% of test soils. The model developed with mineralogical properties alone explained 70% of variance in MWD and predicted AS in 60% of the test soils. The chemical properties - based model explained 90% of variance in MWD and predicted AS in 80% of the test soils. The best-fit model was developed with soil properties from the physical, chemical and mineralogical subsets. It explained 98% of variance in MWD and predicted AS in 100% of the test soils. This model shows that the most important soil properties which influence the AS of these soils include ratio of total sand to clay, concentrations of iron oxide, magnesium oxide, organic matter, silica/alumina ratio, chlorite, feldspar and muscovite. This indicates that fairly good estimates of the relative stability of these aggregates in water and hence of their potential to erode, requires a knowledge of the physico-chemical and mineralogical properties. (author). 40 refs, 4 tabs

  15. Levels of toxic elements in soils of abandoned waste dump site

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GRACE

    2006-07-03

    Jul 3, 2006 ... cation exchange capacity (ECEC) correlated significantly and positively with Cr and Pb indicating that these factors ... magnitude of increase depends on the rate of application. (Anikwe ... Mean ± SEM values of the physico-chemical properties of the abandoned waste dump soils with respect to the profiles.

  16. Physico-chemical characterization of pine cone shell and its use as biosorbent and fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almendros, A I; Martín-Lara, M A; Ronda, A; Pérez, A; Blázquez, G; Calero, M

    2015-11-01

    Physico-chemical properties of pine cone shell have been determined. Results of characterization study showed that pine cone shell could be used as biosorbent of nickel from aqueous solutions in a fixed-bed column and later as input material in thermochemical processes. To study the behavior of Ni-loaded pine cone shell as fuel, non-isothermal thermogravimetric tests were performed. These tests showed that, in nitrogen atmosphere, the main decomposition occurs from 200°C to 500°C and, in oxidant atmosphere, the behavior is of type "combustion+pyrolysis" (at higher temperatures there is a clear decomposition of residue formed during the initial steps). Finally, the effect of the presence of Ni was analyzed. Thermogravimetric curves did not change their profile and the total amount of nickel was detected in char-ash fraction and not in flue gases. These results suggest that nickel does not form volatile compounds at considered operational conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Physico-chemical and sensory changes during the storage of lal peda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Alok; Kumar, Arvind; Jain, Parul; Om, Hari; Singh, Rakhi; Bunkar, D S

    2014-06-01

    Lal peda is a popular heat desiccated traditional dairy delicacy of eastern India specially Uttar Pradesh. It is prepared by blending of khoa and sugar followed by heat desiccation until characteristic reddish brown colour appears. It is a nutritive, palatable and a very good source of energy. In order to commercially manufacture and market lal peda, studies on its shelf-life were considered to be very important. Lal peda samples were packed in paper boxes and stored at two different temperatures i.e. 4 and 37 °C and physico-chemical and sensory changes were monitored during storage period. There was a continuous loss of moisture during storage and rate of loss of moisture was higher at 37 °C. FFA and HMF contents in lal peda increased during storage and these changes were found to be temperature sensitive. Changes in textural properties of lal peda in terms of hardness, springiness, cohesiveness, chewiness and gumminess were also studied. Lal peda samples stored at 4 and 37 °C were acceptable up to 31 days and 9 days, respectively on the basis of textural and sensory attributes.

  18. Isolation, culture optimization and physico-chemical characterization of laccase enzyme from Pleurotus fossulatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, P; Hari, R; Chakraborty, B; Mandal, B; Naskar, S; Das, Nirmalendu

    2014-01-15

    Pleurotus fossulatus (Cooke) Sace is member of oyster mushroom can produced extracellular laccase (benzenediol: oxygen oxidoreductase; EC 1.10.3.2) in submerged fermentation. To analyze the optimum production for laccase P. fossulatus was cultured both in stationary and shaking condition in different media. Partial purification of laccase was done after 0-80% ammonium sulphate precipitation, followed by DEAE (Diethylaminoethyl) Sephadex (A-50) anion exchange chromatography. Potato-sucrose peptone (PSP) medium and Potato-dextrose (PD) medium showed highest laccase production in shaking and stationary conditions, respectively. Though the time required for optimum laccase production in stationary condition was much more than the shaking condition but the amount of laccase was about 2.75t greater in former condition. The laccase produced in stationary condition was more stable than the enzyme produced in shaking condition. The partially purified enzyme showed highest affinity towards o-dianisidine than guaiacol and ABTS (2,2'-Azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) as evidenced by their K(m). The physico-chemical properties of the laccase suggested the significance of this enzyme in industrial applications.

  19. Golden flaxseed and its byproducts in beef patties: physico-chemical evaluation and fatty acid profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiana Novello

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Flaxseed application in meat and meat products by adding not flesh ingredients has not yet been properly assessed. This technology strategy, if well optimized, could substantially improve the nutritional value of meat products and promote healthy appeals consistent. Knowing that, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of adding golden flaxseed oil, or flour, or seed in the physico-chemical properties and fatty acid profile of beef patties. Beef patties were prepared with 5.0% of oil (FO, or flour (FF, or seed (FS, plus a control formulation (FC. For raw products containing flaxseed, the moisture content (74.22 to 68.61% was decreased and the ash (1.61 to 2.00g 100g-1, protein (15.62 to 16.46g 100g-1, fat (6.20 to 9.74g 100g-1, carbohydrate (2.02 to 3.97 g 100g-1, and calorie (127.71 to 161.62kcal 100g-1 contents were increased. The raw and grilled samples containing golden flaxseed had increased beneficial omega-3 (n-3 fatty acids (0.85 a 2.98g 100g-1, a decreased n-6/n-3 ratio (0.50, thus improving the nutritional profile.

  20. Textural and physico-chemical characteristics of white brined goat cheeses made from frozen milk and curd. The use of square I - distance statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemanja Kljajevic

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective of this study was to investigate the effect of short term frozen storage of milk and curd on textural properties and physico-chemical composition of white brined goat cheese. Raw milk and curds (at various stages of pressing were frozen and kept for seven days at -27 °C. Following the freezing, all the experimental cheeses were manufactured by the standard procedure, the same that was used for the control cheese sample which did not undergo freezing at any stage of production. The Square I - distance was used in order to rank the cheeses according to their similarity to the control cheese in terms of texture attributes and physico-chemical characteristics. The results show that, in terms of all examined variables, the cheese made from frozen milk is the most similar to the control cheese.

  1. Physico-chemical behavior of ultra high molecular weight polyethylene gamma-irradiated; Comportamento fisico-quimico do polietileno de altissimo peso molecular irradiado com raios gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Fabio F.; Bonelli, Claudia M.C.; Elzubair, A.; Suarez, Joao C. Miguez [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica e de Materiais]. E-mails: ceschi@terra.com; cmcb@openlink.com.br; elzubair@if.ufrj.br; jmiguez@taurus.ime.eb.br

    2003-07-01

    Ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) has been used in several applications, due to its excellent engineering properties. Since 70' that UHMWPE is applied in medical devices specially in orthopedic implants. The use of gamma irradiation has become the preferred method for sterilizing medical products. It is well known that the exposure to gamma rays introduces structural changes that may alter the polymer performance. In the present work, a commercial grade UHMWPE was exposed to gamma radiation at room temperature in the air. The effect of the irradiation on the physico-chemical behavior of a commercial UHMWPE was investigated by gel determination, infrared spectroscopy analysis and thermal analysis (TGA and DSC). The experimental data show changes in the physico-chemical behavior of UHMWPE. The results are presented and discussed. (author)

  2. Macroscopial, anatomical and physico-chemical studies on fruits of Coccinia indica Wight &Arn. (Cucurbitaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayank Kumar

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To rationalize the macroscopial, anatomical and physico-chemical studies on fruits of Coccinia indica Wight & Arn. (Cucurbitaceae. Methods: The crude ethanolic extract of fruits of Coccinia indica Wight & Arn. (Cucurbitaceae was using physico-chemical parameters, fluorescence analysis, and preliminary photochemical investigation (TLC, HPTLC, column chromatography. Results: An attempt has been made to highlight this folk herbal medicine through present study which will assist in the identification of fresh as well as dried crude samples of fruits anatomically and physico chemically. TLC fingerprint profiling and fluorescence analysis of powdered fruits were also carried out and the salient qualitative and quantitative parameters are reported. Conclusions: The present study will provide referential information for correct identification and help in checking adulteration in market samples used in the preparation of various herbal medicines. The present observation will also be helpful in macroscopial, anatomical and physicochemical studies on fruits of Coccinia indica Wight & Arn. (Cucurbitaceae.

  3. Development and characterization of an exposure platform suitable for physico-chemical, morphological and toxicological characterization of printer-emitted particles (PEPs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirela, Sandra V; Pyrgiotakis, Georgios; Bello, Dhimiter; Thomas, Treye; Castranova, Vincent; Demokritou, Philip

    2014-06-01

    An association between laser printer use and emissions of particulate matter (PM), ozone and volatile organic compounds has been reported in recent studies. However, the detailed physico-chemical, morphological and toxicological characterization of these printer-emitted particles (PEPs) and possible incorporation of engineered nanomaterials into toner formulations remain largely unknown. In this study, a printer exposure generation system suitable for the physico-chemical, morphological, and toxicological characterization of PEPs was developed and used to assess the properties of PEPs from the use of commercially available laser printers. The system consists of a glovebox type environmental chamber for uninterrupted printer operation, real-time and time-integrated particle sampling instrumentation for the size fractionation and sampling of PEPs and an exposure chamber for inhalation toxicological studies. Eleven commonly used laser printers were evaluated and ranked based on their PM emission profiles. Results show PM peak emissions are brand independent and varied between 3000 to 1 300 000 particles/cm³, with modal diameters ranging from 49 to 208 nm, with the majority of PEPs in the nanoscale (printer toner) raises questions about health implications to users. The presented PEGS platform will help in assessing the toxicological profile of PEPs and the link to the physico-chemical and morphological properties of emitted PM and toner formulations.

  4. Applicability of Vacuum Impregnation to Modify Physico-Chemical, Sensory and Nutritive Characteristics of Plant Origin Products—A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radziejewska-Kubzdela, Elżbieta; Biegańska-Marecik, Róża; Kidoń, Marcin

    2014-01-01

    Vacuum impregnation is a non-destructive method of introducing a solution with a specific composition to the porous matrices of fruit and vegetables. Mass transfer in this process is a result of mechanically induced differences in pressure. Vacuum impregnation makes it possible to fill large volumes of intercellular spaces in tissues of fruit and vegetables, thus modifying physico-chemical properties and sensory attributes of products. This method may be used, e.g., to reduce pH and water activity of the product, change its thermal properties, improve texture, color, taste and aroma. Additionally, bioactive compounds may be introduced together with impregnating solutions, thus improving health-promoting properties of the product or facilitating production of functional food. PMID:25244012

  5. Modelling the physico-chemical effect of silver electrorefining as effect of temperature, free acid, silver, copper and lead concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aji, Arif T.; Kalliomäki, Taina; Wilson, Benjamin P.; Aromaa, Jari; Lundström, Mari

    2017-01-01

    The study of electrolyte bath properties is essential for the improvement of silver electrolysis based processes. The paper outlines investigations into suitable models for the calculation of physico-chemical properties with the emphasis placed on conductivity, density and viscosity. Measurements were conducted within the industrial operation parameters used for silver electrolytes and the results indicate that these type of industrial electrolytes have an operating conductivity within the range of 60-140 mS/cm, density of 1.05-1.14 g/cm3 and a viscosity of 0.75-0.91 mm2/s. A representative model for each of these properties was proposed in order to calculate the conductivity, density and viscosity of silver electrolyte. From the evaluation of models, it was determined that all models have R2 (accuracy of fit) and Q2 (accuracy of prediction) values above 0.9 and thus can be regarded as excellent models.

  6. Influence of physico-chemical treatment on the subsequent biological process treating paper industry wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el Khames Saad, Mouhamed; Moussaoui, Younes; Zaghbani, Asma; Mosrati, Imen; Elaloui, Elimame; Ben Salem, Ridha

    2012-01-01

    The present paper presents the main results of the biodegradation study of paper industry wastewater through physico-chemical treatment. Indeed, around 60% of chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal can be achieved by electroflocculation treatment. Furthermore, a removal efficiency of the COD of almost 91% has been obtained by biological treatment, with activated amount of sludge for 24 h of culture. Concerning the physico-chemical pre-treatment of the untreated, filtered and electroflocculated rejection effluents, it has been investigated through the degradation curve of COD studies.

  7. PHYSICO-CHEMICAL ASSESSMENT OF POMACE EXHAUSTED AND APPRECIATION OF THEIR COMPOSTABILITY IN THE DELEGATION OF KALAA KEBIRA (TUNISIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. M'Sadak

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Olive pomace is the solid by-product obtained from the extraction of olive oil revealing serious environmental problems in all Mediterranean countries olive growing. Generally, that pomace can be valued, among others, as a source of organic matter (composting. In this perspective, we have addressed in this work to the quantitive and qualitative characterization (limited to certain physico-chemical parameters of the solid by-product of olive oil extraction in the delegation of Kalaa Kebira (Sousse, Tunisia while appreciating their compostability. The results showed that those olive residues are essentially dry, carbon-rich and CF, low in nitrogen. They can be used as compost by combining them with other available sources of plant originand/or animal such as manure of cattle, sheep or poultry (in varying proportions and responsible of the nature very heterogeneous and the variable quality that can be applied to improve soil fertility and crop productivity.

  8. Sorption behaviour of herbicides in soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luchini, L.C.; Wiendl, F.M.; Ruegg, E.F.; Instituto Biologico, Sao Paulo

    1988-01-01

    Environmental contamination by herbicides is related with the sorption phenomenon of these compounds in the soils. The behaviour of paraquat, 2,4-D and diuron was studied in soils with different physico-chemical properties, through the Freundlich adsorption and desorption isotherms, using 14 C-radiolabeled herbicides. Results of the range of the adsorption-desorption of each herbicide was related mainly with the chemical characteristics of these compounds. (author) [pt

  9. Physico-chemical quality parameters of herbal products from Agave sisalana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apolinário, Alexsandra Conceição; do Nascimento, Morgana Lopes; de Luna Vieira, Juliana Patrícia; Melo, Camila de Oliveira; Santos, Felipe Fernandes; de Lima Damasceno, Bolívar Ponciano Goulart; Converti, Attilio; Pessoa, Adalberto; da Silva, José Alexsandro

    2014-01-01

    Agave sisalana components have great potential in different pharmaceutical applications, but the quality of herbal raw materials is essential to reach the desired product specifications. In this work, we investigated the physico-chemical quality parameters of bole and wastes from decortication of A. sisalana leaves. The statistically significant variations among products suggest different pharmaceutical applications for each of them.

  10. The influence of physico-chemical and ecological factors on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey was conducted to determine the influence of physico-chemical parameters on the distribution of freshwater snails in Manchok water intake, Kaduna State, Nigeria from January 2013 to December, 2013. A total of eight thousand, three hundred and forty one (8341) freshwater snails were collected using a long ...

  11. Assessment of heavy metal removal technologies for biowaste by physico-chemical fractionation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veeken, A.H.M.; Hamelers, H.V.M.

    2003-01-01

    In the Netherlands, the heavy metal content of biowaste-compost frequently exceeds the legal standards for heavy metals. In order to assess heavy metal removal technologies, a physico-chemical fractionation scheme was developed to gain insight into the distribution of heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Pb and

  12. Physico-chemical shelf-life indicators of meat from broilers given ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of the study was to determine the effect of using Moringa oleifera leaf meal (MOLM) as an additive on physico-chemical shelf life indicators of meat from broilers. A total of 432 1-day-old chicks were randomly allocated to four treatments (TRT's). Water and feed was provided ad libitum. The feeding phases were ...

  13. Study of physico-chemical characteristics of the westernmost part of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some physico-chemical parameters of Badagry Creek and Ologe Lagoon in the Barrier Lagoon Complex of western Nigerian coastal zone were measured on quarterly basis from June 2011 to May 2012. Water samples were collected and analyzed using standard methods at five stations in each of the two water bodies.

  14. Effect of maturation on physico-chemical and sensory quality characteristics of custard apple wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas Kumar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, researchers have taken a shift to utilize the custard apple for wine preparation besides its major use in ice cream, confectionary and milk products. In the present study, an attempt has been made to study the effect of maturation on physico-chemical and sensory quality characteristics of custard apple wine. Custard apple wine was prepared as per the earlier standardized method. The wine so prepared was matured for six months. The physico-chemical analysis was conducted at every three months interval for six months and sensory evaluation was performed after six months of storage. With the maturation, a decrease in total soluble solids, total sugars, titratable acidity, ethanol, total phenols and tannins was observed, whereas, an increase in reducing sugars and pH was observed. All the sensory quality characteristics of custard apple wine increased with advancement of the maturation period except astringency. Cluster analysis of the data obtained from physico-chemical analysis revealed that there was no difference between three months and six months of storage. Physico-chemical characteristics of custard apple wine were reduced to two principal components using principal component analysis which accounted for 100% variation. In general, maturation for six months improved the quality of custard apple wine considerably.

  15. Effects of pond fertilization on the physico-chemical water quality of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of fertilization on the physico-chemical water quality of six selected earthen fishponds in Ife North Local Government Area of Osun State was investigated for a period of two years sampling the ponds every other month. The fishponds were grouped with regard to fertilization practice and water flowage regime into ...

  16. A study of the physico-chemical water quality, hydrology and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was aimed at relating the zooplankton fauna of Opa reservoir catchment area (Rivers Obudu, Opa and Esinmirin) to their physico-chemical water parameters and some aspects of their hydrology. Basin perimeter, basin width, total length, number of streams, river order and discharge showed significant positive ...

  17. Combined biological and physico-chemical treatment of filtered pig manure wastewater : pilot investigations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalyuzhnyi, S.; Sklyar, V.; Epov, A.; Archipchenko, I.; Barboulina, I.; Orlova, O.; Klapwijk, A.

    2002-01-01

    Combined biological and physico-chemical treatment of filtered pig manure wastewater has been investigated on the pilot installation operated under ambient temperatures (15-20°C) and included: i) UASB-reactor for elimination of major part of COD from the filtrate; (ii) stripper of CO2 fluidised bed

  18. Variation of physico-chemical characteristics with tide in Visakhapatnam harbour waters, east coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    RamaRaju, V.S.; Rao, T.V.N.; Rathod, V.

    fluctuations in physico-chemical parameters at st A (northwestern arm) may be attributed to the closeness of the station of the discharge point of industrial pollutants. No significant variation is found during a tidal cycle in bottom water. Variations in wind...

  19. Mechanisms governing the physico-chemical processes of transfer in NPP circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brusakov, V.P.; Sedov, V.M.; Khitrov, Yu.A.; Rybalchenko, I.L.

    1983-01-01

    The paper deals with the theoretical physico-chemical processes of corrosion products and their radionuclide transport in NPS circuits by thermoelectromotive and electromotive forces of microgalvanic couples. The laboratory and rig test results as well as the NPP operating experience data confirm the developed theoretical concept validity

  20. Monitoring and Microbiological Characteristics of Physico-chemical Dates of Canned Juice by Gamma Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arfa, Darine

    2008-01-01

    During this work, we are interested to the survey of the effect of gamma irradiation on the conservation of the juices of the dates. The results gotten of the microbiological and physico-chemical analysis done on the four samples, show the efficiency of the method for the conservation of the juices of the dates. (Author)

  1. Microbiological and Physico-chemical Analysis of Compost and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    holding capacity (Martin and Gershuny ... to intensive cultivation and climatic conditions. This makes the recycling of organic waste as soil ... cattle manure and food wastes (leaves of avocado, onion, orange, banana and mango) were added to the.

  2. Physico-Chemical Characteristics of Effluents from Garri Processing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... temperature, alkalinity, total hardness, dissolved oxygen, total suspended solids, total solids, nitrate, sulphate, chloride, sodium, potassium, calcium, cyanide ion, chemical oxygen demand and biochemical oxygen demand using standard methods. Soil samples were obtained five metres away from each discharge point.

  3. Analysis of major pollutants and physico-chemical characteristics of PM2.5 at an urban site in Rome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanizza, Carla; De Berardis, Barbara; Ietto, Federica; Soggiu, Maria Eleonora; Schirò, Roberto; Inglessis, Marco; Ferdinandi, Marcello; Incoronato, Federica

    2018-03-01

    Air quality data from a one year study at an urban roadside location in Rome are reported for major pollutants. Continuous concentration data of carbon monoxide, ozone, nitrogen dioxide, aromatic hydrocarbons and natural radioactivity were measured in the urban air of Rome from January 2016 to January 2017. Moreover, PM 2.5 mass concentration and physico-chemical characteristics of single constituent particles are herein reported. Gaseous pollutants, except ozone, and PM 2.5 showed maximum concentrations in December due to high atmospheric stability. O 3 and NO 2 trend analysis showed photochemical smog episodes in June and September. In September, during a photochemical smog episode the aromatic hydrocarbons contribution to ozone formation was experimentally proven. Pearson's coefficient among aromatic hydrocarbons and the ratio Toluene/Benzene (T/B) showed that pollutants were under the influence of vehicular traffic. Physico-chemical characterization of PM 2.5 single particles, carried out by field emission scanning electron microscope combined with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, displayed the presence of particle diversity from natural and anthropogenic origin. Four principal components in the PM 2.5 were identified: carbonaceous particles, Ca-sulphates, soil dust and building structure particles, metal particles. The principal source of carbonaceous particles in this urban area consists of the motor vehicle exhausts and the heating systems in winter. Traces of S and sometimes S, Na, K were detected on varying percentages of carbonaceous particles. These data suggested that the carbonaceous particles act as vehicles for strong acids, prevalently H 2 SO 4 and alkaline metal sulphates. A Saharan dust contribution to PM 2.5 was found in different periods. Metal particles included iron oxide particles, metals oxide particles and Fe-rich metal compounds. The identification of chemical composition of individual particles provide useful information to determine

  4. Contribution of thermodynamics in the understanding of the physico-chemical behaviour of fuels at high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gueneau, C.; Chatain, S.; Gosse, S.; Dumas, J.C.; Defoort, F.

    2006-01-01

    The thermodynamic approach for studying the physico-chemical behaviour of nuclear fuels at high temperature is presented. For instance is shown how the thermodynamic study of the uranium-oxygen-zirconium-iron system has contributed to improve the understanding of the scenario considered in studies on serious accidents for PWR reactors. Concerning the fuels of the future high temperature reactors, has been developed a thermodynamic data base 'fuelbase' (U-Pu-O-C-N-Si-Zr-Ti-Mo-Cr) using the Calphad method in parallel with experimental studies. In the framework of the studies on high temperature reactors, experimental works on the study of the interaction between the uranium dioxide and graphite are presented. This interaction leads to the formation of gaseous CO and CO 2 which can potentially be prejudicial to the thermomechanical resistance of the fuel in reactor. In this framework, the thermodynamic properties of the uranium-oxygen-carbon system are studied. (O.M.)

  5. Effect of physico-chemical regimes and tropical cyclones on seasonal distribution of chlorophyll-a in the Chilika Lagoon, east coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sahoo, S.; Baliarsingh, S.K.; Lotliker, A.A.; Pradhan, U.K.; Thomas, C.S.; Sahu, K.C.

    A comprehensive analysis on spatiotemporal variation in physico-chemical variables and their control on chlorophyll-a during 2013-14 was carried out in the Chilika Lagoon. Spatiotemporal variation in physico-chemical regimes significantly controlled...

  6. Physico-chemical characterisation of the fat from red-skin rambutan (Nephellium lappaceum L.) seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manaf, Yanty Noorziana Abdul; Marikkar, Jalaldeen Mohammed Nazrim; Long, Kamariah; Ghazali, Hasanah Mohd

    2013-01-01

    The seeds (6.9±0.2% by weight of fruit) of the red-skin rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L.) contain a considerable amount of crude fat (38.0±4.36%) and thus, the aim of the study was to determine the physico-chemical properties of this fat for potential applications. The iodine and saponification values, and unsaponifiable matter and free fatty acid contents of the seed fat were 50.27 g I2/100g fat, 182.1 mg KOH/g fat, 0.8% and 2.1%, respectively. The fat is pale yellow with a Lovibond color index of 3.1Y+1.1R. The fatty acid profile indicates an almost equal proportion of saturated (49.1%) and unsaturated (50.9%) fatty acids, where oleic (42.0%) and arachidic (34.3%) acids were the most dominant fatty acids. It also contained small amounts of stearic (8.0%), palmitic (4.6%), gadoleic (5.9%), linoleic (2.2%), behenic (2.1%) palmitoleic (0.7%) myristic (0.1%) and erucic (0.1%) acids. HPLC analysis showed that the fat comprised mainly unknown triacylglycerols (TAG) with high retention times indicating they have higher carbon numbers compared with many vegetable oils. The fat has melting and cooling points of 44.2°C and -42.5°C, respectively, making it a semi-solid at room temperature. The solid content at 0°C was 53.5% and the fat melted completely at 40°C. z-Nose analysis showed that the presence of high levels of volatile compounds in red-skin rambutan seed and seed fat.

  7. Physico-chemical characteristics and environmental exploitation of clinoptilolite Nizny Hrabovec

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmielewska, E.

    1999-01-01

    The clinoptilolite tuff used in this study, active mineral content of which was measured according to standardized techniques (e.g. X-ray diffraction, ion-exchange, water-vapor desorption) was 60% enriched. Physico-chemical characteristics considered from point of view as water treatment material and compared to siliceous sand and active coal as well as to some foreign clinoptilolite samples, e.g. mineralogical and chemical composition, thermic, alkali- and acid resistance, specific gravity, surface area, porosity, shipping weight, mechanical attrition and powdering survey, adsorption capacities of clinoptilolite towards Cs, Ba, Co, Fe, I, Ag, Zn and ammonium, hydration-dehydration behaviours and selectivity properties from among a major number of cations, have been investigated. Some pilot plant experiences of drinking water treatment with enhanced ammonium concentration on the field facility close to Bratislava and of tannery waste water treatment at Moravian plant using inland clinoptilolite will be presented. Mass-balance recycling loop for regeneration constituents recovery in tannery processing industry (ammonia and chromium) has been proposed and applied during pilot studies (capacity of installations ∼ 1 m 3 /hr). Iron and ammonium removal by addition of powdered clinoptilolite tuff in chemical coagulation processes for specific polluted surface water purification has been proven, respectively. Economic evaluation of ion-exchange technology by means of clinoptilolite with chemical regeneration and regeneration recovery by air-stripping method and of biological nitrification-denitrification for model hydraulic loading rate 6000 m 3 / day was calculated as well as the operating cost of both technologies were compared and will be documented. (author)

  8. Physico-chemical characteristics of shallot New-Superior Varieties (NSV) from Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukasih, E.; Setyadjit; Musadad, D.

    2018-01-01

    Shallot is one of the priority agricultural commodities to be developed in Indonesia to reduce import and to stabilize domestic supply. The efforts include the selection of varieties, seed technology, agronomy, handling and processing to extend the supply and added value. Indonesian Agency for Agricultural Research and Development (IAARD) has purified, cross-pollinated, selected and released new varieties called New Superior Varieties (NSV) to farmers. The purpose of this research was to investigate the characteristic of fresh shallot NSV by understanding its potential for raw material of processed product. A completely randomized design (CRD) of single factor of ten local varieties of shallot such as Cv. Sembrani, Cv. Kuning, Cv. Pancasona, Cv. Bima, Cv. Trisula, Cv. Pikatan, Cv. Katumi, Cv. Kramat-2, Cv. Mentes and Cv. Majalok of three replication was used to arrange the experiment. The results showed that shallot New Superior Varieties (NSV) were significant by effect the physico-chemical parameters, such as diameter, length, weight of both in main bulb and tiller bulb, fat total, carbohydrate, crude fiber, starch content, antioxidant capacity and quercetin. Of the ten varieties of shallot characterized, the largest bulbs are Cv. Sembrani i.e 5.30 ± 0.3g per bulb, the best red color for shallot peeled was Cv. Kuning. Furthermore Cv. Pancasona have the highest protein content of 4.23 ± 0.2%, Cv. Mentes have the highest functional properties of quercetin 1766.4 ± 134 ppm. Shallot varieties such as Cv. Sembrani, Cv. Bima, Cv. Kuning and Cv. Trisula suitable for use as fresh product. Shallot varieties such as Cv. Pikatan, Cv. Pancasona, Cv. Katumi and Cv. Kramat-2 are suitable as raw materials for processed products. Cv. Mentes and Cv. Majalok were potential for raw materials of functional food and pharmaceutical industries.

  9. Contribution to the study of physico-chemical properties of surfaces modified by laser treatment. Application to the enhancement of localized corrosion resistance of stainless steels; Contribution a l'etude des proprietes physico-chimiques des surfaces modifiees par traitement laser. Application a l'amelioration de la resistance a la corrosion localisee des aciers inoxydables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacquentin, W.

    2011-11-25

    Metallic materials are more and more used in severe conditions with particularly strong request for improving their behavior in aggressive environment and especially over long periods. The objective of this PhD work is to estimate the potentiality of a laser surface melting treatment on the improvement of the stainless steel 304L corrosion resistance, surface treatments by laser can be revisited on the basis of a recent change in the laser technology. In the frame of this work, a nano-pulsed laser fiber was chosen: it allows the treated surface to be melted for few microns in depth, followed by an ultra-fast solidification occurring with cooling rates up to 1011 K/s. The combination of these processes leads to the elimination of the surface defects, the formation (trapping) of metastable phases, the segregation of chemical elements and the growth of a new oxide layer which properties are governed by the laser parameters. To correlate these latter to the electrochemical reactivity of the surface, the influence of two laser parameters on the physico-chemical properties of the surface was studied: the laser power and the overlap of the laser impacts. To support this approach, the pitting corrosion resistance of the samples was determined by standard electrochemical tests. For specific laser parameters, the pitting potential of a 304L stainless steel was increased by more than 500 mV corresponding to an important enhancement in localized corrosion resistance in chloride environment. The interdependence of the different phenomena resulting from the laser treatment lead to a quite complex prioritization of their role on the sensibility of the 304L. However, it was demonstrated that the nature of the thermal oxide formed during the laser surface melting and the induced defects are first-order parameters for the initiation of pits. (author) [French] Les materiaux metalliques sont utilises dans des conditions de plus en plus severes et doivent presenter une parfaite

  10. Physico-chemical characterization of Ogun and Sokoto phosphate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gypsum, calcite and lime were associated with both rock phosphates indicating their liming potential in the soil. ORP was more soluble in water, probably because it ... fertilizers and direct application in crop production. Keywords: Phosphorus, apatite, crop production, fertilizer, Ogun rock phosphate, Sokoto rock phosphate ...

  11. physico-chemical characterization of ogun and sokoto phosphate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    production of detergent or food additives, in energy industry as a source of uranium and rare earth metals, ... suitability for use either directly applied to the soil or processed as water soluble P fertilizers. Direct .... minerals were investigated; chlorapatite, fluorapatite, gypsum, calcite, lime, kaolinite, and vermiculite. X-Ray.

  12. Silicon Status and its Relationship with Major Physico-Chemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    *(p<0.05), silt -0.84*(p<0.05) and clay 0.84*(p<0.05). Finally, based on the enormous role of Si in plant physiology and agriculture, this study suggests commencing Si fertilization in these soils for an expected increase in crop productivity.

  13. Soil/Rock Properties Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Soil/Rock Properties LaboratoryLocation: Spokane SiteThe Soil/Rock Properties Laboratory is contained in the soils bay, a 4,700 sq. ft. facility that provides space...

  14. Emissions of monoterpenes linalool and ocimene respond differently to environmental changes due to differences in physico-chemical characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noe, Steffen M.; Ciccioli, Paolo; Brancaleoni, Enzo; Loreto, Francesco; Niinemets, Ülo

    We investigated the 13C-labeling kinetics of the emission of two major monoterpenes emitted by needles of Mediterranean conifer Pinus pinea L., monoterpene alcohol linalool and non-oxygenated monoterpene trans- β-ocimene. These data were further used to develop and parameterize a dynamics monoterpene emission model, predicting the emissions of monoterpenes with contrasting physico-chemical properties to environmental changes. All monoterpenes emitted were labeled by 13C in short pulse-labeling experiments. 13C-labeling experiments further indicated for these two monoterpenes comprising 77% of total emissions that a major part of the emissions of these two monoterpenes relied on recently synthesized carbon not on specific storage compartments within the resin ducts. However, labeling kinetics suggested existence of transient storage pools, located within the needle aqueous and lipid phases. For linalool, we found half-lives of 13 min for the aqueous phase storage and 3 h for the lipid phase while trans- β-ocimene exhibit an aqueous phase half-life of 2 and 15 min for the lipid phase, overall indicating that the transient storage due to limited monoterpene volatility can significantly alter the emission dynamics. The key physico-chemical characteristics determining the time constants of the transient storage pools were the Henry's law constant (liquid/gas phase partition coefficient) and the octanol/water (lipid/liquid) phase partition coefficient. As monoterpene Henry's law constants vary over four orders of magnitude and octanol/water partition coefficients over three orders of magnitude, the capacity for non-specific storage, and damping of the effects of rapidly changing environmental conditions is expected to strongly vary among different monoterpenes. Overall, our study suggests that non-specific storage due to limited volatility is a common phenomenon of common of plant-emitted compounds.

  15. Atlas of soil reflectance properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoner, E. R.; Baumgardner, M. F.; Biehl, L. L.; Robinson, B. F.

    1979-01-01

    A compendium of soil spectral reflectance curves together with soil test results and site information is presented in an abbreviated manner listing those soil properties most important in influencing soil reflectance. Results are presented for 251 soils from 39 states and Brazil. A narrative key describes relationships between soil parameters and reflectance curves. All soils are classified according to the U.S. soil taxonomy and soil series name for ease of identification.

  16. Elucidation of physico-chemical characteristics and mycoflora of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL HORSFALL

    enzyme lysozyme, in milk protein has an antifungal activity but its function is greatly affected by the fluctuation of concentration of electrolytes and trace elements (Benkerroum, 2008). ... physical properties examination until required. Physical parameters were determined immediately just after the samples transported to the ...

  17. Microbiological, physico-chemical and sensory quality aspects of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bachir

    differences between the control and enriched yogurts in the dry matter, lactose, ash and protein contents. No germ detected in all .... total protein content of yoghurt (Ceirwyn, 1999). 6) Total ash content was determined by ..... Investigation of the effect of whey protein concentration on the properties of soft frozen yogurt.

  18. Optimization of physico-chemical and nutritional parameters for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hope&shola

    2010-10-25

    Oct 25, 2010 ... also being used for the production of biodegradable plastics in Japan and U.S.A., because it resembles polye- thylene with properties like tensile strength and ability to form thin transparent oxygen impermeable films. A. pullulans, a polymorphic fungus, has been exploited for pullulan production world-wide ...

  19. Effect of processing methods on the physico-chemical and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... (a commercial complementary food) as control. The various complementary foods were evaluated for proximate, functional and nutritional properties. Feeding trials were also carried out using albino rats to evaluate the growth promoting quality of the complementary foods. Malted complementary food had the lowest water ...

  20. Physico-chemical changes in velvet tamarind ( Dialium guineense ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ) fruits during development (5th to 11th week), maturation (11th to 13th week) and ripening (13th to 17th week) were studied. The properties investigated during these periods included pod weight, pod diameter, percent fruit portions, sugar and ...