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Sample records for soil physico-chemical properties

  1. Changes in physico-chemical properties of soil by adding organic amendments in a tomato crop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez Navarro, A.; Marin Salneandro, P.; Delgado Iniesta, M. J.

    2009-01-01

    This study possible changes in the physico-chemical properties of soil under intensive cultivation of tomatoes after the addition of two different types of organic amendments: a natural as sheep manure and synthetic made. Trial plots that were designed are located in the NE of the province of Granada, in Puebla de Trial plots that were designed are located in the NE of the province of Granada, in Puebla de Don Fadrique, in the are that in recent years, change are very important in agriculture, from traditional farms extensive cultivation of rain-fed cereal crops such as intensive vegetale broccoli or tomatoes. (Author) 16 refs.

  2. Effects of rumen digesta on the physico-chemical properties of soils ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IFEOMA EDEH

    2015-06-03

    Jun 3, 2015 ... ... physico-chemical properties and crop production for food security cannot be overemphasized. ... requirements of the farming population is remote. The .... laboratory, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Nigeria, Nsukka. The.

  3. Visualization of physico-chemical properties and microbial distribution in soil and root microenvironments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eickhorst, Thilo; Schmidt, Hannes

    2016-04-01

    Plant root development is influenced by soil properties and environmental factors. In turn plant roots can also change the physico-chemical conditions in soil resulting in gradients between roots and the root-free bulk soil. By releasing a variety of substances roots facilitate microbial activities in their direct vicinity, the rhizosphere. The related microorganisms are relevant for various ecosystem functions in the root-soil interface such as nutrient cycling. It is therefore important to study the impact and dynamics of microorganisms associated to different compartments in root-soil interfaces on a biologically meaningful micro-scale. The analysis of microorganisms in their habitats requires microscopic observations of the respective microenvironment. This can be obtained by preserving the complex soil structure including the root system by resin impregnation resulting in high quality thin sections. The observation of such sections via fluorescence microscopy, SEM-EDS, and Nano-SIMS will be highlighted in this presentation. In addition, we will discuss the combination of this methodological approach with other imaging techniques such as planar optodes or non-invasive 3D X-ray CT to reveal the entire spatial structure and arrangement of soil particles and roots. When combining the preservation of soil structure via resin impregnation with 16S rRNA targeted fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) single microbial cells can be visualized, localized, and quantified in the undisturbed soil matrix including the root-soil interfaces. The simultaneous use of multiple oligonucleotide probes thereby provides information on the spatial distribution of microorganisms belonging to different phylogenetic groups. Results will be shown for paddy soils, where management induced physico-chemical dynamics (flooding and drying) as well as resulting microbial dynamics were visualized via correlative microscopy in resin impregnated samples.

  4. Prescribed fires effects on physico-chemical properties and quantity of runoff and soil erosion in a Mediterranean forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban Lucas-Borja, Manuel; Plaza Alvaréz, Pedro Antonio; Sagra, Javier; Alfaro Sánchez, Raquel; Moya, Daniel; Ferrandiz Gotor, Pablo; De las Heras Ibañez, Jorge

    2017-04-01

    Wildfires have an important influence in forest ecosystems. Contrary to high severity fire, which may have negative impacts on the ecosystems, low severity induce small changes on soil properties. Thus and in order to reduce fire risk, low-severity prescribed fires have been widely used as a fuel reduction tool and silvicultural treatment in Mediterranean forest ecosystems. However, fire may alter microsite conditions and little is known about the impact of prescribed burning on the physico-chemical properties of runoff. In this study, we compared the effects of prescribed burning on physico-chemical properties and quantity of runoff and soil erosion during twelve months after a low severity prescribed fire applied in twelve 16 m2 plot (6 burned plots and 6 control plots used for comparison) set up in the Lezuza forest (Albacete, central-eastern Spain). Physico-chemical properties and quantity of runoff and soil losses were monitored after each rainfall event (five rainfall events in total). Also, different forest stand characteristics (slope, tree density, basal area and shrub/herbal cover) affecting each plot were measured. Results showed that forest stand characteristics were very similar in all used plots. Also, physico-chemical runoff properties were highly modified after the prescribed fire, increasing water pH, carbonates, bicarbonates, total dissolved solids and organic matter content dissolved in water. Electrical conductivity, calcium, sodium, chloride and magnesium were not affected by prescribed fire. Soil losses were highly related to precipitation intensity and tree interception. Tree intercepted the rainfall and significantly reduced soil losses and also runoff quantity. In conclusion and after the first six-month experiment, the influence of prescribed fires on physico-chemical runoff properties should be taken into account for developing proper prescribed burnings guidelines.

  5. The influence of physico-chemical properties of soils on the bioavailability of 65Zn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochetkov, Ilia; Anisimov, Vyacheslav

    2014-05-01

    Stability of soils to the effects of man-made origin pollutants is determined by their buffer capaci-ty (the ability to inactivate pollutants in a soil - soil solution - plant system). Soils are character-ized by the same types of stability as the ecosystem as a whole. Increased migration activity of pollutants is a symptom of ecological trouble, due to the soil transformation in an unstable state. Thus, the problem of the stability of soil is one of the fundamental problems of modern science. The aim of the study was to estimate the buffering capacity of soil as a key factor of their ecological and geochemical stability with respect to a relatively long-lived radionuclides 65Zn (T1/2 = 224 days), representing the radiological hazard in the location of nuclear facilities. There was proposed a method for scoring the buffering capacity of soils as for 65Zn contamination. It's based on dependence between the main physico-chemical soil properties and accumulation of the radionuclide in the aboveground plant parts (barley kind of "Zazersky-85"). The role of the considered indicators of soil health in the accumulation of radiozinc by plants was defined. The essence of this technique was to assess the contribution of individual characteristics of the soil condition, which play the most important role in the regulation of mobility (and bioavailability) of radionuclides, using the method of stepwise multiple regression analysis. For this aim representative sampling was compiled (from 20 soil types and varieties belonging to different climatic zones of the European part of the Russian Federation), thus providing a wide range of variation of the studied physical and chemical parameters, and also vegetation model experiments using 65Zn were held. On the basis of the conducted statistical analysis was revealed that the dominant contribution to the variation of the effective trait (accumulation coefficient of 65Zn) make: CaCO3 content, mobile iron (Tamm extract) and pH. As a

  6. Variability of standard artificial soils: Physico-chemical properties and phenanthrene desorption measured by means of supercritical fluid extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bielská, Lucie; Hovorková, Ivana; Komprdová, Klára; Hofman, Jakub

    2012-01-01

    The study is focused on artificial soil which is supposed to be a standardized “soil like” medium. We compared physico-chemical properties and extractability of Phenanthrene from 25 artificial soils prepared according to OECD standardized procedures at different laboratories. A substantial range of soil properties was found, also for parameters which should be standardized because they have an important influence on the bioavailability of pollutants (e.g. total organic carbon ranged from 1.4 to 6.1%). The extractability of Phe was measured by supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) at harsh and mild conditions. Highly variable Phe extractability from different soils (3–89%) was observed. The extractability was strongly related (R 2 = 0.87) to total organic carbon content, 0.1–2 mm particle size, and humic/fulvic acid ratio in the following multiple regression model: SFE (%) = 1.35 * sand (%) − 0.77 * TOC (%)2 + 0.27 * HA/FA. - Highlights: ► We compared properties and extractability of Phe from 25 different artificial soils. ► Substantial range of soil properties was found, also for important parameters. ► Phe extractability was measured by supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) at 2 modes. ► Phe extractability was highly variable from different soils (3–89%). ► Extractability was strongly related to TOC, 0.1–2 mm particles, and HA/FA. - Significant variability in physico-chemical properties exists between artificial soils prepared at different laboratories and affects behavior of contaminants in these soils.

  7. Physico-chemical properties and fertility status of water eroded soils of Sharkul area of district Mansehra, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farmanullah Khan, A. Iqbal

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Soil degradation is the major threat to agricultural sustainability because it affects the soil productivity. Present study was conducted in 2008 to evaluate physico-chemical properties and fertility status of some eroded soil series of Sharkul area district Manshera, Hazara division, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Six soil series including slightly eroded (Dosera and Girari, moderately eroded (Nakholi and Sharkul and severely eroded (Ahl and Banser were selected. Soil samples were collected from surface (0-15 cm, subsurface (30-45 cm and substrata soil (60-75cm depths and were analyzed for various soil properties. Due to severity of erosion, bulk density increased, while total porosity, saturation percentage and organic matter decreased significantly. AB-DTPA extractable P, K, Fe, Cu, Zn, and Mn concentrations were decreased due to the severity of erosion in surface and sub surface soils, whereas in the substrata soils (60-75 cm depth, the effect of erosion was almost non significant. Sub-surface and sub-strata soils were found deficient in available P ( Zn > Fe > Mn. The physical and chemical properties of eroded soils varied significantly and the increasing severity of erosion resulted in corresponding deterioration of soil quality.

  8. Determination of heavy metal content and physico-chemical properties of soils in the vicinity of Tasik Chini, Pahang

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahibin Abdul Rahim; Muhd Barzani Gasim; Mohd Nizam Mohd Said; Wan Mohd Razi Idris; Azman Hashim; Sharilnizam Yusof; Masniyana Jamil

    2008-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine heavy metal content and physico-chemical properties of soils influencing heavy metal accumulation in some series surrounding the Chini Lakes. A total of 15 topsoil sample were collected randomly from 6 stations. The physical properties that were analyzed include particle size distribution and soil organic matter. Meanwhile, the chemical characteristics determined were pH, electrical conductivity and cation exchange capacity. It was found that heavy metal content of Cd, Cr, Cu, Co, Pb, Zn and Mn were low whereas Fe content was high. The textures of soil studied were clay, loamy sand, sandy loam, clay loam and silty clay loam. The mean of organic matter ranged from 2.68 to 11.46 %. The soil pH showed that the soil studied was acidic with values ranged between 3.36 to 3.72. The range of electrical conductivity mean was between 2150 μScm -1 to 2403 μScm -1 . Cation exchange capacity mean ranged from 2.85 until 8.59 cmol/ kg. Correlation analysis showed that there were positive and negative significant correlations between soils parameters heavy metal concentration. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that there were significant differences in organic matter percentage, pH, cation exchange capacity and heavy metals except cadmium between sampling station. (author)

  9. Some physico-chemical and biological characteristics of soil and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Environmental conditions that influence biocorrosion in the Niger Delta area of Nigeria are investigated experimentally by analysing the physico-chemical and biological characteristics of four (4) soil samples and water samples taken from ten (10) selected river bodies in the region. Measured properties of the water ...

  10. Decoupling the deep: crop rotations, fertilization and soil physico-chemical properties down the profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobley, Eleanor; Honermeier, Bernd; Don, Axel; Amelung, Wulf; Kögel-Knabner, Ingrid

    2017-04-01

    . This resulted in a reduction of N density at depth, which was not mirrored in C densities, indicating that fava beans decouple C and N cycles in the deep soil profile. We then tested whether these effects are a result of plant (i.e. enhanced rooting depth associated with lowered subsoil bulk density) or microbial (i.e. N-cycling and denitrification processes) activities, by investigating the isotopic signatures of C and N down the profile. Our results indicate that the selection of crop rotation influences soil C and N cycling and depth distribution. Although mineral N fertilizer has significant benefits for yield, the choice of crop rotation has a greater influence on soil C and N cycling and specifically the addition of leguminous plants into rotation can provide additional yield benefits and stability. Incorporating legumes into crop rotations affects soil physical and chemical properties and decouples C and N cycles in the deep soil profile, indicating different nutrient and water cycling processes in the deep soil profile.

  11. Physico-Chemical Properties of Three Salt-Affected Soils in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    komla

    but the B-horizon is between low to high. ... Excess sodium on the soil exchange complex and/or soluble salts in the soil profile has rendered an estimated ...... dispersion causes soil pore blockage resulting in the reduction of soil permeability.

  12. Spatial Variability of Soil Morphorlogical and Physico-Chemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spatial Variability of Soil Morphorlogical and Physico-Chemical Properties in Ladoke Akintola University of Technology Cashew Plantation, Ogbomoso. ... Colour (AP, B1 B2 and B3), structure (B2 and B3), stoniness (B1, B2 and B3), concretion (AP B1, B2 and B3) and boundary forms (B1, B2 and B3) have extremely ...

  13. Impact of Waste Materials Resulting from the Refining of Crude Oil on Some Soil Physico-Chemical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    pari asadi alasvand

    2017-02-01

    unpolluted soils were mostly gypseous and/or calcareous especially in the middle parts. Considering the surface and subsurface diagnostic horizons and the aridic-thermic soil moisture and temperature regimes, the studied soils were classified as Gypsids, Calcids or Cambids (Soil Survey Staff, 2014. However, due to the added oil waste compounds and presence of impermeable geomembrane in some of the polluted pedons, they were classified as Technosols in the WRB system (FAO, 2014. Noticeable effects of Pollutants in the soil were decreasing pH and increasing OM and EC. The surface horizons of the unpolluted soils contained less than 2 percent organic matter which regularly decreased by depth. However, In some horizons of the polluted soils, soil organic matter exceeded 12 percent. pH decreased by increasing organic matter (oil waste compounds possibly due to H+ dissociation from the oil compounds (Laurent et al., 2012. Electrical conductivity throughout the polluted soil horizons showed more limited variability than the unpolluted ones, probably due to their higher capability in water and liquid dynamics. Liquid limit and plasticity limit in polluted soils are higher than unpolluted soils . Plasticity index in polluted soils decreased with increasing the amount of pollutants. The results of mineralogical studies corroborated that dominant clay mineral in this soils is Smectite. Smectites have high swelling and shrinking capacity.So, the pollutants can intercalate between soil mineral layers and then increase d-spacing of clay minerals. The micromorphology of the polluted soils showed that low dielectric constant of petroleum caused flocculation and formation granular aggregates in soil. Studied soils are inactive in terms of activity of clay. Conclusion: As observed in the studied soils, their physico-chemical properties such as pH and electrical conductivity (EC of saturated paste extract, organic matter content, mineralogical and micro-morphological properties were severely

  14. Physico-Chemical Properties of Kaolin-Organic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeo S.W.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil with more than 20% of organic content is classified as organic soil in Malaysia. Contents of organic soil consist of different types of organic and inorganic matter. Each type of organic matter has its own characteristic and its effect on the properties of the soil is different. Hence, a good understanding on the effect of specific organic and inorganic matter on the physico-chemical characteristic of organic soils can serve as a guide for predicting the properties of organic soils. The main objective is to unveil the effect of organic acid on the physico-chemical properties of soil. Artificial organic soil (kaolin mixed with organic acid was utilized in order to minimize the geochemical variability of studied soil. The organic acid which consists of humic acid and fulvic acid was extracted from highly humificated plant–based compost. The effect of organic acid on the physico-chemical properties of soil was determined by varying the concentration of organic acid. The specific gravity, Atterberg limits, pH, bulk chemical composition and the functional group of kaolin-organic acid were determined. It was found that the plasticity index, specific gravity and pH value were decreased with lowered concentration of organic acid. However, the liquid limits and plastic limits were found to be increased with the concentration decrement of organic acid. The analysis of XRF on the bulk chemical composition and analysis of FTIR spectra on the functional group of artificial organic soils with different concentration have confirmed little geochemical variability between samples.

  15. Evaluation of physico-chemical parameters of agricultural soils ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of physico-chemical parameters of agricultural soils irrigated by the waters of the hydrolic basin of Sebou River and their influences on the transfer of trace elements into sugar crops (the case of sugar cane)

  16. Physico-chemical properties and sensory evaluation of jam made ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to investigate the possibility of producing jam from black-plum and to evaluate the physico-chemical properties, nutritional properties and consumer acceptability of the product. Black-plum jam was produced using traditional openkettle method. The physico-chemical analyses of black-plum fruit ...

  17. Exploring functional relationships between post-fire soil water repellency, soil structure and physico-chemical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quarfeld, Jamie; Brook, Anna; Keestra, Saskia; Wittenberg, Lea

    2016-04-01

    Soil water repellency (WR) and aggregate stability (AS) are two soil properties that are typically modified after burning and impose significant influence on subsequent hydrological and geomorphological dynamics. The response of AS and soil WR to fire depends upon how fire has influenced other key soil properties (e.g. soil OM, mineralogy). Meanwhile, routine thinning of trees and woody vegetation may alter soil properties (e.g. structure and porosity, wettability) by use of heavy machinery and species selection. The study area is situated along a north-facing slope of Mount Carmel national park (Israel). The selected sites are presented as a continuum of management intensity and fire histories. To date, the natural baseline of soil WR has yet to be thoroughly assessed and must be investigated alongside associated soil aggregating parameters in order to understand its overall impact. This study examines (i) the natural baseline of soil WR and physical properties compared to those of disturbed sites in the immediate (controlled burn) and long-term (10-years), and (ii) the interactions of soil properties with different control factors (management, surface cover, seasonal-temporal, burn temperature, soil organic carbon (OC) and mineralogy) in Mediterranean calcareous soils. Analysis of surface soil samples before and after destruction of WR by heating (200-600°C) was implemented using a combination of traditional methods and infrared (IR) spectroscopy. Management and surface cover type conditioned the wettability, soil structure and porosity of soils in the field, although this largely did not affect the heat-induced changes observed in the lab. A positive correlation was observed along an increasing temperature gradient, with relative maxima of MWD and BD reached by most soils at the threshold of 400-500°C. Preliminary analyses of soil OC (MIR) and mineralogical composition (VIS-NIR) support existing research regarding: (i) the importance of soil OC quality and

  18. A greenhouse study on arsenic remediation potential of Vetiver grass (Vetiveria Zizanioides) as a function of soil physico-chemical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quispe, M. A.; Datta, R.; Sarkar, D.; Sharma, S.

    2006-05-01

    Arsenic is one of the most harmful and toxic metals, being a Group A human carcinogen. Mining activities as well as the use of arsenic-containing pesticides have resulted in the contamination of a wide variety of sites including mine tailings, cattle dip sites, wood treatment sites, pesticide treatment areas, golf courses, etc. Phytoremediation has emerged as a novel and promising technology, which uses plants to clean up contaminated soil and water taking advantage of plant's natural abilities to extract and accumulate various contaminants. This method has distinct advantages, since it maintains the biological properties and physical structure of the soil, is environment friendly, and above all, inexpensive. However, effective remediation of contaminated residential soils using a specific plant species is an immensely complex task whose success depends on a multitude of factors including the ability of the target plant to uptake, translocate, detoxify, and accumulate arsenic in its system. One of the major challenges in phytoremediation lies in identifying a fast- growing, high biomass plant that can accumulate the contaminant in its harvestable parts. vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides) is a fast-growing perennial grass with strong ecological adaptability and large biomass. While this plant is not a hyperaccumulator of arsenic, it has been reported to be able to tolerate and accumulate considerable amounts of arsenic. Being a high biomass, fast-growing plant, vetiver has the potential to be used for arsenic remediation. The present study investigates the potential of vetiver grass to tolerate and accumulate arsenic in soils with varying physico-chemical properties. A greenhouse study is in progress to study the uptake, tolerance and stress response of vetiver grass to inorganic arsenical pesticide. A column study was set up using 5 soils (Eufaula, Millhopper, Orelia, Orla, and Pahokee Muck) contaminated with sodium arsenite at 4 different concentrations of

  19. Physico-chemical properties of starches isolated from potato cultivars grown in soils with different phosphorus availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonel, Magali; Carmo, Ezequiel L; Fernandes, Adalton M; Franco, Célia M L; Soratto, Rogério P

    2016-04-01

    Starch is the major component of potato tubers, amounting approximately to 150-200 g kg (-1) of the tuber weight. Starch is considered to be a major factor for the functionality of the potato in food applications. This study evaluated the physical characteristics of potato starches isolated from tubers of different potato cultivars grown in soil with three levels of phosphorus (P) availability. All potatoes were growing according the same method. The starches were isolated by physical methods and the samples were analyzed for the amylose, P content, paste properties (RVA) and thermal properties of gelatinization and retrogradation (DSC). Experimental data were analyzed considering the potato cultivars and the three soil P availability. For all measured parameters significant impact of cultivar and soil P availability was determined. Phosphorus contents in potato starches ranged from 0.252 to 0.647 g kg(-1) and amylose from 27.18 to 30.8%. Starches from different potato cultivars independent of soil showed a small range of gelatinization temperature. All starches showed low resistance heating and shear stress. The results showed the influence of growing conditions (soil P availability) and also of the differences between the potato cultivars on important characteristics of applicability of starches. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Physico-chemical and mineralogical properties influencing water-stability of aggregates of some Italian surface soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mbagwu, J.S.C.; Bazzoffi, P.; Unamba Oparah, I.

    1994-06-01

    A laboratory study was conducted to determine the relationship between physical, chemical and mineralogical properties of some surface soils (developed in north central Italy) and the stability of their aggregates to water. The index of stability used is the mean-weight diameter of water-stable aggregates (MWD). The ratio of total sand to clay which correlated negatively with MWD (r=-0.638) is the physical property which explained most of the variability in aggregate stability. The chemical properties which correlated best with aggregate stability are FeO (r=0.671), CaO (R=0.635), CaCO 3 (r=0.651) and SiO 2 (r=-0.649). Feldspar, chlorite and calcite are the minerals which influence MWD most, with respective ''r'' values of -0.627, 0.588 and 0.550. The best-fit model developed from soil physical properties explained 59% of the variation in MWD with a standard error of 0.432, that developed from chemical properties explained 97% of the variation in MWD with a standard error of 0.136, whereas the model developed from mineralogical properties explained 78% of the variation in MWD with a standard error of 0.222. Also the closest relationship between measured and model-predicted MWD was obtained with the chemical properties-based model (r=0.985), followed by the mineralogical properties-based model (r=0.884) and then the physical properties-based model (r=0.656). This indicates that the most reliable inference on the stability of these soils in water can be made from a knowledge of the amount and composition of their chemical constituents. (author). 32 refs, 1 fig., 9 tabs

  1. Comparative Studies of Physico-chemical Properties of Some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate some physico-chemical properties of four major general purpose cement (As, Br, De and Sk) sold in Nigerian market using standard methods; due to the persistent collapse of buildings. The results showed that Br cement recorded the least CaO content (56.17%) while De cement had ...

  2. Physico-chemical properties and fertility status of some typic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physico-chemical properties and fertility status of some typic plinthaquults in bauchi loval government area of Bauchi state, Nigeria. S Mustapha. Abstract. No Abstract. IJOTAFS Vol. 1 (2) 2007: pp. 120-124. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  3. Physico-chemical properties of topsoil under indigenous and exotic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluated selected physico-chemical properties of topsoil under monoculture plantation of an indigenous tree species - Nauclea diderrichii, and those of four exotic tree species – Theobroma cacao, Gmelina arborea, Pinus caribaea and Tectona grandis, located in Omo Biosphere Reserve, Ogun State, Nigeria.

  4. Physico-chemical properties of Nigerian pumpkin ( Curcurbita pepo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physico-chemical properties of Nigerian pumpkin (Curcurbita pepo) seed oil. NC Ihediohanma, CN Ubbaonu, ENT Akobundu, EOI Banigo. Abstract. No Abstract. Nigerian Food Journal Vol. 24(1) 2006: 123-126. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  5. Physico-chemical properties of a Haplic Acrisol in Southeastern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physico-chemical properties of a Haplic Acrisol in Southeastern Nigeria amended with rice mill waste and NPK fertilizer. ... conductivity (Ksat) and mean weight diameter (MWD) of water stable aggregates significantly by 41.1, 368.2 and 155.8%, respectively, and resulted in 20.9% significant decrease in bulk density (BD).

  6. INFLUENCE OF VERMICOMPOST ON THE PHYSICO-CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL PROPERTIES IN DIFFERENT TYPES OF SOIL ALONG WITH YIELD AND QUALITY OF THE PULSE CROP-BLACKGRAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Parthasarathi, M. Balamurugan, L. S. Ranganathan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Field experiments were conducted during 2002-2003 on clay loam, sandy loam and red loam soil at Sivapuri, Chidambaram, Tamil Nadu, to evaluate the efficacy of vermicompost on the physico-chemical and biological characteristics of the soils and on the yield and nutrient content of blackgram - Vigna mungo, in comparison to inorganic fertilizers nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium. Vermicompost had increased the pore space, reduced particle and bulk density, increased water holding capacity, cation exchange capacity, reduced pH and electrical conductivity, increased organic carbon content, available nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium and microbial population and activity in all the soil types, particularly clay loam. The yield and quality (protein and sugar content in seed of blackgram was enhanced in soils, particularly clay loam soil. On the contrary, the application of inorganic fertilizers has resulted in reduced porosity, compaction of soil, reduced carbon and reduced microbial activity.

  7. Changes in Mineralization Activity of Microbial Communities Depending on Physico-Chemical Properties of Soils and Cadmium Contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Gilmullina

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The effects of glucose and cadmium addition, as well as their combination on the CO2 efflux from soils, which differed by the total organic carbon content and texture, were studied. Glucose (10 g/kg addition induced an increase in the CO2 efflux from soil and a decrease in the content of dissolved organic carbon. The intensity of this effect reduced in samples with the low total organic carbon content. Cadmium (300 mg/kg addition alone did not affect the studied parameters. In case of combined addition of glucose and cadmium, the mineralization activity of microbial community was mainly determined by glucose amendment.

  8. Biochar can be used to capture essential nutrients from dairy wastewater and improve soil physico-chemical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghezzehei, T. A.; Sarkhot, D. V.; Berhe, A. A.

    2014-09-01

    Recently, the potential for biochar use to recapture excess nutrients from dairy wastewater has been a focus of a growing number of studies. It is suggested that biochar produced from locally available excess biomass can be important in reducing release of excess nutrient elements from agricultural runoff, improving soil productivity, and long-term carbon (C) sequestration. Here we present a review of a new approach that is showing promise for the use of biochar for nutrient capture. Using batch sorption experiments, it has been shown that biochar can adsorb up to 20-43% of ammonium and 19-65% of the phosphate in flushed dairy manure in 24 h. These results suggest a potential of biochar for recovering essential nutrients from dairy wastewater and improving soil fertility if the enriched biochar is returned to soil. Based on the sorption capacity of 2.86 and 0.23 mg ammonium and phosphate, respectively, per gram of biochar and 10-50% utilization of available excess biomass, in the state of California (US) alone, 11 440 to 57 200 tonnes of ammonium-N and 920-4600 tonnes of phosphate can be captured from dairy waste each year while at the same time disposing up to 8-40 million tons of excess biomass.

  9. Changes in physico-chemical properties of soil by adding organic amendments in a tomato crop; Cambios en la propiedades fisico-quimicas del suelo por adicion de enmiendas organicas en cultivo de tomate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez Navarro, A.; Marin Salneandro, P.; Delgado Iniesta, M. J.

    2009-07-01

    This study possible changes in the physico-chemical properties of soil under intensive cultivation of tomatoes after the addition of two different types of organic amendments: a natural as sheep manure and synthetic made. Trial plots that were designed are located in the NE of the province of Granada, in Puebla de Trial plots that were designed are located in the NE of the province of Granada, in Puebla de Don Fadrique, in the are that in recent years, change are very important in agriculture, from traditional farms extensive cultivation of rain-fed cereal crops such as intensive vegetale broccoli or tomatoes. (Author) 16 refs.

  10. Seasonal variations of physico-chemical properties of the Great ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was attempted on the physico-chemical variability of the Great Vedaranyam Swamp of the Point Calimere Wildlife Sanctuary, South-east coast of India. Seasonal variation study was carried out to examine level of varying physico-chemical parameters such as temperature, salinity, pH, dissolved oxygen, ...

  11. Physico-chemical properties of water in bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torikai, Yuji; Sato, Seichi; Ohashi, Hiroshi

    1994-01-01

    As a part of safety analysis on ground layer disposal, in order to estimate nuclides migration behavior from engineering shielding materials, it is required to modelize migration process of nuclides in bentonite and chemical species relating to corrosion, to estimate solubility and to specify application condition of geochemical calculation code. In this study, as a part of elucidation of nuclide migration process, physico-chemical properties of water in bentonite and montmorillonite using steam pressure method were determined. As a result, following items were found: (1) Even if 1/3 of water in bentonite is near free water, it is far from a region dealable with dilute solution in the electrolyte solution theory. And, (2) the water in bentonite has generally small activity in comparison with dilute solution, then has smaller solubility than estimation value of calculation code. (G.K.)

  12. Physico-chemical properties of different forms of bovine lactoferrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokkhim, Huma; Bansal, Nidhi; Grøndahl, Lisbeth; Bhandari, Bhesh

    2013-12-01

    Three forms of bovine lactoferrin (Lf), apo-, native- and holo- with 0.9%, 12.9% and 99.7% iron content, respectively, were characterised for their physico-chemical properties. Colour, surface tension, thermal properties, particle charge and rheological behaviour of Lf were found to be affected by the form of Lf. The surface tension of Lf tends to decrease with decrease in iron content. The Circular Dichroism (CD) spectra confirmed that all forms of Lf had similar secondary structures while the tertiary structure was different for holo-Lf. The Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC) analysis showed that the apo- and holo-Lf in aqueous solution displayed thermal denaturation temperatures of 71±0.2 and 91±0.5 °C, respectively, suggesting that the iron saturation of Lf tends to increase its thermal stability. The study of particle charge properties (ζ-potential) in 1 mM KCl salt solution showed that apo-Lf reached the net charge of zero in the pH range 5.5-6.5 whereas native and holo-Lf in the pH range 8.0-9.0. The apparent viscosity of 1% (wt/wt) solution of the different forms of Lf showed no difference between apo- and native-Lf (≈1.4 mPas) while the value was significantly higher (2.38 mPas) for holo-Lf. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Physico-chemical properties of radionuclides emitted as particulate matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Kasper Grann

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents work done to improve the representation in European decision support tools of physico-chemical forms of radiocontaminants released to the atmosphere from a major nuclear power plant accident. The task is to accommodate those types of scenarios where fuel particles are at play....

  14. Levels of Some Heavy Metals and Physico Chemical Properties of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the concentrations of selected heavy meyals and physico-chemical characteristics of effluents from a beverage company in Rivers State, Nigeria and those of the receiving Woji River were evaluated to ascertain the efficiency of the company's waste treatment processes. The results showed that the contents of ...

  15. Spatial Variability of Soil Morphorlogical and Physico- Chemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    The available moisture of soil was very low thus water holding capacity (WHC) and wilting point (WP) of the soil was ... with spatial distribution of soil properties and its effect on ... Pore size and root .... nutrient and have better stability. Thus.

  16. Response of soil physico-chemical properties to restoration approaches and submergence in the water level fluctuation zone of the Danjiangkou Reservoir, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Xiao; Zhang, KeRong; Zhang, QuanFa; Wang, WeiBo

    2017-11-01

    With the completion of the Danjiangkou Dam, the impoundment and drainage of dams can significantly alter shorelines, hydrological regime, and sediment and can result in the loss of soil and original riparian vegetation. Revegetation may affect soil properties and have broad important implications both for ecological services and soil recovery. In this work, we investigated the soil properties under different restoration approaches, and before and after submergence in the water level fluctuation zone (WLFZ) of the Danjiangkou Reservoir. Soil physical (bulk density and soil moisture), chemical (pH, soil organic carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium contents), and heavy metals were determined. This study reported that restoration approaches have impacts on soil moisture, pH, N, soil organic carbon, P, K and heavy metals in the WLFZ of the Danjiangkou Reservoir. Our results indicated that different restoration approaches could increase the soil moisture while decrease soil pH. Higher soil organic carbon in propagule banks transplantation (PBT) and shrubs restoration (SR) indicate that PBT and SR may provide soil organic matter more quickly than trees restoration (TR). SR and TR could significantly improve the soil total P and available P. PBT and SR could improve the soil total K and available K. SR and TR could significantly promote Cu and Zn adsorption, and Pb and Fe release by plant. Submergence could significantly affect the soil pH, NO 3 - -N, NH 4 + -N, total P and available P. Submergence could promote NO 3 - -N and available P adsorption, and NH 4 + -N and total P release by soil. The soil quality index (SQI) values implied that TR and PBT greatly improved soil quality. The present study suggests that PBT and TR could be effective for soil restoration in WLFZ of the Danjiangkou Reservoir. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. THE CANOPY EFFECTS OF Prosopis juliflora (DC. AND Acacia tortilis (HAYNE TREES ON HERBACEOUS PLANTS SPECIES AND SOIL PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES IN NJEMPS FLATS, KENYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry C. Kahi

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The canopy effects of an exotic and indigenous tree species on soil properties and understorey herbaceous plant species were investigated on the Njemps Flats, Baringo district, Kenya. Samples of soil and herbaceous plant species were obtained within the canopies of systematically selected P. juliflora (exotic and A. tortilis (indigenous trees, and from adjacent open areas. Standing biomass, frequency and cover of understorey plant species were significantly (P

  18. Physico-chemical findings related to the resilience of different soils ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As part of an interdisciplinary study on Sustainable Agriculture in semiarid Areas (SASA) in south-central Tanzania, soils from five different locations were investigated for their mineralogical composition and physico-chemical characteristics in order to determine their resilience in relation to land use. The results of the ...

  19. Effect of Vermicompost, Sulfur and Thiobacillus on Some Soil Physico-chemical Properties, Yield and Yield Components of Maize (Zea mays L. in Jovain District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmmud Ahmadi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The excessive use of chemical fertilizers causes environmental pollution that is led to imbalance of essential elements in agricultural production system. Organic matter application as compost in the soil can improve chemical quality and biochemical properties that increase essential elements for plant nutrition. Application of organic manure can significantly increase the soil aggregate as well. Reported that application of 7 ton ha-1 of vermicompost increased number of leaves, stem dry weight, and corn plant height as compared to control and water holding capacity increases. Sulphur in plant is near to phosphorus (0.2%. Sulphur deficiency cause severe reduction in plant growth and due to participation in protein building and its deficiency cause yellowish in younger leaves. Sulphur can be applied as elemental sulphur, with ammonium and super phosphate to the soil. Iran is situated in arid and semi arid region of the world and need to reduce the pH with sulphur application due to high pH above 8 in some parts. The aim of this research was to study the effect of above factors in yield and yield components of maize and reducing environmental pollution. Materials and Methods This research carried out at 2012 in Jovein Distract suberb of Sabzevar city. Before conducting the research soil sample were collected from 0-30 cm depth and physical and chemical properties of the soil were estimated. Treatments including sulphur, thiobacillus and vermicompost were applied to soil and well mixed with soil before sowing. Each plot consists of five rows with six m length by 80 cm from each other. Seeds were sown at the depth of five cm and 20 cm from each other. This research carried out as a factorial experiment on the basis of randomized complete block design. In this research three factors including elemental sulphur, vermicompost and thiobacillus were used with three replications. Elemental sulphur in three levels (control, 500 kg ha-1 and

  20. Physico-chemical and antioxidant properties of four mango (Mangifera indica L.) cultivars in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feng-Xia; Fu, Shu-Fang; Bi, Xiu-Fang; Chen, Fang; Liao, Xiao-Jun; Hu, Xiao-Song; Wu, Ji-Hong

    2013-05-01

    Four principal mango cultivars (Tainong No.1, Irwin, JinHwang and Keitt) grown in southern China were selected, and their physico-chemical and antioxidant properties were characterized and compared. Of all the four cultivars, Tainong No.1 had highest content of total phenols, ρ-coumaric acid, sinapic acid, quercetin, titratable acidity, citric acid, malic acid, fructose, higher antioxidant activities (DPPH, FRAP) and L(*), lower pH, PPO activity and individual weight. Keitt mangoes showed significantly (pmangoes exhibited significantly (pmango cultivars to be differentiated clearly based on all these physico-chemical and antioxidant properties determined in the study. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. evaluation of physico-chemical parameters of agricultural soils

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Benlkhoubi N, Saber S, Lebkiri A, Rifi El and Fahime El

    2016-05-01

    May 1, 2016 ... analysis of source plasma emission (ICP) has identified eight trace elements ... that the interaction between the different physicochemical .... mineral soil), following the low organic matter of the studied soils where .... Copper, Zinc, Arsenic, Lead, Cadmium and Nickel ) developed at the media, were read in.

  2. Soil physico-chemical characterization in the different soil layers of National Maize Research Program, Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Khadka

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Soil pit digging and their precise study is a decision making tool to assess history and future of soil management of a particular area. Thus, the present study was carried out to differentiate soil physico-chemical properties in the different layers of excavated pit of the National Maize Research Program, Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal. Eight pits were dug randomly from three blocks at a depth of 0 to 100 cm. The soil parameters were determined in-situ, and in laboratory for texture, pH, OM, N, P (as P2O5, K (as K2O, Ca, Mg, S, B, Fe, Zn, Cu and Mn of collected soils samples of different layers following standard analytical methods at Soil Science Division, Khumaltar. The result revealed that soil structure was sub-angular in majority of the layers, whereas bottom layer was single grained. The value and chrome of colour was increasing in order from surface to bottom in the majority pits. Similarly, the texture was sandy loam in majority layers of the pits. Moreover, four types of consistence (loose to firm were observed. Furthermore, mottles and gravels were absent in the majority layers. Likewise, soil was very to moderately acidic in observed layers of majority pits, except bottom layer of agronomy block was slightly acidic. Regarding fertility parameters (OM, macro and micronutrients, some were increasing and vice-versa, while others were intermittent also. Therefore, a single layer is not dominant for particular soil physico-chemical parameters in the farm. In overall, surface layer is more fertile than rest of the layers in all the pits.

  3. Physico-Chemical and Structural Properties of DeNOx and SO2 Oxidation Catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masters, Stephen Grenville; Oehlers, Cord; Nielsen, Kurt

    1996-01-01

    Commercial catalysts for NOx removal and SO2 oxidation and their model systems have been investigated by spectroscopic, thermal, electrochemical and X-ray methods. Structural information on the vanadium complexes and compounds as well as physico-chemical properties for catalyst model systems have...

  4. Biochar physico-chemical properties as affected by environmental exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorrenti, Giovambattista; Masiello, Caroline A.; Dugan, Brandon; Toselli, Moreno

    2016-01-01

    To best use biochar as a sustainable soil management and carbon (C) sequestration technique, we must understand the effect of environmental exposure on its physical and chemical properties because they likely vary with time. These properties play an important role in biochar's environmental behavior and delivery of ecosystem services. We measured biochar before amendment and four years after amendment to a commercial nectarine orchard at rates of 5, 15 and 30 t ha −1 . We combined two pycnometry techniques to measure skeletal (ρ s ) and envelope (ρ e ) density and to estimate the total pore volume of biochar particles. We also examined imbibition, which can provide information about soil hydraulic conductivity. Finally, we investigated the chemical properties, surface, inner layers atomic composition and C1s bonding state of biochar fragments through X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Ageing increased biochar skeletal density and reduced the water imbibition rate within fragments as a consequence of partial pore clogging. However, porosity and the volume of water stored in particles remained unchanged. Exposure reduced biochar pH, EC, and total C, but enhanced total N, nitrate-N, and ammonium-N. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses showed an increase of O, Si, N, Na, Al, Ca, Mn, and Fe surface (0–5 nm) atomic composition (at%) and a reduction of C and K in aged particles, confirming the interactions of biochar with soil inorganic and organic phases. Oxidation of aged biochar fragments occurred mainly in the particle surface, and progressively decreased down to 75 nm. Biochar surface chemistry changes included the development of carbonyl and carboxylate functional groups, again mainly on the particle surface. However, changes were noticeable down to 75 nm, while no significant changes were measured in the deepest layer, up to 110 nm. Results show unequivocal shifts in biochar physical and chemical properties/characteristics over short (~ years

  5. Biochar physico-chemical properties as affected by environmental exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorrenti, Giovambattista, E-mail: g.sorrenti@unibo.it [Department of Agricultural Sciences, University of Bologna, viale G. Fanin 44, 40127 Bologna (Italy); Masiello, Caroline A., E-mail: masiello@rice.edu [Departments of Earth Science, BioSciences, and Chemistry, Rice University, Houston, TX 77005 (United States); Dugan, Brandon, E-mail: dugan@rice.edu [Department of Earth Science, Rice University, Houston, TX 77005 (United States); Toselli, Moreno, E-mail: moreno.toselli@unibo.it [Department of Agricultural Sciences, University of Bologna, viale G. Fanin 44, 40127 Bologna (Italy)

    2016-09-01

    To best use biochar as a sustainable soil management and carbon (C) sequestration technique, we must understand the effect of environmental exposure on its physical and chemical properties because they likely vary with time. These properties play an important role in biochar's environmental behavior and delivery of ecosystem services. We measured biochar before amendment and four years after amendment to a commercial nectarine orchard at rates of 5, 15 and 30 t ha{sup −1}. We combined two pycnometry techniques to measure skeletal (ρ{sub s}) and envelope (ρ{sub e}) density and to estimate the total pore volume of biochar particles. We also examined imbibition, which can provide information about soil hydraulic conductivity. Finally, we investigated the chemical properties, surface, inner layers atomic composition and C1s bonding state of biochar fragments through X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Ageing increased biochar skeletal density and reduced the water imbibition rate within fragments as a consequence of partial pore clogging. However, porosity and the volume of water stored in particles remained unchanged. Exposure reduced biochar pH, EC, and total C, but enhanced total N, nitrate-N, and ammonium-N. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses showed an increase of O, Si, N, Na, Al, Ca, Mn, and Fe surface (0–5 nm) atomic composition (at%) and a reduction of C and K in aged particles, confirming the interactions of biochar with soil inorganic and organic phases. Oxidation of aged biochar fragments occurred mainly in the particle surface, and progressively decreased down to 75 nm. Biochar surface chemistry changes included the development of carbonyl and carboxylate functional groups, again mainly on the particle surface. However, changes were noticeable down to 75 nm, while no significant changes were measured in the deepest layer, up to 110 nm. Results show unequivocal shifts in biochar physical and chemical properties/characteristics over

  6. Physico-chemical Status of Soil at the Site of UKM Research Centre, Tasik Chini, Pahang, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahibin Abdul Rahim; Wan Mohd Razi Idris; Zulfahmi Ali Rahman

    2011-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the physico-chemical properties, nutrient and heavy metal contents in soil within the UKM Tasik Chini Research Centre. Top-soil samples were collected from three sampling transect namely T1, T2 and T3. Two soil profiles from transect 1 (T1S1and T1S3) were observed and soil samples were collected from the profiles as well as top-soil for physico-chemical, nutrient and heavy metal determination. For topsoil samples, four top-soil sampling stations (S1, S2, S3, S4) were chosen along T1, two sampling stations (S1 and S2) along T2 and three sampling stations (S1, S2, S3) along T3. The soil physical properties determined were particle size and organic matter, whereas chemical properties determined were pH, electrical conductivity (EC), cation exchange capacity (CEC), available phosphorus, potassium and magnesium, soluble nutrient, and selected heavy metals. All physico-chemical, nutrient and heavy metal determinations follow the normal standard procedures. Results showed that the textures of the soil were dominated by clay size particle. Organic matter content was high in the top-soil and decreased with depth. The average soil pH in the studied profile and in the top-soil was very acidic with values from 3.66 to 4.73. The average range of electrical conductivity in soil profile and top-soil was between 2412 μScm -1 and 2742 μScm -1 . The average CEC was low with a range between 4.86 and 12.58 meq/ 100 g. The concentration of available phosphorus, magnesium and potassium was between 1.76 and 3.32 μg/ g, 16.80 and 122.23 μg/ g, and 20.09 and 30.50 μg/ g, respectively. The concentration of soluble sulphate, nitrate-nitrogen, ammonium-nitrogen and phosphorus was between 37.50 and 1350 μg/ g, 12.17 and 90.00 μg/ g, 12.17 to 53.17 μg/ g and 0.05 to 0.62 μg/ g, respectively. The concentration of iron and lead was very high in T1S1 and in the lower horizon of profile T1S3. In general the soil of the PPTC site was very acidic and

  7. Relating physico-chemical properties of frozen green peas (Pisum sativum L.) to sensory quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nleya, Kathleen M; Minnaar, Amanda; de Kock, Henriëtte L

    2014-03-30

    The acceptability of frozen green peas depends on their sensory quality. There is a need to relate physico-chemical parameters to sensory quality. In this research, six brands of frozen green peas representing product sold for retail and caterer's markets were purchased and subjected to descriptive sensory evaluation and physico-chemical analyses (including dry matter content, alcohol insoluble solids content, starch content, °Brix, residual peroxidase activity, size sorting, hardness using texture analysis and colour measurements) to assess and explain product quality. The sensory quality of frozen green peas, particularly texture properties, were well explained using physico-chemical methods of analysis notably alcohol insoluble solids, starch content, hardness and °Brix. Generally, retail class peas were of superior sensory quality to caterer's class peas although one caterer's brand was comparable to the retail brands. Retail class peas were sweeter, smaller, greener, more moist and more tender than the caterer's peas. Retail class peas also had higher °Brix, a(*) , hue and chroma values; lower starch, alcohol insoluble solids, dry matter content and hardness measured. The sensory quality of frozen green peas can be partially predicted by measuring physico-chemical parameters particularly °Brix and to a lesser extent hardness by texture analyser, alcohol insoluble solids, dry matter and starch content. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Evaluation of the Physico-Chemical Properties of Produced Water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    Samples were obtained at different periods within two months. Produced water ... sometimes, naturally occurring radioactive materials .... particular sample of soil, water, or air (Khatib and ... several other elements in solution particularly Barium.

  9. Geotechnical and physico chemical properties of clays associated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-12-03

    Dec 3, 2012 ... which were later combined for the complete particle size distribution. ... leaching action of the finest materials (clay fraction) from the surface horizons ..... slopes on which the gravitational pull on the water charged soils rich in ...

  10. Change in a ferralsol physico-chemical properties under pineapple ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2015-07-31

    Jul 31, 2015 ... The values of chemical characteristics started to decline ... Journal of Applied Biosciences 91:8559 – 8569. ISSN 1997–5902 .... potentiometric method (in a soil / water ratio of 1 / ..... Engineer Agronomist thesis, University of.

  11. Physico-chemical and antioxidant properties of two medicinal wild plants grown in Moldova region

    OpenAIRE

    Sorina Ropciuc

    2015-01-01

    The major objective of this study is to report physico-chemical (moisture, ash, protein, total phenolic compounds and ascorbic acid) and the antioxidant properties of methanol extracts of nettle (Urtica dioica L.) and typical romaine spice "leurda" (Allium ursinum, wild garlic) fresh and dried. The antioxidant properties of methanol extract of medicinal herbs were evaluated using free radical scavenging test. The phenols were extracted from the medicinal plants with methanol solvent and were ...

  12. Estimation for Retention Factor of Isoflavones in Physico-Chemical Properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Ki; Row, Kyung Ho

    2003-01-01

    The estimation of retention factors by correlation equations with physico-chmical properties maybe helpful in chromatographic work. The physico-chemical properties were water solubility (S), hydrophobicity (P), total energy (Et), connectivity index 1 (1χ), hydrophilic-lipophlic balance (x) and hydrophilic surface area (h) of isoflavones. The retention factors were experimentally measured by RP-HPLC. Especially, the empirical regulations of water solubility and hydrophobicity were expressed in a linear form. The equation between retention factors and various physico-chemical properties of isoflavones was suggested as k = a0 + a 1 log S + a2 log P Q + a3 (E t ) + a4 ( 1 χ) + a5 (x) + a6 (h), and the correlation coefficients estimated were relatively higher than 0.95. The empirical equations might be successfully used for a prediction of the various chromatographic characteristics of substances, with a similar chemical structure

  13. Physico-chemical properties of manufactured nanomaterials - Characterisation and relevant methods. An outlook based on the OECD Testing Programme.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rasmussen, Kirsten; Rauscher, Hubert; Mech, Agnieszka; Riego Sintes, Juan; Gilliland, Douglas; González, Mar; Kearns, Peter; Moss, Kenneth; Visser, Maaike; Groenewold, Monique; Bleeker, Eric A J

    Identifying and characterising nanomaterials require additional information on physico-chemical properties and test methods, compared to chemicals in general. Furthermore, regulatory decisions for chemicals are usually based upon certain toxicological properties, and these effects may not be

  14. Physico-chemical and microstructural properties of food dispersions

    OpenAIRE

    Glicerina, Virginia Teresa

    2014-01-01

    The macroscopic properties of oily food dispersions, such as rheology, mechanical strength, sensory attributes (e.g. mouth feel, texture and even flavour release) and as well as engineering properties are strongly determined by their microstructure, that is considered a key parameter in the understanding of the foods behaviour . In particular the rheological properties of these matrices are largely influenced by their processing techniques, particle size distribution and composition of ingred...

  15. Effect of crosslinking on the physico-chemical properties of radiation grafted PEM fuel cell membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed Mahmoud Nasef; Hamdani Saidi

    2006-01-01

    The effect of crosslinking on the physico-chemical properties of radiation grafted proton conducting membranes (PFA-g-PSSA) was investigated. The membranes were prepared by radiation induced grafting of styrene/divinylbenzene (DVB) mixtures onto poly (tetrafluoroethylene-co-perfluorovinyl either) (PFA) films followed by sulfonation reactions. The variation of DVB content in the grafting mixture was in the range of 1-4 vol %. The equivalent weight, swelling, behavior and the proton conductivity of crosslinked membranes having equal degrees of grafting prepared found to be dependent predominantly on the level of crosslinking. The obtained membranes were found to posses a good combination of physico-chemical properties that is matching the commercial Nation 117 membranes

  16. IMPACT OF ADULTERATION WITH GLUCOSE, FRUCTOSE AND HYDROLYSED INULIN SYRUP ON HONEY PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

    OpenAIRE

    Sorina ROPCIUC; Mircea OROIAN; Vlad OLARIU

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of the adulteration with glucose, fructose, hydrolysed inulin syrup on honey physico-chemical properties (pH, aw, electrical conductivity (EC), water activity and colour parameters (L*, a*, b*, chroma)) of three honey samples of different botanical origins (acacia, tilia and polyfloral). The honeys were adulterated in different percentages (10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% respectively) with glucose, fructose and hydrolysed inulin syrup. The moistu...

  17. Physico-chemical properties of Safou (Dacryodes edulis) fruits ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2016-09-30

    Sep 30, 2016 ... Most of high levels of nutrient content ... Conclusions and application of findings: Dacryodes edulis fruits are potential source of essential nutrient for ... pulp and its oil (Ajayi et al., 2006), and the oil ... and interesting food processing properties of the oils ..... maintenance of osmotic pressure in the body.

  18. Physico-chemical properties of oil from some selected underutilized ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Testing and Materials (ASTM) standard specifications for biodiesel production. In actual fact, the iodine values of palm kernel, groundnut, bambara groundnut, pumpkin, African oil bean and sesame, show that they could be used as lubricants and hydraulic brake fluid. Key words: Oil seeds, biodiesel, properties, extraction.

  19. Seasonal Variations of Some Physico-Chemical Properties of River ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The influence of seasonal changes on the properties of water from Ethiope River at Abraka was investigated. Composite samples from six different sampling points were collected and assessed for both dry and wet seasons. The sampling points represent the villages within Abraka clan along the river. The seasonal ...

  20. Antioxidant properties, physico-chemical characteristics and proximate composition of five wild fruits of Manipur, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ph Baleshwor; Handique, Pratap Jyoti; Devi, Huidrom Sunitibala

    2015-02-01

    Antioxidant properties, physico-chemical characteristics and proximate composition of five wild fruits viz., Garcinia pedunculata, Garcinia xanthochymus, Docynia indica, Rhus semialata and Averrhoa carambola grown in Manipur, India were presented in the current study. The order of the antioxidant activity and reducing power of the fruit samples was found as R. semialata > D. indica > G. xanthochymus > A. carambola > G. pedunculata. Good correlation coefficient (R(2) > 0.99) was found among the three methods applied to determine antioxidant activity. Total phenolic content was positively correlated (R(2) = 0.960) with the antioxidant activity however, total flavonoid content was not positively correlated with the antioxidant activity. Physico-chemical and proximate composition of these fruits is documented for the first time.

  1. Physico-chemical properties of perturbed water: facts and enigmas

    OpenAIRE

    Vittorio Elia

    2012-01-01

    Background The study of extremely diluted and agitated substances and solutions is strictly linked with the analysis of properties of water perturbed using different systems. This study is about the determination of the physical-chemical parameters of water, after the perturbations described. Methods The perturbed water was obtained using the three different protocols: · EDS (Extremely Diluted Solutions). Obtained through an iterative process of ...

  2. Exploratory multivariate modeling and prediction of the physico-chemical properties of surface water and groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayoko, Godwin A.; Singh, Kirpal; Balerea, Steven; Kokot, Serge

    2007-03-01

    SummaryPhysico-chemical properties of surface water and groundwater samples from some developing countries have been subjected to multivariate analyses by the non-parametric multi-criteria decision-making methods, PROMETHEE and GAIA. Complete ranking information necessary to select one source of water in preference to all others was obtained, and this enabled relationships between the physico-chemical properties and water quality to be assessed. Thus, the ranking of the quality of the water bodies was found to be strongly dependent on the total dissolved solid, phosphate, sulfate, ammonia-nitrogen, calcium, iron, chloride, magnesium, zinc, nitrate and fluoride contents of the waters. However, potassium, manganese and zinc composition showed the least influence in differentiating the water bodies. To model and predict the water quality influencing parameters, partial least squares analyses were carried out on a matrix made up of the results of water quality assessment studies carried out in Nigeria, Papua New Guinea, Egypt, Thailand and India/Pakistan. The results showed that the total dissolved solid, calcium, sulfate, sodium and chloride contents can be used to predict a wide range of physico-chemical characteristics of water. The potential implications of these observations on the financial and opportunity costs associated with elaborate water quality monitoring are discussed.

  3. Physico-chemical properties of (U,Ce)O2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, K.; Yamanaka, S.; Katsura, M.

    1998-01-01

    The high-temperature X-ray diffraction analysis of (U,Ce)O 2 with CeO 2 contents ranging from 0 to 20 mol.% CeO 2 was performed to obtain the variation of the linear thermal expansion coefficient with the CeO 2 content. Ultrasonic pulse-echo measurements were also carried out from room temperature to 673 K to estimate the change in the mechanical properties of (U,Ce)O 2 with the CeO 2 content. The variation in the linear thermal expansion coefficient at the low CeO 2 content region is more steep than that expected from the linear thermal expansion coefficient of UO 2 and CeO 2 . The Young's and shear moduli of all (U,Ce)O 2 were found to decrease with rising temperature. This was due to the increase of the bond length accompanied by the thermal expansion. Although the lattice parameter decreased with CeO 2 content, the moduli of (U,Ce)O 2 were found to decrease with increasing CeO 2 content at room temperature. These results show that in the range from 0 to 20 mol.% of CeO 2 , as CeO 2 content increases, the bottom of the potential energy in (U,Ce)O 2 is shallower and broader. (orig.)

  4. IMPACT OF ADULTERATION WITH GLUCOSE, FRUCTOSE AND HYDROLYSED INULIN SYRUP ON HONEY PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorina ROPCIUC

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of the adulteration with glucose, fructose, hydrolysed inulin syrup on honey physico-chemical properties (pH, aw, electrical conductivity (EC, water activity and colour parameters (L*, a*, b*, chroma of three honey samples of different botanical origins (acacia, tilia and polyfloral. The honeys were adulterated in different percentages (10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% respectively with glucose, fructose and hydrolysed inulin syrup. The moisture content of all the three samples did not exceed the maximum allowable level of 20% established by the European Commission. The physico-chemical parameters (pH, aw, electrical conductivity (EC, water activity and colour parameters (L*, a*, b*, chroma of the analysed honeys are in agreement with other studies reported in the international scientific literature. The physico-chemical parameters prediction, in function of the botanical origin, adulteration agent and adulteration agent percentage have been made using the analysis of variance (ANOVA. According to the ANOVA it was observed that in the case of L*, pH and electrical conductivity (EC there is a good correlation (R2>0.90 between the parameters and the botanical origin, adulteration agent and adulteration agent percentages.

  5. Distribution of Fish in the Upper Citarum River: an Adaptive Response to Physico-Chemical Properties

    OpenAIRE

    SUNARDI,; KANIAWATI, KEUKEU; HUSODO, TEGUH; MALINI, DESAK MADE; ASTARI, ANNISA JOVIANI

    2012-01-01

    Distribution of fish in river is controlled by physico-chemical properties of the water which is affected by land-use complexity and intensity of human intervention. A study on fish distribution was carried out in the upper Citarum River to map the effects of physio-chemical properties on habitat use. A survey was conducted to collect fish and to measure the water quality both on dry and rainy season. The result showed that distribution of the fish, in general, represented their adaptive resp...

  6. Comparison of physico-chemical properties of various lignites treated by mechanical thermal expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janine Hulston; Alan L. Chaffee; Christian Bergins; Karl Strauss [Monash University, Vic. (Australia). School of Chemistry and CRC for Clean Power from Lignite

    2005-12-01

    This study investigates how the Mechanical Thermal Expression (MTE) process affects the physico-chemical properties of low rank lignites sourced from Australia, Greece, and Germany. The MTE process was effective in reducing the moisture content of all three coals and resulted in significant Na reductions in both the Australian and German coals. However, the organic composition of the coals investigated remained relatively unaffected. Upon oven drying, all wet MTE products underwent significant shrinkage, the degree of which was dependent upon the temperature and pressure used during the MTE process. Upon rehydration, the oven-dried MTE products underwent significant swelling, which is most likely related to the chemical composition of the coals.

  7. [Synthesis and physico-chemical properties of lonazolac-Ca, a new antiphlogistic/antirheumatic agent].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainer, G; Krüger, U; Klemm, K

    1981-01-01

    Calcium-[3-(p-chlorophenyl)-1-phenylpyrazole-4]-acetate (Lonazolac-Ca, active principle of Irritren) is a new antiinflammatory/antirheumatic agent whose synthesis and physico-chemical properties are described. The physical parameters measured (pKa, partition coefficient P, saturation concentration Cs, surface activity, protein binding) are held against the corresponding values of indomethacin, diclofenac, and phenylbutazone. The size of the permeability coefficient PM of the passive transport through artificial phospholipid collodion membranes as well as the invasion curves calculated from PM indicate a good absorption of lonazolac in man.

  8. Distribution of Fish in the Upper Citarum River: an Adaptive Response to Physico-Chemical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUNARDI

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Distribution of fish in river is controlled by physico-chemical properties of the water which is affected by land-use complexity and intensity of human intervention. A study on fish distribution was carried out in the upper Citarum River to map the effects of physio-chemical properties on habitat use. A survey was conducted to collect fish and to measure the water quality both on dry and rainy season. The result showed that distribution of the fish, in general, represented their adaptive response to physico-chemical properties. The river environment could be grouped into two categories: (i clean and relatively unpolluted sites, which associated with high DO and water current, and (ii polluted sites characterized by low DO, high COD, BOD, water temperature, NO3, PO4, H2S, NH3, and surfactant. Fish inhabiting the first sites were Xiphophorus helleri, Punctius binotatus, Xiphophorus maculatus, and Oreochromis mossambicus. Meanwhile, the latter sites were inhabited by Liposarcus pardalis, Trichogaster trichopterus, and Poecilia reticulata. Knowledge about fish distribution in association with the pysico-chemical properties of water is crucial especially for the river management.

  9. Theoretical calculations of physico-chemical and spectroscopic properties of bioinorganic systems: current limits and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rokob, Tibor András; Srnec, Martin; Rulíšek, Lubomír

    2012-05-21

    In the last decade, we have witnessed substantial progress in the development of quantum chemical methodologies. Simultaneously, robust solvation models and various combined quantum and molecular mechanical (QM/MM) approaches have become an integral part of quantum chemical programs. Along with the steady growth of computer power and, more importantly, the dramatic increase of the computer performance to price ratio, this has led to a situation where computational chemistry, when exercised with the proper amount of diligence and expertise, reproduces, predicts, and complements the experimental data. In this perspective, we review some of the latest achievements in the field of theoretical (quantum) bioinorganic chemistry, concentrating mostly on accurate calculations of the spectroscopic and physico-chemical properties of open-shell bioinorganic systems by wave-function (ab initio) and DFT methods. In our opinion, the one-to-one mapping between the calculated properties and individual molecular structures represents a major advantage of quantum chemical modelling since this type of information is very difficult to obtain experimentally. Once (and only once) the physico-chemical, thermodynamic and spectroscopic properties of complex bioinorganic systems are quantitatively reproduced by theoretical calculations may we consider the outcome of theoretical modelling, such as reaction profiles and the various decompositions of the calculated parameters into individual spatial or physical contributions, to be reliable. In an ideal situation, agreement between theory and experiment may imply that the practical problem at hand, such as the reaction mechanism of the studied metalloprotein, can be considered as essentially solved.

  10. Physico-Chemical Analysis of Groundwater and Agriculture Soil of Gambat, Khairpur District, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirzada, T.; Talpur, M.M.A.; Qazi, Y.F.; Naseem, S.

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to estimate the ground water as well as agriculture soil quality, nutrient status and physico-chemical characteristics of Gambat, District Khairpur, Pakistan. Assorted parameters like temperature, pH, EC, TDS, Cl-, SO/sub 4/sup 2-/, HCO/sub 3/ /sup -/, sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, SAR values as well as the Piper and Stiff diagrams were determined to confer a clear picture of quality parameters in ground water and agriculture soil of the area. The present investigations conclude that the maximum parameters are not at the level of pollution except major metal ions Na/sup +/ and Ca/sup 2+/. The higher concentration of Ca/sup 2+/ and Na/sup +/ could be due to the deposits of the salts of these elements into soil, which may had leached into ground water. The Piper diagram suggest that composition of water is (Na+/sup +/K/sup +/)-(Ca/sup 2+/+Mg/sup 2+/)-HCO/sub 3/ /sup -/ - (Cl/sup -/+SO/sub 4//sup 2-/)-type. The areal distribution of stiff diagram constructed for groundwater samples showed ionic balances, indicating the major ion analyses are of good quality. Therefore, both ground water and soil samples observed are satisfactory for their utilization in various purposes such as domestic, agricultural, industrial, etc. (author)

  11. Physico-Chemical Properties of the Oils and Fat from Crotalaria cleomifolia Seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noor Wini Mazlan; Ikram Muhd Said

    2011-01-01

    The seeds of C. cleomifolia (locally known as kacang hantu) collected along Simpang Pulai - Berinchang Road, Cameron Highlands, was defatted with hexane and the resulting oil was analysed for their physico-chemical properties. The percentage yield of the oil was calculated as 5.3 %. The acid value (1.2 %), iodine value (85), peroxide value (0.6), saponification value (192.0) and unsaponifiable matter (2.3 %) were determined to assess the quality of the oil. The physico-chemical characterisation showed that C. cleomifolia seeds oil is unsaturated semi-drying oil, with high saponification and acidic values. The fatty acid composition of C. cleomifolia seed oil was determined by Gas Chromatography and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (ToF). The seed oil of C. cleomifolia contained linoleic acid (57.59 %) and palmitic acid (5.07 %), the most abundant unsaturated and saturated fatty acids, respectively. The polyunsaturated triacylglycerol (TAG) in C. cleomifolia seed oil determined by reverse phase High performance Liquid Chromatography; contained as PLL (18.04 %) followed by POL + SLL (11.92 %), OOL (7.04 %) and PLLn (6.31 %). The melting and cooling point of the oil were 16.22 degree Celsius and -33.54 degree Celsius, respectively. (author)

  12. Effect of added ingredients on water status and physico-chemical properties of tomato sauce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diantom, Agoura; Curti, Elena; Carini, Eleonora; Vittadini, Elena

    2017-12-01

    Different ingredients (guar, xanthan, carboxy methyl cellulose, locust bean gums, potato fiber, milk, potato and soy proteins) were added to tomato sauce to investigate their effect on its physico-chemical properties. The products were characterized in terms of colour, rheological properties (Bostwick consistency, flow behavior and consistency coefficient), water status (water activity, moisture content) and molecular mobility by 1 H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR). Water activity was significantly decreased only by the addition of potato fiber. Xanthan, locust bean, guar and carboxy methyl cellulose significantly enhanced Bostwick consistency and consistency coefficient. Type of ingredient and concentration significantly affected 1 H NMR mobility indicators. Principal component analysis (PCA) indicated that only 1 H NMR mobility parameters were able to differentiate the effect of milk protein, xanthan and potato fiber on tomato sauce properties. The information collected in this work provides information to intelligently modulate tomato sauce attributes and tailor its properties for specific applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Physico-chemical and antioxidant properties of two medicinal wild plants grown in Moldova region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorina Ropciuc

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The major objective of this study is to report physico-chemical (moisture, ash, protein, total phenolic compounds and ascorbic acid and the antioxidant properties of methanol extracts of nettle (Urtica dioica L. and typical romaine spice "leurda" (Allium ursinum, wild garlic fresh and dried. The antioxidant properties of methanol extract of medicinal herbs were evaluated using free radical scavenging test. The phenols were extracted from the medicinal plants with methanol solvent and were quantified by the Folin-Ciocalteu method. The ascorbic acid content varied between 77.94 mg/100g in the fresh Urtica dioica L. and 39.55 from fresh Allium ursinum. The results showed that the total phenolic compounds in all medicinal plants decreased along processing. These results suggest that the medicinal plants sample extract with highest polyphenolic content will indicates the possibility of using them  as ingredients in functional foods.

  14. Modeling the accumulation of As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in grasses (Agrotis sp. and Poa sp. and stinging nettle (Urtica dioica on selected sites taking into account soil physico-chemical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boshoff M.C.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of soil properties on the accumulation of metals in two vegetation types was evaluated at 10 sites with a wide variation in soil physicochemical properties pH, organic carbon, clay percentage , total soil metal concentration and exchangeable soil metal content. Accumulation modeling was conducted for grasses (Agrostis sp. and Poa sp. and stinging nettle (Urtica dioica.

  15. Modeling the accumulation of As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in grasses (Agrotis sp. and Poa sp. and stinging nettle (Urtica dioica on selected sites taking into account soil physico-chemical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boshoff M. C.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect of soil properties on the accumulation of metals in two vegetation types was evaluated at 10 sites with a wide variation in soil physicochemical properties pH, organic carbon, clay percentage , total soil metal concentration and exchangeable soil metal content. Accumulation modeling was conducted for grasses (Agrostis sp. and Poa sp. and stinging nettle (Urtica dioica.

  16. Effect of pre-sowing laser biostimulation of seeds on physico-chemical properties of glasshouse tomato fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koper, R.; Rybak, P.

    2000-01-01

    Paper presented results of study on the effect of pre-sowing laser biostimulation of glasshouse tomato seeds, Recento cultivar, on physico-chemical properties of yielded fruits. Tomato fruit resistance to elastic strains was tested in laboratory as well as the extract content and total acidity of fruits were analysed. Positive influence of laser treatment on tested tomato fruit properties was noted

  17. The use of potato fibre to improve bread physico-chemical properties during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curti, Elena; Carini, Eleonora; Diantom, Agoura; Vittadini, Elena

    2016-03-15

    Bread staling reduction is a very important issue for the food industry. A fibre with high water holding capacity, extracted from potato peel, was studied for its ability to reduce bread staling even if employed at low level (0.4 g fibre/100 g flour). Physico-chemical properties (water activity, moisture content, frozen water content, amylopectin retrogradation) and (1)H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance molecular mobility were characterised in potato fibre added bread over 7 days of storage. Potato fibre addition in bread slightly affected water activity and moisture content, while increased frozen water content and resulted in a softer bread crumb, more importantly when the optimal amount of water was used in the formulation. Potato fibre also reduced (1)H NMR molecular mobility changes in bread crumb during storage. Potato fibre addition in bread contributed to reduce bread staling. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Physico-chemical properties of ready to eat, shelf-stable pasta during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carini, E; Curti, E; Cassotta, F; Najm, N E O; Vittadini, E

    2014-02-01

    The changes in physico-chemical properties of RTE shelf stable pasta were studied during storage with a multianalytical and multidimensional approach (with special focus on water status) to understand the ageing process in this product. Pasta hardness and amylopectin recrystallisation increased, macroscopic water status indicators and proton molecular translational mobility remained constant, and significant changes were measured in the proton rotational molecular mobility indicators ((1)H FID, (1)H T2) during storage. Since the main changes observed in RTE pasta during storage were similar to those observed in other cereal-based products, it would be interesting to verify the effect of the anti-staling methods commonly used in the cereal processing industry in improving RTE pasta shelf-stability. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The physico-chemical properties of pangas catfish (Pangasius pangasius) skin gelatin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradarameswari, K. A.; Zaelani, K.; Waluyo, E.; Nurdiani, R.

    2018-04-01

    Gelatin can be used as emulsifier and stabilizer in food products. Until now, the most widely used raw materials for the production of gelatin industry are cow bone, cow skin and pig skin. Fish gelatin has been highlighted as a better alternative to replace mammals gelatin based on ethical and religious perspective. Fish gelatin was extracted from Pangas catfish skin to determine its physico-chemical properties. Different temperatures (45 °C, 50 °C, 55 °C) were employed during gelatin extraction. Higher temperature increased the yield and fat contents of Pangas catfish skin gelatin. In contrary, higher water, protein, ash contents were observed during lower temperature. Temperature significantly (p fish skin gelatin. Based on the FTIR spectrum catfish skin gelatin functional groups can be identified as N-H, O-H, C = H, C-O and C-H.

  20. Studies on physico-chemical and mechanical properties of the irradiated latex modified mortar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yassene, A.A.M.A.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis contains three chapter; chapter(I): Introduction and literature review on:- Introduction to polymer. - Mechanism of polymer-cement co-matrix formation.-Sulphate attack. - Solidification /stabilization of heavy metal in cement mortar. chapter(II): Materials and experimental techniques that include: 1- Preparation of latex polymer films from different polymer latices of styrene butadine rubber latex (SBR), poly (styrene-acrylic ester) latex (SAE) and vinylacetate /versatic -ester copolymer latex (C2A). The effect of γ-irradiation dose on the physico - chemical and mechanical properties of different latex polymer films was studied.2- Preparation of latex polymer-modified cement mortar with different ratios of cement: latex polymer and different curing method.3- Solidification /stabilization (S/S) of electroplating heavy metal precipitate in latex polymer- modified mortar with different cement /electroplating heavy metal sludge ratio. chapter(III) results and discussion

  1. Effect of hydrocolloids on the physico-chemical and rheological properties of reconstituted sweetened yoghurt powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seth, Dibyakanta; Mishra, Hari Niwas; Deka, Sankar Chandra

    2018-03-01

    The consistency of sweetened yoghurt (misti dahi) is a desired characteristic which is attributed to the casein protein network formation during fermentation. Unfortunately, this property is lost in reconstituted sweetened yoghurt (RSY) due to the irreversible nature of protein denaturation during spray drying. Therefore, this study aimed to increase the consistency of RSY using different hydrocolloids. The effects addition of guar gum, pectin, κ-carrageenan and gelatin (0.1%w/v each) on the physico-chemical, microbial, rheological and sensory properties of RSY were investigated. RSY with 40% total solids demonstrated the rheological properties which are very similar to those of fresh sweetened yoghurt. RSY containing different hydrocolloids further increased the rheological properties. The dynamic rheological study revealed that the magnitude of storage modulus (G'), loss modulus (G″), and loss tangent (tan δ) were significantly influenced by the addition of hydrocolloids and gelatin exhibited highest dynamic moduli in RSY. However, κ-carrageenan added RSY was preferred sensorially as the rheological properties were very close to gelatin added RSY. Addition of hydrocolloids significantly increased the starter bacteria count and pH and reduced water expulsion rate (P < 0.05). Addition of hydrocolloids can improve the rheological properties of reconstituted yoghurt. The study concluded that the addition of κ-carrageenan showed better results in terms of rheological and sensory properties of RSY. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Physico-chemical properties of blends of palm olein with other vegetable oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mobin Siddique, Bazlul

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Palm oil (olein was blended with other edible oils for the enhancement of its market acceptability in terms of melting point depression and shelf life. The physico-chemical properties like viscosity, density, melting behavior, peroxide value (PV, saponification value (SV and iodine value (IV of four different binary blends with four vegetable oils were evaluated. Palm olein was found to be more stable against rancidity than the other oils. For the stability against oxidation and melting point depression the palm olein-canola (PO/CO blend was found to be better than the others. The Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC thermogram of the melting behavior of the blends traces some new polymorphs of the triglyceride. This study will help the oil producing industry to find out the most economically viable oil blends for cooking purposes, with maximum nutrition as well as desirable physico-chemical properties.

    Aceite de palma (oleína fue mezclada con otros aceites comestibles para aumentar su aceptabilidad en el mercado en términos de descenso del punto de fusión y mejora de su almacenamiento. Las propiedades físico-químicas tales como viscosidad, densidad, comportamiento en la fusión, valor de peróxidos (PV, valor de saponificación (SV e índice de yodo (IV de cuatro diferentes mezclas binarias con cuatro aceites vegetales fueron evaluadas. La oleína de palma fue más estable frente a la rancidez que otros aceites. En la estabilidad frente la oxidación y el descenso del punto de fusión, la mezcla de oleína de palma/canola (PO/CO fue mejor que las otras. Los termogramas del calorímetro diferencial de barrido (DSC referidos al comportamiento de fusión de las mezclas indican algunos nuevos polimorfismos de los triglicéridos. Este estudio podría ayudar a las empresas que elaboran aceites a encontrar los aceites económicamente más viables para cocinar, con buenas propiedades nutricionales, así como con unas propiedades f

  3. Physico-chemical properties and fatty acid composition of pomegranate, cherry and pumpkin seed oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siano, Francesco; Straccia, Maria C; Paolucci, Marina; Fasulo, Gabriella; Boscaino, Floriana; Volpe, Maria G

    2016-03-30

    Nut and seed oils are often considered waste products but in recent years they have been receiving growing interest due to their high concentration of hydrophilic and lipophilic bioactive components, which have important pharmacological properties on human health. The aim of this work was to compare the physico-chemical and biochemical properties of pomegranate (Punicagranatum), sweet cherry (Prunusavium) and pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) seed oils obtained by solvent extraction. High amount of linoleic acid was found in the cherry and pumpkin seed oils, while pomegranate seed oil showed relevant content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) along to eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and nervonic acid. Pumpkin seed oil had high concentration of carotenoids, while pomegranate oil was the best absorber in the UV-A and UV-B ranges. Pomegranate, cherry and pumpkin seed oils can be an excellent source of bioactive molecules and antioxidant compounds such as polyphenols, carotenoids and unsaturated fatty acids. These seed oils can be included both as preservatives and functional ingredients in the food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic fields and can contribute to disease prevention and health promotion. Moreover, high absorbance of UV light indicates a potential use of these oils as filters from radiations in the food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic fields. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Effects of rice bran on sensory and physico-chemical properties of emulsified pork meatballs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, S C; Shiau, C Y; Liu, T E; Chu, C L; Hwang, D F

    2005-08-01

    Four kinds of bran, which are milled from important rice cultivators in Taiwan, have high contents of dietary fiber, fat and protein. The use of rice bran in Kung-wan, an emulsified pork meatball, was investigated. It was found that protein and fat contents, and white index of meatballs decreased as the amount of bran increased. A texture profile analysis (TPA) also indicated the hardness, gumminess and chewiness of the Kung-wan decreased. The sensory scores of taste, texture and overall acceptability of meatballs with less than 10% added bran showed no significant difference from those for meatballs without bran. However, the added amount of 15% enriched meatballs resulted in inferior sensory scores. The bran's particle size profoundly affected the sensory and physico-chemical properties of the meat products. Meatballs enriched with smaller bran particles possessed higher TPA indices and sensory scores than those added with larger ones. No significant differences in proximate composition, cooking yield, color and sensory quality were found among emulsified meatballs enriched with four different kinds of bran. Conclusively, the suitable amount of rice bran that should be added to emulsified pork meatballs was less than 10% and a smaller particle size would result in better quality.

  5. Evaluation of physico-chemical properties of Portland cements and MTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Luis Gonçalves

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the hydrogenionic potential and electrical conductivity of Portland cements and MTA, as well as the amount of arsenic and calcium released from these materials. In Teflon molds, samples of each material were agitated and added to plastic flasks containing distilled water for 3, 24, 72 and 168 h. The results were analyzed with a Kruskal-Wallis non-parametric test for global comparisons and a Dunn-Tukey test for pairwise comparisons. The results revealed no significant differences in the pH of the materials (p > 0.05. The electrical conductivity of the cements were not statistically different (p > 0.05. White non-structural cement and MTA BIO released the largest amount of calcium ions into solution (p 0.05. The results indicated that the physico-chemical properties of Portland cements and MTA were similar. Furthermore, all materials produced an alkaline environment and can be considered safe for clinical use because arsenic was not released. The electrical conductivity and the amount of calcium ions released into solution increased over time.

  6. Comparison of selected physico-chemical properties of calcium alginate films prepared by two different methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossingham, Yazmin J; Kerr, Philip G; Kennedy, Ross A

    2014-10-01

    Sodium alginate (SA) is a naturally occurring, non-toxic, polysaccharide that is able to form gels after exposure to calcium. These gels have been used in food and biomedical industries. This is the first direct comparison of two different methods of calcium alginate film production, namely interfacial gelation (IFG) and dry cast gelation (DCG). IFG films were significantly thicker than DCG films, and were more extensively rehydrated in water and 0.1M HCl than the DCG films. During rehydration in 0.1M HCl almost all calcium ions were lost. Under scanning electron microscopy, IFG films appeared less dense than DCG films. IFG films were mechanically weaker than DCG films, and both types of film were weaker after rehydration in 0.1M HCl compared with deionized water. Permeation of theophylline (TPL) was evaluated in-vitro; the diffusion coefficient (D) of the TPL was almost 90 times lower in DCG films than IFG films when both were rehydrated in water. Although the 0.1M HCl rendered both gels more permeable to TPL, D of TPL was still about five times lower in DCG compared to IFG films. The evaluation of selected physico-chemical properties of films is important, since this information may inform the choice of gelation technique used to produce calcium alginate coatings on pharmaceutical products. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. PDE5 Inhibitors-Loaded Nanovesicles: Physico-Chemical Properties and In Vitro Antiproliferative Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta F. De Rose

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Novel therapeutic approaches are required for the less differentiated thyroid cancers which are non-responsive to the current treatment. In this study we tested an innovative formulation of nanoliposomes containing sildenafil citrate or tadalafil, phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors, on two human thyroid cancer cell lines (TPC-1 and BCPAP. Nanoliposomes were prepared by the thin layer evaporation and extrusion methods, solubilizing the hydrophilic compound sildenafil citrate in the aqueous phase during the hydration step and dissolving the lipophilic tadalafil in the organic phase. Nanoliposomes, made up of 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine monohydrate (DPPC, cholesterol, and N-(carbonyl-methoxypolyethylene glycol-2000-1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (DSPE-mPEG2000 (6:3:1 molar ratio, were characterized by a mean diameter of ~100 nm, a very low polydispersity index (~0.1 and a negative surface charge. The drugs did not influence the physico-chemical properties of the systems and were efficiently retained in the colloidal structure. By using cell count and MTT assay, we found a significant reduction of the viability in both cell lines following 24 h treatment with both nanoliposomal-encapsulated drugs, notably greater than the effect of the free drugs. Our findings demonstrate that nanoliposomes increase the antiproliferative activity of phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors, providing a useful novel formulation for the treatment of thyroid carcinoma.

  8. Physico-chemical properties and performance of high oleic and palm-based shortenings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramli, Muhamad Roddy; Lin, Siew Wai; Yoo, Cheah Kien; Idris, Nor Aini; Sahri, Miskandar Mat

    2008-01-01

    Solid fat from fractionation of palm-based products was converted into cake shortening at different processing conditions. High oleic palm stearin with an oleic content of 48.2 % was obtained from fractionation of high oleic palm oil which was produced locally. Palm product was blended with different soft oils at pre-determined ratio and further fractionated to obtain the solid fractions. These fractions were then converted into cake shortenings named as high oleic, N1 and N2 blends. The physico-chemical properties of the experimental shortenings were compared with those of control shortenings in terms of fatty acid composition (FAC), iodine value (IV), slip melting point (SMP), solid fat content (SFC) and polymorphic forms. Unlike the imported commercial shortenings as reported by other studies and the control, experimental shortenings were trans-free. The SMP and SFC of experimental samples, except for the N2 sample, fell within the ranges of commercial and control shortenings. The IV was higher than those of domestic shortenings but lower when compared to imported and control shortenings. They were also observed to be beta tending even though a mixture of beta and beta' was observed in the samples after 3 months of storage. The shortenings were also used in the making of pound cake and sensory evaluation showed the good performance of high oleic sample as compared to the other shortenings.

  9. Physico-Chemical Characteristics and Rheolgical Properties of Different Wheat Varieties Grown in Sindh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chana, M.J.; Ghanghro, A.B.; Sheikh, S.A.; Nizamani, S.M.

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the physico-chemical and rheological properties of 17 wheat varieties (TJ-83, Jouhar, TD-1, Anmool, Mehran, Indus-66, Sindh B-1, Abadgar, Bhittai, Imdad, Mexi-Pak, Soughat, Blue Silver, Moomal, Marvi, Kiran, and Pak-70 ) commercially grown on experimental field of Agriculture Research Institute, Tandojam. The results revealed that moisture percentage were in range of 11 to 12 among all varieties, high protein content of about 15.2 percentage was found in Mehran and Blue silver varieties, starch was found high in Maxi-pak (70.6 percentage), high hardness values in Imdad (70.1percentage) and Jouhar (70.2 percentage). However, zeleny content was found high in Marvi, Abadgaar and Mehran i.e. 71 percentage. Amylographic results showed that among all varieties the Bhittai variety required maximum temperature up to 65.7 Degree C for the beginning of gelatinization as compared to other varieties. The highest gelatinization temperature was noted up to 96.7 Degree C in Moomal whereas others had temperature from 82.7 to 89.0 Degree C. Highest gelatinization maxima (1782AU) acquired by T.J-83 variety. The results of Farinograph showed that highest water absorption was noted in Anmool variety. The highest dough development time and dough stability were found highest in Kiran and Indus-66, respectively. T.D-1 and Jouhar varieties had highest break down time as well as highest Farinograph quality. (author)

  10. Evaluation of physico-chemical properties of Portland cements and MTA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Jorge Luis; Viapiana, Raqueli; Miranda, Carlos Eduardo Saraiva; Borges, Alvaro Henrique; Cruz Filho, Antônio Miranda da

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the hydrogenionic potential and electrical conductivity of Portland cements and MTA, as well as the amount of arsenic and calcium released from these materials. In Teflon molds, samples of each material were agitated and added to plastic flasks containing distilled water for 3, 24, 72 and 168 h. The results were analyzed with a Kruskal-Wallis non-parametric test for global comparisons and a Dunn-Tukey test for pairwise comparisons. The results revealed no significant differences in the pH of the materials (p > 0.05). The electrical conductivity of the cements were not statistically different (p > 0.05). White non-structural cement and MTA BIO released the largest amount of calcium ions into solution (p 0.05). The results indicated that the physico-chemical properties of Portland cements and MTA were similar. Furthermore, all materials produced an alkaline environment and can be considered safe for clinical use because arsenic was not released. The electrical conductivity and the amount of calcium ions released into solution increased over time.

  11. Physico-chemical properties, antioxidant activity and mineral contents of pineapple genotypes grown in china.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xin-Hua; Sun, De-Quan; Wu, Qing-Song; Liu, Sheng-Hui; Sun, Guang-Ming

    2014-06-23

    The fruit physico-chemical properties, antioxidant activity and mineral contents of 26 pineapple [Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.] genotypes grown in China were measured. The results showed great quantitative differences in the composition of these pineapple genotypes. Sucrose was the dominant sugar in all 26 genotypes, while citric acid was the principal organic acid. Potassium, calcium and magnesium were the major mineral constituents. The ascorbic acid (AsA) content ranged from 5.08 to 33.57 mg/100 g fresh weight (FW), while the total phenolic (TP) content varied from 31.48 to 77.55 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/100 g FW. The two parameters in the predominant cultivars Comte de Paris and Smooth Cayenne were relative low. However, MD-2 indicated the highest AsA and TP contents (33.57 mg/100 g and 77.55 mg GAE/100 g FM, respectively), and it also showed the strongest antioxidant capacity 22.85 and 17.30 μmol TE/g FW using DPPH and TEAC methods, respectively. The antioxidant capacity of pineapple was correlated with the contents of phenolics, flavonoids and AsA. The present study provided important information for the further application of those pineapple genotypes.

  12. Bi-doped PbO2 anodes: Electrodeposition and physico-chemical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shmychkova, O.; Luk’yanenko, T.; Velichenko, A.; Meda, L.; Amadelli, R.

    2013-01-01

    The influence of bismuth ions on kinetics of lead dioxide electrodeposition from methanesulfonate electrolytes and physico-chemical properties of obtained coatings were studied. Experimental results are consistent with a mechanism previously proposed in the literature for lead dioxide electrodeposition. The presence of bismuth ions in the electrodeposition solution causes a decrease of rate constants of lead dioxide formation due to co-adsorption phenomena. Deposits from solutions containing bismuth ions appear shiny dark grey, and show good adhesion to metal support. SEM images reveal a compact structure with spindle-shaped submicron and nanosized crystals and X-ray diffractograms demonstrated that incorporation of bismuth diminishes the size of crystal particles. Oxygen evolution was investigated to test electrocatalytic activity. It is shown, that oxygen overpotential on modified electrodes is significantly higher than on non-modified PbO 2 -electrode, which depends on bismuth content in deposit and segregation of bismuth that induces surface heterogeneity due to sites with different electroactivity for water oxidation

  13. Assessment of the physico-chemical properties of phases in the Na-U-Pu-O system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleykamp, H.

    1990-05-01

    A critical review is given on the physico-chemical properties of phases in the Na-O, Na-U-O, Na-Pu-O and Na-U-Pu-O systems. This includes the phase diagrams as well as the crystallographic, mechanical, thermal, thermodynamic, transport, optical and chemical properties. This data is to be used for the modelling of the thermal, mechanical and chemical behaviour of defective LMFBR mixed oxide pins during and after reactor operation. (orig.) [de

  14. Seasonal variation in the physico-chemical properties of Rushikulya estuary and its effect on the occurrence of Chanos fry

    OpenAIRE

    Patnaik, K.C.; Misra, P.M.

    1990-01-01

    Seasonal variation in some physico-chemical properties of Rushikulya estuary was studied. The surface water temperature varied from 20 to 34.5 degree C, the transparency of the water from 6.3 to 12 cm, the salinity from 28.3 to 32.8 % and the pH from 6.77 to 7.35. The transparency and salinity showed bimodal distribution. Occurrence of the Chanos fry were correlated to it.

  15. PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF THE SOLID AND LIQUID WASTE PRODUCTS FROM THE HEAVY METAL CONTAMINATED ENERGY CROPS GASIFICATION PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Werle

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of basic physico-chemical properties of solid (ash and liquid (tar waste products of the gasification process of the heavy metal contaminated energy crops. The gasification process has carried out in a laboratory fixed bed reactor. Three types of energy crops: Miscanthus x giganteus, Sida hermaphrodita and Spartina Pectinata were used. The experimental plots were established on heavy metal contaminated arable land located in Bytom (southern part of Poland, Silesian Voivodship.

  16. Comparison of amino acids physico-chemical properties and usage of late embryogenesis abundant proteins, hydrophilins and WHy domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaspard, Emmanuel; Hunault, Gilles

    2014-01-01

    Late Embryogenesis Abundant proteins (LEAPs) comprise several diverse protein families and are mostly involved in stress tolerance. Most of LEAPs are intrinsically disordered and thus poorly functionally characterized. LEAPs have been classified and a large number of their physico-chemical properties have been statistically analyzed. LEAPs were previously proposed to be a subset of a very wide family of proteins called hydrophilins, while a domain called WHy (Water stress and Hypersensitive response) was found in LEAP class 8 (according to our previous classification). Since little is known about hydrophilins and WHy domain, the cross-analysis of their amino acids physico-chemical properties and amino acids usage together with those of LEAPs helps to describe some of their structural features and to make hypothesis about their function. Physico-chemical properties of hydrophilins and WHy domain strongly suggest their role in dehydration tolerance, probably by interacting with water and small polar molecules. The computational analysis reveals that LEAP class 8 and hydrophilins are distinct protein families and that not all LEAPs are a protein subset of hydrophilins family as proposed earlier. Hydrophilins seem related to LEAP class 2 (also called dehydrins) and to Heat Shock Proteins 12 (HSP12). Hydrophilins are likely unstructured proteins while WHy domain is structured. LEAP class 2, hydrophilins and WHy domain are thus proposed to share a common physiological role by interacting with water or other polar/charged small molecules, hence contributing to dehydration tolerance.

  17. In planta mechanism of action of leptospermone: impact of its physico-chemical properties on uptake, translocation, and metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Daniel K; Nanayakkara, N P Dhammika; Dayan, Franck E

    2013-02-01

    Leptospermone is a natural β-triketone that specifically inhibits the enzyme p-hydrophyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase, the same molecular target site as that of the commercial herbicide mesotrione. The β-triketone-rich essential oil of Leptospermum scoparium has both preemergence and postemergence herbicidal activity, resulting in bleaching of treated plants and dramatic growth reduction. Radiolabeled leptospermone was synthesized to investigate the in planta mechanism of action of this natural herbicide. Approximately 50 % of the absorbed leptospermone was translocated to the foliage suggesting rapid acropetal movement of the molecule. On the other hand, very little leptospermone was translocated away from the point of application on the foliage, indicating poor phloem mobility. These observations are consistent with the physico-chemical properties of leptospermone, such as its experimentally measured logP and pK a values, and molecular mass, number of hydrogen donors and acceptors, and number of rotatable bonds. Consequently, leptospermone is taken up readily by roots and translocated to reach its molecular target site. This provides additional evidence that the anecdotal observation of allelopathic suppression of plant growth under β-triketone-producing species may be due to the release of these phytotoxins in soils.

  18. Evaluation of various physico-chemical properties of Hibiscus sabdariffa and L. casei incorporated probiotic yoghurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasdhari, M; Parekh, T; Dave, N; Patel, V; Subhash, R

    2008-09-01

    The present investigation was carried out to examine the effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa Calyx extract on the physico-chemical properties, sensory attributes, texture and microbial analysis of L. casei incorporated in probiotic yoghurt after manufacture and during storage. Incorporation of Hibiscus sabdariffa Calyx extract into the probiotic yoghurt resulted into decrease in coagulation time by 25 min. The pH ranged from 4.39 to 4.59, TA 0.81 to 1.14%, moisture 3.05 to 3.37 g%, syneresis 18.85 to 24.90 mL/50 g of sample, % inhibition 12.32 to 59.43, TS 21.27 to 24.90 g% and beta-galactosidase activity 1.041 to 3.277. The protein content ranged between 4.11 and 4.14 g% while the fat content ranged between 3.43 and 3.49 g%. No major changes in sensory evaluation were observed on the day of manufacture and during storage for 7 days. Sabdariffa added yoghurt showed a higher score in almost all sensory attributes. Microbial analysis showed a total plate count ranging from 1.8 x 10(4) to 1.85 x 10(7) cfu mL(-1). Yeast and mold counts were negligible in the Sabdariffa yoghurts. Thus the study concludes that incorporation of Hibiscus sabdariffa extract in yoghurt improved the total antioxidant property, organoleptic qualities and decreased the exudation of whey proteins (Syneresis). Thus, Hibiscus sabdariffa Calyces has beneficial influence on the quality of L. casei incorporated probiotic yoghurt.

  19. Physico-chemical properties and biological effects of diesel and biomass particles

    KAUST Repository

    Longhin, Eleonora

    2016-05-15

    © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. Diesel combustion and solid biomass burning are the major sources of ultrafine particles (UFP) in urbanized areas. Cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases, including lung cancer, are possible outcomes of combustion particles exposure, but differences in particles properties seem to influence their biological effects.Here the physico-chemical properties and biological effects of diesel and biomass particles, produced under controlled laboratory conditions, have been characterized. Diesel UFP were sampled from a Euro 4 light duty vehicle without DPF fuelled by commercial diesel and run over a chassis dyno. Biomass UFP were collected from a modern automatic 25 kW boiler propelled by prime quality spruce pellet. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of both diesel and biomass samples showed aggregates of soot particles, but in biomass samples ash particles were also present. Chemical characterization showed that metals and PAHs total content was higher in diesel samples compared to biomass ones.Human bronchial epithelial (HBEC3) cells were exposed to particles for up to 2 weeks. Changes in the expression of genes involved in xenobiotic metabolism were observed after exposure to both UFP already after 24 h. However, only diesel particles modulated the expression of genes involved in inflammation, oxidative stress and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), increased the release of inflammatory mediators and caused phenotypical alterations, mostly after two weeks of exposure.These results show that diesel UFP affected cellular processes involved in lung and cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Biomass particles exerted low biological activity compared to diesel UFP. This evidence emphasizes that the study of different emission sources contribution to ambient PM toxicity may have a fundamental role in the development of more effective strategies for air quality improvement.

  20. Physico-chemical properties of Pd nanoparticles produced by Pulsed Laser Ablation in different organic solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cristoforetti, Gabriele; Pitzalis, Emanuela; Spiniello, Roberto; Ishak, Randa; Giammanco, Francesco; Muniz-Miranda, Maurizio; Caporali, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    Palladium nanoparticles are arousing an increasing interest because of their strong activity in heterogeneous catalysis in a wide range of reactions. Driven by the interest of producing Pd nanoparticles to be deposited for catalysis over hydrophobic supports, we investigated their synthesis via Pulsed Laser Ablation in Liquid in several organic solvents, as acetone, ethanol, 2-propanol, toluene, n-hexane. The colloids were produced by using a Nd:YAG ns laser and without the addition of surfactant agents. The morphology, composition, stability and oxidation state of the obtained nanoparticles were investigated by TEM-EDS analysis, UV-vis spectroscopy, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The results evidence that the nature of the solvent influences both the yield and the physico-chemical properties of the produced nanoparticles. While in acetone and alcohols spheroidal, non aggregated and stable particles are obtained, in case of toluene and n-hexane few unstable particles surrounded by a gel-like material are produced. Raman/XPS measurements suggest the presence of amorphous or graphitic carbon onto crystalline Pd nanoparticles, which could have hindered their growth and determined the observed smaller sizes if compared to nanoparticles produced in water. The stability of Pd colloids obtained in acetone and alcohols was attributed to adsorbed anions like enolates or alcoholates; non polar solvents like toluene and n-hexane, unable to give rise to adsorbed anionic species, cannot provide any stabilization to the palladium nanoparticles. XPS analyses also evidenced a partial oxidation of particles surface, with a ratio Pd 2+ :Pd 0 of 1:2.5 and 1:4 in acetone and ethanol, respectively.

  1. The physico-chemical properties of strawberry tree (Arbutus unedo L. fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Hribar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The physico-chemical properties of ripe fruits of strawberry tree (Arbutus unedo L. were determined. The water content, ash, crude fat, proteins, total phenols, sugar, and the content of vitamin C were determined in ripe strawberry tree fruits. Fruits contain 46.7 % of water, 23.5 % of soluble solids, 0.48 % of ash, 118.61 mg/100 g of potassium, 20.63 mg/100 g of sodium, 36.05 mg/100 g of calcium, 9.66 mg/100 g of magnesium, 1.29 mg/100 g of iron, 19.99 mg/100 g of phosphorus, 0.45 mg/100 g of zinc, < 0.99 mg/100 g of manganese, < 0.99 mg/100 g of chromium, < 0.10 mg/100 g of nickel, < 1.32 mg/100 g of lead and < 0.10 mg/100 g of cadmium. Among nutritionally important components found in fruits were: total fat (0.43 %, proteins (0.82 %, fibres (18.5 g/100 g of which 14.3 g/100g was insoluble and 4.19 g/100 g was soluble fibre, titratable acids (5.1 mg/100 g, glucose (6.2 g/100 g and fructose (17.2 g/100 g. Ripe fruits contained 271.5 mg/100 g vitamin C, of which 255.3 mg/ 100 g was L-ascorbic acid and 16.2 mg/100 g was dehydroascorbic acid.

  2. Physico-Chemical and Catalytic Properties of Mesoporous CuO-ZrO2 Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulaiman N. Basahel

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Mesoporous CuO-ZrO2 catalysts were prepared and calcined at 500 °C. The performance of the synthesized catalysts for benzylation of benzene using benzyl chloride was studied. The bare support (macroporous ZrO2 offered 45% benzyl chloride conversion after reaction time of 10 h at 75 °C. Significant increase in benzyl chloride conversion (98% was observed after CuO loading (10 wt. % on porous ZrO2 support. The conversion was decreased to 80% with increase of CuO loading to 20 wt. %. Different characterization techniques (XRD, Raman, diffuse reflectance UV-vis, N2-physisorption, H2-TPR, XPS and acidity measurements were used to evaluate physico-chemical properties of CuO-ZrO2 catalysts; the results showed that the surface and structural characteristics of the ZrO2 phase as well as the interaction between CuO-ZrO2 species depend strongly on the CuO content. The results also indicated that ZrO2 support was comprised of monoclinic and tetragonal phases with macropores. An increase of the volume of monoclinic ZrO2 phase was observed after impregnation of 10 wt. % of CuO; however, stabilization of tetragonal ZrO2 phase was noticed after loading of 20 wt. % CuO. The presence of low-angle XRD peaks indicates that mesoscopic order is preserved in the calcined CuO-ZrO2 catalysts. XRD reflections due to CuO phase were not observed in case of 10 wt. % CuO supported ZrO2 sample; in contrast, the presence of crystalline CuO phase was observed in 20 wt. % CuO supported ZrO2 sample. The mesoporous 10 wt. % CuO supported ZrO2 catalyst showed stable catalytic activity for several reaction cycles. The observed high catalytic activity of this catalyst could be attributed to the presence of a higher number of dispersed interactive CuO (Cu2+-O-Zr4+ species, easy reducibility, and greater degree of accessible surface Lewis acid sites.

  3. Physico-chemical properties and the microflora of Moroccan black table olives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asehraou, A.

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available Eleven samples of Moroccan black table olives were analyzed for their microflora and the physico-chemical factors. A survey of the most frequent microorganisms including standard plate count (SPC, counts of the indicator microorganisms (total and fecal coliforms and enterococci, staphylococci. Salmonella, sporeforming bacteria (Clostridium and Bacillus and yeasts and molds was determined. The physico-chemical factors grouped pH, aw, NaCl concentration and the ADV (Acid degree value of the fatty matter. Results reported hereby showed a low microbial load except for the yeasts and molds. The values found for the physico-chemical factors (low for the pH and the aw and high for the ADV and salt content would suggest an inhibitory effect on the initial microflora charge of the black table olives.

    Se estudiaron la microflora y las propiedades físico-químicas de aceitunas negras de mesa en 11 muestras. Los microorganismos más abundantes contados incluyeron: flora mesofila total, indicadores de contaminación fecal (Coliformes totales y fecales, Enterococcus, Staphylococcus, Salmonella, esporulados (Bacillus y Clostridium y levaduras y mohos. Los análisis físico-químicos incluyeron: aw (actividad de agua, pH, índice de acidez de la materia grasa y concentración de NaCl. Los resultados nos demuestran perfiles microbianos bajos para todos los microorganismos excepto levaduras y mohos. Los valores bajos de pH y de aw, y otros elevados del índice de acidez y del contenido en sal, nos sugiere una Inhibición de estos factores sobre e! crecimiento y/o la supervivencia de la microflora de las aceitunas negras de mesa.

  4. Fluid physico-chemical properties influence capture and diet in Nepenthes pitcher plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazile, Vincent; Le Moguédec, Gilles; Marshall, David J; Gaume, Laurence

    2015-03-01

    Nepenthes pitcher plants have evolved modified leaves with slippery surfaces and enzymatic fluids that trap and digest prey, faeces and/or plant detritus. Although the fluid's contribution to insect capture is recognized, the physico-chemical properties involved remain underexplored and may vary among species, influencing their diet type. This study investigates the contributions of acidity and viscoelasticity in the fluid's capture efficiency of two ant and two fly species in four Nepenthes species with different nutrition strategies. Four Nepenthes species were studied, namely N. rafflesiana, N. gracilis, N. hemsleyana and N. ampullaria. Fluid was collected from pitchers of varying ages from plants growing in the field and immediately transferred to glass vials, and individual ants (tribe Campotini, Fomicinae) and flies (Calliphora vomitoria and Drosophila melanogaster) were dropped in and observed for 5 min. Water-filled vials were used as controls. Survival and lifetime data were analysed using models applied to right-censored observations. Additional laboratory experiments were carried out in which C. vomitoria flies were immersed in pH-controlled aqueous solutions and observed for 5 min. Pitcher fluid differed among Nepenthes species as regards insect retention capacity and time-to-kill, with differences observed between prey types. Only the fluids of the reputedly insectivorous species were very acidic and/or viscoelastic and retained significantly more insects than the water controls. Viscoelastic fluids were fatal to flies and were able to trap the broadest diversity of insects. Younger viscoelastic fluids showed a better retention ability than older fluids, although with less rapid killing ability, suggesting that a chemical action follows a mechanical one. Insect retention increased exponentially with fluid viscoelasticity, and this happened more abruptly and at a lower threshold for flies compared with ants. Flies were more often retained if they

  5. Effect of physico-chemical starch properties on bread quality and ageing (model study)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gambus, H.

    1997-01-01

    Wheat, rye and triticale starches, both native and those subjected to: segregation according to small granules (type B) and the large ones (type A), defatting with n-propanol and NaOH solution and irradiation by gamma rays at doses 3 and 5 kGy, as well as oat starch were analysed to determine their basic physico-chemical properties. Then all these starches were used in test with baking model pup loaves (40 g) from artificially composed flour, according to starch-gluten system based on recipe (for 4 pup loaves): 80 g starch d.m., 20 g dry vital gluten d.m., 8 g sugar, 3 g salt, 1 g yeast and 70 cm 3 water at 30 o C. Starch was the only alternative component in baking recipes. Additionally, wheat breads of 250 g were baked, in which part of flour was replaced by wheat and triticale starch fraction of large granules, irradiated rye and wheat starches, as well as by oat starch. Pup loaves and 250 g-loaves were evaluated on the day baking and during 3-day storage. Following parameters were determined: volume, penetration and crumb moisture and content of dry matter in crust. Also, sensory scores were performed. In addition, every day water extract from the pup loaves crumbs was prepared and in it dry matter and blue value as an indicator of soluble amylose were determined as well as carbohydrate substances were identified according to molecular mass using gel chromatography. Based on the results obtained negative effects of small starch granules and of a supplement of oat starch on bread quality were found, in spite of a beneficial effect of fatty substances contained in it, on retardation of the crumb hardening process. Also, a positive share of starch phospholipids was ascertained, not only in the retardation of amylose retrogradation but also in stabilization of crumb pores. It was observed that intensity of amylose retrogradation in crumb is determined by both the content of fatty substances in starch granules and the ratio of bound water by starch and protein

  6. Comparative study of the physico-chemical properties of rice and corn starches grown in Indian temperate climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abida Ali

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Starches isolated from the rice (Jhelum and Kohsar and corn (PS-43 and Shalimar-maize cultivars were studied for their physico-chemical and morphological properties. Physico-chemical properties such as composition, water and oil absorption capacity, swelling power, syneresis, freeze–thaw stability and light transmittance showed significant differences among the starches. Amylose contents of starches separated from the Jhelum and Kohsar rice cultivars and PS-43 and Shalimar-maize corn cultivars were 6.33%, 4.90%, 7.52% and 8.09%, respectively. The granular size varied from 5.2 to 5.9 μm for rice starches and 11.4–12.0 μm for corn starches. Transmittance value of gelatinized pastes from all starches progressively decreased up to the 2nd day during refrigerated storage, except Kohsar rice starch which lost its clarity significantly up to 3rd day of storage. The pasting property revealed peak, breakdown and setback viscosity which were in the range of 2479–3021 cP, 962–1713 cP and 1293–2003 cP respectively.

  7. Physico-chemical and microbiological properties of raw fermented sausages are not influenced by color differences of turkey breast meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, J; Krischek, C; Janisch, S; Wicke, M; Klein, G

    2013-05-01

    It has been suggested that the color of turkey breast meat influences both physico-chemical and microbiological properties of raw fermented sausages. In this study, raw fermented sausages were produced with turkey breast meat in 3 different colors (pale, normal, or dark), which were obtained from 2 fast-growing-genetic-line toms at 2 slaughterhouses. Prior to the sausage production, the breast muscles were sorted into color groups according to the lightness values determined at 24 h postmortem. This meat was subsequently processed to raw fermented sausages using 1.5 or 2.5% curing salt (CS). The pale meat had higher lightness, electrical conductivity, and drip loss, whereas the dark meat showed a darker color only. The physico-chemical (pH, water activity), visual (lightness, redness), and microbial (total plate count) properties of the sausages were not influenced by the color of the turkey breast meat. The sausage made with 2.5% CS had lower aw and higher ash and hardness values than the sausages produced with 1.5% CS. In conclusion, processing of differently colored turkey meat to raw fermented sausages does not influence the quality characteristics of the products. Based on these findings, there is no reason for the sausage producer to separate turkey breast muscles by color before producing raw fermented sausages.

  8. The Effect of Gamma Irradiation on Physico-Chemical Properties of Sodium Alginate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erizal; Sudrajat, A.; Dewi SP; Rahayu Chosdu; Tatiek Martati

    2004-01-01

    In the order to develop application of radiation to improve the quality of natural polymers, irradiation effects on physico-chemical characterization of Na-alginate has been carried out. Both Na-alginate powder and solution were irradiated by gamma rays at doses of 0;10;30; and 50 kGy. The parameters observed consisting of viscosity, pH, tensile strength, IR and UV spectra of irradiated and unirradiated samples. The results showed that irradiation up to 50 kGy, did not give effect on pH and no new peak appeared in the IR spectra. However, tensile strength and viscosity decreased with increasing irradiation dose up 50 kGy, which showed the possibility of degradation process on Na-alginate. (author)

  9. Development of corn starch based green composites reinforced with Saccharum spontaneum L fiber and graft copolymers--evaluation of thermal, physico-chemical and mechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaith, B S; Jindal, R; Jana, A K; Maiti, M

    2010-09-01

    In this paper, corn starch based green composites reinforced with graft copolymers of Saccharum spontaneum L. (Ss) fiber and methyl methacrylates (MMA) and its mixture with acrylamide (AAm), acrylonitrile (AN), acrylic acid (AA) were prepared. Resorcinol-formaldehyde (Rf) was used as the cross-linking agent in corn starch matrix and different physico-chemical, thermal and mechanical properties were evaluated. The matrix and composites were found to be thermally more stable than the natural corn starch backbone. Further the matrix and composites were subjected for biodegradation studies through soil composting method. Different stages of biodegradation were evaluated through FT-IR and scanning electron microscopic (SEM) techniques. S. spontaneum L fiber-reinforced composites were found to exhibit better tensile strength. On the other hand Ss-g-poly (MMA) reinforced composites showed maximum compressive strength and wear resistance than other graft copolymers reinforced composite and the basic matrix. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of Caesalpinia sappan L. extract on physico-chemical properties of emulsion-type pork sausage during cold storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Sang-Keun; Ha, So-Ra; Choi, Jung-Seok

    2015-12-01

    This study was performed to investigate the effect of extract from heart wood of Caesalpinia sappan on the physico-chemical properties and to find the appropriate addition level in the emulsion-type pork sausage during cold storage. The pH of treatments with C. sappan extract was significantly lower than control and T1 during cold storage periods (Pextract. Also, the texture properties and sensory of sausages containing C. sappan extract were decreased compared to control. Inclusion of the C. sappan extract in sausages resulted in lower lightness and higher yellowness, chroma and hue values. However, the antioxidant, antimicrobial activity, and volatile basic nitrogen in the emulsion-type pork sausages with C. sappan extract showed increased quality characteristics during cold storage. In conclusion, the proper addition level of C. sappan extract was 0.1% on the processing of emulsion-type pork sausage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Synthesis, physico-chemical properties and complexing abilities of new amphiphilic ligands from D-galacturonic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allam, Anas; Behr, Jean-Bernard; Dupont, Laurent; Nardello-Rataj, Véronique; Plantier-Royon, Richard

    2010-04-19

    This paper describes a convenient and efficient synthesis of new complexing surfactants from d-galacturonic acid and n-octanol as renewable raw materials in a two-step sequence. In the first step, simultaneous O-glycosidation-esterification under Fischer conditions was achieved. The anomeric ratio of the products was studied based on the main experimental parameters and the activation mode (thermal or microwave). In the second step, aminolysis of the n-octyl ester was achieved with various functionalized primary amines under standard thermal or microwave activation. The physico-chemical properties of these new amphiphilic ligands were measured and these compounds were found to exhibit interesting surface properties. Complexing abilities of one uronamide ligand functionalized with a pyridine moiety toward Cu(II) ions was investigated in solution by EPR titrations. A solid compound was also synthesized and characterized, its relative structure was deduced from spectroscopic data. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The ionising radiation effect on physico-chemical properties of organosilicon oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasnopyorova, A.P.

    1998-01-01

    The physico-chemical characteristics of organosilicon oils, as dielectric constant, viscosity, and refractive index, have been measured before and after the gamma irradiation with the doses of 10 3 to 10 6 Gray. The organosilicons studied were PMS-1, PMS-5, PMS-VV, and PMFS. All the measurements were performed with 60 Co in open test tubes as a source of gamma radiation. The structure modifications in oil molecules depending on irradiation dose have been studied with IR spectrometry. When comparing the main characteristics of the studied organosilicons before and after the irradiation one may arrange them into the following sequence with the increasing of their resistance to the gamma radiation: PMS-VV 6 GRay. For the liquids PMS-1 and PMS-VV it is found that the increasing of their viscosity with the dose absorbed obeys exponential law: ν ν 0 exp (K γ .D), where ν 0 and ν are the viscosities of the sample before and after the irradiation, respectively; D is the absorbed radiation dose; K γ is the radiation damage factor. (author)

  13. Physico-chemical/biological properties of tripolyphosphate cross-linked chitosan based nanofibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarkar, Soumi Dey [School of Medical Science and Technology, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Kharagpur-721302 (India); Farrugia, Brooke L.; Dargaville, Tim R. [Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, Kelvin Groove, Queensland-4059 (Australia); Dhara, Santanu, E-mail: sdhara@smst.iitkgp.ernet.in [School of Medical Science and Technology, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Kharagpur-721302 (India)

    2013-04-01

    In this study, chitosan-PEO blend, prepared in a 15 M acetic acid, was electrospun into nanofibers (∼ 78 nm diameter) with bead free morphology. While investigating physico-chemical parameters of blend solutions, effect of yield stress on chitosan based nanofiber fabrication was clearly evidenced. Architectural stability of nanofiber mat in aqueous medium was achieved by ionotropic cross-linking of chitosan by tripolyphosphate (TPP) ions. The TPP cross-linked nanofiber mat showed swelling up to ∼ 300% in 1 h and ∼ 40% degradation during 30 day study period. 3T3 fibroblast cells showed good attachment, proliferation and viability on TPP treated chitosan based nanofiber mats. The results indicate non-toxic nature of TPP cross-linked chitosan based nanofibers and their potential to be explored as a tissue engineering matrix. - Highlights: ► Chitosan based nanofiber fabrication through electrospinning. ► Roles of solution viscosity and yield stress on spinnability of chitosan evidenced. ► Tripolyphosphate (TPP) cross-linking rendered structural stability to nanofibers. ► TPP cross-linking also improved cellular response on chitosan based nanofibers. ► Thus, chitosan based nanofibers are suitable for tissue engineering application.

  14. Physico-chemical/biological properties of tripolyphosphate cross-linked chitosan based nanofibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkar, Soumi Dey; Farrugia, Brooke L.; Dargaville, Tim R.; Dhara, Santanu

    2013-01-01

    In this study, chitosan-PEO blend, prepared in a 15 M acetic acid, was electrospun into nanofibers (∼ 78 nm diameter) with bead free morphology. While investigating physico-chemical parameters of blend solutions, effect of yield stress on chitosan based nanofiber fabrication was clearly evidenced. Architectural stability of nanofiber mat in aqueous medium was achieved by ionotropic cross-linking of chitosan by tripolyphosphate (TPP) ions. The TPP cross-linked nanofiber mat showed swelling up to ∼ 300% in 1 h and ∼ 40% degradation during 30 day study period. 3T3 fibroblast cells showed good attachment, proliferation and viability on TPP treated chitosan based nanofiber mats. The results indicate non-toxic nature of TPP cross-linked chitosan based nanofibers and their potential to be explored as a tissue engineering matrix. - Highlights: ► Chitosan based nanofiber fabrication through electrospinning. ► Roles of solution viscosity and yield stress on spinnability of chitosan evidenced. ► Tripolyphosphate (TPP) cross-linking rendered structural stability to nanofibers. ► TPP cross-linking also improved cellular response on chitosan based nanofibers. ► Thus, chitosan based nanofibers are suitable for tissue engineering application

  15. Influence of UF4 physico-chemical properties on the assessment of the chronic exposure to this compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ansoborlo, E.; Chalabreysse, J.

    1990-01-01

    A method was developed in order to assess uranium exposure hazards at work stations based on the industrial experience acquired by Comurhex Malvesi at Narbonne. Applied to uranium tetrafluoride (UF 4 ) the method involves 4 steps: 1. characterization of the industrial compound, including its physico-chemical properties (density, surface area, X-ray spectrum and uranium enrichment); 2. assessment of work station concentrations and particle size distribution (AMAD); 3. In vitro biological solubility with different synthetic fluids such as Gamble solutions with different gases or compounds added (oxygen or superoxide ions O 2 - ) in order to determine the solubility class D, W or Y; 4. workers' monitoring by routine measurements of urinary excretion completed, if necessary, by fecal excretion and γ-spectrometry. Results and present data on UF 4 are presented. 3 tabs., 4 figs [fr

  16. Investigation of Physico-Chemical Properties of Sand-Lime Products Modified of Diabase Aggregate and Chalcedonite Meal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dachowski, Ryszard; Komisarczyk, Katarzyna

    2017-10-01

    In the era of rapid development in the construction industry, particular attention is focused on harmless and natural materials. Some of the best materials for building masonry walls are sand-lime products. Silicates are obtained from a mixture of quartz, sand and a small amount of water. They emerge as a result of the hydrothermal treatment conducted under high pressure and at a temperature of app. 203 °C. Silicates were modified of different kinds of aggregates, glass or plastics, and the content of dry ingredients was changed because of this fact. The paper describes the studies where the combination of diabase aggregate and chalcedonite meal was used. Microstructure of the products was analyzed with the use of mercury intrusion porosimetry, SEM and XRD methods. Variable content of chalcedonite meal changes the internal structure and the physico-chemical properties.

  17. Large influence of the synthesis conditions on the physico-chemical properties of nanostructured Fe3O4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franger, S.; Berthet, P.; Dragos, O.; Baddour-Hadjean, R.; Bonville, P.; Berthon, J.

    2007-01-01

    Magnetite synthesized via three different synthesis routes (coprecipitation process in aqueous media, electrochemical synthesis in presence of complexing agents and solid state reaction at high temperature) has been characterized by X-Ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, thermal analysis (TGA), FT-IR and Moessbauer spectroscopies. Although each procedure gave homogeneous magnetite powders, many differences could be seen in the physico-chemical properties of the samples mostly depending on the synthesis conditions. For instance, at least two factors seem to have a huge impact onto the Fe 3 O 4 behaviour: the presence of hydration water molecules and the particle size of the powders since a superparamagnetic behaviour was observed with the thinnest particles, at room temperature, on the Moessbauer spectra via the appearance of line broadening and a pronounced central doublet

  18. Anti-biofilm potential of phenolic acids: the influence of environmental pH and intrinsic physico-chemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Sara; Costa, Eduardo M; Horta, Bruno; Calhau, Conceição; Morais, Rui M; Pintado, M Manuela

    2016-09-13

    Phenolic acids are a particular group of small phenolic compounds which have exhibited some anti-biofilm activity, although the link between their activity and their intrinsic pH is not clear. Therefore, the present work examined the anti-biofilm activity (inhibition of biomass and metabolic activity) of phenolic acids in relation to the environmental pH, as well as other physico-chemical properties. The results indicate that, while Escherichia coli was not inhibited by the phenolic acids, both methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis were susceptible to the action of all phenolic acids, with the pH playing a relevant role in the activity: a neutral pH favored MRSE inhibition, while acidic conditions favored MRSA inhibition. Some links between molecular polarity and size were associated only with their potential as metabolic inhibitors, with the overall interactions hinting at a membrane-based mechanism for MRSA and a cytoplasmic effect for MRSE.

  19. Simultaneous incorporation of carbonate and fluoride in synthetic apatites: Effect on crystallographic and physico-chemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Fang; LeGeros, John P; LeGeros, Racquel Z

    2009-07-01

    The mineral in bone is an impure hydroxyapatite, with carbonate as the chief minor substituent. Fluoride has been shown to stimulate osteoblastic activity and inhibit osteoclastic resorption in vitro. CO(3)- and F-substituted apatite (CFA) has been considered as potential bone graft material for orthopedic and dental applications. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of simultaneously incorporated CO(3) and F on the crystallographic physico-chemical properties of apatite. The results showed that increasing CO(3) and Na content in apatites with relatively constant F concentration caused a decrease in crystallite size and an increase in the extent of calcium release; increasing F content in apatites with relatively constant CO(3) concentration caused an increase in crystallite size and a decrease in the extent of Ca release. These findings suggest that CFAs as bone graft materials of desired solubility can be prepared by manipulating the relative concentrations of CO(3) and F incorporated in the apatite.

  20. Analysis of uranium and its correlation with some physico-chemical properties of drinking water samples from Amritsar, Punjab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Surinder; Rani, Asha; Mahajan, Rakesh Kumar; Walia, Tejinder Pal Singh

    2003-12-01

    Fission track technique has been used for uranium estimation in drinking water samples collected from some areas of Amritsar District, Punjab, India. The uranium concentration in water samples is found to vary from 3.19 to 45.59 microg l(-1). Some of the physico-chemical properties such as pH, conductance and hardness and the content of calcium, magnesium, total dissolved solids (TDS), sodium, potassium, chloride, nitrate and heavy metals viz. zinc, cadmium, lead and copper have been determined in water samples. An attempt has been made to correlate uranium concentration with these water quality parameters. A positive correlation of conductance, nitrate, chloride, sodium, potassium, magnesium, TDS, calcium and hardness with uranium concentration has been observed. However, no correlation has been observed between the concentration of uranium and the heavy metals analysed.

  1. Characterization of physico-chemical properties of cervical mucus in relation to parity and conception rate in Murrah buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. K. Verma

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To characterize the physico-chemical properties of estrual cervical mucus among different parities and analyse their association with conception rate in Murrah buffaloes. Materials and Methods: Cervical mucus was collected from the mid-cervix using sterile blue sheath before artificial insemination (AI in Murrah buffaloes (n=94 and examined for appearance (transparent/ translucent, consistency (thin/ moderate/ thick, Spinnbarkeit value, arborisation pattern (typical/ atypical/ nil, pH and electrical conductivity. Artificial insemination was carried out using frozen-thawed semen by recto-vaginal method and pregnancy was confirmed by per-rectal examination after 60 days of insemination. Furthermore, the conception rates were calculated and their relationship with physico-chemical properties of cervical mucus was studied. Results: Cervical mucus was clear and thin in 85.10% and 15.96 % of estrus periods, respectively. Typical arborisation pattern of cervical mucus was observed in 54.25% of the estruses. The Mean ± SEM of pH, electrical conductivity and Spinnbarkeit value of mucus were 7.82 ± 0.02, 14.00 ± 0.10 mS/cm and 14.18 ± 0.59 cm, respectively. Significantly (P< 0.05 higher conception rate (54.90% was observed in buffaloes inseminated with typical arborisation pattern of cervical mucus as compared to atypical arborisation pattern (20.00% and no conception was recorded in the estruses with nil arborisation pattern. Conclusion: The results of present investigation concluded that arborisation pattern has significant relationship with conception rate thus can be used as an important criteria to predict the right time of AI for improving conception rate in Murrah buffaloes.

  2. Some physico-chemical and Heavy metal levels in soils of waste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results show that the soils are moderately acidic with a mean pH value of 5.5 for the 1m subsoil and 5.8 for 30cm soil depth in the various dumpsites, while the total organic carbon (TOC) levels show that it was low with 3.41% and 2.90% for depths 30cm and 1m respectively. The cation exchange capacity (CEC) of the ...

  3. Layer-by-layer buildup of polysaccharide-containing films: Physico-chemical properties and mesenchymal stem cells adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulikouskaya, Viktoryia I; Pinchuk, Sergei V; Hileuskaya, Kseniya S; Kraskouski, Aliaksandr N; Vasilevich, Irina B; Matievski, Kirill A; Agabekov, Vladimir E; Volotovski, Igor D

    2018-03-22

    Layer-by-Layer assembled polyelectrolyte films offer the opportunity to control cell attachment and behavior on solid surfaces. In the present study, multilayer films based on negatively charged biopolymers (pectin, dextran sulfate, carboxymethylcellulose) and positively charged polysaccharide chitosan or synthetic polyelectrolyte polyethyleneimine has been prepared and evaluated. Physico-chemical properties of the formed multilayer films, including their growth, morphology, wettability, stability, and mechanical properties, have been studied. We demonstrated that chitosan-containing films are characterized by the linear growth, the defect-free surface, and predominantly viscoelastic properties. When chitosan is substituted for the polyethyleneimine in the multilayer system, the properties of the formed films are significantly altered: the rigidity and surface roughness increases, the film growth acquires the exponential character. The multilayer films were subsequently used for culturing mesenchymal stem cells. It has been determined that stem cells effectively adhered to chitosan-containing films and formed on them the monolayer culture of fibroblast-like cells with high viability. Our results show that cell attachment is a complex process which is not only governed by the surface functionality because one of the key parameter effects on cell adhesion is the stiffness of polyelectrolyte multilayer films. We therefore propose our Layer-by-Layer films for applications in tissue engineering. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A, 2018. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Mechanical, physico-chemical, and antimicrobial properties of gelatin-based film incorporated with catechin-lysozyme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rawdkuen Saroat

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microbial activity is a primary cause of deterioration in many foods and is often responsible for reduced quality and safety. Food-borne illnesses associated with E. coli O157:H7, S. aureus, S. enteritidis and L. monocytogenes are a major public health concern throughout the world. A number of methods have been employed to control or prevent the growth of these microorganisms in food. Antimicrobial packaging is one of the most promising active packaging systems for effectively retarding the growth of food spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms. The aim of this study was to determine the mechanical, physico-chemical properties and inhibitory effects of the fish gelatin films against selected food spoilage microorganisms when incorporated with catechin-lysozyme. Results The effect of the catechin-lysozyme combination addition (CLC: 0, 0.125, 0.25, and 0.5%, w/v on fish gelatin film properties was monitored. At the level of 0.5% addition, the CLC showed the greatest elongation at break (EAB at 143.17% with 0.039 mm thickness, and the lowest water vapor permeability (WVP at 6.5 x 10−8 g·mm·h-1·cm-2·Pa-1, whereas the control showed high tensile strength (TS and the highest WVP. Regarding color attributes, the gelatin film without CLC addition gave the highest lightness (L* 91.95 but lowest in redness (a*-1.29 and yellowness (b* 2.25 values. The light transmission of the film did not significantly decrease and nor did film transparency (p>0.05 with increased CLC. Incorporating CLC could not affect the film microstructure. The solubility of the gelatin based film incorporated with CLC was not affected, especially at a high level of addition (p>0.05. Inhibitory activity of the fish gelatin film against E.coli, S.aureus, L. innocua and S. cerevisiae was concentration dependent. Conclusions These findings suggested that CLC incorporation can improve mechanical, physico-chemical, and antimicrobial properties of the resulting films

  5. A comparative study of physico-chemical properties of CBD and SILAR grown ZnO thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jambure, S.B.; Patil, S.J.; Deshpande, A.R.; Lokhande, C.D., E-mail: l_chandrakant@yahoo.com

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Schematic model indicating ZnO nanorods by CBD (Z{sub 1}) and nanograins by SILAR (Z{sub 2}). - Highlights: • Simple methods for the synthesis of ZnO thin films. • Comparative study of physico-chemical properties of ZnO thin films prepared by CBD and SILAR methods. • CBD outperforms SILAR method. - Abstract: In the present work, nanocrystalline zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films have been successfully deposited onto glass substrates by simple and economical chemical bath deposition (CBD) and successive ionic layer adsorption reaction (SILAR) methods. These films were further characterized for their structural, optical, surface morphological and wettability properties. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns for both CBD and SILAR deposited ZnO thin films reveal the highly crystalline hexagonal wurtzite structure. From optical studies, band gaps obtained are 2.9 and 3.0 eV for CBD and SILAR deposited thin films, respectively. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) patterns show growth of well defined randomly oriented nanorods and nanograins on the CBD and SILAR deposited samples, respectively. The resistivity of CBD deposited films (10{sup 2} Ω cm) is lower than that of SILAR deposited films (10{sup 5} Ω cm). Surface wettability studies show hydrophobic nature for both films. From the above results it can be concluded that CBD grown ZnO thin films show better properties as compared to SILAR method.

  6. A comparative study of physico-chemical properties of CBD and SILAR grown ZnO thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jambure, S.B.; Patil, S.J.; Deshpande, A.R.; Lokhande, C.D.

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Schematic model indicating ZnO nanorods by CBD (Z 1 ) and nanograins by SILAR (Z 2 ). - Highlights: • Simple methods for the synthesis of ZnO thin films. • Comparative study of physico-chemical properties of ZnO thin films prepared by CBD and SILAR methods. • CBD outperforms SILAR method. - Abstract: In the present work, nanocrystalline zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films have been successfully deposited onto glass substrates by simple and economical chemical bath deposition (CBD) and successive ionic layer adsorption reaction (SILAR) methods. These films were further characterized for their structural, optical, surface morphological and wettability properties. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns for both CBD and SILAR deposited ZnO thin films reveal the highly crystalline hexagonal wurtzite structure. From optical studies, band gaps obtained are 2.9 and 3.0 eV for CBD and SILAR deposited thin films, respectively. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) patterns show growth of well defined randomly oriented nanorods and nanograins on the CBD and SILAR deposited samples, respectively. The resistivity of CBD deposited films (10 2 Ω cm) is lower than that of SILAR deposited films (10 5 Ω cm). Surface wettability studies show hydrophobic nature for both films. From the above results it can be concluded that CBD grown ZnO thin films show better properties as compared to SILAR method

  7. Influence of lecithin-lipid composition on physico-chemical properties of nanoliposomes loaded with a hydrophobic molecule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouarab, Lynda; Maherani, Behnoush; Kheirolomoom, Azadeh; Hasan, Mahmoud; Aliakbarian, Bahar; Linder, Michel; Arab-Tehrany, Elmira

    2014-03-01

    In this work, we studied the effect of nanoliposome composition based on phospholipids of docosahexaenoic acid (PL-DHA), salmon and soya lecithin, on physico-chemical characterization of vector. Cinnamic acid was encapsulated as a hydrophobic molecule in nanoliposomes made of three different lipid sources. The aim was to evaluate the influence of membrane lipid structure and composition on entrapment efficiency and membrane permeability of cinnamic acid. These properties are important for active molecule delivery. In addition, size, electrophoretic mobility, phase transition temperature, elasticity and membrane fluidity were measured before and after encapsulation. The results showed a correlation between the size of the nanoliposome and the entrapment. The entrapment efficiency of cinnamic acid was found to be the highest in liposomes prepared from salmon lecithin. The nanoliposomes composed of salmon lecithin presented higher capabilities as a carrier for cinnamic acid encapsulation. These vesicles also showed a high stability which in turn increases the membrane rigidity of nanoliposome as evaluated by their elastic properties, membrane fluidity and phase transition temperature. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Physico-chemical properties, rheology and degree of esterification of passion fruit (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa) peel flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Emanuela M; de Azevêdo, Luciana C; Viana, Arão C; Ramos, Ingrid G; Gomes, Raquel G; Lima, Marcos Dos S; Umsza-Guez, Marcelo A

    2018-01-01

    The peel of yellow passion fruit is as an agro-industrial waste of great environmental impact, representing more than 50% of the total weight of the fruit. For this reason, and also considering its importance as a source of functional components such as pectin, this organic waste is increasingly attracting the attention of researchers. The aim of this study was to investigate the physico-chemical composition and physical properties of this material, which may be of interest to the food industry. We obtained two samples of passion fruit peel flour applying different processes: flour without treatment (FWOT) and flour with treatment by maceration (FWT). It was found that the flour samples contain, respectively, 372.4 g kg -1 and 246.7 kg -1 of soluble fiber and, according to the FTIR analysis, this material corresponds to high and low methoxyl pectins, respectively. The flour obtained by maceration (FWT) offers greater benefits for industrial use, with 60% fewer tannins and greater thermal stability. In addition, this sample does not reabsorb moisture as easily, although FWOT also shows potential for use in dietary products. Considering the pseudoplastic properties of the flours, the application of both samples could be expanded to many industrial sectors. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Effect of incorporation of calcium lactate on physico-chemical, textural, and sensory properties of restructured buffalo meat loaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irshad, A; Sharma, B D; Ahmed, S R; Talukder, S; Malav, O P; Kumar, Ashish

    2016-02-01

    The present study was conducted to develop a functional meat product by fortifying calcium (in the form of calcium lactate) with restructured buffalo meat loaf (RBML). Deboned buffalo meat obtained from the carcass of adult female buffalo within 5-6 h of slaughter and stored under frozen condition. Calcium fortified RBML were prepared by replacing the lean buffalo meat with calcium lactate powder at 0%, 1%, 1.25%, and 1.5% level through the pre-standardized procedure. The developed products were evaluated for physico-chemical properties, proximate composition, calcium concentration (mg/100 g), water activity (aw), Lovibond(®) tintometer color units, texture profile analysis (TPA), and sensory qualities as per-standard procedures. Of the various product quality parameters evaluated, cooking yield (%), product pH, moisture (%), protein (%), fat (%), and water activity (aw) decreases significantly with increasing level of calcium lactate. Calcium content of fortified functional RBMLs was 135.02, 165.73, and 203.85 mg/100 g as compared to 6.48 mg/100 g in control. Most of the sensory scores at 1% and 1.25% levels of calcium lactate in treatment products remained comparable among themselves and control product, with a gradual decline. The present study concluded that 1.25% calcium lactate was the optimum level for the fortification of calcium in RBML without affecting the textural and sensory properties which could meet out 15% of recommended dietary allowance for calcium.

  10. Effect of incorporation of calcium lactate on physico-chemical, textural, and sensory properties of restructured buffalo meat loaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Irshad

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was conducted to develop a functional meat product by fortifying calcium (in the form of calcium lactate with restructured buffalo meat loaf (RBML. Materials and Methods: Deboned buffalo meat obtained from the carcass of adult female buffalo within 5-6 h of slaughter and stored under frozen condition. Calcium fortified RBML were prepared by replacing the lean buffalo meat with calcium lactate powder at 0%, 1%, 1.25%, and 1.5% level through the pre-standardized procedure. The developed products were evaluated for physico-chemical properties, proximate composition, calcium concentration (mg/100 g, water activity (aw, Lovibond® tintometer color units, texture profile analysis (TPA, and sensory qualities as per-standard procedures. Results: Of the various product quality parameters evaluated, cooking yield (%, product pH, moisture (%, protein (%, fat (%, and water activity (aw decreases significantly with increasing level of calcium lactate. Calcium content of fortified functional RBMLs was 135.02, 165.73, and 203.85 mg/100 g as compared to 6.48 mg/100 g in control. Most of the sensory scores at 1% and 1.25% levels of calcium lactate in treatment products remained comparable among themselves and control product, with a gradual decline. Conclusions: The present study concluded that 1.25% calcium lactate was the optimum level for the fortification of calcium in RBML without affecting the textural and sensory properties which could meet out 15% of recommended dietary allowance for calcium.

  11. Nafion-TiO2 composite DMFC membranes: physico-chemical properties of the filler versus electrochemical performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baglio, V.; Arico, A.S.; Di Blasi, A.; Antonucci, V.; Antonucci, P.L.; Licoccia, S.; Traversa, E.; Fiory, F. Serraino

    2005-01-01

    TiO 2 nanometric powders were prepared via a sol-gel procedure and calcined at various temperatures to obtain different surface and bulk properties. The calcined powders were used as fillers in composite Nafion membranes for application in high temperature direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs). The powder physico-chemical properties were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and pH measurements. The observed characteristics were correlated to the DMFC electrochemical behaviour. Analysis of the high temperature conductivity and DMFC performance reveals a significant influence of the surface characteristics of the ceramic oxide, such as oxygen functional groups and surface area, on the membrane electrochemical behaviour. A maximum DMFC power density of 350 mW cm -2 was achieved under oxygen feed at 145 deg. C in a pressurized DMFC (2.5 bar, anode and cathode) equipped with TiO 2 nano-particles based composite membranes

  12. PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PHENOMENA IN SOIL STABILIZATION FOR ROADS OR HIGHWAYS INFRASTRUCTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anghel STANCIU

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Reducing the impact on the environment of constructing transportation infrastructures can be achieved through reusing or recycling certain materials. In this context, the current trend is to use materials that do not have a negative impact on the environment and provide a long term solution. Such local materials for the construction of transportation infrastructure are the active clays. This paper presents the physicochemical and mineralogical structure of clays and their behavior regarding the interaction with water. A negative effect of this interaction is the swelling, the contraction and, respectively, the swell pressure. These produce effects (fissures, cracks in the structure of roads, highways and, respectively, airport runways. The authors analyze the possibility to reduce these effects by clay stabilization with mineral binders (cement, lime. Results on lime mixtures testing are presented in terms of physical and mechanical properties, and optimum percentages of the mixtures are presented. It is also concluded that this solution is more cost-effective than the classical one as replacing the clay layer from the roadbed with other filling materials transported from other areas.

  13. Physico-chemical Properties and Assessment of Edible Oil Potential of Peanuts Grown in Kurram Agency, Parachinar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahib Hussain

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to investigate the oil potential of peanuts for domestic and commercial uses. Peanut oil yield and the physico-chemical properties of extracted oil were investigated on different temperatures (50, 55, 60 and 65 °C and sun drying. Results showed maximum oil yield of 47.2 % at sun drying and lowest values of 37.0 % at 65 °C. Highest and lowest acid values are 25.52 and 5.89 mg/KOH/g at 60 °C and 50 °C respectively. The Free Fatty Acid (FFA content were obtained 12.76 and 2.94 mg/g at 60 °C and 50 °C, while saponification values were 61.71 and 32.25 mg/KOH/g at 60 °C and 50 °C respectively. The highest Peroxide value of 92 mg/KOH/g was recorded at 55 °C which dropped to 43.4 mg/KOH/g at 65 °C. Refractive index (RI and density were not changed significantly (p≤0.05 on all temperatures, while pH was somewhat higher on 50 °C. The moisture content was found lowest up to 3.0 % on 65 °C while highest was 5 % on 50 °C.

  14. Physico-chemical properties and assessment of adible oil potential of peanuts grown in kurram agency, parachinar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, R.; Sattar, S.; Zeb, M.

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the oil potential of peanuts for domestic and commercial uses. Peanut oil yield and the physico-chemical properties of extracted oil were investigated on different temperatures (50, 55, 60 and 65 degree C) and sun drying. Results showed maximum oil yield of 47.2 % at sun drying and lowest values of 37.0 % at 65 degree C. Highest and lowest acid values are 25.52 and 5.89 mg/KOH/g at 60 degree C and 50 degree C respectively. The Free Fatty Acid (FFA) content were obtained 12.76 and 2.94 mg/g at 60 degree C and 50 degree C, while saponification values were 61.71 and 32.25 mg/KOH/g at 60 degree C and 50 degree C respectively. The highest Peroxide value of 92 mg/KOH/g was recorded at 55 degree C which dropped to 43.4 mg/KOH/g at 65 degree C. Refractive index (RI) and density were not changed significantly (p<=0.05) on all temperatures, while pH was somewhat higher on 50 degree C. The moisture content was found lowest up to 3.0 % on 65 degree C while highest was 5 % on 50 degree C. (author)

  15. Effect of water and gluten on physico-chemical properties and stability of ready to eat shelf-stable pasta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diantom, Agoura; Carini, Eleonora; Curti, Elena; Cassotta, Fabrizio; D'Alessandro, Alessandro; Vittadini, Elena

    2016-03-15

    A multi-analytical and multi-dimensional approach was used to investigate the effect of moisture and gluten on physico-chemical properties of shelf-stable ready to eat (RTE) pasta. Moisture and frozen water contents were not affected by formulation nor storage time. Hardness and retrograded amylopectin significantly increased during storage in all samples, more markedly in pasta with the lowest moisture content. Higher amounts of water and gluten reduced pasta hardening and contributed to control RTE pasta quality. (1)H FID became steeper in all samples during storage, but no effect of high moisture and gluten levels was observed on the mobility of these protons. Three proton T2 populations were observed (population C, population D and population E). Population C and D were not resolved during all storage. (1)H T2 relaxation time of the most abundant population (population E) shifted to shorter times and the amount of protons increased during storage, more importantly in the samples with lower moisture and gluten content. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Influence of activating solution and the addition of NaF on metakaolin-based geopolymer physico-chemical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agullo, J.; Muzeau, B.; Trepy, N.; L'Hostis, V.; Lambertin, D.

    2015-01-01

    The technology of geo-polymerisation is attracting a lot of interest due to the wide variety of potential applications. Recently emerging and alternative cementitious systems based on geo-polymers have been reported in literature. Geo-polymer materials have been proposed as new binders for safe radioactive waste containment. Moreover, their good fluidity and fire resistance make them compatible with industrial processes for embedding wastes. The purpose of this work was to investigate the physico-chemical properties of meta-kaolin-based geo-polymer which could be used as mineral binder for encapsulation of metallic nuclear wastes. To improve the knowledge of this binder, its microstructure and its interstitial solution have been characterized during hydration (up to 28 days). Interstitial solutions were extracted at different hydration time and subsequent analyses allow us to determine their chemical composition. pH measurements confirm the high alkalinity of the interstitial pore solution. The influence of the activating solution (NaOH or KOH) and the addition of NaF as corrosion inhibitor in the geo-polymer composition were also studied. The nature of different crystalline phases was identified by X-ray diffraction. Water accessible porosity for these materials was estimated around 59%. The pore size distribution was determined by mercury intrusion porosity. Alkaline cations have proved to induce changes in the pore size distribution, these ones coming from whether the activating solution or the NaF addition. (authors)

  17. Drug compartmentalization as strategy to improve the physico-chemical properties of diclofenac sodium loaded niosomes for topical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavano, Lorena; de Cindio, Bruno; Picci, Nevio; Ioele, Giuseppina; Muzzalupo, Rita

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this research was to study the effect of diclofenac sodium compartmentalization on the physico-chemical properties (such as size, drug entrapment efficiency and percutaneous permeation across rabbit skin) of niosomal vesicles used as carriers. Niosomes were prepared starting from nonionic commercial surfactants belonging to the class of Polysorbates and Pluronics: mixtures of Span 60/F127 and Tween 60/F127 at different ratios were used to obtain vesicles and all formulations were compared in terms of dimensions, morphology, polydispersity index and entrapment efficiency. Moreover, the enhancing effect of niosomes on the ex vivo percutaneous penetration of diclofenac sodium was investigated using Franz-type diffusion chambers and compared to that obtained by using the corresponding drug solution. Results demonstrated that niosomes were spherical and homogeneous in shape. Their size was found to be dependent on the hydrophile-lipophile balance of the surfactant mixture: increasing hydrophobicity resulted in smaller vesicles. Drug incorporation led to a significant variation in vesicle size dependently from the compartment in which the drug was located. The permeation of diclofenac from free solution used as control was found to be lower respect to that obtained for all niosomal formulations, that can be considered as percutaneous permeation enhancers. In particular, the results indicated that the highest cumulative amounts of diclofenac permeated across rabbit skin after 24 h were obtained by formulations in which the drug was located in the aqueous core.

  18. Optimization of physico-chemical properties of gelatin extracted from fish skin of rainbow trout (Onchorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabarestani, H Shahiri; Maghsoudlou, Y; Motamedzadegan, A; Mahoonak, A R Sadeghi

    2010-08-01

    Physico-chemical properties of gelatin extracted from rainbow trout (Onchorhynchus mykiss) skin were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). Central rotatable composite design was applied to study the combined effects of NaOH concentration (0.01-0.21 N), acetic acid concentration (0.01-0.21 N) and pre-treatment time (1-3h) on yield, molecular weight distribution, gel strength, viscosity and melting point of gelatin. Regression models were developed to predict the variables. Predict values of multiple response at optimal condition were that yield=9.36%, alpha(1)/alpha(2) chain ratio=1.76, beta chain percent=32.81, gel strength=459 g, viscosity=3.2 mPa s and melting point=20.4 degrees C. The optimal condition was obtained using 0.19 N NaOH and 0.121 N acetic acid for 3h. The results showed that the concentration of H(+) during pre-treatment had significant effect on molecular weight distribution, melting point and gel strength. The concentration of OH(-) had significant effect on viscosity and for extraction yield, pretreatment time was the critical factor. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of residual water content on the physico-chemical properties of sucralfate dried gel obtained by microwave drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gainotti, Alessandro; Losi, Elena; Bettini, Ruggero; Colombo, Paolo; Sonvico, Fabio; Baroni, Daniela; Santi, Patrizia; Colombo, Gaia

    2005-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the physico-chemical characteristics of sucralfate humid gel dried by microwaves, in relation to the residual water content. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) allowed for the determination of the water state in sucralfate samples. Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy was used to monitor the changes in sucralfate gel structure induced by the microwave drying. A boundary value of total water content for sucralfate gel samples was found at 42% (w/w). Below this value only bound water was present, whereas above this value, the increase in total water was due to free water. In the physical form of gel, the strength of the coordination between sulfate anions and the positively charged aluminum hydroxide was dependent on the residual water content. The study of the sedimentation behavior of water suspensions prepared with dried sucralfate allowed for the evaluation of the retention of gel properties. We found that the microwave drying process affected the sedimentation of sucralfate dried gel suspensions independent of the residual water content: when suspensions were prepared from sucralfate dried gel powders containing more than 42% (w/w) of residual water, the sedimentation ratio was higher than 0.9. The non-gel powder suspension showed a sedimentation ratio of 0.68 +/- 0.02, whereas the sucralfate humid gel suspension did not sediment.

  20. Effect of superfine grinding on the physico-chemical, morphological and thermogravimetric properties of Lentinus edodes mushroom powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Jian; Chen, Long; Hong, Hui; Li, Jinlong

    2015-09-01

    Lentinus edodes is an edible mushroom commonly known as shiitake, which is the second most produced and consumed edible mushroom in the world and is an important nutrient source in the human diet. To fully use L. edodes, the mushrooms are occasionally ground into powder as a flavourful and functional food additive. This study produces powders from the cap and stipe of Lentinus edodes mushrooms through superfine grinding. These powders are composed of sub-micron range particles with various size distributions. The superfine grinding process is then compared with shear pulverisation to determine the different effects on both the cap and stipe powders in terms of particle size and physico-chemical, morphological and thermogravimetric properties. When average particle size was reduced to 0.54 and 0.46 µm, respectively, the moisture and protein content, angles of repose and slide, and water holding capacity of the powders decreased to varied extents. However, soluble dietary fibre, water solubility index, and swelling capacity increased. Scanning electron microscope images suggested that the superfine grinding process effectively changed the original surface structure of the L. edodes powders. The curves of thermogravimetric analysis and those of the derivatives of thermogravimetry indicated that superfine grinding can improve the thermostability of L. edodes powders. Furthermore, superfinely ground L. edodes powders may be used as pharmaceutical or food additives in various fields. The present study suggests that superfinely ground L. edodes powders may be applied in various fields as pharmaceutical or food additives. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Effect of pulsed electric fields on microbial inactivation and physico-chemical properties of whole porcine blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulaaba, Annika; Egen, Nathalie; Klein, Günter

    2014-04-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the lethal effectiveness of pulsed electric fields on the inactivation of the porcine blood endogenous microflora. Furthermore, the impact of pulsed electric field application on physico-chemical and sensory properties in this medium should be proved. Blood samples from a commercial abattoir in Germany were processed by a continuous pilot plant-pulsed electric field system at electric field strength of 11 kV/cm for treatment times of 163 and 209 µs. The applied pulse frequencies of 134 and 175 Hz correspond to an energy input of 91 and 114 kJ/kg, respectively. In these conditions, the effectiveness of pulsed electric field processing on microbial inactivation was limited: 1.35 log10 CFU/mL reduction of total aerobic plate count (p pulsed electric field-treated blood samples. Pulsed electric field processing leads to a complete hemolysis of the red blood cells, in addition significant decreased L* (lightness), a* (redness) and b* (yellowness) values (p < 0.0001) were observed. Furthermore, changes in the sensory attributes color (changed from red to dark brown) and odor (changed from fresh to musty and tangy) were noticed.

  2. Synthesis of carbide fuels from nano-structured precursors: impact on carbo-reduction and physico-chemical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saravia, Alvaro

    2015-01-01

    The classical way classically used for manufacturing carbide fuels consists of carbo-reducing at high temperature (1600 C) and under primary vacuum a mixture of AnO 2 and graphite powders. These conditions are disadvantageous for the synthesis of mixed (U,Pu)C carbides on account of plutonium volatilization. Therefore, one of the main aims of these studies is to decrease the carbo-reduction temperature. The experiments focused mainly on the lowering of the uranium oxide temperature. This result has been obtained with the use of uranium oxide and carbon nano-structured precursors. To achieve this goal colloidal suspensions of uranium oxide have been prepared and stabilized by cellulosic ethers. Cellulosic ethers are both stabiliser for uranium oxide nanoparticles and carbon source for carbo-reduction. It has been shown that these precursors are more efficient for carbo-reduction than the standard precursors: a reduction of 300 C of carbo-reduction temperature has been obtained. The impact of these precursors on carbo-reduction and on physico-chemical properties as well as the structural and microstructural characterizations of the obtained carbides have been carried out. (author) [fr

  3. Tensile properties of cooked meat sausages and their correlation with texture profile analysis (TPA) parameters and physico-chemical characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, A M; de la Hoz, L; Ordóñez, J A; Herranz, B; Romero de Ávila, M D; Cambero, M I

    2008-11-01

    The possibilities of using breaking strength (BS) and energy to fracture (EF) for monitoring textural properties of some cooked meat sausages (chopped, mortadella and galantines) were studied. Texture profile analysis (TPA), folding test and physico-chemical measurements were also performed. Principal component analysis enabled these meat products to be grouped into three textural profiles which showed significant (p<0.05) differences mainly for BS, hardness, adhesiveness and cohesiveness. Multivariate analysis indicated that BS, EF and TPA parameters were correlated (p<0.05) for every individual meat product (chopped, mortadella and galantines) and all products together. On the basis of these results, TPA parameters could be used for constructing regression models to predict BS. The resulting regression model for all cooked meat products was BS=-0.160+6.600∗cohesiveness-1.255∗adhesiveness+0.048∗hardness-506.31∗springiness (R(2)=0.745, p<0.00005). Simple linear regression analysis showed significant coefficients of determination between BS (R(2)=0.586, p<0.0001) versus folding test grade (FG) and EF versus FG (R(2)=0.564, p<0.0001).

  4. Cholesterol-based cationic lipids for gene delivery: contribution of molecular structure factors to physico-chemical and biological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Ruilong; Luo, Ting; Li, Hui; Sun, Jingjing; Wang, Zhao; Cao, Amin

    2014-04-01

    In this work, we prepared a series of cholesterol-based cationic (Cho-cat) lipids bearing cholesterol hydrophobe, natural amino acid headgroups (lysine/histidine) and linkage (carbonate ester/ether) bonds. In which, the natural amino acid headgroups made dominant contribution to their physico-chemical and biological properties. Among the lipids, the l-lysine headgroup bearing lipids (Cho-es/et-Lys) showed higher pDNA binding affinity and were able to form larger sized and higher surface charged lipoplexes than that of l-histidine headgroup bearing lipids (Cho-es/et-His), they also demonstrated higher transfection efficacy and higher membrane disruption capacities than that of their l-histidine headgroup bearing counterparts. However, compared to the contributions of the headgroups, the (carbonate ester/ether) linkage bonds showed much less affects. Besides, it could be noted that, Cho-es/et-Lys lipids exhibited very high luciferase gene transfection efficiency that almost reached the transfection level of "gold standard" bPEI-25k, made them potential transfection reagents for practical application. Moreover, the results facilitated the understanding for the structure-activity relationship of the cholesterol-based cationic lipids, and also paved a simple and efficient way for achieving high transfection efficiency by modification of suitable headgroups on lipid gene carriers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of Araxa rockphosphate and simple superphosphate on some physico-chemical properties and on the available residual P of an oxic Paleudalf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urquiaga C, S.; Reichardt, K.; Libardi, P.L.

    The experiment was developed using soil samples (TRE, Oxic Paleudalfs) from the Experimental Field Station of ESALQ, located in Piracicaba, SP, Brazil. This soil had received during the period of three years 6 ton/ha of Araxa Rockphosphate (34.6% P 2 O 5 ) or 0.5 ton/ha of Simple Superphosphate (20% P 2 O 5 ) while three crops of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris, L.) were grown. This greenhouse experiment had the objective of evaluating the effect of these fertilizer applications on some physico-chemical properties of the soil, and also study the residual P effect through the Olsen and 'A value' methods. Results indicate that Araxa Rockphosphate (48.4% CaO), although applied at high rate, did not affect soil reaction. On the other hand, both fertilizers increased the exchangeable Ca 2+ level in approximately 0.5 me/100 g. In short therm (less than 3 years), the response of Araxa Rockphosphate corresponded to its 2% citric acid soluble P 2 O 5 content (4%) rather than to its total P 2 O 5 content. Through 'A values' (using KH 2 32 PO 4 ) it was shown that the residual effect of Simple Superphosphate (108.6 Kg P 2 O 5 /ha) was similar to the Araxa Rockphosphate (136.6 Kg P 2 O 5 /ha), but these were significantly greater than the natural P content of the soil (54.0 Kg P 2 O 5 /ha). The evaluation of available P in the soil (with and without fertilizer) by Olsen's method, had and efficiency of 64 and 94% (respectively) as compared to the 'A value' method. (Author) [pt

  6. New sol-gel bioactive glass and titania composites with enhanced physico-chemical and biological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlik, Justyna; Widziołek, Magdalena; Cholewa-Kowalska, Katarzyna; Łączka, Maria; Osyczka, Anna Maria

    2014-07-01

    We developed TiO2 matrix composites modified by sol-gel bioactive glasses (SBG) of either high CaO content (A2) or high SiO2 content (S2). The latter were mixed with titanium dioxide (TiO2) at 75:25, 50:50, and 25:75 weight ratios and sintered at 1250°C for 2 h. We examined the effects of various types (A2 or S2) and compositional TiO2 :SBG ratios on the mechanical properties of resulting composites, their bioactivity and human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) response. The chemistry of SBGs influenced the phase composition, mechanical and biological properties of the composites. Rutile and titanite prevailed in A2-TiO2 composites, and rutile and crystobalite in S2-TiO2 composites. Compressive strength increased significantly for 25A2-TiO2 composites (140 MPa) compared to matrix TiO2 (58 MPa). Composites containing 50-75 wt % of either SBG displayed bioactive properties as determined by simulated body fluid test. Compared to TiO2, human bone marrow stromal cell (BMSC) viability was enhanced on the composites containing 25 wt % of either SBG, whereas the composites modified by 25 wt % of S2 enhanced alkaline phosphatase activity and mineralization in cultures treated with osteogenic inducers-dexamethasone (Dex) or bone morphogenetic protein. Increasing amounts of A2 in TiO2 matrix decreased cell viability but increased collagen deposition and mineralized matrix production by BMSC. Considering the physico-chemical and biological properties of the presented composites, the modification of TiO2 with SBG may prove useful strategy in several bone tissue related regeneration strategies. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Addition of bioactive glass to glass ionomer cements: Effect on the physico-chemical properties and biocompatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Caluwé, T; Vercruysse, C W J; Ladik, I; Convents, R; Declercq, H; Martens, L C; Verbeeck, R M H

    2017-04-01

    Glass ionomer cements (GICs) are a subject of research because of their inferior mechanical properties, despite their advantages such as fluoride release and direct bonding to bone and teeth. Recent research aims to improve the bioactivity of the GICs and thereby improve mechanical properties on the long term. In this study, two types of bioactive glasses (BAG) (45S5F and CF9) are combined with GICs to evaluate the physico-chemical properties and biocompatibility of the BAG-GIC combinations. The effect of the addition of Al 3+ to the BAG composition and the use of smaller BAG particles on the BAG-GIC properties was also investigated. Conventional aluminosilicate glass (ASG) and (modified) BAG were synthesized by the melt method. BAG-GIC were investigated on setting time, compressive strength and bioactivity. Surface changes were evaluated by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), EDS and PO 4 3- -and Ca 2+ uptake in SBF. Biocompatibility of selected BAG-GICs was determined by a direct toxicity assay. The addition of BAG improves the bioactivity of the GIC, which can be observed by the formation of an apatite (Ap) layer, especially in CF9-containing GICs. More BAG leads to more bioactivity but decreases strength. The addition of Al 3+ to the BAG composition improves strength, but decreases bioactivity. BAGs with smaller particle sizes have no effect on bioactivity and decrease strength. The formation of an Ap layer seems beneficial to the biocompatibility of the BAG-GICs. Bioactive GICs may have several advantages over conventional GICs, such as remineralization of demineralized tissue, adhesion and proliferation of bone- and dental cells, allowing integration in surrounding tissue. CF9 BAG-GIC combinations containing maximum 10mol% Al 3+ are most promising, when added in ≤20wt% to a GIC. Copyright © 2017 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Influence of lanthanum on the physico-chemical properties of solid solutions GeS0.5Se0.5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murquzov, M.I.; Alekperov, A.S.; Bayramov, R.B.

    2010-01-01

    By the methods of physical-chemical analysis (X-ray, MSA, as well as measurement of microhardness and density determination) the influence of La on the physico-chemical properties of solid solutions (GeS 0 .5Se 0 .5) 1 -x(La) x was studied and its microdiagram was plotted. At room temperature the GeS 0 .5Se 0 .5 based solid solution extent 4 at. percent of La. The dependence of lanthane microhardness was studied

  9. An Investigation into the Physico-chemical Properties of Transformer Oil Blends with Antioxidants extracted from Turmeric Powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dukhi, Veresha; Bissessur, Ajay; Ngila, Catherine Jane; Ijumba, Nelson Mutatina

    2013-07-01

    The blending of transformer oil (used mainly as an insulating oil) with appropriate synthetic antioxidants, such as BHT (2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol) and DBP (2,6-di-tert-butylphenol) have been previously reported. This article is focused on the use of antioxidant extracts from turmeric (Curcuma longa), a natural source. Turmeric is well known for its antimicrobial, antioxidant and anticarcinogenic properties owing to the active nature of its components. Extracts from powdered turmeric were subsequently blended into naphthenic-based uninhibited virgin transformer oil, hereinafter referred to as extract-oil blends (E-OB). Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) of the oil blends revealed that five components extracted from turmeric powder were successfully blended into the oil. Subsequent gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis confirmed the presence of the compounds: curcumene, sesquiphellandrene, ar-turmerone, turmerone and curlone. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) of the extract-oil blends, containing various levels of extracts, revealed an average temperature shift of ˜8.21°C in the initial onset of degradation in comparison to virgin non-blended oil. The 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay showed that an increase in the mass aliquot of turmeric extracts in the transformer oil increased the free radical scavenging activity of the oil. Electrical properties of the oil investigated showed that the dissipation factor in the blended oil was found to be lower than that of virgin transformer oil. Evidently, a lower dissipation value renders the oil blend as a superior insulator over normal virgin non-blended oil. This investigation elucidated improved physico-chemical properties of transformer oil blended with turmeric antioxidant extracts.

  10. the phytochemical and physico-chemical properties of the seed and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Global Journal

    astringent properties, and an oral infusion of the leaves is used to treat ... can be fermented for wine or other alcohol production. (Ajewole ... significantly protect the development of lots of .... diseases and other related problems (Okafor, 1989).

  11. Investigation of surface properties of physico-chemically modified natural fibres using inverse gas chromatography

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cordeiro, N

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Inverse gas chromatography (IGC) is a suitable method to determine surface energy of natural fibres when compared to wetting techniques. In the present study, the surface properties of raw and modified lignocellulosic fibres have been investigated...

  12. Effect of starch type on the physico-chemical properties of edible films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basiak, Ewelina; Lenart, Andrzej; Debeaufort, Frédéric

    2017-05-01

    Food preservation is mostly related to packaging in oil-based plastics, inducing environmental problems, but this drawback could be limited by using edible/biodegradable films and coatings. Physical and chemical properties were assessed and reflect the role of the starch type (wheat, corn or potato) and thus that of the amylose/amylopectin ratio, which influences thickness, colour, moisture, wettability, thermal, surface and mechanical properties. Higher amylose content in films induces higher moisture sensitivity, and thus affects the mechanical and barrier properties. Films made from potato starch constitute a greater barrier for oxygen and water vapour though they have weaker mechanical properties than wheat and corn starch films. Starch species with higher amylose content have lower wettability properties, and better mechanical resistance, which strongly depends on the water content due to the hydrophilic nature of starch films, so they could be used for products with higher water activity, such as cheese, fruits and vegetables. It especially concerns wheat starch systems, and the contact angle indicates less hydrophilic surfaces (above 90°) than those of corn and potato starch films (below 90°). The starch origin influences optical properties and thickness: with more amylose, films are opalescent and thicker; with less, they are transparent and thinner. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Physico-chemical properties of modified inter-polymer complexes and composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khafizov, M.M.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Inter-polymer complexes (IC) are rather perspective and can occupy the important place in technology of materials, as find out a number of the most valuable properties. In essence, they are new polymeric materials with a complex of new qualities and operational characteristics. In the present work the influence of a nature and structure of cooperating components both on structure, and on properties of received final products is investigated. It is shown new opportunities of use of the IC for reception composite materials formed IC on the physical properties, rather close to amorphous compounds. The opportunity of reception polymeric composite materials with the given properties and structure is shown; the purposeful regulation of process of hardening inter-polymeric composite materials with disperse fillers of a various nature and contents is established. The properties of such composite materials are determined by amount of entered components, both their distribution and chemical nature of a filler, that allows to increase stability properties in 2.5-3 times. By using phenomenological analysis of the contact phenomena the differential equations are made which are used for the analysis of VAC sandwich-structures metal-IC-metal. In a range of voltage V=0 -1 -10 2 V the experimental VAC are described by dependences close to Ohmic J∼V n , n=1. It is shown that the presence of breaks σ=f(T) at temperature ∼ 300 K specifies on ionic character of conductivity of samples. The chemical resistance of inter-polymeric composites in relation to water, to a solution of NaCl and 'to aggressive environment' is comprehensively characterized. The optimum degree of filling of the fillers Cv=2-3 is determined at a specific surface of fillers 0.2-0.3 m 2 /g

  14. Effects of electron beam irradiation on tribological and physico-chemical properties of Polyoxymethylene copolymer (POM-C)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, Md. Shahinur; Shaislamov, Ulugbek; Yang, Jong-Keun [Nuclear Fusion and Plasma Applications Laboratory, Department of Nuclear and Energy Engineering, Jeju National University, 102 Jejudaehak-ro, Jeju-si, Jeju 63243 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jong-Kuk [Plasma Processing Laboratory, Division of Surface Technology, Korea Institute of Materials Science, 797 Changwondaero, Sungsan-Gu, Changwon, Kyungnam 641-010 (Korea, Republic of); Yu, Young Hun [Department of Physics, Jeju National University, 102 Jejudaehak-ro, Jeju-si, Jeju 63243 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Sooseok [Nuclear Fusion and Plasma Applications Laboratory, Department of Nuclear and Energy Engineering, Jeju National University, 102 Jejudaehak-ro, Jeju-si, Jeju 63243 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Heon-Ju, E-mail: hjlee@jejunu.ac.kr [Nuclear Fusion and Plasma Applications Laboratory, Department of Nuclear and Energy Engineering, Jeju National University, 102 Jejudaehak-ro, Jeju-si, Jeju 63243 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Electron beam dose irradiation effect on tribology of POM-C was investigated. • Raman and FTIR-ATR spectra confirm the chemical structural modification. • 1 MeV, 100 kGy dose irradiation induced well suited carbonization and hydrophobicity. • Well suited carbonization and hydrophobicity reduced friction coefficient. - Abstract: Polyoxymethylene copolymer (POM-C) is an attractive and widely used engineering thermoplastic across many industrial sectors owing to outstanding physical, mechanical, self-lubricating and chemical properties. In this research work, the POM-C blocks were irradiated with 1 MeV electron beam energy in five doses (100, 200, 300, 500 and 700 kGy) in vacuum condition at room temperature. The tribological and physico-chemical properties of electron beam irradiated POM-C blocks have been analyzed using pin on disk tribometer, Raman spectroscopy, FTIR-ATR, gel content analysis, SEM-EDS (scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectroscopy), surface profiler and contact angle analyzer. Electron beam irradiation at a dose of 100 kGy resulted in decrease of the friction coefficient of POM-C block due to well suited carbonization, cross-linking, free radicals formation and partial physical modification. It also showed the lowest surface roughness and highest water contact angle among all unirradiated and irradiated POM-C blocks. The irradiation dose at 200 kGy resulted in increase of friction coefficient due to less effective cross-linking, but the irradiation doses at 300, 500 and 700 kGy resulted in increase of the friction coefficient as compared to unirradiated POM-C block due to severe chain scission, chemical and physical structural degradation. The degree of improvement for tribological attribute relies on the electron beam surface dose delivered (energy and dose rate).

  15. The effect of scaffold-cell entrapment capacity and physico-chemical properties on cartilage regeneration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, J.A.A.; Moroni, Lorenzo; Riesle, J.U.; de Wijn, J.R.; van Blitterswijk, Clemens

    2013-01-01

    An important tenet in designing scaffolds for regenerative medicine consists in mimicking the dynamic mechanical properties of the tissues to be replaced to facilitate patient rehabilitation and restore daily activities. In addition, it is important to determine the contribution of the forming

  16. Physico-chemical properties of gluten-free pancakes from rice and sweet potato flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluten-free pancakes were prepared using rice flour, and rice flour replaced with various amounts, at 10, 20 and 40%, of sweet potato flour. The apparent viscosity of the pancake batter increased with increased sweet potato flour replacement. Texture properties of the cooked pancakes, such as, har...

  17. Physico-chemical properties of PDMS surfaces suitable as substrates for cell cultures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raczkowska, Joanna, E-mail: joanna.raczkowska@uj.edu.pl [The Marian Smoluchowski Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Łojasiewicza 11, 30-428 Kraków (Poland); Prauzner-Bechcicki, Szymon [Institute of Nuclear Physics Polish Academy of Sciences, Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Kraków (Poland); Lukes, Jaroslav; Sepitka, Josef [Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Technicka 4, 16607 Prague (Czech Republic); Bernasik, Andrzej [Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, AGH - University of Science and Technology, Reymonta 19, 30-049 Kraków (Poland); Awsiuk, Kamil [The Marian Smoluchowski Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Łojasiewicza 11, 30-428 Kraków (Poland); Paluszkiewicz, Czesława; Pabijan, Joanna; Lekka, Małgorzata [Institute of Nuclear Physics Polish Academy of Sciences, Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Kraków (Poland); Budkowski, Andrzej [The Marian Smoluchowski Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Łojasiewicza 11, 30-428 Kraków (Poland)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • Series of PDMS substrates with monotonically tuned elasticity were produced. • Method to estimate PDMS stiffness based on AFM force-distance curves was shown. • No change in surface properties of PDMS other than elasticity was demonstrated. • MTT performed for cancer cells showed impact of PDMS elasticity on cells behavior. - Abstract: Elastic properties of the substrate have profound effect on adhesion and proliferation of cells. Here, we introduce a method to produce polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrates with stiffness tuned monotonically from 1.67 to 0.24 MPa, by the time of UV irradiation adjusted up to 5 h. The Young’s modulus (determined by using nanoindenter) scales linearly with stiffness calculated using AFM-based force spectroscopy data. Such a relation enables the determination of the Young modulus from AFM force – distance curves also when the Herz model is not applicable. Our findings demonstrate that surface properties of PDMS substrates are not affected by the applied methodology of tuning substrate elasticity. Finally, the colorimetric proliferation assay (MTT) carried out for non-malignant (HCV29) and cancerous (T24) bladder cancer cells depicted a significant contribution of PDMS substrate elasticity to the behavior of cells. The softer PDMS substrate demonstrated excellent cytocompatibility whereas the stiff one is more cell-repellent.

  18. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF CHEMICAL COMPOSITION, PHYSICO-CHEMICAL AND ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTIES OF OILS EXTRACTED BY TRADITIONAL AND HEXANE METHODS FROM TERMINALIA CATAPPA L. KERNELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bérenger A. L. Ladele

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The comparative study of physico-chemical characteristics of Terminalia catappa L. kernel oils extracted by two methods has been done. The oil yields were 28.13 % and 61.78 % respectively for traditional and hexane methods and the fatty acid profiles showed palmitic acid (40.79 % and 40.03 % respectively oleic acid (25.55 % and 26.09 % respectively, linoleic acid (26.72 % and 26.64 % respectively and stearic acid (4.35 % and 4.49 % respectively as major components. The oils extracted by the two ways showed similar physico-chemical properties, good calorific values and non-toxicity against Artemia salina L. Oil obtained by traditional method exhibited more antioxidant capacity (1.40 than the hexane one (0.15. This traditional method helps to extract 45 % of the total oil. It gives oil free of organic solvent, with good physico-chemical properties that could be useful as edible oil and for industrial applications.

  19. Phospholipids fatty acids of drinking water reservoir sedimentary microbial community: Structure and function responses to hydrostatic pressure and other physico-chemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Bei-Bei; Huang, Ting-Lin; Zhao, Xiao-Guang; Li, Ya-Jiao

    2015-07-01

    Microbial communities in three drinking water reservoirs, with different depth in Xi'an city, were quantified by phospholipids fatty acids analysis and multivariate statistical analysis was employed to interpret their response to different hydrostatic pressure and other physico-chemical properties of sediment and overlying water. Principle component analyses of sediment characteristics parameters showed that hydrostatic pressure was the most important effect factor to differentiate the overlying water quality from three drinking water reservoirs from each other. NH4+ content in overlying water was positive by related to hydrostatic pressure, while DO in water-sediment interface and sediment OC in sediment were negative by related with it. Three drinking water reservoir sediments were characterized by microbial communities dominated by common and facultative anaerobic Gram-positive bacteria, as well as, by sulfur oxidizing bacteria. Hydrostatic pressure and physico-chemical properties of sediments (such as sediment OC, sediment TN and sediment TP) were important effect factors to microbial community structure, especially hydrostatic pressure. It is also suggested that high hydrostatic pressure and low dissolved oxygen concentration stimulated Gram-positive and sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) bacterial population in drinking water reservoir sediment. This research supplied a successful application of phospholipids fatty acids and multivariate analysis to investigate microbial community composition response to different environmental factors. Thus, few physico-chemical factors can be used to estimate composition microbial of community as reflected by phospholipids fatty acids, which is difficult to detect.

  20. Effect of electromagnetic radiation on the physico-chemical properties of minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez M, A.; Delgadillo G, J. A.; Vega C, H. R.

    2014-08-01

    The electromagnetic radiation effect represented by gamma rays was investigated through; chemical analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (Sem) and magnetization when applied at a dose of 0.5704 Gy (0.5704 J/ kg) at a feed relation of 18.40 ± 1.13 mGy/ h., in different minerals; in order to characterize the impact of the same from 137 Cs in the physicochemical properties of these minerals. All the irradiated samples showed chemical stability at this stage undetectable other both in the XRD study and in the images analysis obtained by Sem; and at present almost the same chemical composition as the non-irradiated samples. So the same patterns of X-ray diffraction thereof, show a tendency to slightly lower the intensity of the most representative peaks of each mineral phase, which may be due to a decrease in crystallinity or preferential crystallographic orientation in crystals. In the micrographs analysis obtained by Sem on the irradiated samples, some holes (open pores) present in the particles were observed, mainly chalcopyrite and sphalerite lesser extent, seen this fact may be due to Compton Effect, in the radiation process. In relation to the magnetization property, a variation is obtained in the saturation magnetization (Ms) for the irradiated samples containing iron and more significantly in the chalcopyrite case. Therefore, with the radiation level used; slight changes occurring in the physical properties of minerals, whereas they remained stable chemically. These small changes may represent a signal that electromagnetic radiation applied at higher doses, is a viable option for improving the mineral processing. (author)

  1. An overview of physico-chemical properties of molten fluoride for nuclear applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dash, Smruti

    2013-01-01

    The general aim of this study is to provide an overview of the key research trends of physicochemical properties of molten salts. This study also calculated the coefficient of viscosities of NaF, KF, FeF 2 , NiF 2 and different compositions of NaF + KF melt using FactSage programme. This programme linked the slag viscosity to the internal structure of melts through second nearest neighbor bonds concentrations which was calculated from the advanced quasi-chemical thermodynamic model. The calculated coefficients of viscosities were compared with that reported in the literature. (author)

  2. The preparation of low electroendosmosis agarose and its physico-chemical property

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Rugui; Liu, Xiaolei; Liu, Li; Zhang, Quanbin; Zhang, Hong; Niu, Xizhen

    2007-10-01

    Studies on Gelidium amansii agar fractionations were carried out in this paper. Gelidium amansii agar was fractionated on DEAE-Cellulose, and four fractions were obtained sequentially. The fractions were analyzed on physical and chemical properties, and IR and 13C-NMR spectroscopy applied for elucidating the chemical structure. Among the four fractions obtained, water fraction measured up to the standard of low EEO agarose. The sulfate content, ash content, electroendosmosis and gel strength (1%) of water fraction were 0.16%, 0.34%, 0.12 and 1 130g/cm2 respectively, similar to those of the Sigma products.

  3. Leaf physico-chemical and physiological properties of maize (Zea mays L.) populations from different origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revilla, Pedro; Fernández, Victoria; Álvarez-Iglesias, Lorena; Medina, Eva T; Cavero, José

    2016-10-01

    In this study we evaluated the leaf surface properties of maize populations native to different water availability environments. Leaf surface topography, wettability and gas exchange performance of five maize populations from the Sahara desert, dry (south) and humid (north-western) areas of Spain were analysed. Differences in wettability, stomatal and trichome densities, surface free energy and solubility parameter values were recorded between populations and leaf sides. Leaves from the humid Spanish population with special regard to the abaxial side, were less wettable and less susceptible to polar interactions. The higher wettability and hydrophilicity of Sahara populations with emphasis on the abaxial leaf surfaces, may favour dew deposition and foliar water absorption, hence improving water use efficiency under extremely dry conditions. Compared to the other Saharan populations, the dwarf one had a higher photosynthesis rate suggesting that dwarfism may be a strategy for improving plant tolerance to arid conditions. The results obtained for different maize populations suggest that leaf surfaces may vary in response to drought, but further studies will be required to examine the potential relationship between leaf surface properties and plant stress tolerance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Physico-chemical and mechanical properties of microencapsulated phase change material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giro-Paloma, Jessica; Oncins, Gerard; Barreneche, Camila; Martínez, Mònica; Fernández, A. Inés; Cabeza, Luisa F.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Microencapsulated phase change material MPCM (Micronal∗ DS 5001) was evaluated in this study. ► Due to the reported microcapsules breakage, physical and mechanical properties were analysed. ► Mechanical response was evaluated by AFM with indentation mode under different temperatures. ► The main result is that stiffness of MPCM depends on the temperature assay and particle size. - Abstract: Microencapsulated phase change materials (MPCM) are well known in advanced technologies for the utilization in active and passive systems, which have the capacity to absorb and slowly release the latent heat involved in a phase change process. Microcapsules consist of little containers, which are made of polymer on the outside, and paraffin wax as PCM in the inside. The use of microencapsulated PCM has many advantages as microcapsules can handle phase change materials as core allowing the preparation of slurries. However there are some concerns about cycling of MPCM slurries because of the breakage of microcapsules during charging/discharging and the subsequent loss of effectiveness. This phenomenon motivates the study of the mechanical response when a force is applied to the microcapsule. The maximum force that Micronal® DS 5001 can afford before breaking was determined by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). To simulate real conditions in service, assays were done at different temperatures: with the PCM in solid state at 25 °C, and with the PCM melted at 45 °C and 80 °C. To better understand the behavior of these materials, Micronal® DS 5001 microcapsules were characterized using different physic-chemical techniques. Microcapsules Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) results showed the main vibrations corresponding to acrylic groups of the outside polymer. Thermal stability was studied by Thermogravimetrical Analysis (TGA), and X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) was used to characterize the resulting inorganic residue. The thermal properties were

  5. Life cycle impact assessment modeling for particulate matter: A new approach based on physico-chemical particle properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notter, Dominic A

    2015-09-01

    Particulate matter (PM) causes severe damage to human health globally. Airborne PM is a mixture of solid and liquid droplets suspended in air. It consists of organic and inorganic components, and the particles of concern range in size from a few nanometers to approximately 10μm. The complexity of PM is considered to be the reason for the poor understanding of PM and may also be the reason why PM in environmental impact assessment is poorly defined. Currently, life cycle impact assessment is unable to differentiate highly toxic soot particles from relatively harmless sea salt. The aim of this article is to present a new impact assessment for PM where the impact of PM is modeled based on particle physico-chemical properties. With the new method, 2781 characterization factors that account for particle mass, particle number concentration, particle size, chemical composition and solubility were calculated. Because particle sizes vary over four orders of magnitudes, a sound assessment of PM requires that the exposure model includes deposition of particles in the lungs and that the fate model includes coagulation as a removal mechanism for ultrafine particles. The effects model combines effects from particle size, solubility and chemical composition. The first results from case studies suggest that PM that stems from emissions generally assumed to be highly toxic (e.g. biomass combustion and fossil fuel combustion) might lead to results that are similar compared with an assessment of PM using established methods. However, if harmless PM emissions are emitted, established methods enormously overestimate the damage. The new impact assessment allows a high resolution of the damage allocatable to different size fractions or chemical components. This feature supports a more efficient optimization of processes and products when combating air pollution. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Physico-chemical properties of the new generation IV iron preparations ferumoxytol, iron isomaltoside 1000 and ferric carboxymaltose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neiser, Susann; Rentsch, Daniel; Dippon, Urs; Kappler, Andreas; Weidler, Peter G; Göttlicher, Jörg; Steininger, Ralph; Wilhelm, Maria; Braitsch, Michaela; Funk, Felix; Philipp, Erik; Burckhardt, Susanna

    2015-08-01

    The advantage of the new generation IV iron preparations ferric carboxymaltose (FCM), ferumoxytol (FMX), and iron isomaltoside 1000 (IIM) is that they can be administered in relatively high doses in a short period of time. We investigated the physico-chemical properties of these preparations and compared them with those of the older preparations iron sucrose (IS), sodium ferric gluconate (SFG), and low molecular weight iron dextran (LMWID). Mössbauer spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Fe K-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy indicated akaganeite structures (β-FeOOH) for the cores of FCM, IIM and IS, and a maghemite (γ-Fe2O3) structure for that of FMX. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies confirmed the structure of the carbohydrate of FMX as a reduced, carboxymethylated, low molecular weight dextran, and that of IIM as a reduced Dextran 1000. Polarography yielded significantly different fingerprints of the investigated compounds. Reductive degradation kinetics of FMX was faster than that of FCM and IIM, which is in contrast to the high stability of FMX towards acid degradation. The labile iron content, i.e. the amount of iron that is only weakly bound in the polynuclear iron core, was assessed by a qualitative test that confirmed decreasing labile iron contents in the order SFG ≈ IS > LMWID ≥ FMX ≈ IIM ≈ FCM. The presented data are a step forward in the characterization of these non-biological complex drugs, which is a prerequisite to understand their cellular uptake mechanisms and the relationship between the structure and physiological safety as well as efficacy of these complexes.

  7. Authentication of vegetable oils on the basis of their physico-chemical properties with the aid of chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guowen; Ni, Yongnian; Churchill, Jane; Kokot, Serge

    2006-09-15

    In food production, reliable analytical methods for confirmation of purity or degree of spoilage are required by growers, food quality assessors, processors, and consumers. Seven parameters of physico-chemical properties, such as acid number, colority, density, refractive index, moisture and volatility, saponification value and peroxide value, were measured for quality and adulterated soybean, as well as quality and rancid rapeseed oils. Chemometrics methods were then applied for qualitative and quantitative discrimination and prediction of the oils by methods such exploratory principal component analysis (PCA), partial least squares (PLS), radial basis function-artificial neural networks (RBF-ANN), and multi-criteria decision making methods (MCDM), PROMETHEE and GAIA. In general, the soybean and rapeseed oils were discriminated by PCA, and the two spoilt oils behaved differently with the rancid rapeseed samples exhibiting more object scatter on the PC-scores plot, than the adulterated soybean oil. For the PLS and RBF-ANN prediction methods, suitable training models were devised, which were able to predict satisfactorily the category of the four different oil samples in the verification set. Rank ordering with the use of MCDM models indicated that the oil types can be discriminated on the PROMETHEE II scale. For the first time, it was demonstrated how ranking of oil objects with the use of PROMETHEE and GAIA could be utilized as a versatile indicator of quality performance of products on the basis of a standard selected by the stakeholder. In principle, this approach provides a very flexible method for assessment of product quality directly from the measured data.

  8. An IR and XPS spectroscopy assessment of the physico-chemical surface properties of alumina–YAG nanopowders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spina, Giulia; Bonelli, Barbara, E-mail: barbara.bonelli@polito.it; Palmero, Paola, E-mail: paola.palmero@polito.it; Montanaro, Laura

    2013-12-16

    Well-dispersed nano-crystalline transition alumina suspensions were mixed with yttrium chloride aqueous solutions, with the aim of producing by spray-drying Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}–Y{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12} (YAG) composite powders of increasing YAG vol.%. Two samples were prepared, with different Y content, corresponding to 5 and 20 YAG vol.%, respectively. Both samples were then treated at either 600 or 1150 °C. The obtained powders were characterized by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier Transform Infra Red (FT-IR) spectroscopy and compared to three reference samples: commercial nano-crystalline transition alumina, YAG and Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}. YAG powders were obtained by co-precipitation route whereas Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} powders were yielded by spray-drying of a yttrium chloride aqueous solution. Modification of physico-chemical properties of the surface of alumina nanoparticles were assessed by combining XPS and FT-IR spectroscopies. On the basis of the results obtained, a possible model is proposed for the structure of the obtained composites, in which Y basically reacts with more acidic hydroxyls of alumina, by forming Y-rich surface grains, the extension of which depends on the thermal treatment. - Highlights: • Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}–Y{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12} (YAG) composite nanopowders were prepared by spray drying. • Combined XPS and IR spectroscopy: effective tools to study surface modifications. • Y reacts with more acidic hydroxyls at alumina surface. • Y-rich surface grains form: their extension depends on the thermal treatment.

  9. Physico-chemical, microbial and sensory properties of kunu zaki beverage sweetened with black velvet tamarind (Dialium guineense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Dauda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This work determined the physicochemical, microbial and sensory characteristics of kunu zaki sweetened with black velvet tamarind (Dialium guinnense flour. The outer covering and seed of black velvet was removed while the pulp was pulverized to obtain the flour. The tamarind pulp was analysed for its proximate and sugar contents. Kunu zaki was prepared according to standard method and 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 g of the black velvet pulp was added to 1000 ml each of kunu zaki along with a control sample. The kunu zaki samples were stored at refrigeration temperature (4 ºC for a period of 5 days. The physico-chemical properties (pH, ºbrix, total titratable acidity, color, beta-carotene and vitamin C, microbial load and sensory attributes of the kunu zaki were analysed. The black velvet tamarind pulp had 42.01 g/100 g of total solid. The addition of black velvet tamarind (Dialium guinnense to kunu zaki lowered the pH, thereby improving the keeping quality of the kunu zaki samples. The pH of kunu zaki ranged from 2.69-4.15 while the titratable acidity ranged from 5.44-10.06 %, the beta-carotene and vitamin C content were high with a range of 3.10–36.6 mg/100 g and 4.73–47.25 mg/100 g respectively. The bacterial count ranged from 1-8.8 × 103 cfu/mL and a fungal count of 1-4.9 × 103 cfu/mL. Kunu zaki with 50 g of black velvet tamarind was the most preferred in terms of taste, appearance, aroma and general acceptability.

  10. STUDIES ON THE WATER SOLUBILIZATION PROCESSES OF OENOTANNINS AND THEIR PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gh. Duca

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The results of investigation of oenotannins content in the seeds of different grape varieties are presented in the paper. It was demonstrated that the oenotannins content depends on the grape variety as well as on the geographycal zone of grape cultivation. A new procedure for water sollubilization of oenotannins by depolimerization has been elaborated. The mechanism of the oenotannins depolimerization has been reveiled by mass-spectrometric studies. It has been established, that the depolimerization process brings about formation of carboxilic acids and organic peroxides. The presence of the carboxilic and peroxidic groups was detremined on the basis of IR spectral analysis. It was demonstrated that the antioxidant properties of modified tannins are higher then those of initial unmodified ones.

  11. Agro-waste biosorbents: Effect of physico-chemical properties on atrazine and imidacloprid sorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Abhishek; Singh, Neera; Nain, Lata

    2017-09-02

    Low cost agro-waste biosorbents namely eucalyptus bark (EB), corn cob (CC), bamboo chips (BC), rice straw (RS) and rice husk (RH) were characterized and used to study atrazine and imidacloprid sorption. Adsorption studies suggested that biosorbents greatly varied in their pesticide sorption behaviour. The EB was the best biosorbent to sorb both atrazine and imidacloprid with K F values of 169.9 and 85.71, respectively. The adsorption isotherm were nonlinear in nature with slope (1/n) values imidacloprid sorption parameter [K F .(1/n)] with the physicochemical properties of the biosorbents suggested that atrazine adsorption correlated significantly to the aromaticity, polarity, surface area, fractal dimension, lacunarity and relative C-O band intensity parameters of biosorbents. Probably, both physisorption and electrostatic interactions were responsible for the pesticide sorption. The eucalyptus bark can be exploited as low cost adsorbent for the removal of these pesticides as well as a component of on-farm biopurification systems.

  12. Improvement of Physico-Chemical Properties of Recycled (Elastomers /Thermoplastics) Composites using Ionizing Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, M.Y.E.A.

    2013-01-01

    Recycling of ground tire rubber (GRT) not only solves the waste disposal problem and maintains environmental quality, but also saves the valuable and limited resource of fossil feedstock. The major problem in the recycling of rubber-like materials such as tires is the cross linked molecular structure of already vulcanized rubber, which not only prevents the softening and processing of waste rubber particles but also inhibits binding of the powder surface to the virgin material. Several reclamation methods have proposed to overcome these barriers, which have basically followed two main approaches: (1) the de vulcanization of cured rubber and (2) the surface modifications of waste particles. The de vulcanization of rubber causes the cleavage of crosslinks via chemical treatments, which make used rubber suitable to be reformulated and recurred into new articles. In consequence, this work is mainly aimed to prepare of de vulcanized rubber (DR) and evaluating mechanical, thermal, and morphological properties of the thermoplastic vulcanizations (TPVs) based on de vulcanized rubber blended with polypropylene, EPDM using peroxide under the effect of radiation dose and DR feed ratio. The efficiency of the compounding process has been examined by infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The mechanical and thermal behaviors of the blends composed of de vulcanized rubber (DR) , high crystalline polypropylene (PP) and EPDM in different proportions were studied. Evaluation of the mechanical and thermal properties of the developed blends, unirradiated and gamma irradiated, was carried out using tensile strength (Ts), elongation at break (Eb), hardness, TGA and DSC measurements.

  13. Physico-Chemical Properties and Biodegradability of Genetically Modified Populus trichocarpa and Pinus taeda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmunds, Charles Warren

    Increasing concerns over greenhouse gas emissions and the finite supply of fossil fuels lead to the goal of utilizing lignocellulosic feedstocks for biofuels, platform chemicals, and biocomposites. Lignin is responsible for the recalcitrance of lignocellulosic biomass and is a major barrier to its deconstruction. Great progress has been made in mapping and modifying the lignin biosynthetic pathway. However, the link between the genetic modification, resulting chemical and physical properties of the wood, and how these properties influence the thermomechanical and recalcitrance to biological and chemical degradation needs further investigation. In this dissertation, the study of modified Populus trichocarpa and Pinus taeda were utilized to accomplish this goal. Thermo-mechanical properties of genetically modified P. trichocarpa with altered lignin content and/or lignin structure were measured with a series of tools including; dynamic mechanical analysis, nuclear magnetic resonance, and wet chemistry techniques. Results demonstrated lignin content and lignin structure likely influence the glass transition temperature (Tg), and that decreased lignin content and the corresponding higher proportion of cell wall carbohydrates may contribute to increased molecular mobility in the wood polymer structure. The effect of lignin biosynthetic pathway modification on biological degradation of these transgenic wood specimens was of interest. However, experimental methods for fungal treatment on small young greenhouse-grown wood specimens are not well established. Therefore, a project was undertaken to develop a method for fungal inoculation and incubation for these unique specimens. Several parameters were tested, and a fungal treatment method was identified with sufficient weight loss after decay and significant reduction in variation of weight loss between replicates compared to previous experiments by direct inoculation of wood with liquid malt extract fungal culture

  14. The influence of the addition of polymers on the physico-chemical properties of bentonite suspensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojiljkovic S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bentonite clays have many applications in industries ranging from construction to cosmetics. Addition of polymers can profoundly influence the properties of bentonite suspensions and we now describe the influence of a range of different polymers. Whereas polyvinyl pyrolidone and soy isolate only slightly influenced the pH and the electrical conductivity of bentonite polymers in suspension, Carbopol solution caused decreases in both pH and electrical conductivity. As expected, strong electrolytes like sodium chloride caused big changes in the electrical conductivity of the suspensions. When the temperature of the bentonite suspensions was increased, the pH was almost unchanged, but the electrical conductivity increased. Bentonite treated with polymer suspensions can be used in purifying polluted water; for example, our results suggest that high pH caused by phosphorous salts can be addressed using bentonite modified with Carbopol. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije: Stanisa Stojiljkovic, Vojkan Miljkovic, Goran Nikolic, Ivana Savic and Ivan Savic, TR 34020, Danijela Kostic 172047 and Biljana Arsic 174007

  15. Physico-Chemical Properties and Phase Behaviour of Pyrrolidinium-Based Ionic Liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urszula Domańska

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A review of the relevant literature on 1-alkyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium-based ionic liquids has been presented. The phase diagrams for the binary systems of {1-ethyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium trifluoromethanesulfonate (triflate [EMPYR][CF3SO3] + water, or + 1-butanol} and for the binary systems of {1-propyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium trifluoromethanesulfonate (triflate [PMPYR][CF3SO3] + water, or + an alcohol (1-butanol, 1-hexanol, 1-octanol, 1-decanol} have been determined at atmospheric pressure using a dynamic method. The influence of alcohol chain length was discussed for the [PMPYR][CF3SO3]. A systematic decrease in the solubility was observed with an increase of the alkyl chain length of an alcohol. (Solid + liquid phase equilibria with complete miscibility in the liquid phase region were observed for the systems involving water and alcohols. The solubility of the ionic liquid increases as the alkyl chain length on the pyrrolidinium cation increases. The correlation of the experimental data has been carried out using the Wilson, UNIQUAC and the NRTL equations. The phase diagrams reported here have been compared to the systems published earlier with the 1-alkyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium-based ionic liquids. The influence of the cation and anion on the phase behaviour has been discussed. The basic thermal properties of pure ILs, i.e., melting temperature and the enthalpy of fusion, the solid-solid phase transition temperature and enthalpy have been measured using a differential scanning microcalorimetry technique.

  16. Physico-Chemical Properties of Personal Care Products Containing Guava Scrub Granules as Exfoliating Agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahariah Ismail; Mohd Fadlly Jumadi; Nurdiyana Mohamed Johari

    2015-01-01

    Treated guava scrub granules (GSG) as an exfoliating agent were obtained from the decanter waste at Sime Darby Food and Beverages, Sungai Wangi, Perak (SDFB). The treated GSG and tocotrienol were the main active ingredients incorporated in a basic formulation containing 87 % palm-based derivatives. Guava body scrub (GBS) and guava facial scrub (GFS) lotions were developed at skin pH 5.5 and pH 5.6 respectively. Both products were found to be stable for three years due to the liquid crystalline structure in the emulsion system , having small particle size (490 nm and 880 nm) and high zeta potential values (-54 mv and -39 mv). The rheological properties showed that the GBS lotion had a viscosity at 900 Pas and a yield value at 98 Pa, whereas the GFS lotion 60 Pas and 6 Pa viscosity and yield values respectively. The formulations were designed to be soft and flowable, with the firmness force indicated at 111 g and 66 g for GBS lotion and GFS lotion respectively. Efficacy testing on 20 healthy subjects showed a significant decrease of 21 % and 22 % in skin sebum removal for GBS lotion and GFS lotion respectively. (author)

  17. Some physico-chemical properties of Prunus armeniaca L. gum exudates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathi, Morteza; Mohebbi, Mohebbat; Koocheki, Arash

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this paper were to investigate some physicochemical properties of Prunus armeniaca L. gum exudates (PAGE). PAGE had, on average, 66.89% carbohydrate, 10.47% uronic acids, 6.9% moisture (w.b.), 2.91% protein, 4% ash and 1.59% fat. PAGE was composed of monosaccharides including l-arabinose, d-galactose, xylose, mannose and rhamnose in molar percentages of 41.52%, 23.72%, 17.82%, 14.40% and 2.54%, respectively. Elemental analysis showed that PAGE had high values of nutrients. FTIR analysis demonstrated the presence of carboxyl, hydroxyl and methyl groups and glycoside bonds. The weight average molecular weight, number average molecular weight and polydispersity index were found to be approximately 5.69 × 10(5)g/mol, 4.33 g/mol and 1.31, respectively. Rheological measurement of PAGE solutions as a function of concentration (8, 10 and 12% (w/w)) and temperature (10, 20, 30 and 40°C) demonstrated that the gum solutions had a non Newtonian shear thinning behaviour. Intrinsic viscosity for PAGE in deionized water was 3.438 dl/g based on Kramer equation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Comparative study of physico-chemical properties of MTA-based and Portland cements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Alvaro H; Pedro, Fábio L M; Miranda, Carlos E S; Semenoff-Segundo, Alex; Pécora, Jesus D; Filho, Antônio M Cruz

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the physicochemical properties of gray and white structural and nonstructural Portland cement, gray and white ProRoot MTA and MTA BIO. The water/powder ratio, setting time, solubility and pH (hydrogen-ion potential) changes of the materials were evaluated. Tests followed specification #57 from the American National Standard Institute/American Dental Association (2000) for endodontic sealing materials and pH was determined by a digital pH meter. The test results were statistically analyzed by variance analyses for global comparison and by the complementary Tukey's test for pairwise comparisons (5%). Considering the water/powder ratio, no significant difference (p > 0.05) was observed among the cements. MTA BIO (33.10 +/- 2.30) had the lowest setting time (p Portland cement (2.55 +/- 0.08) had the highest solubility (p 0.05) was observed among materials when considering pH evaluation. The pH levels were highly alkaline immediately after immersion in solution, remaining stable throughout the test period. The authors conclude that the cements had similar water/powder proportions. MTA BIO had the shortest setting time and gray ProRoot MTA had the lowest solubility. All cements had similar behavior in the pH analysis.

  19. Preparation and physico-chemical properties of hydrogels from carboxymethyl cassava starch crosslinked with citric acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonkham, Sasikan; Sangseethong, Kunruedee; Chatakanon, Pathama; Niamnuy, Chalida; Nakasaki, Kiyohiko; Sriroth, Klanarong

    2014-06-01

    Recently, environmentally friendly hydrogels prepared from renewable bio-based resources have drawn significant attention from both industrial and academic sectors. In this study, chemically crosslinked hydrogels have been developed from cassava starch which is a bio-based polymer using a non-toxic citric acid as a crosslinking agent. Cassava starch was first modified by carboxymethylation to improve its water absorbency property. The carboxymethyl cassava starch (CMCS) obtained was then crosslinked with citric acid at different concentrations and reaction times. The gel fraction of hydrogels increased progressively with increasing citric acid concentration. Free swelling capacity of hydrogels in de-ionized water, saline solution and buffers at various pHs as well as absorption under load were investigated. The results revealed that swelling behavior and mechanical characteristic of hydrogels depended on the citric acid concentration used in reaction. Increasing citric acid concentration resulted in hydrogels with stronger network but lower swelling and absorption capacity. The cassava starch hydrogels developed were sensitive to ionic strength and pH of surrounding medium, showing much reduced swelling capacity in saline salt solution and acidic buffers.

  20. Changes in the physico-chemical properties of four lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. varieties during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Vargas-Arcila

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Lettuce, a popularly consumed leafy vegetable, is well known for its health and nutritional value. Thus, the current study focused on the qualitative changes of four lettuce varieties, namely Alpha, Parris Island, Graziella and Lollo Rossa, stored at 5.5 ºC and 90 % RH for 12 days. The analyzed parameters were water content, total soluble solids (TSS, titrable acidity (TA, vitamin C, total phenols, polyphenoloxidase (PPO, color and texture. Under storage conditions, the studied varieties exhibited different rates of water loss. TSS was found to increase until day 8 of storage, which is also when TA differences were observed. The Graziella variety showed the highest vitamin C levels. Total phenol content decreased significantly during the 12 days of storage. No significant PPO activity changes were found, except for those of the Lollo Rossa variety. Biplot analysis allowed observing not only positive and negative correlations between coordinates L*, a* and b*, but also the separavtion of the green lettuce varieties from the red one, together with color variations depending on leaf position. Although textural changes were recorded at the end of the study, foliage quality was not altered. In short, the studied parameters, which contribute to lettu-ce direct consumption properties, can be said to be variety-dependent and better preserved under refrigeration.

  1. Distribution and Influence of Iron Phases on the Physico-Chemical Properties of Phyllosilicates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MERVAT SAID HASSAN; SAYED MAHMOUD SALEM

    2002-01-01

    Clay minerals from different Cretaceous stratigraphic successions of Egypt were investigated using XRD, DTA, dissolution analysis (DCB), IR, Mossbauer and X-band Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) spectroscopies. The purity of the samples and the degree of structural order were determined by XRD. The location of Fe in the octahedral sheet is characterized by absorption bands at ~875 cm-1 assigned as Al-OH-Fe which is present after chemical dissolution of free iron. The Mossbauer spectra of these clays show two doublets with isomer shift and quadrupole splitting typical of octahedral coordinated Fe3+, in addition to third doubler with hyperfine parameter typical of Fe2+ in the spectra of Abu-Had kaolinite (H) sample. 6-lines magnetic hyperfine components which are consistent with those of hematite are confirmed in the spectra of both Isel and Rish kaolinite samples. Goethite was confirmed by both IR and DTA. Multiple nature of ESR of these clays suggested structural Fe in distorted octahedral symmetry and as non-structural Fe.Little dispersion and low swelling indices as well as incomplete activation of investigated montmorillonite samples by NaCO3 appear to be due to incomplete disaggregation of montmorillonite particles. This can be explained by the ability of Fe-gel to aggregate the montmorillonite into pseudo-particles and retard the rigid-gel structure. However, extraction of this ferric amorphous compound by dithonite treatment recovers the surface properties of the montmorillonite samples.On the other hand, amounts and site occupation of Fe associated with kaolinite samples show a negative correlation with the parameters used to describe the degree of crystalline perfection, color, brightness and vitrification range of these kaolinite samples.

  2. Distribution and Influence of Iron Phases on the Physico-Chemical Properties of Phyllosilicates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MERVAT SAID HASSAN; SAYED MAHMOUD SALEM

    2001-01-01

    Clay minerals from different Cretaceous stratigraphic successions of Egypt were investigated using XRD, DTA, dissolution analysis (DCB), IR, Mossbauer and X-ray Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) spectroscopes. The purity of the samples and the degree of their structural order were determined by XRD. The location of Fe in the octahedral sheet is characterized by absorption bands at ~875cm-1 assigned as Al-OH-Fe which persist after chemical dissolution of free iron. The Mossbauer spectra of these clays show two doublets with isomer shift and quadrupole splitting typical of octahedrally coordinated Fe3 + , in addition to third doublet with hyperfine parameter typical of Fe2+ in the spectra of Abu-Had kaolinite (H) sample. Six-lines magnetic hyperfine components which are consistent with those of hematite are confirmed in the spectra of both Isel and Rish kaolinite samples. Goethite was confirmed by both IR and DTA. Multiple nature of ESR of these clays suggested structural Fe in distorted octahedral symmetry as well as non-structural Fe.Little dispersion and low swelling indices as well as incomplete activation of the investigated montmorillonite samples by NaCO3 appear to be due to incomplete disaggregation of montmorillonite particles. This can be explained by the ability of Fe-gel to aggregate the montmorillonite into pseudo-particles and retard the rigid-gel structure. However, extraction of this ferric amorphous compound by dithonite treatment recovers the surface properties of the montmorillonite samples.On the other hand, the amount and site occupation of Fe associated with kaolinite samples show an inverse correlation with the parameters used to describe the degree of crystallinity perfection, color, brightness and vitrification range of these kaolinite samples.

  3. Swift heavy ion induced modification in morphological and physico-chemical properties of tin oxide nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaiswal, Manoj Kumar [University School of Basic and Applied Sciences, Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University, New Delhi 110 078 (India); Kanjilal, D. [Inter University Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110 067 (India); Kumar, Rajesh, E-mail: rajeshkumaripu@gmail.com [University School of Basic and Applied Sciences, Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University, New Delhi 110 078 (India)

    2013-11-15

    Nanocomposite thin films of tin oxide (SnO{sub 2})/titanium oxide (TiO{sub 2}) were grown on silicon (1 0 0) substrates by electron beam evaporation deposition technique using sintered nanocomposite pellet of SnO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2} in the percentage ratio of 95:5. Sintering of the nanocomposite pellet was done at 1300 °C for 24 h. The thicknesses of these films were measured to be 100 nm during deposition using piezo-sensor attached to the deposition chamber. TiO{sub 2} doped SnO{sub 2} nanocomposite films were irradiated by 100 MeV Au{sup 8+} ion beam at fluence range varying from 1 × 10{sup 11} ions/cm{sup 2} to 5 × 10{sup 13} ions/cm{sup 2} at Inter University Accelerator Center (IUAC), New Delhi, India. Chemical properties of pristine and ion irradiation modified thin films were characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. FTIR peak at 610 cm{sup −1} confirms the presence of O–Sn–O bridge of tin (IV) oxide signifying the composite nature of pristine and irradiated thin films. Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) in tapping mode was used to study the surface morphology and grain growth due to swift heavy ion irradiation at different fluencies. Grain size calculations obtained from sectional analysis of AFM images were compared with results obtained from Glancing Angle X-ray Diffraction (GAXRD) measurements using Scherrer’s formulae. Phase transformation due to irradiation was observed from Glancing Angle X-ray Diffraction (GAXRD) results. The prominent 2θ peaks observed in GAXRD spectrum are at 30.67°, 32.08°, 43.91°, 44.91° and 52.35° in the irradiated films.

  4. Synthesis and investigation of physico-chemical, antibacterial, biomymetic properties of silver and zinc containing hydroxyapatite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuk, Ilya; Rasskazova, Lyudmila; Korotchenko, Natalia; Kozik, Vladimir; Kurzina, Irina

    2017-11-01

    In the work we carried out microwave synthesis of modified hydroxyapatites (HA) with different content of ions. A solid solution based on HA remains a single-phase sample when the calcium ions are substituted by silver and zinc ions up to 5 % by weight (0.5 mole fraction). The microstructure parameters, morphology and the particle powders size were studied by X-ray diffraction analysis, IR spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It is shown that the modification of HA by silver (AgHA) and zinc (ZnHA) ions increases the size of its particles, the degree of crystallinity, and the pore sizes of the samples while reducing their specific surface and uniformity of their forms. Elemental analysis and distribution of elements over the surface of HA, AgHA, and ZnHA powders were performed by X-ray spectral microanalysis (RSMA). The ratio of Ca/P is within the range of 1.66-1.77 and corresponds to the ratio of Ca/P in stoichiometric HA and the HA entering bone tissue. The ability of AgHA- and ZnHA-substrates to form on their surface a calcium-phosphate layer from the simulated body fluid (SBF) at 37 °C is determined. This ability decreases in the order: in ZnHA it is less than in AgHA, but greater than in HA. The antibacterial activity of the samples was analyzed. The AgHA sample has both bactericidal and persistent bacteriostatic properties in the case of direct contact with Escherichia coli cells.

  5. Formation and properties of surface-anchored polymer assemblies with tunable physico-chemical characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tao

    We describe two new methodologies leading to the formation of novel surface-anchored polymer assemblies on solid substrates. While the main goal is to understand the fundamentals pertaining to the preparation and properties of the surface-bound polymer assemblies (including neutral and chargeable polymers), several examples also are mentioned throughout the Thesis that point out to practical applications of such structures. The first method is based on generating assemblies comprising anchored polymers with a gradual variation of grafting densities on solid substrates. These structures are prepared by first covering the substrate with a molecular gradient of the polymerization initiator, followed by polymerization from these substrate-bound initiator centers ("grafting from"). We apply this technique to prepare grafting density gradients of poly(acryl amide) (PAAm) and poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) on silica-covered substrates. We show that using the grafting density gradient geometry, the characteristics of surface-anchored polymers in both the low grafting density ("mushroom") regime as well as the high grafting density ("brush") regime can be accessed conveniently on a single sample. We use a battery of experimental methods, including Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Near-edge absorption fine structure spectroscopy (NEXAFS), contact angle, ellipsometry, to study the characteristics of the surface-bound polymer layers. We also probe the scaling laws of neutral polymer as a function of grafting density, and for weak polyelectrolyte, in addition to the grafting density, we study the affect of solution ionic strength and pH values. In the second novel method, which we coined as "mechanically assisted polymer assembly" (MAPA), we form surface anchored polymers by "grafting from" polymerization initiators deposited on elastic surfaces that have been previously extended uniaxially by a certain length increment, Deltax. Upon releasing the strain in the

  6. Physico-chemical properties and solubility behaviour of multi-substituted hydroxyapatite powders containing silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprio, S.; Tampieri, A.; Landi, E.; Sandri, M.; Martorana, S.; Celotti, G.; Logroscino, G.

    2008-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite powders characterized by ionic substitutions both in anionic and cationic sites were successfully prepared by synthesis in aqueous medium. The process parameters were set up to allow the simultaneous substitution of the foreign ions, namely carbonate, magnesium and silicon in the crystallographic site of calcium and phosphorus, keeping in count the competition which arises between atoms destined to occupy the same crystallographic site. The chemico-physical properties of the powders were investigated through several analytical techniques, i.e. X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, atomic emission spectroscopy and thermo-gravimetric analysis. The results show that the utilization of sodium hydrogen-carbonate as a reactant allows the entering of carbonate into the HA structure, mainly in phosphate position, while sodium is eliminated during the process of the powder washing. The entering of silicon in the HA structure progressively reduces its crystallinity, as also carbonate ions do. Silicate and carbonate ions can enter simultaneously into the HA structure, in biological-like amounts, although they compete for the occupation of the phosphate site; the powder crystallinity is strongly reduced as the content of the two substituting ions increases, so that a limit molar concentration exists where the apatite structure collapses and an amorphous phase forms with the simultaneous formation of crystalline calcium carbonate. Solubility tests, carried out at physiological conditions, reveal an increased calcium release in the HA powders containing silicon compared to the silicon-free HA; the solubility behaviour of the multi-substituted HA powders at physiological conditions makes these materials promising as bioactive bone scaffold, as they are able to continuously supply ions which are essential for the process of bone reconstruction

  7. Alzheimer's disease against peptides products of enzymatic cleavage APP protein: Biological, pathobiological and physico-chemical properties of fibrillating peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marszałek, Małgorzata

    2017-05-17

    Various peptides products of enzymatic cleavage of key for Alzheimer's disease Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) are well known, but still are matter of scientific debate. The Aβ type products are especially challenging for experimental and medical research. This paper outlines several, still poorly known, biological and medical processes such as peptides biology, i.e., formation, biodistribution, translocation, transport and finally removal from brain compartments and body fluids like Intracellular Fluid (ICF), Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF), Interstitial Fluid (ISF), blood serum or urine. In addition, the following studies concerning AD patients might prove challenging and simultaneously promising: peptides translocation through Blood-Brain - Barrier (BBB) and Blood-Cerebrospinal Fluid Barrier (BCSFB) and their removal from the brain according to a new concept of glymphatic system; - diagnostic difficulties that stem from physico-chemical properties and the nature of proteins or fibrillating peptides itself like low concentration, short half-live and from experimental-technical problems as well like high adsorption or low solubility of Aβ, tau or amylin. The study of diagnostic parameters is very important, as it may better reflect early changes before the disease develops; one such parameter is the Aβ42/Aβ40 ratio, or the ratio with the total tau concentration combination and other new biomarkers like Aβ1-38; other factors include oxidative stress and inflammation process proteins, complement factor H, alpha-2-macroglobulin, or clusterin. The study of various forms of pathological amyloid deposits that emerge in different but specific brain regions AD patients seems to be crucial as well. The composition of the first initial pathological, pre-fibrillating monomers of fibrillating peptides and their role in AD development and disease progression have been described as well. They are even more challenging for science and simultaneously might be more promising in

  8. Physico-chemical protection, rather than biochemical composition, governs the responses of soil organic carbon decomposition to nitrogen addition in a temperate agroecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Wenbing; Wang, Guoan; Huang, Caihong; Gao, Rutai; Xi, Beidou; Zhu, Biao

    2017-11-15

    The heterogeneous responses of soil organic carbon (SOC) decomposition in different soil fractions to nitrogen (N) addition remain elusive. In this study, turnover rates of SOC in different aggregate fractions were quantified based on changes in δ 13 C following the conversion of C 3 to C 4 vegetation in a temperate agroecosystem. The turnover of both total organic matter and specific organic compound classes within each aggregate fraction was inhibited by N addition. Moreover, the intensity of inhibition increases with decreasing aggregate size and increasing N addition level, but does not vary among chemical compound classes within each aggregate fraction. Overall, the response of SOC decomposition to N addition is dependent on the physico-chemical protection of SOC by aggregates and minerals, rather than the biochemical composition of organic substrates. The results of this study could help to understand the fate of SOC in the context of increasing N deposition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Influence of lanthanium atoms on the physico-chemical properties of GeS0,5Se0,5 solid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murguzov, M.I.; Alakbarov, A.S.; Bayramov, R.B.

    2010-01-01

    By the methods of physical-chemical analysis (DTA, X-ray, MSA, as well as measurement of microhardness and density determination) the influence of La on the physico-chemical properties of solid solutions (GeS 0 ,5Se 0 ,5) 1 -x(La) x was studied and its microdiagram was plotted. At room temperature the GeS 0 ,5Se 0 ,5 based solid solid solution extent to 4 at. percent La. The dependence of lanthane microhardness was studied

  10. Physico-chemical, sensory and microbiological qualities of yoghurt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to evaluate the physico-chemical, sensory and microbiological qualities of some yoghurt brands sold in Kano Metropolis using standard procedures. The physico-chemical characteristics (viscosity, specific gravity, pH, titratable acidity, fat content) and Sensory properties (color, flavor, smell) were ...

  11. Evaluation of physico-chemical and antioxidant properties in different varieties of banana (musa acuminata), indigenous to pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azizuddin, A.; Ghafoor, S.; Mahmood, T.

    2014-01-01

    The antioxidant capacity, phenolic and flavonoid contents, and physico-chemical analysis on the pulp of three different varieties of Musa acuminata, were studied namely Cavendish basrai, Grand naine and Plantain, collected from Gharo, Adam Khas Kheli Road near Karachi (Pakistan). DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging, reducing power (RPA) and phosphomolybdenum assays were used for determination of their antioxidant capacity. Cavendish basrai characterized the highest antioxidant capacity among three varieties, DPPH (82.46 % inhibition at 0.1 mM conc.), RPA (43.59 mg/100 g) and phosphomolybdenum (38.90 mg/100 g) in methanolic extract and DPPH (67.27 % inhibition at 0.1 mM conc.), RPA (27.03 mg/100 g) and phosphomolybdenum (24.27 mg/100 g) in water extract. The phenolic (83.04 mg/100 g, 19.50 mg/100 g) and flavonoid contents (11.66 mg/100 g, 4.77 mg/100 g) were also high in Cavendish basrai in methanolic and water extracts, respectively showed the direct relation of antioxidant capacity to the phenolic and flavonoid contents, and the DPPH assay revealed more power full assay for determination of antioxidant capacity among these assays. In correlation with antioxidant capacity, Plantain showed comparatively high physico-chemical characteristics revealed high nutritional contents such as total dry matter, total sugar contents, TSS, titratable acidity and % NaCl. (author)

  12. Suitability of E-tongue Sensors to Assess Taste-Masking of Pediatric Liquids by Different Beverages Considering Their Physico-chemical Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immohr, Laura Isabell; Hedfeld, Claas; Lang, Artur; Pein-Hackelbusch, Miriam

    2017-02-01

    Manipulation of liquid oral drugs by mixing them into foodstuff is a common procedure for taste-masking of OTC pharmaceuticals when administered to children. However, the taste-masking capability of such application media is not systematically evaluated, and recommendations for suitable media are hardly published. In this study, a sensor array of commercially available and self-developed electronic tongue sensors was employed to assess the taste-masking efficiency of eight different beverages (tap water, apple juice, carrot juice, fennel tea, fruit tea, milk, cocoa, and Alete meal to drink) on the OTC pharmaceuticals Ambroxol-ratiopharm®, Cetirizin AL, and Laxoberal® by multivariate data analysis. The Euclidean distances between each pure application medium and its corresponding drug mixture were used as an indicator for the taste-masking efficiency and correlated to the physico-chemical properties of the beverages. Thus, the pH value, the viscosity, as well as the fat and sugar content of the beverages were included, whereas only the viscosity appeared to be insignificant in all cases. The sugar content as well as the fat content and pH value emerged to be a significant variable in taste-masking efficiency for some of the tested drug products. It was shown that the applied electronic tongue sensors were capable to demonstrate the impact of the physico-chemical properties of the application media on their taste-masking capacity regardless of their non-selectivity towards these characteristics.

  13. In vitro Starch Hydrolysis Rate, Physico-chemical Properties and Sensory Evaluation of Butter Cake Prepared Using Resistant Starch Type III Substituted for Wheat Flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pongjanta, J; Utaipattanaceep, A; Naivikul, O; Piyachomkwan, K

    2008-09-01

    Resistant starch type III (RS III) derived from enzymatically debranched high amylose rice starch was prepared and used to make butter cake at different levels (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20%) in place of wheat flour. Physico-chemical properties, sensory evaluation, and in vitro starch hydrolysis rate of the developed butter cake were investigated. This study showed that the content of resistant starch in butter cake increased significantly (Pcake with RS III replacement had a significantly lower in vitro starch hydrolysis rate compared to the control cake (0% RS III). The rates of starch hydrolysis from 0 to 180 min digestion time for 0, 5, 10 15, and 20% RS III in place of wheat flour in butter cakes were 3.70 to 67.65%, 2.97 to 64.86%, 2.86 to 59.99%, 2.79 to 55.96 and 2.78 to 53.04% respectively. The physico-chemical properties of 5 to 10% RS III substituted with wheat flour in the butter cake were not significantly different from the control cake and were moderately accepted by panellists in the sensory evaluation test.

  14. Influence of type of amphora on physico-chemical properties and antioxidant capacity of 'Falanghina' white wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baiano, Antonietta; Varva, Gabriella; De Gianni, Antonio; Viggiani, Ilaria; Terracone, Carmela; Del Nobile, Matteo Alessandro

    2014-03-01

    The present research was aimed to evaluate the effects of ageing and type of container on physico-chemical indices and on antioxidant compounds of 'Falanghina' wines. Wines were stored for 12months in raw, glazed, and engobe amphorae, and in stainless steel tanks. Lactic, acetic, citric, succinic, and hydroxycinnamoyl tartaric acids, and the antioxidant capacity (DPPH assay) were not affected by the type of container for the duration of the ageing. Flavonoids decreased by about 85% in all the containers. The concentrations of flavans reactive with vanilline were reduced by 100% in raw and glazed amphorae, 23% in engobe amphorae, and 59% in stainless steel tanks. The hydroxycinnamoyl tartaric acids decreased by about 11% in raw and engobe amphorae and by ∼22% in glazed amphorae and in stainless steel tanks. During the whole ageing time, the decrease of the antioxidant capacity ranged from 28% (raw amphorae) to 43% (stainless steel tanks). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluation of Physico-Chemical and Fungal Species Associated with Oil Contaminated Soil from Selected Automobile Garage in Sokoto Metropolis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Muhammad Maishanu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted with a view to evaluating the physicochemical and mycological properties of different oil contaminated soils collected from three different automobile garages in Sokoto Metropolis, and uncontaminated soil from the temporary site, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto (UDUS was used as the control. The pH was determined using pH meter model Hanna (H1991301, quantity of mineral elements was evaluated in accordance with Murphy and Fungi were isolated from the three oil contaminated samples (A, B. and C and the uncontaminated (sample D as control, this was done by standard procedure using the method of P. Ren, T. Jankun & B. Leaderer. The physical, chemical, and mineral elements from the oil-contaminated soils of the three automobile garages and control. The results of particle soil analysis revealed the high content of sandy soil (96.2 to 87.3 and silt is the lowest with (2.5–0.6. Magnesium had the highest concentration of studied minerals, ranging from 193 to 649.2 mg/kg. while PH result revealed that the soil samples were pH value ranged from (16.85–16.20 in oil Contaminated samples, while the control had 15.90, and electrical conductivity ranged from 12.8–13.8 % and 28 % in control, four fungal isolates Aspergillus sp., Penicillum sp., Mucor sp. and Sporobolomyces sp. were identified based on colonial, sexual and morphological characteristics. These fungal strains can be used in bioremediation process and oil pollution reduction in aquatic ecosystems.

  16. Effect of gamma and electron beam irradiation on the physico-chemical and nutritional properties of mushrooms: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Ângela; Antonio, Amilcar L; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P; Martins, Anabela; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2012-11-15

    The short shelf-life of mushrooms is an obstacle to the distribution and marketing of the fresh product. Thus, prolonging postharvest storage, while preserving their quality, would benefit the mushroom industry as well as consumers. There has been extensive research on finding the most appropriate technology for mushrooms preservation. Gamma, electron-beam and UV irradiation have been shown to be potential tools in extending the postharvest shelf-life of fresh mushrooms. Studies evaluating the effects of ionizing radiation are available mainly in cultivated species such as Agaricus bisporus, Lentinus edodes and Pleurotus ostreatus. This review comprises a comprehensive study of the effects of irradiation on physico-chemical parameters (weight, colour, texture and pH), chemical compounds including nutrients (proteins, sugars and vitamins) and non-nutrients (phenolics, flavonoids and flavour compounds), and on biochemical parameters such as enzymatic activity of mushrooms for different species and from different regions of the world. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Do Nanoparticle Physico-Chemical Properties and Developmental Exposure Window Influence Nano ZnO Embryotoxicity in Xenopus laevis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Bonfanti

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The growing global production of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs suggests a realistic increase in the environmental exposure to such a nanomaterial, making the knowledge of its biological reactivity and its safe-by-design synthesis mandatory. In this study, the embryotoxicity of ZnONPs (1–100 mg/L specifically synthesized for industrial purposes with different sizes, shapes (round, rod and surface coatings (PEG, PVP was tested using the frog embryo teratogenesis assay-Xenopus (FETAX to identify potential target tissues and the most sensitive developmental stages. The ZnONPs did not cause embryolethality, but induced a high incidence of malformations, in particular misfolded gut and abdominal edema. Smaller, round NPs were more effective than the bigger, rod ones, and PEGylation determined a reduction in embryotoxicity. Ingestion appeared to be the most relevant exposure route. Only the embryos exposed from the stomodeum opening showed anatomical and histological lesions to the intestine, mainly referable to a swelling of paracellular spaces among enterocytes. In conclusion, ZnONPs differing in shape and surface coating displayed similar toxicity in X. laevis embryos and shared the same target organ. Nevertheless, we cannot exclude that the physico-chemical characteristics may influence the severity of such effects. Further research efforts are mandatory to ensure the synthesis of safer nano-ZnO-containing products.

  18. Effect of extrusion conditions on the physico-chemical properties and in vitro protein digestibility of canola meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Liu, Guo; Ying, Danyang; Sanguansri, Luz; Augustin, Mary Ann

    2017-10-01

    Canola meal has potential as a high protein food ingredient. The extrusion-induced changes in color, pH, extractable protein and in vitro protein digestibility of canola meal under different extrusion conditions was assessed. The extrusion barrel moisture (24%, 30% or 36%) and screw kneading block length (0, 30 or 60mm) were used as independent process parameters. Extrusion at high barrel moisture (36%) favored protein aggregation resulting in lower extractable protein compared to extrusion at the lowest barrel moisture (24%). At lower barrel moisture contents (24% and 30%), a longer kneading block length increased extractable protein but this was not the case at 36% barrel moisture. Canola protein digestibility was improved upon extrusion at 30% barrel moisture but there was no significant change at lower (24%) or higher (36%) barrel moisture. The kneading block length of the screw had no significant effect on the canola protein digestibility within the same barrel moisture level. The relationship between the physico-chemical parameters and in vitro digestibility was examined. This study highlighted the complex interplay of extrusion processing variables that affect protein degradation and the interaction of components, with consequent effects on protein digestibility. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Chronic exposure to uranium compounds: medical surveillance problems related to their physico-chemical properties and their solubility: actual data and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ansoborlo, E.; Chalabreysse, J.C.

    1988-01-01

    A method was developped to assess uranium exposure hazards at work stations based on industrial experience acquired in Comurhex Malvesi at Narbonne. Applied to uranium tetrafluoride (UF4), the method involves five steps: 1/ Characterization of the industrial compound, including physico-chemical properties (density, surface area, X-ray spectrum and uranium enrichment). 2/ In vitro biological solubility with different synthetic fluids like Gamble solution added with differents gaz or compounds (Oxygen or hydrogen peroxyde), in order to determine the solubility class D, W or Y. 3/ Assessment of work station concentration in Bq m -3 and particle size distribution (AMAD). 4/ Monitoring workers by routine urinary excretion completed, if necessary, by fecal excretion and γ spectrometry. 5/ Use of individual protection filters or masks. Results and actual data on UF4 are presented and future prospects of studies on calcinated uranates are dealed with [fr

  20. Poly(lactide-co-glycolide) nanocapsules containing benzocaine: influence of the composition of the oily nucleus on physico-chemical properties and anesthetic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Melo, Nathalie Ferreira Silva; Grillo, Renato; Guilherme, Viviane Aparecida; de Araujo, Daniele Ribeiro; de Paula, Eneida; Rosa, André Henrique; Fraceto, Leonardo Fernandes

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the influence of the oily nucleus composition on physico-chemical properties and anesthetic activity of poly (lactide-co-glycolide) nanocapsules with benzocaine. Nanocapsules containing benzocaine were prepared with three different oily nucleus composition and characterized by mean diameter, polydispersivity, zeta potential, pH and stability were investigated as a function of time. In vitro release kinetics were performed in a system with two compartments separated by a cellulose membrane. Intensity and duration of analgesia were evaluated in rats by sciatic nerve blockade. The greatest stability, slower release profile and improvement in the local anesthetic activity of BZC were obtained with the formulation using USP mineral oil as component. Results from our study provide useful perspectives on selection of the primary materials needed to produce suspensions of polymeric nanocapsules able to act as carriers of BZC, with potential future application in the treatment of pain.

  1. Effects of the addition of blood plasma proteins on physico-chemical properties of emulsion-type pork sausage during cold storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sungho; Jin, Sangkeun; Choi, Jungseok

    2017-10-01

    Most slaughter blood is discarded, resulting in problems related to costs for wastewater disposal and environmental pollution. However, animal blood contains various proteins such as albumin, globulin and globin and can be used as a natural emulsifier, stabiliser and colour additive. Thus, this study was carried out to investigate the effect of blood plasma proteins on the physico-chemical properties of emulsion-type pork sausages stored at 4°C over 5 weeks. The emulsion-type pork sausages with plasma powders had higher pH than the other treatments during week 5, and higher shear force than the control (P binder for the production of excellent meat products compared to other binders. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Physico-chemical characteristics of Anopheles breeding sites ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ELO

    analysis of the physicochemical parameters of the water samples was carried out in the Nigerian ... Key words: Malaria, Anopheles mosquitoes, breeding habitat, physico-chemical properties. ... Anopheles mosquito has been found to breed in.

  3. Physico-chemical and toxicological studies on Afzelia africana seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-03-29

    Mar 29, 2010 ... Table 2. Physico-chemical characteristics of Afzelia africana seed oil*. Property .... The moisture level of the seeds of A. africana is low resulting in low acid .... Keay RWJ, Onochie CFA, Stanfield DP (1964). Nigerian Trees, 2.

  4. Assessing electronic cigarette emissions: linking physico-chemical properties to product brand, e-liquid flavoring additives, operational voltage and user puffing patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jiayuan; Nelson, Jordan; Dada, Oluwabunmi; Pyrgiotakis, Georgios; Kavouras, Ilias G; Demokritou, Philip

    2018-02-01

    Users of electronic cigarettes (e-cigs) are exposed to particles and other gaseous pollutants. However, major knowledge gaps on the physico-chemical properties of such exposures and contradictory data in published literature prohibit health risk assessment. Here, the effects of product brand, type, e-liquid flavoring additives, operational voltage, and user puffing patterns on emissions were systematically assessed using a recently developed, versatile, e-cig exposure generation platform and state-of-the-art analytical methods. Parameters of interest in this systematic evaluation included two brands (A and B), three flavors (tobacco, menthol, and fruit), three types of e-cigs (disposable, pre-filled, and refillable tanks), two puffing protocols (4 and 2 s/puff), and four operational voltages (2.2-5.7 V). Particles were generated at a high number concentration (10 6 -10 7 particles/cm 3 ). The particle size distribution was bi-modal (∼200 nm and 1 µm). Furthermore, organic species (humectants propylene glycol and glycerin, nicotine) that were present in e-liquid and trace metals (potassium and sodium) that were present on e-cig heating coil were also released into the emission. In addition, combustion-related byproducts, such as benzene and toluene, were also detected in the range of 100-38,000 ppbv/puff. Parametric analyzes performed in this study show the importance of e-cig brand, type, flavor additives, user puffing pattern (duration and frequency), and voltage on physico-chemical properties of emissions. This observed influence is indicative of the complexity associated with the toxicological screening of emissions from e-cigs and needs to be taken into consideration.

  5. Growth and physico-chemical properties of interconnected carbon nanotubes in FeSBA-15 mesoporous molecular sieves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulka Suryavanshi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes (CNTs with well-defined hollow interiors, and different morphologies have been grown inside the nanochannels of iron substituted SBA-15 (Santa Barbara Amorphous with different iron contents and well-ordered large mesopores by chemical vapour deposition method. This novel method requires only 3 min for the formation of high quality multiwalled CNTs inside the SBA-15. The physico-chemical characteristics of the prepared CNT/Fe-SBA-15 nanocomposite have been analysed with powder X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, Raman spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA. XRD, Raman spectroscopy and TGA results confirm that the formed CNTs in SBA-15 nanochannels are highly pure and graphitic in nature, which can be altered by tuning the Fe content in the support matrix. SEM images show the interconnected network of SBA-15/CNT where CNT bridges the neighbouring SBA-15 nanoparticles. Interestingly, spring like CNTs and multi-terminal junctions such as Y and H junctions were also observed. The morphology of the CNTs inside the nanochannels of the SBA-15 support can also be controlled by the simple adjustment of the iron content in the SBA-15 framework. It has also been found that the content of Fe in the silica framework of SBA-15 plays a significant role in the formation of the CNTs and the amount of deposited CNTs in the nanochannels of SBA-15 increased with increasing the concentration of iron in framework. Among the materials studied, the FeSBA-15 with the nSi/nFe ratio of 2 showed the highest catalytic activity towards the formation of high quality CNTs.

  6. Oxidative Stability and Physico-chemical Properties of Meat from Broilers Fed with Dietary Neem Leaf Powder, Spirulina and their Combination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi KILLI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This 6 week study was conducted to evaluate the antioxidant potential, maintaining quality and sensory properties of broiler meat from birds fed on dietary neem leaf powder (NLP. A total of 90 Vencobb broiler chicks were randomly allotted to 6 groups of 15 birds in each. Dietary treatments consisted of normal diet (control Group I, feed containing terramycin-200 (TM-200* at the concentration of 0.05% (Group II, feed containing NLP of 0.2% (Group III, feed containing NLP of 0.2% and spirulina of 1% (Group IV, feed containing TM-200 at 0.05% and spirulina of 1% (Group V and feed containing spirulina of 1% (Group VI. At the end of the experiment liver, kidney and muscle samples were collected to evaluate the tissue peroxidation (TBARS and protein carbonyls and antioxidant markers (SOD. Physico-chemical quality determinants of both fresh and preserved meat viz. extract release volume (ERV, water holding capacity (WHC and pH were also studied. TBARS protein carbonyls indicated a significant (P < 0.05 decrease in all the treated groups when compared to control. Superoxide dismutase levels were found to be significantly increased in all the treated groups, in all the tissues collected. Compared to control group, favorable physico-chemical quality determinants were recorded in all the treated groups. The sensory attributes did not show significant (P < 0.05 differences for color, flavor, juiciness, tenderness and overall acceptability. This study indicates enhanced stress tolerance levels, improved meat quality with unaffected consumer acceptance levels of the meat observed in the study, from broilers fed with neem and spirulina either alone or in combinationsș this points out that neem at 0.2% level can be used in poultry diets instead of antibiotic growth promoters (AGP.

  7. Tectonic uplift and denudation rate influence soil chemical weathering intensity in a semi-arid environment, southeast Spain: physico-chemical and mineralogical evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameijeiras-Mariño, Yolanda; Opfergelt, Sophie; Schoonejans, Jérôme; Vanacker, Veerle; Sonnet, Philippe; Delmelle, Pierre

    2015-04-01

    quartz. Soil weathering intensity in each catchment was assessed previously [1] using three independent weathering indices: the Total Reserve in Bases (TRB = [Ca2+] + [Na+] + [K+] + [Mg2+]), soil Fed/Fet ratio (Fe-oxides/total Fe), and Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC). In agreement with the soil mineralogy, the physico-chemical analyses revealed increasing weathering intensity from CAB to EST. We postulate that the higher chemical weathering intensity in EST reflects lower denudation and uplift rates compared to CAB and therefore, soil chemical weathering intensity in this semi-arid environment may be controlled by denudation and uplift rates [1] Ameijeiras-Mariño et al, EGU 2014-9714-1

  8. Impact of watering with UV-LED-treated wastewater on microbial and physico-chemical parameters of soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevremont, A-C; Boudenne, J-L; Coulomb, B; Farnet, A-M

    2013-04-15

    Advanced oxidation processes based on UV radiations have been shown to be a promising wastewater disinfection technology. The UV-LED system involves innovative materials and could be an advantageous alternative to mercury-vapor lamps. The use of the UV-LED system results in good water quality meeting the legislative requirements relating to wastewater reuse for irrigation. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of watering with UV-LED treated wastewaters (UV-LED WW) on soil parameters. Solid-state ¹³C NMR shows that watering with UV-LED WW do not change the chemical composition of soil organic matter compared to soil watered with potable water. Regarding microbiological parameters, laccase, cellulase, protease and urease activities increase in soils watered with UV-LED WW which means that organic matter brought by the effluent is actively degraded by soil microorganisms. The functional diversity of soil microorganisms is not affected by watering with UV-LED WW when it is altered by 4 and 8 months of watering with wastewater (WW). After 12 months, functional diversity is similar regardless of the water used for watering. The persistence of faecal indicator bacteria (coliform and enterococci) was also determined and watering with UV-LED WW does not increase their number nor their diversity unlike soils irrigated with activated sludge wastewater. The study of watering-soil microcosms with UV-LED WW indicates that this system seems to be a promising alternative to the UV-lamp-treated wastewaters. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. CORRELATION OF POTENTIAL Z AND PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PARAMETERS IN EXTRACTS OF GROUND SATURATION OF THE DR03, VALLEY OF THE MEZQUITAL, HIDALGO, MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Prieto Garcia

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of physico-chemical characterization of soils sustaining crops (8912 ha of the Actopan-Ixmiquilpan zone is realised, which are irrigated with black waters. The physico-chemical characterization was realised by means of established determinations in NOM-021- RECNAT-2000 from the saturation extracts. The potential Z was moderate in these extracts and were correlated with physico-chemical parameters. From the calculated correlations it was possible to be determined that a correlation between physico-chemical properties of grounds like the pH and the potential Z exists (pZ. Also other correspondences between the values of pZ settle down, with the years of applications of the irrigation with black waters in these grounds. These studies provide the bases for later evaluations of probable affectations to the quality of grounds by the extensive use of irrigation with black waters.

  10. Changes in the Treatment of Some Physico-Chemical Properties of Cassava Mill Effluents Using Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izah, Sylvester Chibueze; Bassey, Sunday Etim; Ohimain, Elijah Ige

    2017-10-16

    Cassava is majorly processed into gari by smallholders in Southern Nigeria. During processing, large volume of effluents are produced in the pressing stage of cassava tuber processing. The cassava mill effluents are discharged into the soil directly and it drain into nearby pits, surface water, and canals without treatment. Cassava mill effluents is known to alter the receiving soil and water characteristics and affects the biota in such environments, such as fishes (water), domestic animals, and vegetation (soil). This study investigated the potential of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to be used for the treatment of some physicochemical properties of cassava mill effluents. S. cerevisiae was isolated from palm wine and identified based on conventional microbiological techniques, viz. morphological, cultural, and physiological/biochemical characteristics. The S. cerevisiae was inoculated into sterile cassava mill effluents and incubated for 15 days. Triplicate samples were withdrawn from the setup after the fifth day of treatment. Portable equipment was used to analyze the in-situ parameters, viz. total dissolved solids (TDS), pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), conductivity, salinity, and turbidity. Anions (nitrate, sulphate, and phosphate) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) were analyzed using spectrophotometric and open reflux methods respectively. Results showed a decline of 37.62%, 22.96%, 29.63%, 20.49%, 21.44%, 1.70%, 53.48%, 68.00%, 100%, and 74.48% in pH, conductivity, DO, TDS, salinity, sulphate, nitrate, phosphate, and COD levels respectively, and elevation of 17.17% by turbidity. The study showed that S. cerevisiae could be used for the treatment of cassava mill effluents prior to being discharged into the environment so as to reduce the pollution or contamination and toxicity levels.

  11. Physico-chemical and optical properties of combustion-generated particles from coal-fired power plant, automobile and ship engine and charcoal kiln.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hwajin

    2015-04-01

    Similarities and differences in physico-chemical and optical properties of combustion generated particles from various sources were investigated. Coal-fired power plant, charcoal kiln, automobile and ship engine were major sources, representing combustions of coal, biomass and two different types of diesel, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) equipped with both SEM and HRTEM were used for physico-chemical analysis. Light absorbing properties were assessed using a spectrometer equipped with an integrating sphere. Particles generated from different combustion sources and conditions demonstrate great variability in their morphology, structure and composition. From coal-fired power plant, both fly ash and flue gas were mostly composed of heterogeneously mixed mineral ash spheres, suggesting that the complete combustion was occurred releasing carbonaceous species out at high temperature (1200-1300 °C). Both automobile and ship exhausts from diesel combustions show typical features of soot: concentric circles comprised of closely-packed graphene layers. However, heavy fuel oil (HFO) combusted particles from ship exhaust demonstrate more complex compositions containing different morphology of particles other than soot, e.g., spherical shape of char particles composed of minerals and carbon. Even for the soot aggregates, particles from HFO burning have different chemical compositions; carbon is dominated but Ca (29.8%), S (28.7%), Na(1%), and Mg(1%) are contained, respectively which were not found from particles of automobile emission. This indicates that chemical compositions and burning conditions are significant to determine the fate of particles. Finally, from biomass burning, amorphous and droplet-like carbonaceous particles with no crystallite structure are observed and they are generally formed by the condensation of low volatile species at low

  12. Long term corrosion of iron and non alloy or low alloy steels in clay soils. Physico-chemical characterisation and electrochemical study of archaeological analogues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pons, Emmanuelle

    2002-01-01

    Archaeological objects of Gallo-Roman and Merovingian time, and from a battlefield of World War 1, were studied to better understand long term corrosion phenomena of iron in clay soils. This study is part of the French national program about nuclear waste deep repository, conducted by the ANDRA (French national Agency for Radioactive Waste Management). Iron archaeological analogues make a valuable contribution to the specifying of containers for long lived and high level wastes (HLWs), because they provide access to the considered time scale. The experimental issue is divided into two major parts: - a physico-chemical characterisation of corrosion products, by Raman spectroscopy; - an electrochemical study of the behaviour of the different corrosion layers. Although the metallic material is different between ancient artefacts (ferrite) and 1914-1918 remains (hypo-eutectoid steels), the same stable phases are identified in their corrosion products: mainly iron oxides and oxi-hydroxides. From a macroscopic point of view, these products are staggered into two layers: an internal one, and an external one, which contains soil markers. Under the microscope, a complex composite structure appears. Goethite a-FeOOH, which was identified on each object, is frequently in contact with the metal core. The average corrosion rate in the burial environment, deduced from the layers thickness, highlights a significant slowdown of corrosion after the first burial time, about one century. The electrochemical study showed the predominant role of transport phenomena in the pores of corrosion layers. The behaviour of the metal - internal layer system is well explained by a model of porous electrode (De Levie theory). Despite its porosity, the internal layer is protective, as it leads to a significant decrease of the corrosion rate (about ten time). (author) [fr

  13. Influence of the synthesis parameters on the physico-chemical and catalytic properties of cerium oxide for application in the synthesis of diethyl carbonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leino, Ewelina; Kumar, Narendra; Mäki-Arvela, Päivi; Aho, Atte; Kordás, Krisztián; Leino, Anne-Riikka; Shchukarev, Andrey; Murzin, Dmitry Yu.; Mikkola, Jyri-Pekka

    2013-01-01

    Synthesis of cerium (IV) oxide by means of room temperature precipitation method was carried out. The effect of preparation variables such as synthesis time, calcination temperature and pH of the solution on resulting CeO 2 properties was discussed. Moreover, the comparison of CeO 2 samples prepared in a static and rotation mode of synthesis is presented. The solid catalysts were characterized by means of X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscope, nitrogen physisorption, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy using pyridine as a probe molecule and temperature programmed desorption of CO 2 . Significant variations in physico-chemical properties of CeO 2 by varying the preparation conditions were observed. Furthermore, the catalytic performances of CeO 2 catalysts were compared in the synthesis of diethyl carbonate starting from ethanol and CO 2 using butylene oxide as a dehydrating agent. The dependence of CeO 2 properties on its catalytic activity is evaluated in detail. - Highlights: • Synthesis of cerium (IV) oxide by precipitation method. • Influence of synthesis time, calcination temperature, mode of stirring and solution pH on properties. • Characterization by XRD, SEM, TEM, nitrogen physisorption, XPS, FTIR. • Catalytic performance diethyl carbonate synthesis from ethanol and CO 2

  14. Population dynamics of earthworms in relation to soil physico-chemical parameters in agroforestry systems of Mizoram, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalthanzara, H; Ramanujam, S N; Jha, L K

    2011-09-01

    Earthworm population dynamics was studied in two agroforestry systems in the tropical hilly terrain of Mizoram, north-east India, over a period of 24 months, from July 2002 to June 2004. Two sites of agroforestry situated at Sakawrtuichhun (SKT) and Pachhunga University College (PUC) campus, Aizawl, having pineapple as the main crop, were selected for detail studies on population dynamics. Five of the total twelve species of earthworm reported from the state were recorded in the study sites. The density of earthworm ranged from 6 to 243 ind.m(-2) and biomass from 3.2 - 677.64 g.m(-2) in SKT. Comparatively the density and biomass in PUC, which is at relatively higher altitude were lowerwith a range of 0 to 176 ind.m(-2) and biomass from 0 - 391.36 g.m(-2) respectively. Population dynamics of earthworm was significantly correlated with rainfall and physical characters of the soil. Earthworm biomass was significantly affected by rainfall and moisture content of the soil. The influence of chemical factors was relatively less.

  15. Crystallization characteristics and physico-chemical properties of glass–ceramics based on Li2O–ZnO–SiO2 system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saad M. Salman

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Glass materials based on lithium zinc silicate system of the composition 24Li2O–20ZnO–56SiO2 LZS (mol% were prepared and converted to glass–ceramics using controlled heat-treatment schedules. The LZS base glass system was modified by addition of Al2O3 and MO/ZnO replacements where MO = CaO, CdO and SrO oxides. Several crystalline phases were developed, including lithium zinc orthosilicate, α-quartz, β-spodumene solid solution, lithium meta and disilicate, Ca-wollastonite, Cd or Sr metasilicate, and Sr-zinc silicate of hardystonite type. The effects of crystallization process on some properties, like thermal expansion coefficient (TEC, chemical stability, and density of glass–ceramics were evaluated. The TEC of crystalline samples varied from 72 × 10−7 to 149 × 10−7 K−1, 25–600 and density values in the range, 2.67–3.29 g/cm3. The addition of Al2O3 and MO/ZnO replacements in the base glass led to improve the chemical durability of the glass–ceramics samples. As a result of the thermal and physico-chemical properties of the studied glass–ceramic, the materials acquire excellent properties and can be used to seal a variety of different metals and alloys.

  16. Crystallization characteristics and physico-chemical properties of glass–ceramics based on Li2O–ZnO–SiO2 system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salman, Saad M.; Salama, Samia N.; Abo-Mosallam, Hany A.

    2017-01-01

    Glass materials based on lithium zinc silicate system of the composition 24Li2O–20ZnO–56SiO2 LZS (mol%) were prepared and converted to glass–ceramics using controlled heat-treatment schedules. The LZS base glass system was modified by addition of Al2O3 and MO/ZnO replacements where MO=CaO, CdO and SrO oxides. Several crystalline phases were developed, including lithium zinc orthosilicate, α-quartz, β-spodumene solid solution, lithium meta and disilicate, Ca-wollastonite, Cd or Sr metasilicate, and Sr-zinc silicate of hardystonite type. The effects of crystallization process on some properties, like thermal expansion coefficient (TEC), chemical stability, and density of glass–ceramics were evaluated. The TEC of crystalline samples varied from 72×10−7 to 149×10−7K−1, 25–600 and density values in the range, 2.67–3.29g/cm3. The addition of Al2O3 and MO/ZnO replacements in the base glass led to improve the chemical durability of the glass–ceramics samples. As a result of the thermal and physico-chemical properties of the studied glass–ceramic, the materials acquire excellent properties and can be used to seal a variety of different metals and alloys. [es

  17. Insight into the effect of inhibitor resistant S130G mutant on physico-chemical properties of SHV type beta-lactamase: a molecular dynamics study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Hassan Baig

    Full Text Available Bacterial resistance is a serious threat to human health. The production of β-lactamase, which inactivates β-lactams is most common cause of resistance to the β-lactam antibiotics. The Class A enzymes are most frequently encountered among the four β-lactamases in the clinic isolates. Mutations in class A β-lactamases play a crucial role in substrate and inhibitor specificity. SHV and TEM type are known to be most common class A β-lactamases. In the present study, we have analyzed the effect of inhibitor resistant S130G point mutation of SHV type Class-A β-lactamase using molecular dynamics and other in silico approaches. Our study involved the use of different in silico methods to investigate the affect of S130G point mutation on the major physico-chemical properties of SHV type class A β-lactamase. We have used molecular dynamics approach to compare the dynamic behaviour of native and S130G mutant form of SHV β-lactamase by analyzing different properties like root mean square deviation (RMSD, H-bond, Radius of gyration (Rg and RMS fluctuation of mutation. The results clearly suggest notable loss in the stability of S130G mutant that may further lead to decrease in substrate specificity of SHV. Molecular docking further indicates that S130G mutation decreases the binding affinity of all the three inhibitors in clinical practice.

  18. Correlation between some thermo-mechanical and physico-chemical properties in multi-component glasses of Se-Te-Sn-Cd system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Amit; Mehta, Neeraj [Banaras Hindu University, Department of Physics, Institute of Science, Varanasi (India)

    2017-06-15

    The glass transition phenomenon is guided by the swift cooling of a melt (glass-forming liquid). Consequently, the glass as a final product consists of a considerable number of micro-voids having the size of the order of atomic and/or molecular sizes. The model of free volume fluctuation helps in describing the diverse physico-chemical properties of amorphous materials (like glasses and polymers). This theory is based on the fraction of fluctuation free frozen at the glass transition temperature and it forms a basis for determination of various significant thermo-mechanical properties. In the present work, Vickers hardness test method is employed that provides useful information concerning the mechanical behavior of brittle solids. The present work emphasizes the results of micro-indentation measurements on recently synthesized novel Se{sub 78-x}Te{sub 20}Sn{sub 2}Cd{sub x} glassy system. Basic thermo-mechanical parameters such as micro-hardness, volume (V{sub h}), formation energy (E{sub h}) of micro-voids in the glassy network and modulus of elasticity (E) have been determined and their variation with glass composition has been investigated. (orig.)

  19. Correlation between some thermo-mechanical and physico-chemical properties in multi-component glasses of Se-Te-Sn-Cd system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Amit; Mehta, Neeraj

    2017-06-01

    The glass transition phenomenon is guided by the swift cooling of a melt (glass-forming liquid). Consequently, the glass as a final product consists of a considerable number of micro-voids having the size of the order of atomic and/or molecular sizes. The model of free volume fluctuation helps in describing the diverse physico-chemical properties of amorphous materials (like glasses and polymers). This theory is based on the fraction of fluctuation free frozen at the glass transition temperature and it forms a basis for determination of various significant thermo-mechanical properties. In the present work, Vickers hardness test method is employed that provides useful information concerning the mechanical behavior of brittle solids. The present work emphasizes the results of micro-indentation measurements on recently synthesized novel Se78- x Te20Sn2Cd x glassy system. Basic thermo-mechanical parameters such as micro-hardness, volume ( V h), formation energy ( E h) of micro-voids in the glassy network and modulus of elasticity ( E) have been determined and their variation with glass composition has been investigated.

  20. Correlation between some thermo-mechanical and physico-chemical properties in multi-component glasses of Se-Te-Sn-Cd system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Amit; Mehta, Neeraj

    2017-01-01

    The glass transition phenomenon is guided by the swift cooling of a melt (glass-forming liquid). Consequently, the glass as a final product consists of a considerable number of micro-voids having the size of the order of atomic and/or molecular sizes. The model of free volume fluctuation helps in describing the diverse physico-chemical properties of amorphous materials (like glasses and polymers). This theory is based on the fraction of fluctuation free frozen at the glass transition temperature and it forms a basis for determination of various significant thermo-mechanical properties. In the present work, Vickers hardness test method is employed that provides useful information concerning the mechanical behavior of brittle solids. The present work emphasizes the results of micro-indentation measurements on recently synthesized novel Se_7_8_-_xTe_2_0Sn_2Cd_x glassy system. Basic thermo-mechanical parameters such as micro-hardness, volume (V_h), formation energy (E_h) of micro-voids in the glassy network and modulus of elasticity (E) have been determined and their variation with glass composition has been investigated. (orig.)

  1. Effect of the incorporation of chitosan on the physico-chemical, mechanical properties and biological activity on a mixture of polycaprolactone and polyurethanes obtained from castor oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arévalo, Fabian; Uscategui, Yomaira L; Diaz, Luis; Cobo, Martha; Valero, Manuel F

    2016-11-01

    In the present study, polyurethane materials were obtained from castor oil, polycaprolactone and isophorone diisocyanate by incorporating different concentrations of chitosan (0.5, 1.0 and 2.0% w/w) as an additive to improve the mechanical properties and the biological activity of polyurethanes. The polyurethanes were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscopy, stress/strain fracture tests and swelling analysis, and the hydrophilic character of the surface was determined by contact angle trials. The objectives of the study were to evaluate the effect of the incorporation of chitosan on the changes of the physico-chemical and mechanical properties and the in vitro biological activity of the polyurethanes. It was found that the incorporation of chitosan enhances the ultimate tensile strength of the polyurethanes and does not affect the strain at fracture in polyurethanes with 5% w/w of polycaprolactone and concentrations of chitosan ranging from 0 to 2% w/w. In addition, PCL5-Q-PU formulations and their degradation products did not affect cell viability of L929 mouse fibroblast and 3T3, respectively. Polyurethane formulations showed antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli bacteria. The results of this study have highlighted the potential biomedical application of this polyurethanes related to soft and cardiovascular tissues. © The Author(s) 2016.

  2. Calibration sets selection strategy for the construction of robust PLS models for prediction of biodiesel/diesel blends physico-chemical properties using NIR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palou, Anna; Miró, Aira; Blanco, Marcelo; Larraz, Rafael; Gómez, José Francisco; Martínez, Teresa; González, Josep Maria; Alcalà, Manel

    2017-06-01

    Even when the feasibility of using near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy combined with partial least squares (PLS) regression for prediction of physico-chemical properties of biodiesel/diesel blends has been widely demonstrated, inclusion in the calibration sets of the whole variability of diesel samples from diverse production origins still remains as an important challenge when constructing the models. This work presents a useful strategy for the systematic selection of calibration sets of samples of biodiesel/diesel blends from diverse origins, based on a binary code, principal components analysis (PCA) and the Kennard-Stones algorithm. Results show that using this methodology the models can keep their robustness over time. PLS calculations have been done using a specialized chemometric software as well as the software of the NIR instrument installed in plant, and both produced RMSEP under reproducibility values of the reference methods. The models have been proved for on-line simultaneous determination of seven properties: density, cetane index, fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) content, cloud point, boiling point at 95% of recovery, flash point and sulphur.

  3. The effect of non-standard heat treatment of sheep's milk on physico-chemical properties, sensory characteristics, and the bacterial viability of classical and probiotic yogurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamberlin, Šimun; Samaržija, Dubravka

    2017-06-15

    Classical and probiotic set yogurt were made using non-standard heat treatment of sheep's milk at 60°C/5min. Physico-chemical properties, sensory characteristics, and the viability of bacteria that originated from cultures in classical and probiotic yogurt were analysed during 21days of storage at 4°C. For the production of yogurt, a standard yogurt culture and a probiotic strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG were used. At the end of storage time of the classical and probiotic yogurt the totals of non-denatured whey proteins were 92.31 and 91.03%. The viability of yogurt culture bacteria and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG were higher than 10 6 cfu/g. The total sensory score (maximum - 20) was 18.49 for the classical and 18.53 for the probiotic. In nutritional and functional terms it is possible to produce classical and probiotic sheep's milk yogurt by using a non-standard temperature of heat treatment with a shelf life of 21days. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Physico-chemical and chemical properties of some coconut coir dusts for use as a peat substitute for containerised ornamental plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad, Manuel; Noguera, Patricia; Puchades, Rosa; Maquieira, Angel; Noguera, Vicente

    2002-05-01

    Selected physico-chemical and chemical characteristics of 13 coconut coir dust (mesocarp pithy tissue plus short-length fibres) samples from Asia, America and Africa were evaluated as peat alternatives. All properties studied differed significantly between and within sources, and from the control Sphagnum peat. pH of coir dust was slightly acidic, whereas salinity varied dramatically between 39 and 597 mS m(-1) in the saturated media extract. The cation exchange capacity and carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratio ranged from 31.7 to 95.4 cmol(c) kg(-1) and from 75 to 186, respectively. Most carbon was found as lignin and cellulose. The concentrations of available nitrogen, calcium, magnesium and micro-elements were low, while those of phosphorus and potassium were remarkably high (0.28-2.81 mol m(-3) and 2.97-52.66 mol m(-3) for P and K, respectively). Saline ion concentrations, especially chloride and sodium, were also high.

  5. Effects of ultrasound treatment on physico-chemical, functional properties and antioxidant activity of whey protein isolate in the presence of calcium lactate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhanmei; Yao, Kun; Yuan, Xiangying; Mu, Zhishen; Gao, Zengli; Hou, Juncai; Jiang, Lianzhou

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of ultrasound applied at various powers (0, 200, 400, 600 or 800 W) and for different times (20 or 40 min) on the physico-chemical, functional properties and antioxidant activities of whey protein isolate (WPI) dispersions in the presence of 1.20 mmol L -1 calcium lactate. Surface hydrophobicity and free sulfhydryl group of the WPI dispersions containing 1.2 mmol L -1 calcium lactate were significantly enhanced after sonication. Furthermore, particle size of WPI dispersions containing 1.20 mmol L -1 calcium lactate was minimised after sonication. Scanning electron microscopy of sonicated WPI suspensions containing 1.20 mmol L -1 calcium lactate showed that WPI microstructure had significantly changed. After WPI dispersions were treated by sonication assisted with calcium lactate, its gel strength enhanced and solubility decreased. Gel strength of sonicated WPI dispersions (600 W, 40 min) was the maximum among all the WPI treatments. Emulsification activity of sonicated WPI dispersions reduced while its emulsion stability increased. The DPPH radical scavenging activity and ferrous reducing power of sonicated WPI dispersions mostly increased. Ultrasound treatments induced structural changes in WPI molecules, leading to different microstructure and improved gel strength of WPI in the presence of calcium lactate. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Physico-chemical properties and sensory profile of durum wheat Dittaino PDO (Protected Designation of Origin) bread and quality of re-milled semolina used for its production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannone, Virgilio; Giarnetti, Mariagrazia; Spina, Alfio; Todaro, Aldo; Pecorino, Biagio; Summo, Carmine; Caponio, Francesco; Paradiso, Vito Michele; Pasqualone, Antonella

    2018-02-15

    To help future quality checks, we characterized the physico-chemical and sensory properties of Dittaino bread, a sourdough-based durum wheat bread recently awarded with Protected Designation of Origin mark, along with the quality features of re-milled semolina used for its production. Semolina was checked for Falling Number (533-644s), protein content (12.0-12.3g/100gd.m.), gluten content (9.7-10.5g/100gd.m.), yellow index (18.0-21.0), water absorption (59.3-62.3g/100g), farinograph dough stability (171-327s), softening index (46-66B.U.), alveograph W (193×10 -4 -223×10 -4 J) and P/L (2.2-2.7). Accordingly, bread crumb was yellow, moderately hard (16.4-27.1N) and chewy (88.2-109.2N×mm), with low specific volume (2.28-3.03mL/g). Bread aroma profile showed ethanol and acetic acid, followed by hexanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, 2-phenylethanol, 3-methylbutanal, hexanal, benzaldehyde, and furfural. The sensory features were dominated by a thick brown crust, with marked toasted odor, coupled to yellow and consistent crumb, with coarse grain and well-perceivable sour taste and odor. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of fat replacement by olive oil on the physico-chemical properties, fatty acids, cholesterol and tocopherol content of pâté

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominguez, R.; Agregan, R.; GonCalves, A.; Lorenzo, J.M.

    2016-07-01

    The present study investigates the effects of olive oil when used as back fat replacers on the physico-chemical properties, fatty acids, cholesterol and α-tocopherol content of pâté. The replacement of back fat by olive oil at 50 and 100% did not affect the moisture, fat or protein contents, while it increased yellowness. According to texture parameters, reformulated pâté presented lower values for hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess and chewiness. The use of olive oil significantly (P<0.05) affected the fatty acid content. The amount of MUFA increased, while the content of SFA and PUFA decreased as the back fat was replaced by olive oil. The replacement of fat resulted in an improvement in all nutritional indexes. Atherogenic and thrombogenic indexes decreased while the h/H ratio increased with fat replacement. At the same time, the content of α-tocopherol increased and the amount of cholesterol decreased with the addition of olive oil. Therefore, olive oil provides pâté with high levels of C18:1n9c and MUFA, natural antioxidants such as α-tocopherol and reduces cholesterol levels. As a general conclusion, the replacement of back fat by olive oil allows us to obtain a healthier product. (Author)

  8. Effect of protein-xanthophylls (PX) concentrate of alfalfa supplementation on physico-chemical properties of turkey breast and thigh muscles during ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karwowska, M; Stadnik, J; Dolatowski, Z J; Grela, E R

    2010-10-01

    The objective was to evaluate the effects of a dietary protein-xanthophylls (PX) concentrate of alfalfa to turkey diets (at 15 and 30 g kg(-1) feed) on the physico-chemical properties of breast and thigh muscles during ageing. The experiment involved 120 turkeys (Big-6 type) allotted to 3 groups (group I-control group; group II--with 1.5% supplementation of the protein-xanthophylls (PX) concentrate; group III--with 3% supplementation of the protein-xanthophylls (PX) concentrate). Measurements of pH, water holding capacity, color, oxymyoglobin content, TBARS and oxidation-reduction potential showed that the addition of protein-xanthophylls (PX) concentrate of alfalfa to a turkey diet did not cause deterioration of breast and thigh meat quality. In addition, changes in color, oxymyoglobin content, TBARS and oxidation-reduction potential values suggested that the inclusion of the concentrate to turkey diets acts as an antioxidant in the raw meat. Copyright (c) 2010 The American Meat Science Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. 玉米秸秆生物炭对稻田土壤砷、镉形态的影响%Effects of waterlogging and application of bio-carbon from corn stalks on the physico-chemical properties and the forms of arsenic and cadmium in arsenic and cadmium-contaminated soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张燕; 铁柏清; 刘孝利; 张淼; 叶长城; 彭鸥; 许蒙

    2018-01-01

    Effects of corn stover biechar (1% addition) prepared at different temperatures (300,400 and 500 ℃) on pH,oxidation-reduction potential and arsenic and cadmium contents in arsenic-cadmium polluted paddy soil under waterlogged conditon were investigated by indoor soil incubation.The corn stover biochar prepared at 300,400 and 500 ℃ were designated as CB-300,CB-400 and CB-500,respectively,with no addition of CB as blank control.The results showed that pyrolysis temperature has a significant effect on physical and chemical properties of corn straw.Increasing the pyrolysis temperature from 300 ℃ to 500 ℃ resulted in increases in aromaticity (corresponding to decrease in hydrophilicity and polarity),ash content and pH in corn stalks.Addition of corn straw biocoke increased The soil pH increased from 0.2 to 1.24 after addition of corn straw biocoke in soil,compared with CK and followed the order:CB-500>CB-400>CB-300>CK,and the pH reached equilibrium with prolongation of culture.The redox potential of soil under flooded condition decreased rapidly,and there was significant difference among different treatments.The higher the temperature of biocarbon preparation,the more obvious decreases in redox potential.The redox potential decreased to the lowest at 96th day.The percentage of extractable Cd in CK,CB-300,CB-400 and CB-500 decreased from 73.55% to 63.46%,57.73%,54.50% and 53.94%,respectively,and the cadmium changed from extractable and oxidizablestate to the residual and reducible state,with the extension of culture time.Soil pH exhibited a significant negative correlation with weak acid extractable cadmium.The content of exchangeable arsenic in the soil under waterlogged condition increased,and the exchangeable arsenic,calcium arsenic,aluminum arsenic and iron arsenic in the soil were increased by 75.68%,20.92% and 13.49% and 48.66%,respectively,however,residuestate arsenic dereased.There was a significant positive correlation between

  10. Physico-chemical and viscoelastic properties of high pressure homogenized lemon peel fiber fraction suspensions obtained after sequential pectin extraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemsen, K.L.D.D.; Panozzo, A.; Moelants, K.; Debon, S.J.J.; Desmet, C.; Cardinaels, R.M.; Moldenaers, P.; Wallecan, J.; Hendrickx, M.E.G.

    2017-01-01

    The viscoelastic properties of high pressure homogenized lemon peel cell wall fiber suspensions, obtained after sequential selective pectin extraction, were investigated in the current study. For comparison, a general pectin extraction was additionally performed on lemon peel under acid thermal

  11. Effect Of Neutron Activation Factor On The Physico-Chemical Properties Of Hydrophilic And Hydrophobic Polymer Formulation Of Matrix Tablets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim Ijang; Bohari Yaacob; Nordiana, N.R.

    2011-01-01

    This study was to investigate effect of neutron activation on the physicochemical properties and in vitro dissolution of sustained-release matrix tablets. The tablets incorporation of Samarium oxide (Sm 2 O 3 ) and were compared before and after irradiation with thermal neutron for 5 minutes at 1.2 x 10 12 neutron cm -2 s -1 . The neutron activation factor did not influence the compression properties of the tablets. The dissolution tests showed that irradiation increased the release of the model drug ketoprofen from the tablets. This effect might be explained by polymer degradation. Incorporation of Sm 2 O 3 in the matrix tablets did not influence the release. (author)

  12. Contribution to the study of physico-chemical properties of surfaces modified by laser treatment. Application to the enhancement of localized corrosion resistance of stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacquentin, W.

    2011-01-01

    Metallic materials are more and more used in severe conditions with particularly strong request for improving their behavior in aggressive environment and especially over long periods. The objective of this PhD work is to estimate the potentiality of a laser surface melting treatment on the improvement of the stainless steel 304L corrosion resistance, surface treatments by laser can be revisited on the basis of a recent change in the laser technology. In the frame of this work, a nano-pulsed laser fiber was chosen: it allows the treated surface to be melted for few microns in depth, followed by an ultra-fast solidification occurring with cooling rates up to 1011 K/s. The combination of these processes leads to the elimination of the surface defects, the formation (trapping) of metastable phases, the segregation of chemical elements and the growth of a new oxide layer which properties are governed by the laser parameters. To correlate these latter to the electrochemical reactivity of the surface, the influence of two laser parameters on the physico-chemical properties of the surface was studied: the laser power and the overlap of the laser impacts. To support this approach, the pitting corrosion resistance of the samples was determined by standard electrochemical tests. For specific laser parameters, the pitting potential of a 304L stainless steel was increased by more than 500 mV corresponding to an important enhancement in localized corrosion resistance in chloride environment. The interdependence of the different phenomena resulting from the laser treatment lead to a quite complex prioritization of their role on the sensibility of the 304L. However, it was demonstrated that the nature of the thermal oxide formed during the laser surface melting and the induced defects are first-order parameters for the initiation of pits. (author) [fr

  13. Effect of Gleditsia sinensis Lam. Extract on Physico-Chemical Properties of Emulsion-Type Pork Sausages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Sang-Keun; Yang, Han-Sul; Choi, Jung-Seok

    2017-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the effect of Gleditsia sinensis Lam. extract on the physicochemical properties of emulsion-type pork sausages during storage at 10°C for 4 wk. Treatments were as follows: (C, control; T1, sodium ascorbate 0.05%; T2, Gleditsia sinensis Lam. 0.05%; T3, Gleditsia sinensis Lam. 0.1%; T4, Gleditsia sinensis Lam. 0.2%; T5, Gleditsia sinensis Lam. 0.1% + sodium ascorbate 0.05%). The values of pH, moisture content, lightness, redness, and sensory attributes were all significantly decreased, while the yellowness, chroma, hue angle, and texture properties were increased during storage with increase of the Gleditsia sinensis Lam. extract added. In addition, the antioxidant activity and antimicrobial activity in the sausages displayed significant increases (psausages, it could be applied to meat products as a natural preservatives. PMID:28515651

  14. Effect of Gleditsia sinensis Lam. Extract on Physico-Chemical Properties of Emulsion-Type Pork Sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Sang-Keun; Yang, Han-Sul; Choi, Jung-Seok

    2017-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the effect of Gleditsia sinensis Lam. extract on the physicochemical properties of emulsion-type pork sausages during storage at 10°C for 4 wk. Treatments were as follows: (C, control; T1, sodium ascorbate 0.05%; T2, Gleditsia sinensis Lam. 0.05%; T3, Gleditsia sinensis Lam. 0.1%; T4, Gleditsia sinensis Lam. 0.2%; T5, Gleditsia sinensis Lam. 0.1% + sodium ascorbate 0.05%). The values of pH, moisture content, lightness, redness, and sensory attributes were all significantly decreased, while the yellowness, chroma, hue angle, and texture properties were increased during storage with increase of the Gleditsia sinensis Lam. extract added. In addition, the antioxidant activity and antimicrobial activity in the sausages displayed significant increases ( p <0.05). Therefore, although it was concluded that the addition of Gleditsia sinensis Lam. extract is not effective for improvement of the physical properties compared to chemical additives in sausages, it could be applied to meat products as a natural preservatives.

  15. Changes in the physico-chemical properties of Amazonian aerosols from background conditions due to urban impacts in Central Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artaxo, P.; Barbosa, H. M.; Brito, J.; Carbone, S.; Fiorese, C.; Andre, B.; Rizzo, L. V.; Ditas, F.; Pöhlker, C.; Pöhlker, M. L.; Saturno, J.; Holanda, B. A.; Wang, J.; Souza, R. A. F. D.; Machado, L.; Andreae, M. O.; Martin, S. T.

    2016-12-01

    The GoAmazon 2014/15 experiment (Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon) was a great opportunity to study how urbanization can change aerosol properties under pristine conditions in a tropical rain forest. The experiment took place from January 2014 to December 2015 in the vicinity of Manaus, Brazil, where several sampling stations were operated. Natural biogenic aerosol properties were studied in 3 sampling stations upwind of Manaus (ATTO (T0a), ZF2 (T0z) and EMBRAPA (T0e)). Urban impacted aerosols were analysed in two downwind sampling stations at Tiwa (T2) and Manacapuru (T3). Properties analysed were size distribution, scattering and absorption, composition, vertical profiles and others. Remote sensing measurements were done using AERONET and MODIS, while extensive ground based measurements were done in all sampling stations. Remote sensing measurements shows important changes in aerosol optical depth (AOD), especially in the aerosol absorption component. It was also observed a reduction in cloud droplet size downwind of Manaus for liquid phase clouds. Changes in particle number and size were also very significant, that reflected in changes in the aerosol radiative forcing (RF) before and after Manaus plume. In the dry season, an average RF of -24 w/m² was observed upwind, while -17 w/m² was observed downwind, due to large scale biomass burning aerosols. Single scattering albedo (SSA) at 550 nm changed from a high value of 0.96 upwind to 0.84 downwind due to the increase in absorbing aerosols in the wet season. In the dry season, SSA at 550nm changed from 0.95 to 0.87. Aerosol composition showed a large dominance of organic aerosols for all sites, accounting for 65-75% of PM1 non refractory aerosol. Most of these were secondary organic aerosol (SOA), with very low sulfate and nitrate concentrations. The influence of the Manaus plume on aerosol properties was more intense during the wet season, because in the dry season a significant amount of

  16. Evaluation of some physico-chemical properties of restructured trout and hake mince during cold gelation and chilled storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moreno, H.M.; Javier Borderias, A.; Baron, Caroline

    2010-01-01

    Cold gelation was carried out on trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) or on hake (Merluccius mertuccius) mince with or without addition of fish oil and using microbial transglutaminase (MTGase). Products were stored at 4 QC for 6 days and lipid oxidation, protein oxidation, texture, water binding capacity......, and colour were followed. Results indicated that MTGase was able to generate gels with good properties for both trout and hake. Gels prepared with trout were oxidised whilst gels prepared with hake were stable toward oxidation even in the presence of 5% fish oil. However, in the presence of oil...

  17. Physico-chemical properties of Brazilian cocoa butter and industrial blends. Part I Chemical composition, solid fat content and consistency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ribeiro, A. P. B.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study of the primary properties of six cocoa butter samples, representative of industrial blends and cocoa butter extracted from fruits cultivated in different geographical areas in Brazil is presented. The samples were evaluated according to fatty acid composition, triacylglycerol composition, regiospecific distribution, melting point, solid fat content and consistency. The results allowed for differentiating the samples according to their chemical compositions, thermal resistance properties, hardness characteristics, as well as technological adequacies and potential use in regions with tropical climates.

    En este trabajo se presenta un estudio comparativo de las propiedades primarias de mantecas de cacao, representativas de las mezclas industriales, y de la manteca de cacao original de diferentes zonas geográficas de Brasil. Las muestras fueron evaluadas de acuerdo a la composición de ácidos grasos, composición de triglicéridos, distribución de los ácidos grasos en las moléculas de triglicéridos, punto de fusión, contenido de grasa sólida y consistencia. Los resultados permitieron diferenciar las muestras por su composición química, propiedades de resistencia térmica, características de dureza, así como en materia de adecuaciones tecnológicas y los usos potenciales en las regiones de clima tropical.

  18. Influence of sorbitol on mechanical and physico-chemical properties of soy protein-based bioplastics processed by injection molding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Felix

    Full Text Available Abstract Soy Protein Isolate (SPI has been evaluated as useful candidate for the development of protein-based bioplastic materials processed by injection molding. The influence of sorbitol (SB as plasticizer in mechanical properties and water uptake capacity was evaluated in SPI-based bioplastics. A mixing rheometer that allows monitoring torque and temperature during mixing and a small-scale-plunger-type injection molding machine were used to obtain SPI/Plasticizer blends and SPI-based bioplastics, respectively. Dynamic measurements were carried out to obtain mechanical spectra of different bioplastics. Moreover, the mechanical characterization was supplemented with uniaxial tensile tests. Additionally, the influence of SB in water uptake capacity was also evaluated. The introduction of SB leads to increase the rigidity of bioplastics as well as the water uptake capacity after 24h, however it involves a decrease in strain at break. Final bioplastics are plastic materials with both adequate properties for the substitution of conventional petroleum plastics and high biodegradability.

  19. Effect of different radiations on some physico-chemical properties of gum Arabic (Acacia senegal (L.) Wild)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elamin, R. M.

    2001-07-01

    Seven different Acacia senegal gum samples namely A1, A2, A3, A4, A5, A6, and A7 were collected from different trees in the same forest growing in Eldmazein season 1994/ 1995. Some physicochemical and functional properties were investigated i. e. moisture content, nitrogen content, specific rotation, molecular weight, emulsifying stability and water holding capacity. Also the effect of radiation from different sources gammaγ, ultraviolet (UV) and infra-red (IR) radiations with various doses i.e 150, 325 and 500 gray, 2,4 and 6 hours and 80, 105 and 140 C, respectively on some physicochemical and functional properties and component sugars of gum samples in solid from and solution of different concentrations were studied. Statistical analysis showed significant differences (P≤0.05) between all of these seven samples in their physicochemical and functional properties except in ph value. Also Ph values were not affected by different doses of γ, UV and IR radiations used in this study. Results showed that the moisture content, ash, nitrogen content and emulsifying stability were not affected γ( 60 (Co) irradiation where solid and aqueous solution of gum samples showed significant differences (P≤0.05) in specific rotation, intrinsic and molecular weight when exposed to various doses of γrays. Statistical analysis showed insignificant differences (P≤0.05) between the whole and irradiated solid gum by UV radiation on ash, nitrogen content and emulsifying stability. But there was a little decrease as radiation time increase on the moisture content. Reducing sugars and solubility were decreased from 1.88 % and 97.19 % of whole gum to 0.16 % and 84.1 % of gum irradiated by IR radiation at 140 C, respectively while moisture content reduced from 10.7 % to 0.4 %. Maximum absorbance of UV spectrum of the whole gum was reported at the wave length 280 nm. UV absorbance was not affected by Υand UV radiations while it increased of temperature. Thin layer chromatography

  20. Assessment Of Physico-Chemical Property Of Water Samples From Port Harcourt Bonny And Opobo Coastal Areas For Sustainable Coastal Tourism Development In Rivers State Nigeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obinwanne

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The study evaluated some physico-chemical properties of water samples from Port Harcourt Bonny and Opobo to determine the safety of water from the areas for sustainable coastal tourism development in Rivers State Nigeria. Three water samples were collected with three sterilized plastic containers with a capacity of 25cl which were subjected to laboratory tests to know their constituents. The parameters tested were appearance temperature colour turbidity conductivity PH alkalinity lead Pb Chromium Cr Cadmium Cd Ammonia BODs and Dissolved Oxygen. The results of the water samples were compared with World Health Organization WHO water quality standard and the Nigeria National Water Quality standard to determine the safety of the water for human consumption and tourism development. The study revealed that Port Harcourt site has more prospects for tourism development more than Opobo study site because the Ph alkalinity and BODs levels were lower than that of Opobo making the water safer except that the amount of dissolved oxygen was a little high in Opobo and turbidity was not detected in Opobo. The study revealed that Bonny water was very dense in appearance dark brown in colour highly turbid basic and with mean concentration of the heavy metals Lead chromium and cadmium higher than the recommended World Health Organization WHO water quality standard and the Nigeria National Water Quality standard and therefore not safe for drinking and swimming. Treated portable water should be provided for the people of Port Harcourt Opobo and Bonny especially people from Bonny area and development of tourism in the state to save the people and tourists from imminent danger of fecal contaminants and toxic substances.

  1. Effect of Modified Atmosphere Packaging on Aril Physico-chemical and Microbial Properties of Two Pomegranate Cultivars (Punica granatum L. Grown in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedighe Tavasoli Talarposhti

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Edible parts of pomegranate fruits are a rich source of bioactive compounds. The present research examines the effect of modified atmosphere packaging on the fruit physico-chemical and microbial properties of two commercial pomegranate cultivars grown in Iran. Materials and Methods: The arils were packaged and stored under four different atmospheres. All of the packaged samples were stored at 4 °C for 15 days. Results: The results revealed an increase in total acidity of all treatments. The highest total soluble solid (TSS was observed in ‘Yousef-Khani’­ stored in 10% O2 + 15% CO2, while ‘Malas-e-Saveh’ treated with 20% O2 + 5% CO2 showed the highest degree of TSS. The mean value of a* in ‘Malas-e-Saveh’ arils packed with normal and (15% O2 + 10% CO2 + 75% N2 atmosphere increased significantly. The L* showed a decrease in ‘Yousef-Khani’­. Total phenolic compounds gradually increased during storage. After storage, decreases in total anthocyanin contents ranged from 12 to 30% for ‘Yousef-Khani’­. The overall antioxidant activity of arils in ‘Yousef-Khani’ showed a 6-15% increase during storage. However, a reverse effect was observed for ‘Malas-e-Saveh’. The lowest microbial counts were recorded under the atmosphere containing 10 and 15% CO2. Conclusions: Packaging of ‘Malas-e-Saveh’ arils in 15% O2 + 10% CO2 and ‘Yousef-Khani’ in 15% O2 + 10% CO2 or 10% O2 + 15% CO2 is recommended to extend the shelf-life of ready-to-eat arils. Keywords: Pomegranate, Modified atmosphere, Phenolic compounds, Anthocyanin, Antioxidant activity

  2. MoO3/SiO2-ZrO2 Catalyst: Eeffect of Calcination Temperature on Physico-chemical Properties and Activities in Nitration of Toluene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Madhavrao Kemdeo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available 12 wt % molybdena was deposited over 1:1 silica zirconia mixed oxide support and the resultant catalyst was calcined between the 500 to 700 oC range of temperature. The samples were characterized by XRD, FT-IR, BET, SEM, NH3-TPD and pyridine adsorbed FT-IR techniques.  Nitration of toluene was studied as a model reaction over the prepared catalysts and parameters like effect of reaction temperature, effect of various solvents, catalyst reusability are studied. It was found that conversion of toluene varies with the presence of Brönsted acid sites over the catalyst surface and para-nitrotoulene selectivity is associated with pore size of the catalyst. Over the same catalysts, nitration was extended for some other aromatics. Avoid of sulfuric acid in the present process is an interesting concern in view of green chemistry. Copyright © 2012 by BCREC UNDIP. All rights reservedKeywords: MoO3/SiO2-ZrO2; SO2-ZrO2; NH3-TPD; Nitration; ortho-nitro tolueneReceived: 19th May 2012, Revised: 24th May 2012, Accepted: 26th May 2012[How to Cite: S.M. Kemdeo. (2012. MoO3/SiO2-ZrO2 Catalyst: Effect of Calcination Temperature on Physico-chemical Properties and Activities in Nitration of Toluene. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 7 (2: 92-104. doi:10.9767/bcrec.7.2.3521.92-104] [How to Link / DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.7.2.3521.92-104 || or local: http://ejournal.undip.ac.id/index.php/bcrec/article/view/3521] | View in 

  3. Study on physico-chemical properties of emulsion type sausage produced with aqueous extract of Biarum carduchcorum tenderizied meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Raeisi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the quality of meat such as tenderness, protein solubility, emulsification and water holding capacity, in the food industries, various methods have been employed. Application of the plant enzymes is considered as one of the most efficient methods for meat tenderization. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the characteristics of emulsion type sausage made from tenderized cattle meat by hydro extract of Biarum carduchcorum. The proteolytic activity of the extract was determined using bovine milk casein as substrate. Post rigor thigh meat were tenderized by 100 and 150 enzyme units/ kg of the extract before used for production of sausage. Fresh post rigor thigh meat was used as control. Nitrogen solubility index (NSI, stability of sausage emulsion, texture analysis and organoleptic properties of sausages were determined. Our results showed a significant increase in the NSI of the experimental groups compared with the control (P

  4. The chemometric study of limestone physico-chemical properties and thermal behavior for application in construction composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radulović Dragan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The limestone, as an economically sustainable and easily available basic raw material, is frequently utilized in the building industry for resolving of the environmental protection issues. The limestone is incorporated in a cementitious system either by grinding with cement clinker, or by blending with the binder during concrete production. The employing of powdery limestone as partial cement replacement gives the construction composites with properties comparable to that of conventional concrete. The study of limestone thermal behavior and its chemistry is crucial for the prognosis of the designed composites properties. In this work, the instrumental techniques (atomic emission spectroscopy, differential thermal and thermo-gravimetric analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and the Principal component analysis were employed to discriminate and classify 22 limestone types. The PCA statistical method, as a means of spectra and experimental data fingerprinting, grouped the samples in a multi-dimensional factor space producing four graphical prognosis - one for each instrumental method. DTA/TG peak values varied the most in a short range between 830-870°C, while FTIR spectra showed the highest diversity in the 867-887 cm-1 and 1237-1647 cm-1 ranges. This research was governed by an idea to reveal whether it is possible to differentiate various limestone types and to predict the possibility of their employment in construction composites on the basis of the results of instrumental and mathematical analyses. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. ON 172057, III 45008, TR 31055, TR 34006, and TR 34013

  5. Physico-chemical properties and efficacy of silk fibroin fabric coated with different waxes as wound dressing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanokpanont, Sorada; Damrongsakkul, Siriporn; Ratanavaraporn, Juthamas; Aramwit, Pornanong

    2013-04-01

    Silk fibroin (SF) has been widely used as a wound dressing material due to its suitable physical and biological characteristics. In this study, a non-adhesive wound dressing which applies to cover the wound surface as an absorbent pad that would absorb wound fluid while accelerate wound healing was developed. The modification of SF fabrics by wax coating was purposed to prepare the non-adhesive wound dressing that is required in order to minimize pain and risk of repeated injury. SF woven fabrics were coated with different types of waxes including shellac wax, beeswax, or carnauba wax. Physical and mechanical properties of the wax-coated SF fabrics were characterized. It was clearly observed that all waxes could be successfully coated on the SF fabrics, possibly due to the hydrophobic interactions between hydrophobic domains of SF and waxes. The wax coating improved tensile modulus and percentage of elongation of the SF fabrics due to the denser structure and the thicker fibers coated. The in vitro degradation study demonstrated that all wax-coated SF fabrics remained up to 90% of their original weights after 7 weeks of incubation in lysozyme solution under physiological conditions. The wax coating did not affect the degradation behavior of the SF fabrics. A peel test of the wax-coated SF fabrics was carried out in the partial- and full-thickness wounds of porcine skin in comparison to that of the commercial wound dressing. Any wax-coated SF fabrics were less adhesive than the control, as confirmed by less number of cells attached and less adhesive force. This might be that the wax-coated SF fabrics showed the hydrophobic property, allowing the loosely adherence to the hydrophilic wound surface. In addition, the in vivo biocompatibility test of the wax-coated SF fabrics was performed in Sprague-Dawley rats with subcutaneous model. The irritation scores indicated that the carnauba wax-coated SF fabric was not irritant while the shellac wax or beeswax-coated SF

  6. Effect of addition of nano-hydroxyapatite on physico-chemical and antibiofilm properties of calcium silicate cements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Maria GUERREIRO-TANOMARU

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA is a calcium silicate cement composed of Portland cement (PC and bismuth oxide. Hydroxyapatite has been incorporated to enhance mechanical and biological properties of dental materials. This study evaluated physicochemical and mechanical properties and antibiofilm activity of MTA and PC associated with zirconium oxide (ZrO2 and hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (HAn. Material and Methods White MTA (Angelus, Brazil; PC (70%+ZrO2 (30%; PC (60%+ZrO2 (30%+HAn (10%; PC (50%+ZrO2 (30%+HAn (20% were evaluated. The pH was assessed by a digital pH-meter and solubility by mass loss. Setting time was evaluated by using Gilmore needles. Compressive strength was analyzed by mechanical test. Samples were radiographed alongside an aluminum step wedge to evaluate radiopacity. For the antibiofilm evaluation, materials were placed in direct contact with E. faecalis biofilm induced on dentine blocks. The number of colony-forming units (CFU mL-1 in the remaining biolfilm was evaluated. The results were submitted to ANOVA and the Tukey test, with 5% significance. Results There was no difference in pH levels of PC+ZrO2, PC+ZrO2+HAn (10% and PC+ZrO2+HAn (20% (p>0.05 and these cements presented higher pH levels than MTA (p<0.05. The highest solubility was observed in PC+ZrO2+HAn (10% and PC+ZrO2+HAn (20% (p<0.05. MTA had the shortest initial setting time (p<0.05. All the materials showed radiopacity higher than 3 mmAl. PC+ZrO2 and MTA had the highest compressive strength (p<0.05. Materials did not completely neutralize the bacterial biofilm, but the association with HAn provided greater bacterial reduction than MTA and PC+ZrO2 (p<0.05 after the post-manipulation period of 2 days. Conclusions The addition of HAn to PC associated with ZrO2 harmed the compressive strength and solubility. On the other hand, HAn did not change the pH and the initial setting time, but improved the radiopacity (HAn 10%, the final setting time and

  7. Physico-chemical, mineralogical and chemical considerations in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... pH (5.17 – 6.90) and EC (16.53 – 149.20ìS/cm). Values from physico-chemical analyses, secondary minerals abundance index (SMAI) and chemical index of alteration (CIA) of the soils were reflective of particles with high potential for sliding. With major contributions from favourable slope, seismic and hydrologic forces, ...

  8. Physico-chemical studies of the experimental and theoretical properties of organic nonlinear optical material 4-chloro-4'methoxy benzylideneaniline

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Merin; John, Nimmy L.; Saravana Kumar, M.; Subashini, A.; Sajan, D.

    2017-01-01

    The FT-IR, FT-Raman and UV-visible spectral analysis of 4-chloro 4'-methoxy benzylidene aniline were done experimentally and interpreted with the aid of normal coordinate analysis based on density functional theory (DFT) at the B3LYP/6-311++G (d, p) level of theory. Natural Bond orbital analysis was performed to understand the charge transfer interactions and reactive sites within the system. HOMO-LUMO analysis and first static and dynamic hyperpolarizability calculations were carried out in order to confirm the NLO activity of CMOBA. Photophysical characterization was done to understand the fluorescence emission and lifetime of CMOBA leading to application in blue OLEDs. The Molecular Electrostatic Potential Map was simulated to identify the active sites for electrophilic and nucleophilic attack or the active sites of the molecule which can bind to proteins. Molecular docking analysis revealed its potential as an inhibitor for different proteins which are responsible for cancer and many inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, Crohn's disease and psoriasis. Experimental studies of invitro antiproliferative effect by MTT assay verified the anticancer properties of CMOBA.

  9. Gamma radiation effects on microbiological, physico-chemical and antioxidant properties of Tunisian millet (Pennisetum Glaucum L.R.Br.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Mustapha, Maha; Bousselmi, Mehrez; Jerbi, Taïeb; Ben Bettaïeb, Nasreddine; Fattouch, Sami

    2014-07-01

    Hygienic quality of Tunisian pearl millet flour is always of major concern to consumers as well as all involved in the production, processing and distribution sectors. In the present study, the microbiological and biochemical properties of this food were examined following gamma-radiation. The D10-values for the Total Aerobic Plate Count, yeasts and moulds were respectively 1.5 and 3.7kGy. Furthermore, millet flour is commonly susceptible to mycotoxin contaminations, so the Ochratoxin A residues were also investigated; a reduction of 74% was observed with 10kGy. Moreover, the radiation process did not significantly alter fatty acids composition of the millet flour as obtained with Gas chromatography-flame ionisation detector technic. The peroxide value had increased from 26.16 to 34.43meqO2/kg with 3kGy. At 1kGy, we noticed an important loss of vitamin A of about 88.6%. In contrast, the total phenolic content, the ABTS-RSA and the DPPH-RSA of the radiated millet flour exhibited non-significant changes (p<0.05). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Physico-chemical properties of aqueous drug solutions: From the basic thermodynamics to the advanced experimental and simulation results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellich, Barbara; Gamini, Amelia; Brady, John W; Cesàro, Attilio

    2018-04-05

    The physical chemical properties of aqueous solutions of model compounds are illustrated in relation to hydration and solubility issues by using three perspectives: thermodynamic, spectroscopic and molecular dynamics simulations. The thermodynamic survey of the fundamental backgrounds of concentration dependence and experimental solubility results show some peculiar behavior of aqueous solutions with several types of similar solutes. Secondly, the use of a variety of experimental spectroscopic devices, operating under different experimental conditions of dimension and frequency, has produced a large amount of structural and dynamic data on aqueous solutions showing the richness of the information produced, depending on where and how the experiment is carried out. Finally, the use of molecular dynamics computational work is presented to highlight how the different types of solute functional groups and surface topologies organize adjacent water molecules differently. The highly valuable contribution of computer simulation studies in providing molecular explanations for experimental deductions, either of a thermodynamic or spectroscopic nature, is shown to have changed the current knowledge of many aqueous solution processes. While this paper is intended to provide a collective view on the latest literature results, still the presentation aims at a tutorial explanation of the potentials of the three methodologies in the field of aqueous solutions of pharmaceutical molecules. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Evaluation of the physico-chemical properties of nanocomposites of low density linear polyethylene and organophilic montmorillonite obtained by fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arndt, Aline; Sandrin, Bianca M.; Pezzin, A.P.T.; Meier, Marcia M.; Balzer, Palova S.; Tavares, Maria I.B.

    2016-01-01

    In this project they were produced and characterized nanocomposite organoclay applied to linear low density polyethylene in order to improve their physicochemical properties. Samples were produced by means of extrusion and injection process, varying proportions of nanoclay (2; 2.5; 3.0 and 3.5%) in LLDPE. Samples nanocomposites were characterized by TGA, DSC and Flammability test (UL-94). The TGA analysis showed that adding nanoclay increased thermal stability, especially for LLDPE / OMMT2,0 sample increased thermal stability at 4.4%. By DSC it was found that samples with nanoclay incorporation did not affect the Tm of LLDPE, though the increase of nanoclay raised the degree of crystallinity of the samples 52.7% in LLDPE / 2.5 OMMT sample. The flammability results show that the sample LLDPE / OMMT 2.0 showed a decrease of 37.77% in the flame propagation velocity. The NMR showed that the samples up LLDPE / 2.5 OM has an exfoliated nanocomposite formation. (author)

  12. Volatile compounds and some physico-chemical properties of pastırma produced with different nitrate levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Akköse

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of different nitrate levels (150, 300, 450, and 600 ppm KNO3 on the volatile compounds and some other properties of pastırma. Methods Pastırma samples were produced under the controlled condition and analyses of volatile compounds, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS as an indicator of lipid oxidation, non-protein nitrogenous matter content as an indicator of proteolysis, color and residual nitrite were carried out on the final product. The profile of volatile compounds of pastırma samples was analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry using a solid phase microextraction. Results Nitrate level had a significant effect on pH value (p<0.05 and a very significant effect on TBARS value (p<0.01. No significant differences were determined in terms of aw value, non-protein nitrogenous substance content, color and residual nitrite between pastırma groups produced by using different nitrate levels. Nitrate level had a significant (p<0.05 or a very significant (p<0.01 effect on some volatile compounds. It was determined that the amounts and counts of volatile compounds were lower in the 450 and especially 600 ppm nitrate levels than 150 and 300 ppm nitrate levels (p<0.05. While the use of 600 ppm nitrate did not cause an increase in residual nitrite levels, the use of 150 ppm nitrate did not negatively affect the color of pastırma. However, the levels of volatile compounds decreased with an increasing level of nitrate. Conclusion The use of 600 ppm nitrate is not a risk in terms of residual nitrite in pastırma produced under controlled condition, however, this level is not suitable due to decrease in the amount of volatile compounds.

  13. Impact of temperature, pH, and salinity changes on the physico-chemical properties of model naphthenic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celsie, Alena; Parnis, J Mark; Mackay, Donald

    2016-03-01

    The effects of temperature, pH, and salinity change on naphthenic acids (NAs) present in oil-sands process wastewater were modeled for 55 representative NAs. COSMO-RS was used to estimate octanol-water (KOW) and octanol-air (KOA) partition ratios and Henry's law constants (H). Validation with experimental carboxylic acid data yielded log KOW and log H RMS errors of 0.45 and 0.55 respectively. Calculations of log KOW, (or log D, for pH-dependence), log KOA and log H (or log HD, for pH-dependence) were made for model NAs between -20 °C and 40 °C, pH between 0 and 14, and salinity between 0 and 3 g NaCl L(-1). Temperature increase by 60 °C resulted in 3-5 log unit increase in H and a similar magnitude decrease in KOA. pH increase above the NA pKa resulted in a dramatic decrease in both log D and log HD. Salinity increase over the 0-3 g NaCl L(-1) range resulted in a 0.3 log unit increase on average for KOW and H values. Log KOW values of the sodium salt and anion of the conjugate base were also estimated to examine their potential for contribution to the overall partitioning of NAs. Sodium salts and anions of naphthenic acids are predicted to have on average 4 log units and 6 log units lower log KOW values, respectively, with respect to the corresponding neutral NA. Partitioning properties are profoundly influenced by the by the relative prevailing pH and the substance's pKa at the relevant temperature. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Impact of chemical oxidation and water acidification on the mineralogical and physico-chemical properties of the Tournemire argillaceous formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charpentier, D.

    2001-11-01

    The French Institute for Protection and Nuclear Safety (IPSN) has selected a site near Tournemire (France) for research programmes on deep geological waste disposal in clay-rich rock formation. A railway tunnel was built about 100 years ago through the thick indurated Toarcian argillite of the Tournemire Massif and two galleries were constructed five years ago. They are used to study the evolution of rock mineralogical composition, texture, water content and water-rock interactions in the excavated disturbed zone. Multi-scale and multi-technique investigations were carried out on the evolution of physical and mineralogical rock properties. Experiments and numerical modelling were used to predict changes due to water-rock interactions and subsequent rock mineralogy and water chemistry modifications. The argillite consists of detrital clay-rich layers and carbonate layers. Pyrites are always present in significant amounts (2 to 2.5 %). The rock presents very low porosity and very low water content (around 3 %). Leaching experiments show that the interstitial water is Na and SO 4 -rich and Cl-poor. The tunnel and galleries digging induces fracture formation. In the altered samples, the clay particles show a better orientation in the stratification plan, which increases the porosity. The oxidation effect yields to mineralogical transformation on the surfaces of the argillite: oxidation of pyrite, dissolution of calcite, dissolution of illite layers in interstratified I/S and formation of gypsum, Fe-oxi/hydroxides, celestite and jarosite. During cycles of hydration/dehydration, condensation water interacts with the argillite and quickly becomes Ca and SO 4 -rich. The local dissolution of clay particles leads to an increase of the chloride and potassium water content. These phenomena are important for the consideration of the underground work stability, especially the evolution of the water-rock equilibria during the re-hydration of the excavated disturbed zones. (author)

  15. The effect of radiation-sterilization conditions and preservation procedures on physico-chemical and biological properties of bone allografts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goclawska, A.D.; Kaminski, A.; Wasilewska, M.

    1999-01-01

    Radiation-sterilization of connective tissue allografts (bone including) with a dose of 35 kGy is routinely used in the Central Tissue Bank in Warsaw since 1963. This method of sterilization offers many advantages: good penetration ability, relatively low temperature rise, and possibility of sterilization of grafts in closed beforehand vials, which protects against secondary contamination. It should be kept in mind, however that high doses of ionizing radiation (in the range of 20-35 kGy) used for sterilization evoke many chemical and physical changes which may influence biological properties of grafts. These changes have been studied using various methodological approaches. Using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrometry it has been found that in radiation-sterilized bone two types of paramagnetic entities are generated: i/ coliagen radicals which are unstable and disappear completely in the presence of air oxygen, ii/ very stable at room temperature paramagnetic defects (centers) localized in the crystalline lattice of bone mineral. These stable paramagnetic defects have been treated as a new kind of markers and used for: a/ quantitative evaluation of remodeling process of radiation-sterilized bone allografts preserved by lyophilization or deep freezing; b/ estimation of the dose of ionizing radiation absorbed by living organism in the case of accidental exposure (skeleton serving as a dosimeter) and for control of radiation-sterilization process. The effect of radiation-sterilization and preservation procedures on bone allografts was studied using a model of heterotopically induced osteogenesis and measuring the solubility of bone collagen in vitro. It has been observed that lyophilized bone allografts irradiated at room temp. with doses of 35 and 50 kGy, respectively, were very quickly resorbed in vivo and did not induce osteogenesis, while lyophilized as well as deep-frozen matrices irradiated at -7OoC were slowly resorbed and induced de novo bone fon

  16. Physico-Chemical Properties of MgGa Mixed Oxides and Reconstructed Layered Double Hydroxides and Their Performance in Aldol Condensation of Furfural and Acetone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Kikhtyanin

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available MgGa layered double hydroxides (Mg/Ga = 2–4 were synthesized and used for the preparation of MgGa mixed oxides and reconstructed hydrotalcites. The properties of the prepared materials were examined by physico-chemical methods (XRD, TGA, NH3-TPD, CO2-TPD, SEM, and DRIFT and tested in aldol condensation of furfural and acetone. The as-prepared phase-pure MgGa samples possessed hydrotalcite structure, and their calcination resulted in mixed oxides with MgO structure with a small admixture phase characterized by a reflection at 2θ ≈ 36.0°. The interaction of MgGa mixed oxides with pure water resulted in reconstruction of the HTC structure already after 15 s of the rehydration with maximum crystallinity achieved after 60 s. TGA-MS experiments proved a substantial decrease in carbonates in all rehydrated samples compared with their as-prepared counterparts. This allowed suggesting presence of interlayer hydroxyls in the samples. Acido-basic properties of MgGa mixed oxides determined by TPD technique did not correlate with Mg/Ga ratio which was explained by the specific distribution of Ga atoms on the external surface of the samples. CO2-TPD method was also used to evaluate the basic properties of the reconstructed MgGa samples. In these experiments, an intensive peak at T = 450°C on CO2-TPD curve was attributed to the decomposition of carbonates newly formed by CO2 interaction with interlayer carbonates rather than to CO2 desorption from basic sites. Accordingly, CO2-TPD method quantitatively characterized the interlayer hydroxyls only indirectly. Furfural conversion on reconstructed MgGa materials was much larger compared with MgGa mixed oxides confirming that Brønsted basic sites in MgGa catalysts, like MgAl catalysts, were active in the reaction. Mg/Ga ratio in mixed oxides influenced product selectivity which was explained by the difference in textural properties of the samples. In contrast, Mg/Ga ratio in reconstructed catalysts had

  17. Physico-Chemical Properties of MgGa Mixed Oxides and Reconstructed Layered Double Hydroxides and Their Performance in Aldol Condensation of Furfural and Acetone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikhtyanin, Oleg; Čapek, Libor; Tišler, Zdeněk; Velvarská, Romana; Panasewicz, Adriana; Diblíková, Petra; Kubička, David

    2018-01-01

    MgGa layered double hydroxides (Mg/Ga = 2-4) were synthesized and used for the preparation of MgGa mixed oxides and reconstructed hydrotalcites. The properties of the prepared materials were examined by physico-chemical methods (XRD, TGA, NH 3 -TPD, CO 2 -TPD, SEM, and DRIFT) and tested in aldol condensation of furfural and acetone. The as-prepared phase-pure MgGa samples possessed hydrotalcite structure, and their calcination resulted in mixed oxides with MgO structure with a small admixture phase characterized by a reflection at 2θ ≈ 36.0°. The interaction of MgGa mixed oxides with pure water resulted in reconstruction of the HTC structure already after 15 s of the rehydration with maximum crystallinity achieved after 60 s. TGA-MS experiments proved a substantial decrease in carbonates in all rehydrated samples compared with their as-prepared counterparts. This allowed suggesting presence of interlayer hydroxyls in the samples. Acido-basic properties of MgGa mixed oxides determined by TPD technique did not correlate with Mg/Ga ratio which was explained by the specific distribution of Ga atoms on the external surface of the samples. CO 2 -TPD method was also used to evaluate the basic properties of the reconstructed MgGa samples. In these experiments, an intensive peak at T = 450°C on CO 2 -TPD curve was attributed to the decomposition of carbonates newly formed by CO 2 interaction with interlayer carbonates rather than to CO 2 desorption from basic sites. Accordingly, CO 2 -TPD method quantitatively characterized the interlayer hydroxyls only indirectly. Furfural conversion on reconstructed MgGa materials was much larger compared with MgGa mixed oxides confirming that Brønsted basic sites in MgGa catalysts, like MgAl catalysts, were active in the reaction. Mg/Ga ratio in mixed oxides influenced product selectivity which was explained by the difference in textural properties of the samples. In contrast, Mg/Ga ratio in reconstructed catalysts had practically

  18. Effects of thermal treatments and germination on physico-chemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Certain physico-chemical properties including viscoelasticity, crystallinity and maltose content of corn depends on the gelatinization of starch under different treatments. Three different treatments were performed; boiling in water, steam heating, and germination. The effects of gelatinization on viscoelastic property of corn ...

  19. Evaluation of radiolabeling of annexin A5 with technetium-99m: influence of the labeling methods on physico-chemical and biological properties of the compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Josefina da Silva

    2009-01-01

    Annexin A5 (ANXA5) is an intracellular human protein of 36 kDa with high affinity for membrane-bound phosphatidylserine that is selectively exposed on the surface of cells undergoing apoptosis. Apoptosis is important in normal physiology and innumerous pathologic states. Clinical applications for ANXA5 imaging are being developed in oncology, organ transplantation and cardiovascular diseases. Many strategies to radiolabel the protein have been described, including direct labeling, derivatization through a bifunctional chelating agent (BFC), production of mutated protein or peptide analogs. Several 99 mTc-labeling techniques have been reported using different cores, including [Tc=O] +3 , [Tc]HYNIC, [Tc≡N]+2 and [Tc(CO 3 )] +1 . In this study, we evaluated the influence of 99 mTc cores on biological behavior and physico-chemical properties of radiolabeled annexin. Radiolabeling procedure using [Tc≡N] +2 core was a two-step procedure including the reaction of 99 mTcO4 - with SDH in the presence of SnCl 2 and PDTA to obtain the intermediate 99 mTcN-SDH, and successive addition of ANXA5. The results obtained were not satisfactory, despite the high efficiency in the production of the intermediate. The [Tc=O] +3 core was produced using the ethylene dicysteine (EC) as BFC. TSTU was employed in the derivatization to produce the corresponding hydroxysuccinimide ester. Different ANXA5:EC ratios were studied and all labeling conditions resulted in high radiochemical yield but with differences in lipophilicity, stability, biological distribution and affinity for apoptotic cells. The HYNIC-ANXA5 also produced the labeled protein with high radiochemical yield. The stability of the radiolabeled ANXA5 was evaluated after storing at room temperature, at 2 - 8 degree C and in human serum at 37 degree C. The analysis of these results showed that the 99 mTc-EC-ANXA5 (ratio 10-2) was the most stable compound in all the studied conditions. Partition coefficient assay resulted in

  20. Alzheimer’s disease against peptides products of enzymatic cleavage APP protein: Biological, pathobiological and physico-chemical properties of fibrillating peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Marszałek

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Various peptides products of enzymatic cleavage of key for Alzheimer’s disease Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP are well known, but still are matter of scientific debate. The Aβ type products are especially challenging for experimental and medical research. This paper outlines several, still poorly known, biological and medical processes such as peptides biology, i.e., formation, biodistribution, translocation, transport and finally removal from brain compartments and body fluids like Intracellular Fluid (ICF, Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF, Interstitial Fluid (ISF, blood serum or urine. In addition, the following studies concerning AD patients might prove challenging and simultaneously promising: peptides translocation through Blood-Brain – Barrier (BBB and Blood–Cerebrospinal Fluid Barrier (BCSFB and their removal from the brain according to a new concept of glymphatic system; – diagnostic difficulties that stem from physico-chemical properties and the nature of proteins or fibrillating peptides itself like low concentration, short half-live and from experimental-technical problems as well like high adsorption or low solubility of Aβ, tau or amylin. The study of diagnostic parameters is very important, as it may better reflect early changes before the disease develops; one such parameter is the Aβ42/Aβ40 ratio, or the ratio with the total tau concentration combination and other new biomarkers like Aβ1-38; other factors include oxidative stress and inflammation process proteins, complement factor H, alpha-2-macroglobulin, or clusterin. The study of various forms of pathological amyloid deposits that emerge in different but specific brain regions AD patients seems to be crucial as well. The composition of the first initial pathological, pre-fibrillating monomers of fibrillating peptides and their role in AD development and disease progression have been described as well. They are even more challenging for science and simultaneously might be

  1. Physico-chemical characterization and cytotoxicity studies of seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The seeds of Khaya senegalensis were extracted using petroleum ether and methanol with the aim of determining the physico-chemical properties of the seed oil and the cytotoxicity of the two extracts. The refractive index of the oil was found to be 1.458, while the relative density was 0.953. The iodine and saponification ...

  2. Physico-chemical and Mineralogical Characterisation of Subsurface ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies were carried out on subsurface sediments obtained around the Gaborone landfill area Botswana, in order to characterize their mineralogy and physico-chemistry, appraise any contaminant inputs from the landfill and assess their ability to attenuate contaminants from the landfill. Physico-chemical properties ...

  3. Externally predictive single-descriptor based QSPRs for physico-chemical properties of polychlorinated-naphthalenes: Exploring relationships of log SW, log KOA, and log KOW with electron-correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chayawan; Vikas

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Aqueous solubility and partition coefficient are modelled using single-parameter. • Electron-correlation observed as a vital predictorof physico-chemical properties. • For octanol-air partition coefficient, energy and polarizability yield best models. • Dipole-moment is found to be worst single-descriptor for the properties analysed. - Abstract: Quantitative structure–property relationships (QSPRs), based only on a single-parameter, are proposed for the prediction of physico-chemical properties, namely, aqueous solubility (log S W ), octanol–water partition coefficient (log K OW ) and octanol–air partition coefficient (log K OA ) of polychloronaphthalenes (PCNs) including all the 75 chloronaphthalene congeners. The QSPR models are developed using molecular descriptors computed through quantum mechanical methods including ab-initio as well as advanced semi-empirical methods. The predictivity of the developed models is tested through state-of-the-art external validation procedures employing an external prediction set of compounds. To analyse the role of instantaneous interactions between electrons (the electron-correlation), the models are also compared with those developed using only the electron-correlation contribution of the quantum chemical descriptor. The electron-correlation contribution towards the chemical hardness and the LUMO energy are observed to be the best predictors for octanol–water partition coefficient, whereas for the octanol–air partition coefficient, the total electronic energy and electron-correlation energy are found to be reliable descriptors, in fact, even better than the polarisability. For aqueous solubility of PCNs, the absolute electronegativity is observed to be the best predictor. This work suggests that the electron-correlation contribution of a quantum-chemical descriptor can be used as a reliable indicator for physico-chemical properties, particularly the partition coefficients

  4. Externally predictive single-descriptor based QSPRs for physico-chemical properties of polychlorinated-naphthalenes: Exploring relationships of log S{sub W}, log K{sub OA}, and log K{sub OW} with electron-correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chayawan; Vikas, E-mail: qlabspu@pu.ac.in

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Aqueous solubility and partition coefficient are modelled using single-parameter. • Electron-correlation observed as a vital predictorof physico-chemical properties. • For octanol-air partition coefficient, energy and polarizability yield best models. • Dipole-moment is found to be worst single-descriptor for the properties analysed. - Abstract: Quantitative structure–property relationships (QSPRs), based only on a single-parameter, are proposed for the prediction of physico-chemical properties, namely, aqueous solubility (log S{sub W}), octanol–water partition coefficient (log K{sub OW}) and octanol–air partition coefficient (log K{sub OA}) of polychloronaphthalenes (PCNs) including all the 75 chloronaphthalene congeners. The QSPR models are developed using molecular descriptors computed through quantum mechanical methods including ab-initio as well as advanced semi-empirical methods. The predictivity of the developed models is tested through state-of-the-art external validation procedures employing an external prediction set of compounds. To analyse the role of instantaneous interactions between electrons (the electron-correlation), the models are also compared with those developed using only the electron-correlation contribution of the quantum chemical descriptor. The electron-correlation contribution towards the chemical hardness and the LUMO energy are observed to be the best predictors for octanol–water partition coefficient, whereas for the octanol–air partition coefficient, the total electronic energy and electron-correlation energy are found to be reliable descriptors, in fact, even better than the polarisability. For aqueous solubility of PCNs, the absolute electronegativity is observed to be the best predictor. This work suggests that the electron-correlation contribution of a quantum-chemical descriptor can be used as a reliable indicator for physico-chemical properties, particularly the partition coefficients.

  5. Physico-chemical study of coating plasma duplex alumina/hydroxyapatite for medical applications relation elaboration/structure/properties(dissolution/adherence/residual constraints)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demonet, N.

    1998-01-01

    The physico-chemical behavior of porous ceramics depositing is studied in order to use them to favour the biological fixing of hip prosthesis fixed without cement. Alumina depositing, hydroxyapatite depositing and duplex (the both together) have been realized by plasma projection on a substrate in Ti-6Al-V. Tests of dissolution have been made. An original method of sound followed by radioactive tracers has allowed to establish an order of phases degradation and to consider the kinetics of calcium ions in function of several parameters of tests. (N.C.)

  6. PHYSICO-CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF MESUA FERREA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    2Department of Chemistry, Rajshahi University of Engineering and ... Studies on the physico-chemical characteristics of seed oils of Mesua ferrea collected ..... Sarkar, Subodh Kumar M.Phil Thesis, Rajshahi University, Bangladesh; 2001; p 91 ...

  7. ASSESSMENT OF PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    B. S. Chandravanshi

    KEY WORDS: Physico-chemical, Pollution, Irrigation, Tsaeda Agam River ... Rivers are the main sources of both drinking water and irrigation for agriculture. They also ..... Suspended solids are present in sanitary wastewater and many types of.

  8. Construction of collagen II/hyaluronate/chondroitin-6-sulfate tri-copolymer scaffold for nucleus pulposus tissue engineering and preliminary analysis of its physico-chemical properties and biocompatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chang-Qing; Huang, Bo; Luo, Gang; Zhang, Chuan-Zhi; Zhuang, Ying; Zhou, Yue

    2010-02-01

    To construct a novel scaffold for nucleus pulposus (NP) tissue engineering, The porous type II collagen (CII)/hyaluronate (HyA)-chondroitin-6-sulfate (6-CS) scaffold was prepared using 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-carbodiimide (EDC) and N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) cross-linking system. The physico-chemical properties and biocompatibility of CII/HyA-CS scaffolds were evaluated. The results suggested CII/HyA-CS scaffolds have a highly porous structure (porosity: 94.8 +/- 1.5%), high water-binding capacity (79.2 +/- 2.8%) and significantly improved mechanical stability by EDC/NHS crosslinking (denaturation temperature: 74.6 +/- 1.8 and 58.1 +/- 2.6 degrees C, respectively, for the crosslinked scaffolds and the non-crosslinked; collagenase degradation rate: 39.5 +/- 3.4 and 63.5 +/- 2.0%, respectively, for the crosslinked scaffolds and the non-crosslinked). The CII/HyA-CS scaffolds also showed satisfactory cytocompatibility and histocompatibility as well as low immunogenicity. These results indicate CII/HyA-CS scaffolds may be an alternative material for NP tissue engineering due to the similarity of its composition and physico-chemical properties to those of the extracellular matrices (ECM) of native NP.

  9. Results of ten years study of Chernobyl NPP release fallout properties and behaviour in soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, Yu.; Kashparov, V.A.; Levchuk, S.; Protsak, V.; Zvaritch, S.; Khomutinin, Yu.; Oreshich, L.

    1997-01-01

    Radioactive contamination of territories of Ukrainian and Byelorussian Polesye as a result of ChNPP accidental release is characterized by high level of un-homogenity of fallout properties (physico-chemical properties, radionuclide composition etc.), density of the territory contamination by long-lived radionuclides. On the other hand, the soil-plant cover of contaminated territory is presented by large set of soils, characterized by contrast physico-chemical and water-physical properties. Peculiarities of the behavior of different radionuclides, represented initially by various components of radioactive fallout, in soils, as a first link of migration chains are considered

  10. Physiological and physico-chemical characterization of dietary fibre from the green seaweed Ulva fasciata Delile

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho,AFU.; Portela,MCC.; Sousa,MB.; Martins,FS.; Rocha,FC.; Farias,DF.; Feitosa,JPA.

    2009-01-01

    This work aims to assess the potential of the green seaweed Ulva fasciata Delile as an alternative source of dietary fibre (DF). Total DF content was determined, some of its physico-chemical properties described and the physiological effects of U. fasciata meal on rats fed a hypercholesterolemic diet were investigated. U. fasciata may be considered a potential alternative source of DF with a total content of about 400 g.kg-1 (dry basis) and interesting physico-chemical properties: water reten...

  11. Effect of natural Bayah zeolite particle size reduction to physico-chemical properties and absortion against potassium permanganate (KMnO4)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widayanti, Siti Mariana; Syamsu, Khaswar; Warsiki, Endang; Yuliani, Sri

    2016-02-01

    Recently, researches on nanotechnology have been developed very rapid, as well as the utilization of nano-zeolites. Nano-sized material has several advantages which are expanding absorptive surfaces so it will enhance the material absorption and shorten the absorption time. Zeolite as a KMnO4 binder, has been widely recognized for its ability to extend the shelf life of vegetables and fruits. This study was conducted to determine zeolites physico-chemical characters from different particle size and the effect on KMnO4 absorption. Potassium permanganate (KMnO4) is a strong oxidizer for reducing the quantity of ethylene in storage process of fresh horticultural products. The treatment consisted of (1) different length of milling time (10, 20, 30, 40, and 60 minutes) and (2) the duration of chemical activation with 1 N KOH solution. Physical and chemical characters of zeolite were analyzed using BET, PSA, XRD and SEM. The research design was randomized design. The result implied that milling time was significantly affecting the zeolite particle size, material surface area, and the size of pore diameter and volume. Milling treatment for 40 minutes produced higher zeolite surface area and pore volume than other treatments. While the duration of chemical activation using 1 N KOH solution gives different effect on zeolite absorption to KMnO4 solution. Milling time for 60 minutes and activated for 48 hours has higher initial adsorption than other treatments.

  12. Wild blueberry polyphenol-protein food ingredients produced by three drying methods: Comparative physico-chemical properties, phytochemical content, and stability during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Roberta; Grace, Mary H; Esposito, Debora; Lila, Mary Ann

    2017-11-15

    Particulate colloidal aggregate food ingredients were prepared by complexing wheat flour, chickpea flour, coconut flour and soy protein isolate with aqueous wild blueberry pomace extracts, then spray drying, freeze drying, or vacuum oven drying to prepare dry, flour-like matrices. Physico-chemical attributes, phytochemical content and stability during storage were compared. Eighteen anthocyanins peaks were identified for samples. Spray dried matrices produced with soy protein isolate had the highest concentration of polyphenols (156.2mg GAE/g) and anthocyanins (13.4mg/g) and the most potent DPPH scavenging activity (714.1μmolesTE/g). Spray dried blueberry polyphenols complexed with protein were protected from degradation during 16weeks at 4°C and 20°C. Soy protein isolate more efficiently captured and stabilized wild blueberry pomace phytochemicals than other protein sources. Overall, spray drying the blueberry extracts complexed with protein proved to be an environment-friendly strategy to produce stable functional ingredients with multiple applications for the food industry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Microbiological Quality Assessment and Physico-chemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two commercial poultry diets namely chick mash and grower mash were obtained from five (5) major poultry feed millers in Ilorin metropolis, Nigeria. A total of seventy – five (75) samples were collected and these diets were examined for their microbiological and physico-chemical qualities. Total bacterial counts in the chick ...

  14. Physico-Chemical Characterization and Pollution Index ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physico-Chemical Characterization and Pollution Index Determination of Leachates from Warri Waste Dumpsite, Southern Nigeria. ... This study characterizes the leachates quality of an active dumpsite in Warri, Delta State and also analyses its contamination or pollution potential. Leachate Pollution Index (LPI) - a tool for ...

  15. Physico-chemical characterisation of Slovak wines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbora Lapčíková

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was characterisation of selected varieties of still wines produced in Slovak Republic in vintage year 2013 and one 2012. There were tested ten samples of nine varieties of wines originated from Malokarpatská "Lesser Carpathian" and Južnoslovenská "Southern Slovakia" wine regions of Slovak Republic, Dornfelder, Frankovka modrá, Svätovarinecké, Zweigeltrebe, Müller Thurgau, Veltlínské zelené, Rizling rýnsky, Rizling vlašský and Sauvignon wines. There were studied selected physico-chemical properties of tested wines as a total contents of anthocyanins and polyphenols by means of spectrophotometry, titratable acidity, density and chromatic characteristics. The highest content of anthocyanins (TAC was found in red wine Frankovka modrá, 183 mg.L-1 and the lowest for sample rose wine St. Laurent 19 mg.L-1. The content of total phenolic compounds as a gallic acid was in range 2833 to 1961 mg.L-1 for red wines, 1016 and 1013 mg.L-1 for rose wines, 1085 to 549 mg.L-1for white wines.  Total acidy was average 6.3 ±0.3 g.L-1 only for Ryzling rýnský, 8.2 g.L-1 and Sauvignon rose 8.0 g.L-1 and was expressed as the amount of tartaric acid. Quality of wines can be expressed by colour intensity too. Was evaluated and compared intensity of colour in wines by CIE Lab method and the total differences between red, rose and white wine DE* was calculated. The most differences was found for Svätovarinecké a Frankovka modrá (2.5 - red wines ("clearly perceptible" and 4.9 for Veltlýnské zelené and Müller Thurgau - white wine ("moderating effect".

  16. Characterization of Physico-Chemical Properties and Antioxidant Capacities of Bioactive Honey Produced from Australian Grown Agastache rugosa and its Correlation with Colour and Poly-Phenol Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushil Anand

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant and antimicrobial components of honey vary based on sourced of nectar. Medicinal plants with the therapeutic value have potential to produce honey with greater bioactivity. The aim of the present study was to characterize the physico-chemical and antioxidant capacities of Agastache honey produced from Agastache rugosa and compare them with other popular commercial honeys sold in Australia. The total phenolics, total flavonoids, moisture content, colour, pH, protein content and antioxidant capacity were evaluated for Agastache, Manuka, Jelly bush, Tea tree, Super manuka and Jarrah honeys. The results reveal that the moisture content ranged from 17–21%, pH ranged from 3.8–4.3 and estimated protein content ranged from 900–2200 µg/g. The DPPH•, ABTS•+, ORAC and FRAP methods were used to measure the antioxidant capacity of the honey samples. The DPPH• % inhibition, ABTS•+, ORAC and FRAP values for Agastache honey were 9.85 (±1.98 µmol TE/g, 26.88 (±0.32 µmol TE/g, 19.78 (±1.1 µmol TE/g and 3.61 (±0.02 µmol TE/g whereas the highest antioxidant capacity values obtained were 18.69 (±0.9 µmol TE/g, 30.72 (±0.27 µmol TE/g, 26.95 (±0.9 µmol TE/g and 3.68 (±0.04 µmol TE/g, respectively. There was a positive correlation between colour, total phenolic content and DPPH• scavenging activity for most of the honeys except Tea tree honey. However, there was no clear correlation with ABTS•+, ORAC and FRAP values. The measured antioxidant capacity of samples varied with the assays used. The DPPH• assay clearly indicated that the phenolic compounds contribute to the scavenging activity of the honeys. Nevertheless, all assays confirm that Agastache honey has significant antioxidant capacity. Therefore, Agastache honey can be important to human nutrition and health.

  17. Satiating properties of diets rich in dietary fibre fed to sows asevaluated by physico-chemical properties, gastric emptying rate and physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Henry; Theil, Peter Kappel; Bach Knudsen, Knud Erik

    2010-01-01

    and these satiating properties could be attributed to increased swelling and WBC in the stomach, which in turn delayed the gastric emptying rate of the liquid phase of gastric content. Measurements of gastric emptying turned out to be a practical tool for ranking of the ability of DF sources to reduce activity...

  18. Fizičko-hemijske i detonacione karakteristike nitraminskih eksploziva - RDX, HMX i CL-20 / Physico-chemical and detonation properties of nitramine explosives: RDX, HMX and CL-20

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana Anđelković-Lukić

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available U radu su prikazane fizičko-hemijske i detonacione karakteristike nitraminskih brizantnih eksploziva, heksogena i oktogena, uporedene sa osobinama novog cikličnog nitraminskog eksploziva CL-20. Novi visokobrizantni eksploziv CL-20 postoji u četiri kristalne forme, stabilne na različitim temepraturama. Ima bolje detonacione karakteristike od heksogena i oktogena veću gustinu i brzinu detonacije, all mnogo veću osetljivost na udar i trenje, reda PETN. Zbog toga se ovaj eksploziv flegmatizuje sa polimerima etilenvinilacetatom (EVA i estanom. Da bi se povećale energetske performanse eksploziva i smanjila osetljivost na mehanička dejstva eksplozivu CL-20 dodaju se visokoenergetski materijali, fluoronitrojedinjenja (FEFO. / In this paper the physico-chemical and detonation properties of nitramine high explosives, hexogen and octogen, are presented and compared with a polycyclic nitramine high explosive CL-20. This new high explosive CL-20 exists in four crystalline forms, stable at different temperatures. CL-20 has better detonation properties than hexogen and octogen, higher density and detonation rate, but greater impact and friction sensitivity (of PETN class. So it is necessary to bond this explosive with polymers-ethylenvinil acetat (EVA and estane to reduce sensitivity to mechanical effects. CL-20 can be prepared by adding high energy materials-fluoro-nitro compounds (FEFO as regulators of energy performances.

  19. Effect of ultrasound treatment on the wet heating Maillard reaction between mung bean [Vigna radiate (L.)] protein isolates and glucose and on structural and physico-chemical properties of conjugates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhongjiang; Han, Feifei; Sui, Xiaonan; Qi, Baokun; Yang, Yong; Zhang, Hui; Wang, Rui; Li, Yang; Jiang, Lianzhou

    2016-03-30

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of ultrasound treatment on the wet heating Maillard reaction between mung bean protein isolates (MBPIs) and glucose, and on structural and physico-chemical properties of the conjugates. The degree of glycosylation of MBPI-glucose conjugates treated by ultrasound treatment and wet heating (MBPI-GUH) was higher than that of MBPI-glucose conjugates only treated by wet heating (MBPI-GH). Solubility, emulsification activity, emulsification stability and surface hydrophobicity of MBPI-GUH were higher than that of MBPI-GH. Grafted MBPIs had a lower content of α-helix and unordered coil, but a higher content of β-sheet and β-turn structure than MBPIs. No significant structural changes were observed in β-turn and random coil structure of MBPI-GUH, while α-helix content increased with ultrasonic time, and decreased at 300 W ultrasonic power with the increase of β-sheet. MBPI-GUH had a less compact tertiary structure compared to MBPI-GH and MBPI. Grafting MBPIs with glucose formed conjugates of higher molecular weight, while no significant changes were observed in electrophoresis profiles of MBPI-GUH. Ultrasound-assisted wet heating Maillard reaction between MBPIs and glucose could be a promising way to improve functional properties of MBPIs. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Long-term behaviour of iron in clay soils: a study of world war 1 remains by physico-chemical and electrochemical characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pons, E.; Uran, L.; Lemaitre, C.; David, D.; Joiret, S.; Hugot-Le Goff, A.

    2003-01-01

    Iron archaeological analogues constitute a good way to contribute to the definition of the containers for high-level radioactive wastes. In the present study we considered objects from a battle field of world war 1. Visual and microscopic observations revealed 2 corrosion layers of similar thickness: an external layer that appeared orange-brown, about 200 μm to 1 mm thick and in contact with the metallic cores an internal layer which was dark-grey. The Raman spectroscopy testing showed that the external layer was made out of oxy-hydroxides, mixed with crystals from the soil, while the presence of oxides was always associated with the internal corrosion layer. Electrochemical measurements clearly illustrated a different behaviour between the 2 corrosion layers. Impedance spectroscopy measuring confirmed the porosity of the external layer. Polarization tests were performed in Evian water to better understand the behaviour of the internal corrosion layer, an indicative corrosion current was defined and its measurement confirmed the protective role of the internal layer against corrosion. Nevertheless the burial environment seems to play also a significant role in the slowdown of the corrosion. (A.C.)

  1. Efficiency of emulsifier-free emulsions and emulsions containing rapeseed lecithin as delivery systems for vectorization and release of coenzyme Q10: physico-chemical properties and in vitro evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaci, M; Arab-Tehrany, E; Dostert, G; Desjardins, I; Velot, E; Desobry, S

    2016-11-01

    To improve the encapsulation and release of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), emulsifier-free-emulsions were developed with a new emulsification process using high-frequency ultrasound (HFU) at 1.7MHz. Nano-emulsions containing CoQ10 were prepared with or without rapeseed lecithin as an emulsifier. The emulsions prepared with HFU were compared with an emulsion of CoQ10 containing emulsifier prepared with the same emulsification technique as well as with emulsions prepared with low-frequency ultrasound coupled with high-pressure homogenization (LFU+HPH). The physico-chemical properties of the emulsions were determined by average droplet size measurement with nano-droplet tracking analysis, droplet surface charge with ζ potential measurement, surface tension and rheological behaviour. Emulsions made by LFU+HPH with an emulsifier showed lower droplet sizes due to cavitation generated by the HFU process. Surface tension results showed that there was no significant difference between emulsions containing lecithin emulsifier regardless of the preparation process or the inclusion of CoQ10. In vitro biocompatibility tests were performed on human mesenchymal stem cells in order to show the cytotoxicity of various formulations and the efficiency of CoQ10-loaded emulsions. In vitro tests proved that the vectors were not toxic. Furthermore, CoQ10 facilitated a high rate of cell proliferation and metabolic activity especially when in an emulsifier-free formulation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Influence of the physico-chemical properties of CeO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} mixed oxides on the catalytic oxidation of NO to NO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atribak, Idriss; Guillen-Hurtado, Noelia; Bueno-Lopez, Agustin [MCMA Group, Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Alicante, Carretera San Vicente del Raspeig s/n - 03690 San Vicente del Raspeig, Alicante (Spain); Garcia-Garcia, Avelina, E-mail: a.garcia@ua.es [MCMA Group, Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Alicante, Carretera San Vicente del Raspeig s/n - 03690 San Vicente del Raspeig, Alicante (Spain)

    2010-10-01

    Commercial and home-made Ce-Zr catalysts prepared by co-precipitation were characterised by XRD, Raman spectroscopy, N{sub 2} adsorption at -196 deg. C and XPS, and were tested for NO oxidation to NO{sub 2}. Among the different physico-chemical properties characterised, the surface composition seems to be the most relevant one in order to explain the NO oxidation capacity of these Ce-Zr catalysts. As a general trend, Ce-Zr catalysts with a cerium-rich surface, that is, high XPS-measured Ce/Zr atomic surface ratios, are more active than those with a Zr-enriched surface. The decrease in catalytic activity of the Ce-Zr mixed oxided upon calcinations at 800 deg. C with regard to 500 deg. C is mainly attributed to the decrease in Ce/Zr surface ratio, that is, to the surface segregation of Zr. The phase composition (cubic or t'' for Ce-rich compositions) seems not to be a direct effect on the catalytic activity for NO oxidation in the range of compositions tested. However, the formation of a proper solid solution prevents important surface segregation of Zr upon calcinations at high temperature. The effect of the BET surface area in the catalytic activity for NO oxidation of Ce-Zr mixed oxides is minor in comparison with the effect of the Ce/Zr surface ratio.

  3. Low strength ultrasonication positively affects the methanogenic granules toward higher AD performance. Part I: Physico-chemical characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cho, S. K.; Hwang, Yuhoon; Kim, D. H.

    2013-01-01

    To elucidate the correlation between enhanced biogas production and changed physico-chemical properties of methanogenic granules after low strength ultrasonication, in this study, the effects of low strength ultrasonication on the settling velocity, permeability, porosity, and fluid collection ef...

  4. Primary productivity, phytoplankton standing crop and physico-chemical characteristics of the Antarctic and adjacent central Indian Ocean waters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    JiyalalRam, M.

    Primary productivity, phytoplankton pigments and physico-chemical properties were studied in Antarctic waters and adjoining Indian Ocean between 11 degrees and 67 degrees E longitudes from polynya region (60 degrees S) to equator during the austral...

  5. A laboratory study of the effects of acid rain on industrial waste and its impact on the physico-chemical properties of groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dehaye, J.; Badillo, M.; Zikovsky, L.

    1988-01-01

    Column experiments were used to study the leaching of 4 samples of industrial waste and 5 soil samples by distilled water and by synthetic acid rain solutions (HNO 3 and H 2 SO 4 at pH 3). The pH, the electrical conductivity, the total dissolved solids and the concentration of Al, Ca, Cl, Cr, Fe, K, Mg, Mn and Na were measured in the resulting lixiviates. The pH of the water seems to have little effect on all these parameters but they are significantly influenced by the nature of the solid material. (author) 6 refs.; 2 tabs

  6. Physico chemical evaluation of coffee husk, wastes of enset (Enset ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physico chemical evaluation of coffee husk, wastes of enset (Enset ventricosum), vegetable and khat (Catha edulis) through vermicomposting employing an epigeic earthworm Dendrobaena veneta (Rosa, 1886)

  7. Influence of different water-ethanol solvent systems on the spectroscopic and physico-chemical properties of the macrocyclic compounds pheophytin and chlorophyll a

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, Leonardo M.; Rodrigues, Maira R.; Oliveira, Hueder P. M. de; Lima, Adriana; Soares, Rafael R. S.; Batistela, Vagner R.; Gerola, Adriana P.; Hioka, Noboru; Severino, Divinomar; Baptista, Mauricio S.; Machado, Antonio Eduardo da Hora

    2010-01-01

    This work focus on the influence of solvent on the photophysical properties of chlorophyll a and pheophytin. Both compounds are related to the photosynthesis process and are considered prototypes of photosensitizers in Photodynamic Therapy. Fluorescence measurements were developed using water/ethanol mixtures at different compositions, since both solvents could be employed in biological applications. The spectroscopic properties of these compounds undergo profound changes depending on water content in the ethanol due to auto-aggregation processes. The major hydrophobicity and the lower dielectric constant of ethanol when compared with water precluded significantly the auto-aggregation process of these compounds. (author)

  8. Effect of ultrafiltration process on physico-chemical, rheological, microstructure and thermal properties of syrups from male and female date palm saps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhlouf-Gafsi, Ines; Baklouti, Samia; Mokni, Abir; Danthine, Sabine; Attia, Hamadi; Blecker, Christophe; Besbes, Souhail; Masmoudi, Manel

    2016-07-15

    This study investigates the effect of the ultrafiltration process on physicochemical, rheological, microstructure and thermal properties of syrups from male and female date palm sap. All the studied syrups switched from pseudoplastic rheological behaviour (n=0.783) to Newtonian behaviour (n∼1) from 10 to 50 °C respectively and present similar thermal profiles. Results revealed that the ultrafiltration process significantly affects the rheological behaviour of the male and female syrups. These differences on rheological properties are attributed to the variation of chemical composition between sap and sap permeate syrups. Furthermore, the effect of temperature on viscosity of the syrups was investigated during heating and cooling processes at the same shear rate (50s(-1)). This study provides idea of the stability of the syrup by evaluating the area between heating and cooling curves. Actually, the syrup prepared from male sap permeate is the most stable between the four studied syrups. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Synthesis and physico-chemical properties of (R,S)-6-ditrideuteriomethylamino-4,4-diphenylheptan-3-one hydrochloride (methadone-d6)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerardy, B.M.; Poupaert, J.H.; Vandervorst, D.; Dumont, P.; Declerq, J.-P.; Meerssche, M. van; Portoghese, P.S.

    1985-01-01

    A reaction sequence is described to synthesize (R,S)-6-ditrideuteriomethylamino-4,4-diphenylheptan-3-one hydrochloride (methado-ne-d 6 .HC1) in 10.5% overall yield starting from dimethylamine-d 6 hydrochloride. While methadone-d 6 .HC1 had rather similar physicochemical properties compared to methadone.HC1 in the solid phase, a divergent behaviour was observed in solution (pKa, chromatographic and 13 C-NMR data). A higher basicity along with a more important hydrophilicity were observed for the d 6 -derivative. A 13 C-NMR study showed significant differences in the 13 C chemical shifts, which were attributed in part to the intrinsic nature of D itself and in part to a conformational perturbation. The longer duration of antinociceptive action, along with higher tsub(1/2) and clearance, and the depression of the metabolic N-demethylation process were the only biological properties modified by the deuteration. (author)

  10. Physico-chemical properties of binary mixtures of N,N-dimethylformamide with 1-octanol, 1-nonanol and 1-decanol at different temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AlTuwaim, Mohammad S.; Alkhaldi, Khaled H.A.E.; Al-Jimaz, Adel S.; Mohammad, Abubaker A.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Physical properties of binary mixtures of DMF+1-octanol, 1-nonanol or 1-decanol at different temperatures were investigated. ► Densities, refractive indices and speed of sound were measured. ► V E , K s E , u D and n D E were calculated using the experimental data. ► Speed of sound data were analyzed using different theories and relations. -- Abstract: The density, refractive index and speed of sound for binary mixtures of N,N-dimethylformamide with 1-octanol, 1-nonanol and 1-decanol were measured at several temperatures and atmospheric pressure over the entire range of mole fraction. Excess molar volumes, isentropic and excess isentropic compressibilities, excess refractive indices and deviations in speed of sound for the above systems were calculated from the experimental results. Furthermore, excess properties and deviations in speed of sound were fitted to the Redlich–Kister polynomial. The Lorentz–Lorenz, Dale–Gladstone, Eykman and Arago–Biot mixing rules were used to calculate the refractive indices of the binary mixtures. The speeds of sound have been analyzed in term of Schaaffs’ collision factor theory, Jacobson’s intermolecular free length theory of solutions, Nomoto relation and Van Deal ideal mixture relation. The calculated excess molar properties have been qualitatively used to explain the intermolecular interaction between the mixed components as well as the effects of n-alkanol chain length

  11. Fibre from pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.) seeds and rinds: physico-chemical properties, antioxidant capacity and application as bakery product ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyam, K L; Lau, M; Tan, C P

    2013-04-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the proximate composition, functional properties and antioxidant activity of pumpkin seeds and rind. Besides, the effects of dietary fibre in pumpkin seeds and rinds on bread qualities and properties were evaluated. Formulations for bread substituted with 0%, 5% and 10% pumpkin seed and rind, respectively were produced. Sensory evaluation of the prepared bread samples for such attributes as appearance, aroma, flavour, texture and overall acceptability was undertaken. The physical properties of the bread samples, including dough expansion, loaf volume, crumb colour and bread texture, were determined. Proximate analysis and determination of antioxidant activity of the bread samples were also conducted. Crude fibre of the pumpkin seeds and pumpkin rinds was high at 31.48% and 14.83%, respectively. The total phenolic compound (TPC) and DPPH radical scavenging activity for the pumpkin rinds were 38.60 mg GAE/100 g dry weight and 69.38%, respectively, which were higher than those of pumpkin seeds. A 5% level of pumpkin rind bread gave the best overall acceptability and sensory attributes, followed by 5% pumpkin seed bread. Total dietary fibre, total phenolic compound and DPPH radical scavenging activity in breads substituted with 5% pumpkin seed and 5% pumpkin rind flour were higher than the values in control bread. Pumpkin seeds and rinds can be used as dietary fibre sources in bakery.

  12. Towards sustainable processing of columbite group minerals: elucidating the relation between dielectric properties and physico-chemical transformations in the mineral phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Segado, Sergio; Monti, Tamara; Katrib, Juliano; Kingman, Samuel; Dodds, Chris; Jha, Animesh

    2017-12-21

    Current methodologies for the extraction of tantalum and niobium pose a serious threat to human beings and the environment due to the use of hydrofluoric acid (HF). Niobium and tantalum metal powders and pentoxides are widely used for energy efficient devices and components. However, the current processing methods for niobium and tantalum metals and oxides are energy inefficient. This dichotomy between materials use for energy applications and their inefficient processing is the main motivation for exploring a new methodology for the extraction of these two oxides, investigating the microwave absorption properties of the reaction products formed during the alkali roasting of niobium-tantalum bearing minerals with sodium bicarbonate. The experimental findings from dielectric measurement at elevated temperatures demonstrate an exponential increase in the values of the dielectric properties as a result of the formation of NaNbO 3 -NaTaO 3 solid solutions at temperatures above 700 °C. The investigation of the evolution of the dielectric properties during the roasting reaction is a key feature in underpinning the mechanism for designing a new microwave assisted high-temperature process for the selective separation of niobium and tantalum oxides from the remainder mineral crystalline lattice.

  13. Influence of Pyrolysis Temperature on Physico-Chemical Properties of Corn Stover (Zea mays L. Biochar and Feasibility for Carbon Capture and Energy Balance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Khalid Rafiq

    Full Text Available This study examined the influence of pyrolysis temperature on biochar characteristics and evaluated its suitability for carbon capture and energy production. Biochar was produced from corn stover using slow pyrolysis at 300, 400 and 500°C and 2 hrs holding time. The experimental biochars were characterized by elemental analysis, BET, FTIR, TGA/DTA, NMR (C-13. Higher heating value (HHV of feedstock and biochars was measured using bomb calorimeter. Results show that carbon content of corn stover biochar increased from 45.5% to 64.5%, with increasing pyrolysis temperatures. A decrease in H:C and O:C ratios as well as volatile matter, coupled with increase in the concentration of aromatic carbon in the biochar as determined by FTIR and NMR (C-13 demonstrates a higher biochar carbon stability at 500°C. It was estimated that corn stover pyrolysed at 500°C could provide of 10.12 MJ/kg thermal energy. Pyrolysis is therefore a potential technology with its carbon-negative, energy positive and soil amendment benefits thus creating win- win scenario.

  14. Influence of Pyrolysis Temperature on Physico-Chemical Properties of Corn Stover (Zea mays L.) Biochar and Feasibility for Carbon Capture and Energy Balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiq, Muhammad Khalid; Bachmann, Robert Thomas; Rafiq, Muhammad Tariq; Shang, Zhanhuan; Joseph, Stephen; Long, Ruijun

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the influence of pyrolysis temperature on biochar characteristics and evaluated its suitability for carbon capture and energy production. Biochar was produced from corn stover using slow pyrolysis at 300, 400 and 500°C and 2 hrs holding time. The experimental biochars were characterized by elemental analysis, BET, FTIR, TGA/DTA, NMR (C-13). Higher heating value (HHV) of feedstock and biochars was measured using bomb calorimeter. Results show that carbon content of corn stover biochar increased from 45.5% to 64.5%, with increasing pyrolysis temperatures. A decrease in H:C and O:C ratios as well as volatile matter, coupled with increase in the concentration of aromatic carbon in the biochar as determined by FTIR and NMR (C-13) demonstrates a higher biochar carbon stability at 500°C. It was estimated that corn stover pyrolysed at 500°C could provide of 10.12 MJ/kg thermal energy. Pyrolysis is therefore a potential technology with its carbon-negative, energy positive and soil amendment benefits thus creating win- win scenario.

  15. Effect of electromagnetic radiation on the physico-chemical properties of minerals; Efecto de la radiacion electromagnetica en las propiedades fisicoquimicas de los minerales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez M, A.; Delgadillo G, J. A. [Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, Instituto de Metalurgia, Doctorado Institucional de Ingenieria y Ciencia de Materiales, Av. Sierra Leona 550, 78210 San Luis Potosi (Mexico); Vega C, H. R., E-mail: alopezm6@yahoo.com.mx [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico)

    2014-08-15

    The electromagnetic radiation effect represented by gamma rays was investigated through; chemical analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (Sem) and magnetization when applied at a dose of 0.5704 Gy (0.5704 J/ kg) at a feed relation of 18.40 ± 1.13 mGy/ h., in different minerals; in order to characterize the impact of the same from {sup 137}Cs in the physicochemical properties of these minerals. All the irradiated samples showed chemical stability at this stage undetectable other both in the XRD study and in the images analysis obtained by Sem; and at present almost the same chemical composition as the non-irradiated samples. So the same patterns of X-ray diffraction thereof, show a tendency to slightly lower the intensity of the most representative peaks of each mineral phase, which may be due to a decrease in crystallinity or preferential crystallographic orientation in crystals. In the micrographs analysis obtained by Sem on the irradiated samples, some holes (open pores) present in the particles were observed, mainly chalcopyrite and sphalerite lesser extent, seen this fact may be due to Compton Effect, in the radiation process. In relation to the magnetization property, a variation is obtained in the saturation magnetization (Ms) for the irradiated samples containing iron and more significantly in the chalcopyrite case. Therefore, with the radiation level used; slight changes occurring in the physical properties of minerals, whereas they remained stable chemically. These small changes may represent a signal that electromagnetic radiation applied at higher doses, is a viable option for improving the mineral processing. (author)

  16. Improvement of physico-chemical properties and phenolic compounds bioavailability by concentrating dietary fiber of peach (Prunus persica) juice by-product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-González, Sarahí; Pérez-Ramírez, Iza F; Castaño-Tostado, Eduardo; Amaya-Llano, Silvia; Rodríguez-García, Mario E; Reynoso-Camacho, Rosalía

    2018-06-01

    This study aimed to concentrate dietary fiber (DF) from peach (Prunus persica) juice by-product (PJBP), to improve its functional properties, and its polyphenols bioavailability. The dietary fiber concentrates (DFCs) were obtained from PJBP using water/ethanol treatments (100:0, 20:80, 50:50, 80:20, and 0:100, v/v) at 1:5 ratio (wet weight/solvent, w/v) for 5 and 20 min at 21 °C. All treatments concentrated condensed tannins, total and insoluble DF, with the highest content found with 100% H 2 O treatment. The major polyphenols of DFC were 4-O-caffeoylquinic, chlorogenic, and 1,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acids. Water and oil retention capacity and maximum glucose diffusion rate were improved mainly with 100% H 2 O treatment. Healthy rats were fed with a standard diet supplemented with 8% of PJBP, DFC obtained with 100% H 2 O for 5 min, or DFC obtained with 20% EtOH for 5 min. Gastrointestinal digesta weight and viscosity were increased in animals supplemented with 100% H 2 O DFC. Moreover, the urinary excretion of polyphenol metabolites, mainly glucuronide and sulfate conjugates, was increased with this treatment, indicating a greater bioavailability of PJBP polyphenols, which was associated with an increased dietary fiber porosity. Water treatment could be used to potentiate PJBP functional properties and polyphenols bioavailability. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Physico-chemical, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties and stability of hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna Jacq.) procyanidins microcapsules with inulin and maltodextrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyspiańska, Dorota; Kucharska, Alicja Z; Sokół-Łętowska, Anna; Kolniak-Ostek, Joanna

    2017-01-01

    Procyanidins from the bark of hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna Jacq.) were isolated and purified. Qualitative and quantitative composition was compared with that of the extract of hawthorn fruit (Crataegus monogyna Jacq.). Stability and antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of procyanidins before and after micro-encapsulation were estimated. The effects of the carrier type (inulin and maltodextrin) and procyanidins:carrier ratio (1:1, 1:3) and the influence of storage temperature (20 °C, -20 °C, -80 °C) on the content of procyanidins were evaluated. Samples before and after micro-encapsulation contained from 651 to 751 mg of procyanidins in 1 g. Among the procyanidins, (-)-epicatechin, dimer B2, and trimer C1 dominated. The use of inulin during spray drying resulted in greater efficiency of micro-encapsulation than the use of maltodextrin. During storage of the samples at 20 °C degradation of procyanidins was observed, whereas at -20 °C and -80 °C concentrations of them increased. The microcapsules with procyanidins from the bark of hawthorn, as well as the extract of procyanidins, have valuable biological activity, and strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. It is better to prepare microcapsules with a greater amount of carrier, with the procyanidin/carrier ratio 1:3. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Preparation and characterization of baru (Dipteryx alata Vog) nut protein isolate and comparison of its physico-chemical properties with commercial animal and plant protein isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Ângela A; Favaro, Simone P; Miranda, Cesar H B; Neves, Valdir A

    2017-01-01

    The Brazilian leguminous tree locally known in the Cerrado Biome as baru (Dipteryx alata Vog), provides a healthy edible oil source. The proteinaceous cake remaining after oil extraction could be transformed into new products to foodstuff development, such as protein concentrates and isolates, adding value to the production chain. In this study, it is described the preparation and characterization of baru nut protein isolate (BPI) from deffated baru flour, and measurements of its functional, nutritional, and thermal properties, in comparison to the more common vegetable (soybeans) and animal (casein and albumin) protein sources of the food industry. BPI presented higher protein content than soybean, casein and albumin commercial protein isolates, despite losses of albumins and low molecular weight globulins during the isolation procedure. Thermodynamics studies suggested that BPI has a well-conserved protein arrangement and lower thermostability than the other protein sources. BPI showed high in vitro digestibility and suitable and desirable functional properties such as water and oil absorption capacity, emulsifying activity, and foam formation and stability at mild and neutral pH. BPI could be used either as a substitute ingredient in oily food formulations or in the development of new products of its own. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Physico-chemical properties of Moringa oleifera seed oil enzymatically interesterified with palm stearin and palm kernel oil and its potential application in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dollah, Sarafhana; Abdulkarim, Sabo Mohammed; Ahmad, Siti Hajar; Khoramnia, Anahita; Mohd Ghazali, Hasanah

    2016-08-01

    High oleic acid Moringa oleifera seed oil (MoO) has been rarely applied in food products due to the low melting point and lack of plasticity. Enzymatic interesterification (EIE) of MoO with palm stearin (PS) and palm kernel oil (PKO) could yield harder fat stocks that may impart desirable nutritional and physical properties. Blends of MoO and PS or PKO were examined for triacylglycerol (TAG) composition, thermal properties and solid fat content (SFC). EIE caused rearrangement of TAGs, reduction of U3 and increase of U2 S in MoO/PS blends while reduction of U3 and S3 following increase of S2 U and U2 S in MoO/PKO blends (U, unsaturated and S, saturated fatty acids). SFC measurements revealed a wide range of plasticity, enhancements of spreadability, mouthfeel and cooling effect for interesterified MoO/PS, indicating the possible application of these blends in margarines. However, interesterified MoO/PKO was not suitable in margarine application, while ice-cream may be formulated from these blends. A soft margarine formulated from MoO/PS 70:30 revealed high oxidative stability during 8 weeks storage with no significant changes in peroxide and p-anisidine values. EIE of fats with MoO allowed nutritional and oxidative stable plastic fats to be obtained, suitable for possible use in industrial food applications. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Effect of Temperature on the Physico-Chemical Properties of a Room Temperature Ionic Liquid (1-Methyl-3-pentylimidazolium Hexafluorophosphate) with Polyethylene Glycol Oligomer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tzi-Yi; Chen, Bor-Kuan; Hao, Lin; Peng, Yu-Chun; Sun, I-Wen

    2011-01-01

    A systematic study of the effect of composition on the thermo-physical properties of the binary mixtures of 1-methyl-3-pentyl imidazolium hexafluorophosphate [MPI][PF6] with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) [Mw = 400] is presented. The excess molar volume, refractive index deviation, viscosity deviation, and surface tension deviation values were calculated from these experimental density, ρ, refractive index, n, viscosity, η, and surface tension, γ, over the whole concentration range, respectively. The excess molar volumes are negative and continue to become increasingly negative with increasing temperature; whereas the viscosity and surface tension deviation are negative and become less negative with increasing temperature. The surface thermodynamic functions, such as surface entropy, enthalpy, as well as standard molar entropy, Parachor, and molar enthalpy of vaporization for pure ionic liquid, have been derived from the temperature dependence of the surface tension values. PMID:21731460

  1. Effect of Temperature on the Physico-Chemical Properties of a Room Temperature Ionic Liquid (1-Methyl-3-pentylimidazolium Hexafluorophosphate with Polyethylene Glycol Oligomer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Hao

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A systematic study of the effect of composition on the thermo-physical properties of the binary mixtures of 1-methyl-3-pentyl imidazolium hexafluorophosphate [MPI][PF6] with poly(ethylene glycol (PEG [Mw = 400] is presented. The excess molar volume, refractive index deviation, viscosity deviation, and surface tension deviation values were calculated from these experimental density, ρ, refractive index, n, viscosity, η, and surface tension, γ, over the whole concentration range, respectively. The excess molar volumes are negative and continue to become increasingly negative with increasing temperature; whereas the viscosity and surface tension deviation are negative and become less negative with increasing temperature. The surface thermodynamic functions, such as surface entropy, enthalpy, as well as standard molar entropy, Parachor, and molar enthalpy of vaporization for pure ionic liquid, have been derived from the temperature dependence of the surface tension values.

  2. Physico-chemical properties, oxidative stability and non-enzymatic browning in marine phospholipid emulsions and their use in food applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Henna Fung Sieng

    Marine phospholipids (PL) contain a high level of eicosapentaenoic acids (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acids (DHA), which have documented beneficial effect on human health. In addition, marine PL are more advantageous than crude or refined fish oils. Marine PL are more resistant to oxidation, provide...... of current marine PL that was used for emulsion preparation and food application. In addition, the oxidative stability and sensory quality of marine PL fortified products varied depending on the quality and source of marine PL used for fortification. Although the attempts to incorporate marine PL into food...... better bioavailability and ability to form liposomes. All these unique properties of marine PL make them an attractive choice as ingredients for food fortification. Nowadays, a wide range of food products fortified with n-3 triglycerides (TAG) are available worldwide. However, the feasibility of using...

  3. Influence of fat and oil type on the yield, physico-chemical properties, and microstructure of fat, oil, and grease (FOG) deposits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Mundo, Dann Marie N; Sutheerawattananonda, Manote

    2017-11-01

    Fat, oil, and grease (FOG) deposit, in the form of calcium soap, was found to cause sanitary sewer overflows due to its adhesion on pipe walls. To address this problem, laboratory-prepared calcium soaps have been used to investigate the formation mechanisms of FOG deposits. However, the fats and oils previously utilized were limited and some soap characteristics were not examined. This research attempted to probe through the properties of calcium soaps prepared from calcium chloride and the fats and oils of chicken, pork, palm olein, soybean, olive, and coconut to further understand FOG formation and stability. Results revealed that FOG deposits may occur as smooth, paste-like material or coarse, semi-solid substance depending on their exposure to excess fat/oil and calcium. The smooth soaps with more excess fat/oil demonstrated high apparent viscosity and consistency index, while the coarse soaps with large levels of calcium signified higher melting endset. Moreover, a soap microstructure showing evident networks and lesser void area displayed higher heat and rheological stability, respectively. Overall, fats and oils with higher oleic to palmitic acid ratio such as palm olein oil, olive oil, chicken fat, and pork fat produced soaps with greater yield and degree of saponification. Hence, establishments and authorities should be alert in managing and monitoring these wastes. On the other hand, soybean oil high in linoleic acid and coconut oil high in lauric acid do not pose an immediate threat to the sewer system since they only produced soaps in small quantity. However, their soaps showed high melting endset which could pose a serious effect when accumulated at large amount. On the whole, the fatty acid profile of fats and oils, the presence of excess fat/oil, and calcium content mainly dictate the appearance, melting, rheology, and microstructure of calcium soaps. Their distinct properties can be used as criteria in predicting the condition and stability of FOG

  4. Analysis of the influence of synthetic paramaters on the structure and physico-chemical properties of non-spherical iron oxide nanocrystals and their biological stability and compatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo, Alberto; Pujales, Rosa; Blanco, Mateo; Villar-Alvarez, Eva M; Barbosa, Silvia; Taboada, Pablo; Mosquera, Víctor

    2016-01-14

    In this work, we analyzed the effects of subtle changes in the synthetic conditions and synthetic parameters on the resulting size, shape, monodispersity, crystallinity and magnetic properties of iron oxide nanocrystals (IONCs) obtained through a modified one pot method for the production of mainly cubic-shaped nanoparticles (NPs). Cubic, octahedral and cuboctahedral shapes with different sizes and monodispersity could be obtained by slightly changing the stabilizer/precursor molar ratio, the precursor concentration, the reaction time and temperature and/or the heating rate. Their physical properties were evaluated using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), selected-area electron diffraction (SAED) and a superconducting quantum interference (SQUID) device. It was found that monodisperse cubic nanocrystals from ca. 25 to 94 nm could be obtained either by changing the precursor concentration, the heating rate or the reaction time. These cubic nanocrystals were ferrimagnetic in the whole temperature rage analyzed, with saturation magnetization values even larger than those of bulk magnetite. In addition, slightly truncated octahedral NPs could be achieved at relatively large heating ramp rates, whereas cubooctahedral NPs were derived by simply increasing the stabilizer/precursor molar ratio. The saturation magnetization of both types of NPs was slightly lower than the cubic ones, but they were still ferrimagnetic in the whole temperature range analyzed. Moreover, transfer to aqueous solution was possible by a ligand exchange with dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) providing, at the same time, chemical groups for additional functionalization if required. The DMSA-coated cubic IONCs were fairly stable in culture medium, allowing their internalization by different cell types. The NPs inside the cells were located in the cytoplasm and most of them showed a perinuclear distribution. Moreover, a great cytocompatibility in a

  5. Synthesis and physico-chemical property evaluation of PANI–NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanocomposite as electrodes for supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senthilkumar, B.; Vijaya Sankar, K. [Solid State Ionics and Energy Devices Laboratory, Department of Physics, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore 641046 (India); Sanjeeviraja, C. [School of Physics, Alagappa University, Karaikudi 630006, Tamil Nadu (India); Kalai Selvan, R., E-mail: selvankram@buc.edu.in [Solid State Ionics and Energy Devices Laboratory, Department of Physics, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore 641046 (India)

    2013-03-15

    Highlights: ► PANI–NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} composite prepared by in situ-chemical oxidative polymerization method. ► NP1 exhibits high SC (448 F/g) and energy density (50.4 Wh/kg) at 1 mA/cm{sup 2}. ► 80% of capacitance retained even after 1000 cycles at current density of 10 mA/cm{sup 2}. -- Abstract: Nanosized PANI–NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} composites were prepared by in situ-chemical oxidative polymerization method, whereas NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} was synthesized by solution combustion synthesis (SCS) technique. Structural, morphological and electrochemical properties of NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}, PANI and PANI–NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} composites were characterized by XRD, FT-IR, TGA, SEM, TEM, cyclic voltammetry, and galvanostatic charge–discharge techniques. The crystalline nature of NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and PANI–NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} composites was elucidated by X-ray diffraction. FT-IR spectra inferred the polymerization of aniline and revealed the corresponding functional groups of PANI. Cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge–discharge experiments were carried out to study the electrochemical capacitive properties. The PANI–NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} composites (NP1, NP2 and NP3) exhibited enhanced capacitive performance due to the increase in conducting network of PANI. The composite NP1 was provided higher SC of 448 F/g compared to PANI (292 F/g) and other PANI–NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} composites. For the sample NP1, maximum energy density of 50.4 Wh/kg was observed at a current density of 1 mA/cm{sup 2}. Above 80% of capacitance was maintained after 1000 cycles at a higher current density of 10 mA/cm{sup 2}. Hence, the prepared PANI–NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} composites can be used as suitable electrode materials for redox supercapacitors.

  6. Physico-Chemical Characterization and Interfacial Electrochemical Properties of Nanoparticles of Anatase-TiO2 Prepared by the Sol-Gel Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikram Daou

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we prepared by the sol-gel method titanium dioxide nanoparticles having a large specific area (SBET = 218 m2/g. The isotherm of N2 adsorption-desorption at 77K revealed that it concerns a mesoporous solid with a maximum pore diameter of 43 Å. The X-ray diffraction showed that the solid is constituted of the anatase phase. The transmission electron microscopy revealed us that the synthesized grains of TiO2 are of nanometric sizes (diameter between 8 and 20 nm and manifest under agglomerated shape. The study of its solubility in dispersing phase, by conductometric titrations, showed that the prepared solid is totally insoluble in all the domain of the studied pH. The measured inter-facial electrochemical properties, based on the isotherms of ionic adsorption and the conductometric titrations, are: the point of zero charge found equal to 6,2±0,1, the total number of sites of surface found equal to 5,8 OH/nm2 and the nature of action of the dispersed phase on the dispersing phase which is found organizer of the structure of water. Besides, the difference of the ionizationconstants pK is found superior to 4 for all the adsorbed ions and the constants of surface complexation are independent from the nature of the adsorbed ion.

  7. Physico-chemical, morphological and pasting properties of starches extracted from water Chestnuts (Trapa natans from three Lakes of Kashmir, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adil Gani

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies on physicochemical, morphology and pasting properties of starches extracted from water chestnuts of three Lakes of Kashmir valley (Wular, Anchar and Dal Lakes were conducted to determine their application in different food products. The water chestnut starch from Dal Lake had more oval shaped granules than water chestnut starches from the Wular and the Anchar Lakes.The unique feature of the water chestnut starches were shape of starch granules which looked like horn(s protruding from the surface which did not appear in other starches already studied. Proximate analysis of water chestnut starches showed that average protein content were 0.4%, amylose 29.5 % and ash 0.007 on dry weight basis. Increase in water binding capacity, swelling power and solubility was found over a temperature range of 50-90ºC. Water chestnut starches showed an increase in syneresis during freeze thaw cycles and decline in paste clarity upon storage. Starch extracted from the water chestnuts of the Dal Lake showed higher water binding capacity, swelling, solubility, past clarity, freeze thaw stability, peak viscosity, final viscosity and lower protein content, amylose content, pasting temperature and gel firmness than starches extracted from water chestnuts of the Wular and the Anchar Lakes.

  8. Development of polymer concrete radioactive waste management containers - Effect of ceramic fillers on the mechanical and physico-chemical properties of polymer concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Chun; Park, Min Jin; Shin, Hyun Ick; Choi, Yong Jin [Myongji University, Seoul (Korea)

    1999-11-01

    Particle size distribution of the ceramic filler is the primary factor to influence the composition of polymer concrete. The estimated optimum compositions of the polymer concretes prepared in the study are 62 {approx} 71wt% for fine aggregates, 6 {approx} 29wt% for ceramic fillers and 9 {approx}13wt% for polymer resin. Calcium Carbonate and silica are the ceramic fillers practically usable for manufacturing polymer concrete. Less polymer resin is required for the preparation of polymer concrete at lower relative packing volume of ceramic fillers. It has been found that depended on the type of fine aggregates, the effect of ceramic filler on the mechanical behavior of polymer concrete can be opposite. Strength and elastic modulus of polymer concrete are affected by gamma radiation. Crosslinking of unsaturated polyester resin and epoxy resin are promoted by gamma radiation up to 00 MRad and 50 MRad, respectively. However, higher dose of radiation degrades the mechanical properties of polymer concrete. Hydrothermal treatment of polymer concrete at 80 deg. C and 1bar for 30 days causes about 25% reduction of bending strength and elastic modulus. The strength reduction arises from the hydrolysis of ester groups in unsaturated polyester catalyzed by hydrothermal condition. 13 refs., 37 figs., 15 tabs. (Author)

  9. Physico-chemical and bacteriological quality of rainwater in Egbema ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physico-chemical and bacteriological quality of rainwater in Egbema was determined with samples harvested directly, from zinc roof, thatched roof and asbestos roof, at different periods of the rainy season namely, Early, peak and late rains. The values of the physico-chemical parameters were on the higher side at the early ...

  10. The Impact of Refuse Dump sites on the Physico-chemical and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Impact of Refuse Dump sites on the Physico-chemical and Microbial Properties of ground Water in some selected areas. ... Journal of Agricultural Research and Development. Journal Home ... The pollution effect of refuse dumps on the quality of wells at Ojota, Lagos, Apete, Ibadan and Odopetu, Akure were studied.

  11. Microbiological and physico-chemical studies on irradiated dewatered sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilmy, N.; Suwirma, S.; Harsoyo; Suhadi, F.

    1987-01-01

    Microbiological and physico-chemical studies on irradiated dewatered sludge. Microbiological and physico-chemical dewatered have been carried out and non-irradiated dewatered sludge of Jakarta city, collected during the rainy and dry season. Total bacterial counts of non-irradiated dewatered sludge with water content of around 20%, were found to be about 7x10 8 per g during the rainy season and 7x10 6 up to 1.3x10 8 per g during the dry season, while coliform fecal Streptococcus and Pseudomonas were found to be 1.6x10 4 to 1.0x10 7 , 3x10 5 , and 5x10 3 per g, respectively. No Salmonella, Shigella and Vibrio were detected in all of the samples observed. About 10% of the total number of coliforms were found to be Escherichia coli. A dose of 6 kGy could eliminate the coliform, E. Coli, fecal Streptococcus and Pseudomonas from all of the dewatered sludge observed. The nutrient value of the sludge was sufficient, i.e. total nitrogen content ranged between 1 and 4,42%, phosphorus between 1.55 and 2.36%, and potassium between 0,1 and 0,2% of dry matter. Heavy metal contents were found a little bit high to be applied as animal feed, but it is still acceptable for soil conditioner. Combining 3 months storage at ambient environment and irradiation dose of 2.5 kGy were found to work synergistically to eliminate coliforms and E. Coli from sludge. (author). 8 figs, 17 refs

  12. The effect of intrinsic soil properties on soil quality assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Samuel-Rosa

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of soil quality is based on indicators and indices derived from soil properties. However, intrinsic soil properties may interfere with other soil properties that vary under different land uses and are used to calculate the indices. The aim of this study was to assess the extent to which intrinsic soil properties (clay and iron oxide contents explain variable soil properties (sum of bases, potential acidity, organic carbon, total porosity, and bulk density under different land uses (native forest, no-tillage and conventional agriculture on small family farms in Southern Brazil. The results showed that the five properties evaluated can be included in soil quality assessments and are not influenced by the clay and iron oxide contents. It was concluded that for little weathered 1:1 and 2:1 phyllosilicate rich-soils, if the difference between the maximum and the minimum clay content under the different land uses is less than about 200 g kg-1 and the iron oxide content less than about 15 g kg-1, the physico-chemical soil properties in the surface layer are determined mostly by the land use.

  13. Physico-chemical and organoleptic comparison of buffalo, cow and goat milk and their yogurt samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, N.; Elahi, S. [Kinnaird College for Women, Lahore (Pakistan). Dept. of Biotechnology

    2014-09-15

    The physico-chemical and organoleptic properties of buffalo, cow and goat milk and their respective yogurt samples were analyzed. Milk samples, 200ml each, were inoculated with sucrose, skimmed milk powder, carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) along with varying concentrations of starter culture and incubated at 45 degree C for 5 hours for yogurt preparation. The physico-chemical parameters studied were pH, tritable acidity, ash, moisture, fat, solid-non fat, total solids, crude protein, specific gravity and total energy, whereas the organoleptic analysis included texture, taste, colour and odor. Results revealed that commercial starter culture, sucrose, CMC and skimmed milk powder, in the concentrations of 0.05%, 0.5%, 0.075% and 0.5% respectively, was the best composition for fermentation. The milk and yogurt of buffalo was found to be physico-chemically and organoleptically superior. However, results showed that goat milk and yogurt could be a valuable substitute, especially in comparison to cow milk and yogurt. goat, milk, yogurt, physico-chemical analysis, organoleptic analysis, carboxymethyl cellulose. (author)

  14. Physico-chemical and organoleptic comparison of buffalo, cow and goat milk and their yogurt samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, N.; Elahi, S.

    2014-01-01

    The physico-chemical and organoleptic properties of buffalo, cow and goat milk and their respective yogurt samples were analyzed. Milk samples, 200ml each, were inoculated with sucrose, skimmed milk powder, carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) along with varying concentrations of starter culture and incubated at 45 degree C for 5 hours for yogurt preparation. The physico-chemical parameters studied were pH, tritable acidity, ash, moisture, fat, solid-non fat, total solids, crude protein, specific gravity and total energy, whereas the organoleptic analysis included texture, taste, colour and odor. Results revealed that commercial starter culture, sucrose, CMC and skimmed milk powder, in the concentrations of 0.05%, 0.5%, 0.075% and 0.5% respectively, was the best composition for fermentation. The milk and yogurt of buffalo was found to be physico-chemically and organoleptically superior. However, results showed that goat milk and yogurt could be a valuable substitute, especially in comparison to cow milk and yogurt. goat, milk, yogurt, physico-chemical analysis, organoleptic analysis, carboxymethyl cellulose. (author)

  15. Physico-Chemical Analysis and Sensory Evaluation of Bread

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Shuaibu et al.

    Physico-Chemical Analysis and Sensory Evaluation of Bread Produced Using ... analysis of the bread samples revealed that the moisture content ..... 72. Jarup, L. ,2003. Hazards of heavy metal contamination. Br Med. Bull; 68, pp.167-82.

  16. Impact of physico-chemical parameters on the physiological growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Impact of physico-chemical parameters on the physiological growth of Arthrospira (Spirulina platensis) exogenous strain UTEXLB2340. Yahia Mustafa A Fagiri, Aisha Salleh, Saifeldin Ahmed F El-Nagerabi ...

  17. On the physico-chemical characteristics of brines

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shirodkar, P.V.; Rao, P.V.S.S.D.P.; Singbal, S.Y.S.

    Analyses of the natural brines form the salt lakes, salt pans and the artificial brines obtained after the solar desalination of seawater respectively, showed wide differences in their physico-chemical characteristics. The natural brines are markEd...

  18. Physico-chemical and biotic factors influencing microalgal seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physico-chemical and biotic factors influencing microalgal seed culture propagation for inoculation of a ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... used to inoculate an open raceway pond for large scale biomass production for biodiesel production.

  19. Microbiological and Physico-chemical Analysis of Compost and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    microbial counts, the physico-chemical parameters of compost and to assess the ... showed that application of municipal solid waste ... cattle manure and food wastes (leaves of avocado, .... Organic matter is decomposed and transformed to.

  20. Physico-chemical characteristics of surface and groundwater in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    musa kizito ojochenemi

    drinking water recommended by the World Health Organisation except for iron which had elevated ... Key words: Obajana, water resources, physico - chemical, cation, anion and pollution. ..... Exposition (AUGA EXPO'83) Acapulco, Mexico.

  1. The Effect of Detergent Effluent on the Physico-Chemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL HORSFALL

    2Department of Biological Sciences, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria ... KEYWORDS: Physico-chemical characteristics, Osere stream, Plankon and Diversity ... stream is the main sources of water for most domestic.

  2. Group Chemical Changes and Physical Property Correlations in Refining of Lube Base Stocks. Physico-Chemical and Adsorption Chromatography Parameters Corrélations entre les propriétés physiques et les changements de composition chimique au cours du raffinage des huiles de base. Paramètres physico-chimiques et de chromatographie par adsorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh H.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Changes in twenty-two lubricating oil base stocks prepared from Darius and Assam Mix Crudes by different types of refining treatment and severity of refining have been investigated. Changes in the viscosity index with progressive refining in base stocks of different viscosity have been studied in relation to physico-chemical properties, structural analysis and saturate contents of the base oils. Correlations between the concentration of saturates, saturate-to-aromatic ratio and VI of the base stocks are reported.

  3. Physico-chemical and toxicological assessment of liquid wastes from olive processing-related industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierantozzi, Pierluigi; Zampini, Catiana; Torres, Mariela; Isla, María I; Verdenelli, Romina A; Meriles, José M; Maestri, Damián

    2012-01-30

    In the last few years, agricultural uses of waste waters from olive processing-related industries have been gaining interest mainly with a view to composting or bio-fertilizers. The present work examines physico-chemical, toxicological and geno-toxicological properties of three liquid wastes, namely olive mill wastewater (OMWW), olive wet husk and olive brine. The effect of OMWW spreading on soil microbial activity and biomass was also evaluated. Data from Artemia salina and Lactuca sativa toxicity tests indicated high levels of lethality, and inhibitory effects on seed germination and seedling growth of all olive wastes. The genotoxicity assays using Allium cepa tests showed contrasting results. At high concentrations, olive wastes caused inhibition or suppression of mitosis. However, they did not produce induced anaphase aberrations. Data on reversion of Salmonella thyphimurium strains using the Ames test indicated that the olive wastes did not present mutagenic activity. Results from the field experiment showed that OMWW at a 500 m(3) ha(-1) had the highest values of both soil microbial activity and biomass after 3 months of the amendment application. This work adds new data for environmental risk assessment of olive industrial wastes. Direct use of olive wastes for agricultural purposes should be limited owing to their possible chemotoxic, phytotoxic and antimicrobial effects. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Physico-chemical characterization of nano-emulsions in cosmetic matrix enriched on omega-3

    OpenAIRE

    Kabri, Tin-hinan; Arab-Tehrany, Elmira; Belhaj, Nabila; Linder, Michel

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Nano-emulsions, as non-equilibrium systems, present characteristics and properties which depend not only on composition but also on their method of preparation. To obtain better penetration, nanocosmeceuticals use nano-sized systems for the delivery of active ingredients to targeted cells. In this work, nano-emulsions composed of miglyol, rapeseed oil and salmon oil were developed as a cosmetic matrix. Measurements of different physico-chemical properties of nano-emulsions...

  5. Development of new radioactive labelling methods (3H and 11C) in luteizing hormone (LH) and its releasing hormone (LRF). Study of physico-chemical properties of LRF by circular dichroism and emission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marche, Pierre.

    1975-01-01

    After a brief review of present knowledge on the hypothalamus-hypophysis this thesis falls into three parts. The first situates the peptide hormones studied in their biological context. Research on the radioactive labelling of hormonal peptides is dealt with in part two which includes, besides the application of already known tritiation methods to particular problems, the description of a new tritium labelling method and the use of carbon 11 for the kinetic distribution study of a hormone. Part three concerns the physico-chemical study of a hypothalamic hormone. As a contribution towards research on the hypophysary gonadotrophic function regulation, the work involved in all the above three sections was directed towards the luteinising hormone (LH) and its hypothalamic release factor (LRF). During the study of this latter the problem of peptides containing tryptophane arose and was consequently investigated [fr

  6. Isolation and physico-chemical characterization of Butea parviflora seed oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaki, S.S.; Jabeen, T.; Reddy, J.R.C.; Ram Mohan, M.; Anjaneyulu, E.; Prasad, R.B.N.; Rao, B.V.S.K

    2016-01-01

    The seeds of Butea parviflora were investigated for oil extraction and the oil was studied for complete physico-chemical properties. The fatty acid profile of the seed oil showed oleic acid (18:1) at 27.5%, linoleic acid (18:2) at 26.4%, palmitic acid (16:0) at 16.1% and behenic acid (22:0) at 14.1% as the major fatty acids. The physico-chemical characteristics of the seed oil were studied for parameters such as free fatty acids (0.71%), iodine value (76.2 g/100g), peroxide value (5.95 ppm), saponification value (177.32 mg KOH/g), unsaponifiable matter (0.82%), phosphorous content (197 ppm), triglyceride analysis, tocols, specific gravity and refractive index following standard procedures. [es

  7. Physico-chemical characterization of grease interceptors with and without biological product addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xia; Osborne, Jason; de los Reyes, Francis L

    2012-03-01

    Hardened and insoluble fat, oil, and grease (FOG) deposits are the primary cause of sewer line blockages leading to sanitary sewer overflows (SSOs). However, there have been very few long-term assessments of the physico-chemical characteristics of full-scale grease interceptors (GIs), the first "line of defense" against FOG buildup in sewer lines. In this study, we assessed the physico-chemical characteristics of two full-scale GIs (at a restaurant and a retirement community kitchen) over a one-year period. Statistically significant differences between bioaugmented and untreated cycles were detected for several chemical and physical properties. The treated cycles had lower BOD and COD at the grease interceptor outlet. While the combined data for all treated cycles did not show lower FOG concentrations in the GI outlet compared to the combined data for all untreated cycles, comparison of specific individual treated and untreated cycles show a positive effect due to the addition of product.

  8. Physico-chemical characterisation of material fractions in residual and source-segregated household waste in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Götze, Ramona; Pivnenko, Kostyantyn; Boldrin, Alessio

    2016-01-01

    differences in the physico-chemical properties of residual and source-segregated waste fractions were found for many parameters related to organic matter, but also for elements of environmental concern. Considerable differences in potentially toxic metal concentrations between the individual recyclable......Physico-chemical waste composition data are paramount for the assessment and planning of waste management systems. However, the applicability of data is limited by the regional, temporal and technical scope of waste characterisation studies. As Danish and European legislation aims for higher...... recycling rates evaluation of source-segregation and recycling chains gain importance. This paper provides a consistent up-to-date dataset for 74 physico-chemical parameters in 49 material fractions from residual and 24 material fractions from source-segregated Danish household waste. Significant...

  9. Estimation of The Physico-Chemical Parameters in Marine Environment (Yumurtalik Bight- Iskenderun Bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökhan Tamer Kayaalp

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to estimate the temperature, light intensity, salinity, Dissolved O2 (DO, pH values and the biotic parameter chlorophyll- a in the water column related with the depth. Because, the physico-chemical parameters affect greatly both primary and secondary producers in marine life. For this purpose the physico-chemical properties were determined day and night for 40 meter depth during the eight days. The means were compared by using the analysis of variance method and Duncan’s Multiple Comparison Test. Also physico-chemical parameters were estimated by using the analysis of regression and correlation. The effect of temperature and salinity were found significant according to the result of the analysis of variance during the day. Also the similar results were found for the night. While the effect of the depth on the chloropyll-a a was significant in the night, the effect of the depth on the DO was not significant in the day and night. The correlations among the depth and the parameters were defined. It was found the negative correlation between the depth and the temperature and light intensity. Determination coefficient of the model for salinity was also found different for day time. The correlation values among the depth and the temperature, salinity and pH were found different for the night.

  10. Physico-chemical characteristics and Heavy metal levels in Drinking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physico-chemical characteristics and Heavy metal levels in Drinking Water ... composition was analysed using X-ray Fluorescence spectroscopy. Majority of the water samples had neutral pH (6.80 – 7.20) few were slightly alkaline and one was acidic. ... Heavy metals (copper and lead), rare earth metals (gallium, rubidium, ...

  11. Physico-chemical analysis and sensory evaluation of bread ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study carried out the physico-chemical analysis and sensory evaluation of bread produced using different indigenous yeast isolates in order to offer an insight into the overall quality of the bread. Four (4) different yeast species were isolated from sweet orange, pineapple and palm wine. The yeasts were characterized ...

  12. Physico-chemical characteristics and Heavy metal levels in Drinking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    ABSTRAC: This study investigated the physico-chemical characteristics of drinking waters collected from tap, well and sachet in Sokoto metropolis in North Western Nigeria. Conductivity and pH values were determined by standard methods while elemental composition was analysed using X-ray Fluorescence spectroscopy ...

  13. Assessment of physico-chemical and bacteriological quality of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Water quality is a critical factor affecting human health and welfare. This study aimed at examining the physico-chemical and bacteriological quality of drinking water in Adama town. A total of 107 triplicate water samples were examined; 1 from inlet point (raw water), 1 from outlet (the water after treatment, 1 from reservoir ...

  14. Physico-chemical parameters and heavy metal contents of Ibuya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The physico-chemical parameters and heavy metal contents of Ibuya River were investigated between September 2012 and August 2013 from four stations using standard methods to etermine acceptable water quality standards and evaluate possible sustainability of a thriving fisheries cum tourist sport fishing venture.

  15. Physico-chemical analyses and corrosion effect of produced water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physico-chemical characteristics of the composite produced water sample used for the study has a higher concentration compared with DPR standard for discharge of produced formation water into surface environment. It was assumed that the corrosion of the coupons was due to presence of high chemical matters in the ...

  16. Optimization of physico-chemical and nutritional parameters for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Optimization of physico-chemical and nutritional parameters for pullulan production by a mutant of thermotolerant Aureobasidium pullulans, in fed batch ... minutes, having killing rate of 70% level, produced 6 g l-1 higher pullulan as compared to the wild type without loosing thermotolerant and non-melanin producing ability.

  17. PHYSICO-CHEMICAL STUDIES OF DISAZO DYES DERIVED ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DJFLEX

    with disazo disperse dyes on synthetic polymer-fibres. (Venkataraman, 1974; Otutu et al., 2008). In this present study, the physico-chemical studies of disazo dyes derived from p-aminophenol recently prepared by our research group is described. We also described the kinetics of the dyes on nylon 6 fibre. In another study.

  18. An assessment of the biological and physico-chemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physico-chemical parameters and biological (phytoplanktons and macrophytes) composition of Bindare and Hanwa streams in Zaria, Nigeria were studied for a period of three months (September to November 2008). The streams have catchments of varying land use patterns ranging from agricultural (farming and animal ...

  19. Physico-chemical characteristics and Heavy metal levels in Drinking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physico-chemical characteristics and Heavy metal levels in Drinking Water sources in Sokoto metropolis in North-western Nigeria. ... Tap water samples had similar conductivity values (180 -190μS/m), sachet water samples had conductivity values ranging from 80μS/m to 260μS/m while well water samples had highest ...

  20. Physico-Chemical Quality Of Drinking Water At Mushait, Aseer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The physico-chemical quality study of different drinking water sources used in Khamis Mushait, southwestern, Saudi Arabia (SA) has been studied to evaluate their suitability for potable purposes. A total of 62 drinking water samples were collected randomly from bottled, desalinated and groundwater located around the ...

  1. Physico-chemical characteristics of water sample from Aiba Stream ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed at assessing the effectiveness of solar distillation in purification of water. The water sample collected from Aiba stream was subjected to double slope solar water distillation unit. The physico- chemical characteristics of the raw sample and the distillate were determined using standard methods. The.

  2. Physico-chemical conditions and macroinvertebrate fauna in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the distribution of benthic macroinvertebrates in relation to physico-chemical conditions along 1 035km of the River Nile from Aswan High Dam to Al Kanater Barrage, Cairo. Total Dissolved Salts and several individual chemical variables showed positive linear regression with distance from Aswan.

  3. Influence of sanitation on the physico-chemical and microbiological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was carried out in order to evaluate the effect of chlorinated and ozonized water on the physico-chemical characteristics of broccoli, produced under organic and conventional cultivation procedures. Organic and conventional broccolis were subjected to two sanitation treatments, using chlorine and ozone, ...

  4. Bacteriological and physico-chemical quality of drinking water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Accesses to safe water is a universal need however, many of the world's population lack access to adequate and safe water. Consumption of water contaminated causes health risk to the public and the situation is serous in rural areas. Objectives: To assess the bacteriological and physico-chemical quality of ...

  5. Comparison of traditional physico-chemical methods and molecular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was aim to review the efficiency of molecular markers and traditional physico-chemical methods for the identification of basmati rice. The study involved 44 promising varieties of Indica rices collected from geographically distant places and adapted to irrigated and aerobic agro-ecosystems. Quality data for ...

  6. EXTRACTION AND PHYSICO-CHEMICAL STUDIES OF DIASTASE-LIKE ENZYME FROM PIPER BETLE PETIOLES: PART 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramasarma, G.V.S; Dutta, Sadhan Kumar

    1995-01-01

    Petioles of the plant piper betle-bengal variety have been subjected for extraction employing standard procedure and the crude extract obtained has been evaluated for its diastase like activity and other physico-chemical properties to investigate further its possible biological and pharmacological activities. PMID:22556729

  7. Soil Properties Control Glyphosate Sorption in Soils Amended with Birch Wood Biochar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kahawaththa Gamage, Inoka Damayanthi Kumari; Moldrup, Per; Paradelo, Marcos

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Despite a contemporary interest in biochar application to agricultural fields to improve soil quality and long-term carbon sequestration, a number of potential side effects of biochar incorporation in field soils remain poorly understood, e.g., in relation to interactions...... with agrochemicals such as pesticides. In a fieldbased study at two experimental sites in Denmark (sandy loam soils at Risoe and Kalundborg), we investigated the influence of birch wood biochar with respect to application rate, aging (7–19 months), and physico- chemical soil properties on the sorption coefficient......, Kd (L kg−1), of the herbicide glyphosate. We measured Kd in equilibrium batch sorption experiments with triplicate soil samples from 20 field plots that received biochar at different application rates (0 to 100 Mg ha−1). The results showed that pure biochar had a lower glyphosate Kd value as compared...

  8. Physico-chemical characterisation of material fractions in household waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Götze, Ramona; Boldrin, Alessio; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    State-of-the-art environmental assessment of waste management systems rely on data for the physico-chemical composition of individual material fractions comprising the waste in question. To derive the necessary inventory data for different scopes and systems, literature data from different sources...... and backgrounds are consulted and combined. This study provides an overview of physico-chemical waste characterisation data for individual waste material fractions available in literature and thereby aims to support the selection of data fitting to a specific scope and the selection of uncertainty ranges related...... to the data selection from literature. Overall, 97 publications were reviewed with respect to employed characterisation method, regional origin of the waste, number of investigated parameters and material fractions and other qualitative aspects. Descriptive statistical analysis of the reported physico...

  9. Manual of selected physico-chemical analytical methods. IV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beran, M.; Klosova, E.; Krtil, J.; Sus, F.; Kuvik, V.; Vrbova, L.; Hamplova, M.; Lengyel, J.; Kelnar, L.; Zakouril, K.

    1990-11-01

    The Central Testing Laboratory of the Nuclear Research Institute at Rez has for a decade been participating in the development of analytical procedures and has been providing analyses of samples of different types and origin. The analytical procedures developed have been published in special journals and a number of them in the Manuals of analytical methods, in three parts. The 4th part of the Manual contains selected physico-chemical methods developed or modified by the Laboratory in the years 1986-1990 within the project ''Development of physico-chemical analytical methods''. In most cases, techniques are involved for non-nuclear applications. Some can find wider applications, especially in analyses of environmental samples. Others have been developed for specific cases of sample analyses or require special instrumentation (mass spectrometer), which partly restricts their applicability by other institutions. (author)

  10. Physico-chemical study on guar gum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoud, Nahla Mubarak

    2000-05-01

    Guar plant is an annual summer plant and it can resist diseases, pests and drought. Guar gum is used in a lot of industries. The present study deals with some physical properties of two commercial grade samples of guar gum cyamopsis tetragonoloba which where produced in 1996 and 1997 seasons (S 1 and S 2 respectively). Our analytical data are compared with those of previous workers in this area and international quality. Guar gum (S 2 ) is separated into water-insoluble components. Three fractions were obtained from the water-soluble components by fractional participation using acetone. Guar gum powder is yellowish white; the water-insoluble component is brownish white. Comparison study between gum samples (S 1 and S 2 ) and water-insoluble fraction (1) and water-soluble fractions are close to each other in their physico-properties. chemical All samples and fractions contain galactomannan polysaccharide as explained by infra-red spectra.Moisture contents for the gum samples were 5.2% and 7.8% and that for the water-insoluble fraction 4.7% while that for fraction samples were 5.2%-7.5% ash contents for the gum samples was 0.81% and 1.14% and for the water-insoluble component 0.88% while the contents in the fractions between 0.5%-0.66%. Nitrogen content determination showed that the gum samples had value of 0.678% and 0.732% and water -insoluble fraction had a value of 0.118%. The values decreased in the water-soluble fractions giving 0.049%, 0.053 and 0.056%. Water-soluble component and its fractions record the following results: pH measurements showed that the water-soluble component had pH 6.70 and 6.84 while its fractions had pH 5.90 and 7.00. Viscosity measurements showed that water-soluble fractions had intrinsic viscosity of 6.4 and 6.8 dL. g -1 . The fractions derived from water-soluble fraction had intrinsic viscosity of 6.6, 7 and 7.5 dl. g -1 . Using Mark-Howink equation, calculated average molecular weights for the water-soluble components were 7.01x10 5

  11. Comparison of physico-chemical parameters of groundwater from shallow aquifers near 2 thermal power plants in Punjab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gill, S.K.; Sahota, S.K.; Sahota, G.P.S.; Sahota, B.K.; Sahota, H.S.

    1993-01-01

    Physico-chemical parameters of groundwater from shallow aquifers near thermal power plants at Bathinda and Ropar have been measured. Increase in metallic content of water is noted in both the cases due to deposition of coal fly ash from the power plants on the soil. High values of calcium chloride, calcium carbonate and total dissolved solids are observed in Bathinda groundwater while Ropar groundwater is rich in ferric, fluoride and nitrate contents. (author). 8 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  12. Physico-chemical characterization of nano-emulsions in cosmetic matrix enriched on omega-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabri, Tin-Hinan; Arab-Tehrany, Elmira; Belhaj, Nabila; Linder, Michel

    2011-09-21

    Nano-emulsions, as non-equilibrium systems, present characteristics and properties which depend not only on composition but also on their method of preparation. To obtain better penetration, nanocosmeceuticals use nano-sized systems for the delivery of active ingredients to targeted cells. In this work, nano-emulsions composed of miglyol, rapeseed oil and salmon oil were developed as a cosmetic matrix. Measurements of different physico-chemical properties of nano-emulsions were taken according to size, electrophoretic mobility, conductivity, viscosity, turbidity, cristallization and melting point. The RHLB was calculated for each formulation in order to achieve maximum stability. Both tween 80 and soya lecithin were found to stabilize formulations. The results showed that rapeseed oil and miglyol are the predominant parameters for determining the expression of results concerning the characterization of emulsion. Based on the mixture design, we achieved the optimal point using the following formulation: 56.5% rapessed oil, 35.5% miglyol, and 8% salmon oil. We considered this formulation to be the best as a nanocosmeceutical product due to the small size, good turbidity, and average HLB. This study demonstrates the influence of formulation on the physico-chemical properties of each nano-emulsion obtained by the mixture design.

  13. Physico-chemical characterization of nano-emulsions in cosmetic matrix enriched on omega-3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linder Michel

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nano-emulsions, as non-equilibrium systems, present characteristics and properties which depend not only on composition but also on their method of preparation. To obtain better penetration, nanocosmeceuticals use nano-sized systems for the delivery of active ingredients to targeted cells. In this work, nano-emulsions composed of miglyol, rapeseed oil and salmon oil were developed as a cosmetic matrix. Measurements of different physico-chemical properties of nano-emulsions were taken according to size, electrophoretic mobility, conductivity, viscosity, turbidity, cristallization and melting point. The RHLB was calculated for each formulation in order to achieve maximum stability. Results Both tween 80 and soya lecithin were found to stabilize formulations. The results showed that rapeseed oil and miglyol are the predominant parameters for determining the expression of results concerning the characterization of emulsion. Based on the mixture design, we achieved the optimal point using the following formulation: 56.5% rapessed oil, 35.5% miglyol, and 8% salmon oil. We considered this formulation to be the best as a nanocosmeceutical product due to the small size, good turbidity, and average HLB. Conclusions This study demonstrates the influence of formulation on the physico-chemical properties of each nano-emulsion obtained by the mixture design.

  14. EVALUATION OF PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF AGRICULTURAL SOILS IRRIGATED BY THE WATERS OF THE HYDROLIC BASIN OF SEBOU RIVER AND THEIR INFLUENCES ON THE TRANSFER OF TRACE ELEMENTS INTO SUGAR CROPS (THE CASE OF SUGAR CANE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Benlkhoubi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted in Kenitra (northwestern Morocco to determine the physicochemical parameters and metallic concentrations at three levels: surface water of Sebou and Beht intended for irrigation, agricultural soils and sugarcane. The spectrometric analysis of source plasma emission (ICP has identified eight trace elements contained in the materials taken from zone 1 (As, Cd, Co, Zn, Ni, Pb, Cu and Cr.The obtained results showed that the interaction between the different physicochemical parameters of agricultural soils decides the transfer of the metal elements to the plants. Indeed, for the soil which is used in this agriculture (for sugar cane, its irrigation water, and the contents of Cr, Cd and As exceeds the accepted standards.The principal component analysis of the levels of trace metal supports in area 1, allowed to distinguish between the items with a high tolerance for bagasse (Zn, Cu, Ni, Cd and Pb, compared to Cr, Co, and As.

  15. Physiological and physico-chemical characterization of dietary fibre from the green seaweed Ulva fasciata Delile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, A F U; Portela, M C C; Sousa, M B; Martins, F S; Rocha, F C; Farias, D F; Feitosa, J P A

    2009-08-01

    This work aims to assess the potential of the green seaweed Ulva fasciata Delile as an alternative source of dietary fibre (DF). Total DF content was determined, some of its physico-chemical properties described and the physiological effects of U. fasciata meal on rats fed a hypercholesterolemic diet were investigated. U. fasciata may be considered a potential alternative source of DF with a total content of about 400 g.kg-1 (dry basis) and interesting physico-chemical properties: water retention capacity of 8.74 g/water.g-1 dry sample (seaweed meal) and 0.90 (seaweed carbohydrate extract), lipid adsorption capacity of 4.52 g/oil.g-1 dry sample (seaweed meal) and 5.70 (seaweed carbohydrate extract), intrinsic viscosity of 2.4 dl.g-1 (seaweed carbohydrate extract) and cation exchange capacity of 3.51 Eq.kg-1 (seaweed carbohydrate extract). The diet containing seaweed meal was able to keep rats' total cholesterol (TC) down without causing any undesirable increase in LDL-C fraction. No evidence of toxic and/or antinutritional components in the seaweed meal was detected. Rats showed a fecal volume much greater (13 g) than that fed on cellulose diet (7 g) (p seaweed the potential to be used in food technology for the acquisition of low-calorie food and might be important in body weight control, reduction of blood TC and LDL-C as well as in prevention of gastrointestinal diseases.

  16. Physico-chemical studies on samarium soaps in solid state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehrotra, K.N.; Chauhan, M.; Shukla, R.K.

    1989-01-01

    The physico-chemical characteristics of samarium soaps (caproate and caprate) in solid state were investigated by IR, X-ray diffraction and TGA measurements. The IR results revealed that the fatty acids exist in dimeric state through hydrogen bonding and samarium soaps possess partial ionic character. The X-ray diffraction measurements were used to calculate the long spacings and the results confirmed the double layer structure of samarium soaps. The decomposition reaction was found kinetically of zero order and the values of energy of activation for the decomposition process for caproate and caprate were found to be 8,0 and 7,8 kcal mol -1 , respectively. (Authors)

  17. Immunobiological, biochemical and physico-chemical characteristics of Brucella lipopolysaccharide subjected to various doses of gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dranovskaya, E.A.; Shibaeva, I.V.

    1975-01-01

    A comparative study is presented of toxicity, serological activity, some biochemical and physico-chemical properties of the highly toxic Brucella lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and of preparations obtained as a result of gamma irradiation in doses of 1, 3, and 10 mrad on the antigen. The toxicity of LPS was found to decrease with increasing radiation dose. Irradiation with a dose of 3 mrad produced a marked decrease in the toxicity of the antigen without essentially changing its serological properties. The process of LPS detoxication under the effect of irradiation was accompanied by changes in certain biochemical and physico-chemical indices suggestive of a modification of the primary structure of the LPS molecule and of an impairment especially of its polysaccharide side chains. (author)

  18. Immunobiological, biochemical, and physico-chemical characteristics of Brucella lipopolysaccharide subjected to various doses of gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dranovskaya, E A; Shibaeva, I V [Akademiya Meditsinskikh Nauk SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Ehpidemiologii i Mikrobiologii; Khabakpasheva, N A; Rostovtseva, N A [Institut Vaktsin i Syvorotok, Moscow (USSR)

    1975-01-01

    A comparative study is presented of toxicity, serological activity, some biochemical and physico-chemical properties of the highly toxic Brucella lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and of preparations obtained as a result of gamma irradiation in doses of 1, 3, and 10 mrad on the antigen. The toxicity of LPS was found to decrease with increasing radiation dose. Irradiation with a dose of 3 mrad produced a marked decrease in the toxicity of the antigen without essentially changing its serological properties. The process of LPS detoxication under the effect of irradiation was accompanied by changes in certain biochemical and physico-chemical indices suggestive of a modification of the primary structure of the LPS molecule and of an impairment especially of its polysaccharide side chains.

  19. Physico-chemical characterisation of some samples of fresh milk and milk powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soceanu Alina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Milk consumption is important in the diet of all age groups because it provides important nutrients that are essential for humans. Children are the largest consumers of milk, thus, it’s very important that milk is free of toxic compounds that can be harmful for humans. Aim of the study was to determine the physico-chemical characteristics of some samples of milk powder for different stage of baby growing and for some samples of fresh milk: raw cow’s milk, milk trade and UHT type. The following physico-chemical properties: density, pH, acidity, the presence of acetone, enzymes, antiseptics, dry substance, the ash, total fat, saponification and peroxide index, total nitrogen and protein content were determined. Comparing the values of acidity for analyzed samples it can be concluded that the powder milk acidity value is much lower than the fresh milk. The presence of antiseptics and acetone was not identified, and amylase and peroxidase were found only in raw cow's milk. The highest protein content was found for milk powder (27.22%.

  20. Characterization of Olive Oil by Ultrasonic and Physico-chemical Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alouache, B.; Khechena, F. K.; Lecheb, F.; Boutkedjirt, T.

    Olive oil excels by its nutritional and medicinal benefits. It can be consumed without any treatment. However, its quality can be altered by inadequate storage conditions or if it is mixed with other kinds of oils. The objective of this work is to demonstrate the ability of ultrasonic methods to characterize and control olive oil quality. By using of a transducer of 2.25 MHz nominal frequency, in pulse echo mode, ultrasonic parameters, such as propagation velocity and attenuation,have been measured for pure olive oil and for its mixtures with sunflower oil at different proportions. Mechanical properties, such as density and viscosity, have also been determined. The results of ultrasonic measurements are consistent with those obtained by physico-chemical methods, such as rancidity degree, acid index, UV specific extinction coefficient and viscosity. They show that the ultrasonic method allows to distinguish between mixtures at different proportions. The study allows concluding that ultrasound techniques can be considered as a useful complement to existing physico-chemical analysis techniques.

  1. Heavy Metal Levels and Physico-Chemical Quality of Potable Water Supply in Warri, Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nduka, K.C.; Orisakwe, E.O.

    2007-01-01

    The interaction between man's activities and the environment is gaining world wide attention. Warri an oil producing community in Delta State of Nigeria is faced with environmental oil pollution. Since open and underground water bodies are regarded as final recipients of most environmental pollutants, this study sought to provide data on the levels of the physico-chemical parameters and contaminants in Warri metropolitan water supply. This study investigated the cadmium, lead and chromium using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer, physico - chemical properties such as pH, temperature, total suspended solid TSS, total dissolved solid TDS, electrical conductivity EC, biological oxygen demand BOD, dissolved oxygen DO, chemical oxygen demand COD, and total coliform count of potable water sources in Warri. Ekpan River was found to have 1.2 mg/L of cadmium, 1.0mg/L of chromium, 1.20 mg/L of lead and 2.0 mg/L of manganese. The heavy metals levels and the pollution parameters were lowest in the borehole water samples, except pH which is more acidic in borehole water samples and conductivity which is more in well water samples in all the sampling stations. Some of the parameters were above WHO standards

  2. Formulation design of oral pediatric Acetazolamide suspension: dose uniformity and physico-chemical stability study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoveña, Ana; Suárez-González, Javier; Martín-Rodríguez, Cristina; Fariña, José B

    2017-03-01

    The formulation of an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) as oral solution or suspension in pediatrics is a habitual practice, due to the non-existence of many commercialized medicines in pediatric doses. It is also the simplest way to prepare and administer them to this vulnerable population. The design of a formulation that assures the dose and the system stability depends on the physico-chemical properties of the API. In this study, we formulate a class IV API, Acetazolamide (AZM) as suspension for oral administration to pediatric population. The suspension must comply attributes of quality, safety and efficacy for this route of administration. We use simple compounding procedures, as well as fewer pure excipients, as recommended for children. Mass and uniformity content assays and physical and chemical stability studies were performed. To quantify the API an UPLC method was used. We verified the physico-chemical stability of the suspensions and that they passed the mass test of the European Pharmacopeia (EP), but not the dose uniformity test. This reveals that AZM must be formulated as liquid forms with a more complex system of excipients (not usually indicated in pediatrics), or otherwise solid forms capable of assuring uniformity of mass and dose for every dosage unit.

  3. Complete physico-chemical treatment for coke plant effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghose, M K

    2002-03-01

    Naturally found coal is converted to coke which is suitable for metallurgical industries. Large quantities of liquid effluents produced contain a large amount of suspended solids, high COD, BOD, phenols, ammonia and other toxic substances which are causing serious pollution problem in the receiving water to which they are discharged. There are a large number of coke plants in the vicinity of Jharia Coal Field (JCF). Characteristics of the effluents have been evaluated. The present effluent treatment systems were found to be inadequate. Physico-chemical treatment has been considered as a suitable option for the treatment of coke plant effluents. Ammonia removal by synthetic zeolite, activated carbon for the removal of bacteria, viruses, refractory organics, etc. were utilized and the results are discussed. A scheme has been proposed for the complete physico-chemical treatment, which can be suitably adopted for the recycling, reuse and safe disposal of the treated effluent. Various unit process and unit operations involved in the treatment system have been discussed. The process may be useful on industrial scale at various sites.

  4. Physico-chemical traits of raw and cooked fillets of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss from different strains and farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Martelli

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Fillets and cooking yields, water holding capacity, textural properties, colour, proximate composition, collagen and fatty acids of five strains (IT1, IT2, IT3, USA, UK of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, reared in three farms (F1, F2, F3, were measured before and after cooking. Physico-chemical parameters of the strains greatly differed both in raw and cooked state. IT2 and USA recorded the highest yields. IT2 distinguished from the other strains, showing lowest values of hardness, chewiness, gumminess and springiness. It also had brighter and less pigmented flesh with low fat, mainly in the raw state. USA strain showed the most valuable traits in terms of texture and colour, and had higher fat and collagen content in flesh. The physico-chemical profile of each strain was differently modified by cooking. USA strain maintained a positive texture and colour profile after cooking and its quality was the best.

  5. Using soil properties to predict in vivo bioavailability of lead in soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijayawardena, M A Ayanka; Naidu, Ravi; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Lamb, Dane; Thavamani, Palanisami; Kuchel, Tim

    2015-11-01

    Soil plays a significant role in controlling the potential bioavailability of contaminants in the environment. In this study, eleven soils were used to investigate the relationship between soil properties and relative bioavailability (RB) of lead (Pb). To minimise the effect of source of Pb on in vivo bioavailability, uncontaminated study soils were spiked with 1500 mg Pb/kg soil and aged for 10-12 months prior to investigating the relationships between soil properties and in vivo RB of Pb using swine model. The biological responses to oral administration of Pb in aqueous phase or as spiked soils were compared by applying a two-compartment pharmacokinetic model to blood Pb concentration. The study revealed that RB of Pb from aged soils ranged from 30±9% to 83±7%. The very different RB of Pb in these soils was attributed to variations in the soils' physico-chemical properties. This was established using sorption studies showing: firstly, Freundlich partition coefficients that ranged from 21 to 234; and secondly, a strongly significant (R(2)=0.94, Psoils. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first such model derived using sorption partition coefficient to predict the relative bioavailability of Pb. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of soil properties on the uptake of pharmaceuticals into earthworms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, Laura J.; Ryan, Jim J.; Boxall, Alistair B.A.

    2016-01-01

    Pharmaceuticals can enter the soil environment when animal slurries and sewage sludge are applied to land as a fertiliser or during irrigation with contaminated water. These pharmaceuticals may then be taken up by soil organisms possibly resulting in toxic effects and/or exposure of organisms higher up the food chain. This study investigated the influence of soil properties on the uptake and depuration of pharmaceuticals (carbamazepine, diclofenac, fluoxetine and orlistat) in the earthworm Eisenia fetida. The uptake and accumulation of pharmaceuticals into E. fetida changed depending on soil type. Orlistat exhibited the highest pore water based bioconcentration factors (BCFs) and displayed the largest differences between soil types with BCFs ranging between 30.5 and 115.9. For carbamazepine, diclofenac and fluoxetine BCFs ranged between 1.1 and 1.6, 7.0 and 69.6 and 14.1 and 20.4 respectively. Additional analysis demonstrated that in certain treatments the presence of these chemicals in the soil matrices changed the soil pH over time, with a statistically significant pH difference to control samples. The internal pH of E. fetida also changed as a result of incubation in pharmaceutically spiked soil, in comparison to the control earthworms. These results demonstrate that a combination of soil properties and pharmaceutical physico-chemical properties are important in terms of predicting pharmaceutical uptake in terrestrial systems and that pharmaceuticals can modify soil and internal earthworm chemistry which may hold wider implications for risk assessment. - Highlights: • Uptake of pharmaceuticals into earthworms is influenced by soil parameters. • Presence of pharmaceuticals in the terrestrial environment influences soil pH. • Uptake of pharmaceuticals by earthworms changes internal earthworm pH. - The uptake of pharmaceuticals into soil invertebrates is dependent on the complex interplay between pharmaceutical physico-chemical properties and soil

  7. Physico-chemical reactions in the underground movement of radioactive isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gailledreau, C.

    The physico-chemical state of the radioelements moving underground can influence considerably their migration velocity. In the case of 90 Sr--held on by monmorillonites, apatites, activated aluminum oxide--the occurrence of electronegative colloids, sorbing selectively 90 Sr results in an immediate break-through of this isotope. This phenomenon has been demonstrated in the case of the calcite phosphate reaction. A high pH is generally favorable to 90 Sr sorption (apatite, aluminum oxide). The occurrence of Ca 2+ ions acts very unfavorably on 90 Sr sorption by minerals specifics of this isotope (apatite, aluminum oxide). The same thing occurs with organic matters 137 Cs sorption, attributed to illitic clays, is little sensitive to the nature of the solution. Ruthenium-106 seems to move underground chiefly as a nitrosylruthenium hydroxide complex. This complex would be weakly sorbed on soil colloids by London--Van der Waals forces

  8. 1-12 Soil Fertility in Koka Nagawo Area of Lumme District in East Shoa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tosheba

    Abstract: For designing proper soil fertility management interventions, locally ... District in East Shoa Zone of Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia, based on ..... Selected soil physico-chemical properties across different land units. ..... facilitating the study and the research work. 6. ... Characteristics of the Soils of the North-western.

  9. Physico-chemical laws governing solid-liquid interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schweich, D.

    1984-01-01

    Physico-chemical interactions between solutes in the aqueous phase and a natural solid are described in terms of four types of mechanisms: linear or non-linear adsorption, ion-exchange, precipitation/dissolution, and chemical reaction. Emphasis is placed on the qualitative differences in behaviour implicit in these mechanisms, attention being drawn to the respective roles of thermodynamics and kinetics. On the quantitative plane, simple theoretical models (and ones that can be used) are presented in parallel to experimental protocols necessary for measuring the interaction parameters. It is pointed out, in particular, that the concept of the distribution coefficient (Ksub(d)) is only an empirical approach to problems which could easily be 'debunked' by means of more realistic, yet at the same time simple, models. (author)

  10. Physico- chemical study of Ceratitis capitata rearing diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Sghiri, Mohamed Ali; Maddouri Fakri

    2005-01-01

    The inhibition of the microbial growth in the rearing diet of ceratitis capitata made it possible to increase the productivity in pupae. The follow-up of the microbial load and the physicochemical parameters of the diets used with varous microbial inhibitors (potassium sorbate in combination with sodium benzoate with varous amounts, on the one hand, and of another share, nipagine in combination with sodium benzoate also with varous amounts) during a rearing of ceratitis capitata on the laboratory scale made it possible to select the diet D as being the most favorable diet. Indeed, a stability of the physico chemical parameters as well as a weak evolution of the microbial load are noted in this diet. (author). 16 refs

  11. Physico - chemical characterization of gamma irradiated PVP-honey-glycerine hydrogel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darmawan Darwis; Lely Hardiningsih; Farah Nurlidar

    2010-01-01

    Research to investigate physico-chemical characterizatics of hydrogel wound dressing containing 6% (b/v) of honey and various concentrations of glycerine from 0-5% (b/v) has been done. Nine series of hydrogel formulas with various composition of PVP hydrogel were irradiated using gamma rays at a dose of 25 kGy. The results showed that addition of honey 6% and glycerine up to 5% lead to the formation of hydrogel with following properties: sterile, transparence, browning color, improved flexibility, conformability to skin and resistance against mould. The PVP-honey-glycerine hydrogel also showed lower water favor evaporation at 37 o C and higher water absorption properties compared to basic formula (without additional of honey and glycerine). (author)

  12. Physico-Chemical and Microbiological Characterization of Soils ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acer

    It also revealed high counts of bacteria and fungi in all the sampling sites. The viable ... greenhouse effect and global warming (Faruk et al., 2005). .... Flame emission spectrophotometry ..... Agiricultural University, Combatore, India,. 31st Jan ...

  13. Physiological and physico-chemical characterization of dietary fibre from the green seaweed Ulva fasciata Delile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AFU. Carvalho

    Full Text Available This work aims to assess the potential of the green seaweed Ulva fasciata Delile as an alternative source of dietary fibre (DF. Total DF content was determined, some of its physico-chemical properties described and the physiological effects of U. fasciata meal on rats fed a hypercholesterolemic diet were investigated. U. fasciata may be considered a potential alternative source of DF with a total content of about 400 g.kg-1 (dry basis and interesting physico-chemical properties: water retention capacity of 8.74 g/water.g-1 dry sample (seaweed meal and 0.90 (seaweed carbohydrate extract, lipid adsorption capacity of 4.52 g/oil.g-1 dry sample (seaweed meal and 5.70 (seaweed carbohydrate extract, intrinsic viscosity of 2.4 dl.g-1 (seaweed carbohydrate extract and cation exchange capacity of 3.51 Eq.kg-1 (seaweed carbohydrate extract. The diet containing seaweed meal was able to keep rats' total cholesterol (TC down without causing any undesirable increase in LDL-C fraction. No evidence of toxic and/or antinutritional components in the seaweed meal was detected. Rats showed a fecal volume much greater (13 g than that fed on cellulose diet ( 7 g (p < 0.05. These properties confer on the seaweed the potential to be used in food technology for the acquisition of low-calorie food and might be important in body weight control, reduction of blood TC and LDL-C as well as in prevention of gastrointestinal diseases.

  14. Physico-chemical mechanism for the vapors sensitivity of photoluminescent InP quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosposito, P.; De Angelis, R.; De Matteis, F.; Hatami, F.; Masselink, W. T.; Zhang, H.; Casalboni, M.

    2016-03-01

    InP/InGaP surface quantum dots are interesting materials for optical chemical sensors since they present an intense emission at room temperature, whose intensity changes rapidly and reversibly depending on the composition of the environmental atmosphere. We present here their emission properties by time resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy investigation and we discuss the physico-chemical mechanism behind their sensitivity to the surrounding atmosphere. Photoluminescence transients in inert atmosphere (N2) and in solvent vapours of methanol, clorophorm, acetone and water were measured. The presence of vapors of clorophorm, acetone and water showed a very weak effect on the transient times, while an increase of up to 15% of the decay time was observed for methanol vapour exposure. On the basis of the vapor molecule nature (polarity, proticity, steric hindrance, etc.) and of the interaction of the vapor molecules with the quantum dots surface a sensing mechanism involving quantum dots non-radiative surface states is proposed.

  15. Physico-chemical mechanism for the vapors sensitivity of photoluminescent InP quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prosposito, P.; De Angelis, R.; De Matteis, F.; Casalboni, M.; Hatami, F.; Masselink, W.T.; Zhang, H.

    2016-01-01

    InP/InGaP surface quantum dots are interesting materials for optical chemical sensors since they present an intense emission at room temperature, whose intensity changes rapidly and reversibly depending on the composition of the environmental atmosphere. We present here their emission properties by time resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy investigation and we discuss the physico-chemical mechanism behind their sensitivity to the surrounding atmosphere. Photoluminescence transients in inert atmosphere (N 2 ) and in solvent vapours of methanol, chloroform, acetone and water were measured. The presence of vapors of chloroform, acetone and water showed a very weak effect on the transient times, while an increase of up to 15% of the decay time was observed for methanol vapour exposure. On the basis of the vapor molecule nature (polarity, proticity, steric hindrance, etc.) and of the interaction of the vapor molecules with the quantum dots surface a sensing mechanism involving quantum dots non-radiative surface states is proposed. (paper)

  16. Physico-chemical impacts of cementitiously-derived calcium and silica on sodium montmorillonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinsela, Andrew S.; Tjitradjaja, Alice; Collins, Richard N.; Waite, T. David; Macdonald, Bennett C.T.; White, Ian; PAYNE, Timothy E.

    2012-01-01

    The storage of nuclear waste frequently involves the construction of a concrete encasement adjacent to an engineered clay barrier, which can expose the swelling clay to elevated concentrations of certain cations (particularly calcium) and very high alkalinity (pH 10 - 13). These conditions have the capacity to degrade the integrity of the clay layer and, as such, it is necessary to fully understand the effects of all possible biogeochemical interactions involved. In this study, the changes in hydraulic conductivities and other physico-chemical properties of Na-montmorillonite assemblages under the influence of both highly alkaline (pH 9 and 12) conditions and elevated concentrations of calcium and silica are examined. The Na-montmorillonite suspensions and filtration experimental method is presented, as well as the electrophoresis characterization technique

  17. Fossilization History of Fossil Resin from Jambi Province (Sumatra, Indonesia Based on Physico-Chemical Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Naglik

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A unique specimen of fossil resin originating from the Dipterocarpaceae tree family found in Miocene brown coal deposits in Jambi Province (Sumatra, Indonesia was investigated via microscopic observations, microhardness testing and infrared and Raman spectroscopic methods. Its form is rare in nature, being an aggregate of three varieties of resin differing in colour, transparency and internal structure. This suggests the formation of the resins at different stages. Further alteration processes, including fossilization and maturation of the resin in a swamp environment resulted in stepwise aromatization of the cyclohexane ring in steroids and cross-linking through formation of ester bonds as well as carbon–carbon bonds between steroid molecules. The various environmental and geological conditions affecting the formation processes of the resins were recorded in their physico-chemical properties. Additionally, heating conditions accelerated by volcanism were proposed as a factor determining the maturation grade of the resin.

  18. Effect of UHT processing and storage conditions on physico-chemical characteristics of buffalo skim milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, I.

    2011-01-01

    The obtained results indicated that physico-chemical and nutritional changes in UHT processed buffalo skimmed milk were more pronounced at 45 deg. C than 25 deg. C and 10 deg. C. Duration of storage adversely affected the chemical and nutritional quality of processed milk. A slight decrease in pH, total ash and lactose contents, was observed, whereas acidity was increased on the mentioned storage conditions. Total nitrogen and casein nitrogen contents gradually decreased during storage, whereas non-casein nitrogen (NCN) and non-protein nitrogen (NPN) increased to a great extent in samples stored at higher temperatures. A significant increase in hydroxyl methyl furfural (HMF) values occurred in UHT processed buffalo skim milk at 25 deg. C and 45 deg. C after of 90 days storage. Storage at high temperature (45 deg. C) caused undesirable effects on sensory properties, general quality characteristics and acceptability of UHT buffalo skimmed milk. (author)

  19. Relationship between physico-chemical characteristics and potential toxicity of PM10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megido, Laura; Suárez-Peña, Beatriz; Negral, Luis; Castrillón, Leonor; Suárez, Susana; Fernández-Nava, Yolanda; Marañón, Elena

    2016-11-01

    PM10 was sampled at a suburban location affected by traffic and industry in the north of Spain. The samples were analysed to determine the chemical components of PM10 (organic and elemental carbon, soluble chemical species and metals). The aim of this study was to assess the toxicity of PM10 in terms of the bulk analysis and the physico-chemical properties of the particles. Total carbon, sulphates, ammonium, chlorides and nitrates were found to be the major constituents of PM10. The contribution of the last of these was found to increase significantly with PM10 concentration (Pearson coefficient correlation of 0.7, p-value major risk to human health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. physico-chemical changes in UHT treated and whole milk powder during storage at ambient temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhtar, S.; Zahoor, T.; Hashmi, A.M.

    2003-01-01

    We studied the changes in pH, acidity and viscosity of ultra high temperature (UHT) treated and reconstituted whole milk powder (WMP) during storage of 90 days at room temperature. The samples were analyzed at 0,30,60 and 90 days intervals for these physico-chemical properties of the milk types. Values indicated an increase in acidity and viscosity with a decrease in pH with the storage time increased both in UHT treated and reconstituted whole milk powder. Apart from many enzymatic changes to deteriorate the milk, these apparent changes in milk characteristics may be one of the reasons that UHT milk cannot be kept unspoiled above 90 days and the quality of WMP is influenced within this time period. (author)

  1. Evaluation of the physico-chemical properties of nanocomposites of low density linear polyethylene and organophilic montmorillonite obtained by fusion; Avaliacao das propriedades fisico-quimicas de nanocompositos de polietileno linear de baixa densidade e montmorilonita organofilica obtidos por fusao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arndt, Aline; Sandrin, Bianca M.; Pezzin, A.P.T., E-mail: anapezzin@yahoo.com.br [Universidade da Regiao de Joinville (UNIVILLE), SC (Brazil); Meier, Marcia M. [Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina (UESC), Joinville, SC (Brazil). Departamento de Quimica; Balzer, Palova S. [Centro Universitario Unisociesc, Joinville, SC (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica; Tavares, Maria I.B. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Laboratorio de Solucoes em Ralaxometria

    2016-07-01

    In this project they were produced and characterized nanocomposite organoclay applied to linear low density polyethylene in order to improve their physicochemical properties. Samples were produced by means of extrusion and injection process, varying proportions of nanoclay (2; 2.5; 3.0 and 3.5%) in LLDPE. Samples nanocomposites were characterized by TGA, DSC and Flammability test (UL-94). The TGA analysis showed that adding nanoclay increased thermal stability, especially for LLDPE / OMMT2,0 sample increased thermal stability at 4.4%. By DSC it was found that samples with nanoclay incorporation did not affect the Tm of LLDPE, though the increase of nanoclay raised the degree of crystallinity of the samples 52.7% in LLDPE / 2.5 OMMT sample. The flammability results show that the sample LLDPE / OMMT 2.0 showed a decrease of 37.77% in the flame propagation velocity. The NMR showed that the samples up LLDPE / 2.5 OM has an exfoliated nanocomposite formation. (author)

  2. Studies of the physico-chemical properties on the transuranian elements in connection with the migration phenomenon in the geosphere. Task 3 Characterization of radioactive waste forms. A series of final reports (1985-89)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitorge, P.; Oliver, J.; Mangin, J.P.; Billon, A.

    1991-01-01

    In the first part, the properties of the transuranium elements (TRU) mainly Pu Np Am have been investigated in terms of complexation by OH and CO3 ligands in aqueous solution. The species which are formed in given physicochemical conditions (ionic strength, concentrations...) are studied with no direct reference to well defined ground waters. Equilibrium constants of complexes and redox potential values are useful in the drawing up of Pourbaix's diagrams. Areas of stability of species in function of Eh pH pCO2 are given for the different elements in a few cases. The second part of this report deals with the study of the transfer of tritiated water cesium and strontium through highly compacted clay (diffusion coefficient). In a third part a code for the computation of ion migration and diffusion in areas close to radwaste storage facilities has been developed. This type of application was found to require a mesh pattern and boundary conditions different from the usual, which justifies the writing of a new code called CONDIMENT. (Convection and Diffusion of elements) 49 figs.; 18 tabs.; 21 refs

  3. About the role of physico-chemical properties and hydrodynamics on the progress of a precipitation reaction: the case of cerium oxalate particles produced during the coalescence of drops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jehannin, Marie

    2015-01-01

    The nucleation and growth of solid particles resulting from a precipitation process is an important topic both for fundamental science and industrial applications. In a precipitation process, different reactants, which are individually soluble in the same solvent, get in contact and react to form insoluble solid particles (the precipitate). The properties of the produced particles are the result of a strong coupling between the chemical reaction and the reactants feed and mixing rates. The latter are mainly provided by diffusive and convective transport through a reaction-diffusion-convection process. In the emulsion precipitation process considered here the reactants are enclosed into droplets. The local transport conditions can be modified in many ways by tuning the relevant parameters and thus be used to control the properties of the precipitated particles. The aim of this study is to investigate the impact of local flow and mixing conditions during the coalescence on the precipitates properties, mainly their size, morphology and distribution. The test system consists of two coalescing droplets: one drop contains oxalic acid dissolved in an aqueous solution, while the other one contains cerium nitrate. Upon contact of the two miscible solutions a precipitate of cerium oxalate is formed. Besides, by adding chosen amounts of diols into the droplets, their surface tensions can be adjusted. Differences in surface tension cause a surface tension gradient in the section where both drops get in contact. This can lead to a Marangoni flow directed from the low surface tension interface to the high surface tension interface. This local convective flow will modify the local mixing conditions of the two solutions. This study focuses on how, where, when, which precipitate forms as function of the initial stoichiometry of the reactants and of the process conditions (e.g. the mixing conditions affected by the Marangoni flow). For this purpose, two configurations of coalescing

  4. Radiation preservation of tiger nut (Cyperus esculentus L.) with special reference to fungi and the effect of the physico-chemical properties of the nuts before and after irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agyeman, A.A.

    2011-01-01

    , Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry and flame photometry. Finally the consume acceptability of the milk prepared from the nuts was determined by a taste panel using the parameters of colour, taste, aroma, mouth fell and overall acceptability. Data were analysed statistically using SPSS (version 16.0) and GENSTAT (12 th edition). The sex distribution of respondents varied from one Region to another but was predominantly females. Generally, traders between the ages of 16 to 75 years sold tiger nuts but this varied from Region to Region. Majority of the dealers in tiger nut were illiterates in all the production and selling centres. The local names also varied depending on dialect and language used in communication. In the cosmopolitan Accra all the names were mentioned by respondents. There is a well-structured marketing strategy of tiger nuts in Ghana with markets in Accra receiving nuts from all over the country including the North. The nuts are stored in different packaging materials (jute sack, woven polypropylene, rattan baskets, grey baft sacks and card boxes depending on the Region). Majority of the sellers of tiger nuts knew its nutritional value but the most popular was the mil (Atadwe milk) which is a delicacy. The method of harvesting and cleaning of the nuts for storage varied in the Central and Eastern Regions. The tiger nuts were contaminated by 29 different fungi belonging to fourteen genera (aspergillus, Cladosproium, Fusarium, Mucor, Monoascus, Neosartorya, Neurospora, Paecilomyces, Penicillium, Rhizopus, Rhodotorula, Syncephalastrum, Torula and Saccharomyces). Aspergillus species predominated followed by Penicillium sp. Although their percentage occurrence varied from one cultivar to another, several potential toxin-producing species (A.flavus, A.alutaceus, A.sulphreus, A.terreus, Paecilomyces carneus, Penicillium digitatum, P.roqueforti, P.corylophilum) of public concern were isolated. These contaminating fungal species could be traced from the soil from

  5. Physico chemical and microbiological changes in nopal (Opuntia spp.) irradiated with gamma rays of cobalt 60

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez N, M.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this work is to study the physico-chemical and microbiological changes which take place in the nopal (Opuntia spp.) after they have been irradiated and stored at environment and refrigeration temperatures in order to determine the level of irradiation dose more adequate for getting them an increase in the storage life, as well as to determine the physico-chemical changes attributed to the irradiation doses used, comparing the obtained results with those ones of non-irradiated nopal samples, which are considered as control samples. The radiation source used was a GAMMABEAM-651 PT, property of the Nuclear Sciences Institute of UNAM. The nopals studied are of the variety (Milpa Alta, Opuntia ficus) which were cut and packed in polyethylene bags with and without nitrogen. In order to find the adequate dose level it was used a lot of 200 samples which were treated in sets of 10. They were irradiated in doses of 0.5 to 10 kGy at a dose reason of 3.7 kGy/h. The adequate doses for getting an increase in the storage life, where there was not darkness were of 1.5 and 2.0 kGy, allowed doses in the NOM-033-SSA1-1993, it was not found any change in acceptability by flavour, but so in the titled activity values and sugars. The lowest loss of weight was found in the 1.5 kGy dose without nitrogen and the highest in the 2.0 kGy with nitrogen dose. Likewise was determined that with the irradiation treatment in the recommended doses it is diminished the microorganisms growth, obtaining an improvement in the general appearance of the nopals during their storage period. (Author)

  6. Physico-chemical characteristics and market potential of sawdust charcoal briquette

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akowuah, Joseph O.; Kemausuor, Francis [Kwame Nkrumah Univ. of Science and Technology, Kumasi (Ghana). Dept. of Agricultural Engineering; Mitchual, Stephen J. [Univ. of Education, Winneba, Kumasi (Ghana). Dept. of Design and Technology Education

    2012-11-01

    In the absence of the widespread distribution of modern cooking fuels in developing countries, efforts are being made to utilise biomass residues which abound in most of these countries. This is intended to replace portions of firewood and charcoal and thereby reduce the cutting down of forests for fuel purposes. Briquettes from agro-residues have therefore been promoted as a better replacement to firewood and charcoals for heating, cooking and other industrial applications in both urban and rural communities. This study sought to assess the physico-chemical properties of charcoal briquettes produced in Ghana and also establish demand for and willingness of potential users to substitute charcoal and firewood with a charcoal briquette. A laboratory experiment was conducted to determine the physicochemical characteristics of the briquettes. This was done prior to the distribution of the briquette to potential users to collaborate their views or otherwise on the handling and burning characteristics of the charcoal briquette. A survey was undertaken a week later using questionnaires to access the willingness of the potential users to use the briquettes. Sixty respondents were purposively selected from households and the hospitality industry for the survey. Results of the physico-chemical assessment of the briquettes were as follows: length (75 to 120 mm), moisture content (5.7% dry basis), density (1.1 g/cm{sup 3}), ash content (2.6%), fixed carbon (20.7%), volatile matter (71%) and calorific value (4,820 kcal/kg). Responses from the survey indicated that the briquette is easy to ignite, has a long burning time and has good heat output. Respondents also observed that the briquettes did not give off sparks and had less smoke and ash content as compared to the regular charcoal they often used. Finally, 93% of the respondents indicated their willingness to use the briquettes if the price was comparable to charcoal. (orig.)

  7. Alteration of Asian lacquer: in-depth insight using a physico-chemical multiscale approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Hô, Anne-Solenn; Duhamel, Chloé; Daher, Céline; Bellot-Gurlet, Ludovic; Paris, Céline; Regert, Martine; Sablier, Michel; André, Guilhem; Desroches, Jean-Paul; Dumas, Paul

    2013-10-07

    Oriental lacquer has been used in Asian countries for thousands of years as a durable and aesthetic coating material for its adhesive, consolidating, protective and decorative properties. Although these objects are made from an unusual material in Occident, Western museum collections host many lacquerwares. Curators, restorers and scientists are daily confronted with questions of their conservation and their alteration. The characterization of their conservation state is usually assessed through visual observations. However deterioration often starts at the microscopic level and cannot be detected by a simple visual inspection. Often, ageing and deterioration of artworks are connected to physical, mechanical and chemical transformations. Thus new insight into alteration of lacquer involves the monitoring of macro-, microscopic and molecular modifications, and this can be assessed from physico-chemical measurements. Non-invasive (microtopography and Scanning Electron Microscopy - SEM) and micro-invasive (infrared micro-spectroscopy using a synchrotron source - SR-μFTIR) investigations were performed to study the degradation processes of lacquers and evaluate their level of alteration. In particular, spectral decomposition and fitting procedure were performed in the 1820-1520 cm(-1) region to follow the shift of the C=O and C=C band positions during lacquer ageing. The present work proves the potential of this physico-chemical approach in conservation studies of lacquers and in the quantification of the state of alteration. It evidences chemical phenomena of alteration such as oxidation and decomposition of a lacquer polymeric network. It also demonstrates for the first time the degradation front of artificially aged lacquer and the chemical imaging of a more than 2000 years old archaeological lacquer by using SR-μFTIR.

  8. Physico-chemical behavior of radionuclides in seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Yuichiro; Ogawa, Yoshihiro; Honda, Yoshihide; Katsurayama, Kosuke.

    1980-01-01

    To elucidate the physico-chemical states of radionuclides in seawater in relation to uptake by the marine biosphere, the physicochemical behavior of radiocobalt, radioruthenium and radiocerium in seawater was investigated by electrodialysis, high-voltage paper electrophoresis, and also by paper chromatography for nitrosylruthenium complexes. Most of the radiocobalt in seawater behaved as dialytic cations. However, these cationic species were not necessarily simple divalent, because their electrophoretic bands were rather diffuse and showed two peaks temporarily. The electroneutral form also increased with aging in seawater. The radioruthenium in seawater showed relatively a number of well-defined species which could be readily classified into anionic, cationic, electroneutral, colloidal or particulate, non-dialytic and more or less adsorbable species. The radioruthenium in the chloro and nitratonitrosylruthenium complexes occurred mainly electroneutral and anionic species, while nitro and binuclear oxygen-bridged nitratonitrosylruthenium complexes showed dominant anionic species. The hydrolysis of higher nitro and nitratonitrosylruthenium complexes to lower ones was demonstrated with aging in seawater by paper chromatography. The radiocerium in seawater showed initially cationic species. However, the electroneutral and anionic species were revealed with aging by electrodialysis. The radiocerium were strongly adsorbed on filter paper at the starting band in paper electrophoresis, presumably because of the formation of strongly adsorbable or insoluble hydrolytic species or particle formation. (author)

  9. Physico-chemical Properties of Water Samples from Manipur River ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    1Research Scholar,Ecology Research Laboratory,Department of Life sciences, ... 2009 from four rivers namely the Imphal, Iril, Thoubal and Manipur located in Manipur, a north-eastern State of ..... ecological study of a small New Zealand.

  10. Physico-chemical and rheological properties of prato cheese during ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aghomotsegin

    2015-06-17

    Jun 17, 2015 ... African Journal of Biotechnology. Full Length Research ... consumer usually evaluates the colour and aroma prior to ... parameters influence the texture of cheeses because the ... Quality of refrigerated milk used to process prato cheese ... Centre for Food Research of the School of Veterinary and Animal.

  11. physico-chemical properties of well water samples from some

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    in anthropogenic activities and any pollution either physical or chemical causes changes .... nitrates levels that affect infants do not pose a direct threat to older children and adults, they do indicate the possible presences of other more serious ...

  12. Physico-chemical properties of plasma-polymerized tetravinylsilane

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čech, V.; Studynka, J.; Conte, N.; Peřina, Vratislav

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 201, 9-11 (2007), s. 5512-5517 ISSN 0257-8972 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : nano -indentation Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 1.678, year: 2007

  13. Levels of Some Heavy Metals and Physico Chemical Properties of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL

    except the upstream samples that gave a pH value of 6.89. The dissolved Oxygen contents of all the samples fell below FEPA limit of 10mg/l. However, the highest chemical oxygen demand concentration of 93.7mg/l was obtained in the untreated effluent sample. The mean ammonia concentration of the untreated sample ...

  14. Physico-chemical properties of a modified biomaterial from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was soluble in dilute HCl and HNO3 but practically insoluble in cold water and organic solvents. Its 10 % w/v aqueous dispersion has pH of 7.57. Whereas, lead, silver, cadmium, nickel, vanadium, mercury or barium were not detected, iron and some heavy metals were detected, though their levels were within ...

  15. Investigation into the physico-chemical properties and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Agbalagba O. E.1*, Agbalagba O. H.2, Ononugbo C. P.3 and Alao A. A.3 ... Eight commercial borehole water samples were analyze for various ... from municipal, solid waste, landfills is potential sources ... increase especially in our cities with lots of industrial ... 006°,24E and situated in the southern part of the Niger Delta.

  16. physico-chemical properties and energy potential of wood wastes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    were performed to assess the energy characteristics of the collected wood .... Methods. Wood processing activities were physically observed for. 6 days/wk at the sawmills for 15weeks. ..... [10] Oladeji, J T “Fuel characterization of briquettes.

  17. extraction and physico chemical properties of some edible seed oils

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    The free fatty acids values ranged from 0.096mgKOH/g – 1.34mgKOH/g. The results of these ... Nutritional and industrial processes have increased the demands for oils ..... Sarwar, M. (2013): The theatrical usefulness of olive. Oleaeuropaea L.

  18. physico-chemical properties, energy, mineral, vitamin and sensory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BARTH EKWUEME

    AND SENSORY EVALUATION OF WHEAT-BASED BREAD. SUPPLEMENTED .... There is no available literature on the supplemented .... Oven spring was estimated as the difference in dough ..... The low level of gluten in the composite flour.

  19. Physico-chemical properties of indigenous micro organism ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Paddy husk (PH) and corn stalks (CS) residues are managed through burning. Besides contributing to environmental pollution, burning causes loss of vegetation cover, erosion, run off and loss of organic matter. In order to minimize this problem, a study was conducted to manage PH and CS residues through composting ...

  20. Transcobalamin from cow milk: isolation and physico-chemical properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fedosov, Sergey; Petersen, Torben Ellebæk; Nexø, Ebba

    1996-01-01

    The concentration of endogenous cobalamin (Cbl) in cow milk was 3.3 nM while the Cbl-binding capacity was 0.05 nM. Both endogenous and newly added Cbl showed similar quantitative distribution between a 280 kDa protein complex (45%) and a 43 kDa Cbl-binder (55%). Long time incubation, as well...... as urea treatment, was accompanied by a slow release of the 43 kDa Cbl-binder from the 280 kDa fraction. No other Cbl-binding proteins appeared after these procedures. The 43 kDa binder from cow milk, depleted of the ligand by urea treatment, reacted with Cbl even in the presence of a B12 analogue...... was significantly suppressed at pH 2.0. The N-terminal sequence of the purified 43 kDa Cbl-binder revealed homology with TC from human and rabbit plasma. In conclusion we have shown that TC is the main Cbl-binding protein in cow milk. This is surprising, since previous studies on human and rat milk have shown...

  1. Physico-chemical properties and heavy metal content of water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    domestic water with few exceptions. .... river water and groundwater quality in the area is needed ... effect. MATERIALS AND METHODS. A total of forty (40) sampling sites were ..... of domestic waste containing Pb from human activities at.

  2. study of phytoplanktonin relation to physico- chemical properties

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phytoplankton have both beneficial and detrimental effect on human ... bottling effluents and waste water from settlement around. The ..... Environment impact of Domestic ... Venkateswarlu, V. (1981) Algae as indicators of river water quality.

  3. Physico-chemical properties of indigenous micro organism ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sony

    2012-04-26

    Apr 26, 2012 ... High quality compost could be produced from CS. Key words: Paddy husk ... 2007) or as a growing medium in agriculture and horti- culture (Pérez-Murcia ..... inactivated during the thermogenic stage (temperature 40 to 60°C).

  4. Physico-chemical properties of honeys produced by two stingless ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P) and sodium (Na) contents were 25.43%, 0.76%, and 12.67% for Trigona carbonaria honey and 26.51%, 1.03% and 11.96% for Melipona beecheii .The fructose, glucose, reducing sugar, higher sugar, sucrose and calorific value contents of Trigona carbonaria honey were 37.25%, 31.64%, ...

  5. Nutritional, physico-chemical and sensory properties of Robo (A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The vitamins – thiamine, riboflavin and niacin in the melon robo were 2.87, 0.65 and 1.28 mg/100 g while sesame robo contained 2.13, 1.05 and 0.56 mg/100 g respectively. The phytate and oxalate concentrations were relatively low in all the samples. The sensory evaluation results revealed that melon robo was rated ...

  6. Evaluation of the physico-chemical properties of acid thinned ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    From the investigation, the acid modification of cassava starch at 60°C with 0.1M hydrochloric acid solutions for 1hr and 2hr gave pastes that are stable, and have workable viscosities and can form gel in food processing. Therefore, the results suggest that they are suitable for the food industry as food emulsifiers/stabilizers.

  7. Comparative Studies of Physico-chemical Properties of Some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Akorede

    cement (As, Br, De and Sk) sold in Nigerian market using standard methods; due to the persistent collapse of buildings. ... important factors for chemical control in cement (Nasir and .... and mixed for 90s; this was allowed to stop at every 15s in.

  8. Some physico-chemical properties and mineral contents of sweet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-06-17

    Jun 17, 2009 ... contents of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) type grown in Konya .... Working conditions of ICP-AES. Instrument: ICP-AES ... The volume of fruit (V) and fruit density (Pt), were determined using the liquid ... These differences can.

  9. Physico chemical properties of irradiated i-SANEX diluents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mossini Eros

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of effective processes to recover minor actinides from spent nuclear fuel cannot leave out of consideration the evaluation of the impact of ionizing radiations on safety, fluid dynamics and extraction efficiency. It is common knowledge from the literature that radiation damage mainly affects the diluents and, indirectly, the extractants [1], but a lack of knowledge remains regarding the radiolytic behavior of innovative selective actinide extraction (i-SANEX diluents [2, 3]. As natural prosecution of the work already performed on diluted nitric acid solutions [4], 0.44 M nitric acid solutions were irradiated in contact with a mixture of kerosene + 5 vol.% 1-octanol by a Co-60 source at 2.5 kGy/h dose rate and up to 100 kGy absorbed dose, conditions of interest for the future industrial facility. Density, viscosity, acidity, nitrate anion concentration and phase transfers were systematically measured before and after γ-irradiation. This was performed because radiation-induced modifications of these parameters may induce alterations of both the fluid dynamics and the separation performances of the extracting system. The results suggest that the fluid-dynamics of the system should be unaltered. In fact, only slight alterations of the organic phase viscosity and of the aqueous phase acidity were measured after irradiation, suggesting the occurrence of limited phase transfers and of diluent by-products formation.

  10. Variation in physico-chemical properties of seed of selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-10-20

    Oct 20, 2008 ... Full Length Research Paper. Variation in ... Key words: Industrial crop, seed physicochemical content, Vigna unduiculata. ..... Cowpea genetics a review of the world literasture. ... Development of improved cowpea varieties.

  11. Seasonal Variations of Some Physico-Chemical Properties of River ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL

    The sampling points represent the villages within Abraka clan along the river. The seasonal variations are ... untreated waste water or poorly treated effluents accrued from .... Fakayode, S.O. (2005): Impact Assessment of. Industrial Effluent on ...

  12. Seasonal variations of physico-chemical properties of the Great ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    characteristics and nutrient dynamics in the network of. *Corresponding author. ... salt units that produce edible salt and industrial salt operate in this ... Monthly variations of water temperature in different stations during the study period. area.

  13. Physico-chemical, thermal and electrical properties of the fabricated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We successfully fabricated polyurethane (PU) thin films deposited on glass substrates utilizing bio-based epoxidized soybean oil (ESBO) via spin coating technique. Prior to deposition, one-shot polymerization condensation reaction was made by reacting varied amount of ESBO-based polyols with isocyanate.

  14. Cytotoxic, antibacterial activity and physico-chemical properties of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... aromatic aldehydes and aromatic amine in ethanol under acidic conditions. The geometry of these Schiff bases was established using various spectroscopic methods like infrared (IR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and mass spectrometry. The conductivity studies reveal the non electrolytic behavior of Schiff bases.

  15. Extraction and physico chemical properties of some edible seed oils ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Six edible seed samples were obtained from Yankura market in Kano metropolis, Kano state. The samples were subjected to extraction for their oil contents. The percentage oil yield from the seeds were 40.60% for Moringa oleifera, 49.39% for cashew, 47.80% for sesame, 11.92% for bitter kola, 38.30% for melon and ...

  16. Dinâmica de nemátodes fitoparasitas e sua relação com alguns parâmetros físico-químicos do solo durante o cultivo de beterraba sacarina Population dynamics of plant-parasitic nematodes and their relationships with some soil physico-chemical characteristics during sugarbeet cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Barbosa

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O objectivo do estudo centrou-se na avaliação da dinâmica de nemátodes fito parasitas, e relação com alguns parâmetros físico-químicos, num terreno utilizado para produção de beterraba sacarina, na zona de Coruche. Com o intuito de acompanhar o processo de crescimento da cultura, o estudo foi efectuado de Janeiro a Junho de 2003. Recorreu-se a métodos standard para a amostragem, extracção e observação dos nemátodes. Empregaramse comparações estatísticas (Kruskal-Wallis na análise da distribuição mensal dos fitoparasitas. As relações entre indivíduos e parâmetros físico-químicos do seu habitat foram verificadas por análise de componentes principais (PCA, análise canónica de correspondência (CCA e correlações. Em virtude das acções causadas pelas práticas agrícolas, a comunidade decresceu de Janeiro a Abril, aumentando até Junho com o início do processo de rega. O número de nemátodes do género Meloidogyne foi significativamente superior, secundado por Helicotylenchus e Tylenchus. As correlações entre indivíduos e parâmetros ambientais indicam que, aparte a influência directa do hospedeiro, o cálcio, o potássio, o azoto e a humidade do solo influenciaram a abundância e as relações entre os géneros.The objective of this research was studying population dynamics of plant-parasitic nematodes (PPN and their relationships with some soil physico-chemical characteristics, from 1 plot used for sugarbeet production in Coruche. The study was performed from January to June 2003, following the plant growth cycle. Standard sampling, extraction and observation methods were employed. Statistical comparisons (Kruskal-Wallis were used to analyze nematode monthly distribution. Principal Component Analysis (PCA, Correspondence Canonical Analysis (CCA and correlations were used to correlate PPN numbers and several physical and chemical parameters. As a result of agricultural practices, the community declined from

  17. Physico-chemical quality control 131I-sodium 2-iodohippurate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morin, J.; Olive, E.; Issac, M.; Cruz, J.

    1992-01-01

    Some physico-chemical methods for analytical control 131 I-sodium 2-iodohippurate are compared. The most convenient to applicate in hospital and in more especialized quality control laboratories are recommended

  18. Soil properties and processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartemink, A.E.; McBratney, A.B.; White, R.E.

    2009-01-01

    This four-volume set, edited by leading experts in soil science, brings together in one collection a series of papers that have been fundamental to the development of soil science as a defined discipline. Tis volume 2 on Soil Properties and Processes covers: - Soil physics - Soil (bio)chemistry -

  19. Iodide behaviour in hard clay rocks under controlled physico-chemical conditions at different concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frasca, B.; Savoye, S.; Wittebroodt, C.; Leupin, O.X.; Descostes, M.; Grenut, B.; Meier, P.; Michelot, J.L.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. With a half-life of 1.6 10 7 years, its high mobility and its potential to accumulate in the biosphere, iodine-129 is considered, from safety assessment calculations for radioactive waste repositories, to be one of the main radiological dose contributors. Based on the findings of previous studies, iodide, especially at low concentrations, seems to be migrating at a slower rate in clay rock than Cl-36. The cause of this retardation regarding the diffusion of iodide versus chloride is not yet understood but several hypotheses are point towards sorption on natural organic matter (NOM), pyrite or redox reactions. Oxidation of iodide would form IO 3 - which is known to have a higher sorption affinity on several soils and sediment samples than iodide. The present project aims at exploring the effect on the iodide behaviour of two parameters: (i) the initial concentration of iodide and (ii) the amount of NOM contained in the argillite samples. Such an investigation is carried out on Tournemire argillite by means of both batch and through-diffusion experiments. The main challenge is to exclude as much as possible the occurrence of any experimental artefact that could induce iodide uptake (oxygen contamination, dissolution/precipitation of carbonate phases). Regarding redox conditions and rock equilibrium, all the experiments were carried out under physico-chemical conditions as close as possible to those prevailing in field. Using a glove box with an atmosphere of N 2 /CO 2 (respectively 99.6% and 0.4%), we preserved the experiments from oxygen and maintained the calculated in-situ carbonate equilibrium. At first, four through-diffusion experiments with the non-sorbing tracers HTO and Cl-36 were performed to allow the diffusive parameters of each sample to be defined. Afterwards, iodide was injected in the diffusion cells at four different concentrations (10 -6 M to 10 -3 M). Thus, the comparison of the incoming fluxes of

  20. Effect of casein and inulin addition on physico-chemical characteristics of low fat camel dairy cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziaeifar, Leila; Labbafi Mazrae Shahi, Mohsen; Salami, Maryam; Askari, Gholam R

    2018-05-21

    The effect of the addition of the camel casein fraction on some physico-chemical properties of low fat camel milk cream was studied. Oil-in-water emulsions, 25, 30, and 35 (w/w) fat, were prepared using inulin, camel skim milk, milk fat and variable percentages of casein (1, 2, and 3% w/w). The droplet size, ζ-potential, surface protein concentration, viscosity and surface tension of low fat dairy creams was measured. Cream containing 2% (w/w) casein had better stability. The modifications in physico-chemical properties appeared to be driven by changes in particle size distribution caused by droplet aggregation. The cream containing 2% casein leads to a gradual decrease in droplet size, as the particle size decreased, apparent viscosity increased. When casein concentration increased, ζ-potential decreased due to combination of c terminal (negative charge) with the surface of fat particles but steric repulsion improved textural properties. Cream with 30% fat and 2% casein had the best result. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Organic Contaminant Content and Physico-Chemical Characteristics of Waste Materials Recycled in Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Rigby

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A range of wastes representative of materials currently applied, or with future potential to be applied, to agricultural land in the UK as fertilisers and soil improvers or used as animal bedding in livestock production, were investigated. In addition to full physico-chemical characterization, the materials were analysed for a suite of priority organic contaminants. In general, contaminants were present at relatively low concentrations. For example, for biosolids and compost-like-output (CLO, concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs were approximately 1−10 and 5–50 times lower, respectively, than various proposed or implemented European limit values for these contaminants in biosolids or composts applied to agricultural land. However, the technical basis for these limits may require re-evaluation in some cases. Polybrominated, and mixed halogenated, dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans are not currently considered in risk assessments of dioxins and dioxin-like chemicals, but were detected at relatively high concentrations compared with PCDD/Fs in the biosolids and CLOs and their potential contribution to the overall toxic equivalency is assessed. Other ‘emerging’ contaminants, such as organophosphate flame retardants, were detected in several of the waste materials, and their potential significance is discussed. The study is part of a wider research programme that will provide evidence that is expected to improve confidence in the use of waste-derived materials in agriculture and to establish guidelines to protect the food chain where necessary.

  2. Physico-chemical trends in the sediments of Agbede Wetlands, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirisu Abdul-Rahman

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the physico-chemical status of sediments in the Agbede Wetlands with the aim to create a reference archive for the Edo North catchment and to further identify the characteristics mostly influenced by the natural and anthropogenic activities going on at the watershed. Nutrients, zinc, nickel and lead were identified to be mostly of anthropogenic origin, while alkali metals and alkaline earth metals were from both anthropogenic and natural sources. The clustering of stations 1 and 4 indicates that the sediment quality in the lentic systems was not completely excluded from the lotic system, suggesting that principal component analysis (PCA and cluster analysis (CA techniques are invaluable tools for identifying factors influencing the sediment quality. The mean values of the particle size distribution were in the following order across the ecosystems: sand (61.86–80.53% > silt (9.75–30.34% > clay (7.83–13.89%. The contamination of the water bodies was primarily derived from agricultural run-offs and through geochemical weathering of the top soils. Therefore, our analysis indicates that the concentrations of cations, anions and nutrients in the sediments of the lotic and lentic ecosystems in Agbede Wetlands are not at an alarming level.

  3. Physico-chemical trends in the sediments of Agbede Wetlands, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirisu, Abdul-Rahman; Olomukoro, John Ovie; Ezenwa, Ifeanyi Maxwell

    2017-07-01

    This study assessed the physico-chemical status of sediments in the Agbede Wetlands with the aim to create a reference archive for the Edo North catchment and to further identify the characteristics mostly influenced by the natural and anthropogenic activities going on at the watershed. Nutrients, zinc, nickel and lead were identified to be mostly of anthropogenic origin, while alkali metals and alkaline earth metals were from both anthropogenic and natural sources. The clustering of stations 1 and 4 indicates that the sediment quality in the lentic systems was not completely excluded from the lotic system, suggesting that principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA) techniques are invaluable tools for identifying factors influencing the sediment quality. The mean values of the particle size distribution were in the following order across the ecosystems: sand (61.86-80.53%) > silt (9.75-30.34%) > clay (7.83-13.89%). The contamination of the water bodies was primarily derived from agricultural run-offs and through geochemical weathering of the top soils. Therefore, our analysis indicates that the concentrations of cations, anions and nutrients in the sediments of the lotic and lentic ecosystems in Agbede Wetlands are not at an alarming level.

  4. Physico-chemical study of coating plasma duplex alumina/hydroxyapatite for medical applications relation elaboration/structure/properties(dissolution/adherence/residual constraints); Etude physico-chimique de depots plasma duplex alumine/hydroxyapatite pour applications medicales relations elaboration/structure/proprietes (dissolution/adherence/contraintes residuelles)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demonet, N

    1998-11-19

    The physico-chemical behavior of porous ceramics depositing is studied in order to use them to favour the biological fixing of hip prosthesis fixed without cement. Alumina depositing, hydroxyapatite depositing and duplex (the both together) have been realized by plasma projection on a substrate in Ti-6Al-V. Tests of dissolution have been made. An original method of sound followed by radioactive tracers has allowed to establish an order of phases degradation and to consider the kinetics of calcium ions in function of several parameters of tests. (N.C.)

  5. Relationships between soil properties and community structure of soil macroinvertebrates in oak-history forests along an acidic deposition gradient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuperman, R.G. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Assessment Div.

    1996-02-01

    Soil macroinvertebrate communities were studied in ecologically analogous oak-hickory forests across a three-state atmospheric pollution gradient in Illinois, Indiana, and Ohio. The goal was to investigate changes in the community structure of soil fauna in study sites receiving different amounts of acidic deposition for several decades and the possible relationships between these changes and physico-chemical properties of soil. The study revealed significant differences in the numbers of soil animals among the three study sites. The sharply differentiated pattern of soil macroinvertebrate fauna seems closely linked to soil chemistry. Significant correlations of the abundance of soil macroinvertebrates with soil parameters suggest that their populations could have been affected by acidic deposition in the region. Abundance of total soil macroinvertebrates decreased with the increased cumulative loading of acidic deposition. Among the groups most sensitive to deposition were: earthworms gastropods, dipteran larvae, termites, and predatory beetles. The results of the study support the hypothesis that chronic long-term acidic deposition could aversely affect the soil decomposer community which could cause lower organic matter turnover rates leading to an increase in soil organic matter content in high deposition sites.

  6. Crystallization characteristics and physico-chemical properties of glass–ceramics based on Li2O–ZnO–SiO2 system; Características de cristalización y propiedades físico-químicas de los materiales vitrocerámicos compuestos a base del sistema Li2O-ZnO-SiO2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salman, Saad M.; Salama, Samia N.; Abo-Mosallam, Hany A.

    2017-11-01

    Glass materials based on lithium zinc silicate system of the composition 24Li2O–20ZnO–56SiO2 LZS (mol%) were prepared and converted to glass–ceramics using controlled heat-treatment schedules. The LZS base glass system was modified by addition of Al2O3 and MO/ZnO replacements where MO=CaO, CdO and SrO oxides. Several crystalline phases were developed, including lithium zinc orthosilicate, α-quartz, β-spodumene solid solution, lithium meta and disilicate, Ca-wollastonite, Cd or Sr metasilicate, and Sr-zinc silicate of hardystonite type. The effects of crystallization process on some properties, like thermal expansion coefficient (TEC), chemical stability, and density of glass–ceramics were evaluated. The TEC of crystalline samples varied from 72×10−7 to 149×10−7K−1, 25–600 and density values in the range, 2.67–3.29g/cm3. The addition of Al2O3 and MO/ZnO replacements in the base glass led to improve the chemical durability of the glass–ceramics samples. As a result of the thermal and physico-chemical properties of the studied glass–ceramic, the materials acquire excellent properties and can be used to seal a variety of different metals and alloys. [Spanish] Los materiales de vidrio compuestos a base del sistema de silicato de cinc y de litio, de la composición 24Li2O–20ZnO-56SiO2 LZS (mol %), se prepararon y se convirtieron en vitrocerámica con regímenes de tratamiento térmico controlado. El sistema de vidrio de base LZS se modificó mediante la adición de reemplazos de Al2O3 y MO/ZnO, donde MO=óxidos de CaO, CdO y SrO. Se desarrollaron varias fases cristalinas, incluyendo ortosilicato de cinc y de litio, de cuarzo α, solución sólida de espomudeno, metal litio y disilicato, Ca-wollastonita, metasilicato Cd o Sr, y silicato de cinc Sr de tipo hardistonita. Se evaluaron los efectos del proceso de cristalización en algunas propiedades, como el coeficiente de expansión térmica, la estabilidad química y la densidad de las vitrocer

  7. Physico-chemical state influences in vitro release profile of curcumin from pectin beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, An Thi-Binh; Winckler, Pascale; Loison, Pauline; Wache, Yves; Chambin, Odile

    2014-09-01

    Curcumin is a polyphenolic compound with diverse effects interesting to develop health benefit products but its formulation in functional foods or in food supplement is hampered by its poor water solubility and susceptibility to alkaline conditions, light, oxidation and heat. Encapsulation of curcumin could be a mean to overcome these difficulties. In this paper, curcumin was encapsulated by ionotropic gelation method in low methoxyl pectin beads associated with different surfactants: Solutol(®), Transcutol(®) and sodium caseinate. After encapsulation, physico-chemical properties of encapsulated curcumin such as its solubility, physical state, tautomeric forms and encapsulation efficiency as well as encapsulation yield were characterized. In vitro dissolution of curcumin from beads displayed different kinetic profiles according to bead composition due to different matrix network. As Solutol(®) was a good solvent for curcumin, the drug was present into amorphous form in these beads inducing a rapid release of curcumin in the simulated digestive fluids. In contrast, drug release was slower from sodium caseinate beads since curcumin was not totally dissolved during the manufacturing process. Moreover, the FLIM studies showed that a part of curcumin was encapsulated in caseinate micelles and that 34% of this drug was in keto form which may delay the curcumin release. The Transcutol beads showed also a slow drug release because of the low curcumin solubility and the high density of the matrix. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Physico-chemical basis of radioprotection by melanin: a fungal pigment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barik, A.; Kunwar, A.; Singh, B.G.; Priyadarsini, K.I.; Raghukumar, S.

    2014-01-01

    Melanin is a biopolymer with wide spread biological activity like protection from UV-radiation damage, decrease of oxidative stress, binding to metals and drugs etc. Recently it has been observed that melanized fungal species grow in areas of high-radiation background in Chernobyl, and also in cooling pool water of nuclear reactors. Some of these organisms survived even after radiation exposure up to 6400 Gy. This prompted us to evaluate the radioprotecting ability of melanin. Although there are various types of melanin available, for the present radioprotection studies, melanin isolated from the culture filtrate of a fungus Gliocephalotrichum simplex was used. Chemically this particular type of melanin is the oligomeric form of dihydroxy indole and dihydroxy indole carboxylic acid and termed as eumelanin. Due to the presence of dihydroxy group in the benzene ring, they are in equilibrium with the partially oxidized (semiquinone radical form) and fully oxidized (quinone, non-radical) form. The radical nature of melanin was detected by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrum and quantitative estimation of radical was made, in terms of spin density i. e. as 6.62 x 1017 spins/g. The protective activity of melanin was primarily due to inhibition of radiation-induced hematopoietic damages as evidenced by improvement in spleen parameters. To further understand the physico-chemical properties associated with radioprotection, reactions radiolytically generated free radicals with melanin was studied using pulse radiolysis

  9. Golden flaxseed and its byproducts in beef patties: physico-chemical evaluation and fatty acid profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiana Novello

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Flaxseed application in meat and meat products by adding not flesh ingredients has not yet been properly assessed. This technology strategy, if well optimized, could substantially improve the nutritional value of meat products and promote healthy appeals consistent. Knowing that, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of adding golden flaxseed oil, or flour, or seed in the physico-chemical properties and fatty acid profile of beef patties. Beef patties were prepared with 5.0% of oil (FO, or flour (FF, or seed (FS, plus a control formulation (FC. For raw products containing flaxseed, the moisture content (74.22 to 68.61% was decreased and the ash (1.61 to 2.00g 100g-1, protein (15.62 to 16.46g 100g-1, fat (6.20 to 9.74g 100g-1, carbohydrate (2.02 to 3.97 g 100g-1, and calorie (127.71 to 161.62kcal 100g-1 contents were increased. The raw and grilled samples containing golden flaxseed had increased beneficial omega-3 (n-3 fatty acids (0.85 a 2.98g 100g-1, a decreased n-6/n-3 ratio (0.50, thus improving the nutritional profile.

  10. Physico-chemical studies of gamma-irradiated polyester. Impregnated cement mortar composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail, M.R.; Afifi, M.S.

    1998-01-01

    The effect of impregnation time on the physico-chemical and mechanical properties of polyester-cement mortar composite has been investigated. The samples were soaked in unsaturated polyester resin containing 40% styrene monomer at impregnation times ranging from 1-15 hours and then exposed to 50 kGy of γ-irradiation. The effects on polymer loading, compressive strength, apparent porosity, and water absorption in addition to IR spectra and TGA of the samples were studied. It was found that, the polymer loading and compressive strength increase with the increased of soaking time up to 4 hours and there is no significant improvement of the polymer loading and strength. Whereas, the apparent porosity and water absorption behave in an opposite direction. These are attributed to the presence of polymer in the pores of the samples. IR spectra showed that, new bands appeared as result of the reaction between polyester and set cement. TGA showed that, the polyester cement composite has higher thermal stability as a compared to irradiated polyester. (author)

  11. Textural and physico-chemical characteristics of white brined goat cheeses made from frozen milk and curd. The use of square I - distance statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemanja Kljajevic

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective of this study was to investigate the effect of short term frozen storage of milk and curd on textural properties and physico-chemical composition of white brined goat cheese. Raw milk and curds (at various stages of pressing were frozen and kept for seven days at -27 °C. Following the freezing, all the experimental cheeses were manufactured by the standard procedure, the same that was used for the control cheese sample which did not undergo freezing at any stage of production. The Square I - distance was used in order to rank the cheeses according to their similarity to the control cheese in terms of texture attributes and physico-chemical characteristics. The results show that, in terms of all examined variables, the cheese made from frozen milk is the most similar to the control cheese.

  12. Water-stability of soil aggregates in relation to selected properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mbagwu, J.S.C.; Bazzoffi, P.; Unamba Oparah, I.

    1995-03-01

    The stability of soil aggregates in water is an important soil physical property for evaluating the potential of agricultural soils to erode and elucidating the mechanisms of soil erosion. In this study we used aggregates from 15 surface soil samples in Italy to evaluate the influence of intrinsic soil physical, chemical and mineralogical properties on aggregates stability (AS). The aim was to develop a model for predicting AS from a subset of these soil properties. The index of stability used is the mean-weight diameter of water-stable aggregates (MWD). The model developed with soil physical properties alone explained just 42% of variance in MWD and predicted AS in only 20% of test soils. The model developed with mineralogical properties alone explained 70% of variance in MWD and predicted AS in 60% of the test soils. The chemical properties - based model explained 90% of variance in MWD and predicted AS in 80% of the test soils. The best-fit model was developed with soil properties from the physical, chemical and mineralogical subsets. It explained 98% of variance in MWD and predicted AS in 100% of the test soils. This model shows that the most important soil properties which influence the AS of these soils include ratio of total sand to clay, concentrations of iron oxide, magnesium oxide, organic matter, silica/alumina ratio, chlorite, feldspar and muscovite. This indicates that fairly good estimates of the relative stability of these aggregates in water and hence of their potential to erode, requires a knowledge of the physico-chemical and mineralogical properties. (author). 40 refs, 4 tabs

  13. Development and characterization of an exposure platform suitable for physico-chemical, morphological and toxicological characterization of printer-emitted particles (PEPs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirela, Sandra V; Pyrgiotakis, Georgios; Bello, Dhimiter; Thomas, Treye; Castranova, Vincent; Demokritou, Philip

    2014-06-01

    An association between laser printer use and emissions of particulate matter (PM), ozone and volatile organic compounds has been reported in recent studies. However, the detailed physico-chemical, morphological and toxicological characterization of these printer-emitted particles (PEPs) and possible incorporation of engineered nanomaterials into toner formulations remain largely unknown. In this study, a printer exposure generation system suitable for the physico-chemical, morphological, and toxicological characterization of PEPs was developed and used to assess the properties of PEPs from the use of commercially available laser printers. The system consists of a glovebox type environmental chamber for uninterrupted printer operation, real-time and time-integrated particle sampling instrumentation for the size fractionation and sampling of PEPs and an exposure chamber for inhalation toxicological studies. Eleven commonly used laser printers were evaluated and ranked based on their PM emission profiles. Results show PM peak emissions are brand independent and varied between 3000 to 1 300 000 particles/cm³, with modal diameters ranging from 49 to 208 nm, with the majority of PEPs in the nanoscale (printer toner) raises questions about health implications to users. The presented PEGS platform will help in assessing the toxicological profile of PEPs and the link to the physico-chemical and morphological properties of emitted PM and toner formulations.

  14. Modelling the physico-chemical effect of silver electrorefining as effect of temperature, free acid, silver, copper and lead concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aji, Arif T.; Kalliomäki, Taina; Wilson, Benjamin P.; Aromaa, Jari; Lundström, Mari

    2017-01-01

    The study of electrolyte bath properties is essential for the improvement of silver electrolysis based processes. The paper outlines investigations into suitable models for the calculation of physico-chemical properties with the emphasis placed on conductivity, density and viscosity. Measurements were conducted within the industrial operation parameters used for silver electrolytes and the results indicate that these type of industrial electrolytes have an operating conductivity within the range of 60-140 mS/cm, density of 1.05-1.14 g/cm3 and a viscosity of 0.75-0.91 mm2/s. A representative model for each of these properties was proposed in order to calculate the conductivity, density and viscosity of silver electrolyte. From the evaluation of models, it was determined that all models have R2 (accuracy of fit) and Q2 (accuracy of prediction) values above 0.9 and thus can be regarded as excellent models.

  15. Applicability of Vacuum Impregnation to Modify Physico-Chemical, Sensory and Nutritive Characteristics of Plant Origin Products—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Radziejewska-Kubzdela

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Vacuum impregnation is a non-destructive method of introducing a solution with a specific composition to the porous matrices of fruit and vegetables. Mass transfer in this process is a result of mechanically induced differences in pressure. Vacuum impregnation makes it possible to fill large volumes of intercellular spaces in tissues of fruit and vegetables, thus modifying physico-chemical properties and sensory attributes of products. This method may be used, e.g., to reduce pH and water activity of the product, change its thermal properties, improve texture, color, taste and aroma. Additionally, bioactive compounds may be introduced together with impregnating solutions, thus improving health-promoting properties of the product or facilitating production of functional food.

  16. Physico-chemical and sensory characteristics of steviolbioside synthesized from stevioside and its application in fruit drinks and food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khattab, Sherine N; Massoud, Mona I; Abd El-Razek, Amal M; El-Faham, Ayman

    2017-01-01

    Steviolbioside (Sb) was synthesized from stevioside and characterized by infrared, nuclear magnetic resonance ( 1 H NMR and 13 C NMR) spectroscopy. The purity melting point, solubility, acute toxicity, heat stability and sensory properties of Sb were evaluated. Physico-chemical and sensory properties of low calorie fruit drinks and shortened cake prepared by replacing sugar with Sb were evaluated. Sb was stable in neutral or acidic aqueous solutions maintained at 100 °C for 2 h. The sweetness intensity rate of Sb was found to be about 44 and 18.51 times sweeter than 0.5% and 10% sucrose solution, respectively. Sb solutions had sweet taste without bitterness compared to stevioside. No significant differences between the organoleptic properties of cakes prepared using sugar and those prepared replacing sugar with 50% Sb were observed. All drinks replacing sugar with Sb at 66% level had the highest overall acceptability scores comparable to those prepared using sugar alone.

  17. PHYSICO-CHEMICAL ASSESSMENT OF POMACE EXHAUSTED AND APPRECIATION OF THEIR COMPOSTABILITY IN THE DELEGATION OF KALAA KEBIRA (TUNISIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. M'Sadak

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Olive pomace is the solid by-product obtained from the extraction of olive oil revealing serious environmental problems in all Mediterranean countries olive growing. Generally, that pomace can be valued, among others, as a source of organic matter (composting. In this perspective, we have addressed in this work to the quantitive and qualitative characterization (limited to certain physico-chemical parameters of the solid by-product of olive oil extraction in the delegation of Kalaa Kebira (Sousse, Tunisia while appreciating their compostability. The results showed that those olive residues are essentially dry, carbon-rich and CF, low in nitrogen. They can be used as compost by combining them with other available sources of plant originand/or animal such as manure of cattle, sheep or poultry (in varying proportions and responsible of the nature very heterogeneous and the variable quality that can be applied to improve soil fertility and crop productivity.

  18. Sorption behaviour of herbicides in soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luchini, L.C.; Wiendl, F.M.; Ruegg, E.F.; Instituto Biologico, Sao Paulo

    1988-01-01

    Environmental contamination by herbicides is related with the sorption phenomenon of these compounds in the soils. The behaviour of paraquat, 2,4-D and diuron was studied in soils with different physico-chemical properties, through the Freundlich adsorption and desorption isotherms, using 14 C-radiolabeled herbicides. Results of the range of the adsorption-desorption of each herbicide was related mainly with the chemical characteristics of these compounds. (author) [pt

  19. physico-chemical characterization of ogun and sokoto phosphate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    indicating their liming potential in the soil. ORP was more soluble in ... industry as a source of uranium and rare earth metals, ... limestones; and primary phosphatic shales, limestones ..... may help to reduce P leaching and run off losses after.

  20. Demonstration of the SOLTECR technology for the in situ physico-chemical treatment of a site contaminated by diesel oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufresne, P.; Tellier, J.G.; Michaud, J.R.

    1997-01-01

    The remediation of a diesel oil spill at one of the Alcan plants was discussed. The hydrocarbon spill affected the groundwater in an area of more than 6,000 m 2 . Only an in-situ treatment for remediation was practical because the residual contaminated soil was located mainly under buildings and represented a volume of 3,000 m 3 . Alcan proposed the development and demonstration of the SOLTEC R in-situ physico-chemical treatment technology which consists of injecting chemicals into the soil. The chemicals are a mixture of calcium based solids with liquid and gaseous oxidizing agents. The degradation of the hydrocarbons is by oxidation and is completed in the soil in less than 24 hours after injection. Monitoring of the groundwater was conducted for one year after the completion of the soil treatment. It was concluded that the SOLTEC R process decreased and even eliminated the toxicity and geotoxicity of the diesel-contaminated soils. A volume of 3,000 m 3 of contaminated soil was treated within three months. The efficiency of hydrocarbon destruction was more than 95 per cent. 3 refs., 1 tab

  1. Monitoring and Microbiological Characteristics of Physico-chemical Dates of Canned Juice by Gamma Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arfa, Darine

    2008-01-01

    During this work, we are interested to the survey of the effect of gamma irradiation on the conservation of the juices of the dates. The results gotten of the microbiological and physico-chemical analysis done on the four samples, show the efficiency of the method for the conservation of the juices of the dates. (Author)

  2. Mechanisms governing the physico-chemical processes of transfer in NPP circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brusakov, V.P.; Sedov, V.M.; Khitrov, Yu.A.; Rybalchenko, I.L.

    1983-01-01

    The paper deals with the theoretical physico-chemical processes of corrosion products and their radionuclide transport in NPS circuits by thermoelectromotive and electromotive forces of microgalvanic couples. The laboratory and rig test results as well as the NPP operating experience data confirm the developed theoretical concept validity

  3. Physico-chemical shelf-life indicators of meat from broilers given ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of the study was to determine the effect of using Moringa oleifera leaf meal (MOLM) as an additive on physico-chemical shelf life indicators of meat from broilers. A total of 432 1-day-old chicks were randomly allocated to four treatments (TRT's). Water and feed was provided ad libitum. The feeding phases were ...

  4. Physico-chemical characteristics and fatty acid profile of desert date ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Because of its growing importance as a source of food and income for dryland communities, an assessment of the physico-chemical characteristics and fatty acid profile of kernel oil in Uganda was carried out. Balanites fruit samples were collected from Katakwi, Adjumani and Moroto districts; representing the Teso, West ...

  5. Variation of physico-chemical characteristics with tide in Visakhapatnam harbour waters, east coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    RamaRaju, V.S.; Rao, T.V.N.; Rathod, V.

    Variations in physico-chemical parameters (DO, BOD, NO2, SiO4, PO4 suspended solids, salinity and currents) observed in the waters of main channel of Visakhapatnam Harbour over a tidal cycle in different seasons from February 1982 to January 1983...

  6. The influence of physico-chemical and ecological factors on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey was conducted to determine the influence of physico-chemical parameters on the distribution of freshwater snails in Manchok water intake, Kaduna State, Nigeria from January 2013 to December, 2013. A total of eight thousand, three hundred and forty one (8341) freshwater snails were collected using a long ...

  7. Effects of pond fertilization on the physico-chemical water quality of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of fertilization on the physico-chemical water quality of six selected earthen fishponds in Ife North Local Government Area of Osun State was investigated for a period of two years sampling the ponds every other month. The fishponds were grouped with regard to fertilization practice and water flowage regime into ...

  8. Effect of maturation on physico-chemical and sensory quality characteristics of custard apple wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas Kumar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, researchers have taken a shift to utilize the custard apple for wine preparation besides its major use in ice cream, confectionary and milk products. In the present study, an attempt has been made to study the effect of maturation on physico-chemical and sensory quality characteristics of custard apple wine. Custard apple wine was prepared as per the earlier standardized method. The wine so prepared was matured for six months. The physico-chemical analysis was conducted at every three months interval for six months and sensory evaluation was performed after six months of storage. With the maturation, a decrease in total soluble solids, total sugars, titratable acidity, ethanol, total phenols and tannins was observed, whereas, an increase in reducing sugars and pH was observed. All the sensory quality characteristics of custard apple wine increased with advancement of the maturation period except astringency. Cluster analysis of the data obtained from physico-chemical analysis revealed that there was no difference between three months and six months of storage. Physico-chemical characteristics of custard apple wine were reduced to two principal components using principal component analysis which accounted for 100% variation. In general, maturation for six months improved the quality of custard apple wine considerably.

  9. A study of physico-chemical characteristics of Ugborikoko/Okere ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-11-16

    Nov 16, 2009 ... of the physico-chemical parameters and heavy metal pollutants were determined. Results of both ..... workshops) who use engine oils to service car engines. These values ... Ben Miller Books Nigeria Ltd. 5: 34-55. Imevbore ...

  10. Assessment of heavy metal removal technologies for biowaste by physico-chemical fractionation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veeken, A.H.M.; Hamelers, H.V.M.

    2003-01-01

    In the Netherlands, the heavy metal content of biowaste-compost frequently exceeds the legal standards for heavy metals. In order to assess heavy metal removal technologies, a physico-chemical fractionation scheme was developed to gain insight into the distribution of heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Pb and

  11. Improvement of radiological consequence estimation methodologies for NPP accidents in the ARGOS and RODOS decision support systems through consideration of contaminant physico-chemical forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, K.G.; Roos, P. [Technical University of Denmark - DTU (Denmark); Lind, O.C.; Salbu, B. [Norwegian University of Life Sciences/CERAD - NMBU (Norway); Bujan, A.; Duranova, T. [VUJE, Inc. (Slovakia); Ikonomopoulos, A.; Andronopoulos, S. [National Centre for Scientific Research ' Demokritos' (Greece)

    2014-07-01

    The European standard computerized decision support systems RODOS and ARGOS, which are integrated in the operational nuclear emergency preparedness in practically all European countries, as well as in a range of non-European countries, are highly valuable tools for radiological consequence estimation, e.g., in connection with planning and exercising as well as in justification and optimization of intervention strategies. Differences between the Chernobyl and Fukushima accident atmospheric release source terms have demonstrated that differences in release conditions and processes may lead to very different degrees of volatilization of some radionuclides. Also the physico-chemical properties of radionuclides released can depend strongly on the release process. An example from the Chernobyl accident of the significance of this is that strontium particles released in the fire were oxidized and thus generally physico-chemically different from those released during the preceding explosion. This is reflected in the very different environmental mobility of the two groups of particles. The initial elemental matrix characteristics of the contaminants, as well as environmental parameters like pH, determine for instance the particle dissolution time functions, and thus the environmental mobility and potential for uptake in living organisms. As ICRP recommends optimization of intervention according to residual dose, it is crucial to estimate long term dose contributions adequately. In the EURATOM FP7 project PREPARE, an effort is made to integrate physico-chemical forms of contaminants in scenario-specific source term determination, thereby enabling consideration of influences on atmospheric dispersion/deposition, post-deposition migration, and effectiveness of countermeasure implementation. The first step in this context was to investigate, based on available experience, the important physico-chemical properties of radio-contaminants that might potentially be released to the

  12. Contribution of thermodynamics in the understanding of the physico-chemical behaviour of fuels at high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gueneau, C.; Chatain, S.; Gosse, S.; Dumas, J.C.; Defoort, F.

    2006-01-01

    The thermodynamic approach for studying the physico-chemical behaviour of nuclear fuels at high temperature is presented. For instance is shown how the thermodynamic study of the uranium-oxygen-zirconium-iron system has contributed to improve the understanding of the scenario considered in studies on serious accidents for PWR reactors. Concerning the fuels of the future high temperature reactors, has been developed a thermodynamic data base 'fuelbase' (U-Pu-O-C-N-Si-Zr-Ti-Mo-Cr) using the Calphad method in parallel with experimental studies. In the framework of the studies on high temperature reactors, experimental works on the study of the interaction between the uranium dioxide and graphite are presented. This interaction leads to the formation of gaseous CO and CO 2 which can potentially be prejudicial to the thermomechanical resistance of the fuel in reactor. In this framework, the thermodynamic properties of the uranium-oxygen-carbon system are studied. (O.M.)

  13. Physico-chemical characterization of Ogun and Sokoto phosphate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gypsum, calcite and lime were associated with both rock phosphates indicating their liming potential in the soil. ORP was more soluble in water, probably because it ... fertilizers and direct application in crop production. Keywords: Phosphorus, apatite, crop production, fertilizer, Ogun rock phosphate, Sokoto rock phosphate ...

  14. Silicon Status and its Relationship with Major Physico-Chemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    *(p<0.05), silt -0.84*(p<0.05) and clay 0.84*(p<0.05). Finally, based on the enormous role of Si in plant physiology and agriculture, this study suggests commencing Si fertilization in these soils for an expected increase in crop productivity.

  15. Tetrapyrrole-photosensitizers vectorization and plasma LDL: a physico-chemical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonneau, Stéphanie; Vever-Bizet, Christine; Mojzisova, Halina; Brault, Daniel

    2007-11-01

    A photosensitizer is defined as a chemical entity able to induce, under light-irradiation effect, a chemical or physical alteration of another chemical entity. Thanks to their preferential retention in proliferating tissues, some photosensitizers are therapeutically used such as in photodynamic therapy (PDT). Besides, this method has already been approved for several indications. The selectivity of photosenzitizers for cells in proliferation involves both their association with low density lipoproteins (LDLs) and their ability to cross membranes under various pH conditions. The photosensitizers used are in most cases based on the porphyrin structure, but other compounds, of which far-red-light absorption properties are most compatible with biological tissues irradiation, have been developed, such as phthalocyanines. This paper presents physico-chemical studies of the interaction of a disulfonated aluminium phthalocyanine (AlPcS2) with human LDLs. The data obtained are compared with the parameters of the interaction of these lipoproteins with deuteroporphyrin (DP) and chlorin e6 (Ce6). A close attention is paid to the dynamic aspects of these phenomena. The data obtained on these simple systems then allowed us to interpret the sub-cellular localization of the photosensitizers on a human line of fibroblasts, and to evaluate the influence of LDLs on the intracellular distribution of the compounds. This last point is of major importance because the localization of such photosensitizers (in particular AlPcS2) in endocytic vesicles and their subsequent ability to induce a release of the contents of these vesicles - including externally added macromolecules - into the cytosol is the basis for a recent method for macromolecule activation, named photochemical internalization (PCI). PCI has been shown to potentiate the biological activity of a large variety of macromolecules. The comprehension of the mechanisms governing this particular sub-cellular localization could allow

  16. Physico-chemical characteristics and environmental exploitation of clinoptilolite Nizny Hrabovec

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmielewska, E.

    1999-01-01

    The clinoptilolite tuff used in this study, active mineral content of which was measured according to standardized techniques (e.g. X-ray diffraction, ion-exchange, water-vapor desorption) was 60% enriched. Physico-chemical characteristics considered from point of view as water treatment material and compared to siliceous sand and active coal as well as to some foreign clinoptilolite samples, e.g. mineralogical and chemical composition, thermic, alkali- and acid resistance, specific gravity, surface area, porosity, shipping weight, mechanical attrition and powdering survey, adsorption capacities of clinoptilolite towards Cs, Ba, Co, Fe, I, Ag, Zn and ammonium, hydration-dehydration behaviours and selectivity properties from among a major number of cations, have been investigated. Some pilot plant experiences of drinking water treatment with enhanced ammonium concentration on the field facility close to Bratislava and of tannery waste water treatment at Moravian plant using inland clinoptilolite will be presented. Mass-balance recycling loop for regeneration constituents recovery in tannery processing industry (ammonia and chromium) has been proposed and applied during pilot studies (capacity of installations ∼ 1 m 3 /hr). Iron and ammonium removal by addition of powdered clinoptilolite tuff in chemical coagulation processes for specific polluted surface water purification has been proven, respectively. Economic evaluation of ion-exchange technology by means of clinoptilolite with chemical regeneration and regeneration recovery by air-stripping method and of biological nitrification-denitrification for model hydraulic loading rate 6000 m 3 / day was calculated as well as the operating cost of both technologies were compared and will be documented. (author)

  17. Physico-chemical characterisation of the fat from red-skin rambutan (Nephellium lappaceum L.) seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manaf, Yanty Noorziana Abdul; Marikkar, Jalaldeen Mohammed Nazrim; Long, Kamariah; Ghazali, Hasanah Mohd

    2013-01-01

    The seeds (6.9±0.2% by weight of fruit) of the red-skin rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L.) contain a considerable amount of crude fat (38.0±4.36%) and thus, the aim of the study was to determine the physico-chemical properties of this fat for potential applications. The iodine and saponification values, and unsaponifiable matter and free fatty acid contents of the seed fat were 50.27 g I2/100g fat, 182.1 mg KOH/g fat, 0.8% and 2.1%, respectively. The fat is pale yellow with a Lovibond color index of 3.1Y+1.1R. The fatty acid profile indicates an almost equal proportion of saturated (49.1%) and unsaturated (50.9%) fatty acids, where oleic (42.0%) and arachidic (34.3%) acids were the most dominant fatty acids. It also contained small amounts of stearic (8.0%), palmitic (4.6%), gadoleic (5.9%), linoleic (2.2%), behenic (2.1%) palmitoleic (0.7%) myristic (0.1%) and erucic (0.1%) acids. HPLC analysis showed that the fat comprised mainly unknown triacylglycerols (TAG) with high retention times indicating they have higher carbon numbers compared with many vegetable oils. The fat has melting and cooling points of 44.2°C and -42.5°C, respectively, making it a semi-solid at room temperature. The solid content at 0°C was 53.5% and the fat melted completely at 40°C. z-Nose analysis showed that the presence of high levels of volatile compounds in red-skin rambutan seed and seed fat.

  18. Physico-chemical characteristics of shallot New-Superior Varieties (NSV) from Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukasih, E.; Setyadjit; Musadad, D.

    2018-01-01

    Shallot is one of the priority agricultural commodities to be developed in Indonesia to reduce import and to stabilize domestic supply. The efforts include the selection of varieties, seed technology, agronomy, handling and processing to extend the supply and added value. Indonesian Agency for Agricultural Research and Development (IAARD) has purified, cross-pollinated, selected and released new varieties called New Superior Varieties (NSV) to farmers. The purpose of this research was to investigate the characteristic of fresh shallot NSV by understanding its potential for raw material of processed product. A completely randomized design (CRD) of single factor of ten local varieties of shallot such as Cv. Sembrani, Cv. Kuning, Cv. Pancasona, Cv. Bima, Cv. Trisula, Cv. Pikatan, Cv. Katumi, Cv. Kramat-2, Cv. Mentes and Cv. Majalok of three replication was used to arrange the experiment. The results showed that shallot New Superior Varieties (NSV) were significant by effect the physico-chemical parameters, such as diameter, length, weight of both in main bulb and tiller bulb, fat total, carbohydrate, crude fiber, starch content, antioxidant capacity and quercetin. Of the ten varieties of shallot characterized, the largest bulbs are Cv. Sembrani i.e 5.30 ± 0.3g per bulb, the best red color for shallot peeled was Cv. Kuning. Furthermore Cv. Pancasona have the highest protein content of 4.23 ± 0.2%, Cv. Mentes have the highest functional properties of quercetin 1766.4 ± 134 ppm. Shallot varieties such as Cv. Sembrani, Cv. Bima, Cv. Kuning and Cv. Trisula suitable for use as fresh product. Shallot varieties such as Cv. Pikatan, Cv. Pancasona, Cv. Katumi and Cv. Kramat-2 are suitable as raw materials for processed products. Cv. Mentes and Cv. Majalok were potential for raw materials of functional food and pharmaceutical industries.

  19. Contribution to the study of physico-chemical properties of surfaces modified by laser treatment. Application to the enhancement of localized corrosion resistance of stainless steels; Contribution a l'etude des proprietes physico-chimiques des surfaces modifiees par traitement laser. Application a l'amelioration de la resistance a la corrosion localisee des aciers inoxydables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacquentin, W.

    2011-11-25

    Metallic materials are more and more used in severe conditions with particularly strong request for improving their behavior in aggressive environment and especially over long periods. The objective of this PhD work is to estimate the potentiality of a laser surface melting treatment on the improvement of the stainless steel 304L corrosion resistance, surface treatments by laser can be revisited on the basis of a recent change in the laser technology. In the frame of this work, a nano-pulsed laser fiber was chosen: it allows the treated surface to be melted for few microns in depth, followed by an ultra-fast solidification occurring with cooling rates up to 1011 K/s. The combination of these processes leads to the elimination of the surface defects, the formation (trapping) of metastable phases, the segregation of chemical elements and the growth of a new oxide layer which properties are governed by the laser parameters. To correlate these latter to the electrochemical reactivity of the surface, the influence of two laser parameters on the physico-chemical properties of the surface was studied: the laser power and the overlap of the laser impacts. To support this approach, the pitting corrosion resistance of the samples was determined by standard electrochemical tests. For specific laser parameters, the pitting potential of a 304L stainless steel was increased by more than 500 mV corresponding to an important enhancement in localized corrosion resistance in chloride environment. The interdependence of the different phenomena resulting from the laser treatment lead to a quite complex prioritization of their role on the sensibility of the 304L. However, it was demonstrated that the nature of the thermal oxide formed during the laser surface melting and the induced defects are first-order parameters for the initiation of pits. (author) [French] Les materiaux metalliques sont utilises dans des conditions de plus en plus severes et doivent presenter une parfaite

  20. Soil/Rock Properties Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Soil/Rock Properties LaboratoryLocation: Spokane SiteThe Soil/Rock Properties Laboratory is contained in the soils bay, a 4,700 sq. ft. facility that provides space...

  1. Effects of thermal treatments and germination on physico-chemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGO

    African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 6 (8), pp. 994-999, 16 April 2007 ... viscoelastic property of corn starch were measured and the morphological changes of corn after different treatments were determined by ... Scanning electron microscope (SEM) was applied to observe the morphological changes of corn after different.

  2. Physico-Chemical Evaluation of Groundwater in Kuje, Federal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was done to determine the quality of water from hand-dug wells in Kuje, Federal Capital Territory Abuja Nigeria. The study area lies between latitudes 080 53' 24''N and 080 53' 47''N and longitude 070 14' 24''E and 070 14' 35''E. Water from twenty wells were randomly sampled. The physical properties ...

  3. Analysis of the relationship between rusty root incidences and soil properties in Panax ginseng

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Q. X.; Xu, C. L.; Sun, H.; Ma, L.; Li, L.; Zhang, D. D.; Zhang, Y. Y.

    2016-08-01

    Rusty root is a serious problem in ginseng cultivation that limits the production and quality of ginseng worldwide. The Changbai Mountains are the most famous area for ginseng cultivation in China. To clarify the relationship between rusty root and soil characteristics, physico-chemical properties and enzymatic activities of soil collected from five different fields in the Changbai Mountains were analyzed and a controlled experiment carried out by increasing the concentration of Fe (II). Soil bulk density, moisture, total iron (Fe) and total manganese (Mn) concentrations and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity were significantly higher in rusty root than healthy root groups (two-sample test, Ptest showed that there was a significant positive correlation between rusty root index and pH, N, Fe, Mn, Al, Zn and Ca of soil samples collected from fields (P<0.05 or P<0.01), and a significant positive correlation also occurred between rusty root index and Fe (II) added to soil in Fe (II) inducing rusty root (P<0.01). Physiological factors may be very important roles giving rise to ginseng rusty root. Fe (III) reduction and Fe (II) oxidation could be important in increasing the incidence of rusty root. Soil moisture and bulk density of non-rhizosphere soil not attached to the root surface, and pH, N and PPO content of rhizosphere soils attached to the root surface were heavily involved in the reduction, oxidation and sequestration of metal ions.

  4. Leg tissue composition and physico-chemical parameters of sheep meat fed annatto coproduct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorgival Morais de Lima Júnior

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Our objective was to evaluate leg tissue composition and physico-chemical quality parameters of sheep meat fed with increasing levels of annatto coproduct. 32 male uncastrated animals without a defined breed were randomized in four treatments (0, 100, 200 and 300 g kg-1 of annatto coproduct in the DM diet. After 78 days of confinement, the animals were slaughtered and body components were recorded. Reconstituted leg weight, total muscle weight, biceps weight and semitendinosus weight showed a negative linear behavior (P 0.05 were found for leg tissue composition (%, muscle:bone ratio, relative fat or leg muscle. Meat physico-chemical parameters (color, shear force, water retention capacity and cooking losses were not affected by the inclusion of the annatto coproduct in the diet. The annatto coproduct can be included in up to 300 g kg-1 of dietary dry matter without negative effects to the leg tissue composition (% and physical parameters of confined sheep meat.

  5. Improved ADM1 model for anaerobic digestion process considering physico-chemical reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Piccard, Sarah; Zhou, Wen

    2015-11-01

    The "Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1" (ADM1) was modified in the study by improving the bio-chemical framework and integrating a more detailed physico-chemical framework. Inorganic carbon and nitrogen balance terms were introduced to resolve the discrepancies in the original bio-chemical framework between the carbon and nitrogen contents in the degraders and substrates. More inorganic components and solids precipitation processes were included in the physico-chemical framework of ADM1. The modified ADM1 was validated with the experimental data and used to investigate the effects of calcium ions, magnesium ions, inorganic phosphorus and inorganic nitrogen on anaerobic digestion in batch reactor. It was found that the entire anaerobic digestion process might exist an optimal initial concentration of inorganic nitrogen for methane gas production in the presence of calcium ions, magnesium ions and inorganic phosphorus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. THE PHYSICO-CHEMICAL QUALITY OF MILK IN MARAMUREª COUNTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Boltea

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The notion of “quality of milk” includes the requirements of nutritive, hygienic sanitary, technological and commercial order. A crude raw material of quality milk can be obtained only by the satisfaction of the producers, operators and legislative and decisional public factors. The quality of the finite product is the sum of the qualities of all the stages of operation through which the raw material is taken, being possibly achieved through a collective effort and common acceptance of competition qualitative criteria. A number of 288 samples of milk raw material have been analysed, coming from the collecting centres of a milk factory in MaramuresCounty. The samples have been taken in conformity with the current legislation and analysed using the LactoScope FTIR. The major polluters of vegetation are especially Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn. Pollution is mainly realized through the polluted soil, but also through the polluted atmosphere, the level of pollution in this wayvaries between 10.37 – 23.37%.

  7. Territorial biodiversity and consequences on physico-chemical characteristics of pollen collected by honey bee colonies

    OpenAIRE

    Odoux, Jean Francois; Feuillet, Dalila; Aupinel, Pierrick; Loublier, Yves; Tasei, Jean Noel; Mateescu, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    International audience; Pollen resources may become a constraint for the honey bee in cereal farming agrosystems and thus influence honey bee colony development. This survey intended to increase knowledge on bee ecology in order to understand how farming systems can provide bee forage throughout the year. We conducted a 1-year study to investigate the flower range exploited in an agrarian environment in western France, the physico-chemical composition of honey bee-collected pollen, the territ...

  8. PHYSICO-CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF POLYMERIC FILMS USED IN OPHTHALMOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Emanuel STAVARACHE

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work was to characterize the surface properties of (polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA foils used in ophathalmological applications. Thus, the morphology, chemical composition and surface energy of these PMMA foils are analyzed, by specific measurements, at the interface with different test liquids of interest in ophthalmology, i.e. distilled H2 O, physiological serum and ophthalmic solution of ReNu Multiplus, used for contact lens cleaning, hydration and disinfection. Also, a solution of Nostamine, known as a drug used in eye irritation and conjunctival inflammation, was tested.

  9. Oxaprozin: Synthesis, SAR study, physico-chemical characteristics and pharmacology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Božić Bojan Đ.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxaprozin (3-(4,5-difeniloksazol-2-ylpropanoic acid is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID used in the treatment of numerous inflammatory musculoskeletal diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, tendonitis, ankylosing spondylitis and bursitis. It is the first representative member of the diaryl-substituted heterocyclic compounds, which have found clinical use as selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 inhibitors. U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA approved its official use in 1992. Both anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties of oxaprozin are mainly due to the potent inhibition of COX. However, oxaprozin-induced benefits might be also regulated by other COX-independent pathways. It has been shown that oxaprozin induced direct proapoptotic effects in CD40L-treated human monocytes independently of COX inhibition. It also has several advantages in the treatment of inflammatory diseases in comparison to other NSAIDs such as aspirin, naproxen, indomethacin and phenylbutazone, which enabled oxaprozin to become one of the most used NSAIDs in America. Oxaprozin, as other members of the group of NSAIDs, can cause gastrointestinal complications, but significantly lower due to relatively high pKa value. In this paper, importance of oxaprozin in the treatment of arthritis and its pharmacokinetic properties were described, therewith its activity and side effects were compared with other commercially available anti-inflammatory drugs.

  10. Physico-chemical studies and evaluation of diuretic activity of Cucurbita maxima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkattapuram Sampath Saravanan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study physico-chemical nature and diuretic activity was evaluated to establish the purity and diuretic activity by comparing with the standard acetazolamide. Pulp of Cucurbita maxima is a common cost effective Indian dish, rich in nutrients. Physico-chemical parameters like ash values, extractive values and loss on drying were performed to find the purity. The hydro-alcoholic extract was prepared by extracting the powder in soxhlet apparatus for 36 hrs. The laboratory qualitative analysis was done and constituents like carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, flavonoids, alkaloids and vitamin C were found. The two doses of extract (150 and 300 mg/kg were given to the rats. Group I served as control, Group II served as standard and Group III and IV served as test. Electrolytes and urine volume was measured after 5 hrs of treatment and the same was compared with the control and the standard drug acetazolamide. Physico-chemical parameters were in the limit and the extract shows significant (p<0.01 diuretic activity at the dose of 300 mg/kg when compared with control.

  11. Botanical discrimination of Greek unifloral honeys with physico-chemical and chemometric analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabagias, Ioannis K; Badeka, Anastasia V; Kontakos, Stavros; Karabournioti, Sofia; Kontominas, Michael G

    2014-12-15

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the possibility of characterisation and classification of Greek unifloral honeys (pine, thyme, fir and orange blossom) according to botanical origin using volatile compounds, conventional physico-chemical parameters and chemometric analyses (MANOVA and Linear Discriminant Analysis). For this purpose, 119 honey samples were collected during the harvesting period 2011 from 14 different regions in Greece known to produce unifloral honey of good quality. Physico-chemical analysis included the identification and semi quantification of fifty five volatile compounds performed by Headspace Solid Phase Microextraction coupled to gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy and the determination of conventional quality parameters such as pH, free, lactonic, total acidity, electrical conductivity, moisture, ash, lactonic/free acidity ratio and colour parameters L, a, b. Results showed that using 40 diverse variables (30 volatile compounds of different classes and 10 physico-chemical parameters) the honey samples were satisfactorily classified according to botanical origin using volatile compounds (84.0% correct prediction), physicochemical parameters (97.5% correct prediction), and the combination of both (95.8% correct prediction) indicating that multi element analysis comprises a powerful tool for honey discrimination purposes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Physico-chemical thresholds in the distribution of fish species among French lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roubeix Vincent

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The management of lakes requires the definition of physico-chemical thresholds to be used for ecosystem preservation or restoration. According to the European Water Framework Directive, the limits between physico-chemical quality classes must be set consistently with biological quality elements. One way to do this consists in analyzing the response of aquatic communities to environmental gradients across monitoring sites and in identifying ecological community thresholds, i.e. zones in the gradients where the species turnover is the highest. In this study, fish data from 196 lakes in France were considered to derive ecological thresholds using the multivariate method of gradient forest. The analysis was performed on 25 species and 36 environmental parameters. The results revealed the highest importance of maximal water temperature in the distribution of fish species. Other important parameters included geographical factors, dissolved organic carbon concentration and water transparency, while nutrients appeared to have low influence. In spite of the diversity of species responses to the gradients, community thresholds were detected in the gradients of the most important physico-chemical parameters and of total phosphorus and nitrate concentrations as well. The thresholds identified in such macroecological study may highlight new patterns of species natural distribution and improve niche characterization. Moreover, when factors that may be influenced by human activities are involved, the thresholds could be used to set environmental standards for lake preservation.

  13. The 18-th century glassware from Naliboki and Urzecze glasshouses. Physico-chemical studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunicki-Goldfinger, J.J.; Kierzek, J.; Kasprzak, A.J.; Malozewska-Bucko, B.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to characterize some of the 18-th century glassware comming from the Naliboki and Urzecze glasshouses, basing on their chemical composition and selected physico-chemical properties. It was tried to find whether there exists a specific, characteristic for a given glasshouse, chemical composition and whether it is possible, basing on this composition, to identify the glass objects coming from particular, central European, 18-th century glasshouses. The studies were carried out at the National Museum Warsaw. Non-destructive procedures, i.e., without sample withdrawing and not affecting the glass surface procedures were used. Radioisotope excited X-ray fluorescence, a ultraviolet excited optical fluorescence examination and visual examination were employed. For evaluation of the measurement data a multivariate analysis was used. More than 200 colourless glass tableware items, mostly engraved, manufactured in the above mentioned glassworks and a much smaller number of objects originating from other 18-th century glasshouses of central Europe were examined. Two groups of glassware, with respect to the composition, have been distinguished. One of them is characterized by an increased content of lead. However, the lead content is not a sufficient property for the differentiation. Other elements play also an important role. This composition was identified in part of the items from the glasshouses of Naliboki, Dresden and Potsdam/Zechlin where the glasses from different glasshouses are distinguishable. The PbO content in some glasses from Saxony (SPb) can be as high as 9% (by weight). Among the glasswere items belonging to the second composition group, probably not-containing an intentional addition of lead, the glassware group from Lubaczow was identified. The results of the ultraviolet fluorescence examination enabled to differentiate 2 groups of glasswares; those showing a blue fluorescence and those not-showing (mostly a green fluorescence

  14. On interrelations of Sr90 contents in the soil-forage plants-milk chain under natural conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chupka, Sh.

    1975-01-01

    Observations were made on 150 soil damples, 58 plant root samples, and 98 milk samples. Four types of soil from western Slovakia (chernozem, brown, sandy, and carbonate) and two types of plant roots (alfalfa and mixed grasses) were studied. A relation was shown between the type of soil, its physico-chemical properties, the Sr 90 accumulation in the plant roots, and the degree of contamination of milk by this radionuclide. (V.A.P.)

  15. Buffalo plasma fibronectin: a physico-chemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, N; Chandra, R; Raj, H G

    2001-12-01

    Plasma fibronectin (FN) of buffalo (Babulis babulis) was purified to apparent homogeneity, using gelatin-Sepharose and heparin-Sepharose affinity columns. It was found to have two subunits of molecular mass 246 kDa and 228 kDa, on SDS-gel. Its immunological cross-reactivity with anti-human plasma FN was confirmed by Western blotting. The amino acid composition was found to be similar to that of human and bovine plasma FNs. Buffalo plasma FN contained 2.23% neutral hexoses and 1.18% sialic acids. No titrable sulfhydryl group could be detected in the absence of denaturant. Reaction with DTNB indicated 3.4 sulfhydryl groups in the molecule, whereas BDC-OH titration gave a value of 3.8 -SH groups in buffalo plasma FN. Stoke's radius, intrinsic viscosity, diffusion coefficient and frictional ratio indicated that buffalo plasma FN did not have a compact globular conformation at physiological pH and ionic strength. Molecular dimensions (average length, 120 nm; molar mass to length ratio, 3950 nm(-1) and mean diameter, 2.4 nm) as revealed by rotary shadowing electron microscopy further supported the extended conformation of buffalo plasma FN. These results show that buffalo plasma FN has similar properties as that of human plasma FN.

  16. Physico-chemical studies for strontium sulfate radiation dosimeter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A.H. Rushdi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Anhydrous strontium sulfate (SrSO4 has shown a promise candidate as a dosimeter for low dose applications producing unique EPR signals with γ-rays which it has a linear response relationship (r2 = 0.999 in the range of 1–100 Gy. The present study extended to evaluate the properties of strontium sulfate dosimeter in intermediate dose range of technology applications. It was observed that the intensity of the EPR signal at g = 2.01081 increases with a 3rd polynomial function in the range of 0.10–15 kGy. In addition, the radical (SO4− provides a stable signal with a good reproducibility (0.107%. Other physics characteristic including the collision of mass stopping power dependence of the system and the effect of atomic number in different energy regions were investigated. The uncertainty budget for high doses has obtained from the measurement with value of 3.57% at 2σ confidence level.

  17. Physico-chemical characterization of gamma rays irradiated crotamine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Karina Corleto de; Spencer, Patrick Jack; Nascimento, Nanci do [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: kcorleto@usp.br

    2009-07-01

    Ionizing radiation can change the molecular structure and affect the biological properties of biomolecules. It has been employed to attenuate animal toxins. Crotamine, a toxin from Crotalus durissus terrificus (Cdt), is a highly basic polypeptide (pI - 10.3), with myotoxic activity and molecular weight of 4882 Da. It is composed of 42 amino acids residues and reticulated by three disulfide bonds. This study aimed the characterization of irradiated crotamine using Circular Dichroism (CD), Fluorescence Spectroscopy and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) techniques. We used size exclusion and ion-exchange chromatography to purify it from Cdt crude venom. The pure crotamine was irradiated with 2.0 kGy from a {sup 60}Co source. Native and irradiated crotamine were analyzed in a fluorescence spectrophotometer (Hitachi F-4500), under excitation wavelength at 275 nm and the emission was scanned from 300 to 500 nm. The analysis of fluorescence quenching showed that the irradiated form displayed a lower quantum yield when compared to the native form. CD spectra, obtained from a Jasco, J-180 spectropolarimeter, of native and irradiated crotamine solutions, showed a discrete change between the samples, from apparently ordered conformation to a random coil. Finally, the thermodynamics analysis, realized in a calorimeter METTLER TOLEDO, DSC 822e, showed that irradiation promoted changes in the calorimetric profile. Our results indicate that irradiation leads to progressive changes in the structure of the toxin, which could explain the decrease in myotoxic activity. (author)

  18. Physico-chemical characterization of gamma rays irradiated crotamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Karina Corleto de; Spencer, Patrick Jack; Nascimento, Nanci do

    2009-01-01

    Ionizing radiation can change the molecular structure and affect the biological properties of biomolecules. It has been employed to attenuate animal toxins. Crotamine, a toxin from Crotalus durissus terrificus (Cdt), is a highly basic polypeptide (pI - 10.3), with myotoxic activity and molecular weight of 4882 Da. It is composed of 42 amino acids residues and reticulated by three disulfide bonds. This study aimed the characterization of irradiated crotamine using Circular Dichroism (CD), Fluorescence Spectroscopy and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) techniques. We used size exclusion and ion-exchange chromatography to purify it from Cdt crude venom. The pure crotamine was irradiated with 2.0 kGy from a 60 Co source. Native and irradiated crotamine were analyzed in a fluorescence spectrophotometer (Hitachi F-4500), under excitation wavelength at 275 nm and the emission was scanned from 300 to 500 nm. The analysis of fluorescence quenching showed that the irradiated form displayed a lower quantum yield when compared to the native form. CD spectra, obtained from a Jasco, J-180 spectropolarimeter, of native and irradiated crotamine solutions, showed a discrete change between the samples, from apparently ordered conformation to a random coil. Finally, the thermodynamics analysis, realized in a calorimeter METTLER TOLEDO, DSC 822e, showed that irradiation promoted changes in the calorimetric profile. Our results indicate that irradiation leads to progressive changes in the structure of the toxin, which could explain the decrease in myotoxic activity. (author)

  19. Physico-chemical modifications of plastics by ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouif, S.

    2002-01-01

    The industrial use of ionizing radiations (beta and gamma), initially for the sterilization of medico-surgical instruments and for the preservation of food products, has led to the development of the chemistry of polymers under radiations. Ionizing radiations can initiate chemical reactions (chain cutting, poly-additions, polymerization etc..) thanks to the formation of free radicals. The main applications concerns the degradation of plastics, the reticulation of plastics and of woods impregnated with resin, and the grafting of polymers. The processing of plastic materials was initially performed with low energy electron accelerators (0.1 to 3 MeV), allowing only surface treatments, while recent high energy accelerators (10 MeV) and gamma facilities allow the treatment in depth of materials (from few cm to 1 m). This article describes the industrial treatments performed with such high energy facilities: 1 - action of ionizing radiations on plastic materials: different types of ionizing radiations, action of beta and gamma radiations, chemical changes induced by beta and gamma radiations; 2 - reticulation of plastic materials submitted to beta and gamma radiations: radio-'reticulable' polymers and reticulation co-agents, modification of the properties of reticulated plastic materials under beta and gamma radiations; 3 - industrial aspects of reticulation under beta and gamma radiation: industrial irradiation facilities, dosimetry and radio-reticulation control, applications; 4 - conclusion. (J.S.)

  20. Prediction of soil properties for agricultural and environmental applications from infrared and X-ray soil spectral properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Towett, Erick Kibet

    2013-01-01

    tested for inferring soil chemical and physical functional properties which is of interest in the African soil context for agricultural and environmental management at large scale. Further, this thesis has helped to improve understanding of the variation and patterns of element concentration data for 1034 soil samples from 34 stratified randomly-located 100-km 2 ''sentinel'' sites across SSA and explored the link between variability of soil properties and climate, parent material, vegetation types and land use patterns with the help of Random Forests statistics. MIR showed remarkable ability to capture total elemental composition effects on physico-chemical soil properties but TXRF may have potential for outlier detection in large studies. This study has also helped to develop high-throughput spectral analytical methods and provided recommendations on optimal spectral analytical methods for the Globally Integrated Africa Soil Information Service (AfSIS) Project. Successfully developed methods in this study will become part of the standard AfSIS procedures.

  1. Prediction of soil properties for agricultural and environmental applications from infrared and X-ray soil spectral properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Towett, Erick Kibet

    2013-12-09

    tested for inferring soil chemical and physical functional properties which is of interest in the African soil context for agricultural and environmental management at large scale. Further, this thesis has helped to improve understanding of the variation and patterns of element concentration data for 1034 soil samples from 34 stratified randomly-located 100-km{sup 2} ''sentinel'' sites across SSA and explored the link between variability of soil properties and climate, parent material, vegetation types and land use patterns with the help of Random Forests statistics. MIR showed remarkable ability to capture total elemental composition effects on physico-chemical soil properties but TXRF may have potential for outlier detection in large studies. This study has also helped to develop high-throughput spectral analytical methods and provided recommendations on optimal spectral analytical methods for the Globally Integrated Africa Soil Information Service (AfSIS) Project. Successfully developed methods in this study will become part of the standard AfSIS procedures.

  2. Program VODAM for treatment of mineral physico-chemical data, with a special application to the uranium case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santoma Juncadella, L.

    1972-01-01

    The VODAM program is written in FORTRAN IV language and makes a physico-chemical analysis of waters, for an element or a number of them, under investigation. A thermodynamical data files is incorporated, and is useful for a low temperature range. It is the basic nucleus for a series of programs of physico-chemical interpretation of hydrogeochemical data and automatic construction of equilibrium diagrams. (Author) 13 refs

  3. The Comparison of Micromorphological properties of Saline – Sodic and Nonsaline-Nonsodic Soils around the Urmia Lake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. chakherloo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to comparision of the micromorphic properties of saline-sodic and nonsaline-nonsodic soils in the west of Urmia Lake, four soil profiles (2profile in saline-sodic soils and 2profiles in nonsaline-nonsodic soils were investigated. These profiles were described and sampled using standard methods. soil samples were used for physico chemical analysis and undisturbed and oriented samples were used for thin section preparation. Thin sections were studied using polarizing microscope in PPL and XPL lights. Thin sections studies showed that saline-sodic soils are structure less (apedal, and their voids are mostly vughs and channel and as a result, their, nonsaline-nonsodic soils are pedal with compound packing voids, vughs and planar voids and as a result, The b.fabric in these to group of soils is crystallitic. In saline sodic soils pedofeatures are illuvial clay coatings, salt accumulations including coatings and infillings of halite in channel and vughs. These pedofeatures were not seen in nonsaline-nonsodic soils. Organic coatings were seen as black colored films on peds and in some cases mixed with groundmass of saline-sodic soils.Calcium carbonate accumulations as nodules and coatings and nodules and coatings of iron and Mn oxides were seen in both saline-sodic and nonsaline-nonsodic soils.

  4. Physico-chemical evaluation and toxicity risk assessment of the urban rivers of Metro Cebu, Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramal, Allan; Santos, Alfredo; Florentino, Nathaniel; Castanares, Josephine; Suico, Ma. Ligaya; Koyama, Jiro

    2013-01-01

    Three prominent urban rivers in Metro Cebu were samples and analysed for their physico-chemical properties and their toxicity as to surfactant levels was evaluated using tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.). Surfactants in rivers, particularly the linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS), ammonia (NH 3 ), nitrate, nitrite and phosphate were determined colorimetrically using UV-Vis spectrophotometer. Physical parameters such as conductivity, salinity, temperature, pH and Dissolved Oxygen (DO) were determined in situ using a Multi-probe digital meter. Winkler Method was carried out to confirm the levels of DO in water samples. Results revealed that Guadalupe, Mahiga and Butuanon Downstream contain DO levels lower than 5 ppm, which is level needed to support aquatic life. This result further correlates the levels of NH 3 in the samples with Guadalupe containing the highest NH 3 level of 13.09 ppm, followed by, Butuanon Dowstream (8.20 ppm), Mahiga (5.95ppm) and Butuanon Upstream (1.22 ppm) which are all beyond the DENR standard limit of 0.5 ppm. The LAS levels were found high in Butuanon Downstream (3.35 ppm), Guadalupe River (1.51 ppm), followed by Mahiga (1.02 ppm), and Butuanon Upstream (0.42 ppm). All of the river water samples except for Butuanon Upstream were beyond the tolerable limit for surfactants as prescribed by the DENR for surface water which is 0.5 ppm. Nitrate and nitrite levels for all river samples were below the DEBR standard limit of 10.0 ppm. Only Guadalupe (0.91 ppm) and Mahiga (0.52 ppm) failed to meet the DENR standard of 0.4 ppm for phosphate. Definitive Test for toxicity of LAS to Tilapia juveniles after 96 h showed an LC 5 0 of 7.6 ppm. This result was used for risk assessment of the three river systems for LAS. Toxicity Test of river samples showed 100% mortality for Guadalupe, Mahiga and Butuanon Downstream. Predicted Environment Concentrations (PEC) to Predicted No Effect Concentration (PNEC) ratio revealed that all river systems were at

  5. Optimization of physico-chemical and nutritional parameters for a novel pullulan-producing fungus, Eurotium chevalieri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaur, R; Singh, R; Tiwari, S; Yadav, S K; Daramwal, N S

    2010-09-01

    To isolate the novel nonmelanin pullulan-producing fungi from soil and to optimize the physico-chemical and nutritional parameters for pullulan production. A selective enrichment method was followed for the isolation, along with development of a suitable medium for pullulan production, using shake flask experiments. Pullulan content was confirmed using pure pullulan and pullulanase hydrolysate. Eurotium chevalieri was able to produce maximum pullulan (38 ± 1·0 g l(-1) ) at 35°C, pH 5·5, 2·5% sucrose, 0·3% ammonium sulfate and 0·2% yeast extract in a shake flash culture medium with an agitation rate of 30 rev min(-1) for 65 h. The novel pullulan-producing fungus was identified as E. chevalieri (MTCC no. 9614), which was able to produce nonmelanin pullulan at from poorer carbon and nitrogen sources than Aureobasidium pullulans and may therefore be useful for the commercial production of pullulan. Eurotium chevalieri could produce pullulan in similar amounts to A. pullulans. Therefore, in future, this fungus could also be used for commercial pullulan production, because it is neither polymorphic nor melanin producing, hence its handling during pullulan fermentation will be easier and more economical. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  6. Effects of Cow Manure, Ammonium Sulfate and Potassium Sulfate on Physico-Chemical Indices of Fruit and Leaf of Mazafati Date (Phoenix Dactylifera L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Aryakia

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L. is one of the most important fruit species grown in Iran. This plant is mainly grown in the south of the country, where pH of soil is high, resulting in poor nutrient uptake. Furthermore, because of high yield and annual pruning of date palm, large amounts of macro and micronutrients are removed from soil. So, annual fertilizing should be applied for good performance. Research shows that use of manure alone or in combination with mineral fertilizers improves physico-chemical indices of fruits and leaves of palm trees. Regarding to high nutrition dependency of date palm, it is necessary to evaluate the effect of different fertilizers on physico-chemical indices of its leaf and fruit. The main objectives of this study were thus to evaluate the effect of cow manure, ammonium sulfate and potassium sulfate on physico-chemical indices in fruit and leaf of Mazafati date. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in bam zone, Kerman, Iran, in 2011- 2012. The area was located at 28°53′40′′N latitude, 58°37′18′′E longitude and 1050 m above sea level. A factorial experiment in a randomized complete block design was performed during month of March. Factors included ammonium sulfate (0, 500 and 1000 g/tree, potassium sulfate (0, 750 and 1500 g/tree accompanied by cow manure (5 kg/tree. For leaf and fruit analysis, sampling was performed during month of June. Physico-chemical indices including nitrogen, potassium, iron, chlorophyll a, b and total, carotenoid, fruit weight, fruit diameter, fruit length, TSS and TSS/TA were evaluated. Chlorophyll was measured by using the method of Lichtenthaler (1987. Total soluble solid (TSS was measured by using refractometer. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software and the treatment means were separated by Duncan’s multiple range tests. Results and Discussion: Results showed that because of supplying nitrogen, sulfur and potassium and their

  7. Physico-chemical characterization of slag waste coming from GICC thermal power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acosta, A.; Aineto, M.; Iglesias, I. [Laboratory of Applied Mineralogy, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Ciudad Real Madrid (Spain); Romero, M.; Rincon, J.Ma. [The Glass-Ceramics Laboratory, Insituto Eduardo Torroja de Ciencias de la Construccion, CSIC, c/Serrano Galvache s/n, 28033, Madrid (Spain)

    2001-09-01

    The new gas installations of combined cycle (GICC) thermal power plants for production of electricity are more efficient than conventional thermal power plants, but they produce a high quantity of wastes in the form of slags and fly ashes. Nowadays, these by-products are stored within the production plants with, until now, no applications of recycling in other industrial processes. In order to evaluate the capability of these products for recycling in glass and ceramics inductory, an investigation for the full characterization has been made by usual physico-chemical methods such as: chemical analysis, mineralogical analysis by XRD, granulometry, BET, DTA/TG, heating microscopy and SEM/EDX.

  8. Comparison of numerical and physico-chemical models for on-line spectrophotometric control of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corriou, J.P.; Boisde, G.

    1986-04-01

    In view of on-line spectrophotometric control of fuel reprocessing streams, a physico-chemical model able to predict uranium and nitric acid concentrations in an uranyl nitrate-nitric acid system has been searched. Thus the influences of the following parameters: uranium, nitrate, hydrogen ion concentrations, ionic strength, on the equilibria of complexation of uranium (VI) nitrate have been evaluated. Extinction coefficients for the uranium mononitrate and uranium dinitrate complexes are given between 410 and 440 nm. The apparent equilibrium constants are determined as a function of the ionic strength. The limitations of this predictive model are emphasized and comparisons with numerical models are discussed. (16 refs)

  9. Studies on the physico-chemical parameters of Omi water body of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Omi water body, the physico-chemical parameters such as dissolved oxygen ranged from 1.4 to 4.8 mg/L; pH, 6.7 to 7.2; temperature, 26.5 to 31.5°C; alkalinity, 24.2 to 25.4 ppm; conductivity, 23.0 to 28.3 Ohms/cm; turbidity 0.11 to 0.15 m; and free carbon dioxide from 3.5 to 4.5 mg/L. Dissolved oxygen, pH and water ...

  10. Physico-chemical and bacteriological parameters in a hypereutrophic lagoon (Albufera Lake, Valencia, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aznar, R; Amaro, C; Garay, E; Alcaide, E

    1991-01-01

    Several physico-chemical parameters related to water quality, as well as saprophytic and public health-related heterotrophic bacterial groups were studied in a hypereutrophic lake (Albufera, Valencia) at different seasons. Total microscopic and viable counts were compared, and, together with faecal indicators, were determined in water samples from different sites. Heterotrophic bacteria grown on nonselective medium were identified to genus level and a diversity index was calculated. Pseudomonas-Alcaligenes was the most frequently isolated group from all sampling sites along the study, following by Moraxella, Acinetobacter, Vibrio and Aeromonas. The relationships between all parameters were searched by Principal Components Analysis (PCA).

  11. Physico-chemical and hydraulic mechanisms of radionuclide mobilization in aquatic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konoplev, A.V.; Bulgakov, A.A.; Comans, R.N.J.; Hilton, J.; Smith, J.; Madruga, M.J.; Voitsekhovich, O.V.; Sansone, U.; Kudelsky, A.V.

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents main results of joint studies carried out in frame of EC-coordinated ECP-3 Project 'Modelling and study of the mechanisms of the transfer of radioactive material from the terrestrial ecosystem to and in water bodies around Chernobyl' in part of geochemical pathways. Physico-chemical models of specific migration processes are developed and recommended for application as sub models for inclusion in the decision support system (JSP-1). Main parameters, determining the behaviour of radionuclides in aquatic ecosystems are identified and methods for their estimation in |emergency situations are proposed

  12. Triacylglycerol composition, physico-chemical characteristics and oxidative stability of interesterified canola oil and fully hydrogenated cottonseed oil blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imran, Muhammad; Nadeem, Muhammad

    2015-10-29

    Partial hydrogenation process is used worldwide to produce shortening, baking, and pastry margarines for food applications. However, demand for such products is decreased during last decade due to their possible links to consumer health and disease. This has raised the need to replace hydrogenation with alternative acceptable interesterification process which has advantage in context of modifying the physico-chemical properties of edible fat-based products. Therefore, the main mandate of research was the development of functional fat through chemical interesterification of canola oil (CaO) and fully hydrogenated cottonseed oil (FHCSO) mixtures. Blends were prepared in the proportions of 75:25 (T1), 50:50 (T2) and 25:75 (T3) of CaO:FHCSO (w/w). Interesterification was performed using sodium methoxide (0.2 %) as catalyst at 120 °C, under reduced pressure and constant agitation for 60 minutes. The non-interesterified and interesterified CaO:FHCSO blends were evaluated for triacylglycerol (TAG) composition, physico-chemical characteristics, oxidative stability and consumer acceptability at 0, 30 and 60 days of storage interval. The oleic acid (58.3 ± 0.6 %) was predominantly present in CaO while the contents of stearic acid (72 ± 0.8 %) were significantly higher in FHCSO. Maximum trisaturated (S3) contents (63.9 ± 0.5 %) were found in T3 while monounsaturated (S2U), diunsaturated (U2S) and triunsaturated (U3) contents were quite low in T2 and T3 before interesterification. A marked reduction in S3 and U3 contents with concomitant increase in S2U and U2S contents was observed for all CaO:FHCSO blends on interesterification. During storage, the changes in S3, S2U and U2S contents were not found significant (p ≥ 0.05). However, maximum decrease 13 %, 7.5 and 5.6 % in U3 contents for T1, T2 and T3 was noted after 60-days of interesterification, respectively. The Lovibond color R, melting point, refractive index, specific gravity, peroxide and free

  13. Physico-chemical characterization of terbium-161-chloride (161TbCl3) radioisotope from irradiated natural gadolinium oxide target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azmairit Aziz; Nana Suherman

    2015-01-01

    Currently cancer patients are increasing every year in Indonesia and become the third leading cause of death after heart disease and high blood pressure. Terbium-161 ( 161 Tb) is a low β- emitter (E β - = 0.155 MeV, T 1/2 = 6.9 d) and very similar to 177 Lu in terms of half-life, E β - energy and chemical properties.However, 161 Tb also ejects internal conversion electrons and Auger electrons which can provide a greater therapeutic effect than 177 Lu. Radioisotope of 161 Tb can be produced as a carrier-free for use in labeling of biomolecules as a targeted radiopharmaceutical for cancer therapy. 161 Tb was obtained through 160 Gd(n,γ) 161 Tb nuclear reaction by thermal neutron bombardment on 100 mg of natural gadolinium oxide target in RSG-G.A. Siwabessy at a thermal neutron flux of ~10 14 n.cm -2 .s -1 and followed by radiochemical separation of 161 Tb from Gd isotopes using extraction chromatography method. The physico-chemical characterization of 161 TbCl 3 solution was studied by determination of its radionuclide purity by means of a γ-rays spectrometry with HP-Ge detector coupled to a multichannel analyzer (MCA). Radiochemical purity was determined using paper chromatography and paper electrophoresis methods. The results showed that 161 TbCl 3 radioisotope has a pH of 2, radiochemical purity of 99.64 ± 0.34%, radionuclide purity of 99.69 ± 0.20%, specific activity and radioactive concentration at the end of irradiation (EOI) of 2.26 – 5.31 Ci/mg and 3.84 – 9.03 mCi/mL, respectively. 161 TbCl 3 solution stable for 3 weeks at room temperature with a radiochemical purity of 98.41 ± 0.42%. 161 TbCl 3 solution from irradiated natural gadolinium oxide target has the physico-chemical characteristic that meets the requirements for use as a precursor in preparation of radiopharmaceuticals. (author)

  14. GEOPHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF SOILS

    KAUST Repository

    Santamarina, Carlos

    2016-12-01

    Low energy perturbations used in geophysical methods provide insightful information about constant-fabric soil properties and their spatial variability. There are causal links between soil type, index properties, elastic wave velocity, electromagnetic wave parameters and thermal properties. Soil type relates to the stress-dependent S-wave velocity, thermal and electrical conductivity and permittivity. The small strain stiffness reflects the state of stress, the extent of diagenetic cementation and/or freezing. Pore fluid chemistry, fluid phase and changes in either fluid chemistry or phase manifest through electromagnetic measurements. The volumetric water content measured with electromagnetic techniques is the best predictor of porosity if the water saturation is 100%. Changes in water saturation alter the P-wave velocity when Srà100%, the S-wave velocity at intermediate saturations, and the thermal conductivity when the saturation is low Srà0%. Finally, tabulated values suffice to estimate heat capacity and latent heat for engineering design, however thermal conductivity requires measurements under proper field conditions.

  15. Variations of selected soil properties in the grass fields invaded and uninvaded by invasive goldenrod (Solidago canadensis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baranová Beáta

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Although the invasion of exotic plants has been recognised as the serious cause of the biodiversity loss and natural habitats degradation and threat to the ecosystems functions, just the little attention has been paid to the potential impacts of the goldenrod invasion on the soil properties. Equally, currently obtained results are contrary and ambiguous. We tested whether the grass fields invaded and uninvaded by Canadian goldenrod (Solidago canadensis L. differ in pH, soil moisture, organic carbon (Cox, humus and P, K and Mg contents and related the variations to the chosen environmental variables. We did not find significant distinctions of the studied types of habitats in the selected physico-chemical soil properties as well as the relation between the goldenrod invasion and the changes in soil properties. Nevertheless, whereas the soil reaction, soil moisture and Mg content were higher in the invaded soils, the Cox, humus and P and K contents were higher in the uninvaded ones. Doubtless, further attention need to be paid to this problem.

  16. The interactions of composting and biochar and their implications for soil amendment and pollution remediation: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haipeng; Lai, Cui; Zeng, Guangming; Liang, Jie; Chen, Jin; Xu, Jijun; Dai, Juan; Li, Xiaodong; Liu, Junfeng; Chen, Ming; Lu, Lunhui; Hu, Liang; Wan, Jia

    2017-09-01

    Compost and biochar, used for the remediation of soil, are seen as attractive waste management options for the increasing volume of organic wastes being produced. This paper reviews the interaction of biochar and composting and its implication for soil amendment and pollution remediation. The interaction of biochar and composting affect each other's properties. Biochar could change the physico-chemical properties, microorganisms, degradation, humification and gas emission of composting, such as the increase of nutrients, cation exchange capacity (CEC), organic matter and microbial activities. The composting could also change the physico-chemical properties and facial functional groups of biochar, such as the improvement of nutrients, CEC, functional groups and organic matter. These changes would potentially improve the efficiency of the biochar and composting for soil amendment and pollution remediation. Based on the above review, this paper also discusses the future research required in this field.

  17. Soil hydraulic properties of Cuban soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz, M.E.; Medina, H.

    2004-01-01

    Because soil hydraulic properties are indispensable for determining soil water retention and soil water movement, their input for deterministic crop simulation models is essential. From these models is possible to access the effect of the weather changes, soil type or different irrigation schedules on crop yields. With these models, possibilities are provided to answer questions regarding virtual 'what happen if' experiments with a minimum of fieldwork. Nevertheless, determining soil hydraulic properties can be very difficult owing to unavailability of necessary equipment or the lack of personal with the proper knowledge for those tasks. These deficiencies are a real problem in developing countries, and even more so when there is not enough financial possibilities for research work. This paper briefly presents the way these properties have been accessed for Cuban soils, which methods have been used and the work now in progress. (author)

  18. The influence of the physico-chemical form of the aerosol on the radiological consequences of notional accidental releases of radioactivity from a fast breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, G.N.; Jones, J.A.; Simmonds, J.R.

    1979-01-01

    The radiological consequences of a wide range of notional accidental releases from a 1300 MW(e) LMFBR (Liquid Metal-cooled Fast Breeder Reactor) were assessed in a study published by the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) in 1977. In that study representative values were in general adopted for each of the important parameters while recognising that in reality they could vary considerably. The present study is concerned with the sensitivity of the predicted consequences to the physico-chemical form of the released aerosol. Of particular interest is the importance of a mixed sodium-transuranium element aerosol which may be formed in accidental releases of activity from sodium cooled FBRs. Two significant findings emerge from the study. First the predicted consequences in general are relatively insensitive to the range of physico-chemical forms analysed. For generic assessments therefore it is sufficient to assume the properties of the aerosol adopted in the initial study (1 μm AMAD and each element in the oxide form); the exception concerns the estimation of the incidence of early morbidity, and to a lesser extent early mortality, but only for a limited range of release composition. The second finding is that the radiological consequences are not, contrary to what might have been expected, significantly increased for the release of a mixed sodium-element aerosol

  19. Relation between physico-chemical limnology and crustacean community in Wular Lake of Kashmir Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Javaid Ahmad; Pandit, Ashok K

    2013-10-01

    The present study scrutinizes the seasonal variation in the distribution of crustacean zooplankton in relation to physico-chemical liminology of Wular lake. Water samples were collected from five study sites during September 2010-August 2011. Remarkable spatial and temporal variations were observed among the different study sites. Among the parameters recorded water temperature showed positive correlation with pH (p<0.01) and orthophosphate (p<0.05).Transparency showed a significant negative correlation with total alkalinity (p<0.01), free carbon dioxide (p<0.01) and ammonical nitrogen (p<0.01). Crustacean zooplankton were collected by filtering 100 L lake water through a 30 microm nytal mesh and preserved in 4% formalin. A total of 42 taxa of crustacean were recorded, among them 23 species belonged to Cladocera, 16 to Copepoda and only 3 to Ostracoda. Species diversity and density depicted an abrupt up surge on the advent of warmer period (extending from March). Among the various sites a maximum of 40 species were recorded from a single biotope (site III) against the minimum of only 17 species being recorded from site I. Bray-Curtis cluster analysis showed close similarity (0.928-0.944%) between summer and autumn in terms of species diversity. Pearson correlation coefficient of the various physico-chemical parameters of water with crustacean zooplankton depicted that not only a single but multiple factors govern over the distribution and diversity of crustacean in the lake.

  20. Assessment of physico-chemical parameters of Tsaeda Agam River in Mekelle City, Tigray, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Mezgebe

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The present work was conducted to assess the physico-chemical parameters of Tsada Agam River found in Mekelle, Tigray, Ethiopia and determine its suitability for domestic and irrigation purposes. Water samples were collected monthly for two consecutive months (February to March, 2013 at four sampling sites and analyzed for various physico-chemical parameters. The study indicated that the mean value of studied parameters, except electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, turbidity, total alkalinity, calcium ion, sulphate ion, and total phosphorus of the river water samples were within the permissible limit of WHO for drinking water. The findings also showed the mean value of studied parameters, except sulphate ion concentration, were within the permissible limit of FAO for irrigation water. Therefore, the river water was found to be unfit for human consumption and was found to be safe and utilizable for irrigation purposes. If the quality management was properly maintained, the Tsaeda Agam River water could be utilized for a wide range of applications such as drinking and irrigation.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/bcse.v29i3.5