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Sample records for soil mite sancassania

  1. Effects of temperature on the life-history traits of Sancassania (Caloglyphus) berlesei (Acari: Astigmatina: Acaridae) feeding on root-knot nematodes, Meloidogyne spp. (Nematoda: Meloidogynidae).

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    Abou El-Atta, Doaa Abd El-Maksoud; Ghazy, Noureldin Abuelfadl; Osman, Mohamed Ali

    2014-11-01

    Sancassania (Caloglyphus) berlesei (Michael) is a cosmopolitan and free-living mite that inhabits soil as well as laboratory colonies of insects and fungi and may have a role as a biocontrol agent of nematodes. In this study, we investigated the effects of temperature on the development, reproduction, and food consumption of S. berlesei fed egg masses of root-knot nematodes, Meloidogyne spp., an important group of agricultural pests. Mites were reared at 20, 25 or 30 °C in the dark. The mites could feed on the nematode egg masses, and their developmental time decreased at higher temperatures. Time from the egg to adult was similar in females and males reared at the same temperature. Adult females lived longer than males at 25 °C, but not at 20 or 30 °C. Generally, females showed a higher rate of food consumption than males. Females laid the largest number of eggs at 20 and 25 °C (199.7 and 189.8 eggs/female, respectively), but the intrinsic rate of natural increase was highest at 30 °C (r m = 0.29). In comparing our data with previous reports, we noted that S. berlesei that fed on egg masses of root-knot nematodes showed a longer developmental time and a lower reproductive rate than Sancassania mites that fed on other diets. Nonetheless, the relatively high value of r m (e.g., at 25 and 30 °C) suggests that this mite may have certain advantages as a biocontrol agent of root-knot nematodes.

  2. Interactions between phoretic mites and the Arabian rhinoceros beetle, Oryctes agamemnon arabicus.

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    Al-Deeb, Mohammad Ali; Muzaffar, Sabir Bin; Sharif, Eyas Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    Oryctes agamemnon arabicus (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) is one of the main pests on date palm trees in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Two mite species were found associated with this beetle: Sancassania sp. (Acari: Astigmata: Acaridae) and Hypoaspis rhinocerotis Oudemans (Acari: Mesostigmata: Laelapidae). Sancassania deutonymphs (hypopi) were phoretic on O. a. arabicus adults and larvae. However, they were also necromenic, because once the host dies they feed on its carcass. The highest deutonymph load was found in the subelytral space of O. a. arabicus adult. The phoretic and necromenic interactions between Sancassania sp. and O. a. arabicus need to be investigated in more detail. H. rhinocerotis was recorded for the first time in UAE. Its role has not yet been studied in the date palm agricultural ecosystem.

  3. Tetranychus urticae mites do not mount an induced immune response against bacteria.

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    Santos-Matos, Gonçalo; Wybouw, Nicky; Martins, Nelson E; Zélé, Flore; Riga, Maria; Leitão, Alexandre B; Vontas, John; Grbić, Miodrag; Van Leeuwen, Thomas; Magalhães, Sara; Sucena, Élio

    2017-06-14

    The genome of the spider mite Tetranychus urticae , a herbivore, is missing important elements of the canonical Drosophila immune pathways necessary to fight bacterial infections. However, it is not known whether spider mites can mount an immune response and survive bacterial infection. In other chelicerates, bacterial infection elicits a response mediated by immune effectors leading to the survival of infected organisms. In T. urticae , infection by either Escherichia coli or Bacillus megaterium did not elicit a response as assessed through genome-wide transcriptomic analysis. In line with this, spider mites died within days even upon injection with low doses of bacteria that are non-pathogenic to Drosophila Moreover, bacterial populations grew exponentially inside the infected spider mites. By contrast, Sancassania berlesei , a litter-dwelling mite, controlled bacterial proliferation and resisted infections with both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria lethal to T. urticae This differential mortality between mite species was absent when mites were infected with heat-killed bacteria. Also, we found that spider mites harbour in their gut 1000-fold less bacteria than S. berlesei We show that T. urticae has lost the capacity to mount an induced immune response against bacteria, in contrast to other mites and chelicerates but similarly to the phloem feeding aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum Hence, our results reinforce the putative evolutionary link between ecological conditions regarding exposure to bacteria and the architecture of the immune response. © 2017 The Authors.

  4. Seasonal exposure to drought and air warming affects soil Collembola and mites.

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    Guo-Liang Xu

    Full Text Available Global environmental changes affect not only the aboveground but also the belowground components of ecosystems. The effects of seasonal drought and air warming on the genus level richness of Collembola, and on the abundance and biomass of the community of Collembola and mites were studied in an acidic and a calcareous forest soil in a model oak-ecosystem experiment (the Querco experiment at the Swiss Federal Research Institute WSL in Birmensdorf. The experiment included four climate treatments: control, drought with a 60% reduction in rainfall, air warming with a seasonal temperature increase of 1.4 °C, and air warming + drought. Soil water content was greatly reduced by drought. Soil surface temperature was slightly increased by both the air warming and the drought treatment. Soil mesofauna samples were taken at the end of the first experimental year. Drought was found to increase the abundance of the microarthropod fauna, but reduce the biomass of the community. The percentage of small mites (body length ≤ 0.20 mm increased, but the percentage of large mites (body length >0.40 mm decreased under drought. Air warming had only minor effects on the fauna. All climate treatments significantly reduced the richness of Collembola and the biomass of Collembola and mites in acidic soil, but not in calcareous soil. Drought appeared to have a negative impact on soil microarthropod fauna, but the effects of climate change on soil fauna may vary with the soil type.

  5. Seasonal Exposure to Drought and Air Warming Affects Soil Collembola and Mites

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    Xu, Guo-Liang; Kuster, Thomas M.; Günthardt-Goerg, Madeleine S.; Dobbertin, Matthias; Li, Mai-He

    2012-01-01

    Global environmental changes affect not only the aboveground but also the belowground components of ecosystems. The effects of seasonal drought and air warming on the genus level richness of Collembola, and on the abundance and biomass of the community of Collembola and mites were studied in an acidic and a calcareous forest soil in a model oak-ecosystem experiment (the Querco experiment) at the Swiss Federal Research Institute WSL in Birmensdorf. The experiment included four climate treatments: control, drought with a 60% reduction in rainfall, air warming with a seasonal temperature increase of 1.4°C, and air warming + drought. Soil water content was greatly reduced by drought. Soil surface temperature was slightly increased by both the air warming and the drought treatment. Soil mesofauna samples were taken at the end of the first experimental year. Drought was found to increase the abundance of the microarthropod fauna, but reduce the biomass of the community. The percentage of small mites (body length 0.20 mm) increased, but the percentage of large mites (body length >0.40 mm) decreased under drought. Air warming had only minor effects on the fauna. All climate treatments significantly reduced the richness of Collembola and the biomass of Collembola and mites in acidic soil, but not in calcareous soil. Drought appeared to have a negative impact on soil microarthropod fauna, but the effects of climate change on soil fauna may vary with the soil type. PMID:22905210

  6. Seasonal exposure to drought and air warming affects soil Collembola and mites.

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    Xu, Guo-Liang; Kuster, Thomas M; Günthardt-Goerg, Madeleine S; Dobbertin, Matthias; Li, Mai-He

    2012-01-01

    Global environmental changes affect not only the aboveground but also the belowground components of ecosystems. The effects of seasonal drought and air warming on the genus level richness of Collembola, and on the abundance and biomass of the community of Collembola and mites were studied in an acidic and a calcareous forest soil in a model oak-ecosystem experiment (the Querco experiment) at the Swiss Federal Research Institute WSL in Birmensdorf. The experiment included four climate treatments: control, drought with a 60% reduction in rainfall, air warming with a seasonal temperature increase of 1.4 °C, and air warming + drought. Soil water content was greatly reduced by drought. Soil surface temperature was slightly increased by both the air warming and the drought treatment. Soil mesofauna samples were taken at the end of the first experimental year. Drought was found to increase the abundance of the microarthropod fauna, but reduce the biomass of the community. The percentage of small mites (body length ≤ 0.20 mm) increased, but the percentage of large mites (body length >0.40 mm) decreased under drought. Air warming had only minor effects on the fauna. All climate treatments significantly reduced the richness of Collembola and the biomass of Collembola and mites in acidic soil, but not in calcareous soil. Drought appeared to have a negative impact on soil microarthropod fauna, but the effects of climate change on soil fauna may vary with the soil type.

  7. The underlying processes of a soil mite metacommunity on a small scale

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    Guo, Chuanwei; Lin, Lin; Wu, Donghui; Zhang, Limin

    2017-01-01

    Metacommunity theory provides an understanding of how ecological processes regulate local community assemblies. However, few field studies have evaluated the underlying mechanisms of a metacommunity on a small scale through revealing the relative roles of spatial and environmental filtering in structuring local community composition. Based on a spatially explicit sampling design in 2012 and 2013, this study aims to evaluate the underlying processes of a soil mite metacommunity on a small spatial scale (50 m) in a temperate deciduous forest located at the Maoershan Ecosystem Research Station, Northeast China. Moran’s eigenvector maps (MEMs) were used to model independent spatial variables. The relative importance of spatial (including trend variables, i.e., geographical coordinates, and broad- and fine-scale spatial variables) and environmental factors in driving the soil mite metacommunity was determined by variation partitioning. Mantel and partial Mantel tests and a redundancy analysis (RDA) were also used to identify the relative contributions of spatial and environmental variables. The results of variation partitioning suggested that the relatively large and significant variance was a result of spatial variables (including broad- and fine-scale spatial variables and trend), indicating the importance of dispersal limitation and autocorrelation processes. The significant contribution of environmental variables was detected in 2012 based on a partial Mantel test, and soil moisture and soil organic matter were especially important for the soil mite metacommunity composition in both years. The study suggested that the soil mite metacommunity was primarily regulated by dispersal limitation due to broad-scale and neutral biotic processes at a fine-scale and that environmental filtering might be of subordinate importance. In conclusion, a combination of metacommunity perspectives between neutral and species sorting theories was suggested to be important in the

  8. The underlying processes of a soil mite metacommunity on a small scale.

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    Chengxu Dong

    Full Text Available Metacommunity theory provides an understanding of how ecological processes regulate local community assemblies. However, few field studies have evaluated the underlying mechanisms of a metacommunity on a small scale through revealing the relative roles of spatial and environmental filtering in structuring local community composition. Based on a spatially explicit sampling design in 2012 and 2013, this study aims to evaluate the underlying processes of a soil mite metacommunity on a small spatial scale (50 m in a temperate deciduous forest located at the Maoershan Ecosystem Research Station, Northeast China. Moran's eigenvector maps (MEMs were used to model independent spatial variables. The relative importance of spatial (including trend variables, i.e., geographical coordinates, and broad- and fine-scale spatial variables and environmental factors in driving the soil mite metacommunity was determined by variation partitioning. Mantel and partial Mantel tests and a redundancy analysis (RDA were also used to identify the relative contributions of spatial and environmental variables. The results of variation partitioning suggested that the relatively large and significant variance was a result of spatial variables (including broad- and fine-scale spatial variables and trend, indicating the importance of dispersal limitation and autocorrelation processes. The significant contribution of environmental variables was detected in 2012 based on a partial Mantel test, and soil moisture and soil organic matter were especially important for the soil mite metacommunity composition in both years. The study suggested that the soil mite metacommunity was primarily regulated by dispersal limitation due to broad-scale and neutral biotic processes at a fine-scale and that environmental filtering might be of subordinate importance. In conclusion, a combination of metacommunity perspectives between neutral and species sorting theories was suggested to be important

  9. Spatial distribution patterns of soil mite communities and their relationships with edaphic factors in a 30-year tillage cornfield in northeast China.

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    Liu, Jie; Gao, Meixiang; Liu, Jinwen; Guo, Yuxi; Liu, Dong; Zhu, Xinyu; Wu, Donghui

    2018-01-01

    Spatial distribution is an important topic in community ecology and a key to understanding the structure and dynamics of populations and communities. However, the available information related to the spatial patterns of soil mite communities in long-term tillage agroecosystems remains insufficient. In this study, we examined the spatial patterns of soil mite communities to explain the spatial relationships between soil mite communities and soil parameters. Soil fauna were sampled three times (August, September and October 2015) at 121 locations arranged regularly within a 400 m × 400 m monitoring plot. Additionally, we estimated the physical and chemical parameters of the same sampling locations. The distribution patterns of the soil mite community and the edaphic parameters were analyzed using a range of geostatistical tools. Moran's I coefficient showed that, during each sampling period, the total abundance of the soil mite communities and the abundance of the dominant mite populations were spatially autocorrelated. The soil mite communities demonstrated clear patchy distribution patterns within the study plot. These patterns were sampling period-specific. Cross-semivariograms showed both negative and positive cross-correlations between soil mite communities and environmental factors. Mantel tests showed a significant and positive relationship between soil mite community and soil organic matter and soil pH only in August. This study demonstrated that in the cornfield, the soil mite distribution exhibited strong or moderate spatial dependence, and the mites formed patches with sizes less than one hundred meters. In addition, in this long-term tillage agroecosystem, soil factors had less influence on the observed pattern of soil mite communities. Further experiments that take into account human activity and spatial factors should be performed to study the factors that drive the spatial distribution of soil microarthropods.

  10. Soil oribatid mite communities under three species of legumes in an ultisol in Brazil.

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    Badejo, M Adetola; Espindola, Jose Antonio Azevedo; Guerra, Jose Guilherme Marinho; De Aquino, Adriana Maria; Correa, Maria Elizabeth Fernandes

    2002-01-01

    Oribatid mite densities in the topsoil and their activity at the soil surface were monitored under three species of perennial legume cover crops namely, Arachis pintoi, Macroptilium atropupureum and Pueraria phaseoloides, grass (Panicum maximum) and bare plots on three occasions in 1998 and 1999 in a derived savanna zone in Brazil. Both densities and activity at the soil surface were higher in the early but cool dry season in April 1998 than in the early wet but warm season in November 1998 and 1999. Three taxonomic groups of macropyline oribatid mites, namely Nothrus, Archegozetes and Masthermannia as well as a brachypyline taxon, Scheloribates were suggested as possible indicators of effect of legumes on soil biota because their populations increased under the legumes and/or the irresidues. Nothrus in particular increased in abundance more than any other taxon in the presence of residues of A. pintoi. Each legume supported a unique oribatid mite community in terms of species composition and relative abundance. The large numbers of Archegozeres trapped from all the legume and grass plots in April and November 1998 were also attributed to highly conducive conditions provided by the vegetation cover and their residues. The results suggest that the oribatid mite community of the study area was numerically stable as the peak populations of different species were not synchronized. Many taxonomic groups of pycnonotic brachypyline mites were absent. Legume cover crops, especially A. pintoi, and their residues have potential in restoring oribatid mite populations to precultivation levels.

  11. Food Offer Inside Agroecosystem Soils as an Ecological Factor for Settling Microhabitats by Soil Saprophagous Mites

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    Jaroslav Smrž

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mainly abiotic factors have been considered in examining soil fauna invasion or settlement. The role of soil animals communities was not considered. Our hypothesis, indeed, can be formulated: the structure and feeding habits of the soil animals community is not able to play some role in the soil rating. Localities, however, can be fragmented into microhabitats. We studied cultivated field and adjacent unploughed areas (so-called baulks, using the common Berlese–Tullgren apparatus for community structure studies followed by histological tests of food consumed by community members. We selected a group of oribatid mites, which are frequent and abundant. In the studied localities and their microhabitats, three groups of oribatid mites can be reported. First – ubiquitous species a second – migrants from the less-impacted to more-impacted microhabitats and third – specialists sensitive to severe environmental conditions in more-impacted microhabitat. They consequently live only in the less-severe, less-impacted unploughed soils and never migrate from these microhabitats. Their grazed and digested food is more diversified, and they included more feeding specialists.

  12. Impact of ectohumus application in birch and pine nurseries on the presence of soil mites (Acari, Oribatida in particular

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    Klimek Andrzej

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Intensively used forest nurseries are characterised by degradation processes that lead to a drop in the quality of seedlings. The main reason of this problem is a decrease in biological soil diversity. Therefore, an attempt of nursery soil enrichment by introducing ectohumus – as compost and fresh litter – from the pine forest was carried out. The research was carried out in 2009–2011 in the Bielawy forest nursery near the city of Toruń, Poland. The objective of the study was to determine the impact of organic fertilisation (compost made up of forest humus and mulching using fresh ectohumus on the density and community composition of Acari mites and on species composition of oribatid mites (Oribatida in the nurseries of silver birch and Scots pine. Mites, especially oribatid mites, were treated as bioindicators of soil biological activity. Research has shown that mulching using fresh ectohumus caused a multiple increase in the density of mites, especially in saprophagous mites Oribatida. Oribatid mites were clearly more numerous in birch cultivation than in that of pine. Overall, 27 species of oribatid mites were found. Mulching resulted in a significant growth in species diversity in both cultivations. The most numerous oribatid mite in the area under the study was Oribatula tibialis. This species was present in all plots and showed clear preference for birch cultivation. Tectocepheus velatus and Oppiella nova, common and known to be present in a variety of environments, were slightly less numerous.

  13. Searching the soil: forensic importance of edaphic fauna after the removal of a corpse.

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    Saloña, Marta I; Moraza, M Lourdes; Carles-Tolrá, Miguel; Iraola, Victor; Bahillo, Pablo; Yélamos, Tomás; Outerelo, Raimundo; Alcaraz, Rafael

    2010-11-01

    Arthropods at different stages of development collected from human remains in an advanced stage of decomposition (following autopsy) and from the soil at the scene are reported. The corpse was found in a mixed deciduous forest of Biscay (northern Spain). Soil fauna was extracted by sieving the soil where the corpse lay and placing the remains in Berlese-Tullgren funnels. Necrophagous fauna on the human remains was dominated by the fly Piophilidae: Stearibia nigriceps (Meigen, 1826), mites Ascidae: Proctolaelaps epuraeae (Hirschmann, 1963), Laelapidae: Hypoaspis (Gaeolaelaps) aculeifer (Canestrini, 1884), and the beetle Cleridae: Necrobia rufipes (de Geer, 1775). We confirm the importance of edaphic fauna, especially if the deceased is discovered in natural environs. Related fauna may remain for days after corpse removal and reveal information related to the circumstances of death. The species Nitidulidae: Omosita depressa (Linnaeus, 1758), Acaridae: Sancassania berlesei (Michael, 1903), Ascidae: Zerconopsis remiger (Kramer, 1876) and P. epuraeae, Urodinychidae: Uroobovella pulchella (Berlese, 1904), and Macrochelidae: Glyptholaspis americana (Berlese, 1888) were recorded for the first time in the Iberian Peninsula. 2010 American Academy of Forensic Sciences. Published 2010. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the U.S.A.

  14. Regional factors rather than forest type drive the community structure of soil living oribatid mites (Acari, Oribatida).

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    Erdmann, Georgia; Scheu, Stefan; Maraun, Mark

    2012-06-01

    Most European forests are managed by humans. However, the manner and intensity of management vary. While the effect of forest management on above-ground communities has been investigated in detail, effects on the below-ground fauna remain poorly understood. Oribatid mites are abundant microarthropods in forest soil and important decomposers in terrestrial ecosystems. Here, we investigated the effect of four forest types (i.e., managed coniferous forests; 30 and 70 years old managed beech forests; natural beech forests) on the density, diversity and community structure of oribatid mites (Acari). The study was replicated at three regions in Germany: the Swabian Alb, the Hainich and the Schorfheide. To relate changes in oribatid mite community structure to environmental factors, litter mass, pH, C and N content of litter, fine roots and C content of soil were measured. Density of oribatid mites was highest in the coniferous forests and decreased in the order 30 years old, 70 years old, and natural beech forests. Mass of the litter layer and density of oribatid mites were strongly correlated indicating that the litter layer is an important factor regulating oribatid mite densities. Diversity of oribatid mites was little affected by forest type indicating that they harbor similar numbers of niches. Species composition differed between the forest types, suggesting different types of niches. The community structure of oribatid mites differed more strongly between the three regions than between the forest types indicating that regional factors are more important than effects associated with forest type.

  15. Top layer enhances biological ontrol of thrips in ornamentals :"Predatory mites survive better on rich soil cover

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    Hoogstraten, van K.; Grosman, A.H.

    2014-01-01

    An organic top layer over the soil or substrate can enhance the biological control of thrips in roses and alstroemerias. The top layer contains food for prey mites, which in turn serve as food for predatory mites. In this way the predators survive longer. Thus, as the thrips population increases, an

  16. Effects of fungicides and biofungicides on population density and community structure of soil oribatid mites

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    Al-Assiuty, A.-N.I.; Khalil, M.A.; Ismail, A.W.A.; van Straalen, N.M.; Ageba, M.F.

    2014-01-01

    To compare the side-effects of chemical versus biofungicides on non-target organisms in agricultural soil, a study of population structure, spatial distribution and fecundity of oribatid mites, a diverse and species-rich group of microarthropods indicative of decomposer activity in soil was done.

  17. Oribatid mite communities in contaminated soils nearby a lead and zinc smelting plant in Zanjan, Iran

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    Jamshidian, M.K.; Saboori, A.; Akrami, M.A.; van Straalen, N.M.

    2015-01-01

    Many studies have shown that the composition of invertebrate communities in soil changes under the influence of stressors in the soil ecosystem. Conversely, an observed altered community structure may be indicative of stress. In this study we aimed to investigate responses of oribatid mite

  18. Comparative analysis of bones, mites, soil chemistry, nematodes and soil micro-eukaryotes from a suspected homicide to estimate the post-mortem interval.

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    Szelecz, Ildikó; Lösch, Sandra; Seppey, Christophe V W; Lara, Enrique; Singer, David; Sorge, Franziska; Tschui, Joelle; Perotti, M Alejandra; Mitchell, Edward A D

    2018-01-08

    Criminal investigations of suspected murder cases require estimating the post-mortem interval (PMI, or time after death) which is challenging for long PMIs. Here we present the case of human remains found in a Swiss forest. We have used a multidisciplinary approach involving the analysis of bones and soil samples collected beneath the remains of the head, upper and lower body and "control" samples taken a few meters away. We analysed soil chemical characteristics, mites and nematodes (by microscopy) and micro-eukaryotes (by Illumina high throughput sequencing). The PMI estimate on hair 14 C-data via bomb peak radiocarbon dating gave a time range of 1 to 3 years before the discovery of the remains. Cluster analyses for soil chemical constituents, nematodes, mites and micro-eukaryotes revealed two clusters 1) head and upper body and 2) lower body and controls. From mite evidence, we conclude that the body was probably brought to the site after death. However, chemical analyses, nematode community analyses and the analyses of micro-eukaryotes indicate that decomposition took place at least partly on site. This study illustrates the usefulness of combining several lines of evidence for the study of homicide cases to better calibrate PMI inference tools.

  19. Soil mites of the families Ascidae, Blattisociidae and Melicharidae (Acari: Mesostigmata) from mountainous areas of Colombia.

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    Rueda-Ramírez, Diana; Varela, Amanda; Moraes, Gilberto J De

    2016-06-24

    Soil mites of the Ascidae sensu Lindquist & Evans (1965) are poorly known in Colombia. This group, presently represented by the families Ascidae sensu stricto, Blattisociidae and Melicharidae, contains species known to prey on small arthropods and nematodes, thus having the potential to be used for the control of soil pests. The aim of this study was to identify species of this group from a fragment of Andean forest and a nearby grassland at the municipality of La Calera, Cundinamarca Department, Colombia, at about 2800 m of elevation. Nine species were found, including five new species, namely Gamasellodes andinus sp. nov., Gamasellodes intermedius sp. nov., Protogamasellus caleraensis sp. nov., Cheiroseius mesae sp. nov. and Proctolaelaps colombianus sp. nov. Morphological characterisation of all the species and relevant soil characteristics of the sites where the mites were collected are presented.

  20. Effects of fungicides and biofungicides on population density and community structure of soil oribatid mites.

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    Al-Assiuty, Abdel-Naieem I M; Khalil, Mohamed A; Ismail, Abdel-Wahab A; van Straalen, Nico M; Ageba, Mohamed F

    2014-01-01

    To compare the side-effects of chemical versus biofungicides on non-target organisms in agricultural soil, a study of population structure, spatial distribution and fecundity of oribatid mites, a diverse and species-rich group of microarthropods indicative of decomposer activity in soil was done. Plots laid out in agricultural fields of a research station in Egypt, were cultivated with cucumber and treated with two chemical fungicides: Ridomil Plus 50% wp (active ingredients=metalaxyl and copper oxychloride) and Dithane M-45 (active ingredient=mancozeb), and two biofungicides: Plant Guard (containing the antagonistic fungus Trichoderma harzianum) and Polyversum (containing the fungi-parasitic oomycete Pythium oligandrum). All treatments were done using both low-volume and high-volume spraying techniques to check whether any effects were dependent on the method of application. Oribatid mite communities were assessed from soil core samples collected during the growing season. Total abundance of oribatids was not different across the plots, but some species decreased in number, while one species increased. Species diversity and community equitability decreased with the application of chemical and biofungicides especially when using high-volume spraying. In control plots most oribatid species showed a significant degree of aggregation, which tended to decrease under fungicide treatment. Ridomil Plus, Plant Guard and Polyversum had a negative effect on the gravid/ungravid ratio of some species. Egg number averaged over the whole adult population was not directly related to the application of chemical and biofungicides but it showed a species-specific relationship with population density. In general biofungicides had a smaller effect on population size and community structure of oribatid mite species than chemical fungicides. The results indicate that biofungicides may be the preferred option when aiming to prevent side-effects on sensitive groups among the species

  1. Below-ground plant parts emit herbivore-induced volatiles: olfactory responses of a predatory mite to tulip bulbs infested by rust mites.

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    Aratchige, N S; Lesna, I; Sabelis, M W

    2004-01-01

    Although odour-mediated interactions among plants, spider mites and predatory mites have been extensively studied above-ground, belowground studies are in their infancy. In this paper, we investigate whether feeding by rust mites (Aceria tulipae) cause tulip bulbs to produce odours that attract predatory mites (Neoseiulus cucumeris). Since our aim was to demonstrate such odours and not their relevance under soil conditions, the experiments were carried out using a classic Y-tube olfactometer in which the predators moved on a Y-shaped wire in open air. We found that food-deprived female predators can discriminate between odours from infested bulbs and odours from uninfested bulbs or artificially wounded bulbs. No significant difference in attractiveness to predators was found between clean bulbs and bulbs either wounded 30 min or 3 h before the experiment. These results indicate that it may not be simply the wounding of the bulbs, but rather the feeding by rust mites, which causes the bulb to release odours that attract N. cucumeris. Since bulbs are belowground plant structures, the olfactometer results demonstrate the potential for odour-mediated interactions in the soil. However, their importance in the actual soil medium remains to be demonstrated.

  2. Factors Influencing Mesostigmata Mites (Acari, Parasitiformes In The Alkaline Fen Habitats

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    Salmane Ineta

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Mesostigmata mite fauna was investigated in soil of one alkaline fen at Apšuciems in the Maritime Lowland in Latvia in 2009. Thirty sample plots were selected in the following way: half of them were located in Brown Bog Rush, Schoenus ferrugineus and half — in Saw-Sedge, Cladium mariscus prevailing habitat. Soil samples were collected using a soil borer. Vegetation cover was described in accordance with Braun-Blanquet classes. Mites were extracted using modified Berlese funnels. In total, more than 28 species were recorded, of them Prozercon kochi and Pergamasus vagabundus were dominant species. Mean density of Mesostigmata mites ranged from 520 to 2140 ind./m2. Mite abundance and distribution between habitats depended on vegetation cover of the vascular plants, while moss cover and soil pH had no significant influence.

  3. Toxicological evaluation of genetically modified cotton (Bollgard) and Dipel WP on the non-target soil mite Scheloribates praeincisus (Acari: Oribatida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Anibal R; Castro, Thiago R; Capalbo, Deise M F; Delalibera, Italo

    2007-01-01

    Insecticides derived from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) and plants genetically modified (GM) to express B. thuringiensis toxins are important alternatives for insect pest control worldwide. Risk assessment of B. thuringiensis toxins to non-target organisms has been extensively studied but few toxicological tests have considered soil invertebrates. Oribatid mites are one of the most diverse and abundant arthropod groups in the upper layers of soil and litter in natural and agricultural systems. These mites are exposed to the toxic compounds of GM crops or pesticides mainly when they feed on vegetal products incorporated in the soil. Although some effects of B. thuringiensis products on Acari have been reported, effects on oribatid mites are still unknown. This study investigated the effects of the ingestion of Bt cotton Bollgard and of the B. thuringiensis commercial product Dipel WP on the pantropical species Scheloribates praeincisus (Scheloribatidae). Ingestion of Bollgard and Dipel did not affect adult and immature survivorship and food consumption (estimated by number of fecal pellets produced daily) or developmental time of immature stages of S. praeincisus. These results indicate the safety of Bollgard and Dipel to S. praeincisus under field conditions where exposition is lower and other food sources besides leaves of Bt plants are available. The method for toxicological tests described here can be adapted to other species of Oribatida, consisting on a new option to risk assessment studies.

  4. OECD Guidelines for the Testing of Chemicals, Test No. 226: Predatory mite (Hypoaspis (Geolaelaps) aculeifer) reproduction test in soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Römbke, L. Becker, B. Dark, Th. Moser, N. Halsall, W. Powley, A. Ruf, C. Scholer, E. Smit, P. Wege, N. Zenz m.fl., J.; Krogh, Paul Henning

    2008-01-01

    This Test Guideline describes a method to assess the effects of chemical substances in soil on the reproductive output of the soil mite species Hypoaspis (Geolaelaps) aculeifer Canestrini (Acari: Laelapidae). It can be used for water soluble or insoluble substances, but not with volatile substances...... replicates for each test concentrations and six to eight control replicates, of 10 animals each, are recommended. At 20 oC, the test lasts 14 days after introducing the females, which usually allows the control offspring to reach the deutonymph stage. The number of surviving females (mortality ...% for a valid test) and the number of juveniles per test vessel (at least 50 for a valid test) are determined. The fecundity of the mites exposed to the test substance is compared to that of controls in order to determine the ECx (e.g. EC10, EC50) or the No Observed Effect Concentration (NOEC). Any observed...

  5. Mite Biodiversity Under the Low Temperature Scanning Electron Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    To date, more than 55,000 mite species have been described and only a few of them have been studied. Some mites are adapted to live deep in soil, others in fresh or sea water, some are on plants, algae, fungi or animals, and others are able to survive in both extreme cold and hot temperatures. The...

  6. Possibilities of using soil microarthropods, with emphasis on mites (Arachnida, Acari, Mesostigmata, in assessment of successional stages in a reclaimed coal mine dump (Pszów, S Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MADEJ GRAŻYNA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The usefulness of 2 methods for biomonitoring of the effects of land rehabilitation were compared in Pszów (Upper Silesian Coal Basin, south of Poland. Thirty-one species of mesostigmatid mites were collected from 3 study plots representing different stages of restoration of the mine dump Wrzosy in Pszów and community structure of the mites was analysed. There was a general trend for mesostigmatid species richness, diversity, and density to increase with the development of vegetation. The dominant early successional mesostigmatid species was the phoretic Hypoapis claviger. During this study, 4616 specimens of soil microarthropods were extracted in total. They were classified according to the Biological Soil Quality Index (QBS. We tested the sensitivity and usefulness of this index for monitoring of soil quality and found its good relationship with successional stages in the reclaimed mine dump. Thus the QBS index seems to be an efficient index for monitoring the effects of restoration in mine dumps. It is a simpler, quicker, and cheaper bioindicator method than the earlier method based on community structure analysis of mesostigmatid mites.

  7. The role of onion-associated fungi in bulb mite infestation and damage to onion seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofek, Tal; Gal, Shira; Inbar, Moshe; Lebiush-Mordechai, Sara; Tsror, Leah; Palevsky, Eric

    2014-04-01

    In Israel Rhizoglyphus robini is considered to be a pest in its own right, even though the mite is usually found in association with fungal pathogens. Plant protection recommendations are therefore to treat germinating onions seedlings, clearly a crucial phase in crop production, when mites are discovered. The aim of this study was to determine the role of fungi in bulb mite infestation and damage to germinating onion seedlings. Accordingly we (1) evaluated the effect of the mite on onion seedling germination and survival without fungi, (2) compared the attraction of the mite to species and isolates of various fungi, (3) assessed the effect of a relatively non-pathogenic isolate of Fusarium oxysporum on mite fecundity, and (4) determined the effects of the mite and of F. oxysporum separately and together, on onion seedling germination and sprout development. A significant reduction of seedling survival was recorded only in the 1,000 mites/pot treatment, after 4 weeks. Mites were attracted to 6 out of 7 collected fungi isolates. Mite fecundity on onion sprouts infested with F. oxysporum was higher than on non-infested sprouts. Survival of seedlings was affected by mites, fungi, and their combination. Sprouts on Petri dishes after 5 days were significantly longer in the control and mite treatments than both fungi treatments. During the 5-day experiment more mites were always found on the fungi-infected sprouts than on the non-infected sprouts. Future research using suppressive soils to suppress soil pathogens and subsequent mite damage is proposed.

  8. Impacts of twenty years of experimental warming on soil carbon, nitrogen, moisture and soil across alpine/subarctic tundra communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    M. Alatalo, Juha; K. Jägerbrand, Annika; Juhanson, Jaanis

    2017-01-01

    High-altitude and alpine areas are predicted to experience rapid and substantial increases in future temperature, which may have serious impacts on soil carbon, nutrient and soil fauna. Here we report the impact of 20 years of experimental warming on soil properties and soil mites in three...... contrasting plant communities in alpine/subarctic Sweden. Long-term warming decreased juvenile oribatid mite density, but had no effect on adult oribatids density, total mite density, any major mite group or the most common species. Long-term warming also caused loss of nitrogen, carbon and moisture from...

  9. Validation report – Results of an International Ring test According to the Draft Guideline: Predatory mite reproduction test in soil (Hypoaspis (Geolaelaps) aculeifer) (med bidrag)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Römbke, Jörg; Becker, B. Dark, Th. Moser, N. Halsall, W. Powley, A. Ruf, C. Scholer, E. Smit, P. Wege, N. Zenz, L.; Krogh, Paul Henning

    A new Test Guideline has been developed, which is designed to be used for assessing the effects of chemical substances in soil on the reproductive output of the soil mite species Hypoaspis (Geolaelaps) aculeifer Canestrini (Acari: Laelapidae). H. aculeifer represents an additional trophic level...... to the species for which guidelines are already available. The main endpoint is the reproduction of the mites without discrimination and quantification of the different stages of the reproductive cycle. Based on already standardised OECD and ISO test guidelines as well as ideas from literature, the ad...... caused by the ring test experiences. The results determined in the ring test proved the suitability of the proposed test method. The LC50 values for both test chemicals differed by less than a factor of 2.5 from the mean and no statistically significant differences were found between laboratories.The EC...

  10. [Investigation on Cheyletoidea mites breeding in culture environment of Eupolyphaga sinensis and morphologic observation of Eucheyletia reticulate Cunliffe].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Tao; Wei, Guo; Shao-Sheng, Wang; Chao-Pin, Li

    2016-01-27

    To investigate the species of Cheyletoidea mites breeding in the culture environment of Eupolyphaga sinensis and to observe the morphology of Eucheyletia reticulata Cunliffe. The soil samples from an E. sinensis farm in northern Anhui were collected. The mites in the soil samples were separated directly under a microscope and the glass specimens were made to observe the morphological feature of the mites under a light microscope, then the mites species were identified and classified based on the morphological characteristics. In the culture soil of E. sinensis , totally 7 kinds of Cheyletoidea mites were isolated, namely Eucheyletia reticulata Cunliffe, Cheyletus eruditus Schrank, Cheyletus malaccensis Oudemans, Cheyletus troussarti Oudemans, Cheyletus aveisor Rohdendorz, Acaropsis sollers Rohdendorz and Cheletomorpha lepidopterorum Shaw. They belonged to genera Eucheyletia , Cheletomorpha , Acaropsis and Cheyletus of Cheyletidae Leach family. The Eucheyletia reticulata Cunliffe was firstly found in the culture environment of E. sinensis , and its gnathosoma was large, the pedipalpal femurs were expanding and there were two strips of comb hair and two smooth bristles on the pedipalpal tarsus, and the back of the body was covered with two pieces of tergum, which were decorated with reticular pattern. The body and foot setae were fan-shape. There are various of Cheyletoidea mites found in the breeding environment of E. sinensis . These mites are important species for pest control in the culture environments of E. sinensis . Related measures should be taken to prevent the excessive growth of Cheyletoidea mites, so as to avoid the adverse effects on the quality and quantity of E. sinensis .

  11. ECOLOGICAL STRUCTURE OF ORIBATID MITE COMMUNITIES IN ACER PLATANOIDES L. STAND ON THE REMEDIATED SITE OF PAVLOGRADSKAYA MINE (PAVLOGRAD, THE DNIPROPETROVSK REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. L. Kulbachko

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Species composition and features of ecological structure of oribatid mite communities were studied on various options of bulk artificial-mixed soil in Acer platanoides L. stand growing on the remediated site of Pavlogradskaya mine (Pavlograd, Dnipropetrovsk Region. The ecological structure of oribatid population generally was damaged and this is typical for the man-modified ecosystems. Oribatid mite density in maple litter was higher than in the top layer of bulk soil (loess loam and chernozem by 4.1–7.4 times. Species abundance of oribatid mite was almost equal in maple litter and bulk soil. Punctoribates liber Pavlitshenko, 1991 prevailed generally as eudominant species in oribatid mite structure in Acer platanoides stand. The representatives of unspecialized life-forms were dominated among the oribatid life-forms in the remediated site with chernozem bulk. Key words: oribatid mites, forest remediation, mine dumps.

  12. Psammochthoniidae n. fam., a paedomorphic family of oribatid mites (Oribatida: Enarthronota) from sandy soil in Thailand, Brazil and the U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuangarworn, Marut; Norton, Roy A

    2013-01-01

    A new genus and species of enarthronote oribatid mite, Psammochthonius kethleyi n.g., n. sp., is described and illustrated based on adult and immature specimens collected from coastal sandy soil in Thailand (Phangnga), Brazil (SAo Paulo) and the U.S.A. (Mississippi). Analysis shows that it is a member of Hypochthonioidea, but not of any named family, so the monobasic family Psammochthoniidae n. fain. is proposed. Traits that are unique among hypochthonioid mites include an adult body length under 250 microm, a functionally trichoid body form (postpedal flexing), strong lateral displacement of setae in row e, which insert on a unique form of transverse scissure, subcapitular stenarthry, leg IV vestiges and a possible precocious genital swelling in the larva, apparent absence of an anal segment, and a highly regressed leg setation. The latter two, and some other traits that were previously unknown in Hypochthonioidea, suggest that Psammochthoniidae represents the first clearly paedomorphic lineage in this diverse superfamily. Like all other known hypochthonioid mites, P. kethleyi appears to be thelytokous.

  13. Soil fauna communities and microbial respiration in high Arctic tundra soils at Zackenberg, Northeast Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Louise I.; Holmstrup, Martin; Maraldo, Kristine

    2006-01-01

    The soil fauna communities were described for three dominant vegetation types in a high arctic site at Zackenberg, Northeast Greenland. Soil samples were extracted to quantify the densities of mites, collembolans, enchytraeids, diptera larvae, nematodes and protozoa. Rates of microbial respiration...... densities (naked amoeba and heterotrophic flagellates) were equal. Respiration rate of unamended soil was similar in soil from the three plots. However, a higher respiration rate increase in carbon + nutrient amended soil and the higher densities of soil fauna (with the exception of mites and protozoa...

  14. Oviposition behaviour of the soil mite Pergamasus brevicornis (Acari: Parasitidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquardt, Tomasz; Faleńczyk-Koziróg, Katarzyna; Kaczmarek, Sławomir

    2013-07-01

    We observed the oviposition behaviour of the soil mite Pergamasus brevicornis Berlese (Acari: Parasitidae) using continuous video-monitoring. Oviposition consisted of six sequential phases. The first phase (I) involved inspection of the substrate. In the second phase (II) there were rhythmic movements of the first pair of legs and slight reciprocating movements of the body. The third (III) was a resting phase. In the fourth phase (IV) the gnathosoma was lowered and the body was raised. In the next phase (V) there were two sub-phases. During the first (Va), the female held the egg below the gnathosoma. In the second sub-phase (Vb), the gnathosoma moved up holding the egg, which was then placed on the substrate. The last phase (VI) involved intense 'cleaning' movements of the chelicerae and palps. During Va a protective external eggshell structure is gradually formed, involving a phase where the egg shell is sticky. After moving the egg to the substrate, the female freed her palps and chelicerae from the sticky egg shell and cleaned her gnathosomal appendages. Phases II-V took on average 207 ± 69 s.

  15. Molecular characterization of a new monopartite dsRNA mycovirus from mycorrhizal Thelephora terrestris (Ehrh.) and its detection in soil oribatid mites (Acari: Oribatida)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrzik, Karel, E-mail: petrzik@umbr.cas.cz [Department of Plant Virology, Institute of Plant Molecular Biology, Biology Centre of the Czech Academy of Sciences, Branišovská 31, 370 05 České Budějovice (Czech Republic); Sarkisova, Tatiana [Department of Plant Virology, Institute of Plant Molecular Biology, Biology Centre of the Czech Academy of Sciences, Branišovská 31, 370 05 České Budějovice (Czech Republic); Starý, Josef [Institute of Soil Biology, Biology Centre of the Czech Academy of Sciences, Na Sádkách 7, 370 05 České Budějovice (Czech Republic); Koloniuk, Igor [Department of Plant Virology, Institute of Plant Molecular Biology, Biology Centre of the Czech Academy of Sciences, Branišovská 31, 370 05 České Budějovice (Czech Republic); and others

    2016-02-15

    A novel dsRNA virus was identified in the mycorrhizal fungus Thelephora terrestris (Ehrh.) and sequenced. This virus, named Thelephora terrestris virus 1 (TtV1), contains two reading frames in different frames but with the possibility that ORF2 could be translated as a fusion polyprotein after ribosomal -1 frameshifting. Picornavirus 2A-like motif, nudix hydrolase, phytoreovirus S7, and RdRp domains were found in a unique arrangement on the polyprotein. A new genus named Phlegivirus and containing TtV1, PgLV1, RfV1 and LeV is therefore proposed. Twenty species of oribatid mites were identified in soil material in the vicinity of T. terrestris. TtV1 was detected in large amounts in Steganacarus (Tropacarus) carinatus (C.L. Koch, 1841) and in much smaller amounts in Nothrus silvestris (Nicolet). This is the first description of mycovirus presence in oribatid mites. - Highlights: • A novel dsRNA virus was identified in the mycorrhizal fungus Thelephora terrestris. • A new virus genus Phlegivirus is proposed. • The mycovirus was firstly detected in oribatid mites.

  16. Molecular characterization of a new monopartite dsRNA mycovirus from mycorrhizal Thelephora terrestris (Ehrh.) and its detection in soil oribatid mites (Acari: Oribatida)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrzik, Karel; Sarkisova, Tatiana; Starý, Josef; Koloniuk, Igor

    2016-01-01

    A novel dsRNA virus was identified in the mycorrhizal fungus Thelephora terrestris (Ehrh.) and sequenced. This virus, named Thelephora terrestris virus 1 (TtV1), contains two reading frames in different frames but with the possibility that ORF2 could be translated as a fusion polyprotein after ribosomal -1 frameshifting. Picornavirus 2A-like motif, nudix hydrolase, phytoreovirus S7, and RdRp domains were found in a unique arrangement on the polyprotein. A new genus named Phlegivirus and containing TtV1, PgLV1, RfV1 and LeV is therefore proposed. Twenty species of oribatid mites were identified in soil material in the vicinity of T. terrestris. TtV1 was detected in large amounts in Steganacarus (Tropacarus) carinatus (C.L. Koch, 1841) and in much smaller amounts in Nothrus silvestris (Nicolet). This is the first description of mycovirus presence in oribatid mites. - Highlights: • A novel dsRNA virus was identified in the mycorrhizal fungus Thelephora terrestris. • A new virus genus Phlegivirus is proposed. • The mycovirus was firstly detected in oribatid mites.

  17. Inactivation of dust mites, dust mite allergen, and mold from carpet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Kee-Hean; Lewis, Roger D; Dixit, Anupma; MacDonald, Maureen; Yang, Mingan; Qian, Zhengmin

    2014-01-01

    Carpet is known to be a reservoir for biological contaminants, such as dust mites, dust mite allergen, and mold, if it is not kept clean. The accumulation of these contaminants in carpet might trigger allergies or asthma symptoms in both children and adults. The purpose of this study is to compare methods for removal of dust mites, dust mite allergens, and mold from carpet. Carpets were artificially worn to simulate 1 to 2 years of wear in a four-person household. The worn carpets were inoculated together with a common indoor mold (Cladosporium species) and house dust mites and incubated for 6 weeks to allow time for dust mite growth on the carpet. The carpets were randomly assigned to one of the four treatment groups. Available treatment regimens for controlling carpet contaminants were evaluated through a literature review and experimentation. Four moderately low-hazard, nondestructive methods were selected as treatments: vacuuming, steam-vapor, Neem oil (a natural tree extract), and benzalkonium chloride (a quaternary ammonium compound). Steam vapor treatment demonstrated the greatest dust mite population reduction (p 0.05) for both physical and chemical methods. The steam-vapor treatment effectively killed dust mites and denatured dust mite allergen in the laboratory environment.

  18. Contribution to the Uropodina mites of Peru (Acari: Mesostigmata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontschán, Jenő; Friedrich, Stefan

    2017-02-27

    Soil dwelling Uropodina mites were collected from a primary lowland rainforest in Amazonian Peru. The species found belong to three different families. A new diagnosis and the type genus of Tetrasejaspidae fam. nov. are given, and the family is recorded from Peru for the first time on the basis of Tetrasejaspis sellnicki Hirschmann, 1973. Two rotundabaloghid mites were collected (Rotundabaloghia (Circobaloghia) magna Hirschmann, 1992 and Rotundabaloghia (Circobaloghia) iquitosensis Hirschmann, 1992), both already reported from Peru. A new species (Origmatrachys peruensis sp. nov.) from the family Trachyuropodidae was collected in large numbers from soil, and is described on the basis of females, males, nymphs and larvae. This is the first description of the protonymphs and larvae of Origmatrachys. The new species differs from the previously described ones in the basis of sculptural pattern of dorsal, ventral, sternal shields and the length of the setae in the central part of the dorsal shield. A new key to the known adults and deutonymphs of Origmatrachys is given.

  19. Life cycle and reproduction of house-dust mites: environmental factors influencing mite populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, B J

    1998-01-01

    An understanding of the life cycle of house-dust mites, as well as environmental factors influencing mite populations, can be exploited in mite control. The most important limiting factor for house-dust-mite populations is air humidity. House-dust mites osmoregulate through the cuticle and therefore require a high ambient air humidity to prevent excessive water loss. In addition, the supracoxal glands actively take up ambient water vapour, and the protonynph stage of the life cycle is resistant to desiccation. Larger house-dust-mite populations are found when the absolute indoor air humidity is above 7 g/kg (45% relative humidity at 20 degrees C). Consequently, ventilation by air-conditioning systems is being developed as a means of control. A number of other aspects of the domestic environment are also being manipulated in an integrated approach to render the habitat less suitable for mites. The potential exists for developing models for house-dust mite populations, environmental characteristics, and the effects of various approaches to control.

  20. Camerobiid mites (Acariformes: Raphignathina: Camerobiidae inhabiting epiphytic bromeliads and soil litter of tropical dry forest with analysis of setal homology in the genus Neophyllobius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Paredes-León

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A survey of the camerobiid mites living on epiphytic bromeliads and the forest floor of a Mexican tropical dry forest was carried out. We found three new species of the genus Neophyllobius, which are described in this paper; the first two, namely N. cibyci sp. nov. and N. tepoztlanensis sp. nov., were both found inhabiting bromeliads (Tillandsia spp. and living on two tree species (Quercus obtusata and Sapium macrocarpum; the third, N. tescalicola sp. nov., was found in soil and litter under Q. obtusata. These three new species can be differentiated from other species in the genus by a combination of morphological characters in adult females, mainly those setae on femora and genua I. The idiosoma and leg setal ontogeny of a camerobiid mite is presented for the first time in this paper, illustrating chaetotaxic notations and their relative positions in N. cibyci sp. nov. larva, protonymph and adults (female and male, and establishing setal homologies among instars. Setal homology with other species in the cohort Raphignathina is briefly discussed. Additionally, a compilation and an identification key to all known species of camerobiid mites in Mexico is provided.

  1. Fungi and mites on humid indoor walls : a laboratory study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koren, L.G.H.; Kort, H.S.M.; Siebers, Rob; Cunningham, M.; Fitzharris, P.

    2000-01-01

    The potential allergen source formed by mites and fungi developing on walls has been studied in a semi-natural model. Gypsum and wooden pieces, representing indoor walls, were artificially soiled with one of two different organic compounds, a yeast/vegetable mixture (Mannite) or a red currant juice

  2. Effects of deltamethrin, dimethoate, and chlorpyrifos on survival and reproduction of the collembolan Folsomia candida and the predatory mite Hypoaspis aculeifer in two African and two European soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaabiri Kamoun, Ikram; Jegede, Olukayode O; Owojori, Olugbenga J; Bouzid, Jalel; Gargouri, Radhia; Römbke, Jörg

    2018-01-01

    Indiscriminate use of pesticides is rampant in most parts of Africa, but only scanty ecotoxicological data exist for the protection of soil organisms-and these data were usually obtained under temperate conditions, including the use of Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) standard test protocols. In order to assess the effects of 3 commonly used pesticides (deltamethrin, dimethoate, chlorpyrifos) on soil fauna in Africa, noncontaminated natural soils were collected from Nigeria and Tunisia. In addition, 2 common test soils, OECD artificial soil and European (Landwirtschaftliche Untersichungs- und Forschungsanstalt [LUFA]) 2.3 soil, were used in OECD standard reproduction tests. Two microarthropod species, the springtail Folsomia candida and the predatory mite Hypoaspis aculeifer, were exposed in these 4 soils spiked individually with the 3 insecticides. Results show that the collembolan F. candida was more sensitive than the mite H. aculeifer for all 3 insecticides. The toxicity of each insecticide in the 4 soils differed, with few exceptions, by less than an order of magnitude. However, the pattern of toxicity was not consistent, that is, the lowest toxicity was often but not always found in OECD artificial soil. Soil- and pesticide-specific patterns of toxicity to F. candida and H. aculeifer might be related to the physicochemical properties of the soils and thus the availability of the 3 pesticides. Following the rules laid down in the European Union for the registration of pesticides and using standard European exposure scenarios, neither an acute nor a chronic risk of dimethoate and chlorpyrifos can be excluded (with few exceptions) in all 4 soils. Lower risks were identified for deltamethrin. For pesticide used in Africa, an environmental risk assessment based on data gained in tests with at least 1 additional natural field soil, preferably of African origin, should be performed using the same risk assessment principles as in the

  3. Soil fauna communities and microbial respiration in high Arctic tundra soils at Zackenberg, Northeast Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Louise I.; Holmstrup, Martin; Maraldo, Kristine

    2006-01-01

    The soil fauna communities were described for three dominant vegetation types in a high arctic site at Zackenberg, Northeast Greenland. Soil samples were extracted to quantify the densities of mites, collembolans, enchytraeids, diptera larvae, nematodes and protozoa. Rates of microbial respiration...... densities (naked amoeba and heterotrophic flagellates) were equal. Respiration rate of unamended soil was similar in soil from the three plots. However, a higher respiration rate increase in carbon + nutrient amended soil and the higher densities of soil fauna (with the exception of mites and protozoa...... were also assessed. Collembolans were found in highest densities in dry heath soil, about 130,000 individuals m-2, more than twice as high as in mesic heath soils. Enchytraeids, diptera larvae and nematodes were also more abundant in the dry heath soil than in mesic heath soils, whereas protozoan...

  4. Application of gamma radiation on longevity of some mites species (Acari: Tetranychidade)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machi, Andre R., E-mail: rica_machi@hotmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Arthur, Valter, E-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Mites are pests agricultural found in various environments accessible to animal life: soil, aerial parts of the plants, host insects. In this research the effects of gamma irradiation on longevity of mite pests of the tetranychidae family have been studied. The mites were irradiated in a source of Cobalt-60, Gammacell-220 type, at a dose rate of 0.486 kGy located in the CENA/USP, in the doses of 0 (control), 100, 200, 300, and 400 Gy with sixteen replicates per dose. After the irradiation, the mites were placed in petri dishes totalizing 5 treatments in 32 repetitions. The analysis of variance design with completely randomized design using the Statistical Analysis System (SAS) and the Tukey test, the verification of means. Were evaluated daily the adult mortality and longevity of irradiated mites. After 25 days was observed a mean longevity of mites, for O.ilicis, 100 Gy was equal the control dose (18.3 days), but to T. desertorum and T. urticae the larger longevity was observed in the dose of 200 Gy (19.0 days) being that this dose, obtained the larger longevity in comparison to control dose (18.5 days), in general the longevity decreased in relation to increased doses. Thus, only the dose of 100 Gy and 200 Gy stimulated an increased the longevity in O. ilicis and T. desertorum and T. urticae respectively. The exact mechanism by which the mites are tolerant to avoid damage caused by radicals when exposed to ionizing radiation is not fully understood. (author)

  5. Application of gamma radiation on longevity of some mites species (Acari: Tetranychidade)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machi, Andre R.; Arthur, Valter

    2015-01-01

    Mites are pests agricultural found in various environments accessible to animal life: soil, aerial parts of the plants, host insects. In this research the effects of gamma irradiation on longevity of mite pests of the tetranychidae family have been studied. The mites were irradiated in a source of Cobalt-60, Gammacell-220 type, at a dose rate of 0.486 kGy located in the CENA/USP, in the doses of 0 (control), 100, 200, 300, and 400 Gy with sixteen replicates per dose. After the irradiation, the mites were placed in petri dishes totalizing 5 treatments in 32 repetitions. The analysis of variance design with completely randomized design using the Statistical Analysis System (SAS) and the Tukey test, the verification of means. Were evaluated daily the adult mortality and longevity of irradiated mites. After 25 days was observed a mean longevity of mites, for O.ilicis, 100 Gy was equal the control dose (18.3 days), but to T. desertorum and T. urticae the larger longevity was observed in the dose of 200 Gy (19.0 days) being that this dose, obtained the larger longevity in comparison to control dose (18.5 days), in general the longevity decreased in relation to increased doses. Thus, only the dose of 100 Gy and 200 Gy stimulated an increased the longevity in O. ilicis and T. desertorum and T. urticae respectively. The exact mechanism by which the mites are tolerant to avoid damage caused by radicals when exposed to ionizing radiation is not fully understood. (author)

  6. Fauna-associated changes in chemical and biochemical properties of soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, G; Sharma, B M

    2006-12-01

    To study the impacts of abundance of woodlice, termites, and mites on some functional aspects of soil in order to elucidate the specific role of soil fauna in improving soil fertility in desert. Fauna-rich sites were selected as experimental sites and adjacent areas were taken as control. Soil samples were collected from both sites. Soil respiration was measured at both sites. The soil samples were sent to laboratory, their chemical and biochemical properties were analyzed. Woodlice showed 25% decrease in organic carbon and organic matter as compared to control site. Whereas termites and mites showed 58% and 16% decrease in organic carbon and organic matter. In contrast, available nitrogen (nitrate and ammonical both) and phosphorus exhibited 2-fold and 1.2-fold increase, respectively. Soil respiration and dehydrogenase activity at the sites rich in woodlice, termites and mites produced 2.5-, 3.5- and 2-fold increases, respectively as compared to their control values. Fauna-associated increase in these biological parameters clearly reflected fauna-induced microbial activity in soil. Maximum decrease in organic carbon and increase in nitrate-nitrogen and ammonical-nitrogen, available phosphorus, soil respiration and dehydrogenase activity were produced by termites and minimum by mites reflecting termite as an efficient soil improver in desert environment. The soil fauna-associated changes in chemical (organic carbon, nitrate-nitrogen, ammonical-nitrogen, phosphorus) and biochemical (soil respiration, dehydrogenase activity) properties of soil improve soil health and help in conservation of desert pedoecosystem.

  7. Mites (Acari, Mesostigmata from rock cracks and crevices in rock labirynths in the Stołowe Mountains National Park (SW Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KAMCZYC JACEK

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to recognize the species composition of soil mites of the order Mesostigmata in the soil/litter collected from rock cracks and crevices in Szczeliniec Wielki and Błędne Skały rock labirynths in the area of the Stołowe Mountains National Park (part of the Sudetes in SW Poland. Overall, 27 species were identified from 41 samples collected between September 2001 and August 2002. The most numerous species in this study were Veigaia nemorensis, Leptogamasus cristulifer, and Gamasellus montanus. Our study has also confirmed the occurrence or rare mite species, such as Veigaia mollis and Paragamasus insertus. Additionally, 5 mite species were recorded as new to the fauna of this Park: Vulgarogamasus remberti, Macrocheles tardus, Pachylaelaps vexillifer, Iphidosoma physogastris, and Dendrolaelaps (Punctodendrolaelaps eichhorni.

  8. Catalogue of ptyctimous mites (Acari, Oribatida) of the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    NiedbaŁa, Wojciech; Liu, Dong

    2018-03-11

    As important representatives of Oribatida (Acari), ptyctimous mites comprise more than 1400 described species in 40 genera and subgenera, with nearly cosmopolitan distribution except for the Arctic and Antarctic Regions. They are capable of folding the aspidosoma under the opisthosoma to protect their appendages, and are primarily soil and litter inhabitants, feeding on fungi and decaying plant remains with various levels of specificity. Our purpose was to provide a detailed catalogue of all known ptyctimous mite species in the world with information of distribution, taxonomic issues and some remarks. Data of known juvenile  instars of ptyctimous mites which were not included in Norton Ermilov (2014) were added. We hope that our catalogue with bibliography will be helpful in taxonomic and ecological studies.        The catalogue presents taxonomic information and geographic distribution of 1431 known species of the world belonging to 42 genera and eight families (not including data of genus and species inquirenda, nomina nuda and species without author name). Among them, 261 species are listed as synonyms, 43 species inquirenda, nine homonyms, 17 new synonyms, one new subgenus Mahuntritia subgenus nov. and three new names are included in the catalogue.

  9. ``Sleeping with the enemy''—predator-induced diapause in a mite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroon, Annemarie; Veenendaal, René L.; Bruin, Jan; Egas, Martijn; Sabelis, Maurice W.

    2008-12-01

    Diapause in arthropods is a physiological state of dormancy that is generally thought to promote survival during harsh seasons and dispersal, but it may also serve to avoid predation in space and time. Here, we show that predation-related odours induce diapause in female adult spider mites. We argue that this response allows them to move into an area where they are free of enemies, yet forced to survive without food. Spider mites are specialised leaf feeders, but—in late summer—they experience severe predation on leaves. Hence, they face a dilemma: to stay on the leaf and risk being eaten or to move away from the leaf and risk death from starvation and thirst. Female two-spotted spider mites solve this dilemma by dramatically changing their physiology when exposed to predation-associated cues. This allows them to disperse away from leaves and to survive in winter refuges in the bark of trees or in the soil. We conclude that the mere presence of predation-associated cues causes some herbivorous mites to seek refuge, thereby retarding the growth rate of the population as a whole: a trait-mediated indirect effect that may have consequences for the stability of predator prey systems and for ecosystem structure.

  10. Soil arthropod fauna from natural ecosites and reclaimed oil sands soils in northern Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battigelli, J.P.; Leskiw, L.A. [Paragon Soil and Environmental Consulting Inc., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    An understanding of soil invertebrates may facilitate current reclamation activities in the oil sands region of Alberta. This paper presented the results of a study investigating the density, diversity, and structure of soil arthropod assemblages in natural habitats and reclaimed sites. The purpose of the study was to establish a baseline inventory of soil arthropod assemblages in order to enable long-term monitoring of soil arthropod recolonization in disturbed sites. Nine natural ecosites were sampled for the study, including peat mix over secondary material over tailing sand; direct placement over tailing sand; peat mix over secondary over overburden; direct placement over overburden; peat mix over tailing sand; and peat mix over overburden. Samples were collected from previously established long-term soil and vegetation treatment plots in both natural ecosites and reclaimed soil sites located near Fort McMurray, Alberta. Results showed that densities of mesofauna were significantly higher in samples collected from natural ecosites. Acari and Collembola represented approximately 97 to 98 per cent of the fauna collected. It was also noted that the overall structure of the soil mesofauna community differed between natural soils and reclaimed soils. A significant reduction in the abundance of oribatid mites was observed in soils that had been reclaimed for over 34 years. Changes in the soil mesofauna community structure suggested that reclaimed soils continue to represent disturbed ecosites, as was indicated by higher proportions of prostigmatid mites and some collembolan families. Differences in community structure may influence soil ecosystem functions, including decomposition rates; nutrient recycling; soil structure; and fungal and bacterial biomass. It was concluded that further research is needed to examine oribatid mites and collembolan species diversity and community structure in reclaimed soils. 18 refs., 6 figs.

  11. Antigenic relationship between the house dust mite Dermatophagoides farinae and the predacious mite Phytoseiulus persimilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homma, R; Ando, T; Miyahara, A; Kimura, H; Ito, G; Uesato, N; Ino, Y; Iwaki, M

    1994-12-01

    We have examined the antigenic relationship between the house dust mite Dermatophagoides farinae and the predacious mite Phytoseiulus persimilis. Immunoblotting analysis demonstrated that there was a very weak antigenic cross-reactivity between these different suborder of mites but that this cross-reactivity was not attributed to D. farinaes major allergen's, Der fI and Der fII. These results suggest that P. persimilis might scarcely provoke allergic symptoms in patients sensitized to house dust mites.

  12. Genotypic variability and relationships between mite infestation levels, mite damage, grooming intensity, and removal of Varroa destructor mites in selected strains of worker honey bees (Apis mellifera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman-Novoa, Ernesto; Emsen, Berna; Unger, Peter; Espinosa-Montaño, Laura G; Petukhova, Tatiana

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this study was to demonstrate genotypic variability and analyze the relationships between the infestation levels of the parasitic mite Varroa destructor in honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies, the rate of damage of fallen mites, and the intensity with which bees of different genotypes groom themselves to remove mites from their bodies. Sets of paired genotypes that are presumably susceptible and resistant to the varroa mite were compared at the colony level for number of mites falling on sticky papers and for proportion of damaged mites. They were also compared at the individual level for intensity of grooming and mite removal success. Bees from the "resistant" colonies had lower mite population rates (up to 15 fold) and higher percentages of damaged mites (up to 9 fold) than bees from the "susceptible" genotypes. At the individual level, bees from the "resistant" genotypes performed significantly more instances of intense grooming (up to 4 fold), and a significantly higher number of mites were dislodged from the bees' bodies by intense grooming than by light grooming (up to 7 fold) in all genotypes. The odds of mite removal were high and significant for all "resistant" genotypes when compared with the "susceptible" genotypes. The results of this study strongly suggest that grooming behavior and the intensity with which bees perform it, is an important component in the resistance of some honey bee genotypes to the growth of varroa mite populations. The implications of these results are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Origin and higher-level diversification of acariform mites - evidence from nuclear ribosomal genes, extensive taxon sampling, and secondary structure alignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepato, A R; Klimov, P B

    2015-09-02

    Acariformes is the most species-rich and morphologically diverse radiation of chelicerate arthropods, known from the oldest terrestrial ecosystems. It is also a key lineage in understanding the evolution of this group, with the most vexing question whether mites, or Acari (Parasitiformes and Acariformes) is monophyletic. Previous molecular studies recovered Acari either as monophyletic or non-monophyletic, albeit with a limited taxon sampling. Similarly, relationships between basal acariform groups (include little-known, deep-soil 'endeostigmatan' mites) and major lineages of Acariformes (Sarcoptiformes, Prostigmata) are virtually unknown. We infer phylogeny of chelicerate arthropods, using a large and representative dataset, comprising all main in- and outgroups (228 taxa). Basal diversity of Acariformes is particularly well sampled. With this dataset, we conduct a series of phylogenetically explicit tests of chelicerate and acariform relationships and present a phylogenetic framework for internal relationships of acariform mites. Our molecular data strongly support a diphyletic Acari, with Acariformes as the sister group to Solifugae (PP =1.0; BP = 100), the so called Poecilophysidea. Among Acariformes, some representatives of the basal group Endeostigmata (mainly deep-soil mites) were recovered as sister-groups to the remaining Acariformes (i. e., Trombidiformes + and most of Sarcoptiformes). Desmonomatan oribatid mites (soil and litter mites) were recovered as the monophyletic sister group of Astigmata (e. g., stored product mites, house dust mites, mange mites, feather and fur mites). Trombidiformes (Sphaerolichida + Prostigmata) is strongly supported (PP =1.0; BP = 98-100). Labidostommatina was inferred as the basal lineage of Prostigmata. Eleutherengona (e. g., spider mites) and Parasitengona (e. g., chiggers, fresh water mites) were recovered as monophyletic. By contrast, Eupodina (e. g., snout mites and relatives) was not. Marine mites (Halacaridae) were

  14. Population survey of phytoseiid mites and spider mites on peach leaves and wild plants in Japanese peach orchard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wari, David; Yamashita, Jun; Kataoka, Yoko; Kohara, Yoko; Hinomoto, Norihide; Kishimoto, Hidenari; Toyoshima, Shingo; Sonoda, Shoji

    2014-07-01

    A population survey of phytoseiid mites and spider mites was conducted on peach leaves and wild plants in Japanese peach orchards having different pesticide practices. The phytoseiid mite species composition on peach leaves and wild plants, as estimated using quantitative sequencing, changed during the survey period. Moreover, it varied among study sites. The phytoseiid mite species compositions were similar between peach leaves and some wild plants, such as Veronica persica, Paederia foetida, Persicaria longiseta, and Oxalis corniculata with larger quantities of phytoseiid mites, especially after mid-summer. A PCR-based method to detect the ribosomal ITS sequences of Tetranychus kanzawai and Panonychus mori from phytoseiid mites was developed. Results showed that Euseius sojaensis (specialized pollen feeder/generalist predator) uses both spider mites as prey in the field.

  15. Evaluation of predatory mites and Acramite for control of twospotted spider mites in strawberries in north central Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Elena M; Liburd, Oscar E

    2006-08-01

    Greenhouse and field experiments were conducted from 2003 to 2005 to determine the effectiveness of two predatory mite species, Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot and Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor), and a reduced-risk miticide, Acramite 50 WP (bifenazate), for control of twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, in strawberries (Fragaria x ananassa Duchesne). In greenhouse tests, three treatments consisting of releases of P. persimilis, N. californicus, and an untreated control were evaluated. Both species of predatory mites significantly reduced twospotted spider mite numbers below those found in the control during the first 3 wk of evaluation. However, during week 4, twospotted spider mite numbers on the plants treated with P. persimilis increased and did not differ significantly from the control. Field studies used releases of P. persimilis and N. californicus, applications of Acramite, and untreated control plots. Both N. californicus and P. persimilis significantly reduced populations of twospotted spider mite below numbers recorded in the control plots. During the 2003-2004 field season P. persimilis took longer than N. californicus to bring the twospotted spider mite population under control (< 10 mites per leaflet). Acramite was effective in reducing twospotted spider mite populations below 10 mites per leaflet during the 2003-2004 field season but not during the 2004-2005 field season, possibly because of a late application. These findings indicate that N. californicus releases and properly timed Acramite applications are promising options for twospotted spider mite control in strawberries for growers in north Florida and other areas of the southeast.

  16. Ecology of microarthropods in arable soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreeken - Buijs, M.J.

    1998-01-01

    Soil microarthropods are all free-living mites and collembolans, living in the soil. The study presented in this thesis formed part of the Dutch Programme on Soil Ecology of Arable Farming Systems, an integrated multidisciplinary research programme, focused on the functioning of two

  17. Allergens of mites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Siwak

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Mite allergens belong to the group of inhalant allergens and represent antigenic substances which are particutlarly important in the pathogenesis of respiratory system diseases and skin diseases. The most common diseases associated with chronic exposure to these aeroallergens include: allergic rhinitis, bronchial asthma and atopic dermatitis. Mite allergens are simple proteins or glycoproteins with different molecular structures and various biochemical functions. The sensitizing capacity of these proteins is connected from their physicochemical properties. Individual allergens perform, among others, the functions of structural proteins, act as enzymes, transport lipids, bind metal ions, and are capable of glycosylation. In addition, mite allergenic proteases degrade proteins of the skin epithelium-resulting in a weakening of its natural protective barrier-and induce the immune response. The proteases also induce the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines: interleukin-4 (IL-4, interleukin 6 (IL-6, interleukin 8 (IL-8, eotaxin, and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor-GM-CSF. The article presents the tertiary structure of major and mid-range mite allergens and their classification. Based on literature reports concerning the chemical structure of allergenic proteins, it was emphasized that the structural differences between homologous proteins with allergenic pozoproperties relate to the distribution of amino acid residues on the surface of the molecule. IgE binding affinity and the similarities and differences in the amino acid sequence of the allergens were also the basis for determining cross-reactivity of allergenic proteins. The paper shows an example of this phenomenon, describing the existence of common allergens for various mite species.

  18. Learned predation risk management by spider mites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eHackl

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Predation is a prime selective force shaping prey behavior. Investment in anti-predator behavior is traded-off against time and energy for other fitness-enhancing activities such as foraging or reproduction. To optimize this benefit/cost trade-off, prey should be able to innately and/or by experience modulate their behavior to the level of predation risk. Here, we assessed learned predation risk management in the herbivorous two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae. We exposed spider mites coming from benign (naïve or high immediate predation risk (experienced environments to latent and/or no risk and assessed their site choice, activity and oviposition. Benign environments were characterized by the absence of any predator cues, high immediate risk environments by killed spider mites, physical presence of the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis and associated chemosensory traces left on the surface, and latent risk environments by only predator traces. In the no-choice experiment both naïve and experienced spider mites laid their first egg later on leaves with than without predator traces. Irrespective of predator traces presence/absence, experienced mites laid their first egg earlier than naïve ones did. Naïve spider mites were more active, indicating higher restlessness, and laid fewer eggs on leaves with predator traces, whereas experienced mites were less active and laid similar numbers of eggs on leaves with and without predator traces. In the choice experiment both naïve and experienced spider mites preferentially resided and oviposited on leaves without predator traces but experienced mites were less active than naïve ones. Overall, our study suggests that spider mites experienced with high predation risk behave bolder under latent risk than naïve spider mites. Since predator traces alone do not indicate immediate risk, we argue that the attenuated anti-predator response of experienced spider mites represents adaptive learned

  19. House dust mite control measures for asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtzsche, Peter C.; Johansen, Helle Krogh

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The major allergen in house dust comes from mites. Chemical, physical and combined methods of reducing mite allergen levels are intended to reduce asthma symptoms in people who are sensitive to house dust mites. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of reducing exposure to house dust mite...... antigens in the homes of people with mite-sensitive asthma. SEARCH STRATEGY: PubMed and The Cochrane Library (last searches Nov 2007), reference lists. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised trials of mite control measures vs placebo or no treatment in people with asthma known to be sensitive to house dust mites......), the standardised mean difference was 0.00 (95% confidence interval (CI) -0.10 to 0.10). There were no statistically significant differences either in number of patients improved (relative risk 1.01, 95% CI 0.80 to 1.27), asthma symptom scores (standardised mean difference -0.04, 95% CI -0.15 to 0...

  20. Anti-mite measurements in mite-sensitive adult asthma. A controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burr, M L; St Leger, A S; Neale, E

    1976-02-14

    A cross-over controlled trial has been conducted among 32 adult patients with mite-sensitive asthma. The bedclothes and pillows of each subject were laundered and vacuum-cleaned and a plastic cover applied to the mattress for six weeks in an attempt to reduce exposure to mites. No improvement in daily peak-flow reading or drug usage was found in comparison with a control period.

  1. Spectral response of spider mite infested cotton: Mite density and miticide rate study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two-spotted spider mites are important pests in many agricultural systems. Spider mites (Acari: Tetranychidae) have been found to cause economic damage in corn, cotton, and sorghum. Adult glass vial bioassays indicate that Temprano™ (abamectin) is the most toxic technical miticide for adult two-spot...

  2. Heavy metal sensitivity and bioconcentration in oribatid mites (Acari, Oribatida)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skubala, Piotr, E-mail: piotr.skubala@us.edu.pl [Department of Ecology, University of Silesia, Bankowa 9, 40-007 Katowice (Poland); Zaleski, Tomasz [Department of Soil Science and Soil Protection, Agricultural University in Krakow, Mickiewicza 21, 31-120 Cracow (Poland)

    2012-01-01

    In this study we aimed to identify different reactions of oribatid species to heavy metal pollution and to measure concentrations of cadmium, zinc and copper in oribatid species sampled along a gradient. Oribatid mites were sampled seasonally during two years in five meadows located at different distances from the zinc smelter in the Olkusz District, southern Poland. Oribatids were shown to withstand critical metal concentration and established comparatively abundant and diverse communities. The highest abundance and species richness of oribatids were recorded in soils with moderate concentrations of heavy metals. Four different responses of oribatid species to heavy metal pollution were recognized. Heavy metals (Zn, Pb, Cd, Ni) and various physical (bulk density, field capacity, total porosity) and chemical (K{sub av}, P{sub av}, N, C, pH) factors were recognized as the structuring forces that influence the distribution of oribatid species. Analysis by atomic absorption spectrophotometry revealed large differences in metal body burdens among species. None of the species can be categorized as accumulators or non-accumulators of the heavy metals - the pattern depends on the metal. The process of bioconcentration of the toxic metal (regulated) and essential elements (accumulated) was generally different in the five oribatid species studied. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Responses of oribatid mites to metal contamination along a gradient in meadow soils were studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Small concentrations of heavy metals positively influenced the abundance of oribatid mites. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Four different responses of oribatid species to heavy metal pollution were recognised. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bioaccumulation of the toxic metal and essential elements proceeded differently in oribatid species. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Five studied oribatid species were deconcentrators of cadmium.

  3. Foliar nectar enhances plant-mite mutualisms: the effect of leaf sugar on the control of powdery mildew by domatia-inhabiting mites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Marjorie G; Porturas, Laura D; Taylor, Scott A

    2016-09-01

    Mite domatia are small structures on the underside of plant leaves that provide homes for predacious or fungivorous mites. In turn, mites inhabiting domatia defend the plant by consuming leaf herbivores and pathogens, which can result in a domatia-mediated, plant-mite defence mutualism. Several recent studies have suggested that plants receive enhanced benefits when they provide a foliar food source, such as sugars secreted from extrafloral nectaries, to mite mutualists alongside mite domatia. However, the effect of foliar sugar on reducing leaf pathogen load via domatia-inhabiting mites has not been directly investigated. To fill this gap, the links between foliar sugar addition, domatia-inhabiting mite abundance, and pathogen load were experimentally evaluated in wild grape. Furthermore, because the proposed combined benefits of providing food and housing have been hypothesized to select for the evolutionary correlation of extrafloral nectaries and domatia across plant lineages, a literature survey aimed at determining the overlap of mite domatia and extrafloral nectaries across plant groups was also conducted. It was found that leaves with artificial addition of foliar sugar had 58-80 % more mites than leaves without foliar sugar addition, and that higher mite abundances translated to reduced powdery mildew (Erysiphe necator) loads on leaves. It was found that mite domatia and extrafloral nectaries occur non-randomly in the same clades across Eudicots. Genera with both traits are reported to highlight candidate lineages for future studies. Together, the results demonstrate that foliar sugar can indeed enhance the efficacy of domatia-mediated plant-mite mutualisms, and suggest that this synergism has the potential to influence the co-distribution of foliar nectar and mite domatia across plants. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Mites as selective fungal carriers in stored grain habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubert, Jan; Stejskal, Václav; Kubátová, Alena; Munzbergová, Zuzana; Vánová, Marie; Zd'árková, Eva

    2003-01-01

    Mites are well documented as vectors of micromycetes in stored products. Since their vectoring capacity is low due to their small size, they can be serious vectors only where there is selective transfer of a high load of specific fungal species. Therefore the aim of our work was to find out whether the transfer of fungi is selective. Four kinds of stored seeds (wheat, poppy, lettuce, mustard) infested by storage mites were subjected to mycological analysis. We compared the spectrum of micromycete species isolated from different species of mites (Acarus siro, Lepidoglyphus destructor, Tyrophagus putrescentiae, Caloglyphus rhizoglyphoides and Cheyletus malaccensis) and various kinds of stored seeds. Fungi were separately isolated from (a) the surface of mites, (b) the mites' digestive tract (= faeces), and (c) stored seeds and were then cultivated and determined. The fungal transport via mites is selective. This conclusion is supported by (i) lower numbers of isolated fungal species from mites than from seeds; (ii) lower Shannon-Weaver diversity index in the fungal communities isolated from mites than from seeds; (iii) significant effect of mites/seeds as environmental variables on fungal presence in a redundancy analysis (RDA); (iv) differences in composition of isolated fungi between mite species shown by RDA. The results of our work support the hypothesis that mite-fungal interactions are dependent on mite species. The fungi attractive to mites seem to be dispersed more than others. The selectivity of fungal transport via mites enhances their pest importance.

  5. Oral mite anaphylaxis caused by mite-contaminated okonomiyaki/ pancake-mix in Japan: 8 case reports and a review of 28 reported cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Kentaro; Taniguchi, Masami; Fukutomi, Yuma; Sekiya, Kiyoshi; Watai, Kentaro; Mitsui, Chihiro; Tanimoto, Hidenori; Oshikata, Chiyako; Tsuburai, Takahiro; Tsurikisawa, Naomi; Minoguchi, Kenji; Nakajima, Hiroshi; Akiyama, Kazuo

    2014-03-01

    Anaphylaxis after the ingestion of foods contaminated with mites has recently been recognized. Case series and case reports thus far have shown that mite-contaminated wheat flour is the major cause of oral mite anaphylaxis. However, we have found 8 cases of oral mite anaphylaxis which were caused by mite-contaminated okonomiyaki-mix, a savory Japanese style pancake mix, in our hospital. In addition to our 8 cases, the databases of MEDLINE and ICHUSHI were systematically searched for patients with oral mite anaphylaxis in Japan. Thirty-six patients including our 8 cases with oral mite anaphylaxis were identified. Thirty-four out of 36 cases (94%) ingested okonomiyaki or takoyaki, prepared at home using okonomiyaki-mix or takoyaki-mix which was previously opened and stored for months at ambient temperature. Microscopic examination of culprit mixes of 16 cases including our 1 case revealed contamination of mites such as Dermatophagoides farina (Der f) (5 cases), Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Tyr p) (4 cases), and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Der p) (3 cases). The specific IgE to each mite is generally upregulated in these patients. Especially, the titers of specific IgE to Der p and Der f were more than class 2 in all cases. Mite-contaminated flavored flour is the major cause of oral mite anaphylaxis in Japan.

  6. Prevalence of Dermanyssus and Ornithonyssus species of mites in poultry farms of Vikarabad area of Hyderabad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreenivasa Murthy, G S; Panda, Rasmita

    2016-12-01

    The common blood feeder mites of poultry are from the genera Dermanyssus and Ornithonyssus . Their presence are problematic for the producers either through potential direct effects on weight gain, egg production or sperm production in roosters or as nuisance pests on workers. They also cause anaemia in birds and play a vector role for several human and animal diseases. Five poultry farm buildings of Vikarabad area of Rangareddy district were visited. Samples were collected from a variety of sites, including beneath feed troughs, inside cage fittings and fastening clips, under egg conveyer belts and under manure belts. Heavily mite infested feathers were plucked from three to five individual birds and kept in closed plastic covers. Samples were processed and mounted permanently by using DPX and species differentiation was done. Besides this litter materials and soil samples from the farm were also collected. Massive mixed infestations of Dermanyssus and Ornithonyssus mites were found. The morphological characters provided here can be considered as a practical tool for species differentiation and as these blood feeder mites were most prevalent and important pests of poultry, public health aspects of these parasites should be considered.

  7. Control of poultry red mites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilpinen, Ole; Steenberg, Tove

    2008-01-01

    The poultry red mite (PRM), Dermanyssus gallinae, is the most important ectoparasite in European egg production. The mites hide in cracks and crevices in the near vicinity of the resting places of the birds, coming out to feed mainly during the night. Under favourable conditions the population can...... grow rapidly, leading to serious problems. Large mite populations may cause anaemia or even death to the poultry, but also in lower numbers mites may be a nuisance to the birds causing decreased egg production and egg quality. Furthermore, they may have the potential of acting as reservoir......-pathogenic fungi and desiccant dust. The dust is diatomaceous earth (of natural origin), synthetic silica products or combinations of the two. The progress of the work with desiccant dusts will be reported. So far, 7 different products have been tested in the laboratory with regard to their efficacy, speed...

  8. [Investigation of Acaroid mites breeding in stored dry fruits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Ning; Zhan, Xiao-dong; Sun, En-tao; Li, Chao-pin

    2015-12-01

    To study the species and density of Acaroid mites breeding in stored dry fruits. The samples from the dried fruit stores and warehouses were collected, and the mites breeding in them were separated, then the slides with mites were prepared and observed by a light microscope for species identification and counting. The indexes such as the breeding density, species richness index, diversity index and evenness index were calculated. Totally 12 species of Acaroid mites belonging to 6 families and 10 genera were obtained from the total 49 samples. The dominant mite species were Carpoglyphus lactis, Tyrophagus putrescentiae, Acarus siro, and Caloglyphus berlesei. The breeding densities of mites in longans, filberts and plum candies were 79.78, 48.91, 35.73 mites/g, respectively, which were higher than those in other dry fruits. The seasonal variation experiment of mites found that the average breeding density of acaroid mites was higher in July and October, the richness index and diversity index reached the highest value in July, and the evenness index was higher in January and April. The observation of the growth and decline of Acaroid mites under the artificial condition found the number of Caloglyphus berlesei declined sharply and Tyrophagus putrescentiae first increased and then decreased. The pollution of Acaroid mites is serious in the stored dried fruits, for which the positive prevention and control measures to the mite breeding should be taken to reduce the harm.

  9. The NRL MITE Air Vehicle

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kellogg, James; Bovais, Christopher; Dahlburg, Jill; Foch, Richard; Gardner, John; Gordon, Diana; Hartley, Ralph; Kamgar-Parsi, Behrooz; McFarlane, Hugh; Pipitone, Frank; Ramamurti, Ravi; Sciambi, Adam; Spears, William; Srull, Donald; Sullivan, Carol

    2001-01-01

    .... The NRL Micro Tactical Expendable "MITE" air vehicle is a result of this research. The operational MITE is a hand-launched, dual-propeller, fixed-wing air vehicle, with a 9-inch chord and a wingspan of 8 to 18 inches, depending on payload weight...

  10. Clinical evaluation of a double-blind dust mite avoidance trial with mite-allergic rhinitic patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kniest, F.M.; Young, E.; Praag, van M.C.G.; Vos, H.; Kort, H.S.M.; Koers, W.J.; Maat-Bleeker, de F.; Bronswijk, van J.E.M.H.

    1991-01-01

    Inheritance and allergen exposure are key factors in the development and the course of atopic allergy, expressed as conjunctivitis, rhinitis, asthma or dermatitis. This study concerns the clinical significance of mite and mite-allergen avoidance measures based on intensive cleaning with acaricide

  11. Bioindication with soil microfauna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aescht, E.; Foissner, W.

    1992-01-01

    The state of a soil can be characterised through its inhabitant micro-, meso-, and macrofauna. For an appropriate assessment of soil quality at least one representative of each of these size categories should be studied (e.g. testacea, mites, earthworms). This contribution summarizes the insights gained from microscopic soil fauna in this context. The following practical examples are discussed: pesticides, organic and artificial fertilisers, soil compaction, ecological and conventional farming, recolonisation. The 'weighted cenosis index' represents a quantitative measure for the influence of anthropogenic activity on a soil. (orig.) [de

  12. Differential impact of dimethoate on the predatory mite Hypoaspis aculeifer Canestrini (Gamasida: Laelapidae) exposed at different life stages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heckmann, Lars-Henrik; Krogh, P. H.

    The acute toxicity of dimethoate was examined on different life stages (larvae, protonymph, deutonymph, male and female) of the predatory mite Hypoaspis aculeifer. The mites were exposed for 7 days in an artificial soil to 0, 2, 4, and 6 mg kg-1. A comparison of LC50 values ranked the sensitivity...... of the life stages to be: Larvae (LC50 = 3.8) > protonymph (LC50 = 5.3) > male (LC50 = 5.6) > deutonymph (LC50 = 7.1) > female (LC50 = 7.6). A life table response analysis may show how the results affect the population dynamics of H. aculeifer....

  13. Wheat curl mite and dry bulb mite: untangling a taxonomic conundrum through a multidisciplinary approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    The taxonomy of two economically important eriophyoid species, Aceria tosichella (wheat curl mite, WCM) and A. tulipae (dry bulb mite, DBM), was confounded in the world literature until the late 20th century due to their morphological similarity and ambiguous data from plant-transfer and virus-trans...

  14. Clinical benefits of treatment with SQ house dust mite sublingual tablet in house dust mite allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demoly, P; Kleine-Tebbe, J; Rehm, D

    2017-10-01

    Treatment with SQ (standardised quality) house dust mite sublingual tablet for 1 year resulted in a decreased probability of having an allergic rhinitis (AR) exacerbation day (from 11% [placebo] to 5% [SQ house dust mite sublingual tablet]) and an increased probability of having a mild AR day (from 16% [placebo] to 34% [SQ house dust mite sublingual tablet]). © 2017 EAACI and John Wiley and Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley and Sons Ltd.

  15. Hygienic Activity Toward Varroa Mites in Capped Brood is not Dependent on Mite Reproductive Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    - The varroa resistance of bees selectively bred for high levels of varroa sensitive hygiene (VSH) is characterized by a reduction of (1) the mite infestation rate (Harris 2007 J. Apic. Res. / Bee World 46: 134-139) and (2) the percentage of fertile mites (Harris and Harbo 1999 J. Econ. Entomol. 92:...

  16. Mechanisms and patient compliance of dust-mite avoidance regimens in dwellings of mite-allergic rhinitic patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kniest, F.M.; Wolfs, B.G.; Vos, H.; Ducheine, B.O.I.; Schayk-Bakker, M.J.; de Lange, P.J.P.; Vos, E.M.P.; Bronswijk, van J.E.M.H.

    1992-01-01

    We report on the mechanisms, the environmental changes and patient compliance with regard to conventional and new dust and mite avoidance measures to prevent allergic symptoms caused by mite allergens, taking into account both allergen contamination and the developmental success of pyroglyphid

  17. Evaluation of dry-adapted strains of the predatory mite Neoseiulus californicus for spider mite control on cucumber, strawberry and pepper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palevsky, E; Walzer, A; Gal, S; Schausberger, P

    2008-06-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate spider mite control efficacy of two dry-adapted strains of Neoseiulus californicus. Performance of these strains were compared to a commercial strain of Phytoseiulus persimilis on whole cucumber, pepper and strawberry plants infested with Tetranychus urticae at 50 +/- 5% RH. Under these dry conditions predators' performance was very different on each host plant. On cucumber, spider mite suppression was not attained by any of the three predators, plants 'burnt out' within 4 weeks of spider mite infestation. On strawberry, all predators satisfactorily suppressed spider mites yet they differed in short term efficacy and persistence. Phytoseiulus persimilis suppressed the spider mites more rapidly than did the BOKU and SI N. californicus strains. Both N. californicus strains persisted longer than did P. persimilis. The BOKU strain was superior to SI in population density reached, efficacy in spider mite suppression and persistence. On pepper, in the first 2 weeks of the experiment the BOKU strain was similar to P. persimilis and more efficacious in spider mite suppression than strain SI. Four weeks into the experiment the efficacy of P. persimilis dropped dramatically and was inferior to the SI and BOKU strains. Overall, mean predator density was highest on plants harbouring the BOKU strain, lowest on plants with P. persimilis and intermediate on plants with the SI strain. Implications for biocontrol of spider mites using phytoseiid species under dry conditions are discussed.

  18. Large-bodied Demodex mite infestation in 4 dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillier, Andrew; Desch, Clifford E

    2002-03-01

    Large-bodied Demodex mites were detected in 4 dogs. The mites were readily detected in material obtained via deep skin scrapings and were most commonly found on the trunk. The mites were distinguishable from D. canis, because adult males were approximately 100% longer and adult females were approximately 50% longer than adult male and female D. canis mites, respectively. The large-bodied mites were found in the hair follicles, sebaceous ducts, and sebaceous glands in histologic sections of skin from 2 dogs. All dogs had adult-onset generalized demodicosis. Two dogs had coexistent iatrogenic hypercortisolism, 1 dog had hypothyroidism, and 1 dog did not have coexistent disease. Infestations responded to miticidal therapy, control of the coexistent disease, or both.

  19. Below-ground plant parts emit herbivore-induced volatiles: olfactory responses of a predatory mite to tulip bulbs infested by rust mites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aratchige, N.S.; Lesna, I.; Sabelis, M.W.

    2004-01-01

    Although odour-mediated interactions among plants, spider mites and predatory mites have been extensively studied above-ground, belowground studies are in their infancy. In this paper, we investigate whether feeding by rust mites (Aceria tulipae) cause tulip bulbs to produce odours that attract

  20. PARASITIC MITES IN BACKYARD TURKEYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Camacho-Escobar

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available To describe the parasitic mites in backyard turkeys, was did this work. The mites were obtain by hand for 30 backyard turkeys in Oaxaca’s Coast region, Mexico; the mites were mount in adhesive paper and wash with the 200X lent in a computer optical microscopy, the parasites size were determinate in the pictures obtained by the microscopy software, the images were sized using a specialist software for it, which relate the number of pixels in the picture with the size of the observation field. Were indentified the species Dermanyssus gallinae, Megninia ginglymura and Ornithonyssus sylviarum, the last two described for first time in backyard turkeys in Mexico. Â

  1. Induction of direct and indirect plant responses by jasmonic acid, low spider mite densities, or a combination of jasmonic acid treatment and spider mite infestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gols, Rieta; Roosjen, Mara; Dijkman, Herman; Dicke, Marcel

    2003-12-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) and the octadecanoid pathway are involved in both induced direct and induced indirect plant responses. In this study, the herbivorous mite, Tetranychus urticae, and its predator, Phytoseiulus persimilis, were given a choice between Lima bean plants induced by JA or spider mites and uninduced control plants. Infestation densities resulting in the induction of predator attractants were much lower than thus far assumed, i.e., predatory mites were significantly attracted to plants that were infested for 2 days with only one or four spider mites per plant. Phytoseiulus persimilis showed a density-dependent response to volatiles from plants that were infested with different numbers of spider mites. Similarly, treating plants with increasing concentrations of JA also led to increased attraction of P. persimilis. Moreover, the duration of spider mite infestation was positively correlated with the proportion of predators that were attracted to mite-infested plants. A pretreatment of the plants with JA followed by a spider mite infestation enhanced the attraction of P. persimilis to plant volatiles compared to attraction to volatiles from plants that were only infested with spider mites and did not receive a pretreatment with JA. The herbivore, T. urticae preferred leaf tissue that previously had been infested with conspecifics to uninfested leaf tissue. In the case of choice tests with JA-induced and control leaf tissue, spider mites slightly preferred control leaf tissue. When spider mites were given a choice between leaf discs induced by JA and leaf discs damaged by spider mite feeding, they preferred the latter. The presence of herbivore induced chemicals and/or spider mite products enhanced settlement of the mites, whereas treatment with JA seemed to impede settlement.

  2. Pyroglyphid mites as a source of work-related allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macan, Jelena; Kanceljak-Macan, Božica; Milković-Kraus, Sanja

    2012-01-01

    Pyroglyphid mites are primarily associated with allergen exposure at home; hence the name house dust mites. However, we have found numerous studies reporting pyroglyhid mite levels in public and occupational settings. This review presents the findings of house dust mite allergens (family Pyroglyphidae, species Dermatophagoides) as potential work-related risk factors and proposes occupations at risk of house dust mite-related diseases. Pyroglyphid mites or their allergens are found in various workplaces, but clinically relevant exposures have been observed in hotels, cinemas, schools, day-care centres, libraries, public transportation (buses, trains, taxies, and airplanes), fishing-boats, submarines, poultry farms, and churches. Here we propose a classification of occupational risk as low (occasional exposure to mite allergen levels up to 2 μg g(-1)), moderate (exposure between 2 μg g(-1) and 10 μg g(-1)), and high (exposure >10 μg g(-1)). The classification of risk should include factors relevant for indoor mite population (climate, building characteristics, and cleaning schedule). To avoid development or aggravation of allergies associated with exposure to house dust mites at work, occupational physicians should assess exposure risk at work, propose proper protection, provide vocational guidance to persons at risk and conduct pre-employment and periodic examinations to diagnose new allergy cases. Protection at work should aim to control dust mite levels at work. Measures may include proper interior design and regular cleaning and building maintenance.

  3. Haematophagus Mites in Poultry Farms of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Rahbari

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Blood sucking mites are important avian ectoparasites which being found on bird species worldwide. Their presence are problematic for the producers either through potential direct effects on weight gain, egg produc­tion, sperm production in roosters or as nuisance pests on worker handle hens and eggs. The aim of this study was pointing out of the status of haematophagus mites.Methods: Eight caged layer and four breeder flocks were visited, monitoring for the presence of chicken mites per­formed by removing and examining debris from poultry house, infested nesting material collected into zip lock plas­tic bags and at least 20 birds were also randomly selected to examine the presence of chicken mites. Mites obtained from each population were mounted in Hoyer,s medium on microscope slides and identified. All eight caged layer and four breeder flocks were inspected, which were infested with chicken blood feeding mites.Results: Massive infestations of Dermanyssus gallinae were common with huge numbers of parasites on birds, cages and the conveyor belts for egg. Only one farm from Mazandaran Province was infested to Ornithonyssus bursa.Conclusion: Dermanyssus gallinae was the most prevalent blood feeder mite in the breeder and caged layer flocks in Iran, while O. bursa was reported as a first record, which found only in a breeder flock in Mazanderan Province. It seems that its presence is limited into the area which affected by both warm and humid environmental conditions.

  4. Soil invertebrate fauna affect N2 O emissions from soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuiper, Imke; de Deyn, Gerlinde B; Thakur, Madhav P; van Groenigen, Jan Willem

    2013-09-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2 O) emissions from soils contribute significantly to global warming. Mitigation of N2 O emissions is severely hampered by a lack of understanding of its main controls. Fluxes can only partly be predicted from soil abiotic factors and microbial analyses - a possible role for soil fauna has until now largely been overlooked. We studied the effect of six groups of soil invertebrate fauna and tested the hypothesis that all of them increase N2 O emissions, although to different extents. We conducted three microcosm experiments with sandy soil and hay residue. Faunal groups included in our experiments were as follows: fungal-feeding nematodes, mites, springtails, potworms, earthworms and isopods. In experiment I, involving all six faunal groups, N2 O emissions declined with earthworms and potworms from 78.4 (control) to 37.0 (earthworms) or 53.5 (potworms) mg N2 O-N m(-2) . In experiment II, with a higher soil-to-hay ratio and mites, springtails and potworms as faunal treatments, N2 O emissions increased with potworms from 51.9 (control) to 123.5 mg N2 O-N m(-2) . Experiment III studied the effect of potworm density; we found that higher densities of potworms accelerated the peak of the N2 O emissions by 5 days (P soil aeration by the soil fauna reduced N2 O emissions in experiment I, whereas in experiment II N2 O emissions were driven by increased nitrogen and carbon availability. In experiment III, higher densities of potworms accelerated nitrogen and carbon availability and N2 O emissions, but did not increase them. Overall, our data show that soil fauna can suppress, increase, delay or accelerate N2 O emissions from soil and should therefore be an integral part of future N2 O studies. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Haematophagus Mites in Poultry Farms of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Rahbari

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Blood sucking mites are important avian ectoparasites which being found on bird species worldwide. Their presence are problematic for the producers either through potential direct effects on weight gain, egg produc­tion, sperm production in roosters or as nuisance pests on worker handle hens and eggs. The aim of this study was pointing out of the status of haematophagus mites."nMethods: Eight caged layer and four breeder flocks were visited, monitoring for the presence of chicken mites per­formed by removing and examining debris from poultry house, infested nesting material collected into zip lock plas­tic bags and at least 20 birds were also randomly selected to examine the presence of chicken mites. Mites obtained from each population were mounted in Hoyer,s medium on microscope slides and identified. All eight caged layer and four breeder flocks were inspected, which were infested with chicken blood feeding mites."nResults: Massive infestations of Dermanyssus gallinae were common with huge numbers of parasites on birds, cages and the conveyor belts for egg. Only one farm from Mazandaran Province was infested to Ornithonyssus bursa."nConclusion: Dermanyssus gallinae was the most prevalent blood feeder mite in the breeder and caged layer flocks in Iran, while O. bursa was reported as a first record, which found only in a breeder flock in Mazanderan Province. It seems that its presence is limited into the area which affected by both warm and humid environmental conditions.  Keywords: Dermanyssus gallinae, Ornithonyssus bursa, Poultry, Iran

  6. Abundance, Genetic Diversity and Persistence of Metarhizium Spp. Fungi from Soil of Strawberry Crops and Their Potential as Biological Control Agents against the Two-Spotted Spider Mite Tetranychus urticae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castro, Thiago Rodriguesde

    The growing demand for strawberries has imposed challenges, especially regarding the control of pests. Many farmers report problems with reduced chemical control efficiency, probably due to selection of resistant populations of insects and mites. An alternative is the use of biological control...... agent were performed, but this bulk of knowledge is in remarkable contrast to the lack of research on the fundamental ecology of Metarhizium in agroecosystems. This thesis aimed to evaluate the establishment, persistence and dispersal of these entomopathogenic fungi in strawberry crop soil...... in Inconfidentes, Minas Gerais, Brazil; and to study the diversity and abundance of species of Metarhizium isolated from organic and conventional strawberry crop soils, and from the field margins in Brazil and Denmark. The effectiveness of new species of Metarhizium recently found in Brazil, was evaluated against...

  7. House dust mites in the city of Lima, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croce, M; Costa-Manso, E; Baggio, D; Croce, J

    2000-01-01

    Since mites are the most common house dust allergens, knowledge about the species most prevalent in a region is important for diagnostic and specific immunotherapy purposes. In order to establish the prevalence of house dust mites in different city districts, 100 house dust samples were collected from different parts of Lima. Lima is a city of tropical climate located along the coast of the Pacific Ocean. The relative air humidity is 80-90% and the various districts studied are located at altitudes ranging from 37-355 meters. The mite Blomia tropicalis was the organism most frequently detected, being present in 59% of the house dust samples. Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus occupied second place (15.9%), followed by Chortoglyphus arcuatus and Tyrophagus putrescentiae. These four mites, taken together, represented more than 90% of the mites detected. No specimen of the species Dermatophagoides farinae was detected. We conclude that B. tropicalis and D. pteronyssinus are the most common house dust mites in Lima. Considering the high prevalence of B. tropicalis in Lima and the fact that its cross-reactivity with antigens of the mites of the family Pyroglyphidae is minimal, we conclude that sensitization to this mite should be investigated separately in allergic patients living in Lima.

  8. Global associations between birds and vane-dwelling feather mites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doña, Jorge; Proctor, Heather; Mironov, Sergey; Serrano, David; Jovani, Roger

    2016-11-01

    Understanding host-symbiont networks is a major question in evolutionary ecology. Birds host a great diversity of endo- and ectosymbiotic organisms, with feather mites (Arachnida: Acariformes: Analgoidea, Pterolichoidea) being among the most diverse of avian symbionts. A global approach to the ecology and evolution of bird-feather-mite associations has been hampered because of the absence of a centralized data repository. Here we present the most extensive data set of associations between feather mites and birds. Data include 12 036 records of 1887 feather mite species located on the flight feathers of 2234 bird species from 147 countries. Feather mites typically located inside quills, on the skin, or on downy body feathers are not included. Data were extracted from 493 published sources dating from 1882 to 2015. Data exploration shows that although most continents and bird families are represented, most bird species remain unexplored for feather mites. Nevertheless, this is the most comprehensive data set available for enabling global macroecological analyses of feather mites and their hosts, such as ecological network analyses. This metadata file outlines the structure of these data and provides primary references for all records used. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.

  9. Evolutionary genomics of miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs) in Brassica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouroz, Faisal; Noreen, Shumaila; Heslop-Harrison, J S

    2015-12-01

    Miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs) are truncated derivatives of autonomous DNA transposons, and are dispersed abundantly in most eukaryotic genomes. We aimed to characterize various MITEs families in Brassica in terms of their presence, sequence characteristics and evolutionary activity. Dot plot analyses involving comparison of homoeologous bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) sequences allowed identification of 15 novel families of mobile MITEs. Of which, 5 were Stowaway-like with TA Target Site Duplications (TSDs), 4 Tourist-like with TAA/TTA TSDs, 5 Mutator-like with 9-10 bp TSDs and 1 novel MITE (BoXMITE1) flanked by 3 bp TSDs. Our data suggested that there are about 30,000 MITE-related sequences in Brassica rapa and B. oleracea genomes. In situ hybridization showed one abundant family was dispersed in the A-genome, while another was located near 45S rDNA sites. PCR analysis using primers flanking sequences of MITE elements detected MITE insertion polymorphisms between and within the three Brassica (AA, BB, CC) genomes, with many insertions being specific to single genomes and others showing evidence of more recent evolutionary insertions. Our BAC sequence comparison strategy enables identification of evolutionarily active MITEs with no prior knowledge of MITE sequences. The details of MITE families reported in Brassica enable their identification, characterization and annotation. Insertion polymorphisms of MITEs and their transposition activity indicated important mechanism of genome evolution and diversification. MITE families derived from known Mariner, Harbinger and Mutator DNA transposons were discovered, as well as some novel structures. The identification of Brassica MITEs will have broad applications in Brassica genomics, breeding, hybridization and phylogeny through their use as DNA markers.

  10. Air-conditioner filters enriching dust mites allergen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Xiaodong; Li, Chaopin; Xu, Haifeng; Xu, Pengfei; Zhu, Haibin; Diao, Jidong; Li, Na; Zhao, Beibei

    2015-01-01

    We detected the concentration of dust mites allergen (Der f1 & Der p1) in the air of different places before and after the starting of air-conditioners in Wuhu City, Anhui, China, and to discuss the relation between the dust mites allergen in air-conditioner filters and the asthma attack. The dust samples were collected from the air-conditioner filters in dining rooms, shopping malls, hotels and households respectively. Concentrations of dust mites major group allergen 1 (Der f 1, Der p1) were detected with enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and the dust mite immune activities were determined by dot-ELISA. The concentration of Der f1 in dining rooms, shopping malls, hotels and households was 1.52 μg/g, 1.24 μg/g, 1.31 μg/g and 1.46 μg/g respectively, and the concentration of Der p1 in above-mentioned places was 1.23 μg/g, 1.12 μg/g, 1.16 μg/g and 1.18 μg/g respectively. The concentration of Der f1 & Der p1 in air was higher after the air-conditioners starting one hours later, and the difference was significant (Pair-conditioner filters can enrich dust mites major group allergen, and the allergens can induce asthma. The air-conditioner filters shall be cleaned or replaced regularly to prevent or reduce accumulation of the dust mites and its allergens.

  11. Cleaner mites: sanitary mutualism in the miniature ecosystem of neotropical bee nests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biani, Natalia B; Mueller, Ulrich G; Wcislo, William T

    2009-06-01

    Cleaning symbioses represent classic models of mutualism, and some bee mites are thought to perform cleaning services for their hosts in exchange for suitable environments for reproduction and dispersal. These mutual benefits, however, have not been rigorously demonstrated. We tested the sanitary role of bee mites by correlating mite loads with fungal contamination in natural nests of Megalopta genalis and Megalopta ecuadoria and by experimentally manipulating mite loads in artificial cells with developing brood. Field observations revealed significant correlations between the presence of mites and the absence of fungi inside the brood cells, as well as between the absence of mites and increased bee mortality. Likewise, experimental brood cells with mites have fewer fungal colonies than do cells without mites. Field observations and experimental manipulations, therefore, provide clear evidence of the sanitary effect of mites in nests of Megalopta bees. This bee-mite association constitutes one of the few examples of terrestrial cleaning mutualisms.

  12. Actualización de los límites críticos del intervalo hídrico óptimo Review of the critical limits of the optimal hydric interval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Angel PIlatti

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available El Intervalo Hídrico Óptimo (IHO es la fracción de agua edáfica fácilmente utilizable por los cultivos, durante la cual el suelo puede ser penetrado por las raíces sin mayor resistencia y la aeración no limita la respiración radical. En este trabajo se discuten los límites superior e inferior del IHO. El primero es èCC -agua retenida en capacidad de campo- si garantiza una aceptable capacidad de aire (èa; de lo contrario, el límite se alcanza cuando èa no restringe la respiración radical. El límite inferior queda determinado por la variable de mayor valor entre èRP (contenido hídrico edáfico por debajo del cual las raíces restringen su crecimiento, y èFU (agua fácilmente utilizable por debajo del cual comienza el estrés hídrico. Se analiza y discute la validez de los límites, y las dificultades metodológicas que implican sus determinaciones. Se comparan valores del IHO obtenidos por otros autores, que utilizaron diferentes límites, con los calculados con los límites críticos aquí propuestos. Cada situación agronómica (combinación de suelos, clima, cultivo requiere valores particulares de IHO que deberán ser determinados para cada región. Para el norte de la Región Pampeana (Argentina y sus cultivos habituales proponemos los siguientes valores críticos: èCC = contenido hídrico a -10 kPa; èa = 15%; èRP = 2,5 a 6 MPa (según el porcentaje de arcilla y èFU = -0,17 MPa.The Optimal Hydric Interval (IHO is the interval of easily available soil water for the crops, during which soil resistance and aeration do not limit root growth. In this paper, the upper and lower limits of the IHO are discussed. The upper limit is èCC (soil water content at field capacity when air capacity (èa is not restrictive for root respiration; otherwise, the limit is èa. The lower limit is determined by the variable of greater value between èRP (soil water content at which soil resistance reduces root elongation and èFU (soil water

  13. Three Species of Ectoparasite Mites (Acari: Pterygosomatidae Infested Geckos in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TARUNI SRI PRAWASTI

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Limited data is hitherto available on the diversity and dispersal of parasitic mites of geckos in Indonesia. Here, we collected three species of geckos, namely Cosymbotus platyurus, Hemidactylus frenatus, and H. garnotii throughout Indonesia to study the distribution and diversity of its parasitic mites. We conducted detail morphological analysis of the mites using whole mount polyvinyl lactophenol and scanning electron microscope preparation. Three species of ectoparasite mites from genus Geckobia were identified in a total of 221 individuals out of 448 geckos collected from 25 sites in Indonesia. Two species were G. glebosum and G. bataviensis, and the other one was designated as Geckobia sp 1. Based on our result, the three mites species were spread randomly and live sympatrically. The G. bataviensis mite showed the widest distribution, because it was found in almost all gecko collection sites, hence the most cosmopolitan mites. We also found that C. platyurus gecko had the lowest mite prevalence which might due to the fact that it has the least number of skin folds, an important site for mite protection. This result implies that further research on the relationship of anatomy of gecko skin with chelicera and claw structure of mites is necessary in the future.

  14. Ecological Factors Determining Abundance of Parasitic Mites on Aedes spp. Larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurhadi Eko Firmansyah

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Ability to infestation and abundance of parasitic mites in Aedes spp. larvae cannot be separated from the influence of various factors. Ecological factors have been suggested to play a role determine the presence of parasitic mites that under certain conditions become a key factor in determining the abundance of parasitic mites on Aedes spp. larvae. The aim of this study to determine the ecological factors affect the abundance of parasitic mites on Aedes spp. larvae in Bogor Regency. Capturing of Aedes spp. larvae was performed directly on the habitats found in indoor and outdoor. Capturing mites in the body of Aedes spp. larvae was performed using insect forceps. Ecological factors measured were dissolved oxygen (DO, pH, temperature, and total dissolved solid (TDS. The influence of ecological factors was analyzed using regression and correlation analysis. The result of mite identification has been obtained three species of mites that are Halacarus sp., Histiostoma sp., and Hydrozetes sp. The result indicated that total dissolved solid (TDS and temperature was the factors that determined the abundance of mites. The factors of pH, and dissolved oxygen (DO did not determine the abundance of parasitic mites of Aedes spp. larvae. The research result can be further developed as a new alternative to Dengue Hemorraghic Fever control and provide information on parasitic mites that infest Aedes spp. larvae. In addition, this results become an early step in controlling of Aedes spp. strategy platform by the parasitic mites.

  15. The acaricidal speed of kill of orally administered fluralaner against poultry red mites (Dermanyssus gallinae) on laying hens and its impact on mite reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauneis, Maria D; Zoller, Hartmut; Williams, Heike; Zschiesche, Eva; Heckeroth, Anja R

    2017-12-02

    Dermanyssus gallinae, the poultry red mite, is a growing threat to chickens in poultry farms. This nocturnal hematophagous ectoparasite has a rapid rate of proliferation with a negative impact on the birds' health, welfare and productivity resulting in severe economic consequences for poultry farmers. A study was performed with fluralaner, a novel systemic ectoparasiticide, to evaluate its effect on mite vitality and reproduction after oral administration to laying hens. Sixteen healthy hens were randomly allocated to two study groups (n = 8). One group was orally treated with fluralaner by gavage at a dose of 0.5 mg/kg bodyweight twice 7 days apart. The negative control group received no treatment. Hens in each group were repeatedly infested with approximately 200 unfed adult D. gallinae at 1, 5, 8, 12, 15, 19, 22 and 26 days after the initial administration. After infestation and feeding for 2.5 h, 25 engorged mites per hen were collected and incubated in tubes. Mites were assessed for vitality (dead/live) at 4, 8, 12, and 24 h after each infestation. Tubes containing eggs and/or living mites were incubated another 8 days for assessment of mite reproductive capacity. Fluralaner demonstrated a fast speed of kill in mites within 4 h post-infestation for 12 days after treatment initiation. An efficacy (mite mortality) of 98.7-100% was achieved. At 15 days after treatment initiation, 100% efficacy was achieved within 24 h post-infestation, and no mite oviposition occurred during this period. Nineteen days after treatment initiation, the mites' ability to generate nymphs was reduced by 90.8%, which decreased to < 24.1% at later infestations. Fluralaner administered orally to hens twice, 7 days apart, provides efficacy against experimental poultry red mite infestation for at least 2 weeks. The demonstrated rapid speed of kill results in substantial depletion of the mites' oviposition and suggests that fluralaner can be an effective tool in the control

  16. Differential water mite parasitism, phenoloxidase activity, and resistance to mites are unrelated across pairs of related damselfly species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia J Mlynarek

    Full Text Available Related host species often demonstrate differences in prevalence and/or intensity of infection by particular parasite species, as well as different levels of resistance to those parasites. The mechanisms underlying this interspecific variation in parasitism and resistance expression are not well understood. Surprisingly, few researchers have assessed relations between actual levels of parasitism and resistance to parasites seen in nature across multiple host species. The main goal of this study was to determine whether interspecific variation in resistance against ectoparasitic larval water mites either was predictive of interspecific variation in parasitism for ten closely related species of damselflies (grouped into five "species pairs", or was predicted by interspecific variation in a commonly used measure of innate immunity (total Phenoloxidase or potential PO activity. Two of five species pairs had interspecific differences in proportions of individuals resisting larval Arrenurus water mites, only one of five species pairs had species differences in prevalence of larval Arrenurus water mites, and another two of five species pairs showed species differences in mean PO activity. Within the two species pairs where species differed in proportion of individuals resisting mites the species with the higher proportion did not have correspondingly higher PO activity levels. Furthermore, the proportion of individuals resisting mites mirrored prevalence of parasitism in only one species pair. There was no interspecific variation in median intensity of mite infestation within any species pair. We conclude that a species' relative ability to resist particular parasites does not explain interspecific variation in parasitism within species pairs and that neither resistance nor parasitism is reflected by interspecific variation in total PO or potential PO activity.

  17. Does the removal of mite-infested brood facilitate grooming?

    Science.gov (United States)

    The relationship between the removal of mite-infested brood and mite drop was compared using Russian (RHB, n = 9) and Italian (IHB, n = 9) honey bee colonies. A cloake board was used to isolate test brood frame on the top hive body and the metal sheet served as a varroa trap. Inoculum mites were col...

  18. Pheromonal Communication in the European House Dust Mite, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes L.M. Steidle

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite the sanitary importance of the European house dust mite Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Trouessart, 1897, the pheromonal communication in this species has not been sufficiently studied. Headspace analysis using solid phase micro extraction (SPME revealed that nerol, neryl formate, pentadecane, (6Z,9Z-6,9-heptadecadiene, and (Z-8-heptadecene are released by both sexes whereas neryl propionate was released by males only. Tritonymphs did not produce any detectable volatiles. In olfactometer experiments, pentadecane and neryl propionate were attractive to both sexes as well as to tritonymphs. (Z-8-heptadecene was only attractive to male mites. Therefore it is discussed that pentadecane and neryl propionate are aggregation pheromones and (Z-8-heptadecene is a sexual pheromone of the European house dust mite D. pteronyssinus. To study the potential use of pheromones in dust mite control, long-range olfactometer experiments were conducted showing that mites can be attracted to neryl propionate over distances of at least 50 cm. This indicates that mite pheromones might be useable to monitor the presence or absence of mites in the context of control strategies.

  19. Domatia reduce larval cannibalism in predatory mites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferreira, J.A.M.; Eshuis, B.; Janssen, A.; Sabelis, M.W.

    2008-01-01

    1. Acarodomatia are small structures on the underside of leaves of many plant species, which are mainly inhabited by carnivorous and fungivorous mites. 2. Domatia are thought to protect these mites against adverse environmental conditions and against predation. They are considered as an indirect

  20. Respiratory allergy caused by house dust mites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calderón, Moisés A; Linneberg, Allan; Kleine-Tebbe, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    consequences in patients with respiratory allergic diseases. We investigate the epidemiology of HDM allergy to explore the interaction between mites and human subjects at the population, individual, and molecular levels. Core and recent publications were identified by using "house dust mite" as a key search...

  1. Interactions between natural enemies: Effect of a predatory mite on transmission of the fungus Neozygites floridana in two-spotted spider mite populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trandem, Nina; Berdinesen, Ronny; Pell, Judith K; Klingen, Ingeborg

    2016-02-01

    Introducing the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis into two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, populations significantly increased the proportion of T. urticae infected with the spider mite pathogen Neozygites floridana in one of two experiments. By the final sampling occasion, the number of T. urticae in the treatment with both the predator and the pathogen had declined to zero in both experiments, while in the fungus-only treatment T. urticae populations still persisted (20-40 T. urticae/subsample). Releasing P. persimilis into crops in which N. floridana is naturally present has the potential to improve spider mite control more than through predation alone. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Under the lash: Demodex mites in human diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Lacey, Noreen; Kavanagh, Kevin; Tseng, Scheffer C.G.

    2009-01-01

    Demodex mites, class Arachnida and subclass Acarina, are elongated mites with clear cephalothorax and abdomens, the former with four pairs of legs. There are more than 100 species of Demodex mite, many of which are obligatory commensals of the pilosebaceous unit of mammals including cats, dogs, sheep, cattle, pigs, goats, deer, bats, hamsters, rats and mice. Among them, Demodex canis, which is found ubiquitously in dogs, is the most documented and investigated. In excessive numbers D. canis c...

  3. The management of house dust mite allergies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bronswijk, van J.E.M.H.; Schober, G.; Kniest, F.M.

    1990-01-01

    A safe and practical home sanitation procedure for the removal of house dust mites (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus) and their allergens is described. The severity of mite infestation was assessed with the use of the Acarex test, which measures the concentration of guanine in house dust, and all

  4. Phoretic mites identified on andean hummingbirds (Trochilidae of Caldas, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia López-Orozco

    Full Text Available Within the bird-plant-mite system, the relationship between hummingbirds, flowers, and mites remains poorly understood. In this study, we evaluated the degree of association between nasal mites and eight species of Andean hummingbirds in Colombia (Amazilia saucerrottei,A. tzacatl, Chalybura buffonii,Chlorostilbon mellisugus, Florisuga mellivora, Glaucis hirsutus, Phaethornis guy and P. striigularis. Over a five-month period (trapping effort 360 hours/month, a total of 178 birds were captured, from which 81 mite specimens were collected and identified as belonging to three genera (Proctolaelaps, Rhinoseius andTropicoseius spanning eleven species. This is the first report of its kind from Colombia on the identification of the mite speciesP. rabulatus, R. luteyni, R. rafinskii, T. berryi, T. colwelli, T. erro and T. uniformisand the first record of P. guy as phoretic host forProctolaelaps rabulatus. Morphological characteristics (length of the dorsal plate, width of the dorsal plate and setae z5 length alone failed to distinguish between mite species. The ecologic impact of this relationship on flowers with respect to nectar and pollen availability and the effect of mites on pollination by hummingbirds needs to be determined.

  5. Phoretic mites identified on Andean hummingbirds (Trochilidae) of Caldas, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Orozco, Natalia; Cañón-Franco, William Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Within the bird-plant-mite system, the relationship between hummingbirds, flowers, and mites remains poorly understood. In this study, we evaluated the degree of association between nasal mites and eight species of Andean hummingbirds in Colombia (Amazilia saucerrottei, A. tzacatl, Chalybura buffonii, Chlorostilbon mellisugus, Florisuga mellivora, Glaucis hirsutus, Phaethornis guy and P. striigularis). Over a five-month period (trapping effort 360 hours/month), a total of 178 birds were captured, from which 81 mite specimens were collected and identified as belonging to three genera (Proctolaelaps, Rhinoseius and Tropicoseius) spanning eleven species. This is the first report of its kind from Colombia on the identification of the mite species P. rabulatus, R. luteyni, R. rafinskii, T. berryi, T. colwelli, T. erro and T. uniformis and the first record of P. guy as phoretic host for Proctolaelaps rabulatus. Morphological characteristics (length of the dorsal plate, width of the dorsal plate and setae z5 length) alone failed to distinguish between mite species. The ecologic impact of this relationship on flowers with respect to nectar and pollen availability and the effect of mites on pollination by hummingbirds needs to be determined.

  6. The effects of mountain meadows management on soil fauna communities (on example of earthworms and oribatid mites)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pižl, Václav; Starý, Josef

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 7, - (2001), s. 87-96 ISSN 1211-7420 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/99/1410 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6066911 Keywords : earthworms * oribatid mites * mountain meadows Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  7. Effect of reagins and allergen extracts on radioallergosorbent assays for mite allergen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tovey, E.R.; Vandenberg, R.A.

    1978-01-01

    The reproducibility of the radioallergosorbent (RAST) inhibition and direct binding assays with mite allergen were investigated in the presence of heterogeneous extracts and non-mite sensitive atopic sera. Both contain components similar to potential contaminants which would occur in the assay of mite allergen and dust allergen extracts. The standardized inhibition and direct binding assays employed had a day to day (n = 4) coefficient of variation [(s.d. x 100)/mean] of 15% and 24% respectively. The inhibition assay for mite allergen was reproducible in the presence of protein concentrations of added plant, fungal, arthropod and animal extracts in excess of the protein concentrations that occur under the operational mite assay conditions. The mite inhibition assay was also reproducible in the presence of non-mite allergen extracts, with and without additional sera containing IgE specific for the non0mite allergens. The binding of a constant quantity of mite allergen to the activated solid phase in the direct binding assay was reproducible in the presence of added bovine serum albumin, and of a fungal or arthropod extract, representing the heterogeneous components of an allergen extract at the concentrations of total protein known to occur in the direct binding assay of mite extracts. (author)

  8. Mites and fungi in heavily infested stores in the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubert, J; Stejskal, V; Munzbergová, Z; Kubátová, A; Vánová, M; Zd'árková, E

    2004-12-01

    Toxigenic and allergen-producing fungi represent a serious hazard to human food and animal feed safety. Ninety-four fungal species were isolated from mite-infested samples of seeds taken from Czech seed stores. Fungi were isolated from the surface of four kinds of seeds (wheat, poppy, lettuce, and mustard) and from the gut and external surface of five species of mites (i.e., Acarus siro L., 1758, Caloglyphus rhizoglyphoides (Zachvatkin, 1973), Lepidoglyphus destructor (Schrank, 1781), Tyrophagus putrescentnae (Schrank, 1781) and Cheyletus malaccensis Oudemans 1903) separately. Multivariate analysis of fungi complex composition showed that the frequency of fungal was species significantly influenced by the kind of seed. Fungal frequencies differed between mites gut and exoskeleton surface and between the surfaces of mites and seeds. Three groups of fungal species were recognized: 1) mite surface-associated fungi: Penicillium brevicompactum, Alternaria alternata, and Aspergillus versicolor; 2) mite surface- and seed-associated fungi: Aspergillus niger, Penicillium crustosum, Penicillium aurantiogriseum, Penicillium chrysogenum, and Aspergillus flavus; and 3) seed-associated fungi: Cladosporium herbarum, Mucor dimorphosporus f. dimorphosporus, Botrytis cinerea, Penicillium griseofulvum, and Eurotium repens. Mite-carried species of microfungi are known to produce serious mycotoxins (e.g., aflatoxin B1, cyclopiazonic acid, sterigmatocystin, ochratoxin A, and nephrotoxic glycopeptides) as well as allergen producers (e.g., A. alternata and P. brevicompactum). Storage mites may play an important role in the spread of some medically hazardous micromycetes. In addition, these mite-fungi associations may heighten the risk of occurrence of mycotoxins in food and feed stuffs and cause mixed contamination by fungal and mite allergens.

  9. Age and reproductive status of adult Varroa mites affect grooming success of honey bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirrane, Maria J; de Guzman, Lilia I; Rinderer, Thomas E; Frake, Amanda M; Wagnitz, Jeremy; Whelan, Pádraig M

    2012-12-01

    This study evaluated for the first time the grooming response of honey bees to Varroa mites of different ages and reproductive statuses in the laboratory. Plastic cages containing a section of dark comb and about 200 bees were inoculated with groups of four classes of mites: gravid, phoretic foundresses, phoretic daughters and a combination of gravid and phoretic foundress mites. Each cage received 20 mites belonging to one of these classes. Our results showed that, 1 day after mite inoculation, phoretic daughter mites were the most prone to grooming by honey bees with an average mite drop of 49.8 ± 2.6 %. The lowest mite drop was recorded for bees inoculated with phoretic foundresses (30.3 ± 3.6 %) but was comparable to bees inoculated with gravid mites (31.8 ± 3.8 %) and the combination of gravid and phoretic foundress mites (34.2 ± 3.2 %). No differences among mite types were detected during the second and third days of observation. Regardless of mite type, the highest mite drop was recorded on the first day (35 ± 2.1 %) compared to the drop for any subsequent day (grooming behaviour may increase our insight into the importance of grooming in mite resistance.

  10. First contribution of mites (Acari) to the forensic analysis of hanged corpses: a case study from Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saloña-Bordas, Marta I; Perotti, M Alejandra

    2014-11-01

    This case study from North Spain, highlights the importance of the collection of mites in addition to insects, from crime scenes or corpses subjected to environmental constraints that reduce or minimise insect activity, such as hanged corpses. In addition, this analysis highlights the relevance of arthropods' collection in the field, even after the corpse has been moved away for autopsy. Four species of mites, phoretic on carrion (Silphidae) and rove (Staphylinidae) beetles, complemented and reinforced the autopsy analysis as well as the scarce information provided by insect activity. Poecilochirus carabi Canestrini & Canestrini, 1882 and Poecilochirus (Physoparasitus) davydovae Hyatt, 1980 (Mesostigmata: Parasitidae) were found in association with two Silphidae, Nicrophorus Fabricius, 1775 and Necrodes Leach, 1815, only when sampled in the autopsy room; this is suggestive of host-switching of mites and was likely due to the lack of availability of specific carriers in the field. The interpretation of the activity of Parasitidae mites both in the field and the autopsy room allows a better understanding of the timing and circumstances of decomposition. Phoretic deutonymphs of Pelzneria Scheucher 1957 (Astigmata: Histiostomatidae) were highly abundant, mostly P. crenulata Oudemans, 1909 and are reported for the first time on a Staphylinidae rove beetle, Creophilus maxillosus (L., 1758). Surprisingly, in this case study no Pelzneria were associated with the Silphidae found, which are their most common hosts, such as Necrodes littoralis (L., 1758) and Nicrophorus interruptus (Stephens, 1830). All histiostomatids were removed from the staphylinid (rove beetle) collected from the soil, at the scene of death, suggesting a recent arrival of the beetle. The occurrence of Staphylinidae beetles and their associated mites, such as Parasitidae and Pelzneria, and the information they provided would have been easily overlooked or lost if only the autopsy sampling would have been

  11. Sensitization to 10 mites in a tropic area. Der p and Der f are important risk factor for sensitization to other mites from Pyroglyphidae, Acaridae, Chortoglyphidae, and Glyciphagidae families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Sánchez

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Much is known about the frequency of sensitization to Blomia tropicalis, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and Dermatophagoides farinae, although less is known about sensitization to other species and their possible interactions. Objective: In patients with allergic manifestations, to evaluate the frequency of sensitization to 10 species of mites in a tropical area and their possible interactions. Methods: Cross-sectional study. Sensitization was evaluated by skin tests. A generalized linear Poisson regression model with robust variance was used. Based on the sensitization probability reasons and social networking analysis, explorations of relationship for 10 mites were performed. Results: 147 patients were included. The highest sensitization was found to mites' family Pyroglyphidae (> 70 % and less frequently was the Glycyphagidae family (< 50 %. Sensitization to any mites significantly increased the likelihood of sensitization to others. Sensitization to Der f or Der p increased, more than 20 times the likelihood of sensitization to other mites of the Pyroglyphidae family and more than 10 times to mites from other families. Sensitization to mites from Glycyphagidae, Chortoglyphidae or Acaridae family also increased the risk of sensitization to other mites but less than 5 times. Conclusion: Sensitization to mites is frequent in tropical area. Pyroglyphidae sensitization is the main risk factor for polysensitization with other mites from Glycyphagidae, Chortoglyphidae or Acaridae. These results must be considered at diagnosis and treatment of allergy diseases.

  12. House-dust mites in our homes are a contamination from outdoor sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallas, Thorkil E

    2010-05-01

    Avoidance advices for house-dust mite sensitized persons are currently based upon the idea, that the mites (Dermatophagoides spp.) are part of the indoor fauna. A closer look at development stages in the house-dust samples shows, however, that only the mites' active stages are present there and that the stages between them, the inactive moulting stages, are absent. Therefore the mites probably do not carry out their life cycles in our dwellings, but are more likely contaminations from the open. Findings of low level concentrations can be explained by mites coming from outdoors and sedimented in accordance with known physical laws. The occasional finding of higher concentrations is the result of synchronized populations of the mites developing outdoors and being passively transported into our homes by wind and dust. The hypothesis explains why we find mites in our homes but nonetheless have no effect of avoidance measures. The verification of the entire hypothesis or part of it may have great impact on the management of the disease house-dust mite allergy.

  13. Under the lash: Demodex mites in human diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, Noreen; Kavanagh, Kevin; Tseng, Scheffer C G

    2009-08-01

    Demodex mites, class Arachnida and subclass Acarina, are elongated mites with clear cephalothorax and abdomens, the former with four pairs of legs. There are more than 100 species of Demodex mite, many of which are obligatory commensals of the pilosebaceous unit of mammals including cats, dogs, sheep, cattle, pigs, goats, deer, bats, hamsters, rats and mice. Among them, Demodex canis, which is found ubiquitously in dogs, is the most documented and investigated. In excessive numbers D. canis causes the inflammatory disease termed demodicosis (demodectic mange, follicular mange or red mange), which is more common in purebred dogs and has a hereditary predisposition in breeding kennels1. Two distinct Demodex species have been confirmed as the most common ectoparasite in man. The larger Demodex folliculorum, about 0.3-0.4 mm long, is primarily found as a cluster in the hair follicle (Figure 1a), while the smaller Demodex brevis, about 0.2-0.3 mm long with a spindle shape and stubby legs, resides solitarily in the sebaceous gland (Figure 1b). These two species are also ubiquitously found in all human races without gender preference. The pathogenic role of Demodex mites in veterinary medicine is not as greatly disputed as in human diseases. In this article, we review the key literature and our joint research experience regarding the pathogenic potential of these two mites in causing inflammatory diseases of human skin and eye. We hope that the evidence summarized herein will invite readers to take a different look at the life of Demodex mites in several common human diseases.

  14. Geostatistics as a tool to study mite dispersion in physic nut plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosado, J F; Picanço, M C; Sarmento, R A; Pereira, R M; Pedro-Neto, M; Galdino, T V S; de Sousa Saraiva, A; Erasmo, E A L

    2015-08-01

    Spatial distribution studies in pest management identify the locations where pest attacks on crops are most severe, enabling us to understand and predict the movement of such pests. Studies on the spatial distribution of two mite species, however, are rather scarce. The mites Polyphagotarsonemus latus and Tetranychus bastosi are the major pests affecting physic nut plantations (Jatropha curcas). Therefore, the objective of this study was to measure the spatial distributions of P. latus and T. bastosi in the physic nut plantations. Mite densities were monitored over 2 years in two different plantations. Sample locations were georeferenced. The experimental data were analyzed using geostatistical analyses. The total mite density was found to be higher when only one species was present (T. bastosi). When both the mite species were found in the same plantation, their peak densities occurred at different times. These mites, however, exhibited uniform spatial distribution when found at extreme densities (low or high). However, the mites showed an aggregated distribution in intermediate densities. Mite spatial distribution models were isotropic. Mite colonization commenced at the periphery of the areas under study, whereas the high-density patches extended until they reached 30 m in diameter. This has not been reported for J. curcas plants before.

  15. Morphology of the olfactory system in the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijk, M.; Wadman, W.J.; Sabelis, M.W.

    2006-01-01

    The predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis locates its prey, the two-spotted spider mite, by means of herbivore-induced plant volatiles. The olfactory response to this quantitatively and qualitatively variable source of information is particularly well documented. The mites perform this task with a

  16. Ecology, life history and management of tropilaelaps mites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parasitic mites are the major threat of the Western honey bee, Apis mellifera. For much of the world, Varroa destructor single-handedly inflicts unsurmountable problems to A. mellifera beekeeping. However, A. mellifera in Asia is also faced with another genus of destructive parasitic mite, Tropilae...

  17. Natural biological control of pest mites in Brazilian sun coffee agroecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teodoro, Adenir V; Sarmento, Renato A; Rêgo, Adriano S; da Graça S Maciel, Anilde

    2010-06-01

    Coffee is one of the leading commodities in tropical America. Although plantations are usually established under a canopy of trees in most producing countries in the region, Brazilian coffee is mostly produced under full sun conditions. Such simple, single-crop agroecosystems with intensive agrochemical inputs often suffer with pests like mites. Predatory mites of the family Phytoseiidae are the main natural enemies associated with pest mites in the field. However, these beneficial arthropods struggle to survive in intensive agroecosystems such as coffee monocultures due to unfavorable microclimatic conditions, widespread pesticide use, and lack of alternative food (pollen, nectar). Conservation biological control uses a range of management strategies to sustain and enhance populations of indigenous natural enemies such as predatory mites. We discuss here conservation biological control as a strategy to improve biological control of pest mites by native predatory mites in Brazilian coffee monocultures as well as some related patents.

  18. The effect of antibiotics on associated bacterial community of stored product mites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Kopecky

    Full Text Available Bacteria are associated with the gut, fat bodies and reproductive organs of stored product mites (Acari: Astigmata. The mites are pests due to the production of allergens. Addition of antibiotics to diets can help to characterize the association between mites and bacteria.Ampicillin, neomycin and streptomycin were added to the diets of mites and the effects on mite population growth (Acarus siro, Lepidoglyphus destructor and Tyrophagus putrescentiae and associated bacterial community structure were assessed. Mites were treated by antibiotic supplementation (1 mg g(-1 of diet for 21 days and numbers of mites and bacterial communities were analyzed and compared to the untreated control. Bacterial quantities, determined by real-time PCR, significantly decreased in antibiotic treated specimens from 5 to 30 times in A. siro and T. putrescentiae, while no decline was observed in L. destructor. Streptomycin treatment eliminated Bartonella-like bacteria in the both A. siro and T. putrescentiae and Cardinium in T. putrescentiae. Solitalea-like bacteria proportion increased in the communities of neomycin and streptomycin treated A. siro specimens. Kocuria proportion increased in the bacterial communities of ampicillin and streptomycin treated A. siro and neomycin and streptomycin treated L. destructor.The work demonstrated the changes of mite associated bacterial community under antibiotic pressure in pests of medical importance. Pre-treatment of mites by 1 mg g(-1 antibiotic diets improved mite fitness as indicated accelerated population growth of A. siro pretreated streptomycin and neomycin and L. destructor pretreated by neomycin. All tested antibiotics supplemented to diets caused the decrease of mite growth rate in comparison to the control diet.

  19. Storage mite contamination of commercial dry dog food in south-eastern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibberson, C E; Vogelnest, L J

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate contamination of unopened and opened stored sources of commercial dry dog food by viable storage mites. Prospective laboratory and field study. Samples were collected from nine brands of previously unopened bags (new bags) of dry food and 20 field sources of stored dry food in homes in Sydney and Canberra, Australia. All samples were initially examined for the presence of mites using a stereo-binocular microscope and then placed in separate filter-paper-sealed containers. Field samples were incubated at an average temperature of 29°C and 78% relative humidity (RH) for 5 weeks and then at average 26°C/83% RH for 8 weeks. Paired new-bag samples were stored under room conditions (average 23°C/47% RH) and controlled incubator conditions (average 26°C/80% RH) for 6 weeks. All samples were thoroughly examined for mites, mite eggs and visible mould once weekly using a stereo-binocular microscope. Storage mites were not visualised in any of the field samples or in new-bag samples stored at room temperature. Storage mites, identified as Tyrophagus putrescentiae, were visualised in increasing numbers in seven of nine new-bag samples after incubation, with first mites and then eggs evident after 3 weeks of incubation. We confirmed the presence of viable storage mites in a range of previously unopened commercial dry dog foods in Australia and confirmed the possibility of heavy storage mite contamination for dry food stored under conditions of moderate temperature and high humidity. These findings have relevance to storage mite and/or dust mite sensitivity in canine atopic dermatitis. © 2014 Australian Veterinary Association.

  20. Impact of agricultural practices on selected soil decomposers fauna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdalatif, M. A.; Alrayah, A.; Azar, W. Z.

    2009-01-01

    Soil decomposers fauna i.e. collembolan, mites and nematodes were studied and compared between and within sites in relation to site, treatment and time of collection in Shambat arable and El Rwakeeb dry land. Comparison of results between sites showed that population density/volume of decomposers fauna sampled from Shambat site exceeded their assemblages sampled from El Rawakeeb site. Treatment application in form of cattle manure and neem leaves powder were observed to induce insignificant changes in the three faunal groups between the two sites. Temporal variations showed significant annual variations and insignificant seasonal variations between the two sites. Within each site, population density/volume of each of collembolan, mites and nematodes increased in response to cattle manure application in both sites. Whereas, neem leaves powder application induced a significant decrease in population density/volume of collembola in both sites. These results are generally attributed to variability of soil properties which may add to the suitability of Shambat soil to El Rawakeeb one for the survival of decomposers fauna. Within each site, increase in population density/volume of these fauna upon cattle manure application was attributed to ability of cattle manure to improve soil properties and to provide food. The negative effect of neem leaves powder on mites and nematodes was attributed to neem toxicity, whereas, its positive effects on collembolan was attributed to the ability of collembolan to withstand neem toxicity, collembolan probably physiologically resistant and the neem powder provided food, thus increasing its numbers compared to the central treatment.(Author)

  1. House-dust mites in our homes are a contamination from outdoor sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallas, Thorkil E.

    2010-01-01

    there and that the stages between them, the inactive moulting stages, are absent. Therefore the mites probably do not carry out their life cycles in our dwellings, but are more likely contaminations from the open. Findings of low level concentrations can be explained by mites coming from outdoors and sedimented......Avoidance advices for house-dust mite sensitized persons are currently based upon the idea, that the mites (Dermatophagoides spp.) are part of the indoor fauna. A closer look at development stages in the house-dust samples shows, however, that only the mites' active stages are present...... no effect of avoidance measures. The verification of the entire hypothesis or part of it may have great impact on the management of the disease house-dust mite allergy....

  2. Resistance of the predacious mite, euseius kenyae (acari ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to assess whether the predacious phytoseiid mite, Euseius kenyae (Swirski and Ragusa), commonly found in major coffee growing regions in Kenya has developed resistance to Chlorpyrifos. Mite populations were collected from coffee farms harbouring E. kenyae and where Chlorpyrifos or other ...

  3. Ubiquity and diversity of human-associated Demodex mites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan S Thoemmes

    Full Text Available Demodex mites are a group of hair follicle and sebaceous gland-dwelling species. The species of these mites found on humans are arguably the animals with which we have the most intimate interactions. Yet, their prevalence and diversity have been poorly explored. Here we use a new molecular method to assess the occurrence of Demodex mites on humans. In addition, we use the 18S rRNA gene (18S rDNA to assess the genetic diversity and evolutionary history of Demodex lineages. Within our samples, 100% of people over 18 years of age appear to host at least one Demodex species, suggesting that Demodex mites may be universal associates of adult humans. A phylogenetic analysis of 18S rDNA reveals intraspecific structure within one of the two named human-associated Demodex species, D. brevis. The D. brevis clade is geographically structured, suggesting that new lineages are likely to be discovered as humans from additional geographic regions are sampled.

  4. Mites (acari) infesting commensal rats in Suez Canal zone, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el Kady, G A; Shoukry, A; Ragheb, D A; el Said, A M; Habib, K S; Morsy, T A

    1995-08-01

    Mites are arthropods distinguished from ticks by usually being microscopical in size and have a hypostome unarmed with tooth-like anchoring processes. They are group in a number of suborders, each with super-families and families including many genera of medical and economic importance. In this paper, commensal rodents (Rattus norvegicus, R. r. alexandrinus and R. r. frugivorous) were surveyed in the Suez Canal Zone for their acari ectoparasites. Four species of mites were recovered. In a descending order of mite indices, they were Eulaelaps stabularis (4.83 on 6 rats), Laelaps nuttalli (3.11 on 27 rats), Ornithonyssus bacoti (1.66 on 9 rats) and Dermanyssus gallinae (0.66 on 24 rats). The overall mite indices in the three governorates were 3.66 in Suez, 2.82 in Ismailia and zero in Port Said. The medical and economic importance of the mites were discussed.

  5. Oribatid mites (.i.Acari: Oribatida./i.) of the Nature Reserve Jelení bučina, Hrubý Jeseník Mts., Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Starý, Josef

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 2 (2005), s. 131-140 ISSN 0323-0627 Grant - others:CHKO Jeseníky(CZ) PPK study - 1g/83/04 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : soil oribatid mites * faunistics * Hrubý Jeseník Mts. Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  6. Weed management practices affect the diversity and relative abundance of physic nut mites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraiva, Althiéris de Sousa; Sarmento, Renato A; Erasmo, Eduardo A L; Pedro-Neto, Marçal; de Souza, Danival José; Teodoro, Adenir V; Silva, Daniella G

    2015-03-01

    Crop management practices determine weed community, which in turn may influence patterns of diversity and abundance of associated arthropods. This study aimed to evaluate whether local weed management practices influence the diversity and relative abundance of phytophagous and predatory mites, as well as mites with undefined feeding habits--of the families Oribatidae and Acaridae--in a physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.) plantation subjected to (1) within-row herbicide spraying and between-row mowing; (2) within-row herbicide spraying and no between-row mowing; (3) within-row weeding and between-row mowing; (4) within-row weeding and no between-row mowing; and (5) unmanaged (control). The herbicide used was glyphosate. Herbicide treatments resulted in higher diversity and relative abundance of predatory mites and mites with undefined feeding habit on physic nut shrubs. This was probably due to the toxic effects of the herbicide on mites or to removal of weeds. Within-row herbicide spraying combined with between-row mowing was the treatment that most contributed to this effect. Our results show that within-row weeds harbor important species of predatory mites and mites with undefined feeding habit. However, the dynamics of such mites in the system can be changed according to the weed management practice applied. Among the predatory mites of the family Phytoseiidae Amblydromalus sp. was the most abundant, whereas Brevipalpus phoenicis was the most frequent phytophagous mite and an unidentified oribatid species was the most frequent mite with undefined feeding habit.

  7. Sarcoptes scabiei mites modulate gene expression in human skin equivalents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjorie S Morgan

    Full Text Available The ectoparasitic mite, Sarcoptes scabiei that burrows in the epidermis of mammalian skin has a long co-evolution with its hosts. Phenotypic studies show that the mites have the ability to modulate cytokine secretion and expression of cell adhesion molecules in cells of the skin and other cells of the innate and adaptive immune systems that may assist the mites to survive in the skin. The purpose of this study was to identify genes in keratinocytes and fibroblasts in human skin equivalents (HSEs that changed expression in response to the burrowing of live scabies mites. Overall, of the more than 25,800 genes measured, 189 genes were up-regulated >2-fold in response to scabies mite burrowing while 152 genes were down-regulated to the same degree. HSEs differentially expressed large numbers of genes that were related to host protective responses including those involved in immune response, defense response, cytokine activity, taxis, response to other organisms, and cell adhesion. Genes for the expression of interleukin-1α (IL-1α precursor, IL-1β, granulocyte/macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF precursor, and G-CSF precursor were up-regulated 2.8- to 7.4-fold, paralleling cytokine secretion profiles. A large number of genes involved in epithelium development and keratinization were also differentially expressed in response to live scabies mites. Thus, these skin cells are directly responding as expected in an inflammatory response to products of the mites and the disruption of the skin's protective barrier caused by burrowing. This suggests that in vivo the interplay among these skin cells and other cell types, including Langerhans cells, dendritic cells, lymphocytes and endothelial cells, is responsible for depressing the host's protective response allowing these mites to survive in the skin.

  8. Sarcoptes scabiei Mites Modulate Gene Expression in Human Skin Equivalents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Marjorie S.; Arlian, Larry G.; Markey, Michael P.

    2013-01-01

    The ectoparasitic mite, Sarcoptes scabiei that burrows in the epidermis of mammalian skin has a long co-evolution with its hosts. Phenotypic studies show that the mites have the ability to modulate cytokine secretion and expression of cell adhesion molecules in cells of the skin and other cells of the innate and adaptive immune systems that may assist the mites to survive in the skin. The purpose of this study was to identify genes in keratinocytes and fibroblasts in human skin equivalents (HSEs) that changed expression in response to the burrowing of live scabies mites. Overall, of the more than 25,800 genes measured, 189 genes were up-regulated >2-fold in response to scabies mite burrowing while 152 genes were down-regulated to the same degree. HSEs differentially expressed large numbers of genes that were related to host protective responses including those involved in immune response, defense response, cytokine activity, taxis, response to other organisms, and cell adhesion. Genes for the expression of interleukin-1α (IL-1α) precursor, IL-1β, granulocyte/macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) precursor, and G-CSF precursor were up-regulated 2.8- to 7.4-fold, paralleling cytokine secretion profiles. A large number of genes involved in epithelium development and keratinization were also differentially expressed in response to live scabies mites. Thus, these skin cells are directly responding as expected in an inflammatory response to products of the mites and the disruption of the skin’s protective barrier caused by burrowing. This suggests that in vivo the interplay among these skin cells and other cell types, including Langerhans cells, dendritic cells, lymphocytes and endothelial cells, is responsible for depressing the host’s protective response allowing these mites to survive in the skin. PMID:23940705

  9. Oribatid mites (Acari: Oribatida) in casts and burrows of an endemic earthworm .i.Dendrobaena mrazeki./i. and in litter of thermophilous oak forests

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Starý, Josef; Pižl, Václav

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 4 (2007), s. 390-397 ISSN 1335-342X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/03/0056 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : soil oribatid mites * earthworms * casts and burrows Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.085, year: 2005

  10. A feeding protocol for delivery of agents to assess development in Varroa mites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana R Cabrera

    Full Text Available A novel feeding protocol for delivery of bio-active agents to Varroa mites was developed by providing mites with honey bee larva hemolymph supplemented with cultured insect cells and selected materials delivered on a fibrous cotton substrate. Mites were starved, fed on treated hemolymph to deliver selected agents and then returned to bee larvae. Transcript levels of two reference genes, actin and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH, as well as for nine selected genes involved in reproductive processes showed that the starvation and feeding protocol periods did not pose a high level of stress to the mites as transcript levels remained comparable between phoretic mites and those completing the protocol. The feeding protocol was used to deliver molecules such as hormone analogs or plasmids. Mites fed with Tebufenozide, an ecdysone analog, had higher transcript levels of shade than untreated or solvent treated mites. In order to extend this feeding protocol, cultured insect cells were incorporated to a final ratio of 1 part cells and 2 parts hemolymph. Although supplementation with Bombyx mori Bm5 cells increased the amount of hemolymph consumed per mite, there was a significant decrease in the percentage of mites that fed and survived. On the other hand, Drosophila melanogaster S2 cells reduced significantly the percentage of mites that fed and survived as well as the amount of hemolymph consumed. The feeding protocol provides a dynamic platform with which to challenge the Varroa mite to establish efficacy of control agents for this devastating honey bee pest.

  11. Contribution to the knowledge of oribatid mites (.i.Acari: Oribatida./i.) from the Malá Kotlina, Hrubý Jeseník Mts., Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Starý, Josef

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 2 (2005), s. 121-130 ISSN 0323-0627 Grant - others:CHKO Jeseníky(CZ) PPK study - 1g/83/04 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : soil oribatid mites * faunistics * Hrubý Jeseník Mts. Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  12. Health effects of predatory beneficial mites and wasps in greenhouses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bælum, Jesper; Enkegaard, Annie; Doekes, Gert

    A three-year study of 579 greenhouse workers in 31 firms investigated the effect of four different beneficial arthropods. It was shown that the thrips mite Amblyseeius cucumeris and the spider mite predator Phytoseiulus persimilis may cause allergy measured by blood tests as well as eye and nose...... symptoms. No effect was seen by the predator wasp Aphidius colemani nor the predator mite Hypoaspis miles and no effect on lung diseases were seen....

  13. MITEE: A Compact Ultralight Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Engine for Planetary Science Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, J.; Maise, G.; Paniagua, J.

    2001-01-01

    A new approach for a near-term compact, ultralight nuclear thermal propulsion engine, termed MITEE (Miniature Reactor Engine) is described. MITEE enables a wide range of new and unique planetary science missions that are not possible with chemical rockets. With U-235 nuclear fuel and hydrogen propellant the baseline MITEE engine achieves a specific impulse of approximately 1000 seconds, a thrust of 28,000 newtons, and a total mass of only 140 kilograms, including reactor, controls, and turbo-pump. Using higher performance nuclear fuels like U-233, engine mass can be reduced to as little as 80 kg. Using MITEE, V additions of 20 km/s for missions to outer planets are possible compared to only 10 km/s for H2/O2 engines. The much greater V with MITEE enables much faster trips to the outer planets, e.g., two years to Jupiter, three years to Saturn, and five years to Pluto, without needing multiple planetary gravity assists. Moreover, MITEE can utilize in-situ resources to further extend mission V. One example of a very attractive, unique mission enabled by MITEE is the exploration of a possible subsurface ocean on Europa and the return of samples to Earth. Using MITEE, a spacecraft would land on Europa after a two-year trip from Earth orbit and deploy a small nuclear heated probe that would melt down through its ice sheet. The probe would then convert to a submersible and travel through the ocean collecting samples. After a few months, the probe would melt its way back up to the MITEE lander, which would have replenished its hydrogen propellant by melting and electrolyzing Europa surface ice. The spacecraft would then return to Earth. Total mission time is only five years, starting from departure from Earth orbit. Other unique missions include Neptune and Pluto orbiter, and even a Pluto sample return. MITEE uses the cermet Tungsten-UO2 fuel developed in the 1960's for the 710 reactor program. The W-UO2 fuel has demonstrated capability to operate in 3000 K hydrogen for

  14. The residual and direct effects of reduced-risk and conventional miticides on twospotted spider mites, Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) and predatory mites (Acari: Phytoseiidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liburd, O.E.; White, J.C.; Rhodes, E.M.; Browdy, A.A.

    2007-01-01

    The residual effects of several reduced-risk and conventional miticides were evaluated in strawberries (Fragaria × ananassa Duchesne) on the twospotted spider mite (TSSM), Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) and on 2 predatory mites, Neoseiulus californicus McGregor and Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot (Acari: Phytoseiidae). Experiments were conducted in the laboratory and greenhouse. The greenhouse experiments also tested the direct effects of the miticides on TSSM. The efficacy of conventional and reduced-risk miticides was evaluated on strawberry leaf discs and on whole plants for control of TSSM. Furthermore, the residual effects of these miticides were evaluated on whole strawberry plants against selective predatory mites. For TSSM, 5 treatments were evaluated: a conventional miticide; fenbutatin-oxide (Vendex[reg]) and 3 reduced-risk miticides; binfenazate (Acramite 50WP[reg]), activated garlic extract (Repel[reg]), sesame seed and castor oil (Wipeout[reg]), and a water-treated control. For predatory mites, the residual effects of only Acramite[reg] and Vendex[reg] were evaluated. Acramite[reg] was the most effective acaricide in reducing TSSM populations in both the laboratory and greenhouse experiments. Vendex[reg] and Wipeout[reg] were also effective in the laboratory, but did not cause significant reduction of TSSM in the greenhouse. Repel[reg] was the least effective of the 4 pesticides evaluated. Neither Acramite[reg] nor Vendex[reg] had a significant effect on either predatory mite species. However, there appeared to be more predatory mites on the Vendex[reg]-treated plants than on the Acramite[reg]-treated plants. There were significantly more predatory mites of both species on the cue plants, which were inoculated with TSSM versus the non-cue plants, which were not inoculated. (author) [es

  15. Host preference of the sheep scab mite, Psoroptes ovis : short communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Meintjies

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Sheep scab mites, Psoroptes ovis, collected from a Merino donor sheep, were used to infest Merino and Dorper sheep, and Angora and Boer goats. Mites were placed on the sheep on 1 or 2 occasions and on 5 occasions on the goats. All the animals were examined at regular intervals for the presence of scab lesions and living mites. Both sheep breeds developed lesions, but those on the Merino sheep were always larger than those on the Dorper sheep at the same intervals after infestation. None of the goats developed lesions or showed signs of irritation, or harboured any mites.

  16. Invasion of Varroa mites into honey bee brood cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, W.J.

    1995-01-01

    The parasitic mite Varroa-jacobsoni is one of the most serious pests of Western honey bees, Apis mellifera. The mites parasitize adult bees, but reproduction only occurs while parasitizing on honey bee brood. Invasion into a

  17. New approach for the study of mite reproduction: The first transcriptome analysis of a mite, Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari: Phytoseiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Ana R; Donohue, Kevin V; Khalil, Sayed M S; Scholl, Elizabeth; Opperman, Charles; Sonenshine, Daniel E; Roe, R Michael

    2011-01-01

    Many species of mites and ticks are of agricultural and medical importance. Much can be learned from the study of transcriptomes of acarines which can generate DNA-sequence information of potential target genes for the control of acarine pests. High throughput transcriptome sequencing can also yield sequences of genes critical during physiological processes poorly understood in acarines, i.e., the regulation of female reproduction in mites. The predatory mite, Phytoseiulus persimilis, was selected to conduct a transcriptome analysis using 454 pyrosequencing. The objective of this project was to obtain DNA-sequence information of expressed genes from P. persimilis with special interest in sequences corresponding to vitellogenin (Vg) and the vitellogenin receptor (VgR). These genes are critical to the understanding of vitellogenesis, and they will facilitate the study of the regulation of mite female reproduction. A total of 12,556 contiguous sequences (contigs) were assembled with an average size of 935bp. From these sequences, the putative translated peptides of 11 contigs were similar in amino acid sequences to other arthropod Vgs, while 6 were similar to VgRs. We selected some of these sequences to conduct stage-specific expression studies to further determine their function. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Irradiation as a phytosanitary treatment for mites of the specie Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Acari: Acaridae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthur, Valter, E-mail: varthur@cena.usp.b [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Radiobiologia e Ambiente; Mineiro, Jeferson L.C. [Instituto Biologico de Sao Paulo/APTA, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Entomologia Economico

    2009-07-01

    In great populations mites of the specie Tyrophagus putrescentiae can cause damages in stored products. The work had as objective to evaluate the effects of the gamma radiation of the Cobalt-60 to control the mites of the specie T. putrescentiae. The mites were irradiated with doses of 0 (control), 300, 400, 500, 600, 700, 800 Gy, in a source of Cobalt-60 type Gammacell-220, with a dose rate of 0.718 kGy/hour. Each treatment consisted of four repetitions containing 10 mites each, in a total of approximately 40 mites for treatment. The evaluations were daily, being counted the number of mites died, put eggs and emerged larvae. Based on the obtained results it was concluded that the dose sterilizing for the mites of this specie was of 300 Gy. Already the dose of 600 Gy induced the total mortality of the mites after 11 days of the irradiation process. (author)

  19. Candidate predators for biological control of the poultry red mite Dermanyssus gallinae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lesna, I.; Wolfs, P.; Faraji, F.; Roy, L.; Komdeur, J.; Sabelis, M.W.

    2009-01-01

    The poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae, is currently a significant pest in the poultry industry in Europe. Biological control by the introduction of predatory mites is one of the various options for controlling poultry red mites. Here, we present the first results of an attempt to identify

  20. Candidate predators for biological control of the poultry red mite Dermanyssus gallinae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lesna, Izabela; Wolfs, Peter; Faraji, Farid; Roy, Lise; Komdeur, Jan; Sabelis, Maurice W.

    The poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae, is currently a significant pest in the poultry industry in Europe. Biological control by the introduction of predatory mites is one of the various options for controlling poultry red mites. Here, we present the first results of an attempt to identify

  1. A review on the factors affecting mite growth in stored grain commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, D A

    2012-03-01

    A thorough review of the literature has identified the key factors and interactions that affect the growth of mite pests on stored grain commodities. Although many factors influence mite growth, the change and combinations of the physical conditions (temperature, relative humidity and/or moisture content) during the storage period are likely to have the greatest impact, with biological factors (e.g. predators and commodity) playing an important role. There is limited information on the effects of climate change, light, species interactions, local density dependant factors, spread of mycotoxins and action thresholds for mites. A greater understanding of these factors may identify alternative control techniques. The ability to predict mite population dynamics over a range of environmental conditions, both physical and biological, is essential in providing an early warning of mite infestations, advising when appropriate control measures are required and for evaluating control measures. This information may provide a useful aid in predicting and preventing mite population development as part of a risk based decision support system.

  2. Norwegian honey bees surviving Varroa destructor mite infestations by means of natural selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oddie, Melissa A Y; Dahle, Bjørn; Neumann, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Managed, feral and wild populations of European honey bee subspecies, Apis mellifera , are currently facing severe colony losses globally. There is consensus that the ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor , that switched hosts from the Eastern honey bee Apis cerana to the Western honey bee A. mellifera , is a key factor driving these losses. For >20 years, breeding efforts have not produced European honey bee colonies that can survive infestations without the need for mite control. However, at least three populations of European honey bees have developed this ability by means of natural selection and have been surviving for >10 years without mite treatments. Reduced mite reproductive success has been suggested as a key factor explaining this natural survival. Here, we report a managed A. mellifera population in Norway, that has been naturally surviving consistent V. destructor infestations for >17 years. Surviving colonies and local susceptible controls were evaluated for mite infestation levels, mite reproductive success and two potential mechanisms explaining colony survival: grooming of adult worker bees and Varroa Sensitive Hygiene (VSH): adult workers specifically detecting and removing mite-infested brood. Mite infestation levels were significantly lower in surviving colonies and mite reproductive success was reduced by 30% when compared to the controls. No significant differences were found between surviving and control colonies for either grooming or VSH. Our data confirm that reduced mite reproductive success seems to be a key factor for natural survival of infested A. mellifera colonies. However, neither grooming nor VSH seem to explain colony survival. Instead, other behaviors of the adult bees seem to be sufficient to hinder mite reproductive success, because brood for this experiment was taken from susceptible donor colonies only. To mitigate the global impact of V. destructor , we suggest learning more from nature, i.e., identifying the obviously

  3. Norwegian honey bees surviving Varroa destructor mite infestations by means of natural selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa A.Y. Oddie

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Managed, feral and wild populations of European honey bee subspecies, Apis mellifera, are currently facing severe colony losses globally. There is consensus that the ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor, that switched hosts from the Eastern honey bee Apis cerana to the Western honey bee A. mellifera, is a key factor driving these losses. For >20 years, breeding efforts have not produced European honey bee colonies that can survive infestations without the need for mite control. However, at least three populations of European honey bees have developed this ability by means of natural selection and have been surviving for >10 years without mite treatments. Reduced mite reproductive success has been suggested as a key factor explaining this natural survival. Here, we report a managed A. mellifera population in Norway, that has been naturally surviving consistent V. destructor infestations for >17 years. Methods Surviving colonies and local susceptible controls were evaluated for mite infestation levels, mite reproductive success and two potential mechanisms explaining colony survival: grooming of adult worker bees and Varroa Sensitive Hygiene (VSH: adult workers specifically detecting and removing mite-infested brood. Results Mite infestation levels were significantly lower in surviving colonies and mite reproductive success was reduced by 30% when compared to the controls. No significant differences were found between surviving and control colonies for either grooming or VSH. Discussion Our data confirm that reduced mite reproductive success seems to be a key factor for natural survival of infested A. mellifera colonies. However, neither grooming nor VSH seem to explain colony survival. Instead, other behaviors of the adult bees seem to be sufficient to hinder mite reproductive success, because brood for this experiment was taken from susceptible donor colonies only. To mitigate the global impact of V. destructor, we suggest learning

  4. Behaviour of coconut mites preceding take-off to passive aerial dispersal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, J W S; Lima, D B; Sabelis, M W; Pallini, A; Gondim, M G C

    2014-12-01

    For more than three decades the coconut mite Aceria guerreronis Keifer is one of the most important pests of coconut palms and has recently spread to many coconut production areas worldwide. Colonization of coconut palms is thought to arise from mites dispersing aerially after take-off from other plants within the same plantation or other plantations. The underlying dispersal behaviour of the mite at take-off, in the airborne state and after landing is largely unknown and this is essential to understand how they spread from tree to tree. In this article we studied whether take-off to aerial dispersal of coconut mites is preceded by characteristic behaviour, whether there is a correlation between the body position preceding aerial dispersal and the direction of the wind, and whether the substrate (outer surface of coconut bracts or epidermis) and the wind speed matter to the decision to take-off. We found that take-off can sometimes be preceded by a raised body stance, but more frequently take-off occurs while the mite is walking or resting on its substrate. Coconut mites that become airborne assumed a body stance that had no relation to the wind direction. Take-off was suppressed on a substrate providing food to coconut mites, but occurred significantly more frequently on the outer surface of coconut bracts than on the surface of the fruit. For both substrates, take-off frequency increased with wind speed. We conclude that coconut mites have at least some degree of control over take-off for aerial dispersal and that there is as yet no reason to infer that a raised body stance is necessary to become airborne.

  5. Macrodinychus mites as parasitoids of invasive ants: an overlooked parasitic association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachaud, Jean-Paul; Klompen, Hans; Pérez-Lachaud, Gabriela

    2016-07-21

    Mites are frequent ant symbionts, yet the exact nature of their interactions with their hosts is poorly known. Generally, myrmecophilous mites show adaptations for dispersal through phoresis, but species that lack such an adaptation may have evolved unusual specialized relationships with their hosts. The immature stages of Macrodinychus multispinosus develop as ectoparasitoids of pupae of the invasive ant Paratrechina longicornis. Feeding stages show regressed locomotor appendages. These mites complete their development on a single host, sucking all of its body content and therefore killing it. Locally high proportions of parasitized host pupae suggest that M. multispinosus could serve as a biological control agent. This is the ninth species of Macrodinychus reported as ant parasite, and the third known as parasitoid of invasive ants, confirming a unique habit in the evolution of mite feeding strategies and suggesting that the entire genus might be parasitic on ants. Several mites' characteristics, such as their protective morphology, possible viviparity, lack of a specialized stage for phoretic dispersal, and low host specificity, combined with both the general low aggressiveness of invasive P. longicornis towards other ants and its possible susceptibility to generalist ectoparasites would account for the host shift in native macrodinychid mites.

  6. Whole genome amplification of Chelex-extracted DNA from a single mite: a method for studying genetics of the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konakandla, Bhanu; Park, Yoonseong; Margolies, David

    2006-01-01

    We developed and optimized a method using Chelex DNA extraction followed by whole genome amplification (WGA) to overcome problems conducting molecular genetic studies due to the limited amount of DNA obtainable from individual small organisms such as predatory mites. The DNA from a single mite, Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henrot (Acari: Phytoseiidae), isolated in Chelex suspension was subjected to WGA. More than 1000-fold amplification of the DNA was achieved using as little as 0.03 ng genomic DNA template. The DNA obtained by the WGA was used for polymerase chain reaction followed by direct sequencing. From WGA DNA, nuclear DNA intergenic spacers ITS1 and ITS2 and a mitochondrial DNA 12S marker were tested in three different geographical populations of the predatory mite: California, the Netherlands, and Sicily. We found a total of four different alleles of the 12S in the Sicilian population, but no polymorphism was identified in the ITS marker. The combination of Chelex DNA extraction and WGA is thus shown to be a simple and robust technique for examining molecular markers for multiple loci by using individual mites. We conclude that the methods, Chelex extraction of DNA followed by WGA, provide a large quantity of DNA template that can be used for multiple PCR reactions useful for genetic studies requiring the genotypes of individual mites.

  7. The Tropilaelaps mites threat: Observations of their reproductive success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tropilaelaps spp. are more successful parasitic mites of Apis mellifera than Varroa destructor in Asia (Burgett et al., Bee World 64:25-28). We sought explanations to this success by assessing their fecundity on European bees in three short experiments using the mite transfer technique: 1) fecundity...

  8. IPM potentials of microbial pathogens and diseases of mites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Geest, L.P.S.; Ciancio, A.; Mukerji, K.G.

    2010-01-01

    An overview is given of diseases in mites, caused by infectious microorganisms. Many pathogens play an important role in the regulation of natural populations of mite populations and are for this reason subject of research on the feasibility to develop such pathogens to biological control agents.

  9. [Dynamics of infection of Fringilla coelebs chaffinch nestlings with feather mites (Acari: Analgoidea)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mironov, S V; Malyshev, L L

    2002-01-01

    A process of infecting the chaffinch nestlings Fringilla coelebs with three analgoid feather mites, Analges passerinus L., 1758, Monojoubertia microphylla (Robin, 1877), and Pteronyssoides striatus (Robin, 1977), commonly occurred on this bird species was investigated. 15 nests contained totally 65 nestlings, from 2 to 6 individuals in a brood, have been examined from the day of hatching till 11th day. Observations were held in the neighbourhood of the bird banding station "Rybachy" (Russia, Kaliningrad Province) in June of 1982. Number of mites on alive nestlings taken temporarily from their nest was counted by means of binocular lens under the magnification x12.5 and x25. The nestlings receive the mites from the chaffinch female during the night time, when the female sits together with the young birds and heats them. In the condition of this prolonged direct contact the mites migrate from the female onto the nestlings. As it was shown in our study of seasonal dynamics of mites on the chaffinch (Mironov, 2000), the chaffinch female only gives its mites to young generation and looses about three quarter of its mite micropopulation during the nesting period (June), hile in the chaffinch males the number of mites continues to increase during all summer. The infections with three feather mite species happen in the second part of the nestling's stay in the nest. The starting time of this process, its intensity, and sex and age structure of mite micropopulations on the nestlings just before their leaving the nest are different in the mite species examined. These peculiarities of feather mite species are determined by the biology of examined species, and first of all by their morphological characteristic and specialisation to different microhabitats, i.e. certain structural zones of plumage. Pteronyssoides striatus (Pteronyssidae) is rather typical mite specialised to feathers with vanes. In adult birds with completely developed plumage this species occupies the ventral

  10. Association between HLA genes and dust mite sensitivity in a Brazilian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa Lima Caniatti, Marcela Caleffi; Borelli, Sueli Donizete; Guilherme, Ana Lúcia Falavigna; Tsuneto, Luiza Tamie

    2017-02-01

    Type I hypersensitivity, also known as IgE-mediated allergy, is a complex, multifactorial condition whose onset and severity are influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. Mite allergens stimulate the production of humoral response (IgE), especially in children, which is closely involved in atopic asthma and rhinitis. This study aimed to investigate the association between HLA class I (-A, -B, and -C), and HLA class II (-DRB1) genes in individuals sensitive to dust mites (Dermatophagoides farinae, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, or Blomia tropicalis) and mite-insensitive controls. 396 participants were grouped as mite-sensitive and mite-insensitive according to immediate hypersensitivity as determined by skin-prick tests, and to HLA genotyping by polymerase chain reaction-sequence specific oligonucleotide (PCR-SSO). After chi-square heterogeneity testing no significant differences were observed in HLA-A, B, and C genes, except for the HLA-DRB1 locus, which, showed a negative association for DRB1∗04, between mite-sensitive and mite-insensitive individuals. In high resolution, DRB1∗04:11 allele was significantly different from all other results (P=0.0042, OR=0.26, and 95%CI=0.09-0.70). The analysis stratified by etiologic agent confirmed these associations. Our results suggest a possible association between HLA-DRB1 genes and hypersensitivity to dust mites. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Gamma irradiation as a quarantine treatment for spider mites (Acarina: tetranychidae) in horticultural products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatowicz, S.; Banasik-Solgala, K.

    1999-01-01

    The carmine spider mite, Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Boisd.), and the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, are closely related species of tetranychid mites (Acarina, Tetranychidae) that respond to gamma irradiation in a similar way. Eggs of both species exposed to gamma radiation early in embryonic development were considerably more susceptible to irradiation than older eggs. The tolerance of eggs to gamma radiation increased in 3-4-day-old eggs, when eye-spots were formed. Nymphs were more resistant to gamma radiation than eggs and larvae. Deteriorative effects of irradiation treatment were reflected in the immatures by their mortality in subsequent developmental stages. A positive relationship between dosage and the percent egg mortality or the mortality of subsequent stages was usually found when the immature stages were irradiated. The sex ratio of adults developed from irradiated eggs, larvae, and nymphs was affected by the irradiation treatment; the ratio was usually skewed towards males. Irradiation of females resulted in increased mortality, lowered fecundity, reduced egg viability, and sex ratio distortion in their progeny. Two-day-old females of the carmine spider mite and the two-spotted spider mite irradiated with 200 or 300 Gy lived as long as the controls. Mortality occurred after 3 weeks. The number of eggs laid by irradiated females of spider mites was considerably lower than in the control, and it decreased as the absorbed dose increased. The higher the dose of gamma radiation applied to adults of the spider mites (the parental generation, P), the higher the mortality of the F1 mites during their embryonic development. Viability of eggs laid by irradiated females of spider mites mated with irradiated males was significantly reduced. Young females treated with a dose of 0.2 kGy produced 40-50% nonviable eggs, while control mites produced only 6.0-6.6% nonviable eggs. A dose of 0.3 kGy caused high mortality of eggs; 88% and 97% nonviable

  12. Stored product mites (Acari: Astigmata) infesting food in various types of packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubert, Jan; Nesvorna, Marta; Volek, Vlado

    2015-02-01

    From 2008 to 2014, stored product mites have been reported from prepackaged dried food on the market in the Czech Republic. The infestation was by Carpoglyphus lactis (L.) in dried fruits and Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schrank) in dog feed. The infestation is presumably caused by poor protection of the packages. We compared various packaging methods for their resistance to mites using dried apricots and dog feed in laboratory experiments. The trial packages included nine different plastic films, monofilm, duplex and triplex, and one type of plastic cup (ten replicates per packaging type). All packaging materials are available on the Czech market for dried food products. The samples of dried food were professionally packed in a factory and packaged dried apricots were exposed to C. lactis and dog food to T. putrescentiae. After 3 months of exposure, the infestation and mite density of the prepackaged food was assessed. Mites were found to infest six types of packages. Of the packaging types with mites, 1-5 samples were infested and the maximum abundance was 1,900 mites g(-1) of dried food. Mites entered the prepackaged food by faulty sealing. Inadequate sealing is suggested to be the major cause of the emerged infestation of dried food.

  13. House dust mites on skin, clothes, and bedding of atopic dermatitis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teplitsky, Valery; Mumcuoglu, Kosta Y; Babai, Ilan; Dalal, Ilan; Cohen, Rifka; Tanay, Amir

    2008-08-01

    Atopic dermatitis is a common allergic condition in children, often associated with a positive skin reaction to house dust mite allergens. To determine the presence of house dust mites on the skin, clothes, and bedding of patients with atopic dermatitis. Nineteen patients with atopic dermatitis were examined during a 2-year period. Samples from affected and healthy skin surfaces were obtained with adhesive tape, and dust samples from bedding and clothes were collected with a vacuum cleaner at the start of the study and 3-6 weeks later, and examined for the presence of house dust mites. The findings were compared with those of 21 healthy controls. The most common mite species on skin were Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and Dermatophagoides farinae, which were found in nine patients and three controls. The patient group showed a significantly larger percentage of samples with mites than did the control group (34.9% and 7.9%, respectively) (P bedding of patients, or between patients and controls with regard to the number of mites on the clothes and bedding. Patients with atopic dermatitis showed a higher prevalence of mites on their skin than did healthy individuals, which could be involved in allergic sensitization and disease exacerbation.

  14. The predatory mite Neoseiulus womersleyi (Acari: Phytoseiidae) follows extracts of trails left by the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinmen, Tsubasa; Yano, Shuichi; Osakabe, Mh

    2010-10-01

    As it walks, the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) spins a trail of silk threads, that is followed by the predatory mite, Neoseiulus womersleyi Schicha (Acari: Phytoseiidae). Starved adult female N. womersleyi followed T. urticae trails laid down by five T. urticae females but did not follow a trail of one T. urticae female, suggesting that the amount of spun threads and their chemical components should correlate positively with the number of T. urticae individuals. To examine whether chemical components of T. urticae trails are responsible for the predatory mite's trail following, we collected separate T. urticae threads from the exuviae and eggs, and then washed the threads with methanol to separate chemical components from physical attributes of the threads. Female N. womersleyi did not follow T. urticae trails that had been washed with methanol but contained physical residues, but they did follow the direction to which the methanol extracts of the T. urticae trails was applied. These results suggest that the predatory mite follows chemical, not physical, attributes of T. urticae trails.

  15. Disentangling mite predator-prey relationships by multiplex PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Sayas, Consuelo; Pina, Tatiana; Gómez-Martínez, María A; Camañes, Gemma; Ibáñez-Gual, María V; Jaques, Josep A; Hurtado, Mónica A

    2015-11-01

    Gut content analysis using molecular techniques can help elucidate predator-prey relationships in situations in which other methodologies are not feasible, such as in the case of trophic interactions between minute species such as mites. We designed species-specific primers for a mite community occurring in Spanish citrus orchards comprising two herbivores, the Tetranychidae Tetranychus urticae and Panonychus citri, and six predatory mites belonging to the Phytoseiidae family; these predatory mites are considered to be these herbivores' main biological control agents. These primers were successfully multiplexed in a single PCR to test the range of predators feeding on each of the two prey species. We estimated prey DNA detectability success over time (DS50), which depended on the predator-prey combination and ranged from 0.2 to 18 h. These values were further used to weight prey detection in field samples to disentangle the predatory role played by the most abundant predators (i.e. Euseius stipulatus and Phytoseiulus persimilis). The corrected predation value for E. stipulatus was significantly higher than for P. persimilis. However, because this 1.5-fold difference was less than that observed regarding their sevenfold difference in abundance, we conclude that P. persimilis is the most effective predator in the system; it preyed on tetranychids almost five times more frequently than E. stipulatus did. The present results demonstrate that molecular tools are appropriate to unravel predator-prey interactions in tiny species such as mites, which include important agricultural pests and their predators. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. STUDY OF ACAROID MITES POLLUTION IN STORED FRUIT-DERIVED CHINESE MEDICINAL MATERIALS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Li-fa; Li, He-xia; Xu, Peng-fei; Xu, Hai-feng; Li, Chao-pin

    2015-08-01

    to investigate the species and breeding density of acaroid mites in stored fruit-derived Chinese medicinal materials in Anhui province. samples of stored fruit-derived Chinese medicinal materials were collected from 30 herb stores and storehouses in 17 Anhui cities, where the breeding acaroids mites were detected. 20 species of acaroids mites were found in 33 samples, belonging to 15 genus, 5 families of the acaridae respectively, among which T. putrescentiae, A. farinae, C. lactis, and C. berlesei are predominant species. stored fruit-derived Chinese medicinal materials in Anhui areas suffer from serious acaroid mites pollution. Therefore, proactive measures should be taken to control acaroid mites from breeding in an effort to reduce the harm on medicinal materials. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  17. Species diversity of phytoseiid mites on different ecosystems in Sari district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Omidi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Mites of the Phytoseiidae family have been extensively studied as biological control agents of different mites and insect pests. Some species also feed on nematodes, fungal spores, pollen and exudates from plants and insects. About 2,300 phytoseiid species belonging to 90 genera have been described in this family (Chant and McMurtry 2007. Considerable efforts have been made in recent years to the collection and identification of the predaceous phytoseiid mites in Iran (Rahmani et al. 2010. Despite some studies on phytoseiid mites in Iran, our knowledge remains limited about their fauna and diversity in Mazandaran province. The data of these studies showed that until recently, only 75 species were reported from Iran. The objective of this study was to evaluate the species diversity of Phytoseiidae and access to effective predatory mites for biological control of injurious mite pests in Sari, the center of Mazandaran province (Southern coast of the Caspian Sea, 35 ° 47'-36 ° 35' N, 50 ° 34'-54 ° 10' E Materials and methods Samples were taken from 80 plant species belonging to 46 plant families including forest trees, orchards and farm crops representing three types of ecosystems from September 2011 to October 2012. Harvested samples of each plant were separately collected in plastic bags and labeled with region and date of collection. The bags were transported to the laboratory on the same day and stored in a refrigerator at about 4°C for up to a week, until the materials washed for mite extraction. Samples were composed of leaves, stems and shoots of different ages and the number of leaves per sample varied between plant species. In order to assimilate the samples, a volume nearly equal mass of each sample were put in a two-liter water container. The mites were floated on water by adding 1.5 liters of tap water and a few droplets of detergent. The plant leaves and shoots were shaken for several times until the mites fall from

  18. Ectoparasitic chigger mites on large oriental vole (Eothenomys miletus) across southwest, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Pei-Ying; Guo, Xian-Guo; Song, Wen-Yu; Hou, Peng; Zou, Yun-Ji; Fan, Rong

    2016-02-01

    An investigation of chigger mites on the large oriental vole, Eothenomys miletus (Rodentia: Cricetidae), was conducted between 2001 and 2013 at 39 localities across southwest China, and 2463 individuals of the vole hosts were captured and examined, which is a big host sample size. From the body surface of E. miletus, 49,850 individuals of chigger mites were collected, and they were identified as comprising 175 species, 13 genera, and 3 subfamilies in 2 families (Trombiculidae and Leeuwenhoekiidae). The 175 species of chigger mites from such a single rodent species (E. miletus) within a certain region (southwest China) extremely exceeded all the species of chigger mites previously recorded from multiple species of hosts in a wide region or a whole country in some other countries, and this suggests that E. miletus has a great potential to harbor abundant species of chigger mites on its body surface. Of 175 mite species, Leptotrombidium scutellare was the most dominant species, which has been proved as one of the main vectors of scrub typhus and the potential vector of haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in China. The patchiness index (m*/m) was used to measure the spatial patterns of the dominant chigger mite species, and all the three dominant mite species (L. scutellare, Leptotrombidium sinicum, and Helenicula simena) showed aggregated distributions among the different host individuals. The coefficient of association (V) was adopted to measure the interspecies interaction between the dominant mite species and a slightly positive association existed between L. scutellare and L. sinicum (V = 0.28, P size over a wide realm of geographical regions is needed in the field investigation in order to obtain a true picture of species diversity and species composition.

  19. Higher glandular trichome density in tomato leaflets and repellence to spider mites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maluf, Wilson Roberto; Inoue, Irene Fumi; Ferreira, Raphael de Paula Duarte; Gomes, Luiz Antonio Augusto; Castro, Evaristo Mauro de; Cardoso, Maria das Gracas

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the feasibility of selection for higher glandular trichome densities, as an indirect criterion of selection for increasing repellence to spider mites Tetranychus urticae, in tomato populations derived from an interspecific cross between Lycopersicon esculentum x L. hirsutum var. glabratum PI 134417. Trichome densities were evaluated in 19 genotypes, including 12 from advanced backcross populations, derived from the original cross L. esculentum x L. hirsutum var. glabratum PI 134417. Counts were made both on the adaxial and abaxial leaf surfaces, and trichomes were classified into glandular types IV and VI, other glandular types (types I+VII), and nonglandular types. Mite repellence was measured by distances walked by mites onto the tomato leaf surface after 20, 40 and 60 min. Spider mite repellence biotests indicated that higher densities of glandular trichomes (especially type VI) decreased the distances walked by the mites onto the tomato leaf surface. Selection of plants with higher densities of glandular trichomes can be an efficient criterion to obtain tomato genotypes with higher resistance (repellence) to spider mites. (author)

  20. Sensitization of children in the Stockholm area to house dust mites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordvall, S L; Eriksson, M; Rylander, E; Schwartz, B

    1988-09-01

    Atopic sensitization of children in the Stockholm area to house dust mites (HDM) was investigated in a case-control study. Sixty children with and 60 without positive skin prick tests for HDM were matched for age and sex. HDM-sensitized children had previously more often lived in other areas known to be mite infested than the control children. Sensitization to mites was related to dampness in the homes, but no significant relationship was found to the type of residence, frequent visits to a summer house in the archipelago or parental smoking. Dust samples from mattresses of the children with the strongest positive reactions to mites in skin prick tests and the respective controls were subjected to an enzyme immunoassay, to measure the content of the major allergens of the Dermatophagoides (D.) species D. pterinyssinus, D. farinae and D. microceras. Mattress dust samples from the beds of HDM-sensitized children contained significantly higher HDM antigen concentrations than those from the beds of controls. Private houses contained significantly more HDM antigens than flats and 10 of 11 homes in which a dampness problem was recognized contained mite antigens. It is postulated that mite infestation is increasing in the area, energy-saving measures creating improved conditions for HDM survival.

  1. Child car seats – a habitat for house dust mites and reservoir for harmful allergens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Clarke

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available [b]Introduction and objective[/b]. House dust mites produce allergens which can cause or aggravate diseases such as asthma, eczema and rhinitis. The objectives of this study are to quantify typical house dust mite and Der p 1 allergen levels in child car seats, and to determine external variables that may influence mite populations in cars. [b]Materials and Methods[/b]. Dust samples were collected from the child car seats and driver seats of 106 cars using a portable vacuum sampling pump over a two minute sampling period. Mites were counted and identified and results were expressed as mites per gram (mites/g of dust, while Der p 1 content of samples were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Questionnaires were completed by participants to identify environmental and behavioural effects on mite populations. Results were analysed using General Linear Model (GLM procedures. [b]Results[/b]. Twelve species of mites, of which nine are known to produce harmful allergens, were recorded from 212 dust samples. Over 80% of drivers’ seats and over 77% of child car seats harboured dust mites with a significant correlation (p = 0.001 between the mites/g of dust and Der p 1 content recovered from each seat. A mean of 53 mites/g of dust per seat was recovered, with a mean Der p 1 level of 1.1µg/g. Over 12% of driver seats and 15% of child car seats contained house dust mite levels sufficient to be risk factors for sensitisation and allergic reactions. [b]Conclusions[/b]. Child car seats and driver seats are habitats to a range of mite species which can be present in sufficient concentrations to cause or aggravate allergen related illnesses in individuals who are genetically predisposed.

  2. Mite diversity on plants of different families found in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, Tatiane M.M.G. de; Moraes, Gilberto J. de

    2007-01-01

    This work reports the occurrence of mites predominantly predatory, phytophagous and with varied feeding habits on plants of the Atlantic Forest vegetation type of the State of Sao Paulo. The objective was to estimate the possible role of the Atlantic Forest vegetation as reservoir of these groups of mites which are also found on plants of agricultural importance. Samples were taken from 187 plant species belonging to 73 families in three vegetation types of the Atlantic Forest from February of 2001 to October of 2002. A total of 2,887 mites belonging to 163 morpho-species of 16 families were collected. Mite diversity was high, especially of predatory mites; these corresponded to 1,562 specimens of 92 morpho-species. Within this group, Phytoseiidae comprised 71% of the specimens and 62% of the morpho-species. Phytophagous mites comprised 836 specimens of 36 morpho-species. Within this group, Tenuipalpidae comprised the larger proportion of specimens (61%) whereas Tetranychidae corresponded to the larger proportion of morpho-species (64%). Mites with varied feeding habits corresponded to 491 specimens of 36 morpho-species. In this group, the larger proportion of specimens (52%) consisted of Ascidae and the larger proportion of morpho-species (42%) consisted of Tydeinae (family Tydeidae). High abundance and high morpho-species richness of mites of predominantly predatory, phytophagous and variable feeding habits were observed on 17, five and nine plant species, respectively. The results obtained suggest the importance of plants of the studied vegetation as reservoirs of predatory mites. (author)

  3. Mite diversity on plants of different families found in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Tatiane M.M.G. de [UNESP, Jaboticabal, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Agrarias e Veterinarias. Dept. de Fitossanidade]. E-mail: tatianemarie@yahoo.com.br; Moraes, Gilberto J. de [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ). Dept. Entomologia, Fitopatologia e Zoologia Agricola]. E-mail: gjmoraes@esalq.usp.br

    2007-09-15

    This work reports the occurrence of mites predominantly predatory, phytophagous and with varied feeding habits on plants of the Atlantic Forest vegetation type of the State of Sao Paulo. The objective was to estimate the possible role of the Atlantic Forest vegetation as reservoir of these groups of mites which are also found on plants of agricultural importance. Samples were taken from 187 plant species belonging to 73 families in three vegetation types of the Atlantic Forest from February of 2001 to October of 2002. A total of 2,887 mites belonging to 163 morpho-species of 16 families were collected. Mite diversity was high, especially of predatory mites; these corresponded to 1,562 specimens of 92 morpho-species. Within this group, Phytoseiidae comprised 71% of the specimens and 62% of the morpho-species. Phytophagous mites comprised 836 specimens of 36 morpho-species. Within this group, Tenuipalpidae comprised the larger proportion of specimens (61%) whereas Tetranychidae corresponded to the larger proportion of morpho-species (64%). Mites with varied feeding habits corresponded to 491 specimens of 36 morpho-species. In this group, the larger proportion of specimens (52%) consisted of Ascidae and the larger proportion of morpho-species (42%) consisted of Tydeinae (family Tydeidae). High abundance and high morpho-species richness of mites of predominantly predatory, phytophagous and variable feeding habits were observed on 17, five and nine plant species, respectively. The results obtained suggest the importance of plants of the studied vegetation as reservoirs of predatory mites. (author)

  4. Design and development of the MITEE-B bi-modal nuclear propulsion engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paniagua, John C.; Powell, James R.; Maise, George

    2003-01-01

    Previous studies of compact, ultra-lightweight high performance nuclear thermal propulsion engines have concentrated on systems that only deliver high thrust. However, many potential missions also require substantial amounts of electric power. Studies of a new, very compact and lightweight bi-modal nuclear engine that provides both high propulsive thrust and high electric power for planetary science missions are described. The design is a modification of the MITEE nuclear thermal engine concept that provided only high propulsive thrust. In the new design, MITEE-B, separate closed cooling circuits are incorporated into the reactor, which transfers useful amounts of thermal energy to a small power conversion system that generates continuous electric power over the full life of the mission, even when the engine is not delivering propulsive thrust. Two versions of the MITEE-B design are described and analyzed. Version 1 generates 1 kW(e) of continuous power for control of the spacecraft, sensors, data transmission, etc. This power level eliminates the need for RTG's on missions to the outer planets, and allowing considerably greater operational capability for the spacecraft. This, plus its high thrust and high specific impulse propulsive capabilities, makes MITEE-B very attractive for such missions. In Version 2, of MITEE-B, a total of 20 kW(e) is generated, enabling the use of electric propulsion. The combination of high open cycle propulsion thrust (20,000 Newtons) with a specific impulse of ∼1000 seconds for short impulse burns, and long term (months to years), electric propulsion greatly increases MITEE's ΔV capability. Version 2 of MITEE-B also enables the production and replenishment of H2 propellant using in-situ resources, such as electrolysis of water from the ice sheet on Europa and other Jovian moons. This capability would greatly increase the ΔV available for certain planetary science missions. The modifications to the MITEE multiple pressure tube

  5. Nasal mites (Mesostigmata, Rhinonyssidae in Sternidae (Aves: Charadriiformes on the southern Coast of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Silva da Silva

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Six species of birds of the family Sternidae are often found on the southern coast of South America. Sterna trudeaui, S. hirundinacea, Thalasseus maximus, T. acuflavidus and Sternula superciliaris are South American residents and Sterna hirundo, a Nearctic migrant. At least 500 species of nasal mites have been described around the world, and Rhinonyssidae is the most diverse family. These mites are bloodsucking endoparasites that inhabit the respiratory system of birds. This study aimed to report on occurrences of nasal mites in Sternidae on the southern coast of Brazil. Of the 106 birds analyzed, 8.5% (9 birds were parasitized by nasal mites. This report provides the first record in the Neotropical region for two mite species, Sternostoma boydi and Larinyssus orbicularis parasitizing Thalasseus acuflavidus and Sternula superciliaris. No nasal mites were found in Sterna trudeaui or Thalasseus maximus. One host individual (T. acuflavidus was parasitized by two species of nasal mites, S. boydi and L. orbicularis.

  6. Short form of Demodex species mite in the dog: occurrence and measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesney, C J

    1999-02-01

    A form of Demodex species mite shorter in length than Demodex canis was found in six consecutive cases of canine demodicosis. The mean length of the parasite was 122.6 microns (SD 12.0 microns, 39 mites counted), significantly shorter than either male or female forms of D canis (P < 0.0001). The proportion of short to long mites in each case varied from 0.5 to 22 per 100. In young dogs, skin signs associated with the presence of mites were first noted after about seven months, while in the oldest subject the disease became apparent at 10 years of age. This form of mite has now been found in four countries over three continents, the findings suggesting that it is not uncommon and is acquired in puppyhood, although it may be carried unnoticed for many years.

  7. Pyroglyphid mites, xerophilic fungi and allergenic activity in dust from hospital mattresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    v d Lustgraaf, B; Jorde, W

    1977-12-01

    Dust from mattresses of different composition and age was analysed for mites, xerophilic fungi and allergenic activity. The mites of the genus Demodex were the most abundant (58.2 per cent). Also pyroglyphid mites occurred commonly (36.6 per cent). Pyroglyphid mites were present in small numbers (mean: 1 specimen/0.2 g of dust) in 12 out of the 17 older polyester-foam mattresses. The 11 cotton-horsechair mattresses and the newly used polyester-foam mattresses (three tested) were without them. The dust from the cotton-horsehair mattresses had a significantly higher allergenic activity than from those of polyester-foam. Xerophilic fungi were isolated in three out of 31 mattresses. The species isolated belonged to the genus Aspergillus and Eurotium. E. repens occurred most frequently. Disinfection of mattresses was suggested to have a negative influence on the occurrence of mites and fungi.

  8. Two simple techniques for the safe Sarcoptes collection and individual mite DNA extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soglia, Dominga; Rambozzi, Luisa; Maione, Sandra; Spalenza, Veronica; Sartore, Stefano; Alasaad, Samer; Sacchi, Paola; Rossi, Luca

    2009-10-01

    Availability of mites is a recognized limiting factor of biological and genetic investigations of the genus Sarcoptes. Current methods of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) extraction from individual mites also need substantial improvement in efficiency and operator friendliness. We have first developed a technique for efficient and safe extraction of living mites from scabietic skin samples (crusts or deep skin scrapings). Its core device is a large plastic syringe connected with a 1.5-ml Eppendorf tube. The source material is introduced in the syringe and the device in a shoe box with the tip half of the tube emerging. Mites migrate towards a heat source during a minimum of 36 h. Then, the tube is detached and the mites utilized without risks for the operators. A second technique allows operator-friendly manipulation of individual mites for DNA extraction. Fixed mites are isolated by adhesion to a small strip of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) adhesive tape operated with tweezers. Then, mite and strip are plunged in the lyses buffer and the sample twice submitted to thermal shock for disruption of the chitinous exoskeleton. Data show that the tape does not interfere with successive DNA extraction with a commercial kit. The corresponding protocol, that we briefly name "PVC adhesive tape + thermal shock + kit DNA extraction," compares favorably with the available ones.

  9. A survey of mites on farm animals in Libya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabaj, M M; Beesley, W N; Awan, M A

    1992-10-01

    In 1985-1988, 2287 farm animals (cattle, camels, sheep, goats, horses, donkeys, dogs and rabbits) suspected of carrying parasitic mites were examined at 58 farms throughout Libya. Mites were identified on 1303 of these animals. The commonest parasites on cattle were Psoroptes and Chorioptes, on camels and sheep were Sarcoptes and Psoroptes, and on goats were Sarcoptes and Demodex. Infested horses carrier Psoroptes or Chorioptes, and one donkey carried Sarcoptes. Otodectes was common on dogs, but Sarcoptes was rare and no Demodex were seen. Rabbits often had psoroptic ear mange or sarcoptic body mange. Dermanyssus gallinae and Ornithonyssus bursa were seen on chickens, but no mites were found on pigeons, ducks or turkeys.

  10. Dehydration Stress Contributes to the Enhancement of Plant Defense Response and Mite Performance on Barley

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    M. E. Santamaria

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Under natural conditions, plants suffer different stresses simultaneously or in a sequential way. At present, the combined effect of biotic and abiotic stressors is one of the most important threats to crop production. Understanding how plants deal with the panoply of potential stresses affecting them is crucial to develop biotechnological tools to protect plants. As well as for drought stress, the economic importance of the spider mite on agriculture is expected to increase due to climate change. Barley is a host of the polyphagous spider mite Tetranychus urticae and drought produces important yield losses. To obtain insights on the combined effect of drought and mite stresses on the defensive response of this cereal, we have analyzed the transcriptomic responses of barley plants subjected to dehydration (water-deficit treatment, spider mite attack, or to the combined dehydration-spider mite stress. The expression patterns of mite-induced responsive genes included many jasmonic acid responsive genes and were quickly induced. In contrast, genes related to dehydration tolerance were later up-regulated. Besides, a higher up-regulation of mite-induced defenses was showed by the combined dehydration and mite treatment than by the individual mite stress. On the other hand, the performance of the mite in dehydration stressed and well-watered plants was tested. Despite the stronger defensive response in plants that suffer dehydration and mite stresses, the spider mite demonstrates a better performance under dehydration condition than in well-watered plants. These results highlight the complexity of the regulatory events leading to the response to a combination of stresses and emphasize the difficulties to predict their consequences on crop production.

  11. Dehydration Stress Contributes to the Enhancement of Plant Defense Response and Mite Performance on Barley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santamaria, M. E.; Diaz, Isabel; Martinez, Manuel

    2018-01-01

    Under natural conditions, plants suffer different stresses simultaneously or in a sequential way. At present, the combined effect of biotic and abiotic stressors is one of the most important threats to crop production. Understanding how plants deal with the panoply of potential stresses affecting them is crucial to develop biotechnological tools to protect plants. As well as for drought stress, the economic importance of the spider mite on agriculture is expected to increase due to climate change. Barley is a host of the polyphagous spider mite Tetranychus urticae and drought produces important yield losses. To obtain insights on the combined effect of drought and mite stresses on the defensive response of this cereal, we have analyzed the transcriptomic responses of barley plants subjected to dehydration (water-deficit) treatment, spider mite attack, or to the combined dehydration-spider mite stress. The expression patterns of mite-induced responsive genes included many jasmonic acid responsive genes and were quickly induced. In contrast, genes related to dehydration tolerance were later up-regulated. Besides, a higher up-regulation of mite-induced defenses was showed by the combined dehydration and mite treatment than by the individual mite stress. On the other hand, the performance of the mite in dehydration stressed and well-watered plants was tested. Despite the stronger defensive response in plants that suffer dehydration and mite stresses, the spider mite demonstrates a better performance under dehydration condition than in well-watered plants. These results highlight the complexity of the regulatory events leading to the response to a combination of stresses and emphasize the difficulties to predict their consequences on crop production. PMID:29681917

  12. Prey preference of the phytoseiid mite Typhlodromus pyri. 1. Response to volatile kairomones.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dicke, M.

    1988-01-01

    Using a Y-tube olfactometer, a study has been made of the response of females of the predatory miteTyphlodromus pyri Scheuten (Acarina: Phytoseiidae) to volatile kairomones of three prey species: the European red spider mite (Panonychus ulmi (Koch)), the two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae

  13. HOUSE DUST MITE CONTAMINATION IN HOTELS AND INNS IN BANDAR ABBAS, SOUTH OF IRAN

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    M. Soleimani, J. Rafinejad

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available House dust mites have been shown to be strongly associated with allergic respiratory diseases such as, bronchial asthma, rhinitis and atopic dermatitis in the world. The climatic conditions of Bandar-Abbas, which is located in a coastal area and has a humid subtropical climate, provide a suitable place to proliferate mites. The aim of this study was to determine the contamination rate and analyze the house dust mite fauna in hotels and inns in Bandar-Abbas that had not been investigated previously. In this study 6 hotels and 6 inns were selected randomly in six areas of Bandar-Abbas. Two dust samples were collected from each place with a vacuum cleaner. One square meter of carpets and mattresses were vacuumed for a period of 1 min. Then the samples were cleared in lactic acid and then mites were mounted in Hoyer's medium for study and identification. A total of 2644 mites were collected and identified. The major mite family was Pyroglyphidae (98%. Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus was the most frequent and most numerous species recorded, occurring in 91% of samples examined and forming 88% of the Pyroglyphidae and 86% of the total mite populations. The family Cheyletidae was less commonly found with Cheyletus malaccensis (2%. Most of the mites were isolated from the carpets (57.5%, and a smaller number from mattresses (42.5%. Mites were present in 96% of the dust samples. Results revealed that all inns and 83% of hotels were contaminated by more than one species of mite and 34% of them had a population of more than 100 mites /g dust. This rate of contamination can be a major risk factor in asthma and other respiratory allergic diseases

  14. Sampling plans for pest mites on physic nut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosado, Jander F; Sarmento, Renato A; Pedro-Neto, Marçal; Galdino, Tarcísio V S; Marques, Renata V; Erasmo, Eduardo A L; Picanço, Marcelo C

    2014-08-01

    The starting point for generating a pest control decision-making system is a conventional sampling plan. Because the mites Polyphagotarsonemus latus and Tetranychus bastosi are among the most important pests of the physic nut (Jatropha curcas), in the present study, we aimed to establish sampling plans for these mite species on physic nut. Mite densities were monitored in 12 physic nut crops. Based on the obtained results, sampling of P. latus and T. bastosi should be performed by assessing the number of mites per cm(2) in 160 samples using a handheld 20× magnifying glass. The optimal sampling region for T. bastosi is the abaxial surface of the 4th most apical leaf on the branch of the middle third of the canopy. On the abaxial surface, T. bastosi should then be observed on the side parts of the middle portion of the leaf, near its edge. As for P. latus, the optimal sampling region is the abaxial surface of the 4th most apical leaf on the branch of the apical third of the canopy on the abaxial surface. Polyphagotarsonemus latus should then be assessed on the side parts of the leaf's petiole insertion. Each sampling procedure requires 4 h and costs US$ 7.31.

  15. mites y control constitucional en México

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    Arminda Balbuena Cisneros

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Los límites a la reforma constitucional es un tema siempre vigente en el derecho constitucional, ello es así por las posibles arbitrariedades que pueden cometer los órganos detentadores del poder mediante las modificaciones a la constitución. En México, hoy en día este tema cobra particular relevancia por el profundo proceso de reforma que se vive, y por la controvertida posición que la corte mexicana ha adoptado en relación con los límites a la reforma. El presente artículo trata de dar una visión general de los límites al poder de reforma y, en particular, de la posición que la suprema corte de justicia de la nación ha adoptado respecto a los mismos.

  16. Geographic variation in ectoparasitic mites diversity in Tadarida Brasiliensis (Chiroptera, Molossidae

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    Tatiana C. Pesenti

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Tadarida brasiliensis (Geoffroy, 1824, the Brazilian free-tailed bat, is an insectivorous bat that occurs from southern United States of America to southern South America. In this study we present the first data on diversity of ectoparasitic mites of T. brasiliensis in Brazil. A compilation and analysis of the studies of mite diversity conducted in different points the geographic distribution this bat species are provided. The mites were collected from March 2010 to November 2011 on 160 T. brasiliensis adult bats captured in southern Brazil. Four species of mites have been found: Chiroptonyssus robustipes (Ewing, 1925, Ewingana longa (Ewing, 1938, Ewingana inaequalis (Radford, 1948, and specimens of Cheyletidae. Chiroptonyssus robustipes was the most prevalent species (100%, followed by E. longa (20%, E. inaequalis (10%, and specimens of Cheyletidae (1.25%. The data currently available show that C. robustipes parasitizes T. brasiliensis throughout its region of occurrence, and this mite is highly prevalent and abundant. The two species of Ewingana accompany the geographical distribution of T. brasiliensis, but with much lower prevalence and abundance.

  17. Prevailing indoor climate classification to predict house-dust mite abundance in Dutch homes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schober, G.; Verstappen, I.; Snijders, M.C.L.; Bronswijk, van J.E.M.H.

    1995-01-01

    In Europe 10-15 % of the human population is sensitized to allergens of house dust mites (Pyroglyphidae). Population development of house dust mites is primarily influenced by water activity (aw) of the mite habitat. The availability of H20 (water-activity and relative humidity) in the niches of

  18. Spider mite control and resistance management: does a genome help?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Leeuwen, T.; Dermauw, W.; Grbic, M.; Tirry, L.; Feyereisen, R.

    2012-01-01

    The complete genome of the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, has been reported. This is the first sequenced genome of a highly polyphagous and resistant agricultural pest. The question as to what the genome offers the community working on spider mite control is addressed.

  19. SIMULTANEOUS PRODUCTIVE GROWTH GROUPS (SPGG: INNOVATION ON PAPAYA MITE MANAGEMENT

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    Marycruz Abato-Zárate

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Grower’s previous experience and their ability to communicate technical information to other growers, allows greater adoption of technologies. Thus, appropriation of technologies of mite management and sampling was evaluated, based on the “Simultaneous Productive Growth Groups (SPGG” technology transfer model. A preliminary diagnosis was made, evaluating the technology transfer achieved by six leading growers showing up continuously to seven meetings carried out from March to July 2010, and also by 19 growers showing up on a more irregular basis. All growers were from the municipality of Cotaxtla and belonged to the Papaya-Product-System of Veracruz, Mexico. Participation, attitude and efficacy of training were evaluated with a survey. Forty-two percent of growers considered the papaya ring spot virus as the main problem and 48 % revealed spider mites as the second one; 96 % used pesticides on spider mites. Participation of the SPGG basic group was 71 %, who agreed on sampling, recording data in sampling forms and using selective acaricides. Seventy percent were able to recognize spider mites from predatory mites and 83 % recognized selective acaricides. Growers considered that sampling can help reduce control costs. The SPGG model allowed building collective knowledge and better decision making by the working group.

  20. [Mites associated with two species of the genus Odontotaenius (Coleoptera: Passalidae) in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios-Torres, Pilar Liliana; Villegas-Guzmán, Gabriel A

    2015-09-01

    Mites can establish association with different arthropods as coleopterans tamites scaraoaeicae ana Passalidae. Passalids are distributed in tropical and templates zones, and until now, more than 200 species of mites have been associated to them. One of the relationships between passalids and mites is the phoresy where one small animal (the phoretic) seeks out and attaches to another animal (the host) for transportation. Herein, we studied the mites associated to O. zodiacus and O. striatopunctatus; for this, 80 Odontotaenius with mites were reviewed; passalids were collected in and under decaying logs from six states of Mexico, and were individually kept in vials with 80% ethanol. The specimens were carried to the laboratory and mites removed with fine-pointed forceps under stereo microscope. The mites were stored with 80 % alcohol until some were cleared with lacto-phenol and mounted in Hoyer's solution. We found 1,945 mites belonging to 13 families (Acaridae, Ascidae, Diarthrophallidae, Digamasellidae, Diplogyniidae, Euzerconidae, Heterocheylidae, Histiostomatidae, Klinckowstroemiidae, Laelapidae, Megisthanidae, Trematuridae, and Uropodidae) and 42 species, being the most abundant species Anoelus sp. For O. striatopunctatus (16 specimens) we found 562 mites (95 female female, 34 male male, 197 hypopus, 234 deutonymph, 2 tritonymph) of 11 families and 22 species; the most abundant were Uropodidae (42 %) and Histiostomatidae (26 %). While for 0. zodiacus (64 specimens) were found 1,383 mites (300 female female, 204 male male, 608 hypopus, 139 deutonymphs, 133 tritonymphs) of 10 families and 30 species; the most abundant were: Diartrophallidae, Acaridae, and Histiostomatidae (23 % for the two first and 21 % for third). The high abundance and richness was in O. zodiacus, likewise Margalef (S') and Shanon-Winner (H') indexes were higher in this species (O. zodiacus S' = 4.05, H' = 2.2; O. striatopunctatus S' = 3.34, H' = 1.94), while Equity (EH) was similar to both

  1. Characterization of a group of MITEs with unusual features from two coral genomes.

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    Shi Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs, which are common in eukaryotic genomes, are small non-coding elements that transpose by utilizing transposases encoded by autonomous transposons. Recent genome-wide analyses and cross-mobilization assays have greatly improved our knowledge on MITE proliferation, however, specific mechanisms for the origin and evolution of MITEs are still unclear. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A group of coral MITEs called CMITE were identified from two corals, Acropora millepora and Acropora palmata. CMITEs conform to many common characteristics of MITEs, but also present several unusual features. The most unusual feature of CMITEs is conservation of the internal region, which is more conserved between MITE families than the TIRs. The origin of this internal region remains unknown, although we found one CMITE family that seems to be derived from a piggyBac-like transposon in A. millepora. CMITEs can form tandem arrays, suggesting an unconventional way for MITEs to increase copy numbers. We also describe a case in which a novel transposable element was created by a CMITE insertion event. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the first report of identification of MITEs from coral genomes. Proliferation of CMITEs seems to be related to the transposition machinery of piggyBac-like autonomous transposons. The highly conserved internal region of CMITEs suggests a potential role for this region in their successful transposition. However, the origin of these unusual features in CMITEs remains unclear, and thus represents an intriguing topic for future investigations.

  2. Characterization of a group of MITEs with unusual features from two coral genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shi; Zhang, Lingling; Meyer, Eli; Matz, Mikhail V

    2010-05-18

    Miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs), which are common in eukaryotic genomes, are small non-coding elements that transpose by utilizing transposases encoded by autonomous transposons. Recent genome-wide analyses and cross-mobilization assays have greatly improved our knowledge on MITE proliferation, however, specific mechanisms for the origin and evolution of MITEs are still unclear. A group of coral MITEs called CMITE were identified from two corals, Acropora millepora and Acropora palmata. CMITEs conform to many common characteristics of MITEs, but also present several unusual features. The most unusual feature of CMITEs is conservation of the internal region, which is more conserved between MITE families than the TIRs. The origin of this internal region remains unknown, although we found one CMITE family that seems to be derived from a piggyBac-like transposon in A. millepora. CMITEs can form tandem arrays, suggesting an unconventional way for MITEs to increase copy numbers. We also describe a case in which a novel transposable element was created by a CMITE insertion event. To our knowledge, this is the first report of identification of MITEs from coral genomes. Proliferation of CMITEs seems to be related to the transposition machinery of piggyBac-like autonomous transposons. The highly conserved internal region of CMITEs suggests a potential role for this region in their successful transposition. However, the origin of these unusual features in CMITEs remains unclear, and thus represents an intriguing topic for future investigations.

  3. Survival and reproductive rate of mites in relation to resistance of their barn swallow hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, A P

    2000-08-01

    Parasite resistance may act via a number of different mechanisms that regulate or control the survival and the reproductive rate of parasites. Observations and experiments were used to test for effects of host resistance on parasite survival and rate of reproduction. Natural levels of infestation of barn swallow Hirundo rustica nests by the tropical fowl mite Ornithonyssus bursa were positively related to brood size, inversely related to the length of the outermost tail feathers of male nest owners (a secondary sexual character) and affected by time of reproduction by the host. A mite inoculation experiment, in which 50 adult mites were introduced into nests during the laying period of the host, was used to test for differential survival and reproduction of mites as a function of host resistance. The relationship between survival and reproduction of parasites, male tail length and host resistance was investigated. There was a negative relationship between mite numbers per nest after fledging of nestlings and male tail length. This relationship was mainly caused by a reduction in the number of mites in the first and second nymph stage with increasing tail length of male hosts, implying a reduction in rate of reproduction of mites. The proportion of mites that had recently fed was inversely related to tail length of male hosts. The proportion of nymph stages was positively related to the proportion of mites that had recently had a blood meal. Parasite resistance of barn swallows to the tropical fowl mite thus appeared to act through increased mortality rate of adult and nymph stages of mites, and through reduced reproductive rates of mites on resistant hosts. This is the first study demonstating a direct relationship between fitness components of a parasite and the expression of a secondary sexual character of a host.

  4. Higher-level molecular phylogeny of the water mites (Acariformes: Prostigmata: Parasitengonina: Hydrachnidiae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabert, Miroslawa; Proctor, Heather; Dabert, Jacek

    2016-08-01

    With nearly 6000 named species, water mites (Hydrachnidiae) represent the largest group of arachnids to have invaded and extensively diversified in freshwater habitats. Water mites together with three other lineages (the terrestrial Erythraiae and Trombidiae, and aquatic Stygothrombiae), make up the hyporder Parasitengonina, which is characterized by having parasitic larvae and predatory nymphs and adults. Relationships between the Hydrachnidiae and other members of the Parasitengonina are unclear, as are relationships among the major lineages of water mites. Monophyly of water mites has been asserted, with the possible exception of the morphologically distinctive Hydrovolzioidea. Here we infer the phylogeny of water mites using multiple molecular markers and including representatives of all superfamilies of Hydrachnidiae and of almost all other Parasitengonina. Our results support a monophyletic Parasitengonina including Trombidiae, Stygothrombiae, and Hydrachnidiae. A monophyletic Hydrachnidiae, including Hydrovolzioidea, is strongly supported. Terrestrial Parasitengonina do not form a monophyletic sister group to water mites. Stygothrombiae is close to water mites but is not nested within this clade. Water mites appear to be derived from ancestors close to Stygothrombiae or the erythraoid group Calyptostomatoidea; however, this relationship is not clear because of extremely short branches in this part of the parasitengonine tree. We recovered with strong support all commonly accepted water mite superfamilies except for Hydryphantoidea, which is clearly paraphyletic. Our data support the previously proposed clades Protohydrachnidia (Hydrovolzioidea and Eylaoidea), Euhydrachnidia (all remaining superfamilies), and the euhydrachnid subclade Neohydrachnidia (Lebertioidea, Hydrachnoidea, Hygrobatoidea, and Arrenuroidea). We found that larval leg structure and locomotory behavior are strongly congruent with the molecular phylogeny. Other morphological and behavioral

  5. Feather mites (Acari, Astigmata from Azorean passerines (Aves, Passeriformes: lower species richness compared to European mainland

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    Rodrigues Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ten passerine species were examined on three islands of the Azores (North Atlantic during 2013 and 2014 in order to identify their feather mite assemblages. We recorded 19 feather mite species belonging to four families of the superfamily Analgoidea (Analgidae, Proctophyllodidae, Psoroptoididae and Trouessartiidae. A high prevalence of feather mite species was recorded on the majority of the examined host species. Only three passerine species (Sylvia atricapilla, Regulus regulus and Serinus canaria presented the same full complex of mite species as commonly occurs in the plumage of their closest relatives in continental Europe. Passer domesticus presented the same limited fauna of feather mites living in the plumage as do its co-specifics in continental Europe. Carduelis carduelis bears the same feather mite species as do most of its continental populations in Europe, but it lacks one mite species occurring on this host in Egypt. Turdus merula, Pyrrhula murina and Fringilla coelebs are missing several mite species common to their continental relatives. This diminution could be explained by the founder effect, whereby a limited number of colonizing individuals did not transport the full set of feather mite species, or by the extinction of some mite species after initially having reached the Azores. The only individual of Motacilla cinerea sampled in this study presented a new host record for the mite species Trouessartia jedliczkai.

  6. Whiteflies interfere with indirect plant defense against spider mites in Lima bean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng-Jun; Zheng, Si-Jun; van Loon, Joop J. A.; Boland, Wilhelm; David, Anja; Mumm, Roland; Dicke, Marcel

    2009-01-01

    Plants under herbivore attack are able to initiate indirect defense by synthesizing and releasing complex blends of volatiles that attract natural enemies of the herbivore. However, little is known about how plants respond to infestation by multiple herbivores, particularly if these belong to different feeding guilds. Here, we report the interference by a phloem-feeding insect, the whitefly Bemisia tabaci, with indirect plant defenses induced by spider mites (Tetranychus urticae) in Lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus) plants. Additional whitefly infestation of spider-mite infested plants resulted in a reduced attraction of predatory mites (Phytoseiulus persimilis) compared to attraction to plants infested by spider mites only. This interference is shown to result from the reduction in (E)-β-ocimene emission from plants infested by both spider mites and whiteflies. When using exogenous salicylic acid (SA) application to mimic B. tabaci infestation, we observed similar results in behavioral and chemical analyses. Phytohormone and gene-expression analyses revealed that B. tabaci infestation, as well as SA application, inhibited spider mite-induced jasmonic acid (JA) production and reduced the expression of two JA-regulated genes, one of which encodes for the P. lunatus enzyme β-ocimene synthase that catalyzes the synthesis of (E)-β-ocimene. Remarkably, B. tabaci infestation concurrently inhibited SA production induced by spider mites. We therefore conclude that in dual-infested Lima bean plants the suppression of the JA signaling pathway by whitefly feeding is not due to enhanced SA levels. PMID:19965373

  7. Genetic background of resistance to gall mite in Ribes species

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    Ingrida Mazeikiene

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Resistance to gall mite is an important genetic trait of Ribes. P and Ce genes, responsible for gall mite resistance, were established in Ribes species and interspecific hybrids using molecular markers. Resistance in R. americanum is determined by P gene and in R. sanguineum by Ce gene. Both molecular markers were absent in R. dikuscha genome. Molecular markers related to P and Ce genes were identified in the genome of R. aureum. Resistance to gall mite in the field conditions in R. nigrum x R. americanum, R. nigrum x R. aureum and R. nigrum x R. sanguineum F3 hybrids fitted an expected Mendelian segregation ratio of 1:1, 3:1 and 1:1, respectively. 75.0% of hybrids with a pyramidal resistance to gall mite carrying markers related to Ce and P genes were obtained in the cross combination R. nigrum x R. aureum and will be included in the future breeding programs.

  8. Stability evaluation of house dust mite vaccines for sublingual immunotherapy

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    MARIJA GAVROVIĆ-JANKULOVIĆ

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Allergen-specific immunotherapy with house dust mite (HDM allergen extracts can effectively alleviate the symptoms of allergic rhinitis and asthma. The efficacy of the immunotherapeutic treatment is highly dependent on the quality of house dust mite vaccines. This study was performed to assess the stability of house dust mite allergen vaccines prepared for sublingual immunotherapy. Lyophilized Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Dpt mite bodies were the starting material for the production of sublingual vaccines in four therapeutic concentrations. The stability of the extract for vaccine production, which was stored below 4 °C for one month, showed consistence in the protein profile in SDS PAGE. ELISA-inhibition showed that the potencies of Dpt vaccines during a 12 month period were to 65–80 % preserved at all analyzed therapeutic concentrations. This study showed that glycerinated Dpt vaccines stored at 4 °C preserved their IgE-binding potential during a 12 month period, implying their suitability for sublingual immunotherapeutic treatment of HDM allergy.

  9. Feather and nest mites of two common resident birds in two ecologically different Egyptian governorates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsy, T A; Mazyad, S A; Younis, M S

    1999-08-01

    The study of the role played by birds in the distribution of various bacterial, viral and parasitic infections is increasingly from year to year, taking into consideration the flying ability of birds and their migration for food and vital processes. Two of the common Egyptian resident birds, house sparrow (Passer d. niloticus) and laughing dove (Streptopelia s. aegyptiaca) were chosen to study their mite fauna. The overall mite index was 4.74 on the house sparrow and 7.22 on the laughing dove. As to mites, a total of 31 species belonging to 23 genera, 17 families and 3 suborders were collected. The common mites on both types of birds were 22 species. Three species only on house sparrow, and six species only on laughing dove. The house sparrow served host for 25 mite species and the laughing dove served host for 28 mite species. The infestation rates of mites on house sparrow ranged between 1.11% to 23.33% and 0.21% to 34.54% in Sharkia and Qalyobia governorates respectively. For laughing dove, the mite infestation rates ranged between 0.82% to 50% and 3.45% to 55.17% for both governorates respectively. Some of the collected mites have medical and/or veterinary importance. The whole results were discussed.

  10. Soil microarthropods and their bioindicator value regarding the bio-edaphic conditions in forest ecosystems of Danube Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Călugăr A.,

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to compare soil mesofauna communities in natural and anthropogenic forests from Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve and establish a baseline data in monitoring the disturbed sites. The abundance and diversity of edaphic microarthropods were analyzed in five plots, three of them being natural forests and two plantations (Canada poplar, and respectively willow. The mites from Trombidiformes and Oribatida were closely investigated being identified at family level. Qualitative analysis of edaphic microarthropods evidences numerical dominance of mites, excepting only one stand (Canada poplar plantation. Among mites Oribatida owns the biggest weight (76.6 - 94.1% of the total mites, followed by Trombidiformes or Mesostigmata. Among insects the collembolans hold higher density in the poplar plantation, and the lowest one in the willow plantation. Structure of mites communities differs between the investigated ecosystems both in quantitative and qualitative aspects depending on particular conditions of each plot.

  11. Protocols for the delivery of small molecules to the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Suzuki

    Full Text Available The two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, is a chelicerate herbivore with an extremely wide host range and an extraordinary ability to develop pesticide resistance. Due to its responsiveness to natural and synthetic xenobiotics, the spider mite is becoming a prime pest herbivore model for studies of the evolution of host range, plant-herbivore interactions and mechanisms of xenobiotic resistance. The spider mite genome has been sequenced and its transcriptional responses to developmental and various biotic and abiotic cues have been documented. However, to identify biological and evolutionary roles of T. urticae genes and proteins, it is necessary to develop methods for the efficient manipulation of mite gene function or protein activity. Here, we describe protocols developed for the delivery of small molecules into spider mites. Starting with mite maintenance and the preparation of the experimental mite populations of developmentally synchronized larvae and adults, we describe 3 methods for delivery of small molecules including artificial diet, leaf coating, and soaking. The presented results define critical steps in these methods and demonstrate that they can successfully deliver tracer dyes into mites. Described protocols provide guidelines for high-throughput setups for delivery of experimental compounds that could be used in reverse genetics platforms to modulate gene expression or protein activity, or for screens focused on discovery of new molecules for mite control. In addition, described protocols could be adapted for other Tetranychidae and related species of economic importance such as Varroa, dust and poultry mites.

  12. Varroa destructor Mites Can Nimbly Climb from Flowers onto Foraging Honey Bees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David T Peck

    Full Text Available Varroa destructor, the introduced parasite of European honey bees associated with massive colony deaths, spreads readily through populations of honey bee colonies, both managed colonies living crowded together in apiaries and wild colonies living widely dispersed in natural settings. Mites are hypothesized to spread between most managed colonies via phoretically riding forager bees when they engage in robbing colonies or they drift between hives. However, widely spaced wild colonies show Varroa infestation despite limited opportunities for robbing and little or no drifting of bees between colonies. Both wild and managed colonies may also exchange mites via another mechanism that has received remarkably little attention or study: floral transmission. The present study tested the ability of mites to infest foragers at feeders or flowers. We show that Varroa destructor mites are highly capable of phoretically infesting foraging honey bees, detail the mechanisms and maneuvers by which they do so, and describe mite behaviors post-infestation.

  13. Varroa destructor Mites Can Nimbly Climb from Flowers onto Foraging Honey Bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael L.; Seeley, Thomas D.

    2016-01-01

    Varroa destructor, the introduced parasite of European honey bees associated with massive colony deaths, spreads readily through populations of honey bee colonies, both managed colonies living crowded together in apiaries and wild colonies living widely dispersed in natural settings. Mites are hypothesized to spread between most managed colonies via phoretically riding forager bees when they engage in robbing colonies or they drift between hives. However, widely spaced wild colonies show Varroa infestation despite limited opportunities for robbing and little or no drifting of bees between colonies. Both wild and managed colonies may also exchange mites via another mechanism that has received remarkably little attention or study: floral transmission. The present study tested the ability of mites to infest foragers at feeders or flowers. We show that Varroa destructor mites are highly capable of phoretically infesting foraging honey bees, detail the mechanisms and maneuvers by which they do so, and describe mite behaviors post-infestation. PMID:27942015

  14. Varroa destructor Mites Can Nimbly Climb from Flowers onto Foraging Honey Bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, David T; Smith, Michael L; Seeley, Thomas D

    2016-01-01

    Varroa destructor, the introduced parasite of European honey bees associated with massive colony deaths, spreads readily through populations of honey bee colonies, both managed colonies living crowded together in apiaries and wild colonies living widely dispersed in natural settings. Mites are hypothesized to spread between most managed colonies via phoretically riding forager bees when they engage in robbing colonies or they drift between hives. However, widely spaced wild colonies show Varroa infestation despite limited opportunities for robbing and little or no drifting of bees between colonies. Both wild and managed colonies may also exchange mites via another mechanism that has received remarkably little attention or study: floral transmission. The present study tested the ability of mites to infest foragers at feeders or flowers. We show that Varroa destructor mites are highly capable of phoretically infesting foraging honey bees, detail the mechanisms and maneuvers by which they do so, and describe mite behaviors post-infestation.

  15. House Dust Mite Respiratory Allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calderón, Moisés A; Kleine-Tebbe, Jörg; Linneberg, Allan

    2015-01-01

    Although house dust mite (HDM) allergy is a major cause of respiratory allergic disease, specific diagnosis and effective treatment both present unresolved challenges. Guidelines for the treatment of allergic rhinitis and asthma are well supported in the literature, but specific evidence on the e......Although house dust mite (HDM) allergy is a major cause of respiratory allergic disease, specific diagnosis and effective treatment both present unresolved challenges. Guidelines for the treatment of allergic rhinitis and asthma are well supported in the literature, but specific evidence...... not extend beyond the end of treatment. Finally, allergen immunotherapy has a poor but improving evidence base (notably on sublingual tablets) and its benefits last after treatment ends. This review identifies needs for deeper physician knowledge on the extent and impact of HDM allergy in respiratory disease...... and therapy of HDM respiratory allergy in practice....

  16. Tree species traits influence soil physical, chemical, and biological properties in high elevation forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Ayres

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that plants often have species-specific effects on soil properties. In high elevation forests in the Southern Rocky Mountains, North America, areas that are dominated by a single tree species are often adjacent to areas dominated by another tree species. Here, we assessed soil properties beneath adjacent stands of trembling aspen, lodgepole pine, and Engelmann spruce, which are dominant tree species in this region and are distributed widely in North America. We hypothesized that soil properties would differ among stands dominated by different tree species and expected that aspen stands would have higher soil temperatures due to their open structure, which, combined with higher quality litter, would result in increased soil respiration rates, nitrogen availability, and microbial biomass, and differences in soil faunal community composition. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We assessed soil physical, chemical, and biological properties at four sites where stands of aspen, pine, and spruce occurred in close proximity to one-another in the San Juan Mountains, Colorado. Leaf litter quality differed among the tree species, with the highest nitrogen (N concentration and lowest lignin:N in aspen litter. Nitrogen concentration was similar in pine and spruce litter, but lignin:N was highest in pine litter. Soil temperature and moisture were highest in aspen stands, which, in combination with higher litter quality, probably contributed to faster soil respiration rates from stands of aspen. Soil carbon and N content, ammonium concentration, and microbial biomass did not differ among tree species, but nitrate concentration was highest in aspen soil and lowest in spruce soil. In addition, soil fungal, bacterial, and nematode community composition and rotifer, collembolan, and mesostigmatid mite abundance differed among the tree species, while the total abundance of nematodes, tardigrades, oribatid mites, and prostigmatid

  17. Mites (Acari Associated with the Desert Seed Harvester Ant, Messor pergandei (Mayr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaitlin A. Uppstrom

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mites (Acari associated with the seed harvester ant Messor pergandei were investigated in the Sonoran desert of Arizona. At least seven representatives of the mite genera Armacarus, Lemanniella, Petalomium, Forcellinia, Histiostoma, Unguidispus, and Cosmoglyphus are phoretically associated with M. pergandei. Most of these morphospecies show preference for specific phoretic attachment sites and primarily use female alates rather than male alates for dispersal. Five mite morphospecies were found in low numbers inhabiting the chaff piles: Tydeidae sp., Procaeculus sp., Anystidae sp., Bakerdania sp., and Tetranychidae sp. The phoretic Petalomium sp. was observed consuming fungus growing on a dead queen, but the roles of the other mite species remain mostly unresolved.

  18. Role of Predatory Mites in Persistent Nonoccupational Allergic Rhinitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paloma Poza Guedes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mites can sensitize and induce atopic disease in predisposed individuals and are an important deteriorating factor in patients with allergic rhinitis, asthma, and atopic dermatitis. Although Pyroglyphidae mites have been extensively studied, very scarce reports are available on Cheyletidae spp. especially regarding human respiratory pathology. The main objective of the present study is to investigate the clinical role of this predator mite (Cheyletus eruditus as a respiratory antigen in a selected sensitized human population. Fifty-two adult patients were recruited from the outpatient allergy clinic to assess their eligibility for the study. The thirty-seven subjects with persistent allergic rhinitis (PAR who fulfilled the ARIA criteria had a positive IgE response confirmed by skin prick test (SPT to C. eruditus. Only those individuals (37/47 with a positive SPT to C. eruditus showed a positive nasal provocation test (NPT, while 10 patients with nonallergic mild-to-moderate persistent rhinitis, control group, had a negative NPT with C. eruditus. The present paper describes a new role for the predator mite Cheyletus eruditus as a respiratory allergen in a selected subset of patients in a subtropical environment afflicted with persistent nonoccupational allergic rhinitis.

  19. Growth analysis of cotton crops infested with spider mites. I. Light interception and radiation-use efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadras, V.O.; Wilson, L.J.

    1997-01-01

    Two-spotted spider mites (Tetranychus urticae Koch) are important pests of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). The effects of mites on cotton photosynthesis have been investigated at the leaf and cytological level but not at the canopy level. Our objective was to quantify the effects of timing and intensity of infestation by mites on cotton radiation-use efficiency (RUE). Leaf area, light interception, RUE, canopy temperature, and leaf nitrogen concentration (LNC) were assessed during two growing seasons in crops artificially infested with mites between 59 and 127 d after sowing. Normal and okra-leaf cultivars were compared. A mite index (MI = natural log of the area under the curve of mite number vs thermal time) was used to quantify the cumulative effects of mites on RUE, LNC, and canopy temperature. Crop growth reduction due to mites was greater in early- than in late-infested crops Growth reduction was primarily due to reductions in RUE, but in the more severe treatments accelerated leaf senescence and, hence. reduced light interception also contributed to reductions in crop growth. At a given date, infested okra-leaf crops usually had greater RUE than their normal-leaf counterparts. Both plant types, however. responded similarly to a given level of mite infestation. The ability of the okra-leaf cultivar to maintain greater RUE levels can be attributed. therefore, to its relative inhospitality for the development of mite colonies rather than to an intrinsically greater capacity to maintain photosynthesis under mite damage. Canopy temperature, LNC, and RUE showed a similar, biphasic pattern of response to Ml. In the first phase, response variables were almost unaffected by mites. In the second phase, there was a marked decline in RUE and LNC and a marked increase in canopy temperature with increasing MI. These results suggest (i) some degree of compensatory photosynthesis at low to moderate levels of mite infestation, and (ii) reductions in RUE of mite

  20. Feather mites (Acari, Astigmata associated with birds in an Atlantic Forest fragment in Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HM Silva

    Full Text Available AbstractThe present study reports associations between feather mites (Astigmata and birds in an Atlantic Forest fragment in Rio Grande do Norte state, in Brazil. In the laboratory, mites were collected through visual examination of freshly killed birds. Overall, 172 individuals from 38 bird species were examined, between October 2011 and July 2012. The prevalence of feather mites was 80.8%, corresponding to 139 infested individuals distributed into 30 species and 15 families of hosts. Fifteen feather mite taxa could be identified to the species level, sixteen to the genus level and three to the subfamily level, distributed into the families Analgidae, Proctophyllodidae, Psoroptoididae, Pteronyssidae, Xolalgidae, Trouessartiidae, Falculiferidae and Gabuciniidae. Hitherto unknown associations between feather mites and birds were recorded for eleven taxa identified to the species level, and nine taxa were recorded for the first time in Brazil. The number of new geographic records, as well as the hitherto unknown mite-host associations, supports the high estimates of diversity for feather mites of Brazil and show the need for research to increase knowledge of plumicole mites in the Neotropical region.

  1. Widespread and evolutionary analysis of a MITE family Monkey King in Brassicaceae

    OpenAIRE

    Dai, Shutao; Hou, Jinna; Long, Yan; Wang, Jing; Li, Cong; Xiao, Qinqin; Jiang, Xiaoxue; Zou, Xiaoxiao; Zou, Jun; Meng, Jinling

    2015-01-01

    Background Miniature inverted repeat transposable elements (MITEs) are important components of eukaryotic genomes, with hundreds of families and many copies, which may play important roles in gene regulation and genome evolution. However, few studies have investigated the molecular mechanisms involved. In our previous study, a Tourist-like MITE, Monkey King, was identified from the promoter region of a flowering time gene, BnFLC.A10, in Brassica napus. Based on this MITE, the characteristics ...

  2. Secondary successions of biota in oil-polluted peat soil upon different biological remediation methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melekhina, E. N.; Markarova, M. Yu.; Shchemelinina, T. N.; Anchugova, E. M.; Kanev, V. A.

    2015-06-01

    The effects of different bioremediation methods on restoration of the oil-polluted peat soil (Histosol) in the northernmost taiga subzone of European Russia was studied. The population dynamics of microorganisms belonging to different trophic groups (hydrocarbon-oxidizing, ammonifying, nitrifying, and oligonitrophilic) were analyzed together with data on the soil enzyme (catalase and dehydrogenase) activities, population densities of soil microfauna groups, their structures, and states of phytocenoses during a sevenyear-long succession. The remediation with biopreparations Roder composed of oil-oxidizing microorganisms-Roder with Rhodococcus rubber and R. erythropolis and Universal with Rhodotorula glutinis and Rhodococcus sp.-was more efficient than the agrochemical and technical remediation. It was concluded that the biopreparations activate microbiological oil destruction, thereby accelerating restoration succession of phytocenosis and zoocenosis. The succession of dominant microfauna groups was observed: the dipteran larvae and Mesostigmata mites predominant at the early stages were replaced by collembolans at later stages. The pioneer oribatid mite species were Tectocepheus velatus, Oppiella nova, Liochthonius sellnicki, Oribatula tibialis, and Eupelops sp.

  3. Protective effect of the DNA vaccine encoding the major house dust mite allergens on allergic inflammation in the murine model of house dust mite allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Jaechun

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vaccination with naked DNA encoding antigen induces cellular and humoral immunity characterized by the activation of specific Th1 cells. Objective To evaluate the effects of vaccination with mixed naked DNA plasmids encoding Der p 1, Der p 2, Der p 3, Der f 1, Der f 2, and Der f 3, the major house dust mite allergens on the allergic inflammation to the whole house dust mites (HDM crude extract. Methods Three hundred micrograms of these gene mixtures were injected into muscle of BALB/c mice. Control mice were injected with the pcDNA 3.1 blank vector. After 3 weeks, the mice were actively sensitized and inhaled with the whole house dust mite extract intranasally. Results The vaccinated mice showed a significantly decreased synthesis of total and HDM-specific IgE compared with controls. Analysis of the cytokine profile of lymphocytes after challenge with HDM crude extract revealed that mRNA expression of interferon-γ was higher in the vaccinated mice than in the controls. Reduced infiltration of inflammatory cells and the prominent infiltration of CD8+ T cells were observed in histology of lung tissue from the vaccinated mice. Conclusion Vaccination with DNA encoding the major house dust mite allergens provides a promising approach for treating allergic responses to whole house dust mite allergens.

  4. Acaricidal activity of pine essential oils and their main components against Tyrophagus putrescentiae, a stored food mite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macchioni, F; Cioni, P L; Flamini, G; Morelli, I; Perrucci, S; Franceschi, A; Macchioni, G; Ceccarini, L

    2002-07-31

    Some essential oils obtained from the branches of four Pinus species (P. pinea L., P. halepensis Mill., P. pinaster Soil in Ait., and P. nigra Arnold) have been evaluated for their acaricidal activity by aerial diffusion against the stored food mite Tyrophagus putrescentiae (L.). All the essential oils showed a good efficacy, but P. pinea oil and its two constituents 1,8-cineole and limonene were the most effective compounds, showing 100% acaricidal activity at 8 microL; 1,8-cineole showed the same activity at 6 microL.

  5. Cheyletus eruditus (taurrus): an effective candidate for the biological control of the snake mite (Ophionyssus natricis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilliger, Lionel H; Morel, Damien; Bonwitt, Jesse H; Marquis, Olivier

    2013-09-01

    The most commonly encountered ectoparasite in captive snakes is the hematophagous snake mite (Ophionyssus natricis). Infected snakes often exhibit lethargy, dysecdysis, pruritus, crusting dermatitis (sometimes progressing to abscesses), and behavioral changes (increased bathing time, rubbing against objects). Anemia and septicemia are occasional complications. Eliminating snake mites from a collection is frustrating. Insecticidal and acaricidal compounds used in mammals can be used against O. natricis infestation in reptiles, but they all are potentially neurotoxic to reptiles. The use of a biological agent to control the snake mite was first developed by using the predatory mites Hypoaspis miles and Hypoaspis aculeifer. However, no data are available regarding the potential of these mites to control O. natricis. Furthermore, the survival and predatory behavior of H. aculeifer and H. miles decreases above 28 degrees C, which is the lower value of the optimal temperature zone range required for rearing snakes. The aim of this study is to identify the ability of the predatory mite Cheyletus eruditus to control O. natricis. In the first experiment, 125 O. natricis mites where placed in separate plastic tubes together with the same number of C. eruditus mites. After 48 hr, the survival rate of snake mites was 6% compared with 92% in the control group (n = 125, P snake) ball pythons, with an average of 13 O. natricis per individual, were placed in separate cages with 1,000 C. eruditus mites + vermiculite After 15 days, only an average of two mites per snake remained, compared with 48 per snake in the control group (t-test, P < 0,01).

  6. The effect of sub-floor heating on house-dust-mite populations on floors and in furniture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, Rob

    2003-01-01

    It is well known that dehydrating conditions for house dust mites can be created by simply raising the temperature, causing loss of body water and eventually death. Thus, it can be expected that conditions for dust mites are less favourable on floors supplied with sub-floor heating. This was examined in a study of 16 houses with sub-floor heating and 21 without. The pattern of changes in air humidity and temperature on the floors was investigated and compared to known data of the tolerance of dust mites. Also the resident mite populations were compared. Floors with sub-floor heating had, on average, fewer mites, but the difference with unheated floors was small. It was remarkable that mite numbers were also lower in upholstered furniture. Another important observation was that some houses with sub-floor heating had high mite numbers, indicating that this type of heating is compatible with a thriving mite population. Temperature and humidity conditions of heated floors may allow mites not only to survive, but also to remain active in winter. A moderate increase in temperature, a moderate decrease in (absolute) air humidity, or a combination of both, will suffice to keep the humidity all winter below the Critical Equilibrium Humidity, the level of air humidity that is critical for mite growth and reproduction, hence for allergen production. However, it is argued that measures to suppress allergen production by house dust mites are likely to be far more effective if taken in summer rather than in winter.

  7. Reproductive biology of varroa mites in colonies of Africanized honey bees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calderon Fallas, R.A.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the reproductive biology of V. destructor in Africanized honeybees (AHB) in Central American conditions, specifically in Costa Rica. Attention was paid to mite fertility and production of viable female mites in worker and drone brood cells. Other reproduction parameters, like

  8. The effect of topsoil removal in restored heathland on soil fauna, topsoil microstructure, and cellulose decomposition : implications for ecosystem restoration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frouz, Jan; Van Diggelen, Rudy; Pizl, Vaclav; Stary, Josef; Hanel, Ladislav; Tajovsky, Karel; Kalcik, Jiri

    2009-01-01

    Communities of soil macrofauna, oribatid mites, and nematodes as well as vegetation and soil chemistry were studied on twelve plots representing three replicates of the following treatments: agricultural meadow, heathland, and heathland restored either by partial or complete topsoil removal 15 years

  9. Feather mites of Calidris fuscicollis (Aves: Scolopacidae) in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes, S. N.; Pesenti, T. C.; Cirne, M. P.; Müller, G.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract During the period 2010-2012, eighty individuals of Calidris fuscicollis (Vieillot, 1819) were collected on the southern coast of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, with the objective of determining the presence of feather mites. Of the 80 birds examined, 32.5% were infested by mites, identified as Avenzoaria calidridis (Oudemans, 1904) (Avenzoariidae) (31.25%), Montchadskiana securicata (Megnin & Trouessart 1884) (Pterolichidae) (22.5%) and Alloptes limosae (Dubinin, 1951) (Alloptidae) (6.25...

  10. Beyond insects: current status, achievements and future perspectives of RNAi in mite pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Jinzhi; Shen, Guangmao; Christiaens, Olivier; Smagghe, Guy; He, Lin; Wang, Jinjun

    2018-05-11

    Mites comprise a group of key agricultural pests on a wide range of crops. They cause harm through feeding on the plant and transferring dangerous pathogens, and the rapid evolution of pesticide resistance in mites highlights the need for novel control methods. Currently, RNA interference (RNAi) shows a great potential for insect pest control. Here, we review the literature associated with RNAi in mite pests. We discuss different target genes and RNAi efficiency in various mite species, a promising Varroa control program through RNAi, the synergy of RNAi with plant defense mechanisms and microorganisms, and the current understandings of systemic movement of dsRNA. Based on this, we can conclude that there is a clear potential for an RNAi-based mite control application but further research on several aspects is needed, including: (i) the factors influencing the RNAi efficiency, (ii) the mechanism of environmental RNAi and cross-kingdom dsRNA trafficking, (iii) the mechanism of possible systemic and parental RNAi, and (iv) non-target effects, specifically in predatory mites, should be considered during the RNAi target selection. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  11. Dermatitis due to Mixed Demodex and Sarcoptes Mites in Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Sudhakara Reddy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In dogs, dermatitis due to mixed mite infestation is rare. During the five-year period of study, two dogs were identified suffering from dermatitis due to mixed Demodex and Sarcoptes mites. Upon clinical examination dogs had primary and secondary skin lesions on face, around the ears, chin, neck, fore limbs and lateral abdomen. Microscopic examination of skin scrapings revealed Demodex and Sarcoptes mites. Both dogs were treated with daily oral ivermectin at 100 to 400 μg/kg body weight as incremental doses, external application of amitraz and supportive treatments with topical antimicrobial shampoo. After completion of forty-two days of therapy, dogs were recovered from the dermatitis.

  12. Trophic structure and feeding rates of forest soil invertebrate populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McBrayer, J F; Reichle, D E

    1971-01-01

    Trophic level relationships of a soil invertebrate community were determined using the transient behavior of cesium-137 in experimental soil microcosms. Feeding rates were estimated from radionuclide mass balance equations using radiocesium uptake coefficients, equilibrium concentrations of /sup 137/Cs in consumers, and /sup 137/Cs composition of food bases. The fungivore trophic level included Scatopsidae larvae (Diptera), Enchytraeida (Annelida), Entomobryidae and Onychiuridae (Collembola), Rhodacaridae (Mesostigmata), and Oribatulidae, Camasiidae, Carabodidae, and Cymbaeremaeidae (Oribatei). Approximately 60% of the total faunal biomass occurred in the fungivore trophic level. Fungivores averaged 7.0 +/- 2.4% dry body weight ingested per day. Cecidomyiidae larvae (Diptera), Diplopoda, Isotomidae (Collembola), Uropodina, and Phthiracaridae (Oribatei) were determined to be surface-feeding saprophages. Subsurface-feeding saprophages included Symphyla, Cillibidae (Uropidina), and Palaeacaridae and Epilohmannidae (Oribatei). Surface-feeding saprophages averaged 1.0 +/- 0.4% dry body weight ingested per day. Feeding rates were not calculated for saprophages feeding within the mineral soil horizon. Predators included Dolichopodidae larvae (Diptera), gamasine mites, and the Scutacaridae and other prostigmatid mites. Predators averaged 2.5 +/- 1.0% dry body weight ingested per day. 15 references, 3 figures, 3 tables.

  13. [Role of the poultry red mite (Dermanyssus gallinae) in the transmission of avian influenza A virus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, D; Heffels-Redmann, U; Köhler, K; Lierz, M; Kaleta, E F

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of the poultry red mite (Dermanyssus [D.] gallinae) in the horizontal transmission of avian influenza A virus (AIV) to chickens. This mite is the most common ectoparasite in poultry worldwide, and may play a role in the spread of infectious agents including AIV. Currently, the control of mites is difficult due to frequently developed resistance to many acaricides, their nocturnality and their ability to survive hidden without feeding for months. D. gallinae were collected in a commercial layer farm and housed in self-made fibreboard boxes. SPF chickens were intravenously infected with AIV strain A/turkey/Ontario/7732/1966 (H5N9). The viraemia in chickens was monitored and at an appropriate time point about 1000 mites were allowed to suck on the AIV infected chickens. Re-isolation of the virus from blood-filled mites was tried daily for 14 days using chicken embryo fibroblast cultures and embryonated chicken eggs. Subsequently, the virus containing mites were placed into boxes that contained naïve SPF chickens to enable virus transmission from mites to chickens. Possible transmission to the chickens was examined using clinical signs, serology, gross lesions, histopathology and immunohistochemistry. Chickens developed a dose-dependent viraemia one day after infection, therefore this day was chosen for the bloodmeal of the mites. AIV was detected in mites after bloodsucking on AIV-infected chickens over a 10-day period. Naïve SPF chickens were infected during bloodsucking of AIV carrying mites. AIV isolates in mites and in chickens were undistinguishable from the original AIV inoculum by RT-PCR. D. gallinae ingested AIV during bloodmeals on AIV infected chickens and are able to transmit AIV to SPF chickens. Therefore, mites serve as mechanical vector of AIV and may play a major role in the circulation of AIV within a facility or area although the life span of infectious virus in the mite is limited. The proven

  14. Food stress causes sex-specific maternal effects in mites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walzer, Andreas; Schausberger, Peter

    2015-08-01

    Life history theory predicts that females should produce few large eggs under food stress and many small eggs when food is abundant. We tested this prediction in three female-biased size-dimorphic predatory mites feeding on herbivorous spider mite prey: Phytoseiulus persimilis, a specialized spider mite predator; Neoseiulus californicus, a generalist preferring spider mites; Amblyseius andersoni, a broad diet generalist. Irrespective of predator species and offspring sex, most females laid only one small egg under severe food stress. Irrespective of predator species, the number of female but not male eggs decreased with increasing maternal food stress. This sex-specific effect was probably due to the higher production costs of large female than small male eggs. The complexity of the response to the varying availability of spider mite prey correlated with the predators' degree of adaptation to this prey. Most A. andersoni females did not oviposit under severe food stress, whereas N. californicus and P. persimilis did oviposit. Under moderate food stress, only P. persimilis increased its investment per offspring, at the expense of egg number, and produced few large female eggs. When prey was abundant, P. persimilis decreased the female egg sizes at the expense of increased egg numbers, resulting in a sex-specific egg size/number trade-off. Maternal effects manifested only in N. californicus and P. persimilis. Small egg size correlated with the body size of daughters but not sons. Overall, our study provides a key example of sex-specific maternal effects, i.e. food stress during egg production more strongly affects the sex of the large than the small offspring. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  15. Response of Soil Mesofauna to Long-Term Application of Feedlot Manure on Irrigated Cropland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jim J; Battigelli, Jeff P; Beasley, Bruce W; Drury, Craig F

    2017-01-01

    Long-term application of feedlot manure to cropland may influence soil mesofauna. These organisms affect the health, structure, and fertility of soils, organic matter decomposition, and crop growth. The objective was to study the long-term (16-17 yr) influence of feedlot manure type and bedding on soil mesofauna over 2 yr (2014-2015). Stockpiled or composted feedlot manure with straw (ST) or wood-chip (WD) bedding (plus unamended control) was annually applied (13 Mg ha dry wt.) to an irrigated clay loam soil with continuous barley (). Intact cores were taken from surface (0-5 cm) soil in the fall, and the densities of Acari (mites) suborders and Collembola (springtails) families were determined. Manure type had no significant ( > 0.05) effect on soil mesofauna density. In contrast, there was a significant two- to sixfold increase in density with WD- compared with ST-amended soils of total Acari in 2014 and 2015, as well as total Collembola, total Acari and Collembola, oribatid mites, and entomobryid springtails in 2014. The bedding effect was attributed to significantly greater soil water content and lower bulk density for WD than ST. Density of soil mesofauna was not significantly greater in amended soils than in unamended soils. A shift by feedlot producers from stockpiled to composted feedlot manure application should have no effect on soil mesofauna density, whereas a shift from ST to WD bedding may increase the density of certain soil mesofauna, which may have a beneficial effect on soil. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  16. MITEE: A new nuclear engine concept for ultra fast, lightweight solar system exploration missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, James; Paniagua, John; Ludewig, Hans; Maise, George; Todosow, Michael

    1998-01-01

    A new ultra compact nuclear engine concept, MITEE (MIniature R_eactor E_nginE_), is described, and its performance evaluated for various solar system exploration missions. The MITEE concept is based on the Particle Bed Reactor (PBR), with modifications that enable a smaller, lighter nuclear engine. A range of MITEE Engine designs is described. Representative design parameters for the baseline MITEE reactor are: 75MW(th) power level, 1000 second Isp, 100 kilogram mass, 10 MW/Liter fuel element power density, 39 cm core diameter/height. Total engine mass, including turbo pump assembly, nozzles, controls, and contingency, is estimated to be 200 kilograms. Using the MITEE engine, ultra fast, lightweight solar system exploration missions are enabled. A range of such missions has been analyzed using the MULIMP code, and are described.

  17. Vulnerability and behavioral response to ultraviolet radiation in the components of a foliar mite prey-predator system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachi, Fuyuki; Osakabe, Masahiro

    2012-12-01

    Ambient ultraviolet-B (UVB) radiation impacts plant-dwelling arthropods including herbivorous and predatory mites. However, the effects of UVB on prey-predator systems, such as that between the herbivorous spider mite and predatory phytoseiid mite, are poorly understood. A comparative study was conducted to determine the vulnerability and behavioral responses of these mites to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. First, we analyzed dose-response (cumulative irradiance-mortality) curves for the eggs of phytoseiid mites ( Neoseiulus californicus, Neoseiulus womersleyi, and Phytoseiulus persimilis) and the spider mite ( Tetranychus urticae) to UVB radiation from a UV lamp. This indicated that the phytoseiid mites were more vulnerable than the spider mite, although P. persimilis was slightly more tolerant than the other two phytoseiid mites. Second, we compared the avoidance behavior of adult female N. californicus and two spider mite species ( T. urticae, a lower leaf surface user; Panonychus citri, an upper leaf surface user) in response to solar UV and visible light. N. californicus actively avoided both types of radiation, whereas P. citri showed only minimal avoidance behavior. T. urticae actively avoided UV as well as N. californicus but exhibited a slow response to visible light as well as P. citri. Such variation in vulnerability and avoidance behavior accounts for differences in the species adaptations to solar UVB radiation. This may be the primary factor determining habitat use among these mites on host plant leaves, subsequently affecting accessibility by predators and also intraguild competition.

  18. THE ECOLOGICAL STRUCTURE OF ORIBATID MITES POPULATION (‘OSNOVNOY’ QUARRY, DONETSK REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shtirts А. D.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In the successional recovery processes of quarry-spoiled systems soil-living oribatide mites, who are one of the pioneer groups inhabiting anthropogenically transformed areas, play a significant role. The aim of our study was to research composition and characteristics of oribatide mites ecological community structure of the ‘Osnovnoy’ quarry (PJSC ‘HeidelbergCement Ukraine’ in Amvrosievsky district of Donetsk region. The material was collected in 2012. In total, 37 standard soil samples of 250 cm3 were collected, from which 1086 adult specimen, who belong to 61 species, were extracted in April. The collection of soil samples and forcing of oribatides in thermoelectors was conducted by the conventional method of E. M. Bulanovа-Zahvatkinа. To analyze the communities domination structure the gradations of dominance by the means of G. Engelmann scale was used. The analysis of the oribatides morpho-ecological types distribution was held in accordance to the work of D. A. Krivolutsky. To assess the ecological diversity of oribatides communities the indices of Shannon, Pielou, Simpson and Margalef were used. On the territory of the «Osnovnoy» quarry, a specific complex with a unique oribatid species composition was detected (two new species were found for the fauna of Ukraine noted earlier for the steppes of Mongolia: Ghilarovus khentiicus Bayartogtokh, Smelyansky, 2007 and Hemileius humeralis Perez-Inigo, 1990. During the analysis of the oribatide communities ecological structure low rates of average population density (7280-11410 ind./m2 were observed with high species wealth (61 species found. The maximum figure made up in spring, the minimum – in summer. The ecological diversity indexes are quite high, thus the maximum for Shannon index in spring is 2.89, which is comparable to that of the conserved areas. The quarry dominant species are Multioppia glabra, Protoribates capucinus, Tectocepheus velatus, Scheloribates laevigatus, and

  19. Egg hatching response to a range of ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation doses for four predatory mites and the herbivorous spider mite Tetranychus urticae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koveos, Dimitrios S; Suzuki, Takeshi; Terzidou, Anastasia; Kokkari, Anastasia; Floros, George; Damos, Petros; Kouloussis, Nikos A

    2017-01-01

    Egg hatchability of four predatory mites-Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot, Iphiseius [Amblyseius] degenerans Berlese, Amblyseius swirskii Athias-Henriot, and Euseius finlandicus Oudemans (Acari: Phytoseiidae)-and the spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) was determined under various UV-B doses either in constant darkness (DD) or with simultaneous irradiation using white light. Under UV-B irradiation and DD or simultaneous irradiation with white light, the predator's eggs hatched in significantly lower percentages than in the control non-exposed eggs, which indicates deleterious effects of UV-B on embryonic development. In addition, higher hatchability percentages were observed under UV-B irradiation and DD in eggs of the predatory mites than in eggs of T. urticae. This might be caused by a higher involvement of an antioxidant system, shield effects by pigments or a mere shorter duration of embryonic development in predatory mites than in T. urticae, thus avoiding accumulative effects of UV-B. Although no eggs of T. urticae hatched under UV-B irradiation and DD, variable hatchability percentages were observed under simultaneous irradiation with white light, which suggests the involvement of a photoreactivation system that reduces UV-B damages. Under the same doses with simultaneous irradiation with white light, eggs of T. urticae displayed higher photoreactivation and were more tolerant to UV-B than eggs of the predatory mites. Among predators variation regarding the tolerance to UV-B effects was observed, with eggs of P. persimilis and I. degenerans being more tolerant to UV-B radiation than eggs of A. swirskii and E. finlandicus.

  20. Temperature influences the toxicity of deltamethrin, chlorpyrifos and dimethoate to the predatory mite Hypoaspis aculeifer (Acari) and the springtail Folsomia candida (Collembola).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jegede, O O; Owojori, O J; Römbke, J

    2017-06-01

    In order to assess the influence of temperature on pesticide toxicity to soil fauna, specimens of the predatory mite Hypoaspis aculeifer and the springtail Folsomia candida were exposed in artificial soil spiked with different concentrations of three pesticides (dimethoate, chlorpyrifos and deltamethrin) at 20°C vs 28°C for the mites and 20°C vs 26°C for the springtails. All tests were carried out according to OECD guidelines. In the mite tests, the toxic effects of dimethoate and chlorpyrifos on survival was about two orders of magnitude more at 28°C than at 20°C. Mite reproduction decreased in the tests with chlorpyrifos and deltamethrin by about four to five orders of magnitude at 28°C than at 20°C. (EC50 28 ° C =1.42 and 2.52mg/kg vs EC50 20 ° C =6.18 and 10.09mg/kg) In the collembolan tests, the toxicity of dimethoate on survival was higher at 26°C than at 20°C (LC50 26 ° C =0.17mg/kg vs LC50 20 ° C =0.36mg/kg), while the opposite was detected for deltamethrin (LC50 26 ° C =11.27mg/kg vs LC50 20 ° C =6.84mg/kg). No difference was found in the test with chlorpyrifos. Effects of dimethoate and chlorpyrifos on reproduction were higher at 26°C than at 20°C (EC50 26 ° C =0.11 and 0.018mg/kg vs EC50 20 ° C =0.29 and 0.031mg/kg respectively), but in the case of deltamethrin the opposite was observed (EC50 26 ° C =12.85mg/kg vs EC50 20 ° C =2.77mg/kg). A preliminary risk assessment of the three pesticides at the two temperature regimes based on the Toxicity Exposure Ratio (TER) approach of the European Union, shows that in general there are few different outcomes when comparing data gained at different temperatures. However, in the light of the few comparisons made data gained in temperate regions should be used with caution in the tropics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Mite Pests in Plant Crops – Current Issues, Inovative Approaches and Possibilities for Controlling Them (1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radmila Petanović

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the middle of the last century, mites moved into the focus of attention as pests relevantto agriculture, forestry and landscape horticulture, presumably in direct reactionto the “green revolution” that involved plant cultivation in large-plot monocropping systems,improved methods of cultivation, selection of high-yielding cultivars and intensifieduse of pesticides and mineral fertilizers. Agroecosystems in which phytophagous miteshave become harmful organisms are primarily orchards, vineyards, greenhouses, urbangreeneries, plant nurseries and stored plant products, as well as annual field crops to asomewhat lesser degree. Phytophagous mite species belong to a variety of spider mites(Tetranychidae, false spider mites (Tenuipalpidae, gall and rust mites (Eriophyoidae, tarsonemidmites (Tarsonemidae and acarid mites (Acaridae. Most of these harmful speciesare widespread, some of them having more economic impact than others and being moredetrimental as depending on various specificities of each outdoor agroecosystem in anyparticular climatic region.The first segment of this overview focuses on the most significant mite pests ofagroecosystemsand urban horticultural areas in European countries, our own region andin Serbia today, primarily on species that have caused problems in recent years regardingplant production, and it also discusses various molecular methods available for investigatingdifferent aspects of the biology of phytophagous mites. Also, acaricides are discussedas a method of controlling mite pests in the light of the current situation and trends on pesticidemarkets in Serbia and the European Union member-countries

  2. Behaviour of Coconut Mites Preceding Take-off to Passive Aerial Dispersal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melo, J.W.S.; Lima, D.B.; Sabelis, M.W.; Pallini, A.; Gondim Jr., M.G.C.

    2014-01-01

    For more than three decades the coconut mite Aceria guerreronis Keifer is one of the most important pests of coconut palms and has recently spread to many coconut production areas worldwide. Colonization of coconut palms is thought to arise from mites dispersing aerially after take-off from other

  3. The influence of household pets on the composition and quantity of allergenic mite fauna within Irish homes: a preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, D; Dix, E; Liddy, S; Gormally, M; Byrne, M

    2016-03-01

    Allergenic mites are responsible for inducing hypersensitive reactions in genetically predisposed people worldwide. Mites in dust from 30 Irish homes with pets (dogs, n = 23; cats, n = 7) were compared with those in 30 homes without pets. House dust mites constituted 78% of all mites recorded, with Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Acariformes: Pyroglyphidae) representing 57-72% of mites in furniture and mattresses in both home types compared with only 22% of mites in pet beds. Although storage mites accounted for just 13% of all mites recorded, they represented 46% of mites recorded in pet beds. Median levels of the dust mite allergen Der p 1 (µg/g) in dust samples from mattresses in homes without pets were significantly greater than in mattresses from homes with pets, reflecting the greater densities of D. pteronyssinus found in the former home category. Mite species richness was greater in homes with pets (17 species) than in homes without pets (13 species). This suggests that although the presence of pets can result in a wider variety of epidemiologically important mite species within households, increased competition among mite species may result in a more balanced mite fauna in the home, inhibiting the dominance of any one species and hence lowering allergen-associated risks. © 2015 The Royal Entomological Society.

  4. Denegación y límite: Acerca de los llamados trastornos límites

    OpenAIRE

    Pereña, Francisco

    2009-01-01

    El estudio de los trastornos del límite revela que la neurosis y la psicosis sólo cubren un reducido campo de la psicopatología. Studies regarding disorders of borderline point out that neurosis and psychosis only cover a small field within psychopathology.

  5. Global divergence of the human follicle mite Demodex folliculorum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palopoli, Michael F.; Fergus, Daniel J.; Minot, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    Microscopic mites of the genus Demodex live within the hair follicles of mammals and are ubiquitous symbionts of humans, but little molecular work has been done to understand their genetic diversity or transmission. Here we sampled mite DNA from 70 human hosts of diverse geographic ancestries...... American ancestry. To a great extent, the ancestral geography of hosts predicted the lineages of mites found on them; 27% of the total molecular variance segregated according to the regional ancestries of hosts. We found that D. folliculorum populations are stable on an individual over the course of years...... system for further understanding the history of human movement....

  6. Morphometric variations of laelapine mite (Acari: Mesostigmata populations infesting small mammals (Mammalia in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Martins-Hatano

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to evaluate the morphometric variation of laelapine populations (Acari, Mesostigmata associated with neotropical oryzomyine rodents at different geographic localities in Brazil. Three nominal mite species were selected for study, all infesting the pelage of small mammals at different localities in Rio de Janeiro, Espírito Santo, Bahia, and the Federal District, Brazil. To analyse morphometric characteristics, thirty-seven morphological characters distributed across the whole body of each specimen were measured. We use the Analysis of Principal Components, extracting the three first axes and projecting each mite in these axes. Major species level changes in the taxonomy of the host mammals allows an independent examination of morphometric variation of mites infesting a set of distinctly different host species at different geographic localities. Gigantolaelaps vitzthumi and Laelaps differens are associated with oryzomyine rodents of the genus Cerradomys, and consistently showed a tendency to cluster by host phylogeny. Laelaps manguinhosi associated with Nectomys rattus in central Brazil is morphometrically distinct from mites infesting N. squamipes in the coastal restingas of Rio de Janeiro and Espírito Santo. The results obtained here indicate that laelapine mite populations can vary among geographic areas and among phylogenetically related host species. Clearly, the study of these mites at the population level can be an important tool for clarifying the taxonomy of both mites and hosts.

  7. Morphometric variations of laelapine mite (Acari: Mesostigmata) populations infesting small mammals (Mammalia) in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins-Hatano, F; Gettinger, D; Manhães, M L; Bergallo, H G

    2012-08-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the morphometric variation of laelapine populations (Acari, Mesostigmata) associated with neotropical oryzomyine rodents at different geographic localities in Brazil. Three nominal mite species were selected for study, all infesting the pelage of small mammals at different localities in Rio de Janeiro, Espírito Santo, Bahia, and the Federal District, Brazil. To analyse morphometric characteristics, thirty-seven morphological characters distributed across the whole body of each specimen were measured. We use the Analysis of Principal Components, extracting the three first axes and projecting each mite in these axes. Major species level changes in the taxonomy of the host mammals allows an independent examination of morphometric variation of mites infesting a set of distinctly different host species at different geographic localities. Gigantolaelaps vitzthumi and Laelaps differens are associated with oryzomyine rodents of the genus Cerradomys, and consistently showed a tendency to cluster by host phylogeny. Laelaps manguinhosi associated with Nectomys rattus in central Brazil is morphometrically distinct from mites infesting N. squamipes in the coastal restingas of Rio de Janeiro and Espírito Santo. The results obtained here indicate that laelapine mite populations can vary among geographic areas and among phylogenetically related host species. Clearly, the study of these mites at the population level can be an important tool for clarifying the taxonomy of both mites and hosts.

  8. Soil microarthropods are only weakly impacted after 13 years of repeated drought treatment in wet and dry heathland soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmstrup, Martin; Sørensen, Jesper G.; Schmidt, Inger Kappel

    2013-01-01

    Studies of biological responses in the terrestrial environment to rapid changes in climate have mostly been concerned with aboveground biota, whereas less is known of belowground organisms. The present study focuses on mites and springtails of heathland ecosystems and how the microarthropod...... and temperature. This approach provided an opportunity to study biological responses on a local (within sites) and regional scale. Warming treatments increasing night time temperature (0.3–1 °C higher than ambient at 5 cm soil depth) had no detectable effects on the microarthropod communities. Increased intensity...... and frequency of drought had only weak persistent effects on springtail species composition, but practically no effect on major mite groups (Oribatida, Prostigmata or Mesostigmata) suggesting that ecosystem functions of microarthropods may only be transiently impacted by repeated spring or summer drought....

  9. Isolation of oxalotrophic bacteria associated with Varroa destructor mites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddaloni, M; Pascual, D W

    2015-11-01

    Bacteria associated with varroa mites were cultivated and genotyped by 16S RNA. Under our experimental conditions, the cultivable bacteria were few in number, and most of them proved to be fastidious to grow. Cultivation with seven different media under O2 /CO2 conditions and selection for colony morphology yielded a panel of species belonging to 13 different genera grouped in two different phyla, proteobacteria and actinobacteria. This study identified one species of actinobacteria that is a known commensal of the honey bee. Some isolates are oxalotrophic, a finding that may carry ramifications into the use of oxalic acid to control the number of phoretic mites in the managed colonies of honey bees. Oxalic acid, legally or brevi manu, is widely used to control phoretic Varroa destructor mites, a major drive of current honey bees' colony losses. Unsubstantiated by sanctioned research are rumours that in certain instances oxalic acid is losing efficacy, forcing beekeepers to increase the frequency of treatments. This investigation fathoms the hypothesis that V. destructor associates with bacteria capable of degrading oxalic acid. The data show that indeed oxalotrophy, a rare trait among bacteria, is common in bacteria that we isolated from V. destructor mites. This finding may have ramifications in the use of oxalic acid as a control agent. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  10. House dust-mite allergen exposure is associated with serum specific IgE but not with respiratory outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakolis, I; Heinrich, J; Zock, J P; Norbäck, D; Svanes, C; Chen, C M; Accordini, S; Verlato, G; Olivieri, M; Jarvis, D

    2015-06-01

    Exposure to house dust has been associated with asthma in adults, and this is commonly interpreted as a direct immunologic response to dust-mite allergens in those who are IgE sensitized to house dust-mite. Mattress house dust-mite concentrations were measured in a population-based sample of 2890 adults aged between 27 and 56 years living in 22 centers in 10 countries. Generalized linear mixed models were employed to explore the association of respiratory symptoms with house dust-mite concentrations, adjusting for individual and household confounders. There was no overall association of respiratory outcomes with measured house dust-mite concentrations, even in those who reported they had symptoms on exposure to dust and those who had physician-diagnosed asthma. However, there was a positive association of high serum specific IgE levels to HDM (>3.5 kUA /l) with mattress house dust-mite concentrations and a negative association of sensitization to cat with increasing house dust-mite concentrations. In conclusion, there was no evidence that respiratory symptoms in adults were associated with exposure to house dust-mite allergen in the mattress, but an association of house mite with strong sensitization was observed. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Size of predatory mites and refuge entrance determine success of biological control of the coconut mite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    da Silva, F.R.; de Moraes, G.J.; Lesna, I.; Sato, Y.; Vasquez, C.; Hanna, R.; Sabelis, M.W.; Janssen, A.

    2016-01-01

    Predators face the challenge of accessing prey that live in sheltered habitats. The coconut mite Aceriaguerreronis Keifer (Acari: Eriophyidae) lives hidden beneath the perianth, which is appressed to the coconut fruit surface, where they feed on the meristematic tissue. Its natural enemy, the

  12. Behavioural responses of two-spotted spider mites induced by predator-borne and prey-borne cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyuris, Enikő; Szép, Erna; Kontschán, Jenő; Hettyey, Attila; Tóth, Zoltán

    2017-11-01

    Applying predatory mites as biological control agents is a well established method against spider mites which are major pests worldwide. Although antipredator responses can influence the outcome of predator-prey interactions, we have limited information about what cues spider mites use to adjust their behavioural antipredator responses. We experimentally exposed two-spotted spider mites (Tetranychus urticae) to different predator-borne cues (using a specialist predator, Phytoseiulus persimilis, or a generalist predator, Amblyseius swirskii), conspecific prey-borne cues, or both, and measured locomotion and egg-laying activity. The reactions to predator species compared to each other manifested in reversed tendencies: spider mites increased their locomotion activity in the presence of P. persimilis, whereas they decreased it when exposed to A. swirskii. The strongest response was triggered by the presence of a killed conspecific: focal spider mites decreased their locomotion activity compared to the control group. Oviposition activity was not affected by either treatment. Our results point out that spider mites may change their behaviour in response to predators, and also to the presence of killed conspecifics, but these effects were not enhanced when both types of cues were present. The effect of social contacts among prey conspecifics on predator-induced behavioural defences is discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Cycling and effects of 36Cl labeled DDT on soil invertebrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dindal, Daniel L.

    1978-08-01

    DDT, radiolabeled with /sup 36/Cl (total activity of 10.2 mc) and applied in the field at the rate of 1.12 kg/ha, cannot be detected within decomposer microarthropods using liquid scintillation spectrometry. Soil microarthropods exhibit both positive and negative responses to direct and indirect effects of DDT. Faunal simplification (decreased diversity) resulting from pesticide application as reported by many others does not apply to the oribatid and prostigmatid mites of the old field. New colonization is possible by some species of Acari as a result of DDT application. Soil microbial respiration is enhanced by a single DDT application of 1 kg/ha. No apparent relationships exist between the increased microbial respiration and soil microarthropod population dynamics in this DDT treated old field. No apparent relationships exist between soil pH, moisture levels, texture and soil microarthropod population dynamics. Microarthropod community structure (species diversity and richness, interspecific relationships and similarity) are definitely affected by a single application of DDT. The Prostigmata are the most numerous mites in the soil of an old field in central Ohio. Vertebrate predators feeding on terrestrial snails may be subjected to magnified concentrations of DDT residues. Coprophagic decomposer organisms feeding on snail feces will be subject to much larger DDT concentrations. Terrestrial snails represented by Cepaea and Otala are not killed by acute oral doses of DDT. Within a three year period after a single application of DDT no effects on the soil faunal populations were seen below 3 cm of soil.

  14. Environmental Engineering Approaches toward Sustainable Management of Spider Mites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Takeshi

    2012-10-26

    Integrated pest management (IPM), which combines physical, biological, and chemical control measures to complementary effect, is one of the most important approaches to environmentally friendly sustainable agriculture. To expand IPM, we need to develop new pest control measures, reinforce existing measures, and investigate interactions between measures. Continued progress in the development of environmental control technologies and consequent price drops have facilitated their integration into plant production and pest control. Here I describe environmental control technologies for the IPM of spider mites through: (1) the disturbance of photoperiod-dependent diapause by artificial light, which may lead to death in seasonal environments; (2) the use of ultraviolet radiation to kill or repel mites; and (3) the use of water vapor control for the long-term cold storage of commercially available natural enemies. Such environmental control technologies have great potential for the efficient control of spider mites through direct physical effects and indirect effects via natural enemies.

  15. Social familiarity modulates group living and foraging behaviour of juvenile predatory mites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strodl, Markus A.; Schausberger, Peter

    2012-04-01

    Environmental stressors during early life may have persistent consequences for phenotypic development and fitness. In group-living species, an important stressor during juvenile development is the presence and familiarity status of conspecific individuals. To alleviate intraspecific conflicts during juvenile development, many animals evolved the ability to discriminate familiar and unfamiliar individuals based on prior association and use this ability to preferentially associate with familiar individuals. Assuming that familiar neighbours require less attention than unfamiliar ones, as predicted by limited attention theory, assorting with familiar individuals should increase the efficiency in other tasks. We assessed the influence of social familiarity on within-group association behaviour, development and foraging of juvenile life stages of the group-living, plant-inhabiting predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis. The observed groups consisted either of mixed-age familiar and unfamiliar juvenile mites or of age-synchronized familiar or unfamiliar juvenile mites or of pairs of familiar or unfamiliar larvae. Overall, familiar mites preferentially grouped together and foraged more efficiently, i.e. needed less prey at similar developmental speed and body size at maturity, than unfamiliar mites. Preferential association of familiar mites was also apparent in the inter-exuviae distances. Social familiarity was established by imprinting in the larval stage, was not cancelled or overridden by later conspecific contacts and persisted into adulthood. Life stage had an effect on grouping with larvae being closer together than nymphal stages. Ultimately, optimized foraging during the developmental phase may relax within-group competition, enhance current and future food supply needed for optimal development and optimize patch exploitation and leaving under limited food.

  16. Viral epidemiology of the adult Apis Mellifera infested by the Varroa destructor mite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, Sara; Venturino, Ezio

    2016-05-01

    The ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor has become one of the major worldwide threats for apiculture. Varroa destructor attacks the honey bee Apis mellifera weakening its host by sucking hemolymph. However, the damage to bee colonies is not strictly related to the parasitic action of the mite but it derives, above all, from its action as vector increasing the transmission of many viral diseases such as acute paralysis (ABPV) and deformed wing viruses (DWV), that are considered among the main causes of CCD (Colony Collapse Disorder). In this work we discuss an [Formula: see text] model that describes how the presence of the mite affects the epidemiology of these viruses on adult bees. The acronym [Formula: see text] means that the disease affects both populations. In fact it accounts for the bee and mite populations, that are each divided among the S (susceptible) and I (infected) states. We characterize the system behavior, establishing that ultimately either only healthy bees survive, or the disease becomes endemic and mites are wiped out. Another dangerous alternative is the Varroa invasion scenario with the extinction of healthy bees. The final possible configuration is the coexistence equilibrium in which honey bees share their infected hive with mites. The analysis is in line with some observed facts in natural honey bee colonies. Namely, these diseases are endemic. Further, if the mite population is present, necessarily the viral infection occurs. The findings of this study indicate that a low horizontal transmission rate of the virus among honey bees in beehives will help in protecting bee colonies from Varroa infestation and viral epidemics.

  17. Complete sequence analysis of 18S rDNA based on genomic DNA extraction from individual Demodex mites (Acari: Demodicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ya-E; Xu, Ji-Ru; Hu, Li; Wu, Li-Ping; Wang, Zheng-Hang

    2012-05-01

    The study for the first time attempted to accomplish 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) complete sequence amplification and analysis for three Demodex species (Demodex folliculorum, Demodex brevis and Demodex canis) based on gDNA extraction from individual mites. The mites were treated by DNA Release Additive and Hot Start II DNA Polymerase so as to promote mite disruption and increase PCR specificity. Determination of D. folliculorum gDNA showed that the gDNA yield reached the highest at 1 mite, tending to descend with the increase of mite number. The individual mite gDNA was successfully used for 18S rDNA fragment (about 900 bp) amplification examination. The alignments of 18S rDNA complete sequences of individual mite samples and those of pooled mite samples ( ≥ 1000mites/sample) showed over 97% identities for each species, indicating that the gDNA extracted from a single individual mite was as satisfactory as that from pooled mites for PCR amplification. Further pairwise sequence analyses showed that average divergence, genetic distance, transition/transversion or phylogenetic tree could not effectively identify the three Demodex species, largely due to the differentiation in the D. canis isolates. It can be concluded that the individual Demodex mite gDNA can satisfy the molecular study of Demodex. 18S rDNA complete sequence is suitable for interfamily identification in Cheyletoidea, but whether it is suitable for intrafamily identification cannot be confirmed until the ascertainment of the types of Demodex mites parasitizing in dogs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Nematode consumption by mite communities varies in different forest microhabitats as indicated by molecular gut content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidemann, Kerstin; Ruess, Liliane; Scheu, Stefan; Maraun, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Soil animals live in complex and heterogeneous habitats including litter of various types but also microhabitats such as mosses, fungal mats and grass patches. Soil food webs have been separated into a slow fungal and a fast bacterial energy channel. Bacterial-feeding nematodes are an important component of the bacterial energy channel by consuming bacteria and forming prey for higher trophic levels such as soil microarthropods. Investigating the role of nematodes as prey for higher trophic level consumers has been hampered by methodological problems related to their small body size and lack in skeletal structures which can be traced in the gut of consumers. Recent studies using molecular gut content analyses suggest that nematodes form major prey of soil microarthropods including those previously assumed to live as detritivores. Using molecular markers we traced nematode prey in fourteen abundant soil microarthropod taxa of Mesostigmata and Oribatida (both Acari) from three different microhabitats (litter, grass and moss). Consumption of nematodes varied between mite species indicating that trophic niche variation contributes to the high diversity of microarthropods in deciduous forests. Further, consumption of nematodes by Mesostigmata (but not Oribatida) differed between microhabitats indicating that trophic niches vary with habitat characteristics. Overall, the results suggest that free-living bacterial-feeding nematodes form important prey for soil microarthropods including those previously assumed to live as detritivores.

  19. Limits to ambulatory displacement of coconut mites in absence and presence of food-related cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, J W S; Lima, D B; Sabelis, M W; Pallini, A; Gondim, M G C

    2014-04-01

    Ambulatory movement of plant-feeding mites sets limits to the distances they can cover to reach a new food source. In absence of food-related cues these limits are determined by survival, walking activity, walking path tortuosity and walking speed, whereas in presence of food the limits are also determined by the ability to orient and direct the path towards the food source location. For eriophyoid mites such limits are even more severe because they are among the smallest mites on earth, because they have only two pairs of legs and because they are very sensitive to desiccation. In this article we test how coconut mites (Aceria guerreronis Keifer) are constrained in their effective displacement by their ability to survive in absence of food (meristematic tissue under the coconut perianth) and by their ability to walk and orient in absence or presence of food-related cues. We found that the mean survival time decreased with increasing temperature and decreasing humidity. Under climatic conditions representative for the Tropics (27 °C and 75 % relative humidity) coconut mites survived on average for 11 h and covered 0.4 m, representing the effective linear displacement away from the origin. Within a period of 5 h, coconut mites collected from old fruits outside the perianth moved further away from the origin than mites collected under the perianth of young fruits. However, in the presence of food-related cues coconut mites traveled over 30 % larger distances than in absence of these cues. These results show that ambulatory movement of eriophyoid mites may well bring them to other coconuts within the same bunch and perhaps also to other bunches on the same coconut palm, but it is unlikely to help them move from palm to palm, given that palms usually do not touch each other.

  20. A lost world disease: Copra itch outbreak caused by Tyrophagus longior mite

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    Prakit Sarathep

    Full Text Available An outbreak investigation of copra itch revealed a cluster of six suspected cases with skin dermatitis, with 11–32 years of age, belonging to a single family, between June and July 2016 in Phang Nga province, Southern Thailand. Epidemiologic investigation of these suspected cases revealed five probable cases developing multiple discrete erythematous papules with intense pruritus on the body rather than the extremities and one confirmed case whose skin was infested with domestic mite, Tyrophagus longior (Gervais (Ascari: Ascaridae. This mite was also found in unused coir mattresses outside their bedrooms. Household infestation with T. longior mites rendered these family members to become more susceptible to expose indoor biting of T. longior adult mites that were adapted well to the domestic environments with poor hygienic conditions. Human exposure to mite bites was more likely to be a direct contact than an indirect contact. Findings from this copra itch outbreak investigation provided understanding of natural disease of copra itch and factors that favored the outbreak, and could guide diagnosis for physicians, surveillance and response for surveillance and rapid response teams (SRRTs, and prevention and control for entomologists and public health personnel. Keywords: Copra itch, Tyrophagus longior, Erythematous papules, Domestic environments

  1. Trophic habits of mesostigmatid mites associated with bark beetles in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. Patricia Chaires-Grijalva; Edith G. Estrada-Venegas; Armando Equihua-Martinez; John C. Moser; Stacy R. Blomquist

    2016-01-01

    Samples of bark and logs damaged by bark beetles were collected from 16 states of Mexico from 2007 to 2012. Fifteen bark beetle species were found within the bark and log samples and were examined for phoretic mites and arthropod associates. Thirty-three species of mesostigmatid mites were discovered within the samples. They were identified in several trophic guilds...

  2. Social environment affects the life history tactic of a phoretic mite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nehring, Volker; Müller, Josef K

    2009-01-01

    Phoretic animals use their hosts for travelling to habitat patches suitable for reproduction. Some species, such as the mite Poecilochirus carabi, are phoretic as juveniles and cannot leave their habitat once they reach adulthood. Previous work has shown that mites exercise choice over the habitat...... influence of the social environment on a phoretic's habitat choice and life history....

  3. Active optical sensor assessment of spider mite damage on greenhouse beans and cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Daniel E; Latheef, Mohamed A

    2018-02-01

    The two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, is an important pest of cotton in mid-southern USA and causes yield reduction and deprivation in fiber fitness. Cotton and pinto beans grown in the greenhouse were infested with spider mites at the three-leaf and trifoliate stages, respectively. Spider mite damage on cotton and bean canopies expressed as normalized difference vegetation index indicative of changes in plant health was measured for 27 consecutive days. Plant health decreased incrementally for cotton until day 21 when complete destruction occurred. Thereafter, regrowth reversed decline in plant health. On spider mite treated beans, plant vigor plateaued until day 11 when plant health declined incrementally. Results indicate that pinto beans were better suited as a host plant than cotton for rearing T. urticae in the laboratory.

  4. Control of Varroa Mite (Varroa destructor on Honeybees by Aromatic Oils and Plant Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.K. Nazer

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of several volatile plant oils, plant materials and fluvalinate (Apistan® strips on the control of the mite Varroa destructor on honeybee (Apis mellifera L. colonies was studied. The volatile oils were: clove, lavender, peppermint, sage, and thyme. The plant materials were: cumin fruits, eucalyptus leaves, and worm wood flowers. For each tested material, three treatment periods were carried out. Each period lasted for 24 days followed by eight days no-treatment. Within each treatment period, an average of three to six treatments were applied. Dead mites were counted one hour before and after each treatment. An increase in dead mites was recorded for the three treatment periods. It indicated that worm wood flowers, peppermint oil and clove oil treatments gave the best results in the control of Varroa mites but not significantly different than the control. The overall increase in the dead mites was 3.92, 3.62 and 3.34 fold, respectively.

  5. Mites associated with sugarcane crop and with native trees from adjacent Atlantic forest fragment in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Mércia E; Navia, Denise; dos Santos, Lucas R; Rideiqui, Pedro J S; Silva, Edmilson S

    2015-08-01

    In some Brazilian regions the Atlantic forest biome is currently restrict to fragments occurring amid monocultures, as sugarcane crops in the Northeast region. Important influence of forest remnants over mite fauna of permanent crops have been showed, however it has been poorly explored on annual crops. The first step for understanding ecological relationship in an agricultural systems is known its composition. The objective of this study was to investigate the plant-inhabiting mite fauna associated with sugarcane crop (Saccharum officinarum L.) (Poaceae) and caboatã (Cupania oblongifolia Mart.) (Sapindaceae) trees in the state of Alagoas, Brazil. Sugarcane stalks and sugarcane and caboatã apical, middle and basal leaves were sampled. A total of 2565 mites were collected from sugarcane and classified into seven families of Trombidiformes and Mesostigmata orders, with most individuals belonging to the Eriophyidae, Tetranychidae and Tarsonemidae families. Among predatory mites, the Phytoseiidae were the most common. A total of 1878 mites were found on C. oblongifolia and classified into 13 families of Trombidiformes and Mesostigmata orders. The most abundant phytophagous mite family on caboatã was also Eriophyidae. In contrast to sugarcane, Ascidae was the most common predatory mite family observed in caboatã. No phytophagous species were common to both sugarcane and C. oblongifolia. However two predatory mites were shared between host plants. Although mites associated with only one native species in the forest fragment were evaluated in this study, our preliminary results suggest Atlantic forest native vegetation can present an important role in the sugarcane agricultural system as a source of natural enemies.

  6. Prey Preference of the Predatory Mite, Amblyseius swirskii between First Instar Western Flower Thrips Frankliniella occidentalis and Nymphs of the Twospotted Spider Mite Tetranychus urticae

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Xuenong; Enkegaard, Annie

    2010-01-01

    The prey preference of polyphagous predators plays an important role in suppressing different species of pest insects. In this study the prey preference of the predatory mite, Amblyseius swirskii (Athias-Henriot) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) was examined between nymphs of the twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) and first instar larvae of the western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), as well as between active and chrysa...

  7. Concordance and discordance between taxonomic and functional homogenization: responses of soil mite assemblages to forest conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Akira S; Ota, Aino T; Fujii, Saori; Seino, Tatsuyuki; Kabeya, Daisuke; Okamoto, Toru; Ito, Masamichi T; Kaneko, Nobuhiro; Hasegawa, Motohiro

    2015-10-01

    The compositional characteristics of ecological assemblages are often simplified; this process is termed "biotic homogenization." This process of biological reorganization occurs not only taxonomically but also functionally. Testing both aspects of homogenization is essential if ecosystem functioning supported by a diverse mosaic of functional traits in the landscape is concerned. Here, we aimed to infer the underlying processes of taxonomic/functional homogenization at the local scale, which is a scale that is meaningful for this research question. We recorded species of litter-dwelling oribatid mites along a gradient of forest conversion from a natural forest to a monoculture larch plantation in Japan (in total 11 stands), and collected data on the functional traits of the recorded species to quantify functional diversity. We calculated the taxonomic and functional β-diversity, an index of biotic homogenization. We found that both the taxonomic and functional β-diversity decreased with larch dominance (stand homogenization). After further deconstructing β-diversity into the components of turnover and nestedness, which reflect different processes of community organization, a significant decrease in the response to larch dominance was observed only for the functional turnover. As a result, there was a steeper decline in the functional β-diversity than the taxonomic β-diversity. This discordance between the taxonomic and functional response suggests that species replacement occurs between species that are functionally redundant under environmental homogenization, ultimately leading to the stronger homogenization of functional diversity. The insights gained from community organization of oribatid mites suggest that the functional characteristics of local assemblages, which support the functionality of ecosystems, are of more concern in human-dominated forest landscapes.

  8. House Dust Mite Prevalence in the House of Patients with Atopic Dermatitis in Mashhad, Iran

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    Toktam Ziyaei

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Being exposed to house dust mites intensifies atopic dermatitis. This study has investigated the con­tamination rate with Dermatophagoides mites in patient's residential home with atopic dermatitis.Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 40 patients took part with atopic dermatitis (positive or negative for mites by prick Dermal Test. Samples were collected from 3 locations (living room, bedroom and bed by vacuum cleaner. Dust samples (transferred to freezer -20 ˚C were examined by direct method and flotation. The data were analyzed using statistical SPSS vr.20 software.Results: Twenty patients of positive prick test included 8 (40% male and 12 (60% female. The results of direct observation of mites: 7 cases (35% in bedding sheets, 6 cases (30% bedrooms' carpet, 3 cases (15% living room's carpet. Twenty patients of negative prick test included 8 (40% male and 12 (60% female. Only mites were found (5% in living room's carpets of negative prick test patients. Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus was more frequent than Dermatophagoides farinae. (98% vs 83%.Conclusion: Fifty-five percent of residential homes of prick test positive patients and only 5% of residential homes of prick test negative patients were positive for mite. Sunshine provided home had fewer mites than home where sunshine is not provided. Prick test positive patients used handmade carpets more than machine made ones. In posi­tive prick test patients, mites were found in bed sheet and bedroom’s carpet more than negative prick test patient's sheets and carpets.

  9. Bee Mite ID - an online resource on identification of mites associated with bees of the World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parasitic mites are known to be a factor in recent declines in bee pollinator populations. In particular, Varroa destructor, an introduced parasite and disease vector, has decimated colonies of the western honey bee, one of the most important agricultural pollinators in the world. Further, global tr...

  10. The effect of queen pheromone status on Varroa mite removal from honey bee colonies with different grooming ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahreini, Rassol; Currie, Robert W

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effects of honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) with different grooming ability and queen pheromone status on mortality rates of Varroa mites (Varroa destructor Anderson and Trueman), mite damage, and mortality rates of honey bees. Twenty-four small queenless colonies containing either stock selected for high rates of mite removal (n = 12) or unselected stock (n = 12) were maintained under constant darkness at 5 °C. Colonies were randomly assigned to be treated with one of three queen pheromone status treatments: (1) caged, mated queen, (2) a synthetic queen mandibular pheromone lure (QMP), or (3) queenless with no queen substitute. The results showed overall mite mortality rate was greater in stock selected for grooming than in unselected stock. There was a short term transitory increase in bee mortality rates in selected stock when compared to unselected stock. The presence of queen pheromone from either caged, mated queens or QMP enhanced mite removal from clusters of bees relative to queenless colonies over short periods of time and increased the variation in mite mortality over time relative to colonies without queen pheromone, but did not affect the proportion of damaged mites. The effects of source of bees on mite damage varied with time but damage to mites was not reliably related to mite mortality. In conclusion, this study showed differential mite removal of different stocks was possible under low temperature. Queen status should be considered when designing experiments using bioassays for grooming response.

  11. The First Report of Eustigmaeus Johnstoni (Acari: Stigmaeidae Parasitic Mite of Phlebotominae Sand Flies from Iran

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    Mehdi Badakhshan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Stigmaeids mites have been recorded only on Phlebotominae sand flies up to now. Five species of Eustigmaeus, and three of Stigmaeus were reported on infested sandflies in different country up to the present.Methods: Sand flies collection was done using CDC light trap and sticky paper. The mites were isolated from in­fested specimens, mounted in Puri’s medium and identified using reliable keys.Results: A mite infested Phlebotomus papatasi was observed during a study on sandflies of one of the southern provinces of Iran, near to the Persian Gulf. Several scars resulting from mite attachment were found on abdominal tergites of this female sand fly. The mites were identified as Eustigmaeus johnstoni.Conclusion: This parasitic mite is one of the eyeless species, which has a great distribution over the world, reported from Tunisia, Saudi Arabia, Pakistan, Yemen, Cyprus and Palestine. But, this is the first record of this species from Iran.

  12. Mite fauna and fungal flora in house dust from homes of asthmatic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, A; Takaoka, M; Ichinoe, M; Kabasawa, Y; Ouchi, T

    1979-12-01

    Mite fauna and fungal flora in the house dust from homes of asthmatic children with positive and negative skin test to house dust allergen and non-asthmatic controls were examined. There was no conspicuous difference in mite species distribution among the three groups. Pyroglyphid mites dominate the mite fauna in house dust more than half of which being Dermatophagoides: D. pteronyssinus and D. farinae. There was no statistically significant difference in numbers between the two species and either species could dominate depending on the conditions of the individual houses. The average number of acarina in 0.5 g of fine dust did not differ statistically among the three groups; however, mite number per square meter floor differed between patients with positive skin test and negative skin test. The results suggest that house-cleaning might influence the possible sensitization of children. The genetic distribution of mould fungi in house dust was largely similar to that of airborne fungi. The average number of fungal colonies detected in 0.5 g of dust did not differ statistically among the three groups. Wallemia with its minute spores may cause sensitization but has so far been insufficiently investigated.

  13. From repulsion to attraction: species- and spatial context-dependent threat sensitive response of the spider mite Tetranychus urticae to predatory mite cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Ferrari, M. Celeste; Schausberger, Peter

    2013-06-01

    Prey perceiving predation risk commonly change their behavior to avoid predation. However, antipredator strategies are costly. Therefore, according to the threat-sensitive predator avoidance hypothesis, prey should match the intensity of their antipredator behaviors to the degree of threat, which may depend on the predator species and the spatial context. We assessed threat sensitivity of the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, to the cues of three predatory mites, Phytoseiulus persimilis, Neoseiulus californicus, and Amblyseius andersoni, posing different degrees of risk in two spatial contexts. We first conducted a no-choice test measuring oviposition and activity of T. urticae exposed to chemical traces of predators or traces plus predator eggs. Then, we tested the site preference of T. urticae in choice tests, using artificial cages and leaves. In the no-choice test, T. urticae deposited their first egg later in the presence of cues of P. persimilis than of the other two predators and cue absence, indicating interspecific threat-sensitivity. T. urticae laid also fewer eggs in the presence of cues of P. persimilis and A. andersoni than of N. californicus and cue absence. In the artificial cage test, the spider mites preferred the site with predator traces, whereas in the leaf test, they preferentially resided on leaves without traces. We argue that in a nonplant environment, chemical predator traces do not indicate a risk for T. urticae, and instead, these traces function as indirect habitat cues. The spider mites were attracted to these cues because they associated them with the existence of a nearby host plant.

  14. Chemical and cultural control of Tropilaelaps mercedesae mites in honeybee (Apis mellifera colonies in Northern Thailand.

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    Jeffery S Pettis

    Full Text Available At least two parasitic mites have moved from Asian species of honeybees to infest Apis mellifera. Of these two, Varroa destructor is more widespread globally while Tropilaelaps mercedesae has remained largely in Asia. Tropilaelaps mites are most problematic when A. mellifera is managed outside its native range in contact with Asian species of Apis. In areas where this occurs, beekeepers of A. mellifera treat aggressively for Tropilaelaps and Varroa is either outcompeted or is controlled as a result of the aggressive treatment regime used against Tropilaelaps. Many mite control products used worldwide may in fact control both mites but environmental conditions differ globally and thus a control product that works well in one area may be less or ineffective in other areas. This is especially true of volatile compounds. In the current research we tested several commercial products known to control Varroa and powdered sulfur for efficacy against Tropilaelaps. Additionally, we tested the cultural control method of making a hive division to reduce Tropilaelaps growth in both the parent and offspring colony. Making a split or nucleus colony significantly reduced mite population in both the parent and nucleus colony when compared to un-manipulated control colonies. The formic acid product, Mite-Away Quick Strips®, was the only commercial product that significantly reduced mite population 8 weeks after initiation of treatment without side effects. Sulfur also reduced mite populations but both sulfur and Hopguard® significantly impacted colony growth by reducing adult bee populations. Apivar® (amitraz strips had no effect on mite or adult bee populations under the conditions tested.

  15. Long term dynamics of dermanyssus gallinae in relation to mite control measures in aviary systems for layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordenfors, H; Höglund, J

    2000-12-01

    1. The dynamics of the poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae, in aviary systems for layers were studied in an empirical study in Sweden between 1994 and 1997. Fluctuations were monitored with mite traps at monthly intervals during 3 laying cycles at each of 2 commercial poultry farms. 2. When mites were first detected in the system it then took about 5 months for the populations to reach equilibrium levels around which they fluctuated. Within flocks when the population growth was unaffected by temporary control activities, it was demonstrated that the mite populations were significantly denser in summer than in winter. 3. Current control methods had limited effects as mite populations were only temporarily suppressed. One exception was the control achieved with permethrin impregnated plastic strips, which reduced the population at equilibrium level to approximately 22%, compared with the previous flock. 4. The distribution of mites was patchy horizontally, along the aviary system, at low burden wlhereas it became more evenly dispersed at equilibrium. 5. Significant differences in vertical mite distributions that correlated with the hybrids used and their rearing conditions were also observed. In flocks with brown hens, mites gathered at the lower tiers, whereas they were found at the highest tiers in association with white hens. As the hens are attacked mainly at night-time the most likely explanation is that the mites adjust their behavioural pattern to the birds' roosting behaviour.

  16. Lower virus infections in Varroa destructor-infested and uninfested brood and adult honey bees (Apis mellifera) of a low mite population growth colony compared to a high mite population growth colony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emsen, Berna; Hamiduzzaman, Mollah Md; Goodwin, Paul H; Guzman-Novoa, Ernesto

    2015-01-01

    A comparison was made of the prevalence and relative quantification of deformed wing virus (DWV), Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV), black queen cell virus (BQCV), Kashmir bee virus (KBV), acute bee paralysis virus (ABPV) and sac brood virus (SBV) in brood and adult honey bees (Apis mellifera) from colonies selected for high (HMP) and low (LMP) Varroa destructor mite population growth. Two viruses, ABPV and SBV, were never detected. For adults without mite infestation, DWV, IAPV, BQCV and KBV were detected in the HMP colony; however, only BQCV was detected in the LMP colony but at similar levels as in the HMP colony. With mite infestation, the four viruses were detected in adults of the HMP colony but all at higher amounts than in the LMP colony. For brood without mite infestation, DWV and IAPV were detected in the HMP colony, but no viruses were detected in the LMP colony. With mite infestation of brood, the four viruses were detected in the HMP colony, but only DWV and IAPV were detected and at lower amounts in the LMP colony. An epidemiological explanation for these results is that pre-experiment differences in virus presence and levels existed between the HMP and LMP colonies. It is also possible that low V. destructor population growth in the LMP colony resulted in the bees being less exposed to the mite and thus less likely to have virus infections. LMP and HMP bees may have also differed in susceptibility to virus infection.

  17. Selection of Apis mellifera workers by the parasitic mite Varroa destructor using host cuticular hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Piccolo, F; Nazzi, F; Della Vedova, G; Milani, N

    2010-05-01

    The parasitic mite, Varroa destructor, is the most important threat for apiculture in most bee-keeping areas of the world. The mite is carried to the bee brood cell, where it reproduces, by a nurse bee; therefore the selection of the bee stage by the parasite could influence its reproductive success. This study investigates the role of the cuticular hydrocarbons of the European honeybee (Apis mellifera) in host-selection by the mite. Preliminary laboratory bioassays confirmed the preference of the varroa mite for nurse bees over pollen foragers. GC-MS analysis of nurse and pollen bees revealed differences in the cuticular hydrocarbons of the two stages; in particular, it appeared that pollen bees have more (Z)-8-heptadecene than nurse bees. Laboratory experiments showed that treatment of nurse bees with 100 ng of the pure compound makes them repellent to the varroa mite. These results suggest that the mite can exploit the differences in the cuticular composition of its host for a refined selection that allows it to reach a brood cell and start reproduction. The biological activity of the alkene encourages further investigations for the development of novel control techniques based on this compound.

  18. Diversity and significance of eriophyoid mites (Acari: Eriophyoidea associated with coniferous trees in Poland: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiedrowicz Agnieszka

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Among the approximately 200 eriophyoid mite species associated with coniferous trees worldwide, 33 species (of the families Eriophyidae and Phytoptidae infest conifers in Poland, and 24 of them can cause visible feeding symptoms. In this paper we discuss the importance of eriophyoid mites to coniferous plants in Poland and their potential impact on the decorative value of ornamental plants. We emphasize the general lack of knowledge about the diversity of eriophyoid mites associated with coniferous trees and its role in the management and control of this economically important mite group.

  19. Mite species (Acari: Mesostigmata new and rare to Polish fauna, inhabiting the soil of broadleaved forests dominated by small-leaved lime (Tilia cordata Mill. in Kwidzyn Forest District (N Poland

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    FALEŃCZYK-KOZIRÓG KATARZYNA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available During a two-year study on mites of the order Mesostigmata in broadleaved forest stands dominated by small-leaved lime (Tilia cordata Mill., 117 mite species were identified. Among them, 3 had been so far rarely recorded in Poland (Haemogamasus nidi, Stylochirus rovenensis and Eugamasus crassitarsis and 2 were classified as new to the Polish fauna (Veigaia sibirica and Digamasellus perpusillus.

  20. Evidence for passive chemical camouflage in the parasitic mite Varroa destructor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kather, Ricarda; Drijfhout, Falko P; Shemilt, Sue; Martin, Stephen J

    2015-02-01

    Social insect colonies provide a stable and safe environment for their members. Despite colonies being heavily guarded, parasites have evolved numerous strategies to invade and inhabit these hostile places. Two such strategies are (true) chemical mimicry via biosynthesis of host odor, and chemical camouflage, in which compounds are acquired from the host. The ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor feeds on hemolymph of its honey bee host, Apis mellifera. The mite's odor closely resembles that of its host, which allows V. destructor to remain undetected as it lives on the adult host during its phoretic phase and while reproducing on the honeybee brood. During the mite life cycle, it switches between host adults and brood, which requires it to adjust its profile to mimic the very different odors of honey bee brood and adults. In a series of transfer experiments, using bee adults and pupae, we tested whether V. destructor changes its profile by synthesizing compounds or by using chemical camouflage. We show that V. destructor required direct access to host cuticle to mimic its odor, and that it was unable to synthesize host-specific compounds itself. The mite was able to mimic host odor, even when dead, indicating a passive physico-chemical mechanism of the parasite cuticle. The chemical profile of V. destructor was adjusted within 3 to 9 h after switching hosts, demonstrating that passive camouflage is a highly efficient, fast and flexible way for the mite to adapt to a new host profile when moving between different host life stages or colonies.

  1. Temperature preference and respiration of acaridid mites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hubert, J.; Pekár, S.; Nesvorná, M.; Šustr, Vladimír

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 103, č. 6 (2010), s. 2249-2257 ISSN 0022-0493 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : mites * temperature * acclimation Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.489, year: 2010

  2. Morphology of the olfactory system in the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wijk, Michiel; Wadman, Wytse J; Sabelis, Maurice W

    2006-01-01

    The predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis locates its prey, the two-spotted spider mite, by means of herbivore-induced plant volatiles. The olfactory response to this quantitatively and qualitatively variable source of information is particularly well documented. The mites perform this task with a peripheral olfactory system that consists of just five putative olfactory sensilla that reside in a dorsal field at the tip of their first pair of legs. The receptor cells innervate a glomerular olfactory lobe just ventral of the first pedal ganglion. We have made a 3D reconstruction of the caudal half of the olfactory lobe in adult females. The glomerular organization as well as the glomerular innervation appears conserved across different individuals. The adult females have, by approximation, a 1:1 ratio of olfactory receptor cells to olfactory glomeruli.

  3. Mites associated to Xylopia aromatica (Lam. Mart. (Annonaceae in urban and rural fragments of semidecidual forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe M. Nuvoloni

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Mites associated to Xylopia aromatica (Lam. Mart. (Annonaceae in urban and rural fragments of semidecidual forest. Native plants can shelter a great diversity of mites. Notwithstanding, the conservation of the forest fragments where the plants are located can influence the structure of the mites community. Generally, in homogenous environments the diversity is lower due to the dominance of one or a few species. In this work, we studied the mite community on Xylopia aromatica (Lam. Mart. (Annonaceae in two fragments of semidecidual forest: one on rural and other on urban area. Seven individuals of X. aromatica were monthly sampled from April 2007 to March 2008, in each of these fragments. Descriptive indexes of diversity, dominance and evenness were applied to verify the ecological patterns of the mite community, besides the Student's t-test to compare the abundance between the fragments. We collected 27,365 mites of 37 species belonging to 11 families. Calacarus sp. (Eriophyidae was the most abundant species, representing 73% of the total sampled. The abundance was greater in the urban fragment (67.7%, with the diversity index reaching only 25% of the theoretical maximum expected. Probably, these values might have been influenced by the location of this fragment in the urban area, being more homogeneous and submitted directly to the presence of atmospheric pollution. In this manner, X. aromatica is able to shelter a higher diversity of mites when inserted in preserved ecosystems, since the highest diversity of available resources allows the establishment of richer and most diverse mite community.

  4. State-dependent and odour-mediated anemotactic responses of the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis in a wind tunnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Tilborg, Merijn; Sabelis, Maurice W; Roessingh, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Anemotaxis in the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis (both well-fed and starved), has previously been studied on a wire grid under slight turbulent airflow conditions yielding weak, yet distinct, gradients in wind speed and odour concentration (Sabelis and Van der Weel 1993). Such conditions might have critically influenced the outcome of the study. We repeated these experiments, under laminar airflow conditions on a flat surface in a wind tunnel, thereby avoiding variation in wind speed and odour concentration. Treatments for starved and well-fed mites were (1) still-air without herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPV) (well-fed mites only), (2) an HIPV-free air stream, and (3) an air stream with HIPV (originating from Lima bean plants infested by two-spotted spider mites, Tetranychus urticae). Well-fed mites oriented in random directions in still-air without HIPV. In an air stream, starved mites always oriented upwind, whether plant odours were present or not. Well-fed mites oriented downwind in an HIPV-free air stream, but in random directions in an air stream with HIPV. Only under the last treatment our results differed from those of Sabelis and Van der Weel (1993).

  5. Lower Virus Infections in Varroa destructor-Infested and Uninfested Brood and Adult Honey Bees (Apis mellifera) of a Low Mite Population Growth Colony Compared to a High Mite Population Growth Colony

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emsen, Berna; Hamiduzzaman, Mollah Md.; Goodwin, Paul H.; Guzman-Novoa, Ernesto

    2015-01-01

    A comparison was made of the prevalence and relative quantification of deformed wing virus (DWV), Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV), black queen cell virus (BQCV), Kashmir bee virus (KBV), acute bee paralysis virus (ABPV) and sac brood virus (SBV) in brood and adult honey bees (Apis mellifera) from colonies selected for high (HMP) and low (LMP) Varroa destructor mite population growth. Two viruses, ABPV and SBV, were never detected. For adults without mite infestation, DWV, IAPV, BQCV and KBV were detected in the HMP colony; however, only BQCV was detected in the LMP colony but at similar levels as in the HMP colony. With mite infestation, the four viruses were detected in adults of the HMP colony but all at higher amounts than in the LMP colony. For brood without mite infestation, DWV and IAPV were detected in the HMP colony, but no viruses were detected in the LMP colony. With mite infestation of brood, the four viruses were detected in the HMP colony, but only DWV and IAPV were detected and at lower amounts in the LMP colony. An epidemiological explanation for these results is that pre-experiment differences in virus presence and levels existed between the HMP and LMP colonies. It is also possible that low V. destructor population growth in the LMP colony resulted in the bees being less exposed to the mite and thus less likely to have virus infections. LMP and HMP bees may have also differed in susceptibility to virus infection. PMID:25723540

  6. Wheat streak mosaic virus coat protein is a determinant for vector transmission by the wheat curl mite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV; genus Tritimovirus; family Potyviridae), is transmitted by the wheat curl mite (Aceria tosichella Keifer). The requirement of coat protein (CP) for WSMV transmission by the wheat curl mite was examined using a series of viable deletion and point mutations. Mite trans...

  7. Widespread and evolutionary analysis of a MITE family Monkey King in Brassicaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Shutao; Hou, Jinna; Long, Yan; Wang, Jing; Li, Cong; Xiao, Qinqin; Jiang, Xiaoxue; Zou, Xiaoxiao; Zou, Jun; Meng, Jinling

    2015-06-19

    Miniature inverted repeat transposable elements (MITEs) are important components of eukaryotic genomes, with hundreds of families and many copies, which may play important roles in gene regulation and genome evolution. However, few studies have investigated the molecular mechanisms involved. In our previous study, a Tourist-like MITE, Monkey King, was identified from the promoter region of a flowering time gene, BnFLC.A10, in Brassica napus. Based on this MITE, the characteristics and potential roles on gene regulation of the MITE family were analyzed in Brassicaceae. The characteristics of the Tourist-like MITE family Monkey King in Brassicaceae, including its distribution, copies and insertion sites in the genomes of major Brassicaceae species were analyzed in this study. Monkey King was actively amplified in Brassica after divergence from Arabidopsis, which was indicated by the prompt increase in copy number and by phylogenetic analysis. The genomic variations caused by Monkey King insertions, both intra- and inter-species in Brassica, were traced by PCR amplification. Genomic sequence analysis showed that most complete Monkey King elements are located in gene-rich regions, less than 3kb from genes, in both the B. rapa and A. thaliana genomes. Sixty-seven Brassica expressed sequence tags carrying Monkey King fragments were also identified from the NCBI database. Bisulfite sequencing identified specific DNA methylation of cytosine residues in the Monkey King sequence. A fragment containing putative TATA-box motifs in the MITE sequence could bind with nuclear protein(s) extracted from leaves of B. napus plants. A Monkey King-related microRNA, bna-miR6031, was identified in the microRNA database. In transgenic A. thaliana, when the Monkey King element was inserted upstream of 35S promoter, the promoter activity was weakened. Monkey King, a Brassicaceae Tourist-like MITE family, has amplified relatively recently and has induced intra- and inter-species genomic

  8. Long conduction time POs experiments on MITE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodall, H.N.; McDaniel, D.H.; Mendel, C.W.; Rochau, G.E.; Zagar, D.M.; Simpson, W.W.; Zuchowski, N.P.

    1990-01-01

    MITE is a power flow test bed that has been modified to conduct experiments in high power plasma opening switch (POS) technology and apply this technology to Inertial Confinement Fusion. The goal of the experiment is to develop a plasma opening switch that conducts megampere currents for 300 ns, then opens in 5--10 ns. MITE/POS is an advanced power flow experiment that uses a magnetically insulated transmission line (MITL) as the inductive energy store and as a means to shape the output pulse. This experiment demonstrates that a simplified, lower-cost facility can be built by eliminating water pulse-forming lines and water-switching. Another advantage of this approach is that high energy efficiency at peak power can be achieved. The disadvantage is that a new technology, the triggered POS, must be implemented. The triggered POS is necessary for synchronization of multiple modules with a long conduction-time POS. The MITE facility has been modified to drive a 250 nH, 16.6 Ohm MITL at 0.9 MA to accommodate this power flow experiment. A MITL inductive energy storage of 101 kJ is available for POS switching to a matched load. Experiments have been conducted using segmented flashboards and magnetic-field controlled plasma sources. These experiments will lead to the development of the triggered POS. The initial experiments with plasma conduction times of 120 ns to 800 ns are discussed

  9. Acaricidal activity of Cymbopogon citratus and Azadirachta indica against house dust mites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanifah, Azima Laili; Awang, Siti Hazar; Ming, Ho Tze; Abidin, Suhaili Zainal; Omar, Maizatul Hashima

    2011-10-01

    To examine the acaricidal effects of the essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus leaf extract (lemongrass) and ethanolic Azadirachta indica leaf extract (neem) against house dust mites Dermatophagoides farinae (D. farinae) and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (D. pteronyssinus). Twenty-five adults mites were placed onto treated filter paper that is soaked with plant extract and been tested at different concentrations (50.00%, 25.00%, 12.50%, 6.25% and 3.13%) and exposure times (24hrs, 48hrs, 72hrs and 96 hrs). All treatments were replicated 7 times, and the experiment repeated once. The topical and contact activities of the two herbs were investigated. Mortalities from lemongrass extract were higher than neem for both topical and contact activities. At 50 % concentration, both 24 hrs topical and contact exposures to lemongrass resulted in more than 91% mortalities for both species of mites. At the same concentration and exposure time, neem resulted in topical mortalities of 40.3% and 15.7% against D. pteronyssinus and D. farinae respectively; contact mortalities were 8.0% and 8.9% against the 2 mites, respectively. There was no difference in topical mortalities of D. pteronyssinus from exposure to concentrations of lemongrass and neem up to 12.50%; lemongrass was more effective than neem at the higher concentrations. Generally, topical mortalities of D. farinae due to lemongrass are higher than that due to neem. Contact mortalities of lemongrass are always higher that neem against both species of mites.

  10. Species composition of a soil invertebrate multi-species test system determines the level of ecotoxicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sechi, Valentina; D'Annibale, Alessandra; Maraldo, Kristine

    2014-01-01

    A soil multi-species, SMS, experimental test system consisting of the natural microbial community, five collembolan species and a predatory mite along with either Enchytraeus crypticus or the earthworm Eisenia fetida were exposed to α-cypermethrin. A comparison of the performance of these two typ...

  11. The Tropilaelaps mites threat: An examination of the injuries inflicted on Apis mellifera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tropilaelaps spp. are the most serious parasites of Apis mellifera in Asia. However, much of their biology and ecology are largely unexplored (de Guzman et al., 2017 J. Econ. Entomol. 1-14). Like varroa mites, tropilaelaps mites puncture through the integuments of their bee hosts to feed on hemolymp...

  12. Differences among plant species in acceptance by the spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boom, van den C.E.M.; Beek, van T.A.; Dicke, M.

    2003-01-01

    The spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch has a broad range of host plants. However, the spider mite does not accept all plants to the same degree because of differences in nutritive and toxic constituents. Other factors, such as the induction of secondary metabolites, the morphology of a leaf

  13. Analysis of basophil activation by flow cytometry in pediatric house dust mite allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Muñoz, Miguel; Villota, Julian; Moneo, Ignacio

    2008-06-01

    Detection of allergen-induced basophil activation by flow cytometry has been shown to be a useful tool for allergy diagnosis. The aim of this study was to assess the potential of this technique for the diagnosis of pediatric house dust mite allergy. Quantification of total and specific IgE and basophil activation test were performed to evaluate mite allergic (n = 24), atopic (n = 23), and non-allergic children (n = 9). Allergen-induced basophil activation was detected as a CD63-upregulation. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve analysis was performed to calculate the optimal cut-off value of activated basophils discriminating mite allergic and non-allergic children. ROC curve analysis yielded a threshold value of 18% activated basophils when mite-sensitized and atopic children were studied [area under the curve (AUC) = 0.99, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.97-1.01, p 43 kU/l) values for Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus allergen. They also showed positive prick (wheal diameter >1.0 cm) and basophil activation (>87%) tests and high specific IgE (>100 kU/l) with shrimp allergen. Shrimp sensitization was demonstrated by high levels of Pen a 1-specific IgE (>100 kU/l). Cross-reactivity between mite and shrimp was confirmed by fluorescence enzyme immunoassay (FEIA-CAP) inhibition study in these two cases. This study demonstrated that the analysis of allergen-induced CD63 upregulation by flow cytometry is a reliable tool for diagnosis of mite allergy in pediatric patients, with sensitivity similar to routine diagnostic tests and a higher specificity. Furthermore, this method can provide additional information in case of disagreement between in vivo and in vitro test results.

  14. House dust mite reduction and avoidance measures for treating eczema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nankervis, Helen; Pynn, Emma V; Boyle, Robert J; Rushton, Lesley; Williams, Hywel C; Hewson, Deanne M; Platts-Mills, Thomas

    2015-01-19

    Eczema is an inflammatory skin disease that tends to involve skin creases, such as the folds of the elbows or knees; it is an intensely itchy skin condition, which can relapse and remit over time. As many as a third of people with eczema who have a positive test for allergy to house dust mite have reported worsening of eczema or respiratory symptoms when exposed to dust. To assess the effects of all house dust mite reduction and avoidance measures for the treatment of eczema. We searched the following databases up to 14 August 2014: the Cochrane Skin Group Specialised Register, CENTRAL in The Cochrane Library (2014, Issue 8), MEDLINE (from 1946), Embase (from 1974), LILACS (from 1982), and the GREAT database. We also searched five trials registers and checked the reference lists of included and excluded studies for further references to relevant studies. We handsearched abstracts from international eczema and allergy meetings. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of any of the house dust mite reduction and avoidance measures for the treatment of eczema, which included participants of any age diagnosed by a clinician with eczema as defined by the World Allergy Organization. We included all non-pharmacological and pharmacological interventions that sought to reduce or avoid exposure to house dust mite and their allergenic faeces. The comparators were any active treatment, no treatment, placebo, or standard care only. Two authors independently checked the titles and abstracts identified, and there were no disagreements. We contacted authors of included studies for additional information. We assessed the risk of bias using Cochrane methodology. We included seven studies of 324 adults and children with eczema. Overall, the included studies had a high risk of bias. Four of the seven trials tested interventions with multiple components, and three tested a single intervention. Two of the seven trials included only children, four included children and adults, and one

  15. El Concepto de Límite como Indicador de la Maduración de la Lógica Hegeliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Mattana

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available El presente texto expone una confrontación entre tres autores fundamentales del idealismo alemán (Kant, Fichte y Hegel sobre un tema de vital importancia tanto para las propuestas de estos autores como para el actual debate filosófico: el concepto de límite. Este problema atraviesa la filosofía alemana de los siglos XVIII y XIX y encuentra en Hegel una elaboración particularmente interesante. Nos ocuparemos por lo tanto de la figura del límite en la Ciencia de la Lógica, donde en pocas y densas páginas, Hegel invierte la dinámica kantiana del límite y también trasfigura la aportación fichteana. Si bien la posición hegeliana resulta en nuestra opinión más interesante, recorrer las problemáticas de Kant y Fichte resulta imprescindible para demostrar el contexto y los desafíos filosóficos a los que Hegel se enfrentaba. El problema del límite, por tanto, se articula en el de la construcción de la identidad, ya que, como vemos en el mismo Kant, el límite implica siempre un sujeto con el que él se relaciona. Justamente es la problematicidad del sujeto en Kant que causa un límite excluyente: un límite que divide las facultades del sujeto sin tener claro lo que es el sujeto. Ya Fichte invierte este punto, a través de la autoposición del sujeto como acción de hecho, dando lugar mediante el límite a la determinidad. Pero es Hegel quien revela cómo el límite tiene un gran potencial a la hora de elaborar el concepto de identidad, trasfigurando las identidades fijas y dando lugar a otras nuevas. Hegel, además de dar un importante giro al problema del límite dentro del idealismo alemán, nos muestra cómo el límite, incluso para la filosofía política, puede constituir un dispositivo teórico esencial para comprender las realidades complejas y entramadas que pueblan nuestro mundo global actual.

  16. Parasitism of wild Gouldian finches (Erythrura gouldiae) by the air-sac mite Sternostoma tracheacolum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tidemann, S C; McOrist, S; Woinarski, J C; Freeland, W J

    1992-01-01

    Sixty-two percent of 26 wild caught Gouldian finches (Erythrura gouldiae) were infected with Sternostoma tracheacolum, a parasitic rhinonyssid mite. The intensity of infection was higher in adult finches than juveniles, and higher in juvenile females than juvenile males. Histopathological investigation of wild Gouldian Finches revealed bronchopneumonia and air sacculitis associated with mite infection. Although this mite may not have contributed to the decline of Gouldian finch populations in the wild during the past 20 yr, it may be suppressing the return of the finch to its former status.

  17. The hair follicle mites (Demodex spp.). Could they be vectors of pathogenic microorganisms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, R; Ophir, J; Avigad, J; Lengy, J; Krakowski, A

    1988-01-01

    The hair follicle mites Demodex folliculorum and D. brevis are the most common permanent ectoparasites of Man. Ordinarily they are harmless to their human host and appear to be of no medical significance. We present, however, an unusual finding regarding this mite, namely, that in a potassium hydroxide mount of a skin scraping from a mycotic plaque we found numerous Demodex mites containing inside them spores of Microsporum canis. This could mean that the putatively inoffensive Demodex has the potential to ingest various microorganisms that are found in its niche and transport them to other areas of the skin or possibly to other individuals.

  18. Phoretic mites and their hyperphoretic fungi associated with flying Ips typographus japonicus Niijima (Col., Scolytidae) in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.C. Moser; T.J. Perry; K. Furuta

    1997-01-01

    Flying Ips typographus japonicus from Hokkaido (Japan) carried 12 species of phoretic mites, three of which were not previously recorded in Europe. The mite biologies were diverse, including specialists feeding on microorganisms, beetle eggs, and nematodes which were common under beetle elytra. Hyperphoretic on these mites were seven distinct species of fungal spores...

  19. Feather mites (Acari, Astigmata) associated with birds in an Atlantic Forest fragment in Northeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, HM; Hernandes, FA; Pichorim, M

    2015-01-01

    AbstractThe present study reports associations between feather mites (Astigmata) and birds in an Atlantic Forest fragment in Rio Grande do Norte state, in Brazil. In the laboratory, mites were collected through visual examination of freshly killed birds. Overall, 172 individuals from 38 bird species were examined, between October 2011 and July 2012. The prevalence of feather mites was 80.8%, corresponding to 139 infested individuals distributed into 30 species and 15 families of hosts. Fiftee...

  20. Guanine as a hygienic index for allergological relevant mite infestation in mattress dust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bronswijk, van J.E.M.H.

    1986-01-01

    Since guanine is not only an essential constituent of vital nucleic acids, but also the main end product of nitrogenous waste excretion in arachnids, it is a potential candidate for a hygienic index for mite activity in house dust. The public health significance of these mites is based on their

  1. Active optical sensor assessment of spider mite damage on greenhouse beans and cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    The two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch is an important pest of cotton in mid-southern United States and causes yield reduction, and deprivation in fiber fitness. A greenhouse colony of the spider mite was used to infest cotton and pinto beans at the three-leaf and trifoliate stages, r...

  2. A study on the prevalence of house dust mites in Al-Arish city, North Sinai Governorate, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sherbiny, Gihad T; El-Sherbini, Eman T; Saled, Nagla Mostafa K; Haridy, Fouad M; Morsy, Ayman T A

    2010-04-01

    Free living mites comprise a huge and various groups of tiny arthropods in the class Arachida, mainly of the Pyroglyphidae family. Exposure to allergens derived from house dust mite (HDM) feces is a postulated risk factor for allergic sensitization, asthma development and asthma morbidity. However, practical and effective method to mitigate these allergens in low-income, urban home environments remains elusive. It well known that (HDM) physiology is greatly affected by hydrothermal microclimatic condition. El Arish has subtropical climate and warm humid summer, such situation are favourable to proliferate house dust mites. As no valid data are available for house dust mites fauna of El Arish, this study was carried out to determine the prevalence and contamination rates of homes in El Arish city. Samples of house dust collected in 2008 from 50 houses in El Arish city were subjected to acarological examination. Acri were found in (34.6 %) of the samples collected from these homes. Results indicated that dust mites were present in all humid environments. Also, hypersensitivity to dust mites was common among patients with asthma.

  3. mites de esbeltez en soportes de hormigón armado

    OpenAIRE

    Río, O.; Morán, F.

    1987-01-01

    Se presenta una propuesta racional de límites de esbeltez para soportes de hormigón armado, que tiene en cuenta los principales parámetros conocidos en el dimensionamiento: el esfuerzo axil, la excentricidad relativa y la relación de excentricidades en los extremos del soporte. En función de estos parámetros se define la esbeltez límite equivalente X^, que permite calibrar la importancia de los efectos de segundo orden.

  4. Influence of Varroa Mite (Varroa destructor Management Practices on Insecticide Sensitivity in the Honey Bee (Apis mellifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank D. Rinkevich

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Since Varroa mites may cause devastating losses of honey bees through direct feeding, transmitting diseases, and increasing pathogen susceptibility, chemical and mechanical practices commonly are used to reduce mite infestation. While miticide applications are typically the most consistent and efficacious Varroa mite management method, miticide-induced insecticide synergism in honey bees, and the evolution of resistance in Varroa mites are reasonable concerns. We treated colonies with the miticide amitraz (Apivar®, used IPM practices, or left some colonies untreated, and then measured the effect of different levels of mite infestations on the sensitivity of bees to phenothrin, amitraz, and clothianidin. Sensitivity to all insecticides varied throughout the year among and within treatment groups. Clothianidin sensitivity decreased with increasing mite levels, but no such correlation was seen with phenothrin or amitraz. These results show that insecticide sensitivity is dynamic throughout the 5 months test. In-hive amitraz treatment according to the labeled use did not synergize sensitivity to the pesticides tested and this should alleviate concern over potential synergistic effects. Since IPM practices were largely ineffective at reducing Varroa mite infestation, reliance on chemical methods of Varroa mite management is likely to continue. However, miticides must be used judiciously so the long term effectiveness of these compounds can be maximized. These data demonstrate the complex and dynamic variables that contribute to honey bee colony health. The results underscore the importance of controlling for as many of these variables as possible in order to accurately determine the effects of each of these factors as they act alone or in concert with others.

  5. Intercropping With Fruit Trees Increases Population Abundance and Alters Species Composition of Spider Mites on Cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haiqiang; Pan, Hongsheng; Wang, Dongmei; Liu, Bing; Liu, Jian; Zhang, Jianping; Lu, Yanhui

    2018-05-05

    With the recent increase in planting of fruit trees in southern Xinjiang, the intercropping of fruit trees and cotton has been widely adopted. From 2014 to 2016, a large-scale study was conducted in Aksu, an important agricultural area in southern Xinjiang, to compare the abundance and species composition of spider mites in cotton fields under jujube-cotton, apple-cotton, and cotton monocrop systems. The abundance of spider mites in cotton fields under both intercropping systems was generally higher than in the cotton monocrop. The species composition of spider mites also differed greatly between cotton intercropped with apple or jujube compared to the cotton monocrop. The relative proportion of Tetranychus truncates Ehara (Acari: Tetranychidae) in the species complex generally increased while that of another spider mite, Tetranychus dunhuangensis Wang (Acari: Tetranychidae), decreased under fruit tree-cotton systems. More attention should be paid to the monitoring and management of spider mites, especially T. truncates in this important region of China.

  6. Allergen sensitivity (mites, insects, and pets) in a Puerto Rican population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazario, Sylvette; Zaragoza, Rafael; Velázquez, Vylma; Ramos-Valencia, Gilberto; Acantilado, Carmen; Rodríguez, Ray; Rivera, Angel M; Alvarez, María M; López-Almodóvar, Carlos; López-Malpica, Fernando

    2012-03-01

    The people of Puerto Rico have one of the highest asthma prevalence and morbidity rates in the U.S.A. Limited information is available on the most common allergy sensitivities among island residents. The aims of the study were to determine the most common inhalant allergen sensitivities among a convenience sample in Puerto Rico and determine as well their relationship to an asthma or a rhinitis diagnosis. In August of 2008, we evaluated a cohort of subjects visiting ambulatory clinics offering health screening; the clinics were located in two of the island's biggest cities: Guaynabo in the north and Ponce in the south. Subjects over three years of age (or their parents) visiting the clinics answered a survey on asthma and rhinitis and were skin tested for reactivity to common aeroallergens. The survey included 395 subjects with a mean age of 29 years. Thirty-six percent reported a history of asthma, of whom 83% (30% of the total participants) reported still having asthma, and 76% reported having rhinitis. Sixty-five percent of the subjects were sensitive to at least one antigen. Subjects sensitive to mites were 53% more likely to have suffered from asthma than were non-mite-sensitized subjects (OR = 1.53, p < 0.05) sensitivity to mosquitoes (OR = 2.25, p < 0.02), mites (OR = 2.53, p < 0.00001), feathers (OR = 2.72, p < 0.03), dogs (OR = 3.02, p < 0.01), or cats (OR = 3.42, p < 0.001) increased an individual's likelihood of suffering from rhinitis. The most common sensitivities identified were to mites and insects. Mite sensitivity was associated with rhinitis and asthma. Sensitivity to animal dander as well as to mosquitoes was associated to with rhinitis. Further studies are warranted to explore the relevance of allergen sensitivity in terms of asthma and rhinitis prevalence and morbidity among residents of Puerto Rico.

  7. Indoor mite allergens in patients with respiratory allergy living in Porto, Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plácido, J L; Cuesta, C; Delgado, L; da Silva, J P; Miranda, M; Ventas, P; Vaz, M

    1996-09-01

    We investigated the levels of mite allergens (Der p 1, Der f 1, Der 2, and Lep d 1) in dust samples from the homes of 59 patients with asthma, 36 sensitized to house-dust mites (HDM) and 23 to grass pollen (controls), living in Porto, northern Portugal. The relationship between exposure and sensitization to HDM and the influence of housing conditions on mite-allergen levels were also evaluated. Der p 1 (median 9.2 micrograms/g) and Der 2 (4.6 micrograms/g) were the main allergens, while Der f 1 and Lep d 1 levels were always 2 micrograms/g and their homes contained significantly higher levels of Der p 1 (median 12.5 vs 6.4 micrograms/g; P = 0.008) and Der 2 (6.2 vs 3.0 micrograms/g; P = 0.004) when compared to the control group. A significant correlation was observed between the exposure to Der p 1 and the wheal area at skin testing with the Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Dp) extract (P = 0.01) as well as with serum specific IgE levels to Dp (P = 0.03). Patients with higher levels of serum specific IgE (> or = 17.5 HRU/ml) were also more frequently exposed to Der p 1 levels > or = 10 micrograms/g (P = 0.002). Old homes, presence of carpets, and signs of dampness were conditions associated with significantly higher levels of mite allergens. In conclusion, we found high levels of Der p 1 and Der 2 particularly in the homes of HDM-sensitized patients and we confirm the relationship between exposure and sensitization to HDM, assessed by both in vivo and in vitro methods. In additional to a favorable outdoor climate, we found in our region housing conditions propitious to mite growth, suggesting that specific geographic characteristics must also be taken into account for the correct planning of mite-avoidance measures.

  8. Birefringent Crystals and Abdominal Discoloration in the Predatory Mite Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari: Phytoseiidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørnson; Steiner; Keddie

    1997-03-01

    In response to grower complaints of poor performance of Phytoseiulus persimilis, mites from 14 commercial insectaries and research colonies were examined for pathogens. Some were found to have abdominal discolorations, manifested initially as two white stripes along the dorsal sides of the body within the Malpighian tubules. Advanced signs appeared as a large, centrally located, white spot or U-shaped discoloration in the distal opisthosoma within the rectum/anal atrium. White material often accumulated and hardened within the anus and formed a rectal plug that inhibited further excretion. Most affected mites were lethargic. Adults and immatures with abdominal discoloration contained numerous densely packed, birefringent, dumbbell-shaped entities. Though occasionally observed in the colon, they occurred most frequently within the Malpighian tubules and/or rectum and anal atrium. Dumbbells measured 2-4 &mgr;m long and contained prominent concentric rings. When observed by transmission electron microscopy, the entities lacked cellular organelles. Asymptomatic mites contained few or no such entities. Dumbbell-shaped inclusions were observed in P. persimilis from all sources examined. High levels of potassium, low levels of phosphorous and sulfur, and traces of chlorine were detected by energy-dispersive X-ray analysis. Guanine and uric acid, known nitrogenous wastes of arachnids, do not contain these elements. The chemical composition and structure indicate that the dumbbells are crystals. Both asymptomatic mites and those specimens exhibiting abdominal discoloration were examined for pathogens using light and transmission electron microscopy. Microsporidia, virus-like particles, and a rickettsia (genus Wolbachia) were observed in some mites but showed no correlation with white abdominal discoloration or associated crystal formation. Neither were pathogens always detected in symptomatic mites. Although birefringent crystals may be naturally occurring excretory

  9. Challenges in devising economic spray thresholds for a major pest of Australian canola, the redlegged earth mite (Halotydeus destructor).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, Aston L; Hoffmann, Ary A; Umina, Paul A

    2015-10-01

    A key component for spray decision-making in IPM programmes is the establishment of economic injury levels (EILs) and economic thresholds (ETs). We aimed to establish an EIL for the redlegged earth mite (Halotydeus destructor Tucker) on canola. Complex interactions between mite numbers, feeding damage and plant recovery were found, highlighting the challenges in linking H. destructor numbers to yield. A guide of 10 mites plant(-1) was established at the first-true-leaf stage; however, simple relationships were not evident at other crop development stages, making it difficult to establish reliable EILs based on mite number. Yield was, however, strongly associated with plant damage and plant densities, reflecting the impact of mite feeding damage and indicating a plant-based alternative for establishing thresholds for H. destructor. Drawing on data from multiple field trials, we show that plant densities below 30-40 plants m(-2) could be used as a proxy for mite damage when reliable estimates of mite densities are not possible. This plant-based threshold provides a practical tool that avoids the difficulties of accurately estimating mite densities. The approach may be applicable to other situations where production conditions are unpredictable and interactions between pests and plant hosts are complex. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Neoseiulus paspalivorus, a predator from coconut, as a candidate for controlling dry bulb mites infesting stored tulip bulbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesna, Izabela; da Silva, Fernando R; Sato, Yukie; Sabelis, Maurice W; Lommen, Suzanne T E

    2014-06-01

    The dry bulb mite, Aceria tulipae, is the most important pest of stored tulip bulbs in The Netherlands. This tiny, eriophyoid mite hides in the narrow space between scales in the interior of the bulb. To achieve biological control of this hidden pest, candidate predators small enough to move in between the bulb scales are required. Earlier experiments have shown this potential for the phytoseiid mite, Neoseiulus cucumeris, but only after the bulbs were exposed to ethylene, a plant hormone that causes a slight increase in the distance between tulip bulb scales, just sufficient to allow this predator to reach the interior part of the bulb. Applying ethylene, however, is not an option in practice because it causes malformation of tulip flowers. In fact, to prevent this cosmetic damage, bulb growers ventilate rooms where tulip bulbs are stored, thereby removing ethylene produced by the bulbs (e.g. in response to mite or fungus infestation). Recently, studies on the role of predatory mites in controlling another eriophyoid mite on coconuts led to the discovery of an exceptionally small phytoseiid mite, Neoseiulus paspalivorus. This predator is able to move under the perianth of coconuts where coconut mites feed on meristematic tissue of the fruit. This discovery prompted us to test N. paspalivorus for its ability to control A. tulipae on tulip bulbs under storage conditions (ventilated rooms with bulbs in open boxes; 23 °C; storage period June-October). Using destructive sampling we monitored predator and prey populations in two series of replicated experiments, one at a high initial level of dry bulb mite infestation, late in the storage period, and another at a low initial dry bulb mite infestation, halfway the storage period. The first and the second series involved treatment with N. paspalivorus and a control experiment, but the second series had an additional treatment in which the predator N. cucumeris was released. Taking the two series of experiments together

  11. Immunogene and viral transcript dynamics during parasitic Varroa destructor mite infection of developing honey bee (Apis mellifera) pupae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuster, Ryan D; Boncristiani, Humberto F; Rueppell, Olav

    2014-05-15

    The ectoparasitic Varroa destructor mite is a major contributor to the ongoing honey bee health crisis. Varroa interacts with honey bee viruses, exacerbating their pathogenicity. In addition to vectoring viruses, immunosuppression of the developing honey bee hosts by Varroa has been proposed to explain the synergy between viruses and mites. However, the evidence for honey bee immune suppression by V. destructor is contentious. We systematically studied the quantitative effects of experimentally introduced V. destructor mites on immune gene expression at five specific time points during the development of the honey bee hosts. Mites reproduced normally and were associated with increased titers of deformed wing virus in the developing bees. Our data on different immune genes show little evidence for immunosuppression of honey bees by V. destructor. Experimental wounding of developing bees increases relative immune gene expression and deformed wing virus titers. Combined, these results suggest that mite feeding activity itself and not immunosuppression may contribute to the synergy between viruses and mites. However, our results also suggest that increased expression of honey bee immune genes decreases mite reproductive success, which may be explored to enhance mite control strategies. Finally, our expression data for multiple immune genes across developmental time and different experimental treatments indicates co-regulation of several of these genes and thus improves our understanding of the understudied honey bee immune system. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  12. Influence of environmental characteristics and climatic factors on mites in the dust of air-conditioner filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, J; Liu, Z G; Ran, P X; Wang, B

    2009-12-01

    To investigate mites in the dust of air-conditioner filters (MACF) in China, a total of 652 dust samples were collected from six cities: Guangzhou (n = 129), Nanchang (n = 127), Shanghai (n = 113), Xian (n = 93), Beijing (n = 93), and Shenyang (n = 79). Tarsonemus granarius was the most dominant species (87.2%). Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and Dermatophagoides farinae only represented 7.0 and 3.0% of total mites, respectively. With latitude increasing, both mite occurrence rate (P air-conditioner age, utilization time and power. Wall and window type air-conditioner had higher risk of finding MACF than the floor type air-conditioner. As far as the cleaning interval time of ACF was concerned, higher risk ratio and the highest density of MACF were found in the time stage of >3, air-conditioner filters are potential indoor threat to asthma and allergy sufferers. In this study, we find that the storage mite Tarsonemus granarius is the predominant species of mites in the dust of air-conditioner filters (MACF). Thus, the possible clinical importance of T. granarius should cause more our attentions in the future. The abundance and distribution of MACF are also found significantly varied in different climatic regions of China. When we try to assess the possible risk of MACF, more attentions should be focused on subtropical region than temperate region. The influence analysis of environmental characteristics on the prevalence of MACF will shed light on the establishment of mite control strategy and the design of mite defense air-conditioner.

  13. Skin mites in mice (Mus musculus): high prevalence of Myobia sp. (Acari, Arachnida) in Robertsonian mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sastre, Natalia; Calvete, Oriol; Martínez-Vargas, Jessica; Medarde, Nuria; Casellas, Joaquim; Altet, Laura; Sánchez, Armand; Francino, Olga; Ventura, Jacint

    2018-05-04

    Myobia sp. and Demodex sp. are two skin mites that infest mice, particularly immunodeficient or transgenic lab mice. In the present study, wild house mice from five localities from the Barcelona Roberstonian system were analysed in order to detect skin mites and compare their prevalence between standard (2n = 40) and Robertsonian mice (2n > 40). We found and identified skin mites through real-time qPCR by comparing sequences from the mitochondrial 16S rRNA and the nuclear 18S rRNA genes since no sequences are available so far using the mitochondrial gene. Fourteen positive samples were identified as Myobia musculi except for a deletion of 296 bp out to 465 bp sequenced, and one sample was identified as Demodex canis. Sampling one body site, the mite prevalence in standard and Robertsonian mice was 0 and 26%, respectively. The malfunction of the immune system elicits an overgrowth of skin mites and consequently leads to diseases such as canine demodicosis in dogs or rosacea in humans. In immunosuppressed mice, the probability of developing demodicosis is higher than in healthy mice. Since six murine toll-like receptors (TLRs) are located in four chromosomes affected by Robertsonian fusions, we cannot dismiss that differences in mite prevalence could be the consequence of the interruption of TLR function. Although ecological and/or morphological factors cannot be disregarded to explain differences in mite prevalence, the detection of translocation breakpoints in TLR genes or the analysis of TLR gene expression are needed to elucidate how Robertsonian fusions affect the immune system in mice.

  14. The effect of topsoil removal in restored heathland on soil fauna, topsoil microstructure, and cellulose decomposition: implications for ecosystem restoration

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Frouz, Jan; van Diggelen, R.; Pižl, Václav; Starý, Josef; Háněl, Ladislav; Tajovský, Karel; Kalčík, Jiří

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 14 (2009), s. 3963-3978 ISSN 0960-3115 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : restoration * soil formation * oribatid mites Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.066, year: 2009

  15. The predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis does not perceive odor mixtures as strictly elemental objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wijk, Michiel; de Bruijn, Paulien J A; Sabelis, Maurice W

    2010-11-01

    Phytoseiulus persimilis is a predatory mite that in absence of vision relies on the detection of herbivore-induced plant odors to locate its prey, the two-spotted spider-mite Tetranychus urticae. This herbivorous prey is feeding on leaves of a wide variety of plant species in different families. The predatory mites respond to numerous structurally different compounds. However, typical spider-mite induced plant compounds do not attract more predatory mites than plant compounds not associated with prey. Because the mites are sensitive to many compounds, components of odor mixtures may affect each other's perception. Although the response to pure compounds has been well documented, little is known how interactions among compounds affect the response to odor mixtures. We assessed the relation between the mites' responses elicited by simple mixtures of two compounds and by the single components of these mixtures. The preference for the mixture was compared to predictions under three conceptual models, each based on one of the following assumptions: (1) the responses elicited by each of the individual components can be added to each other; (2) they can be averaged; or (3) one response overshadows the other. The observed response differed significantly from the response predicted under the additive response, average response, and overshadowing response model in 52, 36, and 32% of the experimental tests, respectively. Moreover, the behavioral responses elicited by individual compounds and their binary mixtures were determined as a function of the odor concentration. The relative contribution of each component to the behavioral response elicited by the mixture varied with the odor concentration, even though the ratio of both compounds in the mixture was kept constant. Our experiments revealed that compounds that elicited no response had an effect on the response elicited by binary mixtures that they were part of. The results are not consistent with the hypothesis that P

  16. Draft genome of the honey bee ectoparasitic mite, Tropilaelaps mercedesae, is shaped by the parasitic life history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xiaofeng; Armstrong, Stuart D; Xia, Dong; Makepeace, Benjamin L; Darby, Alistair C; Kadowaki, Tatsuhiko

    2017-03-01

    The number of managed honey bee colonies has considerably decreased in many developed countries in recent years and ectoparasitic mites are considered as major threats to honey bee colonies and health. However, their general biology remains poorly understood. We sequenced the genome of Tropilaelaps mercedesae, the prevalent ectoparasitic mite infesting honey bees in Asia, and predicted 15 190 protein-coding genes that were well supported by the mite transcriptomes and proteomic data. Although amino acid substitutions have been accelerated within the conserved core genes of two mites, T. mercedesae and Metaseiulus occidentalis, T. mercedesae has undergone the least gene family expansion and contraction between the seven arthropods we tested. The number of sensory system genes has been dramatically reduced, but T. mercedesae contains all gene sets required to detoxify xenobiotics. T. mercedesae is closely associated with a symbiotic bacterium (Rickettsiella grylli-like) and Deformed Wing Virus, the most prevalent honey bee virus. T. mercedesae has a very specialized life history and habitat as the ectoparasitic mite strictly depends on the honey bee inside a stable colony. Thus, comparison of the genome and transcriptome sequences with those of a tick and free-living mites has revealed the specific features of the genome shaped by interaction with the honey bee and colony environment. Genome and transcriptome sequences of T. mercedesae, as well as Varroa destructor (another globally prevalent ectoparasitic mite of honey bee), not only provide insights into the mite biology, but may also help to develop measures to control the most serious pests of the honey bee. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  17. Characterization of the complete mitochondrial genome of the storage mite pest Tyrophagus longior (Gervais) (Acari: Acaridae) and comparative mitogenomic analysis of four acarid mites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Banghe; Li, Chaopin

    2016-02-01

    Mites of the genus Tyrophagus are economically important polyphagous pest commonly living on stored products and also responsible for allergic reactions to humans. Complete mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) and the gene features therein are widely used as molecular markers in the study of population genetics, phylogenetics as well as molecular evolution. However, scarcity on the sequence data has greatly impeded the studies in these areas pertaining to the Acari (mites and ticks). Information on the Tyrophagus mitogenomes is quite critical for phylogenetic evaluation and molecular evolution of the mitogenomes within Acariformes. Herein, we reported the complete mitogenome of the allergenic acarid storage mite Tyrophagus longior (Astigmata: Acaridae), an important member of stored food pests, and compared with those of other three acarid mites. The complete mitogenome of T. longior was a circular molecule of 13,271 bp. Unexpectedly, only 19 transfer RNA genes (tRNAs) were present, lacking trnF, trnS1 and trnQ. Furthermore, it also contained 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs) and 2 genes for rRNA (rrnS and rrnL) commonly detected in metazoans. The four mitogenomes displayed similar characteristics with respect to the gene content, nucleotide comparison, and codon usages. Yet, the gene order of T. longior was different from that in other Acari. The J-strands of the four mitogenomes possessed high A+T content (67.4-70.0%), and exhibited positive GC-skews and negative AT-skews. Most inferred tRNAs of T. longior were extremely truncated, lacking either a D- or T-arm, as found in other acarid mites. In T. longior mitogenome the A+T-rich region was just 50 bp in length and can be folded as a stable stem-loop structure, whereas in the region some structures of microsatellite-like (AT)n and palindromic sequences was not present. Besides, reconstructing of the phylogenetic relationship based on concatenated amino acid sequences of 13 PCGs supported that monophyly of the family

  18. The predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis does not perceive odor mixtures as strictly elemental objects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijk, M.; de Bruijn, P.J.A.; Sabelis, M.W.

    2010-01-01

    Phytoseiulus persimilis is a predatory mite that in absence of vision relies on the detection of herbivore-induced plant odors to locate its prey, the two-spotted spider-mite Tetranychus urticae. This herbivorous prey is feeding on leaves of a wide variety of plant species in different families. The

  19. Scabies Mites Alter the Skin Microbiome and Promote Growth of Opportunistic Pathogens in a Porcine Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swe, Pearl M.; Zakrzewski, Martha; Kelly, Andrew; Krause, Lutz; Fischer, Katja

    2014-01-01

    Background The resident skin microbiota plays an important role in restricting pathogenic bacteria, thereby protecting the host. Scabies mites (Sarcoptes scabiei) are thought to promote bacterial infections by breaching the skin barrier and excreting molecules that inhibit host innate immune responses. Epidemiological studies in humans confirm increased incidence of impetigo, generally caused by Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes, secondary to the epidermal infestation with the parasitic mite. It is therefore possible that mite infestation could alter the healthy skin microbiota making way for the opportunistic pathogens. A longitudinal study to test this hypothesis in humans is near impossible due to ethical reasons. In a porcine model we generated scabies infestations closely resembling the disease manifestation in humans and investigated the scabies associated changes in the skin microbiota over the course of a mite infestation. Methodology/Principal Findings In a 21 week trial, skin scrapings were collected from pigs infected with S. scabies var. suis and scabies-free control animals. A total of 96 skin scrapings were collected before, during infection and after acaricide treatment, and analyzed by bacterial 16S rDNA tag-encoded FLX-titanium amplicon pyrosequencing. We found significant changes in the epidermal microbiota, in particular a dramatic increase in Staphylococcus correlating with the onset of mite infestation in animals challenged with scabies mites. This increase persisted beyond treatment from mite infection and healing of skin. Furthermore, the staphylococci population shifted from the commensal S. hominis on the healthy skin prior to scabies mite challenge to S. chromogenes, which is increasingly recognized as being pathogenic, coinciding with scabies infection in pigs. In contrast, all animals in the scabies-free cohort remained relatively free of Staphylococcus throughout the trial. Conclusions/Significance This is the first

  20. Scabies mites alter the skin microbiome and promote growth of opportunistic pathogens in a porcine model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pearl M Swe

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The resident skin microbiota plays an important role in restricting pathogenic bacteria, thereby protecting the host. Scabies mites (Sarcoptes scabiei are thought to promote bacterial infections by breaching the skin barrier and excreting molecules that inhibit host innate immune responses. Epidemiological studies in humans confirm increased incidence of impetigo, generally caused by Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes, secondary to the epidermal infestation with the parasitic mite. It is therefore possible that mite infestation could alter the healthy skin microbiota making way for the opportunistic pathogens. A longitudinal study to test this hypothesis in humans is near impossible due to ethical reasons. In a porcine model we generated scabies infestations closely resembling the disease manifestation in humans and investigated the scabies associated changes in the skin microbiota over the course of a mite infestation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a 21 week trial, skin scrapings were collected from pigs infected with S. scabies var. suis and scabies-free control animals. A total of 96 skin scrapings were collected before, during infection and after acaricide treatment, and analyzed by bacterial 16S rDNA tag-encoded FLX-titanium amplicon pyrosequencing. We found significant changes in the epidermal microbiota, in particular a dramatic increase in Staphylococcus correlating with the onset of mite infestation in animals challenged with scabies mites. This increase persisted beyond treatment from mite infection and healing of skin. Furthermore, the staphylococci population shifted from the commensal S. hominis on the healthy skin prior to scabies mite challenge to S. chromogenes, which is increasingly recognized as being pathogenic, coinciding with scabies infection in pigs. In contrast, all animals in the scabies-free cohort remained relatively free of Staphylococcus throughout the trial. CONCLUSIONS

  1. Association between KIR genes and dust mite sensitization in a Brazilian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caniatti, Marcela Caleffi da Costa Lima; Borelli, Sueli Donizete; Guilherme, Ana Lúcia Falavigna; Franzener, Soraya Barrionuevo; Tsuneto, Luiza Tamie

    2018-01-01

    Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs), found on the surface of natural killer (NK) cells, play a key role in controlling the innate response. Such response depends on a series of cellular interactions between these receptors and HLA activating/inhibiting ligands. Atopic diseases have been associated with genes that regulate cytokine production and HLA genes, which may either protect or predispose to hypersensitivity. To verify an association study of KIR genes with sensitization to the following mites: Dermatophagoides farinae, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, and Blomia tropicalis. A total of 341 children aged up to 14 years, were classified as mite-sensitive or mite-insensitive after undergoing a skin prick test for immediate allergic reactions. The presence/absence of KIR genes and their human leukocyte antigen (HLA) ligands was determined by polymerase chain reaction-sequence specific oligonucleotide (PCR-SSO) with the commercial kit LabType™ using Luminex™. The frequencies of KIR genes and their respective class I HLA ligands and the frequency of haplotypes were performed in sensitive and insensitive individuals, and no significant differences were found. Our results suggest no influence of KIR genes on resistance/susceptibility to sensitization to dust mites. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Virulence and site of infection of the fungus, Hirsutella thompsonii, to the honey bee ectoparasitic mite, Varroa destructor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Christine Y S; Zhou, Xinsheng; Kaya, Harry K

    2002-11-01

    The Varroa mite, Varroa destructor, is recognized as the most serious pest of both managed and feral Western honey bee (Apis mellifera) in the world. The mite has developed resistance to fluvalinate, an acaricide used to control it in beehives, and fluvalinate residues have been found in the beeswax, necessitating an urgent need to find alternative control measures to suppress this pest. Accordingly, we investigated the possibility of using the fungus, Hirsutella thompsonii, as a biocontrol agent of the Varroa mite. Among the 9 isolates of H. thompsonii obtained from the University of Florida and the USDA, only the 3 USDA isolates (ARSEF 257, 1947 and 3323) were infectious to the Varroa mite in laboratory tests. The mite became infected when it was allowed to walk on a sporulating H. thompsonii culture for 5 min. Scanning electron micrographs revealed that the membranous arolium of the mite leg sucker is the focus of infection where the fungal conidia adhered and germinated. The infected mites died from mycosis, with the lethal times to kill 50% (LT(50)s) dependent on the fungal isolates. Thus, the LT(50)s were 52.7, 77.2, and 96.7h for isolates 3323, 257, and 1947, respectively. Passage of H. thompsonii through Varroa mite three times significantly reduced the LT(50)s of isolates 257 and 1947 (P<0.05) but not the LT(50) of isolate 3323. The fungus did not infect the honey bee in larval, prepupal, pupal, and adult stages under our laboratory rearing conditions. Our encouraging results suggest that some isolates of H. thompsonii have the potential to be developed as a biocontrol agent for V. destructor. However, fungal infectivity against the mites under beehive conditions needs to be studied before any conclusion can be made.

  3. Tomato whole genome transcriptional response to Tetranychus urticae identifies divergence of spider mite-induced responses between tomato and Arabidopsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martel, C.; Zhurov, V.; Navarro, M.; Martinez, M.; Cazaux, M.; Auger, P.; Migeon, A.; Santamaria, M.E.; Wybouw, N.; Diaz, I.; Van Leeuwen, T.; Navajas, M.; Grbic, M.; Grbic, V.

    2015-01-01

    The two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae is one of the most significant mite pests in agriculture, feeding on more than 1,100 plant hosts, including model plants Arabidopsis thaliana and tomato, Solanum lycopersicum. Here, we describe timecourse tomato transcriptional responses to spider mite

  4. Driving factors of the communities of phytophagous and predatory mites in a physic nut plantation and spontaneous plants associated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Wilton P; Sarmento, Renato A; Teodoro, Adenir V; Neto, Marçal P; Ignacio, Maíra

    2013-08-01

    Seasonal changes in climate and plant diversity are known to affect the population dynamics of both pests and natural enemies within agroecosystems. In Brazil, spontaneous plants are usually tolerated in small-scale physic nut plantations over the year, which in turn may mediate interactions between pests and natural enemies within this agroecosystem. Here, we aimed to access the influence of seasonal variation of abiotic (temperature, relative humidity and rainfall) and biotic (diversity of spontaneous plants, overall richness and density of mites) factors on the communities of phytophagous and predatory mites found in a physic nut plantation and its associated spontaneous plants. Mite sampling was monthly conducted in dicotyledonous and monocotyledonous leaves of spontaneous plants as well as in physic nut shrubs over an entire year. In the dry season there was a higher abundance of phytophagous mites (Tenuipalpidae, Tarsonemidae and Tetranychidae) on spontaneous plants than on physic nut shrubs, while predatory mites (Phytoseiidae) showed the opposite pattern. The overall density of mites on spontaneous plants increased with relative humidity and diversity of spontaneous plants. Rainfall was the variable that most influenced the density of mites inhabiting physic nut shrubs. Agroecosystems comprising spontaneous plants associated with crops harbour a rich mite community including species of different trophic levels which potentially benefit natural pest control due to increased diversity and abundance of natural enemies.

  5. The genus Galumna in Nepalese oribatid mite fauna, with notes on systematic placement of some species (Acari, Oribatida, Galumnidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Ermilov

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The oribatid mite genus Galumna (Oribatida, Galumnidae is recorded for the first time in Nepal. A new species, Galumna tetraporosa sp. n., is described from soil of secondary mixed broadleaved forest. It is most similar morphologically to G. tokyoensis Aoki, 1966 and G. valida Aoki, 1994, however, it differs from both by the absence of interlamellar setae and the presence of two pairs of notogastral porose areas Aa. Galumna granalata Aoki, 1984 is redescribed on the basis of specimens from Nepal. Galumna floridae (Jacot, 1929 and G. hexagona Balogh, 1960 are transferred to the genus Notogalumna; G. mauritii Mahunka, 1978 is transferred to the genus Dimidiogalumna.

  6. A New Stubby Species of Demodectic Mite (Acari: Demodicidae) From the Domestic Dog (Canidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Tatsushi; Ohmi, Aki; Kiwaki, Akihito; Ike, Kazunori; Nagata, Katsuyuki

    2018-02-28

    A new species of Demodex was detected in the earwax of a dog with otitis externa in Saitama Prefecture, Japan, in July 2010. The opisthosoma length of the mite was slightly shorter than 1/2 of its body length, which was different from the other species in domestic dogs, D. canis and D. injai, but was similar to the form of mites termed "short-bodied species", including D. cornei. However, the stubby external form was morphologically different from those of "short-bodied species", excluding a case without a species description reported from Greece. Among known species, the mite was similar to D. equi and D. acutipes.

  7. Electron-beam irradiation as a quarantine treatment against red mite on exported cut flower of Chrysanthemum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doan Thi The; Nguyen Thi Ly; Vo Thi Kim Lang; Cao Van Chung

    2016-01-01

    Utilization of phytosanitary irradiation as a potential treatment to disinfest agricultural commodities in trade has expanded rapidly in the recent years. In this study, red mites (Tetranychus sp) isolated from cut Chrysanthemums were treated by electron beam irradiation at doses of 100, 200, 300 and 400 Gy. After irradiation, they were kept at room temperature to determine the effects of electron beam irradiation on red mite at different developmental stages (eggs, nymphs and adults) and the reproduction of female adults. The results showed that the pattern of tolerance to irradiation in red mite was eggs < 2nd instars < adults, in which the adults were the most tolerance stage. The number of eggs laid by the irradiated female mites and the hatching rate significantly decreased when the irradiation dose increased. The hatching rate of eggs at 300 Gy was 4.25% and no larvae F_1 survived during observation time. It could be concluded that 300 Gy is the effective quarantine dose for red mite infesting on cut chrysanthemums. (author)

  8. Factors affecting the prevalence of mange-mite infestations in stray dogs of Yucatán, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Vivas, R I; Ortega-Pacheco, A; Rosado-Aguilar, J A; Bolio, G M E

    2003-07-10

    The aim of the present study was to determine the factors affecting the prevalence of mange-mite infestations in stray dogs of Yucatán, Mexico. The study was carried out in 200 stray dogs of Mérida capital city of Yucatán, Mexico. Four samples (head, thoracic-abdominal area, extremities and ear) were taken from each animal by skin scraping and examined microscopically in 10% KOH solution to detect the presence of mites. Mites were also collected from the external ear canal of dogs using cotton-tipped swabs. The prevalence of different mite species was calculated. A primary screening was performed using 2xK contingency tables of exposure variables. All variables with PDemodex canis (23.0%) was the most frequent mite, followed by Sarcoptes scabei var. canis (7.0%) and Otodectes cynotis (3.5%). The following factors were found: body condition (bad, OR: 5.35, CI 95%: 1.66-17.3; regular, OR: 3.72, CI 95%: 1.39-9.99) and the presence of macroscopic lesions of dermatosis (OR: 42.80, CI 95%: 13.65-134.24).

  9. The SQ House Dust Mite SLIT-Tablet Is Well Tolerated in Patients with House Dust Mite Respiratory Allergic Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emminger, Waltraud; Hernández, María Dolores; Cardona, Victòria

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The SQ house dust mite (HDM) SLIT-tablet (ALK, Denmark) addresses the underlying cause of HDM respiratory allergic disease, and a clinical effect has been demonstrated for both HDM allergic rhinitis and allergic asthma. Here, we present pooled safety data from an adult population with...

  10. Immunoinformatics and Similarity Analysis of House Dust Mite Tropomyosin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mehdi Ranjbar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dermatophagoides farinae and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus are house dust mites (HDM that they cause severe asthma and allergic symptoms. Tropomyosin protein plays an important role in mentioned immune and allergic reactions to HDMs. Here, tropomyosin protein from Dermatophagoides spp. was comprehensively screened in silico for its allergenicity, antigenicity and similarity/conservation.Materials and Methods: The amino acid sequences of D. farinae tropomyosin, D. pteronyssinus and other mites were retrieved. We included alignments and evaluated conserved/ variable regions along sequences, constructed their phylogenetic tree and estimated overall mean distances. Then, followed by with prediction of linear B-cell epitope based on different approaches, and besides in-silico evaluation of IgE epitopes allergenicity (by SVMc, IgE epitope, ARPs BLAST, MAST and hybrid method. Finally, comparative analysis of results by different approaches was made.Results: Alignment results revealed near complete identity between D. farina and D. pteronyssinus members, and also there was close similarity among Dermatophagoides spp. Most of the variations among mites' tropomyosin were approximately located at amino acids 23 to 80, 108 to 120, 142 to 153 and 220 to 230. Topology of tree showed close relationships among mites in tropomyosin protein sequence, although their sequences in D. farina, D. pteronyssinus and Psoroptes ovis are more similar to each other and clustered. Dermanyssus gallinae (AC: Q2WBI0 has less relationship to other mites, being located in a separate branch. Hydrophilicity and flexibility plots revealed that many parts of this protein have potential to be hydrophilic and flexible. Surface accessibility represented 7 different epitopes. Beta-turns in this protein are with high probability in the middle part and its two terminals. Kolaskar and Tongaonkar method analysis represented 11 immunogenic epitopes between amino acids 7-16. From

  11. Ex-ante analysis of economic returns from biological control of coconut mite in Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oleke, J.M.; Manyong, V.; Mignouna, D.; Isinika, A.; Mutabazi, K.; Hanna, R.; Sabelis, M.

    2013-01-01

    The coconut mite, Aceria guerreronis Keifer, has been identified as one of the pests that pose a threat to the coconut industry in Benin. The study presents the simulation results of the economic benefits of the biological control of coconut mites in Benin using a standard economic surplus model. In

  12. ACTIVITY OF SOME BRAZILIAN ISOLATES OF ENTOMOPATHOGENIC FUNGI AGAINST THE POULTRY RED MITE DERMANYSSUS GALLINAE DE GEER (ACARI: DERMANYSSIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CR Kasburg

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Poultry red mite Dermanyssus gallinae is a cosmopolitan and hematophagous species commonly found in layer houses around the world. Poultry mite infestations may cause anemia, stress, low body weight and egg production, and mortality. Mite control is typically based on chemical products, but they are not effective and leave residues in eggs; therefore, alternative control methods, such as entomopathogenic fungi, need to researched. This study aimed at evaluating, in the laboratory, the activity of Brazilian isolates of entomopathogenic fungi against D. gallinae. The mites were collected from a commercial layer house and were sprayed with conidial suspensions (1 × 108 conidia/mL of five isolates of Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae. All tested isolates were pathogenic for the red mite, with confirmed mortality ranging from 22.9 to 52.4%. This demonstrate the potential of the tested entomopathogenic fungi isolates for mite control, and reinforces the need for further studies with other isolates, application strategies, and with fungal formulations.

  13. Citrus leprosis transmission by Brevipalpus yothersi mites through non citrus hosts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo León M.

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Citrus leprosis virus (C i LV was detected in Colombia at the eastern plains in 2004; it is a threat the disease spreads to other regions of the country. The main vector is Brevipalpus yothersi Baker (formerly identified as Brevipalpus phoenicis. This research determined the viability of B. yothersi to transmit C i LV to citrus plants, after been hosted in non-citrus plants. To virus acquisition, mites spent three days on symptomatic orange (Citrus x sinensis leaves positives to C i LV-C2; then mites were placed on six non-citrus plants (Dieffenbachia sp., Hibiscus rosa-sinensis,Codiaeum variegatum, Swinglea glutinosa, Sida acutaand Stachytarpheta cayennensis. A randomized design with 6 treatments and 4 replicates was carried out. After scheduled time in non-citrus plants, mites were three days relocated on C. x sinensis healthy plants. Leaves of receptor plants, were evaluated to the occurrence or absence of symptoms and collected for RT-PCR tests. B. yothersi mites were able to transmit the C i LV virus over 85 % of Valencia orange plants (Citrus x sinensis L., after feeding from 2-20 days on non-citrus host plants. The first leprosis symptoms on C. x sinensis leaves was confirmed from 14 to 51 days after transmission. The present research work further established that C i LV-C2 is a persistently transmitted virus. The implement quarantine diagnostic measures to prevent spread of CiLV to disease-free zones is suggested.

  14. Spatial distribution of phytophagous mites (Aca ri: Tetranychidae) on strawberry plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fadini, Marcos A.M.; Venzon, Madelaine; Oliveira, Hamilton G.; Pallini, Angelo; Vilela, Evaldo F.

    2007-01-01

    Many phytophagous mites can attack strawberry plants, Fragaria x ananassa, among them the southern red mite, Oligonychus ilicis McGregor, and the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch. They are found together feeding on the same plant on the upper and underside of the leaves, respectively. Here we studied the choice for feeding sites of O. ilicis and T. urticae on strawberry plants. The first hypothesis tested whether the feeding site choice would be related to the fitness of the species. The second hypothesis dealt whether the feeding site would be determined by the presence of a heterospecific mite. We evaluated the preference, biology and reproductive success of O. ilicis and T. urticae on the under and upper side surface of strawberry leaves infested or not by the heterospecific. O. ilicis preferred to stay on the upper side surface while T. urticae preferred the underside. The preference for the leaf surface correlated with the reproductive success of the species (measured by the intrinsic growth rate). The choice pattern of feeding sites did not alter when the choice test was applied using sites previously infested by heterospecific. Although O. ilicis and T. urticae, apparently, do not interact directly for feeding sites, there is a chance that the first species induces defenses in strawberry plant enabling to reduce the fitness of the second species. The possibility of those species stay together on strawberry plant increases the damage capacity to the culture. (author)

  15. A rapid method to assess grape rust mites on leaves and observations from case studies in western Oregon vineyards

    Science.gov (United States)

    A rapid method for extracting eriophyoid mites was adapted from previous studies to provide growers and IPM consultants with a practical, efficient, and reliable tool to monitor for rust mites in vineyards. The rinse in bag (RIB) method allows quick extraction of mites from collected plant parts (sh...

  16. Concepto de límite funcional : aprendizaje y memoria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás Ortega del Rincón

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo forma parte de un proyecto de investigación sobre el concepto de límite funcional en el que se viene trabajando desde hace varios años. En este caso, se contrasta si la noción de límite ligada a la definición métrica perdura en la memoria de los alumnos más que la definición como aproximación óptima dada por Blázquez y Ortega en 2002. Se trata de un estudio empírico realizado con alumnos de Ingeniería de la Universidad Nacional de San Luis (Argentina, que en cursos anteriores habían estudiado ambas conceptualizaciones.

  17. Free living astigmatid mites (Astigmatina): new taxa, rearing and use for mesostigmatid (Mesostigmata) predatory mite production

    OpenAIRE

    Marina Ferraz de Camargo Barbosa

    2016-01-01

    The cohort Astigmatina is divided in two major groups: Psoroptidia, composed mainly by feather and fur mites, and Non-psoroptidia, a dominant component of the acarofauna in ephemeral habitats. In these environments Astigmatina usually are saprophages or feed on fungi or bacteria. Astigmatina protonymphs undergo a complete reorganization of the body structure leading to the production of heteromorphic deutonymphs, generally specialized for dispersion through phoresy using arthropods and verteb...

  18. Preventing Severe Asthma Exacerbations in Children. A Randomized Trial of Mite-Impermeable Bedcovers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Clare S; Foden, Philip; Sumner, Helen; Shepley, Elizabeth; Custovic, Adnan; Simpson, Angela

    2017-07-15

    Allergen exposure in sensitized individuals with asthma interacts with viruses to increase the risk of asthma exacerbation. To evaluate the use of house dust mite-impermeable bedding and its impact on severe asthma exacerbations in children. We randomized mite-sensitized children with asthma (ages 3-17 yr) after an emergency hospital attendance with an asthma exacerbation to receive mite-impermeable (active group) or control (placebo group) bed encasings. Over a 12-month intervention period, the occurrence of severe asthma exacerbations was investigated. Of 434 children with asthma who consented, 286 (mean age, 7.7 yr; male sex, 65.8%) were mite sensitized, and 284 were randomized (146 to the active group and 138 to the placebo group). At 12 months, significantly fewer children in the active group than in the placebo group had attended the hospital with an exacerbation (36 [29.3%] of 123 vs. 49 [41.5%] of 118; P = 0.047). In the multivariable analysis, the risk of emergency hospital attendance was 45% lower in the active group (hazard ratio, 0.55; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.36-0.85; P = 0.006) than in the placebo group. The annual rate of emergency hospital attendance with exacerbations was 27% lower in the active group than in the placebo group, but this did not reach significance (estimated marginal mean [95% CI], active, 0.38 [0.26-0.56] vs. placebo, 0.52 [0.35-0.76]; P = 0.18). No difference between the groups in the risk of prednisolone use for exacerbation was found (hazard ratio, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.58-1.17; P = 0.28). Mite-impermeable encasings are effective in reducing the number of mite-sensitized children with asthma attending the hospital with asthma exacerbations but not the number requiring oral prednisolone. This simple measure may reduce the health care burden of asthma exacerbations in children. Clinical trial registered with www.isrctn.com (ISRCTN 69543196).

  19. Phenomenon of Rickettsiella phytoseiuli in Phytoseiulus persimilis mite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutáková, G

    1994-01-01

    An unknown microorganism occurring in a predaceous mite Phytoseiulus persimilis was described by the author in 1977 as a new species Rickettsiella phytoseiuli. Some new results on the relation between this agent and its hosts are presented in this paper.

  20. Wood ash application increases pH but does not harm the soil mesofauna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Jiayi; Hovmand, Mads Frederik; Ekelund, Flemming

    2017-01-01

    Application of bioash from biofuel combustion to soil supports nutrient recycling, but may have unwanted and detrimental ecotoxicological side-effects, as the ash is a complex mixture of compounds that could affect soil invertebrates directly or through changes in their food or habitat conditions...... is the likely cause of effects while high pH and heavy metals is of minor importance.......Application of bioash from biofuel combustion to soil supports nutrient recycling, but may have unwanted and detrimental ecotoxicological side-effects, as the ash is a complex mixture of compounds that could affect soil invertebrates directly or through changes in their food or habitat conditions....... To examine this, we performed laboratory toxicity studies of the effects of wood-ash added to an agricultural soil and the organic horizon of a coniferous plantation soil with the detrivore soil collembolans Folsomia candida and Onychiurus yodai, the gamasid predaceous mite Hypoaspis aculeifer...

  1. Draft genome of the honey bee ectoparasitic mite, Tropilaelaps mercedesae, is shaped by the parasitic life history

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Xiaofeng; Armstrong, Stuart D.; Xia, Dong; Makepeace, Benjamin L.; Darby, Alistair C.; Kadowaki, Tatsuhiko

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The number of managed honey bee colonies has considerably decreased in many developed countries in recent years and ectoparasitic mites are considered as major threats to honey bee colonies and health. However, their general biology remains poorly understood. We sequenced the genome of Tropilaelaps mercedesae, the prevalent ectoparasitic mite infesting honey bees in Asia, and predicted 15?190 protein-coding genes that were well supported by the mite transcriptomes and proteomic data....

  2. Vitamin A deficiency modifies response of predatory mite Amblyseius potentillae to volatile kairomone of two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dicke, M.; Sabelis, M.W.; Groeneveld, A.

    1986-01-01

    volatile kairomone of the two-spotted spider mite,Tetranychus urticae, elicits a searching response of the phytoseiid predatorAmblyseius potentillae, only when the predator is reared on a carotenoid-free diet. However, after addition of crystalline betta-carotene or vitamin A acetate to the

  3. Predatory Mite Attraction to Herbivore-induced Plant Odors is not a Consequence of Attraction to Individual Herbivore-induced Plant Volatiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bruijn, Paulien J. A.; Sabelis, Maurice W.

    2008-01-01

    Predatory mites locate herbivorous mites, their prey, by the aid of herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPV). These HIPV differ with plant and/or herbivore species, and it is not well understood how predators cope with this variation. We hypothesized that predators are attracted to specific compounds in HIPV, and that they can identify these compounds in odor mixtures not previously experienced. To test this, we assessed the olfactory response of Phytoseiulus persimilis, a predatory mite that preys on the highly polyphagous herbivore Tetranychus urticae. The responses of the predatory mite to a dilution series of each of 30 structurally different compounds were tested. They mites responded to most of these compounds, but usually in an aversive way. Individual HIPV were no more attractive (or less repellent) than out-group compounds, i.e., volatiles not induced in plants fed upon by spider-mites. Only three samples were significantly attractive to the mites: octan-1-ol, not involved in indirect defense, and cis-3-hexen-1-ol and methyl salicylate, which are both induced by herbivory, but not specific for the herbivore that infests the plant. Attraction to individual compounds was low compared to the full HIPV blend from Lima bean. These results indicate that individual HIPV have no a priori meaning to the mites. Hence, there is no reason why they could profit from an ability to identify individual compounds in odor mixtures. Subsequent experiments confirmed that naive predatory mites do not prefer tomato HIPV, which included the attractive compound methyl salicylate, over the odor of an uninfested bean. However, upon associating each of these odors with food over a period of 15 min, both are preferred. The memory to this association wanes within 24 hr. We conclude that P. persimilis possesses a limited ability to identify individual spider mite-induced plant volatiles in odor mixtures. We suggest that predatory mites instead learn to respond to prey

  4. Patterns of infestation by the trombiculid mite Eutrombicula alfreddugesi in four sympatric lizard species (genus Tropidurus) in northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, C F D; Cunha-Barros, M; Menezes, V A; Fontes, A f; Vrcibradic, D; Van Sluys, M

    2008-06-01

    We studied the parasitism by the chigger mite Eutrombicula alfreddugesi on four sympatric lizard species of the genus Tropidurus in Morro do Chapéu, Bahia state, Brazil: T. hispidus, T. cocorobensis, T. semitaeniatus and T. erythrocephalus. For each species, we investigated the patterns of infestation and analyzed to which extent they varied among the hosts. We calculated the spatial niche breadth of the chigger mite on the body of each host species and the distribution of mites along the hosts' bodies for each Tropidurus species. All four species of Tropidurus at Morro do Chapéu were parasited by the chigger mite, with high (97-100%) prevalences. Host body size significantly explained the intensity of mite infestation for all species, except T. erythrocephalus. The body regions with highest intensity of infestation in the four lizard species were the mite pockets. The spacial niche width of the chigger varied consistently among the four lizards species studied being highest for T. erytrocephalus and lowest for T. cocorobensis. We conclude that the distribution and intensity with which lizards of the genus Tropidurus are infested by Eutrombicula alfreddugesi larvae results from the interaction between aspects of host morphology (such as body size and the occurrence and distribution of mite pockets) and ecology (especially microhabitat use).

  5. Patterns of infestation by the trombiculid mite Eutrombicula alfreddugesi in four sympatric lizard species (genus Tropidurus in northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocha C.F.D.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available We studied the parasitism by the chigger mite Eutrombicula alfreddugesi on four sympatric lizard species of the genus Tropidurus in Morro do Chapéu, Bahia state, Brazil: T. hispidus, T. cocorobensis, T. semitaeniatus and T. erythrocephalus. For each species, we investigated the patterns of infestation and analyzed to which extent they varied among the hosts. We calculated the spatial niche breadth of the chigger mite on the body of each host species and the distribution of mites along the hosts’ bodies for each Tropidurus species. All four species of Tropidurus at Morro do Chapéu were parasited by the chigger mite, with high (97-100% prevalences. Host body size significantly explained the intensity of mite infestation for all species, except T. erythrocephalus. The body regions with highest intensity of infestation in the four lizard species were the mite pockets. The spacial niche width of the chigger varied consistently among the four lizards species studied being highest for T. erytrocephalus and lowest for T. cocorobensis. We conclude that the distribution and intensity with which lizards of the genus Tropidurus are infested by Eutrombicula alfreddugesi larvae results from the interaction between aspects of host morphology (such as body size and the occurrence and distribution of mite pockets and ecology (especially microhabitat use.

  6. Detection, Prevalence and Phylogenetic Relationships of Demodex spp and further Skin Prostigmata Mites (Acari, Arachnida) in Wild and Domestic Mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sastre, Natalia; Francino, Olga; Curti, Joseph N; Armenta, Tiffany C; Fraser, Devaughn L; Kelly, Rochelle M; Hunt, Erin; Silbermayr, Katja; Zewe, Christine; Sánchez, Armand; Ferrer, Lluís

    2016-01-01

    This study was conceived to detect skin mites in social mammals through real-time qPCR, and to estimate taxonomic Demodex and further Prostigmata mite relationships in different host species by comparing sequences from two genes: mitochondrial 16S rRNA and nuclear 18S rRNA. We determined the mite prevalence in the hair follicles of marmots (13%) and bats (17%). The high prevalence found in marmots and bats by sampling only one site on the body may indicate that mites are common inhabitants of their skin. Since we found three different mites (Neuchelacheles sp, Myobia sp and Penthaleus sp) in three bat species (Miotis yumanensis, Miotis californicus and Corynorhinus townsendii) and two different mites (both inferred to be members of the Prostigmata order) in one marmot species (Marmota flaviventris), we tentatively concluded that these skin mites 1) cannot be assigned to the same genus based only on a common host, and 2) seem to evolve according to the specific habitat and/or specific hair and sebaceous gland of the mammalian host. Moreover, two M. yumanensis bats harbored identical Neuchelacheles mites, indicating the possibility of interspecific cross-infection within a colony. However, some skin mites species are less restricted by host species than previously thought. Specifically, Demodex canis seems to be more transmissible across species than other skin mites. D. canis have been found mostly in dogs but also in cats and captive bats. In addition, we report the first case of D. canis infestation in a domestic ferret (Mustela putorius). All these mammalian hosts are related to human activities, and D. canis evolution may be a consequence of this relationship. The monophyletic Demodex clade showing closely related dog and human Demodex sequences also supports this likely hypothesis.

  7. Detection, Prevalence and Phylogenetic Relationships of Demodex spp and further Skin Prostigmata Mites (Acari, Arachnida in Wild and Domestic Mammals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Sastre

    Full Text Available This study was conceived to detect skin mites in social mammals through real-time qPCR, and to estimate taxonomic Demodex and further Prostigmata mite relationships in different host species by comparing sequences from two genes: mitochondrial 16S rRNA and nuclear 18S rRNA. We determined the mite prevalence in the hair follicles of marmots (13% and bats (17%. The high prevalence found in marmots and bats by sampling only one site on the body may indicate that mites are common inhabitants of their skin. Since we found three different mites (Neuchelacheles sp, Myobia sp and Penthaleus sp in three bat species (Miotis yumanensis, Miotis californicus and Corynorhinus townsendii and two different mites (both inferred to be members of the Prostigmata order in one marmot species (Marmota flaviventris, we tentatively concluded that these skin mites 1 cannot be assigned to the same genus based only on a common host, and 2 seem to evolve according to the specific habitat and/or specific hair and sebaceous gland of the mammalian host. Moreover, two M. yumanensis bats harbored identical Neuchelacheles mites, indicating the possibility of interspecific cross-infection within a colony. However, some skin mites species are less restricted by host species than previously thought. Specifically, Demodex canis seems to be more transmissible across species than other skin mites. D. canis have been found mostly in dogs but also in cats and captive bats. In addition, we report the first case of D. canis infestation in a domestic ferret (Mustela putorius. All these mammalian hosts are related to human activities, and D. canis evolution may be a consequence of this relationship. The monophyletic Demodex clade showing closely related dog and human Demodex sequences also supports this likely hypothesis.

  8. Mites fluctuation population on peach tree (Prunus persica (L. Batsch and in associated plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Rosana Eichelberger

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite the importance of peach (Prunus persica (L. Batsch in Rio Grande do Sul, little is known about mites fluctuation population considered important to this crop. The objective of this study was to know the population diversity and fluctuation of mite species associated with Premier and Eldorado varieties in Roca Sales and Venâncio Aires counties, Rio Grande do Sul. The study was conducted from July 2008 to June 2009 when 15 plants were randomly chosen in each area. The plants were divided in quadrants and from each one a branch was chosen from which three leaves were removed: one collected in the apical region, another in the medium and the other in the basal region, totalizing 180 leaves/area. Five of the most abundant associated plants were collected monthly in enough amounts for the screening under the stereoscopic microscope during an hour. A total of 1,124 mites were found belonging to 14 families and 28 species. Tetranychus ludeni Zacher, 1913, Panonychus ulmi (Koch, 1836 and Mononychellus planki (McGregor, 1950 were the most abundant phytophagous mites, whereas Typhlodromalus aripo Deleon, 1967 and Phytoseiulus macropilis (Banks, 1904 the most common predatory mites. The period of one hour under stereoscopic microscope was enough to get a representative sample. In both places evaluated the ecologic indices were low, but little higherin Premier (H' 0.56; EqJ: 0.43 when compared to Eldorado (H' 0.53; EqJ 0.40. In Premier constant species were not observed and accessory only Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes, 1939, T. ludeni and T. aripo. Higher abundance was observed in December and January and bigger amount in April. Already in Eldorado, T. ludeni and P. ulmi were constants. Greater abundance was observed in November and December, whereas grater richness in December and January. In both orchards were not found mites in buds. Tetranychus ludeni is the most abundant phytophagous mites with outbreak population in November, December and

  9. Phytoseiid mites from tropical fruit trees in Bahia State, Brazil (Acari, Phytoseiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Izabel Vieira; Sá Argolo, Poliane; Júnior, Manoel Guedes Correa Gondim; de Moraes, Gilberto José; Bittencourt, Maria Aparecida Leão; Oliveira, Anibal Ramadan

    2015-01-01

    The cultivation of tropical fruit trees has grown considerably in the state of Bahia, northeastern Brazil. Some of these have been severely attacked by phytophagous mites, which are usually controlled by the use of chemical pesticides. However, there is today a growing interest for the adoption of less aggressive measures of pest control, as for example the use of predatory mites. Most of the plant-inhabiting predatory mites belong to the family Phytoseiidae. The objective of this paper is to report the phytoseiid species found in an intensive survey conducted on cultivated tropical fruit trees in fifteen localities of the southern coast of Bahia. Measurements of relevant morphological characters are provided for each species, to complement the understanding of the morphological variation of these species. Twenty-nine species of sixteen genera were identified. A key was elaborated to assist in the separation of these species. Fifteen species are reported for the first time in the state, raising to sixty-six the number of species of this family now known from Bahia. Seventy-two percent of the species collected belong to Amblyseiinae, followed by Typhlodrominae (21%) and Phytoseiinae (7%). The most diverse genus was Amblyseius. Amblyseius operculatus De Leon was the most frequent and abundant species. Studies should be conducted to evaluate the possible role of the most common predators as control agents of the phytophagous mites co-occurring with them.

  10. [Efficacy of the dust mites drops sublingual immunotherapy in pediatric allergic rhinitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Lisheng; Jiang, Yinzhu; Li, Qi

    2016-03-01

    To observe the role of the dust mites drops sublingual immunotherapy(SLIT) in pediatric allergic rhiriitis caused by dust mites and compare its efficacy between monosensitized and polysensitized children. A total of 77 pediatric allergic rhinitis patients received Dermatophagoides farina extracts sublingual immunotherapy for 2 years were enrolled as desensitization group and were allocated into monosensitized group (41 cases) and polysensitized group (36 cases) according to the number of coexisting allergens. Meanwhile another 33 allergic rhinitis children treated by pharmacotherapy during the period were collected as control group. The total symptom scores (TNSS), total medication scores (TMS) and visual analogue scale(VAS) were assessed at the beginning, six months, 1 year and 2 years of the treatment. SPSS 13. 0 software was used to analyze the data. the score of TNSS and VAS in desensitization was slightly higher than the control after six months treatment, but without difference at l year and 2 years; the score of TMS had significantly improved in desensitization compared with the corresponding points in control. All the parameters in monosensitized group were equivalent with polysensitizend group, except the score of TMS was slightly lower than the polysensitizend group at six months. Dust mite drops sublingual immunotherapy is effective for the allergic rhinitis children caused by mites. And it has similar immunotherapy efficacy between monosensitized and polysensitized children.

  11. Predatory mites avoid ovipositing near counter-attacking prey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faraji, F.; Janssen, A.; Sabelis, M.W.

    2001-01-01

    Attacking prey is not without risk; predators may endure counterattackby the prey. Here, we study the oviposition behaviour of a predatory mite(Iphiseius degenerans) in relation to its prey, thewesternflower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis). This thrips iscapable of killing the eggs of the

  12. Comparative morphological analysis of apple blister mite, Eriophyes mali Nal., a new pest in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biljana Vidović

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The apple blister mite, Eriophyes mali Nalepa, 1926 (Acari: Prostigmata: Eriophyoidea, has been recently found in Serbia as a new pest of apple. The history of its research, the results of a morphological analysis and degree of infestation are presented. A comparison of the main morphological features of mites from different populations of remote geographical origin has shown that the apple blister mite from Serbia is most similar to another European population (Bulgarian [or Austrian?] while it differs from E. mali originating from the USA and New Zealand. The percentage of infestation varied from 1.6% to 87.6%, with an average of 22.4%.

  13. Origins of asexuality in Bryobia mites (Acari: Tetranychidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ros, V.I.D.; Breeuwer, J.A.J.; Menken, S.B.J.

    2008-01-01

    Background Obligate asexual reproduction is rare in the animal kingdom. Generally, asexuals are considered evolutionary dead ends that are unable to radiate. The phytophagous mite genus Bryobia contains a large number of asexual species. In this study, we investigate the origin and evolution of

  14. Varroa destructor virus 1: a new picorna-like virus in Varroa mites as well as honey bees

    OpenAIRE

    Ongus, J.R.

    2006-01-01

    Varroa destructor mite is an ectoparasite of the honey bee Apis mellifera. This species was recently differentiated from Varroa jacobsoni species which infests the Asian bee Apis cerana. Varroa mites feed entirely on the bee's haemolymph and have been associated with the spread of a number of viruses. Since the mites were first observed in Java, Indonesia in 1904, they have been reported in most regions of the world except Australia and the equatorial regions of Africa. V. destructor severely...

  15. The role of methyl salicylate in prey searching behavior of the predatory mite phytoseiulus persimilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Boer, Jetske G; Dicke, Marcel

    2004-02-01

    Many carnivorous arthropods use herbivore-induced plant volatiles to locate their prey. These plant volatiles are blends of up to hundreds of compounds. It is often unknown which compounds in such a complex volatile blend represent the signal to the foraging carnivore. We studied the role of methyl salicylate (MeSA) as part of the volatile blend in the foraging behavior of the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis by using a Y-tube olfactometer. MeSA is one of the compounds released by lima bean, infested with Tetranychus urticae--a prey species of the predatory mite. MeSA attracted satiated predatory mites in a dose-dependent way with optimum attraction at a dose of 0.2 microg. Predatory mites did not discriminate between a prey-induced lima bean volatile blend (that contains MeSA) and a prey-induced volatile blend to which an extra amount of synthetic MeSA had been added. However, they preferred a MeSA-containing volatile blend (induced by T. urticae) to an otherwise similar but MeSA-free blend (induced by jasmonic acid). Adding synthetic MeSA to the MeSA-free blend significantly increased the mites' choice for this odor, suggesting an important role for MeSA. This study is a new step toward unraveling the role of herbivore-induced plant volatiles in the foraging behavior of predatory arthropods.

  16. Genetic diversity analysis of various red spider mite- resistant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2011-05-02

    May 2, 2011 ... 3Key Laboratory of Plant Breeding and Genetics, Sichuan Agricultural University, Ya'an, 625014, P. R. ... Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) is a DNA ..... spider mite-resistant, bumper, high-quality and disease-.

  17. Composition of fatty acids in the Varroa destructor mites and their hosts, Apis mellifera drone-prepupae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitryjuk, Małgorzata; Zalewski, Kazimierz; Raczkowski, Marek; Żółtowska, Krystyna

    2015-01-01

    The fatty acid (FA) profile of lipids extracted from the Varroa destructor parasitic mite and its host, drone-prepupae of Apis mellifera, was determined by gas chromatography (GC). The percentages of saturated fatty acids (SFAs), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) were generally similar in parasites and their hosts. Fatty acids were arranged in the following descending order based on their content: MUFAs (ca. 52-55%), SFAs (ca. 41%) and PUFAs (ca. 3%). The predominant fatty acids were oleic acid (46% in mites, 44% in prepupae) and palmitic acid (23% and 30%, respectively). Varroa parasites differed from their hosts in the quantity of individual FAs and in their FA profiles. Three PUFAs noted in the host were not observed in parasitic mites, whereas the presence of C21:0, C24:0 and C22:1 FAs was reported in mites, but not in drones.

  18. Norwegian honey bees surviving Varroa destructor mite infestations by means of natural selection

    OpenAIRE

    Oddie, Melissa AY; Dahle, Bjørn Steinar; Neumann, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Background Managed, feral and wild populations of European honey bee subspecies, Apis mellifera, are currently facing severe colony losses globally. There is consensus that the ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor, that switched hosts from the Eastern honey bee Apis cerana to the Western honey bee A. mellifera, is a key factor driving these losses. For >20 years, breeding efforts have not produced European honey bee colonies that can survive infestations without the need for mite control....

  19. Effects of azadirachtin on Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) and its compatibility with predatory mites (Acari: Phytoseiidae) on strawberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, Daniel; Botton, Marcos; da Cunha, Uemerson Silva; Bernardi, Oderlei; Malausa, Thibaut; Garcia, Mauro Silveira; Nava, Dori Edson

    2013-01-01

    The spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, is the major strawberry pest in Brazil. The main strategies for its control comprise synthetic acaricides and predatory mites. The recent register of a commercial formula of azadirachtin (Azamax(®) 12 g L(-1) ) can be viable for control of T. urticae. In this work, the effects of azadirachtin on T. urticae and its compatibility with predatory mites Neoseiulus californicus and Phytoseiulus macropilis in the strawberry crop were evaluated. Azadirachtin was efficient against T. urticae, with a mortality rate similar to that of abamectin. In addition, the azadirachtin showed lower biological persistence (7 days) than abamectin (21 days). Azadirachtin did not cause significant mortality of adult predatory mites (N. californicus and P. macropilis), but it did reduce fecundity by 50%. However, egg viability of the azadirachtin treatments was similar to that of the control (>80% viability). The use of azadirachtin and predatory mites is a valuable tool for controlling T. urticae in strawberry crop. Azadirachtin provided effective control of T. urticae and is compatible with the predatory mites N. californicus and P. macropilis. It is an excellent tool to be incorporated into integrated pest management for strawberry crop in Brazil. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. The crystal structure of recombinant proDer p 1, a major house dust mite proteolytic allergen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meno, Kåre; Thorsted, Peter B; Ipsen, Henrik

    2005-01-01

    Allergy to house dust mite is among the most prevalent allergic diseases worldwide. Most house dust mite allergic patients react to Der p 1 from Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, which is a cysteine protease. To avoid heterogeneity in the sample used for crystallization, a modified recombinant...

  1. Introduction of Astigmatina and Oribatida Mites (Acari: Sarcoptiformes associated with Stored Food Products in Mashhad county

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohre Khaleghabadian

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The occurrence and activity of mites in stored foods cause a variety of qualitative and quantitative damages, including reduction in the germinating power of the grains, bronchial asthma and allergic skin reactions. Among the mites associated with stored products, species of order Sarcoptiformes especially some species of Astigmatina including the genera Acarus, Suidasia and Tyrophagousare have economic importance and a worldwide distribution. The members of family Histiosomatidae also are cosmopolitan and often found in moist organic materials. In Iran, there have been a considerable number of studies on astigmatic mites. Kamali et al. have provided a list of stored product mites. fthe work of Bahrami et al. on species diversity of Acaroidea in Tehran, Ardeshir on population of stored grains in different seasons in Iran;Sayedi et al. on mites associated with stored rice in Guilan can be mentioned. Reviewing the literature revealed that in the only study that has been carried out in the study area, only 6 species of storage mites have previously been reported from Khorasan-e- +Razavi province. Literature review showed that although Oribatida consists of 9000 known species in the world, the number of recorded species from Iran is not considerable. Iranian studies on oribatid mites have limited to a few specific areas and recent years. By considering the limitation of knowledge on species diversity of stored product mites in the study area, the present study aimed to improve our knowledge on the mite associated with the stored food products in Mashhad city and the vicinity. Material and Methods: During years 2011−2012 a variety of food storages in Mashhad region were visited and sampled. These stored food products included wheat, barley, wheat bran, rice, flour mill, factories of pasta and bakeries, stockpiles of livestock’s food, and potato and onion storages in different parts of Mashhad. Mite specimens were extracted from

  2. Development of a cDNA microarray for the measurement of gene expression in the sheep scab mite Psoroptes ovis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burgess Stewart TG

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sheep scab is caused by the ectoparasitic mite Psoroptes ovis which initiates a profound cutaneous inflammatory response, leading to the development of the skin lesions which are characteristic of the disease. Existing control strategies rely upon injectable endectocides and acaricidal dips but concerns over residues, eco-toxicity and the development of acaricide resistance limit the sustainability of this approach. In order to identify alternative means of disease control, a deeper understanding of both the parasite and its interaction with the host are required. Methods Herein we describe the development and utilisation of an annotated P. ovis cDNA microarray containing 3,456 elements for the measurement of gene expression in this economically important ectoparasite. The array consists of 981 P. ovis EST sequences printed in triplicate along with 513 control elements. Array performance was validated through the analysis of gene expression differences between fed and starved P. ovis mites. Results Sequences represented on the array include homologues of major house dust mite allergens and tick salivary proteins, along with factors potentially involved in mite reproduction and xenobiotic metabolism. In order to validate the performance of this unique resource under biological conditions we used the array to analyse gene expression differences between fed and starved P. ovis mites. These analyses identified a number of house dust mite allergen homologues up-regulated in fed mites and P. ovis transcripts involved in stress responses, autophagy and chemosensory perception up-regulated in starved mites. Conclusion The P. ovis cDNA microarray described here has been shown to be both robust and reproducible and will enable future studies to analyse gene expression in this important ectoparasite.

  3. The association of Tarsonemus mites (Acari: Heterostigmata) with different apple developmental stages and apple core rot diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Ueckermann, Edward Albert; Van der Walt, Lené; Spotts, Robert A.; Smit, Francois J.; Jensen, Tamaryn; McLeod, Adéle

    2011-01-01

    Information on the role of mites in the genus Tarsonemus Canestrini and Fanzago, 1876 in the epidemiology of apple core rots (wet and dry) is limited. The aims of this study were to (1) assess the effect of different apple developmental stages (buds, blossoms, 4-cm diameter fruit, mature fruit and mummies) on the relative abundance of Tasonemus mites, (2) determine if there is a tendency of Tarsonemus mites to be associated with wet core rot (WCR) and dry core rot (DCR) apples, and (3) evalua...

  4. Testing for non-target effects of spinosad on twospotted spider mites and their predator Phytoseiulus persimilis under greenhouse conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Kiffnie M; Opit, George P; Nechols, James R; Margolies, David C

    2006-01-01

    The compatibility of the selective insecticide spinosad (Conserve SC), at rates recommended for thrips control in greenhouses, with release of the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot (Acari: Phytoseiidae) to control spider mites, was investigated in a crop of ivy geranium Pelargonium peltatum, cultivar 'Amethyst 96.' Plants were inoculated with twospotted spider mites, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae), 2 weeks before treatments were applied. There were three treatment variables, each at two levels: predators (released or not), spray application (water or Conserve SC at 2 ml/3.79 l), and timing of spray (1 day before or after predators were released). Twospotted spider mite populations then were sampled twice each week over a three-week period. The application or timing of spinosad had no effect on the ability of the predator to reduce the population of spider mites. Spider mite populations in the no-predator treatment continued to expand over the course of the experiment, while those in the predator-release treatment declined. We conclude that P. persimilis can be used in conjunction with spinosad on ivy geraniums without causing obvious detrimental effects to this predator or leading to a reduction in biological control.

  5. Fitness Cost of Litomosoides sigmodontis Filarial Infection in Mite Vectors; Implications of Infected Haematophagous Arthropod Excretory Products in Host-Vector Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adélaïde Nieguitsila

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Filariae are a leading cause of infections which are responsible for serious dermatological, ocular, and vascular lesions. Infective third stage larvae (L3 are transmitted through the bite of a haematophagous vector. Litomosoides sigmodontis is a well-established model of filariasis in the mouse, with the vector being the mite Ornithonyssus bacoti. The aim of the study was to analyse the filarial infection in mites to determine the consequences of filarial infection in the blood-feeding and the reproduction of mites as well as in the regulation of vector-induced inflammation in the mouse skin. Firstly, L3 are unevenly distributed throughout the host population and the majority of the population harbours a moderate infection (1 to 6 L3. Filarial infection does not significantly affect the probing delay for blood feeding. The number of released protonymphs is lower in infected mites but is not correlated with the L3 burden. Finally, induced excreted proteins from infected mites but not from uninfected mites stimulate TNF-α and the neutrophil-chemoattractant KC production by antigen-presenting cells (APCs. Altogether, these results describe the modification of the mite behavior under filarial infection and suggest that the immunomodulatory capacity of the mite may be modified by the presence of the parasite, hindering its defensive ability towards the vertebrate host.

  6. The economic importance of acaricides in the control of phytophagous mites and an update on recent acaricide mode of action research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Leeuwen, Thomas; Tirry, Luc; Yamamoto, Atsushi; Nauen, Ralf; Dermauw, Wannes

    2015-06-01

    Acaricides are one of the cornerstones of an efficient control program for phytophagous mites. An analysis of the global acaricide market reveals that spider mites such as Tetranychus urticae, Panonychus citri and Panonychus ulmi are by far the most economically important species, representing more than 80% of the market. Other relevant mite groups are false spider mites (mainly Brevipalpus), rust and gall mites and tarsonemid mites. Acaricides are most frequently used in vegetables and fruits (74% of the market), including grape vines and citrus. However, their use is increasing in major crops where spider mites are becoming more important, such as soybean, cotton and corn. As revealed by a detailed case study of the Japanese market, major shifts in acaricide use are partially driven by resistance development and the commercial availability of compounds with novel mode of action. The importance of the latter cannot be underestimated, although some compounds are successfully used for more than 30 years. A review of recent developments in mode of action research is presented, as such knowledge is important for devising resistance management programs. This includes spirocyclic keto-enols as inhibitors of acetyl-CoA carboxylase, the carbazate bifenazate as a mitochondrial complex III inhibitor, a novel class of complex II inhibitors, and the mite growth inhibitors hexythiazox, clofentezine and etoxazole that interact with chitin synthase I. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Assessing hygienic behavior and attraction to Varroa mite (Acari ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-02-07

    Feb 7, 2011 ... treatment and then the selected 5th instar larva were transferred to fundamental colonies with 10 to 12 ... Key words: Varroa mite, hygienic behavior (uncapping and .... into a container containing hot water and detergent.

  8. The Level of Mite Dermatophagoides’ Allergens (Der-p 1 and Der-f 1 in Birjand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Fereidouni

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: House dust mite allergens especially pyroglyphid species are among the most important indoor allergens and have an important role in development of asthma and allergies. Materials and Methods: In current study, the level of two main allergens from mites including Der-p1 and Der-f 1 in dust of 28 homes in Birjand city was measured by ELISA method. Results: All samples were negative for Der-p1. Low leverl of Der-f 1 was detected in one sample. Prevalence of asthma, rhinitis and rhinoconjunctivitis was 2%, 28% and 15% respectively. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that House dust mites could not grow in Birjand climate.

  9. Sublingual immunotherapy in patients with house dust mite allergic rhinitis: prospective study of clinical outcomes over a two-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soh, J Y; Thalayasingam, M; Ong, S; Loo, E X L; Shek, L P; Chao, S S

    2016-03-01

    Sublingual immunotherapy in patients with allergic rhinitis sensitised to house dust mites is safe, but its efficacy is controversial and sublingual immunotherapy with Blomia tropicalis has not yet been studied. This study sought to evaluate the efficacy of sublingual immunotherapy with house dust mite extract in children and adults with house dust mite allergic rhinitis over a period of two years. A prospective observational study was conducted of children and adults diagnosed with house dust mite allergic rhinitis who were treated with sublingual immunotherapy from 2008 to 2012. Total Nasal Symptom Scores, Mini Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality of Life scores and medication usage scores were assessed prospectively. Thirty-nine patients, comprising 24 children and 15 adults, were studied. Total Nasal Symptom Scores and Mini Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality of Life scores dropped significantly at three months into therapy, and continued to improve. Medication usage scores improved at one year into immunotherapy. Sublingual immunotherapy with house dust mite extracts, including B tropicalis, is efficacious as a treatment for patients with house dust mite allergic rhinitis.

  10. Viral epidemiology of the adult Apis Mellifera infested by the Varroa destructor mite

    OpenAIRE

    Bernardi, Sara; Venturino, Ezio

    2016-01-01

    The ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor has become one of the major worldwide threats for apiculture. Varroa destructor attacks the honey bee Apis mellifera weakening its host by sucking hemolymph. However, the damage to bee colonies is not strictly related to the parasitic action of the mite but it derives, above all, from its action as vector increasing the transmission of many viral diseases such as acute paralysis (ABPV) and deformed wing viruses (DWV), that are considered among the main...

  11. Characterization of a new high copy Stowaway family MITE, BRAMI-1 in Brassica genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs) are expected to play important roles in evolution of genes and genome in plants, especially in the highly duplicated plant genomes. Various MITE families and their roles in plants have been characterized. However, there have been fewer studies of MITE families and their potential roles in evolution of the recently triplicated Brassica genome. Results We identified a new MITE family, BRAMI-1, belonging to the Stowaway super-family in the Brassica genome. In silico mapping revealed that 697 members are dispersed throughout the euchromatic regions of the B. rapa pseudo-chromosomes. Among them, 548 members (78.6%) are located in gene-rich regions, less than 3 kb from genes. In addition, we identified 516 and 15 members in the 470 Mb and 15 Mb genomic shotgun sequences currently available for B. oleracea and B. napus, respectively. The resulting estimated copy numbers for the entire genomes were 1440, 1464 and 2490 in B. rapa, B. oleracea and B. napus, respectively. Concurrently, only 70 members of the related Arabidopsis ATTIRTA-1 MITE family were identified in the Arabidopsis genome. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that BRAMI-1 elements proliferated in the Brassica genus after divergence from the Arabidopsis lineage. MITE insertion polymorphism (MIP) was inspected for 50 BRAMI-1 members, revealing high levels of insertion polymorphism between and within species of Brassica that clarify BRAMI-1 activation periods up to the present. Comparative analysis of the 71 genes harbouring the BRAMI-1 elements with their non-insertion paralogs (NIPs) showed that the BRAMI-1 insertions mainly reside in non-coding sequences and that the expression levels of genes with the elements differ from those of their NIPs. Conclusion A Stowaway family MITE, named as BRAMI-1, was gradually amplified and remained present in over than 1400 copies in each of three Brassica species. Overall, 78% of the members were identified in

  12. Infestation and distribution of the mite Varroa destructor in colonies of africanized bees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Moretto

    Full Text Available Whereas in several parts of the world varroa is the major pest affecting apiculture, in others the parasite is unknown to many beekeepers because its damage to bees is minor. The impact of the mite Varroa destructor is related to the climatic conditions and the races of Apis mellifera bees in each region where the pest exists. In the present study, the current level of infestation by the mite was assessed to determine the evolution of the pest in Africanized bee colonies in Southern Brazil. This level of infestation was considered low: approximately two mites per one hundred adult bees. This result is similar to that obtained for the same apiary almost five years ago and for others distributed in various regions of Brazil. In the present study, we also estimated the total varroa population and its distribution among brood and adults in each bee colony.

  13. Heterochromatin and molecular characterization of DsmarMITE transposable element in the beetle Dichotomius schiffleri (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xavier, Crislaine; Cabral-de-Mello, Diogo Cavalcanti; de Moura, Rita Cássia

    2014-12-01

    Cytogenetic studies of the Neotropical beetle genus Dichotomius (Scarabaeinae, Coleoptera) have shown dynamism for centromeric constitutive heterochromatin sequences. In the present work we studied the chromosomes and isolated repetitive sequences of Dichotomius schiffleri aiming to contribute to the understanding of coleopteran genome/chromosomal organization. Dichotomius schiffleri presented a conserved karyotype and heterochromatin distribution in comparison to other species of the genus with 2n = 18, biarmed chromosomes, and pericentromeric C-positive blocks. Similarly to heterochromatin distributional patterns, the highly and moderately repetitive DNA fraction (C 0 t-1 DNA) was detected in pericentromeric areas, contrasting with the euchromatic mapping of an isolated TE (named DsmarMITE). After structural analyses, the DsmarMITE was classified as a non-autonomous element of the type miniature inverted-repeat transposable element (MITE) with terminal inverted repeats similar to Mariner elements of insects from different orders. The euchromatic distribution for DsmarMITE indicates that it does not play a part in the dynamics of constitutive heterochromatin sequences.

  14. General Relationships between Abiotic Soil Properties and Soil Biota across Spatial Scales and Different Land-Use Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkhofer, Klaus; Schöning, Ingo; Alt, Fabian; Herold, Nadine; Klarner, Bernhard; Maraun, Mark; Marhan, Sven; Oelmann, Yvonne; Wubet, Tesfaye; Yurkov, Andrey; Begerow, Dominik; Berner, Doreen; Buscot, François; Daniel, Rolf; Diekötter, Tim; Ehnes, Roswitha B.; Erdmann, Georgia; Fischer, Christiane; Foesel, Bärbel; Groh, Janine; Gutknecht, Jessica; Kandeler, Ellen; Lang, Christa; Lohaus, Gertrud; Meyer, Annabel; Nacke, Heiko; Näther, Astrid; Overmann, Jörg; Polle, Andrea; Pollierer, Melanie M.; Scheu, Stefan; Schloter, Michael; Schulze, Ernst-Detlef; Schulze, Waltraud; Weinert, Jan; Weisser, Wolfgang W.; Wolters, Volkmar; Schrumpf, Marion

    2012-01-01

    Very few principles have been unraveled that explain the relationship between soil properties and soil biota across large spatial scales and different land-use types. Here, we seek these general relationships using data from 52 differently managed grassland and forest soils in three study regions spanning a latitudinal gradient in Germany. We hypothesize that, after extraction of variation that is explained by location and land-use type, soil properties still explain significant proportions of variation in the abundance and diversity of soil biota. If the relationships between predictors and soil organisms were analyzed individually for each predictor group, soil properties explained the highest amount of variation in soil biota abundance and diversity, followed by land-use type and sampling location. After extraction of variation that originated from location or land-use, abiotic soil properties explained significant amounts of variation in fungal, meso- and macrofauna, but not in yeast or bacterial biomass or diversity. Nitrate or nitrogen concentration and fungal biomass were positively related, but nitrate concentration was negatively related to the abundances of Collembola and mites and to the myriapod species richness across a range of forest and grassland soils. The species richness of earthworms was positively correlated with clay content of soils independent of sample location and land-use type. Our study indicates that after accounting for heterogeneity resulting from large scale differences among sampling locations and land-use types, soil properties still explain significant proportions of variation in fungal and soil fauna abundance or diversity. However, soil biota was also related to processes that act at larger spatial scales and bacteria or soil yeasts only showed weak relationships to soil properties. We therefore argue that more general relationships between soil properties and soil biota can only be derived from future studies that consider

  15. Effect of mattress and pillow encasings on children with asthma and house dust mite allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halken, Susanne; Høst, Arne; Niklassen, Ulla

    2003-01-01

    House dust mite (HDM) allergy is a frequent cause of allergic asthma in children. Reduction of exposure seems to be the most logical way to treat these patients.......House dust mite (HDM) allergy is a frequent cause of allergic asthma in children. Reduction of exposure seems to be the most logical way to treat these patients....

  16. Evolutionary Aspects of Acaricide-Resistance Development in Spider Mites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro (Mh. Osakabe

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the development of acaricide resistance in spider mites is a long-standing issue in agricultural fields, recent problems with acaricide resistance may be characterized by the development of complex- and/or multiresistance to acaricides in distinct classes. Such complexity of resistance is not likely to be a single mechanism. Pesticide resistance involves the microevolution of arthropod pests, and population genetics underlies the evolution. In this review, we address the genetic mechanisms of acaricide resistance evolution. We discuss genetic diversity and linkage of resistance genes, relationships between mite habitat and dispersal, and the effect of dispersal on population genetic structure and the dynamics of resistance genes. Finally, we attempt to present a comprehensive view of acaricide resistance evolution and suggest risks under globalization as well as possible approaches to managing acaricide resistance evolution or emergence.

  17. House dust and storage mite contamination of dry dog food stored in open bags and sealed boxes in 10 domestic households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Christina; McEwan, Neil; McGarry, John; Nuttall, Tim

    2011-04-01

    Dry pet food is a potential source of exposure to house dust and storage mite allergens in canine atopic dermatitis. This study evaluated contamination of house dust and dry dog food stored in paper bags, sealable plastic bags and sealable plastic boxes in 10 households for 90 days using Acarex(®) tests for guanine, a Der p 1 ELISA and mite flotation. Acarex(®) tests were negative in all the food samples but positive in all the house dust samples. The Der p 1 levels and mite numbers significantly increased in food from paper bags (P = 0.0073 and P = 0.02, respectively), but not plastic bags or boxes. Mite numbers and Der p 1 levels were 10-1000 times higher in house dust than the corresponding food samples (P bags (P = 0.003), and mite numbers in house dust and food from the paper bags (P = 0.0007). Bedding and carpets were significantly associated with Der p 1 levels in house dust (P = 0.015 and P = 0.01, respectively), and food from the paper (both P = 0.02) and plastic bags (P = 0.03 and P = 0.04, respectively). Mites were identified in six of 10 paper bag, three of 10 plastic bag, one of 10 plastic box and nine of 10 house dust samples. These comprised Dermatophagoides (54%), Tyrophagus (10%; all from food) and unidentified mites (36%). Storage of food in sealable plastic boxes largely prevented contamination for 3 months. Exposure to mites and mite proteins in all the stored food, however, appeared to be trivial compared with house dust. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 ESVD and ACVD.

  18. De un dolor a un saber: cuerpo, sufrimiento y memoria en los límites de la escritura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Aranguren Romero

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo desarrolla un análisis en torno a las condiciones de enunciabilidad del testimonio de víctimas de violencia política, tomando en consideración los límites de su posibilidad. Se consideran así, los límites que traza la (indecibilidad del sufrimiento; los límites que imponen los marcos sociales de la escucha a ciertas formas de testimonio; y los límites de una escritura que bordea las fronteras del cuerpo sufriente. Estos tres límites se analizan en función de la necesidad de discutir el marco de posibilidad de las investigaciones sobre experiencias subjetivas de violencia y sufrimiento y permiten profundizar en aspectos teóricos en torno a la transformación que va de un cuerpo sufriente a una escritura. Se analiza cómo ese cuerpo se enuncia en sus imposibilidades y sus límites, en sus memorias y sus olvidos, en sus intimidades y sus secretos y lo que implica su transformación en un texto que se escribe bordeando el sufrimiento, haciendo de la volatilidad e inestabilidad de los recuerdos y la voz una inscripción inamovible. Se considera así un cuerpo que se entrega —casi todo— a la letra pública.

  19. Persistence of subclinical deformed wing virus infections in honeybees following Varroa mite removal and a bee population turnover.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Locke

    Full Text Available Deformed wing virus (DWV is a lethal virus of honeybees (Apis mellifera implicated in elevated colony mortality rates worldwide and facilitated through vector transmission by the ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor. Clinical, symptomatic DWV infections are almost exclusively associated with high virus titres during pupal development, usually acquired through feeding by Varroa mites when reproducing on bee pupae. Control of the mite population, generally through acaricide treatment, is essential for breaking the DWV epidemic and minimizing colony losses. In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of remedial mite control on clearing DWV from a colony. DWV titres in adult bees and pupae were monitored at 2 week intervals through summer and autumn in acaricide-treated and untreated colonies. The DWV titres in Apistan treated colonies was reduced 1000-fold relative to untreated colonies, which coincided with both the removal of mites and also a turnover of the bee population in the colony. This adult bee population turnover is probably more critical than previously realized for effective clearing of DWV infections. After this initial reduction, subclinical DWV titres persisted and even increased again gradually during autumn, demonstrating that alternative non-Varroa transmission routes can maintain the DWV titres at significant subclinical levels even after mite removal. The implications of these results for practical recommendations to mitigate deleterious subclinical DWV infections and improving honeybee health management are discussed.

  20. Using an in vitro system for maintaining Varroa destructor mites on Apis mellifera hosts: Studies of mite longevity and feeding behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varroa destructor mites (Vd) are ectoparasites of Apis mellifera honey bees, and the damage they inflict on hosts is a likely causative factor of recent poor honey bee colony performance. Much research has produced an arsenal of control agents against Vd, which have become resistant to many chemical...

  1. Infection of army ant pupae by two new parasitoid mites (Mesostigmata: Uropodina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Brückner

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A great variety of parasites and parasitoids exploit ant societies. Among them are the Mesostigmata mites, a particularly common and diverse group of ant-associated arthropods. While parasitism is ubiquitous in Mesostigmata, parasitoidism has only been described in the genus Macrodinychus. Yet information about the basic biology of most Macrodinychus species is lacking. Out of 24 formally described species, information about basic life-history traits is only available for three species. Here we formally describe two new Macrodinychus species, i.e. Macrodinychus hilpertae and Macrodinychus derbyensis. In both species, immature stages developed as ecto-parasitoids on ant pupae of the South-East Asian army ant Leptogenys distinguenda. By piercing the developing ant with their chelicera, the mites apparently suck ant hemolymph, ultimately killing host individuals. We compare infection rates among all studied Macrodinychus species and discuss possible host countermeasures against parasitoidism. The cryptic lifestyle of living inside ant nests has certainly hampered the scientific discovery of Macrodinychus mites and we expect that many more macrodinychid species await scientific discovery and description.

  2. Infection of army ant pupae by two new parasitoid mites (Mesostigmata: Uropodina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brückner, Adrian; Klompen, Hans; Bruce, Andrew Iain; Hashim, Rosli; von Beeren, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    A great variety of parasites and parasitoids exploit ant societies. Among them are the Mesostigmata mites, a particularly common and diverse group of ant-associated arthropods. While parasitism is ubiquitous in Mesostigmata, parasitoidism has only been described in the genus Macrodinychus . Yet information about the basic biology of most Macrodinychus species is lacking. Out of 24 formally described species, information about basic life-history traits is only available for three species. Here we formally describe two new Macrodinychus species, i.e. Macrodinychus hilpertae and Macrodinychus derbyensis . In both species, immature stages developed as ecto-parasitoids on ant pupae of the South-East Asian army ant Leptogenys distinguenda . By piercing the developing ant with their chelicera, the mites apparently suck ant hemolymph, ultimately killing host individuals. We compare infection rates among all studied Macrodinychus species and discuss possible host countermeasures against parasitoidism. The cryptic lifestyle of living inside ant nests has certainly hampered the scientific discovery of Macrodinychus mites and we expect that many more macrodinychid species await scientific discovery and description.

  3. Population growth rate of dry bulb mite, Aceria tulipae (Keifer) (Acariformes: Eriophyidae) on agriculturally important plants and implications on taxonomic status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dry bulb mite (DBM), Aceria tulipae, is an economically important mite with a worldwide distribution and a broad host range. As a generalist, it is the most important eriophyoid mite attacking bulbous plants such as garlic, onion, and tulip. To date, DBM has been recorded on host plants belonging to...

  4. Control of house-dust mites with home disinfectants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schober, G.; Wetter, G.; Bischoff, E.; Bronswijk, van J.E.M.H.; Kniest, F.M.

    1987-01-01

    Chemical disinfectants and biocidal preparations used in households were tested in the laboratory for their ability to kill the house-dust miteDermatophagoides farinae. Batches of ten specimens were soaked in aqueous solutions or suspensions containing 0.0, 0.1, 0.3, 1.0, 3.0 and 10.0% (by volume)

  5. A Fundamental Step in IPM on Grapevine: Evaluating the Side Effects of Pesticides on Predatory Mites

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    Alberto Pozzebon

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge on side effects of pesticides on non-target beneficial arthropods is a key point in Integrated Pest Management (IPM. Here we present the results of four experiments conducted in vineyards where the effects of chlorpyrifos, thiamethoxam, indoxacarb, flufenoxuron, and tebufenozide were evaluated on the generalist predatory mites Typhlodromus pyri Scheuten and Amblyseius andersoni (Chant, key biocontrol agents of herbivorous mites on grapevines. Results show that indoxacarb and tebufenozide had a low impact on the predatory mites considered here, while a significant impact was observed for chlorpyrifos, flufenoxuron, and thiamethoxam. The information obtained here should be considered in the design of IPM strategies on grapevine.

  6. Effects of powdery mildew fungicide programs on twospotted spider mite (Acari: Tetranychidae), hop aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae), and their natural enemies in hop yards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gent, D H; James, D G; Wright, L C; Brooks, D J; Barbour, J D; Dreves, A J; Fisher, G C; Walton, V M

    2009-02-01

    Twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae), and hop aphid, Phorodon humuli (Schrank) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), are the most important arthropod pests of hop (Humulus lupulus L.) in the Northern Hemisphere. A potential barrier for greater adoption of conservation biological control strategies for spider mites and hop aphid is the extensive use of fungicides for management of hop powdery mildew, Podosphaera macularis (Wallr.:Fr.) U. Braun & S. Takamatsu. Field studies conducted in experimental plots in Oregon and Washington in 2005 and 2006 quantified the effects of powdery mildew fungicide programs (i.e., sulfur, paraffinic oil, and synthetic fungicides) on arthropod pests and natural enemies on hop. Fungicide treatment significantly affected spider mite populations in all four studies. Multiple applications of sulfur fungicides applied before burr development resulted in 1.4-3.3-fold greater spider mite populations during summer. Near the cessation of the sulfur applications, or after a lag of 20-30 d, spider mite populations increased significantly faster on sulfur treated plants compared with water-treated plants in three of four experiments. The effect of paraffinic oil on spider mites was varied, leading to exacerbation of spider mites in Oregon and Washington in 2005, suppression of mites in Oregon in 2006, and no significant effect compared with water in Washington in 2006. Significant relative treatment effects for cone damage due to spider mite feeding were detected in Oregon in 2005 in plots treated with sulfur and paraffinic oil compared with water and synthetic fungicides. Mean populations of hop aphids were similar among treatments in Oregon, although sulfur treatment suppressed hop aphid populations in Washington in 2005 and 2006. Populations of individual predacious insect species and cumulative abundance of macropredators were not consistently suppressed or stimulated by treatments in all trials. However, predatory mite

  7. Genomic survey of the ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor, a major pest of the honey bee Apis mellifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsik Chris

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor has emerged as the primary pest of domestic honey bees (Apis mellifera. Here we present an initial survey of the V. destructor genome carried out to advance our understanding of Varroa biology and to identify new avenues for mite control. This sequence survey provides immediate resources for molecular and population-genetic analyses of Varroa-Apis interactions and defines the challenges ahead for a comprehensive Varroa genome project. Results The genome size was estimated by flow cytometry to be 565 Mbp, larger than most sequenced insects but modest relative to some other Acari. Genomic DNA pooled from ~1,000 mites was sequenced to 4.3× coverage with 454 pyrosequencing. The 2.4 Gbp of sequencing reads were assembled into 184,094 contigs with an N50 of 2,262 bp, totaling 294 Mbp of sequence after filtering. Genic sequences with homology to other eukaryotic genomes were identified on 13,031 of these contigs, totaling 31.3 Mbp. Alignment of protein sequence blocks conserved among V. destructor and four other arthropod genomes indicated a higher level of sequence divergence within this mite lineage relative to the tick Ixodes scapularis. A number of microbes potentially associated with V. destructor were identified in the sequence survey, including ~300 Kbp of sequence deriving from one or more bacterial species of the Actinomycetales. The presence of this bacterium was confirmed in individual mites by PCR assay, but varied significantly by age and sex of mites. Fragments of a novel virus related to the Baculoviridae were also identified in the survey. The rate of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the pooled mites was estimated to be 6.2 × 10-5per bp, a low rate consistent with the historical demography and life history of the species. Conclusions This survey has provided general tools for the research community and novel directions for investigating the biology and control of

  8. Predictive 3D modelling of the interactions of pyrethroids with the voltage-gated sodium channels of ticks and mites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Andrias O; Williamson, Martin S; González-Cabrera, Joel; Turberg, Andreas; Field, Linda M; Wallace, B A; Davies, T G Emyr

    2014-03-01

    The pyrethroid insecticides are a very successful group of compounds that target invertebrate voltage-gated sodium channels and are widely used in the control of insects, ticks and mites. It is well established that some pyrethroids are good insecticides whereas others are more effective as acaricides. This species specificity is advantageous for controlling particular pest(s) in the presence of another non-target invertebrate, for example controlling the Varroa mite in honeybee colonies. We applied in silico techniques to compare the voltage-gated sodium channels of insects versus ticks and mites and their interactions with a range of pyrethroids and DDT analogues. We identified a single amino acid difference within the pyrethroid binding pocket of ticks/mites that may have significant impact on the effectiveness of pyrethroids as acaricides. Other individual amino acid differences within the binding pocket in distinct tick and mite species may provide a basis for future acaricidal selectivity. Three-dimensional modelling of the pyrethroid/DDT receptor site has led to a new hypothesis to explain the preferential binding of acaricidal pyrethroids to the sodium channels of ticks/mites. This is important for understanding pyrethroid selectivity and the potential effects of mutations that can give rise to resistance to pyrethroids in commercially-important pest species. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Volatile compounds from leaves of the African spider plant (Gynandropsis gynandra) with bioactivity against spider mite (Tetranychus urticae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyalala, Samuel Odeyo; Petersen, Mikael Agerlin; Grout, Brian William Wilson

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that Gynandropsis gynandra emits acetonitrile as a foliar volatile from intact plants and isolated leaves, and that this compound is an effective spider mite repellent. This study has used gas chromatography–mass spectrometry to investigate volatile compounds...... emitted from homogenised G. gynandra leaves to evaluate their tissue acetonitrile content and to look for other compounds that might be exploited for the management of spider mites. Acetonitrile was absent from the homogenised tissues of five lines of G. gynandra, studied over two seasons. Thirteen...... volatile compounds were emitted by G. gynandra at significantly higher levels than mite-susceptible pot roses, including isothiocyanates, aldehydes, esters, alcohols and terpenes. Six representative compounds were selected to assess bioactivity. Spider mite populations were completely inactive after a 2¿h...

  10. Correlation between the proportion of stained eggs and the number of mites (Dermanyssus gallinae) monitored using a 'non-parallel board trap'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odaka, Makiko; Ogino, Kazumasa; Shikada, Michitaka; Asada, Kenichi; Kasa, Syoujirou; Inoue, Takahiro; Maeda, Ken

    2017-12-01

    The poultry red mite (Dermanyssus gallinae) is a serious problem for the poultry industry worldwide. However, the relationship between the mite population and the damage that they cause is still unclear. In this study, the mite population in poultry houses was examined using an established trap method, and the risk of blood-stained eggs caused by the mites was assessed. Traps were placed once a week outside the egg channels and/or on the floor in two poultry farms in Fukuoka Prefecture, Japan, from April 2012 to July 2014. The numbers of blood-stained eggs and total eggs were counted at weekly intervals. The results showed that the number of mites increased from April to May, and reached a peak around the beginning of June when the average temperature and humidity were >24°C and 70-90%, respectively. In the segmented model, the correlation between the proportion of blood-stained eggs and the number of mites or temperature was positive over a threshold. In conclusion, our established trap method is useful for monitoring mites and can be used to predict when poultry farms should be treated to prevent appearance of blood-stained eggs. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  11. Spatiotemporal heterogeneity of tomato induced defense responses affects spider mite performance and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimmel, Bernardus C J; Ataide, Livia M S; Kant, Merijn R

    2017-10-03

    When feeding from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), the generalist spider mite Tetranychus urticae induces jasmonate (JA)- and salicylate (SA)-regulated defense responses that hamper its performance. The related T. evansi, a Solanaceae-specialist, suppresses these defenses, thereby upholding a high performance. On a shared leaf, T. urticae can be facilitated by T. evansi, likely via suppression of defenses by the latter. Yet, when infesting the same plant, T. evansi outcompetes T. urticae. Recently, we found that T. evansi intensifies suppression of defenses locally, i.e., at its feeding site, after T. urticae mites were introduced onto adjacent leaf tissue. This hyper-suppression is paralleled by an increased oviposition rate of T. evansi, probably promoting its competitive population growth. Here we present additional data that not only provide insight into the spatiotemporal dynamics of defense induction and suppression by mites, but that also suggest T. evansi to manipulate more than JA and SA defenses alone.

  12. Functional responses and prey-stage preferences of a predatory gall midge and two predacious mites wtih twospotted spider mites, Tetranychus urticae as host

    Science.gov (United States)

    The twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae), is an important pest of vegetables and other crops. This study was conducted to evaluate and compare the potential role of three commercially available predators, predatory gall midge, Feltiella acarisuga (Vallot) (Diptera: Ceci...

  13. House dust mite allergen reduction and allergy at 4 yr : Follow up of the PIAMA-study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corver, K; Kerkhof, M; Brussee, JE; Brunekreef, B; van Strien, RT; Vos, AP; Smit, HA; Gerritsen, J; Neijens, HJ; de Jongste, JC

    Exposure to high allergen levels in early life is a risk factor for the development of allergy. We previously reported limited effects of mite allergen impermeable mattress covers in the prevention and incidence of asthma and mite allergy (PIAMA) cohort at the age of 1 and 2 yr. We now present the

  14. Voluntary Falling in Spider Mites in Response to Different Ecological Conditions at Landing Points

    OpenAIRE

    Ohzora, Yousuke; Yano, Shuichi

    2011-01-01

    We examined voluntary-falling behaviour by adult females of the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) and one of its major predators Neoseiulus californicus McGregor (Acari: Phytoseiidae). Experiments were conducted using a setup in which mites could only move onto one of two landing points by falling. Significantly more T. urticae females fell onto available food leaves compared to non-food or heavily infested leaves, whereas significantly fewer females fell...

  15. The response of Phytoseiulus persimilis to spider mite-induced volatiles from gerbera: influence of starvation and experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krips, O.E.; Willems, P.E.I.; Gols, R.; Posthumus, M.A.; Dicke, M.

    1999-01-01

    When leaves of the ornamental crop Gerbera jamesonii are damaged by the spider mite Tetranychus urticae, they produce many volatile compounds in large quantities. Undamaged gerbera leaves produce only a few volatiles in very small quantities. In the headspace of spider mite-damaged gerbera leaves

  16. Comparison of cultivars of ornamental crop Gerbera jamesonii on production of spider mite-induced volatiles, and their attractiveness to the predator Phytoseiulus persimilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krips, O E; Willems, P E; Gols, R; Posthumus, M A; Gort, G; Dicke, M

    2001-07-01

    We investigated whether volatiles produced by spider mite-damaged plants of four gerbera cultivars differ in attractiveness to Phytoseiulus persimilis, a specialist predator of spider mites, and how the mite-induced odor blends differ in chemical composition. The gerbera cultivars differed in resistance, as expressed in terms of spider mite intrinsic rate of population increase (rm). In order of increasing resistance these were Sirtaki, Rondena, Fame, and Bianca. To correct for differences in damage inflicted on the cultivars, we developed a method to compare the attractiveness of the blends, based on the assumption that a larger amount of spider mite damage leads to higher attraction of P persimilis. Spider mite-induced volatiles of cultivars Rondena and Bianca were preferred over those of cultivar Sirtaki. Spider mite-induced volatiles of cultivars Sirtaki and Fame did not differ in attractiveness to P. persimilis. Sirtaki plants had a lower relative production of terpenes than the other three cultivars. This was attributed to a low production of cis-alpha-bergamotene, trans-alpha-bergamotene, trans-beta-bergamotene, and (E)-beta-farnesene. The emission of (E)-beta-ocimene and linalool was lower in Sirtaki and Fame leaves than in Bianca and Rondena. The importance of these chemical differences in the differential attraction of predatory mites is discussed.

  17. Differential Timing of Spider Mite-Induced Direct and Indirect Defenses in Tomato Plants1[w

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kant, Merijn R.; Ament, Kai; Sabelis, Maurice W.; Haring, Michel A.; Schuurink, Robert C.

    2004-01-01

    Through a combined metabolomics and transcriptomics approach we analyzed the events that took place during the first 5 d of infesting intact tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) plants with spider mites (Tetranychus urticae). Although the spider mites had caused little visible damage to the leaves after 1 d, they had already induced direct defense responses. For example, proteinase inhibitor activity had doubled and the transcription of genes involved in jasmonate-, salicylate-, and ethylene-regulated defenses had been activated. On day four, proteinase inhibitor activity and particularly transcript levels of salicylate-regulated genes were still maintained. In addition, genes involved in phospholipid metabolism were up-regulated on day one and those in the secondary metabolism on day four. Although transcriptional up-regulation of the enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of monoterpenes and diterpenes already occurred on day one, a significant increase in the emission of volatile terpenoids was delayed until day four. This increase in volatile production coincided with the increased olfactory preference of predatory mites (Phytoseiulus persimilis) for infested plants. Our results indicate that tomato activates its indirect defenses (volatile production) to complement the direct defense response against spider mites. PMID:15122016

  18. The Allergen Der p3 from House Dust Mite Stimulates Store-Operated Ca2+ Channels and Mast Cell Migration through PAR4 Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Ping; Nelson, Charmaine; Kramer, Holger; Parekh, Anant B

    2018-04-19

    The house dust mite is the principal source of perennial aeroallergens in man. How these allergens activate innate and adaptive immunity is unclear, and therefore, there are no therapies targeting mite allergens. Here, we show that house dust mite extract activates store-operated Ca 2+ channels, a common signaling module in numerous cell types in the lung. Activation of channel pore-forming Orai1 subunits by mite extract requires gating by STIM1 proteins. Although mite extract stimulates both protease-activated receptor type 2 (PAR2) and PAR4 receptors, Ca 2+ influx is more tightly coupled to the PAR4 pathway. We identify a major role for the serine protease allergen Der p3 in stimulating Orai1 channels and show that a therapy involving sub-maximal inhibition of both Der p3 and Orai1 channels suppresses mast cell activation to house dust mite. Our results reveal Der p3 as an important aeroallergen that activates Ca 2+ channels and suggest a therapeutic strategy for treating mite-induced asthma. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Gene-knockdown in the honey bee mite Varroa destructor by a non-invasive approach: studies on a glutathione S-transferase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campbell Ewan M

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The parasitic mite Varroa destructor is considered the major pest of the European honey bee (Apis mellifera and responsible for declines in honey bee populations worldwide. Exploiting the full potential of gene sequences becoming available for V. destructor requires adaptation of modern molecular biology approaches to this non-model organism. Using a mu-class glutathione S-transferase (VdGST-mu1 as a candidate gene we investigated the feasibility of gene knockdown in V. destructor by double-stranded RNA-interference (dsRNAi. Results Intra-haemocoelic injection of dsRNA-VdGST-mu1 resulted in 97% reduction in VdGST-mu1 transcript levels 48 h post-injection compared to mites injected with a bolus of irrelevant dsRNA (LacZ. This gene suppression was maintained to, at least, 72 h. Total GST catalytic activity was reduced by 54% in VdGST-mu1 gene knockdown mites demonstrating the knockdown was effective at the translation step as well as the transcription steps. Although near total gene knockdown was achieved by intra-haemocoelic injection, only half of such treated mites survived this traumatic method of dsRNA administration and less invasive methods were assessed. V. destructor immersed overnight in 0.9% NaCl solution containing dsRNA exhibited excellent reduction in VdGST-mu1 transcript levels (87% compared to mites immersed in dsRNA-LacZ. Importantly, mites undergoing the immersion approach had greatly improved survival (75-80% over 72 h, approaching that of mites not undergoing any treatment. Conclusions Our findings on V. destructor are the first report of gene knockdown in any mite species and demonstrate that the small size of such organisms is not a major impediment to applying gene knockdown approaches to the study of such parasitic pests. The immersion in dsRNA solution method provides an easy, inexpensive, relatively high throughput method of gene silencing suitable for studies in V. destructor, other small mites and

  20. Early embryogenesis-specific expression of the rice transposon Ping enhances amplification of the MITE mPing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shota Teramoto

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs are numerically predominant transposable elements in the rice genome, and their activities have influenced the evolution of genes. Very little is known about how MITEs can rapidly amplify to thousands in the genome. The rice MITE mPing is quiescent in most cultivars under natural growth conditions, although it is activated by various stresses, such as tissue culture, gamma-ray irradiation, and high hydrostatic pressure. Exceptionally in the temperate japonica rice strain EG4 (cultivar Gimbozu, mPing has reached over 1000 copies in the genome, and is amplifying owing to its active transposition even under natural growth conditions. Being the only active MITE, mPing in EG4 is an appropriate material to study how MITEs amplify in the genome. Here, we provide important findings regarding the transposition and amplification of mPing in EG4. Transposon display of mPing using various tissues of a single EG4 plant revealed that most de novo mPing insertions arise in embryogenesis during the period from 3 to 5 days after pollination (DAP, and a large majority of these insertions are transmissible to the next generation. Locus-specific PCR showed that mPing excisions and insertions arose at the same time (3 to 5 DAP. Moreover, expression analysis and in situ hybridization analysis revealed that Ping, an autonomous partner for mPing, was markedly up-regulated in the 3 DAP embryo of EG4, whereas such up-regulation of Ping was not observed in the mPing-inactive cultivar Nipponbare. These results demonstrate that the early embryogenesis-specific expression of Ping is responsible for the successful amplification of mPing in EG4. This study helps not only to elucidate the whole mechanism of mPing amplification but also to further understand the contribution of MITEs to genome evolution.

  1. Mite Pests in Plant Crops – Current Issues, Inovative Approaches and Possibilities for Controlling Them (2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radmila Petanović

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Part one discusses some principal mite pests in agroecosystems and urban horticulturein European countries, Serbia and its neighbouring countries focusing primarily on issueswith regard to plant production, novel methods and approaches in applied acaralogy. Parttwo displays some major properties of acaricides inhibiting respiration, growth and developmentand other synthetic substances with acaricide action on the market in the last decadeof the 20th century and the first decade of the 21st century. Also some products of naturalorigin (azadirachtin, oils, micoacaricides are said to be gaining in importance. Issues withregard to the fact that mites can readily develop resistance to acardicides are discussed anda survey on the results of biochemical, physiological and genetical causes of resistance areanalyzed. Some basic principles of biological control of phytophagous mites and modernadvances and approaches are discussed as well as current knowledge on host plant resistanceto mites. Eventually, the possibility of using a combination of selective acaricides andbiological control agents is discussed but also the inclusion of other modes of control (agriculturalpractices and physical measures expected to contribute to an integrated managementof pest populations.

  2. Varroa destructor virus 1: a new picorna-like virus in Varroa mites as well as honey bees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ongus, J.R.

    2006-01-01

    Varroa destructor mite is an ectoparasite of the honey bee Apis mellifera. This species was recently differentiated from Varroa jacobsoni species which infests the Asian bee Apis cerana. Varroa mites feed entirely on the bee's haemolymph and have been associated with the spread of a number of

  3. Phytoseiulus persimilis response to herbivore-induced plant volatiles as a function of mite-days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachappa, Punya; Margolies, David C; Nechols, James R; Loughin, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    The predatory mite, Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari: Phytoseiidae), uses plant volatiles (i.e., airborne chemicals) triggered by feeding of their herbivorous prey, Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae), to help locate prey patches. The olfactory response of P. persimilis to prey-infested plants varies in direct relation to the population growth pattern of T. urticae on the plant; P. persimilis responds to plants until the spider mite population feeding on a plant collapses, after which infested plants do not attract predators. It has been suggested that this represents an early enemy-free period for T. urticae before the next generation of females is produced. We hypothesize that the mechanism behind the diminished response of predators is due to extensive leaf damage caused by T. urticae feeding, which reduces the production of volatiles irrespective of the collapse of T. urticae population on the plant. To test this hypothesis we investigated how the response of P. persimilis to prey-infested plants is affected by: 1) initial density of T. urticae, 2) duration of infestation, and 3) corresponding leaf damage due to T. urticae feeding. Specifically, we assessed the response of P. persimilis to plants infested with two T. urticae densities (20 or 40 per plant) after 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 or 14 days. We also measured leaf damage on these plants. We found that predator response to T. urticae-infested plants can be quantified as a function of mite-days, which is a cumulative measure of the standing adult female mite population sampled and summed over time. That is, response to volatiles increased with increasing numbers of T. urticae per plant or with the length of time plant was infested by T. urticae, at least as long at the leaves were green. Predatory mites were significantly attracted to plants that were infested for 2 days with only 20 spider mites. This suggests that the enemy-free period might only provide a limited window of opportunity for T. urticae

  4. The mites associated with Ips typographus in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    John C. Moser; Hubertus H. Eidmann; Jan R. Regnander

    1989-01-01

    Twenty-four species of mites were found associated with Ips typographus (Linnaeus) collected from pherommone traps in Sweden, bringing to 38 the total recorded for this scolytid. Because three of the species are parasites, it may be possible to use them in biological control of I. typographus. Couplets from an earlier key to these...

  5. Indoor environment and allergy except housedust mite; Jukankyo to allergy ni kansuru dani igai no chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakao, F.; Nishima, S.

    1998-05-31

    Pathopoiesis factors of allergic diseases include immune antibody productivity sthenia reacting with antigens such as mite or the like in allergy reaction which is regarded as based on genetic fact (atopic diathesis), and environmental factors as external factors. The environmental factors are further classified into specific factors (antigens) and nonspecific factors. The former factors include the indoor factors such as mite, mould, animals bred indoor, etc., and outdoor factors such as pollen and so on. The latter factors include indoor factors such as passive smoking, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, formaldehyde, etc., and outdoor factors such as sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, airborne particles and so on. In this paper, the environmental factors in relation to allergic diseases expect mite are introduced. Besides mould, cockroach/insect, fur dust and dandruff of animals, adjustment of room temperature/humidity, smoking, indoor and outdoor air pollution are mentioned as the environmental factors expect mite, and the cause-effect relations thereof are explained. 24 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs.

  6. Feather bedding and childhood asthma associated with house dust mite sensitisation: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasgow, Nicholas J; Ponsonby, Anne-Louise; Kemp, Andrew; Tovey, Euan; van Asperen, Peter; McKay, Karen; Forbes, Samantha

    2011-06-01

    Observational studies report inverse associations between the use of feather upper bedding (pillow and/or quilt) and asthma symptoms but there is no randomised controlled trial (RCT) evidence assessing the role of feather upper bedding as a secondary prevention measure. To determine whether, among children not using feather upper bedding, a new feather pillow and feather quilt reduces asthma severity among house dust mite (HDM) sensitised children with asthma over a 1-year period compared with standard dust mite avoidance advice, and giving children a new mite-occlusive mattress cover. RCT. The Calvary Hospital in the Australian Capital Territory and the Children's Hospital at Westmead, Sydney, New South Wales. 197 children with HDM sensitisation and moderate to severe asthma. Intervention New upper bedding duck feather pillow and quilt and a mite-occlusive mattress cover (feather) versus standard care and a mite-occlusive mattress cover (standard). The proportion of children reporting four or more episodes of wheeze in the past year; an episode of speech-limiting wheeze; or one or more episodes of sleep disturbance caused by wheezing; and spirometry with challenge testing. Statistical analysis included multiple logistic and linear regression. No differences between groups were found for primary end points--frequent wheeze (OR 1.51, 95% CI 0.83 to 2.76, p=0.17), speech-limiting wheeze (OR 0.70, 95% CI 0.32 to 1.48, p=0.35), sleep disturbed because of wheezing (OR 1.17, 95% CI 0.64 to 2.13, p=0.61) or for any secondary end points. Secondary analyses indicated the intervention reduced the risk of sleep being disturbed because of wheezing and severe wheeze to a greater extent for children who slept supine. No differences in respiratory symptoms or lung function were observed 1 year after children with moderate-severe asthma and HDM sensitisation were given a mite-occlusive mattress cover and then received either feather upper bedding (pillow and quilt) or standard

  7. Ant and Mite Diversity Drives Toxin Variation in the Little Devil Poison Frog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGugan, Jenna R; Byrd, Gary D; Roland, Alexandre B; Caty, Stephanie N; Kabir, Nisha; Tapia, Elicio E; Trauger, Sunia A; Coloma, Luis A; O'Connell, Lauren A

    2016-06-01

    Poison frogs sequester chemical defenses from arthropod prey, although the details of how arthropod diversity contributes to variation in poison frog toxins remains unclear. We characterized skin alkaloid profiles in the Little Devil poison frog, Oophaga sylvatica (Dendrobatidae), across three populations in northwestern Ecuador. Using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, we identified histrionicotoxins, 3,5- and 5,8-disubstituted indolizidines, decahydroquinolines, and lehmizidines as the primary alkaloid toxins in these O. sylvatica populations. Frog skin alkaloid composition varied along a geographical gradient following population distribution in a principal component analysis. We also characterized diversity in arthropods isolated from frog stomach contents and confirmed that O. sylvatica specialize on ants and mites. To test the hypothesis that poison frog toxin variability reflects species and chemical diversity in arthropod prey, we (1) used sequencing of cytochrome oxidase 1 to identify individual prey specimens, and (2) used liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry to chemically profile consumed ants and mites. We identified 45 ants and 9 mites in frog stomachs, including several undescribed species. We also showed that chemical profiles of consumed ants and mites cluster by frog population, suggesting different frog populations have access to chemically distinct prey. Finally, by comparing chemical profiles of frog skin and isolated prey items, we traced the arthropod source of four poison frog alkaloids, including 3,5- and 5,8-disubstituted indolizidines and a lehmizidine alkaloid. Together, the data show that toxin variability in O. sylvatica reflects chemical diversity in arthropod prey.

  8. Control of poultry red mites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilpinen, Ole; Steenberg, Tove

    2008-01-01

    /carriers for various micro-organisms e.g. Salmonella. In SAFEHOUSE, an EU-project running from 2006-2009, partners from 11 European countries aim at developing new methods for prevention and control of Salmonella in egg production systems with particular focus on the transition to enriched cages in the EU. Enriched...... cages contain perches, nest boxes and dust bathing areas. This improves the welfare of the hens but also provides more hiding places for the PRM and may thus lead to increased ectoparasite problems. The approach taken against the PRM is to develop new control methods based on a combination of mite...

  9. Leaf-morphology-assisted selection for resistance to two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) in carnations (Dianthus caryophyllus L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, Kousuke

    2016-10-01

    The development of a cultivar resistant to the two-spotted spider mite has provided both ecological and economic benefits to the production of cut flowers. This study aimed to clarify the mechanism of resistance to mites using an inbred population of carnations. In the resistant and susceptible plants selected from an inbred population, a difference was recognised in the thickness of the abaxial palisade tissue by microscopic examination of the damaged leaf. Therefore, it was assumed that mites displayed feeding preferences within the internal leaf structure of the carnation leaf. The suitability of the host plant for mites was investigated using several cultivars selected using an index of the thickness from the abaxial leaf surface to the spongy tissue. The results suggested that the cultivar associated with a thicker abaxial tissue lowered the intrinsic rate of natural increase of the mites. The cultivars with a thicker abaxial tissue of over 120 µm showed slight damage in the field test. The ability of mites to feed on the spongy tissue during an early life stage from hatching to adult emergence was critical. It was possible to select a cultivar that is resistant to mites under a real cultivation environment by observing the internal structure of the leaf. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Integrated pest management of two-spotted mite Tetranychus urticae on greenhouse roses using petroleum spray oil and the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicetic; Watson, D M; Beattie, G A; Meats, A; Zheng, J

    2001-01-01

    From 1995 to 1999, four experiments were conducted on greenhouse roses to assess the effectiveness of the nC24 petroleum spray oil (PSO), D-C-Tron Plus, against two-spotted mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acarina: Tetranychidae), and to determine how the oil could be most efficiently and effectively used in combination with the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot (Acarina: Phytoseiidae) in an integrated pest management program. The results showed that 0.5% PSO applied fortnightly to roses gave excellent protection from T urticae infestation when the mite population was not already established. However, PSO applied after roses were infested with T. urticae above the economic threshold only stabilised populations without reducing them below that threshold. Populations of P. persimilis in the upper and lower canopies were unchanged after two sprays of PSO at 7-day intervals, and application of PSO to the upper canopy was as effective in controlling T. urticae in the presence of P persimilis as spraying the entire plant. Combining PSO with P. persimilis gave better control of T. urticae than using P. persimilis alone. The most cost-effective use of PSO in the presence of P. persimilis is, therefore, to apply spray only to the upper canopy. This will not affect control of powdery mildew with PSO. Comparison of a control program for T urticae based on the monitored use of synthetic miticides with that based on calendar application of PSO revealed that both gave equally effective control. The benefits of combining PSO and P. persimilis in an integrated pest management program for T. urticae on roses over a program based on synthetic fungicides are discussed.

  11. Population Growth of Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae) in Colonies of Russian and Unselected Honey Bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Stocks as Related to Numbers of Foragers With Mites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGrandi-Hoffman, Gloria; Ahumada, Fabiana; Danka, Robert; Chambers, Mona; DeJong, Emily Watkins; Hidalgo, Geoff

    2017-06-01

    Varroa (Varroa destructor Anderson and Trueman) is an external parasite of honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) and a leading cause of colony losses worldwide. Varroa populations can be controlled with miticides, but mite-resistant stocks such as the Russian honey bee (RHB) also are available. Russian honey bee and other mite-resistant stocks limit Varroa population growth by affecting factors that contribute to mite reproduction. However, mite population growth is not entirely due to reproduction. Numbers of foragers with mites (FWM) entering and leaving hives also affect the growth of mite populations. If FWM significantly contribute to Varroa population growth, mite numbers in RHB colonies might not differ from unselected lines (USL). Foragers with mites were monitored at the entrances of RHB and USL hives from August to November, 2015, at two apiary sites. At site 1, RHB colonies had fewer FWM than USL and smaller phoretic mite populations. Russian honey bee also had fewer infested brood cells and lower percentages with Varroa offspring than USL. At site 2, FWM did not differ between RHB and USL, and phoretic mite populations were not significantly different. At both sites, there were sharp increases in phoretic mite populations from September to November that corresponded with increasing numbers of FWM. Under conditions where FWM populations are similar between RHB and USL, attributes that contribute to mite resistance in RHB may not keep Varroa population levels below that of USL. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2017. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  12. Tolerance of the eriophyid mite Aceria salsolae to UV-A light and implications for biological control of Russian thistle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Patrick J; Wibawa, M Irene; Smith, Lincoln

    2017-12-01

    Aceria salsolae (Acari: Eriophyidae) is being evaluated as a candidate biological control agent of Russian thistle (Salsola tragus, Chenopodiaceae), a major invasive weed of rangelands and dryland crops in the western USA. Prior laboratory host range testing under artificial lighting indicated reproduction on non-native Bassia hyssopifolia and on a native plant, Suaeda calceoliformis. However, in field tests in the native range, mite populations released on these 'nontarget' plants remained low. We hypothesized that UV-A light, which can affect behavior of tetranychid mites, would affect populations of the eriophyid A. salsolae differently on the target and nontarget plant species, decreasing the mite's realized host range. Plants were infested with A. salsolae under lamps that emitted UV-A, along with broad-spectrum lighting, and the size of mite populations and plant growth was compared to infested plants exposed only to broad-spectrum light. Russian thistle supported 3- to 55-fold larger mite populations than nontarget plants regardless of UV-A treatment. UV-A exposure did not affect mite populations on Russian thistle or S. calceoliformis, whereas it increased populations 7-fold on B. hyssopifolia. Main stems on nontarget plants grew 2- to 6-fold faster than did Russian thistle under either light treatment. The two nontarget plants attained greater volume under the control light regime than UV-A, but Russian thistle was unaffected. Although Russian thistle was always the superior host, addition of UV-A light to the artificial lighting regime did not reduce the ability of A. salsolae to reproduce on the two nontarget species, suggesting that UV-B or other environmental factors may be more important in limiting mite populations in the field.

  13. Patterns of infestation by the trombiculid mite Eutrombicula alfreddugesi in four sympatric lizard species (genus Tropidurus) in northeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Rocha C.F.D.; Cunha-Barros M.; Menezes V.A.; Fontes A.F.; Vrcibradic D.; Van Sluys M.

    2008-01-01

    We studied the parasitism by the chigger mite Eutrombicula alfreddugesi on four sympatric lizard species of the genus Tropidurus in Morro do Chapéu, Bahia state, Brazil: T. hispidus, T. cocorobensis, T. semitaeniatus and T. erythrocephalus. For each species, we investigated the patterns of infestation and analyzed to which extent they varied among the hosts. We calculated the spatial niche breadth of the chigger mite on the body of each host species and the distribution of mites along the hos...

  14. mites a las cláusulas modificativas de la responsabilidad en el derecho moderno de los contratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indira Díaz Lindao

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Los límites a las cláusulas de responsabilidad constituyen una temática de tradicional importancia en el régimen general del derecho de contratos, que ha adquirido un protagonismo mayúsculo en la disciplina de los contratos de adhesión y de consumo. En los países europeos y latinoamericanos pertenecientes a la tradición jurídica romana, el marco originario de estos límites se encuentra en la prohibición del pacto de no responder por dolo y la culpa grave. Límite de evidente estirpe romanista y que ubicaba el control de estas cláusulas en la esfera de ejecución del contrato. Posteriormente, fungen de manera especial como límites de estas cláusulas el orden público y las buenas costumbres, por una parte, en la tutela de bienes jurídicos fundamentales como la vida y a la integridad física de las personas, y por otra, como mecanismo de protección de la parte débil de la relación contractual en determinados tipos negociales. Finalmente, en atención a las problemáticas propias de los contratos de adhesión, estos límites se centran en la actualidad en el equilibrio que debe existir entre los deberes y las obligaciones de las partes, de conformidad con el principio de buena fe. En las últimas tendencias jurisprudenciales y legislativas, dicho equilibrio resulta traducido, de un lado, en el límite de la obligación esencial del negocio con relación directa a la causa del contrato, y de otro, en la finalidad o la esencia del negocio que se desprende del tipo legal o la naturaleza del mismo. Los límites a las cláusulas de responsabilidad se trasladan así, en el derecho moderno, de la esfera de ejecución del contrato a la de su configuración. Como consecuencia natural de ello, estos límites se convierten al mismo tiempo en un mecanismo indirecto de control de la libertad contractual que tienen las partes para determinar el objeto y las obligaciones de un negocio.

  15. Differential gene expression in Varroa jacobsoni mites following a host shift to European honey bees (Apis mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andino, Gladys K; Gribskov, Michael; Anderson, Denis L; Evans, Jay D; Hunt, Greg J

    2016-11-16

    Varroa mites are widely considered the biggest honey bee health problem worldwide. Until recently, Varroa jacobsoni has been found to live and reproduce only in Asian honey bee (Apis cerana) colonies, while V. destructor successfully reproduces in both A. cerana and A. mellifera colonies. However, we have identified an island population of V. jacobsoni that is highly destructive to A. mellifera, the primary species used for pollination and honey production. The ability of these populations of mites to cross the host species boundary potentially represents an enormous threat to apiculture, and is presumably due to genetic variation that exists among populations of V. jacobsoni that influences gene expression and reproductive status. In this work, we investigate differences in gene expression between populations of V. jacobsoni reproducing on A. cerana and those either reproducing or not capable of reproducing on A. mellifera, in order to gain insight into differences that allow V. jacobsoni to overcome its normal species tropism. We sequenced and assembled a de novo transcriptome of V. jacobsoni. We also performed a differential gene expression analysis contrasting biological replicates of V. jacobsoni populations that differ in their ability to reproduce on A. mellifera. Using the edgeR, EBSeq and DESeq R packages for differential gene expression analysis, we found 287 differentially expressed genes (FDR ≤ 0.05), of which 91% were up regulated in mites reproducing on A. mellifera. In addition, mites found reproducing on A. mellifera showed substantially more variation in expression among replicates. We searched for orthologous genes in public databases and were able to associate 100 of these 287 differentially expressed genes with a functional description. There is differential gene expression between the two mite groups, with more variation in gene expression among mites that were able to reproduce on A. mellifera. A small set of genes showed reduced

  16. Mite (Acari) fauna of some cultivated plants from Kahramanmaraş ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-03-14

    Mar 14, 2011 ... and fruit trees, the common weed Ipomoea indica (Burman) Merrill ... Mites were removed from the ... 2004). This species was also recorded from the bark of ..... the family Tetranychidae, damaging fruit trees in Central Anatolia.

  17. A previously unidentified Chorioptes species infesting outer ear canals of moose (Alces alces: characterization of the mite and the pathology of infestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattsson Roland

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During the past decade, Chorioptes mites occupying the outer ear canals have been a common finding at routine necropsies of moose (Alces alces in Sweden, but neither the taxonomy of the mites nor lesions from the infestation have been investigated. In this study, the mites are characterized by morphological and molecular techniques, and the histopathology of the skin of the outer ear canal is described. Methods External auditory meatuses from 53 necropsied moose were examined for the presence of Chorioptes, and samples from outer ear canals were taken for histopathological and microbiological examination. A proportion of the mites from each moose was identified to species. The DNA was extracted from mites from three moose, and their ITS-2 sequences were determined; these sequences were compared phylogenetically to sequences from other Chorioptes taxa. Results Chorioptes mites were found in 43 (81% of the 53 moose. The mites had morphological and genetic characteristics distinct from those of C. texanus and C. bovis, the two species generally accepted within the genus. Morphology also did not argue for a diagnosis as C. crewei, C. mydaus or C. panda. On histopathology, lesions were characterized by a hyperplastic perivascular to interstitial dermatitis with epidermal hyperkeratosis and crust formation. Dermal inflammatory infiltrates were composed of mixed T- and B-lymphocytes, plasma cells and macrophages, whereas eosinophils were notably uncommon. Staphylococcus aureus was grown from the infested epidermis of five of 14 examined moose. Conclusion Chorioptes mite infestation was frequently detected in the outer ear canals of moose in Sweden. The mites were evidently pathogenic, being associated with inflammatory lesions of the external auditory meatus. Our studies indicate infestations with a previously undescribed Chorioptes species.

  18. Migration Monitoring of Blackcurrant Gall Mite (Cecidophyopsis ribis Westw. from Buds to Leaves on Several Blackcurrant (Ribes nigrum L. Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotrowski Wojciech

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The blackcurrant gall mite (Cecidophyopsis ribis is the most important pest of blackcurrant crops. Over recent years withdrawal from plant protection programmes of chemical products (endosulfan and amitraz used for the control of this pest in Poland, has led to an observed increase in population numbers. In 2013, fenpiroxymate (Ortus 05 SC became registered for control of this pest. It is deemed best that chemical protection should be used during the migration period; when big gall mites emerge from buds in search of new buds. The studies were carried out in a plantation of blackcurrants during 2011-2013. The assessment of migration of the blackcurrant gall mite was carried out on the cultivars ‘Ben Hope’, ‘Ben Alde’r, ‘Ojeby’n and ‘Ruben’. Every year, from selected cultivars buds were collected. They were then placed on blackcurrant leaves within Petri dishes. After one, three and five days of placing buds on the leaves, the estimated number of eriophyid mites on the leaves was calculated. The data has shown a very useful method for monitoring blackcurrant gall mite, which can be used in calculating the treatment dates for this pest. Also, the data has shown that differences in the periods of migration of the mite are dependent on the cultivar and time of flowering. Among the cultivars observed the least susceptible to colonization by the blackcurrant gall mite was a Polish cultivar ‘Ruben’, while the most susceptible cultivar was ‘Ben Hope’.

  19. Detection of irradiation induced changes on the activity and diversity of soil organisms: the effect of soil type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parekh, N.R.; Beresford, N.A.; Black, H.I.J.; Potter, E.D.; Poskitt, J.M.; Dodd, B.A.

    2004-01-01

    Whilst non-radiological environmental impact assessments consider impacts on ecosystem function by assessing soil health the techniques of doing so have rarely been applied to radiological studies. Our aim in the study described was to measure the effects of irradiation treatments on soil communities from three different soils. Undisturbed soil cores from two temperate woodland sites (deciduous and coniferous) and a grassland site were irradiated to give a range of cumulative doses from 0 160 Gy. All cores were incubated at 15 deg C and three cores from each treatment sampled after <1, 3 and 8 days post irradiation. Soil samples were analysed for the presence and abundance of fauna, fungi and heterotrophic bacteria. The activity and functional diversity of soil microbial communities was also assessed in terms of their potential to utilise a range of carbon sources. There was a small impact on Oribatid mites at the highest dose but no significant effect on other soil faunal groups. Although significant changes in the numbers of cultivable fungi or fast growing heterotrophic bacteria were not observed at any of the treatment doses, the numbers of cultivable Pseudomonas spp. declined in all three soil types after irradiation at 80 and 160 Gy. This decline was greatest in the coniferous forest soil. Microbial communities from this soil also showed a dramatic decrease in metabolic activity and in the number of substrates utilised after irradiation at 160 Gy as compared with control non-irradiated samples. Our results show that the affects of gamma irradiation on soil microorganisms are more pronounced in the two organic forest soils as compared to the mineral grassland soil. These differences can be related to two factors; variations in the physico-chemical shielding properties of the soils and differences in the indigenous communities in terms of radioresistant species. (author)

  20. Temporal changes in distribution, prevalence and intensity of northern fowl mite (Ornithonyssus sylviarum) parasitism in commercial caged laying hens, with a comprehensive economic analysis of parasite impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullens, Bradley A; Owen, Jeb P; Kuney, Douglas R; Szijj, Coralie E; Klingler, Kimberly A

    2009-03-09

    Establishment and spread of Ornithonyssus sylviarum were documented through time on sentinel hens (50 per house of 28,000-30,000 hens) in the first egg production cycle of three large commercial flocks (12 houses) of white leghorn hens. Mites were controlled using acaricide, and the impacts of treatment on mite populations and economic performance were documented. Mite prevalence and intensity increased rapidly and in tandem for 4-8 weeks after infestation. Intensity declined due to immune system involvement, but prevalence remained high, and this would affect mite sampling plan use and development. Early treatment was more effective at controlling mites; 85% of light infestations were eliminated by a pesticide spray (Ravap), versus 24% of heavy infestations. Hens infested later developed lower peak mite intensities, and those mite populations declined more quickly than on hens infested earlier in life. Raw spatial association by distance indices (SADIE), incorporating both the intensity and distribution of mites within a house, were high from week-to-week within a hen house. Once adjusted spatially to reflect variable hen cohorts becoming infested asynchronously, this analysis showed the association index tended to rebound at intervals of 5-6 weeks after the hen immune system first suppressed them. Large, consistent mite differences in one flock (high vs. low infestation levels) showed the economic damage of mite parasitism (assessed by flock indexing) was very high in the initial stages of mite expansion. Unmitigated infestations overall reduced egg production (2.1-4.0%), individual egg weights (0.5-2.2%), and feed conversion efficiency (5.7%), causing a profit reduction of $0.07-0.10 per hen for a 10-week period. Asynchronous infestation patterns among pesticide-treated hens may have contributed to a lack of apparent flock-level economic effects later in the production cycle. Individual egg weights differed with mite loads periodically, but could be either

  1. How do Neoseiulus californicus (Acari: Phytoseiidae) females penetrate densely webbed spider mite nests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montserrat, M; de la Peña, F; Hormaza, J I; González-Fernández, J J

    2008-02-01

    The persea mite Oligonychus perseae is a pest of avocado trees that builds extremely dense webbed nests that protect them against natural enemies, including phytoseiid mites. Nests have one or two marginal entrances that are small and flattened. The predatory mite Neoseiulus californicus co-occurs with O. perseae in the avocado orchards of the south-east of Spain. Penetration inside nests through the entrances by this predator is thought to be hindered by its size and its globular-shaped body. However, in the field it has repeatedly been found inside nests that were clearly ripped. Perhaps penetration of the nests has been facilitated by nest wall ripping caused by some other species or by unfavourable abiotic factors. However, to assess whether N. californicus is also able to enter the nest of O. perseae by itself, we carried out laboratory experiments and made a short film. They show how this predator manages to overcome the webbed wall, and that it can penetrate and forage inside nests of O. perseae.

  2. Assessing hygienic behavior and attraction to Varroa mite (Acari ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three days later, the number of female Varroa in the capped cells were counted as attraction criteria for each treatment separately. ... The negative correlation between 2 major resistance traits (hygienic behavior and attraction traits) in the breeding stock deems that selection for resistance against Varroa mite and improved ...

  3. Intensive agriculture reduces soil biodiversity across Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiafouli, Maria A; Thébault, Elisa; Sgardelis, Stefanos P; de Ruiter, Peter C; van der Putten, Wim H; Birkhofer, Klaus; Hemerik, Lia; de Vries, Franciska T; Bardgett, Richard D; Brady, Mark Vincent; Bjornlund, Lisa; Jørgensen, Helene Bracht; Christensen, Sören; Hertefeldt, Tina D'; Hotes, Stefan; Gera Hol, W H; Frouz, Jan; Liiri, Mira; Mortimer, Simon R; Setälä, Heikki; Tzanopoulos, Joseph; Uteseny, Karoline; Pižl, Václav; Stary, Josef; Wolters, Volkmar; Hedlund, Katarina

    2015-02-01

    Soil biodiversity plays a key role in regulating the processes that underpin the delivery of ecosystem goods and services in terrestrial ecosystems. Agricultural intensification is known to change the diversity of individual groups of soil biota, but less is known about how intensification affects biodiversity of the soil food web as a whole, and whether or not these effects may be generalized across regions. We examined biodiversity in soil food webs from grasslands, extensive, and intensive rotations in four agricultural regions across Europe: in Sweden, the UK, the Czech Republic and Greece. Effects of land-use intensity were quantified based on structure and diversity among functional groups in the soil food web, as well as on community-weighted mean body mass of soil fauna. We also elucidate land-use intensity effects on diversity of taxonomic units within taxonomic groups of soil fauna. We found that between regions soil food web diversity measures were variable, but that increasing land-use intensity caused highly consistent responses. In particular, land-use intensification reduced the complexity in the soil food webs, as well as the community-weighted mean body mass of soil fauna. In all regions across Europe, species richness of earthworms, Collembolans, and oribatid mites was negatively affected by increased land-use intensity. The taxonomic distinctness, which is a measure of taxonomic relatedness of species in a community that is independent of species richness, was also reduced by land-use intensification. We conclude that intensive agriculture reduces soil biodiversity, making soil food webs less diverse and composed of smaller bodied organisms. Land-use intensification results in fewer functional groups of soil biota with fewer and taxonomically more closely related species. We discuss how these changes in soil biodiversity due to land-use intensification may threaten the functioning of soil in agricultural production systems. © 2014 John Wiley

  4. Establishing health standards for indoor foreign proteins related to asthma: Dust mite, cat and cockroach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platts-Mills, T.A.E.; Chapman, M.D.; Pollart, S.M.; Heymann, P.W.; Luczynska, C.M. (Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville (United States))

    1990-01-01

    There is no doubt that a large number of individuals become allergic to foreign proteins that are predominantly or exclusively present indoors. In each case this immune response can be demonstrated either by immediate skin test responses or by measuring serum IgE antibodies. It has also been obvious for some time that patients presenting with asthma, perennial rhinitis and atopic dermatitis have an increased prevalence of IgE antibodies to these indoor allergens. More recently several epidemiological surveys have suggested that both mite exposure and IgE antibodies are important risk factors for asthma. The present situation is that assays have been developed capable of measuring the presence of mite, cockroach and cat allergens in house dust. Further clinical studies will be necessary to test the proposed standards for mite allergens and to define risk levels for other allergens.

  5. Trophic Interactions between Generalist Predators and the Two Spotted Spide Mite, Tetranychus urticae in, Strawberry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Stine Kramer

    The two spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae), is a major cause of pest damage worldwide. Its host range includes among many the strawberry crop, a high value crop in Denmark as well as in many other temperate and subtropical regions. Chemical control of T. urticae...... occurrence and diversity of predatory insects and predatory mites in Danish strawberry fields and surrounding vegetation is lacking, as is the knowledge of the potential of generalist insect predators to control T. urticae. The overall objective of this PhD thesis was to investigate the trophic interactions...... between natural enemies, in particular generalist predators and the two spotted spider mite, T. urticae, in strawberry. This was done by investigating interactions of T. urticae and its natural enemies as influenced by cropping practice and the surrounding vegetation (Manuscript I) as well as more...

  6. mite fino y transliminalidad en relación con experiencias aparicionales y sensación de presencia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Parra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Comparar la transliminalidad y el límite fi no en personas que tienen experiencias de apariciones y sensación de presencia con un grupo control. Se plantea como hipótesis que las personas que reportan experiencias aparicionales y sensación de presencia tienen: (a mayor propensión a tener experiencias anómalas, (b mayor transliminalidad y (c límites más fi nos en comparación con un grupo control. Método.Se administraron cuatro medidas, la Escala Cardiff de Percepciones Anómalas, la Escala de Transliminalidad (revisada, el Inventario de Experiencias Anómalo/Paranormales y el Cuestionario de Límites, a una muestra compuesta por 203 participantes interesados en experiencias paranormales (151 mujeres y 52 hombres. Resultados. Se confi rmaron las tres hipótesis, esto es, mayor nivel de experiencias anómalas, transliminalidad y límite más fi no en individuos que reportan la experiencia en comparación con quienes no las reportan.Conclusión. Estos resultados indican que, particularmente, el constructo de límite fi no refl eja unos procesos atencionales o hiperestesia particular para la detección del entorno en aquellos involucrados en presuntas experiencias aparicionales.

  7. Spatial distributions of the red palm mite, Raoiella indica (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) on coconut and their implications for development of efficient sampling plans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roda, A.; Nachman, G.; Hosein, F.

    2012-01-01

    The red palm mite (Raoiella indica), an invasive pest of coconut, entered the Western hemisphere in 2004, then rapidly spread through the Caribbean and into Florida, USA. Developing effective sampling methods may aid in the timely detection of the pest in a new area. Studies were conducted...... to provide and compare intra tree spatial distribution of red palm mite populations on coconut in two different geographical areas, Trinidad and Puerto Rico, recently invaded by the mite. The middle stratum of a palm hosted significantly more mites than fronds from the upper or lower canopy and fronds from...

  8. Pyrethroid resistance discovered in a major agricultural pest in southern Australia: the redlegged earth mite Halotydeus destructor (Acari: Penthaleidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umina, Paul A

    2007-12-01

    The redlegged earth mite (Halotydeus destructor Tucker) is an important pest of field crops and pastures. Control of this pest relies heavily on chemicals, with few genuine alternatives presently available. Pesticide responses of H. destructor from the field with reported chemical control failures were compared with mites from susceptible 'control' populations. Toxicology bioassays were conducted on adult mites across multiple generations. Very high levels of resistance to two synthetic pyrethroids, bifenthrin and alpha-cypermethrin, were detected in this species for the first time. For bifenthrin, LC(50) estimates showed a difference in resistance of greater than 240 000-fold. Resistance to alpha-cypermethrin was almost 60 000-fold. This resistance was shown to be heritable, persisting after several generations of culturing. There was no evidence that resistance to organophosphorus chemicals had evolved, which is likely to be a direct consequence of the history of chemical applications these mites have experienced. These results highlight the need for more judicious management decisions in order to control pest species in a sustainable manner. The implications of these findings in regard to the management and future research of the redlegged earth mite are discussed. Copyright (c) 2007 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Migration effects on population dynamics of the honeybee-mite interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honeybees are amazing and highly beneficial insect species that play important roles in undisturbed and agricultural ecosystems. Unfortunately, honeybees are increasingly threatened by numerous factors, most notably the parasitic Varroa mite (Varroa destructor Anderson and Trueman). A recent field s...

  10. Safety and immunogenicity of a cluster specific immunotherapy in children with bronchial asthma and mite allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, R; Eickmeier, O; Garn, H; Baer, P C; Mueller, T; Schulze, J; Rose, M A; Rosewich, M; Renz, H; Zielen, S

    2009-01-01

    Cluster specific immunotherapy (SIT) is a modern form of allergen immunotherapy allowing safe administration of high allergen doses in a short time interval compared to classic SIT. In the current study, we investigated the safety profile and immunological effect of cluster SIT in children with allergic asthma due to house dust mite allergy. A total of 34 children (6-18 years) with allergic asthma were assigned to cluster (n = 22) or classic SIT (n = 12). To achieve a maintenance dose of allergen extract, cluster patients received 14 injections of house dust mite allergen within 6 weeks, whereas the classic SIT group received 14 injections within 14 weeks. Safety was monitored by recording adverse events. Immunogenicity was measured by specific IgG(Mite) and IgG4(Mite), by antibody-blocking properties on basophil activation, and by the T cell subset transcription factors Foxp3, T-bet, and GATA-3. There were no significant differences in local and systemic side effects between the two groups. In the cluster group, serum levels of specific IgG(Mite) (p classic SIT group. These data were confirmed by blocking CD63 expression as well as release of cysteinyl leukotrienes after in vitro basophil stimulation. No differences in transcription factor expression were found in the two groups. Cluster SIT is safe in children. Additionally, our data demonstrated an even more rapid induction of specific immune tolerance. Cluster SIT is an attractive alternative to conventional up-dosing schedules with fewer consultations for the patients. (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Smells familiar: group-joining decisions of predatory mites are mediated by olfactory cues of social familiarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muleta, Muluken G; Schausberger, Peter

    2013-09-01

    Group-living animals frequently have to trade off the costs and benefits of leaving an established group and joining another group. Owing to their high fitness relevance, group-joining decisions are commonly nonrandom and may be based on traits of both individual members and the group such as life stage, body size, social status and group density or size, respectively. Many group-living animals are able to recognize and to associate preferentially with familiar individuals, i.e. those encountered before. Hence, after dispersing from established groups, animals commonly have to decide whether to join a new familiar or unfamiliar group. Using binary choice situations we assessed the effects of social familiarity on group-joining behaviour of the plant-inhabiting predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis . Group living in P. persimilis is brought about by the patchy distribution of its spider mite prey and mutual conspecific attraction. In the first experiment, gravid predator females given a choice between spider mite patches occupied by unfamiliar and familiar groups of females strongly preferred to join familiar groups and to deposit their eggs in these patches. Preference for socially familiar groups was robust across biases of spider mite prey densities between choice options. The second experiment revealed that the predatory mite females can smell social familiarity from a distance. Females subjected to odour choice situations in artificial cages were more strongly attracted to the odour of familiar than unfamiliar groups. We argue that P. persimilis females preferentially join socially familiar groups because a familiar social environment relaxes competition and optimizes foraging and reproduction.

  12. Smells familiar: group-joining decisions of predatory mites are mediated by olfactory cues of social familiarity☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muleta, Muluken G.; Schausberger, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Group-living animals frequently have to trade off the costs and benefits of leaving an established group and joining another group. Owing to their high fitness relevance, group-joining decisions are commonly nonrandom and may be based on traits of both individual members and the group such as life stage, body size, social status and group density or size, respectively. Many group-living animals are able to recognize and to associate preferentially with familiar individuals, i.e. those encountered before. Hence, after dispersing from established groups, animals commonly have to decide whether to join a new familiar or unfamiliar group. Using binary choice situations we assessed the effects of social familiarity on group-joining behaviour of the plant-inhabiting predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis. Group living in P. persimilis is brought about by the patchy distribution of its spider mite prey and mutual conspecific attraction. In the first experiment, gravid predator females given a choice between spider mite patches occupied by unfamiliar and familiar groups of females strongly preferred to join familiar groups and to deposit their eggs in these patches. Preference for socially familiar groups was robust across biases of spider mite prey densities between choice options. The second experiment revealed that the predatory mite females can smell social familiarity from a distance. Females subjected to odour choice situations in artificial cages were more strongly attracted to the odour of familiar than unfamiliar groups. We argue that P. persimilis females preferentially join socially familiar groups because a familiar social environment relaxes competition and optimizes foraging and reproduction. PMID:24027341

  13. Clinical and immunological responses of dust mite sensitive, atopic dogs to treatment with sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBoer, Douglas J; Verbrugge, Maria; Morris, Mary

    2016-04-01

    Sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) has been reported to be beneficial in people with atopic dermatitis (AD) and dust mite sensitivity. Evaluation of this therapy has not been reported in spontaneous canine AD. The objective of this study was to preliminarily evaluate the effectiveness of an established SLIT protocol, as used in human patients, in dogs with AD. Ten dust mite sensitive dogs with spontaneous AD. Dogs underwent a 6 month open trial of SLIT concurrently with decreasing dose oral methylprednisolone. Clinical evaluations and quantitative serum anti-mite IgE and IgG levels were performed every 2 months. Mean methylprednisolone use from the first 2 months of the study to the final 2 months declined from 10.2 to 4.3 mg/kg/2 months (P test); at 6 months, four dogs required no oral corticosteroid administration. Over the course of the study, median Canine Atopic Dermatitis Extent and Severity Index (CADESI)-03 scores declined from 76.5 to 59; median pruritus scores declined from 65 to 37 (P Wilcoxon signed-rank test). Pre- and post-SLIT intradermal test scores for mite allergen were not significantly different over time. Median Dermatophagoides farinae (DF)-specific IgE levels declined significantly from 150.2 × 10(3) AU/mL to 3.6 × 10(3) AU/mL (P Wilcoxon signed-rank tests). SLIT treatment produced clinical improvement in dogs with dust mite-associated AD and was associated with serological changes supporting this improvement. Further studies in larger numbers of dogs and those with polysensitization are warranted. © 2016 ESVD and ACVD.

  14. Fundamento y límites de la potestad sancionadora administrativa en materia ambiental

    OpenAIRE

    Bermúdez Soto,Jorge

    2013-01-01

    El ejercicio de la potestad sancionadora de la Administración del Estado en el ámbito ambiental es manifestación de la importancia que la protección del medio ambiente ha adquirido en la sociedad y de la asunción de la misma como función pública. El ejercicio de este poder se encuentra limitado tanto por los principios generales aplicables, pero además se somete a límites específicos al ámbito ambiental. Dichos límites pueden ser categorizados en tres clases: orgánicos, procedimentales y sust...

  15. Host Finding Behaviour of the Coconut Mite Aceria Guerreronis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melo, J.W.S.; Lima, D.B.; Sabelis, M.W.; Pallini, A.; Gondim Jr., M.G.C.

    2014-01-01

    For the coconut mite, Aceria guerreronis Keifer, its host plant, the coconut palm, is not merely a source of food, but more generally a habitat to live in for several generations. For these minute organisms, finding a new plant is difficult and risky, especially because their main mode of dispersal

  16. Intraguild interactions between the predatory mites Neoseiulus californicus and Phytoseiulus persimilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakmak, Ibrahim; Janssen, Arne; Sabelis, Maurice W

    2006-01-01

    Species at the same trophic level may interact through competition for food, but can also interact through intraguild predation. Intraguild predation is widespread at the second and third trophic level and the effects may cascade down to the plant level. The effects of intraguild predation can be modified by antipredator behaviour in the intraguild prey. We studied intraguild predation and antipredator behaviour in two species of predatory mite, Neoseiulus californicus and Phytoseiulus persimilis, which are both used for control of the two-spotted spider mite in greenhouse and outdoor crops. Using a Y-tube olfactometer, we assessed in particular whether each of the two predators avoids odours emanating from prey patches occupied by the heterospecific predator. Furthermore, we measured the occurrence and rate of intraguild predation of different developmental stages of P. persimilis and N. californicus on bean leaves in absence or in presence of the shared prey. Neither of the two predator species avoided prey patches with the heterospecific competitor, both when inexperienced with the other predator and when experienced with prey patches occupied by the heterospecific predator. Intraguild experiments showed that N. californicus is a potential intraguild predator of P. persimilis. However, P. persimilis did not suffer much from intraguild predation as long as the shared prey was present. This is probably because N. californicus prefers to feed on two-spotted spider mites rather than on its intraguild prey.

  17. Molecular study on three morphotypes of Demodex mites (Acarina: Demodicidae) from dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Rojas, Manuel; Riazzo, Cristina; Callejón, Rocío; Guevara, Diego; Cutillas, Cristina

    2012-11-01

    Canine demodicosis is a severe and highly prevalent dermatologic disease in dogs. Pet dogs can be affected by three recognized Demodex species that can produce clinical effects. In this paper, three morphological types of Demodex mites have been isolated from Spanish dogs. A complete morphobiometrical study of each one has been carried out. Morphological and biometrical studies revealed three closely related populations with some distinctive characteristics and could be identified as Demodex canis, Demodex injai, and Demodex sp. "cornei." Furthermore, one population of D. canis from China, different populations of Demodex folliculorum from human skin (Spain and China), D. folliculorum from human eyelashes (Spain), and Demodex brevis from human skin (China) were considered to find out the level of variation between different species and geographical origin. The aim of the present study is to assess the usefulness of mitochondrial DNA molecular markers in establishing phylogenetic relationships and resolve taxonomic questions in Demodex mites. Molecular studies based on the amplification and sequencing of the 16S rDNA and cytochrome oxidase I mitochondrial genes did not show clear differences between the three morphotypes considered. Furthermore, phylogenetic relationships in Demodex mites were analyzed. The resulting phylogenetic trees show that Demodex species from dogs were gathered together, and populations of D. folliculorum from humans appear together in a different branch; however, D. brevis from humans seemed to be more distant. Our results show that cytochrome oxidase I region is a useful tool to solve different taxonomic questions at the species and population level and to infer phylogenetic relationships in Demodex species. However, 16S mitochondrial rDNA seems a good marker for comparisons at an interspecies level, but not at a population level in this group of mites. Furthermore, from genetic distance and divergence data, we would suggest that D. canis

  18. Electron microscopic study of developmental stages of Rickettsiella phytoseiuli in Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot (Gamasoidea:Phytoseiidae) mites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutáková, G

    1988-01-01

    Rickettsiella phytoseiuli was found in great amounts in all tissues except of the nervous system of adult Phytoseiulus persimilis mites. Six morphologically different stages (dense, intermediate, bacterial, giant, crystal-forming and small dark particles) of R. phytoseiuli were detected. No rickettsiae were seen in the larvae and in phase 1 and 2 nymphae of these mites.

  19. Parasitology and urban livestock farming in Nigeria : prevalence of ova in faecal and soil samples and animal ectoparasites in Makurdi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. Omudu

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Domestic environmental pollution resulting from urban livestock farming was investigated in Makurdi using parasitological techniques. The test tube flotation technique was used for the parasitological analysis of animal faecal matter and soil samples collected from residential premises. Ectoparasitic fauna of dogs, goats, sheep and cattle cohabiting with humans within the same residential compound were also collected and identified. The hand-picking and body brushing methods were employed to search for ticks, fleas, lice and mites. Of the 150 soil samples examined, 55 (36.7 % were positive for 1 or more eggs of helminth parasites. There was no significant difference in the distribution of eggs in the soil samples from the 3 areas sampled (c2=0.046, df=2, P>0.05. Ascaris species were the dominant parasite eggs found. Of the 180 faecal samples examined, 107 (59.4 % were positive for 1 or more eggs of helminth parasites. Chi-square analysis showed no significant difference in the level of infection of different animal faeces sampled (c2=5.74, df=4, P>0.05. Ascaris species were again the dominating helminth parasite eggs found. There was also no significant difference in the prevalence of helminth eggs in the animal faecal samples from the 3 areas sampled (c2=5.99, df=4, P>0.05. A total of 1908 ectoparasites was recovered (ticks: 32.80 %; lice: 22.43 %; fleas: 22.06% and mite: 22.69 %. There was no significant difference in infestation animals between sexes (c2=0.10, df=4, P>0.05. The predominant genus encountered for ticks were Amblyomma, while Linognathus (43.90%, Ctenocephalides (97.38% and Sarcoptes (58.89 % were most predominant for lice, fleas and mites respectively. The public health implications of the findings, especially as these relate to the increasing incidence and prevalence of zoonotic infections, are discussed.

  20. Genetic variation in jasmonic acid- and spider mite-induced plant volatile emission of cucumber accessions and attraction of the predator Phytoseiulus persimilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappers, Iris F; Verstappen, Francel W A; Luckerhoff, Ludo L P; Bouwmeester, Harro J; Dicke, Marcel

    2010-05-01

    Cucumber plants (Cucumis sativus L.) respond to spider-mite (Tetranychus urticae) damage with the release of specific volatiles that are exploited by predatory mites, the natural enemies of the spider mites, to locate their prey. The production of volatiles also can be induced by exposing plants to the plant hormone jasmonic acid. We analyzed volatile emissions from 15 cucumber accessions upon herbivory by spider mites and upon exposure to jasmonic acid using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Upon induction, cucumber plants emitted over 24 different compounds, and the blend of induced volatiles consisted predominantly of terpenoids. The total amount of volatiles was higher in plants treated with jasmonic acid than in those infested with spider mites, with (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene, (E,E)-alpha-farnesene, and (E)-beta-ocimene as the most abundant compounds in all accessions in both treatments. Significant variation among the accessions was found for the 24 major volatile compounds. The accessions differed strongly in total amount of volatiles emitted, and displayed very different odor profiles. Principal component analysis performed on the relative quantities of particular compounds within the blend revealed clusters of highly correlated volatiles, which is suggestive of common metabolic pathways. A number of cucumber accessions also were tested for their attractiveness to Phytoseiulus persimilis, a specialist predator of spider mites. Differences in the attraction of predatory mites by the various accessions correlated to differences in the individual chemical profiles of these accessions. The presence of genetic variation in induced plant volatile emission in cucumber shows that it is possible to breed for cucumber varieties that are more attractive to predatory mites and other biological control agents.

  1. Single versus multiple enemies and the impact on biological control of spider mites in cassava fields in West-Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onzo, A.; Sabelis, M.W.; Hanna, R.

    2014-01-01

    To determine whether to use single or multiple predator species for biological pest control requires manipulative field experiments. We performed such tests in Benin (West Africa) in cassava fields infested by the cassava green mite Mononychellus tanajoa, and the cotton red mite Oligonychus

  2. Does methyl salicylate, a component of herbivore-induced plant odour, promote sporulation of the mite-pathogenic fungus Neozygites tanajoae?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hountondji, F.C.C.; Hanna, R.; Sabelis, M.W.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract : Blends of volatile chemicals emanating from cassava leaves infested by the cassava green mite were found to promote conidiation of Neozygites tanajoae, an entomopathogenic fungus specific to this mite. Methyl salicylate (MeSA) is one compound frequently present in blends of

  3. Arrhenotoky and oedipal mating in the northern fowl mite (Ornithonyssus sylviarum (Acari: Gamasida: Macronyssidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCulloch John B

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The northern fowl mite (NFM; Ornithonyssus sylviarum is a blood-feeding ectoparasite of birds and a major pest of poultry in the United States. Mite populations spread rapidly in commercial flocks, reach peak burdens of >70,000 mites per bird and have developed resistance to many pesticides. Despite decades as a pest in the United States, the reproductive biology of NFM remains unclear. Based on karyotypes, the NFM has haplodiploid sex determination, which suggests unmated females could produce male offspring (arrhenotoky. Thus, unmated females could disseminate to a new host and initiate an infestation by producing and mating with sons (oedipal mating. Methods We used small capsules to isolate and recover NFM on host chickens. Mites in capsules could blood feed, develop and reproduce, but could not contact other mites. Individual larvae were matured in isolation to produce known, unmated females. We evaluated reproduction of (I previously mated females (i in isolation, or (ii paired with a male, and (II unmated (virgin females in isolation. In each treatment we recorded the number and sexes of offspring produced over time. Results Mated NFM produced female and male offspring in isolation, or when paired with a male. When paired with a male, females produced a female-biased sex ratio of the offspring (F:M ratio ~5:1. Unmated, female NFM produced exclusively male offspring when in isolation. When paired with their sons that had developed to maturity, the "virgin" females were able to mate and subsequently produce female offspring. Conclusions This study found that females with immediate access to sperm produced mostly female offspring. Virgin female NFM initially produced only male offspring and subsequently used oedipal mating to produce female offspring. Using this reproductive system NFM could successfully colonize new hosts as immature, or unmated females. The strong female-biased sex ratio of NFM populations suggests a

  4. Inside Honeybee Hives: Impact of Natural Propolis on the Ectoparasitic Mite Varroa destructor and Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drescher, Nora; Klein, Alexandra-Maria; Neumann, Peter; Yañez, Orlando; Leonhardt, Sara D

    2017-02-06

    Social immunity is a key factor for honeybee health, including behavioral defense strategies such as the collective use of antimicrobial plant resins (propolis). While laboratory data repeatedly show significant propolis effects, field data are scarce, especially at the colony level. Here, we investigated whether propolis, as naturally deposited in the nests, can protect honeybees against ectoparasitic mites Varroa destructor and associated viruses, which are currently considered the most serious biological threat to European honeybee subspecies, Apis mellifera , globally. Propolis intake of 10 field colonies was manipulated by either reducing or adding freshly collected propolis. Mite infestations, titers of deformed wing virus (DWV) and sacbrood virus (SBV), resin intake, as well as colony strength were recorded monthly from July to September 2013. We additionally examined the effect of raw propolis volatiles on mite survival in laboratory assays. Our results showed no significant effects of adding or removing propolis on mite survival and infestation levels. However, in relation to V. destructor , DWV titers increased significantly less in colonies with added propolis than in propolis-removed colonies, whereas SBV titers were similar. Colonies with added propolis were also significantly stronger than propolis-removed colonies. These findings indicate that propolis may interfere with the dynamics of V. destructor -transmitted viruses, thereby further emphasizing the importance of propolis for honeybee health.

  5. Inside Honeybee Hives: Impact of Natural Propolis on the Ectoparasitic Mite Varroa destructor and Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drescher, Nora; Klein, Alexandra-Maria; Neumann, Peter; Yañez, Orlando; Leonhardt, Sara D.

    2017-01-01

    Social immunity is a key factor for honeybee health, including behavioral defense strategies such as the collective use of antimicrobial plant resins (propolis). While laboratory data repeatedly show significant propolis effects, field data are scarce, especially at the colony level. Here, we investigated whether propolis, as naturally deposited in the nests, can protect honeybees against ectoparasitic mites Varroa destructor and associated viruses, which are currently considered the most serious biological threat to European honeybee subspecies, Apis mellifera, globally. Propolis intake of 10 field colonies was manipulated by either reducing or adding freshly collected propolis. Mite infestations, titers of deformed wing virus (DWV) and sacbrood virus (SBV), resin intake, as well as colony strength were recorded monthly from July to September 2013. We additionally examined the effect of raw propolis volatiles on mite survival in laboratory assays. Our results showed no significant effects of adding or removing propolis on mite survival and infestation levels. However, in relation to V. destructor, DWV titers increased significantly less in colonies with added propolis than in propolis-removed colonies, whereas SBV titers were similar. Colonies with added propolis were also significantly stronger than propolis-removed colonies. These findings indicate that propolis may interfere with the dynamics of V. destructor-transmitted viruses, thereby further emphasizing the importance of propolis for honeybee health. PMID:28178181

  6. [Clinical investigation of basophil activation test as a complementary test for house dust mite allergen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, H L; Li, J D; Miao, Y H; Xu, T

    2018-03-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical application of glass micro fiber basophil activation test (BAT) used as a complementary test for house dust mite allergen. Method: Forty patients with clinical diagnosed allergic rhinitis was test by three methods for house dust mite allergen, skin prick test(SPT),Immuno CAP sIgE, and BAT in vitro. The sensitivity and specificity of glass micro fiber were accessed, and the consistency between BAT, SPT, and Immuno sIgE was analyzed. As in vivo provocation was not performed, gold standard is regarded as the combination of medical history and positive reports of SPT and/or ImmunoCAP sIgE test. Result: Twentythree patients are diagnosed as house dust mite allergic rhinitis by gold standard. The sensitivity and specificity of glass micro fiber BAT were 60.9% and 88.2%, the sensitivity of SPT and sIgE was 87.0% and sIgE 73.9%. The correlation rates between BAT with SPT is 0.67( P house dust mite allergic rhinitis, BAT have a good consistency with SPT and sIgE, while as it has only moderate consistency with "gold standard", further studies are needed to prove its clinical significance. Copyright© by the Editorial Department of Journal of Clinical Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery.

  7. Six new species of ptyctimous mites (Acari: Oribatida) from Madagascar

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Niedbala, W.; Starý, Josef

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 4 (2016), s. 485-496 ISSN 0044-586X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Euphthiracaroidea * Madagascar * morphology * new species * ptyctimous mites * taxonomy Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.667, year: 2016

  8. Constructing and detecting a cDNA library for mites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Li; Zhao, YaE; Cheng, Juan; Yang, YuanJun; Li, Chen; Lu, ZhaoHui

    2015-10-01

    RNA extraction and construction of complementary DNA (cDNA) library for mites have been quite challenging due to difficulties in acquiring tiny living mites and breaking their hard chitin. The present study is to explore a better method to construct cDNA library for mites that will lay the foundation on transcriptome and molecular pathogenesis research. We selected Psoroptes cuniculi as an experimental subject and took the following steps to construct and verify cDNA library. First, we combined liquid nitrogen grinding with TRIzol for total RNA extraction. Then, switching mechanism at 5' end of the RNA transcript (SMART) technique was used to construct full-length cDNA library. To evaluate the quality of cDNA library, the library titer and recombination rate were calculated. The reliability of cDNA library was detected by sequencing and analyzing positive clones and genes amplified by specific primers. The results showed that the RNA concentration was 836 ng/μl and the absorbance ratio at 260/280 nm was 1.82. The library titer was 5.31 × 10(5) plaque-forming unit (PFU)/ml and the recombination rate was 98.21%, indicating that the library was of good quality. In the 33 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) of P. cuniculi, two clones of 1656 and 1658 bp were almost identical with only three variable sites detected, which had an identity of 99.63% with that of Psoroptes ovis, indicating that the cDNA library was reliable. Further detection by specific primers demonstrated that the 553-bp Pso c II gene sequences of P. cuniculi had an identity of 98.56% with those of P. ovis, confirming that the cDNA library was not only reliable but also feasible.

  9. An epidemiological model of viral infections in a Varroa-infested bee colony: the case of a bee-dependent mite population size

    OpenAIRE

    Bernardi, Sara; Venturino, Ezio

    2016-01-01

    In recent years the spread of the ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor has become the most serious threat to worldwide apiculture. In the model presented here we extend the bee population dynamics with mite viral epidemiology examined in an earlier paper by allowing a bee-dependent mite population size. The results of the analysis match field observations well and give a clear explanation of how Varroa affects the epidemiology of certain naturally occurring bee viruses, causing considerable d...

  10. New records of water mites (Acari: Hydrachnidia, Halacaroidea) from Patagonia (Chile)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pešić, V.; Smit, H.; Datry, T.

    2010-01-01

    New records of water mite species (Acari: Hydrachnidia, Halacaroidea) from Patagonia (Southern Chile) are reported. Four species, Anisitsiellides australis Smit, 2002, Peregrinacarus falklandensis Bartsch, 2001, Lobohalacarus weberi (Romijn & Viets, 1924) and Soldanellonyx monardi Walter, 1919 are

  11. Jasmonic Acid Is a Key Regulator of Spider Mite-Induced Volatile Terpenoid and Methyl Salicylate Emission in Tomato1[w

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ament, Kai; Kant, Merijn R.; Sabelis, Maurice W.; Haring, Michel A.; Schuurink, Robert C.

    2004-01-01

    The tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) mutant def-1, which is deficient in induced jasmonic acid (JA) accumulation upon wounding or herbivory, was used to study the role of JA in the direct and indirect defense responses to phytophagous mites (Tetranychus urticae). In contrast to earlier reports, spider mites laid as many eggs and caused as much damage on def-1 as on wild-type plants, even though def-1 lacked induction of proteinase inhibitor activity. However, the hatching-rate of eggs on def-1 was significantly higher, suggesting that JA-dependent direct defenses enhanced egg mortality or increased the time needed for embryonic development. As to gene expression, def-1 had lower levels of JA-related transcripts but higher levels of salicylic acid (SA) related transcripts after 1 d of spider mite infestation. Furthermore, the indirect defense response was absent in def-1, since the five typical spider mite-induced tomato-volatiles (methyl salicylate [MeSA], 4,8,12-trimethyltrideca-1,3,7,11-tetraene [TMTT], linalool, trans-nerolidol, and trans-β-ocimene) were not induced and the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis did not discriminate between infested and uninfested def-1 tomatoes as it did with wild-type tomatoes. Similarly, the expression of the MeSA biosynthetic gene salicylic acid methyltransferase (SAMT) was induced by spider mites in wild type but not in def-1. Exogenous application of JA to def-1 induced the accumulation of SAMT and putative geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase transcripts and restored MeSA- and TMTT-emission upon herbivory. JA is therefore necessary to induce the enzymatic conversion of SA into MeSA. We conclude that JA is essential for establishing the spider mite-induced indirect defense response in tomato. PMID:15310835

  12. Autofluorescence microscopy for paired-matched morphological and molecular identification of individual chigger mites (Acari: Trombiculidae, the vectors of scrub typhus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rawadee Kumlert

    Full Text Available Conventional gold standard characterization of chigger mites involves chemical preparation procedures (i.e. specimen clearing for visualization of morphological features, which however contributes to destruction of the arthropod host DNA and any endosymbiont or pathogen DNA harbored within the specimen.In this study, a novel work flow based on autofluorescence microscopy was developed to enable identification of trombiculid mites to the species level on the basis of morphological traits without any special preparation, while preserving the mite DNA for subsequent genotyping. A panel of 16 specifically selected fluorescence microscopy images of mite features from available identification keys served for complete chigger morphological identification to the species level, and was paired with corresponding genotype data. We evaluated and validated this method for paired chigger morphological and genotypic ID using the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene (coi in 113 chigger specimens representing 12 species and 7 genera (Leptotrombidium, Ascoschoengastia, Gahrliepia, Walchia, Blankaartia, Schoengastia and Schoutedenichia from the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR to the species level (complete characterization, and 153 chiggers from 5 genera (Leptotrombidium, Ascoschoengastia, Helenicula, Schoengastiella and Walchia from Thailand, Cambodia and Lao PDR to the genus level. A phylogenetic tree constructed from 77 coi gene sequences (approximately 640 bp length, n = 52 new coi sequences and n = 25 downloaded from GenBank, demonstrated clear grouping of assigned morphotypes at the genus levels, although evidence of both genetic polymorphism and morphological plasticity was found.With this new methodology, we provided the largest collection of characterized coi gene sequences for trombiculid mites to date, and almost doubled the number of available characterized coi gene sequences with a single study. The ability to provide paired

  13. Molecular, Structural and Immunological Characterization of Der p 18, a Chitinase-Like House Dust Mite Allergen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne Resch

    Full Text Available The house dust mite (HDM allergen Der p 18 belongs to the glycoside hydrolase family 18 chitinases. The relevance of Der p 18 for house dust mite allergic patients has only been partly investigated.To perform a detailed characterization of Der p 18 on a molecular, structural and immunological level.Der p 18 was expressed in E. coli, purified to homogeneity, tested for chitin-binding activity and its secondary structure was analyzed by circular dichroism. Der p 18-specific IgG antibodies were produced in rabbits to localize the allergen in mites using immunogold electron microscopy and to search for cross-reactive allergens in other allergen sources (i.e. mites, crustacea, mollusca and insects. IgE reactivity of rDer p 18 was tested with sera from clinically well characterized HDM-allergic patients (n = 98 and its allergenic activity was analyzed in basophil activation experiments.Recombinant Der p 18 was expressed and purified as a folded, biologically active protein. It shows weak chitin-binding activity and partial cross-reactivity with Der f 18 from D. farinae but not with proteins from the other tested allergen sources. The allergen was mainly localized in the peritrophic matrix of the HDM gut and to a lower extent in fecal pellets. Der p 18 reacted with IgE from 10% of mite allergic patients from Austria and showed allergenic activity when tested for basophil activation in Der p 18-sensitized patients.Der p 18 is a rather genus-specific minor allergen with weak chitin-binding activity but exhibits allergenic activity and therefore should be included in diagnostic test panels for HDM allergy.

  14. Vectorial role of some dermanyssoid mites (Acari, Mesostigmata, Dermanyssoidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valiente Moro C.

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Among transmissible diseases, vectorial diseases represent a major problem for public health. In the group of acarina, while ticks are the most commonly implicated vectors, other arthropods and notably Dermanyssoidea are also involved in the transmission of pathogenic agents. Since the role of this superfamily is at present largely unknown, we have reviewed the vectorial role of these mites in the appearance, survival and propagation of pathogens. Various authors have shown that Dermanyssoidea are implicated in the transmission of both bacteria (Salmonella, Spirocheta, Rickettsia or Pasteurella and viruses (equine encephalitis viruses, West Nile virus, Fowl pox virus, the virus causing Newcastle disease and tick borne encephalitis viruses or hantaviruses. Finally, some authors have also shown their role in the transmission of some protozoa and filaria. As the vectorial character of such mites has been more clearly demonstrated (Dermanyssus gallinae, Ornithonyssus bacoti and Allodermanyssus sanguineus, it would be interesting to continue studies to better understand the role of this superfamily in the epidemiology of certain zoonoses.

  15. La situación de las personas con capacidad intelectual límite en España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustín Huete García

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan los resultados principales de un estudio de carácter fundamentalmente descriptivo sobre la situación actual de las personas con capacidad intelectual límite en 2015. Se centra en describir la realidad demográfica y social de las personas con capacidad intelectual límite, sus necesidades de apoyo y extraer propuestas estratégicas hacia una inclusión social efectiva. Metodológicamente, de acuerdo al nivel de análisis, se optó por técnicas cuantitativas (análisis de fuentes estadísticas y cualitativas (entrevistas semiestructuradas a un grupo de personas con capacidad intelectual límite, familias y profesionales. Entre sus principales conclusiones, las personas con capacidad intelectual límite y sus familias demandan una visibilización de sus necesidades de apoyo para una inclusión social efectiva, siendo clave el apoyo para favorecer una vida autónoma e independiente. Las propuestas y buenas prácticas aportan elementos para un modelo de atención individualizada, al mismo tiempo fundamentada en una participación activa en la comunidad.

  16. Potential long-term storage of the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increasing the ability to store mass-reared natural enemies during periods or seasons of low demand is a critical need of the biocontrol industry. We tested the hypothesis that cryoprotectant or carbohydrate molecules can enhance long-term cold storage of a predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis At...

  17. High mite burdens in an island population of Cape Wagtails ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mite infection of birds captured on the island was explored graphically against the morphometrics of individuals using cubic splines. Formal statistics were then applied using generalised linear mixed models, with observation and unique ring number as random effects within a two-level hierarchical mixed binomial model, ...

  18. Influence of Varroa mite (Varroa destructor) infestation levels and management practices on insecticide sensitivity in the honey bee (Apis mellifera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Because Varroa mites may cause devastating losses of honey bees through direct feeding, transmitting diseases, and increasing pathogen susceptibility, chemical and mechanical practices commonly are used to reduce mite infestation. While miticide applications are typically the most consistent and eff...

  19. Trophic position of soil nematodes in boreal forests as indicated by stable isotope analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudrin, Alexey; Tsurikov, Sergey

    2016-04-01

    Despite the well-developed trophic classification of soil nematodes, their position in soil food webs is still little understood. Observed deviations from the typical feeding strategy indicate that a simplified trophic classification probably does not fully reflect actual trophic interactions. Furthermore, the extent and functional significance of nematodes as prey for other soil animals remains unknown. Stable isotope analysis (SIA) is powerful tool for investigating the structure of soil food webs, but its application to the study of soil nematodes has been limited to only a few studies. We used stable isotope analysis to gain a better understanding of trophic links of several groups of soil nematodes in two boreal forests on albeluvisol. We investigated four taxonomic groups of nematodes: Mononchida, Dorylaimida, Plectidae and Tylenchidae (mostly from the genus Filenchus), that according to the conventional trophic classification represent predators, omnivores, bacterivores and root-fungal feeders, respectively. To assess the trophic position of nematodes, we used a comparison against a set of reference species including herbivorous, saprophagous and predatory macro-invertebrates, oribatid and mesostigmatid mites, and collembolans. Our results suggest that trophic position of the investigated groups of soil nematodes generally corresponds to the conventional classification. All nematodes were enriched in 13C relative to Picea abies roots and litter, and mycorrhizal fungal mycelium. Root-fungal feeders Tylenchidae had δ15N values similar to those of earthworms, enchytraeids and Entomobrya collembolans, but slightly lower δ13C values. Bacterivorous Plectidae were either equal or enriched in 15N compared with saprophagous macroinvertebrates and most mesofauna species. Omnivorous Dorylaimida and predatory Mononchida were further enriched in 15N and their isotopic signature was similar to that of predatory arthropods. These data confirm a clear separation of

  20. The predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis adjusts patch-leaving to own and progeny prey needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanas, V; Enigl, M; Walzer, A; Schausberger, P

    2006-01-01

    Integration of optimal foraging and optimal oviposition theories suggests that predator females should adjust patch leaving to own and progeny prey needs to maximize current and future reproductive success. We tested this hypothesis in the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis and its patchily distributed prey, the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae. In three separate experiments we assessed (1) the minimum number of prey needed to complete juvenile development, (2) the minimum number of prey needed to produce an egg, and (3) the ratio between eggs laid and spider mites left when a gravid P. persimilis female leaves a patch. Experiments (1) and (2) were the pre-requirements to assess the fitness costs associated with staying or leaving a prey patch. Immature P. persimilis needed at least 7 and on average 14+/-3.6 (SD) T. urticae eggs to reach adulthood. Gravid females needed at least 5 and on average 8.5+/-3.1 (SD) T. urticae eggs to produce an egg. Most females left the initial patch before spider mite extinction, leaving prey for progeny to develop to adulthood. Females placed in a low density patch left 5.6+/-6.1 (SD) eggs per egg laid, whereas those placed in a high density patch left 15.8+/-13.7 (SD) eggs per egg laid. The three experiments in concert suggest that gravid P. persimilis females are able to balance the trade off between optimal foraging and optimal oviposition and adjust patch-leaving to own and progeny prey needs.

  1. Differential Gene Expression Associated with Honey Bee Grooming Behavior in Response to Varroa Mites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamiduzzaman, Mollah Md; Emsen, Berna; Hunt, Greg J; Subramanyam, Subhashree; Williams, Christie E; Tsuruda, Jennifer M; Guzman-Novoa, Ernesto

    2017-05-01

    Honey bee (Apis mellifera) grooming behavior is an important mechanism of resistance against the parasitic mite Varroa destructor. This research was conducted to study associations between grooming behavior and the expression of selected immune, neural, detoxification, developmental and health-related genes. Individual bees tested in a laboratory assay for various levels of grooming behavior in response to V. destructor were also analyzed for gene expression. Intense groomers (IG) were most efficient in that they needed significantly less time to start grooming and fewer grooming attempts to successfully remove mites from their bodies than did light groomers (LG). In addition, the relative abundance of the neurexin-1 mRNA, was significantly higher in IG than in LG, no groomers (NG) or control (bees without mite). The abundance of poly U binding factor kd 68 and cytochrome p450 mRNAs were significantly higher in IG than in control bees. The abundance of hymenoptaecin mRNA was significantly higher in IG than in NG, but it was not different from that of control bees. The abundance of vitellogenin mRNA was not changed by grooming activity. However, the abundance of blue cheese mRNA was significantly reduced in IG compared to LG or NG, but not to control bees. Efficient removal of mites by IG correlated with different gene expression patterns in bees. These results suggest that the level of grooming behavior may be related to the expression pattern of vital honey bee genes. Neurexin-1, in particular, might be useful as a bio-marker for behavioral traits in bees.

  2. Small-cell comb does not control Varroa mites in colonies of honeybees of European origin

    OpenAIRE

    Seeley , Thomas; Griffin , Sean

    2011-01-01

    International audience; We tested the idea that Varroa destructor can be controlled in colonies of the European subspecies of Apis mellifera by providing them with combs built of small cells, in which immature mites might have difficulty developing for lack of space. We established seven pairs of equal-size colonies that started out equally infested with mites. In each pair, one hive contained only standard-cell (5.4 mm) comb, and the other contained only small-cell (4.8 mm) comb. We measured...

  3. mites de consistencia y sus implicaciones agrícolas en un suelo ultisol de sabana del estado Monagas, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Américo Hossne

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available El conocimiento de las propiedades físicas de los suelos agrícolas y bióticos proporciona información para el manejo de equipos agrícolas, procesos de compactación y la labranza convencional y conservacionista. A medida que la humedad edáfica aumenta, genera diversos estados del suelo; e.g. una menor interacción entre partículas adyacentes y un comportamiento que se aproxima al del líquido. El inicio de la sensibilidad de compactación, parece ser el límite plástico del suelo bajo una bien definida energía de compactación. El objetivo general, de este estudio fue caracterizar sistemáticamente, con las implicaciones de ingeniería posibles, los suelos agrícolas de sabana del Estado Monagas de Venezuela. Los objetivos específicos consistieron en determinar: a- los límites de Atterberg; y b- el índice de plasticidad y friabilidad. Para ello se utilizó los procedimientos de laboratorio de Mecánica de Suelos: ASTM D427-61 para el límite de contracción, ASTM D424-59 para el límite plástico y ASTM 423-66 para el límite líquido, de un suelo de sabana en muestras aleatorias a las profundidades de 0-15, 15-30, 30-45 y 45-60 cm. Se utilizó el análisis de regresión para interpretar la proporción de la variancia entre parámetros. Los resultados indicaron valores de: límite de contracción de 4,22–5,20%, límite plástico de 12,92–14,04%, límite líquido de 16,94–19,43%, índice de plasticidad de 3,59–5,78% e índice de friabilidad de 8,63–8,84%. Se concluye que los valores concuerdan con la bibliografía y el rango de uso agrícola se encuentra entre 8% y 15% para el suelo en estudio.

  4. Development of a user-friendly delivery method for the fungus Metarhizium anisopliae to control the ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor in honey bee, Apis mellifera, colonies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanga, Lambert H B; Adamczyk, John; Patt, Joseph; Gracia, Carlos; Cascino, John

    2010-12-01

    A user-friendly method to deliver Metarhizium spores to honey bee colonies for control of Varroa mites was developed and tested. Patty blend formulations protected the fungal spores at brood nest temperatures and served as an improved delivery system of the fungus to bee hives. Field trials conducted in 2006 in Texas using freshly harvested spores indicated that patty blend formulations of 10 g of conidia per hive (applied twice) significantly reduced the numbers of mites per adult bee, mites in sealed brood cells, and residual mites at the end of the 47-day experimental period. Colony development in terms of adult bee populations and brood production also improved. Field trials conducted in 2007 in Florida using less virulent spores produced mixed results. Patty blends of 10 g of conidia per hive (applied twice) were less successful in significantly reducing the number of mites per adult bee. However, hive survivorship and colony strength were improved, and the numbers of residual mites were significantly reduced at the end of the 42-day experimental period. The overall results from 2003 to 2008 field trials indicated that it was critical to have fungal spores with good germination, pathogenicity and virulence. We determined that fungal spores (1 × 10(10) viable spores per gram) with 98% germination and high pathogenicity (95% mite mortality at day 7) provided successful control of mite populations in established honey bee colonies at 10 g of conidia per hive (applied twice). Overall, microbial control of Varroa mite with M. anisopliae is feasible and could be a useful component of an integrated pest management program.

  5. Phoretic mites of three bark beetles (Pityokteines spp.) on silver fir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milan Pernek; Boris Hrasovec; Dinka Matosevic; Ivan Pilas; Thomas Kirisits; John C. Moser

    2008-01-01

    The species composition and abundance of phoretic mites of the bark beetles Pityokteines curvidens P. spinidens, and P. vorontzowi on Silver fir (Abies alba) were investigated in 2003 at two locations (Trakoscan and Litoric) in Croatia. Stem sections and...

  6. Inert dusts and their effects on the poultry red mite (Dermanyssus gallinae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilpinen, Ole; Steenberg, Tove

    2009-01-01

    commonly applied alternative control methods for poultry red mite in Europe. This development has occurred despite a lack of knowledge of the efficacy of the different types of inert dusts and how this is affected by environmental parameters, e.g. the high relative humidity found in poultry houses....... In this laboratory study the efficacy of different commercial inert dust products against D. gallinae is compared. All tested compounds killed mites, but there was a clear ranking of efficacy (measured as weight loss after 24 h and as time until 50% mortality), particularly at 75% relative humidity (RH). At 85% RH...

  7. Comparative ecotoxicity of chlorantraniliprole to non-target soil invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavtižar, Vesna; Berggren, Kristina; Trebše, Polonca; Kraak, Michiel H S; Verweij, Rudo A; van Gestel, Cornelis A M

    2016-09-01

    The insecticide chlorantraniliprole (CAP) is gaining importance in agricultural practice, but data on its possible negative effects on non-target organisms is severely deficient. This study therefore determined CAP toxicity to non-target soil invertebrates playing a crucial role in ecosystem functioning, including springtails (Folsomia candida), isopods (Porcellio scaber), enchytraeids (Enchytraeus crypticus) and oribatid mites (Oppia nitens). In sublethal toxicity tests in Lufa 2.2 soil, chronic exposure to CAP concentrations up to 1000 mg/kgdw did not affect the survival and reproduction of E. crypticus and O. nitens nor the survival, body weight and consumption of P. scaber. In contrast, the survival and reproduction of F. candida was severely affected, with an EC50 for effects on reproduction of 0.14 mg CAP/kgdw. The toxicity of CAP to the reproduction of F. candida was tested in four different soils following OECD guideline 232, and additionally in an avoidance test according to ISO guideline 17512-2. A significantly lower toxicity in soils rich in organic matter was observed, compared to low organic soils. Observations in the avoidance test with F. candida suggest that CAP acted in a prompt way, by affecting collembolan locomotor abilities thus preventing them from escaping contaminated soil. This study shows that CAP may especially pose a risk to non-target soil arthropods closely related to insects, while other soil invertebrates seem rather insensitive. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Regular dorsal dimples and damaged mites of Varroa destructor in some Iranian honey bees (Apis mellifera)

    OpenAIRE

    Ardestani, Masoud M.; Ebadi, Rahim; Tahmasbi, Gholamhossein

    2011-01-01

    The frequency of damaged Varroa destructor Anderson and Trueman (Mesostigmata: Varroidae) found on the bottom board of hives of the honey bee, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae) has been used as an indicator of the degree of tolerance or resistance of honey bee colonies against mites. However, it is not clear that this measure is adequate. These injuries should be separated from regular dorsal dimples that have a developmental origin. To investigate damage to Varroa mites and regular dor...

  9. Geographic distribution and host plants of Raoiella indica and associated mite species in northern Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vásquez, Carlos; de Moraes, Gilberto J

    2013-05-01

    The red palm mite (RPM), Raoiella indica Hirst (Acari: Tenuipalpidae), is an invasive pest in the New World, where it is currently considered a serious threat to coconut and banana crops. It was first reported from northern Venezuela in 2007. To determine its current distribution in this country, surveys were carried out from October 2008 to April 2010 on coconut (Cocos nucifera L.), banana (Musa spp.), ornamental plants and weeds in northern Venezuela. Higher population levels of RPM were registered on commercial coconut farms in Falcón and Sucre states but also on other plant species naturally growing along the coastal line in Anzoategui, Aragua, Carabobo, Monagas and Nueva Esparta states. Out of 34 botanical species evaluated, all RPM stages were observed only on eight arecaceous, one musaceous and one streliziaceous species, indicating that the pest developed and reproduced only on these plants. Mite specimens found on weeds were considered spurious events, as immature stages of the pest were never found on these. Amblyseius largoensis (Muma) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) was the most frequent predatory mite associated with RPM in all sampling sites. The results indicate that RPM has spread to extensive areas of northern Venezuela since its initial detection in Güiria, Sucre state. Considering the report of this pest mite in northern Brazil in the late 2009, additional samplings in southern Venezuela should be carried out, to evaluate the possible presence of RPM also in that region.

  10. Varroa destructor mite in Africanized honeybee colonies Apis mellifera L. under royal jelly or honey production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro da Rosa Santos

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the level of invasion of Varroa mite into worker brood cells, the infestation rate on adult worker honeybees, total and effective reproduction rates of the mite in Africanized honeybee colonies under royal jelly or honey production. Invasion and infestation rates were not statistically different between honeybee colonies producing honey or royal jelly and the averages for these parameters were 5.79 and 8.54%, respectively. Colonies producing honey presented a higher (p < 0.05 total and effective reproduction of Varroa than colonies producing royal jelly. There was a negative correlation between levels of invasion and infestation with minimum external temperature, relative humidity and rainfall. The variables month and season influenced the development of the mite, but rates were low and within the range normally found in Brazil for Africanized honeybee colonies, which confirm the greater resistance of these honeybees to Varroa destructor than European honeybees.

  11. Indicator value of lotic water mites (Acari: Hydrachnidia and their use in macroinvertebrate-based indices for water quality assessment purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miccoli F. P.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The Water Framework Directive (WFD of the European Union includes benthic macroinvertebrates for the ecological assessment of running waters. The invertebrate-based Star-ICMi index, adopted in 2010, does not include Hydrachnidia (water mites in its complex formulation. However, Hydrachnidia are associated with many environmental variables and may be useful for stream ecological characterization. We have therefore assessed the bioindicator value of Hydrachnidia in streams of central Italy, and the ability of two mite-containing (the PTH and the newly formulated PTHfam indices and four mite-excluding biotic indices (Star-ICMi, BMWP, ASPT, and IBE to characterize 216 sites ranging from semipristine to impacted. Mite bioindicator value was high at family level. Index reliability was consistently low for the PTH and ASPT indices. Distribution of mite families across quality classes (QCs was fully separated only for the PTHfam index. QC assignment remained reliable at high index values (i.e., at high ecological status for the PTHfam and BMWP indices, while logarithmic correlations between the PTHfam and the other indices suggest that the latter may misrepresent sites in high, good, and moderate ecological status sensu WFD. Further studies on the PTHfam index are warranted in light of its simplicity, high reliability, and low sampling and taxonomic identification effort.

  12. Contribution to the knowledge of ptyctimous mites (Acari: Oribatida) from Madagascar

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Niedbala, W.; Starý, Josef

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 4 (2013), s. 337-345 ISSN 1217-8837 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : oribatid mites * new species * Mahunka * Phthiracaroidea * Euphthiracaroidea Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.263, year: 2013

  13. The distribution of dust mite allergen in the houses of patients with asthma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tovey, E.R.; Chapman, M.D.; Wells, C.W.; Platts-Mills, T.A.

    1981-01-01

    Using an inhibition radioimmunoassay for the major allergen from Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (antigen P1), we studied the distribution of this dust allergen in the houses of patients with asthma. Both bed and floor dust samples contained a wide range of antigen P1, 100 to 100,000 ng/g of fine dust, and this concentration correlated well with the number of mite bodies (r . 0.81, p less than 0.001). We were unable to detect antigen P1 in the air of undisturbed rooms. However, during domestic activity, between 1 and 30 ng were collected on a filter than sampled air for 45 min at 17 L/min. Using a cascade impactor it was shown that greater than 80% of the airborne antigen P1 was associated with particles greater than 10 mu in diameter. Some of the particles containing allergen could be identified because they formed precipitin rings when impacted onto agarose containing rabbit antimite antiserum. These particles had the physical appearance of mite feces, which are the major source of antigen P1 in mite cultures. The results suggested that natural exposure to this dust allergen allows occasional fecal particles to enter the lungs and that these particles contain very concentrated allergen

  14. Suspension of Egg Hatching Caused by High Humidity and Submergence in Spider Mites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubara, Masashi; Osakabe, Masahiro

    2015-08-01

    We tested the effects of high humidity and submergence on egg hatching of spider mites. In both the high humidity and submergence treatments, many Tetranychus and Panonychus eggs did not hatch until after the hatching peak of the lower humidity or unsubmerged controls. However, after humidity decreased or water was drained, many eggs hatched within 1-3 h. This was observed regardless of when high humidity or submergence treatments were implemented: either immediately after oviposition or immediately before hatching was due. Normal eyespot formation was observed in most eggs in the high humidity and submergence treatments, which indicates that spider mite embryos develop even when eggs are underwater. Therefore, delays in hatching are not caused by delayed embryonic development. A delay in hatching was always observed in Panonychus citri (McGregor) but was more variable in Tetranychus urticae Koch and Tetranychus kanzawai Kishida. The high humidity and submergence treatments affected but did not suppress larval development in these species. In contrast, many Oligonychus eggs died following the high humidity treatments. In Tetranychus and Panonychus spider mites, suspension of egg hatching may mitigate the adverse effects of rainfall. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Temperature-dependent, behavioural, and transcriptional variability of a tritrophic interaction consisting of bean, herbivorous mite, and predator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, Rika; Nishimura, Osamu; Yazawa, Shigenobu; Muroi, Atsushi; Takabayashi, Junji; Arimura, Gen-ichiro

    2012-11-01

    Different organisms compensate for, and adapt to, environmental changes in different ways. In this way, environmental changes affect animal-plant interactions. In this study, we assessed the effect of temperature on a tritrophic system of the lima bean, the herbivorous spider mite Tetranychus urticae and the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis. In this system, the plant defends itself against T. urticae by emitting volatiles that attract P. persimilis. Over 20-40 °C, the emission of volatiles by infested plants and the subsequent attraction of P. persimilis peaked at 30 °C, but the number of eggs laid by T. urticae adults and the number of eggs consumed by P. persimilis peaked at 35 °C. This indicates that the spider mites and predatory mites performed best at a higher temperature than that at which most volatile attractants were produced. Our data from transcriptome pyrosequencing of the mites found that P. persimilis up-regulated gene families for heat shock proteins (HSPs) and ubiquitin-associated proteins, whereas T. urticae did not. RNA interference-mediated gene suppression in P. persimilis revealed differences in temperature responses. Predation on T. urticae eggs by P. persimilis that had been fed PpHsp70-1 dsRNA was low at 35 °C but not at 25 °C when PpHsp70-1 expression was very high. Overall, our molecular and behavioural approaches revealed that the mode and tolerance of lima bean, T. urticae and P. persimilis are distinctly affected by temperature variability, thereby making their tritrophic interactions temperature dependent. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Sex-specific developmental plasticity of generalist and specialist predatory mites (Acari: Phytoseiidae) in response to food stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walzer, Andreas; Schausberger, Peter

    2011-03-01

    We studied developmental plasticity under food stress in three female-biased size dimorphic predatory mite species, Phytoseiulus persimilis, Neoseiulus californicus, and Amblyseius andersoni. All three species prey on two-spotted spider mites but differ in the degree of adaptation to this prey. Phytoseiulus persimilis is a specialized spider mite predator, N. californicus is a generalist with a preference for spider mites, and A. andersoni is a broad generalist. Immature predators were offered prey patches of varying density and their survival chances, dispersal tendencies, age and size at maturity measured. Amblyseius andersoni dispersed earlier from and had lower survival chances in low density prey patches than N. californicus and P. persimilis. Age at maturity was not affected by prey density in the generalist A. andersoni, whereas both the specialist P. persimilis and the generalist N. californicus accelerated development at low prey densities. Species-specific plasticity in age at maturity reflects opposite survival strategies when confronted with limited prey: to prematurely leave and search for other food (A. andersoni) or to stay and accelerate development (P. persimilis, N. californicus). In all species, size at maturity was more plastic in females than males, indicating that males incur higher fitness costs from deviations from optimal body size.

  17. Population growth of Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae) in colonies of Russian and unselected honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) stock as related to numbers of foragers with mites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varroa mites are an external parasite of honey bees and a leading cause of colony losses worldwide. Varroa populations can be controlled with miticides, but mite resistant stocks such as the Russian honey bee (RHB) also are available. RHB and other mite resistant stock limit Varroa population growth...

  18. A Modular Cage System Design for Continuous Medium to Large Scale In Vivo Rearing of Predatory Mites (Acari: Phytoseiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Alfredo Morales-Ramos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A new stackable modular system was developed for continuous in vivo production of phytoseiid mites. The system consists of cage units that are filled with lima beans,  Phaseolus lunatus, or red beans, P. vulgaris, leaves infested with high levels of the two-spotted spider mites, Tetranychus urticae. The cage units connect with each other through a connection cup, which also serves for monitoring and collection. Predatory mites migrate upwards to new cage units as prey is depleted. The system was evaluated for production of Phytoseiulus persimilis. During a 6-month experimental period, 20,894.9±10,482.5 (mean ± standard deviation predators were produced per week. The production consisted of 4.1±4.6% nymphs and 95.9±4.6% adults. A mean of 554.5±59.8 predatory mites were collected per harvested cage and the mean interval length between harvests was 6.57±6.76 days. The potential for commercial and experimental applications is discussed.

  19. Categorizing experience-based foraging plasticity in mites: age dependency, primacy effects and memory persistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schausberger, Peter; Davaasambuu, Undarmaa; Saussure, Stéphanie; Christiansen, Inga C

    2018-04-01

    Behavioural plasticity can be categorized into activational (also termed contextual) and developmental plasticity. Activational plasticity allows immediate contextual behavioural changes, whereas developmental plasticity is characterized by time-lagged changes based on memory of previous experiences (learning). Behavioural plasticity tends to decline with age but whether this holds true for both plasticity categories and the effects of first-in-life experiences is poorly understood. We tackled this issue by assessing the foraging plasticity of plant-inhabiting predatory mites, Amblyseius swirskii , on thrips and spider mites following age-dependent prey experience, i.e. after hatching or after reaching maturity. Juvenile and young adult predator females were alternately presented thrips and spider mites, for establishing 1st and 2nd prey-in-life experiences, and tested, as gravid females, for their foraging plasticity when offered both prey species. Prey experience by juvenile predators resulted in clear learning effects, which were evident in likelier and earlier attacks on familiar prey, and higher proportional inclusion of familiar prey in total diet. First prey-in-life experience by juvenile but not adult predators resulted in primacy effects regarding attack latency. Prey experience by adult predators resulted mainly in prey-unspecific physiological changes, with easy-to-grasp spider mites providing higher net energy gains than difficult-to-grasp thrips. Prey experience by juvenile, but not adult, predators was adaptive, which was evident in a negative correlation between attack latencies and egg production. Overall, our study provides key evidence that similar experiences by juvenile and adult predators, including first-in-life experiences, may be associated with different types of behavioural plasticity, i.e. developmental and activational plasticity.

  20. Categorizing experience-based foraging plasticity in mites: age dependency, primacy effects and memory persistence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davaasambuu, Undarmaa; Saussure, Stéphanie; Christiansen, Inga C.

    2018-01-01

    Behavioural plasticity can be categorized into activational (also termed contextual) and developmental plasticity. Activational plasticity allows immediate contextual behavioural changes, whereas developmental plasticity is characterized by time-lagged changes based on memory of previous experiences (learning). Behavioural plasticity tends to decline with age but whether this holds true for both plasticity categories and the effects of first-in-life experiences is poorly understood. We tackled this issue by assessing the foraging plasticity of plant-inhabiting predatory mites, Amblyseius swirskii, on thrips and spider mites following age-dependent prey experience, i.e. after hatching or after reaching maturity. Juvenile and young adult predator females were alternately presented thrips and spider mites, for establishing 1st and 2nd prey-in-life experiences, and tested, as gravid females, for their foraging plasticity when offered both prey species. Prey experience by juvenile predators resulted in clear learning effects, which were evident in likelier and earlier attacks on familiar prey, and higher proportional inclusion of familiar prey in total diet. First prey-in-life experience by juvenile but not adult predators resulted in primacy effects regarding attack latency. Prey experience by adult predators resulted mainly in prey-unspecific physiological changes, with easy-to-grasp spider mites providing higher net energy gains than difficult-to-grasp thrips. Prey experience by juvenile, but not adult, predators was adaptive, which was evident in a negative correlation between attack latencies and egg production. Overall, our study provides key evidence that similar experiences by juvenile and adult predators, including first-in-life experiences, may be associated with different types of behavioural plasticity, i.e. developmental and activational plasticity. PMID:29765663

  1. Efficacy of the d-phenothrin/pyriproxyfen association against mites in naturally co-infested rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio I. Fernandes

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of the d-phenothrin/pyriproxyfen association against Psoroptes ovis, Cheyletiella parasitivorax, and Leporacarus gibbus infestations in naturally co-infested rabbits. Twenty crossbreed (New Zealand White x California rabbits concurrently infested by the three mite species were randomly divided in two groups. All rabbits presented with hyperemia, erythema and formation of crusts in the ear canals caused by P. ovis. Infestations by both C. parasitivorax and L. gibbus were considered asymptomatic in all animals.Ten animals were treated with a 4.4% d-phenothrin and 0.148% pyriproxyfen spray formulation until have their body surface uniformly sprayed, including external ear canals. The other ten rabbits remained untreated, serving as control group. Observations were done on days +7, +14, +21, +28, and +35 post-treatment. The d-phenothrin/pyriproxyfen association showed 100% efficacy against the three mite species and was responsible for the remission of psoroptic mange lesions on treated animals. No signs of intoxication were observed. The results indicate that d-phenothrin/pyriproxyfen spray formulation in a single application is an effective and clinically safe option for the control of different mite infestations in rabbits.

  2. Mites and spiders act as biological control agent to sand flies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diwakar Singh Dinesh

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To find out natural biological control agents of sand flies vector of kala azar in Bihar, India. Methods: Sand flies collected from the field using CDC light trap installing overnight to the collection site scrutitinized for Phlebotomus argentipes, the established vector of visceral leishmaniasis. Blood fed adult females were confined in the insectary for its development of life cycle. During developmental stages 2nd to 4th instars larvae were examined closely by using compound microscope for mite infestation. Adult spider residing along with sand flies collected in trap were kept in cage along with sand flies and their activities were watched closely and recorded by video and picture. Results: Mites were found predating 2nd to 4th instars larvae only under the laboratory conditions and lowering down the population of sand flies up to basal level within 15 d after infestation. One specific spider was found eating blood fed female sand flies kept inside the cage (n=50 attacking on lower part of thoracic region to kill the sand fly and ate desired soft part. Conclusions: Both predators, mites and spiders are acting as biological control agents to larvae and adults of sand flies respectively resulting variable density of vectors due to variable association with these predators and also cause lowering the transmission of the disease as hidden natural controlling agent of sand flies. The extensive study will be of immense help in controlling sand flies without use of environmental pollutant i.e. chemical insecticide.

  3. A synthetic review of notoedres species mites and mange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Janet E.; Serieys, L.E.; Stephenson, N.; Riley, S.; Foley, C.; Jennings, M.; Wengert, G.; Vickers, W.; Boydston, Erin E.; Lyren, Lisa L.; Moriarty, J.; Clifford, D.L.

    2016-01-01

    Notoedric mange, caused by obligately parasitic sarcoptiform Notoedres mites, is associated with potentially fatal dermatitis with secondary systemic disease in small mammals, felids and procyonids among others, as well as an occasional zoonosis. We describe clinical spectra in non-chiropteran hosts, review risk factors and summarize ecological and epidemiological studies. The genus is disproportionately represented on rodents. Disease in felids and procyonids ranges from very mild to death. Knowledge of the geographical distribution of the mites is highly inadequate, with focal hot spots known for Notoedres cati in domestic cats and bobcats. Predisposing genetic and immunological factors are not known, except that co-infection with other parasites and anticoagulant rodenticide toxicoses may contribute to severe disease. Treatment of individual animals is typically successful with macrocytic lactones such as selamectin, but herd or wildlife population treatment has not been undertaken. Transmission requires close contact and typically is within a host species. Notoedric mange can kill half all individuals in a population and regulate host population below non-diseased density for decades, consistent with frequency-dependent transmission or spillover from other hosts. Epidemics are increasingly identified in various hosts, suggesting global change in suitable environmental conditions or increased reporting bias.

  4. Mitochondrial genome sequencing reveals potential origins of the scabies mite Sarcoptes scabiei infesting two iconic Australian marsupials

    OpenAIRE

    Fraser, Tamieka A.; Shao, Renfu; Fountain-Jones, Nicholas M.; Charleston, Michael; Martin, Alynn; Whiteley, Pam; Holme, Roz; Carver, Scott; Polkinghorne, Adam

    2017-01-01

    Background Debilitating skin infestations caused by the mite, Sarcoptes scabiei, have a profound impact on human and animal health globally. In Australia, this impact is evident across different segments of Australian society, with a growing recognition that it can contribute to rapid declines of native Australian marsupials. Cross-host transmission has been suggested to play a significant role in the epidemiology and origin of mite infestations in different species but a chronic lack of gene...

  5. High Humidity in the Honey Bee (Apis mellifera L.) Brood Nest Limits Reproduction of the Parasitic Mite Varroa jacobsoni Oud.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraus, B.; Velthuis, H.H.W.

    1997-01-01

    Factors influencing reproduction of the parasitic mite Varroa jacobsoni have become a central theme of honey bee pathology. In large parts of the world the mite has made it impossible for colonies of the honey bee Apis mellifera to survive if no measures of treatment are applied [1].

  6. Repellent activity of desiccant dusts and conidia of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana when tested against poultry red mites (Dermanyssus gallinae) in laboratory experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilpinen, Ole; Steenberg, Tove

    2016-11-01

    Desiccant dusts and entomopathogenic fungi have previously been found to hold potential against the poultry red mite, which is an important pest in egg production and notoriously difficult to control. Both control agents may cause repellence in other arthropods and potentially also influence control levels adversely when used against the poultry red mite. Five desiccant dust products with good efficacy against the poultry red mite Dermanyssus gallinae caused avoidance behavior in mites when tested in bioassays. The repellent activity was correlated with efficacy, which was found to depend on both dose and relative humidity (RH). However, one desiccant dust was significantly less repellent compared to other dusts with similar levels of efficacy. Further, dry conidia of the fungus Beauveria bassiana were also shown to be repellent to poultry red mites, both when applied on its own and when admixed with a low dose of the desiccant dust Diamol. The pick-up of desiccant dust particles and fungus conidia from treated surfaces by mites did not differ depending on RH, whereas the overall efficacy of the two control agents were significantly higher at 75 than at 85 % RH. In addition, the combined effect of the two substances was synergistic when tested in a bioassay where mites could choose whether to cross a treated surface. This is the first time a member of Acari has been shown to be repelled by desiccant dusts and by conidia of an entomopathogenic fungus.

  7. Induction of systemic resistance in plants by biochar, a soil-applied carbon sequestering agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elad, Yigal; David, Dalia Rav; Harel, Yael Meller; Borenshtein, Menahem; Kalifa, Hananel Ben; Silber, Avner; Graber, Ellen R

    2010-09-01

    Biochar is the solid coproduct of biomass pyrolysis, a technique used for carbon-negative production of second-generation biofuels. The biochar can be applied as a soil amendment, where it permanently sequesters carbon from the atmosphere as well as improves soil tilth, nutrient retention, and crop productivity. In addition to its other benefits in soil, we found that soil-applied biochar induces systemic resistance to the foliar fungal pathogens Botrytis cinerea (gray mold) and Leveillula taurica (powdery mildew) on pepper and tomato and to the broad mite pest (Polyphagotarsonemus latus Banks) on pepper. Levels of 1 to 5% biochar in a soil and a coconut fiber-tuff potting medium were found to be significantly effective at suppressing both diseases in leaves of different ages. In long-term tests (105 days), pepper powdery mildew was significantly less severe in the biochar-treated plants than in the plants from the unamended controls although, during the final 25 days, the rate of disease development in the treatments and controls was similar. Possible biochar-related elicitors of systemic induced resistance are discussed.

  8. A Three-Year Course of House Dust Mite Sublingual Immunotherapy Appears Effective in Controlling the Symptoms of Allergic Rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novakova, Silviya M; Novakova, Plamena I; Yakovliev, Plamen H; Staevska, Maria T; Mateva, Nonka G; Dimcheva, Teodora D; Peichev, Jivko L

    2018-05-01

    Background Allergic rhinitis is the most common allergic disorder. Although the management of the disease is successful in many patients, based on guidelines, some of them remain with symptoms uncontrolled with pharmacotherapy. Presently, there is no substantiated information on the control of allergic rhinitis in patients who underwent sublingual immunotherapy. Objective The purpose of this prospective follow-up study was to assess the control of allergic rhinitis in adults after a three-year course of house dust mite sublingual immunotherapy. Methods This prospective real-life study was designed to include adults with moderate to severe allergic rhinitis sensitized to house dust mite who underwent a three-year course of sublingual immunotherapy. Control of symptoms was assessed by Rhinitis Control Assessment Test (RCAT) after three years of house dust mite sublingual immunotherapy. Additionally, patients assessed their symptoms by utilizing a visual analog scale. Results A total number of 86 consecutively enrolled patients (46 (53.49%) men; mean age 26.10 years (SD = 5.85)) with moderate to severe allergic rhinitis and clinically relevant sensitization to house dust mite were evaluated. When assessed by RCAT on the third year, 74 (86.05%) had well-controlled symptoms and 20 (27.03%) of them were completely controlled. A significant reduction in visual analog scale scores-from 7.52 cm at baseline to 2.31 cm-was established ( P house dust mite sublingual immunotherapy appears effective in controlling the symptoms of allergic rhinitis.

  9. Acaricidal activities of some essential oils and their monoterpenoidal constituents against house dust mite, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Acari: Pyroglyphidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, El-Zemity; Hussien, Rezk; Saher, Farok; Ahmed, Zaitoon

    2006-12-01

    The acaricidal activities of fourteen essential oils and fourteen of their major monoterpenoids were tested against house dust mites Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus. Five concentrations were used over two different time intervals 24 and 48 h under laboratory conditions. In general, it was noticed that the acaricidal effect based on LC(50) of either essential oils or monoterpenoids against the mite was time dependant. The LC(50) values were decreased by increasing of exposure time. Clove, matrecary, chenopodium, rosemary, eucalyptus and caraway oils were shown to have high activity. As for the monoterpenoids, cinnamaldehyde and chlorothymol were found to be the most effective followed by citronellol. This study suggests the use of the essential oils and their major constituents as ecofriendly biodegradable agents for the control of house dust mite, D. pteronyssinus.

  10. Seasonal changes in nasal cytology in mite-allergic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gelardi M

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Matteo Gelardi,1 Diego G Peroni,2 Cristoforo Incorvaia,3 Nicola Quaranta,1 Concetta De Luca,1 Salvatore Barberi,4 Ilaria Dell'Albani,5 Massimo Landi,6 Franco Frati,5 Olivier de Beaumont7 1Otolaryngology Unit, Department of Neuroscience and Sensory Organs, University of Bari, Bari, Italy; 2Department of Pediatrics, University of Verona, Verona, Italy; 3Allergy/Pulmonary Rehabilitation, ICP Hospital, Milan, Italy; 4Department of Pediatrics, San Paolo Hospital, Milan, Italy; 5Medical and Scientific Department, Stallergenes, Milan, Italy; 6Department of Pediatrics, National Healthcare System, ASL TO1, Turin, Italy; 7Medical Affairs Department, Stallergenes, Antony, France Background: House dust mites (HDMs are a major cause of allergic rhinitis (AR and asthma worldwide. Recent studies suggested that the allergen load presents seasonal modifications, giving rise to seasonal variation in nasal inflammation and symptoms. The aim of this study was to evaluate by nasal cytology whether nasal inflammation in mite-allergic patients changes with the seasons of the year. Methods: The study included 16 patients (seven males and nine females, mean age 38.1 years with persistent AR caused by monosensitization to HDMs. Nasal cytology was performed in all patients once monthly for 1 year. Results: Nasal cytology showed that the cells most commonly detected in the nasal mucosa were neutrophils. During the period from October to April, a peak in the number of neutrophils and also the presence of significant numbers of eosinophils, mast cells, and lymphocytes/plasma cells were found, which shows the occurrence of more intense inflammation during these months. Conclusion: Nasal cytology provides useful data in detecting nasal inflammation and its association with the clinical stage of AR. The seasonal variations in nasal cytology are likely to be induced by the fluctuations in the HDM allergen that have been uncovered in recent investigations. Keywords: allergens

  11. Inoculate Release of Stethorus gilvifrons Mulsan (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae for Biological Control of Date Palm Spider Mite, Oligonychus afrasiaticusMcGregor (Prostigmata: Tetranychidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Latifian

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The spider mite, Oligonychus afrasiaticus feeds by sucking the sap from the immature fruits tissue. The natural color of fruits changes to pale yellow or gray by mite's feeding. Damaged fruit are cracked and its damage can dry out the fruits. Because of resistance to pesticides, resurgence of date palm spider mite causes to disrupt the natural balance of their population. Tiny black ladybird beetle, Stethorous gilvifrons is the most important and active lady beetle species in Khuzestan province and is very effective on biological control of the spider mite. Determination of the amount and release time of the lady beetles are the most important factors in the implementation of biological control programs of date palm spider mite. So, careful monitoring, time of the release and the ability of deployment of predatory ladybird are essential steps to success in the programs of biological control. Materials and Methods: This research was conducted in Shadegan region of Khuzestan province. The nested design was used to compare the efficiency of different inoculate release methods of the predator, S. gilvifrons. The main niches include three release times which were at the time of emergence, three days and one week after emergence of date palm spider mite in date palm plantation. Sub nesting including three different levels of predator release including minimum, moderate and maximum release with 0.5, 1 and 3 predator /m2 per day and were continued for two weeks. The two or three-days ladybirds were used to release. First, the infected clusters were covered by mesh fabric and ladybirds were released under them. After a week, mantles were opened up to the establishment of ladybird run on the normal condition of date palm plantations. This experiment was repeated three times, and each replication consists of a quarter- hectare plantation with dominant cultivar Sayer.Three date Palm trees from each release and control were randomly selected

  12. Environmental, economic, and energy impacts of material recovery facilities. A MITE Program evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    This report documents an evaluation of the environmental, economic, and energy impacts of material recovery facilities (MRFs) conducted under the Municipal Solid Waste Innovative Technology Evaluation (MITE) Program. The MITE Program is sponsored by the US Environmental Protection Agency to foster the demonstration and development of innovative technologies for the management of municipal solid waste (MSW). This project was also funded by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Material recovery facilities are increasingly being used as one option for managing a significant portion of municipal solid waste (MSW). The owners and operators of these facilities employ a combination of manual and mechanical techniques to separate and sort the recyclable fraction of MSW and to transport the separated materials to recycling facilities.

  13. Comparative toxicity of pesticides in three phytoseiid mites with different life-style occurring in citrus: Euseius stipulatus, Neoseiulus californicus and Phytoseiulus persimilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argolo, Poliane Sá; Jacas, Josep A; Urbaneja, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Conservation and augmentative biological control strategies have been developed to take full advantage of the natural enemies that occur in Spanish citrus orchards. Among them, the predatory mites Euseius stipulatus, Neoseiulus californicus and Phytoseiulus persimilis play an important role in the biological control of tetranychid mites. However, these predatory mites are often affected by pesticides and information about the side-effects of these products against these beneficial arthropods is essential to guarantee their efficacy. The side-effects of some pesticides remain unknown and the primary aim of this study was to fill this gap. We have further used this information and that collected from other sources to compare the response of these three mite species to pesticides. Based on this information, E. stipulatus has the most tolerant species, followed by N. californicus and P. persimilis. Therefore, using E. stipulatus as an indicator species in citrus may have led to the paradox of selecting presumed selective pesticides resulting in excessive impact on N. californicus and, especially on P. persimilis. Because these two latter species are considered key for the biological control of T. urticae in citrus, especially clementines, in Spain, we propose to use P. persimilis as the relevant indicator of such effects on predacious mites occurring in citrus instead of E. stipulatus. This change could have a dramatic impact on the satisfactory control of tetranychid mites in citrus in the near future.

  14. Gamma irradiation as a quarantine treatment against mite (Tetranychidae) on cut flowers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zainon Othman; Mohd Ridzuan Ismail; Hamidah Sulaiman; Mohd Shamsudin Osman

    2000-01-01

    Cut flower, an important export commodity of Malaysia in international trade, is often subjected to infestation by various pests such as mites, scales and thrips. The use of low ionising radiation has been suggested as an alternative to methyl bromide fumigation, the current pest disinfestation treatment for cut flower but which is being phased out due to environmental concerns. The criterion for efficacy of radiation as a quarantine treatment will be the inability of treated mites to reproduce at a new location rather than causing immediate mortality. Irradiating red spider mite Tetranychus piercie at a dose of 300 and 400 Gy produced sterile female adults from irradiated protonymph and deutonymph respectively. A lower dose of 200 Gy induced sterility in female adults developed from the less immature stages of irradiated egg and larva. Deteriorating effects caused by irradiation treatment were reflected in immatures by their reduced emergence rate/mortality in subsequent developmental stages. A dose of 240 Gy prevented reproduction in female adult of T piercie by inducing sterility while a much higher dose of 5 kGy is required to produce instant mortality. Based on the results obtained gamma irradiation of dose range 300-400 Gy may be applied as a quarantine treatment against Tetranychus piercie. However, this dose range is only suitable for chrysanthemum (in 4% sucrose solution) but not roses, carnations and orchids which showed phytotoxic symptoms at dose range of 100-300 Gy

  15. Landscapes with different biodiversity influence distribution of small mammals and their ectoparasitic chigger mites: A comparative study from southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Pei-Ying; Guo, Xian-Guo; Jin, Dao-Chao; Dong, Wen-Ge; Qian, Ti-Jun; Qin, Feng; Yang, Zhi-Hua; Fan, Rong

    2018-01-01

    From a previous field investigation in Yunnan, southwest China between 2001 and 2015, we selected two types of landscapes to make a retrospectively comparative study on the distribution of small mammals and their ectoparasitic chigger mites. One landscape is "mountainous uncultivated land (MUL)" with higher biodiversity, which is located in a famous "World Nature Heritage Site", the Three-Parallel-Rivers Region in the northwest of Yunnan. The other is "cultivated flatland landscape (CFL)" with lower biodiversity, which is located in the south of Yunnan. The landscapes with different biodiversity apparently influenced the distribution of small mammals and their ectoparasitic chigger mites. Much more species of small mammals and mites were found in MUL than in CFL. A total of 3,177 small mammals captured from MUL were identified as 55 species, 30 genera and 10 families in five orders. From these small mammal hosts, 5,882 chigger mites were collected and identified as 127 species, 15 genera and 3 subfamilies in two families. A total of 1,112 small mammals captured from CFL were identified as 19 species, 12 genera and 5 families in three orders. From these hosts, 17,742 chiggers were collected and identified as 86 species, 12 genera and 3 subfamilies in two families. Both the species diversity (S = 55) and community diversity (H = 2.673) of small mammals in MUL were much higher than those in CFL (S = 19; H = 0.926). There were also higher values of β diversity in MUL than in CFL. Different main reservoir rodent hosts of zoonoses (including tsutsugamushi disease) were found in two types of landscapes. Rattus tanezumi (one main reservoir host) was most abundant in CFL, which accounted for 80.22% of all the small mammals. Another two main reservoir hosts, Eothenomys miletus and Apodemus chevrieri were the dominant species in MUL, but they were not as abundant as R. tanezumi in CFL. Different vector species of chigger mites also existed in MUL and CFL. Leptotrombidium

  16. [Research on dust mite allergen gathered from filters of air-conditioners].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Xiao-dong; Wu, Hua; Hu, Hui-min; Li, Chao-pin

    2015-12-01

    To discuss the relation between the dust mite allergen (Der) in air-conditioner filters and the asthma attack. The dust samples were collected from the filters of air-conditioners in dining rooms, shopping malls, hotels and households, respectively. The concentrations of Der f 1 and Der p1 were detected by ELISA, and the dust mite immune activities were determined by dot-ELISA. The concentrations of Der f 1 in the dining rooms, shopping malls, hotels and households were 1.52, 1.24, 1.31 µg/g and 1.46 µg/g respectively, and the concentrations of Der p 1 were 1.23, 1.12, 1.16 µg/ g and 1.18 µg, respectively. One hour after the running of air-conditioners, the concentrations of Der f 1 and Der p 1 in the air were higher than those before the running of air-conditioners, and the differences were significant (P air-conditioners in domestic houses in Wuhu City, and the allergens can induce asthma.

  17. Marine water mites (Acari: Hydrachnidia: Pontarachnidae) from Taiwan, Korea and India, with the first description of the male of Pontarachna australis Smit, 2003

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pesic, V.; Chatterjee, T.; Chan, B.K.K.; Ingole, B.S.

    he hitherto unknown male of the marine water mite Pontarachna australis Smit, 2003 (Acari: Hydrachnidia: Pontarachnidae) is described and recorded from Taiwan for the first time. Another marine water mite, Litarachna denhami (Lohmann, 1909...

  18. A large parasitengonid mite (Acari, Erythraeoidea from the Early Cretaceous Crato Formation of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Dunlop

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available A new large, fossil mite (Arachnida: Acari, Pararainbowia martilli n. gen. n. sp., is described from the Early Cretaceous (Aptian Crato Formation from Ceará State, Brazil. It is assigned to the Cohort Parasitengona and the superfamily Erythraeoidea, some extant members of which can reach up to seven millimetres in body length. Given that doubts have been raised about the identity of putative Crato feather mite eggs, this new fossil represents the first unequivocal record of Acari from the Crato Formation, the first non-amber record of an erythraeoid mite and the oldest named example of this superfamily. Fossil erythraeoids from Mesozoic and Tertiary ambers are briefly reviewed – including a widely overlooked Late Cretaceous species – with comments on Mesozoic mites in general. Thirteen Baltic amber erythraeoids have been formally described, but much unstudied material from various amber sources remains. Ein neues großes Milbenfossil (Arachnida: Acari, Pararainbowia martilli n. gen. n. sp., wird aus der Crato Formation (Unterkreide, Aptium des Ceará Gebietes in Brasilien beschrieben. Es wird der Kohorte Parasitengona und der Überfamilie Erythraeoidea zugeordnet; die modernen Vertreter erreichen eine Körperlänge bis zu sieben mm. Weil die Identität von Federmilbeneiern aus der Crato Formation in Frage gestellt wurde, ist dieser Neufund der erste klare Hinweis von Acari aus der Crato Formation. Es ist die erste erythraeoide Milbe, die nicht aus dem Bernstein stammt sowie das älteste genannte Beispiel dieser Überfamilie. Fossile erythraeoide Milben aus dem Bernstein des Mesozoikum und des Tertiärs werden kurz zusammengefasst – u. a. eine weitgehend übersehene Art aus der Oberkreide – mit allgemeinen Anmerkungen zu den mesozoischen Milben. Dreizehn erythraeoide Milbenarten sind aus dem baltischen Bernstein genannt und beschrieben worden, aber weiteres unbearbeitetes Material von verschiedenen Bernstein-Fundpunkten liegt noch vor

  19. Toxicity of bifenazate and its principal active metabolite, diazene, to Tetranychus urticae and Panonychus citri and their relative toxicity to the predaceous mites, Phytoseiulus persimilis and Neoseiulus californicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochiai, Noriaki; Mizuno, Masayuki; Mimori, Norihiko; Miyake, Toshihiko; Dekeyser, Mark; Canlas, Liza Jara; Takeda, Makio

    2007-01-01

    Bifenazate is a novel carbazate acaricide discovered by Uniroyal Chemical (now Chemtura Corporation) for the control of phytophagous mites infesting agricultural and ornamental crops. Its acaricidal activity and that of its principal active metabolite, diazene, were characterized. Bifenazate and diazene had high toxicity and specificity both orally and topically to all life stages of Tetranychus urticae and Panonychus citri. Acute poisoning was observed with no temperature dependency. No cross-resistance was found to mites resistant to several other classes of acaricides, such as tebufenpyrad, etoxazole, fenbutatin oxide and dicofol. Bifenazate remained effective for a long time with only about a 10% loss of efficacy on T. urticae after 1 month of application in the field. All stages of development of the predatory mites, Phytoseiulus persimilis and Neoseiulus californicus, survived treatment by both bifenazate and diazene. When adult females of the two predatory mite species were treated with either bifenazate or diazene, they showed a normal level of fecundity and predatory activity in the laboratory, effectively suppressing spider mite population growth. Even when the predators were fed spider mite eggs that had been treated previously with bifenazate, they survived. These findings indicate that bifenazate is a very useful acaricide giving high efficacy, long-lasting activity and excellent selectivity for spider mites. It is, therefore, concluded that bifenazate is an ideal compound for controlling these pest mites.

  20. Paramyosin from the parasitic mite Sarcoptes scabiei: cDNA cloning and heterologous expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattsson, J G; Ljunggren, E L; Bergström, K

    2001-05-01

    The burrowing mite Sarcoptes scabiei is the causative agent of the highly contagious disease sarcoptic mange or scabies. So far, there is no in vitro propagation system for S. scabiei available, and mites used for various purposes must be isolated from infected hosts. Lack of parasite-derived material has limited the possibilities to study several aspects of scabies, including pathogenesis and immunity. It has also hampered the development of high performance serological assays. We have now constructed an S. scabiei cDNA expression library with mRNA purified from mites isolated from red foxes. Immunoscreening of the library enabled us to clone a full-length cDNA coding for a 102.5 kDa protein. Sequence similarity searches identified the protein as a paramyosin. Recombinant S. scabiei paramyosin expressed in Escherichia coli was recognized by sera from dogs and swine infected with S. scabiei. We also designed a small paramyosin construct of about 17 kDa that included the N-terminal part, an evolutionary variable part of the helical core, and the C-terminal part of the molecule. The miniaturized protein was efficiently expressed in E. coli and was recognized by sera from immunized rabbits. These data demonstrate that the cDNA library can assist in the isolation of important S. scabiei antigens and that recombinant proteins can be useful for the study of scabies.

  1. Effect of aqueous plant extracts on tea red spider mite, Oligonychus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four aqueous plant extracts (APEs) of Acorus calamus (L), Xanthium strumarium (L), Polygonum hydropiper (L) and Clerodendron infortunatum (Gaertn) were evaluated under both laboratory and field conditions at 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0% (w/v) concentrations against tea red spider mite, Oligonychus coffeae (Nietner). Also, the ...

  2. Gall mite inspection on dormant black currant buds using machine vision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, M. R.; Stigaard Laursen, Morten; Jonassen, M. S.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel machine vision-based approach detecting and mapping gall mite infection in dormant buds on black currant bushes. A vehicle was fitted with four cameras and RTK-GPS. Results compared automatic detection to human decisions based on the images, and by mapping the results...

  3. Oribatid Mite Community Decline Two Years after Low-Intensity Burning in the Southern Cascade Range of California, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy E. Gillette

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available To assess effects of low-intensity fire, we combined two silvicultural prescriptions with prescribed fire in the California Cascade Range. In the first treatment, two 100-ha stands were thinned to reduce density while retaining old-growth structural characteristics, yielding residual stands with high structural diversity (HSD. Two other 100-ha plots were thinned to minimize old growth structure, producing even-aged stands of low structural diversity (LSD, and one 50-ha split-plot from each treatment was burned. In addition, two 50 ha old-growth Research Natural Areas (RNA were selected as untreated reference plots, one of which was also burned. Fire treatments profoundly altered mite assemblages in the short term, and forest structure modification likely exacerbated that response. Sampling conducted two years following treatment confirmed a continuing decline in oribatid mite abundance. Oribatid species richness and assemblage heterogeneity also declined, and community dominance patterns were disrupted. Oribatid responses to fire were either more intense or began earlier in the LSD treatments, suggesting that removal of old-growth structure exacerbated mite responses to fire. Prostigmatids recovered quickly, but their populations nonetheless diminished significantly in burned split-plots. Mite assemblage responses to prescribed fire were continuing nearly two years later, with no clear evidence of recovery.

  4. Plant structural changes due to herbivory: Do changes in Aceria-infested coconut fruits allow predatory mites to move under the perianth?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aratchige, N.S.; Sabelis, M.W.; Lesna, I.K.A.

    2007-01-01

    Being minute in size, eriophyoid mites can reach places that are small enough to be inaccessible to their predators. The coconut mite, Aceria guerreronis, is a typical example; it finds partial refuge under the perianth of the coconut fruit. However, some predators can move under the perianth of the

  5. Mite and pet allergen exposure in hotels in Uberlândia, Midwestern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simplício, E C; Silva, D A O; Braga, I A; Sopelete, M C; Sung, S J; Taketomi, E A

    2007-08-01

    Mite allergens are involved in airway sensitization and allergic diseases. We evaluated the exposure to house dust-mite (Der p 1 and Der f 1) and pet (Fel d 1 and Can f 1) allergens in hotels in Uberlândia, Midwestern Brazil. A total of 140 dust samples were collected from bedding (n = 98) and carpet (n = 42) of bedrooms in 20 hotels enrolled for this study. Geometric mean (GM) levels of Der f 1 (11.30 microg/g of dust; 95% CI: 8.34-15.30 microg/g) were significantly higher than Der p 1 (0.15 microg/g of dust; 95% CI: 0.13-0.18 microg/g) in bedding dust samples (P hotel classes. Der f 1 levels were significantly higher in bedding (11.30 microg/g of dust; 95% CI: 8.34-15.30 microg/g) than carpet (6.32 microg/g of dust; 95% CI: 4.31-9.26 microg/g) dust samples (P 10 microg/g of dust) were found in 58%, 76%, and 69% of dust samples from Simple, Economical, and Tourist/Superior hotels, respectively, while GM levels of Fel d 1 (0.11 microg/g of dust; 95% CI: 0.09-0.14 microg/g) and Can f 1 (0.30 microg/g of dust; 95% CI: 0.20-0.44 microg/g) were relatively low. These results indicate that Der f 1 is the predominant allergen in hotels in Uberlândia, especially in bedding dust samples, regardless of the hotel classes and could represent an important risk factor for exacerbation of allergic symptoms in previously mite-sensitized guests. Mites and pets are important sources of indoor allergens. Most people spend the greatest part of their time indoors. Hotels can constitute an important allergen reservoir of the indoor environment and could represent an important risk for exacerbation of allergic symptoms in previously sensitized guests. Thus, hotels should also be included for planning indoor allergen avoidance as part of a global management strategy, especially in patients with respiratory allergy.

  6. Phylogenetic relationships in three species of canine Demodex mite based on partial sequences of mitochondrial 16S rDNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sastre, Natalia; Ravera, Ivan; Villanueva, Sergio; Altet, Laura; Bardagí, Mar; Sánchez, Armand; Francino, Olga; Ferrer, Lluís

    2012-12-01

    The historical classification of Demodex mites has been based on their hosts and morphological features. Genome sequencing has proved to be a very effective taxonomic tool in phylogenetic studies and has been applied in the classification of Demodex. Mitochondrial 16S rDNA has been demonstrated to be an especially useful marker to establish phylogenetic relationships. To amplify and sequence a segment of the mitochondrial 16S rDNA from Demodex canis and Demodex injai, as well as from the short-bodied mite called, unofficially, D. cornei and to determine their genetic proximity. Demodex mites were examined microscopically and classified as Demodex folliculorum (one sample), D. canis (four samples), D. injai (two samples) or the short-bodied species D. cornei (three samples). DNA was extracted, and a 338 bp fragment of the 16S rDNA was amplified and sequenced. The sequences of the four D. canis mites were identical and shared 99.6 and 97.3% identity with two D. canis sequences available at GenBank. The sequences of the D. cornei isolates were identical and showed 97.8, 98.2 and 99.6% identity with the D. canis isolates. The sequences of the two D. injai isolates were also identical and showed 76.6% identity with the D. canis sequence. Demodex canis and D. injai are two different species, with a genetic distance of 23.3%. It would seem that the short-bodied Demodex mite D. cornei is a morphological variant of D. canis. © 2012 The Authors. Veterinary Dermatology © 2012 ESVD and ACVD.

  7. Simple method of detecting sarcoptes scabiei var hominis mites among bedridden elderly patients suffering from severe scabies infestation using an adhesive-tape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsumata, Kazuo; Katsumata, Kazumi

    2006-01-01

    Scabies infestation is very common among bedridden elderly patients. The standard method of diagnosis for scabies by scraping the skin requires some skill. Therefore, dermatologists employ this method. However, dermatologists are usually not present in most long-term nursing units. Thus, we tried to catch mites using a strong transparent adhesive tape commercially available for packing use as an alternative method for the diagnosis of severe scabies infestation. After firmly applying the adhesive side of the tape onto an appropriate skin lesion of patients, the tape was pulled off and transferred directly onto a slide for microscopy, affixing the adhered separated part of the corneal skin. When a massive outbreak of scabies infestation occurred in May 2004 at the nursing unit of K hospital with thirty-one bedridden elderly patients, we tried to detect scabies mite using an adhesive tape. We could detect mites from six patients using this tape method. The diagnosis was confirmed by the standard scraping method. By the tape method we could observe some mites moving around and also could see a striated structure with dark red or weak red color or gray color granule-like constitution on the body of some mites. We found mites only on the skin of the fingers and toes where the skin of a patient is thin. Recently, massive scabies infestation in elderly long-term residents has been reported elsewhere. This tape method is simple and useful for diagnosis of severe scabies infestation in long-term nursing units.

  8. Mutualism and Antagonism: Ecological Interactions Among Bark Beetles, Mite and Fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    K.D. Klepzig; J.C. Moser; M.J. Lombardero; M.P. Ayres; R.W. Hofstetter; C.J. Walkinshaw

    2001-01-01

    Insect-fungal complexes provide challenging and fascinating systems for the study of biotic interactions between plants. plant pathogens, insect vectors and other associated organisms. The types of interactions among these organisms (mutualism. antagonism. parasitism. phoresy. etc.) are as variable as the range of organisms involved (plants, fungi, insects. mites. etc...

  9. Effect of aqueous plant extracts on tea red spider mite, Oligonychus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-02-04

    Feb 4, 2009 ... integrated mite management. Key words: Tea ... Scientific name. Family. Parts used .... C.V.%. 8.64. Mean of five observations (30 eggs/observation). 100 numbers of ..... This work is part of a Tea Research Association in-house project ... innovation in tea science and sustainable development in tea. Industry ...

  10. Brain metabolomic profiling of eastern honey bee (Apis cerana infested with the mite Varroa destructor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang-Li Wu

    Full Text Available The mite Varroa destructor is currently the greatest threat to apiculture as it is causing a global decrease in honey bee colonies. However, it rarely causes serious damage to its native hosts, the eastern honey bees Apis cerana. To better understand the mechanism of resistance of A. cerana against the V. destructor mite, we profiled the metabolic changes that occur in the honey bee brain during V. destructor infestation. Brain samples were collected from infested and control honey bees and then measured using an untargeted liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS-based global metabolomics method, in which 7918 and 7462 ions in ESI+ and ESI- mode, respectively, were successfully identified. Multivariate statistical analyses were applied, and 64 dysregulated metabolites, including fatty acids, amino acids, carboxylic acid, and phospholipids, amongst others, were identified. Pathway analysis further revealed that linoleic acid metabolism; propanoate metabolism; and glycine, serine, and threonine metabolism were acutely perturbed. The data obtained in this study offer insight into the defense mechanisms of A. cerana against V. destructor mites and provide a better method for understanding the synergistic effects of parasitism on honey bee colonies.

  11. Adult-onset demodicosis in two dogs due to Demodex canis and a short-tailed demodectic mite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saridomichelakis, M; Koutinas, A; Papadogiannakis, E; Papazachariadou, M; Liapi, M; Trakas, D

    1999-11-01

    Infestation with a short-tailed demodectic mite and Demodex canis was diagnosed in both a six-and-a-half-year-old and a four-year-old dog. The clinical picture was compatible with generalised demodicosis complicated by staphylococcal pyoderma (case 1), or localised demodicosis (case 2). In both cases, the short-tailed demodectic mite outnumbered D canis in superficial skin scrapings. The laboratory findings (lymphopenia, eosinopenia, increased serum alkaline phosphatase and alanine aminotransferase activities, diluted urine and proteinuria) and the results of a low dose dexamethasone suppression test were suggestive of underlying hyperadrenocorticism in the first case. Hypothyroidism was considered a possibility in the second case, owing to the sustained bradycardia and the extremely low basal total thyroxine value. Systemic treatment with ivermectin and cephalexin (case 1), or topical application of an amitraz solution in mineral oil, along with sodium levothyroxine replacement therapy (case 2), resulted in a complete resolution of the skin lesions and the disappearance of both types of demodectic mite after two and one and a half months, respectively.

  12. New and little known species of ptyctimous mites (Acari, Oribatida) from Cameroon

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Niedbala, W.; Starý, Josef

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 3889, č. 1 (2014), s. 31-57 ISSN 1175-5326 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : ptyctimous mites * new species * taxonomy * morphology * Cameroon Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.906, year: 2014

  13. New and little known species of ptyctimous mites (Acari, Oribatida) from Madagascar

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Niedbala, W.; Starý, Josef

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 4103, č. 6 (2016), s. 587-599 ISSN 1175-5326 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : taxonomy * ptyctimous mites * new species * morphology * Madagascar Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.972, year: 2016

  14. Terapia EMDR en el trastorno límite de personalidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolores Mosquera

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Los trastornos de personalidad se han asociado a problemas de apego y trauma temprano, siendo de todos ellos el trastorno límite el que