WorldWideScience

Sample records for soil management intensity

  1. [Effects of intensive management on soil C and N pools and soil enzyme activities in Moso bamboo plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Meng; Li, Yong Fu; Li, Yong Chun; Xiao, Yong Heng; Yue, Tian; Jiang, Pei Kun; Zhou, Guo Mo; Liu, Juan

    2016-11-18

    In order to elucidate the effects of intensive management on soil carbon pool, nitrogen pool, enzyme activities in Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) plantations, we collected soil samples from the soil surface (0-20 cm) and subsurface (20-40 cm) layers in the adjacent Moso bamboo plantations with extensive and intensive managements in Sankou Township, Lin'an City, Zhejiang Province. We determined different forms of C, N and soil invertase, urease, catalase and acid phosphatase activities. The results showed that long-term intensive management of Moso bamboo plantations significantly decreased the content and storage of soil organic carbon (SOC), with the SOC storage in the soil surface and subsurface layers decreased by 13.2% and 18.0%, respectively. After 15 years' intensive management of Masoo bamboo plantations, the contents of soil water soluble carbon (WSOC), hot water soluble carbon (HWSOC), microbial carbon (MBC) and readily oxidizable carbon (ROC) were significantly decreased in the soil surface and subsurface layers. The soil N storage in the soil surface and subsurface layers in intensively managed Moso bamboo plantations increased by 50.8% and 36.6%, respectively. Intensive management significantly increased the contents of nitrate-N (NO 3 - -N) and ammonium-N (NH 4 + -N), but decreased the contents of water-soluble nitrogen (WSON) and microbial biomass nitrogen (MBN). After 15 years' intensive management of Masoo bamboo plantations, the soil invertase, urease, catalase and acid phosphatase activities in the soil surface layer were significantly decreased, the soil acid phosphatase activity in the soil subsurface layer were significantly decreased, and other enzyme activities in the soil subsurface layer did not change. In conclusion, long-term intensive management led to a significant decline of soil organic carbon storage, soil labile carbon and microbial activity in Moso bamboo plantations. Therefore, we should consider the use of organic

  2. Intensive management modifies soil CO2 efflux in 6-year-old Pinus taeda L. stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisa J. Samuelson; Kurt Johnsen; Tom Stokes; Weinlang Lu

    2004-01-01

    Intensive forestry may reduce net CO2 emission into atmosphere by storing carbon in living biomass, dead organic matter and soil, and durable wood products. Because quantification of belowground carbon dynamics is important for reliable estimation of the carbon sequestered by intensively managed plantations, we examined soil CO2...

  3. Does management intensity in inter rows effect soil physical properties in Austrian and Romanian vineyards?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Thomas; Strauss, Peter; Stiper, Katrin; Klipa, Vladimir; Popescu, Daniela; Winter, Silvia; Zaller, Johann G.

    2016-04-01

    Successful viticulture is mainly influenced by soil and climate. The availability of water during the growing season highly influences wine quality and quantity. To protect soil from being eroded most of the winegrowers keep the inter row zones of the vineyards green. Greening also helps to provide water-stress to the grapes for harvesting high quality wines. However, these greening strategies concerning the intensity of inter row management differ from farm to farm and are mainly based on personal experience of the winegrowers. However to what extent different inter row management practices affect soil physical properties are not clearly understood yet. To measure possible effects of inter row management in vineyards on soil physical parameters we selected paired vineyards with different inter row management in Austria and Romania. In total more than 7000 soil analysis were conducted for saturated and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity, soil water retention, water stable aggregates, total organic carbon, cation exchange capacity, potassium, phosphorous, soil texture, bulk density and water infiltration. The comparison between high intensity management with at least one soil disturbance per year, medium intensity with one soil disturbance every second inter row per year and low intensity management with no soil disturbance since at least 5 years indicates that investigated soil physical properties did not improve for the upper soil layer (3-8cm). This is in contrast to general perceptions of improved soil physical properties due to low intensity of inter row management, i.e. permanent vegetated inter rows. This may be attributed to long term and high frequency mechanical stress by agricultural machinery in inter rows.

  4. Arbuscular mycorrhiza and their effect on the soil structure in farms with agroecological and intensive management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan David Lozano Sánchez

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi help to reduce the damage caused by erosion and maintain soil structure through the production of mycelium and adhering substances. This study evaluated the structural stability; estimated the diversity and density of mycorrhizal spores present in three systems of soil (eroded, forest and coffee plantations in the rural area of Dagua, Valle del Cauca, Colombia. The systems evaluated were classified as farms with intensive or agroecological management. There were 25 morphospecies of mycorrhiza grouped in 13 genera, being Glomus and Entrophospora the most representative. The mean index values of mean weight (DPM and geometric (DGM diameters and diversity of mycorrhizal spores were statistically higher in farms with agroecological management than in farms with intensive management. The aggregate stability analysis revealed that eroded soils have significantly lower stability than forest and crop soils. A statistically significant correlation was found between diversity (r = 0.579 and spore density (r = 0.66 regarding DGM, and DPM with Shannon diversity (r = 0.54. Differences in practices, use and soil management affect mycorrhizal diversity found on farms and its effect such as particle aggregation agent generates remarkable changes in the stability and soil structure of evaluated areas. It is concluded, that agroecological management tends to favour both mycorrhizae and the structure of soils.

  5. Consequences of More Intensive Forestry for the Sustainable Management of Forest Soils and Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Ring

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Additions of nutrients, faster growing tree varieties, more intense harvest practices, and a changing climate all have the potential to increase forest production in Sweden, thereby mitigating climate change through carbon sequestration and fossil fuel substitution. However, the effects of management strategies for increased biomass production on soil resources and water quality at landscape scales are inadequately understood. Key knowledge gaps also remain regarding the sustainability of shorter rotation periods and more intensive biomass harvests. This includes effects of fertilization on the long-term weathering and supply of base cations and the consequences of changing mineral availability for future forest production. Furthermore, because soils and surface waters are closely connected, management efforts in the terrestrial landscape will potentially have consequences for water quality and the ecology of streams, rivers, and lakes. Here, we review and discuss some of the most pertinent questions related to how increased forest biomass production in Sweden could affect soils and surface waters, and how contemporary forestry goals can be met while minimizing the loss of other ecosystem services. We suggest that the development of management plans to promote the sustainable use of soil resources and water quality, while maximizing biomass production, will require a holistic ecosystem approach that is placed within a broader landscape perspective.

  6. Spatial distribution of diuron sorption affinity as affected by soil, terrain and management practices in an intensively managed apple orchard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umali, Beng P; Oliver, Danielle P; Ostendorf, Bertram; Forrester, Sean; Chittleborough, David J; Hutson, John L; Kookana, Rai S

    2012-05-30

    We investigated how the sorption affinity of diuron (3'-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimenthyl-urea), a moderately hydrophobic herbicide, is affected by soil properties, topography and management practices in an intensively managed orchard system. Soil-landscape analysis was carried out in an apple orchard which had a strong texture contrast soil and a landform with relief difference of 50 m. Diuron sorption (K(d)) affinity was successfully predicted (R(2)=0.79; pdiuron K(d) with TOC, pH(w), slope and WI as key variables. Mean diuron K(d) values were also significantly different (pdiuron than soil in the alleys. Younger stands, which were found to have lower TOC than in the older stands, also had lower diuron K(d) values. In intensively managed orchards, sorption affinity of pesticides to soils was not only affected by soil properties and terrain attributes but also by management regime. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Potential Carbon Transport: Linking Soil Aggregate Stability and Sediment Enrichment for Updating the Soil Active Layer within Intensely Managed Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wacha, K.; Papanicolaou, T.; Abban, B. K.; Wilson, C. G.

    2014-12-01

    Currently, many biogeochemical models lack the mechanistic capacity to accurately simulate soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics, especially within intensely managed landscapes (IMLs) such as those found in the U.S. Midwest. These modeling limitations originate by not accounting for downslope connectivity of flowpathways initiated and governed by landscape processes and hydrologic forcing, which induce dynamic updates to the soil active layer (generally top 20-30cm of soil) with various sediment size fractions and aggregates being transported and deposited along the downslope. These hydro-geomorphic processes, often amplified in IMLs by tillage events and seasonal canopy, can greatly impact biogeochemical cycles (e.g., enhanced mineralization during aggregate breakdown) and in turn, have huge implications/uncertainty when determining SOC budgets. In this study, some of these limitations were addressed through a new concept, Potential Carbon Transport (PCT), a term which quantifies a maximum amount of material available for transport at various positions of the landscape, which was used to further refine a coupled modeling framework focused on SOC redistribution through downslope/lateral connectivity. Specifically, the size fractions slaked from large and small aggregates during raindrop-induced aggregate stability tests were used in conjunction with rainfall-simulated sediment enrichment ratio (ER) experiments to quantify the PCT under various management practices, soil types and landscape positions. Field samples used in determining aggregate stability and the ER experiments were collected/performed within the historic Clear Creek Watershed, home of the IML Critical Zone Observatory, located in Southeastern Iowa.

  8. Modeling Coupled Landscape Evolution and Soil Organic Carbon Dynamics in Intensively Management Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Q.; Kumar, P.

    2017-12-01

    Soil is the largest reservoir of carbon in the biosphere but in agricultural areas it is going through rapid erosion due disturbance arising from crop harvest, tillage, and tile drainage. Identifying whether the production of soil organic carbon (SOC) from the crops can compensate for the loss due to erosion is critical to ensure our food security and adapt to climate change. In the U.S. Midwest where large areas of land are intensively managed for agriculture practices, predicting soil quantity and quality are critical for maintaining crop yield and other Critical Zone services. This work focuses on modeling the coupled landscape evolutions soil organic carbon dynamics in agricultural fields. It couples landscape evolution, surface water runoff, organic matter transformation, and soil moisture dynamics to understand organic carbon gain and loss due to natural forcing and farming practices, such as fertilizer application and tillage. A distinctive feature of the model is the coupling of surface ad subsurface processes that predicts both surficial changes and transport along with the vertical transport and dynamics. Our results show that landscape evolution and farming practices play dominant roles in soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics both above- and below-ground. Contrary to the common assumption that a vertical profile of SOC concentration decreases exponentially with depth, we find that in many situations SOC concentration below-ground could be higher than that at the surface. Tillage plays a complex role in organic matter dynamics. On one hand, tillage would accelerate the erosion rate, on the other hand, it would improve carbon storage by burying surface SOC into below ground. Our model consistently reproduces the observed above- and below-ground patterns of SOC in the field sites of Intensively Managed Landscapes Critical Zone Observatory (IMLCZO). This model bridges the gaps between the landscape evolution, below- and above-ground hydrologic cycle, and

  9. Determining Nutrient Requirements For Intensively Managed Loblolly Pine Stands Using the SSAND (Soil Supply and Nutrient Demand) Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hector G. Adegbidi; Nicholas B. Comerford; Hua Li; Eric J. Jokela; Nairam F. Barros

    2002-01-01

    Nutrient management represents a central component of intensive silvicultural systems that are designed to increase forest productivity in southern pine stands. Forest soils throughout the South are generally infertile, and fertilizers may be applied one or more times over the course of a rotation. Diagnostic techniques, such as foliar analysis and soil testing are...

  10. Effects of inter-row management intensity on wild bee, plant and soil biota diversity in vineyards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratschmer, Sophie; Pachinger, Bärbel; Winter, Silvia; Zaller, Johann G.; Buchholz, Jacob; Querner, Pascal; Strauß, Peter; Bauer, Thomas; Stiper, Katrin

    2016-04-01

    Vineyards may provide a range of essential ecosystem services, which interact with a diverse community of above- and belowground organisms. Intensive soil management like frequent tilling has resulted in the degradation of habitat quality with consequences on biodiversity and ecosystem services. This study is part of the European BiodivERsA project "VineDivers - Biodiversity-based ecosystem services in vineyards". We study the effects of different soil management intensities on above- and below-ground biodiversity (plants, insect pollinators, and soil biota), their interactions and the consequences for ecosystem services. We investigated 16 vineyards in Austria assessing the diversity of (1) wild bees using a semi-quantitative transect method, (2) earthworms by hand sorting, (3) Collembola (springtails) via pitfall trapping and soil coring, (4) plants by relevés and (5) litter decomposition (tea bag method). Management intensity differed in tillage frequency from intermediate intensity resulting in temporary vegetation cover to no tillage in permanent vegetation cover systems. First results show opposed relationships between the biodiversity of selected species groups and management intensity. We will discuss possible explanations and evaluate ecological interactions between wild bee, plant and soil biota diversity.

  11. Diagnosis & Correction of Soil Nutrient Limitations in Intensively managed southern pine forests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    University of Florida

    2002-10-25

    Forest productivity is one manner to sequester carbon and it is a renewable energy source. Likewise, efficient use of fertilization can be a significant energy savings. To date, site-specific use of fertilization for the purpose of maximizing forest productivity has not been well developed. Site evaluation of nutrient deficiencies is primarily based on empirical approaches to soil testing and plot fertilizer tests with little consideration for soil water regimes and contributing site factors. This project uses mass flow diffusion theory in a modeling context, combined with process level knowledge of soil chemistry, to evaluate nutrient bioavailability to fast-growing juvenile forest stands growing on coastal plain Spodosols of the southeastern U.S. The model is not soil or site specific and should be useful for a wide range of soil management/nutrient management conditions. In order to use the model, field data of fast-growing southern pine needed to be measured and used in the validation of the model. The field aspect of the study was mainly to provide data that could be used to verify the model. However, we learned much about the growth and development of fast growing loblolly. Carbon allocation patterns, root shoot relationships and leaf area root relationships proved to be new, important information. The Project Objectives were to: (1) Develop a mechanistic nutrient management model based on the COMP8 uptake model. (2) Collect field data that could be used to verify and test the model. (3) Model testing.

  12. Long-term intensive management increased carbon occluded in phytolith (PhytOC) in bamboo forest soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhang-Ting; Li, Yong-Fu; Jiang, Pei-Kun; Chang, Scott X.; Song, Zhao-Liang; Liu, Juan; Zhou, Guo-Mo

    2014-01-01

    Carbon (C) occluded in phytolith (PhytOC) is highly stable at millennium scale and its accumulation in soils can help increase long-term C sequestration. Here, we report that soil PhytOC storage significantly increased with increasing duration under intensive management (mulching and fertilization) in Lei bamboo (Phyllostachys praecox) plantations. The PhytOC storage in 0-40 cm soil layer in bamboo plantations increased by 217 Mg C ha-1, 20 years after being converted from paddy fields. The PhytOC accumulated at 79 kg C ha-1 yr-1, a rate far exceeding the global mean long-term soil C accumulation rate of 24 kg C ha-1 yr-1 reported in the literature. Approximately 86% of the increased PhytOC came from the large amount of mulch applied. Our data clearly demonstrate the decadal scale management effect on PhytOC accumulation, suggesting that heavy mulching is a potential method for increasing long-term organic C storage in soils for mitigating global climate change.

  13. Management intensity affects traits of soil microarthropod community in montane spruce forest

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Farská, Jitka; Prejzková, Kristýna; Rusek, Josef

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 75, March (2014), s. 71-79 ISSN 0929-1393 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/03/1259; GA ČR GAP504/12/1218; GA MŠk LC06066 Grant - others:GAJU(CZ) 143/2010/P Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Oribatida * Collembola * spruce forest * trait * management intensity Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.644, year: 2014

  14. Soil carbon and nitrogen content and stabilization in mid-rotation, intensively managed sweetgum and loblolly stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt H. Johnsen; Lisa J. Samuelson; Felipe G. Sanchez; Bob Eaton

    2013-01-01

    Intensive forestry has resulted in considerable increases in aboveground stand productivity including foliar and belowground biomass which are the primary sources of soil organic matter. Soil organic matter is important for the maintenance of soil physical, chemical and biological quality. Additionally, sequestering carbon (C) in soils may provide a means of mitigating...

  15. Role of Micro-Topographic Variability on the Distribution of Inorganic Soil-Nitrogen Age in Intensively Managed Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Dong K.; Kumar, Praveen

    2017-10-01

    How does the variability of topography structure the spatial heterogeneity of nutrient dynamics? In particular, what role does micro-topographic depression play in the spatial and temporal dynamics of nitrate, ammonia, and ammonium? We explore these questions using the 3-D simulation of their joint dynamics of concentration and age. To explicitly resolve micro-topographic variability and its control on moisture, vegetation, and carbon-nitrogen dynamics, we use a high-resolution LiDAR data over an agricultural site under a corn-soybean rotation in the Intensively Managed landscapes Critical Zone Observatory in the U.S. Midwest. We utilize a hybrid CPU-GPU parallel computing architecture to reduce the computational cost associated with such high-resolution simulations. Our results show that in areas that present closed topographic depressions, relatively lower nitrate concentration and age are observed compared to elsewhere. The periodic ponding in depressions increases the downward flux of water that carries more dissolved nitrate to the deeper soil layer. However, the variability in the depressions is relatively higher as a result of the episodic ponding pattern. When aggregate efflux from the soil domain at the bottom of the soil is considered, we find a gradual decrease in the age on the rising limb of nitrate efflux and a gradual increase on the falling limb. In addition, the age of the nitrate efflux ranges from 4 to 7 years. These are significantly higher as compared to the ages associated with a nonreactive tracer indicating that they provide an inaccurate estimate of residence time of a reactive constituent through the soil column.

  16. Linkage between N2O emission and functional gene abundance in an intensively managed calcareous fluvo-aquic soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liuqing; Zhang, Xiaojun; Ju, Xiaotang

    2017-02-01

    The linkage between N2O emissions and the abundance of nitrifier and denitrifier genes is unclear in the intensively managed calcareous fluvo-aquic soils of the North China Plain. We investigated the abundance of bacterial amoA for nitrification and narG, nirS, nirK, and nosZ for denitrification by in situ soil sampling to determine how the abundance of these genes changes instantly during N fertilization events and is related to high N2O emission peaks. We also investigated how long-term incorporated straw and/or manure affect(s) the abundance of these genes based on a seven-year field experiment. The overall results demonstrate that the long-term application of urea-based fertilizer and/or manure significantly enhanced the number of bacterial amoA gene copies leading to high N2O emission peaks after N fertilizer applications. These peaks contributed greatly to the annual N2O emissions in the crop rotation. A significant correlation between annual N2O emissions and narG, nirS, and nirK gene numbers indicates that the abundance of these genes is related to N2O emission under conditions for denitrification, thus partly contributing to the annual N2O emissions. These findings will help to draw up appropriate measures for mitigation of N2O emissions in this ‘hotspot’ region.

  17. A Global Meta-Analysis on the Impact of Management Practices on Net Global Warming Potential and Greenhouse Gas Intensity from Cropland Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sainju, Upendra M.

    2016-01-01

    Management practices, such as tillage, crop rotation, and N fertilization, may affect net global warming potential (GWP) and greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI), but their global impact on cropland soils under different soil and climatic conditions need further evaluation. Available global data from 57 experiments and 225 treatments were evaluated for individual and combined effects of tillage, cropping systems, and N fertilization rates on GWP and GHGI which accounted for CO2 equivalents from N2O and CH4 emissions with or without equivalents from soil C sequestration rate (ΔSOC), farm operations, and N fertilization. The GWP and GHGI were 66 to 71% lower with no-till than conventional till and 168 to 215% lower with perennial than annual cropping systems, but 41 to 46% greater with crop rotation than monocroppping. With no-till vs. conventional till, GWP and GHGI were 2.6- to 7.4-fold lower when partial than full accounting of all sources and sinks of greenhouse gases (GHGs) were considered. With 100 kg N ha-1, GWP and GHGI were 3.2 to 11.4 times greater with partial than full accounting. Both GWP and GHGI increased curvilinearly with increased N fertilization rate. Net GWP and GHGI were 70 to 87% lower in the improved combined management that included no-till, crop rotation/perennial crop, and reduced N rate than the traditional combined management that included conventional till, monocopping/annual crop, and recommended N rate. An alternative soil respiration method, which replaces ΔSOC by soil respiration and crop residue returned to soil in the previous year, similarly reduced GWP and GHGI by 133 to 158% in the improved vs. the traditional combined management. Changes in GWP and GHGI due to improved vs. traditional management varied with the duration of the experiment and inclusion of soil and climatic factors in multiple linear regressions improved their relationships. Improved management practices reduced GWP and GHGI compared with traditional management

  18. A Global Meta-Analysis on the Impact of Management Practices on Net Global Warming Potential and Greenhouse Gas Intensity from Cropland Soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sainju, Upendra M

    2016-01-01

    Management practices, such as tillage, crop rotation, and N fertilization, may affect net global warming potential (GWP) and greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI), but their global impact on cropland soils under different soil and climatic conditions need further evaluation. Available global data from 57 experiments and 225 treatments were evaluated for individual and combined effects of tillage, cropping systems, and N fertilization rates on GWP and GHGI which accounted for CO2 equivalents from N2O and CH4 emissions with or without equivalents from soil C sequestration rate (ΔSOC), farm operations, and N fertilization. The GWP and GHGI were 66 to 71% lower with no-till than conventional till and 168 to 215% lower with perennial than annual cropping systems, but 41 to 46% greater with crop rotation than monocroppping. With no-till vs. conventional till, GWP and GHGI were 2.6- to 7.4-fold lower when partial than full accounting of all sources and sinks of greenhouse gases (GHGs) were considered. With 100 kg N ha-1, GWP and GHGI were 3.2 to 11.4 times greater with partial than full accounting. Both GWP and GHGI increased curvilinearly with increased N fertilization rate. Net GWP and GHGI were 70 to 87% lower in the improved combined management that included no-till, crop rotation/perennial crop, and reduced N rate than the traditional combined management that included conventional till, monocopping/annual crop, and recommended N rate. An alternative soil respiration method, which replaces ΔSOC by soil respiration and crop residue returned to soil in the previous year, similarly reduced GWP and GHGI by 133 to 158% in the improved vs. the traditional combined management. Changes in GWP and GHGI due to improved vs. traditional management varied with the duration of the experiment and inclusion of soil and climatic factors in multiple linear regressions improved their relationships. Improved management practices reduced GWP and GHGI compared with traditional management

  19. Soil use and management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartemink, A.E.; McBratney, A.B.; White, R.E.

    2009-01-01

    This four-volume set, edited by leading experts in soil science, brings together in one collection a series of papers that have been fundamental to the development of soil science as a defined discipline. Volume 3 on Soil Use and Management covers: - Soil evaluation and land use planning - Soil and

  20. Relationship between Remote Sensing Data, Plant Biomass and Soil Nitrogen Dynamics in Intensively Managed Grasslands under Controlled Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoblauch, Christoph; Watson, Conor; Berendonk, Clara; Becker, Rolf; Wrage-Mönnig, Nicole; Wichern, Florian

    2017-06-23

    The sustainable use of grasslands in intensive farming systems aims to optimize nitrogen (N) inputs to increase crop yields and decrease harmful losses to the environment at the same time. To achieve this, simple optical sensors may provide a non-destructive, time- and cost-effective tool for estimating plant biomass in the field, considering spatial and temporal variability. However, the plant growth and related N uptake is affected by the available N in the soil, and therefore, N mineralization and N losses. These soil N dynamics and N losses are affected by the N input and environmental conditions, and cannot easily be determined non-destructively. Therefore, the question arises: whether a relationship can be depicted between N fertilizer levels, plant biomass and N dynamics as indicated by nitrous oxide (N₂O) losses and inorganic N levels. We conducted a standardized greenhouse experiment to explore the potential of spectral measurements for analyzing yield response, N mineralization and N₂O emissions in a permanent grassland. Ryegrass was subjected to four mineral fertilizer input levels over 100 days (four harvests) under controlled environmental conditions. The soil temperature and moisture content were automatically monitored, and the emission rates of N₂O and carbon dioxide (CO₂) were detected frequently. Spectral measurements of the swards were performed directly before harvesting. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and simple ratio (SR) were moderately correlated with an increasing biomass as affected by fertilization level. Furthermore, we found a non-linear response of increasing N₂O emissions to elevated fertilizer levels. Moreover, inorganic N and extractable organic N levels at the end of the experiment tended to increase with the increasing N fertilizer addition. However, microbial biomass C and CO₂ efflux showed no significant differences among fertilizer treatments, reflecting no substantial changes in the soil

  1. Soil water management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, D.R.; Cassel, D.K.

    1984-01-01

    The use of radiation and tracer techniques in investigations into soil water management in agriculture, hydrology etc. is described. These techniques include 1) neutron moisture gauges to monitor soil water content and soil water properties, 2) gamma radiation attenuation for measuring the total density of soil and soil water content, 3) beta radiation attenuation for measuring changes in the water status of crop plants and 4) radioactive and stable tracers for identifying pathways, reactions and retention times of the constituents in soils and groundwater aquifers. The number and spacing of soil observations that should be taken to represent the management unit are also considered. (U.K.)

  2. Intensive agriculture reduces soil biodiversity across Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiafouli, Maria A; Thébault, Elisa; Sgardelis, Stefanos P; de Ruiter, Peter C; van der Putten, Wim H; Birkhofer, Klaus; Hemerik, Lia; de Vries, Franciska T; Bardgett, Richard D; Brady, Mark Vincent; Bjornlund, Lisa; Jørgensen, Helene Bracht; Christensen, Sören; Hertefeldt, Tina D'; Hotes, Stefan; Gera Hol, W H; Frouz, Jan; Liiri, Mira; Mortimer, Simon R; Setälä, Heikki; Tzanopoulos, Joseph; Uteseny, Karoline; Pižl, Václav; Stary, Josef; Wolters, Volkmar; Hedlund, Katarina

    2015-02-01

    Soil biodiversity plays a key role in regulating the processes that underpin the delivery of ecosystem goods and services in terrestrial ecosystems. Agricultural intensification is known to change the diversity of individual groups of soil biota, but less is known about how intensification affects biodiversity of the soil food web as a whole, and whether or not these effects may be generalized across regions. We examined biodiversity in soil food webs from grasslands, extensive, and intensive rotations in four agricultural regions across Europe: in Sweden, the UK, the Czech Republic and Greece. Effects of land-use intensity were quantified based on structure and diversity among functional groups in the soil food web, as well as on community-weighted mean body mass of soil fauna. We also elucidate land-use intensity effects on diversity of taxonomic units within taxonomic groups of soil fauna. We found that between regions soil food web diversity measures were variable, but that increasing land-use intensity caused highly consistent responses. In particular, land-use intensification reduced the complexity in the soil food webs, as well as the community-weighted mean body mass of soil fauna. In all regions across Europe, species richness of earthworms, Collembolans, and oribatid mites was negatively affected by increased land-use intensity. The taxonomic distinctness, which is a measure of taxonomic relatedness of species in a community that is independent of species richness, was also reduced by land-use intensification. We conclude that intensive agriculture reduces soil biodiversity, making soil food webs less diverse and composed of smaller bodied organisms. Land-use intensification results in fewer functional groups of soil biota with fewer and taxonomically more closely related species. We discuss how these changes in soil biodiversity due to land-use intensification may threaten the functioning of soil in agricultural production systems. © 2014 John Wiley

  3. Pollution of intensively managed greenhouse soils by nutrients and heavy metals in the Yellow River Irrigation Region, Northwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xiaole; Cao, Jing; Tang, Rangyun; Zhang, Shengqiang; Dong, Fang

    2014-11-01

    The present study aimed to assess the potential ecological risk of heavy metals and nutrient accumulation in polytunnel greenhouse soils in the Yellow River irrigation region (YRIR), Northwest China, and to identify the potential sources of these heavy metals using principal component analysis. Contents of available nitrogen (AN), phosphorus (AP), and potassium (AK) in the surface polytunnel greenhouse soils (0-20 cm) varied from 13.42 to 486.78, from 39.10 to 566.97, and from 21.64 to 1,156.40 mg kg(-1), respectively, as well as AP, soil organic matter (SOM) and AK contents tended to increase significantly at the 0-20- and 20-40-cm soil layers. Heavy metal accumulations occurred in the polytunnel greenhouse soils as compared to arable soils, especially at a depth of 20 cm where Cd, Zn and Cu contents were significantly higher than arable soil. Cd and As were found to be the two main polluting elements in the greenhouse soils because their contents exceeded the thresholds established for greenhouse vegetable production HJ333-2006 in China and the background of Gansu province. It has been shown that Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn at the 0-20-cm soil layer were derived mainly from agricultural production activities, whereas contents of Cr and Ni at the same soil layer were determined by 'natural' factors and As originated from natural sources, deposition and irrigation water.

  4. Forest soil carbon is threatened by intensive biomass harvesting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achat, David L; Fortin, Mathieu; Landmann, Guy; Ringeval, Bruno; Augusto, Laurent

    2015-11-04

    Forests play a key role in the carbon cycle as they store huge quantities of organic carbon, most of which is stored in soils, with a smaller part being held in vegetation. While the carbon storage capacity of forests is influenced by forestry, the long-term impacts of forest managers' decisions on soil organic carbon (SOC) remain unclear. Using a meta-analysis approach, we showed that conventional biomass harvests preserved the SOC of forests, unlike intensive harvests where logging residues were harvested to produce fuelwood. Conventional harvests caused a decrease in carbon storage in the forest floor, but when the whole soil profile was taken into account, we found that this loss in the forest floor was compensated by an accumulation of SOC in deeper soil layers. Conversely, we found that intensive harvests led to SOC losses in all layers of forest soils. We assessed the potential impact of intensive harvests on the carbon budget, focusing on managed European forests. Estimated carbon losses from forest soils suggested that intensive biomass harvests could constitute an important source of carbon transfer from forests to the atmosphere (142-497 Tg-C), partly neutralizing the role of a carbon sink played by forest soils.

  5. Managing soil natural capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cong, Ronggang; Termansen, Mette; Brady, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Farmers are exposed to substantial weather and market related risks. Rational farmers seek to avoid large losses. Future climate change and energy price fluctuations therefore make adaptating to increased risks particularly important for them. Managing soil natural capital—the capacity of the soil...... to generate ecosystem services of benefit to farmers—has been proven to generate the double dividend: increasing farm profit and reducing associated risk. In this paper we explore whether managing soil natural capital has a third dividend: reducing the downside risk (increasing the positive skewness of profit......). This we refer to as the prudence effect which can be viewed as an adaptation strategy for dealing with future uncertainties through more prudent management of soil natural capital. We do this by developing a dynamic stochastic portfolio model to optimize the stock of soil natural capital—as indicated...

  6. Impact of tillage intensity on clay loam soil structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daraghmeh, Omar; Petersen, Carsten; Munkholm, Lars Juhl

    Soil structure and structural stability are key parameters in sustainable soil management and optimum cropping practices. Locally and temporally adapted precision tillage may improve crop performance while at the same time reduce environmental impacts. The main objective of this study...... was to improve the knowledge of precision tillage practices through characterizing the effect of varied tillage intensities on structural properties of a clay loam soil. A field experiment was conducted using a randomized complete block design with two main factors, i.e. operational speed (OS, 2 levels......) and rotovating speed (RS, 3 levels). The tillage was conducted using a PTO-driven rotovator equipped to measure angular velocity. The effect of traffic compaction, made directly after tillage, was measured on soil taken from wheel track (WT) compared with soil outside wheel track (NWT). Soil samples from 0-3 cm...

  7. Climate Strategic Soil Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rattan Lal

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The complex and strong link between soil degradation, climate change and food insecurity is a global challenge. Sustainable agricultural systems must be integral to any agenda to address climate change and variability, improve renewable fresh water supply and quality, restore degraded soils and ecosystems and advance food security. These challenges are being exacerbated by increasing population and decreasing per capita arable land area and renewable fresh water supply, the increasing frequency of extreme events, the decreasing resilience of agroecosystems, an increasing income and affluent lifestyle with growing preference towards meat-based diet and a decreasing soil quality and use efficiency of inputs. Reversing these downward spirals implies the implementation of proven technologies, such as conservation agriculture, integrated nutrient management, precision agriculture, agroforestry systems, etc. Restoration of degraded soil and desertified ecosystems and the creation of positive soil and ecosystem C budgets are important. Urban agriculture and green roofs can reduce the energy footprint of production chains for urban and non-urban areas and enhance the recycling of by-products. Researchable priorities include sustainable land use and soil/water management options, judicious soil governance and modus operandi towards payments to land managers for the provisioning of ecosystem services.

  8. Sustainable Soil Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, Ole; Evgrafova, Alevtina; Kirkegaard Nielsen, Søren

    Linket til højre henviser til rapporten i trykt format til download. This report provides an overview on new technologies for integrate sustainable and resilient management practices in arable ecosystems for advanced farmers, consultants, NGOs and policy makers. By following sustainable soil...... and soil quality in short- and long-terms. This report also illustrates the importance to combine a system approach for plant production by assessing field readiness, managing in-field traffic management, implementing the sitespecific controlled as well as sensor-controlled seedbed preparation, seeding...

  9. Soil Management for Hardwood Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. M. Broadfoot; B. G. Blackmon; J. B. Baker

    1971-01-01

    Soil management is the key to successful hardwood management because soil properties are probably the most important determinants of forest productivity. Because of the lack of soil uniformity, however, many foresters have become frustrated with attempts to relate soil to satisfactory growth. Since soil scientists have been unable to predict site quality for trees in...

  10. Sustainable Soil Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, Ole; Evgrafova, Alevtina; Kirkegaard Nielsen, Søren

    management strategies, which consider the site- and field-specific parameters and agricultural machinery’s improvements, it is possible to maximize production and income, while reducing negative environmental impacts and human health issues induced by agricultural activities as well as improving food......Linket til højre henviser til rapporten i trykt format til download. This report provides an overview on new technologies for integrate sustainable and resilient management practices in arable ecosystems for advanced farmers, consultants, NGOs and policy makers. By following sustainable soil...... and soil quality in short- and long-terms. This report also illustrates the importance to combine a system approach for plant production by assessing field readiness, managing in-field traffic management, implementing the sitespecific controlled as well as sensor-controlled seedbed preparation, seeding...

  11. Sustainable Soil Water Management Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Basch, G.; Kassam, A.; Friedrich, T.; Santos, F.L.; Gubiani, P.I.; Calegari, A.; Reichert, J.M.; dos Santos, D.R.

    2012-01-01

    Soil quality and its management must be considered as key elements for an effective management of water resources, given that the hydrological cycle and land management are intimately linked (Bossio et al. 2007). Soil degradation has been described by Bossio et al. (2010) as the starting point of a negative cycle of soil-water relationships, creating a positive, self-accelerating feedback loop with important negative impacts on water cycling and water productivity. Therefore, sustainable soil...

  12. Role of soil biology and soil functions in relation to land use intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondi, Giulia; Wall, David; Bacher, Matthias; Emmet-Booth, Jeremy; Graça, Jessica; Marongiu, Irene; Creamer, Rachel

    2017-04-01

    The delivery of the ecosystem's functions is predominantly controlled by soil biology. The biology found in a gram of soil contains more than ten thousand individual species of bacteria and fungi (Torsvik et al., 1990). Understanding the role and the requirements of these organisms is essential for the protection and the sustainable use of soils. Soil biology represents the engine of all the processes occurring in the soil and it supports the ecosystem services such as: 1) nutrient mineralisation 2) plant production 3) water purification and regulation and 4) carbon cycling and storage. During the last years land management type and intensity have been identified as major drivers for microbial performance in soil. For this reason land management needs to be appropriately studied to understand the role of soil biology within this complex interplay of functions. We aimed to study whether and how land management drives soil biological processes and related functions. To reach this objective we built a land use intensity index (LUI) able to quantify the impact of the common farming practices carried out in Irish grassland soils. The LUI is derived from a detailed farmer questionnaire on grassland management practices at 38 farms distributed in the five major agro-climatic regions of Ireland defined by Holden and Brereton (2004). Soils were classified based on their drainage status according to the Irish Soil Information System by Creamer et al. (2014). This detailed questionnaire is then summarised into 3 management intensity components: (i) intensity of Fertilisation (Fi), (ii) frequency of Mowing (Mi) and (iii) intensity of Livestock Grazing (Gi). Sites were sampled to assess the impact of land management intensity on microbial community structure and enzyme behaviour in relation to nitrogen, phosphorus and carbon cycling. Preliminary results for enzymes linked to C and N cycles showed higher activity in relation to low grazing pressure (low Gi). Enzymes linked to P

  13. Soil fertility management: Impacts on soil macrofauna, soil aggregation and soil organic matter allocation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ayuke, F.O.; Brussaard, L.; Vanlauwe, B.; Six, J.; Lelei, D.K.; Kibunja, C.N.; Pulleman, M.M.

    2011-01-01

    Maintenance of soil organic matter through integrated soil fertility management is important for soil quality and agricultural productivity, and for the persistence of soil faunal diversity and biomass. Little is known about the interactive effects of soil fertility management and soil macrofauna

  14. The Effect of Rainfall Intensity on Soil Erosion and Runoff for Latosol Soil in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Sukartaatmadja, Sukandi; Sato, Yohei; Yamaji, Eiji; Ishikawa, Masaya

    2003-01-01

    Soil erosion is the most serious problem of land degradation in Indonesia. However, limited report has been documented. The erosion problem in Indonesia, particularly in Java, has been at an alarming rate. The fundamental 1 case of soil erosion is the rain effect upon the soil. Rainfall intensity and soil characteristics are related to soil erosion and runoff The objective of this research was to study the relationship of rainfall intensity, soil erosion and runoff in latosol s...

  15. Intensive agriculture reduces soil biodiversity across Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsiafouli, M.A.; Thébault, E.; Sgardelis, S.; Ruiter, de P.C.; Putten, van der W.H.; Birkhofer, K.; Hemerik, L.; Vries, de F.T.; Bardgett, R.D.; Brady, M.; Bjornlund, L.; Bracht Jörgensen, H.; Christensen, S.; Herfelt, D' T.; Hotes, S.; Hol, W.H.G.; Frouz, J.; Liiri, M.; Mortimer, S.R.; Setälä, H.; Stary, J.; Tzanopoulos, J.; Uteseny, C.; Wolters, V.; Hedlund, K.

    2015-01-01

    Soil biodiversity plays a key role in regulating the processes that underpin the delivery of ecosystem goods and services in terrestrial ecosystems. Agricultural intensification is known to change the diversity of individual groups of soil biota, but less is known about how intensification affects

  16. Soil aggregation under different management systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibele Mascioli Rebello Portella

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Considering that the soil aggregation reflects the interaction of chemical, physical and biological soil factors, the aim of this study was evaluate alterations in aggregation, in an Oxisol under no-tillage (NT and conventional tillage (CT, since over 20 years, using as reference a native forest soil in natural state. After analysis of the soil profile (cultural profile in areas under forest management, samples were collected from the layers 0-5, 5-10, 10-20 and 20-40 cm, with six repetitions. These samples were analyzed for the aggregate stability index (ASI, mean weighted diameter (MWD, mean geometric diameter (MGD in the classes > 8, 8-4, 4-2, 2-1, 1-0.5, 0.5-0.25, and < 0.25 mm, and for physical properties (soil texture, water dispersible clay (WDC, flocculation index (FI and bulk density (Bd and chemical properties (total organic carbon - COT, total nitrogen - N, exchangeable calcium - Ca2+, and pH. The results indicated that more intense soil preparation (M < NT < PC resulted in a decrease in soil stability, confirmed by all stability indicators analyzed: MWD, MGD, ASI, aggregate class distribution, WDC and FI, indicating the validity of these indicators in aggregation analyses of the studied soil.

  17. Soil C dynamics under intensive oil palm plantations in poor tropical soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillaume, Thomas; Ruegg, Johanna; Quezada, Juan Carlos; Buttler, Alexandre

    2017-04-01

    Oil palm cultivation mainly takes place on heavily-weathered tropical soils where nutrients are limiting factors for plant growth and microbial activity. Intensive fertilization and changes of C input by oil palms strongly affects soil C and nutrient dynamics, challenging long-term soil fertility. Oil palm plantations management offers unique opportunities to study soil C and nutrients interactions in field conditions because 1) they can be considered as long-term litter manipulation experiments since all aboveground C inputs are concentrated in frond pile areas and 2) mineral fertilizers are only applied in specific areas, i.e. weeded circle around the tree and interrows, but not in harvest paths. Here, we determined impacts of mineral fertilizer and organic matter input on soil organic carbon dynamics and microbial activity in mature oil palm plantation established on savanna grasslands. Rates of savanna-derived soil organic carbon (SOC) decomposition and oil palm-derived SOC net stabilization were determined using changes in isotopic signature of in C input following a shift from C4 (savanna) to C3 (oil palm) vegetation. Application of mineral fertilizer alone did not affect savanna-derived SOC decomposition or oil palm-derived SOC stabilization rates, but fertilization associated with higher C input lead to an increase of oil palm-derived SOC stabilization rates, with about 50% of topsoil SOC derived from oil palm after 9 years. High carbon and nutrients inputs did not increase microbial biomass but microorganisms were more active per unit of biomass and SOC. In conclusion, soil organic matter decomposition was limited by C rather than nutrients in the studied heavily-weathered soils. Fresh C and nutrient inputs did not lead to priming of old savanna-derived SOC but increased turnover and stabilization of new oil palm-derived SOC.

  18. [Quality management in intensive care medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, J; Braun, J-P

    2013-09-01

    Treatment of critical ill patients in the intensive care unit is tantamount to well-designed risk or quality management. Several tools of quality management and quality assurance have been developed in intensive care medicine. In addition to extern quality assurance by benchmarking with regard to the intensive care medicine, peer review procedures have been established for external quality assurance in recent years. In the process of peer review of an intensive care unit (ICU), external physicians and nurses visit the ICU, evaluate on-site proceedings, and discuss with the managing team of the ICU possibilities for optimization. Furthermore, internal quality management in the ICU is possible based on the 10 quality indicators of the German Interdisciplinary Society for Intensive Care Medicine (DIVI, "Deutschen Interdisziplinären Vereinigung für Intensiv- und Notfallmedizin"). Thereby every ICU has numerous possibilities to improve their quality management system.

  19. Improving Soil Seed Bank Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haring, Steven C; Flessner, Michael L

    2018-05-08

    Problems associated with simplified weed management motivate efforts for diversification. Integrated weed management uses fundamentals of weed biology and applied ecology to provide a framework for diversified weed management programs; the soil seed bank comprises a necessary part of this framework. By targeting seeds, growers can inhibit the propagule pressure on which annual weeds depend for agricultural invasion. Some current management practices affect weed seed banks, such as crop rotation and tillage, but these tools are often used without specific intention to manage weed seeds. Difficulties quantifying the weed seed bank, understanding seed bank phenology, and linking seed banks to emerged weed communities challenge existing soil seed bank management practices. Improved seed bank quantification methods could include DNA profiling of the soil seed bank, mark and recapture, or 3D LIDAR mapping. Successful and sustainable soil seed bank management must constrain functionally diverse and changing weed communities. Harvest weed seed controls represent a step forward, but over-reliance on this singular technique could make it short-lived. Researchers must explore tools inspired by other pest management disciplines, such as gene drives or habitat modification for predatory organisms. Future weed seed bank management will combine multiple complementary practices that enhance diverse agroecosystems. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of soil management techniques on soil water erosion in apricot orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keesstra, Saskia; Pereira, Paulo; Novara, Agata; Brevik, Eric C; Azorin-Molina, Cesar; Parras-Alcántara, Luis; Jordán, Antonio; Cerdà, Artemi

    2016-05-01

    Soil erosion is extreme in Mediterranean orchards due to management impact, high rainfall intensities, steep slopes and erodible parent material. Vall d'Albaida is a traditional fruit production area which, due to the Mediterranean climate and marly soils, produces sweet fruits. However, these highly productive soils are left bare under the prevailing land management and marly soils are vulnerable to soil water erosion when left bare. In this paper we study the impact of different agricultural land management strategies on soil properties (bulk density, soil organic matter, soil moisture), soil water erosion and runoff, by means of simulated rainfall experiments and soil analyses. Three representative land managements (tillage/herbicide/covered with vegetation) were selected, where 20 paired plots (60 plots) were established to determine soil losses and runoff. The simulated rainfall was carried out at 55mmh(-1) in the summer of 2013 (soil moisture) for one hour on 0.25m(2) circular plots. The results showed that vegetation cover, soil moisture and organic matter were significantly higher in covered plots than in tilled and herbicide treated plots. However, runoff coefficient, total runoff, sediment yield and soil erosion were significantly higher in herbicide treated plots compared to the others. Runoff sediment concentration was significantly higher in tilled plots. The lowest values were identified in covered plots. Overall, tillage, but especially herbicide treatment, decreased vegetation cover, soil moisture, soil organic matter, and increased bulk density, runoff coefficient, total runoff, sediment yield and soil erosion. Soil erosion was extremely high in herbicide plots with 0.91Mgha(-1)h(-1) of soil lost; in the tilled fields erosion rates were lower with 0.51Mgha(-1)h(-1). Covered soil showed an erosion rate of 0.02Mgha(-1)h(-1). These results showed that agricultural management influenced water and sediment dynamics and that tillage and herbicide

  1. Intensive agriculture reduces soil biodiversity across Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tsiafouli, M.A.; Thébault, E.; Sgardelis, S.P.; de Ruiter, P.C.; Van der Putten, W. H.; Birkhofer, K.; Hemerik, L.; de Vries, F.T.; Bardgett, R.D.; Brady, M.V.; Bjornlund, L.; Bracht Jorgensen, H.; Christensen, S.; Hertefeldt, T.D.; Hotes, S.; Hol, W.H.G.; Frouz, Jan; Liiri, M.; Mortimer, S. R.; Setälä, H.; Tzanopoulos, J.; Uteseny, K.; Pižl, Václav; Starý, Josef; Wolters, V.; Hedlund, K.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 2 (2015), s. 973-985 ISSN 1354-1013 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : agricultural intensification * body mass * ecosystem services * functional groups * soil food web Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 8.444, year: 2015

  2. Determination of wind erosion intensity on heavy clay soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Kozlovsky Dufková

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Wind erosion, common problem of light-textured soils, was determined on heavy clay soils in the foothills of Bílé Karpaty Mountains, Czech Republic. Soil erodibility by wind was determined from the Map of potential erodibility of soil by wind and from the calculation of potential and real soil loss by wind. All the determinations show underestimation of soil erodibility by wind on heavy clay soils, because methods that are used for this are based above all on the assessment of clay particles content and the presumption the more clay particles soil contains, the less vulnerable to wind erosion is. The potential erodibility of soil by wind is 0,09 t . ha−1 per year. The determined value does not exceed the tolerable soil loss limit 10 t . ha−1 per year for deep soils. The real average erodibility of soil by wind has the highest value 1,47 g . m−2 on November 30th, 2008. Other soil losses that do not exceed the tolerable soil loss limit 1,4 g . m−2, were determined on March 18th and 28th, 2008. Big difficulties come with the assessment of the erodibility of heavy clay soils in the areas, where soil erosion ve­ri­fia­bly exists, but it is not assessable by objective calculating methods. Evident necessity of new know­ledge concerning the determination of wind erosion intensity follows from the results.

  3. Intensive Care Management of Patients with Cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Jody C

    2018-06-01

    Cirrhosis is a major worldwide health problem which results in a high level of morbidity and mortality. Patients with cirrhosis who require intensive care support have high mortality rates of near 50%. The goal of this review is to address the management of common complications of cirrhosis in the ICU. Recent epidemiological studies have shown an increase in hospitalizations due to advanced liver disease with an associated increase in intensive care utilization. Given an increasing burden on the healthcare system, it is imperative that we strive to improve our management cirrhotic patients in the intensive care unit. Large studies evaluating the management of patients in the intensive care setting are lacking. To date, most recommendations are based on extrapolation of data from studies in cirrhosis outside of the ICU or by applying general critical care principles which may or may not be appropriate for the critically ill cirrhotic patient. Future research is required to answer important management questions.

  4. Soil biological activity as affected by tillage intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajda, A. M.; Przewłoka, B.

    2012-02-01

    The effect of tillage intensity on changes of microbiological activity and content of particulate organic matter in soil under winter wheat duirng 3 years was studied. Microbial response related to the tillage-induced changes in soil determined on the content of biomass C and N, the rate of CO2 evolution, B/F ratio, the activity of dehydrogenases, acid and alkaline phosphatases, soil C/N ratio and microbial biomass C/N ratio confirmed the high sensitivity of soil microbial populations to the tillage system applied. After three year studies, the direct sowing system enhanced the increase of labile fraction of organic matter content in soil. There were no significant changes in the labile fraction quantity observed in soil under conventional tillage. Similar response related to the tillage intensity was observed in particulate organic matter quantities expressed as a percentage of total organic matter in soil. A high correlation coefficients calculated between contents of soil microbial biomass C and N, particulate organic matter and potentially mineralizable N, and the obtained yields of winter wheat grown on experimental fields indicated on a high importance of biological quality of status of soil for agricultural crop production.

  5. Effects of soil management techniques on soil water erosion in apricot orchards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keesstra, Saskia; Pereira, Paulo; Novara, Agata; Brevik, Eric C.; Azorin-Molina, Cesar; Parras-Alcántara, Luis; Jordán, Antonio; Cerdà, Artemi

    2016-01-01

    Soil erosion is extreme in Mediterranean orchards due to management impact, high rainfall intensities, steep slopes and erodible parent material. Vall d'Albaida is a traditional fruit production area which, due to the Mediterranean climate and marly soils, produces sweet fruits. However, these

  6. The impact of soil suction variation on earthquake intensity indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biglari Mahnoosh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil properties can completely change the ground motion characteristics as they travel from the bedrock to the surface because, soil as a low-pass filter, may amplify or deamplify seismic motions in some frequencies on the wave travelling path. Recent studies about the advanced unsaturated soil mechanics clearly shows that dynamic properties of soils, including small-strain shear modulus (Gmax, shear modulus reduction (G/Gmax, and damping ratio (D curves are affected by changes in the soil suction level. The current study present nonlinear time-dependent analysis of three different unsaturated soils available in the literature with different ranges of nonlinear behaviour that earlier have been studied on unsaturated dynamic models. Since, the earthquake intensity parameters can be used to describe the damage potential of an earthquake, the focus of this paper is to evaluate the impact of the suction variation on the engineering ground motion parameters, including peak values of strong motion, Vmax/Amax, root-mean-square acceleration, Arias intensity, characteristic intensity, cumulative absolute velocity, acceleration spectrum intensity, effective design acceleration, A95 parameter and predominant period separately under the near-field and the far-field seismicity categories.

  7. The effects of grazing intensity on soil processes in a Mediterranean protected area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panayiotou, Evaggelia; Dimou, Maria; Monokrousos, Nikolaos

    2017-08-08

    We investigated the temporal and among-site differentiation of soil functionality properties in fields under different grazing intensities (heavy and light) and compared them to those found in their adjacent hedgerows, consisting either of wooden shrubs (Rubus canescens) or of high trees (Populus sp.), during the cold and humid seasons of the year. We hypothesized that greater intensity of grazing would result in higher degradation of the soil system. The grazing factor had a significant effect on soil organic C and N, microbial biomass C, microbial biomass N, microbial activity, and β-glucosidase, while acid phosphatase and urease activity were not found to differ significantly among the management systems. The intensity of grazing affected mostly the chemical properties of soil (organic C and N) and altered significantly the composition of the soil microbial community, as lower C:N ratio of the microbial biomass indicates the dominance of bacteria over fungi in the heavily grazed fields. All estimated biological variables presented higher values in the humid period, although the pattern of differentiation was similar at both sampling times, revealing that site-specific variations were more pronounced than the time-specific ones. Our results indicate that not all C, N, and P dynamics were equally affected by grazing. Management plans applied to pastures, in order to improve soil quality properties and accelerate passive reforestation, should aim at the improvement of soil parameters related primarily to C and secondly to N cycle.

  8. WIND EROSION INTENSITY DETERMINATION USING SOIL PARTICLE CATCHER DEVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Lackóová

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available To analyze wind erosion events in the real terrain conditions, we proposed to construct a prototype of soil particle catcher devices to trap soil particles. With these devices we are able to measure the intensity of wind erosion at six different heights above the soil surface in one location or at three different heights in two places. It is possible to use them for six different places at the same time as well. We performed field measurements to determine the amount of soil particles transported by the wind between 26th – 31st March 2012. Each measuring took 60 minutes. After this time the soil particle catchers were emptied and further measurements carried out. At the beginning we selected two places for measurement (soil HPJ 16 and 37 at two heights, one above the other. Then we used two measuring systems 40 m apart at two sites (D2 and D4 and the soil captured at two heights (0, 1. The maximum weight of soil particles trapped in measuring system D2 at height (0 was 1242.7 g at a wind speed of 9.6 ms-1. At measurement height (1 the maximum weight was 72.7 g trapped at the same average hourly rate, but during different measurement events. The measuring system at D4 trapped the highest amount of soil at a wind speed of 8.9 ms-1 (1141.7 g at height (0 and at a speed of 9.3 ms-1 (22.3 g at height (1. During the measurements with the two basic measuring systems D4 and D2, we measured the wind erosion intensity together with soil particle catchers D1 and D3. D3 was placed between devices D4 and D2, D1 was 20 m ahead D2. Soil particle catchers were placed on the soil surface at height position (0. We measured increasing soil erosion downwind on four locations spaced at 20 m. The results show that with there is an increasing quantity of particles collected as the erosive surface length increases, due to the so-called snowball effect. We analyzed selected trapped soil samples in order to determine the size of the soil particles and their proportion

  9. Nitrification inhibitors mitigated reactive gaseous nitrogen intensity in intensive vegetable soils from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Changhua; Li, Bo; Xiong, Zhengqin

    2018-01-15

    Nitrification inhibitors, a promising tool for reducing nitrous oxide (N 2 O) losses and promoting nitrogen use efficiency by slowing nitrification, have gained extensive attention worldwide. However, there have been few attempts to explore the broad responses of multiple reactive gaseous nitrogen emissions of N 2 O, nitric oxide (NO) and ammonia (NH 3 ) and vegetable yield to nitrification inhibitor applications across intensive vegetable soils in China. A greenhouse pot experiment with five consecutive vegetable crops was performed to assess the efficacies of two nitrification inhibitors, namely, nitrapyrin and dicyandiamide on reactive gaseous nitrogen emissions, vegetable yield and reactive gaseous nitrogen intensity in four typical vegetable soils representing the intensive vegetable cropping systems across mainland China: an Acrisol from Hunan Province, an Anthrosol from Shanxi Province, a Cambisol from Shandong Province and a Phaeozem from Heilongjiang Province. The results showed soil type had significant influences on reactive gaseous nitrogen intensity, with reactive gaseous nitrogen emissions and yield mainly driven by soil factors: pH, nitrate, C:N ratio, cation exchange capacity and microbial biomass carbon. The highest reactive gaseous nitrogen emissions and reactive gaseous nitrogen intensity were in Acrisol while the highest vegetable yield occurred in Phaeozem. Nitrification inhibitor applications decreased N 2 O and NO emissions by 1.8-61.0% and 0.8-79.5%, respectively, but promoted NH 3 volatilization by 3.2-44.6% across all soils. Furthermore, significant positive correlations were observed between inhibited N 2 O+NO and stimulated NH 3 emissions with nitrification inhibitor additions across all soils, indicating that reduced nitrification posed the threat of NH 3 losses. Additionally, reactive gaseous nitrogen intensity was significantly reduced in the Anthrosol and Cambisol due to the reduced reactive gaseous nitrogen emissions and increased

  10. A global meta-analysis on the impact of management practices on net global warming potential and greenhouse gas intensity from cropland soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agricultural practices contribute significant amount of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, but little is known about their effects on net global warming potential (GWP) and greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI) that account for all sources and sinks of carbon dioxide emissions per unit area or crop yield. Se...

  11. Soil management practices for sustainable crop production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abalos, E.B.

    2005-01-01

    In a sustainable system, the soil is viewed as a fragile and living medium that must be protected and nurtured to ensure its long-term productivity and stability. However, due to high demand for food brought about by high population as well as the decline in agricultural lands, the soil is being exploited beyond its limit thus, leading to poor or sick soils. Sound soil management practices in the Philippines is being reviewed. The technologies, including the advantages and disadvantages are hereby presented. This includes proper cropping systems, fertilizer program, soil erosion control and correcting soil acidity. Sound soil management practices which conserve organic matter for long-term sustainability includes addition of compost, maintaining soil cover, increasing aggregates stability, soil tilt and diversity of soil microbial life. A healthy soil is a key component to sustainability as a health soil produce healthy crop plants and have optimum vigor or less susceptible to pests. (author)

  12. Soil contamination by phthalate esters in Chinese intensive vegetable production systems with different modes of use of plastic film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jun; Luo, Yongming; Teng, Ying; Ma, Wenting; Christie, Peter; Li, Zhengao

    2013-01-01

    The concentrations of six priority phthalic acid esters (PAEs) in intensively managed suburban vegetable soils in Nanjing, east China, were analyzed using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). The total PAE concentrations in the soils ranged widely from 0.15 to 9.68 mg kg −1 with a median value of 1.70 mg kg −1 , and di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), bis-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP) were the most abundant phthalate esters. Soil PAE concentrations depended on the mode of use of plastic film in which PAEs were incorporated as plasticizing agents and both the plastic film and poultry manure appeared to be important sources of soil PAEs. Vegetables in rotation with flooded rice led to lower concentrations of PAEs in soil. The results indicate that agricultural plastic film can be an important source of soil PAE contamination and further research is required to fully elucidate the mechanisms of PAE contamination of intensive agricultural soils with different use modes of use of plastic film. -- Highlights: •Phthalate esters in soils from suburban intensive vegetable production systems were investigated. •Phthalate levels and risks of the vegetable soils with different plastic film use modes were examined. •Sources of phthalate esters in vegetable production soils were analyzed. -- PAE contamination of intensively managed vegetable soils varied widely depending on the mode of use of plastic film in different production systems

  13. Integrated management in calcareous soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castilla, Luis A; Salive, A

    2001-01-01

    Rice growing is developed in different kinds of soils, and some of the have high bases saturation, especially calcium and magnesium, as well as medium to high carbonate contents. This causes negative effects in the development and growth of the rice plant. As a consequence, several researching actions have been under-taken, and they are aimed at becoming this problem in economically manageable. Among the strategies we have, some of them are as follows: evaluating rice varieties presenting tolerance to these soils; using inorganic fertilizers looking for a response to elements, sources, dose and application times; evaluating organic fertilizers, mainly the green ones; using amendments, and physical soil management. According to the results, we have the fertilization response with major and minor elements and with the statistical differences at a 0.05% level. A response was found with elements such as zinc, copper, boron, iron, phosphorus and potassium. However, the efficiency of these elements depends on the addition of amendments as sulfur, the use of green fertilizers and farming systems that eliminate the superficial compaction of these soils, besides the use of varieties which are more tolerant to alkalinity, just like Fedearroz-50

  14. Intensive Care Nursing And Time Management

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZCANLI, Derya; İLGÜN, Seda

    2008-01-01

    Time is not like other resources, because it can not be bought, sold, stolen, borrowed, stored, saved, multiplied or changed. All it can be done is spent. Time management means the effective use of resources, including time, in such a way that indi- viduals are effective in achieving important personal goals. With the increasing emphasis on efficiency in health care, how a nurse manages her time is an important consideration. Since intensive care nurs- ing is focused on the care and tr...

  15. Managing for soil health can suppress pests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Hodson

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A “healthy” soil can be thought of as one that functions well, both agronomically and ecologically, and one in which soil biodiversity and crop management work in synergy to suppress pests and diseases. UC researchers have pioneered many ways of managing soil biology for pest management, including strategies such as soil solarization, steam treatment and anaerobic soil disinfestation, as well as improvements on traditional methods, such as reducing tillage, amending soil with organic materials, and cover cropping. As managing for soil health becomes more of an explicit focus due to restrictions on the use of soil fumigants, integrated soil health tests will be needed that are validated for use in California. Other research needs include breeding crops for disease resistance and pest suppressive microbial communities as well as knowledge of how beneficial organisms influence plant health.

  16. Soil physics and the water management of spatially variable soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youngs, E.G.

    1983-01-01

    The physics of macroscopic soil-water behaviour in inert porous materials has been developed by considering water flow to take place in a continuum. This requires the flow region to consist of an assembly of representative elementary volumes, repeated throughout space and small compared with the scale of observations. Soil-water behaviour in swelling soils may also be considered as a continuum phenomenon so long as the soil is saturated and swells and shrinks in the normal range. Macroscale heterogeneity superimposed on the inherent microscale heterogeneity can take many forms and may pose difficulties in the definition and measurement of soil physical properties and also in the development and use of predictive theories of soil-water behaviour. Thus, measurement techniques appropriate for uniform soils are often inappropriate, and criteria for soil-water management, obtained from theoretical considerations of behaviour in equivalent uniform soils, are not applicable without modification when there is soil heterogeneity. The spatial variability of soil-water properties is shown in results from field experiments concerned with water flow measurements; these illustrate both stochastic and deterministic heterogeneity in soil-water properties. Problems of water management of spatially variable soils when there is stochastic heterogeneity appear to present an insuperable problem in the application of theory. However, for soils showing deterministic heterogeneity, soil-water theory has been used in the solution of soil-water management problems. Thus, scaling using similar media theory has been applied to the infiltration of water into soils that vary over a catchment area. Also, the drain spacing to control the water-table height in soils in which the hydraulic conductivity varies with depth has been calculated using groundwater seepage theory. (author)

  17. Management intensity alters decomposition via biological pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickings, Kyle; Grandy, A. Stuart; Reed, Sasha; Cleveland, Cory

    2011-01-01

    Current conceptual models predict that changes in plant litter chemistry during decomposition are primarily regulated by both initial litter chemistry and the stage-or extent-of mass loss. Far less is known about how variations in decomposer community structure (e.g., resulting from different ecosystem management types) could influence litter chemistry during decomposition. Given the recent agricultural intensification occurring globally and the importance of litter chemistry in regulating soil organic matter storage, our objectives were to determine the potential effects of agricultural management on plant litter chemistry and decomposition rates, and to investigate possible links between ecosystem management, litter chemistry and decomposition, and decomposer community composition and activity. We measured decomposition rates, changes in litter chemistry, extracellular enzyme activity, microarthropod communities, and bacterial versus fungal relative abundance in replicated conventional-till, no-till, and old field agricultural sites for both corn and grass litter. After one growing season, litter decomposition under conventional-till was 20% greater than in old field communities. However, decomposition rates in no-till were not significantly different from those in old field or conventional-till sites. After decomposition, grass residue in both conventional- and no-till systems was enriched in total polysaccharides relative to initial litter, while grass litter decomposed in old fields was enriched in nitrogen-bearing compounds and lipids. These differences corresponded with differences in decomposer communities, which also exhibited strong responses to both litter and management type. Overall, our results indicate that agricultural intensification can increase litter decomposition rates, alter decomposer communities, and influence litter chemistry in ways that could have important and long-term effects on soil organic matter dynamics. We suggest that future

  18. Effects of Thinning Intensities on Soil Infiltration and Water Storage Capacity in a Chinese Pine-Oak Mixed Forest

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Lili; Yuan, Zhiyou; Shao, Hongbo; Wang, Dexiang; Mu, Xingmin

    2014-01-01

    Thinning is a crucial practice in the forest ecosystem management. The soil infiltration rate and water storage capacity of pine-oak mixed forest under three different thinning intensity treatments (15%, 30%, and 60%) were studied in Qinling Mountains of China. The thinning operations had a significant influence on soil infiltration rate and water storage capacity. The soil infiltration rate and water storage capacity in different thinning treatments followed the order of control (nonthinning):

  19. How does soil management affect carbon losses from soils?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klik, A.; Trümper, G.

    2009-04-01

    Agricultural soils are a major source as well as a sink of organic carbon (OC). Amount and distribution of OC within the soil and within the landscape are driven by land management but also by erosion and deposition processes. At the other hand the type of soil management influences mineralization and atmospheric carbon dioxide losses by soil respiration. In a long-term field experiment the impacts of soil tillage systems on soil erosion processes were investigated. Following treatments were compared: 1) conventional tillage (CT), 2) conservation tillage with cover crop during the winter period (CS), and 3) no-till with cover crop during winter period (NT). The studies were carried out at three sites in the Eastern part of Austria with annual precipitation amounts from 650 to 900 mm. The soil texture ranged from silt loam to loam. Since 2007 soil CO2 emissions are measured with a portable soil respiration system in intervals of about one week, but also in relation to management events. Concurrent soil temperature and soil water content are measured and soil samples are taken for chemical and microbiological analyses. An overall 14-yr. average soil loss between 1.0 t.ha-1.yr-1 for NT and 6.1 t.ha-1.yr-1 for CT resulted in on-site OC losses from 18 to 79 kg ha-1.yr-1. The measurements of the carbon dioxide emissions from the different treatments indicate a high spatial variation even within one plot. Referred to CT plots calculated carbon losses amounted to 65-94% for NT plots while for the different RT plots they ranged between 84 and 128%. Nevertheless site specific considerations have to be taken into account. Preliminary results show that the adaptation of reduced or no-till management strategies has enormous potential in reducing organic carbon losses from agricultural used soils.

  20. Colloid Release From Differently Managed Loess Soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vendelboe, Anders Lindblad; Schjønning, Per; Møldrup, Per

    2012-01-01

    The content of water-dispersible colloids (WDC) in a soil can have a major impact on soil functions, such as permeability to water and air, and on soil strength, which can impair soil fertility and workability. In addition, the content of WDC in the soil may increase the risk of nutrient loss...... and of colloid-facilitated transport of strongly sorbing compounds. In the present study, soils from the Bad Lauchsta¨dt longterm static fertilizer experiment with different management histories were investigated to relate basic soil properties to the content of WDC, the content of water-stable aggregates (WSA......), and aggregate tensile strength. Our studies were carried out on soils on identical parent material under controlled management conditions, enabling us to study the long-term effects on soil physical properties with few explanatory variables in play. The content of WDC and the amount of WSA were measured...

  1. Modelling the Impact of Soil Management on Soil Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, H. J.; Weller, U.; Rabot, E.; Stößel, B.; Lang, B.; Wiesmeier, M.; Urbanski, L.; Wollschläger, U.

    2017-12-01

    Due to an increasing soil loss and an increasing demand for food and energy there is an enormous pressure on soils as the central resource for agricultural production. Besides the importance of soils for biomass production there are other essential soil functions, i.e. filter and buffer for water, carbon sequestration, provision and recycling of nutrients, and habitat for biological activity. All these functions have a direct feed back to biogeochemical cycles and climate. To render agricultural production efficient and sustainable we need to develop model tools that are capable to predict quantitatively the impact of a multitude of management measures on these soil functions. These functions are considered as emergent properties produced by soils as complex systems. The major challenge is to handle the multitude of physical, chemical and biological processes interacting in a non-linear manner. A large number of validated models for specific soil processes are available. However, it is not possible to simulate soil functions by coupling all the relevant processes at the detailed (i.e. molecular) level where they are well understood. A new systems perspective is required to evaluate the ensemble of soil functions and their sensitivity to external forcing. Another challenge is that soils are spatially heterogeneous systems by nature. Soil processes are highly dependent on the local soil properties and, hence, any model to predict soil functions needs to account for the site-specific conditions. For upscaling towards regional scales the spatial distribution of functional soil types need to be taken into account. We propose a new systemic model approach based on a thorough analysis of the interactions between physical, chemical and biological processes considering their site-specific characteristics. It is demonstrated for the example of soil compaction and the recovery of soil structure, water capacity and carbon stocks as a result of plant growth and biological

  2. Soil Organic Matter Stability and Soil Carbon Storage with Changes in Land Use Intensity in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiemann, L. K.; Grandy, S.; Hartter, J.

    2014-12-01

    As the foundation of soil fertility, soil organic matter (SOM) formation and break-down is a critical factor of agroecosystem sustainability. In tropical systems where soils are quickly weathered, the link between SOM and soil fertility is particularly strong; however, the mechanisms controlling the stabilization and destabilization of SOM are not well characterized in tropical soils. In western Uganda, we collected soil samples under different levels of land use intensity including maize fields, banana plantations and inside an un-cultivated native tropical forest, Kibale National Park (KNP). To better understand the link between land use intensity and SOM stability we measured total soil C and N, and respiration rates during a 369 d soil incubation. In addition, we separated soils into particle size fractions, and mineral adsorbed SOM in the silt (2-50 μm ) and clay (fractions was dissociated, purified and chemically characterized via pyrolysis-GC/MS. Cultivated soil C and N have declined by 22 and 48%, respectively, in comparison to uncultivated KNP soils. Incubation data indicate that over the last decade, relatively accessible and labile soil organic carbon (SOC) pools have been depleted by 55-59% in cultivated soils. As a result of this depletion, the chemical composition of SOM has been altered such that clay and silt associated SOM differed significantly between agricultural fields and KNP. In particular, nitrogen containing compounds were in lower abundance in agricultural compared to KNP soils. This suggests that N depletion due to agriculture has advanced to pools of mineral associated organic N that are typically protected from break-down. In areas where land use intensity is relatively greater, increases in polysaccharides and lipids in maize fields compared to KNP indicate increases in microbial residues and decomposition by-products as microbes mine SOM for organic N. Chemical characterization of post-incubation SOM will help us better understand

  3. Anthropogenic Reorganization of Critical Zone in Intensively Managed Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, P.; Anders, A. M.; Bettis, E. A., III; Blair, N. E.; Filley, T. R.; Grimley, D. A.; Le, P. V.; Lin, H.; Lin, Y. F. F.; Keefer, D. A.; Keefer, L. L.; Muste, M.; Packman, A. I.; Papanicolaou, T.; Rhoads, B. L.; Richardson, M.; Schnoebelen, D. J.; Stumpf, A.; Ward, A. S.; Wilson, C. G.; Woo, D.; Yan, Q.; Goodwell, A. E.

    2016-12-01

    Intensification of industrial agricultural practices has resulted in some of the most profound global impacts in the Anthropocene. These include eutrophication of lakes, rivers, and oceans from nutrient loading, degradation of arable land from the loss of fertile organic soils through erosion, and loss and degradation of soil organic matter from mechanical impacts on the soil, among others. As we prepare to feed additional 2 billion people by 2050 along with the emerging practices of farming for bioenergy production, these practices will intensify further whose goal is to overcome bio-geo-physical rate limitations and rate limiting states to enhance agricultural productivity. These rate-enhancing efforts generally target the fast response production processes, creating an imbalance with the slower assimilative processes in the Critical Zone that cascade through complex inter-dependencies across carbon, soil, water, nutrient and ecological systems. These imbalances modify stores and create gradients for flux, which over time reorganize the landscape, both in structure and function. In this presentation we show how these reorganizations are occurring in the Critical Zone of intensively managed landscapes, and argue that an integrated understanding of such profound changes are necessary for developing sustainable solutions for maintaining agricultural productivity and mitigating agriculture based environmental impacts.

  4. Water erosion under simulated rainfall in different soil management systems during soybean growth

    OpenAIRE

    Engel,Fernando Luis; Bertol,Ildegardis; Mafra,Álvaro Luiz; Cogo,Neroli Pedro

    2007-01-01

    Soil management influences soil cover by crop residues and plant canopy, affecting water erosion. The objective of this research was to quantify water and soil losses by water erosion under different soil tillage systems applied on a typical aluminic Hapludox soil, in an experiment carried out from April 2003 to May 2004, in the Santa Catarina highland region, Lages, southern Brazil. Simulated rainfall was applied during five soybean cropstages, at the constant intensity of 64.0 mm h-1. Treat...

  5. Effects of soil surface management practices on soil and tree ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects on soil, leaf and fruit element concentrations of organic (compost, straw mulch and hand weeding) and integrated (inorganic fertilisers and herbicide usage; IP) soil surface management practices in the tree rows, in combination with weed covers, cover crops and straw mulch in the work rows, were investigated in a ...

  6. Adaptive management for soil ecosystem services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birge, Hannah E.; Bevans, Rebecca A.; Allen, Craig R.; Angeler, David G.; Baer, Sara G.; Wall, Diana H.

    2016-01-01

    Ecosystem services provided by soil include regulation of the atmosphere and climate, primary (including agricultural) production, waste processing, decomposition, nutrient conservation, water purification, erosion control, medical resources, pest control, and disease mitigation. The simultaneous production of these multiple services arises from complex interactions among diverse aboveground and belowground communities across multiple scales. When a system is mismanaged, non-linear and persistent losses in ecosystem services can arise. Adaptive management is an approach to management designed to reduce uncertainty as management proceeds. By developing alternative hypotheses, testing these hypotheses and adjusting management in response to outcomes, managers can probe dynamic mechanistic relationships among aboveground and belowground soil system components. In doing so, soil ecosystem services can be preserved and critical ecological thresholds avoided. Here, we present an adaptive management framework designed to reduce uncertainty surrounding the soil system, even when soil ecosystem services production is not the explicit management objective, so that managers can reach their management goals without undermining soil multifunctionality or contributing to an irreversible loss of soil ecosystem services.

  7. Soil management practices under organic farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aly, Adel; Chami Ziad, Al; Hamdy, Atef

    2015-04-01

    Organic farming methods combine scientific knowledge of ecology and modern technology with traditional farming practices based on naturally occurring biological processes. Soil building practices such as crop rotations, intercropping, symbiotic associations, cover crops, organic fertilizers and minimum tillage are central to organic practices. Those practices encourage soil formation and structure and creating more stable systems. In farm nutrient and energy cycling is increased and the retentive abilities of the soil for nutrients and water are enhanced. Such management techniques also play an important role in soil erosion control. The length of time that the soil is exposed to erosive forces is decreased, soil biodiversity is increased, and nutrient losses are reduced, helping to maintain and enhance soil productivity. Organic farming as systematized and certifiable approach for agriculture, there is no surprise that it faces some challenges among both farmers and public sector. This can be clearly demonstrated particularly in the absence of the essential conditions needed to implement successfully the soil management practices like green manure and composting to improve soil fertility including crop rotation, cover cropping and reduced tillage. Those issues beside others will be fully discussed highlighting their beneficial impact on the environmental soil characteristics. Keywords: soil fertility, organic matter, plant nutrition

  8. Strategically oriented management and controlling of resource intensive projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemmeter, Sascha

    2015-01-01

    The book on strategically oriented management and controlling of resource intensive projects covers the following issues: frame of project management and project controlling, classification of the decommissioning of nuclear facilities as resource intensive projects, research design for case studies, results of the study of project management specific characteristics of decommissioning, reference model for the project management of nuclear facility decommissioning.

  9. Introduction to Soil Fumigant Management Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil fumigant pesticide labels require users to prepare a site-specific fumigation management plan (FMP) before the application begins. EPA has developed templates that outline the elements required by the labels.

  10. Water content determination of soil surface in an intensive apple orchard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riczu, Péter; Nagy, Gábor; Tamás, János

    2015-04-01

    Currently in Hungary, less than 100,000 hectares of orchards can be found, from which cultivation of apple is one of the most dominant ones. Production of marketable horticulture products can be difficult without employing advanced and high quality horticulture practices, which, in turn, depends on appropriate management and irrigation systems, basically. The got out water amount depend on climatic, edafic factors and the water demand of plants as well. The soil water content can be determined by traditional and modern methods. In order to define soil moisture content, gravimetry measurement is one of the most accurate methods, but it is time consuming and sometimes soil sampling and given results are in different times. Today, IT provides the farmers such tools, like global positioning system (GPS), geographic information system (GIS) and remote sensing (RS). These tools develop in a great integration rapidly. RS methods are ideal to survey larger area quick and accurate. Laser scanning is a novel technique which analyses a real-world or object environment to collect structural and spectral data. In order to obtain soil moisture information, the Leica ScanStation C10 terrestrial 3D laser scanner was used on an intensive apple orchard on the Study and Regional Research Farm of the University of Debrecen, near Pallag. Previously, soil samples from the study area with different moisture content were used as reference points. Based on the return intensity values of the laser scanner can be distinguished the different moisture content areas of soil surface. Nevertheless, the error of laser distance echo were examined and statistically evaluated. This research was realized in the frames of TÁMOP 4.2.4. A/2-11-1-2012-0001 "National Excellence Program - Elaborating and operating an inland student and researcher personal support system". The project was subsidized by the European Union and co-financed by the European Social Fund.

  11. Education on sustainable soil management for the masses? The Soil4Life MOOC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroulis, Jerry; Demie, Moore; Riksen, Michel; Ritsema, Coen

    2017-04-01

    Although soil is one of our most important natural resources and the foundation for all life on Earth it remains one of the most neglected of our resources. We, in soil science know this, but what do we do to reach more people more quickly? MOOCs, 'Massive Open Online Courses', are a vehicle for offering learning to virtually unlimited audiences at little cost to the student. Could MOOCs be the format for introducing more people worldwide to the importance of soil and sustainable soil management? MOOCs have their limitations and critics. However, depending on your goals, expectations and resources, they are a means for getting information to a much broader population than is possible through conventional educational formats. Wageningen University (WU) agreed and approved the development of a MOOC on sustainable soil management entitled Soil4Life. This presentation reviews the format and results of Soil4Life, concluding with some observations and reflections about this approach to soil science education. The Soil4Life MOOC introduces the role of soil in life on earth, soil degradation, and socio-economic issues related to generating action for long-term sustainability of the many soil-related ecosystem services. The objectives of Soil4Life are to raise awareness about the many important aspects of soil and sustainable soil management, and to allow the educational materials we produced to be available for use by others. The process of creating the Soil4Life MOOC involved 18 academic staff across all WU soil-related groups plus a vital team of education and technical staff. This number of people posed various challenges. However, with clear guidelines, lots of encouragement and technical support, Soil4Life was started in late 2015 and launched on the edx platform in May 2016. Just over 5000 students from 161 countries enrolled in the first offer of the Soil4Life MOOC - a modest number for MOOCs, but not bad for soil science. The targeted audience was initially high

  12. Integral Management of Irrigation Water in Intensive Horticultural Systems of Almería

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro Garcia-Caparros; Juana Isabel Contreras; Rafael Baeza; Maria Luz Segura; Maria Teresa Lao

    2017-01-01

    The development of intensive horticulture in Almería, with a huge increase in greenhouse surface area, is related to three essential factors: climatic characteristics, groundwater use and mulching sandy soil. The purpose of the present paper is to draw a picture of the integral management of water irrigation in the intensive horticultural systems in the region, by identifying the most significant water resource contributions and alternative water resources. Results indicate that the use of gr...

  13. Soil measurements during HAPEX-Sahel intensive observation period.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuenca, R.H.; Brouwer, J.; Chanzy, A.; Droogers, P.; Galle, S.; Gaze, S.R.; Sicot, M.; Stricker, J.N.M.; Angulo-Jaramillo, R.; Boyle, S.A.; Bromley, J.; Chebhouni, A.G.

    1997-01-01

    This article describes measurements made at each site and for each vegetation cover as part of the soils program for the HAPEX-Sahel regional scale experiment. The measurements were based on an initial sampling scheme and included profile soil water content, surface soil water content, soil water

  14. New soil water sensors for irrigation management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effective irrigation management is key to obtaining the most crop production per unit of water applied and increasing production in the face of competing demands on water resources. Management methods have included calculating crop water needs based on weather station measurements, calculating soil ...

  15. The organic contamination level based on the total soil mass is not a proper index of the soil contamination intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, H.-W.; Daniel, Sheng G.; Lin, T.-F.; Su, Y.; Chiou, C.T.

    2009-01-01

    Concentrations of organic contaminants in common productive soils based on the total soil mass give a misleading account of actual contamination effects. This is attributed to the fact that productive soils are essentially water-saturated, with the result that the soil uptake of organic compounds occurs principally by partition into the soil organic matter (SOM). This report illustrates that the soil contamination intensity of a compound is governed by the concentration in the SOM (Com) rather than by the concentration in whole soil (Cs). Supporting data consist of the measured levels and toxicities of many pesticides in soils of widely differing SOM contents and the related levels in in-situ crops that defy explanation by the Cs values. This SOM-based index is timely needed for evaluating the contamination effects of food crops grown in different soils and for establishing a dependable priority ranking for intended remediation of numerous contamination sites.

  16. [Effects of management regime on soil respiration from agroecosystems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shu-tao; Zhu, Da-wei; Niu, Chuan-po; Zou, Jian-wen; Wang, Chao; Sun, Wen-juan

    2009-10-15

    In order to examine the effects of management regime, such as nitrogen application and plowing method, on soil respiration from farmland, the static opaque chamber-gas chromatograph method was used to measure soil CO2 fluxes in situ. The field measurement was carried out for 5 growing seasons, which were the 2002-2003 wheat, 2003 maize and soybean, 2003-2004 wheat, 2004 maize and 2004-2005 wheat seasons. Our results showed that soil respiration increased in fertilizer-applied treatments compared with no fertilizer treatment after 3 times of fertilizer application on 9 November 2002, 14 February and 26 March 2003. And the most obvious increase appeared following the third fertilizer application. No significant difference in soil respiration was found among several fertilizer application treatments. The effect of plowing depth on soil respiration was contingent on preceding cropping practice. Over the 2003-2004 wheat-growing seasons (its preceding cropping practice was rice paddy), mean soil respiration rates were not significant different (p > 0.05) between no plowing treatment and shallow plowing treatment. The shallow plowing treatment CT2 led to higher soil CO2 losses compared with no plowing treatment of NT2 in the 2004 maize-growing season, however, the significant higher (p soil respiration rates occurred with no plowing treatment of NT3 in the following 2004-2005 wheat-growing season. Intensive plowing (25 cm depth), compared with no plowing practice (NT4), increased soil respiration significantly during the 2004-2005 wheat-growing season. Regression analysis showed that the exponential function could be employed to fit the relationship between soil respiration and temperature. The exponential relationship yielded the Q10 values which were varied from 1.26 to 3.60, with a mean value of 2.08. To evaluate the effect of temperature on soil respiration, the CO2 emission fluxes were normalized for each treatment and each crop growing season. Plotting the

  17. Soil and geography are more important determinants of indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal communities than management practices in Swiss agricultural soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansa, Jan; Erb, Angela; Oberholzer, Hans-Rudolf; Smilauer, Petr; Egli, Simon

    2014-04-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are ubiquitous soil fungi, forming mutualistic symbiosis with a majority of terrestrial plant species. They are abundant in nearly all soils, less diverse than soil prokaryotes and other intensively studied soil organisms and thus are promising candidates for universal indicators of land management legacies and soil quality degradation. However, insufficient data on how the composition of indigenous AMF varies along soil and landscape gradients have hampered the definition of baselines and effect thresholds to date. Here, indigenous AMF communities in 154 agricultural soils collected across Switzerland were profiled by quantitative real-time PCR with taxon-specific markers for six widespread AMF species. To identify the key determinants of AMF community composition, the profiles were related to soil properties, land management and site geography. Our results indicate a number of well-supported dependencies between abundances of certain AMF taxa and soil properties such as pH, soil fertility and texture, and a surprising lack of effect of available soil phosphorus on the AMF community profiles. Site geography, especially the altitude and large geographical distance, strongly affected AMF communities. Unexpected was the apparent lack of a strong land management effect on the AMF communities as compared to the other predictors, which could be due to the rarity of highly intensive and unsustainable land management in Swiss agriculture. In spite of the extensive coverage of large geographical and soil gradients, we did not identify any taxon suitable as an indicator of land use among the six taxa we studied. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Effect of Grazing Intensity on Some Soil Chemical Characteristics in Gardaneh Zanburi Rangeland of Arsanjan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    zeinab khademolhosseini

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:Changes caused by grazing on range ecosystem are generally assessed based on the soil conditions and vegetation. Livestock as one of the major elements in range land ecosystems has different effects on different parts of this ecosystem. One of these impacts is excessive livestock grazing capacity which can have different effects on soils and plants in various intensities. Materials and Methods:Gardaneh ZanbooriRangelandis located in Arsanjan in Fars province. This isanareaof mountains, hillsandplains with the maximum height of 2280 meters and minimum height of 1640 meters above sea level. Related areas were separated under three different management methods of enclosure, moderate grazing and heavy grazing. These three areas are considered as symbolic areas of grazing intensity including the reference area where no grazing intensity was observed, the key area where medium to heavy grazing was applied and critical area where heavy grazing was used. These areas were similar in all characteristics such as topography, soil type and rainfall and differed only in their grazing intensity factor. Then, soil samples were collected. Random systematic soil sampling was conducted at two horizons of 0 -15 and 15 -30 cm. Therefore, five profiles in each area (enclosure, moderate grazing and heavy grazing, a total of 15 soil profiles, were excavated and two samples were taken in each profile (one sample from each horizon. Finally, the thirty soil samples were transported to the laboratory. Samples were dried in the air laboratory and passed a two millimeter sieve after smashing. Factors such as N, P, K, OM, EC and PH were measured in each sample In the laboratory, the percentage of P was determined by the Olsen method while the percentage of K was determined using the flamephotometry method. Moreover, N was measured using the Kjeldhal method. C was measured by the Walkley and Black method. The percentage of OM was found by carbon multiplying

  19. Effects of buffer strips and grazing management on soil loss from pastures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intensive grazing pressure can cause soil erosion from pastures causing increased sediment loading to aquatic systems. The objectives of this work were to determine the long-term effects of grazing management and buffer strips on soil erosion from pastures fertilized with broiler litter. Field stud...

  20. Effects of soil management practices on soil fauna feeding activity in an Indonesian oil palm plantation

    OpenAIRE

    Tao, Hsiao-Hang; Slade, Eleanor M.; Willis, Katherine J.; Caliman, Jean Pierre; Snaddon, Jake Lanion

    2016-01-01

    Optimizing the use of available soil management practices in oil palm plantations is crucial to enhance long-term soil fertility and productivity. However, this needs a thorough understanding of the functional responses of soil biota to these management practices. To address this knowledge gap, we used the bait lamina method to investigate the effects of different soil management practices on soil fauna feeding activity, and whether feeding activity was associated with management-mediated cha...

  1. Characterization of Soil Heterogeneity Across Scales in an Intensively Investigated Soil Volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Matthew; Gimenez, Daniel; Nemes, Attila; Dathe, Annette; French, Helen; Bloem, Esther; Koestel, John; Jarvis, Nick

    2016-04-01

    Heterogeneous water flow in undisturbed soils is a natural occurrence that is complex to model due to potential changes in hydraulic properties in soils over changes in space. The use of geophysical methods, such as Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT), can provide a minimally-invasive approximation of the spatial heterogeneity of the soil. This spatial distribution can then be combined with measured hydraulic properties to inform a model. An experiment was conducted on an Intensively Investigated Soil Volume (IISV), with dimensions of 2m x 1m x 0.8m, located in an agricultural field that is part of the Gryteland catchment in Ås, Norway. The location of the IISV was determined through surface ERT runs at two sequential resolutions. The first run was used to find an area of higher apparent electrical resistivity in a 23.5 x 11.5 m area with 0.5 m spacing. The second run measured apparent electrical resistivity in a 4.7 x 1 m area with 0.1 m spacing, from which the final IISV volume was derived. Distinct features found in the higher resolution run of the IISV, including a recent tire track from a harvester, were used as a spatial reference point for the installation of 20 pairs of TDR probes and tensiometers. The instruments measured water content, temperature and pressure potential at 10 minute intervals and ran continuously for a period of two weeks. After completion of the data collection the IISV was intensively sampled, with 30 samples taken for bulk density, 62 for hydraulic property measurements, and 20 to be used for both CT scanning and hydraulic property measurements. The measurement of hydraulic properties is ongoing and retention will be measured in the 0 - 100 cm range on a sand table, and from 100 - approx. 900 cm with an automated evaporation method. The formation of spatial clusters to represent the soil heterogeneity as relatively homogeneous units based on mesoscale properties like apparent electrical resistivity, bulk density, texture, in

  2. Dissolved Organic Carbon and Nitrogen in Andisol for Six Crop Rotations with Different Soil Management Intensity Carbono y Nitrógeno Orgánicos Disueltos en un Andisol Sometido a Seis Rotaciones de Cultivos con Diferente Intensidad en el Manejo del Suelo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Undurraga D

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Soil organic matter (OM content is a quality indicator, but is an inadequate indicator in the short-term because these changes take place slowly, so dissolved organic components have emerged as an alternative. In volcanic soil subjected to different crop rotations with distinct land use intensity, dissolved organic C and N (DOC and DON were determined as well as their relationship with total C and N contents in the soil, considering the effects of crop rotation, fertilization level, and soil depth. In humid samples of Humic Haploxerands collected at four depths up to 40 cm, DOC and DON contents were determined by extraction with K2SO4 and filtered. Results indicated interaction between the studied factors, DOC fluctuated between 67.8 and 151.7 mg kg-1 with the highest value with intensive management in rotations that included corn (Zea mays L. associated with a higher fertilization. DON fluctuated between 4.62 and 37.4 mg kg-1 with the highest value in non-intensive rotations that included prairie. With respect to total C, DOC reached 0.40% with intensive management and the lowest value in non-intensive management. DON showed values between 0.13 and 0.68% with respect to total N with intensive and non-intensive management, respectively. Tillage management affected DOC and DON contents depending on the fertilization level and the depth at which it was determined, and were also affected by the crop included in the rotation, thus making these parameters good indicators to evaluate the effects of agronomic management in the short-term.El contenido de materia orgánica (OM del suelo es un indicador de su calidad, sin embargo los cambios se producen lentamente, no siendo un indicador adecuado en el corto plazo, surgiendo los componentes orgánicos disueltos como una alternativa. En un suelo volcánico sometido a diferentes rotaciones de cultivos con distinta intensidad en el uso de suelo, se determinó el C y N orgánicos disueltos (DOC y DON y su

  3. Soil surface roughness decay in contrasting climates, tillage types and management systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal Vázquez, Eva; Bertol, Ildegardis; Tondello Barbosa, Fabricio; Paz-Ferreiro, Jorge

    2014-05-01

    Soil surface roughness describes the variations in the elevation of the soil surface. Such variations define the soil surface microrelief, which is characterized by a high spatial variability. Soil surface roughness is a property affecting many processes such as depression storage, infiltration, sediment generation, storage and transport and runoff routing. Therefore the soil surface microrelief is a key element in hydrology and soil erosion processes at different spatial scales as for example at the plot, field or catchment scale. In agricultural land soil surface roughness is mainly created by tillage operations, which promote to different extent the formation of microdepressions and microelevations and increase infiltration and temporal retention of water. The decay of soil surface roughness has been demonstrated to be mainly driven by rain height and rain intensity, and to depend also on runoff, aggregate stability, soil reface porosity and soil surface density. Soil roughness formation and decay may be also influenced by antecedent soil moisture (either before tillage or rain), quantity and type of plant residues over the soil surface and soil composition. Characterization of the rate and intensity of soil surface roughness decay provides valuable information about the degradation of the upper most soil surface layer before soil erosion has been initiated or at the very beginning of soil runoff and erosion processes. We analyzed the rate of decay of soil surface roughness from several experiments conducted in two regions under temperate and subtropical climate and with contrasting land use systems. The data sets studied were obtained both under natural and simulated rainfall for various soil tillage and management types. Soil surface roughness decay was characterized bay several parameters, including classic and single parameters such as the random roughness or the tortuosity and parameters based on advanced geostatistical methods or on the fractal theory. Our

  4. Intensive olive orchards on sloping land: good water and pest management are essential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzidakis, I; Martinez-Vilela, A; Castro Nieto, G; Basso, B

    2008-11-01

    There is intensive cultivation of olives on sloping land in Jaen-Granada (Spain), Basilicata (Italy) and Western Crete (Greece). The intensive olive groves here are characterised by a tree density of about 250treesha(-1), yearly fertilisation and pruning, several chemical sprays for pest control, soil tillage once to thrice per year and irrigation up to 2700m3ha(-1)yr(-1). Intensive management results in high yields of 3600-6500kgha(-1) but also higher labour costs of 1154-1590euroha(-1)yr(-1), varying per area. The major environmental concerns in this system are related to chemical residues in the fruit, the extinction of useful insects, the depletion of groundwater resources, the pollution of soil and water and the erosion of soil. This paper describes the impact of intensive orchard management on natural resources and gives recommendations for soil and water conservation, reduction of chemicals use and biodiversity enhancement. The specific recommendations for the relevant stakeholders--farmers, technicians, agricultural services and policy makers--are based on the experimental evaluation of different agricultural practices and a socio-economic analysis of local and global production and markets.

  5. Effects of rainfall intensity and slope gradient on runoff and sediment yield characteristics of bare loess soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lei; Peng, Mengling; Qiao, Shanshan; Ma, Xiao-Yi

    2018-02-01

    Soil erosion is a universal phenomenon on the Loess Plateau but it exhibits complex and typical mechanism which makes it difficult to understand soil loss laws on slopes. We design artificial simulated rainfall experiments including six rainfall intensities (45, 60, 75, 90, 105, 120 mm/h) and five slopes (5°, 10°, 15°, 20°, 25°) to reveal the fundamental changing trends of runoff and sediment yield on bare loess soil. Here, we show that the runoff yield within the initial 15 min increased rapidly and its trend gradually became stable. Trends of sediment yield under different rainfall intensities are various. The linear correlation between runoff and rainfall intensity is obvious for different slopes, but the correlations between sediment yield and rainfall intensity are weak. Runoff and sediment yield on the slope surface both presents an increasing trend when the rainfall intensity increases from 45 mm/h to 120 mm/h, but the increasing trend of runoff yield is higher than that of sediment yield. The sediment yield also has an overall increasing trend when the slope changes from 5° to 25°, but the trend of runoff yield is not obvious. Our results may provide data support and underlying insights needed to guide the management of soil conservation planning on the Loess Plateau.

  6. Effects of thinning intensities on soil infiltration and water storage capacity in a Chinese pine-oak mixed forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lili; Yuan, Zhiyou; Shao, Hongbo; Wang, Dexiang; Mu, Xingmin

    2014-01-01

    Thinning is a crucial practice in the forest ecosystem management. The soil infiltration rate and water storage capacity of pine-oak mixed forest under three different thinning intensity treatments (15%, 30%, and 60%) were studied in Qinling Mountains of China. The thinning operations had a significant influence on soil infiltration rate and water storage capacity. The soil infiltration rate and water storage capacity in different thinning treatments followed the order of control (nonthinning): soil infiltration rate and water storage capacity of pine-oak mixed forest in Qinling Mountains. The soil initial infiltration rate, stable infiltration rate, and average infiltration rate in thinning 30% treatment were significantly increased by 21.1%, 104.6%, and 60.9%, compared with the control. The soil maximal water storage capacity and noncapillary water storage capacity in thinning 30% treatment were significantly improved by 20.1% and 34.3% in contrast to the control. The soil infiltration rate and water storage capacity were significantly higher in the surface layer (0~20 cm) than in the deep layers (20~40 cm and 40~60 cm). We found that the soil property was closely related to soil infiltration rate and water storage capacity.

  7. Exploring differences of soil quality as related to management in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    soil, vegetation and biodiversity) and productivity. Vegetation condition in contrasting land-use management systems is well documented in semiarid rangelands, but relatively little information is available on soil quality. This study explores soil ...

  8. Soil contamination by phthalate esters in Chinese intensive vegetable production systems with different modes of use of plastic film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Luo, Yongming; Teng, Ying; Ma, Wenting; Christie, Peter; Li, Zhengao

    2013-09-01

    The concentrations of six priority phthalic acid esters (PAEs) in intensively managed suburban vegetable soils in Nanjing, east China, were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The total PAE concentrations in the soils ranged widely from 0.15 to 9.68 mg kg(-1) with a median value of 1.70 mg kg(-1), and di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), bis-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP) were the most abundant phthalate esters. Soil PAE concentrations depended on the mode of use of plastic film in which PAEs were incorporated as plasticizing agents and both the plastic film and poultry manure appeared to be important sources of soil PAEs. Vegetables in rotation with flooded rice led to lower concentrations of PAEs in soil. The results indicate that agricultural plastic film can be an important source of soil PAE contamination and further research is required to fully elucidate the mechanisms of PAE contamination of intensive agricultural soils with different use modes of use of plastic film. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Managing the overflow of intensive care patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rijsbergen, M.; Boucherie, Richardus J.; van Houdenhoven, M.; Litvak, Nelli

    2005-01-01

    Many hospitals in the Netherlands are confronted with capacity problems at their Intensive Care Units (ICUs) resulting in cancelling operations, overloading the staff with extra patients, or rejecting emergency patients. In practice, the last option is a common choice because juridically, as well as

  10. Impact of grazing intensity on seasonal variations in soil organic carbon and soil CO2 efflux in two semiarid grasslands in southern Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Andrew D.

    2012-01-01

    Biological soil crusts (BSCs) are an important source of organic carbon, and affect a range of ecosystem functions in arid and semiarid environments. Yet the impact of grazing disturbance on crust properties and soil CO2 efflux remain poorly studied, particularly in African ecosystems. The effects of burial under wind-blown sand, disaggregation and removal of BSCs on seasonal variations in soil CO2 efflux, soil organic carbon, chlorophyll a and scytonemin were investigated at two sites in the Kalahari of southern Botswana. Field experiments were employed to isolate CO2 efflux originating from BSCs in order to estimate the C exchange within the crust. Organic carbon was not evenly distributed through the soil profile but concentrated in the BSC. Soil CO2 efflux was higher in Kalahari Sand than in calcrete soils, but rates varied significantly with seasonal changes in moisture and temperature. BSCs at both sites were a small net sink of C to the soil. Soil CO2 efflux was significantly higher in sand soils where the BSC was removed, and on calcrete where the BSC was buried under sand. The BSC removal and burial under sand also significantly reduced chlorophyll a, organic carbon and scytonemin. Disaggregation of the soil crust, however, led to increases in chlorophyll a and organic carbon. The data confirm the importance of BSCs for C cycling in drylands and indicate intensive grazing, which destroys BSCs through trampling and burial, will adversely affect C sequestration and storage. Managed grazing, where soil surfaces are only lightly disturbed, would help maintain a positive carbon balance in African drylands. PMID:23045706

  11. [Effects of rainfall intensity on rainfall infiltration and redistribution in soil on Loess slope land].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi; Shao, Ming'an

    2006-12-01

    With simulation test, this paper studied the patterns of rainfall infiltration and redistribution in soil on typical Loess slope land, and analyzed the quantitative relations between the infiltration and redistribution and the movement of soil water and mass, with rainfall intensity as the main affecting factor. The results showed that rainfall intensity had significant effects on the rainfall infiltration and water redistribution in soil, and the microcosmic movement of soil water. The larger the rainfall intensity, the deeper the wetting front of rainfall infiltration and redistribution was, and the wetting front of soil water redistribution had a slower increase velocity than that of rainfall infiltration. The power function of the wetting front with time, and also with rainfall intensity, was fitted well. There was also a quantitative relation between the wetting front of rainfall redistribution and the duration of rainfall. The larger the rainfall intensity, the higher the initial and steady infiltration rates were, and the cumulative infiltration increased faster with time. Moreover, the larger the rainfall intensity, the smaller the wetting front difference was at the top and the end of the slope. With the larger rainfall intensity, both the difference of soil water content and its descending trend between soil layers became more obvious during the redistribution process on slope land.

  12. Coffee farming and soil management in Rwanda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nzeyimana, I.; Hartemink, A.E.; Graaff, de J.

    2013-01-01

    Agriculture is the cornerstone of Rwanda's economy. The authors review how the sector has changed and specifically what soil management practices are now being implemented to enhance coffee production. Coffee covers around 2.3% of total cultivated arable land, and is grown mainly by smallholder

  13. Recovery of a soil under different vegetation one year after a high intensity wildfire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Martín

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Studies on soil recovery in fragile ecosystems following high intensity wildfires are scarce. The aim of the present investigation is to evaluate the impact of a high intensity wildfire in an ecosystem under different vegetation (shrubland and pinewood located at Vilardevós (Galicia, NW Spain and highly susceptible to suffer soil erosion due to the steep relief and high erositivity of the rainfall. Soil samples were collected from the A horizon (0-5 cm 1 year after the fire and soil quality was evaluated by analysis of several physical, chemical and biochemical properties measured in the fraction chemical properties > physical properties. The data also showed that the fire impact was different depending on the soil vegetation considered (shrubland and pinewood. Moreover, the data confirmed the slow soil recovery in this fragile ecosystem and, therefore, the need of adopting post-fire stabilisation and rehabilitation treatments in order to minimize the post-fire erosion and soil degradation.

  14. haematological profiles of pigs raised under intensive management

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EZE J I

    values obtained could be used as reference values for pigs in South-eastern Nigeria. The clinical importance of the ... Key words: haematology, pigs, intensive management, south-eastern Nigeria ..... Medicine: A textbook of Diseases of Cattle ...

  15. Intensive care management of severe tetanus at the university of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intensive care management of severe tetanus at the university of Benin teaching ... Journal Home > Vol 14, No 1 (2015) > ... Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ... protocol in the centre, in line with evidence-based medical principles.

  16. Cost-effectiveness of Intensive Blood Pressure Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richman, Ilana B; Fairley, Michael; Jørgensen, Mads Emil

    2016-01-01

    Importance: Among high-risk patients with hypertension, targeting a systolic blood pressure of 120 mm Hg reduces cardiovascular morbidity and mortality compared with a higher target. However, intensive blood pressure management incurs additional costs from treatment and from adverse events......-effectiveness of intensive blood pressure management among 68-year-old high-risk adults with hypertension but not diabetes. We used the Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT) to estimate treatment effects and adverse event rates. We used Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Life Tables to project age...... and accrued $155 261 in lifetime costs, while intensive management yielded 10.5 QALYs and accrued $176 584 in costs. Intensive blood pressure management cost $23 777 per QALY gained. In a sensitivity analysis, serious adverse events would need to occur at 3 times the rate observed in SPRINT and be 3 times...

  17. Soil management effect on soil quality indicators in vineyards of the Appellation of Origin "Montilla-Moriles" in southern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán, Gema; Cabezas, José Manuel; Bauer, Thomas; Strauss, Peter; Winter, Silvia; Zaller, Johann; Gómez, José Alfonso

    2017-04-01

    The effect soil management on several indicators frequently used in the assessment of soil quality it is not always reflected unambiguously when measured at the field although it is normally assumed that this relation is straightforward. Within the European project VineDivers (www.vinedivers.eu), sixteen commercial vineyards belonging to the Appellation of Origin "Montilla-Moriles" (Córdoba) and covering a wide range of textural classes were selected. These farms were classified 'a priori' under two soil management categories: temporal cover crop and bare soil during the whole year. In each of the vineyards one representative inter-row was selected in order to characterise different physical, chemical and biological parameters to evaluate some aspects related to soil quality. Results indicate that the studied indicators respond clearly to soil textural class and vegetation cover biomass. However, there was no clear difference in above-ground biomass of the two management categories (Guzmán et al., 2016). These results suggest that the interpretation and extrapolation of the indicators evaluated should incorporate complementary information to characterise small variations of soil management intensity among vineyards that are apparently managed under the same management category. The communication presents this analysis based on the number and type of soil disturbance events of all vineyards. The high variability found among vineyards under the same management highlights the relevance of measuring these soil parameters used as quality indicators, instead of extrapolating from other vineyards or agricultural systems, and interpreting them according to baseline levels. References: Guzmán G., Cabezas J.M., Gómez J.A. 2016. Evaluación preliminar del efecto del manejo del suelo en indicadores que determinan su calidad en viñedos de la Denominación de Origen Montilla Moriles. II Jornadas de Viticultura SECH. Madrid.

  18. Different land use intensities in grassland ecosystems drive ecology of microbial communities involved in nitrogen turnover in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Annabel; Focks, Andreas; Radl, Viviane; Keil, Daniel; Welzl, Gerhard; Schöning, Ingo; Boch, Steffen; Marhan, Sven; Kandeler, Ellen; Schloter, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Understanding factors driving the ecology of N cycling microbial communities is of central importance for sustainable land use. In this study we report changes of abundance of denitrifiers, nitrifiers and nitrogen-fixing microorganisms (based on qPCR data for selected functional genes) in response to different land use intensity levels and the consequences for potential turnover rates. We investigated selected grassland sites being comparable with respect to soil type and climatic conditions, which have been continuously treated for many years as intensely used meadows (IM), intensely used mown pastures (IP) and extensively used pastures (EP), respectively. The obtained data were linked to above ground biodiversity pattern as well as water extractable fractions of nitrogen and carbon in soil. Shifts in land use intensity changed plant community composition from systems dominated by s-strategists in extensive managed grasslands to c-strategist dominated communities in intensive managed grasslands. Along the different types of land use intensity, the availability of inorganic nitrogen regulated the abundance of bacterial and archaeal ammonia oxidizers. In contrast, the amount of dissolved organic nitrogen determined the abundance of denitrifiers (nirS and nirK). The high abundance of nifH carrying bacteria at intensive managed sites gave evidence that the amounts of substrates as energy source outcompete the high availability of inorganic nitrogen in these sites. Overall, we revealed that abundance and function of microorganisms involved in key processes of inorganic N cycling (nitrification, denitrification and N fixation) might be independently regulated by different abiotic and biotic factors in response to land use intensity.

  19. Different land use intensities in grassland ecosystems drive ecology of microbial communities involved in nitrogen turnover in soil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annabel Meyer

    Full Text Available Understanding factors driving the ecology of N cycling microbial communities is of central importance for sustainable land use. In this study we report changes of abundance of denitrifiers, nitrifiers and nitrogen-fixing microorganisms (based on qPCR data for selected functional genes in response to different land use intensity levels and the consequences for potential turnover rates. We investigated selected grassland sites being comparable with respect to soil type and climatic conditions, which have been continuously treated for many years as intensely used meadows (IM, intensely used mown pastures (IP and extensively used pastures (EP, respectively. The obtained data were linked to above ground biodiversity pattern as well as water extractable fractions of nitrogen and carbon in soil. Shifts in land use intensity changed plant community composition from systems dominated by s-strategists in extensive managed grasslands to c-strategist dominated communities in intensive managed grasslands. Along the different types of land use intensity, the availability of inorganic nitrogen regulated the abundance of bacterial and archaeal ammonia oxidizers. In contrast, the amount of dissolved organic nitrogen determined the abundance of denitrifiers (nirS and nirK. The high abundance of nifH carrying bacteria at intensive managed sites gave evidence that the amounts of substrates as energy source outcompete the high availability of inorganic nitrogen in these sites. Overall, we revealed that abundance and function of microorganisms involved in key processes of inorganic N cycling (nitrification, denitrification and N fixation might be independently regulated by different abiotic and biotic factors in response to land use intensity.

  20. Different Land Use Intensities in Grassland Ecosystems Drive Ecology of Microbial Communities Involved in Nitrogen Turnover in Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Annabel; Focks, Andreas; Radl, Viviane; Keil, Daniel; Welzl, Gerhard; Schöning, Ingo; Boch, Steffen; Marhan, Sven; Kandeler, Ellen; Schloter, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Understanding factors driving the ecology of N cycling microbial communities is of central importance for sustainable land use. In this study we report changes of abundance of denitrifiers, nitrifiers and nitrogen-fixing microorganisms (based on qPCR data for selected functional genes) in response to different land use intensity levels and the consequences for potential turnover rates. We investigated selected grassland sites being comparable with respect to soil type and climatic conditions, which have been continuously treated for many years as intensely used meadows (IM), intensely used mown pastures (IP) and extensively used pastures (EP), respectively. The obtained data were linked to above ground biodiversity pattern as well as water extractable fractions of nitrogen and carbon in soil. Shifts in land use intensity changed plant community composition from systems dominated by s-strategists in extensive managed grasslands to c-strategist dominated communities in intensive managed grasslands. Along the different types of land use intensity, the availability of inorganic nitrogen regulated the abundance of bacterial and archaeal ammonia oxidizers. In contrast, the amount of dissolved organic nitrogen determined the abundance of denitrifiers (nirS and nirK). The high abundance of nifH carrying bacteria at intensive managed sites gave evidence that the amounts of substrates as energy source outcompete the high availability of inorganic nitrogen in these sites. Overall, we revealed that abundance and function of microorganisms involved in key processes of inorganic N cycling (nitrification, denitrification and N fixation) might be independently regulated by different abiotic and biotic factors in response to land use intensity. PMID:24039974

  1. Management of saline soils in Israel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rawitz, E.

    1983-01-01

    The main soil salinity problem in Israel is the danger of gradual salinization as a result of excessively efficient water management. Aquifer management is aimed at preventing flow of groundwater into the ocean, causing a creeping salinization at a rate of about 2 ppm per year. Successful efforts to improve irrigation efficiency brought with them the danger of salt accumulation in the soil. A ten-year monitoring programme carried out by the Irrigation Extension Service at 250 sampling sites showed that appreciable salt accumulation indeed occurred during the rainless irrigation season. However, where annual rainfall is more than about 350 mm this salt accumulation is adequately leached out of the root zone by the winter rains. Soil salinity in the autumn is typically two to three times that in the spring, a level which does not affect yields adversely. In the drier regions of the country long-term increasing soil salinity has been observed, and leaching is required. This is generally accomplished during the pre-irrigation given in the spring, whose size is determined by the rainfall amount of the preceding winter. The increasing need to utilize brackish groundwater and recycled sewage effluent requires special measures, which have so far been successful. In particular, drip irrigation with its high average soil-water potential regime and partial wetting of the soil volume has achieved high yields under adverse conditions. However, the long-term trend of water-quality deterioration is unavoidable under present conditions, and will eventually necessitate either major changes in agricultural patterns or the provision of desalinated water for dilution of the irrigation water. (author)

  2. Comparing organic versus conventional soil management on soil respiration [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bence Mátyás

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Soil management has great potential to affect soil respiration. In this study, we investigated the effects of organic versus conventional soil management on soil respiration.  We measured the main soil physical-chemical properties from conventional and organic managed soil in Ecuador. Soil respiration was determined using alkaline absorption according to Witkamp.  Soil properties such as organic matter, nitrogen, and humidity, were comparable between conventional and organic soils in the present study, and in a further analysis there was no statically significant correlation with soil respiration. Therefore, even though organic farmers tend to apply more organic material to their fields, but this did not result in a significantly higher CO2 production in their soils in the present study.

  3. Changes in soil chemical properties as affected by pyrogenic organic matter amendment with different intensity and frequency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Ruzhen; Zhang, Yulan; Cerda Bolinches, Artemio; Cao, Mingming; Zhang, Yongyong; Yin, Jinfei; Jiang, Yong; Chen, Lijun

    2017-01-01

    Pyrogenic organic matter (PyOM) has long been used as a soil amendment to improve soil physicochemical properties. However, few studies simultaneously investigated both intensities and frequencies of PyOM addition on soil chemical properties of soil base cations, soil pH buffering capacity (pHBC),

  4. Agricultural management impact on physical and chemical functions of European peat soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piayda, Arndt; Tiemeyer, Bärbel; Dettmann, Ullrich; Bechtold, Michel; Buschmann, Christoph

    2017-04-01

    Peat soils offer numerous functions from the global to the local scale: they constitute the biggest terrestrial carbon storage on the globe, form important nutrient filters for catchments and provide hydrological buffer capacities for local ecosystems. Peat soils represent a large share of soils suitable for agriculture in temperate and boreal Europe, pressurized by increasing demands for production. Cultivated peat soils, however, show extreme mineralization rates of the organic substance and turn into hotspots for green house gas emissions, are highly vulnerable to land surface subsidence, soil and water quality deterioration and thus crop failure. The aim of this study is to analyse the impact of past agricultural management on soil physical and chemical functions of peat soils in six European countries. We conducted standardized soil mapping, soil physical/chemical analysis, ground water table monitoring and farm business surveys across 7 to 10 sites in Germany, The Netherlands, Denmark, Estonia, Finland and Sweden. The results show a strong impact of past agricultural management on peat soil functions across Europe. Peat soil under intensive arable land use consistently offer lowest bearing capacities in the upper 10 cm compared to extensive and intensive grassland use, which is a major limiting factor for successful agricultural practice on peat soils. The difference can be explained by root mat stabilization solely, since soil compaction in the upper 25cm is highest under arable land use. A strong decrease of available water capacity and saturated hydraulic conductivity is consequently observed under arable land use, further intensifying hydrological problems like ponding, drought stress and reductions of hydrological buffer capacities frequently present on cultivated peat soils. Soil carbon stocks clearly decrease with increasing land use intensity, showing highest carbon stocks on extensive grassland. This is supported by the degree of decomposition, which

  5. Waste management of actinide contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navratil, J.D.; Thompson, G.H.; Kochen, R.L.

    1978-01-01

    Waste management processes have been developed to reduce the volume of Rocky Flats soil contaminated with plutonium and americium and to prepare the contaminated fraction for terminal storage. The primary process consists of wet-screening. The secondary process uses attrition scrubbing and wet screening with additives. The tertiary process involves volume reduction of the contaminated fraction by calcination, or fixation by conversion to glass. The results of laboratory scale testing of the processes are described

  6. extensive and semi-intensive management systems in northern ghana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    management systems was positive and linearly correlated with eggs/oocysts of all the three intestinal parasites and became ... respectively was also positive but not significant under the semi-intensive system of management. Younger animals in the extensive ..... ruminants in Malaysia: Resistance to anthelmintics and the ...

  7. Influence of rainfall intensity on infiltration and deformation of unsaturated soil slopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Aristizabal, Edwin Fabian; Riveros Jerez, Carlos Alberto; Builes Brand, Manuel Alonso

    2011-01-01

    In order to improve the understanding of the influence of rainfall intensity on infiltration and deformation behavior of unsaturated soil slopes, numerical 2D analyses are carried out by a three-phase elasto-viscoplastic seepage-deformation coupled method. From the numerical results, it is shown that regardless of the saturated permeability of the soil slope, the increase in the pore water pressure (reduction in suction) during rainfall infiltration is localized close to the slope surface. In addition, the generation of the pore water pressure and the lateral displacement are mainly controlled by the ratio of the rainfall intensity to the saturated permeability of the soil.

  8. soil fertility management practices by smallholder farmers in vhembe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p2333147

    constraints associated with soil fertility management practices used by the farmers. ... nutrients. In addition, these drier areas often have highly degradable soils that are susceptible to soil erosion and eventual decline in soil fertility, especially under ... cases where the selected farm was a “community garden” (a group of.

  9. Sustainable agriculture, soil management and erosion from prehistoric times to 2100

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanwalleghem, Tom; Gómez, Jose Alfonso; Infante Amate, Juan; González Molina, Manuel; Fernández, David Soto; Guzmán, Gema; Vanderlinden, Karl; Laguna, Ana; Giráldez, Juan Vicente

    2015-04-01

    The rational use of soil requires the selection of management practices to take profit of the beneficial functions of plant growth, water and nutrient storage, and pollutants removal by filtering and decomposition without altering its properties. However, the first evidence of important and widespread erosion peaks can generally be found with the arrival of the first farmers all over the world. In areas with a long land-use history such as the Mediterranean, clear signs indicating the advanced degradation status of the landscape, such as heavily truncated soils, are visible throughout. Soil conservation practices are then aimed at reducing erosion to geological rates, in equilibrium with long-term soil formation rates, while maximizing agricultural production. The adoption of such practices in most areas of the world are as old as the earliest soil erosion episodes themselves. This work firstly reviews historical evidence linking soil management and soil erosion intensity, with examples from N Europe and the Mediterranean. In particular, work by the authors in olive orchards will be presented that shows how significant variations in soil erosion rates between could be linked to the historical soil management. The potential of historical documents for calibrating a soil erosion model is shown as the model, in this case RUSLE-based and combining tillage and water erosion, adequately represents the measured erosion rate dynamics. Secondly, results from present-day, long-term farm experiments in the EU are reviewed to evaluate the effect of different soil management practices on physical soil properties, such as bulk density, penetration resistance, aggregate stability, runoff coefficient or sediment yield. Finally, we reflect upon model and field data that indicate how future global climate change is expected to affect soil management and erosion and how the examples used above hold clues about sustainable historical management practices that can be used successfully

  10. An overview of soil water sensors for salinity & irrigation management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irrigation water management has to do with the appropriate application of water to soils, in terms of amounts, rates, and timing to satisfy crop water demands while protecting the soil and water resources from degradation. Accurate irrigation management is even more important in salt affected soils ...

  11. Myasthenic crisis patients who require intensive care unit management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, Hideya; Yamashita, Satoshi; Hirano, Teruyuki; Nakajima, Makoto; Kimura, En; Maeda, Yasushi; Uchino, Makoto

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this report was to investigate predictive factors that necessitate intensive care in myasthenic crisis (MC). We retrospectively reviewed MC patients at our institution and compared ICU and ward management groups. Higher MG-ADL scale scores, non-ocular initial symptoms, infection-triggered findings, and higher MGFA classification were observed more frequently in the ICU group. In patients with these prognostic factors, better outcomes may be obtained with early institution of intensive care. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Modeling critical zone processes in intensively managed environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Praveen; Le, Phong; Woo, Dong; Yan, Qina

    2017-04-01

    Processes in the Critical Zone (CZ), which sustain terrestrial life, are tightly coupled across hydrological, physical, biochemical, and many other domains over both short and long timescales. In addition, vegetation acclimation resulting from elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration, along with response to increased temperature and altered rainfall pattern, is expected to result in emergent behaviors in ecologic and hydrologic functions, subsequently controlling CZ processes. We hypothesize that the interplay between micro-topographic variability and these emergent behaviors will shape complex responses of a range of ecosystem dynamics within the CZ. Here, we develop a modeling framework ('Dhara') that explicitly incorporates micro-topographic variability based on lidar topographic data with coupling of multi-layer modeling of the soil-vegetation continuum and 3-D surface-subsurface transport processes to study ecological and biogeochemical dynamics. We further couple a C-N model with a physically based hydro-geomorphologic model to quantify (i) how topographic variability controls the spatial distribution of soil moisture, temperature, and biogeochemical processes, and (ii) how farming activities modify the interaction between soil erosion and soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics. To address the intensive computational demand from high-resolution modeling at lidar data scale, we use a hybrid CPU-GPU parallel computing architecture run over large supercomputing systems for simulations. Our findings indicate that rising CO2 concentration and air temperature have opposing effects on soil moisture, surface water and ponding in topographic depressions. Further, the relatively higher soil moisture and lower soil temperature contribute to decreased soil microbial activities in the low-lying areas due to anaerobic conditions and reduced temperatures. The decreased microbial relevant processes cause the reduction of nitrification rates, resulting in relatively lower nitrate

  13. A Conceptual Framework for Soil management and its effect on Soil Biodiversity in Organic and Low Input Farming

    OpenAIRE

    Koopmans, Dr. C.J.; Smeding, Dr. F.W.

    2008-01-01

    Learning how to manage beneficial soil biological processes may be a key step towards developing sustainable agricultural systems. We designed a conceptual framework linking soil management practices to important soil-life groups and soil fertility services like nutrient cycling, soil structure and disease suppression. We selected a necessary parameter set to gain insight between management, soil life and soil support services. The findings help to develop management practices that optimise y...

  14. Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy in Intensive Care Unit: Prevention, Diagnosis and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Masoud

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate diagnosis of Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy has substantial prognostic implications in an intensive care unit, given its increased mortality risk and association with life-threatening complications. This report seeks to discuss diagnostic modalities that can be useful in accurately differentiating Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy from Acute Coronary Syndrome, and also briefly discuss prevention and management of this cardiomyopathy in an intensive care unit. For critically ill Takotsubo patients, intensive clinicians can consider establishment of diagnosis by specific electrocardiograph changes, distinctive marked release of cardiac enzymes, characteristic echocardiograph findings, as well as invasive coronary angiography or noninvasive cardiac magnetic imaging.

  15. Regenerative role of seed banks following an intense soil disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzuriaga, Arantzazu L.; Escudero, Adrián; Olano, José Miguel; Loidi, Javier

    2005-02-01

    Our main aim was to determine the contribution of the seed bank to vegetation regeneration following a disturbance consisting in a deep ploughing and a thorough homogenisation of a perennial grassland. In the seed bank prior to disturbance, seed distribution through the vertical soil profile was evaluated to determine the initial seed species structure. Then, several characteristics of the shallow seed bank and the extant vegetation were evaluated prior and following field disturbance: seed species composition and abundance, and species composition of the aboveground vegetation. The contribution of seed rain versus seed bank was evaluated by means of the comparison of the vegetation developed in plots filled with sterilised soil (seed bank removal) and the vegetation developed in non-sterilised plots in the field. The distribution of seeds through the profile indicated a sharp decline in abundance with depth, and it was probably linked to propagule morphology, with small and rounded seeds proner to being buried deeper than larger seeds. In the grassland prior to disturbance, the aboveground vegetation and seed bank species composition showed very low similarity index, most likely because during the 5 years following field abandonment, sheep pressure had caused a faster change in aboveground vegetation species composition than in seed bank species composition. Ploughing and homogenisation of the grassland led to low seed abundance in the shallow soil layer caused by dilution of the seed bank. Regardless of impoverishment in seed abundance and species richness, comparison between sterilised and non-sterilised plots showed that the seed bank acted as an effective source of colonising species and determined the aboveground species composition. To summarise, this study outlines the importance of considering several characteristics of the seed bank, such as species composition and seed abundance, in the understanding of the function of seed bank and dynamics of the

  16. Effects of Soil Management Practices on Water Erosion under Natural Rainfall Conditions on a Humic Dystrudept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius Ferreira Chaves de Souza

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Water erosion is the main cause of soil degradation and is influenced by rainfall, soil, topography, land use, soil cover and management, and conservation practices. The objective of this study was to quantify water erosion in a Humic Dystrudept in two experiments. In experiment I, treatments consisted of different rates of fertilizer applied to the soil surface under no-tillage conditions. In experiment II, treatments consisted of a no-tillage in natural rangeland, burned natural rangeland and natural rangeland. Forage turnip, black beans, common vetch, and corn were used in rotation in the treatments with crops in the no-tillage during study period. The treatments with crops and the burned rangeland and natural rangeland were compared to a bare soil control, without cultivation and without fertilization. Increasing fertilization rates increased organic carbon content, soil resistance to disintegration, and the macropore volume of the soil, due to the increase in the dry mass of the crops, resulting in an important reduction in water erosion. The exponential model of the ŷ = ae-bx type satisfactorily described the reduction in water and soil losses in accordance with the increase in fertilization rate and also described the decrease in soil losses in accordance with the increase in dry mass of the crops. Water erosion occurred in the following increasing intensity: in natural rangeland, in cultivated natural rangeland, and in burned natural rangeland. Water erosion had less effect on water losses than on soil losses, regardless of the soil management practices.

  17. Soil type-depending effect of paddy management: composition and distribution of soil organic matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanski, Livia; Kölbl, Angelika; Lehndorff, Eva; Houtermans, Miriam; Schad, Peter; Zhang, Gang-Lin; Rahayu Utami, Sri; Kögel-Knabner, Ingrid

    2016-04-01

    Paddy soil management is assumed to promote soil organic matter accumulation and specifically lignin caused by the resistance of the aromatic lignin structure against biodegradation under anaerobic conditions during inundation of paddy fields. The present study investigates the effect of paddy soil management on soil organic matter composition compared to agricultural soils which are not used for rice production (non-paddy soils). A variety of major soil types, were chosen in Indonesia (Java), including Alisol, Andosol and Vertisol sites (humid tropical climate of Java, Indonesia) and in China Alisol sites (humid subtropical climate, Nanjing). This soils are typically used for rice cultivation and represent a large range of soil properties to be expected in Asian paddy fields. All topsoils were analysed for their soil organic matter composition by solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and lignin-derived phenols by CuO oxidation method. The soil organic matter composition, revealed by solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance, was similar for the above named different parent soil types (non-paddy soils) and was also not affected by the specific paddy soil management. The contribution of lignin-related carbon groups to total SOM was similar in the investigated paddy and non-paddy soils. A significant proportion of the total aromatic carbon in some paddy and non-paddy soils was attributed to the application of charcoal as a common management practise. The extraction of lignin-derived phenols revealed low VSC (vanillyl, syringyl, cinnamyl) values for all investigated soils, being typical for agricultural soils. An inherent accumulation of lignin-derived phenols due to paddy management was not found. Lignin-derived phenols seem to be soil type-dependent, shown by different VSC concentrations between the parent soil types. The specific paddy management only affects the lignin-derived phenols in Andosol-derived paddy soils which are characterized by

  18. Soil Management Plan for the Y-12 Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Construction activities at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant have often required the excavation or other management of soil within the facility. Because some of this soil may be contaminated, Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems) adopted specific policies to ensure the proper management of contaminated or potentially contaminated soil at the plant. Five types of contaminated or potentially contaminated soil are likely to be present at the Y-12 Plant: Soil that is within the boundaries of a Comprehensive Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Area of Contamination (AOC) or Operable Unit (OU); Soil that contains listed hazardous wastes; Soil that is within the boundaries of a RCRA Solid Waste Management Unit (SWMU); Soil that contains polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBS); Soil that contains low-level radioactive materials. The regulatory requirements associated with the five types of contaminated soil listed above are complex and will vary according to site conditions. This Soil Management Plan provides a standardized method for managers to determine the options available for selecting soil management scenarios associated with construction activities at the Y-12 Plant

  19. Enzyme activities and microbial indices of Mexican volcanic soils under different managements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pajares, S.; Gallardo, J. F.; Masciandaro, G.; Ceccanti, B.; Etchevers, J. D.; Marinari, S.

    2009-01-01

    Soils at the Mexican Trans-volcanic Belt are extremely important because the lack of agricultural land in overpopulated areas in Mexico. In addition, contents of soil organic matter (SOM) have been declining since the Mexican fields have been cultivated intensively. The aim of this work was to study how different agricultural management practices affect the SOM quality, using biochemical and microbiological parameters as indices. (Author)

  20. Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emily Moghaddas; Ken Hubbert

    2014-01-01

    When managing for resilient forests, each soil’s inherent capacity to resist and recover from changes in soil function should be evaluated relative to the anticipated extent and duration of soil disturbance. Application of several key principles will help ensure healthy, resilient soils: (1) minimize physical disturbance using guidelines tailored to specific soil types...

  1. How Do Managers Control Technology-Intensive Work?

    OpenAIRE

    Angelo Bernard Pinheiro

    2010-01-01

    Technology pervades every aspect of the modern business enterprise and demands new strategies for work management. Advances in internet and computing technologies, the emergence of the “knowledge worker”, globalization, resource scarcity, and intense competition have led corporations to accomplish their strategic goals and objectives through the implementation of projects. Project success is assured by the effective use of financial and human resources, a project management (PM) framework bac...

  2. Root Zone Sensors for Irrigation Management in Intensive Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochen Hemming

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Crop irrigation uses more than 70% of the world’s water, and thus, improving irrigation efficiency is decisive to sustain the food demand from a fast-growing world population. This objective may be accomplished by cultivating more water-efficient crop species and/or through the application of efficient irrigation systems, which includes the implementation of a suitable method for precise scheduling. At the farm level, irrigation is generally scheduled based on the grower’s experience or on the determination of soil water balance (weather-based method. An alternative approach entails the measurement of soil water status. Expensive and sophisticated root zone sensors (RZS, such as neutron probes, are available for the use of soil and plant scientists, while cheap and practical devices are needed for irrigation management in commercial crops. The paper illustrates the main features of RZS’ (for both soil moisture and salinity marketed for the irrigation industry and discusses how such sensors may be integrated in a wireless network for computer-controlled irrigation and used for innovative irrigation strategies, such as deficit or dual-water irrigation. The paper also consider the main results of recent or current research works conducted by the authors in Tuscany (Italy on the irrigation management of container-grown ornamental plants, which is an important agricultural sector in Italy.

  3. Sustainability of High Intensity Forest Management with Respect to Water QuaIity and Site Nutrient Reserves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virginia R. Tolbert; Carl C. Trettin; Dale W. Johnson; John W. Parsons; Allan E. Houston; David A. Mays

    2001-01-01

    Ensuring sustainability of intensively managed woody crops requires determining soil and water quality effects using a combination of field data and modeling projections. Plot- and catchrnent-scale research, models, and meta-analyses are addressing nutrient availability, site quality, and measures to increase short-rotation woody crop (SRWC) productivity and site...

  4. Nursing management and organizational ethics in the intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wlody, Ginger Schafer

    2007-02-01

    This article describes organizational ethics issues involved in nursing management of an intensive care unit. The intensive care team and medical center management have the dual responsibility to create an ethical environment in which to provide optimum patient care. Addressing organizational ethics is key to creating that ethical environment in the intensive care unit. During the past 15-20 yrs, increasing costs in health care, competitive markets, the effect of high technology, and global business changes have set the stage for business and healthcare organizational conflicts that affect the ethical environment. Studies show that critical care nurses experience moral distress and are affected by the ethical climate of both the intensive care unit and the larger organization. Thus, nursing moral distress may result in problems related to recruitment and retention of staff. Other issues with organizational ethics ramifications that may occur in the intensive care unit include patient safety issues (including those related to disruptive behavior), intensive care unit leadership style, research ethics, allocation of resources, triage, and other economic issues. Current organizational ethics conflicts are discussed, a professional practice model is described, and multidisciplinary recommendations are put forth.

  5. The effect of tillage intensity on soil structure and winter wheat root/shoot growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, Lars Juhl; Hansen, Elly Møller; Olesen, Jørgen E

    2008-01-01

    was followed during the growing seasons using spectral reflectance and mini-rhizotron measurements, respectively. A range of soil physical properties were measured. We found decreased early season shoot and root growth with decreasing tillage intensity. Differences diminished later in the growing season...... of this study was to investigate the effect of tillage intensity on crop growth dynamics and soil structure. A tillage experiment was established in autumn 2002 on two Danish sandy loams (Foulum and Flakkebjerg) in a cereal-based crop rotation. The tillage systems included in this study were direct drilling (D...... with decreasing tillage intensity for the first year winter wheat at Foulum. In general ploughing resulted in the highest grain yields. This study highlights the important interaction between soil structure and crop growth dynamics....

  6. China's numerical management system for reducing national energy intensity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Huimin; Zhao, Xiaofan; Yu, Yuqing; Wu, Tong; Qi, Ye

    2016-01-01

    In China, the national target for energy intensity reduction, when integrated with target disaggregation and information feedback systems, constitutes a numerical management system, which is a hallmark of modern governance. This paper points out the technical weaknesses of China's current numerical management system. In the process of target disaggregation, the national target cannot be fully disaggregated to local governments, sectors and enterprises without omissions. At the same time, governments at lower levels face pressure for reducing energy intensity that exceeds their respective jurisdictions. In the process of information feedback, information failure is inevitable due to statistical inaccuracy. Furthermore, the monitoring system is unable to correct all errors, and data verification plays a limited role in the examination system. To address these problems, we recommend that the government: use total energy consumption as the primary indicator of energy management; reform the accounting and reporting of energy statistics toward greater consistency, timeliness and transparency; clearly define the responsibility of the higher levels of government. - Highlights: •We assess drawbacks of China's numerical management system for energy intensity. •The national energy intensity target cannot be fully disaggregated without omissions. •Data distortion is due to failures in statistics, monitoring and examination system. •Lower-level governments’ ability to meet energy target is weaker than their pressure. •We provide three policy recommendations for China's policy-makers.

  7. Management of Tracheostomy: A Survey of Dutch Intensive Care Units

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veelo, Denise P.; Schultz, Marcus J.; Phoa, Kai Y. N.; Dongelmans, Dave A.; Binnekade, Jan M.; Spronk, Peter E.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine tracheostomy-management practices in Dutch intensive care units (ICUs) and post-ICU step-down facilities. METHODS: We surveyed the physician medical directors of all Dutch nonpediatric ICUs that have : 5 beds suitable for mechanical ventilation. The survey asked for

  8. A retrospective review of intensive care management of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Organophosphate (OP) compounds are used as insecticides. Given the widespread availability and use of these chemicals, OP poisoning is quite common following either accidental or intentional exposures. Immediate intensive care management can save lives in these patients. We aimed to investigate ...

  9. Soil Functional Zone Management: A Vehicle for Enhancing Production and Soil Ecosystem Services in Row-Crop Agroecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Alwyn; Kane, Daniel A; Ewing, Patrick M; Atwood, Lesley W; Jilling, Andrea; Li, Meng; Lou, Yi; Davis, Adam S; Grandy, A Stuart; Huerd, Sheri C; Hunter, Mitchell C; Koide, Roger T; Mortensen, David A; Smith, Richard G; Snapp, Sieglinde S; Spokas, Kurt A; Yannarell, Anthony C; Jordan, Nicholas R

    2016-01-01

    There is increasing global demand for food, bioenergy feedstocks and a wide variety of bio-based products. In response, agriculture has advanced production, but is increasingly depleting soil regulating and supporting ecosystem services. New production systems have emerged, such as no-tillage, that can enhance soil services but may limit yields. Moving forward, agricultural systems must reduce trade-offs between production and soil services. Soil functional zone management (SFZM) is a novel strategy for developing sustainable production systems that attempts to integrate the benefits of conventional, intensive agriculture, and no-tillage. SFZM creates distinct functional zones within crop row and inter-row spaces. By incorporating decimeter-scale spatial and temporal heterogeneity, SFZM attempts to foster greater soil biodiversity and integrate complementary soil processes at the sub-field level. Such integration maximizes soil services by creating zones of 'active turnover', optimized for crop growth and yield (provisioning services); and adjacent zones of 'soil building', that promote soil structure development, carbon storage, and moisture regulation (regulating and supporting services). These zones allow SFZM to secure existing agricultural productivity while avoiding or minimizing trade-offs with soil ecosystem services. Moreover, the specific properties of SFZM may enable sustainable increases in provisioning services via temporal intensification (expanding the portion of the year during which harvestable crops are grown). We present a conceptual model of 'virtuous cycles', illustrating how increases in crop yields within SFZM systems could create self-reinforcing feedback processes with desirable effects, including mitigation of trade-offs between yield maximization and soil ecosystem services. Through the creation of functionally distinct but interacting zones, SFZM may provide a vehicle for optimizing the delivery of multiple goods and services in

  10. Soil functional zone management: a vehicle for enhancing production and soil ecosystem services in row-crop agroecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alwyn eWilliams

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing global demand for food, bioenergy feedstocks and a wide variety of bio-based products. In response, agriculture has advanced production, but is increasingly depleting soil regulating and supporting ecosystem services. New production systems have emerged, such as no-tillage, that can enhance soil services but may limit yields. Moving forward, agricultural systems must reduce trade-offs between production and soil services. Soil functional zone management (SFZM is a novel strategy for developing sustainable production systems that attempts to integrate the benefits of conventional, intensive agriculture and no-tillage. SFZM creates distinct functional zones within crop row and inter-row spaces. By incorporating decimetre-scale spatial and temporal heterogeneity, SFZM attempts to foster greater soil biodiversity and integrate complementary soil processes at the sub-field level. Such integration maximizes soil services by creating zones of ‘active turnover’, optimized for crop growth and yield (provisioning services; and adjacent zones of ‘soil building’, that promote soil structure development, carbon storage and moisture regulation (regulating and supporting services. These zones allow SFZM to secure existing agricultural productivity while avoiding or minimizing trade-offs with soil ecosystem services. Moreover, the specific properties of SFZM may enable sustainable increases in provisioning services via temporal intensification (expanding the portion of the year during which harvestable crops are grown. We present a conceptual model of ‘virtuous cycles’, illustrating how increases in crop yields within SFZM systems could create self-reinforcing feedback processes with desirable effects, including mitigation of trade-offs between yield maximization and soil ecosystem services. Through the creation of functionally distinct but interacting zones, SFZM may provide a vehicle for optimizing the delivery of multiple

  11. How Do Managers Control Technology-Intensive Work?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Bernard Pinheiro

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Technology pervades every aspect of the modern business enterprise and demands new strategies for work management. Advances in internet and computing technologies, the emergence of the “knowledge worker”, globalization, resource scarcity, and intense competition have led corporations to accomplish their strategic goals and objectives through the implementation of projects. Project success is assured by the effective use of financial and human resources, a project management (PM framework backed by senior management, and controls spanning the PM spectrum of initiation; planning; implementation; monitoring, measurement, and control; and closing. As an essential function of management, ‘control’ may be accomplished through a PM Plan, a project-matrix organization, competent and motivated people, and appropriate management tools and techniques. A PM Plan conforming to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK framework incorporates controls for the key PM elements and, implemented properly, can assure project success

  12. Microbiological parameters as indicators of soil quality under various soil management and crop rotation systems in southern Brazil.

    OpenAIRE

    FRANCHINI, J. C.; CRISPINO, C. C.; SOUZA, R. A.; TORRES, E.; HUNGRIA, M.

    2006-01-01

    Metadata only record This article attempts to recognize soil parameters that can be used to monitor soil quality under different crop and soil management systems. The rates of CO2 emissions (soil respiration) were affected by variations in the sampling period, as well as in soil management and crop rotation. Considering all samples, CO2 emissions were 21% greater in conventional tillage. Soil microbial biomass was also influenced by sampling period and soil management, but not by crop rota...

  13. Effects of golf course management on subsurface soil properties in Iowa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streeter, Matthew T.; Schilling, Keith E.

    2018-05-01

    Currently, in the USA and especially in the Midwest region, urban expansion is developing turfgrass landscapes surrounding commercial sites, homes, and recreational areas on soils that have been agriculturally managed for decades. Often, golf courses are at the forefront of conversations concerning anthropogenic environmental impacts as they account for some of the most intensively managed soils in the world. Iowa golf courses provide an ideal location to evaluate whether golf course management is affecting the quality of soils at depth. Our study evaluated how soil properties relating to soil health and resiliency varied with depth at golf courses across Iowa and interpreted relationships of these properties to current golf course management, previous land use, and inherent soil properties. Systematic variation in soil properties including sand content, NO3, and soil organic matter (SOM) were observed with depth at six Iowa golf courses among three landform regions. Variability in sand content was identified between the 20 and 50 cm depth classes at all courses, where sand content decreased by as much as 37 %. Highest concentrations of SOM and NO3 were found in the shallowest soils, whereas total C and P variability was not related to golf course management. Sand content and NO3 were found to be directly related to golf course management, particularly at shallow depths. The effects of golf course management dissipated with depth and deeper soil variations were primarily due to natural geologic conditions. The two abovementioned soil properties were very noticeably altered by golf course management and may directly impact crop productivity, soil health, and water quality, and while NO3 may be altered relatively quickly in soil through natural processes, particle size of the soil may not be altered without extensive mitigation. Iowa golf courses continue to be developed in areas of land use change from historically native prairies and more recently agriculture to

  14. Strategies to address management challenges in larger intensive care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matlakala, M C; Bezuidenhout, M C; Botha, A D H

    2015-10-01

    To illustrate the need for and suggest strategies that will enhance sustainable management of a large intensive care unit (ICU). The challenges faced by intensive care nursing in South Africa are well documented. However, there appear to be no strategies available to assist nurses to manage large ICUs or for ICU managers to deal with problems as they arise. Data sources to illustrate the need for strategies were challenges described by ICU managers in the management of large ICUs. A purposive sample of managers was included in individual interviews during compilation of evidence regarding the challenges experienced in the management of large ICUs. The challenges were presented at the Critical Care Society of Southern Africa Congress held on 28 August to 2 September 2012 in Sun City North-West province, South Africa. Five strategies are suggested for the challenges identified: divide the units into sections; develop a highly skilled and effective nursing workforce to ensure delivery of quality nursing care; create a culture to retain an effective ICU nursing team; manage assets; and determine the needs of ICU nurses. ICUs need measures to drive the desired strategies into actions to continuously improve the management of the unit. Future research should be aimed at investigating the effectiveness of the strategies identified. This research highlights issues relating to large ICUs and the strategies will assist ICU managers to deal with problems related to large unit sizes, shortage of trained ICU nurses, use of agency nurses, shortage of equipment and supplies and stressors in the ICU. The article will make a contribution to the body of nursing literature on management of ICUs. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Forest Management Intensity Affects Aquatic Communities in Artificial Tree Holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petermann, Jana S; Rohland, Anja; Sichardt, Nora; Lade, Peggy; Guidetti, Brenda; Weisser, Wolfgang W; Gossner, Martin M

    2016-01-01

    Forest management could potentially affect organisms in all forest habitats. However, aquatic communities in water-filled tree-holes may be especially sensitive because of small population sizes, the risk of drought and potential dispersal limitation. We set up artificial tree holes in forest stands subject to different management intensities in two regions in Germany and assessed the influence of local environmental properties (tree-hole opening type, tree diameter, water volume and water temperature) as well as regional drivers (forest management intensity, tree-hole density) on tree-hole insect communities (not considering other organisms such as nematodes or rotifers), detritus content, oxygen and nutrient concentrations. In addition, we compared data from artificial tree holes with data from natural tree holes in the same area to evaluate the methodological approach of using tree-hole analogues. We found that forest management had strong effects on communities in artificial tree holes in both regions and across the season. Abundance and species richness declined, community composition shifted and detritus content declined with increasing forest management intensity. Environmental variables, such as tree-hole density and tree diameter partly explained these changes. However, dispersal limitation, indicated by effects of tree-hole density, generally showed rather weak impacts on communities. Artificial tree holes had higher water temperatures (on average 2°C higher) and oxygen concentrations (on average 25% higher) than natural tree holes. The abundance of organisms was higher but species richness was lower in artificial tree holes. Community composition differed between artificial and natural tree holes. Negative management effects were detectable in both tree-hole systems, despite their abiotic and biotic differences. Our results indicate that forest management has substantial and pervasive effects on tree-hole communities and may alter their structure and

  16. Characteristics and management options of crusting soils in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... to control the crusting. The relationship between crust thickness and soil physical and chemical properties and management practices were assessed using stepwise regression analysis. Soil crusting was largely related to soil aggregation, infiltration, fine sand fraction, cotton monocropping and crop residue incorporation.

  17. Using soil water sensors to improve irrigation management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irrigation water management has to do with the appropriate application of water to soils, in terms of amounts, rates, and timing to satisfy crop water demands while protecting the soil and water resources from degradation. In this regard, sensors can be used to monitor the soil water status; and som...

  18. Adaptation of intensive mental health intensive case management to rural communities in the Veterans Health Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Somaia

    2013-03-01

    There has been increasing concern in recent years about the availability of mental health services for people with serious mental illness in rural areas. To meet these needs the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) implemented the Rural Access Networks for Growth Enhancement (RANGE) program, in 2007, modeled on the Assertive Community Treatment (ACT) model. This study uses VA administrative data from the RANGE program (N = 343) to compare client characteristics at program entry, patterns of service delivery, and outcomes with those of Veterans who received services from the general VA ACT-like program (Mental Health Intensive Case Management (MHICM) (N = 3,077). Veterans in the rural program entered treatment with similar symptom severity, less likelihood of being diagnosed with schizophrenia and having had long-term hospitalization, but significantly higher suicidality index scores and greater likelihood of being dually diagnosed compared with those in the general program. RANGE Veterans live further away from their treatment teams but did not differ significantly in measures of face-to-face treatment intensity. Similar proportions of RANGE and MHICM Veterans were reported to have received rehabilitation services, crisis intervention and substance abuse treatment. The rural programs had higher scores on overall satisfaction with VA mental health care than general programs, slightly poorer outcomes on quality of life and on the suicidality index but no significant difference on other outcomes. These data demonstrate the clinical need, practical feasibility and potential effectiveness of providing intensive case management through small specialized case management teams in rural areas.

  19. A comprehensive approach to quality management of intensive care services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariharan, Seetharaman; Dey, Prasanta Kumar

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop a comprehensive framework for improving intensive care unit performance. The study introduces a quality management framework by combining cause and effect diagram and logical framework. An intensive care unit was identified for the study on the basis of its performance. The reasons for not achieving the desired performance were identified using a cause and effect diagram with the stakeholder involvement. A logical framework was developed using information from the cause and effect diagram and a detailed project plan was developed. The improvement projects were implemented and evaluated. Stakeholders identified various intensive care unit issues. Managerial performance, organizational processes and insufficient staff were considered major issues. A logical framework was developed to plan an improvement project to resolve issues raised by clinicians and patients. Improved infrastructure, state-of-the-art equipment, well maintained facilities, IT-based communication, motivated doctors, nurses and support staff, improved patient care and improved drug availability were considered the main project outputs for improving performance. The proposed framework is currently being used as a continuous quality improvement tool, providing a planning, implementing, monitoring and evaluating framework for the quality improvement measures on a sustainable basis. The combined cause and effect diagram and logical framework analysis is a novel and effective approach to improving intensive care performance. Similar approaches could be adopted in any intensive care unit. The paper focuses on a uniform model that can be applied to most intensive care units.

  20. The relative abundance of predicted genes associated with ammonia-oxidation, nitrate reduction, and biomass decomposition in mineral soil are altered by intensive timber harvest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushinski, R. M.; Zhou, Y.; Gentry, T. J.; Boutton, T. W.

    2017-12-01

    Forest ecosystems in the southern United States are substantially altered by anthropogenic disturbances such as timber harvest and land conversion, with effects being observed in carbon and nutrient pools as well as biogeochemical processes. Furthermore, the desire to develop renewable energy sources in the form of biomass extraction from logging residues may result in alterations in soil community structure and function. While the impact of forest management on soil physicochemical properties of the region has been studied, its' long-term effect on soil bacterial community composition and metagenomic potential is relatively unknown, especially at deeper soil depths. This study investigates how intensive organic matter removal intensities associated with timber harvest influence decadal-scale alterations in bacterial community structure and functional potential in the upper 1-m of the soil profile, 18 years post-harvest in a Pinus taeda L. forest of eastern Texas. Amplicon sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene was used in conjunction with soil chemical analyses to evaluate treatment-induced differences in community composition and potential environmental drivers of associated change. Furthermore, functional potential was assessed by using amplicon data to make metagenomic predictions. Results indicate that increasing organic matter removal intensity leads to altered community composition and the relative abundance of dominant OTUs annotated to Burkholderia and Aciditerrimonas. The relative abundance of predicted genes associated with dissimilatory nitrate reduction and denitrification were highest in the most intensively harvested treatment while genes involved in nitrification were significantly lower in the most intensively harvested treatment. Furthermore, genes associated with glycosyltransferases were significantly reduced with increasing harvest intensity while polysaccharide lyases increased. These results imply that intensive organic matter removal may create

  1. Impact of land management on soil structure and soil hydraulic properties

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kodešová, R.; Jirků, V.; Nikodem, A.; Mühlhanselová, M.; Žigová, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 12, - (2010) ISSN 1029-7006. [European Geosciences Union General Assembly 2010. 02.05.2010-07.05.2010, Wienna] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/08/0434 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : land management * soil structure * soil hydraulic properties * micromorphology Subject RIV: DF - Soil Science

  2. Soil health: a comparison between organically and conventionally managed arable soils in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diepeningen, van A.D.; Blok, W.J.; Korthals, G.W.; Bruggen, van A.H.C.; Ariena, H.C.

    2005-01-01

    A comparative study of 13 organic and 13 neighboring conventional arable farming systems was conducted in the Netherlands to determine the effect of management practices on chemical and biological soil properties and soil health. Soils were analyzed using a polyphasic approach combining traditional

  3. The Influence of Soil Moisture and Wind on Rainfall Distribution and Intensity in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, R. David; Lynn, Barry H.; Boone, Aaron; Tao, Wei-Kuo

    1998-01-01

    Land surface processes play a key role in water and energy budgets of the hydrological cycle. For example, the distribution of soil moisture will affect sensible and latent heat fluxes, which in turn may dramatically influence the location and intensity of precipitation. However, mean wind conditions also strongly influence the distribution of precipitation. The relative importance of soil moisture and wind on rainfall location and intensity remains uncertain. Here, we examine the influence of soil moisture distribution and wind distribution on precipitation in the Florida peninsula using the 3-D Goddard Cumulus Ensemble (GCE) cloud model Coupled with the Parameterization for Land-Atmosphere-Cloud Exchange (PLACE) land surface model. This study utilizes data collected on 27 July 1991 in central Florida during the Convection and Precipitation Electrification Experiment (CaPE). The idealized numerical experiments consider a block of land (the Florida peninsula) bordered on the east and on the west by ocean. The initial soil moisture distribution is derived from an offline PLACE simulation, and the initial environmental wind profile is determined from the CaPE sounding network. Using the factor separation technique, the precise contribution of soil moisture and wind to rainfall distribution and intensity is determined.

  4. Global patterns of plant root colonization intensity by mycorrhizal fungi explained by climate and soil chemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soudzilovskaia, N.A.; Douma, J.C.; Akhmetzhanova, A.A.; van Bodegom, P.M.; Cornwell, W.K.; Moens, E.J.; Treseder, K.K.; Tibbett, M.; Wang, Y.P.; Cornelissen, J.H.C.

    2015-01-01

    Aim Most vascular plants on Earth form mycorrhizae, a symbiotic relationship between plants and fungi. Despite the broad recognition of the importance of mycorrhizae for global carbon and nutrient cycling, we do not know how soil and climate variables relate to the intensity of colonization of plant

  5. Preferency of soil macrofauna to crops residue at different light intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUGIYARTO

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Every species of soil macrofauna prefer specific food and environment to be establish in it's habitat. Their diversity depend on variation of food and environmental condition. The aim of this research was to study the effect of different crop residue and light intensity on population of several soil macrofauna specieses. Mycrocosmos experiment was arranged in split-plot design with two treatments factor, i.e.: (1 crop residue (albizia, papaya, elephant grass, maize, sweet potato and without crop residue input, and (2 light intensities (0, 5, 15 and 25 Watt/day. The soil macrofauna were earthworms, millipedes, scarabids larvae and cocroachs. Results of the study showed that: (1 crop residues apllication increased soil macrofauna population, especially maize residue ( by 113%, respectively, compare to control tretment, (2 on higher light intensity, population of earthworms, scarabids larvae and cocroach decreased, but population of millipedes increased, (3 the highest macrofauna population was on maize residue and 5 Watt/day light intensity treatment.

  6. Soil Respiration in Semiarid Temperate Grasslands under Various Land Management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Wang

    Full Text Available Soil respiration, a major component of the global carbon cycle, is significantly influenced by land management practices. Grasslands are potentially a major sink for carbon, but can also be a source. Here, we investigated the potential effect of land management (grazing, clipping, and ungrazed enclosures on soil respiration in the semiarid grassland of northern China. Our results showed the mean soil respiration was significantly higher under enclosures (2.17 μmol.m(-2.s(-1 and clipping (2.06 μmol.m(-2.s(-1 than under grazing (1.65 μmol.m-(2.s(-1 over the three growing seasons. The high rates of soil respiration under enclosure and clipping were associated with the higher belowground net primary productivity (BNPP. Our analyses indicated that soil respiration was primarily related to BNPP under grazing, to soil water content under clipping. Using structural equation models, we found that soil water content, aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP and BNPP regulated soil respiration, with soil water content as the predominant factor. Our findings highlight that management-induced changes in abiotic (soil temperature and soil water content and biotic (ANPP and BNPP factors regulate soil respiration in the semiarid temperate grassland of northern China.

  7. Soil Respiration in Semiarid Temperate Grasslands under Various Land Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhen; Ji, Lei; Hou, Xiangyang; Schellenberg, Michael P

    2016-01-01

    Soil respiration, a major component of the global carbon cycle, is significantly influenced by land management practices. Grasslands are potentially a major sink for carbon, but can also be a source. Here, we investigated the potential effect of land management (grazing, clipping, and ungrazed enclosures) on soil respiration in the semiarid grassland of northern China. Our results showed the mean soil respiration was significantly higher under enclosures (2.17 μmol.m(-2).s(-1)) and clipping (2.06 μmol.m(-2).s(-1)) than under grazing (1.65 μmol.m-(2).s(-1)) over the three growing seasons. The high rates of soil respiration under enclosure and clipping were associated with the higher belowground net primary productivity (BNPP). Our analyses indicated that soil respiration was primarily related to BNPP under grazing, to soil water content under clipping. Using structural equation models, we found that soil water content, aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP) and BNPP regulated soil respiration, with soil water content as the predominant factor. Our findings highlight that management-induced changes in abiotic (soil temperature and soil water content) and biotic (ANPP and BNPP) factors regulate soil respiration in the semiarid temperate grassland of northern China.

  8. Managing soil moisture on waste burial sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, J.E.; Ratzlaff, T.D.

    1991-11-01

    Shallow land burial is a common method of disposing of industrial, municipal, and low-level radioactive waste. The exclusion of water from buried wastes is a primary objective in designing and managing waste disposal sites. If wastes are not adequately isolated, water from precipitation may move through the landfill cover and into the wastes. The presence of water in the waste zone may promote the growth of plant roots to that depth and result in the transport of toxic materials to above-ground foliage. Furthermore, percolation of water through the waste zone may transport contaminants into ground water. This report presents results from a field study designed to assess the the potential for using vegetation to deplete soil moisture and prevent water from reaching buried wastes at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Our results show that this approach may provide an economical means of limiting the intrusion of water on waste sites

  9. [Interest of psychiatric guidelines in managing agitation in intensive care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazignac, Coralie; Ricou, Bara; Dan, Liviu; Virgillito, Salvatore; Adam, Eric; Seyedi, Majid; Cicotti, Andrei; Azi, Amine; Damsa, Cristian

    2007-02-14

    This paper discusses the importance of psychiatric guidelines and the position of the psychiatrist in the management of agitation in the intensive care unit. The use of psychiatric validated scales to assess agitation seems to ameliorate the quality of care in psychiatry, but also in intensive care. Psychiatric experts' recommendations for managing agitation are given, which is useful to create an open discussion with the intensivists. The use of sedative medication to protect the patient, staff and to prevent an escalation of violence remains a personal choice for each practitioner, depending on individual patient needs and context. In the treatment of agitated patients, an equilibrium needs to be found between the subjective dimension and the available data from evidence based medicine.

  10. Remote Sensing of Soils for Environmental Assessment and Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGloria, Stephen D.; Irons, James R.; West, Larry T.

    2014-01-01

    The next generation of imaging systems integrated with complex analytical methods will revolutionize the way we inventory and manage soil resources across a wide range of scientific disciplines and application domains. This special issue highlights those systems and methods for the direct benefit of environmental professionals and students who employ imaging and geospatial information for improved understanding, management, and monitoring of soil resources.

  11. Light fraction of soil organic matter under different management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study on light fraction organic matter was carried out on the soil from three different management systems namely; Gmelina arborea, Tectona grandis and Leucaena leucocephala plantations in the University of Agriculture, Abeokuta Nigeria. Soil samples were collected in each of the three management site at five auger ...

  12. Managing cultivated pastures for improving soil quality in South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There are concerns that soils under pastures in certain regions of South Africa are degrading as a result of mismanagement, which include practising continuous tillage, improper grazing management, injudicious application of fertilisers and poor irrigation management. Soil quality indicators, which include physical, ...

  13. Energy resource management for energy-intensive manufacturing industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenner, C.W.; Levangie, J.

    1981-10-01

    A program to introduce energy resource management into an energy-intensive manufacturing industry is presented. The food industry (SIC No. 20) was chosen and 20 companies were selected for interviews, but thirteen were actually visited. The methodology for this program is detailed. Reasons for choosing the food industry are described. The substance of the information gained and the principal conclusions drawn from the interviews are given. Results of the model Energy Resource Management Plan applied to three companies are compiled at length. Strategies for dissemination of the information gained are described. (MCW)

  14. Soil physico-hydrical properties resulting from the management in Integrated Production Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Carlos Auler

    Full Text Available Anthropic action, such as the soil use and management systems, promote changes in the soil structure. These changes might hamper the development of plants in soil management practices that involve its mobilization, and the negative effects might be increased due to intensive use. The aim of this study was to evaluate the physico-hydrical properties of a Haplohumox in integrated production systems under different soil managements. The soil superficial (0.0-0.10 m and sub-superficial (0.10-0.20 m layers were evaluated in the different systems: conventional tillage (CT, minimum tillage (MT, no-tillage (NT and chiseled no-tillage (CNT, taking into consideration the annual ryegrass cropped for different uses [cover crop (C, grazing (G and silage (S] during the winter. Soil bulk density (Db, total porosity (TP, macro (Ma and microporosity (Mi, water retention curves (SWRC and water retention due to pore size (r were determined. The annual ryegrass used as C produced lower Db and Mi and higher TP and Ma in CT, MT and CNT systems. No difference was verified between G and S in any of the management systems or soil layers. The superficial layer SWRC presented similar behavior regarding CT, MT and CNT. Under NT, C resulted in higher water retention. However, G and S provided higher water retention due to the pore size in this system.

  15. Soil management planning for military installations: Strategy for identifying contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makdisi, R.S.; Baskin, D.A.; Downey, D.; Taffinder, S.A.

    1992-01-01

    Numerous federal and state regulations mandate the proper handling and disposal and/or treatment of contaminated soils. The Land Disposal Ban and the increasing lack of new or proximal land disposal facilities, coupled with the increasing liability of off-site disposal, have created a need for altering the traditional methods of managing contaminated sods. To delineate soil management decisions, a Soil Management Plan (SMP) was developed which incorporates the substantive requirements of CERCLA/SARA and RCRA into the ongoing base activities (i.e., construction projects, utility repairs and maintenance) and other environmental projects (i.e., underground storage tank removals) that may involve contaminated soils. The decision-making process is developed to guide base personnel in recognizing contamination, following proper sampling and temporary storage procedures, preventing unnecessary human exposure and isolating soils for removal off-site or treatment on-site. The SMP also contains a comprehensive review of soil remediation technologies, such as biological treatment, soil vapor extraction, soil washing, biofiltering, thermal desorption, soil stabilization/solidification, chemical/physical treatment and incineration. Contaminant types expected at the federal military facility are cross-referenced to the appropriate remediation technologies to determine the specific base needs for a soil treatment unit. An example of a conceptual design for a hydrocarbon-contaminated soil treatment unit is presented for a base where underground fuel tanks are the principal source of soil contamination

  16. Relationship between intensity of soil-transmitted helminth infections and anemia during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larocque, Renee; Casapia, Martin; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Gyorkos, Theresa W

    2005-10-01

    A direct relationship exists between the intensity of hookworm infection and blood loss. Other parasites may also contribute to blood loss. Our objective was to assess the relationship between the intensity of soil-transmitted helminth infections and anemia in pregnant women in a highly endemic area of Peru. Recruitment occurred between April and November 2003. Overall, 47.31% of 1,042 women had anemia (hemoglobin anemia. However, those infected with moderate and heavy intensities of hookworm infection (OR = 1.84; 95% CI: 1.06, 3.17) and those with moderate and heavy intensities of both hookworm and Trichuris infections (OR = 2.13; 95% CI: 1.10, 4.13) were more likely to suffer from anemia than women having no or light intensities. These results support routine anthelminthic treatment within prenatal care programs in highly endemic areas.

  17. Temporal and spatial variations of soil CO2, CH4 and N2O fluxes at three differently managed grasslands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Imer

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A profound understanding of temporal and spatial variabilities of soil carbon dioxide (CO2, methane (CH4 and nitrous oxide (N2O fluxes between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere is needed to reliably quantify these fluxes and to develop future mitigation strategies. For managed grassland ecosystems, temporal and spatial variabilities of these three soil greenhouse gas (GHG fluxes occur due to changes in environmental drivers as well as fertilizer applications, harvests and grazing. To assess how such changes affect soil GHG fluxes at Swiss grassland sites, we studied three sites along an altitudinal gradient that corresponds to a management gradient: from 400 m a.s.l. (intensively managed to 1000 m a.s.l. (moderately intensive managed to 2000 m a.s.l. (extensively managed. The alpine grassland was included to study both effects of extensive management on CH4 and N2O fluxes and the different climate regime occurring at this altitude. Temporal and spatial variabilities of soil GHG fluxes and environmental drivers on various timescales were determined along transects of 16 static soil chambers at each site. All three grasslands were N2O sources, with mean annual soil fluxes ranging from 0.15 to 1.28 nmol m−2 s−1. Contrastingly, all sites were weak CH4 sinks, with soil uptake rates ranging from −0.56 to −0.15 nmol m−2 s−1. Mean annual soil and plant respiration losses of CO2, measured with opaque chambers, ranged from 5.2 to 6.5 μmol m−2 s−1. While the environmental drivers and their respective explanatory power for soil N2O emissions differed considerably among the three grasslands (adjusted r2 ranging from 0.19 to 0.42, CH4 and CO2 soil fluxes were much better constrained (adjusted r2 ranging from 0.46 to 0.80 by soil water content and air temperature, respectively. Throughout the year, spatial heterogeneity was particularly high for soil N2O and CH4 fluxes. We found permanent hot spots for soil N2O emissions as well as

  18. Monitoring changes in soil carbon resulting from intensive production, a non-traditional agricultural methodology.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dwyer, Brian P.

    2013-03-01

    New Mexico State University and a group of New Mexico farmers are evaluating an innovative agricultural technique they call Intensive Production (IP). In contrast to conventional agricultural practice, IP uses intercropping, green fallowing, application of soil amendments and soil microbial inocula to sequester carbon as plant biomass, resulting in improved soil quality. Sandia National Laboratories role was to identify a non-invasive, cost effective technology to monitor soil carbon changes. A technological review indicated that Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) best met the farmers objectives. Sandia partnered with Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to analyze farmers test plots using a portable LIBS developed at LANL. Real-time LIBS field sample analysis was conducted and grab samples were collected for laboratory comparison. The field and laboratory results correlated well implying the strong potential for LIBS as an economical field scale analytical tool for analysis of elements such as carbon, nitrogen, and phosphate.

  19. Soil tillage conservation and its effect on erosion control, water management and carbon sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusu, Dr.; Gus, Dr.; Bogdan, Dr.; Moraru, Dr.; Pop, Dr.; Clapa, Dr.; Pop, Drd.

    2009-04-01

    The energetic function of the soil expressed through the potential energy accumulated through humus, the biogeochemical function (the circuit of the nutrient elements) are significantly influenced by its hydrophysical function and especially by the state of the bedding- consolidation, soil capacity of retaining an optimal quantity of water, and then its gradual disponibility for plant consumption. The understanding of soil functions and management including nutrient production, stocking, filtering and transforming minerals, water , organic matter , gas circuit and furnishing breeding material, all make the basis of human activity, Earth's past, present and especially future. The minimum tillage soil systems - paraplow, chisel or rotary grape - are polyvalent alternatives for basic preparation, germination bed preparation and sowing, for fields and crops with moderate loose requirements being optimized technologies for: soil natural fertility activation and rationalization, reduction of erosion, increasing the accumulation capacity for water and realization of sowing in the optimal period. By continuously applying for 10 years the minimum tillage system in a crop rotation: corn - soy-bean - wheat - potato / rape, an improvement in physical, hydro-physical and biological properties of soil was observed, together with the rebuilt of structure and increase of water permeability of soil. The minimum tillage systems ensure an adequate aerial-hydrical regime for the biological activity intensity and for the nutrients solubility equilibrium. The vegetal material remaining at the soil surface or superficially incorporated has its contribution to intensifying the biological activity, being an important resource of organic matter. The minimum tillage systems rebuild the soil structure, improving the global drainage of soil which allows a rapid infiltration of water in soil. The result is a more productive soil, better protected against wind and water erosion and needing less

  20. Ecosystem services in agricultural landscapes: a spatially explicit approach to support sustainable soil management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forouzangohar, Mohsen; Crossman, Neville D; MacEwan, Richard J; Wallace, D Dugal; Bennett, Lauren T

    2014-01-01

    Soil degradation has been associated with a lack of adequate consideration of soil ecosystem services. We demonstrate a broadly applicable method for mapping changes in the supply of two priority soil ecosystem services to support decisions about sustainable land-use configurations. We used a landscape-scale study area of 302 km(2) in northern Victoria, south-eastern Australia, which has been cleared for intensive agriculture. Indicators representing priority soil services (soil carbon sequestration and soil water storage) were quantified and mapped under both a current and a future 25-year land-use scenario (the latter including a greater diversity of land uses and increased perennial crops and irrigation). We combined diverse methods, including soil analysis using mid-infrared spectroscopy, soil biophysical modelling, and geostatistical interpolation. Our analysis suggests that the future land-use scenario would increase the landscape-level supply of both services over 25 years. Soil organic carbon content and water storage to 30 cm depth were predicted to increase by about 11% and 22%, respectively. Our service maps revealed the locations of hotspots, as well as potential trade-offs in service supply under new land-use configurations. The study highlights the need to consider diverse land uses in sustainable management of soil services in changing agricultural landscapes.

  1. Enhancing the Biodiversity of Ditches in Intensively Managed UK Farmland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalind F Shaw

    Full Text Available Drainage ditches, either seasonally flooded or permanent, are commonly found on intensively managed lowland farmland in the UK. They are potentially important for wetland biodiversity but, despite their ubiquity, information on their biodiversity and management in the wider countryside is scarce. We surveyed 175 ditches for their physical and chemical characteristics, spatial connectivity, plant communities and aquatic invertebrates in an area of intensively managed farmland in Oxfordshire, UK and collected information on ditch management from farmer interviews. Water depth and shade had a small impact on the diversity of plant and invertebrate communities in ditches. Increased shade over the ditch channel resulted in reduced taxonomic richness of both channel vegetation and aquatic invertebrates and channel vegetation cover was lower at shaded sites. Invertebrate taxonomic richness was higher when water was deeper. Spatial connectivity had no detectable impact on the aquatic invertebrate or plant communities found in ditches. The number of families within the orders Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera and Trichoptera (EPT, which contain many pollution-sensitive species, declined with decreasing pH of ditch water. As time since dredging increased, the number of EPT families increased in permanent ditches but decreased in temporary ditches. Whether or not a ditch was in an agri-environment scheme had little impact on the reported management regime or biodiversity value of the ditch. Measures for increasing the amount of water in ditches, by increasing the water depth or promoting retention of water in ditches, could increase the biodiversity value of ditches in agricultural land. Some temporary ditches for specialised species should be retained. Reducing the amount of shade over narrow ditches by managing adjacent hedgerows is also likely to increase the species diversity of plant and invertebrate communities within the ditch. We recommend that to preserve

  2. Enhancing the Biodiversity of Ditches in Intensively Managed UK Farmland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Rosalind F; Johnson, Paul J; Macdonald, David W; Feber, Ruth E

    2015-01-01

    Drainage ditches, either seasonally flooded or permanent, are commonly found on intensively managed lowland farmland in the UK. They are potentially important for wetland biodiversity but, despite their ubiquity, information on their biodiversity and management in the wider countryside is scarce. We surveyed 175 ditches for their physical and chemical characteristics, spatial connectivity, plant communities and aquatic invertebrates in an area of intensively managed farmland in Oxfordshire, UK and collected information on ditch management from farmer interviews. Water depth and shade had a small impact on the diversity of plant and invertebrate communities in ditches. Increased shade over the ditch channel resulted in reduced taxonomic richness of both channel vegetation and aquatic invertebrates and channel vegetation cover was lower at shaded sites. Invertebrate taxonomic richness was higher when water was deeper. Spatial connectivity had no detectable impact on the aquatic invertebrate or plant communities found in ditches. The number of families within the orders Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera and Trichoptera (EPT), which contain many pollution-sensitive species, declined with decreasing pH of ditch water. As time since dredging increased, the number of EPT families increased in permanent ditches but decreased in temporary ditches. Whether or not a ditch was in an agri-environment scheme had little impact on the reported management regime or biodiversity value of the ditch. Measures for increasing the amount of water in ditches, by increasing the water depth or promoting retention of water in ditches, could increase the biodiversity value of ditches in agricultural land. Some temporary ditches for specialised species should be retained. Reducing the amount of shade over narrow ditches by managing adjacent hedgerows is also likely to increase the species diversity of plant and invertebrate communities within the ditch. We recommend that to preserve or enhance the

  3. Heavy metal dynamics in the soil-leaf-fruit system under intensive apple cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murtić Senad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the major problems confronting agricultural production is heavy metal contamination of agricultural soils, which imposes considerable limitations on productivity and leads to great consumer health and safety concerns about the products obtained on these soils. The objective of this study was to evaluate heavy metal dynamics in the soil-leaf-fruit system in an intensive apple cv. 'Idared' planting located in the Municipality of Goražde. Heavy metal contents in the soil samples and plant material were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry using a Shimadzu 7000 AA device, according to the instructions specified in the ISO 11047 method. The dynamics of the heavy metals analyzed, excepting zinc, in the soil-leaf-fruit system was characterized by relatively high total levels of heavy metals in the soil and a very low degree of their accumulation in the leaves and in particular the fruits. No fruit sample was found to have toxic levels of any of the heavy metals analyzed. In terms of soil contamination, this suggests the suitability of the study location for safe apple fruit production.

  4. Intensive management in grasslands causes diffuse water pollution at the farm scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peukert, Sabine; Griffith, Bruce A; Murray, Phillip J; Macleod, Christopher J A; Brazier, Richard E

    2014-11-01

    Arable land use is generally assumed to be the largest contributor to agricultural diffuse pollution. This study adds to the growing evidence that conventional temperate intensively managed lowland grasslands contribute significantly to soil erosion and diffuse pollution rates. This is the first grassland study to monitor hydrological characteristics and multiple pollutant fluxes (suspended sediment [SS] and the macronutrients: total oxidized nitrogen-N [TON], total phosphorus [TP], and total carbon [TC]) at high temporal resolution (monitoring up to every 15 min) over 1 yr. Monitoring was conducted across three fields (6.5-7.5 ha) on the North Wyke Farm Platform, UK. The estimated annual erosion rates (up to 527.4 kg ha), TP losses (up to 0.9 kg ha), and TC losses (up to 179 kg ha) were similar to or exceeded the losses reported for other grassland, mixed land-use, and arable sites. Annual yields of TON (up to 3 kg ha) were less than arable land-use fluxes and earlier grassland N studies, an important result as the study site is situated within a Nitrate Vulnerable Zone. The high-resolution monitoring allowed detailed "system's functioning" understanding of hydrological processes, mobilization- transport pathways of individual pollutants, and the changes of the relative importance of diffuse pollutants through flow conditions and time. Suspended sediment and TP concentrations frequently exceeded water quality guidelines recommended by the European Freshwater Fisheries Directive (25 mg L) and the European Water Framework Directive (0.04 mg soluble reactive P L), suggesting that intensively managed grasslands pose a significant threat to receiving surface waters. Such sediment and nutrient losses from intensively managed grasslands should be acknowledged in land management guidelines and advice for future compliance with surface water quality standards. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of

  5. From Process Understanding Via Soil Functions to Sustainable Soil Management - A Systemic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollschlaeger, U.; Bartke, S.; Bartkowski, B.; Daedlow, K.; Helming, K.; Kogel-Knabner, I.; Lang, B.; Rabot, E.; Russell, D.; Stößel, B.; Weller, U.; Wiesmeier, M.; Rabot, E.; Vogel, H. J.

    2017-12-01

    Fertile soils are central resources for the production of biomass and the provision of food and energy. A growing world population and latest climate targets lead to an increasing demand for both, food and bio-energy, which requires preserving and improving the long-term productivity of soils as a bio-economic resource. At the same time, other soil functions and ecosystem services need to be maintained: filter for clean water, carbon sequestration, provision and recycling of nutrients, and habitat for biological activity. All these soil functions result from the interaction of a multitude of physical, chemical and biological processes that are not yet sufficiently understood. In addition, we lack understanding about the interplay between the socio-economic system and the soil system and how soil functions benefit human wellbeing. Hence, a solid and integrated assessment of soil quality requires the consideration of the ensemble of soil functions and its relation to soil management to finally be able to develop site-specific options for sustainable soil management. We present an integrated modeling approach that investigates the influence of soil management on the ensemble of soil functions. It is based on the mechanistic relationships between soil functional attributes, each explained by a network of interacting processes as derived from scientific evidence. As the evidence base required for feeding the model is for the most part stored in the existing scientific literature, another central component of our work is to set up a public "knowledge-portal" providing the infrastructure for a community effort towards a comprehensive knowledge base on soil processes as a basis for model developments. The connection to the socio-economic system is established using the Drivers-Pressures-Impacts-States-Responses (DPSIR) framework where our improved understanding about soil ecosystem processes is linked to ecosystem services and resource efficiency via the soil functions.

  6. Using soil quality indicators for monitoring sustainable forest management

    Science.gov (United States)

    James A. Burger; Garland Gray; D. Andrew Scott

    2010-01-01

    Most private and public forest land owners and managers are compelled to manage their forests sustainably, which means management that is economically viable,environmentally sound, and socially acceptable. To meet this mandate, the USDA Forest Service protects the productivity of our nation’s forest soils by monitoring and evaluating management activities to ensure...

  7. Intensive Care Unit Nurses' Beliefs About Delirium Assessment and Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosterhouse, Kimberly J; Vincent, Catherine; Foreman, Marquis D; Gruss, Valerie A; Corte, Colleen; Berger, Barbara

    2016-10-01

    Delirium, the most frequent complication of hospitalized older adults, particularly in intensive care units (ICUs), can result in increased mortality rates and length of stay. Nurses are neither consistently identifying nor managing delirium in these patients. The purpose of this study was to explore ICU nurses' identification of delirium, actions they would take for patients with signs or symptoms of delirium, and beliefs about delirium assessment and management. In this cross-sectional study using qualitative descriptive methods guided by the theory of planned behavior, 30 ICU nurses' responses to patient vignettes depicting different delirium subtypes were explored. Descriptive and content analyses revealed that nurses did not consistently identify delirium; their actions varied in different vignettes. Nurses believed that they needed adequate staffing, balanced workload, interprofessional collaboration, and established policy and protocols to identify and manage delirium successfully. Research is needed to determine if implementing these changes increases recognition and decreases consequences of delirium. ©2016 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  8. RESOURCE MANAGEMENT AMONG INTENSIVE CARE NURSES: AN ETHNOGRAPHIC STUDY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydari, Abbas; Najar, Ali Vafaee; Bakhshi, Mahmoud

    2015-12-01

    Nurses are the main users of supplies and equipment applied in the Intensive Care Units (ICUs) which are high-priced and costly. Therefore, understanding ICU nurses' experiences about resource management contributes to the better control of the costs. This study aimed to investigate the culture of nurses' working environment regarding the resource management in the ICUs in Iran. In this study, a focused ethnographic method was used. Twenty-eight informants among ICU nurses and other professional individuals were purposively selected and interviewed. As well, 400 hours of ethnographic observations as a participant observer was used for data gathering. Data analysis was performed using the methods described by Miles and Huberman (1994). Two main themes describing the culture of ICU nurses regarding resource management included (a) consumption monitoring and auditing, and (b) prudent use. The results revealed that the efforts for resource management are conducted in the conditions of scarcity and uncertainty in supply. ICU nurses had a sense of futurism in the supply and use of resources in the unit and do the planning through taking the rules and guidelines as well as the available resources and their values into account. Improper storage of some supplies and equipment was a reaction to this uncertain condition among nurses. To manage the resources effectively, improvement of supply chain management in hospital seems essential. It is also necessary to hold educational classes in order to enhance the nurses' awareness on effective supply chain and storage of the items in the unit stock.

  9. Moditored unsaturated soil transport processes as a support for large scale soil and water management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanclooster, Marnik

    2010-05-01

    The current societal demand for sustainable soil and water management is very large. The drivers of global and climate change exert many pressures on the soil and water ecosystems, endangering appropriate ecosystem functioning. The unsaturated soil transport processes play a key role in soil-water system functioning as it controls the fluxes of water and nutrients from the soil to plants (the pedo-biosphere link), the infiltration flux of precipitated water to groundwater and the evaporative flux, and hence the feed back from the soil to the climate system. Yet, unsaturated soil transport processes are difficult to quantify since they are affected by huge variability of the governing properties at different space-time scales and the intrinsic non-linearity of the transport processes. The incompatibility of the scales between the scale at which processes reasonably can be characterized, the scale at which the theoretical process correctly can be described and the scale at which the soil and water system need to be managed, calls for further development of scaling procedures in unsaturated zone science. It also calls for a better integration of theoretical and modelling approaches to elucidate transport processes at the appropriate scales, compatible with the sustainable soil and water management objective. Moditoring science, i.e the interdisciplinary research domain where modelling and monitoring science are linked, is currently evolving significantly in the unsaturated zone hydrology area. In this presentation, a review of current moditoring strategies/techniques will be given and illustrated for solving large scale soil and water management problems. This will also allow identifying research needs in the interdisciplinary domain of modelling and monitoring and to improve the integration of unsaturated zone science in solving soil and water management issues. A focus will be given on examples of large scale soil and water management problems in Europe.

  10. [Quality assurance and quality management in intensive care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notz, K; Dubb, R; Kaltwasser, A; Hermes, C; Pfeffer, S

    2015-11-01

    Treatment success in hospitals, particularly in intensive care units, is directly tied to quality of structure, process, and outcomes. Technological and medical advancements lead to ever more complex treatment situations with highly specialized tasks in intensive care nursing. Quality criteria that can be used to describe and correctly measure those highly complex multiprofessional situations have only been recently developed and put into practice.In this article, it will be shown how quality in multiprofessional teams can be definded and assessed in daily clinical practice. Core aspects are the choice of a nursing theory, quality assurance measures, and quality management. One possible option of quality assurance is the use of standard operating procedures (SOPs). Quality can ultimately only be achieved if professional groups think beyond their boundaries, minimize errors, and establish and live out instructions and SOPs.

  11. Effects of grassland management on the emission of methane from grassland on peat soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Dasselaar, A. [Dept. of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, Wageningen Agricultural Univ. (Netherlands); Oenema, O. [NMI, Wageningen (Netherlands)

    1995-11-01

    Net methane (CH{sub 4}) emissions from managed grassland on peat soils in the Netherlands have been monitored with vented closed flux chambers in the period January - June 1994. Net CH{sub 4} emissions from two intensively managed grasslands were low, in general less than 0.1 mg CH{sub 4} m{sup -2} d{sup -l}. On these sites, the effect of management was negligibly small. CH{sub 4} emission from three extensively managed grasslands in a nature preserve ranged from 0 to 185 mg CH{sub 4} m{sup -2} d{sup -l}. The results presented here indicate that CH{sub 4} emissions are 2-3 orders of magnitude higher on extensively managed grasslands than on intensively managed grasslands. 2 figs., 6 refs.

  12. Assessing the dynamics of the upper soil layer relative to soil management practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatfield, J.; Wacha, K.; Dold, C.

    2017-12-01

    The upper layer of the soil is the critical interface between the soil and the atmosphere and is the most dynamic in response to management practices. One of the soil properties most reflective to changes in management is the stability of the aggregates because this property controls infiltration of water and exchange of gases. An aggregation model has been developed based on the factors that control how aggregates form and the forces which degrade aggregates. One of the major factors for this model is the storage of carbon into the soil and the interaction with the soil biological component. To increase soil biology requires a stable microclimate that provides food, water, shelter, and oxygen which in turn facilitates the incorporation of organic material into forms that can be combined with soil particles to create stable aggregates. The processes that increase aggregate size and stability are directly linked the continual functioning of the biological component which in turn changes the physical and chemical properties of the soil. Soil aggregates begin to degrade as soon as there is no longer a supply of organic material into the soil. These processes can range from removal of organic material and excessive tillage. To increase aggregation of the upper soil layer requires a continual supply of organic material and the biological activity that incorporates organic material into substances that create a stable aggregate. Soils that exhibit stable soil aggregates at the surface have a prolonged infiltration rate with less runoff and a gas exchange that ensures adequate oxygen for maximum biological activity. Quantifying the dynamics of the soil surface layer provides a quantitative understanding of how management practices affect aggregate stability.

  13. Soil nitrate testing supports nitrogen management in irrigated annual crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia A. Lazicki

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Soil nitrate (NO3− tests are an integral part of nutrient management in annual crops. They help growers make field-specific nitrogen (N fertilization decisions, use N more efficiently and, if necessary, comply with California's Irrigated Lands Regulatory Program, which requires an N management plan and an estimate of soil NO3− from most growers. As NO3− is easily leached into deeper soil layers and groundwater by rain and excess irrigation water, precipitation and irrigation schedules need to be taken into account when sampling soil and interpreting test results. We reviewed current knowledge on best practices for taking and using soil NO3− tests in California irrigated annual crops, including how sampling for soil NO3− differs from sampling for other nutrients, how tests performed at different times of the year are interpreted and some of the special challenges associated with NO3− testing in organic systems.

  14. Soil Quality Evaluation Using the Soil Management Assessment Framework (SMAF in Brazilian Oxisols with Contrasting Texture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Roberto Cherubin

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The Soil Management Assessment Framework (SMAF was developed in the U.S.A. and has been used as a tool for assessing and quantifying changes in soil quality/health (SQ induced by land uses and agricultural practices in that region and elsewhere throughout the world. An initial study using SMAF in Brazil was recently published, but additional research for a variety of soils and management systems is still needed. Our objective was to use data from five studies in southern Brazil to evaluate the potential of SMAF for assessing diverse land-use and management practices on SQ. The studies examined were: (i horizontal and vertical distribution of soil properties in a long-term orange orchard; (ii impacts of long-term land-use change from native vegetation to agricultural crops on soil properties; (iii effects of short-term tillage on soil properties in a cassava production area; (iv changes in soil properties due to mineral fertilizer and pig slurry application coupled with soil tillage practices; and (v row and inter-row sowing effects on soil properties in a long-term no-tillage area. The soils were classified as Oxisols, with clay content ranging from 180 to 800 g kg-1. Six SQ indicators [pH(H2O, P, K, bulk density, organic C, and microbial biomass] were individually scored using SMAF curves and integrated into an overall Soil Quality Index (SQI focusing on chemical, physical, and biological sectors. The SMAF was sensitive for detecting SQ changes induced by different land uses and management practices within this wide textural range of Brazilian Oxisols. The SMAF scoring curve algorithms properly transformed the indicator values expressed in different units into unitless scores ranging from 0-1, thus enabling the individual indicators to be combined into an overall index for evaluating land-use and management effects on soil functions. Soil sector scores (i.e., chemical, physical, and biological identify the principal soil limitations

  15. Intensity of soil loss and sediment transport in Sirocina River basin and their modeling in GIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondrlova, E.

    2009-01-01

    The paper is focused on the application of GIS tools in determining the intensity of erosion-sedimentation processes in the basin of water flow Sirocina (Nitra region). Average long-term soil loss was calculated using the generalized use of the universal soil loss equation - USLE. These values were reduced by sediment delivery ratio, since not all of eroded soil particles are transported up to the water recipients. Modelling was performed in ArcView 3.2 and ArcGIS 9.2 (ESRI products) with extensions Spatial Analyst and Hydrotools 1.0. On the basis of these calculations, we have set a benchmark of the total amount of transported sediments for 3 small ponds located in the basin Sirocina (MVN Great Vozokany, Nevidzany MVN and MVN Nemcinany). (author)

  16. Growth performance, carcass yield and gait score of Marshal broiler chicken reared on intensive and semi intensive management systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwadiya, B. O.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The rearing system used in highly productive farms is often subjected to harsh criticism, one of the reasons being its failure to provide adequate welfare. A number of attempts have been made to introduce new technologies in rearing poultry for meat production aiming at improving rearing conditions, protecting the environment and enhancing the quality of poultry products. Given the above, one hundred and sixty eight unsexed 14-day old Marshall broiler chicks were used in a completely randomized design study to compare the effect of management systems (intensive and semi intensive on the growth performance, carcass characteristics and gait score of broiler chickens. The experiment lasted for 42 d. Data were collected on weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, carcass yield and gait score. Result showed that birds on the intensive management system recorded higher weight gain (P 0.05; 66.94%, 11.44% than those in semi-intensive system (54.55%, 10.92%, respectively. For the gait score broiler birds on semi intensive management system recorded reduced number of cases of severe and slight leg problems (P < 0.05, 25.76% vs 49.3%. It was concluded that broiler birds should be reared on intensive management system for better growth performance and carcass yield. However, birds reared on semi intensive management system had fewer leg problems compared to birds reared on intensive management system. The fewer severe leg problems observed in birds on semi intensive management system will help improve their market value thereby making birds more profitable to rear on semi intensive management system.

  17. A New Soil Water and Bulk Electrical Conductivity Sensor Technology for Irrigation and Salinity Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evett, Steve; Schwartz, Robert; Casanova, Joaquin [Soil and Water Management Research Unit, Conservation and Production Research Laboratory, USDA-ARS, Bushland, Texas (United States); Anderson, Scott [Acclima, Inc., 2260 East Commercial Street, Meridian, Idaho 83642 (United States)

    2014-01-15

    Existing soil water content sensing systems based on electromagnetic (EM) properties of soils often over estimate and sometimes underestimate water content in saline and salt-affected soils due to severe interference from the soil bulk electrical conductivity (BEC), which varies strongly with temperature and which can vary greatly throughout an irrigation season and across a field. Many soil water sensors, especially those based on capacitance measurements, have been shown to be unsuitable in salt-affected or clayey soils (Evett et al., 2012a). The ability to measure both soil water content and BEC can be helpful for the management of irrigation and leaching regimes. Neutron probe is capable of accurately sensing water content in salt-affected soils but has the disadvantages of being: (1) labour-intensive, (2) not able to be left unattended in the field, (3) subject to onerous regulations, and (4) not able to sense salinity. The Waveguide-On-Access-Tube (WOAT) system based on time domain reflectometry (TDR) principles, recently developed by Evett et al. (2012) is a new promising technology. This system can be installed at below 3 m in 20-cm sensor segments to cover as much of the crop root zone as needed for irrigation management. It can also be installed to measure the complete soil profile from the surface to below the root zone, allowing the measurement of crop water use and water use efficiency - knowledge of which is key for irrigation and farm management, and for the development of new drought tolerant and water efficient crop varieties and hybrids, as well as watershed and environmental management.

  18. Organic management and cover crop species steer soil microbial community structure and functionality along with soil organic matter properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martínez-García, Laura B.; Korthals, Gerard; Brussaard, Lijbert; Jørgensen, Helene Bracht; Deyn, de Gerlinde B.

    2018-01-01

    It is well recognized that organic soil management stimulates bacterial biomass and activity and that including cover crops in the rotation increases soil organic matter (SOM). Yet, to date the relative impact of different cover crop species and organic vs. non-organic soil management on soil

  19. Effects of artificial soil surface management on changes of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies of size distribution, stability of the aggregates, and other soil properties are very important due to their influence on tilth, water infiltration, and nutrient dynamics and more importantly on accelerated erosion but are affected by soil surface management. Both chemical e.g. pH, organic carbon, (OC), exchangeable ...

  20. An adaptive management process for forest soil conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael P. Curran; Douglas G. Maynard; Ronald L. Heninger; Thomas A. Terry; Steven W. Howes; Douglas M. Stone; Thomas Niemann; Richard E. Miller; Robert F. Powers

    2005-01-01

    Soil disturbance guidelines should be based on comparable disturbance categories adapted to specific local soil conditions, validated by monitoring and research. Guidelines, standards, and practices should be continually improved based on an adaptive management process, which is presented in this paper. Core components of this process include: reliable monitoring...

  1. Evaluation Of Management Properties Of Wetland Soils Of Akwa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation Of Management Properties Of Wetland Soils Of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria For Sustainable Crop Production. ... Organic matter content values were high with mean of 12.59, 60.01, and 3.20 percent for Inland valley, Flood plain and mangrove soils respectively. Effective cation exchange capacity (ECEC) was below ...

  2. Effects of soil management in vineyard on soil physical and chemical characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linares Rubén

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cover crops in Mediterranean vineyards are scarcely used due to water competition between the cover crop and the grapevine; however, bare soil management through tillage or herbicides tends to have negative effects on the soil over time (organic matter decrease, soil structure and soil fertility degradation, compaction, etc. The objective of this study was to understand how soil management affects soil fertility, compaction and infiltration over time. To this end, two bare soil techniques were compared, tillage (TT and total herbicide (HT with two cover crops; annual cereal (CT and annual grass (AGT, established for 8 years. CT treatment showed the highest organic matter content, having the biggest amount of biomass incorporated into the soil. The annual adventitious vegetation in TT treatment (568 kg dry matter ha-1 that was incorporated into the soil, kept the organic matter content higher than HT levels and close to AGT level, in spite of the greater aboveground annual biomass production of this treatment (3632 kg dry matter ha-1 whereas only its roots were incorporated into the soil. TT presented the highest bulk density under the tractor track lines and a greatest resistance to penetration (at 0.2 m depth. AGT presented bulk density values (upper 0.4 m lower than TT and penetration resistance in CT lower (at 0.20 m depth than TT too. The HT decreased water infiltration due to a superficial crust generated for this treatment. These results indicate that the use of annual grass cover can be a good choice of soil management in Mediterranean climate due to soil quality improvement, with low competition and simple management.

  3. Integral Management of Irrigation Water in Intensive Horticultural Systems of Almería

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Garcia-Caparros

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of intensive horticulture in Almería, with a huge increase in greenhouse surface area, is related to three essential factors: climatic characteristics, groundwater use and mulching sandy soil. The purpose of the present paper is to draw a picture of the integral management of water irrigation in the intensive horticultural systems in the region, by identifying the most significant water resource contributions and alternative water resources. Results indicate that the use of groundwater for the irrigation of horticultural crops in the greenhouses presents a high degree of overexploitation of the aquifers, but due to the continuous search for alternative water resources, such as desalinated and reclaimed water, as well as in-depth knowledge of the integral management of water irrigation through automated fertigation and localized irrigation systems, the current status of the water resources could be sustainable. Moreover, being conscious of the pollution generated by agricultural leachates, the horticultural system of Almería is implementing complementary sustainable systems such as recirculation, cascade cropping systems and phytodepuration for the reuse of the leachate. Considering all these factors, it can be concluded that the intensive horticultural system is on the right path towards respecting the environment and being sustainable in terms of water use.

  4. Determinants of the adoption of integrated soil fertility management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development ... focused approach to achieve sustainable soil fertility management among smallholder farmers. ... entry points that can help in developing innovative ISFM technologies.

  5. Determinants of soil management practices among small-holder ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    based farmers from six communities across the three agricultural zones in the State. ... education and institutional supports to the farmers for improved food production through sustainable and environmental friendly soil management measures.

  6. Assessing different agricultural managements with the use of soil quality indices in a Mediteranean calcareous soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morugán-Coronado, Alicia; García-Orenes, Fuensanta; Mataix-Solera, Jorge; Arcenegui, Vicky; Cerdà, Artemi

    2013-04-01

    Soil erosion is a major problem in the Mediterranean region due to the arid conditions and torrential rainfalls, which contribute to the degradation of agricultural land. New strategies must be developed to reduce soil losses and recover or maintain soil functionality in order to achieve a sustainable agriculture. An experiment was designed to evaluate the effect of different agricultural management on soil properties and soil quality. Ten different treatments (contact herbicide, systemic herbicide, ploughing, Oat mulch non-plough, Oats mulch plough, leguminous plant, straw rice mulch, chipped pruned branches, residual-herbicide and agro geo-textile, and three control plots including no tillage or control and long agricultural abandonment (shrub on marls and shrub on limestone) were established in 'El Teularet experimental station' located in the Sierra de Enguera (Valencia, Spain). The soil is a Typic Xerorthent developed over Cretaceous marls in an old agricultural terrace. The agricultural management can modify the soil equilibrium and affect its quality. In this work two soil quality indices (models) developed by Zornoza et al. (2007) are used to evaluate the effects of the different agricultural management along 4 years. The models were developed studying different soil properties in undisturbed forest soils in SE Spain, and the relationships between soil parameters were established using multiple linear regressions. Model 1, that explained 92% of the variance in soil organic carbon (SOC) showed that the SOC can be calculated by the linear combination of 6 physical, chemical and biochemical properties (acid phosphatase, water holding capacity (WHC), electrical conductivity (EC), available phosphorus (P), cation exchange capacity (CEC) and aggregate stability (AS). Model 2 explains 89% of the SOC variance, which can be calculated by means of 7 chemical and biochemical properties (urease, phosphatase, and ß-glucosidase activities, pH, EC, P and CEC). We use the

  7. Impact of a low intensity controlled-fire in some chemical soil properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Murillo, Juan F.; Hueso-González, Paloma; Aranda-Gómez, Francisco; Damián Ruiz-Sinoga, José

    2014-05-01

    Some changes in chemical soil properties can be observed after fires of low intensities. pH and electric conductivity tend to increase, while C/N ratio decrease. In the case of organic matter, the content can increase due to the massive incorporation of necromass including, especially, plants and roots. The aim of this study is to assess the impact of low intensity and controlled fire in some soil properties in field conditions. El Pinarillo experimental area is located in South of Spain. Two set of closed plots were installed (24 m2: 12 m length x 2 m width). One of them was remained as control with the original vegetation cover (Mediterranean matorral: Rosmarinus officinalis, Cistus clusii, Lavandula stoechas, Chamaeropos humilis, Thymus baetica), and the other one was burnt in a controlled-fire in 2011. Weather conditions and water content of vegetation influenced in the intensity of fire (low). After the controlled-fire, soil surface sample (0-5 cm) were taken in both set of plots (B, burnt soil samples; C, control soil samples). Some soil chemical properties were analysed: organic matter content (OM), C/N ratio, pH and electrical conductivity (EC). Some changes were observed in B corroborating a controlled-fire of low intensity. pH remained equal after fire (B: pH=7.7±0.11; C: pH=7.7±0.04). An increment was obtained in the case of EC (B: EC=0.45 mScm-1±0.08 mScm-1; C: EC=0.35 mScm-1±0.07 mScm-1) and OM (B: OM=8.7%±3.8%; C: pH=7.3%±1.5%). Finally, C/N ratio decreased after fire respect to the control and initial conditions (B: C/N=39.0±14.6; C: C/N =46.5±10.2).

  8. Proceedings of the California Forest Soils Council Conference on Forest Soils Biology and Forest Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert F. Powers; Donald L. Hauxwell; Gary M. Nakamura

    2000-01-01

    Biotic properties of forest soil are the linkages connecting forest vegetation with an inert rooting medium to create a dynamic, functioning ecosystem. But despite the significance of these properties, managers have little awareness of the biotic world beneath their feet. Much of our working knowledge of soil biology seems anchored in myth and misunderstanding. To...

  9. Monitoring soil greenhouse gas emissions from managed grasslands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Pinés, Eugenio; Lu, Haiyan; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus; Kiese, Ralf

    2014-05-01

    Grasslands in Central Europe are of enormous social, ecological and economical importance. They are intensively managed, but the influence of different common practices (i.e. fertilization, harvesting) on the total greenhouse gas budget of grasslands is not fully understood, yet. In addition, it is unknown how these ecosystems will react due to climate change. Increasing temperatures and changing precipitation will likely have an effect on productivity of grasslands and on bio-geo-chemical processes responsible for emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O). In the frame of the TERENO Project (www.tereno.net), a long-term observatory has been implemented in the Ammer catchment, southern Germany. Acting as an in situ global change experiment, 36 big lysimeters (1 m2 section, 150 cm height) have been translocated along an altitudinal gradient, including three sites ranging from 600 to 860 meters above sea level. In addition, two treatments have been considered, corresponding to different management intensities. The overall aim of the pre-alpine TERENO observatory is improving our understanding of the consequences of climate change and management on productivity, greenhouse gas balance, soil nutritional status, nutrient leaching and hydrology of grasslands. Two of the sites are equipped with a fully automated measurement system in order to continuously and accurately monitor the soil-atmosphere greenhouse gas exchange. Thus, a stainless steel chamber (1 m2 section, 80 cm height) is controlled by a robotized system. The chamber is hanging on a metal structure which can move both vertically and horizontally, so that the chamber is able to be set onto each of the lysimeters placed on the field. Furthermore, the headspace of the chamber is connected with a gas tube to a Quantum Cascade Laser, which continuously measures CO2, CH4, N2O and H2O mixing ratios. The chamber acts as a static chamber and sets for 15 minutes onto each lysimeter

  10. Extensive management of field margins enhances their potential for off-site soil erosion mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Hamada E; Reineking, Björn

    2016-03-15

    Soil erosion is a widespread problem in agricultural landscapes, particularly in regions with strong rainfall events. Vegetated field margins can mitigate negative impacts of soil erosion off-site by trapping eroded material. Here we analyse how local management affects the trapping capacity of field margins in a monsoon region of South Korea, contrasting intensively and extensively managed field margins on both steep and shallow slopes. Prior to the beginning of monsoon season, we equipped a total of 12 sites representing three replicates for each of four different types of field margins ("intensive managed flat", "intensive managed steep", "extensive managed flat" and "extensive managed steep") with Astroturf mats. The mats (n = 15/site) were placed before, within and after the field margin. Sediment was collected after each rain event until the end of the monsoon season. The effect of management and slope on sediment trapping was analysed using linear mixed effects models, using as response variable either the sediment collected within the field margin or the difference in sediment collected after and before the field margin. There was no difference in the amount of sediment reaching the different field margin types. In contrast, extensively managed field margins showed a large reduction in collected sediment before and after the field margins. This effect was pronounced in steep field margins, and increased with the size of rainfall events. We conclude that a field margin management promoting a dense vegetation cover is a key to mitigating negative off-site effects of soil erosion in monsoon regions, particularly in field margins with steep slopes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Estimating effectiveness of crop management for reduction of soil erosion and runoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlavcova, K.; Studvova, Z.; Kohnova, S.; Szolgay, J.

    2017-10-01

    The paper focuses on erosion processes in the Svacenický Creek catchment which is a small sub-catchment of the Myjava River basin. To simulate soil loss and sediment transport the USLE/SDR and WaTEM/SEDEM models were applied. The models were validated by comparing the simulated results with the actual bathymetry of a polder at the catchment outlet. Methods of crop management based on rotation and strip cropping were applied for the reduction of soil loss and sediment transport. The comparison shows that the greatest intensities of soil loss were achieved by the bare soil without vegetation and from the planting of maize for corn. The lowest values were achieved from the planting of winter wheat. At the end the effectiveness of row crops and strip cropping for decreasing design floods from the catchment was estimated.

  12. Changes in the soil environment from excessive application of fertilizers and manures to two contrasting intensive cropping systems on the North China Plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ju, X.T.; Kou, C.L.; Christie, P.; Dou, Z.X.; Zhang, F.S.

    2007-01-01

    Effects of excessive fertilizer and manure applications on the soil environment were compared in greenhouse vegetable systems shifted from wheat-maize rotations 5-15 years previously and in wheat-maize rotations. N, P and K surpluses to the greenhouses were 4328, 1337 and 1466 kg ha -1 year -1 , respectively compared to 346, 65 and -163 kg ha -1 year -1 to wheat-maize fields. Subsequently, substantial mineral N and available P and K accumulated in the soil and leaching occurred down the soil profile in the greenhouses. Soil pH under vegetables was significantly lower than in the wheat-maize fields, while the EC was significantly higher in the vegetable soils. The mean Cd concentration in the vegetable soils was 2.8 times that in the wheat-maize rotations. Due to excessive fertilizer application in greenhouse vegetable production in northeast China, excessive salt and nitrate concentrations may accumulate and soil quality may deteriorate faster than in conventional wheat-maize rotations. - Extremely high nutrient inputs to intensively managed vegetable crops in northeast China may lead to very serious degradation of soil and water quality

  13. Changes in the soil environment from excessive application of fertilizers and manures to two contrasting intensive cropping systems on the North China Plain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ju, X.T. [Key Laboratory of Plant-Soil Interactions, Ministry of Education, College of Agricultural Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100094 (China)]. E-mail: juxt@cau.edu.cn; Kou, C.L. [Key Laboratory of Plant-Soil Interactions, Ministry of Education, College of Agricultural Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100094 (China); Institute of Soil and Fertilization, Henan Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Zhengzhou, 450002 (China); Christie, P. [Key Laboratory of Plant-Soil Interactions, Ministry of Education, College of Agricultural Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100094 (China); Agricultural and Environmental Science Department, Queen' s University Belfast, Newforge Lane, Belfast BT9 5PX (United Kingdom); Dou, Z.X. [Center for Animal Health and Productivity, Department of Clinical Studies, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, 382 West Street Road, Kennett Square, PA 19348 (United States); Zhang, F.S. [Key Laboratory of Plant-Soil Interactions, Ministry of Education, College of Agricultural Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100094 (China)

    2007-01-15

    Effects of excessive fertilizer and manure applications on the soil environment were compared in greenhouse vegetable systems shifted from wheat-maize rotations 5-15 years previously and in wheat-maize rotations. N, P and K surpluses to the greenhouses were 4328, 1337 and 1466 kg ha{sup -1} year{sup -1}, respectively compared to 346, 65 and -163 kg ha{sup -1} year{sup -1} to wheat-maize fields. Subsequently, substantial mineral N and available P and K accumulated in the soil and leaching occurred down the soil profile in the greenhouses. Soil pH under vegetables was significantly lower than in the wheat-maize fields, while the EC was significantly higher in the vegetable soils. The mean Cd concentration in the vegetable soils was 2.8 times that in the wheat-maize rotations. Due to excessive fertilizer application in greenhouse vegetable production in northeast China, excessive salt and nitrate concentrations may accumulate and soil quality may deteriorate faster than in conventional wheat-maize rotations. - Extremely high nutrient inputs to intensively managed vegetable crops in northeast China may lead to very serious degradation of soil and water quality.

  14. A review on soil carbon accumulation due to the management change of major Brazilian agricultural activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. La Scala Júnior

    Full Text Available Agricultural areas deal with enormous CO2 intake fluxes offering an opportunity for greenhouse effect mitigation. In this work we studied the potential of soil carbon sequestration due to the management conversion in major agricultural activities in Brazil. Data from several studies indicate that in soybean/maize, and related rotation systems, a significant soil carbon sequestration was observed over the year of conversion from conventional to no-till practices, with a mean rate of 0.41 Mg C ha-1 year-1. The same effect was observed in sugarcane fields, but with a much higher accumulation of carbon in soil stocks, when sugarcane fields are converted from burned to mechanised based harvest, where large amounts of sugarcane residues remain on the soil surface (1.8 Mg C ha-1 year-1. The higher sequestration potential of sugarcane crops, when compared to the others, has a direct relation to the primary production of this crop. Nevertheless, much of this mitigation potential of soil carbon accumulation in sugarcane fields is lost once areas are reformed, or intensive tillage is applied. Pasture lands have shown soil carbon depletion once natural areas are converted to livestock use, while integration of those areas with agriculture use has shown an improvement in soil carbon stocks. Those works have shown that the main crop systems of Brazil have a huge mitigation potential, especially in soil carbon form, being an opportunity for future mitigation strategies.

  15. A review on soil carbon accumulation due to the management change of major Brazilian agricultural activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Scala, N; De Figueiredo, E B; Panosso, A R

    2012-08-01

    Agricultural areas deal with enormous CO2 intake fluxes offering an opportunity for greenhouse effect mitigation. In this work we studied the potential of soil carbon sequestration due to the management conversion in major agricultural activities in Brazil. Data from several studies indicate that in soybean/maize, and related rotation systems, a significant soil carbon sequestration was observed over the year of conversion from conventional to no-till practices, with a mean rate of 0.41 Mg C ha(-1) year(-1). The same effect was observed in sugarcane fields, but with a much higher accumulation of carbon in soil stocks, when sugarcane fields are converted from burned to mechanised based harvest, where large amounts of sugarcane residues remain on the soil surface (1.8 Mg C ha(-1) year(-1)). The higher sequestration potential of sugarcane crops, when compared to the others, has a direct relation to the primary production of this crop. Nevertheless, much of this mitigation potential of soil carbon accumulation in sugarcane fields is lost once areas are reformed, or intensive tillage is applied. Pasture lands have shown soil carbon depletion once natural areas are converted to livestock use, while integration of those areas with agriculture use has shown an improvement in soil carbon stocks. Those works have shown that the main crop systems of Brazil have a huge mitigation potential, especially in soil carbon form, being an opportunity for future mitigation strategies.

  16. Influence of management history and landscape variables on soil organic carbon and soil redistribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venteris, E.R.; McCarty, G.W.; Ritchie, J.C.; Gish, T.

    2004-01-01

    Controlled studies to investigate the interaction between crop growth, soil properties, hydrology, and management practices are common in agronomy. These sites (much as with real world farmland) often have complex management histories and topographic variability that must be considered. In 1993 an interdisiplinary study was started for a 20-ha site in Beltsville, MD. Soil cores (271) were collected in 1999 in a 30-m grid (with 5-m nesting) and analyzed as part of the site characterization. Soil organic carbon (SOC) and 137Cesium (137Cs) were measured. Analysis of aerial photography from 1992 and of farm management records revealed that part of the site had been maintained as a swine pasture and the other portion as cropped land. Soil properties, particularly soil redistribution and SOC, show large differences in mean values between the two areas. Mass C is 0.8 kg m -2 greater in the pasture area than in the cropped portion. The pasture area is primarily a deposition site, whereas the crop area is dominated by erosion. Management influence is suggested, but topographic variability confounds interpretation. Soil organic carbon is spatially structured, with a regionalized variable of 120 m. 137Cs activity lacks spatial structure, suggesting disturbance of the profile by animal activity and past structures such as swine shelters and roads. Neither SOC nor 137Cs were strongly correlated to terrain parameters, crop yields, or a seasonal soil moisture index predicted from crop yields. SOC and 137Cs were weakly correlated (r2 ???0.2, F-test P-value 0.001), suggesting that soil transport controls, in part, SOC distribution. The study illustrates the importance of past site history when interpreting the landscape distribution of soil properties, especially those strongly influenced by human activity. Confounding variables, complex soil hydrology, and incomplete documentation of land use history make definitive interpretations of the processes behind the spatial distributions

  17. Effect of Management Practices on Soil Microstructure and Surface Microrelief

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Garcia Moreno

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil surface roughness (SSR and porosity were evaluated from soils located in two farms belonging to the Plant Breeding Institute of the University of Sidney. The sites differ in their soil management practices; the first site (PBI was strip-tilled during early fall (May 2010, and the second site (JBP was under power harrowed tillage at the end of July 2010. Both sites were sampled in mid-August. At each location, SSR was measured for three 1 m2 subplots using shadow analysis. To evaluate porosity and aggregation, soil samples were scanned using X-ray computed tomography with 5 μm resolution. The results show a strong negative correlation between SSR and porosity, 20.13% SSR and 41.38% porosity at PBI versus 42.00% SSR and 18.35% porosity at JBP. However, soil images show that when soil surface roughness is higher due to conservation and soil management practices, the processes of macroaggregation and structural porosity are enhanced. Further research must be conducted on SSR and porosity in different types of soils, as they provide complementary information on the evaluation of soil erosion susceptibility.

  18. Evaluation of conservation-oriented management on grayish brown soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Consuelo E. Hernández Rodríguez

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Conservation and improvement actions were taken to ensure the soil preservation in agricultural areas affected by erosion on a grayish brown soil of Sarduy farm in Cumanayagua, Cuba. The technology that was used included strip-till, crop rotation, live and/or dead barriers, channel terraces, contour farming and the addition of organic matter and biofertilizers. The implementation of the soil conservation-oriented management had an influence on the yield increase of 10.6% - 20.2%, on the decrease of the erosive processes with a retention of soils to 13.33 t.ha -1, on maintaining the soil pH and on the increment of the assimilable P2O5 contents and soil organic matter.

  19. Critical Zone Services as a Measure for Evaluating the Trade-offs in Intensively Managed Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, M.; Kumar, P.

    2015-12-01

    The Critical Zone includes the range of biophysical processes occurring from the top of the vegetation canopy to the weathering zone below the groundwater table. These services (Field et al. 2015) provide a measure to value processes that support the goods and services from our landscapes. In intensively managed landscapes the provisioning and regulating services are being altered through anthropogenic energy inputs so as to derive more agricultural productivity from the landscapes. Land use change and other alterations to the environment result in positive and/or negative net Critical Zone services. Through studies in the Critical Zone Observatory for Intensively Managed Landscapes (IMLCZO), this research seeks to answer questions such as: Are perennial bioenergy crops or annual replaced crops better for the land and surrounding environment? How do we evaluate the products and services from the land for the energy and resources we put in? Before the economic valuation of Critical Zone services, these questions seemed abstract. However, with developments such as Critical Zone services and life cycle assessments, they are more concrete. To evaluate the trade-offs between positive and negative impacts, life cycle assessments are used to create an inventory of all the energy inputs and outputs in a landscape management system. Total energy is computed by summing the mechanical energy used to construct tile drains, fertilizer, and other processes involved in intensely managed landscapes and the chemical energy gained by the production of biofuels from bioenergy crops. A multi-layer canopy model (MLCan) computes soil, water, and nutrient outputs for each crop type, which can be translated into Critical Zone services. These values are then viewed alongside the energy inputs into the system to show the relationship between agricultural practices and their corresponding ecosystem and environmental impacts.

  20. SOIL AND WATER CONSERVATION MANAGEMENT THROUGH ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    socio-cultural, economic system constraints for the implementation and maintenance of conservation .... Purpose of natural resource conservation is therefore ... the soil and water resources through traditional and ..... “Integrated Natural.

  1. Agroforestry management in vineyards: effects on soil microbial communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagne, Virginie; Nowak, Virginie; Guilland, Charles; Gontier, Laure; Dufourcq, Thierry; Guenser, Josépha; Grimaldi, Juliette; Bourgade, Emilie; Ranjard, Lionel

    2017-04-01

    Some vineyard practices (tillage, chemical weeding or pest management) are generally known to impact the environment with particular negative effects on the diversity and the abundance of soil microorganisms, and cause water and soil pollutions. In an agro-ecological context, innovative cropping systems have been developed to improve ecosystem services. Among them, agroforestry offers strategies of sustainable land management practices. It consists in intercropping trees with annual/perennial/fodder crop on the same plot but it is weakly referenced with grapevine. The present study assesses the effects of intercropped and neighbouring trees on the soil of three agroforestry vineyards, in south-western France regions. More precisely soils of the different plots were sampled and the impact of the distance to the tree or to the neighbouring trees (forest) on soil microbial community has been considered. Indigenous soil microbial communities were characterized by a metagenomic approach that consisted in extracting the molecular microbial biomass, then in calculating the soil fungi/bacteria ratio - obtained by qPCR - and then in characterizing the soil microbial diversity - through Illumina sequencing of 16S and 18S regions. Our results showed a significant difference between the soil of agroforestry vineyards and the soil sampled in the neighbouring forest in terms of microbial abundance and diversity. However, only structure and composition of bacterial community seem to be influenced by the implanted trees in the vine plots. In addition, the comparison of microbial co-occurrence networks between vine and forest plots as well as inside vine plots according to distance to the tree allow revealing a more sensitive impact of agroforestry practices. Altogether, the results we obtained build up the first references for concerning the soil of agroforestry vineyards which will be interpreted in terms of soil quality, functioning and sustainability.

  2. Biological and biochemical soil quality indicators for agricultural management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongiorno, Giulia

    2017-04-01

    Soil quality is defined as the capacity of a soil to perform multiple functions. Agricultural soils can, in principle, sustain a wide range of functions. However, negative pressure exerted by natural and anthropogenic soil threats such as soil erosion, soil organic matter losses and soil compaction have the potential to permanently damage soil quality. Soil chemical, physical and biological parameters can be used as indicators of soil quality. The specific objective of this study is to assess the suitability of novel soil parameters as soil quality indicators. We focus on biological/biochemical parameters, due to the unique role of soil biota in soil functions and to their high sensitivity to disturbances. The novel indicators are assessed in ten European long-term field experiments (LTEs) with different agricultural land use (arable and permanent crops), management regimes and pedo-climatic characteristics. The contrasts in agricultural management are represented by conventional/reduced tillage, organic/mineral fertilization and organic matter addition/no organic matter addition. We measured two different pools of labile organic carbon (dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and permanganate oxidizable carbon (POXC)), and determined DOC quality through its fractionation in hydrophobic and hydrophilic compounds. In addition, total nematode abundance has been assessed with qPCR. These parameters will be related to soil functions which have been measured with a minimum data set of indicators for soil quality (including TOC, macronutrients, and soil respiration). As a preliminary analysis, the Sensitivity Index (SI) for a given LTE was calculated for DOC and POXC according to Bolinder et al., 1999 as the ratio of the soil attribute under modified practices (e.g. reduced tillage) compared to the conventional practices (e.g. conventional tillage). The overall effect of the sustainable management on the indicators has been derived by calculating an average SI for those LTEs

  3. Management and conservation of tropical acid soils for sustainable crop production. Proceedings of a consultants meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-06-01

    Forests of the tropics are invaluable ecosystems of global, regional and local importance, particularly in terms of protection and conservation of biodiversity and water resources. The indiscriminate conversion of tropical forests into agricultural land as a result of intense human activities - logging and modem shifting cultivation - continues to cause soil erosion and degradation. However, the acid savannahs of the world, such as the cerrado of Brazil, the Llanos in Venezuela and Colombia, the savannahs of Africa, and the largely anthropic savannahs of tropical Asia, encompass vast areas of potentially arable land. The acid soils of the savannahs are mostly considered marginal because of low inherent fertility and susceptibility to rapid degradation. These constraints for agricultural development are exacerbated by the poverty of new settlers who try to cultivate such areas after deforestation. Low- or minimum-input systems are not sustainable on these tropical acid soils but, with sufficient investment and adequate technologies, they can be highly productive. Thus, there is a need to develop management practices for sustainable agricultural production systems on such savannah acid soils. The Soil and Water Management and Crop Nutrition Sub-programme of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture strongly supports an integrated approach to soil, water and nutrient management within cropping systems. In this context, nuclear and related techniques can be used to better understand the processes and factors influencing the productivity of agricultural production systems, and improve them through the use of better soil, water and nutrient management practices. A panel of experts actively engaged in field projects on acid soils of savannah agro-ecosystems in the humid and sub-humid tropics convened in March 1999 in Vienna to review and discuss recent research progress, along the following main lines of investigation: (i) utilization of

  4. Soil resilience and yield performance in a vineyard established after intense pre-planting earthworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantini, Edoardo; Valboa, Giuseppe; Gagnarli, Elena; Mocali, Stefano; Fabiani, Arturo; Priori, Simone; Simoni, Sauro; Storchi, Paolo; Perria, Rita; Vignozzi, Nadia; Agnelli, Alessandro

    2017-04-01

    Conventional earthworks undertaken before vine plantation may severely compromise soil functions and vine production, as a consequence of a decline of soil fertility caused by loss of organic matter and biological activity, along with changes in chemical and physical features of the topsoil due to the upset of the soil profile. This research was aimed at assessing the effects of conventional pre-planting earthworks on soil fertility and vine yield performance under organic farming. To this purpose, grape yield and quality along with soil chemical, physical and biological properties, were monitored over seven years in a young vineyard established in 2010 after soil leveling and deep ploughing, and in parallel in an older vineyard planted in 2000 after similar earthworks under the same soil and environment conditions. The vineyards (Vitis vinifera L., cv. Sangiovese) were located in the Chianti Classico district (Tuscany, Italy) on a stony calcareous soil classified as Cambic Skeletic Calcisol (loamic, aric) (WRB, 2014). Fertilization was based on annual applications of compost and shredded plant residues. According to the ordinary farming system, the older vineyard was kept free from grass covering during the first four years of growth by periodic tillage, in order to prevent nutritional competition, while in the following years it was managed by natural grass covering on alternate inter-rows. In the younger vineyard, grass covering needed to be postponed because of a delay in the vine development and grape yield induced by poor soil fertility. The results showed significant differences between the two vineyard, with the younger exhibiting lower total organic carbon (0.4 - 0.6 % vs 0.6 - 1.1 %), lower total nitrogen (0.07 - 0.11 % vs 0.10 - 0.15 %) and higher carbonate contents (32 - 38 % vs 21 -30 % total CaCO3), with no clear trend of recovery over time. Pre-planting earthworks also affected the structure and diversity of microbial and microarthropod communities

  5. Prevalence and intensity of soil-transmitted helminthiasis in the city of Portoviejo (Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Andrade

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available We studied the stool samples of 151 school children in a district of the city of Portoviejo (Ecuador in order to determine the prevalence and intensity of soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH and their relationships with anthropometric indices. The samples were analyzed with the semiquantitative Kato-Katz technique and the intensity of infections was categorized as light, moderate or high according to the thresholds set by the World Health Organization. Prevalence of soil transmitted helmintiasis was 65% (92 out of 141 collected samples, Ascaris lumbricoides was the most common STH (63% followed by Trichuris trichiura (10% and hookworm (1.4%. Heavy intensity infections were found in 8.5% of the stool samples, with T. trichiura showing higher worm burdens than A. lumbricoides. Sixteen percent of the children were below the third percentile for weight (wasted, while 27% were below the third percentile for height (stunted. A significant relationship was found between the worm burden and the degree of stunting. This study suggests that the periodic administration of an antihelminthic drug should be targeted to preschool and school children to allow a normal growth spurt and prevent stunting.

  6. The effect of land use intensity on soil organic carbon stocks of European croplands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dechow, Rene; Gebbert, Sören; Franko, Uwe; Kätterer, Thomas; Kolbe, Hartmut

    2013-04-01

    Croplands cover about one third of Europe and are assumed to be the biggest source of greenhouse gas emissions of the European biosphere with the degradation of soil organic carbon (SOC) being a major contributor of this source. Soil carbon stocks of croplands are subjected to ranges of natural and anthropogenic influences that control the release or uptake of CO2. The separation of drivers is essential for assessing recent and prospective GHG mitigation potentials by cropland management. Within the last decades the management of European croplands is characterized by an ongoing intensification. The increasing influence of the global market on farmers' decision and the establishment of industrialized farming practise in Europe had significant impact on the shift of crop rotations during the last decades. Due to the high spatial variability and the dominating fraction of slowly degradable carbon it needs at least decades to detect changes while agricultural management is characterized by short term system interventions. Long term observations representing time intervals of decades to hundreds of years are therefore essential to make reliable suggestions about the sensitivity of soil carbon turnover against external impacts because the temporal scale of these experiments corresponds to the temporal scale of soil C turnover. A data set of about 32 European long-term experiments (380 variants) was used to quantify the uncertainty of the RothC soil carbon model. The parameters of the model were adapted to represent the sensitivity of SOC on weather conditions and crop types found in the data set by applying an Monte Carlo Markov Chain algorithm. Integrated in a GIS environment the modified model was used to run scenarios that vary in terms of climate conditions and crop rotations within the time period 1970-2010 on a European scale. Regionalized sensitivities of SOC on natural drivers and crop rotations will be presented.

  7. Comparison of partial and complete soil K budgets under intensive rice cropping in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoa, N.M.; Janssen, B.H.; Oenema, O.; Dobermann, A.

    2006-01-01

    Crop response to added fertilizer K was often found to be small in trials conducted on favorable soils of tropical rice ecosystems. Hence, applications of only fertilizer N and P were recommended. This has resulted in soil K mining in intensive cropping systems in China, India and other Asian

  8. Relationships between soil-based management zones and canopy sensing for corn nitrogen management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Integrating soil-based management zones (MZ) with crop-based active canopy sensors to direct spatially variable nitrogen (N) applications has been proposed for improving N fertilizer management of corn (Zea mays L.). Analyses are needed to evaluate relationships between canopy sensing and soil-based...

  9. The relative-intensity method of X-ray fluorescence analysis and its application to soils and rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Childs, C.W.; Furkert, R.J.

    1974-01-01

    The relative-intensity X-ray fluorescence method of analysis of rock and soil samples has been investigated and compared with the net-intensity method. Strong, coherently scattered radiation originating from the X-ray tube is shown to be preferable to background radiation as an internal standard, and scattered radiation measured at one wavelength can usefully be applied in the determination of several elements. When the concentrations of an element in two soil samples of different composition (for example concretions and the soil adjacent to them) are compared, the ratio of the relative intensities may be different from the ratio of net intensities by a factor of about two. The concentrations of manganese in thirteen standard rock samples determined by the relative-intensity method are within or very close to the ranges of values reported previously

  10. Innovative Soil Management Practices (SMP) Assessment in Europe and China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barão, Lúcia

    2017-04-01

    The growing world population poses a major challenge to global agricultural food and feed production through the pressure to increase agricultural outputs either by increasing the land area dedicated to agriculture or by productivity increases. Whether in developed or developing regions, agricultural intensification based on conventional approaches has resulted in severe environmental impacts and innovative soil management practices are needed to halter ongoing soil degradation and promote sustainable land management capable to produce more from less. The iSQAPER project - Interactive Soil Quality Assessment in Europe and China for Agricultural Productivity and Environmental Resilience - aims to develop a Soil Quality app (SQAPP) linking soil and agricultural management practices to soil quality indicators. This easy friendly tool will provide a direct and convenient way to advise farmers and other suitable actors in this area, regarding the best management practices to be adopted in very specific and local conditions. In this particular study from iSQAPER, we aimed to identify the most promising innovative soil management practices (SMP) currently used and its geographical distribution along different pedo-climatic regions in Europe (Boreal, Atlantic, Mediterranean Temperate, Mediterranean Semi-Arid, Southern Sub-Continental and Northern Sub-Continental) and China (Middle Temperate, Warm temperate and Central Asia Tropical). So far we have identified 155 farms where innovative SMP's are used, distributed along 4 study site regions located in China (Qiyang, Suining, Zhifanggou and Gongzhuling) and 10 study site regions located in Europe (The Netherlands, France, Portugal, Spain, Greece, Slovenia, Hungary, Romania, Poland and Estonia) and covering the major pedo-climatic regions. From this identification we concluded that the most used innovative SMP's in the study site regions in Europe are Manuring & Composting (14%), Min-till (14%), Crop rotation (12

  11. Effects of Different Soil Tillage Intensity on Yields of Spring Barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alena Pernicová

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Within the period 1990–2012, effects of different soil tillage intensity on yields of spring barley were studied in a field experiment in the sugar-beet producing region (Ivanovice na Hané, Czech Republic. The forecrop of the spring barley was always sugar beet; following in three different crop rotations, after maize for silage, winter wheat and spring barley. Four variants of tillage were evaluated: Variant 1 – ploughing to the depth of 0.22 m; Variant 2 – shallow ploughing to the depth of 0.15 m; Variant 3 – no tillage; Variant 4 – shallow loosening soil to the depth of 0.10 m.Effect of different tillage on yields of spring barley was statistically insignificant. In all three crop rotations, the highest and the lowest average yields were obtained in Variant 2 (ploughing to the depth of 0.15 m and Variant 1 (ploughing to the depth of 0.22 m, respectively. Average yields in variants of soil tillage were these: variant 1 – 6.42 t.ha−1; variant 2 – 6.57 t.ha−1, variant 3 – 6.53 t.ha−1, variant 4 – 6.50 t.ha−1. The obtained results indicate that in these pedo-climatic conditions reduction of intensity soil tillage represented a very suitable alternative in case of growing spring barley after sugar beet as compared with the conventional method of tillage by ploughing to the depth of 0.22 m.

  12. Practice makes perfect: participatory innovation in soil fertility management to improve rural livelihoods in East Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Jager, de, A.

    2007-01-01

    Keywords: soil nutrient balances, soil fertility degradation, East Africa , participatory innovation, experiential learning, farmer field schools, smallholder agriculture Maintaining and improving soil fertility is crucial for Africa to attain the Millennium Development Goals. Fertile soil and balanced soil nutrient management are major foundations for sustainable food production, contribute to a sound management of natural resources and assist in controlling environmental degradation such ...

  13. Simulation Based Exploration of Critical Zone Dynamics in Intensively Managed Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, P.

    2017-12-01

    The advent of high-resolution measurements of topographic and (vertical) vegetation features using areal LiDAR are enabling us to resolve micro-scale ( 1m) landscape structural characteristics over large areas. Availability of hyperspectral measurements is further augmenting these LiDAR data by enabling the biogeochemical characterization of vegetation and soils at unprecedented spatial resolutions ( 1-10m). Such data have opened up novel opportunities for modeling Critical Zone processes and exploring questions that were not possible before. We show how an integrated 3-D model at 1m grid resolution can enable us to resolve micro-topographic and ecological dynamics and their control on hydrologic and biogeochemical processes over large areas. We address the computational challenge of such detailed modeling by exploiting hybrid CPU and GPU computing technologies. We show results of moisture, biogeochemical, and vegetation dynamics from studies in the Critical Zone Observatory for Intensively managed Landscapes (IMLCZO) in the Midwestern United States.

  14. Soil sorting, new approach to site remediation management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bramlitt, E.T.; Woods, J.A.; Dillon, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    Soil sorting is the technology which conveys soil beneath contaminant detectors and, based on contaminant signal, automatically toggles a gate at the conveyor end to send soil with contamination above a guideline to a separate location from soil which meets the guideline. The technology was perfected for remediation of sites having soils with radioactive contamination, but it is applicable to other contaminants when instrumental methods exist for rapid contaminant detection at levels of concern. This paper examines the three methods for quantifying contamination in soil in support of site remediation management. Examples are discussed where the primary contaminant is plutonium, a radioactive substance and source of nuclear energy which can be hazardous to health when in the environment without controls. Field survey instruments are very sensitive to plutonium and can detect it in soil at levels below a part per billion, and there are a variety of soils which have been contaminated by plutonium and thoroughly investigated. The lessons learned with plutonium are applicable to other types of contaminants and site remediations. The paper concludes that soil sorting can be the most cost effective approach to site remediation, and it leads to the best overall cleanup

  15. Modelling the effect of agricultural management practices on soil organic carbon stocks: does soil erosion matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeu, Elisabet; Van Wesemael, Bas; Van Oost, Kristof

    2014-05-01

    Over the last decades, an increasing number of studies have been conducted to assess the effect of soil management practices on soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks. At regional scales, biogeochemical models such as CENTURY or Roth-C have been commonly applied. These models simulate SOC dynamics at the profile level (point basis) over long temporal scales but do not consider the continuous lateral transfer of sediment that takes place along geomorphic toposequences. As a consequence, the impact of soil redistribution on carbon fluxes is very seldom taken into account when evaluating changes in SOC stocks due to agricultural management practices on the short and long-term. To address this gap, we assessed the role of soil erosion by water and tillage on SOC stocks under different agricultural management practices in the Walloon region of Belgium. The SPEROS-C model was run for a 100-year period combining three typical crop rotations (using winter wheat, winter barley, sugar beet and maize) with three tillage scenarios (conventional tillage, reduced tillage and reduced tillage in combination with additional crop residues). The results showed that including soil erosion by water in the simulations led to a general decrease in SOC stocks relative to a baseline scenario (where no erosion took place). The SOC lost from these arable soils was mainly exported to adjacent sites and to the river system by lateral fluxes, with magnitudes differing between crop rotations and in all cases lower under conservation tillage practices than under conventional tillage. Although tillage erosion plays an important role in carbon redistribution within fields, lateral fluxes induced by water erosion led to a higher spatial and in-depth heterogeneity of SOC stocks with potential effects on the soil water holding capacity and crop yields. This indicates that studies assessing the effect of agricultural management practices on SOC stocks and other soil properties over the landscape should

  16. Environmental and management impacts on temporal variability of soil hydraulic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodner, G.; Scholl, P.; Loiskandl, W.; Kaul, H.-P.

    2012-04-01

    Soil hydraulic properties underlie temporal changes caused by different natural and management factors. Rainfall intensity, wet-dry cycles, freeze-thaw cycles, tillage and plant effects are potential drivers of the temporal variability. For agricultural purposes it is important to determine the possibility of targeted influence via management. In no-till systems e.g. root induced soil loosening (biopores) is essential to counteract natural soil densification by settling. The present work studies two years of temporal evolution of soil hydraulic properties in a no-till crop rotation (durum wheat-field pea) with two cover crops (mustard and rye) having different root systems (taproot vs. fibrous roots) as well as a bare soil control. Soil hydraulic properties such as near-saturated hydraulic conductivity, flow weighted pore radius, pore number and macroporosity are derived from measurements using a tension infiltrometer. The temporal dynamics are then analysed in terms of potential driving forces. Our results revealed significant temporal changes of hydraulic conductivity. When approaching saturation, spatial variability tended to dominate over the temporal evolution. Changes in near-saturated hydraulic conductivity were mainly a result of changing pore number, while the flow weighted mean pore radius showed less temporal dynamic in the no-till system. Macroporosity in the measured range of 0 to -10 cm pressure head ranged from 1.99e-4 to 8.96e-6 m3m-3. The different plant coverage revealed only minor influences on the observed system dynamics. Mustard increased slightly the flow weighted mean pore radius, being 0.090 mm in mustard compared to 0.085 mm in bare soil and 0.084 mm in rye. Still pore radius changes were of minor importance for the overall temporal dynamics. Rainfall was detected as major driving force of the temporal evolution of structural soil hydraulic properties at the site. Soil hydraulic conductivity in the slightly unsaturated range (-7 cm to -10

  17. The effects of burning and grazing on soil carbon dynamics in managed Peruvian tropical montane grasslands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Viktoria; Oliveras, Imma; Kala, Jose; Lever, Rebecca; Arn Teh, Yit

    2017-12-01

    Montane tropical soils are a large carbon (C) reservoir, acting as both a source and a sink of CO2. Enhanced CO2 emissions originate, in large part, from the decomposition and losses of soil organic matter (SOM) following anthropogenic disturbances. Therefore, quantitative knowledge of the stabilization and decomposition of SOM is necessary in order to understand, assess and predict the impact of land management in the tropics. In particular, labile SOM is an early and sensitive indicator of how SOM responds to changes in land use and management practices, which could have major implications for long-term carbon storage and rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations. The aim of this study was to investigate the impacts of grazing and fire history on soil C dynamics in the Peruvian montane grasslands, an understudied ecosystem, which covers approximately a quarter of the land area in Peru. A density fractionation method was used to quantify the labile and stable organic matter pools, along with soil CO2 flux and decomposition measurements. Grazing and burning together significantly increased soil CO2 fluxes and decomposition rates and reduced temperature as a driver. Although there was no significant effect of land use on total soil C stocks, the combination of burning and grazing decreased the proportion of C in the free light fraction (LF), especially at the lower depths (10-20 and 20-30 cm). In the control soils, 20 % of the material recovered was in the free LF, which contained 30 % of the soil C content. In comparison, the burnt-grazed soil had the smallest recovery of the free LF (10 %) and a significantly lower C content (14 %). The burnt soils had a much higher proportion of C in the occluded LF (12 %) compared to the not-burnt soils (7 %) and there was no significant difference among the treatments in the heavy fraction (F) ( ˜ 70 %). The synergistic effect of burning and grazing caused changes to the soil C dynamics. CO2 fluxes were increased and the dominant

  18. Main Parameters of Soil Quality and it's Management Under Changing Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    László Phd, M., ,, Dr.

    2009-04-01

    products for human sustenance and by definition is not sustainable unless the nutrients removed in the products are returned to the soil. Many of the arguments about the sustainability of agricultural systems relate to the form in which nutrients are most sustainably returned. No agricultural system will be sustainable in the long run without management that considers nutrient cycling and energy budgets. The more intense the agricultural system, the more energy and resources must be expended to maintain the system. The relative quality of a soil for agriculture can depend on the resources available to farmers. In the United States, resources may be readily available for management of dynamic soil properties such as nutrient or water status. In other countries, farmers may be resource poor, and agricultural systems are generally low input, meaning that large-scale irrigation is absent, use of fertilizers, pesticides, and herbicides is minimal, and high energy, mechanized equipment is not available (Eswaran et a1.,1997). This means, for example, that soil quality for agriculture will be more dependent on climate than if the same soils were part of a highly managed, irrigated system. Similarly, sustainability is more dependent on maintenance of dynamic soil properties because resources may not exist to remedy losses (Várallyay, 2005; Malcolm, 2000; Márton et al. 2007). It is difficult to overstate the importance of irrigation to food production. One-third of the total global harvest of food comes from the 17% (250 million ha) of the world's cropland that is irrigated (Hoffman et al., 1990); three-quarters of which are in developing countries (Tribe, 1994). India, China, the former Soviet Union, the United States and Pakistan have the greatest area of irrigated land. Should soil quality criteria be the same for irrigated and dryland agriculture? Sojka (1996) suggests that the arid and semi-arid soils that support most irrigated agriculture have thin erodible surfaces

  19. Evaluating anaerobic soil disinfestation and other biological soil management methods for open-field tomato production in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaerobic soil disinfestation (ASD), amending the soil with composted poultry litter (CPL) and molasses (M), has been shown to be a potential alternative to chemical soil fumigation for tomato production, however, optimization of ASD and the use of other biologically-based soil management practices ...

  20. Indicators of structural degradation on intensively cultivated soils of the Piedemonte Llanero

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obando, Franco H

    2000-01-01

    In order to evaluate the validity of a diagnosis methodology of structural soil degradation based on the combination of internal morphology of aggregates and measurement of resistance to penetration, a reconnaissance survey of physical degradation processes on intensively cultivated soils in the Piedemonte Llanero was carried out. The internal morphology of soil aggregates was classified into five states; micro-aggregate (μ), compacted (∇ μ), very compacted (∇), cracked compacted (φ) and agglomerate (ψ) defined according to morphological characteristics derived from cultivation practices and wheel traffic. Two crops systems were selected: low-lying rice (mono-cropping) during 30 years) and upland rice, maize, soybean cotton crop rotations during 20 years in two landscapes of the alluvial plain of piedmont (medium terraces of the sub-recent piedmont, TM, and No-flooding Lowland Flats of the Recent Piedmont, PR). A natural forest and 20 years cacao tree plantation was include as benchmark systems. It was found that higher values of resistance to penetration and total density are associated to compact layers (∇ μ, ∇ and φ states) and lower values to the μ a ψ states. The ∇ state was particularly evident on TM under mono-cropping e low-lying rice crop. High values of resistance to penetration of topsoil on PR were rather associated to e textural resistance. Under natural forest and cacao e plantation it was found the micro-aggregate state (μ) o on surface soil. High values of weighed mean diameter of water stable aggregates, DMP, (≥ 5mm) were associated to compacted layers in the crop rotation e systems in PR. it was demonstrated that this methodology developed in France (temperate zone) can be applied to tropical soils

  1. Study on the response of unsaturated soil slope based on the effects of rainfall intensity and slope angle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Mohd Ashraf Mohamad; Hamzah, Nur Hasliza

    2017-07-01

    Rainfall has been considered as the major cause of the slope failure. The mechanism leading to slope failures included the infiltration process, surface runoff, volumetric water content and pore-water pressure of the soil. This paper describes a study in which simulated rainfall events were used with 2-dimensional soil column to study the response of unsaturated soil behavior based on different slope angle. The 2-dimensional soil column is used in order to demonstrate the mechanism of the slope failure. These unsaturated soil were tested with four different slope (15°, 25°, 35° and 45°) and subjected to three different rainfall intensities (maximum, mean and minimum). The following key results were obtained: (1) the stability of unsaturated soil decrease as the rainwater infiltrates into the soil. Soil that initially in unsaturated state will start to reach saturated state when rainwater seeps into the soil. Infiltration of rainwater will reduce the matric suction in the soil. Matric suction acts in controlling soil shear strength. Reduction in matric suction affects the decrease in effective normal stress, which in turn diminishes the available shear strength to a point where equilibrium can no longer be sustained in the slope. (2) The infiltration rate of rainwater decreases while surface runoff increase when the soil nearly achieve saturated state. These situations cause the soil erosion and lead to slope failure. (3) The steepness of the soil is not a major factor but also contribute to slope failures. For steep slopes, rainwater that fall on the soil surface will become surface runoff within a short time compare to the water that infiltrate into the soil. While for gentle slopes, water that becomes surface runoff will move slowly and these increase the water that infiltrate into the soil.

  2. Summer fallow soil management - impact on rainfed winter wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Fucui; Wang, Zhaohui; Dai, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Summer fallow soil management is an important approach to improve soil and crop management in dryland areas. In the Loess Plateau regions, the annual precipitation is low and varies annually and seasonally, with more than 60% concentrated in the summer months from July to September, which...... is the summer fallow period in the winter wheat-summer fallow cropping system. With bare fallow in summer as a control, a 3-year location-fixed field experiment was conducted in the Loess Plateau to investigate the effects of wheat straw retention (SR), green manure (GM) planting, and their combination on soil...... water retention (WR) during summer fallow, winter wheat yield, and crop water use and nitrogen (N) uptake. The results showed that SR increased soil WR during summer fallow by 20 mm on average compared with the control over 3 experimental years but reduced the grain yield by 8% in the third year...

  3. Lasting effects of soil health improvements with management changes in cotton-based cropping systems in a sandy soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    The soil microbial component is essential for sustainable agricultural systems and soil health. This study evaluated the lasting impacts of 5 years of soil health improvements from alternative cropping systems compared to intensively tilled continuous cotton (Cont. Ctn) in a low organic matter sandy...

  4. An ecosystem approach to assess soil quality in organically and conventionally managed farms in Iceland and Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, J. P.; Lehtinen, T.; Lair, G. J.; Bloem, J.; Hemerik, L.; Ragnarsdóttir, K. V.; Gísladóttir, G.; Newton, J. S.; de Ruiter, P. C.

    2015-01-01

    Intensive agricultural production can be an important driver for the loss of long-term soil quality. For this reason, the European Critical Zone Observatory (CZO) network adopted four pairs of agricultural CZO sites that differ in their management: conventional or organic. The CZO sites include two pairs of grassland farms in Iceland and two pairs of arable farms in Austria. Conventional fields differed from the organic fields in the use of artificial fertilisers and pesticides. Soils of these eight farms were analysed in terms of their physical, chemical, and biological properties, including soil aggregate size distribution, soil organic matter contents, abundance of soil microbes and soil fauna, and taxonomic diversity of soil microarthropods. In Icelandic grasslands, organically farmed soils had larger mean weight diameters of soil aggregates than the conventional farms, while there were no differences on the Austrian farms. Organic farming did not systematically influence organic matter contents or composition, nor soil carbon and nitrogen contents. Also, soil food web structures, in terms of presence of trophic groups of soil organisms, were highly similar among all farms, indicating a low sensitivity of trophic structure to land use or climate. However, soil organism biomass, especially of bacteria and nematodes, was consistently higher on organic farms than on conventional farms. Within the microarthropods, taxonomic diversity was systematically higher in the organic farms compared to the conventional farms. This difference was found across countries and farm, crop, and soil types. The results do not show systematic differences in physical and chemical properties between organic and conventional farms, but confirm that organic farming can enhance soil biomass and that microarthropod diversity is a sensitive and consistent indicator for land management.

  5. Engineered soil covers for management of salt impacted sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweeney, D.A.; Tratch, D.J.

    2005-01-01

    The use of engineered soil cover systems to mitigate environmental impacts from tailings and waste rock piles is becoming an accepted practice. This paper presented design concepts for soil covers related to reclamation practices in the mining industry as an effective risk management practice at salt impacted sites. Research and field programs have demonstrated that a layered engineered soil cover can reduce or eliminate infiltration. Key components of the system included re-establishing surface vegetation to balance precipitation fluxes with evapotranspiration potential, and design of a capillary break below the rooting zone to minimize deeper seated infiltration. It was anticipated that the incorporation of a vegetation cover and a capillary break would minimize infiltration into the waste rock or tailing pile and reduce the generation of acid rock drainage (ARD). Design of a layered soil cover requires the incorporation of meteorological data, moisture retention characteristics of the impacted soils, and proposed engineered cover materials. Performance of the soil cover was predicted using a finite element model combined with meteorological data from the site area, unsaturated soil properties of the parent sub-surface soils and potential covered materials. The soil cover design consisted of re-vegetation and a loose clay cover overlying a compacted till layer. The design was conducted for an off site release of salt impacted pasture land adjacent to a former highway maintenance yard. The model predicted minimal infiltration during high precipitation events and no infiltration during low precipitation events. Results indicated that the proposed soil cover would enable re-establishment of a productive agricultural ground cover, as well as minimizing the potential for additional salt migration. It was concluded that further research and development is needed to ensure that the cover system is an acceptable method for long-term risk management. 17 refs., 5 figs

  6. A climate sensitive model of carbon transfer through atmosphere, vegetation and soil in managed forest ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loustau, D.; Moreaux, V.; Bosc, A.; Trichet, P.; Kumari, J.; Rabemanantsoa, T.; Balesdent, J.; Jolivet, C.; Medlyn, B. E.; Cavaignac, S.; Nguyen-The, N.

    2012-12-01

    model applications to the prediction and analysis of climate scenarios impacts on southwestern European forests underlines the role of management alternatives, precipitation regime, CO2 concentration and atmospheric humidity .Frequency of soil preparation operations and understorey management play a major role in controlling the net carbon flux into the atmosphere at the juvenile stage ( 0 to 10 y-old) whereas climate and rotation duration control the functioning of adult phase. The model predicts that a drier and warmer climate will reduce the forest productivity and deplete soil and carbon stocks in managed forest from Southwestern Europe within decades, such effects being amplified for most intensive management alternatives. This work was part of the European research project GHG-Europe (EU contract No. 244122) and the French national project FAST co-funded by the Ecology, Agriculture and Forestry Ministries and the Region Aquitaine.

  7. The Microbiome Structure of Oklahoma Cropland and Prairie Soils and its Response to Seasonal Forcing and Management Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornell, C. R.; Peterson, B.; Zhou, J.; Xiao, X.; Wawrik, B.

    2017-12-01

    Greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions from soils are primarily the consequence of microbial processes. Agricultural management of soils is known to affect the structure of microbial communities, and it is likely that dominant GHG emitting microbial activities are impacted via requisite practices. To gain better insight into the impact of seasonal forcing and management practices on the microbiome structure in Oklahoma agricultural soils, a seasonal study was conducted. Over a year period, samples were collected bi-weekly during wet months, and monthly during dry months from two grassland and two managed agricultural sites in El Reno, Oklahoma. Microbial community structure was determined in quadruplicate for each site and time point via 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Measures of soil water content, subsoil nitrate, ammonium, organic matter, total nitrogen, and biomass were also taken for each time point. Data analysis revealed several important trends, indicating greater microbial diversity in native grassland and distinct microbial community changes in response to management practices. The native grassland soils also contained greater microbial biomass than managed soils and both varied in response to rainfall events. Native grassland soils harbor more diverse microbial communities, with the diversity and biomass decreasing along a gradient of agricultural management intensity. These data indicate that microbial community structure in El Reno soils occurs along a continuum in which native grasslands and highly managed agricultural soils (tilling and manure application) form end members. Integration with measurements from eddy flux towers into modelling efforts using the DeNitrification-DeComposition (DNDC) model is currently being explored to improve predictions of GHG emissions from grassland soils.

  8. Variation of photon intensities in transmitted photon spectra of 60Co as a function of dimensions of a soil medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Charanjeet; Sidhu, Gurdeep S.; Kumar, Ashok; Singh, Tejbir; Singh, Parjit S.; Mudahar, Gurmel S.

    2005-01-01

    The transmitted photon spectra of a point gamma-ray source of 60 Co have been measured through the longitudinal and transverse dimensions of a soil medium. The simultaneous effect of longitudinal and transverse thicknesses has been studied on the intensity of an appeared multiple-scatter peak in the soft part of the spectrum. The intensity of peak decreases exponentially with the increase of longitudinal thickness of soil medium whereas a reversal of the trend of multiple-scatter peak intensity with the transverse thickness observed as longitudinal dimension increases

  9. Distinct soil bacterial communities revealed under a diversely managed agroecosystem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymon S Shange

    Full Text Available Land-use change and management practices are normally enacted to manipulate environments to improve conditions that relate to production, remediation, and accommodation. However, their effect on the soil microbial community and their subsequent influence on soil function is still difficult to quantify. Recent applications of molecular techniques to soil biology, especially the use of 16S rRNA, are helping to bridge this gap. In this study, the influence of three land-use systems within a demonstration farm were evaluated with a view to further understand how these practices may impact observed soil bacterial communities. Replicate soil samples collected from the three land-use systems (grazed pine forest, cultivated crop, and grazed pasture on a single soil type. High throughput 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing was used to generate sequence datasets. The different land use systems showed distinction in the structure of their bacterial communities with respect to the differences detected in cluster analysis as well as diversity indices. Specific taxa, particularly Actinobacteria, Acidobacteria, and classes of Proteobacteria, showed significant shifts across the land-use strata. Families belonging to these taxa broke with notions of copio- and oligotrphy at the class level, as many of the less abundant groups of families of Actinobacteria showed a propensity for soil environments with reduced carbon/nutrient availability. Orders Actinomycetales and Solirubrobacterales showed their highest abundance in the heavily disturbed cultivated system despite the lowest soil organic carbon (SOC values across the site. Selected soil properties ([SOC], total nitrogen [TN], soil texture, phosphodiesterase [PD], alkaline phosphatase [APA], acid phosphatase [ACP] activity, and pH also differed significantly across land-use regimes, with SOM, PD, and pH showing variation consistent with shifts in community structure and composition. These results suggest that use of

  10. Soil organic carbon of an intensively reclaimed region in China: Current status and carbon sequestration potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xunfei; Zhan, Yu; Wang, Fei; Ma, Wanzhu; Ren, Zhouqiao; Chen, Xiaojia; Qin, Fangjin; Long, Wenli; Zhu, Zhenling; Lv, Xiaonan

    2016-09-15

    Land reclamation has been highly intensive in China, resulting in a large amount of soil organic carbon (SOC) loss to the atmosphere. Evaluating the factors which drive SOC dynamics and carbon sequestration potential in reclaimed land is critical for improving soil fertility and mitigating global warming. This study aims to determine the current status and factors important to the SOC density in a typical reclaimed land located in Eastern China, where land reclamation has been undergoing for centuries. A total of 4746 topsoil samples were collected from 2007 to 2010. The SOC density of the reclaimed land (3.18±0.05kgCm(-2); mean±standard error) is significantly lower than that of the adjacent non-reclaimed land (5.71±0.04kgCm(-2)) (pcarbon sequestration potential of the reclaimed lands may achieve a maximum of 5.80±1.81kgCO2m(-2) (mean±SD) when dryland is converted to flooded land with vegetable-rice cropping system and soil pH of ~5.9. Note that in some scenarios the methane emission substantially offsets the carbon sequestration potential, especially for continuous rice cropping system. With the optimal setting for carbon sequestration, it is estimated that the dryland reclaimed in the last 50years in China is able to sequester 0.12milliontons CO2 equivalent per year. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Information Architecture Used to Manage Multi-Domain Data Analysis in Intensively Managed Landscape - Critical Zone Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooper, R.; Angelo, B.; Marini, L.; Kumar, P.; Muste, M.

    2016-12-01

    The Intensively Managed Landscapes-Critical Zone Observatory (IML-CZO) is a multi-agency partnership that aims to understand the coevoluationary dynamics of change in the context of the landscape, soil, and biota. The Data Management aspect of IML-CZO provides data preservation and analysis for each of the scientific domains as they pursue environmental monitoring throughout the midwestern United States. Data Management is facilitated via data ingestion and storage through Clowder, an open-source, scalable data repository for organizing and analyzing data; and Geodashboard, a web application that provides exploring, querying, visualizing and downloading the data ingested into Clowder. The data collected covers many domains including geology, hydrology, and bioengineering. The data across these domains varies greatly; from real-time streams of environmental measurements to individual soil samples that are sent through a series of laboratories for analysis. All data can be uploaded to Clowder where metadata can be extracted or dynamically calculated based on the nature of the information. Geodashboard was created to provide scientists with a tool to explore data across these varying domains, and to visualize the extracted data from Clowder. Once Clowder has extracted the data, it is available for querying from a REST API for standardized and streamlined access. Users are able to explore the data on multiple axis, and are able to download data across multiple domains in a standardized format for further analysis and research. IML-CZO's Clowder has over 60 users and over 180 datasets. There are over 1.1 million extracted data points that date back to 1992, and it is continually growing.

  12. High-intensity interval training vs. moderate-intensity continuous training in the prevention/management of cardiovascular disease

    OpenAIRE

    Hussain, S; Macaluso, A; Pearson, S

    2016-01-01

    Moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) has long been considered the most effective exercise treatment modality for the prevention and management of cardiovascular disease, but more recently high-intensity interval training (HIIT) has emerged into the clinical environment has been viewed as a potential alternative to MICT in accruing such benefits. HIIT was initially found to induce significant improvements in numerous physiological and health-related indices, to a similar if not superi...

  13. Effects of intensive forest management practices on insect infestation levels and loblolly pine growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    John T. Nowak; C. Wayne Berisford

    2000-01-01

    Intensive forest management practices have been shown to increase tree growth and shorten rotation time. However, they may also lead to an increased need for insect pest management because of higher infestation levels and lower action thresholds. To investigate the relationship between intensive management practices arid insect infestation, maximum growth potential...

  14. Influence of agricultural management on chemical quality of a clay soil of semi-arid Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibno Namr, Khalid; Mrabet, Rachid

    2004-06-01

    Morocco's semi-arid lands are characterized by unique challenges. The most important obstacles to the development of durable agriculture are (1) limited and unpredictable supply of soil moisture and (2) low soil quality. Intensive use of soil throughout history has led to depletion in soil quality, leading in return to reduced yields because of the consequent reduced organic matter. Recognizing the need to recover soil quality and production decline, INRA scientists began, in the early 1980s, research on the effects of crop rotations, tillage and residue management on the productivity and quality of cropped soils. The present study concerns the short-term effect of rotation, tillage and residue management on selected quality indices of a calcixeroll (organic matter, nitrogen, particulate organic carbon (Cpom), particulate organic nitrogen (Npom) and pH). Hence, three rotations (wheat-wheat, WW; fallow-wheat, FW; and fallow-wheat-barley, FWB), two tillage systems (conventional offset disking, CT and no-tillage, NT), and three levels of residue in the NT system (NT 0 = no-residue cover, NT 50 = half surface residue cover, NT 100 = full surface residue cover) were selected. Three surface horizons were sampled (0-2.5, 2.5-7 and 7-20 cm). The study results showed an improvement of measured soil chemical properties under NT compared to CT, at the surface layer. No-tillage system helped sequestration of carbon and nitrogen, build-up of particulate organic carbon and nitrogen and sensible reduction of pH only at the surface layer. Continuous wheat permitted a slight improvement of soil quality, mainly at the 0-2.5 cm depth. Effects of rotation, tillage and residue level were reduced with depth of measurements.

  15. Pasture Management Strategies for Sequestering Soil Carbon - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franzluebbers, Alan J.

    2006-03-15

    management indicated that soil organic carbon and nitrogen storage were greater with than without endophyte only under high soil fertility. This extra carbon and nitrogen in soil due to the presence of the endophyte was further found to be located in intermediately sized soil aggregates, which are important for reducing water runoff and improving water quality. These results suggest that well-fertilized tall fescue pastures with a high percentage of plants infected with the endophyte have the potential to help offset the rising carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. This research has also shown positive ecological implications of tall fescue-endophyte association.

  16. Critical Zone services as environmental assessment criteria in intensively managed landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Meredith; Kumar, Praveen

    2017-06-01

    The Critical Zone (CZ) includes the biophysical processes occurring from the top of the vegetation canopy to the weathering zone below the groundwater table. CZ services provide a measure for the goods and benefits derived from CZ processes. In intensively managed landscapes, cropland is altered through anthropogenic energy inputs to derive more productivity, as agricultural products, than would be possible under natural conditions. However, the actual costs of alterations to CZ functions within landscape profiles are unknown. Through comparisons of corn feed and corn-based ethanol, we show that valuation of these CZ services in monetary terms provides a more concrete tool for characterizing seemingly abstract environmental damages from agricultural production systems. Multiple models are combined to simulate the movement of nutrients throughout the soil system, enabling the measurement of agricultural anthropogenic impacts to the CZ's regulating services. Results indicate water quality and atmospheric stabilizing services, measured by soil carbon storage, carbon respiration, and nitrate leaching, among others, can cost more than double that of emissions estimated in previous studies. Energy efficiency in addition to environmental impact is assessed to demonstrate how the inclusion of CZ services is necessary in accounting for the entire life cycle of agricultural production systems. These results conclude that feed production systems are more energy efficient and less environmentally costly than corn-based ethanol.

  17. Effect of soil type and soil management on soil physical, chemical and biological properties in commercial organic olive orchards in Southern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Jose Alfonso; Auxiliadora Soriano, Maria; Montes-Borrego, Miguel; Navas, Juan Antonio; Landa, Blanca B.

    2014-05-01

    One of the objectives of organic agriculture is to maintain and improve soil quality, while simultaneously producing an adequate yield. A key element in organic olive production is soil management, which properly implemented can optimize the use of rainfall water enhancing infiltration rates and controlling competition for soil water by weeds. There are different soil management strategies: eg. weed mowing (M), green manure with surface tillage in spring (T), or combination with animal grazing among the trees (G). That variability in soil management combined with the large variability in soil types on which organic olive trees are grown in Southern Spain, difficult the evaluation of the impact of different soil management on soil properties, and yield as well as its interpretation in terms of improvement of soil quality. This communications presents the results and analysis of soil physical, chemical and biological properties on 58 soils in Southern Spain during 2005 and 2006, and analyzed and evaluated in different studies since them. Those 58 soils were sampled in 46 certified commercial organic olive orchards with four soil types as well as 12 undisturbed areas with natural vegetation near the olive orchards. The four soil types considered were Eutric Regosol (RGeu, n= 16), Eutric Cambisol (CMeu, n=16), Calcaric Regosol (RGca, n=13 soils sampled) and Calcic Cambisol (CMcc), and the soil management systems (SMS) include were 10 light tillage (LT), 16 sheep grazing (G), 10 tillage (T), 10 mechanical mowing (M), and 12 undisturbed areas covered by natural vegetation (NV-C and NV-S). Our results indicate that soil management had a significant effect on olive yield as well as on key soil properties. Among these soil properties are physical ones, such as infiltration rate or bulk density, chemical ones, especially organic carbon concentration, and biological ones such as soil microbial respiration and bacterial community composition. Superimpose to that soil

  18. Responses of soil respiration to soil management changes in an agropastoral ecotone in Inner Mongolia, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Haili; Tang, Haiping

    2018-01-01

    Studying the responses of soil respiration ( R s ) to soil management changes is critical for enhancing our understanding of the global carbon cycle and has practical implications for grassland management. Therefore, the objectives of this study were (1) quantify daily and seasonal patterns of R s , (2) evaluate the influence of abiotic factors on R s , and (3) detect the effects of soil management changes on R s . We hypothesized that (1) most of daily and seasonal variation in R s could be explained by soil temperature ( T s ) and soil water content ( S w ), (2) soil management changes could significantly affect R s , and (3) soil management changes affected R s via the significant change in abiotic and biotic factors. In situ R s values were monitored in an agropastoral ecotone in Inner Mongolia, China, during the growing seasons in 2009 (August to October) and 2010 (May to October). The soil management changes sequences included free grazing grassland (FG), cropland (CL), grazing enclosure grassland (GE), and abandoned cultivated grassland (AC). During the growing season in 2010, cumulative R s for FG, CL, GE, and AC averaged 265.97, 344.74, 236.70, and 226.42 gC m -2  year -1 , respectively. The T s and S w significantly influenced R s and explained 66%-86% of the variability in daily R s . Monthly mean temperature and precipitation explained 78%-96% of the variability in monthly R s . The results clearly showed that R s was increased by 29% with the conversion of FG to CL and decreased by 35% and 11% with the conversion of CL to AC and FG to GE. The factors impacting the change in R s under different soil management changes sequences varied. Our results confirm the tested hypotheses. The increase in Q 1 0 and litter biomass induced by conversion of FG to GE could lead to increased R s if the climate warming. We suggest that after proper natural restoration period, grasslands should be utilized properly to decrease R s .

  19. Conventional intensive logging promotes loss of organic carbon from the mineral soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Christopher; Kirkpatrick, James B; Friedland, Andrew J

    2017-01-01

    There are few data, but diametrically opposed opinions, about the impacts of forest logging on soil organic carbon (SOC). Reviews and research articles conclude either that there is no effect, or show contradictory effects. Given that SOC is a substantial store of potential greenhouse gasses and forest logging and harvesting is routine, resolution is important. We review forest logging SOC studies and provide an overarching conceptual explanation for their findings. The literature can be separated into short-term empirical studies, longer-term empirical studies and long-term modelling. All modelling that includes major aboveground and belowground biomass pools shows a long-term (i.e. ≥300 years) decrease in SOC when a primary forest is logged and then subjected to harvesting cycles. The empirical longer-term studies indicate likewise. With successive harvests the net emission accumulates but is only statistically perceptible after centuries. Short-term SOC flux varies around zero. The long-term drop in SOC in the mineral soil is driven by the biomass drop from the primary forest level but takes time to adjust to the new temporal average biomass. We show agreement between secondary forest SOC stocks derived purely from biomass information and stocks derived from complex forest harvest modelling. Thus, conclusions that conventional harvests do not deplete SOC in the mineral soil have been a function of their short time frames. Forest managers, climate change modellers and environmental policymakers need to assume a long-term net transfer of SOC from the mineral soil to the atmosphere when primary forests are logged and then undergo harvest cycles. However, from a greenhouse accounting perspective, forest SOC is not the entire story. Forest wood products that ultimately reach landfill, and some portion of which produces some soil-like material there rather than in the forest, could possibly help attenuate the forest SOC emission by adding to a carbon pool in

  20. Influence of soil management on water erosion and hydrological responses in semiarid agrosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Alba, Saturnino; Alcazar, María; Ivón Cermeño, F.

    2014-05-01

    In Europe, in the Mediterranean area, water erosion is very severe, moderately to seriously affecting 50% to 70% of the agricultural land. However, it is remarkable the lack of field data of water erosion rates for agricultural areas of semiarid Mediterranean climate. Moreover, this lack of field data is even more severe regarding the hydrological and erosive responses of soils managed with organic farming compared to those with conventional managements or others under conservation agriculture. This paper describes an experimental field station (La Higueruela Station) for the continuous monitoring of water erosion that was set up in 1992 in Central Spain (Toledo, Castilla-La Mancha). In the study area, the annual precipitation is around 450 mm with a very irregular inter-annual and seasonal distribution, which includes a strong drought in summer. The geology is characterised by non-consolidated Miocene materials, mostly arcosics. The area presents a low relief and gentle slopes, generally less than 15%. At the experimental field, the soil is a Typic Haploxeralf (USDA, 1990). The land-uses are rainfed crops mainly herbaceous crops, vineyard and olive trees. The hydrological response and soil losses by water erosion under natural rainfall conditions are monitored in a total of 28 experimental plots of the USLE type. The plots have a total area of 33.7 m2, (22.5 m long downslope and 3 m wide) and presented a slope gradient of 9%. Detailed descriptions of the experimental field facilities and the automatic station for monitoring runoff and sediment productions, as well as of the meteorological station, are presented. The land uses and treatments applied on the experimental plots are for different soil management systems for cereals crops (barley): 1) Organic farming, 2) Minimum tillage of moderate tillage intensity, 3) No-tillage, and 4) Conventional tillage; five alternatives of fallow: 1) Traditional fallow (white fallow) with conventional tillage, 2) Traditional

  1. Effect of integrated nutrient management on nut production of coconut and soil environment: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baloch, P.A.; Rajpar, I.

    2014-01-01

    With the adoption of new technology of intensive cropping with high yielding varieties, there is a considerable demand on soil for supply of nutrients. However, the native fertility of our soils is poor and cannot sustain high yields. Sustainable agricultural production incorporates the idea that natural resources should be used to generate increased output and incomes, without depleting the natural resources. The solution is application of integrated nutrient management (INM). It is the system, which envisages the use of organic wastes, biofertilisers and inorganic fertilizers in judicious combinations to sustain soil productivity. The conjunctive use of organic and inorganic sources improves soil health and helps in maximization production as it involves utilization of local sources and, hence turned to be rational, realistic and economically viable way of supply of nutrients. Coconut is a versatile tree and is the most popular home garden crop in the world. It is very beneficial for health because of its high nutrient management affects on its growth and yield characteristics to a great extent. This paper, therefore, presents a review on various aspects of INM used to improve soil environment, coconut growth and yield characters. (author)

  2. Soil-transmitted helminthiasis: the relationship between prevalence and classes of intensity of infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montresor, Antonio; À Porta, Natacha; Albonico, Marco; Gabrielli, Albis Francesco; Jankovic, Dina; Fitzpatrick, Christopher; Vercruysse, Jozef; Levecke, Bruno

    2015-04-01

    Recently, WHO has developed a predictive model to evaluate the impact of preventive chemotherapy programs to control the morbidity of soil-transmitted helminths (STHs). To make predictions, this model needs baseline information about the proportion of infections classified as low, moderate and high intensity, for each of the three STH species. However, epidemiological data available are often limited to prevalence estimates. We reanalyzed available data from 19 surveys in 10 countries and parameterized the relationship between prevalence of STH infections and the proportion of moderate and heavy intensity infections. The equations derived allow feeding the WHO model with estimates of the proportion of the different classes of infection intensity when only prevalence data is available. The prediction capacities of the STH model using the equations developed in the present study, should be tested by comparing it with the changes on STH epidemiological data observed in control programs operating for several years. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Anaerobic N mineralization in paddy soils in relation to inundation management, physicochemical soil fractions, mineralogy and soil properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleutel, Steven; Kader, Mohammed Abdul; Ara Begum, Shamim; De Neve, Stefaan

    2013-04-01

    Anaerobic N mineralization measured from (saturated) repacked soil cores from 25 paddy fields in Bangladesh and was previously found to negatively related to soil N content on a relative basis. This suggests that other factors like soil organic matter (SOM) quality or abiotic factors instead control the anaerobic N mineralization process. We therefore assessed different physical and chemical fractions of SOM, management factors and various soil properties as predictors for the net anaerobic N mineralization. 1° First, we assessed routinely analyzed soil parameters (soil N and soil organic carbon, texture, pH, oxalate- and pyrophosphate-extractable Fe, Al, and Mn, fixed-NH4 content). We found no significant influences of neither soil mineralogy nor the annual length of inundation on soil N mineralization. The anaerobic N mineralization correlated positively with Na-pyrophosphate-extractable Fe and negatively with pH (both at Presistant OM fraction, followed by extraction of mineral bound OM with 10%HF thereby isolating the HF-resistant OM. None of the physicochemical SOM fractions were found useful predictors anaerobic N mineralization. The linkage between these chemical soil N fractions and N supplying processes actually occurring in the soil thus appears to be weak. Regardless, we hypothesize that variation in strength of N-mineral and N-OM linkages is likely to explain variation in bio-availability of organic N and proneness to mineralization. Yet, in order to separate kinetically different soil N fractions we then postulated that an alternative approach would be required, which instead isolates soil N fractions on the basis of bonding strength. In this respect bonding strength should be seen as opposite of proneness to dissolution of released N into water, the habitat of soil microorganisms mediating soil N mineralization. We hypothesize that soil N extracted by water at increasing temperatures would reflect such N fractions with increasing bonding strength, in

  4. USDA soil classification system dictates site surface management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowmer, W.J.

    1985-01-01

    Success or failure of site surface management practices greatly affects long-term site stability. The US Department of Agriculture (USDA) soil classification system best documents those parameters which control the success of installed practices for managing both erosion and surface drainage. The USDA system concentrates on soil characteristics in the upper three meters of the surface that support the associated flora both physically and physiologically. The USDA soil survey first identifies soil series based on detailed characteristics that are related to production potential. Using the production potential, land use capability classes are developed. Capability classes reveal the highest and best agronomic use for the site. Lower number classes are considered arable while higher number classes are best suited for grazing agriculture. Application of ecological principles based on the USDA soil survey reveals the current state of the site relative to its ecological potential. To assure success, site management practices must be chosen that are compatible with both production capability and current state of the site

  5. Vegetation management with fire modifies peatland soil thermal regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Lee E; Palmer, Sheila M; Johnston, Kerrylyn; Holden, Joseph

    2015-05-01

    Vegetation removal with fire can alter the thermal regime of the land surface, leading to significant changes in biogeochemistry (e.g. carbon cycling) and soil hydrology. In the UK, large expanses of carbon-rich upland environments are managed to encourage increased abundance of red grouse (Lagopus lagopus scotica) by rotational burning of shrub vegetation. To date, though, there has not been any consideration of whether prescribed vegetation burning on peatlands modifies the thermal regime of the soil mass in the years after fire. In this study thermal regime was monitored across 12 burned peatland soil plots over an 18-month period, with the aim of (i) quantifying thermal dynamics between burned plots of different ages (from post burning), and (ii) developing statistical models to determine the magnitude of thermal change caused by vegetation management. Compared to plots burned 15 + years previously, plots recently burned (management effects. Temperatures measured in soil plots burned vegetation regrows. Our findings that prescribed peatland vegetation burning alters soil thermal regime should provide an impetus for further research to understand the consequences of thermal regime change for carbon processing and release, and hydrological processes, in these peatlands. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Veterans Affairs Intensive Case Management for older veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Somaia; Neale, Michael S; Rosenheck, Robert

    2009-08-01

    There is a growing need for information on evidence-based practices that may potentially address needs of elderly people with severe mental illness (SMI), and more specifically on community-based services such as assertive community treatment (ACT). This study examines national evaluation data from fiscal year 2001-2005 from Veterans Affairs Mental Health Intensive Case Management (MHICM) program (N = 5,222), an ACT-based service model, to characterize the age distribution of participants and the distinctive needs, patterns of service delivery, and treatment outcomes for elderly veterans. Altogether, 24.8% of participants were 55-64 years; 7.4% 65-74 years; and 2.8% were older than 75. Veterans over 75 formed a distinct subgroup that had a later age of onset of primarily nonpsychotic illnesses without comorbid substance abuse and had experienced more limited lifetime hospital treatment than younger participants. Older veterans were less symptomatic and more satisfied with their social relationships than younger clients. They mostly live independently or in minimally restrictive housing, but they received less recovery-focused services and more crisis intervention and medical services. They thus do not appear to be young patients with SMI who have aged but rather constitute a distinct group with serious late-onset problems. It is possible that MHICM services keep them in the community and avoid costly nursing home placement while providing a respite service that reduces family burden. These data highlight the unique characteristics of older veterans receiving ACT-like services and the need to focus greater attention on recovery-oriented services as well as community support for this subgroup.

  7. Rainfall intensity effects on removal of fecal indicator bacteria from solid dairy manure applied over grass-covered soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaustein, Ryan A., E-mail: rblauste@ufl.edu [USDA-ARS Environmental Microbial and Food Safety Laboratory, Beltsville Agricultural Research Center, Beltsville, MD (United States); Department of Environmental Science and Technology, University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Hill, Robert L. [Department of Environmental Science and Technology, University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Micallef, Shirley A. [Department of Plant Science and Landscape Architecture, University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Center for Food Safety and Security Systems, University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Shelton, Daniel R.; Pachepsky, Yakov A. [USDA-ARS Environmental Microbial and Food Safety Laboratory, Beltsville Agricultural Research Center, Beltsville, MD (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The rainfall-induced release of pathogens and microbial indicators from land-applied manure and their subsequent removal with runoff and infiltration precedes the impairment of surface and groundwater resources. It has been assumed that rainfall intensity and changes in intensity during rainfall do not affect microbial removal when expressed as a function of rainfall depth. The objective of this work was to test this assumption by measuring the removal of Escherichia coli, enterococci, total coliforms, and chloride ion from dairy manure applied in soil boxes containing fescue, under 3, 6, and 9 cm h{sup −1} of rainfall. Runoff and leachate were collected at increasing time intervals during rainfall, and post-rainfall soil samples were taken at 0, 2, 5, and 10 cm depths. Three kinetic-based models were fitted to the data on manure-constituent removal with runoff. Rainfall intensity appeared to have positive effects on rainwater partitioning to runoff, and removal with this effluent type occurred in two stages. While rainfall intensity generally did not impact the parameters of runoff-removal models, it had significant, inverse effects on the numbers of bacteria remaining in soil after rainfall. As rainfall intensity and soil profile depth increased, the numbers of indicator bacteria tended to decrease. The cumulative removal of E. coli from manure exceeded that of enterococci, especially in the form of removal with infiltration. This work may be used to improve the parameterization of models for bacteria removal with runoff and to advance estimations of depths of bacteria removal with infiltration, both of which are critical to risk assessment of microbial fate and transport in the environment. - Highlights: • Release and removal of indicator bacteria from manure was evaluated in soil boxes. • Rainfall intensity did not impact runoff-removal kinetics in three tested models. • Rainfall intensity had positive/inverse effects on bacterial release to runoff/soil

  8. Nitrogen deposition and management practices increase soil microbial biomass carbon but decrease diversity in Moso bamboo plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Quan; Song, Xinzhang; Gu, Honghao; Gao, Fei

    2016-06-01

    Because microbial communities play a key role in carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycling, changes in the soil microbial community may directly affect ecosystem functioning. However, the effects of N deposition and management practices on soil microbes are still poorly understood. We studied the effects of these two factors on soil microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and community composition in Moso bamboo plantations using high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Plantations under conventional (CM) or intensive management (IM) were subjected to one of four N treatments for 30 months. IM and N addition, both separately and in combination, significantly increased soil MBC while decreasing bacterial diversity. However, increases in soil MBC were inhibited when N addition exceeded 60 kg N•ha-1•yr-1. IM increased the relative abundances of Actinobacteria and Crenarchaeota but decreased that of Acidobacteria. N addition increased the relative abundances of Acidobacteria, Crenarchaeota, and Actinobacteria but decreased that of Proteobacteria. Soil bacterial diversity was significantly related to soil pH, C/N ratio, and nitrogen and available phosphorus content. Management practices exerted a greater influence over regulation of the soil MBC and microbial diversity compared to that of N deposition in Moso bamboo plantations.

  9. Soil quality under two different management schemes in coffee plantations of southern Colombia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Eduardo Valbuena-Calderón

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to develop an additive soil quality index (ASQI in agrofostery managements of coffee (Coffea arabica L.. The study took place under two intense and traditional management schemes, in nine farms (32 lots in the south of Colombia, during 2013. A separation of means analysis was held through the LSD Fisher test (P<0,05 to each of the physical and chemical variables of the soil. The variables that showed differences between the schemes were submitted to a main components analysis to select the minimum data set (MDS of the components that explained the most variability and the redundancy was veri ed within the indicators, based on the correlation. The ASQI was obtained from the total sum of soil quality index (SQI of all the indicators, taking into account that the higher the score of the ASQI, the higher the quality of the soil within the study system. The selected physical variables were the content of sand and clay; while the chemical variables were: organic carbon (OC, P, CA, Mg, total bases (TB and Ca/Mg. The best ASQI was obtained from traditional management, because the value of the selected variables matched in a bigger proportion with the quality objective identi ed for the ASQI quanti cation; in this case the crop yield, based on limit values for coffee plantations.

  10. Best management practices: Managing cropping systems for soil protection and bioenergy production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interest in renewable alternatives to fossil fuels has increased. Crop residue such as corn stover or wheat straw can be used for bioenergy including a substitution for natural gas or coal. Harvesting crop residue needs to be managed to protect the soil and future soil productivity. The amount of bi...

  11. Agricultural management explains historic changes in regional soil carbon stocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wesemael, Bas; Paustian, Keith; Meersmans, Jeroen; Goidts, Esther; Barancikova, Gabriela; Easter, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Agriculture is considered to be among the economic sectors having the greatest greenhouse gas mitigation potential, largely via soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration. However, it remains a challenge to accurately quantify SOC stock changes at regional to national scales. SOC stock changes resulting from SOC inventory systems are only available for a few countries and the trends vary widely between studies. Process-based models can provide insight in the drivers of SOC changes, but accurate input data are currently not available at these spatial scales. Here we use measurements from a soil inventory dating from the 1960s and resampled in 2006 covering the major soil types and agricultural regions in Belgium together with region-specific land use and management data and a process-based model. The largest decreases in SOC stocks occurred in poorly drained grassland soils (clays and floodplain soils), consistent with drainage improvements since 1960. Large increases in SOC in well drained grassland soils appear to be a legacy effect of widespread conversion of cropland to grassland before 1960. SOC in cropland increased only in sandy lowland soils, driven by increasing manure additions. Modeled land use and management impacts accounted for more than 70% of the variation in observed SOC changes, and no bias could be demonstrated. There was no significant effect of climate trends since 1960 on observed SOC changes. SOC monitoring networks are being established in many countries. Our results demonstrate that detailed and long-term land management data are crucial to explain the observed SOC changes for such networks. PMID:20679194

  12. Knowledge intensive organisations: on the frontiers of knowledge management: Guest editorial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Millar-Schijf, Carla C.J.M.; Lockett, Martin; Mahon, John F.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This paper aims to further research on leadership and knowledge management through formal knowledge strategies in knowledge-intensive organizations (KIOs), and analyse knowledge management challenges and approaches within KIOs, especially tacit knowledge. Design/methodology/approach This

  13. Household Fertilizers Use and Soil Fertility Management Practices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Household Fertilizers Use and Soil Fertility Management Practices in Vegetable Crops Production: The Case of Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia. ... rate, which could leads to pollution of the environment from over dose application and from runoff in to the water bodies and leaching in to the ground water with economic loss.

  14. Transformation towards more sustainable soil management on Dutch arable farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claus, Sebastien; Egdom, van Ilona; Suter, Bruno; Sarpong, Clara; Pappa, Aikaterini; Miah, Imtiaz; Luppa, Caterina; Potters, J.I.

    2017-01-01

    Currently a debate is ongoing in the Netherlands on how to increase soil sustainable management in general and specifically in short term lease. Sustainable practices may not be adopted by farmers because of an interplay between EU, national and provincial legislation, short-term land lease system,

  15. Soil fertility management in organic greenhouses in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tittatelli, Fabio; Bath, Brigitta; Ceglie, Francesco Giovanni; Garcia, M.C.; Moller, K.; Reents, H.J.; Vedie, Helene; Voogt, W.

    2016-01-01

    The management of soil fertility in organic greenhouse systems differs quite widely across Europe. The challenge is to identify and implement strategies which comply with the organic principles set out in (EC) Reg. 834/2007 and (EC) Reg. 889/2008 as well as supporting environmentally, socially and

  16. Effects of grassland management on the emission of methane from grassland on peat soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oenema, O. [Department of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, Wageningen Agricultural University, Wageningen (Netherlands)

    1995-12-31

    The aim of the project on the title subject is to provide insight into the major controlling factors that contribute to the net exchange rates of methane (CH4) between grassland and atmosphere, and to provide quantitative net CH4 emission rates. Net CH4 emissions have been monitored with vented closed flux chambers on both intensively managed grasslands and grasslands in a nature preserve on peat soil in the Netherlands. Net CH4 emissions from intensively managed grasslands (Zegveld, Netherlands) were low in the period January-December 1994, in general in the range of -0.2 to 0.2 mg CH4 m{sup -2} d{sup -1}. Only in the relatively warm summer of 1994, consumption of atmospheric CH4 of about 0.4 mg m{sup -2} d{sup -1} was measured. Effects of ground water level in the range of 30-60 cm below surface were very small. There were also no clear effects of nitrogen fertilization and grazing versus mowing on CH4 emission from the soil. Net CH4 emissions from three extensively managed grasslands in a nature preserve (Nieuwkoopse Plassen area in the Netherlands) ranged from 0-215 mg CH4 m{sup -2} d{sup -1} in the period January 1994-June 1995. Differences between the three sites were quite large, as were the spatial variations at each of the sites. The results presented here indicate that a shift of intensively managed peat grasslands into more natural ecosystems will significantly increase the contribution of Dutch peat soils to the total CH4 emission. refs.

  17. Soil quality indicator responses to row crop, grazed pasture, and agroforestry buffer management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Incorporation of trees and establishment of grass buffers within agroecosystems are management practices shown to enhance soil quality. Soil enzyme activities and water stable aggregates (WSA) have been identified as sensitive soil quality indicators to evaluate early responses to soil management. ...

  18. Soil fauna and its relation with environmental variables in soil management systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilmar Baretta

    Full Text Available The present study aims to generate knowledge about the soil fauna, its relation to other explanatory environmental variables, and, besides it, to select edaphic indicators that more contribute to separate the land use systems (LUS. Five different LUS were chosen: conventional tillage with crop rotation (CTCR; no-tillage with crop rotation (NTCR; conventional tillage with crop succession (CTCS; no-tillage with crop succession (NTCS and minimum tillage with crop succession (MTCS. The samples were made in the counties Chapecó, Xanxerê and Ouro Verde located in the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil, and were considered the true replicates of the LUS. In each site, nine points were sampled in a sampling grid of 3 x 3. At the same points, soil was sampled for the physical, chemical and biological attributes (environmental variables. Pitfall traps were used to evaluate the soil fauna. Data were analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA and canonical discriminant analysis (CDA. The soil fauna presented potential to be used as indictors of soil quality, since some groups proved to be sensible to changes of the environmental variables and to soil management and tillage. The soil management using crop rotation (NTCR and CTCR presented higher diversity, compared to the systems using crop succession (NTCS, MTCS and NTCS, evidencing the importance of the soil tillage, independent of the season (summer or winter. The variable that better contributed to explain these changes were the chemical variables (potassium, pH, calcium, organic matter, available phosphorus, potential acidity, and biological variables (Shannon diversity index, Collembola, Pielou equitability index and microbial biomass carbon, respectively.

  19. Managing Agricultural Soils of Pakistan for Food and Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rattan Lal

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Pakistan; a predominantly arid land region; has a large, growing, urbanizing and increasingly affluent population. Soil and water resources are finite, with per capita arable land area of 0.10 ha by 2050, and prone to degradation by inappropriate management, harsh environments and changing climate. Nonetheless, agriculture productivity increased strongly between 1960 and 2016. Whereas, the population of Pakistan increased by a factor of 4.5 between 1960 and 2018 (from 45 to 201 million, total cereal grain production increased by a factor of 6.5 (from 6.6 to 43.0 million ton. Despite the impressive gains in agricultural production since the Green Revolution era, there is no cause for complacency because even greater challenges lie ahead. Total food production may have to be doubled between 2015 and 2050 because of the growth in population along with rapidly urbanizing and increasingly affluent lifestyle. The national agronomic crop yield (2.8 Mg/ha for wheat, 3.8 Mg/ha for rice, and 4.6 Mg/ha for maize may have to be increased drastically, and that too in a changing and uncertain climate. Important among the challenges are the growing incidence of drought stress and heatwave, and increasing risks of soil degradation and desertification. Further, soil resources must also be managed to advance the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs of the UN; achieve Land Degradation Neutrality proposed by the UNCCD; implement the “4 per Thousand” program of soil carbon sequestration initiated at COP21 in Paris in 2015; and fulfil the aspirations of better lifestyle for the people of Pakistan. The strategy is to restore degraded soils and desertified ecosystems through sustainable intensification. The goal is to produce more from less by reducing losses (i.e., water, nutrients, soil and enhancing eco-efficiency of inputs (i.e., fertilizer, irrigation water, energy. Vertical increase in agronomic yield, by restoring soil health and adopting best management

  20. A proposal for soil cover and management factor (C) for RUSLE in vineyards with different soil management across Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, José Alfonso; Biddoccu, Marcella; Guzman, Gema; Bauer, Thomas; Strauss, Peter; Winter, Silvia; Zaller, Johann; Cavallo, Eugenio

    2017-04-01

    The Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation RUSLE (Dabney et al., 2012) is commonly used to estimate rates of soil erosion caused by rainfall and its associated overland flow on cropland and many other disturbed and undisturbed lands. Several studies have been focused on the evaluation of erosion risk in vineyards across Europe, which has four countries, France, Italy, Spain and Portugal, among the world's top ten vine growers. Other European countries, such as Romania, Greece, Austria, Serbia and Hungary, also have significant surface devoted to vineyards (FAO, 2014). However, literature shows a wide variability among C factors from different sources (Auerswald and Schwab, 1999; Kouli et al., 2009; Novara et al., 2011; Pacheco et al., 2014; Rodrigo Comino et al., 2016) that complicates their interpretation and use outside the area where they were developed. Gómez et al. (2016) presented a simplified erosion prediction model based on RUSLE, ORUSCAL, to demonstrate the possibility to calibrate RUSLE for a broad range of management conditions in vineyards with limited datasets. This approach have already been pursued successfully in olives (Gómez et al. 2003, Vanwalleghem et al., 2011). This communication reports the results of an evaluation of the calibration strategies and model predictions of ORUSCAL using a long-term experiment dataset (Bidoccu et al., 2016) in a vineyard in Northern Italy, and its implementation to develop soil cover and management factors (C) in three different soil, climate and management conditions across Europe: Southern Spain, Northern Italy and Austria. The communication, furthermore, explores and discusses of the application of the ORUSCAL model to additional vineyards areas in France and Romania in the context of the Vinedivers project (www.vinedivers.eu). Keywords: vineyard, erosion, soil management, RUSLE, model. References Auerswald K., Schwab, S. 1999. Erosion risk (C factor) of different viticultural practices. Vitic. Enol. Sci.54

  1. In-Soil and Down-Hole Soil Water Sensors: Characteristics for Irrigation Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    The past use of soil water sensors for irrigation management was variously hampered by high cost, onerous regulations in the case of the neutron probe (NP), difficulty of installation or maintenance, and poor accuracy. Although many sensors are now available, questions of their utility still abound....

  2. Modelling nitrous oxide emissions from organic and conventional cereal-based cropping systems under different management, soil and climate factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doltra, J; Olesen, Jørgen E; Báez, D

    2015-01-01

    Mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture should be assessed across cropping systems and agroclimatic regions. In this study, we investigate the ability of the FASSET model to analyze differences in the magnitude of N2O emissions due to soil, climate and management factors in cereal...... on the seasonal soil N2O fluxes than the environmental factors. Overall, in its current version FASSET reproduced the effects of the different factors investigated on the cumulative seasonal soil N2O emissions but temporally it overestimated emissions from nitrification and denitrification on particular days when...... soil operations, ploughing or fertilization, took place. The errors associated with simulated daily soil N2O fluxes increased with the magnitude of the emissions. For resolving causes of differences in simulated and measured fluxes more intensive and temporally detailed measurements of N2O fluxes...

  3. Impact of set-aside management on soil mesofauna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landi, Silvia; d'Errico, Giada; Mazza, Giuseppe; Mocali, Stefano; Bazzoffi, Paolo; Roversi, Pio Federico

    2014-05-01

    To contrast the biodiversity decline, the current Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) 2014-2020 responds to urgent environmental challenges and provides some new greening attempts as pastures, rotations, orchard grasses, ecological set-aside and organic farming. This study, supported by the Italian National Project MONACO (MIPAAF), aims to provide preliminary indications about the ecological impact of set-aside on soil biodiversity. Soil invertebrates, mainly nematodes and microarthropods, are excellent candidates to study the human activity impacts on the environment. Indeed, invertebrates are abundant, relatively easy to sample, and they can quickly respond to soil disturbance. Nematode assemblages offer several advantages for assessing the quality of terrestrial ecosystems because of their permeable cuticle through which they are in direct contact with solvents in the soil capillary water. Moreover, nematodes have high diversity and represent a trophically heterogeneous group. The Maturity Index (MI), based on the nematode fauna, represents a gauge of the conditions of the soil ecosystem. Edaphic microarthropods play an important role in the soil system in organic matter degradation and nutrient cycling. They show morphological characters that reveal adaptation to soil environments, such as reduction or loss of pigmentation and visual apparatus, streamlined body form with appendages reduction, reduction or loss of flying, jumping or running adaptations, thinner cuticle for reduced water-retention capacity. The "Qualità Biologica del Suolo" (QBS) index, namely "Biological Quality of Soil", is based on the types of edaphic microarthropods to assess soil biological quality. Three different set-aside managements were compared with a conventional annual crop in three Italian sites (Caorle, VE; Fagna, FI; Metaponto, MT). After five years the biological quality of soils using MI and QBS was evaluated. Regarding nematodes, the family richness and the biological quality

  4. Intensity and duration of chemical weathering: An example from soil clays of the southeastern Koolau Mountains, Oahu, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnsson, Mark J.; Ellen, Stephen D.; McKittrick, Mary Anne

    1993-01-01

    Orographic precipitation on the southern flank of the southeastern Koolau Mountains produces a pronounced precipitation gradient. The corresponding gradient in the intensity of the chemical weathering environment provides an opportunity to address the effects of varying chemical weathering intensity on the composition of clay-size weathering products in soils developed on basalt. In addition, little-modified remnants of the constructional surface of the Koolau Volcano, isolated by stream dissection, remain as facets on the southern ends of the parallel ridges of the study area. By comparing clay mineralogy of soils developed on these older geomorphic surfaces with those developed on the younger sharp-crested ridges and steep side slopes, the effects of weathering duration on clay mineralogy can also be addressed.Soil clays in this part of the Koolau Mountains are mineralogically complex; principal phases include smectite, kaolinite, and halloysite, but pure end member phases are uncommon. Rather, most phases contain some amount of mixed layering. Smectite may contain small (Volcano are markedly more leached than those from younger landscapes in the same precipitation regime. Although smectite may be present, kaolinite is the dominant phase, and accumulations of Fe and Ti occur in the uppermost soil levels. Enrichment of Zr and Ti in these soils, as compared to concentrations in the original basaltic parent material, indicates that as much as 75% of the parent material has been lost. Thus weathering duration may affect soil clay composition in the same way as weathering intensity.Because smectite and halloysite are expandable clay minerals, their presence in soils may decrease slope stability and influence the nature of slope processes. Soil avalanches occur on steep slopes throughout the study area, whereas slow-moving landslides appear to be restricted to gentler slopes in drier parts of the study area where smectite is abundant. The clay mineralogy of soils thus

  5. [Economic impact of AFId management with modern management system in Intensive Care patients: comparison between ICUs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuoco, Giovanni; Di Giulio, Paola

    2016-01-01

    . Economic impact of AFId management with modern management systems in Intensive Care patients: comparison between ICUs. Acute fecal incontinence associated with diarrhea (AFId) affects up to 40% of intensive care unit (ICU) patients and may be responsible for pressure ulcers (PU). The FMS (Fecal Management System) though improving the management of these patients is not often provided due to its cost. To measure the costs of the use of FMS compared to routine care in three intensive care units (ICU) of Piedmont (Italy). All patients admitted from January to June 2016, > 18 years with at least three AFId episodes in the previous 24 hours were included. The costs for hygiene, medications and nursing time spent were calculated on 10 patients without FMS, accounting for the mean number of diarrhea attacks (3.04 per day), and mean days of FMS use. The FMS generated savings compared to routine care in nursing time, equipments for hygiene and pressure sores medications in patients with sacral sores. Savings depended on length of use (LoU) of the device: ICU with 10 patients (7 with PUs), mean LoU FMS 11.9 days, savings 1.210 euros; ICU with 10 patients (2 with PUs), mean LoU FMS 17.3 days, savings 5.317 euros; ICU with 45 patients (11 with PUs) mean LoU FMS 9.3 days, cost increase 1.057 euros. The cost of FMS is quickly amortised in patients with PUs. No FMS patients developed a new PUs. The FMS gives rise to savings when used in patients with PUs or for more than 10 days. The savings related to the prevention of PUs should be also added.

  6. Using 137Cs to quantify the redistribution of soil organic carbon and total N affected by intensive soil erosion in the headwaters of the Yangtze River, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Guoxiao; Wang Yibo; Wang Yanlin

    2008-01-01

    Characteristics of soil organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (total N) are important for determining the overall quality of soils. Studies on spatial and temporal variation in SOC and total N are of great importance because of global environmental concerns. Soil erosion is one of the major processes affecting the redistribution of SOC and total N in the test fields. To characterize the distribution and dynamics of SOC and N in the intensively eroded soil of the headwaters of the Yangtze River, China, we measured profiles of soil organic C, total N stocks, and 137 Cs in a control plot and a treatment plot. The amounts of SOC, 137 Cs of sampling soil profiles increased in the following order, lower>middle>upper portions on the control plot, and the amounts of total N of sampling soil profile increase in the following order: upper>middle>lower on the control plot. Intensive soil erosion resulted in a significant decrease of SOC amounts by 34.9%, 28.3% and 52.6% for 0-30 cm soil layer at upper, middle and lower portions and 137 Cs inventory decreased by 68%, 11% and 85% at upper, middle and lower portions, respectively. On the treatment plot total N decreased by 50.2% and 14.6% at the upper and middle portions and increased by 48.9% at the lower portion. Coefficients of variation (CVs) of SOC decreased by 31%, 37% and 30% in the upper, middle and lower slope portions, respectively. Similar to the variational trend of SOC, CVs of 137 Cs decreased by 19.2%, 0.5% and 36.5%; and total N decreased by 45.7%, 65.1% and 19% in the upper, middle and lower slope portions, respectively. The results showed that 137 Cs, SOC and total N moved on the sloping land almost in the same physical mechanism during the soil erosion procedure, indicating that fallout of 137 Cs could be used directly for quantifying dynamic SOC and total N redistribution as the soil was affected by intensive soil erosion

  7. Using (137)Cs to quantify the redistribution of soil organic carbon and total N affected by intensive soil erosion in the headwaters of the Yangtze River, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guoxiao, Wei; Yibo, Wang; Yan Lin, Wang

    2008-12-01

    Characteristics of soil organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (total N) are important for determining the overall quality of soils. Studies on spatial and temporal variation in SOC and total N are of great importance because of global environmental concerns. Soil erosion is one of the major processes affecting the redistribution of SOC and total N in the test fields. To characterize the distribution and dynamics of SOC and N in the intensively eroded soil of the headwaters of the Yangtze River, China, we measured profiles of soil organic C, total N stocks, and (137)Cs in a control plot and a treatment plot. The amounts of SOC, (137)Cs of sampling soil profiles increased in the following order, lower>middle>upper portions on the control plot, and the amounts of total N of sampling soil profile increase in the following order: upper>middle>lower on the control plot. Intensive soil erosion resulted in a significant decrease of SOC amounts by 34.9%, 28.3% and 52.6% for 0-30cm soil layer at upper, middle and lower portions and (137)Cs inventory decreased by 68%, 11% and 85% at upper, middle and lower portions, respectively. On the treatment plot total N decreased by 50.2% and 14.6% at the upper and middle portions and increased by 48.9% at the lower portion. Coefficients of variation (CVs) of SOC decreased by 31%, 37% and 30% in the upper, middle and lower slope portions, respectively. Similar to the variational trend of SOC, CVs of (137)Cs decreased by 19.2%, 0.5% and 36.5%; and total N decreased by 45.7%, 65.1% and 19% in the upper, middle and lower slope portions, respectively. The results showed that (137)Cs, SOC and total N moved on the sloping land almost in the same physical mechanism during the soil erosion procedure, indicating that fallout of (137)Cs could be used directly for quantifying dynamic SOC and total N redistribution as the soil was affected by intensive soil erosion.

  8. Resobio. Management of forest residues: preserving soils and biodiversity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rantien, Caroline; Charasse, Laurent; Wlerick, Lise; Landmann, Guy; Nivet, Cecile; Jallais, Anais; Augusto, Laurent; Bigot, Maryse; Thivolle Cazat, Alain; Bouget, Christophe; Brethes, Alain; Boulanger, Vincent; Richter, Claudine; Cornu, Sophie; Rakotoarison, Hanitra; Ulrich, Erwin; Deleuze, Christine; Michaud, Daniel; Cacot, Emmanuel; Pousse, Noemie; Ranger, Jacques; Saint-Andre, Laurent; Zeller, Bernd; Achat, David; Cabral, Anne-Sophie; Akroume, Emila; Aubert, Michael; Bailly, Alain; Fraysse, Jean-Yves; Fraud, Benoit; Gardette, Yves-Marie; Gibaud, Gwenaelle; Helou, Tammouz-Enaut; Pitocchi, Sophie; Vivancos, Caroline

    2014-03-01

    The Resobio project (management of forest slash: preservation of soils and biodiversity) aimed at updating knowledge available at the international level (with a focus on temperate areas) on the potential consequences of forest slash sampling on fertility and on biodiversity, and at identifying orientations for recommendations for a revision of the ADEME guide of 2006 on wise collecting of forest slash. The first part of this report is a synthesis report which gives an overview of results about twenty issues dealing with the nature of wood used for energy production and the role of slash, about the consequences of this type of collecting for soil fertility and species productivity, and about impacts on biodiversity. Based on these elements, recommendations are made for slash management and for additional follow-up and research. The second part contains five scientific and technical reports which more deeply analyse the issue of fertility, and technical documents on slash management (guides) published in various countries

  9. Intensive management – can the South really live without it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    James M. Guldin; T. Bently Wigley

    1998-01-01

    Over the past five years, the public and private sectors have debated the future of forest management and its implications for the next century. In the public sector, resource managers have debated the meaning and significance of "ecosystem management," a term coined in 1992 by then-Forest Service Chief F. Dale Robertson; he suggested that this approach to...

  10. Soil and land management in a circular economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breure, A M; Lijzen, J P A; Maring, L

    2018-05-15

    This article elaborates the role of soil and land management in a circular economy. The circular economy is highly dependent on the functioning of soils and land for the production of food and other biomass; the storage, filtration and transformation of many substances including water, carbon, and nitrogen; the provision of fresh mineral resources and fossil fuels; and the use of their functions as the platform for nature and human activities. Resource demand is increasing as a result of the growing human population. In addition to the shrinking availability of resources resulting from their unsustainable use in the past, our planet's diminishing potential for resource production, due to a range of reasons, is leading to resource scarcity, especially in the case of depletable resources. As an economic system that focuses on maximizing the reuse of resources and products and minimizing their depreciation, the circular economy greatly influences, and depends on, soil and land management. The concise management of the resources, land and soil is thus necessary, to make a circular economy successful. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Land-use and land-management change: relationships with earthworm and fungi communities and soil structural properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spurgeon, David J; Keith, Aidan M; Schmidt, Olaf; Lammertsma, Dennis R; Faber, Jack H

    2013-12-01

    Change in land use and management can impact massively on soil ecosystems. Ecosystem engineers and other functional biodiversity in soils can be influenced directly by such change and this in turn can affect key soil functions. Here, we employ meta-analysis to provide a quantitative assessment of the effects of changes in land use and land management across a range of successional/extensification transitions (conventional arable → no or reduced tillage → grassland → wooded land) on community metrics for two functionally important soil taxa, earthworms and fungi. An analysis of the relationships between community change and soil structural properties was also included. Meta-analysis highlighted a consistent trend of increased earthworm and fungal community abundances and complexity following transitions to lower intensity and later successional land uses. The greatest changes were seen for early stage transitions, such as introduction of reduced tillage regimes and conversion to grassland from arable land. Not all changes, however, result in positive effects on the assessed community metrics. For example, whether woodland conversion positively or negatively affects community size and complexity depends on woodland type and, potentially, the changes in soil properties, such as pH, that may occur during conversion. Alterations in soil communities tended to facilitate subsequent changes in soil structure and hydrology. For example, increasing earthworm abundances and functional group composition were shown to be positively correlated with water infiltration rate (dependent on tillage regime and habitat characteristics); while positive changes in fungal biomass measures were positively associated with soil microaggregate stability. These findings raise the potential to manage landscapes to increase ecosystem service provision from soil biota in relation to regulation of soil structure and water flow.

  12. Effects of Rainfall Intensity and Slope Gradient on Runoff and Soil Moisture Content on Different Growing Stages of Spring Maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenbin Mu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The rainfall-runoff process (RRP is an important part of hydrologic process. There is an effective measure to study RRP through artificial rainfall simulation. This paper describes a study on three growing stages (jointing stage, tasseling stage, and mature stage of spring maize in which simulated rainfall events were used to study the effects of various factors (rainfall intensity and slope gradient on the RRP. The RRP was tested with three different rainfall intensities (0.67, 1.00, and 1.67 mm/min and subjected to three different slopes (5°, 15°, and 20° so as to study RRP characteristics in semiarid regions. Regression analysis was used to study the results of this test. The following key results were obtained: (1 With the increase in rainfall intensity and slope, the increasing relationship with rainfall duration, overland flow, and cumulative runoff, respectively, complied with logarithmic and quadratic functions before reaching stable runoff in each growing stage of spring maize; (2 The runoff coefficient increased with the increase in rainfall intensity and slope in each growing stages of spring maize. The relationship between runoff coefficient, slope, rainfall intensity, rainfall duration, antecedent soil moisture, and vegetation coverage was multivariate and nonlinear; (3 The runoff lag time decreased with the increase in rainfall intensity and slope within the same growing stage. In addition, the relationship between runoff lag time, slope, rainfall intensity, antecedent soil moisture, and vegetation coverage could also be expressed by a multivariate nonlinear equation; (4 The descent rate of soil infiltration rate curve increased with the increased rainfall intensity and slope in the same growing stage. Furthermore, by comparing the Kostiakov, Horton, and Philip models, it was found that the Horton infiltration model was the best for estimating soil infiltration rate and cumulative infiltration under the condition of test.

  13. Effects of different agricultural management on a stagnic Luvisol in Lower Saxony, Germany - Factors for sustainable soil protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Marco; Brunotte, Joachim; Ortmeier, Berthold

    2017-04-01

    Regarding increasing pressures by global societal and climate change, for example, the assessment of the impact of land use and land management practices on land productivity, land degradation and the related decrease in sustainable food production and the provision of ecosystem services gains increasing interest. Regarding international research on land use and soil threats, main problems in agricultural land use on global scale are erosion by water and wind, soil organic matter loss, salinization, depletion of nutrients, chemical and physical deterioration, including e.g. soil compaction. When coming to soil sciences, basically soil functions are affected negatively by intensive food production and field traffic. Management based negative changes in soil functions and a suboptimal soil structure have multiple negative effects on physical, biological and chemical soil functions, like a poor water balance, air and water permeability, disturbed soil fauna, impeded root penetration etc. and in consequence on the achievable yields. The presentation deals with the multiple effects of different agricultural machinery and technologies and different agricultural soil tillage (e.g. no-till, conservation tillage, ploughing), on various soil properties of a stagnic Luvisol in Lower Saxony, Germany. These are e.g. bulk density, air capacity, saturated water permeability, changes in pore size distribution and water retention curve as well as crop yields. Furthermore results of a long term study of bulk density and total pore size on more then 20 farms in Lower Saxony since the year 1952 will be presented. Finally, key factors and first recommendations for sustainable agricultural soil protection will be derived from the results.

  14. Changes in soil microbial community structure influenced by agricultural management practices in a mediterranean agro-ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Orenes, Fuensanta; Morugán-Coronado, Alicia; Zornoza, Raul; Cerdà, Artemi; Scow, Kate

    2013-01-01

    Agricultural practices have proven to be unsuitable in many cases, causing considerable reductions in soil quality. Land management practices can provide solutions to this problem and contribute to get a sustainable agriculture model. The main objective of this work was to assess the effect of different agricultural management practices on soil microbial community structure (evaluated as abundance of phospholipid fatty acids, PLFA). Five different treatments were selected, based on the most common practices used by farmers in the study area (eastern Spain): residual herbicides, tillage, tillage with oats and oats straw mulching; these agricultural practices were evaluated against an abandoned land after farming and an adjacent long term wild forest coverage. The results showed a substantial level of differentiation in the microbial community structure, in terms of management practices, which was highly associated with soil organic matter content. Addition of oats straw led to a microbial community structure closer to wild forest coverage soil, associated with increases in organic carbon, microbial biomass and fungal abundances. The microbial community composition of the abandoned agricultural soil was characterised by increases in both fungal abundances and the metabolic quotient (soil respiration per unit of microbial biomass), suggesting an increase in the stability of organic carbon. The ratio of bacteria:fungi was higher in wild forest coverage and land abandoned systems, as well as in the soil treated with oat straw. The most intensively managed soils showed higher abundances of bacteria and actinobacteria. Thus, the application of organic matter, such as oats straw, appears to be a sustainable management practice that enhances organic carbon, microbial biomass and activity and fungal abundances, thereby changing the microbial community structure to one more similar to those observed in soils under wild forest coverage.

  15. Optimization of typical diffuse herbicide pollution control by soil amendment configurations under four levels of rainfall intensities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Wei; Huang, Weijia; Wei, Peng; Hao, Fanghua; Yu, Yongyong

    2016-06-15

    Herbicides are a main source of agricultural diffuse pollution due to their wide application in tillage practices. The aim of this study is to optimize the control efficiency of the herbicide atrazine with the aid of modified soil amendments. The soil amendments were composed of a combination of biochar and gravel. The biochar was created from corn straw with a catalytic pyrolysis of ammonium dihydrogen phosphate. The leaching experiments under four rainfall conditions were measured for the following designs: raw soil, soil amended with gravel, biochar individually and together with gravel. The control efficiency of each design was also identified. With the designed equipment, the atrazine content in the contaminant load layer, gravel substrate layer, biochar amendment layer and soil layer was measured under four types of rainfall intensities (1.25 mm/h, 2.50 mm/h, 5.00 mm/h and 10.00 mm/h). Furthermore, the vertical distribution of atrazine in the soil sections was also monitored. The results showed that the herbicide leaching load increased under the highest rainfall intensity in all designs. The soil with the combination of gravel and biochar provided the highest control efficiency of 87.85% on atrazine when the additional proportion of biochar was 3.0%. The performance assessment under the four kinds of rainfall intensity conditions provided the guideline for the soil amendment configuration. The combination of gravel and biochar is recommended as an efficient method for controlling diffuse herbicide pollution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Nurses' knowledge and barriers regarding pain management in intensive care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hsiang-Ling; Tsai, Yun-Fang

    2010-11-01

    To explore nurses' knowledge and barriers regarding pain management in intensive care units. Pain is a common and treatable condition among intensive care patients. Quality care of these patients depends on the pain knowledge and pain management skills of critical care nurses. However, no single study has explored these nurses' knowledge of and perceived barriers to pain management in Taiwan. A cross-sectional study. Intensive care unit nurses (n = 370) were recruited from 16 hospitals chosen by stratified sampling across Taipei County in Taiwan. Data were collected on nurses' knowledge of pain management using the Nurses' Knowledge and Attitudes Survey-Taiwanese version, on perceived barriers to pain management using a researcher-developed scale and on background information. The overall average correct response rate for the knowledge scale was 53.4%, indicating poor knowledge of pain management. The top barrier to managing pain identified by these nurses was 'giving proper pain prescription needs doctor's approval; can't depend on me'. Knowledge of pain management was significantly and negatively related to perceived barriers to pain management. In addition, scores for knowledge and perceived barriers differed significantly by specific intensive care unit. Knowledge also differed significantly by nurses' education level, clinical competence level (nursing ladder) and hospital accreditation category. Our results indicate an urgent need to strengthen pain education by including case analysis for intensive care nurses in Taiwan. Pain education should target knowledge deficits and barriers to changing pain management approaches for Taiwanese nurses in intensive care units. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Long-term grassland management effects on soil Phosphorus status on rewetted Histosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Sebastian; Müller, Jürgen; Kayser, Manfred

    2017-04-01

    Since the Neolithic Period, the cultivation of wetlands has played a significant role for the settlement of Humans northwest Germany. A continuing drainage of the wetlands over the centuries and an intensified soil cultivation during the last decades has caused irreversible peat degradation and led to fundamental changes in the landscape. Nowadays, almost 70 % of the 4345 km2 peatland of Lower Saxony is altered by agriculture. For the revitalization of wetland ecosystems, permanent rewetting is an integral component to preserve the functions of organic soils and achieve resilient, speciesrich wetlands. However, permanent rewetting measures are not always feasible. In our study area at the Osterfeiner Moor, a fen located in the Dümmer lowlands near Osnabrück, intensive forage cropping areas were converted into extensive permanent grasslands accompanied by temporary rewetting during winter. This management practice combined with zero fertilization and a low mowing and grazing intensity aims at mitigating mineralisation of peat layers and creating a habitat for endangered meadow bird species. In this semi-natural ecosystem soil phosphorus (P) dynamics play a crucial role. However, longterm research results on P availability of degraded and rewetted fens are still lacking. Thus, we investigated the interaction of different grassland uses and P dynamics in the soil. We described P depletion of the topsoil over a time scale of 17 years after the implementation of restoration measures. Our study site comprises of 180 ha protected grassland divided into 52 management plots. According to the management system, we divided the plots into meadows, pastures and combinations of cutting and grazing. The soils in our study area can be characterised as drained organic soils, WRB: Rheic Sapric Histosols (Drainic), with drastic degradation properties through moorsh forming processes. Plant-available P (double lactate extraction method: PDL) was analysed from representative topsoil

  18. Maximizing Conservation and Production with Intensive Forest Management: It's All About Location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tittler, Rebecca; Filotas, Élise; Kroese, Jasmin; Messier, Christian

    2015-11-01

    Functional zoning has been suggested as a way to balance the needs of a viable forest industry with those of healthy ecosystems. Under this system, part of the forest is set aside for protected areas, counterbalanced by intensive and extensive management of the rest of the forest. Studies indicate this may provide adequate timber while minimizing road construction and favoring the development of large mature and old stands. However, it is unclear how the spatial arrangement of intensive management areas may affect the success of this zoning. Should these areas be agglomerated or dispersed throughout the forest landscape? Should managers prioritize (a) proximity to existing roads, (b) distance from protected areas, or (c) site-specific productivity? We use a spatially explicit landscape simulation model to examine the effects of different spatial scenarios on landscape structure, connectivity for native forest wildlife, stand diversity, harvest volume, and road construction: (1) random placement of intensive management areas, and (2-8) all possible combinations of rules (a)-(c). Results favor the agglomeration of intensive management areas. For most wildlife species, connectivity was the highest when intensive management was far from the protected areas. This scenario also resulted in relatively high harvest volumes. Maximizing distance of intensive management areas from protected areas may therefore be the best way to maximize the benefits of intensive management areas while minimizing their potentially negative effects on forest structure and biodiversity.

  19. DYNAMICS OF HUMUS CONTENT AND AIR-WATER SOIL PROPERTIES IN INTENSIVE VEGETABLE AND FLOWER GLASSHOUSE PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada Parađiković

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The investigation was conducted in Magadenovac glasshouses, eastern Croatia during seventeen years (1985. - 2002.. In that period, the glasshouse production of vegetables and flowers was intensive during the whole year. The trial was set up on 500 m2. Because of often crop rotation during the same year, soil tillage must be done fast and soil must be homogenized till depth of about 40 cm. Often in practice it is not possible to plough because of numerous reasons and then main mechanization is roto-digging machine. The aim of this investigation was to determine the consequences of long-term application of the special roto-digging machine and dynamics of organic matter and humus content during 17 years. For this purpose, multiple chemical and physical analyses were done. It was determined that, by intensive production during 17 years, organic matter content in soil surface layer significantly decreased (1995 year - 8.60% and 2002 year - 5.00%. In subsurface layer (35-50 cm organic matter content decreased by about 50%. At the same time, by decreasing organic matter content soil became more acid, because pH value measured in 1M KCl after 17 years was by 1.4 units lower in the surface layer, and by about 0.5 units lower in subsurface layer. Finally, soil became acid (pHKCl = 4.8. Decreasing in organic matter and humus content led to soil compaction, decreased soil porosity and degradation of other physical and chemical properties. It can be concluded, that it is necessary to import complete agricultural operations relative to soil tillage for soil preserving.

  20. Leaching of Copper and Zinc in a Garden Soil Receiving Poultry and Livestock Manures from Intensive Farming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The leaching characteristics of a garden soil may be greatly affected by application of poultry and livestock manures from intensive farming.Packed soil columns of a garden soil(CK)and the soils after respectively receiving 2% pig manure (PM),chicken manure(CM),and commercial organic manure(OM)were leached with 0.05 mol L-1 Ca(NO3)2 and 0.01 mol L-1 EDTA solutions.The leachate EC(electric conductivity)values gradually increased at the beginning and then reached a stable value when the soil columns were leached with 0.05 mol L-1 Ca(NO3)2 solution.The leachate EC values showed a peak-shape when leached with 0.01 mol L-1 EDTA solution.In all the soil columns,the pH values of the leachates decreased with increase of displacement volumes when the Ca(NO3)2 solution was used.The total amounts of Cu and Zn eluted from the four soil columns were significantly correlated with the extracted soil Cu and Zn concentrations by 1.0 mol L-1 NH4NO3,but were not correlated with the leachate dissolved organic carbon(DOC)contents.The Zn concentration in the leachate of the PM-treated soil column with 0.05 mol L-1 Ca(NO3)2 solution was above the Quality Standard III for Ground Water of China(GB/T 14848-93,Zn < 1.0 mg L-1).When compared with 0.05 mol L-1 Ca(NO3)2,the EDTA solution significantly accelerated Cu and Zn elutions in the manure-treated columns.This suggested that applying poultry and livestock manures from intensive farming to farmland might pose a threat to the groundwater quality.

  1. Relations between soil surface roughness, tortuosity, tillage treatments, rainfall intensity and soil and water losses from a red yellow latosol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julieta Bramorski

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The soil surface roughness increases water retention and infiltration, reduces the runoff volume and speed and influences soil losses by water erosion. Similarly to other parameters, soil roughness is affected by the tillage system and rainfall volume. Based on these assumptions, the main purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of tillage treatments on soil surface roughness (RR and tortuosity (T and to investigate the relationship with soil and water losses in a series of simulated rainfall events. The field study was carried out at the experimental station of EMBRAPA Southeastern Cattle Research Center in São Carlos (Fazenda Canchim, in São Paulo State, Brazil. Experimental plots of 33 m² were treated with two tillage practices in three replications, consisting of: untilled (no-tillage soil (NTS and conventionally tilled (plowing plus double disking soil (CTS. Three successive simulated rain tests were applied in 24 h intervals. The three tests consisted of a first rain of 30 mm/h, a second of 30 mm/h and a third rain of 70 mm/h. Immediately after tilling and each rain simulation test, the surface roughness was measured, using a laser profile meter. The tillage treatments induced significant changes in soil surface roughness and tortuosity, demonstrating the importance of the tillage system for the physical surface conditions, favoring water retention and infiltration in the soil. The increase in surface roughness by the tillage treatments was considerably greater than its reduction by rain action. The surface roughness and tortuosity had more influence on the soil volume lost by surface runoff than in the conventional treatment. Possibly, other variables influenced soil and water losses from the no-tillage treatments, e.g., soil type, declivity, slope length, among others not analyzed in this study.

  2. Intensive Care Management of Myasthenia Gravis After Thymectomy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim:To evaluate the management of post thymectomy myasthenia gravis (MG) patient in our centre; to highlight those aspects of patient care that could improve outcome and to serve as a bench mark for developing a standardized protocol for management. Method: A retrospective study of 5 cases of post thymectomy MG ...

  3. Management intensity and genetics affect loblolly pine seedling performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott D. Roberts; Randall J. Rousseau; B. Landis Herrin

    2012-01-01

    Capturing potential genetic gains from tree improvement programs requires selection of the appropriate genetic stock and application of appropriate silvicultural management techniques. Limited information is available on how specific loblolly pine varietal genotypes perform under differing growing environments and management approaches. This study was established in...

  4. The regulatory role of endogenous iron on greenhouse gas emissions under intensive nitrogen fertilization in subtropical soils of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jiangpei; Shi, Liangsheng; Wang, Yakun; Chen, Zhuowei; Wu, Laosheng

    2018-05-01

    Anaerobic batch experiments were conducted to study the regulatory role of endogenous iron in greenhouse gas emissions under intensive nitrogen fertilization in subtropical soils of China. Fe 2+ , Fe 3+ , and NO 3 - -N dynamics and N 2 O, CH 4 , and CO 2 emissions, as well as the relationships between N fertilizer, endogenous iron, and greenhouse gas emissions were investigated. The emissions of N 2 O increased to different extents from all the test soils by N1 (260 mg N kg -1 ) application compared with N0. After 24 days of anaerobic incubation, the cumulative emissions of N 2 O from red soils in De'an (DR) were significantly higher than that from paddy soils in De'an (DP) and Qujialing (QP) under N1. However, N application enhanced CH 4 and CO 2 emissions from the red soils slightly but inhibited the emissions from paddy soils. The maximal CH 4 and CO 2 emission fluxes occurred in DP soil without N input. Pearson's correlation analysis showed that there were significant correlations (P greenhouse gas emissions mainly through the involvement in denitrification. The proportion of the electrons donated by Fe 2+ used for N 2 O production in denitrification in DP soil was approximately 37.53%. Moreover, positive correlations between Fe 2+ and CH 4 , CO 2 were found in both DR and QP soils, suggesting that endogenous iron might regulate the anaerobic decomposition of organic carbon to CH 4 and CO 2 in the two soils. Soil pH was also an important factor controlling greenhouse gas emissions by affecting endogenous iron availability and C and N transformation processes.

  5. Hydrological behavior of a Vertisol under different soil management systems in a rain-fed olive orchard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabezas, Jose Manuel; Gómez, Jose Alfonso; Auxiliadora Soriano, María

    2016-04-01

    Soil water availability is a major subject in Mediterranean agricultural systems, mainly due to the limited and highly variable annual rainfall, high evaporative demand, and soil hydrological characteristics. The recent expansion of olive cultivation in the rolling-plains of the Guadalquivir valley, due to the higher profitability of new intensive olive orchards, expanded the presence of olive orchards on Vertisols, soils traditionally used for annual rain-fed crops. These soils have a high content of smectitic clays, which give them a high water storage capacity, and are characterized by vertical and deep shrinkage cracks in the dry season, associated to low soil moisture. Farmers make several tillage passes in these olive groves during the summer, in order to cover the cracks and thus reduce soil water loss by evaporation, which will impact especially in rain-fed in the next olive yield. This tillage practice involves removal of plant residues from the soil surface, as well as burying seeds produced by the plants, so this will remain bared at the beginning of the rainy season, when in the Mediterranean climate is frequent occurrence of high-intensity rainfall, which are ideal conditions for soil loss by water erosion, one of the most serious problems for the sustainability of olive cultivation in Andalusia. Although there are some studies showing that water loss by evaporation from deep horizons of a vertic soil might be elevated (eg. Ritchie and Adams, 1974), the presence of plant residues on the soil surface drastically reduced soil water loss (eg Adams et al., 1969). Thus the aim of this study was to assess of soil moisture dynamics in a rain-fed olive orchard growing on a Vertisol under different soil management practices, in Andalusia (southern Spain). Four different soil management treatments were applied, which combined a cover crop (Bromus rubens L.) or bare soil throughout the year by applying herbicides, with tillage in summer to cover the cracks or non

  6. Photosynthetic recovery and acclimation to excess light intensity in the rehydrated lichen soil crusts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wu

    Full Text Available As an important successional stage and main type of biological soil crusts (BSCs in Shapotou region of China (southeastern edge of Tengger Desert, lichen soil crusts (LSCs often suffer from many stresses, such as desiccation and excess light intensity. In this study, the chlorophyll fluorescence and CO2 exchange in the rehydrated LSCs were detected under a series of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR gradients to study the photosynthetic acclimation of LSCs. The results showed that although desiccation leaded to the loss of photosynthetic activity in LSCs, the fluorescence parameters including Fo, Fv and Fv/Fm of LSCs could be well recovered after rehydration. After the recovery of photosynthetic activity, the effective photosynthetic efficiency ΦPSII detected by Imaging PAM had declined to nearly 0 within both the lichen thallus upper and lower layers when the PAR increased to 200 μE m-2 s-1, however the net photosynthesis detected by the CO2 gas analyzer in the LSCs still appeared when the PAR increased to 1000 μE m-2 s-1. Our results indicate that LSCs acclimating to high PAR, on the one hand is ascribed to the special structure in crust lichens, making the incident light into the lichen thallus be weakened; on the other hand the massive accumulation of photosynthetic pigments in LSCs also provides a protective barrier for the photosynthetic organisms against radiation damage. Furthermore, the excessive light energy absorbed by crust lichens is also possibly dissipated by the increasing non-photochemical quenching, therefore to some extent providing some protection for LSCs.

  7. [Effects of soil moisture content and light intensity on the plant growth and leaf physiological characteristics of squash].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, She-ni; Bai, Gang-shuan; Liang, Yin-li

    2011-04-01

    A pot experiment with artificial shading was conducted to study the effects of soil moisture content and light intensity on the plant growth and leaf physiological characteristics of squash variety "Jingyingyihao". Under all test soil moisture conditions, 30% shading promoted the growth of "Jingyingyihao", with the highest yield at 70% - 80% soil relative moisture contents. 70% shading inhibited plant growth severely, only flowering and not bearing fruits, no economic yield produced. In all treatments, there was a similar water consumption trend, i. e., both the daily and the total water consumption decreased with increasing shading and decreasing soil moisture content. Among all treatments, 30% shading and 70% - 80% soil relative moisture contents had the highest water use efficiency (2.36 kg mm(-1) hm(-2)) and water output rate (1.57 kg mm(-1) hm(-2)). The net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, stomatal conductance, and chlorophyll content of squash leaves decreased with increasing shading, whereas the intercellular CO2 concentration was in adverse. The leaf protective enzyme activity and proline content decreased with increasing shading, and the leaf MAD content decreased in the order of 70% shading, natural radiation, and 30% shading. Under the three light intensities, the change characteristics of squash leaf photosynthesis, protective enzyme activity, and proline and MAD contents differed with the increase of soil relative moisture content.

  8. Understanding the relationship between livelihood strategy and soil management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oumer, Ali Mohammed; Hjortsø, Carsten Nico Portefée; de Neergaard, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    help build livelihood strategies with high-economic return that in turn provide incentives to undertake improved soil management practices. The identified household types may guide entry points for development interventions targeting both food security and agricultural sustainability concerns......This paper aims to understand the relationship between households’ livelihood strategy and soil management using commonalities among rural households. We grouped households into four distinct types according to similar livelihood diversification strategies. For each household type, we identified...... the dominant income-generating strategies as well as the main agronomic activities pursued. The household types were: (I) households that pursue a cereal-based livelihood diversification strategy (23 %); (II) households predominantly engaged in casual off-farm-based strategy (15 %); (III) households...

  9. Critical Transition in Critical Zone of Intensively Managed Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, P.

    2017-12-01

    Intensification of industrial agriculture has resulted in severe unintended global impacts, including degradation of arable land and eutrophication of receiving water bodies. Modern agricultural practices rely on significant direct and indirect human energy inputs, which have created imbalances between increased rates of biogeochemical processes related to production and background rates of natural processes. These imbalances have cascaded through the deep inter-dependencies between carbon, soil, water, nutrient and ecological processes, resulting in a critical transition of the Critical Zone and creating emergent dynamics and evolutionary trajectories. Understanding of these novel organization and function of the Critical Zone is vital for developing sustainable agricultural practices.

  10. Soil management in rainfed olive orchards may result in conflicting effects on olive production and soil fertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Q. Ferreira

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The adoption of a sustainable soil management system is essential for the steep slopes and low fertility soils still supporting rainfed olive orchards in the Mediterranean basin. The effect of the soil management on olive yield, tree nutritional status and soil fertility was studied in a rainfed olive orchard located in NE Portugal that had been managed since its earliest days as a sheep-walk. In 2001, three different soil management systems were established: Sheep-walk, in which the vegetation was managed with a flock of sheep; Tillage, where the vegetation was controlled by conventional tillage; and Glyphosate, where a glyphosate-based herbicide was applied. The soil management systems had a pronounced effect on olive yield. The accumulated olive yields between 2002 and 2011 were 187.2, 142.9 and 89.5 kg tree-1, respectively in the Glyphosate, Tillage and Sheep-walk treatments. However, the effect of soil management on tree nutritional status was not so clear. On the other hand, the pools of organic carbon and N in the soil, and also the soil available N and phosphorus (P, were found to be less in the Glyphosate and Tillage treatments in comparison with the Sheep-walk. In these soils, N appeared as a much more limiting factor for crop growth than P. In rainfed orchards, the tolerance to herbaceous vegetation appears to be a determining factor in sustainability, which regulates annual crop yields and soil fertility. The higher the tolerance to herbaceous species, the lower the olive yields, but the better are the soil fertility parameters.

  11. Water erosion during a 17-year period under two crop rotations in four soil management systems on a Southbrazilian Inceptisol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertol, Ildegardis; Vidal Vázquez, Eva; Paz Ferreiro, Jorge

    2010-05-01

    Soil erosion still remains a persistent issue in the world, and this in spite of the efforts to ameliorate soil management systems taken into account the point of view of environmental protection against soil losses. In South Brazil water erosion is mainly associated to rainfall events with a great volume and high intensity, which are more or less evenly distributed all over the year. Nowadays, direct drilling is the most widely soil management system used for the main crops of the region. However, some crops still are grown on conventionally tilled soils, which means mainly ploughing and harrowing and less frequently chisel ploughing. In Lages-Santa Catarina State, Brazil, a plot experiment under natural rain was started in 1992 on an Inceptisol with the aim of quantifying soil and water losses. Treatments included bare and vegetated plots. The crop succession was: oats (Avena strigosa), soybean (Glycine max), vetch (Vicia sativa), maize (Zea mays), fodder radish (Raphanus sativus) and beans (Phaseolus vulgaris). Soil tillage systems investigated in this study were: i) conventional tillage (CT), ii) reduced tillage (MT), iii) no tillage (NT) under crop rotation and iv) conventional tillage on bare soil (BS). Treatments CT and BS involved ploughing plus twice harrowing, whereas MT involved chisel ploughing plus harrowing. Rainfall erosivity from January 1 1992 to December 31 2009 was calculated. Soil losses from the BS treatment along the 17 year study period were higher than 1200 Mg ha-1. Crop cover significantly reduced erosion, so that under some crops soil losses in the CT treatment were 80% lower than in the BS treatment. In turn soil losses in the MT treatment, where tillage was performed by chiselling and harrowing, were on average about 50% lower than in the CT treatment. No tillage was the most efficient soil management system in reducing soil erosion, so that soil losses in the NT treatment were about 98% lower than in the BS treatment. The three

  12. LANDSCAPE MANAGEMENT FOR SUSTAINABLE SUPPLIES OF BIOENERGY FEEDSTOCK AND ENHANCED SOIL QUALITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas L. Karlen; David J. Muth, Jr.

    2012-09-01

    yields are less than 11 Mg ha-1 (175 bu ac-1) unless more intensive landscape management practices are implemented. Furthermore, although non-irrigated corn grain yields east and west of the primary Corn Belt may not consistently achieve the 11 Mg ha-1 yield levels, corn can still be part of an overall landscape approach for sustainable feedstock production. Another option for producers with consistently high yields (> 12.6 Mg ha-1 or 200 bu ac-1) that may enable them to sustainably harvest even more stover is to decrease their tillage intensity which will reduce fuel use, preserve rhizosphere carbon, and/or help maintain soil structure and soil quality benefits often attributed to no-till production systems. In conclusion, I challenge all ISTRO scientists to critically ask if your research is contributing to improved soil and crop management strategies that effectively address the complexity associated with sustainable food, feed, fiber and fuel production throughout the world.

  13. Effects of genetics, management intensity, and seedling density on early stocking in loblolly pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott D. Roberts; Randall J. Rousseau; B. Landis Herrin

    2015-01-01

    Rapid establishment and early tree growth can be key factors in successful plantation management. This generally entails planting good quality planting stock at a seedling density appropriate for the management objectives and then managing at an appropriate intensity with a goal of fully occupying the site as quickly as possible within the context of those objectives....

  14. Land use intensity impact on functional diversity in earthworms regarding regulation of soil structure and water infiltration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Jack H.; Pérès, G.; de Groot, Arjen

    discuss the functional ecology of earthworms at the level of functional group and the individual species, focussing on burrow morphology and vulnerability towards agricultural management practices. Results contribute to the understanding of the linkage between soil biodiversity and provision of ecosystem......Earthworms can be distinguished into three groups that represent different clusters of morphological and behavioural traits. These so-called ecological groups (sensu Bouché 1977) have traditionally been considered to represent different functional groups with respect to soil processes......- 4mm soil aggregates significantly increased with increasing biomass of both anecic and endogeic earthworms. Earthworm burrow distribution over the soil profile was strongly impacted by land management (e.g. total number was higher under grassland vs crop), and specific relationships were identified...

  15. Local soil classification and crop suitability: Implications for the historical land use and soil management in Monti di Trapani (Sicily)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Vila, Margarita; Corselli, Rocco; Bonet, María Teresa; Lopapa, Giuseppe; Pillitteri, Valentina; Fereres, Elias

    2017-04-01

    In the past, the lack of technologies (e.g. synthetic fertilizers) to overcome biophysical limitations has played a central role in land use planning. Thus, landscape management and agronomic practices are reactions to local knowledge and perceptions on natural resources, particularly soil. In the framework of the European research project MEMOLA (FP7), the role of local farmers knowledge and perceptions on soil for the historical land use through the spatial distribution of crops and the various management practices have been assessed in three different areas of Monti di Trapani region (Sicily). The identification of the soil classification systems of farmers and the criteria on which it is based, linked to the evaluation of the farmers' ability to identify and map the different soil types, was a key step. Nevertheless, beyond the comparison of the ethnopedological classification approach versus standard soil classification systems, the study also aims at understanding local soil management and land use decisions. The applied methodology was based on an interdisciplinary approach, combining soil science methods and participatory appraisal tools, particularly: i) semi-structured interviews; ii) soil sampling and analysis; iii) discussion groups; and iv) a workshop with local edafologists and agronomists. A rich local glossary of terms associated with the soil conditions and an own soil classification system have been identified in the region. Also, a detailed soil map, including process of soil degradation and soil capability, has been generated. This traditional soil knowledge has conditioned the management and the spatial distribution of the crops, and therefore the configuration of the landscape, until the 1990s. Acknowledgements This work has been funded by the European Union project MEMOLA (Grant agreement no: 613265).

  16. Soil Respiration at Dominant Patch Types within a Managed Northern Wisconsin Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eug& #233; nie Euskirchen; Jiquan Chen; Eric J. Gustafson; Siyan Ma; Siyan Ma

    2003-01-01

    Soil respiration (SR), a substantial component of the forest carbon budget, has been studied extensively at the ecosystem, regional, continental, and global scales, but little progress has been made toward understanding SR over managed forest landscapes. Soil respiration is often influenced by soil temperature (Ts), soil moisture (Ms...

  17. Effect of soil moisture management on the quality of wax apple | Lin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wax apple (Syzygium samarngense Merr.et Perry) was one of the economically planted fruits in Taiwan. This research was conducted to evaluate the effects of different soil moisture management on increasing wax apple quality. It was preceded at two different soil properties (shallow soil and alluvial soil) in Pingtung, ...

  18. Recycling Improves Soil Fertility Management in Smallholdings in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariane Krause

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Residues from bioenergy and ecological sanitation (EcoSan can be utilized to sustain soil fertility and productivity. With regard to certain cooking and sanitation technologies used in smallholder households (hh, we systematically analyzed how utilization of the respective potentials to recover residues for farming affects (i soil nutrient balances, (ii the potential for subsistence production of composts, and (iii environmental emissions. On the example of an intercropping farming system in Karagwe, Tanzania, we studied specific farming practices including (1 current practices of using standard compost only; (2 a combination of using biogas slurry, urine, and standard compost; (3 a combination of using so-called “CaSa-compost” (containing biochar and sanitized human excreta, Project “Carbonization and Sanitation”, urine, and standard compost. The system analysis combines a soil nutrient balance (SNB with material flow analysis (MFA. Currently, nitrogen (N and phosphorus (P are depleted by −54 ± 3 and −8 ± 1 kg∙ha−1∙year−1, respectively. Our analysis shows, however, a clear potential to reduce depletion rates of N, and to reverse the SNB of P, to bring about a positive outcome. Composts and biogas slurry supply sufficient P to crops, while urine effectively supplements N. By using resources recovered from cooking and sanitation, sufficient compost for subsistence farming may be produced. Human excreta contribute especially to total N and total P in CaSa-compost, whilst biochar recovered from cooking with microgasifier stoves adds to total carbon (C and total P. We conclude that the combined recycling of household residues from cooking and from sanitation, and CaSa-compost in particular, is especially suitable for sustainable soil management, as it mitigates existing P-deficiency and soil acidity, and also restores soil organic matter.

  19. Anaesthetic and Intensive Care Management of Traumatic Cervical Spine Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G S Umamaheswara Rao

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Trauma to the cervical spine may have devastating consequences. Timely interventions are essential to prevent avoidable neurological deterioration. In the initial stabilization of patients with acute cervical spine injuries, physiological disturbances, especially those involving cardiac and respiratory function require careful attention. Early surgery, which facilitates rapid mobi-lization of the patient, is fraught with important management considerations in the intraopoerative period and the subsequent critical care. Airway management poses a crucial challenge at this stage. Those patients who survive the injury with quadriplegia or quadriparesis may present themselves for incidental surgical procedures. Chronic systemic manifestations in these patients require attention in providing anaesthesia and postoperative care at this stage. The current review provides an insight into the physiological disturbances and the management issues in both acute and chronic phases of traumatic cervical spine injury.

  20. Biology and management of insect pests in North American intensively managed hardwood forest systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coyle, David R.; Nebeker, T., E.; Hart, E., R.; Mattson, W., J.

    2005-01-01

    Annu. Rev. Entomol. 50:1-29. Abstract Increasing demand for wood and wood products is putting stress on traditional forest production areas, leading to long-term economic and environmental concerns. Intensively managed hardwood forest systems (IMHFS), grown using conventional agricultural as well as forestry methods, can help alleviate potential problems in natural forest production areas. Although IMHFS can produce more biomass per hectare per year than natural forests, the ecologically simplified, monocultural systems may greatly increase the crops susceptibility to pests. Species in the genera Populus and Salix comprise the greatest acreage in IMHFS in North America, but other species, including Liquidambar styracifua and Platanus occidentalis, are also important. We discuss life histories, realized and potential damage, and management options for the most economically infuential pests that affect these hardwood species. The substantial inherent challenges associated with pest management in the monocultural environments created by IMHFS are reviewed. Finally, we discuss ways to design IMHFS that may reduce their susceptibility to pests, increase their growth and productivity potential, and create a more sustainable environment.

  1. Gaseous mercury fluxes from forest soils in response to forest harvesting intensity: A field manipulation experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. Mazur; C.P.J. Mitchell; C.S. Eckley; S.L. Eggert; R.K. Kolka; S.D. Sebestyen; E.B. Swain

    2014-01-01

    Forest harvesting leads to changes in soil moisture, temperature and incident solar radiation, all strong environmental drivers of soil-air mercury (Hg) fluxes. Whether different forest harvesting practices significantly alter Hg fluxes from forest soils is unknown.We conducted a field-scale experiment in a northern Minnesota deciduous forest wherein gaseous Hg...

  2. Long-term effects of grazing management and buffer strips on soil erosion from pastures

    Science.gov (United States)

    High grazing pressure can lead to soil erosion in pastures by compacting soil and increasing runoff and sediment delivery to waterways. Limited information exists on the effects of grazing management and best management practices (BMPs), such as buffer strips, on soil erosion from pastures. The obje...

  3. Effects of organic versus conventional management on chemical and biological parameters in agricultural soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diepeningen, van A.D.; Vos, de O.J.; Korthals, G.W.; Bruggen, van A.H.C.

    2006-01-01

    A comparative study of organic and conventional arable farming systems was conducted in The Netherlands to determine the effect of management practices on chemical and biological soil properties and soil health. Soils from thirteen accredited organic farms and conventionally managed neighboring

  4. The Experience of Intense Pain: Nursing Management and Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiser-Larson, Norma

    Personal stories of illness give depth to otherwise clinical descriptions of diagnoses. This article offers an autobiographical narrative of complications after total knee replacement surgery. Diagnosis and nursing management of acute compartment syndrome, nociceptive and neuropathic origins of pain, pharmacologic and nursing interventions for pain, the use of prayer in illness, and compassionate caring from a Christian perspective are discussed.

  5. Priority areas in the Soil Framework Directive : the significance of soil biodiversity and ecosystem services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutgers, M.; Jagers op Akkerhuis, G.A.J.M.; Bloem, J.

    2010-01-01

    Seven soil threats are distinguished in the draft text of the Soil Framework Directive of the European Commission. Soil organic matter decline and soil compaction are the most relevant for the Netherlands due to intensive agricultural land management. Loss of soil biodiversity should be considered

  6. The effects of burning and grazing on soil carbon dynamics in managed Peruvian tropical montane grasslands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Oliver

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Montane tropical soils are a large carbon (C reservoir, acting as both a source and a sink of CO2. Enhanced CO2 emissions originate, in large part, from the decomposition and losses of soil organic matter (SOM following anthropogenic disturbances. Therefore, quantitative knowledge of the stabilization and decomposition of SOM is necessary in order to understand, assess and predict the impact of land management in the tropics. In particular, labile SOM is an early and sensitive indicator of how SOM responds to changes in land use and management practices, which could have major implications for long-term carbon storage and rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations. The aim of this study was to investigate the impacts of grazing and fire history on soil C dynamics in the Peruvian montane grasslands, an understudied ecosystem, which covers approximately a quarter of the land area in Peru. A density fractionation method was used to quantify the labile and stable organic matter pools, along with soil CO2 flux and decomposition measurements. Grazing and burning together significantly increased soil CO2 fluxes and decomposition rates and reduced temperature as a driver. Although there was no significant effect of land use on total soil C stocks, the combination of burning and grazing decreased the proportion of C in the free light fraction (LF, especially at the lower depths (10–20 and 20–30 cm. In the control soils, 20 % of the material recovered was in the free LF, which contained 30 % of the soil C content. In comparison, the burnt–grazed soil had the smallest recovery of the free LF (10 % and a significantly lower C content (14 %. The burnt soils had a much higher proportion of C in the occluded LF (12 % compared to the not-burnt soils (7 % and there was no significant difference among the treatments in the heavy fraction (F ( ∼  70 %. The synergistic effect of burning and grazing caused changes to the soil C dynamics. CO2

  7. Soil Organic Carbon assessment on two different forest management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Minguillón, Alex; Sauras Yera, Teresa; Vallejo Calzada, Ramón

    2017-04-01

    Soil Organic Carbon assessment on two different forest management. A.F. Minguillón1, T. Sauras1, V.R: Vallejo1. 1 Departamento de Biología Evolutiva, Ecología y Ciencias Ambientales, Universidad de Barcelona, Avenida Diagonal 643, 03080 Barcelona, Spain. Soils from arid and semiarid zones are characterized by a low organic matter content from scarce plant biomass and it has been proposed that these soils have a big capacity to carbon sequestration. According to IPCC ARS WG2 (2014) report and WG3 draft, increase carbon storage in terrestrial ecosystems has been identified such a potential tool for mitigation and adaptation to climate change. In ecological restoration context improve carbon sequestration is considered a management option with multiple benefits (win-win-win). Our work aims to analyze how the recently developed restoration techniques contributed to increases in terrestial ecosystem carbon storage. Two restoration techniques carried out in the last years have been evaluated. The study was carried out in 6 localities in Valencian Community (E Spain) and organic horizons of two different restoration techniques were evaluated; slash brush and thinning Aleppo pine stands. For each technique, carbon stock and its physical and chemical stability has been analysed. Preliminary results point out restoration zones acts as carbon sink due to (1) the relevant necromass input produced by slash brush increases C stock on the topsoil ;(2) Thinning increase carbon accumulation in vegetation.

  8. Active microbial soil communities in different agricultural managements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landi, S.; Pastorelli, R.

    2009-04-01

    We studied the composition of active eubacterial microflora by RNA extraction from soil (bulk and rhizosphere) under different environmental impact managements, in a hilly basin in Gallura (Sardinia). We contrasted grassy vineyard, in which the soil had been in continuous contact with plant roots for a long period of time, with traditional tilled vineyard. Moreover, we examined permanent grassland, in which plants had been present for some years, with temporary grassland, in which varying plants had been present only during the respective growing seasons. Molecular analysis of total population was carried out by electrophoretic separation by Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) of amplified cDNA fragments obtained from 16S rRNA. In vineyards UPGMA (Unweighted Pair Group Mathematical Average) analysis made up separate clusters depending on soil management. In spring both clusters showed similarity over 70%, while in autumn the similarity increased, 84% and 90% for grassy and conventional tilled vineyard respectively. Permanent and temporary grassland joined in a single cluster in spring, while in autumn a partial separation was evidenced. The grassy vineyard, permanent and temporary grassland showed higher richness and diversity Shannon-Weiner index values than vineyard with conventional tillage although no significant. In conclusion the expected effect of the rhizosphere was visible: the grass cover influenced positively the diversity of active microbial population.

  9. The CO2 emission in urbanic soils in the conditions of intensive technogenic pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deviatova, Tatiana; Alaeva, Liliia; Negrobova, Elena; Kramareva, Tatiana

    2017-04-01

    Massive industrial pollution of the environment including soils leads to drastic changes in the vital activity of microorganisms, plants and animals. As objects of research was selected soils of the industrial and residential zones, farmland soils, forest soils. Comparative analysis showed that the emission of CO2 urbanizable increase compared to the suburban soils in recreational areas is 1.5 times, in the residential and industrial zones - in 3-5 times. In addition, identified a local point located in the vicinity of chemical plants, where soil CO2 emission increased up to 40 times compared to the suburban soils. Air technogenic pollution of soils by industrial emissions and transport enhances the mineralization of soil organic matter, increases its lability. These trends are associated with nonspecific adaptive reactions of the soil microbial complex in terms of pollution. Strengthening of the processes of mineralization may be due to the increase in the proportion of fungi in the microbial community. According to numerous reports they are more resistant to pollution compared to bacteria and actinomycetes. Admission to the soil organic matter of anthropogenic origin also increases the process of mineralization. According to the findings, low concentrations of petroleum products lead to increased "breathing" of the soil. Strengthening of the processes of mineralization and, consequently, of CO2 emissions, in the conditions of technogenic pollution of the soils identified in our studies, confirmed by numerous studies by other authors. According to reports in Russia the emission of CO2 from soils is 4.5 times higher than the industrial receipt of its atmosphere. The contribution of local anthropogenic CO2 emissions is not so significant compared to the indirect influence of soil pollution on increased CO2 emissions. Consequently, the expansion of technogenic contaminated soil is becoming a more significant factor adversely affecting the state of the atmosphere

  10. Effect of nutrient management on soil organic carbon sequestration, fertility, and productivity under rice-wheat cropping system in semi-reclaimed sodic soils of North India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta Choudhury, Shreyasi; Yaduvanshi, N P S; Chaudhari, S K; Sharma, D R; Sharma, D K; Nayak, D C; Singh, S K

    2018-02-05

    The ever shrinking agricultural land availability and the swelling demand of food for the growing population fetch our attention towards utilizing partially reclaimed sodic soils for cultivation. In the present investigation, we compared six treatments, like control (T1), existing farmers' practice (T2), balanced inorganic fertilization (T3) and combined application of green gram (Vigna radiate) with inorganic NPK (T4), green manure (Sesbania aculeate) with inorganic NPK (T5), and farmyard manure with inorganic NPK (T6), to study the influence of nutrient management on soil organic carbon sequestration and soil fertility under long-term rice-wheat cropping system along with its productivity in gypsum-amended partially reclaimed sodic soils of semi-arid sub-tropical Indian climate. On an average, combined application of organics along with fertilizer NPK (T4, T5, and T6) decreased soil pH, ESP, and BD by 3.5, 13.0, and 6.7% than FP (T2) and 3.7, 12.5, and 6.7%, than balanced inorganic fertilizer application (T3), respectively, in surface (0-20 cm). These treatments (T4, T5, and T6) also increased 14.1% N and 19.5% P availability in soil over the usual farmers' practice (FP) with an additional saving of 44.4 and 27.3% fertilizer N and P, respectively. Long-term (6 years) incorporation of organics (T4, T5, and T6) sequestered 1.5 and 2.0 times higher soil organic carbon as compared to the balanced inorganic (T3) and FP (T2) treatments, respectively. The allocation of soil organic carbon into active and passive pools determines its relative susceptibility towards oxidation. The lower active to passive ratio (1.63) in FYM-treated plots along with its potentiality of higher soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration compared to the initial stock proved its acceptability for long-term sustenance under intensive cropping even in partially reclaimed sodic soils. Among all the treatments, T4 yielded the maximum from second year onwards. Moreover, after 6 years of continuous

  11. Effects of crop management, soil type, and climate on N2O emissions from Austrian Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zechmeister-Boltenstern, Sophie; Sigmund, Elisabeth; Kasper, Martina; Kitzler, Barbara; Haas, Edwin; Wandl, Michael; Strauss, Peter; Poetzelsberger, Elisabeth; Dersch, Georg; Winiwarter, Wilfried; Amon, Barbara

    2015-04-01

    Within the project FarmClim ("Farming for a better climate") we assessed recent N2O emissions from two selected regions in Austria. Our aim was to deepen the understanding of Austrian N2O fluxes regarding region specific properties. Currently, N2O emissions are estimated with the IPCC default emission factor which only considers the amount of N-input as an influencing factor for N2O emissions. We evaluated the IPCC default emission factor for its validity under spatially distinct environmental conditions. For this two regions for modeling with LandscapeDNDC have been identified in this project. The benefit of using LandscapeDNDC is the detailed illustration of microbial processes in the soil. Required input data to run the model included daily climate data, vegetation properties, soil characteristics and land management. The analysis of present agricultural practices was basis for assessing the hot spots and hot moments of nitrogen emissions on a regional scale. During our work with LandscapeDNDC we were able to adapt specific model algorithms to Austrian agricultural conditions. The model revealed a strong dependency of N2O emissions on soil type. We could estimate how strongly soil texture affects N2O emissions. Based on detailed soil maps with high spatial resolution we calculated region specific contribution to N2O emissions. Accordingly we differentiated regions with deviating gas fluxes compared to the predictions by the IPCC inventory methodology. Taking region specific management practices into account (tillage, irrigation, residuals) calculation of crop rotation (fallow, catch crop, winter wheat, barley, winter barley, sugar beet, corn, potato, onion and rapeseed) resulted in N2O emissions differing by a factor of 30 depending on preceding crop and climate. A maximum of 2% of N fertilizer input was emitted as N2O. Residual N in the soil was a major factor stimulating N2O emissions. Interannual variability was affected by varying N-deposition even in case

  12. Review of Alternative Management Options of Vegetable Crop Residues to Reduce Nitrate Leaching in Intensive Vegetable Rotations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Agneessens

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Vegetable crop residues take a particular position relative to arable crops due to often large amounts of biomass with a N content up to 200 kg N ha−1 left behind on the field. An important amount of vegetable crops are harvested during late autumn and despite decreasing soil temperatures during autumn, high rates of N mineralization and nitrification still occur. Vegetable crop residues may lead to considerable N losses through leaching during winter and pose a threat to meeting water quality objectives. However, at the same time vegetable crop residues are a vital link in closing the nutrient and organic matter cycle of soils. Appropriate and sustainable management is needed to harness the full potential of vegetable crop residues. Two fundamentally different crop residue management strategies to reduce N losses during winter in intensive vegetable rotations are reviewed, namely (i on-field management options and modifications to crop rotations and (ii removal of crop residues, followed by a useful and profitable application.

  13. Light intensity and production parameters of phytocenoses cultivated on soil-like substrate under controlled [correction of controled] environment conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhomirov, A A; Ushakova, S A; Gribovskaya, I A; Tirranen, L S; Manukovsky, N S; Zolotukhin, I G; Karnachuk, R A; Gros, J B; Lasseur, Ch

    2003-01-01

    To increase the degree of closure of biological life support systems of a new generation, we used vermicomposting to involve inedible phytomass in the intra-system mass exchange. The resulting product was a soil-like substrate, which was quite suitable for growing plants (Manukovsky et al. 1996, 1997). However, the soil like substrate can be regarded as a candidate for inclusion in a system only after a comprehensive examination of its physical, chemical, and other characteristics. An important criterion is the ability of the soil-like substrate to supply the necessary mineral elements to the photosynthesizing component under the chosen cultivation conditions. Thus, the purpose of this work was to study the feasibility of enhancing the production activity of wheat and radish crops by varying the intensity of photosynthetically active radiation, without decreasing the harvest index. The increase of light intensity from 920 to 1150 micromoles m-2 s-1 decreased the intensity of apparent photosynthesis of the wheat crops and slightly increased the apparent photosynthesis of the radish crops The maximum total and grain productivity (kg/m2) of the wheat crops was attained at the irradiance of 920 micromoles m-2 s-1. Light intensity of 1150 micromoles m-2 s-1 decreased the productivity of wheat plants and had no significant effect on the productivity of the radish crops (kg/m2) as compared to 920 micromoles m-2 s-1. The qualitative and quantitative composition of microflora of the watering solution and substrate was determined by the condition of plants, developmental phase and light intensity. By the end of wheat growth under 1150 micromoles m-2 s-1 the numbers of bacteria of the coliform family and phytopathogenic bacteria in the watering solution and substrate were an order of magnitude larger than under other illumination conditions. The obtained data suggest that the cultivation of plants in a life support system on soil-like substrate from composts has a number of

  14. Soil macrofauna functional groups and their effects on soil structure, as related to agricultural management practices across agroecological zones of Sub-Saharan Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ayuke, F.O.

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed at understanding the effects of crop management practices on soil macrofauna and the links with soil aggregation and soil organic matter dynamics, which is key to the improvement of infertile or degrading soils in Sub-Sahara Africa. Soil macrofauna, especially earthworms and

  15. Influence of management practices on C stabilization pathways in agricultural volcanic ash soils (Canary Islands, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Zulimar; María Álvarez, Ana; Carral, Pilar; de Figueiredo, Tomas; Almendros, Gonzalo

    2014-05-01

    Although C stabilization mechanisms in agricultural soils are still controversial [1], a series of overlapped pathways has been suggested [2] such as: i) insolubilization of low molecular weight precursors of soil organic matter (SOM) with reactive minerals through physical and chemical bonding, ii) selective accumulation of biosynthetic substances which are recalcitrant because of its inherent chemical composition, and iii) preservation and furter diagenetic transformation of particulate SOM entrapped within resistant microaggregates, where diffusion of soil enzymes is largely hampered. In some environments where carbohydrate and N compounds are not readily biodegraded, e.g., with water saturated micropores, an ill-known C stabilization pathway may involve the formation of Maillard's reaction products [3]. In all cases, these pathways converge in the formation of recalcitrant macromolecular substances, sharing several properties with the humic acid (HA) fraction [4]. In template forests, the selective preservation and further microbial reworking of plant biomass has been identified as a prevailing mechanism in the accumulation of recalcitrant SOM forms [5]. However, in volcanic ash soils with intense organomineral interactions, condensation reactions of low molecular weight precursors with short-range minerals may be the main mechanism [6]. In order to shed some light about the effect of agricultural management on soil C stabilization processes on volcanic ash soils, the chemical composition of HA and some structural proxies of SOM informing on its origin and potential resistance to biodegradation, were examined in 30 soils from Canary Islands (Spain) by visible, infrared (IR) and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopies, elementary analysis and pyrolytic techniques. The results of multivariate treatments, suggested at least three simultaneous C stabilization biogeochemical trends: i) diagenetic alteration of plant biomacromolecules in soils receiving

  16. A flux footprint analysis to understand ecosystem fluxes in an intensively managed landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez Rodriguez, L. C.; Goodwell, A. E.; Kumar, P.

    2017-12-01

    Flux tower studies in agricultural sites have mainly been done at plot scale, where the footprint of the instruments is small such that the data reveals the behaviour of the nearby crop on which the study is focused. In the Midwestern United States, the agricultural ecosystem and its associated drainage, evapotranspiration, and nutrient dynamics are dominant influences on interactions between the soil, land, and atmosphere. In this study, we address large-scale ecohydrologic fluxes and states in an intensively managed landscape based on data from a 25m high eddy covariance flux tower. We show the calculated upwind distance and flux footprint for a flux tower located in Central Illinois as part of the Intensively Managed Landscapes Critical Zone Observatory (IMLCZO). In addition, we calculate the daily energy balance during the summer of 2016 from the flux tower measurements and compare with the modelled energy balance from a representative corn crop located in the flux tower footprint using the Multi-Layer Canopy model, MLCan. The changes in flux footprint over the course of hours, days, and the growing season have significant implications for the measured fluxes of carbon and energy at the flux tower. We use MLCan to simulate these fluxes under land covers of corn and soybeans. Our results demonstrate how the instrument heights impact the footprint of the captured eddy covariance fluxes, and we explore the implication for hydrological analysis. The convective turbulent atmosphere during the daytime shows a wide footprint of more than 10 km2, which reaches 3km length for the 90% contribution, where buoyancy is the dominant mechanism driving turbulence. In contrast, the stable atmosphere during the night-time shows a narrower footprint that goes beyond 8km2 and grows in the direction of the prevalent wind, which exceeds 4 km in length. This study improves our understanding of agricultural ecosystem behaviour in terms of the magnitude and variability of fluxes and

  17. The impact of leadership, management and power in an international knowledge-intensive organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senni Kirjavainen

    Full Text Available The shift to knowledge economies and the boom of knowledge-intensive organizations with their expert employees pose new challenges for leadership and management of development work. What is the appropriate amount and form of managerial control that is needed in knowledge-intensive development work? This paper focuses on illuminating the kind of leadership and management efforts that either support or hinder advancing development projects. The results highlight the paradoxical role of power and control, and reveal that employees need freedom and yet strong guidance and managerial commitment to develop work in order to stay motivated. Implications for leading knowledge-intensive development are discussed.

  18. Management-induced Soil Structure Degradation: Organic Matter Depletion and Tillage

    OpenAIRE

    Kay, B.D.; Munkholm, L.J.

    2004-01-01

    Soil structure is an important element of soil quality since changes in structural characteristics can cause changes in the ability of soil to fulfil different functions and services. Emphasis in this chapter is placed on the role of soil structure in biological productivity of agroecosystems. Combinations of management practices in which the extent of the degradation of soil structure caused by one practice is balanced or exceeded by the extent of regeneration by other practices will help su...

  19. Accumulation of steroid hormones in soil and its adjacent aquatic environment from a typical intensive vegetable cultivation of North China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feng-Song; Xie, Yun-Feng; Li, Xue-Wen; Wang, Dai-Yi; Yang, Lin-Sheng; Nie, Zhi-Qiang

    2015-12-15

    Steroid hormones released from manure agricultural application are a matter of global concern. The residual levels of steroid hormones were studied in a typical intensive vegetable cultivation area in northeast China, with a long history of heavy manure application. Seven steroids (estrone, 17α-estradiol, 17β-estradiol, estriol, testosterone, androstendione and progesterone) were analyzed from soil sampled from vegetable greenhouses, from sediments and water from the adjacent drainage ditch and from the groundwater. The results showed that target steroids were detected in the soil samples, with detection frequencies varying from 3.13 to 100%. The steroid concentrations varied substantially in soils, ranging from below the detection limit to 109.7μg·kg(-1). Three steroids-progesterone, androstendione and estrone-were found to have relatively high residue concentrations in soil, with maximum concentrations of 109.7, 9.83 and 13.30μg·kg(-1), respectively. In adjacent groundwater, all the steroids, with the exception of estrone, were detected in one or more of the 13 groundwater samples. The concentrations of steroids in groundwater ranged from below the method detection limit to 2.38ng·L(-1). Six of the seven (excluding androstendione) were detected in drainage ditch water samples, with concentrations ranging from below the detection limit to 14ng·L(-1). Progesterone, androstendione and estrone accumulated relatively easily in soils; their concentrations in groundwater were lower than those of other steroids. The concentrations of testosterone and estriol were relatively low in soil, while in groundwater were higher than those of other steroids. The residual levels of steroids in soil and groundwater showed a clear spatial variation in the study area. The residual levels of steroid hormones in soil varied substantially between differently planted greenhouses. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. POTASSIUM FERTILIZATION AND SOIL MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS FOR COTTON CROPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VITOR MARQUES VIDAL

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cotton has great socio-economic importance due to its use in textile industry, edible oil and biodiesel production and animal feed. Thus, the objective of this work was to identify the best potassium rate and soil management for cotton crops and select among cultivars, the one that better develops in the climatic conditions of the Cerrado biome in the State of Goiás, Brazil. Thus, the effect of five potassium rates (100, 150, 200, 250 and 300 kg ha-1 of K2O and two soil management systems (no-till and conventional tillage on the growth, development and reproduction of four cotton cultivars (BRS-371, BRS-372, BRS-286 and BRS-201 was evaluated. The data on cotton growth and development were subjected to analysis of variance; the data on potassium rates were subjected to regression analysis; and the data on cultivars and soil management to mean test. The correlation between the vegetative and reproductive variables was also assessed. The conventional tillage system provides the best results for the herbaceous cotton, regardless of the others factors evaluated. The cultivar BRS-286 has the best results in the conditions evaluated. The cultivar BRS-371 under no-till system present the highest number of fruiting branches at a potassium rate of 105.5% and highest number of floral buds at a potassium rate of 96.16%. The specific leaf area was positively correlated with the number of bolls per plant at 120 days after emergence of the herbaceous cotton.

  1. Quality-intensity relationships of phosphorus in some soils from NW India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vig, A.C.; Dev, G.

    1975-01-01

    In a laboratory investigation, Q/I relationship of soil phosphorus in soils derived from four different agroclimatic regions of N.W. India have been worked out on the basis of adsorption studies, involving the use of radioactive phosphorus. These two parameters are related to each other by a Langmuir-like equation. The results indicate that for supply of P, the soils fall in the decreasing order of: Dalhousie, Ludhiana, Gurudaspur, Palampur. (author)

  2. Different Land Use Intensities in Grassland Ecosystems Drive Ecology of Microbial Communities Involved in Nitrogen Turnover in Soil

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, Annabel; Focks, Andreas; Radl, Viviane; Keil, Daniel; Welzl, Gerhard; Sch?ning, Ingo; Boch, Steffen; Marhan, Sven; Kandeler, Ellen; Schloter, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Understanding factors driving the ecology of N cycling microbial communities is of central importance for sustainable land use. In this study we report changes of abundance of denitrifiers, nitrifiers and nitrogen-fixing microorganisms (based on qPCR data for selected functional genes) in response to different land use intensity levels and the consequences for potential turnover rates. We investigated selected grassland sites being comparable with respect to soil type and climatic conditions,...

  3. Termite and earthworm abundance and taxonomic richness under long-term conservation soil management in Saria, Burkina Faso, West Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zida, Z.; Ouedraogo, E.; Mando, A.; Stroosnijder, L.

    2011-01-01

    Unsustainable crop and soil management practices are major causes of soil degradation and declining soil biodiversity in West Africa. Identifying soil management practices that favor macrofauna abundance is highly desirable for long-term soil health. This study investigates the effects of long-term

  4. Stakeholder perceptions of soil managements in the Canyoles watershed. A Bayesian Belief Network approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burguet Marimón, Maria; Quinn, Claire; Stringer, Lindsay; Cerdà, Artemi

    2017-04-01

    The fate of the management and use of land is the result of economic, social and political factors (Tengberg et al., 2016). Stakeholder perceptions are relevant in understanding land management (Marques et al., 2015; Teshome et al., 2016) as perceptions can shape behaviours and actions. In the Canyoles River watershed (Eastern Spain), rainfed agriculture has been replaced by traditional irrigation systems at its valley bottom, and by drip irrigation on its slopes. The new irrigation systems in hilly citrus orchards, along with intensive farming, use of herbicides and high fertilization, are causing high erosion and land degradation rates due to the lack of vegetation cover, soil compaction and the loss of organic matter. Bayesian Belief Networks (BBN) are defined as a 'graphical tool for building decision support systems to help make decisions under uncertain conditions' (Cain, 2001). In this work, BBNs were used to incorporate the issues and objectives identified by stakeholders during interviews about their perceptions of different soil management practices in the Canyoles watershed. BBNs are appropriate for the modeling of geospatial data which can contain different kinds of uncertainties due to positional error, feature classification error, resolution, attribute error, data completeness, currency, and logical consistency, and can integrate qualitative and quantitative data. Our stakeholders were farmers, politicians (especially the mayors of the nearby towns), managers, farm employees and technicians. The questions asked to the stakeholders were related to their concern in keeping the farm active and profitable, the changes in the price of the farm products, the price of the fertilizers and tractors and if soil erosion is a key issue in their farms Preliminary results from the interviews performed with the stakeholders suggest that there is still a strong refusal to the use of different cover crops, as well as to the change in the tillage systems. Farmers do

  5. Enchytraeids as indicator of soil quality in temporary organic grass-clover leys under contrasting management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maraldo, Kristine; Schmelz, Rüdiger; Larsen, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    One objective in organic farming is to sustain the quality of the soil resource. Because enchytraeids are an important soil faunal component, they stand as bioindicators of soil quality. We tested this candidature in a field experiment on loamy sand soil with 1- and 4-year old grass-clover leys...... interactions among soil physical, chemical and biological properties suggest that enchytraeid abundance is not a feasible stand-alone indicator of management impacts on soil quality in temporary grass-clover leys but may candidate as one of several biological key parameters in more comprehensive soil quality...

  6. A method of forest management for the planned introduction of intensive husbandry in virgin forest stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    B. Dolezal

    1978-01-01

    The method proposed is derived from long experience of intensive management in forest stands of Central Europe and from our proposal for management in virgin Iranian forests of the Caspian Region. The method establishes the need for systematic planning of stand conversion to insure both sustained yield and the harvesting of sufficient timber to sustain economic...

  7. Integrating removal actions and remedial actions: Soil and debris management at the Fernald Environmental Management Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goidell, L.C.; Hagen, T.D.; Strimbu, M.J.; Dupuis-Nouille, E.M.; Taylor, A.C.; Weese, T.E.; Yerace, P.J.

    1996-01-01

    Since 1991, excess soil and debris generated at the Fernald Environmental management Project (FEMP) have been managed in accordance with the principles contained in a programmatic Removal Action (RvA) Work Plan (WP). This plan provides a sitewide management concept and implementation strategy for improved storage and management of excess soil and debris over the period required to design and construct improved storage facilities. These management principles, however, are no longer consistent with the directions in approved and draft Records of Decision (RODs) and anticipated in draft RODs other decision documents. A new approach has been taken to foster improved management techniques for soil and debris that can be readily incorporated into remedial design/remedial action plans. Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) process. This paper describes the methods that were applied to address the issues associated with keeping the components of the new work plan field implementable and flexible; this is especially important as remedial design is either in its initial stages or has not been started and final remediation options could not be precluded

  8. A process-based framework for soil ecosystem services study and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Changhong; Liu, Huifang; Wang, Shuai

    2018-06-15

    Soil provides various indispensable ecosystem services for human society. Soil's complex structure and property makes the soil ecological processes complicated and brings about tough challenges for soil ecosystem services study. Most of the current frameworks on soil services focus exclusively on services per se, neglecting the links and underlying ecological mechanisms. This article put forward a framework on soil services by stressing the underlying soil mechanisms and processes, which includes: 1) analyzing soil natural capital stock based on soil structure and property, 2) disentangling the underlying complex links and soil processes, 3) soil services valuation based on field investigation and spatial explicit models, and 4) enacting soil management strategy based on soil services and their driving factors. By application of this framework, we assessed the soil services of sediment retention, water yield, and grain production in the Upper-reach Fenhe Watershed. Based on the ecosystem services and human driving factors, the whole watershed was clustered into five groups: 1) municipal area, 2) typical coal mining area, 3) traditional farming area, 4) unsustainable urbanizing area, and 5) ecological conservation area. Management strategies on soils were made according to the clustering based soil services and human activities. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. High-Intensity Interval Training Versus Moderate-Intensity Continuous Training in the Prevention/Management of Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Syed R; Macaluso, Andrea; Pearson, Stephen J

    Moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) has long been considered the most effective exercise treatment modality for the prevention and management of cardiovascular disease (CVD), but more recently high-intensity interval training (HIIT) has been viewed as a potential alternative to MICT in accruing such benefits. HIIT was initially found to induce significant improvements in numerous physiological and health-related indices, to a similar if not superior extent to MICT. Since then, many studies have attempted to explore the potential clinical utility of HIIT, relative to MICT, with respect to treating numerous cardiovascular conditions, such as coronary artery disease, heart failure, stroke, and hypertension. Despite this, however, the efficacy of HIIT in reversing the specific symptoms and risk factors of these cardiovascular pathologies is not well understood. HIIT is often perceived as very strenuous, which could render it unsafe for those at risk of or afflicted with CVD, but these issues are also yet to be reviewed. Furthermore, the optimal HIIT protocol for each of the CVD cohorts has not been established. Thus, the purpose of this review article is to (1) evaluate the efficacy of HIIT relative to MICT in the prevention and management of cardiovascular conditions, and (2) explore any potential safety issues surrounding the suitability and/or tolerability of HIIT for patients with CVD, and the potential optimal prescriptive variables of HIIT for application in the clinical environment.

  10. Site Specific Waste Management Instruction for the 116-F-4 soil storage unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopkins, G.G.

    1996-08-01

    This Site Specific Waste Management Instruction provides guidance for management of waste generated during the excavation and remediation of soil and debris from the 116-4 soil storage unit located at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. This document outlines the waste management practices that will be performed in the field to implement federal, state, and US Department of Energy requirements

  11. Different harvest intensity and soil CO2 efflux in sessile oak coppice forests

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dařenová, Eva; Majtaz, C.; Pavelka, Marian

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 9, feb (2016), s. 546-552 ISSN 1971-7458 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0267 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Low Forest * Soil Moisture * Soil Respiration * Temperature Dependence Subject RIV: GK - Forestry Impact factor: 1.623, year: 2016

  12. Estimating landscape-scale impacts of agricultural management on soil carbon using measurements and models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schipanski, M.; Rosenzweig, S. T.; Robertson, A. D.; Sherrod, L. A.; Ghimire, R.; McMaster, G. S.

    2017-12-01

    Agriculture covers 40% of Earth's ice-free land area and has broad impacts on global biogeochemical cycles. While some agricultural management changes are small in scale or impact, others have the potential to shift biogeochemical cycles at landscape and larger scales if widely adopted. Understanding which management practices have the potential to contribute to climate change adaptation and mitigation while maintaining productivity requires scaling up estimates spatially and temporally. We used on-farm, long-term, and landscape scale datasets to estimate how crop rotations impact soil organic carbon (SOC) accumulation rates under current and future climate scenarios across the semi-arid Central and Southern Great Plains. We used a stratified, landscape-scale soil sampling approach across 96 farm fields to evaluate crop rotation intensity effects on SOC pools and pesticide inputs. Replacing traditional wheat-fallow rotations with more diverse, continuously cropped rotations increased SOC by 17% and 12% in 0-10 cm and 0-20 cm depths, respectively, and reduced herbicide use by 50%. Using USDA Cropland Data Layer, we estimated soil C accumulation and pesticide reduction potentials of shifting to more intensive rotations. We also used a 30-year cropping systems experiment to calibrate and validate the Daycent model to evaluate rotation intensify effects under future climate change scenarios. The model estimated greater SOC accumulation rates under continuously cropped rotations, but SOC stocks peaked and then declined for all cropping systems beyond 2050 under future climate scenarios. Perennial grasslands were the only system estimated to maintain SOC levels in the future. In the Southern High Plains, soil C declined despite increasing input intensity under current weather while modest gains were simulated under future climate for sorghum-based cropping systems. Our findings highlight the potential vulnerability of semi-arid regions to climate change, which will be

  13. Study of microarthopod communities to assess soil quality in different managed vineyards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnarli, E.; Goggioli, D.; Tarchi, F.; Guidi, S.; Nannelli, R.; Vignozzi, N.; Valboa, G.; Lottero, M. R.; Corino, L.; Simoni, S.

    2015-01-01

    Land use influences the abundance and diversity of soil arthropods. The evaluation of the impact of different management strategies on soil quality is increasingly requested. The determination of communities' structures of edaphic fauna can represent an efficient tool. In this study, in some vineyards in Piedmont (Italy), the effects of two different management systems, organic and integrated pest management (IPM), on soil biota were evaluated. As microarthropods living in soil surface are an important component of soil ecosystem interacting with all the other system components, a multi disciplinary approach was adopted by characterizing also some soil physical and chemical characteristics (soil texture, soil pH, total organic carbon, total nitrogen, calcium carbonate). Soil samplings were carried out on Winter 2011 and Spring 2012. All specimens were counted and determined up to the order level. The biological quality of the soil was defined through the determination of ecological indices, such as QBS-ar, species richness and indices of Shannon-Weaver, Pielou, Margalef and Simpson. The mesofauna abundance was affected by both the type of management and the soil texture. The analysis of microarthropod communities by QBS-ar showed higher values in organic than in IPM managed vineyards; in particular, the values registered in organic vineyards were similar to those characteristic of preserved soils.

  14. Prevalence and intensity of soil transmitted helminths among school children of Mendera Elementary School, Jimma, Southwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tefera, Ephrem; Belay, Tariku; Mekonnen, Seleshi Kebede; Zeynudin, Ahmed; Belachew, Tefera

    2017-01-01

    Soil transmitted helminths are wide spread in developing countries and in Ethiopia the prevalence of STHs varies in different parts of the country. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and intensity of soil transmitted helminths among school children of Mendera Elementary School Jimma town, Southwestern Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was conducted between March 29 and April 9, 2010 to determine the prevalence and intensity of soil transmitted helminths among elementary school children. The study participants were randomly selected from class enrollment list after proportional allocation of the total sample size to each grade. Data about the background characteristics were collected using structured questionnaire. The stool samples were examined by McMaster method for the egg count which was used to determine intensity of infection. Data were analyzed using SPSS for windows version 16 and p-value less than 5% was considered as statistically significant. Of the total 715 stool specimens examined, 346 were positive for at least one intestinal parasite making the prevalence 48.4%. The most prevalent parasites were Ascaris lumbricoides 169 (23.6%) and Trichuris trichiura 165 (23.1%). The prevalence of soil transmitted helminth in this study was 45.6% (326/715). There was statistically significant difference in the prevalence of Trichuriasis between those who use latrine always and who use sometimes (p = 0.010). Females are two times more likely to be positive for Ascaris than males (p = 0.039). Majority of the students had light infection of soil transmitted helminths and none of them had heavy intensity of infection of Trichuriasis and hookworms. Nearly half of the school children were infected with at least one STHs and majority of the students had light infection of soil transmitted helminths. Students who did not wash their hands after defecation were three times more likely to be positive for Ascaris infection than those who washed their hands

  15. Relationship between soil 137Cs inventories and chemical properties in a small intensively cropped watershed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mabit, L.

    1998-01-01

    After estimating and spatializing the erosion risks in a small agricultural watershed in northeastern France in a previous study, the authors investigate the quality of eroding soils. Soil erosion is a selective process, exporting the finest particles, and associated chemical elements, in a preferential way. Consequently, the spatial redistribution of soil should translate into the depletion of soil in eroding areas and its enrichment in deposition sectors. Of the fifteen elements considered in this study, only organic matter confirms this hypothesis. A significant correlation was found between the soil 137 Cs (indicative of the severity of erosion) and organic matter contents. This result suggests that erosion is a redistribution process that may influence the productivity of agricultural systems on the mid/long term. (authors)

  16. [Effects of precipitation intensity on soil organic carbon fractions and their distribution under subtropical forests of South China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao-mei; Liu, Ju-xiu; Deng, Qi; Chu, Guo-wei; Zhou, Guo-yi; Zhang, De-qiang

    2010-05-01

    From December 2006 to June 2008, a field experiment was conducted to study the effects of natural precipitation, doubled precipitation, and no precipitation on the soil organic carbon fractions and their distribution under a successional series of monsoon evergreen broad-leaf forest, pine and broad-leaf mixed forest, and pine forest in Dinghushan Mountain of Southern China. Different precipitation treatments had no significant effects on the total organic carbon (TOC) concentration in the same soil layer under the same forest type (P > 0.05). In treatment no precipitation, particulate organic carbon (POC) and light fraction organic carbon (LFOC) were mainly accumulated in surface soil layer (0-10 cm); but in treatments natural precipitation and doubled precipitation, the two fractions were infiltrated to deeper soil layers. Under pine forest, soil readily oxidizable organic carbon (ROC) was significantly higher in treatment no precipitation than in treatments natural precipitation and doubled precipitation (P organic carbon storage. Precipitation intensity less affected TOC, but had greater effects on the labile components POC, ROC, and LFOC.

  17. Influence of land use intensity on the diversity of ammonia oxidizing bacteria and archaea in soils from grassland ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Annabel; Focks, Andreas; Radl, Viviane; Welzl, Gerhard; Schöning, Ingo; Schloter, Michael

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, the influence of the land use intensity on the diversity of ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and archaea (AOA) in soils from different grassland ecosystems has been investigated in spring and summer of the season (April and July). Diversity of AOA and AOB was studied by TRFLP fingerprinting of amoA amplicons. The diversity from AOB was low and dominated by a peak that could be assigned to Nitrosospira. The obtained profiles for AOB were very stable and neither influenced by the land use intensity nor by the time point of sampling. In contrast, the obtained patterns for AOA were more complex although one peak that could be assigned to Nitrosopumilus was dominating all profiles independent from the land use intensity and the sampling time point. Overall, the AOA profiles were much more dynamic than those of AOB and responded clearly to the land use intensity. An influence of the sampling time point was again not visible. Whereas AOB profiles were clearly linked to potential nitrification rates in soil, major TRFs from AOA were negatively correlated to DOC and ammonium availability and not related to potential nitrification rates.

  18. Soil Management Plan for the Oak Ridge Y-12 National Security Complex Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2005-03-02

    This Soil Management Plan applies to all activities conducted under the auspices of the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Oak Ridge Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) that involve soil disturbance and potential management of waste soil. The plan was prepared under the direction of the Y-12 Environmental Compliance Department of the Environment, Safety, and Health Division. Soil disturbances related to maintenance activities, utility and building construction projects, or demolition projects fall within the purview of the plan. This Soil Management Plan represents an integrated, visually oriented, planning and information resource tool for decision making involving excavation or disturbance of soil at Y-12. This Soil Management Plan addresses three primary elements. (1) Regulatory and programmatic requirements for management of soil based on the location of a soil disturbance project and/or the regulatory classification of any contaminants that may be present (Chap. 2). Five general regulatory or programmatic classifications of soil are recognized to be potentially present at Y-12; soil may fall under one or more these classifications: (a) Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) pursuant to the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) Federal Facilities Agreement; (b) Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA); (c) RCRA 3004(u) solid waste managements units pursuant to the RCRA Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments Act of 1984 permit for the ORR; (d) Toxic Substances and Control Act-regulated soil containing polychlorinated biphenyls; and (e) Radiologically contaminated soil regulated under the Atomic Energy Act review process. (2) Information for project planners on current and future planned remedial actions (RAs), as prescribed by CERCLA decision documents (including the scope of the actions and remedial goals), land use controls implemented to support or maintain RAs, RCRA post-closure regulatory requirements for

  19. Growing season soil moisture following restoration treatments of varying intensity in semi-arid ponderosa pine forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, F. C.; Springer, A. E.; Sankey, T.; Masek Lopez, S.

    2014-12-01

    Forest restoration projects are being planned for large areas of overgrown semi-arid ponderosa pine forests of the Southwestern US. Restoration involves the thinning of smaller trees and prescribed or managed fire to reduce tree density, restore a more natural fire regime, and decrease the risk of catastrophic wildfire. The stated goals of these projects generally reduced plant water stress and improvements in hydrologic function. However, little is known about how to design restoration treatments to best meet these goals. As part of a larger project on snow cover, soil moisture, and groundwater recharge, we measured soil moisture, an indicator of plant water status, in four pairs of control and restored sites near Flagstaff, Arizona. The restoration strategies used at the sites range in both amount of open space created and degree of clustering of the remaining trees. We measured soil moisture using 30 cm vertical time domain reflectometry probes installed on 100 m transects at 5 m intervals so it would be possible to analyze the spatial pattern of soil moisture. Soil moisture was higher and more spatially variable in the restored sites than the control sites with differences in spatial pattern among the restoration types. Soil moisture monitoring will continue until the first snow fall, at which point measurements of snow depth and snow water equivalent will be made at the same locations.

  20. Management of Pediatric Delirium in Pediatric Cardiac Intensive Care Patients: An International Survey of Current Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staveski, Sandra L; Pickler, Rita H; Lin, Li; Shaw, Richard J; Meinzen-Derr, Jareen; Redington, Andrew; Curley, Martha A Q

    2018-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe how pediatric cardiac intensive care clinicians assess and manage delirium in patients following cardiac surgery. Descriptive self-report survey. A web-based survey of pediatric cardiac intensive care clinicians who are members of the Pediatric Cardiac Intensive Care Society. Pediatric cardiac intensive care clinicians (physicians and nurses). None. One-hundred seventy-three clinicians practicing in 71 different institutions located in 13 countries completed the survey. Respondents described their clinical impression of the occurrence of delirium to be approximately 25%. Most respondents (75%) reported that their ICU does not routinely screen for delirium. Over half of the respondents (61%) have never attended a lecture on delirium. The majority of respondents (86%) were not satisfied with current delirium screening, diagnosis, and management practices. Promotion of day/night cycle, exposure to natural light, deintensification of care, sleep hygiene, and reorientation to prevent or manage delirium were among nonpharmacologic interventions reported along with the use of anxiolytic, antipsychotic, and medications for insomnia. Clinicians responding to the survey reported a range of delirium assessment and management practices in postoperative pediatric cardiac surgery patients. Study results highlight the need for improvement in delirium education for pediatric cardiac intensive care clinicians as well as the need for systematic evaluation of current delirium assessment and management practices.

  1. Assessing Cross-disciplinary Efficiency of Soil Amendments for Agro-biologically, Economically, and Ecologically Integrated Soil Health Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Preventive and/or manipulative practices will be needed to maintain soil's biological, physiochemical, nutritional, and structural health in natural, managed, and disturbed ecosystems as a foundation for food security and global ecosystem sustainability. While there is a substantial body of interdisciplinary science on understanding function and structure of soil ecosystems, key gaps must be bridged in assessing integrated agro-biological, ecological, economical, and environmental efficiency of soil manipulation practices in time and space across ecosystems. This presentation discusses the application of a fertilizer use efficiency (FUE) model for assessing agronomic, economic, ecological, environmental, and nematode (pest) management efficiency of soil amendments. FUE is defined as increase in host productivity and/or decrease in plant-parasitic nematode population density in response to a given fertilizer treatment. Using the effects of nutrient amendment on Heterodera glycines population density and normalized difference vegetative index (indicator of physiological activities) of a soybean cultivar ‘CX 252’, how the FUE model recognizes variable responses and separates nutrient deficiency and toxicity from nematode parasitism as well as suitability of treatments designed to achieve desired biological and physiochemical soil health conditions is demonstrated. As part of bridging gaps between agricultural and ecological approaches to integrated understanding and management of soil health, modifications of the FUE model for analyzing the relationships amongst nematode community structure, soil parameters (eg. pH, nutrients, %OM), and plant response to soil amendment is discussed. PMID:22736840

  2. Effect of soil surface management on radiocesium concentrations in apple orchard and fruit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusaba, Shinnosuke; Matsuoka, Kaori; Abe, Kazuhiro

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effect of soil surface management on radiocesium accumulation in an apple orchard in Fukushima Prefecture over 4 years after Tokyo Electric Power Company’s Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident in mid-March 2011. Different types of soil surface management such as clean cultivation, intertillage management, intertillage with bark compost application, sod culture, and zeolite application were employed. The radiocesium concentrations in soil were higher in the surface layer (0–5 cm) than in the other layers. The radiocesium concentration in the surface layer soil with sod culture in 2014 increased non-significantly compared with that observed in 2011. The radiocesium concentration in the mid-layer soil (5–15 cm) managed with intertillage was higher than that in soil managed using other types of management. The radiocesium amount in the organic matter on the soil surface was the highest in sod culture, and was significantly lower in the management with intertillage. The radiocesium concentration in fruit decreased exponentially during the 4 years in each types of soil surface management. The decrease in radiocesium concentration showed similar trends with each type of soil surface management, even if the concentration in each soil layer varied according to the management applied. Furthermore, intertillage with bark compost application did not affect the radiocesium concentration in fruit. These results suggest that the soil surface management type that affected the radiocesium distribution in the soil or the compost application with conventional practice did not affect its concentration in fruit of apple trees for at least 4 years since the nuclear power plant accident, at a radiocesium deposition level similar to that recorded in Fukushima City. (author)

  3. Characteristics and management options of crusting soils in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    water infiltration and accelerated soil erosion resulting from soil crusting ... in a smallholder farming area of the Zambezi metamorphic belt in northern Zimbabwe ...... beans (Ricinus communi L.) in the northeastern region of Brazil. Soil and ...

  4. [Responses of rhizosphere nitrogen and phosphorus transformations to different acid rain intensities in a hilly red soil tea plantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Chen, Fu-sheng; Ye, Su-qiong; Yu, Su-qin; Fang, Xiang-min; Hu, Xiao-fei

    2015-01-01

    Tea (Camellia sinensis) plantation in hilly red soil region has been long impacted by acid deposition, however its effects on nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) transformations in rhizosphere soils remain unclear. A 25-year old tea plantation in a typical hilly red soil region was selected for an in situ simulation experiment treated by pH 4.5, pH 3.5, pH 2.5 and control. Rhizosihere and bulk soils were collected in the third year from the simulated acid deposition experiment. Soil mineral N, available P contents and major enzyme activities were analyzed using the chemical extraction and biochemical methods, and N and P mineralization rates were estimated using the indoor aerobic incubation methods. Our results showed that compared to the control, the treatments of pH 4.5, pH 3.5 and pH 2.5, respectively decreased 7.1%, 42.1% and 49.9% NO3(-)-N, 6.4%, 35.9% and 40.3% mineral N, 10.5%, 41.1% and 46.9% available P, 18.7%, 30.1% and 44.7% ammonification rate, 3.6%, 12.7% and 38.8% net N-mineralization rate, and 31.5%, 41.8% and 63.0% P mineralization rate in rhizosphere soils; however, among the 4 treatments, rhizosphere soil nitrification rate was not significantly different, the rhizosphere soil urease and acid phosphatase activities generally increased with the increasing intensity of acid rain (PpH 4.5, pH 3.5 and pH 2.5 did not cause significant changes in NO3(-)-N, mineral N, available P as well as in the rates of nitrification, ammonification, net N-mineralization and P mineralization. With increasing the acid intensity, the rhizosphere effects of NH4+-N, NO3(-)-N, mineral N, ammonification and net N-mineralization rates were altered from positive to negative effects, those of urease and acid phosphatease showed the opposite trends, those of available P and P mineralization were negative and that of nitrification was positive. In sum, prolonged elevated acid rain could reduce N and P transformation rates, decrease their availability, alter their rhizosphere

  5. Feasibility Study on UAV-assisted Construction Surplus Soil Tracking Control and Management Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jieh Haur, Chen; Kuo, Lin Sheng; Fu, Chen Ping; Li Hsu, Yeh; Da Heng, Chen

    2018-01-01

    Construction surplus soil tracking management has been the key management issue in Taiwan since 1991. This is mainly due to the construction surplus soils were often regarded as disposable waste and were disposed openly without any supervision, leading to environmental pollution. Even though the surplus soils were gradually being viewed as reusable resources, some unscrupulous enterprises still dump them freely for their own convenience. In order to dispose these surplus soils, site offices are required to confirm with the soil treatment plant regarding the approximate soil volume for hauling vehicle dispatch. However, the excavated soil volume will transform from bank volume to loose volume upon excavation, which may differ by a certain speculative coefficient (1.3), depending on the excavation site and geological condition. For managing and tracking the construction surplus soils, local government authorities frequently performed on-site spot check, but the lack of rapid assessment tools for soil volume estimation increased the evaluation difficulty for on-site inspectors. This study adopted unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) in construction surplus soil tracking and rapidly acquired site photography and point cloud data, the excavated soil volume can be determined promptly after post-processing and interpretation, providing references to future surplus soil tracking management.

  6. Soil phosphatase and urease activities impacted by cropping systems and water management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil enzymes can play an important role in nutrient availability to plants. Consequently, soil enzyme measurements can provide useful information on soil fertility for crop production. We examined the impact of cropping system and water management on phosphatase, urease, and microbial biomass C in s...

  7. Soil water sensing: Implications of sensor capabilities for variable rate irrigation management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irrigation scheduling using soil water sensors aims at maintaining the soil water content in the crop root zone above a lower limit defined by the management allowed depletion (MAD) for that soil and crop, but not so wet that too much water is lost to deep percolation, evaporation and runoff or that...

  8. Soil P forms and P uptake under intensive plant growth in the greenhouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henriquez, Carlos; Killorn, Randy

    2005-01-01

    The concentration of available soil (P) is a function of the equilibrium established among different soil P forms through numerous and different reactions in soil. The objective of this study was to examine the changes in P forms and P supply under exhaustive extraction conditions in soils from 3 different land use areas. In order to establish a greenhouse experiment, representative soil samples (0-20 cm) were taken from three fields located adjacent to one another, in a Typic Hapludands in Costa Rica. One field was a coffee plantation (Coffea arabica var Catuai), the second a sugar cane plantation (Saccarum spp. var 611721), and the third a secondary forest. Sorghum bicolor var Glazer 41) was planted in 1-liter pots and harvested 4 times consecutively. Treatments were no P and P application (100 mg kg -1 ) for each of the different land-use soil samples. Shoot and root dry matter and total P uptake were determined. Soil samples were taken before and after each of the 4 plant growth cycles and analyzed using a modified Hedley et al. (1982) soil P fractionation methodology. Labile-Pi, NaOH-Pi, HCI-Pi, extractable-Po, and residual -P were determined. Applied P increased labile-Pi, NaOH-Pi and HCI-Pi. Statistical changes were not observed in extractable organic P and residual-P due to P application. The NaOH-Pi and HCI-Pi seemed to act as a temporary pool of applied P. The possible participation of residual-P in replenishment of labile-P and NaOH-Pi was observed. The amount of plant P untake was closely related to the initial amount of labile-Pi and was higher in coffee than in forest and sugar cane soils. The labile-P was depleted by plant uptake. Rapid changes in reversibly available soil P forms (NaOH-Pi and HCI-Pi) were observed during the experiment. Our results suggest the occurrence of very rapid and dynamic changes between available and unavailable soil P forms in response to fertilizer application and plant uptake, supporting the idea of a continuum among the

  9. Analysis of soil characteristics, soil management and sugar yield on top and averagely managed farms growing sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanse, B.; Vermeulen, G.D.; Tijink, F.G.J.; Koch, H.J.; Märlander, B.

    2011-01-01

    Within the Speeding Up Sugar Yield (SUSY) project, soil management and soil characteristics were investigated as possible causes of yield differences in fields between 26 ‘type top’ and 26 ‘type average’ growers, ‘top’ and ‘average’ performance being based on past yield data. Growers were pairwise

  10. Strategically oriented management and controlling of resource intensive projects; Strategieorientiertes Management und Controlling ressourcenintensiver Projekte. Fallstudienanalyse und Konzeption eines Referenzmodells zum Projektmanagement der Stilllegung kerntechnischer Anlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemmeter, Sascha

    2015-07-01

    The book on strategically oriented management and controlling of resource intensive projects covers the following issues: frame of project management and project controlling, classification of the decommissioning of nuclear facilities as resource intensive projects, research design for case studies, results of the study of project management specific characteristics of decommissioning, reference model for the project management of nuclear facility decommissioning.

  11. Soil microbial community structure and nitrogen cycling responses to agroecosystem management and carbon substrate addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthrong, S. T.; Buckley, D. H.; Drinkwater, L. E.

    2011-12-01

    Fertilizer application in conventional agriculture leads to N saturation and decoupled soil C and N cycling, whereas organic practices, e.g. complex rotations and legume incorporation, often results in increased SOM and tightly coupled cycles of C and N. These legacy effects of management on soils likely affect microbial community composition and microbial process rates. This project tested if agricultural management practices led to distinct microbial communities and if those communities differed in ability to utilize labile plant carbon substrates and to produce more plant available N. We addressed several specific questions in this project. 1) Do organic and conventional management legacies on similar soils produce distinct soil bacterial and fungal community structures and abundances? 2) How do these microbial community structures change in response to carbon substrate addition? 3) How do the responses of the microbial communities influence N cycling? To address these questions we conducted a laboratory incubation of organically and conventionally managed soils. We added C-13 labelled glucose either in one large dose or several smaller pulses. We extracted genomic DNA from soils before and after incubation for TRFLP community fingerprinting. We measured C in soil pools and respiration and N in soil extracts and leachates. Management led to different compositions of bacteria and fungi driven by distinct components in organic soils. Biomass did not differ across treatments indicating that differences in cycling were due to composition rather than abundance. C substrate addition led to convergence in bacterial communities; however management still strongly influenced the difference in communities. Fungal communities were very distinct between managements and plots with substrate addition not altering this pattern. Organic soils respired 3 times more of the glucose in the first week than conventional soils (1.1% vs 0.4%). Organic soils produced twice as much

  12. The effects of boron management on soil microbial population and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soil microorganisms directly influence boron content of soil as maximum boron release corresponds with the highest microbial activity. The objective of this study is to determine the effects of different levels of boron fertilizer on microbial population, microbial respiration and soil enzyme activities in different soil depths in ...

  13. Oligotrophic bacteria and root disease suppression in organically managed soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Senechkin, I.V.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this thesis was to obtain a better understanding of soil health in terms of microbial and chemical characteristics as well as suppression of soil borne plant pathogens. Organic soils were chosen as an appropriate model for studying soil health. Four different organic

  14. Contingency management for patients with dual disorders in intensive outpatient treatment for addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Thomas M; Daley, Dennis C; Douaihy, Antoine B

    2014-01-01

    This quality improvement program evaluation investigated the effectiveness of contingency management for improving retention in treatment and positive outcomes among patients with dual disorders in intensive outpatient treatment for addiction. The effect of contingency management was explored among a group of 160 patients exposed to contingency management (n = 88) and not exposed to contingency management (no contingency management, n = 72) in a six-week partial hospitalization program. Patients referred to the partial hospitalization program for treatment of substance use and comorbid psychiatric disorders received diagnoses from psychiatrists and specialist clinicians according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of the American Psychiatric Association. A unique application of the contingency management "fishbowl" method was used to improve the consistency of attendance at treatment sessions, which patients attended 5 days a week. Days attending treatment and drug-free days were the main outcome variables. Other outcomes of interest were depression, anxiety and psychological stress, coping ability, and intensity of drug cravings. Patients in the contingency management group attended more treatment days compared to patients in the no contingency management group; M = 16.2 days (SD = 10.0) versus M = 9.9 days (SD = 8.5), respectively; t = 4.2, df = 158, p contingency management and self-reported drug-free days. Contingency management is a valuable adjunct for increasing retention in treatment among patients with dual disorders in partial hospitalization treatment. Exposure to contingency management increases retention in treatment, which in turn contributes to increased drug-free days. Interventions for coping with psychological stress and drug cravings should be emphasized in intensive dual diagnosis group therapy.

  15. Organizational and safety culture in Canadian intensive care units: relationship to size of intensive care unit and physician management model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodek, Peter M; Wong, Hubert; Jaswal, Danny; Heyland, Daren K; Cook, Deborah J; Rocker, Graeme M; Kutsogiannis, Demetrios J; Dale, Craig; Fowler, Robert; Ayas, Najib T

    2012-02-01

    The objectives of this study are to describe organizational and safety culture in Canadian intensive care units (ICUs), to correlate culture with the number of beds and physician management model in each ICU, and to correlate organizational culture and safety culture. In this cross-sectional study, surveys of organizational and safety culture were administered to 2374 clinical staff in 23 Canadian tertiary care and community ICUs. For the 1285 completed surveys, scores were calculated for each of 34 domains. Average domain scores for each ICU were correlated with number of ICU beds and with intensivist vs nonintensivist management model. Domain scores for organizational culture were correlated with domain scores for safety culture. Culture domain scores were generally favorable in all ICUs. There were moderately strong positive correlations between number of ICU beds and perceived effectiveness at recruiting/retaining physicians (r = 0.58; P organizational and safety culture. Differences in perceptions between staff in larger and smaller ICUs highlight the importance of teamwork across units in larger ICUs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The Effects of Tax Avoidance, Accrual Earnings Management, Real Earnings Management, and Capital Intensity on the Cost of Equity

    OpenAIRE

    Amrie Firmansyah; Ahmad Sigid Febriyanto

    2018-01-01

    This study aims to examine the effects of tax avoidance, accrual profit management, real profit management, and capital intensity on equity costs. The population of this study is a manufacturing company listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange which amounted to 146 companies. The sampling technique used was purposive sampling and resulted in 420 units of analysis. This type of research is quantitative causality by performing hypothesis testing analysis is done by using multiple linear regressio...

  17. Managing social awkwardness when caring for morbidly obese patients in intensive care: A focused ethnography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hales, Caz; de Vries, Kay; Coombs, Maureen

    2016-06-01

    Critically ill morbidly obese patients pose considerable healthcare delivery and resource utilisation challenges in the intensive care setting. These are resultant from specific physiological responses to critical illness in this population and the nature of the interventional therapies used in the intensive care environment. An additional challenge arises for this population when considering the social stigma that is attached to being obese. Intensive care staff therefore not only attend to the physical and care needs of the critically ill morbidly obese patient but also navigate, both personally and professionally, the social terrain of stigma when providing care. To explore the culture and influences on doctors and nurses within the intensive care setting when caring for critically ill morbidly obese patients. A focused ethnographic approach was adopted to elicit the 'situated' experiences of caring for critically ill morbidly obese patients from the perspectives of intensive care staff. Participant observation of care practices and interviews with intensive care staff were undertaken over a four month period. Analysis was conducted using constant comparison technique to compare incidents applicable to each theme. An 18 bedded tertiary intensive care unit in New Zealand. Sixty-seven intensive care nurses and 13 intensive care doctors involved with the care and management of seven critically ill patients with a body mass index ≥40kg/m(2). Interactions between intensive care staff and morbidly obese patients were challenging due to the social stigma surrounding obesity. Social awkwardness and managing socially awkward moments were evident when caring for morbidly obese patients. Intensive care staff used strategies of face-work and mutual pretence to alleviate feelings of discomfort when engaged in aspects of care and caring. This was a strategy used to prevent embarrassment and distress for both the patients and staff. This study has brought new understandings

  18. Social Relation between Businessman and Community in Management of Intensive Shrimp Pond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumay Febryano, Indra; Sinurat, James; Lovinia Salampessy, Messalina

    2017-02-01

    Expansion of aquaculture, especially shrimp culture, is the primary cause of deforestation of mangrove along coastal zone. This phenomenon is pretty much related to social relation between businessman of intensive shrimp pond and community around coastal zone. The objective of this research is to explain social relation between businessman and community in managing intensive shrimp pond. This research is a kind of qualitative research and the method used is a case study. The result of this research shows that the behaviour of the majority of businessman of intensive shrimp pond is not accordingly with environmental concerns as they compelled conversion of mangrove and they disposed waste of shrimp pond into the sea. Such kind of behaviour caused degradation of water ecosystem and marginalizing local community. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) which was implemented by businessman of intensive shrimp pond in the area of social, religion, and education can downgrade the coming up of social turbulence. Otherwise, CSR in enabling economic community and environmental management was not conducted yet. CSR in environmental management can be conducted by businessman of intensive shrimp pond by considering the existence of mangrove and pond management and waste in a better way, so that environment around ponds is not polluted and the sustainability of shrimp pond business as well as income of community can be guaranteed. Accordingly with the result of this research, CSR is not only involving businessman of intensive shrimp pond and community, but also involving local government in terms of right and responsibility of citizen as well as management and development of community.

  19. Fungal Community Structure as an Indicator of Soil Agricultural Management Effects in the Cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alana de Almeida Valadares-Pereira

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Forest-to-agriculture conversion and soil management practices for soybean cropping are frequently performed in the Cerrado (Brazilian tropical savanna. However, the effects of these practices on the soil microbial communities are still unknown. We evaluated and compared the fungal community structure in soil from soybean cropland with soil under native Cerrado vegetation at different times of the year in the Tocantins State. Soil samples were collected in two periods after planting (December and in two periods during the soybean reproductive growth stage (February. Concomitantly, soil samples were collected from an area under native Cerrado vegetation surrounding the agricultural area. The soil DNA was analyzed using a fingerprinting method termed Automated Ribosomal Intergenic Space Analysis (ARISA to assess the fungal community structure in the soil. Differences in the fungal community structure in the soil were found when comparing soybean cropland with the native vegetation (R = 0.932 for sampling 1 and R = 0.641 for sampling 2. Changes in the fungal community structure after management practices for soybean planting in Cerrado areas were related to changes in soil properties, mainly in copper, calcium, and iron contents, cation exchange capacity, base saturation, and calcium to magnesium ratio. These results show the changes in the fungal community structure in the soil as an effect of agricultural soil management in Cerrado vegetation in the state of Tocantins.

  20. The influence of grazing intensity on soil properties and degradation processes in Mediterranean rangelands (Extremadura, SW Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulido-Fernández, Manuel; Schnabel, Susanne; Francisco Lavado-Contador, Joaquín

    2014-05-01

    Rangelands cover vast extensions of land in Spain (>90,000 km2), where a total amount of 13 millions of domestic animals graze extensively their pastures. By clear-cutting shrubs, removing selected trees and by cultivation, these rangelands were created from former Mediterranean oak forests, mainly composed by holm oak and cork oak (Quercus ilex rotundifolia and Q. suber) as tree species, Nowadays this land system is exploited economically in large farms (>100 ha), most of them held on private ownership (80% of total) and dedicated to extensive ranching. Overgrazing is common and the excessive stocking rates may deteriorate soil quality, causing economic losses and environmental damage. Many studies have been developed on the effects of livestock grazing over soil properties and degradation processes, most of them by only comparing extreme cases (e.g. ungrazed vs. grazed or overgrazed areas). The main goal of this study is to contribute to the understanding on how animal grazing affects soil properties and degradation processes. The study is particularly focused on soil compaction and sheet erosion as related to the reduction of vegetation cover by defoliation. Soil properties were analysed from 119 environmental units selected from 56 farms distributed throughout the region of Extremadura (SW Spain). The units are representative of different rangeland types, i.e. scrublands of Retama sphaerocarpa, dehesas (wooded rangelands) and treeless grasslands. Soil surface cover was determined along transects in September 2010 (antecedent rainfall: 413-923 mm) considering the following classes: bare ground, grasses, mosses, litter, stones (<2 mm) and rock outcrops. Farmer interviews were also conducted in order to quantify stocking rates and to assess land management in 12 out of 56 farms. In the farms where transects and farmer interviews could not be carried out, bare soil surface and livestock densities were estimated. Bare soil surface was determined by classifying

  1. The Effects of Tax Avoidance, Accrual Earnings Management, Real Earnings Management, and Capital Intensity on the Cost of Equity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrie Firmansyah

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to examine the effects of tax avoidance, accrual profit management, real profit management, and capital intensity on equity costs. The population of this study is a manufacturing company listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange which amounted to 146 companies. The sampling technique used was purposive sampling and resulted in 420 units of analysis. This type of research is quantitative causality by performing hypothesis testing analysis is done by using multiple linear regression model. The findings of this research are tax avoidance will add to the risks that must be borne by investors thus increasing uncertainty over their investment. Investors consider that accrual profit management actions are opportunistic as risk-taking actions as well as real profit management actions. While on Capital Intensity, investors assume the information on the company’s fixed assets is not useful in making investment decisions. The conclusions that can be taken are tax avoidance, accrual profit management, and earnings management real positive to the cost of equity. However, capital intensity has a negative effect.

  2. Reimbursement for pediatric diabetes intensive case management: a model for chronic diseases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Joni K; Logan, Kathy J; Hamm, Robert M; Sproat, Scott M; Musser, Kathleen M; Everhart, Patricia D; McDermott, Harrold M; Copeland, Kenneth C

    2004-01-01

    Current reimbursement policies serve as potent disincentives for physicians who provide evaluation and management services exclusively. Such policies threaten nationwide availability of care for personnel-intensive services such as pediatric diabetes. This report describes an approach to improving reimbursement for highly specialized, comprehensive pediatric diabetes management through prospective contracting for services. The objective of this study was to determine whether pediatric diabetes intensive case management services are cost-effective to the payer, the patient, and a pediatric diabetes program. A contract with a third-party payer was created to reimburse for 3 key pediatric diabetes intensive case management components: specialty education, 24/7 telephone access to an educator (and board-certified pediatric endocrinologist as needed), and quarterly educator assessments of self-management skills. Data were collected and analyzed for 15 months after signing the contract. Within the first 15 months after the contract was signed, 22 hospital admissions for diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) occurred in 16 different patients. After hospitalizations for DKA, all 16 patients were offered participation in the program. All were followed during the subsequent 1 to 15 months of observation. Ten patients elected to participate, and 6 refused participation. Frequency of rehospitalization, emergency department visits, and costs were compared between the 2 groups. Among the 10 participating patients, there was only 1 subsequent DKA admission, whereas among the 6 who refused participation, 5 were rehospitalized for DKA on at least 1 occasion. The 10 patients who participated in the program had greater telephone contact with the team compared with those who did not (16 crisis-management calls vs 0). Costs (education, hospitalization, and emergency department visits) per participating patient were approximately 1350 dollars less than those for nonparticipating patients

  3. Soil erosion from harvested sites versus streamside management zone sediment deposition in the Piedmont of Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    William A. Lakel; W. Michael Aust; C. Andrew Dolloff; Amy W. Easterbrook

    2006-01-01

    Forestry best management practices were primarily developed to address two major issues related to soil erosion: water quality and site productivity. Sixteen watersheds managed as loblolly pine plantations in the piedmont region were monitored for soil erosion and water quality prior to treatment. Subsequently, all watersheds were harvested with clearcutting, ground-...

  4. On-farm impact of cattle slurry manure management on biological soil quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goede, de R.G.M.; Brussaard, L.; Akkermans, A.D.L.

    2003-01-01

    The effects of dairy cattle slurry management on soil biota, soil respiration and nitrogen (N) mineralization were evaluated in a farm trial across 12 farms and a field experiment on 2 farms located in a dairy farming area in the north of the Netherlands. The slurry management consisted of slit

  5. Evaluation of best management practices under intensive irrigation using SWAT model

    OpenAIRE

    Dechmi, Farida; Skhiri, Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    Land management practices such as conservation tillage and optimum irrigation are routinely used to reduce non-point source pollution and improve water quality. The calibrated and validated SWAT-IRRIG model is the first modified SWAT version that reproduces well the irrigation return flows (IRF) when the irrigation source is outside of the watershed. The application of this SWAT version in intensive irrigated systems permits to better evaluate the best management practices (BMPs) in such syst...

  6. Soil friability - Concept, Assessment and Effects of Soil Properties and Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, Lars Juhl

    Soil friability is a key soil physical property yielding valuable information on the ease of productin a favorable seed- and root beds during tillage operations. Therefore, soil friability is acrucial soil property in relation to the ability of soil to support plant growth and to minimzethe energy...... required for tillage. The topic has interested farmers and soil scientiest for centuries, but is was the paper by Utomo and Dexter (1981) that significantly put the topic on the soil science agenda. The awareness of soil friability is growing, both in practiceand in soil science. This must be viewed...... in the light of the present renewed focus on global food security together with a focus on fossil fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emissions in crop production. Certainly, the demand for well-functioning, arable soils is rising to meet the global challenges....

  7. Long-term impact of reduced tillage and residue management on soil carbon stabilization: Implications for conservation agriculture on contrasting soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chivenge, P.P.; Murwira, H.K.; Giller, K.E.; Mapfumo, P.; Six, J.

    2007-01-01

    Residue retention and reduced tillage are both conservation agricultural management options that may enhance soil organic carbon (SOC) stabilization in tropical soils. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of long-term tillage and residue management on SOC dynamics in a Chromic Luvisol (red clay soil)

  8. Effect of rainfall intensity and slope steepness on the development of soil erosion in the Southern Cis-Ural region (A model experiment)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobol, N. V.; Gabbasova, I. M.; Komissarov, M. A.

    2017-09-01

    The effect of rainfall intensity on the erosion of residual calcareous agrogray soils and clay-illuvial agrochernozems in the Southern Cis-Ural region on slopes of different inclination and vegetation type has been studied by simulating with a small-size sprinkler. It has been shown that soil loss linearly depends on rainfall intensity (2, 4, and 6 mm/min) and slope inclination (3° and 7°). When the rainfall intensity and duration, and the slope inclination increase, soil loss by erosion from agrogray soils increases higher than from agrochernozems. On the plowland with a slope of 3°, runoff begins 12, 10, and 5 min, on the average, after the beginning of rains at these intensities. When the slope increases to 7°, runoff begins earlier by 7, 6, and 4 min, respectively. After the beginning of runoff and with its increase by 1 mm, the soil loss from slopes of 3° and 7° reaches 4.2 and 25.7 t/ha on agrogray soils and 1.4 and 4.7 t/ha on agrochernozems, respectively. Fallow soils have higher erosion resistance, and the soil loss little depends on the slope gradient: it gradually increases to 0.3-1.0 t/ha per 1 mm of runoff with increasing rainfall intensity and duration. The content of physical clay in eroded material is higher than in the original soils. Fine fractions prevail in this material, which increases their humus content. The increase in rainfall intensity and duration to 4 and 6 mm/min results in the entrapment of coarse silt and sand by runoff.

  9. Challenges in participatory primary stress management interventions in knowledge intensive SMEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gish, Liv; Ipsen, Christine

    2013-01-01

    relevant change processes. This paper presents the outline of our research and development project on participatory primary stress management interventions in knowledge intensive SMEs, as well as the preliminary results and related implications. The research and development project is conducted in order...... to develop an operational model which SMEs can use when they want to initiate participatory primary stress management interventions in their company. The development project builds on a process model for participatory primary interventions in larger knowledge intensive companies and the premises behind......While knowledge intensive SMEs have recognized the need for change with respect to productivity and wellbeing, and to some extend have access to tools and methods for enabling this, they still lack process competences and are uncertain about how to approach primary stress interventions and initiate...

  10. Application of the Spectral Neighborhood of Soil Line Technique to Analyze the Intensity of Soil Use in 1985-2014 (by the Example of Three Districts of Tula Oblast)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rukhovich, D. I.; Rukhovich, A. D.; Rukhovich, D. D.; Simakova, M. S.; Kulyanitsa, A. L.; Koroleva, P. V.

    2018-03-01

    The technique of separation of the spectral neighborhood of soil line (SNSL) makes it possible to perform quantitative estimates of the intensity of agricultural land use. This is achieved via calculation of the frequency of occurrence of bare soil surface (BSS). It is shown that the frequency of occurrence of BSS in 1984-1994 was linearly related to the soil type within the sequence of soddy strongly podzolic, soddy moderately podzolic, soddy slightly podzolic (Eutric Albic Glossic Retisols (Loamic, Aric, Cutanic, Differentic, Ochric)); light gray forest (Eutric Retisols (Loamic, Aric, Cutanic, Differentic, Ochric)), gray forest (Eutric Retisols (Loamic, Aric, Cutanic, Ochric)), and dark gray forest soils (Luvic Retic Greyzemic Phaeozems (Loamic, Aric)); podzolized chernozems (Luvic Greyzemic Chernic Phaeozems (Loamic, Aric, Pachic)) and leached chernozems (Luvic Chernic Phaeozems (Loamic, Aric, Pachic)). The intensity of exploitation of the least and most fertile soils in this sequence comprised 28 and 48%, respectively. In the next decade (1995-2004) the relationship between the type of soil and the intensity of its exploitation drastically changed; the intensity of exploitation of the leas and most fertile soils comprised 14 and 43%, respectively. Nearly a half of agricultural lands in the zones of soddy-podzolic and gray forest soils were abandoned, because the cultivation of the soils with the natural fertility below that in the podzolized chernozems became economically unfeasible under conditions of the economic crisis of the 1990s. The spatiotemporal relationships between the character of the soil cover and the intensity of exploitation of the agricultural lands manifest themselves by the decreasing frequency of occurrence of BSS from leached chernozems to soddy strongly podzolic soils and from 1985 to 2014.

  11. Roadless area-intensive management tradeoffs on the Sierra National Forest, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert J. Hrubes; Kent P. Connaughton; Robert W. Sassaman

    1979-01-01

    This hypothesis was tested by a linear programing model: Roadless areas on the Sierra National Forest precluded from planned future development would be candidates for wilderness designation, and the associated loss in present and future timber harvests could be offset by investing in more intensive management. The results of this simulation test suggest that levels of...

  12. An Analysis of Intensive Mode Pedagogy in Management Education in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Sita; Nargundkar, Rajendra

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Management education is at its peak in India. But pedagogy and modes of delivery are not always innovative compared to top international Business Schools. It is through experimentation that the paper may be able to discover what works best in our context. The purpose of this paper is to determine the effectiveness of intensive mode of…

  13. Crew resource management training in the intensive care unit. A multisite controlled before–after study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemper, Peter F.; de Bruijne, Martine; van Dyck, C.; Wagner, Cordula

    Introduction There is a growing awareness today that adverse events in the intensive care unit (ICU) are more often caused by problems related to non-technical skills than by a lack of technical, or clinical, expertise. Team training, such as crew resource management (CRM), aims to improve these

  14. Crew resource management training in the intensive care unit: a multisite controlled before-after study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemper, P.F.; Bruijne, M. de; Dyck, C. van; So, R.L.; Tangkau, P.; Wagner, C.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction There is a growing awareness today that adverse events in the intensive care unit (ICU) are more often caused by problems related to non-technical skills than by a lack of technical, or clinical, expertise. Team training, such as crew resource management (CRM), aims to improve these

  15. Management of infections in critically ill returning travellers in the intensive care unit-II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rello, Jordi; Manuel, Oriol; Eggimann, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    This position paper is the second ESCMID Consensus Document on this subject and aims to provide intensivists, infectious disease specialists, and emergency physicians with a standardized approach to the management of serious travel-related infections in the intensive care unit (ICU) or the emerge...

  16. Effects of ecological compensation meadows on arthropod diversity in adjacent intensively managed grassland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albrecht, M.; Duelli, P.; Obrist, M.K.; Müller, C.; Schüpbach, B.; Kleijn, D.; Schmid, B.

    2010-01-01

    An important goal of ecological compensation areas (ECAs) is to increase biodiversity in adjacent intensively managed farmland and the agricultural landscape at large. We tested whether this goal can be achieved in the case of the agri-environmental restoration scheme implemented for Swiss grassland

  17. Effects of taxation on the planning and implementation of intensive timber management

    Science.gov (United States)

    David B. Field

    1977-01-01

    Taxes on forest properties and on income from timber disposal impose one of the most significant kinds of cost burden faced by owners of interests in forest lands. Local property taxes impose annual charges regardless of the level of management, and may even be increased by intensive practices. Federal and state income taxes are usually second in impact only to...

  18. Innovative solutions: sample financial management business plan: neurosurgical intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva-Baldonado, Analiza; Barrett-Sheridan, Shirley E

    2010-01-01

    This article describes one institution's intention to implement a financial management business plan for a neurosurgical intensive care unit in a level I trauma center. The financial objective of this proposed business plan includes a service increase in the patient population requiring critical care in a way that will help control costs.

  19. Effect of Slope, Rainfall Intensity and Mulch on Erosion and Infiltration under Simulated Rain on Purple Soil of South-Western Sichuan Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Naeem Khan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Purple soil is widely distributed in the hilly areas of the Sichuan basin, southwest China, and is highly susceptible to water erosion. The triggering of this process is related to slope, rainfall intensity and surface cover. Therefore, this study assesses the effects of different simulated rainfall intensities with different slopes on hydrological and erosional processes in un-mulched and mulched purple soils. Results show that the sediment and water losses increased with an increase of rainfall intensity and slope steepness. Generally, the slope contribution (Sc on water and sediment losses decreased with increasing rainfall intensity and slope steepness under both un-mulched and mulched soil. In un-mulched conditions, water losses were independent of slope steepness (Sc < 50% during the highest rainfall intensity. However, in mulched soil, the higher contributions of slope (Sc and rainfall (Rc were found for water and sediment losses, respectively, i.e., >50%, except during the increase in slope steepness from 15° to 25° under the highest rainfall intensity (120 mm·h−1. The effectiveness of mulch was more pronounced in reducing sediment losses (81%–100% compared with water losses (14%–100%. The conservation effectiveness of mulch both decreased and increased with slope steepness for water and sediment losses, respectively, under higher rainfall intensities. Water infiltration and recharge coefficient (RC decreased with an increase of slope steepness, while with an increase in rainfall intensity, the water infiltration and RC were increased and decreased, respectively, in both un-mulched and mulched soil. On the other hand, mulched soil maintained a significantly (α = 0.05 higher infiltration capacity and RC compared to that of the un-mulched soil.

  20. The effect of fire intensity on soil respiration in Siberia boreal forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Baker; A. V. Bogorodskaya

    2010-01-01

    Russian boreal forests have an annual wildfire activity averaging 10 to 20 million ha, which has increased in recent years. This wildfire activity, in response to changing climate has the potential to significantly affect the carbon storage capacity of Siberian forests. A better understanding of the effect of fire on soil respiration rates in the boreal forest of...

  1. Urban legacies and soil management affect the concentration and speciation of trace metals in Los Angeles community garden soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, Lorraine Weller; Jenerette, G. Darrel; Bain, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    Heavy metals in urban soils can compromise human health, especially in urban gardens, where gardeners may ingest contaminated dust or crops. To identify patterns of urban garden metal contamination, we measured concentrations and bioavailability of Pb, As, and Cd in soils associated with twelve community gardens in Los Angeles County, CA. This included sequential extractions to partition metals among exchangeable, reducible, organic, or residual fractions. Proximity to road increased all metal concentrations, suggesting vehicle emissions sources. Reducible Pb increased with neighborhood age, suggesting leaded paint as a likely pollutant source. Exchangeable Cd and As both increased with road proximity. Only cultivated soils showed an increase in exchangeable As with road proximity, potentially due to reducing humic acid interactions while Cd bioavailability was mitigated by organic matter. Understanding the geochemical phases and metal bioavailability allows incorporation of contamination patterns into urban planning. - Highlights: • Road proximity, legacies, and management affect garden soil metal concentrations. • Soil near old houses had high reducible Pb, likely due to lead paint. • Pb, As, and Cd all increased with proximity to road. • As and Cd reacted with organic matter to become more or less bioavailable to crops. - Road proximity, legacies, and management affect garden soil metal concentrations. Soil near old houses had high reducible Pb due to lead paint, while all metals increased near the road

  2. Nitrous oxide emissions from an intensively managed greenhouse vegetable cropping system in Northern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Feifei; Jiang Rongfeng; Chen Qing; Zhang Fusuo; Su Fang

    2009-01-01

    Nitrous oxide (N 2 O) emissions from a typical greenhouse vegetable system in Northern China were measured from February 2004 to January 2006 using a close chamber method. Four nitrogen management levels (NN, MN, CN, and SN) were used. N 2 O emissions occurred intermittently in the growing season, strongly correlating with N fertilization and irrigation. No peak emissions were observed after fertilization in the late Autumn season due to low soil temperature. 57-94% of the seasonal N 2 O emissions came from the initial growth stage, corresponding to the rewetting process in the soil. The annual N 2 O emissions ranged from 2.6 to 8.8 kg N ha -1 yr -1 , accounting for 0.27-0.30% of the annual nitrogen input. Compared with conventional N management, site-specific N management reduced N fertilization rate by 69% in 2004 and by 76% in 2005, and consequently reduced N 2 O emissions by 51% in 2004 and 27% in 2005, respectively. - High N 2 O emissions coming from the initial growth stage can be attributed to the rewetting process in the greenhouse soil.

  3. Field scale manure born animal waste management : GIS application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intensive beef backgrounding often accumulate manure born soil nutrients, microbes, and pharmaceuticals at different site locations. Unless properly managed, such waste materials can pollute surrounding soil and water sources. Soil sampling from these sites helps determining waste material levels bu...

  4. Bench-to-bedside review: leadership and conflict management in the intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strack van Schijndel, Rob J M; Burchardi, Hilmar

    2007-01-01

    In the management of critical care units, leadership and conflict management are vital areas for the successful performance of the unit. In this article a practical approach to define competencies for leadership and principles and practices of conflict management are offered. This article is, by lack of relevant intensive care unit (ICU) literature, not evidence based, but it is the result of personal experience and a study of literature on leadership as well on conflicts and negotiations in non-medical areas. From this, information was selected that was recognisable to the authors and, thus, also seems to be useful knowledge for medical doctors in the ICU environment.

  5. Sustainable Materials Management (SMM) Web Academy Webinar: Compost from Food Waste: Understanding Soil Chemistry and Soil Biology on a College/University Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains information about the Sustainable Materials Management (SMM) Web Academy Webinar Series titled Compost from Food Waste:Understanding Soil Chemistry and Soil Biology on a College/University Campus

  6. Integrated assessment of space, time, and management-related variability of soil hydraulic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Es, H.M. van; Ogden, C.B.; Hill, R.L.; Schindelbeck, R.R.; Tsegaye, T.

    1999-12-01

    Computer-based models that simulate soil hydrologic processes and their impacts on crop growth and contaminant transport depend on accurate characterization of soil hydraulic properties. Soil hydraulic properties have numerous sources of variability related to spatial, temporal, and management-related processes. Soil type is considered to be the dominant source of variability, and parameterization is typically based on soil survey databases. This study evaluated the relative significance of other sources of variability: spatial and temporal at multiple scales, and management-related factors. Identical field experiments were conducted for 3 yr. at two sites in New York on clay loam and silt loam soils, and at two sites in Maryland on silt loam and sandy loam soils, all involving replicated plots with plow-till and no-till treatments. Infiltrability was determined from 2054 measurements using parameters, and Campbell's a and b parameters were determined based on water-retention data from 875 soil cores. Variance component analysis showed that differences among the sites were the most important source of variability for a (coefficient of variation, CV = 44%) and b (CV = 23%). Tillage practices were the most important source of variability for infiltrability (CV = 10%). For all properties, temporal variability was more significant than field-scale spatial variability. Temporal and tillage effects were more significant for the medium- and fine-textured soils, and correlated to initial soil water conditions. The parameterization of soil hydraulic properties solely based on soil type may not be appropriate for agricultural lands since soil-management factors are more significant. Sampling procedures should give adequate recognition to soil-management and temporal processes at significant sources of variability to avoid biased results.

  7. Green Remediation Best Management Practices: Soil Vapor Extraction & Air Sparging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Historically, approximately one-quarter of Superfund source control projects have involved soil vapor extraction (SVE) to remove volatile organic compounds (VOCs) sorbed to soil in the unsaturated (vadose) zone.

  8. Current status of high-intensity focused ultrasound for the management of uterine adenomyosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Vincent Y. T.

    2017-01-01

    While high-intensity focused ultrasound has been used for some time in the management of uterine fibroids, its effectiveness and safety in managing adenomyosis is less well established. A literature review was performed of all eligible reports using this modality as a treatment for adenomyosis. Relevant publications were obtained from the PubMed electronic database from inception through March 2016. Eleven articles, including information from 1,150 treatments and follow-up data from 990 patients, were reviewed. High-intensity focused ultrasound appears to be effective and safe in the management of symptomatic adenomyosis, and can be considered as an alternative uterine-sparing option for women with this condition

  9. Current status of high-intensity focused ultrasound for the management of uterine adenomyosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Vincent Y. T. [Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Queen Mary Hospital, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China)

    2017-04-15

    While high-intensity focused ultrasound has been used for some time in the management of uterine fibroids, its effectiveness and safety in managing adenomyosis is less well established. A literature review was performed of all eligible reports using this modality as a treatment for adenomyosis. Relevant publications were obtained from the PubMed electronic database from inception through March 2016. Eleven articles, including information from 1,150 treatments and follow-up data from 990 patients, were reviewed. High-intensity focused ultrasound appears to be effective and safe in the management of symptomatic adenomyosis, and can be considered as an alternative uterine-sparing option for women with this condition.

  10. Networking our science to characterize the state, vulnerabilities, and management opportunities of soil organic matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harden, Jennifer W.; Hugelius, Gustaf; Ahlstrom, Anders; Blankinship, Joseph; Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; Lawrence, Corey; Loisel, Julie; Malhotra, Avni; Jackson, Robert B.; Ogle, S.M.; Phillips, Claire; Ryals, Rebecca; Todd-Brown, Katherine EO; Vargas, Rodrigo; Vergara, Sintana; Cotrufo, Francesca; Keiluweit, M.; Heckman, Katherine; Crow, Susan; Silver, Whendee; Delonge, Marcia; Nave, Lucas

    2018-02-01

    Over 75% of soil organic carbon (C) in the upper meter of earth’s terrestrial surface has been subjected to cropping, grazing, forestry, or urbanization. As a result, terrestrial C cycling cannot be studied out of land use context. Meanwhile, amendments by soil organic matter demonstrate reliable methodologies to restore and improve soils to a more productive state, therefore soil health and productivity cannot be understood without reference to soil C. Measurements for detecting changes in soil C are needed to constrain and monitor best practices and must reflect processes of C stabilization and destabilization over various timescales, soil types, and spatial scales in order to quantify C sequestration at regional to global scales. We have identified gaps in data, modeling, and communication that underscore the need for an open, shared network to frame and guide the study of soil carbon and its management for sustained production and climate regulation.

  11. Evaluation of corporate energy management practices of energy intensive industries in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ates, Seyithan Ahmet; Durakbasa, Numan M.

    2012-01-01

    Turkey is one of a number of countries who still lack a national management standard for energy. Industrial energy consumption accounts for 42% of Turkey's total energy consumption. With the help of a questionnaire and analytical framework, this paper investigates Industrial Energy Management Practice in Turkey and highlights significant bottlenecks and shortcomings of energy intensive industries in terms of energy management application. The survey was carried out as a multiple case study of the Turkish iron, steel, cement, paper, ceramics and textile industries. Outcomes of the questionnaire are evaluated according to the analytical framework which covers company characteristics, regulations, external relations of the companies and internal organizational conditions. After analyzing these elements on the basis of a minimum requirement list, it was found that only 22% of the surveyed companies actually practice corporate energy management in Turkey. The main barriers to proper energy management implementation were identified as lack of synergy between the stakeholders, the extent and scope of energy manager courses, and inadequate awareness of and lack of financial support for energy management activities. As a guideline to overcome present obstacles, a set of policy options are offered: strengthening and restructuring of legal and institutional frameworks, promotion of energy efficiency, education, training and capacity building and facilitating implementation of the international energy management standard ISO 50001. -- Highlights: ► Developing an analytical scheme to assess degree of Energy Management Application. ► Investigation of Energy Management Practices in Turkish Energy Intensive Industries. ► Analysis of challenges which hinder full implementation of energy management in Turkey. ► Presenting a set of essential policy options thought for all stakeholders.

  12. Respiration intensiveness and inclusion of 32P in the composition of phosphorus-organic combinations in radiomutants of cotton plants and their initial forms under salinization of soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazirov, N.N.; Tashmatov, N.T.; Vakhabov, A.; Nabiev, A.G.

    1981-01-01

    Salinization of soil affects respiration intensity, 32 P introduction into plants and its inclusion in the content of phosphoric organic compounds as well as their content in tissues of cotton plants. Respiration intensity increases: respiration intensity of weakly-stable plants increases to a greater degree. General character of changes caused by the salinization effect of different cotton sorts, is analogous, differences are only in the destruction degree [ru

  13. Tectonic uplift and denudation rate influence soil chemical weathering intensity in a semi-arid environment, southeast Spain: physico-chemical and mineralogical evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameijeiras-Mariño, Yolanda; Opfergelt, Sophie; Schoonejans, Jérôme; Vanacker, Veerle; Sonnet, Philippe; Delmelle, Pierre

    2015-04-01

    Tectonic uplift is known to influence denudation rates. Denudation, including chemical weathering and physical erosion, affects soil production rates and weathering intensities. At topographic steady state, weathering can be transport- or weathering-limited. In the transport-limited regime, low denudation rates should lead to comparatively high weathering intensities, while in the weathering-limited case high denudation rates are associated with lower weathering intensities. Here, we test if this relationship applies to semi-arid environments where chemical weathering is generally slow. Three catchments (EST, FIL and CAB) were studied in the Internal Zone of the Betic Cordillera in southeast Spain, spanning a range of increasing uplift rates (10-170 mm/kyr) and increasing denudation rates (20-250 mm/kyr) from EST to CAB. In each catchment, two ridgetop soil profiles were sampled down to the bedrock. The three catchments have similar vegetation and climatic conditions, with precipitation of 250- 315 mm/yr and mean annual temperature of 15-17 °C. The mineralogy of the bedrock, as determined by XRD, is similar across the three catchments and is characterized by the presence of quartz, muscovite, clinochlore, biotite and plagioclase. This primary mineral assemblage is also found in the catchment soils, indicating that the soils studied derive from the same parent material. The soil clay-size fraction is dominated by kaolinite, vermiculite and illite. However, the proportions of the soil primary and secondary minerals vary between the catchment sites. The abundance of biotite decreases from CAB (14%) to EST (4%), whereas the quartz and clay contents show an opposite tendency (from 30 to 69% and 9.9 to 14.3%, respectively). Further, the abundance of vermiculite increases from CAB to EST. The results are interpreted in terms of increasing weathering intensity from CAB to EST by weathering of biotite into vermiculite and enrichment of soils on more weathering resistant

  14. Long-term impact of reduced tillage and residue management on soil carbon stabilization: Implications for conservation agriculture on contrasting soils

    OpenAIRE

    Chivenge, P.P.; Murwira, H.K.; Giller, K.E.; Mapfumo, P.; Six, J.

    2007-01-01

    Metadata only record The long-term effects of tillage system and residue management on soil organic carbon stabilization are studied in two tropical soils in Zimbabwe, a red clay and a sandy soil. The four tillage systems evaluated were conventional tillage (CT), mulch ripping (MR), clean ripping (CR) and tied ridging (TR). Soil organic carbon (SOC) content was measured for each size fraction as well as total SOC. Based on the findings, the authors conclude that residue management - mainta...

  15. Endosulfan in water soils and fruits usage impact in a production intensive rural area of vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrion, R.; Stapff, M.; Mandl, B.; Franchi, S.; Enrich, N.; Campelo, E.

    2007-01-01

    The first phase of a project aimed to detect agrochemical remainders in soil, fruits and groundwater was carried out in four rural properties located in the vegetable and fruit production region of Salto. The presence of endosulfan was tracked because the alert was given from Europe about the withdrawal of this chemical from the authorized product list, considering that it may be a potencial threat with long persistence for human health. From this first sampling phase was concluded that there is a high persistence in soil, in harvested fruit the remainings found stay below the Maximum Limits for Residuum of the Alimentarius Codex, and it is not detected at all in groundwater. The advantages of working with an interdisciplinary approach were highly valuable to perform this study of the impact of the remainings of one of the chemicals currently used for the agricultural production in our country

  16. Impacts of soil conditioners and water table management on phosphorus loss in tile drainage from a clay loam soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, T Q; Tan, C S; Zheng, Z M; Welacky, T W; Reynolds, W D

    2015-03-01

    Adoption of waste-derived soil conditioners and refined water management can improve soil physical quality and crop productivity of fine-textured soils. However, the impacts of these practices on water quality must be assessed to ensure environmental sustainability. We conducted a study to determine phosphorus (P) loss in tile drainage as affected by two types of soil conditioners (yard waste compost and swine manure compost) and water table management (free drainage and controlled drainage with subirrigation) in a clay loam soil under corn-soybean rotation in a 4-yr period from 1999 to 2003. Tile drainage flows were monitored and sampled on a year-round continuous basis using on-site auto-sampling systems. Water samples were analyzed for dissolved reactive P (DRP), particulate P (PP), and total P (TP). Substantially greater concentrations and losses of DRP, PP, and TP occurred with swine manure compost than with control and yard waste compost regardless of water table management. Compared with free drainage, controlled drainage with subirrigation was an effective way to reduce annual and cumulative losses of DRP, PP, and TP in tile drainage through reductions in flow volume and P concentration with control and yard waste compost but not with swine manure compost. Both DRP and TP concentrations in tile drainage were well above the water quality guideline for P, affirming that subsurface loss of P from fine-textured soils can be one critical source for freshwater eutrophication. Swine manure compost applied as a soil conditioner must be optimized by taking water quality impacts into consideration. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  17. [Investigation of doctors' and nurses' perceptions and implementation of delirium management in intensive care unit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, H B; Wang, X T; Tang, B; Zhu, Z N; Guo, H L; Li, Z Z; Sun, J H; Liu, D W

    2017-12-01

    Objective: To investigate doctors' and nurses' perceptions and implementation of delirium management in intensive care unit. Methods: A total of 197 doctors and nurses in 2 general ICUs and 3 special ICUs at Peking Union Medical College Hospital finished a self-designed questionnaire of delirium management. Results: There were 47 males and 150 females, 43 doctors and 154 nurses who participated in the survey.One hundred and twenty five participators were from general ICU and the others from special ICU. The ICU staff had a significant difference on the perceptions and implementation of delirium management( P delirium assessment" ( P delirium management,especially in special ICUs. Delirium management should be included as a routine care in ICU to improve patients' outcome.

  18. Soil pH management without lime, a strategy to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from cultivated soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeem, Shahid; Bakken, Lars; Reent Köster, Jan; Tore Mørkved, Pål; Simon, Nina; Dörsch, Peter

    2015-04-01

    For decades, agricultural scientists have searched for methods to reduce the climate forcing of food production by increasing carbon sequestration in the soil and reducing the emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O). The outcome of this research is depressingly meagre and the two targets appear incompatible: efforts to increase carbon sequestration appear to enhance the emissions of N2O. Currently there is a need to find alternative management strategies which may effectively reduce both the CO2 and N2O footprints of food production. Soil pH is a master variable in soil productivity and plays an important role in controlling the chemical and biological activity in soil. Recent investigations of the physiology of denitrification have provided compelling evidence that the emission of N2O declines with increasing pH within the range 5-7. Thus, by managing the soil pH at a near neutral level appears to be a feasible way to reduce N2O emissions. Such pH management has been a target in conventional agriculture for a long time, since a near-neutral pH is optimal for a majority of cultivated plants. The traditional way to counteract acidification of agricultural soils is to apply lime, which inevitably leads to emission of CO2. An alternative way to increase the soil pH is the use of mafic rock powders, which have been shown to counteract soil acidification, albeit with a slower reaction than lime. Here we report a newly established field trail in Norway, in which we compare the effects of lime and different mafic mineral and rock powders (olivine, different types of plagioclase) on CO2 and N2O emissions under natural agricultural conditions. Soil pH is measured on a monthly basis from all treatment plots. Greenhouse gas (GHG) emission measurements are carried out on a weekly basis using static chambers and an autonomous robot using fast box technique. Field results from the first winter (fallow) show immediate effect of lime on soil pH, and slower effects of the mafic rocks. The

  19. The mapping competences of the nurse Case/Care Manager in the context of Intensive Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfieri, Emanuela; Ferrini, Anna Chiara; Gianfrancesco, Francesca; Lise, Gianluca; Messana, Giovanni; Tirelli, Lorenzo; Lorenzo, Ana; Sarli, Leopoldo

    2017-03-15

    Since the recent introduction of the Case/Care Manager's professional figure, it is quite difficult to identify properly his/her own particular features, which could be mainly be found revising mainly in American studies. Therefore, the present study intended to identify the Case/Care Manager's skills and professional profile in an Intensive Care Unit experience, taking into consideration the staff's activities, perception and expectations towards the Case/Care Manager. In particular, it has been compared the experience of an Intensive Care Units where the Case/Care Manager's profile is operational to a different Unit where a Case/Care Manager is not yet in force. a Levati's model was used to map the Case/Care Manager's skills, involving each unit whole working staff, executives and caregivers through semi-structured interviews. It has been taken into consideration the Anaesthesia Unit and Emergency Unit of Cesena's healthcare organisation (AUSL of Romagna) and a Cardiology Intensive Care Unit of Piacenza's healthcare organisation, where the Case/Care Manager's profile has not been experimented yet. Firstly, it a data collection in each healthcare organization has been organised. Subsequently, semi-structured interviews to doctors, unit nurses, caregivers, nurses' coordinators and medical staff have been used to compare each healthcare system. The interviewees' described their expectations in relation to the Case/Care Manager working in a critical area. Then, every data collected during interviews has been organised to map a Case/Care Manager's essential professional profile to work in a critical area together with medical staff. Piacenza's O.U. critical area experience reported a major demand for patients' and patient's families' assistance. On the other hand, the very same aspects seem to have been better achieved in Cesena's O.U., where a Case/Care Manager's recent introduction has actually helped to overcome the void in organising systems. a Case/Care Manager

  20. Study of microarthropod communities to assess soil quality in different managed vineyards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnarli, Elena; Vignozzi, Nadia; Valboa, Giuseppe; Bouneb, Mabrouk; Corino, Lorenzo; Goggioli, Donatella; Guidi, Silvia; Lottero, Mariarosa; Tarchi, Franca; Simoni, Sauro

    2014-05-01

    Land use type influences the abundance and diversity of soil arthropods. The evaluation of the effects of different crop managements on soil quality is commonly requested; it can be pursued by means of the determination of communities' structure of edaphic fauna. The development and application of biological indices may represent an efficient mean to assess soil quality. We evaluated the effect of crop managements (organic and Integrated Pest Management-IPM) in some vineyards in Piedmont (Italy) on soil biota in relation to some physical and chemical characteristics of the soil. The study was performed in eleven sites, including seven organic and four IPM managed vineyards located in the Costigliole d'Asti area. Samplings were carried out during the winter 2011 and the spring 2012. Soil samples were collected using a cylindrical soil core sampler (3cm diameter x 30cm height): each sample was a cylindrical soil core which was equally subdivided to study arthropod communities at different depth ranges. Additional samples were collected and analyzed for the following soil physical and chemical properties: texture (sedigraph method), pH (1:2.5 soil/water), total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (NT) and calcium carbonate (dry combustion by CN analyzer). The extraction of microarthropods was performed using the selector Berlese-Tullgren. All specimens were counted and determined up to the order level. The influence of soil properties and of agronomic practices on the abundance of mesofauna was evaluated by multivariate analysis (MANOVA). The biological soil quality was also defined through the determination of biotic indices such as the qualitative and quantitative QBSar (Quality Biological Soil - arthropods), and biodiversity indices such as species richness and indices of Shannon-Wiener (H') and Simpson (D). Overall, more than four thousands arthropods were collected and the highest abundance was in biological management with about 2:1 ratio (biological vs

  1. Soil Health Management under Hill Agroecosystem of North East India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Saha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The deterioration of soil quality/health is the combined result of soil fertility, biological degradation (decline of organic matter, biomass C, decrease in activity and diversity of soil fauna, increase in erodibility, acidity, and salinity, and exposure of compact subsoil of poor physicochemical properties. Northeast India is characterized by high soil acidity/Al+3 toxicity, heavy soil, and carbon loss, severe water scarcity during most parts of year though it is known as high rainfall area. The extent of soil and nutrient transfer, causing environmental degradation in North eastern India, has been estimated to be about 601 million tones of soil, and 685.8, 99.8, 511.1, 22.6, 14.0, 57.1, and 43.0 thousand tones of N, P, K, Mn, Zn, Ca, and Mg, respectively. Excessive deforestation coupled with shifting cultivation practices have resulted in tremendous soil loss (200 t/ha/yr, poor soil physical health in this region. Studies on soil erodibility characteristics under various land use systems in Northeastern Hill (NEH Region depicted that shifting cultivation had the highest erosion ratio (12.46 and soil loss (30.2–170.2 t/ha/yr, followed by conventional agriculture system (10.42 and 5.10–68.20 t/ha/yr, resp.. The challenge before us is to maintain equilibrium between resources and their use to have a stable ecosystem. Agroforestry systems like agri-horti-silvi-pastoral system performed better over shifting cultivation in terms of improvement in soil organic carbon; SOC (44.8%, mean weight diameter; MWD (29.4%, dispersion ratio (52.9%, soil loss (99.3%, soil erosion ratio (45.9%, and in-situ soil moisture conservation (20.6% under the high rainfall, moderate to steep slopes, and shallow soil depth conditions. Multipurpose trees (MPTs also played an important role on soil rejuvenation. Michelia oblonga is reported to be a better choice as bioameliorant for these soils as continuous leaf litter and root exudates improved soil physical

  2. Two years monitoring of soil N_{2}O emissions on durum wheat in a Mediterranean area: the effect of tillage intensity and N-fertilizer rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpi, Iride; Bosco, Simona; Triana, Federico; Di Nasso, Nicoletta Nassi o.; Laville, Patricia; Virgili, Giorgio; Bonari, Enrico

    2016-04-01

    Evaluating the magnitude and the key factors affecting N2O emissions from agriculture has a scientific and practical relevance, in fact emissions from agricultural and natural soils account for 56-70% of all global N2O sources (Syakila and Kroeze, 2011). Moreover, the necessity to increase the food production rate minimizing greenhouse gas emissions require a deeper understanding of the effect of the agricultural practices on direct soil emissions. Therefore, the aim of this work is to assess the effect of tillage intensity and nitrogen rate on soil N2O emissions on durum wheat. A two years monitoring campaign was carried out using a high-sensibility transportable instrument developed within the LIFE+ "Improved flux Prototypes for N2O emission from Agriculture" IPNOA project (Bosco et al., 2015; Laville et al., 2015). The project aims at improving the measurement technique of N2O flux directly in field using the flow-through non-steady state chamber technique. The monitoring campaign on durum wheat lasted for two growing seasons and two fallow periods (2013-14 and 2014-15). Treatment on the main plot was tillage intensity with two levels, ploughing and minimum tillage, and three different nitrogen rates were distributed to the subplots (N0: 0 kg ha-1, N1: 110 kg ha-1, N2: 170 kg ha-1). Ancillary measurements concerned meteorological data, soil temperature and moisture, NO3-, NH4+ soil concentration. Main results of the two years highlighted N rate as the main driver for both N2O daily flux and cumulative emissions during the growing season, while in the fallow period treatments did not affect the emission magnitude. Tillage intensity was not a key factor for N2O emissions. N2O emissions were significantly different in the two years. In particular, cumulative emissions of 2013-14 were about five times higher than in 2014-15, respectively on average 2885±260 g N-N2O ha-1 and 534±53 g N-N2O ha-1 for a similar monitoring period of about 300 days. Differences could be

  3. Light intensity and production parameters of phytocenoses cultivated on soil-like substrate under controled environment conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhomirov, A.; Ushakova, S.; Gribovskaya, I.; Tirranen, L.; Manukovsky, N.; Zolotukhin, I.

    To investigate feasibility of enhancing closedness in a new generation of biological life support systems (LSS) to involve the inedible phytomass into intrasystem mass exchange the vermicomposting method we have chosen made possible to produce soil-like substrate (SLS) suitable for growing plants. However, to use the SLS in life support systems call for investigation of its physical, chemical and other parameters. Of special importance among them is the capacity of SLS to provide the LSS photosynthesizing component with required mineral elements in selected cultivation conditions. In this connection the aim of this work was to study opportunities of enhancing pr4oduction activity of wheat and radish cenoses by varying the intensity of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) without decreasing the harvest index. Increase of light intensity to 250 W/m 2 PAR decreased the intensity of visible photosynthesis of wheat cenosi and slightly increased visible photosynthesis of radish cenosis as compared to 200 W/m 2 PAR. The maximum productivity of wheat cenosis both total and seeds corresponded to the irradiance of 200 W/m 2 PAR. The light intensity of 250 W/m2 PAR decreased productivity of wheat plants and had no significant effect of the productivity of radish cenosis as compared to 200 W/m 2 PAR. Qualitative and quantitative composition of microflora of the watering solution and SLS was determined by the condition of plants, development phase and PAR intensity. By the end of wheat vegetation under 250 W/m 2 there were an order more bacteria of the colon rod group and phytopathogenic bacteria in the watering solution and SLS than under other illumination conditions. Investigation of the mineral composition of SLS and the watering solution demonstrated that one of the reasons of inadequate response of the cenosis under study to elevated PAR intensity may be deficiency of accessible forms of some mineral elements, e.g. nitrogen. The above said materials evidence that

  4. Soil and Crop management: Lessons from the laboratory biosphere 2002-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstone, S.; Nelson, M.; Alling, A.; Allen, J.

    During the years 2002 and 2003, three closed system experiments were carried out in the "Laboratory Biosphere" facility located in Santa Fe, New Mexico. The program involved experimentation with "Hoyt" Soy Beans, USU Apogee Wheat and TU-82-155 sweet potato using a 5.37 m2 soil planting bed which was 30 cm deep. The soil texture, 40% clay, 31% sand and 28% silt (a clay loam), was collected from an organic farm in New Mexico to avoid chemical residues. Soil management practices involved minimal tillage, mulching and returning crop residues to the soil after each experiment. Between experiment #2 and #3, the top 15 cm of the soil was amended using a mix of peat moss, green sand, humates and pumice to improve soil texture, lower soil pH and increase nutrient availability. Soil analyses for all three experiments are presented to show how the soils have changed with time and how the changes relate to crop selection and rotation, soil selection and management, water management and pest control. The experience and information gained from these experiments are being applied to the future design of the Mars On Earth facility.

  5. Redistribution of magnetic iron oxide along soil profile after eight years managing a commercial olive orchard in a Vertisol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán, Gema; Gómez, José Alfonso

    2017-04-01

    Magnetic iron oxide has been used as a tracer to monitor top soil movement and to identify source of sediments at the short-term scale, after high intensity rainfall events (Guzmán et al., 2010; Obereder et al., 2016) and periods up to two years (Guzmán et al., 2013). As it can be strongly bound to soil particles, its use allows the tacking of tagged soil all over the years until all this soil is lost or it is totally diluted with blank soil making the signal undetectable. Olive orchards planted on Vertisols are subject not only to tillage operations modifying soil profile but also to expansion-compression cycles and cracks appearance due to soil moisture changes. The aim of communication is to assess the soil movement at the mid-term scale, taking advantage of a tracer trial already performed by Guzmán et al. (2013) and a new sampling after 8 years of soil disturbance. In October 2008 two plots of 330 m2 were delimited and in which the top 5 cm of the inter tree rows were tagged with magnetite. Seventy locations at both plots were sampled so as to measure magnetic susceptibility twice (just after the tagging and March 2010), at three depth intervals (0-1, 1-8 and 8-12 cm) and distinguishing two zones: tree and inter tree rows. A third sampling was carried out at 0-2, 2-10 and 10-20 cm in August 2016 at the same locations and zones. Furthermore, in twenty of the sampling points additional samples from 20-30, 30-40, 40-50 and 50-60 cm were taken to check if tagged soil went deeper into the soil profile. Background values of susceptibility and bulk density at each depth, were characterized as well at the three sampling campaigns. Rainfall, soil management during these years and the inherent characteristics of a Vertisol have enhanced the movement of top soil not only superficially but also within the soil profile. First results comparing the evolution of magnetite distribution along soil profile indicate that while in 2008 and 2010 background values were measured

  6. Soil carbon under perennial pastures; benchmarking the influence of pasture age and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orgill, Susan E.; Spoljaric, Nancy; Kelly, Georgina

    2015-07-01

    This paper reports baseline soil carbon stocks from a field survey of 19 sites; 8 pairs/triplet in the Monaro region of New South Wales. Site comparisons were selected by the Monaro Farming Systems group to demonstrate the influence of land management on soil carbon, and included: nutrient management, liming, pasture age and cropping history. Soil carbon stocks varied with parent material and with land management. The fertilised (phosphorus) native perennial pasture had a greater stock of soil carbon compared with the unfertilised site; 46.8 vs 40.4 Mg.C.ha to 0.50 m. However, the introduced perennial pasture which had been limed had a lower stock of soil carbon compared with the unlimed site; 62.8 vs 66.7 Mg.C.ha to 0.50 m. There was a greater stock of soil carbon under two of the three younger (35 yr old) pastures. Cropped sites did not have lower soil carbon stocks at all sites; however, this survey was conducted after three years of above average annual rainfall and most sites had been cropped for less than three years. At all sites more than 20% of the total carbon stock to 0.50 m was in the 0.30 to 0.50 m soil layer highlighting the importance of considering this soil layer when investigating the implications of land management on soil carbon. Our baseline data indicates that nutrient management may increase soil carbon under perennial pastures and highlights the importance of perennial pastures for soil carbon sequestration regardless of age.

  7. Effects of 10-Year Management Regimes on the Soil Seed Bank in Saline-Alkaline Grassland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hongyuan; Yang, Haoyu; Liang, Zhengwei; Ooi, Mark K. J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Management regimes for vegetation restoration of degraded grasslands can significantly affect the process of ecological succession. However, few studies have focused on variation in the soil seed bank during vegetation restoration under different management regimes, especially in saline-alkaline grassland habitats. Our aim was to provide insights into the ecological effects of grassland management regimes on soil seed bank composition and vegetation establishment in mown, fenced, transplanted and natural grassland sites, all dominated by the perennial rhizomatous grass Leymus chinensis. Methodology We studied species composition and diversity in both the soil seed bank and aboveground vegetation in differently managed grasslands in Northeast China. An NMDS (nonmetric multidimensional scaling) was used to evaluate the relationship between species composition, soil seed banks, aboveground vegetation and soil properties. Principal Findings Fenced and mown grassland sites had high density and species richness in both the soil seed bank and aboveground vegetation. The Transplanted treatment exhibited the highest vegetation growth and seed production of the target species L. chinensis. Seeds of L. chinensis in the soil occurred only in transplanted and natural grassland. Based on the NMDS analysis, the number of species in both the soil seed bank and aboveground vegetation were significantly related to soil Na+, Cl-, RSC (residual sodium carbonate), alkalinity, ESP (exchangeable sodium percentage) and AP (available phosphorus). Conclusions Soil seed bank composition and diversity in the saline-alkaline grassland were significantly affected by the management regimes implemented, and were also significantly related to the aboveground vegetation and several soil properties. Based on vegetative growth, reproductive output and maintenance of soil seed bank, the transplanting was identified as the most effective method for relatively rapid restoration of the target

  8. Soil mapping and process modeling for sustainable land use management: a brief historical review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brevik, Eric C.; Pereira, Paulo; Muñoz-Rojas, Miriam; Miller, Bradley A.; Cerdà, Artemi; Parras-Alcántara, Luis; Lozano-García, Beatriz

    2017-04-01

    Basic soil management goes back to the earliest days of agricultural practices, approximately 9,000 BCE. Through time humans developed soil management techniques of ever increasing complexity, including plows, contour tillage, terracing, and irrigation. Spatial soil patterns were being recognized as early as 3,000 BCE, but the first soil maps didn't appear until the 1700s and the first soil models finally arrived in the 1880s (Brevik et al., in press). The beginning of the 20th century saw an increase in standardization in many soil science methods and wide-spread soil mapping in many parts of the world, particularly in developed countries. However, the classification systems used, mapping scale, and national coverage varied considerably from country to country. Major advances were made in pedologic modeling starting in the 1940s, and in erosion modeling starting in the 1950s. In the 1970s and 1980s advances in computing power, remote and proximal sensing, geographic information systems (GIS), global positioning systems (GPS), and statistics and spatial statistics among other numerical techniques significantly enhanced our ability to map and model soils (Brevik et al., 2016). These types of advances positioned soil science to make meaningful contributions to sustainable land use management as we moved into the 21st century. References Brevik, E., Pereira, P., Muñoz-Rojas, M., Miller, B., Cerda, A., Parras-Alcantara, L., Lozano-Garcia, B. Historical perspectives on soil mapping and process modelling for sustainable land use management. In: Pereira, P., Brevik, E., Muñoz-Rojas, M., Miller, B. (eds) Soil mapping and process modelling for sustainable land use management (In press). Brevik, E., Calzolari, C., Miller, B., Pereira, P., Kabala, C., Baumgarten, A., Jordán, A. 2016. Historical perspectives and future needs in soil mapping, classification and pedological modelling, Geoderma, 264, Part B, 256-274.

  9. Two-year outcome of team-based intensive case management for patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aberg-Wistedt, A; Cressell, T; Lidberg, Y; Liljenberg, B; Osby, U

    1995-12-01

    Two-year outcomes of patients with schizophrenic disorders who were assigned to an intensive, team-based case management program and patients who received standard psychiatric services were assessed. The case management model featured increased staff contact time with patients, rehabilitation plans based on patients' expressed needs, and patients' attendance at team meetings where their rehabilitation plan was discussed. Forty patients were randomly assigned to either the case management group or the control group that received standard services. Patients' use of emergency and inpatient services, their quality of life, the size of their social networks, and their relatives' burden of care were assessed at assignment to the study groups and at two-year follow-up. Patients in the case management group had significantly fewer emergency visits compared with the two years before the study, and their relatives reported significantly reduced burden of care associated with relationships with psychiatric services over the two-year period. The size of patients' social networks increased for the case management group and decreased for the control group. A team-based intensive case management model is an effective intervention in the rehabilitation of patients with chronic schizophrenia.

  10. The effect of different water managements on rice arsenic content in two arsenic-spiked soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang H. Y.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Growing rice on arsenic (As-contaminated paddy fields may induce high As level grain production. In order to reduce the food contamination risk, the pot experiments containing two As-spiked aging soils and four water managements were conducted to evaluate the effects of water managements on rice As content. The results indicated that As concentration of Erlin soil solution was 10 to 20 times (210-520 μg/L higher than that of Pinchen soil solution (5-20 μg/L at early stage of experiment (0-60 days. Aerobic water treatment will decrease As level to 30-50% (108-220 μg/L of original As concentration in Erlin soil solution. Statistic results indicated that water management was effective to reduce the rice grain As level in Erlin soil. However, the management impact was not obvious in Pinchen soil, which may be attributed to high clay or free Fe and Al content in the soil. This study suggested that keeping soil under aerobic condition for 3 weeks before rice heading can reduce the risk of rice grown at the As-contamination soil.

  11. Intensive gestational glycemic management and childhood obesity: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillemette, L; Durksen, A; Rabbani, R; Zarychanski, R; Abou-Setta, A M; Duhamel, T A; McGavock, J M; Wicklow, B

    2017-07-01

    Hyperglycemia in pregnancy is associated with increased risk of offspring childhood obesity. Treatment reduces macrosomia; however, it is unclear if this effect translates into a reduced risk of childhood obesity. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials to evaluate the efficacy and safety of intensive glycemic management in pregnancy in preventing childhood obesity. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL and ClinicalTrials.gov up to February 2016 and conference abstracts from 2010 to 2015. Two reviewers independently identified randomized controlled trials evaluating intensive glycemic management interventions for hyperglycemia in pregnancy and included four of the 383 citations initially identified. Two reviewers independently extracted study data and evaluated internal validity of the studies using the Cochrane Collaboration's Risk of Bias tool. Data were pooled using random-effects models. Statistical heterogeneity was quantified using the I 2 test. The primary outcome was age- and sex-adjusted childhood obesity. Secondary outcomes included childhood weight and waist circumference and maternal hypoglycemia during the trial (safety outcome). The four eligible trials (n=767 children) similarly used lifestyle and insulin to manage gestational hyperglycemia, but only two measured offspring obesity and waist circumference and could be pooled for these outcomes. We found no association between intensive gestational glucose management and childhood obesity at 7-10 years of age (relative risk 0.89, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.65 to 1.22; two trials; n=568 children). Waist circumference also did not differ between treatment and control arms (mean difference, -2.68 cm; 95% CI, -8.17 to 2.81 cm; two trials; n=568 children). Intensive gestational glycemic management is not associated with reduced childhood obesity in offspring, but randomized data is scarce. Long-term follow-up of trials should be prioritized and comprehensive

  12. Knowledge Management without Management -- Shadow IT in Knowledge-intensive Manufacturing Practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinhueser, Melanie; Waizenegger, Lena; Vodanovich, Shahper

    2017-01-01

    The voluntary use of private device by employees without formal approval of the IT department, commonly termed Shadow IT, is an increasingly widespread phenomenon. In this paper, we study the role of private smartphones (and related applications like WhatsApp) in knowledge-intensive practices...

  13. Soil environmental quality in greenhouse vegetable production systems in eastern China: Current status and management strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wenyou; Zhang, Yanxia; Huang, Biao; Teng, Ying

    2017-03-01

    Greenhouse vegetable production (GVP) has become an important source of public vegetable consumption and farmers' income in China. However, various pollutants can be accumulated in GVP soils due to the high cropping index, large agricultural input, and closed environment. Ecological toxicity caused by excessive pollutants' accumulation can then lead to serious health risks. This paper was aimed to systematically review the current status of soil environmental quality, analyze their impact factors, and consequently to propose integrated management strategies for GVP systems. Results indicated a decrease in soil pH, soil salinization, and nutrients imbalance in GVP soils. Fungicides, remaining nutrients, antibiotics, heavy metals, and phthalate esters were main pollutants accumulating in GVP soils comparing to surrounding open field soils. Degradation of soil ecological function, accumulation of major pollutants in vegetables, deterioration of neighboring water bodies, and potential human health risks has occurred due to the changes of soil properties and accumulation of pollutants such as heavy metals and fungicides in soils. Four dominant factors were identified leading to the above-mentioned issues including heavy application of agricultural inputs, outmoded planting styles with poor environmental protection awareness, old-fashion regulations, unreasonable standards, and ineffective supervisory management. To guarantee a sustainable GVP development, several strategies were suggested to protect and improve soil environmental quality. Implementation of various strategies not only requires the concerted efforts among different stakeholders, but also the whole lifecycle assessment throughout the GVP processes as well as effective enforcement of policies, laws, and regulations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Soil management and conservation in the Prince of Songkla University, Surat Thani Campus, Surat Thani Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choengthong, S.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this study were to analyze soil properties and to find out a suitable soil conservation method for soil management in Surat Thani campus,Prince of Songkla University.Land in the area was dividedinto plots depending on different land use. Soil samples were collected from each plot and were analyzed for soil properties. The results from soil analysis revealed that soils in Surat Thani campus had pH between 4.53- 7.62. The quantitative levels of soil total N, available P and exchangeable K were low. Also the quantitative levels of Ca, Mg and S were low. Moreover, the quantitative levels of organic matter were low between 4.6-9.9gkg-1. There was no salty effect as the electrical conductivities (EC were low between 6.8 - 26.4 μS/cm. Furthermore, the cation exchange capacities (CEC were low, between 1.65 - 2.78 cmolckg-1 . In conclusion, soil inSurat Thani campus, Prince of Songkla University, had soil nutrients lower than those needed for plant growth and development. Therefore, there is a need for application of fertilizer to obtain good plant growth.Soil conservation experiment was done by studying soil loss from a control plot (no cover crop compared with the ones growing Peuraria phaseoloides , Wedelia trilobata and Vetiveria zizanioides. The results revealed that Peuraria phaseoloides was suitable to grow as cover crop for controlling soil erosion.Peurariacould reduce soil loss up to 87% compared to those with bare soil. Wedelia trilobata(Creeping daisy and Vetiveria zizanioides could reduce soil loss about 55% and 30 % respectively. In order to reduce soilleaching that can be as high as 38 kg from an area of only 8 m2, soil protection method by growing Peuraria phaseoloides, or Weddelia trilobata on sloping and bare land are highly recommended.

  15. Impacts of climate and management on water balance and nitrogen leaching from montane grassland soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jin; Gasche, Rainer; Wang, Na; Lu, Haiyan; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus; Kiese, Ralf

    2017-04-01

    The impacts of climate and management on the water balance and nutrient leaching of montane grasslands have rarely been investigated, though such ecosystems may represent a major source for ground and surface water nitrates. In this study nitrogen (nitrate, ammonium, dissolved organic nitrogen) and dissolved organic carbon leaching as well as water balance components (precipitation, evapotranspiration, and groundwater recharge) were quantified (2012-2014) by means of replicated (N=3 per site/ treatment) measurements of weighable grassland lysimeters (1 m2 area, 1.2 m soil depth) at three sites (E860: 860 m a.s.l., E770: 770 m a.s.l. and E600: 600 m a.s.l.) in the pre-alpine region of S-Germany. Two grassland management strategies were investigated: a) intensive management with 5 cuts per year and cattle slurry application rates of 280 kg N ha-1 yr-1, and b) extensive management with 3 cuts per year and cattle slurry application rates of 56 kg N ha-1 yr-1. Our results show that at E600, the site with highest air temperature (8.6 °C) and lowest precipitation (981.9 mm), evapotranspiration losses were 100.7 mm higher as at the E860 site, i.e. the site with lowest mean annual air temperature (6.5 °C) and highest precipitation (1359.3 mm). On the other hand groundwater recharge was substantial lower at E600 (-440.9 mm) as compared to E860. Compared to climate, impacts of grassland management on water balance components were negligible. However, intensive management significantly increased mean total nitrogen leaching rates across sites as compared to extensive management from 2.6 kg N ha-1 year-1 (range: 0.5-6.0 kg N ha-1 year-1) to 4.8 kg N ha-1 year-1 (range: 0.9-12.9 kg N ha-1 year-1). N leaching losses were dominated by nitrate (64.7 %) and equally less by ammonium (14.6 %) and DON (20.7 %). The rather low rates of N leaching (0.8 - 6.9 % of total applied N) suggest a highly efficient nitrogen uptake by plants as measured by plant total N content at harvest

  16. Status of some soil nutrients of disease affected and non-diseases in semi-intensive shrimp ponds at Cox's Bazar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayed, I.A.; Osman, K. T.; Ahmed, T. A.

    2005-01-01

    The study investigated the nutrient status of some ponds soils, considering the importance of bottom soils on the productivity and impact of Brackish water semi-intensive shrimp ponds. The study indicated the soils fairly rich in total N, available Ca and Na. p H , EC, organic matter, total N, available Ca, Na, P, S, due to ponds were highly significant statistically (P 1 >h 3 >h 2 . Available P in the fallow ponds was slightly less than the healthy ponds but much higher than the diseases ponds. Quite reverse the sequence (h 2 >h 3 >h 1 ) was found in regard to the variation in available S content of soils within the Health classes. The diseased pond soils generally had available S in amounts almost 100 μg/g more than the healthy ponds. The observation indicated that along with other environmental factor higher Sulfur and Phosphorus content of the soil might be responsible for the outbreak of disease.(author)

  17. Gaseous mercury fluxes from forest soils in response to forest harvesting intensity: A field manipulation experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazur, M.; Mitchell, C.P.J.; Eckley, C.S.; Eggert, S.L.; Kolka, R.K.; Sebestyen, S.D.; Swain, E.B.

    2014-01-01

    Forest harvesting leads to changes in soil moisture, temperature and incident solar radiation, all strong environmental drivers of soil–air mercury (Hg) fluxes. Whether different forest harvesting practices significantly alter Hg fluxes from forest soils is unknown. We conducted a field-scale experiment in a northern Minnesota deciduous forest wherein gaseous Hg emissions from the forest floor were monitored after two forest harvesting prescriptions, a traditional clear-cut and a clearcut followed by biomass harvest, and compared to an un-harvested reference plot. Gaseous Hg emissions were measured in quadruplicate at four different times between March and November 2012 using Teflon dynamic flux chambers. We also applied enriched Hg isotope tracers and separately monitored their emission in triplicate at the same times as ambient measurements. Clearcut followed by biomass harvesting increased ambient Hg emissions the most. While significant intra-site spatial variability was observed, Hg emissions from the biomass harvested plot (180 ± 170 ng m −2 d −1 ) were significantly greater than both the traditional clearcut plot (− 40 ± 60 ng m −2 d −1 ) and the un-harvested reference plot (− 180 ± 115 ng m −2 d −1 ) during July. This difference was likely a result of enhanced Hg 2+ photoreduction due to canopy removal and less shading from downed woody debris in the biomass harvested plot. Gaseous Hg emissions from more recently deposited Hg, as presumably representative of isotope tracer measurements, were not significantly influenced by harvesting. Most of the Hg tracer applied to the forest floor became sequestered within the ground vegetation and debris, leaf litter, and soil. We observed a dramatic lessening of tracer Hg emissions to near detection levels within 6 months. As post-clearcutting residues are increasingly used as a fuel or fiber resource, our observations suggest that gaseous Hg emissions from forest soils will increase, although it

  18. Soil mapping and processes modelling for sustainable land management: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Paulo; Brevik, Eric; Muñoz-Rojas, Miriam; Miller, Bradley; Smetanova, Anna; Depellegrin, Daniel; Misiune, Ieva; Novara, Agata; Cerda, Artemi

    2017-04-01

    Soil maps and models are fundamental for a correct and sustainable land management (Pereira et al., 2017). They are an important in the assessment of the territory and implementation of sustainable measures in urban areas, agriculture, forests, ecosystem services, among others. Soil maps represent an important basis for the evaluation and restoration of degraded areas, an important issue for our society, as consequence of climate change and the increasing pressure of humans on the ecosystems (Brevik et al. 2016; Depellegrin et al., 2016). The understanding of soil spatial variability and the phenomena that influence this dynamic is crucial to the implementation of sustainable practices that prevent degradation, and decrease the economic costs of soil restoration. In this context, soil maps and models are important to identify areas affected by degradation and optimize the resources available to restore them. Overall, soil data alone or integrated with data from other sciences, is an important part of sustainable land management. This information is extremely important land managers and decision maker's implements sustainable land management policies. The objective of this work is to present a review about the advantages of soil mapping and process modeling for sustainable land management. References Brevik, E., Calzolari, C., Miller, B., Pereira, P., Kabala, C., Baumgarten, A., Jordán, A. (2016) Historical perspectives and future needs in soil mapping, classification and pedological modelling, Geoderma, 264, Part B, 256-274. Depellegrin, D.A., Pereira, P., Misiune, I., Egarter-Vigl, L. (2016) Mapping Ecosystem Services in Lithuania. International Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology, 23, 441-455. Pereira, P., Brevik, E., Munoz-Rojas, M., Miller, B., Smetanova, A., Depellegrin, D., Misiune, I., Novara, A., Cerda, A. (2017) Soil mapping and process modelling for sustainable land management. In: Pereira, P., Brevik, E., Munoz-Rojas, M., Miller, B

  19. [Advance in researches on vegetation cover and management factor in the soil erosion prediction model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Yuan, Jianping; Liu, Baoyuan

    2002-08-01

    Vegetation cover and land management are the main limiting factors of soil erosion, and quantitative evaluation on the effect of different vegetation on soil erosion is essential to land use and soil conservation planning. The vegetation cover and management factor (C) in the universal soil loss equation (USLE) is an index to evaluate this effect, which has been studied deeply and used widely. However, the C factor study is insufficient in China. In order to strengthen the research of C factor, this paper reviewed the developing progress of C factor, and compared the methods of estimating C value in different USLE versions. The relative studies in China were also summarized from the aspects of vegetation canopy coverage, soil surface cover, and root density. Three problems in C factor study were pointed out. The authors suggested that cropland C factor research should be furthered, and its methodology should be unified in China to represent reliable C values for soil loss prediction and conservation planning.

  20. Differential soil water sourcing of managed Loblolly Pine and Sweet Gum revealed by stable isotopes in the Upper Coastal Plain, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockman, L. E.; Younger, S. E.; Jackson, C. R.; McDonnell, J.; Janzen, K. F.

    2017-12-01

    Stable isotope signatures of stem water can illuminate where in the soil profile different types of trees are accessing soil water and thereby contribute to our understanding of water movement through the soil plant atmosphere continuum. The objective of this study was to use 2H and 18O isotopes to characterize water sources of fourteen-year-old intensively managed Loblolly Pine and Sweet Gum stands in replicated (n=3) paired plots. In order to differentiate the isotopic signatures of tree and soil water, both species and five soil depths were sampled monthly for one year. Tree sap and soil water were extracted cryogenically and their isotopic signatures were determined. Although plant water uptake is generally considered a non-fractionating process, our dataset suggests a source of fractionation in 2H signatures in both species and during most of the thirteen sampling events. As a result, only the 18O isotopic data were used to determine the vertical distribution of soil water contributions to stem water. Statistically, we grouped the five soil sampling depths into three isotopic horizons. Shallow, intermediate and deep soil represent sampling depths of 0-10cm, 30-70cm and 100-125cm, respectively. These isotopic horizons were used in a direct inference approach and Bayesian mixing model analysis to determine the origin of stem water. In this study, Loblolly Pine used more water from intermediate and deep soil while Sweet Gum used more water from shallow and intermediate soil. In the winter months, January through March, Loblolly Pine transpired primarily deep soil where as Sweet Gum mainly utilized shallow soil for transpiration. These results indicate that both species have opportunistic water use patterns with seasonal variation.

  1. Water and nitrogen management effects on semiarid sorghum production and soil trace gas flux under future climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval, Benjamin D; Ghimire, Rajan; Hartman, Melannie D; Marsalis, Mark A

    2018-01-01

    External inputs to agricultural systems can overcome latent soil and climate constraints on production, while contributing to greenhouse gas emissions from fertilizer and water management inefficiencies. Proper crop selection for a given region can lessen the need for irrigation and timing of N fertilizer application with crop N demand can potentially reduce N2O emissions and increase N use efficiency while reducing residual soil N and N leaching. However, increased variability in precipitation is an expectation of climate change and makes predicting biomass and gas flux responses to management more challenging. We used the DayCent model to test hypotheses about input intensity controls on sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) productivity and greenhouse gas emissions in the southwestern United States under future climate. Sorghum had been previously parameterized for DayCent, but an inverse-modeling via parameter estimation method significantly improved model validation to field data. Aboveground production and N2O flux were more responsive to N additions than irrigation, but simulations with future climate produced lower values for sorghum than current climate. We found positive interactions between irrigation at increased N application for N2O and CO2 fluxes. Extremes in sorghum production under future climate were a function of biomass accumulation trajectories related to daily soil water and mineral N. Root C inputs correlated with soil organic C pools, but overall soil C declined at the decadal scale under current weather while modest gains were simulated under future weather. Scaling biomass and N2O fluxes by unit N and water input revealed that sorghum can be productive without irrigation, and the effect of irrigating crops is difficult to forecast when precipitation is variable within the growing season. These simulation results demonstrate the importance of understanding sorghum production and greenhouse gas emissions at daily scales when assessing annual

  2. Distribution of tetraether lipids in agricultural soils - differentiation between paddy and upland management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller-Niggemann, Cornelia; Rahayu Utami, Sri; Marxen, Anika; Mangelsdorf, Kai; Bauersachs, Thorsten; Schwark, Lorenz

    2016-03-01

    Rice paddies constitute almost a fifth of global cropland and provide more than half of the world's population with staple food. At the same time, they are a major source of methane and therewith significantly contribute to the current warming of Earth's atmosphere. Despite their apparent importance in the cycling of carbon and other elements, however, the microorganisms thriving in rice paddies are insufficiently characterized with respect to their biomolecules. Hardly any information exists on human-induced alteration of biomolecules from natural microbial communities in paddy soils through varying management types (affecting, e.g., soil or water redox conditions, cultivated plants). Here, we determined the influence of different land use types on the distribution of glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs), which serve as molecular indicators for microbial community structures, in rice paddy (periodically flooded) and adjacent upland (non-flooded) soils and, for further comparison, forest, bushland and marsh soils. To differentiate local effects on GDGT distribution patterns, we collected soil samples in locations from tropical (Indonesia, Vietnam and Philippines) and subtropical (China and Italy) sites. We found that differences in the distribution of isoprenoid GDGTs (iGDGTs) as well as of branched GDGTs (brGDGTs) are predominantly controlled by management type and only secondarily by climatic exposition. In general, upland soil had higher crenarchaeol contents than paddy soil, which by contrast was more enriched in GDGT-0. The GDGT-0 / crenarchaeol ratio, indicating the enhanced presence of methanogenic archaea, was 3-27 times higher in paddy soils compared to other soils and increased with the number of rice cultivation cycles per year. The index of tetraethers consisting of 86 carbons (TEX86) values were 1.3 times higher in upland, bushland and forest soils than in paddy soils, potentially due to differences in soil temperature. In all soils br

  3. EGG PRODUCTION AND HATCHABILITY OF LOCAL DUCKS UNDER SEMI INTENSIVE VS EXTENSIVE MANAGEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Widiyaningrum

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to compare the egg production and hatchability of local ducks under different management systems, namely semi-intensive and extensive. The research conducted was an experimental one-way classification with two treatments. Each treatment used 15 male and 120 females (mating ratio 1:8, and ducks aged 13-14 months. Eggs production was recorded during three weeks period. About 300 eggs were selected from each treatment to be hatched. Fertility was observed at 4th days of hatching process using egg candler. Data of eggs production, eggs weight, fertility, and hatchability were analyzed using unpaired two sample Student’s t-test. The results showed that average of egg weight, fertility and hatchability were not different under two management system, but egg production in the semi-intensive maintenance was significantly higher (P<0.05 than those in the extensive system. Egg production in the semi-intensive was 12.3% higher than those in the extensive. In conclusion, the semi-intensive system that is applied in this study the number of eggs production but did not affect the average of egg weight, fertility and hatchability.

  4. [Management of quality in an Intensive Care Unit: implementation of ISO 9001:2008 international standard].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo Torrent, R; Sánchez Palacios, M; Santana Cabrera, L; Cobian Martinez, J L; García del Rosario, C

    2010-10-01

    The Quality Management Systems make it possible to prioritize actions to maintain the safety and efficacy of health technologies. The Intensive Care Unit of our hospital has implemented a quality management plan, which has obtained accreditation as "Service Certificate that manages its activities according to UNE-EN ISO 9001:2008" standard. With the application of quality management system, it has been possible to detect the needs that the Service can cover in order to obtain the satisfaction of the patient, relative or health personnel of the other services of the hospital, to improve communications inside and outside of service, to secure greater understanding of the processes of the organization and control of risk, to delimit responsibilities clearly to all the personnel, to make better use of the time and resources and, finally, to improve the motivation of the personnel. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier España, S.L. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  5. Soil management and application of agricultural gypsum in a Planosol for soybean cultivation

    OpenAIRE

    Marchesan, Enio; Tonetto, Felipe; Teló, Gustavo Mack; Coelho, Lucas Lopes; Aramburu, Bruno Behenck; Trivisiol, Vinicius Severo

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT: This study investigated the effects of soil management systems, tillage, and application of gypsum agricultural to soil, on soybean development in lowland areas. The experiment was carried out on an Alfisol in a randomized complete block design in a factorial arrangement. The two soil tillage practices were without deep tillage and with deep tillage. Gypsum treatments were no gypsum application, 500kg of gypsum ha-1, 1000kg of gypsum ha-1, and 1500kg of gypsum ha-1. Deep tillage res...

  6. Long-term effects of conservation soil management in Saria, Burkina Faso, West Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Zacharie, Z.

    2011-01-01

    The negative degradation spiral that currently leads to deteriorating soil properties in African drylands is a serious problem that limits food production and threatensthe livelihoods of the people. Nutrient depletion and water and wind erosion are the main factors in soil degradation in Africa. This thesis describes field research conducted from 2006 through 2008 to assess how changes in physical and hydrological soil properties, induced by differences in land management and macro-faunal bi...

  7. Physical-chemical and microbiological changes in Cerrado Soil under differing sugarcane harvest management systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Sugarcane cultivation plays an important role in Brazilian economy, and it is expanding fast, mainly due to the increasing demand for ethanol production. In order to understand the impact of sugarcane cultivation and management, we studied sugarcane under different management regimes (pre-harvest burn and mechanical, unburnt harvest, or green cane), next to a control treatment with native vegetation. The soil bacterial community structure (including an evaluation of the diversity of the ammonia oxidizing (amoA) and denitrifying (nirK) genes), greenhouse gas flow and several soil physicochemical properties were evaluated. Results Our results indicate that sugarcane cultivation in this region resulted in changes in several soil properties. Moreover, such changes are reflected in the soil microbiota. No significant influence of soil management on greenhouse gas fluxes was found. However, we did find a relationship between the biological changes and the dynamics of soil nutrients. In particular, the burnt cane and green cane treatments had distinct modifications. There were significant differences in the structure of the total bacterial, the ammonia oxidizing and the denitrifying bacterial communities, being that these groups responded differently to the changes in the soil. A combination of physical and chemical factors was correlated to the changes in the structures of the total bacterial communities of the soil. The changes in the structures of the functional groups follow a different pattern than the physicochemical variables. The latter might indicate a strong influence of interactions among different bacterial groups in the N cycle, emphasizing the importance of biological factors in the structuring of these communities. Conclusion Sugarcane land use significantly impacted the structure of total selected soil bacterial communities and ammonia oxidizing and denitrifier gene diversities in a Cerrado field site in Central Brazil. A high impact of land use

  8. Physical-chemical and microbiological changes in Cerrado Soil under differing sugarcane harvest management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachid, Caio T C C; Piccolo, Marisa C; Leite, Deborah Catharine A; Balieiro, Fabiano C; Coutinho, Heitor Luiz C; van Elsas, Jan Dirk; Peixoto, Raquel S; Rosado, Alexandre S

    2012-08-08

    Sugarcane cultivation plays an important role in Brazilian economy, and it is expanding fast, mainly due to the increasing demand for ethanol production. In order to understand the impact of sugarcane cultivation and management, we studied sugarcane under different management regimes (pre-harvest burn and mechanical, unburnt harvest, or green cane), next to a control treatment with native vegetation. The soil bacterial community structure (including an evaluation of the diversity of the ammonia oxidizing (amoA) and denitrifying (nirK) genes), greenhouse gas flow and several soil physicochemical properties were evaluated. Our results indicate that sugarcane cultivation in this region resulted in changes in several soil properties. Moreover, such changes are reflected in the soil microbiota. No significant influence of soil management on greenhouse gas fluxes was found. However, we did find a relationship between the biological changes and the dynamics of soil nutrients. In particular, the burnt cane and green cane treatments had distinct modifications. There were significant differences in the structure of the total bacterial, the ammonia oxidizing and the denitrifying bacterial communities, being that these groups responded differently to the changes in the soil. A combination of physical and chemical factors was correlated to the changes in the structures of the total bacterial communities of the soil. The changes in the structures of the functional groups follow a different pattern than the physicochemical variables. The latter might indicate a strong influence of interactions among different bacterial groups in the N cycle, emphasizing the importance of biological factors in the structuring of these communities. Sugarcane land use significantly impacted the structure of total selected soil bacterial communities and ammonia oxidizing and denitrifier gene diversities in a Cerrado field site in Central Brazil. A high impact of land use was observed in soil under

  9. Physical-chemical and microbiological changes in Cerrado Soil under differing sugarcane harvest management systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachid Caio TCC

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sugarcane cultivation plays an important role in Brazilian economy, and it is expanding fast, mainly due to the increasing demand for ethanol production. In order to understand the impact of sugarcane cultivation and management, we studied sugarcane under different management regimes (pre-harvest burn and mechanical, unburnt harvest, or green cane, next to a control treatment with native vegetation. The soil bacterial community structure (including an evaluation of the diversity of the ammonia oxidizing (amoA and denitrifying (nirK genes, greenhouse gas flow and several soil physicochemical properties were evaluated. Results Our results indicate that sugarcane cultivation in this region resulted in changes in several soil properties. Moreover, such changes are reflected in the soil microbiota. No significant influence of soil management on greenhouse gas fluxes was found. However, we did find a relationship between the biological changes and the dynamics of soil nutrients. In particular, the burnt cane and green cane treatments had distinct modifications. There were significant differences in the structure of the total bacterial, the ammonia oxidizing and the denitrifying bacterial communities, being that these groups responded differently to the changes in the soil. A combination of physical and chemical factors was correlated to the changes in the structures of the total bacterial communities of the soil. The changes in the structures of the functional groups follow a different pattern than the physicochemical variables. The latter might indicate a strong influence of interactions among different bacterial groups in the N cycle, emphasizing the importance of biological factors in the structuring of these communities. Conclusion Sugarcane land use significantly impacted the structure of total selected soil bacterial communities and ammonia oxidizing and denitrifier gene diversities in a Cerrado field site in Central Brazil

  10. Soil organic matter distribution and microaggregate characteristics as affected by agricultural management and earthworm activity

    OpenAIRE

    Pulleman, M M; Six, J; van Breemen, N; Jongmans, A G

    2005-01-01

    Stable microaggregates can physically protect occluded soil organic matter (SOM) against decomposition. We studied the effects of agricultural management on the amount and characteristics of microaggregates and on SOM distribution in a marine loam soil in the Netherlands. Three long-term farming systems were compared: a permanent pasture, a conventional-arable system and an organic-arable system. Whole soil samples were separated into microaggregates (53-250 mu m), 20-53 mu m and 20 mu m) ve...

  11. Environmental and management influences on temporal variability of near saturated soil hydraulic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodner, G; Scholl, P; Loiskandl, W; Kaul, H-P

    2013-08-01

    Structural porosity is a decisive property for soil productivity and soil environmental functions. Hydraulic properties in the structural range vary over time in response to management and environmental influences. Although this is widely recognized, there are few field studies that determine dominant driving forces underlying hydraulic property dynamics. During a three year field experiment we measured temporal variability of soil hydraulic properties by tension infiltrometry. Soil properties were characterized by hydraulic conductivity, effective macroporosity and Kosugi's lognormal pore size distribution model. Management related influences comprised three soil cover treatment (mustard and rye vs. fallow) and an initial mechanical soil disturbance with a rotary harrow. Environmental driving forces were derived from meteorological and soil moisture data. Soil hydraulic parameters varied over time by around one order of magnitude. The coefficient of variation of soil hydraulic conductivity K(h) decreased from 69.5% at saturation to 42.1% in the more unsaturated range (- 10 cm pressure head). A slight increase in the Kosugi parameter showing pore heterogeneity was observed under the rye cover crop, reflecting an enhanced structural porosity. The other hydraulic parameters were not significantly influenced by the soil cover treatments. Seedbed preparation with a rotary harrow resulted in a fourfold increase in macroporosity and hydraulic conductivity next to saturation, and homogenized the pore radius distribution. Re-consolidation after mechanical loosening lasted over 18 months until the soil returned to its initial state. The post-tillage trend of soil settlement could be approximated by an exponential decay function. Among environmental factors, wetting-drying cycles were identified as dominant driving force explaining short term hydraulic property changes within the season (r 2  = 0.43 to 0.59). Our results suggested that beside considering average

  12. Lion (Panthera leo) populations are declining rapidly across Africa, except in intensively managed areas

    OpenAIRE

    Bauer, Hans; Chapron, Guillaume; Nowell, Kristin; Henschel, Philipp; Funston, Paul; Hunter, Luke T. B.; Macdonald, David W.; Packer, Craig

    2015-01-01

    At a regional scale, lion populations in West, Central, and East Africa are likely to suffer a projected 50% decline over the next two decades, whereas lion populations are only increasing in southern Africa. Many lion populations are either now gone or expected to disappear within the next few decades to the extent that the intensively managed populations in southern Africa may soon supersede the iconic savannah landscapes in East Africa as the most successful sites for lion conservation. Th...

  13. Long-Term Soil Experiments: A Key to Managing Earth's Rapidly Changing Critical Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, D., Jr.

    2014-12-01

    In a few decades, managers of Earth's Critical Zones (biota, humans, land, and water) will be challenged to double food and fiber production and diminish adverse effects of management on the wider environment. To meet these challenges, an array of scientific approaches is being used to increase understanding of Critical Zone functioning and evolution, and one amongst these approaches needs to be long-term soil field studies to move us beyond black boxing the belowground Critical Zone, i.e., to further understanding of processes driving changes in the soil environment. Long-term soil experiments (LTSEs) provide direct observations of soil change and functioning across time scales of decades, data critical for biological, biogeochemical, and environmental assessments of sustainability; for predictions of soil fertility, productivity, and soil-environment interactions; and for developing models at a wide range of temporal and spatial scales. Unfortunately, LTSEs globally are not in a good state, and they take years to mature, are vulnerable to loss, and even today remain to be fully inventoried. Of the 250 LTSEs in a web-based network, results demonstrate that soils and belowground Critical Zones are highly dynamic and responsive to human management. The objective of this study is to review the contemporary state of LTSEs and consider how they contribute to three open questions: (1) can soils sustain a doubling of food production in the coming decades without further impinging on the wider environment, (2) how do soils interact with the global C cycle, and (3) how can soil management establish greater control over nutrient cycling. While LTSEs produce significant data and perspectives for all three questions, there is on-going need and opportunity for reviews of the long-term soil-research base, for establishment of an efficiently run network of LTSEs aimed at sustainability and improving management control over C and nutrient cycling, and for research teams that

  14. Phosphorus fertilization in sugarcane cultivation under different soil managements

    OpenAIRE

    Sousa Junior, Paulo R. de; Brunharo, Caio A. C. G.; Furlani, Carlos E. A.; Prado, Renato de M.; Maldonado Júnior, Walter; Zerbato, Cristiano

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Soil preparation along with its chemical adjustment is the most important step in sugarcane plantation, especially because it provides proper conditions for plant development. The objective of the present research was to evaluate sugarcane response to the application of different phosphorus doses and their location, associated with both minimum soil tillage and conventional soil tillage. The experiment was conducted in a split-split-plot randomized block design, where the main plots ...

  15. Effects of different soil management practices on soil properties and microbial diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajda, Anna M.; Czyż, Ewa A.; Dexter, Anthony R.; Furtak, Karolina M.; Grządziel, Jarosław; Stanek-Tarkowska, Jadwiga

    2018-01-01

    The effects of different tillage systems on the properties and microbial diversity of an agricultural soil was investigated. In doing so, soil physical, chemical and biological properties were analysed in 2013-2015, on a long-term field experiment on a loamy sand at the IUNG-PIB Experimental Station in Grabów, Poland. Winter wheat was grown under two tillage treatments: conventional tillage using a mouldboard plough and traditional soil tillage equipment, and reduced tillage based on soil crushing-loosening equipment and a rigid-tine cultivator. Chopped wheat straw was used as a mulch on both treatments. Reduced tillage resulted in increased water content throughout the whole soil profile, in comparison with conventional tillage. Under reduced tillage, the content of readily dispersible clay was also reduced, and, therefore, soil stability was increased in the toplayers, compared with conventional tillage. In addition, the beneficial effects of reduced tillage were reflected in higher soil microbial activity as measured with dehydrogenases and hydrolysis of fluorescein diacetate, compared with conventional tillage. Moreover, the polimerase chain reaction - denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis showed that soil under reduced till-age had greater diversity of microbial communities, compared with conventionally-tilled soil. Finally, reduced tillage increased organic matter content, stability in water and microbial diversity in the top layer of the soil.

  16. Sustainable Soil Management: Its perception and the need for policy intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basch, Gottlieb; Kassam, Amir; González-Sánchez, Emilio

    2017-04-01

    As stated in the strategic objectives of the Global Soil Partnership "healthy soils and sustainable soil management are the precondition for human well-being and economic welfare and therefore play the key role for sustainable development". Although the functional properties of a healthy soil are well understood, in practice it is easily overlooked what is necessary to achieve and sustain healthy agricultural soils. This contribution intends: to discuss the concept of sustainable soil management in agricultural production with regard to soil health, and to highlight its importance in the achievement of both Sustainable Development Goals and the 4 per mille objectives, as well as for the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP). In Europe, soil and the need for its conservation and stewardship gained visibility at the beginning of this century during the discussions related to the Soil Thematic Strategy. This higher level of awareness concerning the status of Europe's soils led to the introduction of soil conservation standards into the cross-compliance mechanism within the 1st Pillar of CAP. These standards were applied through the definition of Good Agricultural and Environmental Conditions (GAECs) which are compulsory for all farmers receiving direct payments, and in the last CAP reform in 2014, through the introduction of additional Greening Measures in Pilar 1. Despite these measures and the claim of some writers that they already contributed to significantly reducing soil erosion, the EC Joint Research Centre still reports water erosion in Europe amounting to almost one billion tonnes annually. Regarding soil conservation, soil carbon stocks or the provision of additional ecosystem services, measures called for in GAEC 4 (Minimum soil cover), in GAEC 5 (Minimum land management reflecting site specific conditions to limit soil erosion), and in GAEC 6 (Maintenance of soil organic matter level through appropriate practices, …), give the impression that a lot is being

  17. Management and re-use of contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowicki, V.K.; LeBlanc, M.

    1993-01-01

    The volume occupied by petroleum-contaminated soils in landfill facilities could be totally eliminated by treatment of these soils in separate facilities. Once treated, the soils could be recycled. In New Brunswick, one such treatment facility was opened in 1992 adjacent to the Fredericton regional landfill site; a second site was opened near Moncton in 1992. These facilities receive petroleum-contaminated soil from such users as gasoline stations, bulk plants, institutions, and transport companies, as well as from oil spill sites. The types of contaminants present range from gasoline to heavy fuel oils and greases, and the soils can vary from clays to gravels. Incoming soils are layered on treatment pads and treated by bioremediation. A bionutrient mixture containing fertilizers plus an amount of adapted, naturally-occurring petroleum hydrocarbon degrading microorganisms is sprayed onto the pile layer by layer. Aeration tubing is also installed during this layering process. When the piles are complete, they are covered with black plastic and aerated. Bioremediation times vary from 10 to 24 weeks. The facility has successfully decontaminated over 20,000 tonnes of soil to date. The resulting soil can be used for such purposes as soil cover and backfill. The bioremediation process itself is portable and can be initiated at landfill sites themselves to reduce transport and handling costs. 16 refs., 4 figs

  18. In situ assessment of phytotechnologies for multicontaminated soil management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouvrard, S; Barnier, C; Bauda, P; Beguiristain, T; Biache, C; Bonnard, M; Caupert, C; Cébron, A; Cortet, J; Cotelle, S; Dazy, M; Faure, P; Masfaraud, J F; Nahmani, J; Palais, F; Poupin, P; Raoult, N; Vasseur, P; Morel, J L; Leyval, C

    2011-01-01

    Due to human activities, large volumes of soils are contaminated with organic pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and very often by metallic pollutants as well. Multipolluted soils are therefore a key concern for remediation. This work presents a long-term evaluation of the fate and environmental impact of the organic and metallic contaminants of an industrially polluted soil under natural and plant-assisted conditions. A field trial was followed for four years according to six treatments in four replicates: unplanted, planted with alfalfa with or without mycorrhizal inoculation, planted with Noccaea caerulescens, naturally colonized by indigenous plants, and thermally treated soil planted with alfalfa. Leaching water volumes and composition, PAH concentrations in soil and solutions, soil fauna and microbial diversity, soil and solution toxicity using standardized bioassays, plant biomass, mycorrhizal colonization, were monitored. Results showed that plant cover alone did not affect total contaminant concentrations in soil. However, it was most efficient in improving the contamination impact on the environment and in increasing the biological diversity. Leaching water quality remained an issue because of its high toxicity shown by micro-algae testing. In this matter, prior treatment of the soil by thermal desorption proved to be the only effective treatment.

  19. Managing long-term polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon contaminated soils: a risk-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Luchun; Naidu, Ravi; Thavamani, Palanisami; Meaklim, Jean; Megharaj, Mallavarapu

    2015-06-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a family of contaminants that consist of two or more aromatic rings fused together. Soils contaminated with PAHs pose significant risk to human and ecological health. Over the last 50 years, significant research has been directed towards the cleanup of PAH-contaminated soils to background level. However, this achieved only limited success especially with high molecular weight compounds. Notably, during the last 5-10 years, the approach to remediate PAH-contaminated soils has changed considerably. A risk-based prioritization of remediation interventions has become a valuable step in the management of contaminated sites. The hydrophobicity of PAHs underlines that their phase distribution in soil is strongly influenced by factors such as soil properties and ageing of PAHs within the soil. A risk-based approach recognizes that exposure and environmental effects of PAHs are not directly related to the commonly measured total chemical concentration. Thus, a bioavailability-based assessment using a combination of chemical analysis with toxicological assays and nonexhaustive extraction technique would serve as a valuable tool in risk-based approach for remediation of PAH-contaminated soils. In this paper, the fate and availability of PAHs in contaminated soils and their relevance to risk-based management of long-term contaminated soils are reviewed. This review may serve as guidance for the use of site-specific risk-based management methods.

  20. Soil-transmitted helminth prevalence and infection intensity among geographically and economically distinct Shuar communities in the Ecuadorian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cepon-Robins, Tara J; Liebert, Melissa A; Gildner, Theresa E; Urlacher, Samuel S; Colehour, Alese M; Snodgrass, J Josh; Madimenos, Felicia C; Sugiyama, Lawrence S

    2014-10-01

    Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections can result in a variety of negative health outcomes (e.g., diarrhea, nutritional deficiencies). Market integration (MI; participation in market-based economies) has been suggested to alter levels of STH exposure due to associated changes in diet, sanitation, and behavior, but the effects are complicated and not well understood. Some effects of economic development result in decreased exposure to certain pathogens, and other factors can lead to higher pathogen exposure. With geographic location used as a proxy, the present study investigates the effects of economic development on parasite load among an indigenous population at multiple points along the spectrum of MI. This research has many implications for public health, including an increased understanding of how social and economic changes alter disease risk around the world and how changing parasite load affects other health outcomes (i.e., allergy, autoimmunity). Specifically, this study examines the prevalence of intestinal helminths among the Shuar, an indigenous group in the Morona-Santiago region of Ecuador, from 2 geographically/economically separated areas, with the following objectives: (1) report STH infection prevalence and intensity among Shuar; (2) explore STH infection prevalence and intensity as it relates to age distribution in the Shuar population; (3) compare STH infection patterns in geographically and economically separated Shuar communities at different levels of MI. Kato-Katz thick smears were made from fresh stool samples and examined to determine STH presence/intensity. Results indicate that 65% of the 211 participants were infected with at least 1 STH. Twenty-five percent of the sample had coinfections with at least 2 species of helminth. Infection was more common among juveniles (<15 yr) than adults. Infection prevalence and intensity was highest among more isolated communities with less market access. This study documents preliminary

  1. Implications of observed and simulated soil carbon sequestration for management options in corn-based rotations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Managing cropping systems to sequester soil organic carbon (SOC) improves soil health and a system’s resiliency to impacts of changing climate. Our objectives were to 1) monitor SOC from a bio-energy cropping study in central Pennsylvania that included a corn-soybean-alfalfa rotation, switchgrass, a...

  2. Ideal and saturated soil fertility as bench marks in nutrient management; 1 outline of the framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, B.H.; Willigen, de P.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a framework for nutrient management that takes sustainable soil fertility, environmental protection and balanced plant nutrition as starting points, and integrates concepts from plant physiology, soil chemistry and agronomy. The framework is meant as a tool that can be applied

  3. Optimizing soil and water management in dryland farming systems in Cabo Verde

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santos Baptista Costa, Dos I.

    2016-01-01

    “Optimizing Soil and Water Management in Dryland Farming Systems in Cabo Verde”

    Isaurinda Baptista

    Summary

    Soil and land degradation poses a great challenge for sustainable development worldwide and, in Cabo Verde, has strongly affected both

  4. Environmental impact from mountainous olive orchards under different soil-management systems (SE Spain)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Francia-Martinez, J.R.; Duran Zuazo, V.H.; Martinez-Raya, A.

    2006-01-01

    Soil erosion, runoff and nutrient-loss patterns over a two-year period (1999¿2000) were monitored in erosion plots on a mountainside with olive (Olea europaea cv. Picual) trees under three different types of soil management: (1) non-tillage with barley (Hordeum vulgare) strips of 4 m width (BS); (2)

  5. Case study of microarthropod communities to assess soil quality in different managed vineyards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnarli, E.; Goggioli, D.; Tarchi, F.; Guidi, S.; Nannelli, R.; Vignozzi, N.; Valboa, G.; Lottero, M. R.; Corino, L.; Simoni, S.

    2015-07-01

    Land use influences the abundance and diversity of soil arthropods. The evaluation of the impact of different management strategies on soil quality is increasingly sought, and the determination of community structures of edaphic fauna can represent an efficient tool. In the area of Langhe (Piedmont, Italy), eight vineyards characterized for physical and chemical properties (soil texture, soil pH, total organic carbon, total nitrogen, calcium carbonate) were selected. We evaluated the effect of two types of crop management, organic and integrated pest management (IPM), on abundance and biodiversity of microarthropods living at the soil surface. Soil sampling was carried out in winter 2011 and spring 2012. All specimens were counted and determined up to the order level. The biodiversity analysis was performed using ecological indexes (taxa richness, dominance, Shannon-Wiener, Buzas and Gibson's evenness, Margalef, equitability, Berger-Parker), and the biological soil quality was assessed with the BSQ-ar index. The mesofauna abundance was affected by both the type of management and sampling time. On the whole, a higher abundance was in organic vineyards (N = 1981) than in IPM ones (N = 1062). The analysis performed by ecological indexes showed quite a high level of biodiversity in this environment, particularly in May 2012. Furthermore, the BSQ-ar values registered were similar to those obtained in preserved soils.

  6. Poor people and poor fields? : integrating legumes for smallholder soil fertility management in Chisepo, central Malawi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamanga, B.

    2011-01-01

    Soil infertility undermines the agriculture-based livelihoods in Malawi, where it is blamed for poor crop yields and the creation of cycles of poverty. Although technologies and management strategies have been developed to reverse the decline in soil fertility, they are under-used by smallholder

  7. Weed management practice and cropping sequence impact on soil residual nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inefficient N uptake by crops from N fertilization and/or N mineralized from crop residue and soil organic matter results in the accumulation of soil residual N (NH4-N and NO3-N) which increases the potential for N leaching. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of weed management ...

  8. Implications of observed and simulated soil carbon sequestration for management options in corn-based rotations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Managing cropping systems to sequester soil organic carbon (SOC) improves soil health and a system’s resiliency to impacts of changing climate. Our objectives were to 1) monitor SOC from a bio-energy cropping study in central Pennsylvania that included a corn-soybean-alfalfa rotation, switchgrass, ...

  9. Soil resistance and resilience to mechanical stresses for three differently managed sandy loam soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arthur, Emmanuel; Schjønning, Per; Møldrup, Per

    2012-01-01

    carbon (CCCsoils to compaction using air permeability (ka), void ratio (e) and air-filled porosity (ε) as functional indicators and to characterise aggregate stability, strength and friability. Aggregate tensile strength...... the compression index and a proposed functional index,was significantly greater for theMFC soil compared to the other two soils. The change in compression index with initial void ratio was significantly less for the MFC than the other soils. Plastic reorganisation of the soil particles immediately after......To improve our understanding of how clay-organic carbon dynamics affect soil aggregate strength and physical resilience, we selected three nearby soils (MFC,Mixed Forage Cropping; MCC,Mixed Cash Cropping; CCC, Cereal Cash Cropping)with identical clay content and increasing contents of organic...

  10. Comparison of Desertification Intensity in the Purified Wastewater Irrigated Lands with Normal Lands in Yazd Using of Soil Criterion of the IMDPA Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yektafar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Desertification, is a complex phenomenon, which as environmental, socio-economical, and cultural impacts on natural resources. According to the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification defination, desertification is land degradation in arid, semi-arid, and dry sub-humid regions, resulting from climate change and human activities. Because of limiting access to qualified water resources in arid lands, it is necessary to use, all forms of acceptable water resources such as wastewater. Since irrigation with sewages has most effects on soil, in this research, desertification intensity of lands irrigated with sewages and natural lands of the area, where located near Yazd city, has been analyzed considering soil criterion of the Iranian Model for Desertification Potential Assessment (IMDPA. Several studies have done in Iran and in the world in order to provide national, regional or global desertification assessment models. A significant feature of the IMDPA is easily defining and measuring criteria, indicators, and ability of the model to use geometric means for the criteria and indicators. Materials and Methods: In first step, In first step, in a random method, soil samples were taken in each of the defined land units with considering of the size of area. Next, all indices related to the soil criterion such as soil texture index, soil deep gravel percentage, soil depth, and soil electrical conductivity were evaluated in each land use (both irrigated lands and natural lands and weighted considering the present conditions of the lands. Each index was scored according to the standard table of soil that categorized desertification. Then, geometry average of all indices were calculated and map of the desertification intensity of the study area were prepared. Thus, four maps were prepared according to each index. These maps were used to study both quality and effect of each index on desertification. Finally, these maps were

  11. Managing soil moisture on waste burial sites in arid regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, J.E.; Ratzlaff, T.D.; Nowak, R.S.; Markham, O.D.

    1993-01-01

    In semiarid regions, where potential evapotranspiration greatly exceeds precipitation, it is theoretically possible to preclude water form reaching interred wastes by (i) providing a sufficient cap of soil to store precipitation that falls while plants are dormant and (ii) establishing sufficient plant cover to deplete soil moisture during the growing season, thereby emptying the water storage reservoir of the soil. Here the authors discuss the theory and rationale for such an approach and then present the results of a field study to test its efficacy at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). They examined the capacity of four species of perennial plants to deplete soil moisture on simulated waste trenches and determined the effective water storage capacity of the soil. Those data enabled them to estimate the minimum depth of fill soil required to prevent deep drainage. Any of the species studied can use all of the plant-available soil water, even during a very wet growing season. The water storage capacity of the soil studied is 17% by volume, so a trench cap of 1.6 m of soil should be adequate to store precipitation received at the INEL while plants are dormant. They recommend a fill soil depth of 2 m to provide a margin of safety in case water accumulates in local areas as a result of heavy snow accumulation, subsidence, or runoff. Fill soil requirements and choice of plant species will vary, but the concepts and general approach are applicable to other shallow land burial sites in arid or semiarid regions. 23 refs., 5 figs

  12. Management intensity and vegetation complexity affect web-building spiders and their prey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Eva; Mader, Viktoria L; Wolters, Volkmar; Birkhofer, Klaus

    2013-10-01

    Agricultural management and vegetation complexity affect arthropod diversity and may alter trophic interactions between predators and their prey. Web-building spiders are abundant generalist predators and important natural enemies of pests. We analyzed how management intensity (tillage, cutting of the vegetation, grazing by cattle, and synthetic and organic inputs) and vegetation complexity (plant species richness, vegetation height, coverage, and density) affect rarefied richness and composition of web-building spiders and their prey with respect to prey availability and aphid predation in 12 habitats, ranging from an uncut fallow to a conventionally managed maize field. Spiders and prey from webs were collected manually and the potential prey were quantified using sticky traps. The species richness of web-building spiders and the order richness of prey increased with plant diversity and vegetation coverage. Prey order richness was lower at tilled compared to no-till sites. Hemipterans (primarily aphids) were overrepresented, while dipterans, hymenopterans, and thysanopterans were underrepresented in webs compared to sticky traps. The per spider capture efficiency for aphids was higher at tilled than at no-till sites and decreased with vegetation complexity. After accounting for local densities, 1.8 times more aphids were captured at uncut compared to cut sites. Our results emphasize the functional role of web-building spiders in aphid predation, but suggest negative effects of cutting or harvesting. We conclude that reduced management intensity and increased vegetation complexity help to conserve local invertebrate diversity, and that web-building spiders at sites under low management intensity (e.g., semi-natural habitats) contribute to aphid suppression at the landscape scale.

  13. Management of soil physical properties of lowland puddled rice soil for sustainable food production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhagat, R.M.

    2004-01-01

    About 3 billion people who rely on rice as their staple food today will have multiplied to some 4.4 billion by the middle of this century. With rice demand growing at an average rate of about 3 percent annually, 70 percent more rice has to be produced in next 30 years compared to present day production levels. More rice has to come from less favorable environments, with less water and nutrients. Agricultural population densities on Asia's rice producing lands are among the highest in the world and continue to increase at a remarkable rate. Rice has widely adapted itself: to the hot Australian and Egyptian deserts, to the cool Himalayan foothills of Nepal. Hill tribes in Southeast Asia plant it on slash-and-burned forest slopes; that's upland rice. However, low lying areas in Asia, which are subject to uncontrolled flooding, are home to more than 100 million poor farmers. Puddling or wet tillage in rice, decreases total soil porosity only slightly, but markedly changes porosity distribution with both storage and residual porosity increasing at the expanse of transmission porosity. Soil texture plays an important role in soil water retention following soil disturbance. Cracking pattern of the soils is studied after six years of different levels of regular addition of residue. Cracking pattern at a soil surface affects the hydrodynamic properties of soil. Cracking extends the soil-air interface into the soil profile and thereby may increase the moisture loss through evaporation

  14. Crop diversification, tillage, and management system influences on spring wheat yield and soil water use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depleted soil quality, decreased water availability, and increased weed competition constrain spring wheat production in the northern Great Plains. Integrated crop management systems are necessary for improved crop productivity. We conducted a field experiment from 2004-2010 comparing productivity...

  15. Evaluation of Soil Media for Stormwater Infiltration Best Management Practices (BMPs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This project will improve the performance of structural management practices, and provide guidance that will allow designers to balance infiltration rates with sorption capacity. This project will also perform a standard column test procedure for evaluating candidate soil media.

  16. Changes in agricultural management drive the diversity of Burkholderia species isolated from soil on PLAT medium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salles, JF; Samyn, E; Vandamme, P; van Veen, JA; van Elsas, JD

    In order to assess the diversity of culturable Burkholderia populations in rhizosphere and bulk soil and to evaluate how different agricultural management regimes and land use history affect this diversity, four treatments were evaluated: permanent grassland; grassland converted into maize

  17. Changes in agricultural management drive the diversity of Burkholderia species isolated from soil on PCAT medium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salles, J.F.; Samyn, E.; Vandamme, P.A.; Veen, van J.A.; Elsas, van J.D.

    2006-01-01

    In order to assess the diversity of culturable Burkholderia populations in rhizosphere and bulk soil and to evaluate how different agricultural management regimes and land use history affect this diversity, four treatments were evaluated: permanent grassland; grassland converted into maize

  18. Carbon fractions and soil fertility affected by tillage and sugarcane residue management an Xanthic Udult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iara Maria Lopes

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The gradual change in management practices in sugarcane (Saccharum spp. production from burning straw to a green harvesting system, as well as the use of minimum soil tillage during field renovation, may affect soil fertility and soil organic matter (SOM contents. The objectives of this work were to investigate the influence of sugar cane production systems on: (1 soil fertility parameters; (2 on physical carbon fractions; (3 and on humic substance fractions, in a long-term experiment, comparing two soil tillage and two residue management systems an Xanthic Udult, in the coastal tableland region of Espírito Santo State, Brazil. The treatments consisted of plots (conventional tillage (CT or minimum tillage (MT and subplots (residue burned or unburned at harvesting, with five replicates The highest values of Ca2+ + Mg2+ and total organic carbon (TOC were observed in the MT system in all soil layers, while high values of K+ were observed in the 0.1-0.2 m layer. The CT associated with the burned residue management negatively influenced the TOC values, especially in the 0.1-0.2 and 0.2-0.4 m layers. The carbon in the humin fraction and organic matter associated with minerals were significantly different among the tillage systems; the MT showed higher values than the CT. However, there were no significant differences between the sugarcane residue management treatments. Overall, fractioning the SOM allowed for a better understanding of tillage and residue management systems effects on the soil properties.

  19. Gap formation in Danish beech (Fagus sylvatica) forests of low management intensity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritter, Eva; Vesterdal, Lars

    2006-01-01

    -based managed forest, soil solution was collected for 5 years and soil moisture measured in the fourth year after gap formation. Average NO3-N concentrations were significantly higher in the gaps (9.9 and 8.1 mg NO3-N l(-1), respectively) than under closed canopy (0.2 mg l(-1)). In the semi-natural forest......, measurements were carried out up to 29 months after gap formation. Average NO3-N concentrations in the gap were 19.3 mg NO3-N l(-1). Gap formation alone did not account for this high level, as concentrations were high also under closed canopy (average 12.4 mg NO3-N l(-1)). However, the gap had significantly...... higher N concentrations when trees were in full leaf, and NO3-N drainage losses were significantly increased in the gap. No losses occurred under closed canopy in growing seasons. Soil moisture was close to field capacity in all three gaps, but decreased under closed canopy in growing seasons...

  20. Challenges encountered by critical care unit managers in the large intensive care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matlakala, Mokgadi C; Bezuidenhout, Martie C; Botha, Annali D H

    2014-04-04

    Nurses in intensive care units (ICUs) are exposed regularly to huge demands interms of fulfilling the many roles that are placed upon them. Unit managers, in particular, are responsible for the efficient management of the units and have the responsibilities of planning, organising, leading and controlling the daily activities in order to facilitate the achievement of the unit objectives. The objective of this study was to explore and present the challenges encountered by ICU managers in the management of large ICUs. A qualitative, exploratory and descriptive study was conducted at five hospital ICUs in Gauteng province, South Africa. Data were collected through individual interviews from purposively-selected critical care unit managers, then analysed using the matic coding. Five themes emerged from the data: challenges related to the layout and structure of the unit, human resources provision and staffing, provision of material resources, stressors in the unit and visitors in the ICU. Unit managers in large ICUs face multifaceted challenges which include the demand for efficient and sufficient specialised nurses; lack of or inadequate equipment that goes along with technology in ICU and supplies; and stressors in the ICU that limit the efficiency to plan, organise, lead and control the daily activities in the unit. The challenges identified call for multiple strategies to assist in the efficient management of large ICUs.

  1. Challenges encountered by critical care unit managers in the large intensive care units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mokgadi C. Matlakala

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nurses in intensive care units (ICUs are exposed regularly to huge demands interms of fulfilling the many roles that are placed upon them. Unit managers, in particular, are responsible for the efficient management of the units and have the responsibilities of planning, organising, leading and controlling the daily activities in order to facilitate the achievement of the unit objectives. Objectives: The objective of this study was to explore and present the challenges encountered by ICU managers in the management of large ICUs. Method: A qualitative, exploratory and descriptive study was conducted at five hospital ICUs in Gauteng province, South Africa. Data were collected through individual interviews from purposively-selected critical care unit managers, then analysed using the matic coding. Results: Five themes emerged from the data: challenges related to the layout and structure of the unit, human resources provision and staffing, provision of material resources, stressors in the unit and visitors in the ICU. Conclusion: Unit managers in large ICUs face multifaceted challenges which include the demand for efficient and sufficient specialised nurses; lack of or inadequate equipment that goes along with technology in ICU and supplies; and stressors in the ICU that limit the efficiency to plan, organise, lead and control the daily activities in the unit. The challenges identified call for multiple strategies to assist in the efficient management of large ICUs.

  2. Building waste management core indicators through Spatial Material Flow Analysis: net recovery and transport intensity indexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Font Vivanco, David; Puig Ventosa, Ignasi; Gabarrell Durany, Xavier

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, the material and spatial characterization of the flows within a municipal solid waste (MSW) management system are combined through a Network-Based Spatial Material Flow Analysis. Using this information, two core indicators are developed for the bio-waste fraction, the Net Recovery Index (NRI) and the Transport Intensity Index (TII), which are aimed at assessing progress towards policy-related sustainable MSW management strategies and objectives. The NRI approaches the capacity of a MSW management system for converting waste into resources through a systematic metabolic approach, whereas the TII addresses efficiency in terms of the transport requirements to manage a specific waste flow throughout the entire MSW management life cycle. Therefore, both indicators could be useful in assessing key MSW management policy strategies, such as the consecution of higher recycling levels (sustainability principle) or the minimization of transport by locating treatment facilities closer to generation sources (proximity principle). To apply this methodological approach, the bio-waste management system of the region of Catalonia (Spain) has been chosen as a case study. Results show the adequacy of both indicators for identifying those points within the system with higher capacity to compromise its environmental, economic and social performance and therefore establishing clear targets for policy prioritization. Moreover, this methodological approach permits scenario building, which could be useful in assessing the outcomes of hypothetical scenarios, thus proving its adequacy for strategic planning. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of artificial soil surface management on changes of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies of size distribution, stability of the aggregates, and other soil properties are very important due to their influence on tilth, water infiltration, and nutrient ... Data measured for eight years on induced erosion experiments on a Ferralsol covered by artificial soil netting locally called sombrite at Campinas, Brazil, were used ...

  4. Potentials and management of nutrient status of soils of Ikwuano ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was carried out to evaluate the nutrient status of the nine farming zones of Ikwuano local government Area of Abia State, to quantify in relation to their cassava crop production potentials. Free survey method was applied in a reconnaissance soil survey to collect soil samples at 0-30cm depth. Nine samples were ...

  5. Fertile ground? : soil fertility management and the African smallholder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Misiko, M.

    2007-01-01

    Keywords: smallholder farmers, soil fertility, experimentation, "inconvenience", realist.The focus in this thesis is to form a view of how well soil fertility research performs within the ever shifting smallholder contexts. This study examined application of agro-ecological

  6. Assessing the role of organic soil amendments in management of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... was higher in organically amended soils than the control, with the highest figures being recorded on chicken manure. This is a clear demonstration of the potential of organic amendments in triggering the natural mechanisms that regulate plant nematodes in the soil. Journal of Tropical Microbiology Vol.3 2004: 14-23 ...

  7. [Morbidity and mortality after intensive care management of hemorrhagic stroke in Djibouti].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benois, A; Raynaud, L; Coton, T; Petitjeans, F; Hassan, A; Ilah, A; Sergent, H; Grassin, F; Leberre, J

    2009-02-01

    Prospective data on management and outcome of stroke in Africa is scarce. The purpose of this prospective descriptive study is to present epidemiologic, clinical and outcome data for a series of patients with hemorrhagic stroke in Djibouti. All patients admitted to the intensive care unit of the Bouffard Medical-Surgical Center in Djibouti for cerebral hemorrhage documented by CT-scan of the brain w