Sample records for soil interstitial water

  1. The influence of interstitial water velocity on the migration of 85Sr and 137Cs in an aerated sandy soil layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnuki, Toshihiko; Takebe, Shinichi; Yamamoto, Tadatoshi; Wadachi, Yoshiki


    The influence of interstitial water velocity on the migration of Sr-85 and Cs-137 in an aerated sandy soil layer was studied at different feed water velocities and feed times. As well known, it was found that Sr-85 migrated with interstitial water, but Cs-137 little migrated with interstitial water. The apparent migration velocity for each fraction corresponding to three concentrations (2 x 10 -2 , 1 x 10 -2 and 5 x 10 -3 μCi/g) of Sr-85 was further investigated. At constant interstitial water velocity (1cm/ min), different values were given for the apparent migration velocity of three fractions, and the fraction with thin concentration migrated faster. At constant feeding time (100hr), there was a linear relationship between apparent migration velocity of three fractions and interstitial water velocity, in the range of slow water velocity ( -2 and 5 x 10 -3 μCi/g) and interstitial water velocity, in the range of fast water velocity (> 1cm/min). (author)

  2. Squeezed Interstitial Water and Soil Properties in Pleistocene Blue Clays under Different Natural Environments

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    Maria Dolores Fidelibus


    Full Text Available Studies dating almost a century relate clay properties with the structure of the diffuse double layer (DDL, where the charged surfaces of clay crystal behave like an electric capacitor, whose dielectric is the interstitial fluid. The intensity of the inner electric field relates to the concentration and type of ions in the DDL. Other important implications of the model are less stressed: this part of the clay soil system, energetically speaking, is conservative. External contribution of energy, work of overburden or sun driven capillarity and long exposure to border low salinity waters can modify the concentration of pore-waters, thus affecting the DDL geometry, with electric field and energy storage variations. The study of clay soils coming from various natural geomorphological and hydrogeological contexts, determining a different salinity of interacting groundwater, shows how the clay interaction with freely circulating waters at the boundaries produces alterations in the native pore water salinity, and, at the nano-scale, variations of electric field and stored energy from external work. The swelling and the shrinkage of clay soil with their volumetric and geotechnical implications should be regarded as variations of the electrostatic and mechanical energy of the system. The study is based on tests on natural clay soil samples coming from a formation of stiff blue clays, widespread in southern Italy. Geotechnical identification and oedometer tests have been performed, and pore waters squeezed out from the specimens have been analyzed. Tested samples have similar grain size, clay fraction and plasticity; sorted according to the classified geomorphological/hydrogeological contexts, they highlight good correlations among dry density, mechanical work performed in selected stages of the oedometric test, swelling and non-swelling behaviour, and electrical conductivity of the squeezed pore waters. The work performed for swelling and non

  3. Analysis of Dissolved Organic Nutrients in the Interstitial Water of Natural Biofilms. (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Yuki; Eda, Shima; Kiriyama, Chiho; Asada, Tomoya; Morisaki, Hisao


    In biofilms, the matrix of extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs) retains water in the interstitial region of the EPS. This interstitial water is the ambient environment for microorganisms in the biofilms. The nutrient condition in the interstitial water may affect microbial activity in the biofilms. In the present study, we measured the concentrations of dissolved organic nutrients, i.e., saccharides and proteins, contained in the interstitial water of biofilms formed on the stones. We also analyzed the molecular weight distribution, chemical species, and availability to bacteria of some saccharides in the interstitial water. Colorimetric assays showed that the concentrations of saccharides and proteins in the biofilm interstitial water were significantly higher (ca. 750 times) than those in the surrounding lake waters (p Chromatographic analyses demonstrated that the saccharides in the interstitial waters were mainly of low molecular-weight saccharides such as glucose and maltose, while proteins in the interstitial water were high molecular-weight proteins (over 7000 Da). Bacterial growth and production of EPS occurred simultaneously with the decrease in the low molecular-weight saccharide concentrations when a small portion of biofilm suspension was inoculated to the collected interstitial water, suggesting that the dissolved saccharides in the interstitial water support bacterial growth and formation of biofilms.

  4. [Effects of two submerged macrophytes on dissolved inorganic nitrogen in overlying water and interstitial water]. (United States)

    Yang, Wen-Bin; Li, Yang; Sun, Gong-Xian


    Ceratophyllum demersum (C. demersum) and Vallisneria spiralis L. (V. spiralis L.) were studied as model submerged macrophytes. The effects of the submerged macrophytes on the forms and concentration of the dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) in the overlying water and the interstitial water, as well as the diffusion flux of DIN in the water-sediment interface were investigated by batch simulation experiment. The results indicated that the removal effect of DIN in the overlying water was better than that in the interstitial water by submerged macrophytes. The removal efficiency of DIN in the overlying water and the interstitial water followed the order of NO2(-) -N > NH4(+) -N > NO3(-) -N. The removal rate of DIN by C. demersum was higher than that of V. spiralis L. in the overlying water, while the result was converse in the interstitial water. C. demersum and V. spiralis L. decreased the diffusion flux of NH4(+) -N and NO2(-) -N, and increased the diffusion flux of NO3(-) -N significantly. Consequently, NO3(-) -N replaced NH4(+) -N and became the main form of DIN, which diffused from the interstitial water to the overlying water. The impact of the diffusion flux of NO3(-) -N between C. demersum and V. spiralis L. showed no significant difference, and the result was the same for NH4(+) -N. C. demersum and V. spiralis L. increased the width of variation of the three nitrogen forms to total DIN in the overlying water and the interstitial water, the influence on the ratio of DIN by C. demersum was greater than that of V. spiralis L. in the overlying water, while the result was opposite in the interstitial water. In general, C. demersum had more influence in the overlying water, while V. spiralis L. had more influence in the interstitial water, and the influence of DIN diffusion flux was not significant.

  5. Measurement of 222Rn in soil concentrations in interstitial air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duenas, C.; Fernandez, M.C.; Carretero, J.; Liger, E.


    Measurements of 222 Rn soil concentrations were made by inserting stainless-steel sampling tubes into the soil. The samples of the soil interstitial air were taken in to pre-evacuated 1 L glass flasks. The glass flasks are cylindrical and coated with a film of ZnS(Ag). 222 Rn was measured by counting the alpha particles emitted by 222 Rn and its daughter products, 218 Po and 214 Bi, when they reached radioactive equilibrium. Measurements of 222 Rn gas concentrations in the soil air interstices by the method at different depths were used to calculate the diffusion coefficient of the 222 Rn in the soil air. This study has been carried out for diverse soils. (Author)

  6. Basal interstitial water pressure in laboratory debris flows over a rigid bed in an open channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Hotta


    Full Text Available Measuring the interstitial water pressure of debris flows under various conditions gives essential information on the flow stress structure. This study measured the basal interstitial water pressure during debris flow routing experiments in a laboratory flume. Because a sensitive pressure gauge is required to measure the interstitial water pressure in shallow laboratory debris flows, a differential gas pressure gauge with an attached diaphragm was used. Although this system required calibration before and after each experiment, it showed a linear behavior and a sufficiently high temporal resolution for measuring the interstitial water pressure of debris flows. The values of the interstitial water pressure were low. However, an excess of pressure beyond the hydrostatic pressure was observed with increasing sediment particle size. The measured excess pressure corresponded to the theoretical excess interstitial water pressure, derived as a Reynolds stress in the interstitial water of boulder debris flows. Turbulence was thought to induce a strong shear in the interstitial space of sediment particles. The interstitial water pressure in boulder debris flows should be affected by the fine sediment concentration and the phase transition from laminar to turbulent debris flow; this should be the subject of future studies.

  7. Chemical analysis of interstitial water in rivers of Centro Experimental Aramar area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matoso, Erika; Goncalves, Julia Rosa; Cadore, Solange


    This work presents the results from analysis of samples of interstitial waters for the following chemical parameters: F - , Cl - , NO 2 - , Br - , NO 3 - , PO 4 3- , SO 4 2- by Ionic Chromatography, Na, K by Flame Photometry, Al, Cd, Pb, Cu, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni, Zn by ICP OES, pH and the biological parameter: toxicity by natural bioluminescent bacterium (Vibrio fischeri) bioassay. The samples were obtained from sediments collected in 6 different sampling locations, in a ratio of 10-km-long from Centro Experimental Aramar (CEA). The rivers were the samples came from were: Ipanema River, Sorocaba River and Ribeirao do Ferro River. The interstitial water was extracted by centrifugation (3000 rpm, 20 min, 4 deg C). Analysis for metal concentrations were carried out after acid digestion and others tests proceeded in the sample after filtration without further treatment. These data will contribute to evaluate the distribution of contaminants and nutrients in these collecting points and this toxicity status. The release of soluble substances from sediments to interstitial water provides one way for bioaccumulation of these compounds and may affect the survival or development of aquatic organisms. The analysis in interstitial water has never been evaluated at this sampling points and the importance of this study is collecting data providing a better knowledge of the hydrological conditions in which Centro Experimental Aramar is located. (author)

  8. Distribution of uranium and radium radionuclides in the 'solid phase-interstitial soil solution' system and their migratory properties in ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolik, G.A.; Ovsyannikova, S.V.; Vojnikova, E.V.; Popenya, M.V.


    The background content of the main alpha-emitting radionuclides of uranium and radium in the soils of the south-east territory of the Republic of Belarus has been established. The reserve of migratory active species of uranium and radium in the soils has been determined using the data on the content of the radionuclides in the interstitial soil solutions, which are the most important chain of geochemical and biological migration of the chemical elements in ecosystems. The values of radionuclides distribution coefficients in the 'solid phase - interstitial solution of soil' system were estimated. It was shown that the migratory ability of uranium in the investigated soils is higher than that of radium. A direct correlation between the contents of organic components and uranium in the soil solution has been revealed. The used approach to the investigation of the uranium and radium behavior allows comparing their abilities to the migration in dependence of the soil medium peculiarities. (authors)

  9. Chemical analysis of interstitial water in rivers of Centro Experimental Aramar area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matoso, Erika; Goncalves, Julia Rosa, E-mail: [Centro Tecnologico da Marinha (CE/CTM-SP), Ipero, SP (Brazil). Centro Experimental Aramar; Cadore, Solange [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica. Departamento de Quimica Analitica


    This work presents the results from analysis of samples of interstitial waters for the following chemical parameters: F{sup -}, Cl{sup -}, NO{sub 2}{sup -}, Br{sup -}, NO{sub 3}{sup -}, PO{sub 4}{sup 3-}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} by Ionic Chromatography, Na, K by Flame Photometry, Al, Cd, Pb, Cu, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni, Zn by ICP OES, pH and the biological parameter: toxicity by natural bioluminescent bacterium (Vibrio fischeri) bioassay. The samples were obtained from sediments collected in 6 different sampling locations, in a ratio of 10-km-long from Centro Experimental Aramar (CEA). The rivers were the samples came from were: Ipanema River, Sorocaba River and Ribeirao do Ferro River. The interstitial water was extracted by centrifugation (3000 rpm, 20 min, 4 deg C). Analysis for metal concentrations were carried out after acid digestion and others tests proceeded in the sample after filtration without further treatment. These data will contribute to evaluate the distribution of contaminants and nutrients in these collecting points and this toxicity status. The release of soluble substances from sediments to interstitial water provides one way for bioaccumulation of these compounds and may affect the survival or development of aquatic organisms. The analysis in interstitial water has never been evaluated at this sampling points and the importance of this study is collecting data providing a better knowledge of the hydrological conditions in which Centro Experimental Aramar is located. (author)

  10. In situ sampling of interstitial water from lake sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinkman, Albertus G.; van Raaphorst, Wim; Lijklema, Lambertus


    A sampler with a relatively high resolution has been developed, which allows interstitial water to be obtained from lake sediments at well defined depths, without serious disturbance of sediment structure. Oxidation effects are excluded. Sampling time is in the order of a day. Installation requires

  11. Comparative ecotoxicity of interstitial waters in littoral ecosystems using Microtox{reg_sign} and the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valls, T.A. Del; Forja, J.M. [Univ. de Cadiz (Spain). Dpto. de Quimica Fisica; Lubian, L.M.; Gomez-Parra, A. [C.S.I.C., Cadiz (Spain). Inst. de Ciencias Marinas de Andalucia


    The toxic effects of sediment interstitial waters collected from seven littoral sites in the Gulf of Cadiz were tested with the Microtox assay and a 7-d Brachionus plicatilis (Rotifera) decline test. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC), nutrients (ammonia, phosphate, nitrate, nitrite, and silicate), the heavy metals (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb, Cr, and Cd), and the linear alkylbenzensulfonate (LAS) concentrations in the interstitial water were measured. The results of assays were compared in a dose-response relationship between sites. This comparison has demonstrated a general agreement between toxicity values determined by Brachionus plicatilis and Photobacterium phosphoreum, except in the case of interstitial water toxicity from mixtures of heavy metals. Data derived from interstitial water chemistry and bioassays were assembled by multivariate statistical techniques (principal components analysis). Positive prevalence of these components in cases studied was used to establish those ranges in chemical concentrations associated with adverse effects. The interstitial water guidelines, in terms of concentrations at or below which biological effects have been shown to be minimal (mg/L), are: DOC, 12.8; phosphate, 0.28; LAS, 80.4; ammonia, 12.1: chromium, 0.0045.

  12. Soil and Soil Water Relationships


    Easton, Zachary M.; Bock, Emily


    Discusses the relationships between soil, water and plants. Discusses different types of soil, and how these soils hold water. Provides information about differences in soil drainage. Discusses the concept of water balance.

  13. Measurements of the oxidation state and concentration of plutonium in interstitial waters of the Irish Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, D.M.; Lovett, M.B.


    The question of plutonium movement in interstitial waters resulting from diffusion along concentration gradients or from advective flow is addressed. The results of measurements of both the concentration and the oxidation state of plutonium in interstitial water collected from sediments near the Windscale discharge, in the solid phases of these sediments and in seawater and suspended solids collected at the coring locations are discussed

  14. Soil water management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, D.R.; Cassel, D.K.


    The use of radiation and tracer techniques in investigations into soil water management in agriculture, hydrology etc. is described. These techniques include 1) neutron moisture gauges to monitor soil water content and soil water properties, 2) gamma radiation attenuation for measuring the total density of soil and soil water content, 3) beta radiation attenuation for measuring changes in the water status of crop plants and 4) radioactive and stable tracers for identifying pathways, reactions and retention times of the constituents in soils and groundwater aquifers. The number and spacing of soil observations that should be taken to represent the management unit are also considered. (U.K.)

  15. Darmstadt colloquium on hydrological engineering 1999: flow and dispersion processes in aquatic interstitials; Darmstaedter Wasserbauliches Kolloquium 1999: Fliess- und Ausbreitungsvorgaenge in aquatischen Grenzraeumen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Anthropogenic effects have changed the patterns and intensities of pollutant transport into soil, groundwater and surface water, and water management has become a metter of great importance in the field of tension between water use and sustainability. Especially aquatic interstitials have great influence on environmental transport. The Darmstaedter Wasserbauliches Kolloquium (DAWAKO) 1999, which was held by the Institute of Hydrological Engineering and Water Management of TU Darmstadt University, discussed recent developments in the interstitials between unsaturated soil and groundwater, groundwater and flowing water, flowing water and floor. [German] Als Folge anthropogener Eingriffe in den Wasserkreislauf, z.B. infolge Landnutzungsaenderungen, Gewaesserausbau, Sieldungstaetigkeit usw. haben sich die Art und die Intensitaet des Stoffeintrages in Boden, Grundwasser sowie in die Oberflaechengewaesser erheblich gewandelt. Entsprechend sind zahlreiche wasserwirtschaftliche Fragestellungen im Spannungsfeld zwischen steigenden Anspruechen bei der Wassernutzung und dem Gebot einer nachhaltigen Bewirtschaftung dieser begrenzten Ressource zu behandeln. Es ist bekannt, dass aufgrund der periodisch wechselnden Milieubedingungen gerade den aquatischen Grenzraeumen eine besondere Bedeutung fuer den Stoffhaushalt zukommt. Neuere Entwicklungen bei den Prozessuntersuchungen in den Grenzraeumen zwischen: - ungesaettigter Bodenzone und Grundwasser - Grundwasser und Fliessgewaesser - Fliessgewaesser und Sohle (Interstitial) standen im Mittelpunkt des diesjaehrigen Darmstaedter Wasserbaulichen Kolloquiums (DAWAKO), das am 14. und 15. Oktober 1999 vom Institut fuer Wasserbau und Wasserwirtschaft der TU Darmstadt veranstaltet wurde. (orig.)

  16. Soil tension mediates isotope fractionation during soil water evaporation (United States)

    Gaj, Marcel; McDonnell, Jeffrey


    Isotope tracing of the water cycle is increasing in its use and usefulness. Many new studies are extracting soil waters and relating these to streamflow, groundwater recharge and plant transpiration. Nevertheless, unlike isotope fractionation factors from open water bodies, soil water fractionation factors are poorly understood and until now, only empirically derived. In contrast to open water evaporation where temperature, humidity and vapor pressure gradient define fractionation (as codified in the well-known Craig and Gordon model), soil water evaporation includes additionally, fractionation by matrix effects. There is yet no physical explanation of kinetic and equilibrium fraction from soil water within the soil profile. Here we present a simple laboratory experiment with four admixtures of soil grain size (from sand to silt to clay). Oven-dried samples were spiked with water of known isotopic composition at different soil water contents. Soils were then stored in sealed bags and the headspace filled with dry air and allowed to equilibrate for 24hours. Isotopic analysis of the headspace vapor was done with a Los Gatos Inc. water vapor isotope analyzer. Soil water potential of subsamples were measured with a water potential meter. We show for the first time that soil tension controls isotope fractionation in the resident soil water. Below a Pf 3.5 the δ-values of 18O and 2H of the headspace vapor is more positive and increases with increasing soil water potential. Surprisingly, we find that the relationship between soil tension and equilibrium fractionation is independent of soil type. However, δ-values of each soil type plot along a distinct evaporation line. These results indicate that equilibrium fractionation is affected by soil tension in addition to temperature. Therefore, at high soil water tension (under dry conditions) equilibrium fractionation is not consistent with current empirical formulations that ignore these effects. These findings may have

  17. Modelling soil-water dynamics in the rootzone of structured and water-repellent soils (United States)

    Brown, Hamish; Carrick, Sam; Müller, Karin; Thomas, Steve; Sharp, Joanna; Cichota, Rogerio; Holzworth, Dean; Clothier, Brent


    In modelling the hydrology of Earth's critical zone, there are two major challenges. The first is to understand and model the processes of infiltration, runoff, redistribution and root-water uptake in structured soils that exhibit preferential flows through macropore networks. The other challenge is to parametrise and model the impact of ephemeral hydrophobicity of water-repellent soils. Here we have developed a soil-water model, which is based on physical principles, yet possesses simple functionality to enable easier parameterisation, so as to predict soil-water dynamics in structured soils displaying time-varying degrees of hydrophobicity. Our model, WEIRDO (Water Evapotranspiration Infiltration Redistribution Drainage runOff), has been developed in the APSIM Next Generation platform (Agricultural Production Systems sIMulation). The model operates on an hourly time-step. The repository for this open-source code is We have carried out sensitivity tests to show how WEIRDO predicts infiltration, drainage, redistribution, transpiration and soil-water evaporation for three distinctly different soil textures displaying differing hydraulic properties. These three soils were drawn from the UNSODA (Unsaturated SOil hydraulic Database) soils database of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). We show how preferential flow process and hydrophobicity determine the spatio-temporal pattern of soil-water dynamics. Finally, we have validated WEIRDO by comparing its predictions against three years of soil-water content measurements made under an irrigated alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) trial. The results provide validation of the model's ability to simulate soil-water dynamics in structured soils.


    Genthner, Fred J., Joseph B. James, Diane F. Yates and Stephanie D. Friedman. Submitted. Use of Composite Data Sets for Source-Tracking Enterococci in the Water Column and Shoreline Interstitial Waters on Pensacola Beach Florida. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 33 p. (ERL,GB 1212). So...

  19. Transient Liquid Water as a Mechanism for Induration of Soil Crusts on Mars (United States)

    Landis, G. A.; Blaney, D.; Cabrol, N.; Clark, B. C.; Farmer, J.; Grotzinger, J.; Greeley, R.; McLennan, S. M.; Richter, L.; Yen, A.


    The Viking and the Mars Exploration Rover missions observed that the surface of Mars is encrusted by a thinly cemented layer tagged as "duricrust". A hypothesis to explain the formation of duricrust on Mars should address not only the potential mechanisms by which these materials become cemented, but also the textural and compositional components of cemented Martian soils. Elemental analyzes at five sites on Mars show that these soils have sulfur content of up to 4%, and chlorine content of up to 1%. This is consistent with the presence of sulfates and halides as mineral cements. . For comparison, the rock "Adirondack" at the MER site, after the exterior layer was removed, had nearly five times lower sulfur and chlorine content , and the Martian meteorites have ten times lower sulfur and chlorine content, showing that the soil is highly enriched in the saltforming elements compared with rock.Here we propose two alternative models to account for the origin of these crusts, each requiring the action of transient liquid water films to mediate adhesion and cementation of grains. Two alternative versions of the transient water hypothesis are offered, a top down hypothesis that emphasizes the surface deposition of frost, melting and downward migration of liquid water and a bottom up alternative that proposes the presence of interstitial ice/brine, with the upward capillary migration of liquid water.

  20. The behavior of radionuclides in the soils of Rocky Flats, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litaor, M I [Tel-Hai Rodman Coll., Upper Galilee (Israel); Barth, G; Zika, E M; Litus, G; Moffitt, J; Daniels, H [Colorado Univ., Civil and Environmental Engineering Dept., Boulder, CO (United States)


    Radionuclide contamination of soils in Rocky Flats, Colorado, resulted from leaking drums of Pu-contaminated oil stored at an outdoor area. To evaluated the mechanisms of radionuclide transport from the contaminated soils to groundwater, an advanced monitoring system was installed across a toposequence. The impact of natural rain, snowmelt, and large-scale rain simulations on the mobility and distribution of the radionuclides in soil interstitial water was studied. The distribution of radionuclides during the monitoring period from 1993 to 1995 suggested that Pu-239 + 240 and Am-241 are largely immobile in semi-arid soils. Fractionation of Pu-239 + 240 and Am-241 to different particle sizes in the soil interstitial water suggested that most of the radionuclides (83-97%) were associated with suspended particles, whereas the level of radionuclides associated with colloidal (0.45 {mu}m > X > 1 nm) and nonfilterable (< 1 nm) fractions ranged from 1.5 to 15%. (author).

  1. Environmental isotope profiles of the soil water in loess unsaturated zone in semi-arid areas of china

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Ruifen; Wei Keqin


    According to the IAEA Research Contract No. 9402, soil cores CHN/97 and CHN/98 were taken from loess deposits of China in Inner-Mongolia and Shanxi Province, respectively. Isotope and chemical constituents of the interstitial water from these cores, compared with data obtained from the same places before, were used for estimating the infiltration rate. Tritium profiles from the loess unsaturated zone show clearly defined peaks of 1963 fallout. It implies that piston-flow model is the dominant process for soil water movement in the highly homogeneous loess deposits. It has been shown from this study that vertical infiltration through the unsaturated zone accounts for 12%-13% of the annual precipitation and perhaps is not the main mechanism of groundwater recharge in semi-arid loess areas. (author)

  2. Soil physics and the water management of spatially variable soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youngs, E.G.


    The physics of macroscopic soil-water behaviour in inert porous materials has been developed by considering water flow to take place in a continuum. This requires the flow region to consist of an assembly of representative elementary volumes, repeated throughout space and small compared with the scale of observations. Soil-water behaviour in swelling soils may also be considered as a continuum phenomenon so long as the soil is saturated and swells and shrinks in the normal range. Macroscale heterogeneity superimposed on the inherent microscale heterogeneity can take many forms and may pose difficulties in the definition and measurement of soil physical properties and also in the development and use of predictive theories of soil-water behaviour. Thus, measurement techniques appropriate for uniform soils are often inappropriate, and criteria for soil-water management, obtained from theoretical considerations of behaviour in equivalent uniform soils, are not applicable without modification when there is soil heterogeneity. The spatial variability of soil-water properties is shown in results from field experiments concerned with water flow measurements; these illustrate both stochastic and deterministic heterogeneity in soil-water properties. Problems of water management of spatially variable soils when there is stochastic heterogeneity appear to present an insuperable problem in the application of theory. However, for soils showing deterministic heterogeneity, soil-water theory has been used in the solution of soil-water management problems. Thus, scaling using similar media theory has been applied to the infiltration of water into soils that vary over a catchment area. Also, the drain spacing to control the water-table height in soils in which the hydraulic conductivity varies with depth has been calculated using groundwater seepage theory. (author)

  3. 87Sr/86Sr and 18O/16O ratios, interstitial water chemistry and diagenesis in deep-sea carbonate sediments of the Ontong Java Plateau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elderfield, H.; Oldfield, R.K.; Hawkesworth, C.J.


    Interstitial waters and sediments from DSDP sites 288 and 289 contain information on the chemistry and diagenesis of carbonate in deep-sea sediments and on the role of volcanic matter alteration processes. Sr/Ca ratios are species dependent in unaltered foraminifera from site 289 and atom ratios exceed those predicted by distribution coefficient data. During diagenesis Sr/Ca ratios of carbonates decrease and reach the theoretical distribution at a depth which is identical to the depth of Sr isotopic equilibration, where 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios of interstitial waters and carbonates converge. Mg/Ca ratios in the carbonates do not increase with depth as found in some other DSDP sites, possibly because of diagenetic re-equilibration with interstitial waters showing decreasing Mg 2+ /Ca 2+ ratios with depth due to Ca input and Mg removal by alteration of volcanic matter. Interstitial 18 O/ 16 O ratios increase with depth at site 289 to delta 18 O = 0.67 per thousand (SMOW), reflecting carbonate recrystallization at elevated temperatures, the first recorded evidence of this effect in interstitial waters. Interstitial Sr 2+ concentrations reach high levels, up to 1 mM, chiefly because of carbonate recrystallization. However, 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios decrease from 0.7092 to less than 0.7078, lower than for contemporaneous sea water, showing that there is a volcanic input of strontium at depth. (author)

  4. Assessment the effect of homogenized soil on soil hydraulic properties and soil water transport (United States)

    Mohawesh, O.; Janssen, M.; Maaitah, O.; Lennartz, B.


    Soil hydraulic properties play a crucial role in simulating water flow and contaminant transport. Soil hydraulic properties are commonly measured using homogenized soil samples. However, soil structure has a significant effect on the soil ability to retain and to conduct water, particularly in aggregated soils. In order to determine the effect of soil homogenization on soil hydraulic properties and soil water transport, undisturbed soil samples were carefully collected. Five different soil structures were identified: Angular-blocky, Crumble, Angular-blocky (different soil texture), Granular, and subangular-blocky. The soil hydraulic properties were determined for undisturbed and homogenized soil samples for each soil structure. The soil hydraulic properties were used to model soil water transport using HYDRUS-1D.The homogenized soil samples showed a significant increase in wide pores (wCP) and a decrease in narrow pores (nCP). The wCP increased by 95.6, 141.2, 391.6, 3.9, 261.3%, and nCP decreased by 69.5, 10.5, 33.8, 72.7, and 39.3% for homogenized soil samples compared to undisturbed soil samples. The soil water retention curves exhibited a significant decrease in water holding capacity for homogenized soil samples compared with the undisturbed soil samples. The homogenized soil samples showed also a decrease in soil hydraulic conductivity. The simulated results showed that water movement and distribution were affected by soil homogenizing. Moreover, soil homogenizing affected soil hydraulic properties and soil water transport. However, field studies are being needed to find the effect of these differences on water, chemical, and pollutant transport under several scenarios.

  5. Chloride, bromide and iodide distributions in Loch Lomond sediment interstitial water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacKenzie, A.B.; Shimmield, T.M.; Scott, R.D.; Davidson, C.M.; Hooker, P.J.


    The post glacial sediments of Loch Lomond contain a well defined band of marine deposited material which is overlain and underlain by freshwater deposited sediment. The chronology of the sedimentary sequence has been well established by radiocarbon dating and, in the southern basin of the Loch, the marine sediment band is of the order of 1 m thick and typically occurs at a depth of about 3 to 4 m beneath the sediment surface. Previous work has established that the marine deposited sediment contains enhanced concentrations of iodine and bromine relative to the contiguous freshwater sediments and that dissolution of halogen elements from the marine sediments generates a concentration gradient, with consequent diffusive transport, of these elements in the sediment interstitial water. This environment is thus highly suitable for investigation of the rate of transport of halogen elements through the sediment a topic of direct relevance to radioactive waste disposal in the context of far field migration of 129 I. Previous studies resulted in successful modelling of the diffusive transport of bromine in the interstitial water of the sediment on the basis of the observed concentration profile for total bromine in the water. This work was, however, of restricted value since (1) speciation was not determined (2) archived sediment was used and (3) samples were processed and analyzed under ambient laboratory conditions. The objective of the work described in this report was to collect a new core of Loch Lomond sediment and to carry out appropriate analyses to overcome the above limitations

  6. Water repellent soils: the case for unsaturated soil mechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beckett Christopher


    Full Text Available Water repellent (or “hydrophobic” or “non-wetting” soils have been studied by soil scientists for well over a century. These soils are typified by poor water infiltration, which leads to increased soil erosion and poor crop growth. However, the importance of water repellence on determining soil properties is now becoming recognised by geotechnical engineers. Water repellent soils may, for example, offer novel solutions for the design of cover systems overlying municipal or mine waste storage facilities. However, investigations into factors affecting their mechanical properties have only recently been initiated. This purpose of this paper is to introduce geotechnical engineers to the concept of water repellent soils and to discuss how their properties can be evaluated under an unsaturated soils framework. Scenarios in which water repellent properties might be relevant in geotechnical applications are presented and methods to quantify these properties in the laboratory and in the field examined.

  7. The Influence of Soil Particle on Soil Condensation Water


    Hou Xinwei; Chen Hao; Li Xiangquan; Cui Xiaomei; Liu Lingxia; Wang Zhenxing


    The experiment results showed that the indoor experiment formed from the volume of soil hygroscopic water increased gradually with decreasing size of soil particles. In the outdoor experiments, the results showed that the formed condensation water in medium sand was greater than it was in fine sand; the soil hot condensation water was mainly formed in the top layer of soil between 0-5 cm. We also found that covering the soil surface with stones can increase the volume of formed soil condensat...

  8. Performance evaluation of TDT soil water content and watermark soil water potential sensors (United States)

    This study evaluated the performance of digitized Time Domain Transmissometry (TDT) soil water content sensors (Acclima, Inc., Meridian, ID) and resistance-based soil water potential sensors (Watermark 200, Irrometer Company, Inc., Riverside, CA) in two soils. The evaluation was performed by compar...

  9. Sustainable Soil Water Management Systems


    Basch, G.; Kassam, A.; Friedrich, T.; Santos, F.L.; Gubiani, P.I.; Calegari, A.; Reichert, J.M.; dos Santos, D.R.


    Soil quality and its management must be considered as key elements for an effective management of water resources, given that the hydrological cycle and land management are intimately linked (Bossio et al. 2007). Soil degradation has been described by Bossio et al. (2010) as the starting point of a negative cycle of soil-water relationships, creating a positive, self-accelerating feedback loop with important negative impacts on water cycling and water productivity. Therefore, sustainable soil...

  10. In-situ measurements of soil-water conductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, C.E.


    Radionuclides and other environmentally important materials often move in association with water. In terrestrial ecosystems, the storage and movement of water in the soil is of prime importance to the hydrologic cycle of the ecosystem. The soil-water conductivity (the rate at which water moves through the soil) is a necessary input to models of soil-water movement. In situ techniques for measurement of soil-water conductivity have the advantage of averaging soil-water properties over larger areas than most laboratory methods. The in situ techniques also cause minimum disturbance of the soil under investigation. Results of measurements using a period of soil-water drainage after initial wetting indicate that soil-water conductivity and its variation with soil-water content can be determined with reasonable accuracy for the plot where the measurements were made. Further investigations are being carried out to look at variability between plots within a soil type

  11. Contaminant Immobilization and Nutrient Release by Biochar Soil Amendment: Roles of Natural Organic Matter (United States)

    Contamination of soil interstitial waters by labile heavy metals such as CuII, CdII, and NiII is of worldwide concern. Carbonaceous materials such as char and activated carbon have received considerable attention in recent years as soil amendment for both sequestering heavy metal contaminants and r...

  12. Chemistry and behaviour of B, Ca and Mg in interstitial waters of sediments from the coastal and estuarine regions of Mandovi river along the west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shirodkar, P.V.; SenGupta, R.

    Interstitial waters of coastal and estuarine sediments show enrichment of B and Ca and a decrease in Mg. Increase in interstitial B in sediments is due to the downward diffusion from overlying water and release from solid phases by physicochemical...

  13. Measured and simulated soil water evaporation from four Great Plains soils (United States)

    The amount of soil water lost during stage one and stage two soil water evaporation is of interest to crop water use modelers. The ratio of measured soil surface temperature (Ts) to air temperature (Ta) was tested as a signal for the transition in soil water evaporation from stage one to stage two d...

  14. Measuring Soil Water Potential for Water Management in Agriculture: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Bittelli


    Full Text Available Soil water potential is a soil property affecting a large variety of bio-physical processes, such as seed germination, plant growth and plant nutrition. Gradients in soil water potential are the driving forces of water movement, affecting water infiltration, redistribution, percolation, evaporation and plants’ transpiration. The total soil water potential is given by the sum of gravity, matric, osmotic and hydrostatic potential. The quantification of the soil water potential is necessary for a variety of applications both in agricultural and horticultural systems such as optimization of irrigation volumes and fertilization. In recent decades, a large number of experimental methods have been developed to measure the soil water potential, and a large body of knowledge is now available on theory and applications. In this review, the main techniques used to measure the soil water potential are discussed. Subsequently, some examples are provided where the measurement of soil water potential is utilized for a sustainable use of water resources in agriculture.

  15. A Comparison of Soil-Water Sampling Techniques (United States)

    Tindall, J. A.; Figueroa-Johnson, M.; Friedel, M. J.


    The representativeness of soil pore water extracted by suction lysimeters in ground-water monitoring studies is a problem that often confounds interpretation of measured data. Current soil water sampling techniques cannot identify the soil volume from which a pore water sample is extracted, neither macroscopic, microscopic, or preferential flowpath. This research was undertaken to compare values of extracted suction lysimeters samples from intact soil cores with samples obtained by the direct extraction methods to determine what portion of soil pore water is sampled by each method. Intact soil cores (30 centimeter (cm) diameter by 40 cm height) were extracted from two different sites - a sandy soil near Altamonte Springs, Florida and a clayey soil near Centralia in Boone County, Missouri. Isotopically labeled water (O18? - analyzed by mass spectrometry) and bromide concentrations (KBr- - measured using ion chromatography) from water samples taken by suction lysimeters was compared with samples obtained by direct extraction methods of centrifugation and azeotropic distillation. Water samples collected by direct extraction were about 0.25 ? more negative (depleted) than that collected by suction lysimeter values from a sandy soil and about 2-7 ? more negative from a well structured clayey soil. Results indicate that the majority of soil water in well-structured soil is strongly bound to soil grain surfaces and is not easily sampled by suction lysimeters. In cases where a sufficient volume of water has passed through the soil profile and displaced previous pore water, suction lysimeters will collect a representative sample of soil pore water from the sampled depth interval. It is suggested that for stable isotope studies monitoring precipitation and soil water, suction lysimeter should be installed at shallow depths (10 cm). Samples should also be coordinated with precipitation events. The data also indicate that each extraction method be use to sample a different

  16. Interstitial water studies on small core samples, Deep Sea Drilling Project, Leg 5 (United States)

    Manheim, F. T.; Chan, K.M.; Sayles, F.L.


    Leg 5 samples fall into two categories with respect to interstitial water composition: 1) rapidly deposited terrigenous or appreciably terrigenous deposits, such as in Hole 35 (western Escanaba trough, off Cape Mendocino, California); and, 2) slowly deposited pelagic clays and biogenic muds and oozes. Interstitial waters in the former show modest to slight variations in chloride and sodium, but drastic changes in non-conservative ions such as magnesium and sulfate. The pelagic deposits show only relatively minor changes in both conservative and non-conservative pore fluid constituents. As was pointed out in earlier Leg Reports, it is believed that much of the variation in chloride in pore fluids within individual holes is attributable to the manipulation of samples on board ship and in the laboratory. On the other hand, the scatter in sodium is due in part to analytical error (on the order of 2 to 3 per cent, in terms of a standard deviation), and it probably accounts for most of the discrepancies in total anion and cation balance. All constituents reported here, with the exception of bulk water content, were analyzed on water samples which were sealed in plastic tubes aboard ship and were subsequently opened and divided into weighed aliquots in the laboratory. Analytical methods follow the atomic absorption, wet chemical and emission spectrochemical techniques briefly summarized in previous reports, e.g. Manheim et al., 1969, and Chan and Manheim, 1970. The authors acknowledge assistance from W. Sunda, D. Kerr, C. Lawson and H. Richards, and thank D. Spencer, P. Brewer and E. Degens for allowing the use of equipment and laboratory facilities.

  17. QSAR development and bioavailability determination: the toxicity of chloroanilines to the soil dwelling springtail Folsomia candida. (United States)

    Giesen, Daniel; van Gestel, Cornelis A M


    Quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) are an established tool in environmental risk assessment and a valuable alternative to the exhaustive use of test animals under REACH. In this study a QSAR was developed for the toxicity of a series of six chloroanilines to the soil-dwelling collembolan Folsomia candida in standardized natural LUFA2.2 soil. Toxicity endpoints incorporated in the QSAR were the concentrations causing 10% (EC10) and 50% (EC50) reduction in reproduction of F. candida. Toxicity was based on concentrations in interstitial water estimated from nominal concentrations in the soil and published soil-water partition coefficients. Estimated effect concentrations were negatively correlated with the lipophilicity of the compounds. Interstitial water concentrations for both the EC10 and EC50 for four compounds were determined by using solid-phase microextraction (SPME). Measured and estimated concentrations were comparable only for tetra- and pentachloroaniline. With decreasing chlorination the disparity between modelled and actual concentrations increased. Optimisation of the QSAR therefore could not be accomplished, showing the necessity to move from total soil to (bio)available concentration measurements. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Characterization of soil water content variability and soil texture using GPR groundwave techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grote, K.; Anger, C.; Kelly, B.; Hubbard, S.; Rubin, Y.


    Accurate characterization of near-surface soil water content is vital for guiding agricultural management decisions and for reducing the potential negative environmental impacts of agriculture. Characterizing the near-surface soil water content can be difficult, as this parameter is often both spatially and temporally variable, and obtaining sufficient measurements to describe the heterogeneity can be prohibitively expensive. Understanding the spatial correlation of near-surface soil water content can help optimize data acquisition and improve understanding of the processes controlling soil water content at the field scale. In this study, ground penetrating radar (GPR) methods were used to characterize the spatial correlation of water content in a three acre field as a function of sampling depth, season, vegetation, and soil texture. GPR data were acquired with 450 MHz and 900 MHz antennas, and measurements of the GPR groundwave were used to estimate soil water content at four different times. Additional water content estimates were obtained using time domain reflectometry measurements, and soil texture measurements were also acquired. Variograms were calculated for each set of measurements, and comparison of these variograms showed that the horizontal spatial correlation was greater for deeper water content measurements than for shallower measurements. Precipitation and irrigation were both shown to increase the spatial variability of water content, while shallowly-rooted vegetation decreased the variability. Comparison of the variograms of water content and soil texture showed that soil texture generally had greater small-scale spatial correlation than water content, and that the variability of water content in deeper soil layers was more closely correlated to soil texture than were shallower water content measurements. Lastly, cross-variograms of soil texture and water content were calculated, and co-kriging of water content estimates and soil texture

  19. Soil Water: Advanced Crop and Soil Science. A Course of Study. (United States)

    Miller, Larry E.

    The course of study represents the fourth of six modules in advanced crop and soil science and introduces the agriculture student to the topic of soil water. Upon completing the three day module, the student will be able to classify water as to its presence in the soil, outline the hydrological cycle, list the ways water is lost from the soil,…

  20. Interstitial nephritis. (United States)

    Papper, S


    There are many causes of interstitial nephritis other than pyelonephritis. The term interstitial nephritis does not connote a single etiologic or pathogenetic mechanism; it rather arbitrarily places together a wider variety of renal diseases that have a predilection for early and major involvement of the renal interstitium. The prototype of acute interstitial nephritis is acute pyelonephritis. In addition, there is a drug-related acute interstitial disease that is probably of immunological nature and usually reverses with discontinuance of the offending drug. Chronic interstitial nephritis includes many diverse illnesses. Nonobstructive pyelonephritis occurs but its prevalence is debated. Analgesic abuse nephropathy is not rare and is potentially reversible. Papillary necrosis has many causes and a wide spectrum of clinical presentations. Heavy metals, such as lead, cause interstitial nephritis. Balkan nephropathy occurs in an endemic area and although not bacterial in origin is of unknown cause.

  1. Soil-Water Repellency Characteristic Curves for Soil Profiles with Organic Carbon Gradients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wijewardana, Nadeeka Senani; Muller, Karin; Moldrup, Per


    Soil water repellency (SWR) of soils is a property with significant consequences for agricultural water management, water infiltration, contaminant transport, and for soil erosion. It is caused by the presence of hydrophobic agents on mineral grain surfaces. Soils were samples in different depths......, and the sessile drop method (SDM). The aim to (i) compare the methods, (ii) characterize the soil-water repellency characteristic curves (SWRCC) being SWR as a function of the volumetric soil-water content (θ) or matric potential (ψ), and (iii) find relationships between SWRCC parameters and SOC content. The WDPT...... at three forest sites in Japan and three pasture sites in New Zealand, covering soil organic carbon (SOC) contents between 1 and 26%. The SWR was measured over a range of water contents by three common methods; the water drop penetration time (WDPT) test, the molarity of an ethanol droplet (MED) method...

  2. Inferring diameters of spheres and cylinders using interstitial water. (United States)

    Herrera, Sheryl L; Mercredi, Morgan E; Buist, Richard; Martin, Melanie


    Most early methods to infer axon diameter distributions using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) used single diffusion encoding sequences such as pulsed gradient spin echo (SE) and are thus sensitive to axons of diameters > 5 μm. We previously simulated oscillating gradient (OG) SE sequences for diffusion spectroscopy to study smaller axons including the majority constituting cortical connections. That study suggested the model of constant extra-axonal diffusion breaks down at OG accessible frequencies. In this study we present data from phantoms to test a time-varying interstitial apparent diffusion coefficient. Diffusion spectra were measured in four samples from water packed around beads of diameters 3, 6 and 10 μm; and 151 μm diameter tubes. Surface-to-volume ratios, and diameters were inferred. The bead pore radii estimates were 0.60±0.08 μm, 0.54±0.06 μm and 1.0±0.1 μm corresponding to bead diameters ranging from 2.9±0.4 μm to 5.3±0.7 μm, 2.6±0.3 μm to 4.8±0.6 μm, and 4.9±0.7 μm to 9±1 μm. The tube surface-to-volume ratio estimate was 0.06±0.02 μm -1 corresponding to a tube diameter of 180±70 μm. Interstitial models with OG inferred 3-10 μm bead diameters from 0.54±0.06 μm to 1.0±0.1 μm pore radii and 151 μm tube diameters from 0.06±0.02 μm -1 surface-to-volume ratios.

  3. Importance of soil-water relation in assessment endpoint in bioremediated soils: Plant growth and soil physical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, X.; Sawatsky, N.


    Much effort has been focused on defining the end-point of bioremediated soils by chemical analysis (Alberta Tier 1 or CCME Guideline for Contaminated Soils) or toxicity tests. However, these tests do not completely assess the soil quality, or the capability of soil to support plant growth after bioremediation. This study compared barley (Hordeum vulgare) growth on: (i) non-contaminated, agricultural topsoil, (2) oil-contaminated soil (4% total extractable hydrocarbons, or TEH), and (3) oil-contaminated soil treated by bioremediation (< 2% TEH). Soil physical properties including water retention, water uptake, and water repellence were measured. The results indicated that the growth of barley was significantly reduced by oil-contamination of agricultural topsoil. Furthermore, bioremediation did not improve the barley yield. The lack of effects from bioremediation was attributed to development of water repellence in hydrocarbon contaminated soils. There seemed to be a critical water content around 18% to 20% in contaminated soils. Above this value the water uptake by contaminated soil was near that of the agricultural topsoil. For lower water contents, there was a strong divergence in sorptivity between contaminated and agricultural topsoil. For these soils, water availability was likely the single most important parameter controlling plant growth. This parameter should be considered in assessing endpoint of bioremediation for hydrocarbon contaminated soils

  4. Isotopic fractionation of soil water during evaporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leopoldo, P R [Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas e Biologicas de Botucatu (Brazil); Salati, E; Matsui, E [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura, Piracicaba (Brazil)


    The study of the variation of D/H relation in soil water during evaporation is studied. The isotopic fractionation of soil water has been observed in two soils of light and heavy texture. Soil columns were utilized. Soil water was extracted in a system operated under low pressure and the gaseous hydrogen was obtained by decomposition of the water and was analyzed in a GD-150 mass spectrometer for deuterium content. The variation of the delta sub(eta) /sup 0///sub 00/ value during evaporation showed that for water held at potentials below 15 atm, the deuterium content of soil water stays practically constant. For water held at potentials higher than 15 atm, corresponding to the third stage of evaporation, there is a strong tendency of a constant increase of delta sub(eta) /sup 0///sub 00/ of the remaining water.

  5. Modelling soil water dynamics and crop water uptake at the field level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kabat, P.; Feddes, R.A.


    Parametrization approaches to model soil water dynamics and crop water uptake at field level were analysed. Averaging and numerical difficulties in applying numerical soil water flow models to heterogeneous soils are highlighted. Simplified parametrization approaches to the soil water flow, such as

  6. Soil Water Retention Curve (United States)

    Johnson, L. E.; Kim, J.; Cifelli, R.; Chandra, C. V.


    Potential water retention, S, is one of parameters commonly used in hydrologic modeling for soil moisture accounting. Physically, S indicates total amount of water which can be stored in soil and is expressed in units of depth. S can be represented as a change of soil moisture content and in this context is commonly used to estimate direct runoff, especially in the Soil Conservation Service (SCS) curve number (CN) method. Generally, the lumped and the distributed hydrologic models can easily use the SCS-CN method to estimate direct runoff. Changes in potential water retention have been used in previous SCS-CN studies; however, these studies have focused on long-term hydrologic simulations where S is allowed to vary at the daily time scale. While useful for hydrologic events that span multiple days, the resolution is too coarse for short-term applications such as flash flood events where S may not recover its full potential. In this study, a new method for estimating a time-variable potential water retention at hourly time-scales is presented. The methodology is applied for the Napa River basin, California. The streamflow gage at St Helena, located in the upper reaches of the basin, is used as the control gage site to evaluate the model performance as it is has minimal influences by reservoirs and diversions. Rainfall events from 2011 to 2012 are used for estimating the event-based SCS CN to transfer to S. As a result, we have derived the potential water retention curve and it is classified into three sections depending on the relative change in S. The first is a negative slope section arising from the difference in the rate of moving water through the soil column, the second is a zero change section representing the initial recovery the potential water retention, and the third is a positive change section representing the full recovery of the potential water retention. Also, we found that the soil water moving has traffic jam within 24 hours after finished first

  7. Three Principles of Water Flow in Soils (United States)

    Guo, L.; Lin, H.


    Knowledge of water flow in soils is crucial to understanding terrestrial hydrological cycle, surface energy balance, biogeochemical dynamics, ecosystem services, contaminant transport, and many other Critical Zone processes. However, due to the complex and dynamic nature of non-uniform flow, reconstruction and prediction of water flow in natural soils remain challenging. This study synthesizes three principles of water flow in soils that can improve modeling water flow in soils of various complexity. The first principle, known as the Darcy's law, came to light in the 19th century and suggested a linear relationship between water flux density and hydraulic gradient, which was modified by Buckingham for unsaturated soils. Combining mass balance and the Buckingham-Darcy's law, L.A. Richards quantitatively described soil water change with space and time, i.e., Richards equation. The second principle was proposed by L.A. Richards in the 20th century, which described the minimum pressure potential needed to overcome surface tension of fluid and initiate water flow through soil-air interface. This study extends this principle to encompass soil hydrologic phenomena related to varied interfaces and microscopic features and provides a more cohesive explanation of hysteresis, hydrophobicity, and threshold behavior when water moves through layered soils. The third principle is emerging in the 21st century, which highlights the complex and evolving flow networks embedded in heterogeneous soils. This principle is summarized as: Water moves non-uniformly in natural soils with a dual-flow regime, i.e., it follows the least-resistant or preferred paths when "pushed" (e.g., by storms) or "attracted" (e.g., by plants) or "restricted" (e.g., by bedrock), but moves diffusively into the matrix when "relaxed" (e.g., at rest) or "touched" (e.g., adsorption). The first principle is a macroscopic view of steady-state water flow, the second principle is a microscopic view of interface

  8. Soil water diffusivity as a function of water content and time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerrini, I.A.


    The soil-water diffusivity has been studied as a function of water content and time. From the idea of studying the horizontal movement of water in swelling soils, a simple formulation has been achieved which allows for the diffusivity, water content dependency and time dependency, to be estimated, not only of this kind of soil, but for any other soil as well. It was observed that the internal rearrangement of soil particles is a more important phenomenon than swelling, being responsible for time dependency. The method 2γ is utilized, which makes it possible to simultaneously determine the water content and density, point by point, in a soil column. The diffusivity data thus obtained are compared to those obtained when time dependency is not considered. Finally, a new soil parameter, α, is introduced and the values obtained agrees with the internal rearrangment assumption and time dependency for diffusivity (Author) [pt

  9. Stochastic estimation of plant-available soil water under fluctuating water table depths (United States)

    Or, Dani; Groeneveld, David P.


    Preservation of native valley-floor phreatophytes while pumping groundwater for export from Owens Valley, California, requires reliable predictions of plant water use. These predictions are compared with stored soil water within well field regions and serve as a basis for managing groundwater resources. Soil water measurement errors, variable recharge, unpredictable climatic conditions affecting plant water use, and modeling errors make soil water predictions uncertain and error-prone. We developed and tested a scheme based on soil water balance coupled with implementation of Kalman filtering (KF) for (1) providing physically based soil water storage predictions with prediction errors projected from the statistics of the various inputs, and (2) reducing the overall uncertainty in both estimates and predictions. The proposed KF-based scheme was tested using experimental data collected at a location on the Owens Valley floor where the water table was artificially lowered by groundwater pumping and later allowed to recover. Vegetation composition and per cent cover, climatic data, and soil water information were collected and used for developing a soil water balance. Predictions and updates of soil water storage under different types of vegetation were obtained for a period of 5 years. The main results show that: (1) the proposed predictive model provides reliable and resilient soil water estimates under a wide range of external conditions; (2) the predicted soil water storage and the error bounds provided by the model offer a realistic and rational basis for decisions such as when to curtail well field operation to ensure plant survival. The predictive model offers a practical means for accommodating simple aspects of spatial variability by considering the additional source of uncertainty as part of modeling or measurement uncertainty.

  10. Validation of a spatial–temporal soil water movement and plant water uptake model

    KAUST Repository



    © 2014, (publisher). All rights reserved. Management and irrigation of plants increasingly relies on accurate mathematical models for the movement of water within unsaturated soils. Current models often use values for water content and soil parameters that are averaged over the soil profile. However, many applications require models to more accurately represent the soil–plant–atmosphere continuum, in particular, water movement and saturation within specific parts of the soil profile. In this paper a mathematical model for water uptake by a plant root system from unsaturated soil is presented. The model provides an estimate of the water content level within the soil at different depths, and the uptake of water by the root system. The model was validated using field data, which include hourly water content values at five different soil depths under a grass/herb cover over 1 year, to obtain a fully calibrated system for plant water uptake with respect to climate conditions. When compared quantitatively to a simple water balance model, the proposed model achieves a better fit to the experimental data due to its ability to vary water content with depth. To accurately model the water content in the soil profile, the soil water retention curve and saturated hydraulic conductivity needed to vary with depth.

  11. Soil water repellency at old crude oil spill sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, J.L.


    This thesis presents the current state of knowledge regarding the cause of soil water repellency and characterizes disaggregated nonwettable surface soils found at old crude oil spill sites. Pollution-induced water repellency generally develops following prolonged exposures of soil to liquid- or vapour-phase petroleum hydrocarbons. The condition varies significantly in terms of severity and persistence. Soil water repellency retards plant growth and disturbs the hydrological balance of ecosystems. Disaggregated water-repellent soils are also very susceptible to dispersal by erosion, posing a threat to the productivity of surrounding soils. The author described the probable causes of soil water repellency under the following three main themes: (1) accumulation of hydrophobic organic material in soil, (2) redistribution and re-organisation of this material in soil, and (3) stabilisation of the hydrophobic organic material. This final process is necessary to ensure persistence of induced water repellency symptoms. Petroleum residues as water-repellent substances in weathered nonwettable oil-contaminated soils were also discussed and a hypothesis about soil water repellency was presented which deals with flexible conformation in organic matter coatings. Processes leading to the development of soil water repellency following crude oil contamination were also described. It was determined that soil water repellency is a function of the packing density and the chain conformation of amphiphilic organic molecules in the outermost layer of soil organic matter coatings. This research suggests that the fractional coverage of alkyl chains on soil particle surfaces determines the degree of water repellency that is displayed by soil. It was shown that prompt remediation of some oil-contaminated plots can effectively prevent the development of soil water repellency. 4 refs., 32 tabs., 22 figs., 5 appendices

  12. Soils and water [Chapter 18 (United States)

    Goran Berndes; Heather Youngs; Maria Victoria Ramos Ballester; Heitor Cantarella; Annette L. Cowie; Graham Jewitt; Luiz Antonio Martinelli; Dan Neary


    Bioenergy production can have positive or negative impacts on soil and water. To best understand these impacts, the effects of bioenergy systems on water and soil resources should be assessed as part of an integrated analysis considering environmental, social and economic dimensions. Bioenergy production systems that are strategically integrated in the landscape to...

  13. Using soil water sensors to improve irrigation management (United States)

    Irrigation water management has to do with the appropriate application of water to soils, in terms of amounts, rates, and timing to satisfy crop water demands while protecting the soil and water resources from degradation. In this regard, sensors can be used to monitor the soil water status; and som...

  14. Prediction of the Soil Water Characteristic from Soil Particle Volume Fractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naveed, Muhammad; Møldrup, Per; Tuller, Markus


    Modelling water distribution and flow in partially saturated soils requires knowledge of the soil-water characteristic (SWC). However, measurement of the SWC is challenging and time-consuming, and in some cases not feasible. This study introduces two predictive models (Xw-model and Xw......*-model) for the SWC, derived from readily available soil properties such as texture and bulk density. A total of 46 soils from different horizons at 15 locations across Denmark were used for models evaluation. The Xw-model predicts the volumetric water content as a function of volumetric fines content (organic matter...... (organic matter, clay, silt, fine and coarse sand), variably included in the model depending on the pF value. The volumetric content of a particular soil particle size fraction was included in the model if it was assumed to contribute to the pore size fraction still occupied with water at the given p...

  15. Governing equations of transient soil water flow and soil water flux in multi-dimensional fractional anisotropic media and fractional time


    M. L. Kavvas; A. Ercan; J. Polsinelli


    In this study dimensionally consistent governing equations of continuity and motion for transient soil water flow and soil water flux in fractional time and in fractional multiple space dimensions in anisotropic media are developed. Due to the anisotropy in the hydraulic conductivities of natural soils, the soil medium within which the soil water flow occurs is essentially anisotropic. Accordingly, in this study the fractional dimensions in two horizontal and one vertical di...

  16. Organic compounds in hot-water-soluble fractions from water repellent soils (United States)

    Atanassova, Irena; Doerr, Stefan


    Water repellency (WR) is a soil property providing hydrophobic protection and preventing rapid microbial decomposition of organic matter entering the soil with litter or plant residues. Global warming can cause changes in WR, thus influencing water storage and plant productivity. Here we assess two different approaches for analysis of organic compounds composition in hot water extracts from accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) of water repellent soils. Extracts were lyophilized, fractionated on SiO2 (sand) and SPE cartridge, and measured by GC/MS. Dominant compounds were aromatic acids, short chain dicarboxylic acids (C4-C9), sugars, short chain fatty acids (C8-C18), and esters of stearic and palmitic acids. Polar compounds (mainly sugars) were adsorbed on applying SPE clean-up procedure, while esters were highly abundant. In addition to the removal of polar compounds, hydrophobic esters and hydrocarbons (alkanes and alkenes particle wettability and C dynamics in soils. Key words: soil water repellency, hot water soluble carbon (HWSC), GC/MS, hydrophobic compounds

  17. Field soil-water properties measured through radiation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This report shows a major effort to make soil physics applicable to the behaviour of the field soils and presents a rich and diverse set of data which are essential for the development of effective soil-water management practices that improve and conserve the quality and quantity of agricultural lands. This piece of research has shown that the neutron moisture meter together with some complementary instruments like tensiometers, can be used not only to measure soil water contents but also be extremely handy to measure soil hydraulic characteristics and soil water flow. It is, however, recognized that hydraulic conductivity is highly sensitive to small changes in soil water content and texture, being extremely variable spatially and temporally

  18. Water transport in desert alluvial soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kearl, P.M.


    Safe storage of radioactive waste buried in an arid alluvial soil requires extensive site characterization of the physical process influencing moisture movement which could act as a transport medium for the migration of radionuclides. The field portion of this study included an infiltration plot instrumented with thermocouple psychrometers and neturon moisture probe access holes. Baseline information shows a zone of higher moisture content at approximately 1.5 m (5 ft) in depth. A sprinkler system simulated a 500-year precipitation event. Results revealed water penetrated the soil to 0.9 m (2.9 ft). Due to the low moisture content, vapor transport was primarily responsible for water movement at this depth. Temperature gradients are substantially responsible for vapor transport by preferentially sorting water-vapor molecules from the surrounding air by using the soil as a molecular sieve. Adsorbed and capillary water vapor pressure increases in response to a temperature increase and releases additional water to the soil pore atmosphere to be diffused away

  19. Soil water regime under homogeneous eucalyptus and pine forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, W.P.; Reichardt, K.


    Measurement of precipitation and monthly soil water content during two consecutive years, in 6-year old plantations of eucalypt and pine, and also in an open plot containing natural herbaceous vegetation, were used to compare the soil water regime of these vegetation covers. Precipitation was measured in the open plot with a recording and a non-recording rain gage. Soil water was assessed by the neutron scattering technique to a depth of 1,80 meters. Results indicate that there was, in general, water available in the soil over the entire period of study in all three vegetation conditions. The annual range of soil water in eucalypt, pine, and in natural herbaceous vegetation was essentially similar. The analysis of the average soil water regime showed that the soil under herbaceous vegetation was, generally, more umid than the soil under eucalypt and pine during the period of soil water recharge (September through February); during the period of soil water depletion, the opposite was true. Collectively, the results permit the conclusion that there were no adverse effects on the soil water regime which could be ascribed to reflorestation with eucalypt or pine, as compared with that observed for the natural herbaceous vegetation [pt

  20. Mechanical impedance of soil crusts and water content in loamy soils (United States)

    Josa March, Ramon; Verdú, Antoni M. C.; Mas, Maria Teresa


    Soil crust development affects soil water dynamics and soil aeration. Soil crusts act as mechanical barriers to fluid flow and, as their mechanical impedance increases with drying, they also become obstacles to seedling emergence. As a consequence, the emergence of seedling cohorts (sensitive seeds) might be reduced. However, this may be of interest to be used as an effective system of weed control. Soil crusting is determined by several factors: soil texture, rain intensity, sedimentation processes, etc. There are different ways to characterize the crusts. One of them is to measure their mechanical impedance (MI), which is linked to their moisture level. In this study, we measured the evolution of the mechanical impedance of crusts formed by three loamy soil types (clay loam, loam and sandy clay loam, USDA) with different soil water contents. The aim of this communication was to establish a mathematical relationship between the crust water content and its MI. A saturated soil paste was prepared and placed in PVC cylinders (50 mm diameter and 10 mm height) arranged on a plastic tray. Previously the plastic tray was sprayed with a hydrophobic liquid to prevent the adherence of samples. The samples on the plastic tray were left to air-dry under laboratory conditions until their IM was measured. To measure IM, a food texture analyzer was used. The equipment incorporates a mobile arm, a load cell to apply force and a probe. The arm moves down vertically at a constant rate and the cylindrical steel probe (4 mm diameter) penetrates the soil sample vertically at a constant rate. The equipment is provided with software to store data (time, vertical distance and force values) at a rate of up to 500 points per second. Water content in crust soil samples was determined as the loss of weight after oven-drying (105°C). From the results, an exponential regression between MI and the water content was obtained (determination coefficient very close to 1). This methodology allows

  1. The strontium isotopic composition of interstitial waters from sites 245 and 336 of the deep sea drilling project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkesworth, C.J.; Elderfield, H.


    Measurements of 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios of interstitial waters from leg 25, site 245 and leg 38, site 336 of the Deep Sea Drilling Project show that the enrichment of Sr 2+ with depth is caused both by the alteration of volcanic material and by the introduction of strontium derived from calcium carbonate. 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios range from 0.70913 to 0.70794 at site 245 and from 0.70916 to 0.70694 at site 336. The low ratios compared with contemporaneous seawater reflect the release of Sr from a volcanic source having, according to material-balance calculations, a 87 Se/ 86 Sr ratio of about 0.7034 at site 336. At this site the source appears to be volcanic ash and not basaltic basement which acts as a sink for Sr 2+ during in situ low-temperature weathering. The volcanic contribution to the strontium enrichment in the basal interstitial waters varies from 50% at site 336. The remaining Sr 2+ is derived from Sr-rich biogenic carbonate during diagenetic recrystallization to form Sr-poor calcite. (Auth.)

  2. Soil-Water Characteristic Curves of Red Clay treated by Ionic Soil Stabilizer (United States)

    Cui, D.; Xiang, W.


    The relationship of red clay particle with water is an important factor to produce geological disaster and environmental damage. In order to reduce the role of adsorbed water of red clay in WuHan, Ionic Soil Stabilizer (ISS) was used to treat the red clay. Soil Moisture Equipment made in U.S.A was used to measure soil-water characteristic curve of red clay both in natural and stabilized conditions in the suction range of 0-500kPa. The SWCC results were used to interpret the red clay behavior due to stabilizer treatment. In addition, relationship were compared between the basic soil and stabilizer properties such as water content, dry density, liquid limit, plastic limit, moisture absorption rate and stabilizer dosages. The analysis showed that the particle density and specific surface area increase, the dehydration rate slows and the thickness of water film thins after treatment with Ionic Soil Stabilizer. After treatment with the ISS, the geological disasters caused by the adsorbed water of red clay can be effectively inhibited.

  3. Use of neutron water and gamma density gauges in soil water studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirda, C.


    Irrigation practices should be improved to increase effective use of water and thereby increasing irrigated areas as well as securing soil productivity under irrigated agriculture. Under dry farming systems of rainfed agriculture, different tillage practices should be tested for improved soil water conservation and rain harvesting. The research work addressing the above mentioned problems requires methods to measure soil water content accurately and conveniently. In the following article, the methods which are currently used to measure field soil water content were discussed. 34 refs, 13 figs, 13 tabs

  4. Characterization of field-measured soil-water properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, D.R.; Reichardt, K.; Wierenga, P.J.


    As part of a five-year co-ordinated research programme of the International Atomic Energy Agency, the Use of Radiation and Isotope Techniques in Studies of Soil-Water Regimes, soil physicists examined soil-water properties of one or two field sites in 11 different countries (Brazil, Belgium, Cyprus, Chile, Israel, Japan, Madagascar, Nigeria, Senegal, Syria and Thailand). The results indicate that the redistribution method yields values of soil-water properties that have a large degree of uncertainty, and that this uncertainty is not necessarily related to the kind of soil being analysed. Regardless of the fundamental cause of this uncertainty (experimental and computational errors versus natural soil variability), the conclusion is that further developments of field technology depend upon stochastic rather than deterministic concepts

  5. [Effects of soil wetting pattern on the soil water-thermal environment and cotton root water consumption under mulched drip irrigation]. (United States)

    Li, Dong-wei; Li, Ming-si; Liu, Dong; Lyu, Mou-chao; Jia, Yan-hui


    Abstract: To explore the effects of soil wetting pattern on soil water-thermal environment and water consumption of cotton root under mulched drip irrigation, a field experiment with three drip intensities (1.69, 3.46 and 6.33 L · h(-1)), was carried out in Shihezi, Xinjiang Autonomous Region. The soil matric potential, soil temperature, cotton root distribution and water consumption were measured during the growing period of cotton. The results showed that the main factor influencing the soil temperature of cotton under plastic mulch was sunlight. There was no significant difference in the soil temperature and root water uptake under different treatments. The distribution of soil matrix suction in cotton root zone under plastic mulch was more homogeneous under ' wide and shallow' soil wetting pattern (W633). Under the 'wide and shallow' soil wetting pattern, the average difference of cotton root water consumption between inner row and outer row was 0.67 mm · d(-1), which was favorable to the cotton growing trimly at both inner and outer rows; for the 'narrow and deep' soil wetting pattern (W169), the same index was 0.88 mm · d(-1), which was unfavorable to cotton growing uniformly at both inner and outer rows. So, we should select the broad-shallow type soil wetting pattern in the design of drip irrigation under mulch.

  6. Non-destructive estimates of soil carbonic anhydrase activity and associated soil water oxygen isotope composition (United States)

    Jones, Sam P.; Ogée, Jérôme; Sauze, Joana; Wohl, Steven; Saavedra, Noelia; Fernández-Prado, Noelia; Maire, Juliette; Launois, Thomas; Bosc, Alexandre; Wingate, Lisa


    The contribution of photosynthesis and soil respiration to net land-atmosphere carbon dioxide (CO2) exchange can be estimated based on the differential influence of leaves and soils on budgets of the oxygen isotope composition (δ18O) of atmospheric CO2. To do so, the activity of carbonic anhydrases (CAs), a group of enzymes that catalyse the hydration of CO2 in soils and plants, needs to be understood. Measurements of soil CA activity typically involve the inversion of models describing the δ18O of CO2 fluxes to solve for the apparent, potentially catalysed, rate of CO2 hydration. This requires information about the δ18O of CO2 in isotopic equilibrium with soil water, typically obtained from destructive, depth-resolved sampling and extraction of soil water. In doing so, an assumption is made about the soil water pool that CO2 interacts with, which may bias estimates of CA activity if incorrect. Furthermore, this can represent a significant challenge in data collection given the potential for spatial and temporal variability in the δ18O of soil water and limited a priori information with respect to the appropriate sampling resolution and depth. We investigated whether we could circumvent this requirement by inferring the rate of CO2 hydration and the δ18O of soil water from the relationship between the δ18O of CO2 fluxes and the δ18O of CO2 at the soil surface measured at different ambient CO2 conditions. This approach was tested through laboratory incubations of air-dried soils that were re-wetted with three waters of different δ18O. Gas exchange measurements were made on these soils to estimate the rate of hydration and the δ18O of soil water, followed by soil water extraction to allow for comparison. Estimated rates of CO2 hydration were 6.8-14.6 times greater than the theoretical uncatalysed rate of hydration, indicating that CA were active in these soils. Importantly, these estimates were not significantly different among water treatments, suggesting

  7. Large zero-tension plate lysimeters for soil water and solute collection in undisturbed soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Peters


    Full Text Available Water collection from undisturbed unsaturated soils to estimate in situ water and solute fluxes in the field is a challenge, in particular if soils are heterogeneous. Large sampling devices are required if preferential flow paths are present. We present a modular plate system that allows installation of large zero-tension lysimeter plates under undisturbed soils in the field. To investigate the influence of the lysimeter on the water flow field in the soil, a numerical 2-D simulation study was conducted for homogeneous soils with uni- and bimodal pore-size distributions and stochastic Miller-Miller heterogeneity. The collection efficiency was found to be highly dependent on the hydraulic functions, infiltration rate, and lysimeter size, and was furthermore affected by the degree of heterogeneity. In homogeneous soils with high saturated conductivities the devices perform poorly and even large lysimeters (width 250 cm can be bypassed by the soil water. Heterogeneities of soil hydraulic properties result into a network of flow channels that enhance the sampling efficiency of the lysimeter plates. Solute breakthrough into zero-tension lysimeter occurs slightly retarded as compared to the free soil, but concentrations in the collected water are similar to the mean flux concentration in the undisturbed soil. To validate the results from the numerical study, a dual tracer study with seven lysimeters of 1.25×1.25 m area was conducted in the field. Three lysimeters were installed underneath a 1.2 m filling of contaminated silty sand, the others deeper in the undisturbed soil. The lysimeters directly underneath the filled soil material collected water with a collection efficiency of 45%. The deeper lysimeters did not collect any water. The arrival of the tracers showed that almost all collected water came from preferential flow paths.

  8. Characteristics of water infiltration in layered water repellent soils (United States)

    Hydrophobic soil can influence soil water infiltration, but information regarding the impacts of different levels of hydrophobicity within a layered soil profile is limited. An infiltration study was conducted to determine the effects of different levels of hydrophobicity and the position of the hyd...

  9. Influence of salinity and water content on soil microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Yan


    Full Text Available Salinization is one of the most serious land degradation problems facing world. Salinity results in poor plant growth and low soil microbial activity due to osmotic stress and toxic ions. Soil microorganisms play a pivotal role in soils through mineralization of organic matter into plant available nutrients. Therefore it is important to maintain high microbial activity in soils. Salinity tolerant soil microbes counteract osmotic stress by synthesizing osmolytes which allows them to maintain their cell turgor and metabolism. Osmotic potential is a function of the salt concentration in the soil solution and therefore affected by both salinity (measured as electrical conductivity at a certain water content and soil water content. Soil salinity and water content vary in time and space. Understanding the effect of changes in salinity and water content on soil microorganisms is important for crop production, sustainable land use and rehabilitation of saline soils. In this review, the effects of soil salinity and water content on microbes are discussed to guide future research into management of saline soils.

  10. Soil Water and Temperature System (SWATS) Instrument Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, David R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)


    The soil water and temperature system (SWATS) provides vertical profiles of soil temperature, soil-water potential, and soil moisture as a function of depth below the ground surface at hourly intervals. The temperature profiles are measured directly by in situ sensors at the Central Facility and many of the extended facilities of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. The soil-water potential and soil moisture profiles are derived from measurements of soil temperature rise in response to small inputs of heat. Atmospheric scientists use the data in climate models to determine boundary conditions and to estimate the surface energy flux. The data are also useful to hydrologists, soil scientists, and agricultural scientists for determining the state of the soil.

  11. Predicting and mapping soil available water capacity in Korea. (United States)

    Hong, Suk Young; Minasny, Budiman; Han, Kyung Hwa; Kim, Yihyun; Lee, Kyungdo


    The knowledge on the spatial distribution of soil available water capacity at a regional or national extent is essential, as soil water capacity is a component of the water and energy balances in the terrestrial ecosystem. It controls the evapotranspiration rate, and has a major impact on climate. This paper demonstrates a protocol for mapping soil available water capacity in South Korea at a fine scale using data available from surveys. The procedures combined digital soil mapping technology with the available soil map of 1:25,000. We used the modal profile data from the Taxonomical Classification of Korean Soils. The data consist of profile description along with physical and chemical analysis for the modal profiles of the 380 soil series. However not all soil samples have measured bulk density and water content at -10 and -1500 kPa. Thus they need to be predicted using pedotransfer functions. Furthermore, water content at -10 kPa was measured using ground samples. Thus a correction factor is derived to take into account the effect of bulk density. Results showed that Andisols has the highest mean water storage capacity, followed by Entisols and Inceptisols which have loamy texture. The lowest water retention is Entisols which are dominated by sandy materials. Profile available water capacity to a depth of 1 m was calculated and mapped for Korea. The western part of the country shows higher available water capacity than the eastern part which is mountainous and has shallower soils. The highest water storage capacity soils are the Ultisols and Alfisols (mean of 206 and 205 mm, respectively). Validation of the maps showed promising results. The map produced can be used as an indication of soil physical quality of Korean soils.

  12. Predicting and mapping soil available water capacity in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suk Young Hong


    Full Text Available The knowledge on the spatial distribution of soil available water capacity at a regional or national extent is essential, as soil water capacity is a component of the water and energy balances in the terrestrial ecosystem. It controls the evapotranspiration rate, and has a major impact on climate. This paper demonstrates a protocol for mapping soil available water capacity in South Korea at a fine scale using data available from surveys. The procedures combined digital soil mapping technology with the available soil map of 1:25,000. We used the modal profile data from the Taxonomical Classification of Korean Soils. The data consist of profile description along with physical and chemical analysis for the modal profiles of the 380 soil series. However not all soil samples have measured bulk density and water content at −10 and −1500 kPa. Thus they need to be predicted using pedotransfer functions. Furthermore, water content at −10 kPa was measured using ground samples. Thus a correction factor is derived to take into account the effect of bulk density. Results showed that Andisols has the highest mean water storage capacity, followed by Entisols and Inceptisols which have loamy texture. The lowest water retention is Entisols which are dominated by sandy materials. Profile available water capacity to a depth of 1 m was calculated and mapped for Korea. The western part of the country shows higher available water capacity than the eastern part which is mountainous and has shallower soils. The highest water storage capacity soils are the Ultisols and Alfisols (mean of 206 and 205 mm, respectively. Validation of the maps showed promising results. The map produced can be used as an indication of soil physical quality of Korean soils.

  13. Response of three soil water sensors to variable solution electrical conductivity in different soils (United States)

    Commercial dielectric soil water sensors may improve management of irrigated agriculture by providing continuous field soil water information. Use of these sensors is partly limited by sensor sensitivity to variations in soil salinity and texture, which force expensive, time consuming, soil specific...

  14. Pancreas tumor interstitial pressure catheter measurement (United States)

    Nieskoski, Michael D.; Gunn, Jason; Marra, Kayla; Trembly, B. Stuart; Pogue, Brian W.


    This paper highlights the methodology in measuring interstitial pressure in pancreatic adenocarcinoma tumors. A Millar Mikrotip pressure catheter (SPR-671) was used in this study and a system was built to amplify and filter the output signal for data collection. The Millar pressure catheter was calibrated prior to each experiment in a water column at 37°C, range of 0 to 60 inH2O (112 mmHg), resulting in a calibration factor of 33 mV / 1 inH2O. The interstitial pressures measured in two orthotopically grown pancreatic adenocarcinoma tumor were 57 mmHg and 48 mmHg, respectively. Verteporfin uptake into the pancreatic adenocarcinoma tumor was measured using a probe-based experimental dosimeter.

  15. Microdialysis of the interstitial water space in human skin in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, L J; Kristensen, J K; Bülow, J


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of a microdialysis technique for measurement of substances in the interstitial water space in intact human skin. Glucose was selected to validate the method. The cutaneous glucose concentration was measured by microdialysis and compared...... to that in venous blood. Single dialysis fibers (length 20 mm, 2,000 Da molecular weight cutoff) were glued to nylon tubings and inserted in forearm skin by means of a fine needle. Dialysis fibers were inserted in duplicate. Seven subjects were investigated after an overnight fast. Intradermal position...... of the dialysis probes was established by C-mode ultrasound scanning. The implantation trauma lasted 90-135 min as measured by laser Doppler flowmetry. Each dialysis fiber was calibrated in vivo by perfusing it with four to five different glucose concentrations. The perfusion rate was 3 microliters...

  16. Moditored unsaturated soil transport processes as a support for large scale soil and water management (United States)

    Vanclooster, Marnik


    The current societal demand for sustainable soil and water management is very large. The drivers of global and climate change exert many pressures on the soil and water ecosystems, endangering appropriate ecosystem functioning. The unsaturated soil transport processes play a key role in soil-water system functioning as it controls the fluxes of water and nutrients from the soil to plants (the pedo-biosphere link), the infiltration flux of precipitated water to groundwater and the evaporative flux, and hence the feed back from the soil to the climate system. Yet, unsaturated soil transport processes are difficult to quantify since they are affected by huge variability of the governing properties at different space-time scales and the intrinsic non-linearity of the transport processes. The incompatibility of the scales between the scale at which processes reasonably can be characterized, the scale at which the theoretical process correctly can be described and the scale at which the soil and water system need to be managed, calls for further development of scaling procedures in unsaturated zone science. It also calls for a better integration of theoretical and modelling approaches to elucidate transport processes at the appropriate scales, compatible with the sustainable soil and water management objective. Moditoring science, i.e the interdisciplinary research domain where modelling and monitoring science are linked, is currently evolving significantly in the unsaturated zone hydrology area. In this presentation, a review of current moditoring strategies/techniques will be given and illustrated for solving large scale soil and water management problems. This will also allow identifying research needs in the interdisciplinary domain of modelling and monitoring and to improve the integration of unsaturated zone science in solving soil and water management issues. A focus will be given on examples of large scale soil and water management problems in Europe.

  17. Water erosion and soil water infiltration in different stages of corn development and tillage systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel F. de Carvalho


    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThis study evaluated soil and water losses, soil water infiltration and infiltration rate models in soil tillage systems and corn (Zea mays, L. development stages under simulated rainfall. The treatments were: cultivation along contour lines, cultivation down the slope and exposed soil. Soil losses and infiltration in each treatment were quantified for rains applied using a portable simulator, at 0, 30, 60 and 75 days after planting. Infiltration rates were estimated using the models of Kostiakov-Lewis, Horton and Philip. Based on the obtained results, the combination of effects between soil tillage system and corn development stages reduces soil and water losses. The contour tillage system promoted improvements in soil physical properties, favoring the reduction of erosion in 59.7% (water loss and 86.6% (soil loss at 75 days after planting, and the increase in the stable infiltration rate in 223.3%, compared with the exposed soil. Associated to soil cover, contour cultivation reduces soil and water losses, and the former is more influenced by management. Horton model is the most adequate to represent soil water infiltration rate under the evaluated conditions.

  18. Flow of gasoline-in-water microemulsion through water-saturated soil columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouyang, Y.; Mansell, R.S.; Rhue, R.D.


    Much consideration has been given to the use of surfactants to clean up nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) from contaminated soil and ground water. Although this emulsification technique has shown significant potential for application in environmental remediation practices, a major obstacle leading to low washing efficiency is the potential formation of macroemulsion with unfavorable flow characteristics in porous media. This study investigated influences of the flow of leaded-gasoline-in-water (LG/W) microemulsion upon the transport of gasoline and lead (Pb) species in water-saturated soil columns. Two experiments were performed: (1) the immiscible displacement of leaded gasoline and (2) the miscible displacement of LG/W microemulsion through soil columns, followed by sequentially flushing with NaCl solution and a water/surfactant/cosurfactant (W/S/CoS) mixture. Comparison of breakthrough curves (BTC) for gasoline between the two experiments shows that about 90% of gasoline and total Pb were removed from the soil columns by NaCl solution in the LG/W microemulsion experiment as compared to 40% removal of gasoline and 10% removal of total Pb at the same process in the leaded gasoline experiment. Results indicate that gasoline and Pb species moved much more effectively through soil during miscible flow of LG/W microemulsion than during immiscible flow of leaded gasoline. In contrast to the adverse effects of macroemulsion on the transport of NAPLs, microemulsion was found to enhance the transport of gasoline through water-saturated soil. Mass balance analysis shows that the W/S/CoS mixture had a high capacity for removing residual gasoline and Pb species from contaminated soil. Comparison of water-pressure differences across the soil columns for the two experiments indicates that pore clogging by gasoline droplets was greatly minimized in the LG/W microemulsion experiment

  19. Characteristics of soil under variations in clay, water saturation, and water flow rates, and the implications upon soil remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aikman, M.; Mirotchnik, K.; Kantzas, A.


    A potential remediation method for hydrocarbon contaminated soils was discussed. The new method was based on the use of proven and economic petroleum reservoir engineering methods for soil remediation. The methods that were applied included water and gas displacement methods together with horizontal boreholes as the flow inlet and outlets. This system could be used in the case of spills that seep beneath a plant or other immovable infrastructure which requires in-situ treatment schemes to decontaminate the soil. A study was conducted to characterize native soils and water samples from industrial plants in central Alberta and Sarnia, Ontario and to determine the variables that impact upon the flow conditions of synthetic test materials. The methods used to characterize the soils included X-Ray computed tomographic analysis, grain size and density measurements, and X-Ray diffraction. Clay content, initial water saturation, and water and gas flow rate were the variables that impacted on the flow conditions

  20. Water table fluctuations and soil biogeochemistry: An experimental approach using an automated soil column system (United States)

    Rezanezhad, F.; Couture, R.-M.; Kovac, R.; O'Connell, D.; Van Cappellen, P.


    Water table fluctuations significantly affect the biological and geochemical functioning of soils. Here, we introduce an automated soil column system in which the water table regime is imposed using a computer-controlled, multi-channel pump connected to a hydrostatic equilibrium reservoir and a water storage reservoir. The potential of this new system is illustrated by comparing results from two columns filled with 45 cm of the same homogenized riparian soil. In one soil column the water table remained constant at -20 cm below the soil surface, while in the other the water table oscillated between the soil surface and the bottom of the column, at a rate of 4.8 cm d-1. The experiment ran for 75 days at room temperature (25 ± 2 °C). Micro-sensors installed at -10 and -30 cm below the soil surface in the stable water table column recorded constant redox potentials on the order of 600 and -200 mV, respectively. In the fluctuating water table column, redox potentials at the same depths oscillated between oxidizing (∼700 mV) and reducing (∼-100 mV) conditions. Pore waters collected periodically and solid-phase analyses on core material obtained at the end of the experiment highlighted striking geochemical differences between the two columns, especially in the time series and depth distributions of Fe, Mn, K, P and S. Soil CO2 emissions derived from headspace gas analysis exhibited periodic variations in the fluctuating water table column, with peak values during water table drawdown. Transient redox conditions caused by the water table fluctuations enhanced microbial oxidation of soil organic matter, resulting in a pronounced depletion of particulate organic carbon in the midsection of the fluctuating water table column. Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) revealed the onset of differentiation of the bacterial communities in the upper (oxidizing) and lower (reducing) soil sections, although no systematic differences in microbial community structure

  1. Observation of interstitial molecular hydrogen in clathrate hydrates. (United States)

    Grim, R Gary; Barnes, Brian C; Lafond, Patrick G; Kockelmann, Winfred A; Keen, David A; Soper, Alan K; Hiratsuka, Masaki; Yasuoka, Kenji; Koh, Carolyn A; Sum, Amadeu K


    The current knowledge and description of guest molecules within clathrate hydrates only accounts for occupancy within regular polyhedral water cages. Experimental measurements and simulations, examining the tert-butylamine + H2 + H2O hydrate system, now suggest that H2 can also be incorporated within hydrate crystal structures by occupying interstitial sites, that is, locations other than the interior of regular polyhedral water cages. Specifically, H2 is found within the shared heptagonal faces of the large (4(3)5(9)6(2)7(3)) cage and in cavities formed from the disruption of smaller (4(4)5(4)) water cages. The ability of H2 to occupy these interstitial sites and fluctuate position in the crystal lattice demonstrates the dynamic behavior of H2 in solids and reveals new insight into guest-guest and guest-host interactions in clathrate hydrates, with potential implications in increasing overall energy storage properties. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Theory of evapotranspiration. 2. Soil and intercepted water evaporation


    Budagovskyi, Anatolij Ivanovič; Novák, Viliam


    Evaporation of water from the soil is described and quantified. Formation of the soil dry surface layer is quantitatively described, as a process resulting from the difference between the evaporation and upward soil water flux to the soil evaporating level. The results of evaporation analysis are generalized even for the case of water evaporation from the soil under canopy and interaction between evaporation rate and canopy transpiration is accounted for. Relationships describing evapotranspi...

  3. Improvement of Water Movement in an Undulating Sandy Soil Prone to Water Repellency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostindie, K.; Dekker, L.W.; Wesseling, J.G.; Ritsema, C.J.


    The temporal dynamics of water repellency in soils strongly influence water flow. We investigated the variability of soil water content in a slight slope on a sandy fairway exhibiting water-repellent behavior. A time domain reflectometry (TDR) array of 60 probes measured water contents at 3-h


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Díaz, F


    Full Text Available Dryland farming on Fuerteventura and Lanzarote (Canary Islands, Spain, which has an annual rainfall of less than 150 mm/year, has been based traditionally on water harvesting techniques (known locally as “gavias”. Periods of high productivity alternate with those of very low yield. The systems are sustainable in that they reduce erosive processes, contribute to soil and soil-water conservation and are largely responsible for maintaining the soil’s farming potential. In this paper we present the chemical fertility status and nutrient balance of soils in five “gavia” systems. The results are compared with those obtained in adjacent soils where this water harvesting technique is not used. The main crops are wheat, barley, maize, lentils and chick-peas. Since neither organic nor inorganic fertilisers are used, nutrients are derived mainly from sediments carried by runoff water. Nutrients are lost mainly through crop harvesting and harvest residues. The soils where water harvesting is used have lower salt and sodium in the exchange complex, are higher in carbon, nitrogen, copper and zinc and have similar phosphorous and potassium content. It is concluded that the systems improve the soil’s natural fertility and also that natural renovation of nutrients occurs thanks to the surface deposits of sediments, which mix with the arable layer. The system helps ensure adequate fertility levels, habitual in arid regions, thus allowing dryland farming to be carried out.

  5. Degradation process modelization in of metallic drink containers, in soil, in water and in water-soil interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieiro, I.; Trivino, V.; Gutierrez, T.; Munoz, J.; Larrea, M. T.


    This study asses the environmental pollution by metal release that takes place during prolonged exposures when metallic drink containers are accidentally settle in the soil in a uncontrolled way, For comparative purposes, the F111 steel and the aluminium alloy 3003, widely used for the fabrication of these containers, are also considered. A experimental design is proposed to simulate the environmental pollution during prolonged exposures. Analytical indicators have been obtained determining the metallic concentration from three types of mediums; water, water in presence of soil, and absorption-adsorption in soil. An analytical methodology has been developed by Atomic Emission Spectrometry with ICP as exciting source (ICP-OES) for metallic quantification. The method was validated using Certified Reference Materials (CRMs) of soil and water and the precision obtained varies from 5.39 to 5.86% and from 5.75 to 6.27%, respectively according to of the element studied. A statistical descriptive study followed by a factorial analysis (linear general model) has been carried out for the treatment of the experimental data packages. The metallic quantification for the three mediums shows that the soil inhibits metallic solubility in water. The process to make packages reduces in both cases their metallic cession. (Author)

  6. Effects of fire ash on soil water retention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoof, C.R.; Wesseling, J.G.; Ritsema, C.J.


    Despite the pronounced effect of fire on soil hydrological systems, information on the direct effect of fire on soil water retention characteristics is limited and contradictory. To increase understanding in this area, the effect of fire on soil water retention was evaluated using laboratory burning

  7. Field, laboratory and estimated soil-water content limits

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Jan 21, 2005 ... silt (0.002 to 0.05 mm) percentage to estimate the soil-water content at a given soil-water .... ar and br are the intercept and slope values of the regres- .... tions use the particle size classification of the South African Soil.

  8. Fly ash dynamics in soil-water systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, S.; Fulekar, M.H.; Jayalakshmi, C.P.


    Studies regarding the effluents and coal ashes (or fly ash) resulting from coal burning are numerous, but their disposal and interactions with the soil and water systems and their detailed environmental impact assessment with concrete status reports on a global scale are scanty. Fly ash dynamics in soil and water systems are reviewed. After detailing the physical composition of fly ash, physicochemical changes in soil properties due to fly ash amendment are summarized. Areas covered include texture and bulk density, moisture retention, change in chemical equilibria, and effects of fly ash on soil microorganisms. Plant growth in amended soils is discussed, as well as plant uptake and accumulation of trace elements. In order to analyze the effect of fly ash on the physicochemical properties of water, several factors must be considered, including surface morphology of fly ash, pH of the ash sluice water, pH adjustments, leachability and solubility, and suspended ash and settling. The dynamics of fly ash in water systems is important due to pollution of groundwater resources from toxic components such as trace metals. Other factors summarized are bioaccumulation and biomagnification, human health effects of contaminants, and the impact of radionuclides in fly ash. Future research needs should focus on reduction of the environmental impact of fly ash and increasing utilization of fly ash as a soil amendment. 110 refs., 2 figs., 10 tabs

  9. Wetting properties of fungi mycelium alter soil infiltration and soil water repellency in a γ-sterilized wettable and repellent soil. (United States)

    Chau, Henry Wai; Goh, Yit Kheng; Vujanovic, Vladimir; Si, Bing Cheng


    Soil water repellency (SWR) has a drastic impact on soil quality resulting in reduced infiltration, increased runoff, increased leaching, reduced plant growth, and increased soil erosion. One of the causes of SWR is hydrophobic fungal structures and exudates that change the soil-water relationship. The objective of this study was to determine whether SWR and infiltration could be manipulated through inoculation with fungi. The effect of fungi on SWR was investigated through inoculation of three fungal strains (hydrophilic -Fusarium proliferatum, chrono-amphiphilic -Trichoderma harzianum, and hydrophobic -Alternaria sp.) on a water repellent soil (WR-soil) and a wettable soil (W-soil). The change in SWR and infiltration was assessed by the water repellency index and cumulative infiltration respectively. F. proliferatum decreased the SWR on WR-soil and slightly increased SWR in W-soil, while Alternaria sp. increased SWR in both the W-soil and the WR-soil. Conversely T. harzianum increased the SWR in the W-soil and decreased the SWR in the WR-soil. All strains showed a decrease in infiltration in W-soil, while only the F. proliferatum and T. harzianum strain showed improvement in infiltration in the WR-soil. The ability of fungi to alter the SWR and enmesh soil particles results in changes to the infiltration dynamics in soil. Copyright © 2012 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of restoring soil hydrological poperties on water conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moore, D.; Kostka, S.J.; Boerth, T.J.; Franklin, M.A.; Ritsema, C.J.; Dekker, L.W.; Oostindie, K.; Stoof, C.R.; Park, D.M.


    Water repellency in soil is more wide spread than previously thought ¿ and has a significant impact on irrigation efficiency and water conservation. Soil water repellency has been identified in many soil types under a wide array of climatic conditions world wide. Consequences include increased

  11. Integrated water-crop-soil-management system for evaluating the quality of irrigation water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pla-Sentis, I.


    The authors make use of an independent balance of the salts and ions present in the water available for irrigation, based on the residence times in the soil solution that are allowed by solubility limits and drainage conditions, to develop an efficient system for evaluating the quality of such water which combines the factors: water, crop, soil and management. The system is based on the principle that such quality depends not only on the concentration and composition of the salts dissolved in the water, but also on existing possibilities and limitations in using and managing it in respect of the soil and crops, with allowance for the crop's tolerance of salinity, drainage conditions and hydrological properties of the soils, climate and current or potential practices for the management of the irrigation. If this system is used to quantify approximately the time behaviour of the concentration and composition of the salts in the soil solution, it is possible not only to predict the effects on soil, crops and drainage water, but also to evaluate the various combinations of irrigation water, soil, crops and management and to select the most suitable. It is also useful for fairly accurately diagnosing current problems of salinity and for identifying alternatives and possibilities for reclamation. Examples of its use for these purposes in Venezuela are presented with particular reference to the diagnosis of the present and future development of ''salino-sodic'' and ''sodic'' soils by means of low-salt irrigation water spread over agricultural soils with very poor drainage in a sub-humid or semi-arid tropical climate. The authors also describe the use of radiation techniques for gaining an understanding of the relations between the factors making up the system and for improving the quantitative evaluations required to diagnose problems and to select the best management methods for the available irrigation water. (author)

  12. CO2 response to rewetting of hydrophobic soils - Can soil water repellency inhibit the 'Birch effect'? (United States)

    Sanchez-Garcia, Carmen; Urbanek, Emilia; Doerr, Stefan


    Rewetting of dry soils is known to cause a short-term CO2 pulse commonly known as the 'Birch effect'. The displacement of CO2 with water during the process of wetting has been recognised as one of the sources of this pulse. The 'Birch effect' has been extensively observed in many soils, but some studies report a lack of such phenomenon, suggesting soil water repellency (SWR) as a potential cause. Water infiltration in water repellent soils can be severely restricted, causing overland flow or increased preferential flow, resulting in only a small proportion of soil pores being filled with water and therefore small gas-water replacement during wetting. Despite the suggestions of a different response of CO2 fluxes to wetting under hydrophobic conditions, this theory has never been tested. The aim of this study is to test the hypothesis that CO2 pulse does not occur during rewetting of water repellent soils. Dry homogeneous soils at water-repellent and wettable status have been rewetted with different amounts of water. CO2 flux as a response to wetting has been continuously measured with the CO2 flux analyser. Delays in infiltration and non-uniform heterogeneous water flow were observed in water repellent soils, causing an altered response in the CO2 pulse in comparison to typically observed 'Birch effect' in wettable systems. The main conclusion from the study is that water repellency not only affects water relations in soil, but has also an impact on greenhouse gas production and transport and therefore should be included as an important parameter during the sites monitoring and modelling of gas fluxes.

  13. Contribution of soil electric resistivity measurements to the studies on soil/grapevine water relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etienne Goulet


    Full Text Available The classical techniques that allow to quantify the soil water status such as the gravimetric method or the use of neutrons probes do not give access to the volume of soil explored by the plant root system. On the contrary, electric tomography can be used to have a global vision on the water exchange area between soil and plant. The measurement of soil electric resistivity, as a non destructive, spatially integrative technique, has recently been introduced into viticulture. The use of performing equipment and adapted software allows for rapid data processing and gives the possibility to spatialize the variations of soil texture or humidity in two or three dimensions. Soil electric resistivity has been tested for the last three years at the Experimental Unit on Grapevine and Vine, INRA, Angers, France, to study the water supply to the vine in different “terroir” conditions. Resistivity measurements were carried out with the resistivity meter Syscal R1+ (Iris Instruments, France equipped with 21 electrodes. Those electrodes were lined up on the soil surface in a direction perpendiculary to 5 grapevine rows with an electrode spacing of 0.5 m. and a dipole-dipole arrangement. Resistivity measurements were performed on the same place at different times in order to study soil moisture variations. This experimental set up has permitted to visualise the soil stratification and individualize some positive electric anomalies corresponding to preferential drying ; this desiccation could be attributed to grapevine root activity. The soil bulk subject to the water up-take could be defined more precisely and in some types of soil, available water may even be quantified. Terroir effect on grapevine root activity has also been shown up on two different experimental parcels through electric tomography and first results indicate that it is possible to monitor the effects of soil management (inter-row grassing or different rootstocks on the water supply to the

  14. Net carbon allocation in soybean seedlings as influenced by soil water stress at two soil temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCoy, E.L.; Boersma, L.; Ekasingh, M.


    The influence of water stress at two soil temperatures on allocation of net photoassimilated carbon in soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) was investigated using compartmental analysis. The experimental phase employed classical 14 C labeling methodology with plants equilibrated at soil water potentials of -0.04, -0.25 and -0.50 MPa; and soil temperatures of 25 and 10C. Carbon immobilization in the shoot apex generally followed leaf elongation rates with decreases in both parameters at increasing water stress at both soil temperatures. However, where moderate water stress resulted in dramatic declines in leaf elongation rates, carbon immobilization rates were sharply decreased only at severe water stress levels. Carbon immobilization was decreased in the roots and nodules of the nonwater stressed treatment by the lower soil temperature. This relation was reversed with severe water stress, and carbon immobilization in the roots and nodules was increased at the lower soil temperature. Apparently, the increased demand for growth and/or carbon storage in these tissues with increased water stress overcame the low soil temperature limitations. Both carbon pool sizes and partitioning of carbon to the sink tissues increased with moderate water stress at 25C soil temperature. Increased pool sizes were consistent with whole plant osmotic adjustment at moderate water stress. Increased partitioning to the sinks was consistent with carbon translocation processes being less severely influenced by water stress than is photosynthesis

  15. Moisture variability resulting from water repellency in Dutch soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, L.W.


    The present study suggests that many soils in the Netherlands, in natural as well as in agricultural areas, may be water repellent to some degree, challenging the common perception that soil water repellency is only an interesting aberration. When dry, water repellent soils resist or retard

  16. Effects of soil management techniques on soil water erosion in apricot orchards. (United States)

    Keesstra, Saskia; Pereira, Paulo; Novara, Agata; Brevik, Eric C; Azorin-Molina, Cesar; Parras-Alcántara, Luis; Jordán, Antonio; Cerdà, Artemi


    Soil erosion is extreme in Mediterranean orchards due to management impact, high rainfall intensities, steep slopes and erodible parent material. Vall d'Albaida is a traditional fruit production area which, due to the Mediterranean climate and marly soils, produces sweet fruits. However, these highly productive soils are left bare under the prevailing land management and marly soils are vulnerable to soil water erosion when left bare. In this paper we study the impact of different agricultural land management strategies on soil properties (bulk density, soil organic matter, soil moisture), soil water erosion and runoff, by means of simulated rainfall experiments and soil analyses. Three representative land managements (tillage/herbicide/covered with vegetation) were selected, where 20 paired plots (60 plots) were established to determine soil losses and runoff. The simulated rainfall was carried out at 55mmh(-1) in the summer of 2013 (soil moisture) for one hour on 0.25m(2) circular plots. The results showed that vegetation cover, soil moisture and organic matter were significantly higher in covered plots than in tilled and herbicide treated plots. However, runoff coefficient, total runoff, sediment yield and soil erosion were significantly higher in herbicide treated plots compared to the others. Runoff sediment concentration was significantly higher in tilled plots. The lowest values were identified in covered plots. Overall, tillage, but especially herbicide treatment, decreased vegetation cover, soil moisture, soil organic matter, and increased bulk density, runoff coefficient, total runoff, sediment yield and soil erosion. Soil erosion was extremely high in herbicide plots with 0.91Mgha(-1)h(-1) of soil lost; in the tilled fields erosion rates were lower with 0.51Mgha(-1)h(-1). Covered soil showed an erosion rate of 0.02Mgha(-1)h(-1). These results showed that agricultural management influenced water and sediment dynamics and that tillage and herbicide


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    It is usual practice to use available soil water content as a criterion for deciding when irrigation is needed. Soil water content is determined by using soil measuring techniques (capacitance probe) that describe the depletion of available soil water see fig1 and 2. The irrigation scheduling is based on the water treatment (i.e. ...

  18. Energetics of formation and migration of self-interstitials and self-interstitial clusters in α-iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wirth, B.D.; Odette, G.R.; California Univ., Santa Barbara, CA; Maroudas, D.; Lucas, G.E.; California Univ., Santa Barbara, CA


    Energetic primary recoil atoms from fast neutron irradiation generate both isolated point defects and clusters of vacancies and interstitials. Self-interstitial mobility as well as defect cluster stability and mobility play key roles in the subsequent fate of defects and, hence, in the overall microstructural evolution under irradiation. Self-interstitials and two, three and four-member self-interstitial clusters are highly mobile at low temperatures as observed in molecular-dynamics simulations and high mobility probably also extends to larger clusters. In this study, the morphology, energetics and mobility of self-interstitials and small self-interstitial clusters in α-iron are studied by molecular-statics and molecular-dynamics simulations using a Finnis-Sinclair many-body interatomic potential. Self-interstitial migration is found to be a two-step process consisting of a rotation out of the split-dumbbell configuration into the split-dumbbell configuration and translational jumps through the crowdion configuration before returning to the dumbbell configuration. Self-interstitial clusters of type split-interstitials assembled on adjacent {110} planes migrate along directions in an amoeba-like fashion by sequential local dissociation and re-association processes. (orig.)

  19. Soil water sensor response to bulk electrical conductivity (United States)

    Soil water monitoring using electromagnetic (EM) sensors can facilitate observations of water content at high temporal and spatial resolutions. These sensors measure soil dielectric permittivity (Ka) which is largely a function of volumetric water content. However, bulk electrical conductivity BEC c...

  20. Theoretical study of soil water balance and process of soil moisture evaporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. A. Savel'ev


    Full Text Available Nearly a half of all grain production in the Russian Federation is grown in dry regions. But crop production efficiency there depends on amount of moisture, available to plants. However deficit of soil moisture is caused not only by a lack of an atmospheric precipitation, but also inefficient water saving: losses reach 70 percent. With respect thereto it is important to reveal the factors influencing intensity of soil moisture evaporation and to develop methods of decrease in unproductive moisture losses due to evaporation. The authors researched soil water balance theoretically and determined the functional dependences of moisture loss on evaporation. Intensity of moisture evaporation depends on physicomechanical characteristics of the soil, a consistence of its surface and weather conditions. To decrease losses of moisture for evaporation it is necessary, first, to improve quality of crumbling of the soil and therefore to reduce the evaporating surface of the soil. Secondly - to create the protective mulching layer which will allow to enhance albedo of the soil and to reduce its temperature that together will reduce unproductive evaporative water losses and will increase its inflow in case of condensation from air vapors. The most widespread types of soil cultivation are considered: disk plowing and stubble mulch plowing. Agricultural background «no tillage» was chosen as a control. Subsoil mulching tillage has an essential advantage in a storage of soil moisture. So, storage of soil moisture after a disking and in control (without tillage decreased respectively by 24.9 and 19.8 mm while at the mulching tillage this indicator revised down by only 15.6 mm. The mulching layer has lower heat conductivity that provides decrease in unproductive evaporative water losses.

  1. Changes of the water isotopic composition in unsaturated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feurdean, Victor; Feurdean, Lucia


    Based on the spatial and temporal variations of the stable isotope content in precipitation - as input in subsurface - and the mixing processes, the deuterium content in the water that moves in unsaturated zones was used to determine the most conducive season to recharge, the mechanisms for infiltration of snow or rain precipitation in humid, semi-arid or arid conditions, the episodic cycles of infiltration water mixing with the already present soil water and water vapor and whether infiltration water is or is not from local precipitation. Oscillations in the isotopic profiles of soil moisture can be used to estimate the following aspects: where piston or diffusive flow is the dominant mechanisms of water infiltration; the average velocities of the water movement in vadose zone; the influence of vegetation cover, soil type and slope exposure on the dynamics of water movement in soil; the conditions required for infiltration such as: the matrix, gravity, pressure and osmotic potentials during drainage in unsaturated soil. (authors)

  2. Pore-water chemistry explains zinc phytotoxicity in soil. (United States)

    Kader, Mohammed; Lamb, Dane T; Correll, Ray; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravi


    Zinc (Zn) is a widespread soil contaminant arising from a numerous anthropogenic sources. However, adequately predicting toxicity of Zn to ecological receptors remains difficult due to the complexity of soil characteristics. In this study, we examined solid-solution partitioning using pore-water data and toxicity of Zn to cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) in spiked soils. Pore-water effective concentration (ECx, x=10%, 20% and 50% reduction) values were negatively related to pH, indicating lower Zn pore water concentration were needed to cause phytotoxicity at high pH soils. Total dissolved zinc (Znpw) and free zinc (Zn(2+)) in soil-pore water successfully described 78% and 80.3% of the variation in relative growth (%) in the full dataset. When the complete data set was used (10 soils), the estimated EC50pw was 450 and 79.2 µM for Znpw and Zn(2+), respectively. Total added Zn, soil pore water pH (pHpw) and dissolve organic carbon (DOC) were the best predictors of Znpw and Zn(2+) in pore-water. The EC10 (total loading) values ranged from 179 to 5214 mg/kg, depending on soil type. Only pH measurements in soil were related to ECx total Zn data. The strongest relationship to ECx overall was pHca, although pHw and pHpw were in general related to Zn ECx. Similarly, when a solution-only model was used to predict Zn in shoot, DOC was negatively related to Zn in shoot, indicating a reduction in uptake/ translocation of Zn from solution with increasing DOC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Response of the water status of soybean to changes in soil water potentials controlled by the water pressure in microporous tubes (United States)

    Steinberg, S. L.; Henninger, D. L.


    Water transport through a microporous tube-soil-plant system was investigated by measuring the response of soil and plant water status to step change reductions in the water pressure within the tubes. Soybeans were germinated and grown in a porous ceramic 'soil' at a porous tube water pressure of -0.5 kpa for 28 d. During this time, the soil matric potential was nearly in equilibrium with tube water pressure. Water pressure in the porous tubes was then reduced to either -1.0, -1.5 or -2.0 kPa. Sap flow rates, leaf conductance and soil, root and leaf water potentials were measured before and after this change. A reduction in porous tube water pressure from -0.5 to -1.0 or -1.5 kPa did not result in any significant change in soil or plant water status. A reduction in porous tube water pressure to -2.0 kPa resulted in significant reductions in sap flow, leaf conductance, and soil, root and leaf water potentials. Hydraulic conductance, calculated as the transpiration rate/delta psi between two points in the water transport pathway, was used to analyse water transport through the tube-soil-plant continuum. At porous tube water pressures of -0.5 to-1.5 kPa soil moisture was readily available and hydraulic conductance of the plant limited water transport. At -2.0 kPa, hydraulic conductance of the bulk soil was the dominant factor in water movement.

  4. Development of soil water regime under spruce stands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tužinský Ladislav


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyse the water regime of soils under spruce ecosystems in relation to long-lasting humid and drought periods in the growing seasons 1991-2013. The dominant interval humidity in observing growing seasons is semiuvidic interval with soil moisture between hydro-limits maximal capillary capacity (MCC and point of diminished availability (PDA. Gravitationally seepage concentrated from accumulated winter season, water from melting snow and existing atmospheric precipitation occurs in the soil only at the beginning of the growing season. The supplies of soil water are significantly decreasing in the warm climate and precipitant deficient days. The greatest danger from drought threatens Norway spruce during the summer months and it depends on the duration of dry days, water supply at the beginning of the dry days, air temperature and the intensity of evapotranspiration. In the surface layers of the soil, with the maximum occurrence of active roots, the water in semiarid interval area between hydro-limits PDA and wilting point (WP decreases during the summer months. In the culminating phase occurs the drying to moisture state with capillary stationary and the insufficient supply of available water for the plants. Physiological weakening of Norway spruce caused by set of outlay components of the water balance is partially reduced by delivering of water by capillary action from deeper horizons. In extremely dry periods, soil moisture is decreasing also throughout the soil profile (0-100 cm into the bottom third of the variation margin hydro-limits MCC-PDA in the category of capillary less moving and for plants of low supply of usable water (60-90 mm. The issue of deteriorated health state of spruce ecosystems is considered to be actual. Changes and developments of hydropedological conditions which interfere the mountain forests represent the increasing danger of the drought for the spruce.

  5. Soil water sensors:Problems, advances and potential for irrigation scheduling (United States)

    Irrigation water management has to do with the appropriate application of water to soils, in terms of amounts, rates, and timing to satisfy crop water demands, while protecting the soil and water resources from degradation. In this regard, sensors can be used to monitor the soil water status; and so...

  6. Soil water status under perennial and annual pastures on an acid duplex soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heng, L.K.; White, R.E.; Chen, D.


    A comprehensive field study of soil water balance, nitrogen (N) cycling, pasture management and animal production was carried out on an acid duplex soil at Book Book near Wagga Wagga in southern New South Wales. The experiment, carried out over a 3-year period, tested the hypothesis that sown perennial grass pastures improve the sustainability of a grazing system through better use of water and N. The treatments were: annual pastures without lime (AP-), annual pastures with lime (AP+), perennial pastures without lime (PP-) and perennial pastures with lime (PP+). Soil water measurement was made using a neutron probe on one set of the treatments comprising four adjacent paddocks. Over three winter and spring periods, the results showed that perennial grass pastures, especially PP+, consistently extracted about 40 mm more soil water each year than did the annual grass pastures. As a result, surface runoff, sub-surface flow and deep drainage (percolation below 180 cm depth) were about 40 mm less from the perennial pastures. The soil water status of the four pasture treatments was simulated reasonably well using a simple soil water model. Together with the long-term simulation of deep drainage, using past meteorological records, it is shown that proper management of perennial pastures can reduce recharge to groundwater and make pastoral systems more sustainable in the high rainfall zone. However, to completely reduce recharge, more-deeply rooted plants or trees are needed. (author)

  7. [Effects of brackish water irrigation on soil enzyme activity, soil CO2 flux and organic matter decomposition]. (United States)

    Zhang, Qian-qian; Wang, Fei; Liu, Tao; Chu, Gui-xin


    Brackish water irrigation utilization is an important way to alleviate water resource shortage in arid region. A field-plot experiment was set up to study the impact of the salinity level (0.31, 3.0 or 5.0 g · L(-1) NaCl) of irrigated water on activities of soil catalase, invertase, β-glucosidase, cellulase and polyphenoloxidase in drip irrigation condition, and the responses of soil CO2 flux and organic matter decomposition were also determined by soil carbon dioxide flux instrument (LI-8100) and nylon net bag method. The results showed that in contrast with fresh water irrigation treatment (CK), the activities of invertase, β-glucosidase and cellulase in the brackish water (3.0 g · L(-1)) irrigation treatment declined by 31.7%-32.4%, 29.7%-31.6%, 20.8%-24.3%, respectively, while soil polyphenoloxidase activity was obviously enhanced with increasing the salinity level of irrigated water. Compared to CK, polyphenoloxidase activity increased by 2.4% and 20.5%, respectively, in the brackish water and saline water irrigation treatments. Both soil microbial biomass carbon and microbial quotient decreased with increasing the salinity level, whereas, microbial metabolic quotient showed an increasing tendency with increasing the salinity level. Soil CO2 fluxes in the different treatments were in the order of CK (0.31 g · L(-1)) > brackish water irrigation (3.0 g · L(-1)) ≥ saline water irrigation (5.0 g · L(-1)). Moreover, CO2 flux from plastic film mulched soil was always much higher than that from no plastic film mulched soil, regardless the salinity of irrigated water. Compared with CK, soil CO2 fluxes in the saline water and brackish water treatments decreased by 29.8% and 28.2% respectively in the boll opening period. The decomposition of either cotton straw or alfalfa straw in the different treatments was in the sequence of CK (0.31 g · L(-1)) > brackish water irrigation (3.0 g · L(-1)) > saline water treatment (5.0 g · L(-1)). The organic matter

  8. The diffuse interstitial lung disease - with emphasis in the idiopathic interstitial pneumonias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bustillo P, Jose G; Pacheco, Pedro M; Matiz, Carlos; Ojeda, Paulina; Carrillo B, Jorge A.


    The term diffuse interstitial lung disease, it refers to those diseases that commit the interstice basically, the space between the membrane basal epithelial and endothelial, although the damage can also commit the outlying air spaces and the vessels; the supplement is centered in the diffuse interstitial lung illness of unknown cause; well-known as idiopathic interstitial pneumonias, making emphasis in the more frequents, the pulmonary fibrosis idiopathic or cryptogenic fibrosant alveolitis

  9. An overview of soil water sensors for salinity & irrigation management (United States)

    Irrigation water management has to do with the appropriate application of water to soils, in terms of amounts, rates, and timing to satisfy crop water demands while protecting the soil and water resources from degradation. Accurate irrigation management is even more important in salt affected soils ...

  10. Bacterial polyextremotolerant bioemulsifiers from arid soils improve water retention capacity and humidity uptake in sandy soil

    KAUST Repository

    Raddadi, Noura


    Water stress is a critical issue for plant growth in arid sandy soils. Here, we aimed to select bacteria producing polyextremotolerant surface-active compounds capable of improving water retention and humidity uptake in sandy soils.From Tunisian desert and saline systems, we selected eleven isolates able to highly emulsify different organic solvents. The bioemulsifying activities were stable with 30% NaCl, at 4 and 120 °C and in a pH range 4-12. Applications to a sandy soil of the partially purified surface-active compounds improved soil water retention up to 314.3% compared to untreated soil. Similarly, after 36 h of incubation, the humidity uptake rate of treated sandy soil was up to 607.7% higher than untreated controls.Overall, results revealed that polyextremotolerant bioemulsifiers of bacteria from arid and desert soils represent potential sources to develop new natural soil-wetting agents for improving water retention in arid soils.

  11. Bacterial polyextremotolerant bioemulsifiers from arid soils improve water retention capacity and humidity uptake in sandy soil

    KAUST Repository

    Raddadi, Noura; Giacomucci, Lucia; Marasco, Ramona; Daffonchio, Daniele; Cherif, Ameur; Fava, Fabio


    Water stress is a critical issue for plant growth in arid sandy soils. Here, we aimed to select bacteria producing polyextremotolerant surface-active compounds capable of improving water retention and humidity uptake in sandy soils.From Tunisian desert and saline systems, we selected eleven isolates able to highly emulsify different organic solvents. The bioemulsifying activities were stable with 30% NaCl, at 4 and 120 °C and in a pH range 4-12. Applications to a sandy soil of the partially purified surface-active compounds improved soil water retention up to 314.3% compared to untreated soil. Similarly, after 36 h of incubation, the humidity uptake rate of treated sandy soil was up to 607.7% higher than untreated controls.Overall, results revealed that polyextremotolerant bioemulsifiers of bacteria from arid and desert soils represent potential sources to develop new natural soil-wetting agents for improving water retention in arid soils.

  12. Bacterial polyextremotolerant bioemulsifiers from arid soils improve water retention capacity and humidity uptake in sandy soil. (United States)

    Raddadi, Noura; Giacomucci, Lucia; Marasco, Ramona; Daffonchio, Daniele; Cherif, Ameur; Fava, Fabio


    Water stress is a critical issue for plant growth in arid sandy soils. Here, we aimed to select bacteria producing polyextremotolerant surface-active compounds capable of improving water retention and humidity uptake in sandy soils. From Tunisian desert and saline systems, we selected eleven isolates able to highly emulsify different organic solvents. The bioemulsifying activities were stable with 30% NaCl, at 4 and 120 °C and in a pH range 4-12. Applications to a sandy soil of the partially purified surface-active compounds improved soil water retention up to 314.3% compared to untreated soil. Similarly, after 36 h of incubation, the humidity uptake rate of treated sandy soil was up to 607.7% higher than untreated controls. Overall, results revealed that polyextremotolerant bioemulsifiers of bacteria from arid and desert soils represent potential sources to develop new natural soil-wetting agents for improving water retention in arid soils.

  13. Complex linkage between soil, soil water, atmosphere and Eucalyptus Plantations (United States)

    Shukla, C.; Tiwari, K. N.


    Eucalyptus is most widely planted genus grown in waste land of eastern region of India to meet the pulp industry requirements. Sustainability of these plantations is of concern because in spite of higher demand water and nutrients of plantations, they are mostly planted on low-fertility soils. This study has been conducted to quantify effect of 25 years old, a fully established eucalyptus plantations on i.) Alteration in physico-chemical and hydrological properties of soil of eucalyptus plantation in comparison to soil of natural grassland and ii.) Spatio-temporal variation in soil moisture under eucalyptus plantations. Soil physico-chemical properties of two adjacent plots covered with eucatuptus and natural grasses were analyzed for three consecutive depths (i.e. 0-30 cm, 30-60 cm and 60-90 cm) with five replications in each plot. Soil infiltration rate and saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks) were measured in-situ to incorporate the influence of macro porosity caused due to roots of plantations. Daily soil moisture at an interval of 10 cm upto 160 cm depth with 3 replications and Leaf Area Index (LAI) at an interval of 15 days with 5 replications were recorded over the year. Significant variations found at level of 0.05 between soil properties of eucalyptus and natural grass land confirm the effect of plantations on soil properties. Comparative results of soil properties show significant alteration in soil texture such as percent of sand, organic matter and Ks found more by 20%, 9% and 22% respectively in eucalyptus plot as compare to natural grass land. Available soil moisture (ASM) was found constantly minimum in top soil excluding rainy season indicate upward movement of water and nutrients during dry season. Seasonal variation in temperature (T), relative humidity (RH) and leaf area index (LAI) influenced the soil moisture extraction phenomenon. This study clearly stated the impact of long term establishment of eucalyptus plantations make considerable

  14. Performance of chromatographic systems to model soil-water sorption. (United States)

    Hidalgo-Rodríguez, Marta; Fuguet, Elisabet; Ràfols, Clara; Rosés, Martí


    A systematic approach for evaluating the goodness of chromatographic systems to model the sorption of neutral organic compounds by soil from water is presented in this work. It is based on the examination of the three sources of error that determine the overall variance obtained when soil-water partition coefficients are correlated against chromatographic retention factors: the variance of the soil-water sorption data, the variance of the chromatographic data, and the variance attributed to the dissimilarity between the two systems. These contributions of variance are easily predicted through the characterization of the systems by the solvation parameter model. According to this method, several chromatographic systems besides the reference octanol-water partition system have been selected to test their performance in the emulation of soil-water sorption. The results from the experimental correlations agree with the predicted variances. The high-performance liquid chromatography system based on an immobilized artificial membrane and the micellar electrokinetic chromatography systems of sodium dodecylsulfate and sodium taurocholate provide the most precise correlation models. They have shown to predict well soil-water sorption coefficients of several tested herbicides. Octanol-water partitions and high-performance liquid chromatography measurements using C18 columns are less suited for the estimation of soil-water partition coefficients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. [Effects of land use changes on soil water conservation in Hainan Island, China]. (United States)

    Wen, Zhi; Zhao, He; Liu, Lei; OuYang, Zhi Yun; Zheng, Hua; Mi, Hong Xu; Li, Yan Min


    In tropical areas, a large number of natural forests have been transformed into other plantations, which affected the water conservation function of terrestrial ecosystems. In order to clari-fy the effects of land use changes on soil water conservation function, we selected four typical land use types in the central mountainous region of Hainan Island, i.e., natural forests with stand age greater than 100 years (VF), secondary forests with stand age of 10 years (SF), areca plantations with stand age of 12 years (AF) and rubber plantations with stand age of 35 years (RF). The effects of land use change on soil water holding capacity and water conservation (presented by soil water index, SWI) were assessed. The results showed that, compared with VF, the soil water holding capacity index of other land types decreased in the top soil layer (0-10 cm). AF had the lowest soil water holding capacity in all soil layers. Soil water content and maximum water holding capacity were significantly related to canopy density, soil organic matter and soil bulk density, which indicated that canopy density, soil organic matter and compactness were important factors influencing soil water holding capacity. Compared to VF, soil water conservation of SF, AF and RF were reduced by 27.7%, 54.3% and 11.5%, respectively. The change of soil water conservation was inconsistent in different soil layers. Vegetation canopy density, soil organic matter and soil bulk density explained 83.3% of the variance of soil water conservation. It was suggested that land use conversion had significantly altered soil water holding capacity and water conservation function. RF could keep the soil water better than AF in the research area. Increasing soil organic matter and reducing soil compaction would be helpful to improve soil water holding capacity and water conservation function in land management.

  16. Soil volumetric water content measurements using TDR technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Vincenzi


    Full Text Available A physical model to measure some hydrological and thermal parameters in soils will to be set up. The vertical profiles of: volumetric water content, matric potential and temperature will be monitored in different soils. The volumetric soil water content is measured by means of the Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR technique. The result of a test to determine experimentally the reproducibility of the volumetric water content measurements is reported together with the methodology and the results of the analysis of the TDR wave forms. The analysis is based on the calculation of the travel time of the TDR signal in the wave guide embedded in the soil.

  17. [Foliar water use efficiency of Platycladus orientalis sapling under different soil water contents]. (United States)

    Zhang, Yong E; Yu, Xin Xiao; Chen, Li Hua; Jia, Guo Dong; Zhao, Na; Li, Han Zhi; Chang, Xiao Min


    The determination of plant foliar water use efficiency will be of great value to improve our understanding about mechanism of plant water consumption and provide important basis of regional forest ecosystem management and maintenance, thus, laboratory controlled experiments were carried out to obtain Platycladus orientalis sapling foliar water use efficiency under five different soil water contents, including instantaneous water use efficiency (WUE gs ) derived from gas exchange and short-term water use efficiency (WUE cp ) caculated using carbon isotope model. The results showed that, controlled by stomatal conductance (g s ), foliar net photosynthesis rate (P n ) and transpiration rate (T r ) increased as soil water content increased, which both reached maximum va-lues at soil water content of 70%-80% field capacity (FC), while WUE gs reached a maximum of 7.26 mmol·m -2 ·s -1 at the lowest soil water content (35%-45% FC). Both δ 13 C of water-soluble leaf and twig phloem material achieved maximum values at the lowest soil water content (35%-45% FC). Besides, δ 13 C values of leaf water-soluble compounds were significantly greater than that of phloem exudates, indicating that there was depletion in 13 C in twig phloem compared with leaf water-soluble compounds and no obvious fractionation in the process of water-soluble material transportation from leaf to twig. Foliar WUE cp also reached a maximum of 7.26 mmol·m -2 ·s -1 at the lowest soil water content (35%-45% FC). There was some difference between foliar WUE gs and WUE cp under the same condition, and the average difference was 0.52 mmol·m -2 ·s -1 . The WUE gs had great space-time variability, by contrast, WUE cp was more representative. It was concluded that P. orientalis sapling adapted to drought condition by increasing water use efficiency and decreasing physiological activity.

  18. Modeling Soil Water Retention Curves in the Dry Range Using the Hygroscopic Water Content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Chong; Hu, Kelin; Arthur, Emmanuel


    Accurate information on the dry end (matric potential less than −1500 kPa) of soil water retention curves (SWRCs) is crucial for studying water vapor transport and evaporation in soils. The objectives of this study were to assess the potential of the Oswin model for describing the water adsorption...... curves of soils and to predict SWRCs at the dry end using the hygroscopic water content at a relative humidity of 50% (θRH50). The Oswin model yielded satisfactory fits to dry-end SWRCs for soils dominated by both 2:1 and 1:1 clay minerals. Compared with the Oswin model, the Campbell and Shiozawa model...... for soils dominated by 2:1 and 1:1 clays, respectively. Comparison of the Oswin model combined with the Kelvin equation, with water potential estimated from θRH50 (Oswin-KRH50), CS model combined with the Arthur equation (CS-A), and CS-K model, with water potential obtained from θRH50 (CS-KRH50) indicated...

  19. Percolation behavior of tritiated water into a soil packed bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honda, T.; Katayama, K.; Uehara, K.; Fukada, S. [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Engineering Sciences, Kyushu University, Kasuga, Fukuoka (Japan); Takeishi, T. [Faculty of Engineering, Kyushu University, Motooka Nishi-ku, Fukuoka (Japan)


    A large amount of cooling water is used in a D-T fusion reactor. The cooling water will contain tritium with high concentration because tritium can permeate metal walls at high temperature easily. A development of tritium handling technology for confining tritiated water in the fusion facility is an important issue. In addition, it is also important to understand tritium behavior in environment assuming severe accidents. In this study, percolation experiments of tritiated water in soil packed bed were carried out and tritium behavior in soil was discussed. Six soil samples were collected in Hakozaki campus of Kyushu University. These particle densities were of the same degree as that of general soils and moisture contents were related to BET surface area. For two soil samples used in the percolation experiment of tritiated water, saturated hydraulic conductivity agreed well with the estimating value by Creager. Tritium retention ratio in the soil packed bed was larger than water retention. This is considered to be due to an effect of tritium sorption on the surface of soil particles. The isotope exchange capacity estimated by assuming that H/T ratio of supplied tritiated water and H/T ratio of surface water of soil particle was equal was comparable to that on cement paste and mortar which were obtained by exposure of tritiated water vapor. (authors)

  20. Percolation behavior of tritiated water into a soil packed bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, T.; Katayama, K.; Uehara, K.; Fukada, S.; Takeishi, T.


    A large amount of cooling water is used in a D-T fusion reactor. The cooling water will contain tritium with high concentration because tritium can permeate metal walls at high temperature easily. A development of tritium handling technology for confining tritiated water in the fusion facility is an important issue. In addition, it is also important to understand tritium behavior in environment assuming severe accidents. In this study, percolation experiments of tritiated water in soil packed bed were carried out and tritium behavior in soil was discussed. Six soil samples were collected in Hakozaki campus of Kyushu University. These particle densities were of the same degree as that of general soils and moisture contents were related to BET surface area. For two soil samples used in the percolation experiment of tritiated water, saturated hydraulic conductivity agreed well with the estimating value by Creager. Tritium retention ratio in the soil packed bed was larger than water retention. This is considered to be due to an effect of tritium sorption on the surface of soil particles. The isotope exchange capacity estimated by assuming that H/T ratio of supplied tritiated water and H/T ratio of surface water of soil particle was equal was comparable to that on cement paste and mortar which were obtained by exposure of tritiated water vapor. (authors)

  1. Observing plants dealing with soil water stress: Daily soil moisture fluctuations derived from polymer tensiometers (United States)

    van der Ploeg, Martine; de Rooij, Gerrit


    Periods of soil water deficit often occur within a plant's life cycle, even in temperate deciduous and rain forests (Wilson et al. 2001, Grace 1999). Various experiments have shown that roots are able to sense the distribution of water in the soil, and produce signals that trigger changes in leaf expansion rate and stomatal conductance (Blackman and Davies 1985, Gollan et al. 1986, Gowing et al. 1990 Davies and Zhang 1991, Mansfield and De Silva 1994, Sadras and Milroy 1996). Partitioning of water and air in the soil, solute distribution in soil water, water flow through the soil, and water availability for plants can be determined according to the distribution of the soil water potential (e.g. Schröder et al. 2013, Kool et al. 2014). Understanding plant water uptake under dry conditions has been compromised by hydrological instrumentation with low accuracy in dry soils due to signal attenuation, or a compromised measurement range (Whalley et al. 2013). Development of polymer tensiometers makes it possible to study the soil water potential over a range meaningful for studying plant responses to water stress (Bakker et al. 2007, Van der Ploeg et al. 2008, 2010). Polymer tensiometer data obtained from a lysimeter experiment (Van der Ploeg et al. 2008) were used to analyse day-night fluctuations of soil moisture in the vicinity of maize roots. To do so, three polymer tensiometers placed in the middle of the lysimeter from a control, dry and very dry treatment (one lysimeter per treatment) were used to calculate water content changes over 12 hours. These 12 hours corresponded with the operation of the growing light. Soil water potential measurements in the hour before the growing light was turned on or off were averaged. The averaged value was used as input for the van Genuchten (1980) model. Parameters for the model were obtained from laboratory determination of water retention, with a separate model parameterization for each lysimeter setup. Results show daily

  2. Relationship between root water uptake and soil respiration: A modeling perspective (United States)

    Teodosio, Bertrand; Pauwels, Valentijn R. N.; Loheide, Steven P.; Daly, Edoardo


    Soil moisture affects and is affected by root water uptake and at the same time drives soil CO2 dynamics. Selecting root water uptake formulations in models is important since this affects the estimation of actual transpiration and soil CO2 efflux. This study aims to compare different models combining the Richards equation for soil water flow to equations describing heat transfer and air-phase CO2 production and flow. A root water uptake model (RWC), accounting only for root water compensation by rescaling water uptake rates across the vertical profile, was compared to a model (XWP) estimating water uptake as a function of the difference between soil and root xylem water potential; the latter model can account for both compensation (XWPRWC) and hydraulic redistribution (XWPHR). Models were compared in a scenario with a shallow water table, where the formulation of root water uptake plays an important role in modeling daily patterns and magnitudes of transpiration rates and CO2 efflux. Model simulations for this scenario indicated up to 20% difference in the estimated water that transpired over 50 days and up to 14% difference in carbon emitted from the soil. The models showed reduction of transpiration rates associated with water stress affecting soil CO2 efflux, with magnitudes of soil CO2 efflux being larger for the XWPHR model in wet conditions and for the RWC model as the soil dried down. The study shows the importance of choosing root water uptake models not only for estimating transpiration but also for other processes controlled by soil water content.

  3. Effects of soil and water conservation practices on selected soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although different types of soil and water conservation practices (SWCPs) were introduced, the sustainable use of these practices is far below expectations, and soil erosion continues to be a severe problem in Ethiopia. Therefore, this study was conducted at Debre Yakobe Micro-Watershed (DYMW), Northwest Ethiopia ...

  4. Water Drainage from Unsaturated Soils in a Centrifuge Permeameter (United States)

    Ornelas, G.; McCartney, J.; Zhang, M.


    This study involves an analysis of water drainage from an initially saturated silt layer in a centrifuge permeameter to evaluate the hydraulic properties of the soil layer in unsaturated conditions up to the point where the water phase becomes discontinuous. These properties include the soil water retention curve (SWRC) and the hydraulic conductivity function (HCF). The hydraulic properties of unsaturated silt are used in soil-atmosphere interaction models that take into account the role of infiltration and evaporation of water from soils due to atmospheric interaction. These models are often applied in slope stability analyses, landfill cover design, aquifer recharge analyses, and agricultural engineering. The hydraulic properties are also relevant to recent research concerning geothermal heating and cooling, as they can be used to assess the insulating effects of soil around underground heat exchangers. This study employs a high-speed geotechnical centrifuge to increase the self-weight of a compacted silt specimen atop a filter plate. Under a centrifuge acceleration of N times earth's gravity, the concept of geometric similitude indicates that the water flow process in a small-scale soil layer will be similar to those in a soil layer in the field that is N times thicker. The centrifuge acceleration also results in an increase in the hydraulic gradient across the silt specimen, which causes water to flow out of the pores following Darcy's law. The drainage test was performed until the rate of liquid water flow out of the soil layer slowed to a negligible level, which corresponds to the transition point at which further water flow can only occur due to water vapor diffusion following Fick's law. The data from the drainage test in the centrifuge were used to determine the SWRC and HCF at different depths in the silt specimen, which compared well with similar properties defined using other laboratory tests. The transition point at which liquid water flow stopped (and

  5. CO2 efflux from soils with seasonal water repellency (United States)

    Urbanek, Emilia; Doerr, Stefan H.


    Soil carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions are strongly dependent on pore water distribution, which in turn can be modified by reduced wettability. Many soils around the world are affected by soil water repellency (SWR), which reduces infiltration and results in diverse moisture distribution. SWR is temporally variable and soils can change from wettable to water-repellent and vice versa throughout the year. Effects of SWR on soil carbon (C) dynamics, and specifically on CO2 efflux, have only been studied in a few laboratory experiments and hence remain poorly understood. Existing studies suggest soil respiration is reduced with increasing severity of SWR, but the responses of soil CO2 efflux to varying water distribution created by SWR are not yet known.Here we report on the first field-based study that tests whether SWR indeed reduces soil CO2 efflux, based on in situ measurements carried out over three consecutive years at a grassland and pine forest sites under the humid temperate climate of the UK.Soil CO2 efflux was indeed very low on occasions when soil exhibited consistently high SWR and low soil moisture following long dry spells. Low CO2 efflux was also observed when SWR was absent, in spring and late autumn when soil temperatures were low, but also in summer when SWR was reduced by frequent rainfall events. The highest CO2 efflux occurred not when soil was wettable, but when SWR, and thus soil moisture, was spatially patchy, a pattern observed for the majority of the measurement period. Patchiness of SWR is likely to have created zones with two different characteristics related to CO2 production and transport. Zones with wettable soil or low persistence of SWR with higher proportion of water-filled pores are expected to provide water with high nutrient concentration resulting in higher microbial activity and CO2 production. Soil zones with high SWR persistence, on the other hand, are dominated by air-filled pores with low microbial activity, but facilitating O2

  6. Characteristics of soil water retention curve at macro-scale

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Scale adaptable hydrological models have attracted more and more attentions in the hydrological modeling research community, and the constitutive relationship at the macro-scale is one of the most important issues, upon which there are not enough research activities yet. Taking the constitutive relationships of soil water movement--soil water retention curve (SWRC) as an example, this study extends the definition of SWRC at the micro-scale to that at the macro-scale, and aided by Monte Carlo method we demonstrate that soil property and the spatial distribution of soil moisture will affect the features of SWRC greatly. Furthermore, we assume that the spatial distribution of soil moisture is the result of self-organization of climate, soil, ground water and soil water movement under the specific boundary conditions, and we also carry out numerical experiments of soil water movement at the vertical direction in order to explore the relationship between SWRC at the macro-scale and the combinations of climate, soil, and groundwater. The results show that SWRCs at the macro-scale and micro-scale presents totally different features, e.g., the essential hysteresis phenomenon which is exaggerated with increasing aridity index and rising groundwater table. Soil property plays an important role in the shape of SWRC which will even lead to a rectangular shape under drier conditions, and power function form of SWRC widely adopted in hydrological model might be revised for most situations at the macro-scale.

  7. Monitoring changes in soil water content on adjustable soil slopes of a soil column using time domain reflectometry (TDR) techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Zakaria Wan Muhd Tahir; Lakam Anak Mejus; Johari Abdul Latif


    Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR) is one of non-destructive methods and widely used in hydrology and soil science for accurate and flexible measurement of soil water content The TDR technique is based on measuring the dielectric constant of soil from the propagation of an electromagnetic pulse traveling along installed probe rods (parallel wire transmission line). An adjustable soil column i.e., 80 cm (L) x 35 cm (H) x 44 cm (W) instrumented with six pairs of vertically installed CS615 reflectometer probes (TDR rods) was developed and wetted under a laboratory simulated rainfall and their sub-surface moisture variations as the slope changes were monitored using TDR method Soil samples for gravimetric determination of water content, converted to a volume basis were taken at selected times and locations after the final TDR reading for every slope change made of the soil column Comparisons of water contents by TDR with those from grawmetric samples at different slopes of soil column were examined. The accuracy was found to be comparable and to some extent dependent upon the variability of the soil. This study also suggests that the response of slope (above 20 degrees) to the gradual increase in water content profile may cause soil saturation faster and increased overland flow (runoff especially on weak soil conditions

  8. Soil variability and effectiveness of soil and water conservation in the Sahel.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hien, F.G.; Rietkerk, M.; Stroosnijder, L.


    Sahelian sylvopastoral lands often degrade into bare and crusted areas where regeneration of soil and vegetation is impossible in the short term unless soil and water conservation measures are implemented. Five combinations of tillage with and without mulch on three crust type/soil type combinations

  9. Soil water repellency of the artificial soil and natural soil in rocky slopes as affected by the drought stress and polyacrylamide. (United States)

    Chen, Zhang; Wang, Ruixin; Han, Pengyuan; Sun, Hailong; Sun, Haifeng; Li, Chengjun; Yang, Lixia


    Soil water repellency (SWR) causes reduced soil water storage, enhanced runoff and reduced ecosystem productivity. Therefore, characterization of SWR is a prerequisite for effective environmental management. SWR has been reported under different soils, land uses and regions of the world, particularly in forest land and after wildfires; however, the understanding of this variable in the artificial soil of rocky slope eco-engineering is still rather limited. This study presented the characterization of SWR in the artificial soil affected by the polyacrylamide (PAM) and drought stress. There were two molecular weights of PAM, and the CK was without PAM application. Three types of soil were studied: natural soil and two types of artificial soil which have been sprayed for 1y and 5y, respectively. The drought stress experiments had three drought gradients, lasted for three weeks. Water repellency index (WRI) and soil-water contact angle (β) were determined using intrinsic sorptivity method by measuring the water sorptivity (S W ) and ethanol sorptivity (S E ) in all soil samples. The results showed that (1) Polyacrylamide treatments significantly increased S W by 3% to 38%, and reduced S E by 1% to 15%, WRI by 6% to 38%, β by 3% to 23% compared to the control group. Polyacrylamide treatments also increased water-stable aggregates content and total porosity by 22% to 33%, 11% to 20% relative to the control, while PAM with a higher molecular weight performed best. (2) The interaction between PAM and drought stress had a significant effect on WRI and β for all soil types (Pnatural soil. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Soil water content plays an important role in soil-atmosphere exchange of carbonyl sulfide (OCS) (United States)

    Yi, Zhigang; Behrendt, Thomas; Bunk, Rüdiger; Wu, Dianming; Kesselmeier, Jürgen


    Carbonyl sulfide (OCS) is a quite stable gas in the troposphere and is transported up to the stratosphere, where it contributes to the sulfate aerosol layer (Crutzen 1976). The tropospheric concentration seems to be quite constant, indicating a balance between sinks and sources. Recent work by Sandoval-Soto et al. (2005) demonstrated the enormous strength of the vegetation sink and the urgent needs to understand the sinks and sources. The role of soils is a matter of discussion (Kesselmeier et al., 1999; Van Diest and Kesselmeier, 2008; Maseyk et al., 2014; Whelan et al., 2015). To better understand the influence of soil water content and OCS mixing ratio on OCS fluxes, we used an OCS analyzer (LGR COS/CO Analyzer 907-0028, Los Gatos, CA, USA) coupled with automated soil chamber system (Behrendt et al., 2014) to measure the OCS fluxes with a slow drying of four different types of soil (arable wheat soil in Mainz, blueberry soil in Waldstein, spruce soil in Waldstein and needle forest soil in Finland). Results showed that OCS fluxes as well as the optimum soil water content for OCS uptake varied significantly for different soils. The net production rates changed significantly with the soil drying out from 100% to about 5% water holding capacity (WHC), implying that soil water content play an important role in the uptake processes. The production and uptake processes were distinguished by the regression of OCS fluxes under different OCS mixing ratios. OCS compensation points (CP) were found to differ significantly for different soil types and water content, with the lowest CP at about 20% WHC, implying that when estimating the global budgets of OCS, especially for soils fluxes, soil water content should be taken into serious consideration. References Crutzen, P. J. 1976, Geophys. Res. Lett., 3, 73-76. Sandoval-Soto, L. et al., 2005, Biogeosciences, 2, 125-132. Kesselmeier, J. et al., 1999, J. Geophys. Res., 104, 11577-11584. Van Diest, H. and Kesselmeier, J. 2008

  11. The dependence of water potential in shoots of Picea abies on air and soil water status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sellin

    Full Text Available Where there is sufficient water storage in the soil the water potential (Ψx in shoots of Norway spruce [Picea abies (L. Karst.] is strongly governed by the vapour pressure deficit of the atmosphere, while the mean minimum values of Ψx usually do not drop below –1.5 MPa under meteorological conditions in Estonia. If the base water potential (Ψb is above –0.62 MPa, the principal factor causing water deficiency in shoots of P. abies may be either limited soil water reserves or atmospheric evaporative demand depending on the current level of the vapour pressure deficit. As the soil dries the stomatal control becomes more efficient in preventing water losses from the foliage, and the leaf water status, in turn, less sensitive to atmospheric demand. Under drought conditions, if Ψb falls below –0.62 MPa, the trees' water stress is mainly caused by low soil water availability. Further declines in the shoot water potential (below –1.5 MPa can be attributed primarily to further decreases in the soil water, i.e. to the static water stress.Key words. Hydrology (evapotranspiration · plant ecology · soil moisture.

  12. Water evaporation from bare soil at Paraiba, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Jose Romualdo de Sousa; Antonino, Antonio Celso D.; Lira, Carlos A. Brayner de O.; Maciel Netto, Andre; Silva, Ivandro de Franca da; Souza, Jeffson Cavalcante de


    Measurements were accomplished in a 4,0 ha area in Centro de Ciencias Agrarias, UFPB, Areia City, Paraiba State, Brazil (6 deg C 58'S, 35 deg C 41'W and 645 m), aiming to determine water evaporation from bare soil, by energy and water balance approaches. Rain gauge, net radiometer, pyranometer and sensor for measuring the temperature and the relative humidity of the air and the speed of the wind, in two levels above the soil surface, were used to solve the energy balance equations. In the soil, two places were fitted with instruments, each one with two thermal probes, installed horizontally in the depths z1 = 2,0 cm and z2 = 8,0 cm, and a heat flux plate, for the measurement of the heat flux in the soil, the z1 = 5,0 cm. The measured data were stored every 30 minutes in a data logger. For the calculation of the water balance, three tensio-neutronics sites were installed, containing: an access tube for neutrons probe and eight tensiometers. The values of soil evaporation obtained by water balance were lower than obtained by energy balance because of the variability of the water balance terms. (author)

  13. Soil and ground-water remediation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, P.


    Urban areas typically contain numerous sites underlain by soils or ground waters which are contaminated to levels that exceed clean-up guidelines and are hazardous to public health. Contamination most commonly results from the disposal, careless use and spillage of chemicals, or the historic importation of contaminated fill onto properties undergoing redevelopment. Contaminants of concern in soil and ground water include: inorganic chemicals such as heavy metals; radioactive metals; salt and inorganic pesticides, and a range of organic chemicals included within petroleum fuels, coal tar products, PCB oils, chlorinated solvents, and pesticides. Dealing with contaminated sites is a major problem affecting all urban areas and a wide range of different remedial technologies are available. This chapter reviews the more commonly used methods for ground-water and soil remediation, paying particular regard to efficiency and applicability of specific treatments to different site conditions. (author). 43 refs., 1 tab., 27 figs

  14. Water infiltration into homogeneous soils: a new concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manfredni, S.


    A new concept for the analytical description of the process of water infiltration into homogeneous soils is presented. The concept uses a new definition of a 'gravitational diffusivity' which permits the generalization of both cases, horizontal and vertical infiltration. The efficiency of the new concept in describing the infiltration process, for short and intermediate times, is proved through experimental data obtained during water infiltration into air-dry soil columns. Its advantages are discussed comparing soil water contents predicted by the numerical solution proposed by PHILLIP (1955, 1957) [pt

  15. Validation of a spatial–temporal soil water movement and plant water uptake model

    KAUST Repository



    © 2014, (publisher). All rights reserved. Management and irrigation of plants increasingly relies on accurate mathematical models for the movement of water within unsaturated soils. Current models often use values for water content and soil

  16. Water repellent soils: a state-of-the-art (United States)

    Leonard F. DeBano


    Water repellency in soils was first described by Schreiner and Shorey (1910), who found that some soils in California could not be wetted and thereby were not suitable for agriculture. Waxy organic substances were responsible for the water repellency. Other studies in the early 1900's on the fairy ring phenomenon suggested that water repellency could be caused by...

  17. Predictions of soil-water potentials in the north-western Sonoran Desert

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, D.R.; Nobel, P.S.


    A simple computer model was developed to predict soil-water potential at a Sonoran Desert site. The variability of precipitation there, coupled with the low water-holding capacity of the sandy soil, result in large temporal and spatial variations in soil-water potential. Predicted soil-water potentials for depths of 5, 10 and 20 cm were in close agreement with measured values as the soil dried after an application of water. Predicted values at a depth of 10 cm, the mean rooting depth of Agave deserti and other succulents common at the study site, also agreed with soil-water potentials measured in the field throughout 1 year. Both soil-water potential and evaporation from the soil surface were very sensitive to simulated changes in the hydraulic conductivity of the soil. The annual duration of soil moisture adequate for succulents was dependent on the rainfall as well as on the spacing and amount of individual rainfalls. The portion of annual precipitation evaporated from the soil surface varied from 73% in a dry year (77 mm precipitation) to 59% in a wet year (597 mm). Besides using the actual precipitation events, simulations were performed using the figures for total monthly precipitation. Based on the average number of rainfalls for a particular month, the rainfall was distributed throughout the month in the model. Predictions using both daily and monthly inputs were in close agreement, especially for the number of days during a year when the soil-water potential was sufficient for water absorption by the succulent plants (above -0.5 MPa).

  18. Model development for prediction of soil water dynamics in plant production. (United States)

    Hu, Zhengfeng; Jin, Huixia; Zhang, Kefeng


    Optimizing water use in agriculture and medicinal plants is crucially important worldwide. Soil sensor-controlled irrigation systems are increasingly becoming available. However it is questionable whether irrigation scheduling based on soil measurements in the top soil could make best use of water for deep-rooted crops. In this study a mechanistic model was employed to investigate water extraction by a deep-rooted cabbage crop from the soil profile throughout crop growth. The model accounts all key processes governing water dynamics in the soil-plant-atmosphere system. Results show that the subsoil provides a significant proportion of the seasonal transpiration, about a third of water transpired over the whole growing season. This suggests that soil water in the entire root zone should be taken into consideration in irrigation scheduling, and for sensor-controlled irrigation systems sensors in the subsoil are essential for detecting soil water status for deep-rooted crops.

  19. Estimation of areal soil water content through microwave remote sensing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oevelen, van P.J.


    In this thesis the use of microwave remote sensing to estimate soil water content is investigated. A general framework is described which is applicable to both passive and active microwave remote sensing of soil water content. The various steps necessary to estimate areal soil water content

  20. Pulmonary scan in evaluating alveolar-interstitial syndrome in ER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Volpicelli


    Full Text Available Diffuse comet-tail artifacts at lung ultrasound are due to thickened interlobular septa and extravascular lung water. This condition is typical of the alveolar-interstitial syndrome due to pulmonary edema, diffuse parenchymal lung disease or ARDS. Aim of our study is to assess the potential of bedside lung ultrasound to diagnose the alveolar-interstitial syndrome in patients admitted to our emergency medicine unit. The ultrasonic feature of multiple and diffuse comet-tail artifacts was investigated during 5 months, in 121 consecutive patients admitted to our unit. Each patient was studied bedside in a supine position, by 8 antero-lateral pulmonary intercostal scans. Ultrasonic results were compared with chest radiograph and clinical outcome. Lung ultrasound showed a sensitivity of 84% and a specificity of 98% in diagnosing the radiologic alveolar-interstitial syndrome. Corresponding figures in the identification of a disease involving lung interstitium were 83% and 96%. These preliminary data show that the study of comet-tail artifacts at lung ultrasound is a method reasonably accurate for diagnosing the alveolar-interstitial syndrome at bedside. This conclusion opens the hypothesis of the usefullness of bedside lung ultrasound in the evaluation of dyspnoeic patients in the emergency setting.

  1. Uranium in soils and water; Uran in Boden und Wasser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dienemann, Claudia; Utermann, Jens


    The report of the Umweltbundesamt (Federal Environmental Agency) on uranium in soils and water covers the following chapters: (1) Introduction. (2) Deposits and properties: Use of uranium; toxic effects on human beings, uranium in ground water and drinking water, uranium in surface waters, uranium in soils, uranium in the air. (3) Legal regulations. (4) Uranium deposits, uranium mining, polluted area recultivation. (5) Diffuse uranium entry in soils and water: uranium insertion due to fertilizers, uranium insertion due to atmospheric precipitation, uranium insertion from the air. (6) Diffuse uranium release from soils and transfer in to the food chain. (7) Conclusions and recommendations.

  2. Water Erosion in Different Slope Lengths on Bare Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Bagio

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Water erosion degrades the soil and contaminates the environment, and one influential factor on erosion is slope length. The aim of this study was to quantify losses of soil (SL and water (WL in a Humic Cambisol in a field experiment under natural rainfall conditions from July 4, 2014 to June 18, 2015 in individual events of 41 erosive rains in the Southern Plateau of Santa Catarina and to estimate soil losses through the USLE and RUSLE models. The treatments consisted of slope lengths of 11, 22, 33, and 44 m, with an average degree of slope of 8 %, on bare and uncropped soil that had been cultivated with corn prior to the study. At the end of the corn cycle, the stalk residue was removed from the surface, leaving the roots of the crop in the soil. Soil loss by water erosion is related linearly and positively to the increase in slope length in the span between 11 and 44 m. Soil losses were related to water losses and the Erosivity Index (EI30, while water losses were related to rain depth. Soil losses estimated by the USLE and RUSLE model showed lower values than the values observed experimentally in the field, especially the values estimated by the USLE. The values of factor L calculated for slope length of 11, 22, 33, and 44 m for the two versions (USLE and RUSLE of the soil loss prediction model showed satisfactory results in relation to the values of soil losses observed.

  3. Soil water content, runoff and soil loss prediction in a small ungauged agricultural basin in the Mediterranean region using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool


    Ramos Martín, Ma. C. (Ma. Concepción); Martínez Casasnovas, José Antonio


    The aim of the present work was to evaluate the possibilities of using sub-basin data for calibration of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model in a small (46 ha) ungauged basin (i.e. where the water flow is not systematically measured) and its response. This small basin was located in the viticultural Anoia-Penedès region (North-east Spain), which suffers severe soil erosion. The data sources were: daily weather data from an observatory located close to the basin; a detailed soil ma...

  4. Measured soil water concentrations of cadmium and zinc in plant pots and estimated leaching outflows from contaminated soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, P.E.; Christensen, T.H.


    Soil water concentrations of cadmium and zinc were measured in plant pots with 15 contaminated soils which differed in origin, texture, pH (5.1-7.8) and concentrations of cadmium (0.2-17 mg Cd kg(-1)) and zinc (36-1300 mg Zn kg(-1)). The soil waters contained total concentrations of 0.5 to 17 mu g...... to 0.1% per year of the total soil content of cadmium and zinc. The measured soil water concentrations of cadmium and zinc did not correlate linearly with the corresponding soil concentrations but correlated fairly well with concentrations measured in Ca(NO(3))(2) extracts of the soils and with soil...... water concentrations estimated from soil concentrations and pH. Such concentration estimates may be useful for estimating amounts of cadmium and zinc being leached from soils....

  5. Evaluation of different field methods for measuring soil water infiltration (United States)

    Pla-Sentís, Ildefonso; Fonseca, Francisco


    Soil infiltrability, together with rainfall characteristics, is the most important hydrological parameter for the evaluation and diagnosis of the soil water balance and soil moisture regime. Those balances and regimes are the main regulating factors of the on site water supply to plants and other soil organisms and of other important processes like runoff, surface and mass erosion, drainage, etc, affecting sedimentation, flooding, soil and water pollution, water supply for different purposes (population, agriculture, industries, hydroelectricity), etc. Therefore the direct measurement of water infiltration rates or its indirect deduction from other soil characteristics or properties has become indispensable for the evaluation and modelling of the previously mentioned processes. Indirect deductions from other soil characteristics measured under laboratory conditions in the same soils, or in other soils, through the so called "pedo-transfer" functions, have demonstrated to be of limited value in most of the cases. Direct "in situ" field evaluations have to be preferred in any case. In this contribution we present the results of past experiences in the measurement of soil water infiltration rates in many different soils and land conditions, and their use for deducing soil water balances under variable climates. There are also presented and discussed recent results obtained in comparing different methods, using double and single ring infiltrometers, rainfall simulators, and disc permeameters, of different sizes, in soils with very contrasting surface and profile characteristics and conditions, including stony soils and very sloping lands. It is concluded that there are not methods universally applicable to any soil and land condition, and that in many cases the results are significantly influenced by the way we use a particular method or instrument, and by the alterations in the soil conditions by the land management, but also due to the manipulation of the surface

  6. A one-dimensional model for simulating soil water movement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... regression analysis revealed the relati-onship to be exponential. The values of calculated and measured soil water content and total evapotranspiration decreased with number of days after rain or irrigation. The nodal soil water content also decreased with the soil depth. (Journal of Applied Science and Technology: 2001 ...

  7. Assessment of produced water contaminated soils to determine remediation requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clodfelter, C.


    Produced water and drilling fluids can impact the agricultural properties of soil and result in potential regulatory and legal liabilities. Produced water typically is classified as saline or a brine and affects surface soils by increasing the sodium and chloride content. Sources of produced water which can lead to problems include spills from flowlines and tank batteries, permitted surface water discharges and pit areas, particularly the larger pits including reserve pits, emergency pits and saltwater disposal pits. Methods to assess produced water spills include soil sampling with various chemical analyses and surface geophysical methods. A variety of laboratory analytical methods are available for soil assessment which include electrical conductivity, sodium adsorption ratio, cation exchange capacity, exchangeable sodium percent and others. Limiting the list of analytical parameters to reduce cost and still obtain the data necessary to assess the extent of contamination and determine remediation requirements can be difficult. The advantage to using analytical techniques is that often regulatory remediation standards are tied to soil properties determined from laboratory analysis. Surface geophysical techniques can be an inexpensive method to rapidly determine the extent and relative magnitude of saline soils. Data interpretations can also provide an indication of the horizontal as well as the vertical extent of impacted soils. The following discussion focuses on produced water spills on soil and assessment of the impacted soil. Produced water typically contains dissolved hydrocarbons which are not addressed in this discussion

  8. Effects of pH-Induced Changes in Soil Physical Characteristics on the Development of Soil Water Erosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinji Matsumoto


    Full Text Available Soil water erosion is frequently reported as serious problem in soils in Southeast Asia with tropical climates, and the variations in pH affect the development of the erosion. This study investigated the effects of changes in pH on soil water erosion based on changes in the physical properties of the simulated soils with pH adjusted from 2.0 to 10.0 through artificial rainfall tests. The zeta potential was entirely shifted to positive direction at each pH condition due to Al, Ca, and Mg. In the pH range of 6.0 to 2.0, the aggregation of soil particles resulting from the release of Al3+ from clay minerals and/or molecular attraction between soil particles caused the plastic index (IP of the soil to decrease. The decrease in IP led to the development of soil water erosion at the pH range. When the pH exceeded 6.0, the repulsive force generated by the negative charges on soil particles decreased IP, resulting in accelerated erosion by water. The results suggest that changes in pH causes physical properties of the soil to change through changes of the zeta potential in the clayey soil rich in Al, Ca, and Mg, leading to the development of soil water erosion.

  9. Interstitial pregnancy: role of MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filhastre, M.; Lesnik, A.; Dechaud, H.; Taourel, P.


    We report the MRI features of two cases of interstitial pregnancy. In both cases, MRI was able to localize the ectopic pregnancy by showing a gestational structure surrounded by a thick wall in the upper part of the uterine wall separated from the endometrium by an uninterrupted junctional zone. Because US may confuse angular and interstitial pregnancies and because interstitial pregnancy has a particular evolutive course, MR imaging may play a key role in the diagnosis and management of women with interstitial pregnancy. (orig.)

  10. Soil CO2 Dynamics in a Tree Island Soil of the Pantanal: The Role of Soil Water Potential (United States)

    Johnson, Mark S.; Couto, Eduardo Guimarães; Pinto Jr, Osvaldo B.; Milesi, Juliana; Santos Amorim, Ricardo S.; Messias, Indira A. M.; Biudes, Marcelo Sacardi


    The Pantanal is a biodiversity hotspot comprised of a mosaic of landforms that differ in vegetative assemblages and flooding dynamics. Tree islands provide refuge for terrestrial fauna during the flooding period and are particularly important to the regional ecosystem structure. Little soil CO2 research has been conducted in this region. We evaluated soil CO2 dynamics in relation to primary controlling environmental parameters (soil temperature and soil water). Soil respiration was computed using the gradient method using in situ infrared gas analyzers to directly measure CO2 concentration within the soil profile. Due to the cost of the sensors and associated equipment, this study was unreplicated. Rather, we focus on the temporal relationships between soil CO2 efflux and related environmental parameters. Soil CO2 efflux during the study averaged 3.53 µmol CO2 m−2 s−1, and was equivalent to an annual soil respiration of 1220 g C m−2 y−1. This efflux value, integrated over a year, is comparable to soil C stocks for 0–20 cm. Soil water potential was the measured parameter most strongly associated with soil CO2 concentrations, with high CO2 values observed only once soil water potential at the 10 cm depth approached zero. This relationship was exhibited across a spectrum of timescales and was found to be significant at a daily timescale across all seasons using conditional nonparametric spectral Granger causality analysis. Hydrology plays a significant role in controlling CO2 efflux from the tree island soil, with soil CO2 dynamics differing by wetting mechanism. During the wet-up period, direct precipitation infiltrates soil from above and results in pulses of CO2 efflux from soil. The annual flood arrives later, and saturates soil from below. While CO2 concentrations in soil grew very high under both wetting mechanisms, the change in soil CO2 efflux was only significant when soils were wet from above. PMID:23762259

  11. Natural and fire-induced soil water repellency in a Portugese Shrubland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoof, C.R.; Moore, D.; Ritsema, C.J.; Dekker, L.W.


    Post-fire land degradation is often attributed to fire-induced soil water repellency, despite the fact that soil water repellency is a natural phenomenon in many soils and is therefore not necessarily caused by fire. To improve our understanding of the role of soil water repellency in causing

  12. [Soil infiltration of snowmelt water in the southern Gurbantunggut Desert, Xinjiang, China]. (United States)

    Hu, Shun-jun; Chen, Yong-bao; Zhu, Hai


    Soil infiltration of snow-melt water is an important income item of water balance in arid desert. The soil water content in west slope, east slope and interdune of sand dune in the southern Gurbantunggut Desert was monitored before snowfall and after snow melting during the winters of 2012-2013 and 2013-2014. According to the principle of water balance, soil infiltration of snow-melt in the west slope, east slope, interdune and landscape scale was calculated, and compared with the results measured by cylinder method. The results showed that the soil moisture recharge from unfrozen layer of unsaturated soil to surface frozen soil was negligible because the soil moisture content before snowfall was lower, soil infiltration of snow-melt water was the main source of soil water of shallow soil, phreatic water did not evaporate during freezing period, and did not get recharge after the snow melting. Snowmelt water in the west slope, east slope, interdune and landscape scale were 20-43, 27-43, 32-45, 26-45 mm, respectively.

  13. Effect of top soil wettability on water evaporation and plant growth. (United States)

    Gupta, Bharat; Shah, D O; Mishra, Brijesh; Joshi, P A; Gandhi, Vimal G; Fougat, R S


    In general, agricultural soil surfaces being hydrophilic in nature get easily wetted by water. The water beneath the soil moves through capillary effect and comes to the surface of the soil and thereafter evaporates into the surrounding air due to atmospheric conditions such as sunlight, wind current, temperature and relative humidity. To lower the water loss from soil, an experiment was designed in which a layer of hydrophobic soil was laid on the surface of ordinary hydrophilic soil. This technique strikingly decreased loss of water from the soil. The results indicated that the evaporation rate significantly decreased and 90% of water was retained in the soil in 83 h by the hydrophobic layer of 2 cm thickness. A theoretical calculation based on diffusion of water vapour (gas phase) through hydrophobic capillaries provide a meaningful explanation of experimental results. A greater retention of water in the soil by this approach can promote the growth of plants, which was confirmed by growing chick pea (Cicer arietinum) plants and it was found that the length of roots, height of shoot, number of branches, number of leaves, number of secondary roots, biomass etc. were significantly increased upon covering the surface with hydrophobic soil in comparison to uncovered ordinary hydrophilic soil of identical depth. Such approach can also decrease the water consumption by the plants particularly grown indoors in residential premises, green houses and poly-houses etc. and also can be very useful to prevent water loss and enhance growth of vegetation in semi-arid regions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Grey water impact on soil physical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel L. Murcia-Sarmiento


    Full Text Available Due to the increasing demand for food produced by the increase in population, water as an indispensable element in the growth cycle of plants every day becomes a fundamental aspect of production. The demand for the use of this resource is necessary to search for alternatives that should be evaluated to avoid potential negative impacts. In this paper, the changes in some physical properties of soil irrigated with synthetic gray water were evaluated. The experimental design involved: one factor: home water and two treatments; without treated water (T1 and treated water (T2. The variables to consider in the soil were: electrical conductivity (EC, exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP, average weighted diameter (MWD and soil moisture retention (RHS. The water used in drip irrigation high frequency was monitored by tensiometer for producing a bean crop (Phaseolous vulgaris L. As filtration system used was employed a unit composed of a sand filter (FLA and a subsurface flow wetland artificial (HFSS. The treatments showed significant differences in the PSI and the RHS. The FLA+HFSS system is an alternative to the gray water treatment due to increased sodium retention.

  15. Fluorescent probes for understanding soil water repellency: the novel application of a chemist's tool to soil science (United States)

    Balshaw, Helen M.; Davies, Matthew L.; Doerr, Stefan H.; Douglas, Peter


    Food security and production is one of the key global issues faced by society. It has become essential to work the land efficiently, through better soil management and agronomy whilst protecting the environment from air and water pollution. The failure of soil to absorb water - soil water repellency can lead to major environmental problems such as increased overland flow and soil erosion, poor uptake of agricultural chemicals, and increased risk of groundwater pollution due to the rapid transfer of contaminants and nutrient leaching through uneven wetting and preferential flow pathways. Understanding the causes of soil hydrophobicity is essential for the development of effective methods for its amelioration, supporting environmental stability and food security. Organic compounds deposited on soil mineral or aggregate surfaces have long been recognised as a major factor in causing soil water repellency. It is widely accepted that the main groups of compounds responsible are long-chain acids, alkanes and other organic compounds with hydrophobic properties. However, when reapplied to sands and soils, the degree of water repellency induced by these compounds and mixtures varied widely with compound type, amount, and mixture, in a seemingly unpredictable way. Fluorescent and phosphorescent probes are widely used in chemistry and biochemistry due to their sensitive response to their physical and chemical environment, such as polarity, and viscosity. However, they have to-date not been used to study soil water repellency. Here we present preliminary work on the evaluation of fluorescent probes as tools to study two poorly understood features that determine the degree of wettability for water repellent soils: (i) the distribution of organics on soils; (ii) the changes in polarity at soil surfaces required for water drops to infiltrate. In our initial work we have examined probes adsorbed onto model soils, prepared by adsorption of specific organics onto acid washed sand

  16. Estimating respiration of roots in soil: interactions with soil CO2, soil temperature and soil water content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, T.J.; Nielsen, K.F.; Eissenstat, D.M.; Lynch, J.P.


    Little information is available on the variability of the dynamics of the actual and observed root respiration rate in relation to abiotic factors. In this study, we describe I) interactions between soil CO2 concentration, temperature, soil water content and root respiration, and II) the effect of

  17. Water repellency of clay, sand and organic soils in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. RASA


    Full Text Available Water repellency (WR delays soil wetting process, increases preferential flow and may give rise to surface runoff and consequent erosion. WR is commonly recognized in the soils of warm and temperate climates. To explore the occurrence of WR in soils in Finland, soil R index was studied on 12 sites of different soil types. The effects of soil management practice, vegetation age, soil moisture and drying temperature on WR were studied by a mini-infiltrometer with samples from depths of 0-5 and 5-10 cm. All studied sites exhibited WR (R index >1.95 at the time of sampling. WR increased as follows: sand (R = 1.8-5.0 < clay (R = 2.4-10.3 < organic (R = 7.9-undefined. At clay and sand, WR was generally higher at the soil surface and at the older sites (14 yr., where organic matter is accumulated. Below 41 vol. % water content these mineral soils were water repellent whereas organic soil exhibited WR even at saturation. These results show that soil WR also reduces water infiltration at the prevalent field moisture regime in the soils of boreal climate. The ageing of vegetation increases WR and on the other hand, cultivation reduces or hinders the development of WR.;

  18. Equilibrium Partitioning Sediment Benchmarks (ESBs) for the Protection of Benthic Organisms: Procedures for the Determination of the Freely Dissolved Interstitial Water Concentrations of Nonionic Organics (United States)

    This document describes procedures to determine the concentrations of nonionic organic chemicals in sediment interstitial waters. In previous ESB documents, the general equilibrium partitioning (EqP) approach was chosen for the derivation of sediment benchmarks because it account...

  19. [Contribution of soil water at various depths to water consumption of rainfed winter wheat in the Loess tableland, China]. (United States)

    Cheng, Li Ping; Liu, Wen Zhao


    Soil water and stem water were collected in jointing and heading stages of the rainfed winter wheat in the Changwu Loess tableland, and the stable isotopic compositions of hydrogen and oxygen in water samples were measured to analyze the contribution of soil water at various depths to water consumption of winter wheat. The results showed that the isotopes were enriched in soil and wheat stem water in comparison with that in precipitation. Under the condition of no dry layer in soil profile, the contributions to wheat water consumption in jointing and heading stages were 5.4% and 2.6% from soil water at 0-30 cm depth, 73.4% and 67.3% at 60-90 cm depth (the main water source for winter wheat), and 7.9% and 13.5% below 120 cm depth, respectively. With the wheat growth, the contribution of soil water below the depth of 90 cm increased. It was concluded that soil evaporation mainly consumed soil water in 0-30 cm depth and wheat transpiration mainly consumed soil water below 60 cm depth in the experimental period. In the production practice, it is necessary to increase rainwater storage ratio during the summer fallow period, and apply reasonable combination of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers in order to increase soil moisture before wheat sowing, promote the wheat root developing deep downwards and raise the deep soil water utilization ratio.

  20. Irrigation with saline-sodic water: effects on two clay soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Cucci


    Full Text Available The results of a 4-year experiment aimed at evaluating the effect of irrigation with saline-sodic water on the soil are reported. The research was carried out at the Campus of the Agricultural Faculty of Bari University (Italy on 2 clay soils (Bologna – T1 and Locorotondo – T2. The soils were cropped to borlotto bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L., capsicum (Capsicum annuum L., sunflower (Helianthus annuus L., wheat (Triticum durum Desf grown in succession; the crops were irrigated with 9 saline-sodic types of water and subjected to two different leaching fractions (10% and 20% of the watering volume. The 9 solutions were obtained dissolving in de-ionised water weighted amounts of sodium chloride (NaCl and calcium chloride (CaCl2, deriving from the combination of 3 saline concentrations and 3 sodicity levels. The crops were irrigated whenever the water lost by evapotranspiration from the soil contained in the pots was equal to 30% of the soil maximum available water. The results showed that, though the soils were leached during the watering period, they showed a high salt accumulation. Consequently, the saturated soil extract electrical conductivity increased from initial values of 0.65 and 0.68 dS m-1 to 11.24 and 13.61 dS m-1 at the end of the experiment, for the soils T1 and T2, respectively. The saline concentration increase in irrigation water caused in both soils a progressive increase in exchangeable sodium, and a decrease in exchangeable calcium and non-significant variations in exchangeable potassium (K and magnesium (Mg.

  1. Association of water spectral indices with plant and soil water relations in contrasting wheat genotypes. (United States)

    Gutierrez, Mario; Reynolds, Matthew P; Klatt, Arthur R


    Spectral reflectance indices can be used to estimate the water status of plants in a rapid, non-destructive manner. Water spectral indices were measured on wheat under a range of water-deficit conditions in field-based yield trials to establish their relationship with water relations parameters as well as available volumetric soil water (AVSW) to indicate soil water extraction patterns. Three types of wheat germplasm were studied which showed a range of drought adaptation; near-isomorphic sister lines from an elite/elite cross, advanced breeding lines, and lines derived from interspecific hybridization with wild relatives (synthetic derivative lines). Five water spectral indices (one water index and four normalized water indices) based on near infrared wavelengths were determined under field conditions between the booting and grain-filling stages of crop development. Among all water spectral indices, one in particular, which was denominated as NWI-3, showed the most consistent associations with water relations parameters and demonstrated the strongest associations in all three germplasm sets. NWI-3 showed a strong linear relationship (r(2) >0.6-0.8) with leaf water potential (psi(leaf)) across a broad range of values (-2.0 to -4.0 MPa) that were determined by natural variation in the environment associated with intra- and inter-seasonal affects. Association observed between NWI-3 and canopy temperature (CT) was consistent with the idea that genotypes with a better hydration status have a larger water flux (increased stomatal conductance) during the day. NWI-3 was also related to soil water potential (psi(soil)) and AVSW, indicating that drought-adapted lines could extract more water from deeper soil profiles to maintain favourable water relations. NWI-3 was sufficiently sensitive to detect genotypic differences (indicated by phenotypic and genetic correlations) in water status at the canopy and soil levels indicating its potential application in precision

  2. Formation and annealing of metastable (interstitial oxygen)-(interstitial carbon) complexes in n- and p-type silicon

    CERN Document Server

    Makarenko, L F; Lastovskii, S B; Murin, L I; Moll, M; Pintilie, I


    It is shown experimentally that, in contrast to the stable configuration of (interstitial carbon)-(interstitial oxygen) complexes (CiOi), the corresponding metastable configuration (CiOi{*}) cannot be found in n-Si based structures by the method of capacitance spectroscopy. The rates of transformation CiOi{*} -> CiOi are practically the same for both n- and p-Si with a concentration of charge carriers of no higher than 10(13) cm(-3). It is established that the probabilities of the simultaneous formation of stable and metastable configurations of the complex under study in the case of the addition of an atom of interstitial carbon to an atom of interstitial oxygen is close to 50\\%. This is caused by the orientation dependence of the interaction potential of an atom of interstitial oxygen with an interstitial carbon atom, which diffuses to this oxygen atom.

  3. Movement of Irrigation Water in Soil from a Surface Emitter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Abbas Dawood


    Full Text Available rickle irrigation is one of the most conservative irrigation techniques since it implies supplying water directly on the soil through emitters. Emitters dissipate energy of water at the end of the trickle irrigation system and provide water at emission points. The area wetted by an emitter depends upon the discharge of emitter, soil texture, initial soil water content, and soil permeability. The objectives of this research were to predict water distribution profiles through different soils for different conditions and quantify the distribution profiles in terms of main characteristics of soil and emitter. The wetting patterns were simulated at the end of each hour for a total time of application of 12 hrs, emitter discharges of 0.5, 0.75, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 lph, and five initial volumetric soil water contents. Simulation of water flow from a single surface emitter was carried out by using the numerically-based software Hydrus-2D/3D, Version 2.04. Two approaches were used in developing formulas to predict the domains of the wetted pattern. In order to verify the results obtained by implementing the software Hydrus-2D/3D a field experiment was conducted to measure the wetted diameter and compare measured values with simulated ones. The results of the research showed that the developed formulas to express the wetted diameter and depth in terms of emitter discharge, time of application, and initial soil water content are very general and can be used with very good accuracy.

  4. Measuring Low Concentrations of Liquid Water in Soil (United States)

    Buehler, Martin


    An apparatus has been developed for measuring the low concentrations of liquid water and ice in relatively dry soil samples. Designed as a prototype of instruments for measuring the liquidwater and ice contents of Lunar and Martian soils, the apparatus could also be applied similarly to terrestrial desert soils and sands. The apparatus is a special-purpose impedance spectrometer: Its design is based on the fact that the electrical behavior of a typical soil sample is well approximated by a network of resistors and capacitors in which resistances decrease and capacitances increase (and, hence, the magnitude of impedance decreases) with increasing water content.

  5. Neutron probe measurement of soil water content close to soil surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faleiros, M.C.; Ravelo S, A.; Souza, M.D. de


    The problem of neutron probe soil water content measurements close to soil surface is analysed from the spatial variability and also from the slow neutron loss to the atmosphere points of view. Results obtained on a dark red latosol of the county of Piracicaba, SP, indicate the possibility of precisely measuring the neutron sphere of influence when different media are used on soil surface. (author). 7 refs, 5 figs, 1 tab

  6. Approaches and challenges of soil water monitoring in an irrigated vineyard (United States)

    Nolz, Reinhard; Loiskandl, Willibald


    Monitoring of water content is an approved method to quantify certain components of the soil water balance, for example as basis for hydrological studies and soil water management. Temporal soil water data also allow controlling water status by means of demand-oriented irrigation. Regarding spatial variability of water content due to soil characteristics, plant water uptake and other non-uniformities, it is a great challenge to select a location that is most likely representing soil water status of a larger area (e.g. an irrigated field). Although such an approach might not satisfy the requirements of precision farming - which becomes more and more related to industrial agriculture - it can help improving water use efficiency of small-scale farming. In this regard, specific conditions can be found in typical vineyards in the eastern part of Austria, where grapes are grown for high quality wine production. Generally, the local dry-subhumid climate supports grape development. However, irrigation is temporarily essential in order to guarantee stable yields and high quality. As the local winegrowers traditionally control irrigation based on their experience, there is a potential to improve irrigation management by means of soil water data. In order to gain experience with regard to irrigation management, soil water status was determined in a small vineyard in Austria (47°48'16'' N, 17°01'57'' E, 118 m elevation). The vineyard was equipped with a subsurface drip irrigation system and access tubes for measuring water content in soil profiles. The latter was measured using a portable device as well as permanently installed multi-sensor capacitance probes. Soil samples were taken at chosen dates and gravimetrically analyzed in the laboratory. Water content data were analyzed using simple statistical procedures and the temporal stability concept. Soil water content was interpreted considering different environmental conditions, including rainfall and irrigation periods

  7. Measuring and understanding soil water repellency through novel interdisciplinary approaches (United States)

    Balshaw, Helen; Douglas, Peter; Doerr, Stefan; Davies, Matthew


    Food security and production is one of the key global issues faced by society. It has become evermore essential to work the land efficiently, through better soil management and agronomy whilst protecting the environment from air and water pollution. The failure of soil to absorb water - soil water repellency - can lead to major environmental problems such as increased overland flow and soil erosion, poor uptake of agricultural chemicals and increased risk of groundwater pollution due to the rapid transfer of contaminants and nutrient leaching through uneven wetting and preferential flow pathways. Understanding the causes of soil hydrophobicity is essential for the development of effective methods for its amelioration, supporting environmental stability and food security. Organic compounds deposited on soil mineral or aggregate surfaces have long been recognised as a major factor in causing soil water repellency. It is widely accepted that the main groups of compounds responsible are long-chain acids, alkanes and other organic compounds with hydrophobic properties. However, when reapplied to sands and soils, the degree of water repellency induced by these compounds and mixtures varied widely with compound type, amount and mixture, in a seemingly unpredictable way. Our research to date involves two new approaches for studying soil wetting. 1) We challenge the theoretical basis of current ideas on the measured water/soil contact angle measurements. Much past and current discussion involves Wenzel and Cassie-Baxter models to explain anomalously high contact angles for organics on soils, however here we propose that these anomalously high measured contact angles are a consequence of the measurement of a water drop on an irregular non-planar surface rather than the thermodynamic factors of the Cassie-Baxter and Wenzel models. In our analysis we have successfully used a much simpler geometric approach for non-flat surfaces such as soil. 2) Fluorescent and phosphorescent

  8. Water erosion and soil water infiltration in different stages of corn development and tillage systems


    Daniel F. de Carvalho; Eliete N. Eduardo; Wilk S. de Almeida; Lucas A. F. Santos; Teodorico Alves Sobrinho


    ABSTRACTThis study evaluated soil and water losses, soil water infiltration and infiltration rate models in soil tillage systems and corn (Zea mays, L.) development stages under simulated rainfall. The treatments were: cultivation along contour lines, cultivation down the slope and exposed soil. Soil losses and infiltration in each treatment were quantified for rains applied using a portable simulator, at 0, 30, 60 and 75 days after planting. Infiltration rates were estimated using the models...

  9. The estimation of soil water fluxes using lysimeter data (United States)

    Wegehenkel, M.


    The validation of soil water balance models regarding soil water fluxes in the field is still a problem. This requires time series of measured model outputs. In our study, a soil water balance model was validated using lysimeter time series of measured model outputs. The soil water balance model used in our study was the Hydrus-1D-model. This model was tested by a comparison of simulated with measured daily rates of actual evapotranspiration, soil water storage, groundwater recharge and capillary rise. These rates were obtained from twelve weighable lysimeters with three different soils and two different lower boundary conditions for the time period from January 1, 1996 to December 31, 1998. In that period, grass vegetation was grown on all lysimeters. These lysimeters are located in Berlin, Germany. One potential source of error in lysimeter experiments is preferential flow caused by an artificial channeling of water due to the occurrence of air space between the soil monolith and the inside wall of the lysimeters. To analyse such sources of errors, Hydrus-1D was applied with different modelling procedures. The first procedure consists of a general uncalibrated appli-cation of Hydrus-1D. The second one includes a calibration of soil hydraulic parameters via inverse modelling of different percolation events with Hydrus-1D. In the third procedure, the model DUALP_1D was applied with the optimized hydraulic parameter set to test the hy-pothesis of the existence of preferential flow paths in the lysimeters. The results of the different modelling procedures indicated that, in addition to a precise determination of the soil water retention functions, vegetation parameters such as rooting depth should also be taken into account. Without such information, the rooting depth is a calibration parameter. However, in some cases, the uncalibrated application of both models also led to an acceptable fit between measured and simulated model outputs.

  10. Aggregating available soil water holding capacity data for crop yield models (United States)

    Seubert, C. E.; Daughtry, C. S. T.; Holt, D. A.; Baumgardner, M. F.


    The total amount of water available to plants that is held against gravity in a soil is usually estimated as the amount present at -0.03 MPa average water potential minus the amount present at -1.5 MPa water potential. This value, designated available water-holding capacity (AWHC), is a very important soil characteristic that is strongly and positively correlated to the inherent productivity of soils. In various applications, including assessing soil moisture status over large areas, it is necessary to group soil types or series as to their productivity. Current methods to classify AWHC of soils consider only total capacity of soil profiles and thus may group together soils which differ greatly in AWHC as a function of depth in the profile. A general approach for evaluating quantitatively the multidimensional nature of AWHC in soils is described. Data for 902 soil profiles, representing 184 soil series, in Indiana were obtained from the Soil Characterization Laboratory at Purdue University. The AWHC for each of ten 150-mm layers in each soil was established, based on soil texture and parent material. A multivariate clustering procedure was used to classify each soil profile into one of 4, 8, or 12 classes based upon ten-dimensional AWHC values. The optimum number of classes depends on the range of AWHC in the population of oil profiles analyzed and on the sensitivity of a crop to differences in distribution of water within the soil profile.

  11. Assessing interactions of hydrophilic nanoscale TiO{sub 2} with soil water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Priester, John H.; Ge, Yuan; Chang, Vivian [University of California, Santa Barbara, Bren School of Environmental Science and Management (United States); Stoimenov, Peter K. [University of California, Santa Barbara, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry (United States); Schimel, Joshua P. [University of California, Santa Barbara, Earth Research Institute (United States); Stucky, Galen D. [University of California, Santa Barbara, UC Center for the Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology (United States); Holden, Patricia A., E-mail: [University of California, Santa Barbara, Bren School of Environmental Science and Management (United States)


    The implications of manufactured nanoscale materials (MNMs) in unsaturated soil are mostly unknown. Owing to its widespread use, nanoscale (n) TiO{sub 2} is expected to enter soils where its accumulation could impact soil processes. Yet fundamental information is lacking regarding nTiO{sub 2} in situ wettability, i.e., interactions with soil water that relate to nTiO{sub 2} exposure and bioavailability. To probe nTiO{sub 2} interactions with soil water, we amended a natural soil with 20 mg per g of P25 nTiO{sub 2}, a high-production, hydrophilic MNM that, based on its small size (25 nm nominal), provides ample specific surface area (SSA) for water sorption. We then measured nTiO{sub 2}-amended soil SSA, and conducted a dynamic water vapor conditioning experiment. Early time-course water sorption into soil, with and without nTiO{sub 2}, was clearly diffusional. Over 9 months, soil water content asymptotically equilibrated. However, despite amending with nTiO{sub 2} levels that increased the soil SSA by 16 %, measured water sorption rates and endpoint soil water contents were mostly unchanged by P25 nTiO{sub 2}. Our results indicate that as-manufactured hydrophilic P25 nTiO{sub 2} was hydrophobic in soil, a finding relevant to nTiO{sub 2} bioavailability and transport.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ildegardis Bertol


    Full Text Available Infiltration is the passage of water through the soil surface, influenced by the soil type and cultivation and by the soil roughness, surface cover and water content. Infiltration absorbs most of the rainwater and is therefore crucial for planning mechanical conservation practices to manage runoff. This study determined water infiltration in two soil types under different types of management and cultivation, with simulated rainfall of varying intensity and duration applied at different times, and to adjust the empirical model of Horton to the infiltration data. The study was conducted in southern Brazil, on Dystric Nitisol (Nitossolo Bruno aluminoférrico húmico and Humic Cambisol (Cambissolo Húmico alumínico léptico soils to assess the following situations: simulated rains on the Nitisol from 2001 to 2012 in 31 treatments, differing in crop type, sowing direction, type of soil opener on the seeder, amount and type of crop residue and amount of liquid swine manure applied; on the Cambisol, rains were simlated from 2006 to 2012 and 18 treatments were evaluated, differing in crop, seeding direction and crop residue type. The constant of the water infiltration rate into the soil varies significantly with the soil type (30.2 mm h-1 in the Nitisol and 6.6 mm h-1 in the Cambisol, regardless of the management system, application time and rain intensity and duration. At the end of rainfalls, soil-water infiltration varies significantly with the management system, with the timing of application and rain intensity and duration, with values ranging from 13 to 59 mm h-1, in the two studied soils. The characteristics of the sowing operation in terms of relief, crop type and amount and type of crop residue influenced soil water infiltration: in the Nitisol, the values of contour and downhill seeding vary between 27 and 43 mm h-1, respectively, with crop residues of corn, wheat and soybean while in the Cambisol, the variation is between 2 and 36 mm h-1

  13. The recent similarity hypotheses to describe water infiltration into homogeneous soils


    Reichardt,Klaus; Timm,Luís Carlos; Dourado-Neto,Durval


    ABSTRACT A similarity hypothesis recently presented to describe horizontal infiltration into homogeneous soils, developed for coarse-textured soils like sieved marine sand, implies that the soil water retention function θ(h) is the mirror image of an extended Boltzmann transform function θ(λ2). A second hypothesis applicable to vertical infiltration suggests that the soil water retention function θ(h) is also the mirror image of the soil water profile θ(z). Using prev...

  14. Development of a soil water dispersion index (SOWADIN) for testing the effectiveness of a soil-wetting agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawada, Y.; Aylmore, L.A.G.; Hainsworth, J.M.


    Computer-assisted tomography (CAT) applied to gamma-ray attenuation measurement has been used to develop an index termed the soil water dispersion index (SOWADIN), which describes quantitatively the amount and distribution of water in soil columns. The index, which is determined by classifying pixels in a scanned slice into three categories according to their attenuation coefficients, contains two numerical values. The first value corresponds to the water content of the scanned slice and the second value is a measure of the dispersion of the water throughout the slice. Artificially wetted zones were created in soil columns to give one-third of the scanned layer wetted with various patterns of wetted-area distribution. The SOWADIN values obtained accurately reflected the differences in water distribution associated with the different patterns. Application of SOWADIN to columns of a water-repellent sand before and after treatment with a soil-wetting agent clearly illustrates both the increase in water content and improvement in water distribution in the soil column following treatment. 33 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  15. Model for tritiated water transport in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galeriu, D.; Paunescu, N.


    Chemical forms of tritium released from nuclear facilities are mostly water (HTO) and hydrogen (HT, TT). Elemental tritium is inert in vegetation and superior animals, but the microorganisms from soil oxidize HT to HTO. After an atmospheric HT emission, in short time an equivalent quantity of HTO is re-emitted from soil. In the vicinity of a tritium source the spatial and temporary distribution of HTO is dependent on the chemical form of tritium releases. During routine tritium releases (continuously and constant releases), the local distribution of tritium reaches equilibrium, and specific activities of tritium in environmental compartments are almost equal. The situation is very different after an accidental emission. Having in view, harmful effects of tritium when it is incorporated into the body several models were developed for environmental tritium transport and dose assessment. The tritium transport into the soil is an important part of the environmental tritium behavior, but, unfortunately, in spite of the importance of this problem the corresponding modeling is unsatisfactory. The aim of this paper was the improvement of the TRICAIAP model, and the application of the model to BIOMOVS scenario. The BIOMOVS scenario predicts HTO concentrations in soil during 30 days, after one hour atmospheric HTO emission. The most important conclusions of the paper are: the principal carrier of tritium into the soil is water; the transfer processes are the reactions of water in soil and the diffusion due to concentration gradient; atmosphere-soil transport is dependent of surface characteristics (granulation, humidity, roughness, etc.); the conversion rate of HT to HTO is not well known and is dependent on active microorganism concentration in soil and on soil humidity. More experimental data are needed to decrease the uncertainty of transfer parameter, for the definition of the influence of vegetation, etc. (authors)

  16. Modelling soil water content variations under drought stress on soil column cropped with winter wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Csorba Szilveszter


    Full Text Available Mathematical models are effective tools for evaluating the impact of predicted climate change on agricultural production, but it is difficult to test their applicability to future weather conditions. We applied the SWAP model to assess its applicability to climate conditions, differing from those, for which the model was developed. We used a database obtained from a winter wheat drought stress experiment. Winter wheat was grown in six soil columns, three having optimal water supply (NS, while three were kept under drought-stressed conditions (S. The SWAP model was successfully calibrated against measured values of potential evapotranspiration (PET, potential evaporation (PE and total amount of water (TSW in the soil columns. The Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency coefficient (N-S for TWS for the stressed columns was 0.92. For the NS treatment, we applied temporally variable soil hydraulic properties because of soil consolidation caused by regular irrigation. This approach improved the N-S values for the wetting-drying cycle from -1.77 to 0.54. We concluded that the model could be used for assessing the effects of climate change on soil water regime. Our results indicate that soil water balance studies should put more focus on the time variability of structuredependent soil properties.

  17. Thematic issue on soil water infiltration (United States)

    Infiltration is the term applied to the process of water entry into the soil, generally by downward flow through all or part of the soil surface. Understanding of infiltration concept and processes has greatly improved, over the past 30 years, and new insights have been given into modeling of non-un...

  18. Water management in sandy soil using neutron scattering method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, K.M.


    This study was carried out during 2008/2009 at the Experimental Field of Soil and Water Research Department, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Inshas in a newly reclaimed sandy soil. The aims of this work are,- determine soil moisture tension within the active root zone and - detecting the behavior of soil moisture within the active root zoon by defines the total hydraulic potential within the soil profile to predict both of actual evapotranspiration and rate of moisture depletion This work also is aimed to study soil water distribution under drip irrigation system.- reducing water deep percolation under the active root depth.This study included two factors, the first one is the irrigation intervals, and the second one is the application rate of organic manure. Irrigation intervals were 5, 10 and 15 days, besides three application rates of organic manure (0 m 3 /fed, 20 m 3 /fed. and 30 m 3 /fed.) in -three replicates under drip irrigation system, Onion was used as an indicator plant. Obtained data show, generally, that neutron scattering technique and soil moisture retention curve model helps more to study the water behavior in the soil profile.Application of organic manure and irrigation to field capacity is a good way to minimize evapotranspiration and deep percolation, which was zero mm/day in the treated treatments.The best irrigation interval for onion plant, in the studied soil, was 5 days with 30m 3 /fad. an application rate of organic manure.Parameter α of van Genuchent's 1980 model was affected by the additions of organic manure, which was decreased by addition of organic manure decreased it. Data also showed that n parameter was decreased by addition of organic manure Using surfer program is a good tool to describe the water distribution in two directions (vertical and horizontal) through soil profile.

  19. Effect of Soil Water Content on the Distribution of Diuron into Organomineral Aggregates of Highly Weathered Tropical Soils. (United States)

    Regitano, Jussara B; Rocha, Wadson S D; Bonfleur, Eloana J; Milori, Debora; Alleoni, Luís R F


    We evaluated the effects of soil water content on the retention of diuron and its residual distribution into organomineral aggregates in four Brazilian oxisols. (14)C-Diuron was incubated for days at 25, 50, and 75% of maximum water-holding capacity for each soil. After 42 days, the physical fractionation method was used to obtain >150, 53-150, 20-53, 2-20, and retention increased with increasing soil water content for all soils. At lower soil water content, diuron's retention was higher in the sandier soil. It was mostly retained in the fine (retention was higher in the coarse aggregates (>53 μm). The sorption coefficients (Kd and Koc) generated by batch studies should be carefully used because they do not provide information about aggregation and diffusion effects on pesticides soil sorption.

  20. Difficulties in the evaluation and measuring of soil water infiltration (United States)

    Pla-Sentís, Ildefonso


    Soil water infiltration is the most important hydrological parameter for the evaluation and diagnosis of the soil water balance and soil moisture regime. Those balances and regimes are the main regulating factors of the on site water supply to plants and other soil organisms and of other important processes like runoff, surface and mass erosion, drainage, etc, affecting sedimentation, flooding, soil and water pollution, water supply for different purposes (population, agriculture, industries, hydroelectricity), etc. Therefore the evaluation and measurement of water infiltration rates has become indispensable for the evaluation and modeling of the previously mentioned processes. Infiltration is one of the most difficult hydrological parameters to evaluate or measure accurately. Although the theoretical aspects of the process of soil water infiltration are well known since the middle of the past century, when several methods and models were already proposed for the evaluation of infiltration, still nowadays such evaluation is not frequently enough accurate for the purposes being used. This is partially due to deficiencies in the methodology being used for measuring infiltration, including some newly proposed methods and equipments, and in the use of non appropriate empirical models and approaches. In this contribution we present an analysis and discussion about the main difficulties found in the evaluation and measurement of soil water infiltration rates, and the more commonly committed errors, based on the past experiences of the author in the evaluation of soil water infiltration in many different soils and land conditions, and in their use for deducing soil water balances under variable and changing climates. It is concluded that there are not models or methods universally applicable to any soil and land condition, and that in many cases the results are significantly influenced by the way we use a particular method or instrument, and by the alterations in the soil

  1. Isotope fractionation of sandy-soil water during evaporation - an experimental study. (United States)

    Rao, Wen-Bo; Han, Liang-Feng; Tan, Hong-Bing; Wang, Shuai


    Soil samples containing water with known stable isotopic compositions were prepared. The soil water was recovered by using vacuum/heat distillation. The experiments were held under different conditions to control rates of water evaporation and water recovery. Recoveries, δ 18 O and δ 2 H values of the soil water were determined. Analyses of the data using a Rayleigh distillation model indicate that under the experimental conditions only loosely bound water is extractable in cases where the recovery is smaller than 100 %. Due to isotopic exchange between vapour and remaining water in the micro channels or capillaries of the soil matrix, isotopic fractionation may take place under near-equilibrium conditions. This causes the observed relationship between δ 2 H and δ 18 O of the extracted water samples to have a slope close to 8. The results of this study may indicate that, in arid zones when soil that initially contains water dries out, the slope of the relationship between δ 2 H and δ 18 O values should be close to 8. Thus, a smaller slope, as observed by some groundwater and soil water samples in arid zones, may be caused by evaporation of water before the water has entered the unsaturated zone.

  2. Post-fire interactions between soil water repellency, soil fertility and plant growth in soil collected from a burned piñon-juniper woodland (United States)

    Fernelius, Kaitlynn J.; Madsen, Matthew D.; Hopkins, Bryan G.; Bansal, Sheel; Anderson, Val J.; Eggett, Dennis L.; Roundy, Bruce A.


    Woody plant encroachment can increase nutrient resources in the plant-mound zone. After a fire, this zone is often found to be water repellent. This study aimed to understand the effects of post-fire water repellency on soil water and inorganic nitrogen and their effects on plant growth of the introduced annual Bromus tectorum and native bunchgrass Pseudoroegneria spicata. Plots centered on burned Juniperus osteosperma trees were either left untreated or treated with surfactant to ameliorate water repellency. After two years, we excavated soil from the untreated and treated plots and placed it in zerotension lysimeter pots. In the greenhouse, half of the pots received an additional surfactant treatment. Pots were seeded separately with B. tectorum or P. spicata. Untreated soils had high runoff, decreased soilwater content, and elevated NO3eN in comparison to surfactant treated soils. The two plant species typically responded similar to the treatments. Above-ground biomass and microbial activity (estimated through soil CO2 gas emissions) was 16.8-fold and 9.5-fold higher in the surfactant-treated soils than repellent soils, respectably. This study demonstrates that water repellency can influence site recovery by decreasing soil water content, promoting inorganic N retention, and impairing plant growth and microbial activity.

  3. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi make a complex contribution to soil aggregation (United States)

    McGee, Peter; Daynes, Cathal; Damien, Field


    Soil aggregates contain solid and fluid components. Aggregates develop as a consequence of the organic materials, plants and hyphae of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi acting on the solid phase. Various correlative studies indicate hyphae of AM fungi enmesh soil particles, but their impact on the pore space is poorly understood. Hyphae may penetrate between particles, remove water from interstitial spaces, and otherwise re-arrange the solid phase. Thus we might predict that AM fungi also change the pore architecture of aggregates. Direct observations of pore architecture of soil, such as by computer-aided tomography (CT), is difficult. The refractive natures of solid and biological material are similar. The plant-available water in various treatments allows us to infer changes in pore architecture. Our experimental studies indicate AM fungi have a complex role in the formation and development of aggregates. Soils formed from compost and coarse subsoil materials were planted with mycorrhizal or non-mycorrhizal seedlings and the resultant soils compared after 6 or 14 months in separate experiments. As well as enmeshing particles, AM fungi were associated with the development of a complex pore space and greater pore volume. Even though AM fungi add organic matter to soil, the modification of pore space is not correlated with organic carbon. In a separate study, we visualised hyphae of AM fungi in a coarse material using CT. In this study, hyphae appeared to grow close to the surfaces of particles with limited ramification across the pore spaces. Hyphae of AM fungi appear to utilise soil moisture for their growth and development of mycelium. The strong correlation between moisture and hyphae has profound implications for soil aggregation, plant utilisation of soil water, and the distribution of water as water availability declines.

  4. Implementing a physical soil water flow model with minimal soil characteristics and added value offered by surface soil moisture measurements assimilation. (United States)

    Chanzy, André


    Soil moisture is a key variable for many soil physical and biogeochemical processes. Its dynamic results from water fluxes in soil and at its boundaries, as well as soil water storage properties. If the water flows are dominated by diffusive processes, modelling approaches based on the Richard's equation or the Philip and de Vries coupled heat and water flow equations lead to a satisfactory representation of the soil moisture dynamic. However, It requires the characterization of soil hydraulic functions, the initialisation and the boundary conditions, which are expensive to obtain. The major problem to assess soil moisture for decision making or for representing its spatiotemporal evolution over complex landscape is therefore the lack of information to run the models. The aim of the presentation is to analyse how a soil moisture model can be implemented when only climatic data and basic soil information are available (soil texture, organic matter) and what would be the added of making a few soil moisture measurements. We considered the field scale, which is the key scale for decision making application (the field being the management unit for farming system) and landscape modelling (field size being comparable to the computation unit of distributed hydrological models). The presentation is limited to the bare soil case in order to limit the complexity of the system and the TEC model based on Philip and De Vries equations is used in this study. The following points are addressed: o the within field spatial variability. This spatial variability can be induced by the soil hydraulic properties and/or by the amount of infiltrated water induced by water rooting towards infiltration areas. We analyse how an effective parameterization of soil properties and boundary conditions can be used to simulate the field average moisture. o The model implementation with limited information. We propose strategies that can be implemented when information are limited to soil texture and

  5. Chlorambucil-Induced Acute Interstitial Pneumonitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hammad Shafqat


    Full Text Available Chlorambucil is an alkylating agent commonly used in treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL. We report a case of interstitial pneumonitis developing in an 83-year-old man 1.5 months after completing a six-month course of chlorambucil for CLL. The interstitial pneumonitis responded to therapy with prednisone. We performed a systematic review of literature and identified 13 other case reports of chlorambucil-induced pulmonary toxicity, particularly interstitial pneumonitis. No unifying risk factor could be discerned and the mechanism of injury remains unknown. In contrast, major randomized trials of chlorambucil therapy in CLL have not reported interstitial pneumonitis as an adverse effect, which may be due to the rarity of the phenomenon or due to underreporting of events occurring after completion of treatment. Clinicians should consider drug-induced interstitial pneumonitis in the differential diagnosis of a suggestive syndrome developing even after discontinuation of chlorambucil.

  6. Field-measured, hourly soil water evaporation stages in relation to reference evapotranspiration rate and soil to air temperature ratio (United States)

    Soil water evaporation takes critical water supplies away from crops, especially in areas where both rainfall and irrigation water are limited. This study measured bare soil water evaporation from clay loam, silt loam, sandy loam, and fine sand soils. It found that on average almost half of the ir...

  7. Analysis of the NASA AirMOSS Root Zone Soil Water and Soil Temperature from Three North American Ecosystems (United States)

    Hagimoto, Y.; Cuenca, R. H.


    Root zone soil water and temperature are controlling factors for soil organic matter accumulation and decomposition which contribute significantly to the CO2 flux of different ecosystems. An in-situ soil observation protocol developed at Oregon State University has been deployed to observe soil water and temperature dynamics in seven ecological research sites in North America as part of the NASA AirMOSS project. Three instrumented profiles defining a transect of less than 200 m are installed at each site. All three profiles collect data for in-situ water and temperature dynamics employing seven soil water and temperature sensors installed at seven depth levels and one infrared surface temperature sensor monitoring the top of the profile. In addition, two soil heat flux plates and associated thermocouples are installed at one of three profiles at each site. At each profile, a small 80 cm deep access hole is typically made, and all below ground sensors are installed into undisturbed soil on the side of the hole. The hole is carefully refilled and compacted so that root zone soil water and temperature dynamics can be observed with minimum site disturbance. This study focuses on the data collected from three sites: a) Tonzi Ranch, CA; b) Metolius, OR and c) BERMS Old Jack Pine Site, Saskatchewan, Canada. The study describes the significantly different seasonal root zone water and temperature dynamics under the various physical and biological conditions at each site. In addition, this study compares the soil heat flux values estimated by the standard installation using the heat flux plates and thermocouples installed near the surface with those estimated by resolving the soil heat storage based on the soil water and temperature data collected over the total soil profile.

  8. The effect of soil macrofauna on water regime of post mining soils

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Frouz, Jan; Kuráž, V.


    Roč. 10, - (2008) ISSN 1029-7006. [EGU General Assembly 2008. 13.04.2008-18.04.2008, Vienna] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : soil macrofauna * water regime * post mining soil s Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  9. Soil water evaporation and crop residues (United States)

    Crop residues have value when left in the field and also when removed from the field and sold as a commodity. Reducing soil water evaporation (E) is one of the benefits of leaving crop residues in place. E was measured beneath a corn canopy at the soil suface with nearly full coverage by corn stover...

  10. Root growth, water uptake, and sap flow of winter wheat in response to different soil water conditions (United States)

    Cai, Gaochao; Vanderborght, Jan; Langensiepen, Matthias; Schnepf, Andrea; Hüging, Hubert; Vereecken, Harry


    How much water can be taken up by roots and how this depends on the root and water distributions in the root zone are important questions that need to be answered to describe water fluxes in the soil-plant-atmosphere system. Physically based root water uptake (RWU) models that relate RWU to transpiration, root density, and water potential distributions have been developed but used or tested far less. This study aims at evaluating the simulated RWU of winter wheat using the empirical Feddes-Jarvis (FJ) model and the physically based Couvreur (C) model for different soil water conditions and soil textures compared to sap flow measurements. Soil water content (SWC), water potential, and root development were monitored noninvasively at six soil depths in two rhizotron facilities that were constructed in two soil textures: stony vs. silty, with each of three water treatments: sheltered, rainfed, and irrigated. Soil and root parameters of the two models were derived from inverse modeling and simulated RWU was compared with sap flow measurements for validation. The different soil types and water treatments resulted in different crop biomass, root densities, and root distributions with depth. The two models simulated the lowest RWU in the sheltered plot of the stony soil where RWU was also lower than the potential RWU. In the silty soil, simulated RWU was equal to the potential uptake for all treatments. The variation of simulated RWU among the different plots agreed well with measured sap flow but the C model predicted the ratios of the transpiration fluxes in the two soil types slightly better than the FJ model. The root hydraulic parameters of the C model could be constrained by the field data but not the water stress parameters of the FJ model. This was attributed to differences in root densities between the different soils and treatments which are accounted for by the C model, whereas the FJ model only considers normalized root densities. The impact of differences in

  11. Modeling Spatial Soil Water Dynamics in a Tropical Floodplain, East Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geofrey Gabiri


    Full Text Available Analyzing the spatial and temporal distribution of soil moisture is critical for ecohydrological processes and for sustainable water management studies in wetlands. The characterization of soil moisture dynamics and its influencing factors in agriculturally used wetlands pose a challenge in data-scarce regions such as East Africa. High resolution and good-quality time series soil moisture data are rarely available and gaps are frequent due to measurement constraints and device malfunctioning. Soil water models that integrate meteorological conditions and soil water storage may significantly overcome limitations due to data gaps at a point scale. The purpose of this study was to evaluate if the Hydrus-1D model would adequately simulate soil water dynamics at different hydrological zones of a tropical floodplain in Tanzania, to determine controlling factors for wet and dry periods and to assess soil water availability. The zones of the Kilombero floodplain were segmented as riparian, middle, and fringe along a defined transect. The model was satisfactorily calibrated (coefficient of determination; R2 = 0.54–0.92, root mean square error; RMSE = 0.02–0.11 on a plot scale using measured soil moisture content at soil depths of 10, 20, 30, and 40 cm. Satisfying statistical measures (R2 = 0.36–0.89, RMSE = 0.03–0.13 were obtained when calibrations for one plot were validated with measured soil moisture for another plot within the same hydrological zone. Results show the transferability of the calibrated Hydrus-1D model to predict soil moisture for other plots with similar hydrological conditions. Soil water storage increased towards the riparian zone, at 262.8 mm/a while actual evapotranspiration was highest (1043.9 mm/a at the fringe. Overbank flow, precipitation, and groundwater control soil moisture dynamics at the riparian and middle zone, while at the fringe zone, rainfall and lateral flow from mountains control soil moisture during the

  12. The role of Soil Water Retention Curve in slope stability analysis in unsaturated and heterogeneous soils. (United States)

    Antinoro, Chiara; Arnone, Elisa; Noto, Leonardo V.


    The mechanisms of rainwater infiltration causing slope instability had been analyzed and reviewed in many scientific works. Rainwater infiltration into unsaturated soil increases the degree of saturation, hence affecting the shear strength properties and thus the probability of slope failure. It has been widely proved that the shear strength properties change with the soil water suction in unsaturated soils; therefore, the accuracy to predict the relationship between soil water content and soil water suction, parameterized by the soil-water characteristic curve, has significant effects on the slope stability analysis. The aim of this study is to investigate how the characterization of SWRC of differently structured unsaturated soils affects the slope stability on a simple infinite slope. In particular, the unimodal and bimodal distributions of the soil pore size were compared. Samples of 40 soils, highly different in terms of structure and texture, were collected and used to calibrate two bimodal SWRCs, i.e. Ross and Smettem (1993) and Dexter et al., (2008). The traditional unimodal van Genuchten (1980) model was also applied for comparison. Slope stability analysis was conducted in terms of Factor of Safety (FS) by applying the infinite slope model for unsaturated soils. In the used formulation, the contribution of the suction effect is tuned by a parameter 'chi' in a rate proportional to the saturation conditions. Different parameterizations of this term were also compared and analyzed. Results indicated that all three SWRC models showed good overall performance in fitting the sperimental SWRCs. Both the RS and DE models described adequately the water retention data for soils with a bimodal behavior confirmed from the analysis of pore size distribution, but the best performance was obtained by DE model confirmed. In terms of FS, the tree models showed very similar results as soil moisture approached to the saturated condition; however, within the residual zone

  13. Scaling Soil Microbe-Water Interactions from Pores to Ecosystems (United States)

    Manzoni, S.; Katul, G. G.


    The spatial scales relevant to soil microbial activity are much finer than scales relevant to whole-ecosystem function and biogeochemical cycling. On the one hand, how to link such different scales and develop scale-aware biogeochemical and ecohydrological models remains a major challenge. On the other hand, resolving these linkages is becoming necessary for testing ecological hypotheses and resolving data-theory inconsistencies. Here, the relation between microbial respiration and soil moisture expressed in water potential is explored. Such relation mediates the water availability effects on ecosystem-level heterotrophic respiration and is of paramount importance for understanding CO2 emissions under increasingly variable rainfall regimes. Respiration has been shown to decline as the soil dries in a remarkably consistent way across climates and soil types (open triangles in Figure). Empirical models based on these respiration-moisture relations are routinely used in Earth System Models to predict moisture effects on ecosystem respiration. It has been hypothesized that this consistency in microbial respiration decline is due to breakage of water film continuity causing in turn solute diffusion limitations in dry conditions. However, this hypothesis appears to be at odds with what is known about soil hydraulic properties. Water film continuity estimated from soil water retention (SWR) measurements at the 'Darcy' scale breaks at far less negative water potential (micro-level relevant to microbial activity. Such downscaling resolves the inconsistency between respiration thresholds and hydrological thresholds. This result, together with observations of residual microbial activity well below -15 MPa (dashed back curve in Figure), lends support to the hypothesis that soil microbes are substrate-limited in dry conditions.

  14. Water storage change estimation from in situ shrinkage measurements of clay soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brake, te B.; Ploeg, van der M.J.; Rooij, de G.H.


    Water storage in the unsaturated zone is a major determinant of the hydrological behaviour of the soil, but methods to quantify soil water storage are limited. The objective of this study is to assess the applicability of clay soil surface elevation change measurements to estimate soil water storage

  15. Smoking-related interstitial lung diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marten, K.


    The most important smoking-related interstitial lung diseases (ILD) are respiratory bronchiolitis, respiratory bronchiolitis-associated interstitial lung disease, desquamative interstitial pneumonia, and Langerhans' cell histiocytosis. Although traditionally considered to be discrete entities, smoking-related ILDs often coexist, thus accounting for the sometimes complex patterns encountered on high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT). Further studies are needed to elucidate the causative role of smoking in the development of pulmonary fibrosis

  16. Soil permittivity response to bulk electrical conductivity for selected soil water sensors (United States)

    Bulk electrical conductivity can dominate the low frequency dielectric loss spectrum in soils, masking changes in the real permittivity and causing errors in estimated water content. We examined the dependence of measured apparent permittivity (Ka) on bulk electrical conductivity in contrasting soil...

  17. Accumulation of Cd in agricultural soil under long-term reclaimed water irrigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Weiping; Lu, Sidan; Peng, Chi; Jiao, Wentao; Wang, Meie


    Safety of agricultural irrigation with reclaimed water is of great concern as some potential hazardous compounds like heavy metals may be accumulated in soils over time. Impacts of long-term reclaimed water on soil Cd pollution were evaluated based on the field investigation in two main crop areas in Beijing with long irrigation history and on simulation results of STEM-profile model. Under long-term reclaimed water, Cd content in the top 20 cm soil layer was greatly elevated and was more than 2 times higher than that in the deep soil layer. There was very small differences between the field measured and model simulated Cd content in the plow layer (top 20 cm) and entire soil layer. Long-term model prediction showed that reclaimed water irrigation had a low environmental risk of soil Cd pollution, but the risk would be aggravated when there were high metal loading from other sources. The risk is also depending on the soil and plant properties. -- Highlights: •Root zone soil Cd content was elevated by one time under long-term reclaimed water irrigation. •The STEM-profile model can well track the Cd balance in the soil profile. •Reclaimed water irrigation plays a limited role on soil Cd accumulation in Beijing croplands. -- There was a low risk of soil Cd pollution under long-term reclaimed water irrigation

  18. Radioecology of tritiated water in subarctic soils and vegetation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salonen, L.; Miettinen, J.K.


    The residence times of tritium in various types of soils and plants have been determined in southern and northern Finland. The experiments were conducted in forest and agricultural environments where tritiated water was applied to the soil surface in the form of a single fall of rain. After that the movement and loss of tritiated water from the unsaturated zone was followed over a 2-4-year period in some forest areas. Uptake and loss of tritium in the tissue-free water and organic compounds of some native plants was studied in each area. The results indicated that in the subarctic area the half-residence times of tritium in soils and plants were greatly dependent on the climatic conditions at the time of the labelling and during the short growing seasons and also on the rate of water movement in the soil. In the experiments started during the best growing season the half-residence times in soil and plants do not differ from those determined in more temperate latitudes. (author)

  19. COSMOS soil water sensor compared with EM sensor network & weighing lysimeter (United States)

    Soil water sensing methods are widely used to characterize the root zone and below, but only a few are capable of delivering water content data with accuracy for the entire soil profile such that evapotranspiration (ET) can be determined by soil water balance and irrigations can be scheduled with mi...

  20. Effect of Irrigation Water Type on Infiltration Rates of Sandy Soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Omran, A.M.; Al-Matrood, S.M.; Choudhary, M.I.


    A laboratory experiment was conducted to test the effect of three water types (tap water, well water and sewage water) on the infiltration rate of three soils varying in texture (sand. loamy sand and sandy loam). A stationary rainfall simulator dispensing water at a rate of 45 mm h-1, connected to the different sources of water, was used to measure the infiltration rates. A total of 5 runs were carried out using each water quality. The volume of runoff against the time was recorded at each 5 minute interval. The infiltration rate was calculated as the difference between the water applied and the excesses water measured as surface runoff. Infiltration rate at first run were rapid in all the three soils and then progressively declined as the number of runs increased. The same trend was observed for each water quality tested. The reduction in infiltration rate with increasing number of runs for prewetted surface than for the initial dry surface was attributed to break down and settling of fine particles that took place earlier during prewetting. The infiltration curves for all the three soils when irrigared with different qualities of water was not distinguishable. The relationship between infiltration rate as function of time for the treatments applied were tested using Kostiakov equation I=bt-n. The infiltration data gave a coefficient of determination R2 >0.90 for all the treatments. The infiltration parameters B, and n varied strongly with respect to soil texture. Values of B decreased with changing soil textures, being highest for the sandy soil, and lowest for the sandy loamy soil, whereas n values showed the opposite trend. It was concluded that effect of soil texture on the infiltration rate was very pronounced while water qualities showed a little effect. (author)

  1. Sensible heat balance measurements of soil water evaporation beneath a maize canopy (United States)

    Soil water evaporation is an important component of the water budget in a cropped field. Few methods are available for continuous and independent measurement of soil water evaporation. A sensible heat balance (SHB) approach has recently been demonstrated for continuously determining soil water evapo...

  2. Modeling and Prediction of Soil Water Vapor Sorption Isotherms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arthur, Emmanuel; Tuller, Markus; Moldrup, Per


    Soil water vapor sorption isotherms describe the relationship between water activity (aw) and moisture content along adsorption and desorption paths. The isotherms are important for modeling numerous soil processes and are also used to estimate several soil (specific surface area, clay content.......93) for a wide range of soils; and (ii) develop and test regression models for estimating the isotherms from clay content. Preliminary results show reasonable fits of the majority of the investigated empirical and theoretical models to the measured data although some models were not capable to fit both sorption...... directions accurately. Evaluation of the developed prediction equations showed good estimation of the sorption/desorption isotherms for tested soils....

  3. Pedotransfer functions to estimate soil water content at field capacity ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    available scarce water resources in dry land agriculture, but direct measurement thereof for multiple locations in the field is not always feasible. Therefore, pedotransfer functions (PTFs) were developed to estimate soil water retention at FC and PWP for dryland soils of India. A soil database available for Arid Western India ...

  4. Modeling Bacteria-Water Interactions in Soil: EPS Dynamics Under Evaporative Conditions (United States)

    Furrer, J.; Hinestroza, H. F.; Guo, Y. S.; Gage, D. J.; Cho, Y. K.; Shor, L. M.


    The soil habitat represents a major linkage between the water and carbon cycles: the ability of soils to sequester or release carbon is determined primarily by soil moisture. Water retention and distribution in soils controls the abundance and activity of soil microbes. Microbes in turn impact water retention by creating biofilms, composed of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). We model the effects of bacterial EPS on water retention at the pore scale. We use the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM), a well-established fluid dynamics modeling platform, and modify it to include the effects of water uptake and release by the swelling/shrinking EPS phase. The LB model is implemented in 2-D, with a non-ideal gas equation of state that allows condensation and evaporation of fluid in pore spaces. Soil particles are modeled according to experimentally determined particle size distributions and include realistic pore geometries, in contrast to many soil models which use spherical soil particles for simplicity. Model results are compared with evaporation experiments in soil micromodels and other simpler experimental systems, and model parameters are tuned to match experimental results. Drying behavior and solid-gel contact angle of EPS produced by the soil bacteria Sinorhizobium meliloti has been characterized and compared to the behavior of deionized water under the same conditions. The difference in behavior between the fluids is used to parameterize the model. The model shows excellent qualitative agreement for soil micromodels with both aggregated and non-aggregated particle arrangements under no-EPS conditions, and reproduces realistic drying behavior for EPS. This work represents a multi-disciplinary approach to understanding microbe-soil interactions at the pore scale.

  5. Root growth, water uptake, and sap flow of winter wheat in response to different soil water conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Cai


    Full Text Available How much water can be taken up by roots and how this depends on the root and water distributions in the root zone are important questions that need to be answered to describe water fluxes in the soil–plant–atmosphere system. Physically based root water uptake (RWU models that relate RWU to transpiration, root density, and water potential distributions have been developed but used or tested far less. This study aims at evaluating the simulated RWU of winter wheat using the empirical Feddes–Jarvis (FJ model and the physically based Couvreur (C model for different soil water conditions and soil textures compared to sap flow measurements. Soil water content (SWC, water potential, and root development were monitored noninvasively at six soil depths in two rhizotron facilities that were constructed in two soil textures: stony vs. silty, with each of three water treatments: sheltered, rainfed, and irrigated. Soil and root parameters of the two models were derived from inverse modeling and simulated RWU was compared with sap flow measurements for validation. The different soil types and water treatments resulted in different crop biomass, root densities, and root distributions with depth. The two models simulated the lowest RWU in the sheltered plot of the stony soil where RWU was also lower than the potential RWU. In the silty soil, simulated RWU was equal to the potential uptake for all treatments. The variation of simulated RWU among the different plots agreed well with measured sap flow but the C model predicted the ratios of the transpiration fluxes in the two soil types slightly better than the FJ model. The root hydraulic parameters of the C model could be constrained by the field data but not the water stress parameters of the FJ model. This was attributed to differences in root densities between the different soils and treatments which are accounted for by the C model, whereas the FJ model only considers normalized root densities

  6. The effect of earthworm coprolites on the soil water retention curve (United States)

    Smagin, A. V.; Prusak, A. V.


    The effect of earthworm coprolites on the water retention curves in soils of different geneses and textures was investigated by the method of equilibrium centrifuging. Coprolites sampled in the field were compared with the surrounding soil. The effect of earthworms on a soddy-podzolic light loamy soil (from Moscow oblast) was comprehensively analyzed in the course of a special model experiment in a laboratory. This experiment was necessary because it was difficult to separate the coprolites from the soil, in which additional coprolites could appear under natural conditions. In all the variants of the experiment, the differences between the water retention curves of the coprolites and the surrounding soil (or control substrates unaffected by earthworms) were statistically significant. The development of coprolites favored a considerable increase (up to 20 wt.% and more) of the soil water retention capacity upon equivalent water potentials within the range from 0 to -1000 kPa. In most cases, the soil water retention capacity increased within the entire range of the soil moisture contents. This could be explained by the fact that strongly swelling hygroscopic plant remains (detritus) were included into the coprolites and by the formation of a specific highly porous aggregate structure.

  7. The Effect of Vegetation on Soil Water Infiltration and Retention Capacity by Improving Soil Physiochemical Property in Semi-arid Grassland (United States)

    A, Y.; Wang, G.


    Water shortage is the main limiting factor for semi-arid grassland development. However, the grassland are gradually degraded represented by species conversion, biomass decrease and ecosystem structure simplification under the influence of human activity. Soil water characteristics such as moisture, infiltration and conductivity are critical variables affecting the interactions between soil parameters and vegetation. In this study, Cover, Height, Shannon-Wiener diversity index, Pielou evenness index and Richness index are served as indexes of vegetation productivity and community structure. And saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks) and soil moisture content are served as indexes of soil water characters. The interaction between vegetation and soil water is investigated through other soil parameters, such as soil organic matter content at different vertical depths and in different degradation area (e.g., initial, transition and degraded plots). The results show that Ks significantly controlled by soil texture other than soil organic matter content. So the influence of vegetation on Ks through increasing soil organic content (SOM) might be slight. However, soil moisture content (SMC) appeared significantly positive relationship with SOM and silt content and negative relationship with sand content at all depth, significantly. This indicated that capacity of soil water storage was influenced both by soil texture and organic matter. In addition, the highest correlation coefficient of SMC was with SOM at the sub-surficial soil layer (20 40 cm). At the depth of 20 40 cm, the soil water content was relatively steady which slightly influenced by precipitation and evaporation. But it significantly influenced by soil organic matter content which related to vegetation. The correlation coefficient between SOM and SMC at topsoil layer (0 20 cm) was lowest (R2=0.36, pwater content not only by soil organic matter content but also the other influential factors, such as the root

  8. Measurement of water flow rate in unsaturated soil by thermistor type sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takebe, Shinichi; Yamamoto, Tadatoshi; Wadachi, Yoshiki


    As a part of radiological safety studies for ground disposal of radioactive wastes, a measuring apparatus of water flow rate with thermistor type sensor was made as preliminary one and the measurement of water flow rate in the soil was carried out, in order to evalute by comparison of the migration rate of water with that of radionuclide in an unsaturated soil. The water flow rate can be determined by measuring the change of the thermal conductivity (temperature) of soil around the several thermistor type sensors set in a soil. Particularly at the region of low water content in the soil, the water flow rate was able to measure successfully by this apparatus. (author)

  9. Influence of ground water on soil-structure interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costantino, C.J.; Graves, H.L.


    The basic problem consists of a liner flexible structure situated at or near the surface of a soil half-space. In keeping with typical small strain seismic analyses, the soil skeleton is represented as a linear medium in which all potential nonlinearities are at most lumped together into an equivalent hysteretic damping modulus. In addition, the ground water level is located at some depth relatively close to the structure, and in a position to impact on the seismic response of the facility. In order to estimate the response of this oil-water system, the two-phased medium formulation of Biot was used to treat the response of the solids and water as two separate linear media, coupled together through soil permeability and volume effects. (orig./HP)

  10. New soil water sensors for irrigation management (United States)

    Effective irrigation management is key to obtaining the most crop production per unit of water applied and increasing production in the face of competing demands on water resources. Management methods have included calculating crop water needs based on weather station measurements, calculating soil ...

  11. Effects of soil water depletion on the water relations in tropical kudzu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adaucto Bellarmino de Pereira-Netto


    Full Text Available Tropical kudzu (Pueraria phaseoloides (Roxb. Benth., Leguminosae: Faboideae is native to the humid Southeastern Asia. Tropical kudzu has potential as a cover crop in regions subjected to dryness. The objective of this paper was to evaluate the effect of soil water depletion on leaflet relative water content (RWC, stomatal conductance (g and temperature (T L in tropical kudzu. RWC of waterstressed plants dropped from 96 to 78%, following a reduction in SWC from 0.25 to 0.17 g (H2O.g (dry soil-1.Stomatal conductance of stressed plants decreased from 221 to 98 mmol.m-2.s-1, following the reduction in soil water content (SWC. The day after re-irrigation, g of water stressed plants was 15% lower than g of unstressed plants. Differences in T L between waterstressed and unstressed plants (deltaT L rose linearly from 0.1 to 2.2ºC following progressive water deficit. RWC and T L of waterstressed plants paralled RWC and T L of unstressed plants the day after reirrigation. The strong decrease in SWC found in this study only induced moderate water stress in tropical kudzu. In addition, tropical kudzu recover rapidly from the induced water stress after the re-irrigation.

  12. Soil properties evolution after irrigation with reclaimed water (United States)

    Leal, M.; González-Naranjo, V.; de Miguel, A.; Martínez-Hernández, V.; Lillo, J.


    Many arid and semi-arid countries are forced to look for new and alternative water sources. The availability of suitable quality water for agriculture in these regions often is threatened. In this context of water scarcity, the reuse of treated wastewater for crop irrigation could represent a feasible solution. Through rigorous planning and management, irrigation with reclaimed water presents some advantages such as saving freshwater, reducing wastewater discharges into freshwater bodies and decreasing the amount of added fertilizers due to the extra supply of nutrients by reclaimed water. The current study, which involves wastewater reuse in agriculture, has been carried out in the Experimental Plant of Carrión de los Céspedes (Sevile, Spain). Here, two survey parcels equally designed have been cultivated with Jatropha curcas L, a bioenergetic plant and a non-interfering food security crop. The only difference between the two parcels lies on the irrigation water quality: one is irrigated with groundwater and another one with reclaimed water. The main aim of this study focuses on analysing the outstanding differences in soil properties derived from irrigation with two water qualities, due to their implications for plant growth. To control and monitor the soil variables, soil samples were collected before and after irrigation in the two parcels. pH, electrical conductivity, cation exchange capacity, exchangeable cations (Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+ and K+), kjeldahl nitrogen, organic matter content and nutrients (boron, phosphorus, nitrogen, potassium) were measured. Data were statistically analyzed using the R package. To evaluate the variance ANOVA test was used and to obtain the relations between water quality and soil parameters, Pearson correlation coefficient was computed. According to other authors, a decrease in the organic matter content and an increase of parameters such as pH, electrical conductivity and some exchangeable cations were expected. To date and after

  13. Dielectric Relaxation of Bound Water versus Soil Matric Pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilhorst, M.A.; Dirksen, C.; Kampers, F.W.H.; Feddes, R.A.


    The electrical permittivity of soil is a function of the water content, which facilitates water content measurements. The permittivity of soil is also a function of the frequency of the applied electric field. This frequency dependence can be described by the relationship between the dielectric

  14. Tomato Yield and Water Use Efficiency - Coupling Effects between Growth Stage Specific Soil Water Deficits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Si; Zhenjiang, Zhou; Andersen, Mathias Neumann


    To investigate the sensitivity of tomato yield and water use efficiency (WUE) to soil water content at different growth stages, the central composite rotatable design (CCRD) was employed in a five-factor-five-level pot experiment under regulated deficit irrigation. Two regression models concerning...... the effects of stage-specific soil water content on tomato yield and WUE were established. The results showed that the lowest available soil water (ASW) content (around 28%) during vegetative growth stage (here denoted θ1) resulted in high yield and WUE. Moderate (around 69% ASW) during blooming and fruit...... effects of ASW in two growth stages were between θ2 and θ5, θ3. In both cases a moderate θ2 was a precondition for maximum yield response to increasing θ5 and θ3. Sensitivity analysis revealed that yield was most sensitive to soil water content at fruit maturity (θ5). Numerical inspection...

  15. Intracranial interstitial radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willis, D.; Rittenmeyer, H.; Hitchon, P.


    Primary malignant brain tumors are fatal, with 90% of patients having these tumors dying within two years following diagnosis. Cranial interstitial radiation therapy, a technique under investigation to control these tumors, involves implantation of radioactive iodine 125 seeds into the tumor bed by stereotaxic technique. The interstitial radiation technique, monitoring of radiation, and nursing care of patients are discussed. Case histories are presented, along with discussion of results attained using this therapy, and its future

  16. Migration through soil of organic solutes in an oil-shale process water (United States)

    Leenheer, J.A.; Stuber, H.A.


    The migration through soil of organic solutes in an oil-shale process water (retort water) was studied by using soil columns and analyzing leachates for various organic constituents. Retort water extracted significant quantities of organic anions leached from ammonium-saturated-soil organic matter, and a distilled-water rinse, which followed retort-water leaching, released additional organic acids from the soil. After being corrected for organic constitutents extracted from soil by retort water, dissolved-organic-carbon fractionation analyses of effluent fractions showed that the order of increasing affinity of six organic compound classes for the soil was as follows: hydrophilic neutrals nearly equal to hydrophilic acids, followed by the sequence of hydrophobic acids, hydrophilic bases, hydrophobic bases, and hydrophobic neutrals. Liquid-chromatographic analysis of the aromatic amines in the hydrophobic- and hydrophilic-base fractions showed that the relative order of the rates of migration through the soil column was the same as the order of migration on a reversed-phase, octadecylsilica liquid-chromatographic column.

  17. Soil and surface layer type affect non-rainfall water inputs (United States)

    Agam, Nurit; Berliner, Pedro; Jiang, Anxia


    Non-rainfall water inputs (NRWIs), which include fog deposition, dew formation, and direct water vapor adsorption by the soil, play a vital role in arid and semiarid regions. Environmental conditions, namely radiation, air temperature, air humidity, and wind speed, largely affect the water cycle driven by NRWIs. The substrate type (soil type and the existence/absence of a crust layer) may as well play a major role. Our objective was to quantify the effects of soil type (loess vs. sand) and surface layer (bare vs. crusted) on the gain and posterior evaporation of NRWIs in the Negev Highlands throughout the dry summer season. Four undisturbed soil samples (20 cm diameter and 50 cm depth) were excavated and simultaneously introduced into a PVC tube. Two samples were obtained in the Negev's Boker plain (loess soil) and two in the Nizzana sand dunes in the Western Negev. On one sample from each site the crust was removed while on the remaining one the natural crust was left in place. The samples were brought to the research site at the Jacob Bluestein Institutes for Desert Research, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Israel (31˚08' N, 34˚53' E, 400 meter above the sea level) where they were exposed to the same environmental conditions. The four samples in their PVC tubes were placed on top of scales and the samples mass was continuously monitored. Soil temperatures were monitored at depths of 1, 2, 3, 5 and10 cm in each microlysimeter (ML) using Copper-Constantan thermocouples. The results of particle size distribution indicated that the crust of the loess soil is probably a physical crust, i.e., a crust that forms due to raindroplets impact; while the crust on the sand soil is biological. On most days, the loess soils adsorbed more water than their corresponding sand soil samples. For both soils, the samples for which the crust was removed adsorbed more water than the samples for which it was intact. The difference in daily water adsorption amount between crusted

  18. Root exudate as major player on soil-water retention dynamics (United States)

    Albalasmeh, A. A.; Sweet, J. R.; Gebrenegus, T. B.; Ghezzehei, T. A.


    Plant roots and soil microbes release 5-60% of the entirety of photosynthetically fixed carbon in to the soil as exudates to adapt to their surrounding. There is indirect evidence suggesting that these exudates play a major role in altering the of the soil water retention properties. In this study, we used a uniformly sized (40 μm) glass beads and various concentrations (0, 2, 10, 20 and 29 g/L) of polygalacutronic acid (PGA) to mimic sandy soil and the organic exudates from plant roots, respectively. The samples were subjected to periods of drying and subsequent equilibration. At each stage, the water potential was measured using WP4C Dewpoint PotentiaMeter. The effect of root exudates on soil water retention can be attributed t at least two factors. The most widely speculated effect is through enhanced of soil aggregation. This effect is primarily due to capillary adhesion in fine pores within aggregates and is consistent was visual observation of pronounced aggregation in many rhizosphere soils. The second factor is related to osmotic effect of the exudate solution. Our observations show that the capillary effect is mostly to higher water potential regime (> -1 bar suction). Whereas the osmotic effect dominates in plant-soil relations.

  19. Quantitative imaging of water flow in soil and roots using neutron radiography and deuterated water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarebanadkouki, Mohsen


    Where and how fast do roots take up water? Despite its importance in plant and soil sciences, there is limited experimental information on the location of water uptake along the roots of transpiring plants growing in soil. The answer to this question requires direct and in-situ measurement of the local flow of water into the roots. The aim of this study was to develop and apply a new method to quantify the local fluxes of water into different segments of the roots of intact plants. To this end, neutron radiography was used to trace the transport of deuterated water (D{sub 2}O) into the roots of lupines. Lupines were grown in aluminum containers filled with sandy soil. The soil was partitioned into different compartments using 1 cm-thick layers of coarse sand as capillary barriers. These barriers limited the diffusion of D{sub 2}O within the soil compartments. D{sub 2}O was locally injected into the selected soil compartments during the day (transpiring plants) and night (non-transpiring plants). Transport of D{sub 2}O into roots was then monitored by neutron radiography with spatial resolution of 100 μm and time intervals of 10 seconds. Neutron radiographs showed that: i) transport of D{sub 2}O into roots was faster during the day than during the night; 2) D{sub 2}O quickly moved along the roots towards the shoots during the day, while at night this axial transport was negligible. The differences between day and night measurements were explained by convective transport of D{sub 2}O into the roots. To quantify the net flow of water into roots, a simple convection-diffusion model was developed, where the increase rate of D{sub 2}O concentration in roots depended on the convective transport (net root water uptake) and the diffusion of D{sub 2}O into roots. The results showed that water uptake was not uniform along the roots. Water uptake was higher in the upper soil layers than in the deeper ones. Along an individual roots, the water uptake rate was higher in the

  20. Quantitative imaging of water flow in soil and roots using neutron radiography and deuterated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarebanadkouki, Mohsen


    Where and how fast do roots take up water? Despite its importance in plant and soil sciences, there is limited experimental information on the location of water uptake along the roots of transpiring plants growing in soil. The answer to this question requires direct and in-situ measurement of the local flow of water into the roots. The aim of this study was to develop and apply a new method to quantify the local fluxes of water into different segments of the roots of intact plants. To this end, neutron radiography was used to trace the transport of deuterated water (D 2 O) into the roots of lupines. Lupines were grown in aluminum containers filled with sandy soil. The soil was partitioned into different compartments using 1 cm-thick layers of coarse sand as capillary barriers. These barriers limited the diffusion of D 2 O within the soil compartments. D 2 O was locally injected into the selected soil compartments during the day (transpiring plants) and night (non-transpiring plants). Transport of D 2 O into roots was then monitored by neutron radiography with spatial resolution of 100 μm and time intervals of 10 seconds. Neutron radiographs showed that: i) transport of D 2 O into roots was faster during the day than during the night; 2) D 2 O quickly moved along the roots towards the shoots during the day, while at night this axial transport was negligible. The differences between day and night measurements were explained by convective transport of D 2 O into the roots. To quantify the net flow of water into roots, a simple convection-diffusion model was developed, where the increase rate of D 2 O concentration in roots depended on the convective transport (net root water uptake) and the diffusion of D 2 O into roots. The results showed that water uptake was not uniform along the roots. Water uptake was higher in the upper soil layers than in the deeper ones. Along an individual roots, the water uptake rate was higher in the proximal segments than in the distal

  1. Uncoupling between soil and xylem water isotopic composition: how to discriminate mobile and tightly-bound water? (United States)

    Martín Gómez, Paula; Aguilera, Mònica; Pemán, Jesús; Gil Pelegrín, Eustaquio; Ferrio, Juan Pedro


    As a general rule, no isotopic fractionation occurs during water uptake and water transport, thus, xylem water reflects source water. However, this correspondence does not always happen. Isotopic enrichment of xylem water has been found in several cases and has been either associated to 'stem processes' like cuticular evaporation 1 and xylem-phloem communication under water stress 2,3 or to 'soil processes' such as species-specific use of contrasting water sources retained at different water potential forces in soil. In this regard, it has been demonstrated that mobile and tightly-bound water may show different isotopic signature 4,5. However, standard cryogenic distillation does not allow to separate different water pools within soil samples. Here, we carried out a study in a mixed adult forest (Pinus sylvestris, Quercus subpyrenaica and Buxus sempervirens) growing in a relatively deep loamy soil in the Pre-Pyrenees. During one year, we sampled xylem from twigs and soil at different depths (10, 30 and 50 cm). We also sampled xylem from trunk and bigger branches to assess whether xylem water was enriched in the distal parts of the tree. We found average deviations in the isotopic signature from xylem to soil of 4o 2o and 2.4o in δ18O and 18.3o 7.3o and 8.9o in δ2H, for P.sylvestris, Q.subpyrenaica and B.sempervirens respectively. Xylem water was always enriched compared to soil. In contrast, we did not find clear differences in isotopic composition between xylem samples along the tree. Declining the hypothesis that 'stem processes' would cause these uncoupling between soil and xylem isotopic values, we tested the possibility to separate mobile and tightly-bound water by centrifugation. Even though we could separate two water fractions in soils close to saturation, we could not recover a mobile fraction in drier soils. In this regard, we welcome suggestions on alternatives to separate different soil fractions in order to find the correspondence between soil and

  2. Influence of Microsprinkler Irrigation Amount on Water, Soil, and pH Profiles in a Coastal Saline Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linlin Chu


    Full Text Available Microsprinkler irrigation is a potential method to alleviate soil salinization. After conducting a homogeneous, highly saline, clayey, and coastal soil from the Bohai Gulf in northern China in a column experiment, the results show that the depth of the wetting front increased as the water amount applied increased, low-salinity and low-SAR enlarged after irrigation and water redistribution, and the soil pH increased with an increase in irrigation amount. We concluded that a water amount of 207 mm could be used to reclaim the coastal saline soil in northern China.

  3. [Effect of Recycled Water Irrieation on Heavy Metal Pollution in Irrigation Soil]. (United States)

    Zhou, Yi-qi; Liu, Yun-xia; Fu, Hui-min


    With acceleration of urbanization, water shortages will become a serious problem. Usage of reclaimed water for flushing and watering of the green areas will be common in the future. To study the heavy metal contamination of soils after green area irrigation using recycled wastewater from special industries, we selected sewage and laboratory wastewater as water source for integrated oxidation ditch treatment, and the effluent was used as irrigation water of the green area. The irrigation units included broad-leaved forest, bush and lawn. Six samples sites were selected, and 0-20 cm soil of them were collected. Analysis of the heavy metals including Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd and Pb in the soil showed no significant differences with heavy metals concentration in soil irrigated with tap water. The heavy metals in the soil irrigated with recycled water were mainly enriched in the surface layer, among which the contents of Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb were below the soil background values of Beijing. A slight pollution of As and Cd was found in the soil irrigated by recycled water, which needs to be noticed.

  4. Soil Water Dynamics In Central Europe and Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klein, Markus; Mahler, Claudio F.; Trapp, Stefan


    The comprehension of the soil water dynamics is important for the study of environmental processes. Precipitation, temperature, and water balance of Rio de Janeiro, Southeast Brazil and locations in Germany, Central Europe, are significantly different. Experience from one region could not be used...... on both approaches are applied to an actual case with the conditions in Germany. This case is also analyzed under the conditions of Rio de Janeiro. The effects of tropical environmental conditions on water transport in unsaturated soils are also discussed....

  5. Errors in determination of soil water content using time-domain reflectometry caused by soil compaction around wave guides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghezzehei, T.A.


    Application of time domain reflectometry (TDR) in soil hydrology often involves the conversion of TDR-measured dielectric permittivity to water content using universal calibration equations (empirical or physically based). Deviations of soil-specific calibrations from the universal calibrations have been noted and are usually attributed to peculiar composition of soil constituents, such as high content of clay and/or organic matter. Although it is recognized that soil disturbance by TDR waveguides may have impact on measurement errors, to our knowledge, there has not been any quantification of this effect. In this paper, we introduce a method that estimates this error by combining two models: one that describes soil compaction around cylindrical objects and another that translates change in bulk density to evolution of soil water retention characteristics. Our analysis indicates that the compaction pattern depends on the mechanical properties of the soil at the time of installation. The relative error in water content measurement depends on the compaction pattern as well as the water content and water retention properties of the soil. Illustrative calculations based on measured soil mechanical and hydrologic properties from the literature indicate that the measurement errors of using a standard three-prong TDR waveguide could be up to 10%. We also show that the error scales linearly with the ratio of rod radius to the interradius spacing.

  6. Soil respiration sensitivities to water and temperature in a revegetated desert (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi-Shan; Dong, Xue-Jun; Xu, Bing-Xin; Chen, Yong-Le; Zhao, Yang; Gao, Yan-Hong; Hu, Yi-Gang; Huang, Lei


    Soil respiration in water-limited ecosystems is affected intricately by soil water content (SWC), temperature, and soil properties. Eight sites on sand-fixed dunes that revegetated in different years since 1950s, with several topographical positions and various biological soil crusts (BSCs) and soil properties, were selected, as well as a moving sand dune (MSD) and a reference steppe in the Tengger Desert of China. Intact soil samples of 20 cm in depth were taken and incubated randomly at 12 levels of SWC (0 to 0.4 m3 m-3) and at 9 levels of temperature (5 to 45°C) in a growth chamber; additionally, cryptogamic and microbial respirations (RM) were measured. Total soil respiration (RT, including cryptogamic, microbial, and root respiration) was measured for 2 years at the MSD and five sites of sand-fixed dunes. The relationship between RM and SWC under the optimal SWC condition (0.25 m3 m-3) is linear, as is the entire range of RT and SWC. The slope of linear function describes sensitivity of soil respiration to water (SRW) and reflects to soil water availability, which is related significantly to soil physical properties, BSCs, and soil chemical properties, in decreasing importance. Inversely, Q10 for RM is related significantly to abovementioned factors in increasing importance. However, Q10 for RT and respiration rate at 20°C are related significantly to soil texture and depth of BSCs and subsoil only. In conclusion, through affecting SRW, soil physical properties produce significant influences on soil respiration, especially for RT. This indicates that a definition of the biophysical meaning of SRW is necessary, considering the water-limited and coarse-textured soil in most desert ecosystems.

  7. Estimation of Soil Water Retention Curve Using Fractal Dimension ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Dec 1, 2017 ... ABSTRACT: The soil water retention curve (SWRC) is a fundamental hydraulic property majorly used to study flow transport in soils and calculate ... suitable to model the heterogeneous soil structure with tortuous pore space (Rieu ... so, soil texture determined according to the USDA texture classification.

  8. Soil Respiration Controls Ionic Nutrient Concentration In Percolating Water In Rice Fields (United States)

    Kimura, M.


    Soil water in the plow layer in rice fields contains various kinds of cations and anions, and they are lost from the plow layer by water percolation. Some portions of CO2 produced by respirations of rice roots and soil microorganisms are also leached by water percolation to the subsoil layer as HCO3-. As the electrical neutrality of inorganic substances in percolating water is maintained when they are assumed to be in the form of simple cations and anions, soil respiration accelerates the leaching of ionic nutrients from the plow layer by water percolation. The proportion of inorganic carbon (Σ CO2) originated from photosynthates in the total Σ CO2 in soil solution in the plow layer was from 28 to 36 % in the rice straw amended soil and from 16 to 31 % in the soil without rice straw amendment in a soil pot experiment with rice plant after the maximum tillering stage. Most of Σ CO2 in percolating water from the plow layer accumulates in the subsoil layer. Periodical measurement of Σ CO2 in percolating water at 13 and 40 cm soil depths indicated that 10 % of total soil organic C in the plow layer was leached down from the plow layer (13 cm), and that about 90 % of it was retained in the subsoil layer to the depth of 40 cm. Water soluble organic materials are also leached from the plow layer by water percolation, and the leaching is accelerated by soil reduction. Soil reduction decreased the content of organic materials that were bound with ferric iron in soil (extractable by 0.1M Na4P2O7 + NaBH4) and increased the content of organic materials that were extractable by the neutral chelating solution (0.1M Na4P2O7). In addition, water percolation transformed the latter organic materials to those that were extractable by water and a neutral salt. Considerable portions of organic materials in percolating water are adsorbed in the subsoil layer, and then partially decomposed and polymerized to specific soil organic materials in the subsoil. Organic materials that were

  9. Migration of di- and tri-interstitials in silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Posselt, M.; Gao, F.; Zwicker, D.


    A comprehensive study on the migration of di- and tri-interstitials in silicon is performed using classical molecular dynamics simulations with the Stillinger-Weber potential. The initial di- and tri-interstitial configurations with the lowest formation energies are determined, and then, the defect migration is investigated for temperatures between 800 and 1600 K. The defect diffusivity and the self-diffusion coefficient per defect are calculated. Compared to the mono-interstitial, the di-interstitial migrates faster, whereas the tri-interstitial diffuses slower. The migration mechanism of the di-interstitial shows a pronounced dependence on the temperature. Like in the case of the mono-interstitial, the mobility of the di-interstitial is higher than the mobility of the lattice atoms during the defect diffusion. On the other hand, the tri-interstitial mobility is lower than the corresponding atomic mobility. The implications of the present results for the analysis of experimental data on defect evolution and migration are discussed

  10. Global Distribution of Plant-Extractable Water Capacity of Soil (Dunne) (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Plant-extractable water capacity of soil is the amount of water that can be extracted from the soil to fulfill evapotranspiration demands. This data set provides an...

  11. The effect of plant water storage on water fluxes within the coupled soil-plant system. (United States)

    Huang, Cheng-Wei; Domec, Jean-Christophe; Ward, Eric J; Duman, Tomer; Manoli, Gabriele; Parolari, Anthony J; Katul, Gabriel G


    In addition to buffering plants from water stress during severe droughts, plant water storage (PWS) alters many features of the spatio-temporal dynamics of water movement in the soil-plant system. How PWS impacts water dynamics and drought resilience is explored using a multi-layer porous media model. The model numerically resolves soil-plant hydrodynamics by coupling them to leaf-level gas exchange and soil-root interfacial layers. Novel features of the model are the considerations of a coordinated relationship between stomatal aperture variation and whole-system hydraulics and of the effects of PWS and nocturnal transpiration (Fe,night) on hydraulic redistribution (HR) in the soil. The model results suggest that daytime PWS usage and Fe,night generate a residual water potential gradient (Δψp,night) along the plant vascular system overnight. This Δψp,night represents a non-negligible competing sink strength that diminishes the significance of HR. Considering the co-occurrence of PWS usage and HR during a single extended dry-down, a wide range of plant attributes and environmental/soil conditions selected to enhance or suppress plant drought resilience is discussed. When compared with HR, model calculations suggest that increased root water influx into plant conducting-tissues overnight maintains a more favorable water status at the leaf, thereby delaying the onset of drought stress. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  12. Compost improves urban soil and water quality (United States)

    Construction in urban zones compacts the soil, which hinders root growth and infiltration and may increase erosion, which may degrade water quality. The purpose of our study was to determine the whether planting prairie grasses and adding compost to urban soils can mitigate these concerns. We simula...

  13. Two-Region Model for Soil Water Repellency as a Function of Matric Potential and Water Content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karunarathna, Anurudda Kumara; Møldrup, Per; Kawamoto, Ken


    by the so-called Dexter index) is useful for predicting if soils are likely to exhibit WR. Expression of soil water repellency depends on soil water content; however, only a limited amount of predictive description is available to date. In this study, based on experimental data, a simple two-region model...

  14. [Effects of strip planting and fallow rotation on the soil and water loss and water use efficiency of slope farmland]. (United States)

    Hou, Xian-Qing; Li, Rong; Han, Qing-Fang; Jia, Zhi-Kuan; Wang, Wei; Yan, Bo; Yang, Bao-Ping


    In order to enhance the soil water-retaining capacity of slope farmland and reduce its soil and water loss, a field study was conducted in 2007-2010 to examine the effects of strip planting and fallow rotation on the soil water regime, soil and water loss characteristics, and water use efficiency of a 10 degrees-15 degrees slope farmland in the arid area of southern Ningxia, Northwest China. Compared with the traditional no-strip planting, strip planting and fallow rotation increased the soil water content in 0-200 cm layer significantly, with an increment of 4.9% -7.0%. Strip planting and fallow rotation pattern could also effectively conserve the soil water in rain season, and obviously improve the soil water regime at crops early growth stages. As compared to no-strip planting, strip planting and fallow rotation increased the soil water content in 0-200 cm layer by 5.4%-8.5%, decreased the surface runoff by 0.7-3.2 m3 x hm(-2), sediment runoff by 0.2-1.9 t x hm(-2), and soil total N loss by 42.1% -73.3%, while improved the crop water use efficiency by 6.1% -24.9% and the precipitation use efficiency by 6.3% -15.3%.

  15. First-principles studies of di-arsenic interstitial and its implications for arsenic-interstitial diffusion in crystalline silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yonghyun; Kirichenko, Taras A.; Kong, Ning; Larson, Larry; Banerjee, Sanjay K.


    We propose new structural configurations and novel diffusion mechanisms for neutral di-arsenic interstitial (As 2 I 2 ) in silicon with a first-principle density functional theory simulation within the generalized gradient approximation. With an assumption of excess silicon interstitials and high arsenic concentrations, neutral As 2 I 2 is expected to be favorable and mobile with low-migration barrier. Moreover, because the diffusion barrier of arsenic interstitial pairs (AsI) is very low ( 2 I 2 can be easily formed and likely intermediate stage of larger arsenic interstitial clusters

  16. Quasi 3D modelling of water flow in the sandy soil (United States)

    Rezaei, Meisam; Seuntjens, Piet; Joris, Ingeborg; Boënne, Wesley; De Pue, Jan; Cornelis, Wim


    Monitoring and modeling tools may improve irrigation strategies in precision agriculture. Spatial interpolation is required for analyzing the effects of soil hydraulic parameters, soil layer thickness and groundwater level on irrigation management using hydrological models at field scale. We used non-invasive soil sensor, a crop growth (LINGRA-N) and a soil hydrological model (Hydrus-1D) to predict soil-water content fluctuations and crop yield in a heterogeneous sandy grassland soil under supplementary irrigation. In the first step, the sensitivity of the soil hydrological model to hydraulic parameters, water stress, crop yield and lower boundary conditions was assessed after integrating models at one soil column. Free drainage and incremental constant head conditions were implemented in a lower boundary sensitivity analysis. In the second step, to predict Ks over the whole field, the spatial distributions of Ks and its relationship between co-located soil ECa measured by a DUALEM-21S sensor were investigated. Measured groundwater levels and soil layer thickness were interpolated using ordinary point kriging (OK) to a 0.5 by 0.5 m in aim of digital elevation maps. In the third step, a quasi 3D modelling approach was conducted using interpolated data as input hydraulic parameter, geometric information and boundary conditions in the integrated model. In addition, three different irrigation scenarios namely current, no irrigation and optimized irrigations were carried out to find out the most efficient irrigation regime. In this approach, detailed field scale maps of soil water stress, water storage and crop yield were produced at each specific time interval to evaluate the best and most efficient distribution of water using standard gun sprinkler irrigation. The results show that the effect of the position of the groundwater level was dominant in soil-water content prediction and associated water stress. A time-dependent sensitivity analysis of the hydraulic

  17. Prediction of the soil water retention curve for structured soil from saturation to oven-dryness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karup, Dan; Møldrup, Per; Tuller, Markus


    . Independently measured SWRCs for 171 undisturbed soil samples with organic matter contents that ranged from 3 to 14% were used for model validation. The results indicate that consideration of the silt and organic matter fractions, in addition to the clay fraction, improved predictions for the dry-end SWRC......The soil water retention curve (SWRC) is the most fundamental soil hydraulic function required for modelling soil–plant–atmospheric water flow and transport processes. The SWRC is intimately linked to the distribution of the size of pores, the composition of the solid phase and the soil specific...... surface area. Detailed measurement of the SWRC is impractical in many cases because of the excessively long equilibration times inherent to most standard methods, especially for fine textured soil. Consequently, it is more efficient to predict the SWRCbased on easy-to-measure basic soil properties...

  18. Utilization of Weibull equation to obtain soil-water diffusivity in horizontal infiltration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerrini, I.A.


    Water movement was studied in horizontal infiltration experiments using laboratory columns of air-dry and homogeneous soil to obtain a simple and suitable equation for soil-water diffusivity. Many water content profiles for each one of the ten soil columns utilized were obtained through gamma-ray attenuation technique using a 137 Cs source. During the measurement of a particular water content profile, the soil column was held in the same position in order to measure changes in time and so to reduce the errors in water content determination. The Weibull equation utilized was excellent in fitting water content profiles experimental data. The use of an analytical function for ν, the Boltzmann variable, according to Weibull model, allowed to obtain a simple equation for soil water diffusivity. Comparisons among the equation here obtained for diffusivity and others solutions found in literature were made, and the unsuitability of a simple exponential variation of diffusivity with water content for the full range of the latter was shown. The necessity of admitting the time dependency for diffusivity was confirmed and also the possibility fixing that dependency on a well known value extended to generalized soil water infiltration studies was found. Finally, it was shown that the soil water diffusivity function given by the equation here proposed can be obtained just by the analysis of the wetting front advance as a function of time. (Author) [pt

  19. Pedotransfer functions to estimate soil water content at field capacity ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Soil water retention, Dry lands, Western India, Pedotransfer functions, Soil moisture calculator. 1. 2. 3. 4 ..... samples although it is known that structure and macro-porosity of the sample affect water retention (Unger ..... and OC content has positive influence on water retention whereas interaction of clay and OC has negative ...

  20. Effects of white grubs on soil water infiltration. (United States)

    Romero-López, A A; Rodríguez-Palacios, E; Alarcón-Gutiérrez, E; Geissert, D; Barois, I


    Water infiltration rates k were measured in mesocosms with soil and "white grubs" of Ancognatha falsa (Arrow) (Coleoptera: Melolonthidae). Three third instars of A. falsa and three adult earthworms Pontoscolex corethrurus were selected, weighted, and introduced into the mesocosms setting three treatments: soil + A. falsa, soil + P. corethrurus, and control (soil without any macroorganism). The experiment had a completely random design with four replicates per treatment (n = 4). The infiltration rates of soil matrix were assessed in each mesocosms with a minidisk tension infiltrometer. Six measurements were made along the experiment. Results showed that larvae of A. falsa promoted a higher water infiltration in the soil, compared to the control. On day 7, k values were similar among treatments, but k values after 28 days and up to 100 days were much higher in the A. falsa treatment (k = 0.00025 cm s(-1)) if compared to control (k = 0.00011 cm s(-1)) and P. corethrurus (k = 0.00008 cm s(-1)) treatments. The k values were significantly higher in the presence of larvae of A. falsa compared to the control and P. corethrurus treatments. The larvae of A. falsa are potential candidates for new assays on soil water infiltration with different tensions to evaluate the role of pores and holes created by the larvae on soils.

  1. Interstitial irradiation for craniopharyngioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barlas, O.; Bayindir, C.; Can, M.


    The results of interstitial irradiation treatment for craniopharyngioma in two patients with six year follow-ups are presented. Stereotactic interstitial irradiation with iodine-125 sources as sole therapy was employed in two adult patients who refused surgical resection. The diagnoses were confirmed by stereotactic biopsy. The first tumour which underwent interstitial irradiation was solid and 4 cm in diameter, and the second, 2.7 cm in diameter, had both cystic and solid components. The implanted iodine-125 seeds delivered 67 Gy and 60 Gy to tumour periphery at the rate of 12 and 14 cGy/h, respectively, were removed at the end of designated radiation periods. Tumour shrinkage and central hypo density, first observed 3 months after irradiation, continued until one tumour shrank to less than 1 cm at 12 months, and the other disappeared completely at 24 months. In both cases functional integrity was restored, and neither radiation induced toxicity nor recurrence has occurred six years after treatment. The results in these two cases suggest that solid craniopharyngiomas are sensitive to interstitial irradiation. (author)

  2. Soil water storage, yield, water productivity and transpiration efficiency of soybeans (Glyxine max L.Merr as affected by soil surface management in Ile-Ife, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omotayo B. Adeboye


    Full Text Available Rainfed agriculture has a high yield potential if rainfall and land resources are effectively used. In this study, conventional (NC and six in-situ water conservation practices were used to cultivate Soybean in 2011 and 2012 in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. The conservation practices are: Tied ridge (TR, Soil bund (BD, Mulch (ML, Mulch plus Soil bund (MLBD, Tied ridge plus Mulch (TRML, Tied ridge plus Soil bund (TRBD. The practices were arranged in Randomised Complete Block Design with four replicates. Seasonal rainfall was 539 and 761 mm in 2011 and 2012, respectively. Seasonal soil water storage (SWS ranged from 485 mm for NC to 517 mm for TRML in the two seasons. ML increased the SWS in the upper 30 cm of the soil by 17% while TR increased the soil water content in the lower 30–60 cm by 22% compared with NC. ML reduced soil temperature in the upper 30 cm between 2.2 and 2.9 oC compared with NC, TR and TRML. Seasonal crop evapotranspiration ranged between 432 mm for NC and 481 mm for BD in the seasons. Grain yield increased by 41.7% and 44.3% for BD and MLBD, respectively compared with NC. Water conservation practices increased water productivity for grain yield by 14.0–41.8% compared with NC. Similarly, it increased average seasonal transpiration efficiency by 15.3–32.5% compared with NC. These findings demonstrate that when there are fluctuations in rainfall, in-situ water conservation practices improve SWS, land, and water productivity and transpiration efficiency of Soybeans.

  3. Linkages between forest soils and water quality and quantity (United States)

    Daniel G. Neary; George G. Ice; C. Rhett Jackson


    The most sustainable and best quality fresh water sources in the world originate in forest ecosystems. The biological, chemical, and physical characteristics of forest soils are particularly well suited to delivering high quality water to streams, moderating stream hydrology, and providing diverse aquatic habitat. Forest soils feature litter layers and...

  4. Soil water use by Ceanothus velutinus and two grasses. (United States)

    W. Lopushinsky; G.O. Klock


    Seasonal trends of soil water content in plots of snowbrush (Ceanothus velutinus Dougl.), orchard grass (Dactylis glomerata L), and pinegrass (Calamagrostis rubes- cens Buckl.) and in bare plots were measured on a burned-over forest watershed in north-central Washington. A comparison of soil water contents at depths of 12, 24,...

  5. Estimation of soil water retention curve using fractal dimension ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The soil water retention curve (SWRC) is a fundamental hydraulic property majorly used to study flow transport in soils and calculate plant-available water. Since, direct measurement of SWRC is time-consuming and expensive, different models have been developed to estimate SWRC. In this study, a fractal-based model ...

  6. Soil - water relationships in the Weatherley catchment, South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Apr 24, 2009 ... Soil water content is influenced by soil and terrain factors, but studies on the predictive value of diagnostic .... Results for particle size analyses (Soil Classification ...... negating the importance of the negative intercept value in.

  7. Soil Texture and Cultivar Effects on Rice (Oryza sativa, L. Grain Yield, Yield Components and Water Productivity in Three Water Regimes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fugen Dou

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effects of water regime/soil condition (continuous flooding, saturated, and aerobic, cultivar ('Cocodrie' and 'Rondo', and soil texture (clay and sandy loam on rice grain yield, yield components and water productivity using a greenhouse trial. Rice grain yield was significantly affected by soil texture and the interaction between water regime and cultivar. Significantly higher yield was obtained in continuous flooding than in aerobic and saturated soil conditions but the latter treatments were comparable to each other. For Rondo, its grain yield has decreased with soil water regimes in the order of continuous flooding, saturated and aerobic treatments. The rice grain yield in clay soil was 46% higher than in sandy loam soil averaged across cultivar and water regime. Compared to aerobic condition, saturated and continuous flooding treatments had greater panicle numbers. In addition, panicle number in clay soil was 25% higher than in sandy loam soil. The spikelet number of Cocodrie was 29% greater than that of Rondo, indicating that rice cultivar had greater effect on spikelet number than soil type and water management. Water productivity was significantly affected by the interaction of water regime and cultivar. Compared to sandy loam soil, clay soil was 25% higher in water productivity. Our results indicated that cultivar selection and soil texture are important factors in deciding what water management option to practice.

  8. Lime application methods, water and bottom soil acidity in fresh water fish ponds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Queiroz Julio Ferraz de


    Full Text Available Although some methods for determining lime requirement of pond soils are available and commonly used, there is still no consensus on whether it is more effective to apply liming materials to the bottoms of empty ponds or to wait and apply them over the water surface after ponds are filled. There is also little information on how deep lime reacts in pond sediment over time, and whether the depth of reaction is different when liming materials are applied to the water or to the soil. Therefore, three techniques for treating fish ponds with agricultural limestone were evaluated in ponds with clayey soils at a commercial fish farm. Amounts of agricultural limestone equal to the lime requirement of bottom soils were applied to each of three ponds by: direct application over the pond water surface; spread uniformly over the bottom of the empty pond; spread uniformly over the bottom of the empty pond followed by tilling of the bottom. Effectiveness of agricultural limestone applications did not differ among treatment methods. Agricultural limestone also reacted quickly to increase total alkalinity and total hardness of pond water to acceptable concentrations within 2 weeks after application. The reaction of lime to increase soil pH was essentially complete after one to two months, and lime had no effect below a soil depth of 8 cm. Tilling of pond bottoms to incorporate liming materials is unnecessary, and tilling consumes time and is an expensive practice; filled ponds can be limed effectively.

  9. Aquaporin-4 facilitator TGN-073 promotes interstitial fluid circulation within the blood-brain barrier: [17O]H2O JJVCPE MRI study. (United States)

    Huber, Vincent J; Igarashi, Hironaka; Ueki, Satoshi; Kwee, Ingrid L; Nakada, Tsutomu


    The blood-brain barrier (BBB), which imposes significant water permeability restriction, effectively isolates the brain from the systemic circulation. Seemingly paradoxical, the abundance of aquaporin-4 (AQP-4) on the inside of the BBB strongly indicates the presence of unique water dynamics essential for brain function. On the basis of the highly specific localization of AQP-4, namely, astrocyte end feet at the glia limitans externa and pericapillary Virchow-Robin space, we hypothesized that the AQP-4 system serves as an interstitial fluid circulator, moving interstitial fluid from the glia limitans externa to pericapillary Virchow-Robin space to ensure proper glymphatic flow draining into the cerebrospinal fluid. The hypothesis was tested directly using the AQP-4 facilitator TGN-073 developed in our laboratory, and [O]H2O JJ vicinal coupling proton exchange MRI, a method capable of tracing water molecules delivered into the blood circulation. The results unambiguously showed that facilitation of AQP-4 by TGN-073 increased turnover of interstitial fluid through the system, resulting in a significant reduction in [O]H2O contents of cortex with normal flux into the cerebrospinal fluid. The study further suggested that in addition to providing the necessary water for proper glymphatic flow, the AQP-4 system produces a water gradient within the interstitial space promoting circulation of interstitial fluid within the BBB.

  10. Cumulative soil water evaporation as a function of depth and time (United States)

    Soil water evaporation is an important component of the surface water balance and the surface energy balance. Accurate and dynamic measurements of soil water evaporation enhance the understanding of water and energy partitioning at the land-atmosphere interface. The objective of this study is to mea...

  11. Water-stability of soil aggregates in relation to selected properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mbagwu, J.S.C.; Bazzoffi, P.; Unamba Oparah, I.


    The stability of soil aggregates in water is an important soil physical property for evaluating the potential of agricultural soils to erode and elucidating the mechanisms of soil erosion. In this study we used aggregates from 15 surface soil samples in Italy to evaluate the influence of intrinsic soil physical, chemical and mineralogical properties on aggregates stability (AS). The aim was to develop a model for predicting AS from a subset of these soil properties. The index of stability used is the mean-weight diameter of water-stable aggregates (MWD). The model developed with soil physical properties alone explained just 42% of variance in MWD and predicted AS in only 20% of test soils. The model developed with mineralogical properties alone explained 70% of variance in MWD and predicted AS in 60% of the test soils. The chemical properties - based model explained 90% of variance in MWD and predicted AS in 80% of the test soils. The best-fit model was developed with soil properties from the physical, chemical and mineralogical subsets. It explained 98% of variance in MWD and predicted AS in 100% of the test soils. This model shows that the most important soil properties which influence the AS of these soils include ratio of total sand to clay, concentrations of iron oxide, magnesium oxide, organic matter, silica/alumina ratio, chlorite, feldspar and muscovite. This indicates that fairly good estimates of the relative stability of these aggregates in water and hence of their potential to erode, requires a knowledge of the physico-chemical and mineralogical properties. (author). 40 refs, 4 tabs

  12. Mini Tensiometer-Time Domain Reflectometry Coil Probe for Measuring Soil Water Retention Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Subedi, Shaphal; Kawamoto, Ken; Karunarathna, Anurudda Kumara


    Time domain reflectometry (TDR) is used widely for measuring soil-water content. New TDR coil probe technology facilitates the development of small, nondestructive probes for simultaneous measurement of soil-water content (θ) and soil-water potential (ψ). In this study we developed mini tensiomet...... between measured soil-water retention curves (ψ > –100 cm H2O) by the new T-TDR coil probes and independent measurements by the hanging water column method....

  13. Spatio-temporal variability of soil water content on the local scale in a Mediterranean mountain area (Vallcebre, North Eastern Spain). How different spatio-temporal scales reflect mean soil water content (United States)

    Molina, Antonio J.; Latron, Jérôme; Rubio, Carles M.; Gallart, Francesc; Llorens, Pilar


    As a result of complex human-land interactions and topographic variability, many Mediterranean mountain catchments are covered by agricultural terraces that have locally modified the soil water content dynamic. Understanding these local-scale dynamics helps us grasp better how hydrology behaves on the catchment scale. Thus, this study examined soil water content variability in the upper 30 cm of the soil on a Mediterranean abandoned terrace in north-east Spain. Using a dataset of high spatial (regular grid of 128 automatic TDR probes at 2.5 m intervals) and temporal (20-min time step) resolution, gathered throughout a 84-day period, the spatio-temporal variability of soil water content at the local scale and the way that different spatio-temporal scales reflect the mean soil water content were investigated. Soil water content spatial variability and its relation to wetness conditions were examined, along with the spatial structuring of the soil water content within the terrace. Then, the ability of single probes and of different combinations of spatial measurements (transects and grids) to provide a good estimate of mean soil water content on the terrace scale was explored by means of temporal stability analyses. Finally, the effect of monitoring frequency on the magnitude of detectable daily soil water content variations was studied. Results showed that soil water content spatial variability followed a bimodal pattern of increasing absolute variability with increasing soil water content. In addition, a linear trend of decreasing soil water content as the distance from the inner part of the terrace increased was identified. Once this trend was subtracted, resulting semi-variograms suggested that the spatial resolution examined was too high to appreciate spatial structuring in the data. Thus, the spatial pattern should be considered as random. Of all the spatial designs tested, the 10 × 10 m mesh grid (9 probes) was considered the most suitable option for a good

  14. Soil water repellency in north-eastern Greece with adverse effects of drying on the persistence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ziogas, A.K.; Dekker, L.W.; Oostindie, K.; Ritsema, C.J.


    Many soils may be water repellent to some degree, challenging the common perception that soil water repellency is only an interesting aberration. When dry, water repellent soils resist or retard water infiltration into the soil matrix. Soil water repellency often leads to the development of unstable

  15. The influence of stony soil properties on water dynamics modeled by the HYDRUS model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hlaváčiková Hana


    Full Text Available Stony soils are composed of two fractions (rock fragments and fine soil with different hydrophysical characteristics. Although stony soils are abundant in many catchments, their properties are still not well understood. This manuscript presents an application of the simple methodology for deriving water retention properties of stony soils, taking into account a correction for the soil stoniness. Variations in the water retention of the fine soil fraction and its impact on both the soil water storage and the bottom boundary fluxes are studied as well. The deterministic water flow model HYDRUS-1D is used in the study. The results indicate that the presence of rock fragments in a moderate-to-high stony soil can decrease the soil water storage by 23% or more and affect the soil water dynamics. Simulated bottom fluxes increased or decreased faster, and their maxima during the wet period were larger in the stony soil compared to the non-stony one.

  16. Mapping regional soil water erosion risk in the Brittany-Loire basin for water management agency (United States)

    Degan, Francesca; Cerdan, Olivier; Salvador-Blanes, Sébastien; Gautier, Jean-Noël


    Soil water erosion is one of the main degradation processes that affect soils through the removal of soil particles from the surface. The impacts for environment and agricultural areas are diverse, such as water pollution, crop yield depression, organic matter loss and reduction in water storage capacity. There is therefore a strong need to produce maps at the regional scale to help environmental policy makers and soil and water management bodies to mitigate the effect of water and soil pollution. Our approach aims to model and map soil erosion risk at regional scale (155 000 km²) and high spatial resolution (50 m) in the Brittany - Loire basin. The factors responsible for soil erosion are different according to the spatial and time scales considered. The regional scale entails challenges about homogeneous data sets availability, spatial resolution of results, various erosion processes and agricultural practices. We chose to improve the MESALES model (Le Bissonnais et al., 2002) to map soil erosion risk, because it was developed specifically for water erosion in agricultural fields in temperate areas. The MESALES model consists in a decision tree which gives for each combination of factors the corresponding class of soil erosion risk. Four factors that determine soil erosion risk are considered: soils, land cover, climate and topography. The first main improvement of the model consists in using newly available datasets that are more accurate than the initial ones. The datasets used cover all the study area homogeneously. Soil dataset has a 1/1 000 000 scale and attributes such as texture, soil type, rock fragment and parent material are used. The climate dataset has a spatial resolution of 8 km and a temporal resolution of mm/day for 12 years. Elevation dataset has a spatial resolution of 50 m. Three different land cover datasets are used where the finest spatial resolution is 50 m over three years. Using these datasets, four erosion factors are characterized and

  17. The soil water balance in a mosaic of clumped vegetation (United States)

    Pizzolla, Teresa; Manfreda, Salvatore; Caylor, Kelly; Gioia, Andrea; Iacobellis, Vito


    The spatio-temporal distribution of soil moisture influences the plant growth and the distribution of terrestrial vegetation. This effect is more evident in arid and semiarid ecosystems where the interaction between individuals and the water limited conditions play a fundamental role, providing environmental conditions which drive a variety of non-linear ecohydrological response functions (such as transpiration, photosynthesis, leakage). In this context, modeling vegetation patterns at multiple spatial aggregation scales is important to understand how different vegetation structures can modify the soil water distribution and the exchanged fluxes between soil and atmosphere. In the present paper, the effect of different spatial vegetation patterns, under different climatic scenarios, is investigated in a patchy vegetation mosaic generated by a random process of individual tree canopies and their accompanying root system. Vegetation pattern are generated using the mathematical framework proposed by Caylor et al. (2006) characterized by a three dimensional stochastic vegetation structure, based on the density, dispersion, size distribution, and allometry of individuals within a landscape. A Poisson distribution is applied to generate different distribution of individuals paying particular attention on the role of clumping on water distribution dynamics. The soil water balance is evaluated using the analytical expression proposed by Laio et al. (2001) to explore the influence of climate and vegetation patterns on soil water balance steady-state components (such as the average rates of evaporation, the root water uptake and leakage) and on the stress-weighted plant water uptake. Results of numerical simulations show that clumping may be beneficial for water use efficiency at the landscape scale. References Caylor, Kelly K., P. D'Odorico and I. Rodriguez Iturbe: On the ecohydrology of structurally heterogeneous semiarid landscape. Water Resour. Res., 28, W07424, 2006

  18. Evidence for soil water control on carbon and water dynamics in European forests during the extremely dry year: 2003

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granier, A.; Reichstein, M.; Breda, N.


    stand to estimate the water balance terms: trees and understorey transpiration, rainfall interception, throughfall, drainage in the different soil layers and soil water content. This model calculated the onset date, duration and intensity of the soil water shortage (called water stress) using measured...... measured and modelled soil water content. Our analysis showed a wide spatial distribution of drought stress over Europe, with a maximum intensity within a large band extending from Portugal to NE Germany. Vapour fluxes in all the investigated sites were reduced by drought, due to stomatal closure, when...... the relative extractable water in soil (REW) dropped below ca. 0.4. Rainfall events during the drought, however, typically induced rapid restoration of vapour fluxes. Similar to the water vapour fluxes, the net ecosystem production decreased with increasing water stress at all the sites. Both gross primary...

  19. Cadmium accumulation in soils caused by contaminated irrigation water in relation to safety level of enviromental water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, H; Iimura, K


    Adsorption of cadmium on the soil from irrigation water contaminated by human production activites were investigated. Both in the equilibrium and column experiments, the soils adsorbed more than 90 per cent of cadmium from the water containing 0.01 ppm cadmium and 18 or 300 ppm calcium. The amounts of cadmium adsorbed by the soils in the equilibrium experiments increased with the increasing concentrations (0.001-10 ppm) in accordance with the Freundlich's adsorption formula, the indices of which were near unity. In column experiments, the proportions of cadmium adsorbed by the soils from the water containing 0.01 ppm cadmium and 18 ppm calcium were equal to or more than those of calcium. It was estimated that if the water containing 0.01 ppm cadmium, that is the safety level of environmental water for human health by WHO and adopted as the permissible concentration by the Japanese Government, were irrigated in paddy fields, cadmium contents of the soils would exceed 1 ppm within a few years. Furthermore, on some of those contaminated soils, brown rice containing more than 1 ppm cadmium, that is the permissible concentration in brown rice authorised by the Japanese Government, will be produced. From the viewpoint of soil conservation from contamination, it is suggested that the permissible concentration of cadmium in the environment water should be lowered to at least one tenth of the present level. The exchange equilibriums in the soils between Cd and Ca and Cd and Na were discussed.

  20. The behavior of interstitials in irradiated graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedraza, D.F.


    A computer model is developed to simulate the behavior of self-interstitials with particular attention to clustering. Owing to the layer structure of graphite, atomistic simulations can be performed using a large parallelepipedic supercell containing a few layers. In particular, interstitial clustering is studied here using a supercell that contains two basal planes only. Frenkel pairs are randomly produced. Interstitials are placed at sites between the crystal planes while vacancies are distributed in the two crystal planes. The size of the computational cell is 20000 atoms and periodic boundary conditions are used in two dimensions. Vacancies are assumed immobile whereas interstitials are given a certain mobility. Two point defect sinks are considered, direct recombination of Frenkel pairs and interstitial clusters. The clusters are assumed to be mobile up to a certain size where they are presumed to become loop nuclei. Clusters can shrink by emission of singly bonded interstitials or by recombination of a peripheral interstitial with a neighboring vacancy. The conditions under which interstitial clustering occurs are reported. It is shown that when clustering occurs the cluster size population gradually shifts towards the largest size cluster. The implications of the present results for irradiation growth and irradiation-induced amorphization are discussed

  1. Modeling the effects of different irrigation water salinity on soil water movement, uptake and multicomponent solute transport (United States)

    Lekakis, E. H.; Antonopoulos, V. Z.


    Simulation models can be important tools for analyzing and managing irrigation, soil salinization or crop production problems. In this study a mathematical model that describes the water movement and mass transport of individual ions (Ca2+, Mg2+ and Na+) and overall soil salinity by means of the soil solution electrical conductivity, is used. The mass transport equations of Ca2+, Mg2+ and Na+ have been incorporated as part of the integrated model WANISIM and the soil salinity was computed as the sum of individual ions. The model was calibrated and validated against field data, collected during a three year experiment in plots of maize, irrigated with three different irrigation water qualities, at Thessaloniki area in Northern Greece. The model was also used to evaluate salinization and sodification hazards by the use of irrigation water with increasing electrical conductivity of 0.8, 3.2 and 6.4 dS m-1, while maintaining a ratio of Ca2+:Mg2+:Na+ equal to 3:3:2. The qualitative and quantitative procedures for results evaluation showed that there was good agreement between the simulated and measured values of the water content, overall salinity and the concentration of individual soluble cations, at two soil layers (0-35 and 35-75 cm). Nutrient uptake was also taken into account. Locally available irrigation water (ECiw = 0.8 dS m-1) did not cause soil salinization or sodification. On the other hand, irrigation water with ECiw equal to 3.2 and 6.4 dS m-1 caused severe soil salinization, but not sodification. The rainfall water during the winter seasons was not sufficient to leach salts below the soil profile of 110 cm. The modified version of model WANISIM is able to predict the effects of irrigation with saline waters on soil and plant growth and it is suitable for irrigation management in areas with scarce and low quality water resources.

  2. Ground cover influence on evaporation and stable water isotopes in soil water (United States)

    Magdalena Warter, Maria; Jiménez-Rodríguez, Cesar D.; Coenders-Gerrits, Miriam; Teuling, Adriaan J. Ryan


    Forest ecosystems are characterized by complex structures which influence hydrological processes such as evaporation. The vertical stratification of the forest modifies the effect of the evaporation process due to the composition and local distribution of species within the forest. The evaluation of it will improve the understanding of evaporation in forest ecosystems. To determine the influence of forest understory on the fractionation front, four ground cover types were selected from the Speulderbos forest in the Netherlands. The native species of Thamariskmoss (Thuidium thamariscinum), Rough Stalked Feathermoss (Brachythecium rutabulum), and Haircapmoss (Polytrichum commune) as well as one type of litter made up of Douglas-Fir needles (Pseudotsuga menziesii) were used to analyse the rate of evaporation and changes on the isotopic concentration of the soil water on an in-situ basis in a controlled environment. Over a period of 4 weeks soil water content and atmospheric conditions were continuously measured, while the rainfall simulations were performed with different amounts and timings. The reference water added to the boxes keeps a stable composition along the trial period with a δ ^2H value of -42.59±1.15 \\permil} and δ 18O of -6.01±0.21 \\permil}. The evaporation front in the four ground covers is located between 5 and 10 cm depth and deuterium excess values are bigger than 5 \\permil. The litter layer of Douglas-Fir needles is the cover with higher fractionation in respect to the added water at 10 cm depth (δ ^2H: -29.79 \\permil), while the Haircapmoss keeps the lower fractionation rate at 5 cm and 10 cm (δ ^2H: -33.62 and δ ^2H: -35.34 \\permil). The differences showed by the soil water beneath the different ground covers depict the influence of ground cover on fractionation rates of the soil water, underlining the importance of the spatial heterogeneity of the evaporation front in the first 15 cm of soil.

  3. Seasonal change in precipitation, snowpack, snowmelt, soil water and streamwater chemistry, northern Michigan (United States)

    Stottlemyer, R.; Toczydlowski, D.


    We have studied weekly precipitation, snowpack, snowmelt, soil water and streamwater chemistry throughout winter for over a decade in a small (176 ha) northern Michigan watershed with high snowfall and vegetated by 60 to 80 year-old northern hardwoods. In this paper, we examine physical, chemical, and biological processes responsible for observed seasonal change in streamwater chemistry based upon intensive study during winter 1996-1997. The objective was to define the contributions made to winter and spring streamwater chemical concentration and flux by processes as snowmelt, over-winter forest floor and surface soil mineralization, immobilization, and exchange, and subsurface flowpath. The forest floor and soil were unfrozen beneath the snowpack which permitted most snowmelt to enter. Over-winter soil mineralization and other biological processes maintain shallow subsurface ion and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) reservoirs. Small, but steady, snowmelt throughout winter removed readily mobilized soil NO3- which resulted in high over-winter streamwater concentrations but little flux. Winter soil water levels and flowpaths were generally deep which increased soil water and streamwater base cation (C(B)), HCO3-, and Si concentrations. Spring snowmelt increased soil water levels and removal of ions and DOC from the biologically active forest floor and shallow soils. The snowpack solute content was a minor component in determining streamwater ion concentration or flux during and following peak snowmelt. Exchangeable ions, weakly adsorbed anions, and DOC in the forest floor and surface soils dominated the chemical concentration and flux in soil water and streamwater. Following peak snowmelt, soil microbial immobilization and rapidly increased plant uptake of limiting nutrients removed nearly all available nitrogen from soil water and streamwater. During the growing season high evapotranspiration increased subsurface flowpath depth which in turn removed weathering

  4. A Simple Beta-Function Model for Soil-Water Repellency as a Function of Water and Organic Carbon Contents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karunarathna, Anurudda Kumara; Kawamoto, Ken; Møldrup, Per


    Soil-water content (θ) and soil organic carbon (SOC) are key factors controlling the occurrence and magnitude of soil-water repellency (WR). Although expressions have recently been proposed to describe the nonlinear variation of WR with θ, the inclusion of easily measurable parameters in predictive...... conditions for 19 soils were used to test the model. The beta function successfully reproduced all the measured soil-water repellency characteristic, α(θ), curves. Significant correlations were found between model parameters and SOC content (1%-14%). The model was independently tested against data...

  5. Interstitial Cells of Blood Vessels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír Pucovský


    Full Text Available Blood vessels are made up of several distinct cell types. Although it was originally thought that the tunica media of blood vessels was composed of a homogeneous population of fully differentiated smooth muscle cells, more recent data suggest the existence of multiple smooth muscle cell subpopulations in the vascular wall. One of the cell types contributing to this heterogeneity is the novel, irregularly shaped, noncontractile cell with thin processes, termed interstitial cell, found in the tunica media of both veins and arteries. While the principal role of interstitial cells in veins seems to be pacemaking, the role of arterial interstitial cells is less clear. This review summarises the knowledge of the functional and structural properties of vascular interstitial cells accumulated so far, offers hypotheses on their physiological role, and proposes directions for future research.

  6. Improved Instrument for Detecting Water and Ice in Soil (United States)

    Buehler, Martin; Chin, Keith; Keymeulen, Didler; McCann, Timothy; Seshadri, Suesh; Anderson, Robert


    An instrument measures electrical properties of relatively dry soils to determine their liquid water and/or ice contents. Designed as a prototype of instruments for measuring the liquid-water and ice contents of lunar and planetary soils, the apparatus could also be utilized for similar purposes in research and agriculture involving terrestrial desert soils and sands, and perhaps for measuring ice buildup on aircraft surfaces. This instrument is an improved version of the apparatus described in Measuring Low Concentrations of Liquid Water and Ice in Soil (NPO-41822), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 33, No. 2 (February 2009), page 22. The designs of both versions are based on the fact that the electrical behavior of a typical soil sample is well approximated by a network of resistors and capacitors in which resistances decrease and capacitances increase (and the magnitude and phase angle of impedance changes accordingly) with increasing water content. The previous version included an impedance spectrometer and a jar into which a sample of soil was placed. Four stainless-steel screws at the bottom of the jar were used as electrodes of a fourpoint impedance probe connected to the spectrometer. The present instrument does not include a sample jar and can be operated without acquiring or handling samples. Its impedance probe consists of a compact assembly of electrodes housed near the tip of a cylinder. The electrodes protrude slightly from the cylinder (see Figure 1). In preparation for measurements, the cylinder is simply pushed into the ground to bring the soil into contact with the electrodes.

  7. Untangle soil-water-mucilage interactions: 1H NMR Relaxometry is lifting the veil (United States)

    Brax, Mathilde; Buchmann, Christian; Schaumann, Gabriele Ellen


    Mucilage is mainly produced at the root tips and has a high water holding capacity derived from highly hydrophilic gel-forming substances. The objective of the MUCILAGE project is to understand the mechanistic role of mucilage for the regulation of water supply for plants. Our subproject investigates the chemical and physical properties of mucilage as pure gel and mixed with soil. 1H-NMR Relaxometry and PFG NMR represent non-intrusive powerful methods for soil scientific research by allowing quantification of the water distribution as well as monitoring of the water mobility in soil pores and gel phases.Relaxation of gel water differs from the one of pure water due to additional interactions with the gel matrix. Mucilage in soil leads to a hierarchical pore structure, consisting of the polymeric biohydrogel network surrounded by the surface of soil particles. The two types of relaxation rates 1/T1 and 1/T2 measured with 1H-NMR relaxometry refer to different relaxation mechanisms of water, while PFG-NMR measures the water self-diffusion coefficient. The objective of our study is to distinguish in situ water in gel from pore water in a simplified soil system, and to determine how the "gel effect" affects both relaxation rates and the water self-diffusion coefficient in porous systems. We demonstrate how the mucilage concentration and the soil solution alter the properties of water in the respective gel phases and pore systems in model soils. To distinguish gel-inherent processes from classical processes, we investigated the variations of the water mobility in pure chia mucilage under different conditions by using 1H-NMR relaxometry and PFG NMR. Using model soils, the signals coming from pore water and gel water were differentiated. We combined the equations describing 1H-NMR relaxation in porous systems and our experimental results, to explain how the presence of gel in soil affects 1H-NMR relaxation. Out of this knowledge we propose a method, which determines in

  8. Soil-water contact angle of some soils of the Russian Plane (United States)

    Bykova, Galina; Tyugai, Zemfira; Milanovskiy, Evgeny; Shein, Evgeny


    INTRODUCTION Soil wettability affects the aggregate water resistance, the movement of moisture and dissolved substances, preferential flows, etc. There are many factors affecting the soil's wettability (the content of organic matter (OM), soil's mineralogical composition, particle size distribution), so it can reflect changes in the soil, including results of human impact. The quantitative characteristic of soil wettability is a contact angle (CA), its measurement is a new and difficult problem because of the complexity, heterogeneity and polydispersity of the object of investigation. The aim of this work is to study soil-water CA of some soils of the Russian Plane. MATERIALS AND METHODS The objects of study were sod-podzolic (Umbric Albeluvisols Abruptic, Eutric Podzoluvisols), grey forest non-podzolised (Greyic Phaeozems Albic, Haplic Greyzems), typical Chernozems (Voronic Chernozems pachic, Haplic Chernozems) - profiles under the forest and the arable land, and the chestnut (Haplic Kastanozems Chromic, Haplic Kastanozems) soils. The CA's determination was performed by a Drop Shape Analyzer DSA100 by the static sessile drop method. For all samples was determined the content of total and organic carbon (OC and TC) by dry combustion in oxygen flow. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION There is CA increasing from 85,1° (5 cm) to 40-45° (deeper, than 45 cm) in the sod-podzolic soil; OC content is changed at the same depths from 1,44 to 0.22%. We can see the similar picture in profiles of chernozems. In the forest profile the highest OC content and CA value are achieved on the surface of profile (6,41% and 78,1°), and by 90 cm these values are 1.9% and 50.2°. In the chernozem under the arable land the OC content is almost two times less and the profile is more wettable (from 50° to 19° at 5 and 100 cm). Corresponding with the OC content, the curve describing changes of CA in the profile of grey forest soil is S-shaped with peaks at 20 and 150 cm (81,3° and 70° respectively

  9. Modeling Water Pollution of Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Doležel


    Full Text Available The government of the Czech Republic decided that in the location to the west of Prague, capital city of the Czech Republic, some deep mines should be closed because of their low efficiency of coal mined i.e. small amounts and low quality of the coal extracted in the final stage of mining. The locations near Prague influenced the decision to do maintenance on the abandoned mines, as the thread of soil pollution was unacceptably high in the neighborhood of the capital city. Before the mines were closed it was necessary to separate existed extensive horizontal location of salt water below a clay layer in order not to deteriorate the upper fresh water. The salt water could not be allowed to pollute the upper layer with the fresh water, as many wells in villages in the neighborhood of the former mines would be contaminated. Two horizontal clay layers (an insulator and a semi-insulator separated the two horizons containing salt water and fresh water. Before starting deep mining, vertical shafts had to be constructed with concrete linings to enable the miners to access the depths. The salt water was draining away throughout the existence of the mine. The drainage was designed very carefully to avoid possible infiltration of salt water into the upper horizon. Before the mines were abandoned it was necessary to prevent contact between the two kinds of waters in the shafts. Several options were put forward, the most efficient of which appeared to be one that proposed filling the shafts with spoil soil and creating a joint seal made of disparate material at the interface between the salt water and fresh water to create a reliable stopper. The material for the spoil soil was delivered from deposits located not far from the shafts. This material consisted of a variety of grains of sand, big boulders of slate, slaty clay, sandstone, etc.. Chemical admixtures were considered to improve the flocculation of the filling material. The stopper was positioned at a

  10. Flux-gradient relationships and soil-water diffusivity from curves of water content versus time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nofziger, D.L.; Ahuja, L.R.; Swartzendruber, D.

    Direct analysis of a family of curves of soil-water content vs. time at different fixed positions enables assessment of the flux-gradient relationship prior to the calculations of soil-water diffusivity. The method is evaluated on both smooth and random-error data generated from the solution of the horizontal soil-water intake problem with a known diffusivity function. Interpolation, differentiation, and intergration are carried out by least-squares curve fitting based on the 2 recently developed techniques of parabolic splines and sliding parabolas, with all computations performed by computer. Results are excellent for both smooth and random-error input data, whether in terms of recovering the original known diffusivity function, assessing the nature of the flux-gradient relationship, or in making the numerous checks and validations at various intermediate stages of computation. The method applies for any horizontal soil-wetting process independently of the specific boundary conditions, including water entry through a nonzero inlet resistance. It should be adaptable to horizontal dewatering, and extendable to vertical flow. (11 refs.)

  11. Chemical dynamics of acidity and heavy metals in a mine water-polluted soil during decontamination using clean water. (United States)

    Chen, A; Lin, C; Lu, W; Ma, Y; Bai, Y; Chen, H; Li, J


    A column leaching experiment was conducted to investigate the chemical dynamics of the percolating water and washed soil during decontamination of an acidic mine water-polluted soil. The results show that leaching of the contaminated soil with clean water rapidly reduced soluble acidity and ion concentrations in the soils. However, only soil column was eliminated after 30 leaching cycles. It is likely that the stored acidity continues to be released to the percolating water over a long period of time. During the column leaching, dissolved Cu and Pb were rapidly leached out, followed by mobilization of colloidal Cu and Pb from the exchangeable and the oxide-bound fractions as a result of reduced ionic strength in the soil solution. The soluble Fe contained in the soil was rare, probably because the soil pH was not sufficiently low; marked mobility of colloidal Fe took place after the ionic strength of the percolating water was weakened and the mobilized Fe was mainly derived from iron oxides. In contrast with Cu, Pb and Fe, the concentration of leachate Zn and Mn showed a continuously decreasing trend during the entire period of the experiment. (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Water retention of repellent and subcritical repellent soils: New insights from model and experimental investigations (United States)

    Czachor, H.; Doerr, S. H.; Lichner, L.


    SummarySoil organic matter can modify the surface properties of the soil mineral phase by changing the surface tension of the mineral surfaces. This modifies the soil's solid-water contact angle, which in turn would be expected to affect its water retention curve (SWRC). Here we model the impact of differences in the soil pore-water contact angle on capillarity in non-cylindrical pores by accounting for their complex pore geometry. Key outcomes from the model include that (i) available methods for measuring the Young's wetting angle on soil samples are insufficient in representing the wetting angle in the soil pore space, (ii) the wetting branch of water retention curves is strongly affected by the soil pore-water contact angle, as manifest in the wetting behavior of water repellent soils, (iii) effects for the drying branch are minimal, indicating that both wettable and water repellent soils should behave similarly, and (vi) water retention is a feature not of only wettable soils, but also soils that are in a water repellent state. These results are tested experimentally by determining drying and wetting branches for (a) 'model soil' (quartz sands with four hydrophobization levels) and (b) five field soil samples with contrasting wettability, which were used with and without the removal of the soil organic matter. The experimental results support the theoretical predictions and indicate that small changes in wetting angle can cause switches between wettable and water repellent soil behavior. This may explain the common observation that relatively small changes in soil water content can cause substantial changes in soil wettability.

  13. Intensified Vegetation Water Use due to Soil Calcium Leaching under Acid Deposition (United States)

    Lanning, M.; Wang, L.; Scanlon, T. M.; Vadeboncoeur, M. A.; Adams, M. B.; Epstein, H. E.; Druckenbrod, D.


    Despite the important role vegetation plays in the global water cycle, the exact controls of vegetation water use, especially the role of soil biogeochemistry, remain elusive. Nitrate and sulfate deposition from fossil fuel burning has caused significant soil acidification, leading to the leaching of soil base cations. From a physiological perspective, plants require various soil cations as signaling and regulatory ions as well as integral parts of structural molecules; a depletion of soil cations can cause reduced productivity and abnormal responses to environmental change. A deficiency in calcium could also potentially prolong stomatal opening, leading to increased transpiration until enough calcium had been acquired to stimulate stomatal closure. Based on the plant physiology and the nature of acidic deposition, we hypothesize that depletion of the soil calcium supply, induced by acid deposition, would intensify vegetation water use at the watershed scale. We tested this hypothesis by analyzing a long-term and unique data set (1989-2012) of soil lysimeter data along with stream flow and evapotranspiration data at the Fernow Experimental Forest. We show that depletion of soil calcium by acid deposition can intensify vegetation water use ( 10% increase in evapotranspiration and depletion in soil water) for the first time. These results are critical to understanding future water availability, biogeochemical cycles, and surficial energy flux and may help reduce uncertainties in terrestrial biosphere models.

  14. PCR detection of Burkholderia multivorans in water and soil samples. (United States)

    Peeters, Charlotte; Daenekindt, Stijn; Vandamme, Peter


    Although semi-selective growth media have been developed for the isolation of Burkholderia cepacia complex bacteria from the environment, thus far Burkholderia multivorans has rarely been isolated from such samples. Because environmental B. multivorans isolates mainly originate from water samples, we hypothesized that water rather than soil is its most likely environmental niche. The aim of the present study was to assess the occurrence of B. multivorans in water samples from Flanders (Belgium) using a fast, culture-independent PCR assay. A nested PCR approach was used to achieve high sensitivity, and specificity was confirmed by sequencing the resulting amplicons. B. multivorans was detected in 11 % of the water samples (n = 112) and 92 % of the soil samples (n = 25) tested. The percentage of false positives was higher for water samples compared to soil samples, showing that the presently available B. multivorans recA primers lack specificity when applied to the analysis of water samples. The results of the present study demonstrate that B. multivorans DNA is commonly present in soil samples and to a lesser extent in water samples in Flanders (Belgium).

  15. Water retention and availability in soils of the State of Santa Catarina-Brazil: effect of textural classes, soil classes and lithology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André da Costa


    Full Text Available The retention and availability of water in the soil vary according to the soil characteristics and determine plant growth. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate water retention and availability in the soils of the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil, according to the textural class, soil class and lithology. The surface and subsurface horizons of 44 profiles were sampled in different regions of the State and different cover crops to determine field capacity, permanent wilting point, available water content, particle size, and organic matter content. Water retention and availability between the horizons were compared in a mixed model, considering the textural classes, the soil classes and lithology as fixed factors and profiles as random factors. It may be concluded that water retention is greater in silty or clayey soils and that the organic matter content is higher, especially in Humic Cambisols, Nitisols and Ferralsol developed from igneous or sedimentary rocks. Water availability is greater in loam-textured soils, with high organic matter content, especially in soils of humic character. It is lower in the sandy texture class, especially in Arenosols formed from recent alluvial deposits or in gravelly soils derived from granite. The greater water availability in the surface horizons, with more organic matter than in the subsurface layers, illustrates the importance of organic matter for water retention and availability.

  16. Application of minidisk infiltrometer to estimate soil water repellency (United States)

    Alagna, Vincenzo; Iovino, Massimo; Bagarello, Vincenzo; Mataix-Solera, Jorge; Lichner, Ľubomír


    Soil water repellency (SWR) reduces affinity of soils to water resulting in detrimental implication for plants growth as well as for hydrological processes. During the last decades, it has become clear that SWR is much more widespread than formerly thought, having been reported for a wide variety of soils, land uses and climatic conditions. The repellency index (RI), based on soil-water to soil-ethanol sorptivity ratio, was proposed to characterize subcritical SWR that is the situation where a low degree of repellency impedes infiltration but does not prevent it. The minidisk infiltrometer allows adequate field assessment of RI inherently scaled to account for soil physical properties other than hydrophobicity (e.g., the volume, connectivity and the geometry of pores) that directly influence the hydrological processes. There are however some issues that still need consideration. For example, use of a fixed time for both water and ethanol sorptivity estimation may lead to inaccurate RI values given that water infiltration could be negligible whereas ethanol sorptivity could be overestimated due to influence of gravity and lateral diffusion that rapidly come into play when the infiltration process is very fast. Moreover, water and ethanol sorptivity values need to be determined at different infiltration sites thus implying that a large number of replicated runs should be carried out to obtain a reliable estimate of RI for a given area. Minidisk infiltrometer tests, conducted under different initial soil moisture and management conditions in the experimental sites of Ciavolo, Trapani (Italy) and Javea, Alicante (East Spain), were used to investigate the best applicative procedure to estimate RI. In particular, different techniques to estimate the water, Sw, and ethanol, Se, sorptivities were compared including i) a fixed 1-min time interval, ii) the slope of early-time 1D infiltration equation and iii) the two-term transient 3D infiltration equation that explicitly

  17. Soil water sensing: Implications of sensor capabilities for variable rate irrigation management (United States)

    Irrigation scheduling using soil water sensors aims at maintaining the soil water content in the crop root zone above a lower limit defined by the management allowed depletion (MAD) for that soil and crop, but not so wet that too much water is lost to deep percolation, evaporation and runoff or that...

  18. 26 CFR 1.175-2 - Definition of soil and water conservation expenditures. (United States)


    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definition of soil and water conservation... (continued) § 1.175-2 Definition of soil and water conservation expenditures. (a) Expenditures treated as a... of soil or water conservation in respect of land used in farming, or for the prevention of erosion of...

  19. Water Use Efficiency in Saline Soils under Cotton Cultivation in the Tarim River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoning Zhao


    Full Text Available The Tarim River Basin, the largest area of Chinese cotton production, is receiving increased attention because of serious environmental problems. At two experimental stations (Korla and Aksu, we studied the influence of salinity on cotton yield. Soil chemical and physical properties, soil water content, soil total suction and matric suction, cotton yield and water use efficiency under plastic mulched drip irrigation in different saline soils was measured during cotton growth season. The salinity (mS·cm−1 were 17–25 (low at Aksu and Korla, 29–50 (middle at Aksu and 52–62 (high at Aksu for ECe (Electrical conductivity measured in saturation-paste extract of soil over the 100 cm soil profile. The soil water characteristic curves in different saline soils showed that the soil water content (15%–23% at top 40 cm soil, lower total suction power (below 3500 kPa and lower matric suction (below 30 kPa in low saline soil at Korla had the highest water use efficiency (10 kg·ha−1·mm−1 and highest irrigation water use efficiency (12 kg·ha−1·mm−1 and highest yield (6.64 t·ha−1. Higher water content below 30 cm in high saline soil increased the salinity risk and led to lower yield (2.39 t·ha−1. Compared to low saline soils at Aksu, the low saline soil at Korla saved 110 mm irrigation and 103 mm total water to reach 1 t·ha−1 yield and increased water use efficiency by 5 kg·ha−1·mm−1 and 7 kg·ha−1·mm−1 for water use efficiency (WUE and irrigation water use efficiency (IWUE respectively.

  20. Differential effects of fine root morphology on water dynamics in the root-soil interface (United States)

    DeCarlo, K. F.; Bilheux, H.; Warren, J.


    Soil water uptake form plants, particularly in the rhizosphere, is a poorly understood question in the plant and soil sciences. Our study analyzed the role of belowground plant morphology on soil structural and water dynamics of 5 different plant species (juniper, grape, maize, poplar, maple), grown in sandy soils. Of these, the poplar system was extended to capture drying dynamics. Neutron radiography was used to characterize in-situ dynamics of the soil-water-plant system. A joint map of root morphology and soil moisture was created for the plant systems using digital image processing, where soil pixels were connected to associated root structures via minimum distance transforms. Results show interspecies emergent behavior - a sigmoidal relationship was observed between root diameter and bulk/rhizosphere soil water content difference. Extending this as a proxy for extent of rhizosphere development with root age, we observed a logistic growth pattern for the rhizosphere: minimal development in the early stages is superceded by rapid onset of rhizosphere formation, which then stabilizes/decays with the likely root suberization. Dynamics analysis of water content differences between the root/rhizosphere, and rhizosphere/bulk soil interface highlight the persistently higher water content in the root at all water content and root size ranges. At the rhizosphere/bulk soil interface, we observe a shift in soil water dynamics by root size: in super fine roots, we observe that water content is primarily lower in the rhizosphere under wetter conditions, which then gradually increases to a relatively higher water content under drier conditions. This shifts to a persistently higher rhizosphere water content relative to bulk soil in both wet/dry conditions with increased root size, suggesting that, by size, the finest root structures may contribute the most to total soil water uptake in plants.

  1. An efficient soil water balance model based on hybrid numerical and statistical methods (United States)

    Mao, Wei; Yang, Jinzhong; Zhu, Yan; Ye, Ming; Liu, Zhao; Wu, Jingwei


    Most soil water balance models only consider downward soil water movement driven by gravitational potential, and thus cannot simulate upward soil water movement driven by evapotranspiration especially in agricultural areas. In addition, the models cannot be used for simulating soil water movement in heterogeneous soils, and usually require many empirical parameters. To resolve these problems, this study derives a new one-dimensional water balance model for simulating both downward and upward soil water movement in heterogeneous unsaturated zones. The new model is based on a hybrid of numerical and statistical methods, and only requires four physical parameters. The model uses three governing equations to consider three terms that impact soil water movement, including the advective term driven by gravitational potential, the source/sink term driven by external forces (e.g., evapotranspiration), and the diffusive term driven by matric potential. The three governing equations are solved separately by using the hybrid numerical and statistical methods (e.g., linear regression method) that consider soil heterogeneity. The four soil hydraulic parameters required by the new models are as follows: saturated hydraulic conductivity, saturated water content, field capacity, and residual water content. The strength and weakness of the new model are evaluated by using two published studies, three hypothetical examples and a real-world application. The evaluation is performed by comparing the simulation results of the new model with corresponding results presented in the published studies, obtained using HYDRUS-1D and observation data. The evaluation indicates that the new model is accurate and efficient for simulating upward soil water flow in heterogeneous soils with complex boundary conditions. The new model is used for evaluating different drainage functions, and the square drainage function and the power drainage function are recommended. Computational efficiency of the new

  2. Impacts of Soil and Water Conservation Practices on Crop Yield, Run-off, Soil Loss and Nutrient Loss in Ethiopia: Review and Synthesis. (United States)

    Adimassu, Zenebe; Langan, Simon; Johnston, Robyn; Mekuria, Wolde; Amede, Tilahun


    Research results published regarding the impact of soil and water conservation practices in the highland areas of Ethiopia have been inconsistent and scattered. In this paper, a detailed review and synthesis is reported that was conducted to identify the impacts of soil and water conservation practices on crop yield, surface run-off, soil loss, nutrient loss, and the economic viability, as well as to discuss the implications for an integrated approach and ecosystem services. The review and synthesis showed that most physical soil and water conservation practices such as soil bunds and stone bunds were very effective in reducing run-off, soil erosion and nutrient depletion. Despite these positive impacts on these services, the impact of physical soil and water conservation practices on crop yield was negative mainly due to the reduction of effective cultivable area by soil/stone bunds. In contrast, most agronomic soil and water conservation practices increase crop yield and reduce run-off and soil losses. This implies that integrating physical soil and water conservation practices with agronomic soil and water conservation practices are essential to increase both provisioning and regulating ecosystem services. Additionally, effective use of unutilized land (the area occupied by bunds) by planting multipurpose grasses and trees on the bunds may offset the yield lost due to a reduction in planting area. If high value grasses and trees can be grown on this land, farmers can harvest fodder for animals or fuel wood, both in scarce supply in Ethiopia. Growing of these grasses and trees can also help the stability of the bunds and reduce maintenance cost. Economic feasibility analysis also showed that, soil and water conservation practices became economically more viable if physical and agronomic soil and water conservation practices are integrated.

  3. Estimating steady-state evaporation rates from bare soils under conditions of high water table (United States)

    Ripple, C.D.; Rubin, J.; Van Hylckama, T. E. A.


    A procedure that combines meteorological and soil equations of water transfer makes it possible to estimate approximately the steady-state evaporation from bare soils under conditions of high water table. Field data required include soil-water retention curves, water table depth and a record of air temperature, air humidity and wind velocity at one elevation. The procedure takes into account the relevant atmospheric factors and the soil's capability to conduct 'water in liquid and vapor forms. It neglects the effects of thermal transfer (except in the vapor case) and of salt accumulation. Homogeneous as well as layered soils can be treated. Results obtained with the method demonstrate how the soil evaporation rates·depend on potential evaporation, water table depth, vapor transfer and certain soil parameters.

  4. Amending greenroof soil with biochar to affect runoff water quantity and quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, Deborah A.; Johnson, Gwynn R. [Portland State University, Mechanical and Materials Engineering, POB 751, Portland, OR 97207 (United States); Spolek, Graig A., E-mail: [Portland State University, Mechanical and Materials Engineering, POB 751, Portland, OR 97207 (United States)


    Numbers of greenroofs in urban areas continue to grow internationally; so designing greenroof soil to reduce the amount of nutrients in the stormwater runoff from these roofs is becoming essential. This study evaluated changes in extensive greenroof water discharge quality and quantity after adding biochar, a soil amendment promoted for its ability to retain nutrients in soils and increase soil fertility. Prototype greenroof trays with and without biochar were planted with sedum or ryegrass, with barren soil trays used as controls. The greenroof trays were subjected to two sequential 7.4 cm/h rainfall events using a rain simulator. Runoff from the rain events was collected and evaluated. Trays containing 7% biochar showed increased water retention and significant decreases in discharge of total nitrogen, total phosphorus, nitrate, phosphate, and organic carbon. The addition of biochar to greenroof soil improves both runoff water quality and retention. - Highlights: > Biochar in green roof soil reduces nitrogen and phosphorus in the runoff. > Addition of biochar reduces turbidity of runoff. > Addition of biochar reduces total organic carbon content in runoff by 67-72%. > Biochar improves water retention of saturated soil. - In this controlled laboratory experiment, greenroof soil was amended by the addition of biochar, which reduced the water runoff concentration of nitrogen, phosphorus, and organic carbon.

  5. Amending greenroof soil with biochar to affect runoff water quantity and quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, Deborah A.; Johnson, Gwynn R.; Spolek, Graig A.


    Numbers of greenroofs in urban areas continue to grow internationally; so designing greenroof soil to reduce the amount of nutrients in the stormwater runoff from these roofs is becoming essential. This study evaluated changes in extensive greenroof water discharge quality and quantity after adding biochar, a soil amendment promoted for its ability to retain nutrients in soils and increase soil fertility. Prototype greenroof trays with and without biochar were planted with sedum or ryegrass, with barren soil trays used as controls. The greenroof trays were subjected to two sequential 7.4 cm/h rainfall events using a rain simulator. Runoff from the rain events was collected and evaluated. Trays containing 7% biochar showed increased water retention and significant decreases in discharge of total nitrogen, total phosphorus, nitrate, phosphate, and organic carbon. The addition of biochar to greenroof soil improves both runoff water quality and retention. - Highlights: → Biochar in green roof soil reduces nitrogen and phosphorus in the runoff. → Addition of biochar reduces turbidity of runoff. → Addition of biochar reduces total organic carbon content in runoff by 67-72%. → Biochar improves water retention of saturated soil. - In this controlled laboratory experiment, greenroof soil was amended by the addition of biochar, which reduced the water runoff concentration of nitrogen, phosphorus, and organic carbon.

  6. Transfer mechanisms in cultivated soils of waste radionuclides from electronuclear power plants in the system river--irrigated soil--underground water level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saas, A; Grauby, A


    From symposinm on environmentl behavior of radionuclides released in the nuclear industry; Aix-en-Provence, France (14 May 1973). The location of nuclear power plants by rivers whose waters are used for irrigation and industrial and domestic consumption necessities a profound study of the river-irrigated soil- ground water system. Mechanisms of radionuclide transport in cultivated soil are considered under three principal aspects: the effect of the quality of the river water, of the irrigation channels, and of the ground water level on the mobility of the radionuclides in the soil; the influence of the type of soil (the four types of soils considered are acid brown soil, calcic brown soil, chalky brown soil, and chalky alluvial soil); and the distribution of radionuclides in the soil (hydrosoluble forms can contminate the ground water level and these are the forms in which they are taken up by plants. A study was made on the following nuclides: /sup 22/Na, /sup 137/Cs, /sup 85/Sr, /Sup 54/Mn, /Sup 59/Fe, /Sup 60/ Co, /sup 65/Zn, /sup 124/Sb, /sup 141 in the cultivated soils permit the evaluation of the risks of contmination of the food chain and of the underground water. This study also showed new perspectives of the behavior of radionuclides as a function of their contmination of the organo-mineral wastes of industrial and domestic origin. This pollution interfers largely with the formation of stble complexes carried by the river to irrigated soils. The quality of the water determines the distribution of the radionuclides in the profile. The hydrosoluble complex persists in the soil and migrates toward the underground water level if they are not biodegradable. The stability of these forms as a function of the soil pH and of its physicochemical characteristics, as well as that of the radionuclides considered, permit the formulation of a new balance of the radionuclides in soils. The formulation of new proposals for the contml of nuclear sites is discussed. (tr-auth)

  7. Soil-Water Storage Predictions for Cultivated Crops on the Záhorská Lowlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarabicová Miroslava


    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to evaluate the impact of climate change on the soil-water regime of the Záhorská lowlands. The consequences of climate change on soil-water storage were analyzed for two crops: spring barley and maize. We analyzed the consequences of climate change on soil-water storage for two crops: spring barley and maize. The soil-water storage was simulated with the GLOBAL mathematical model. The data entered into the model as upper boundary conditions were established by the SRES A2 and SRES B1 climate scenarios and the KNMI regional climate model for the years from 2071 to 2100 (in the text called the time horizon 2085 which is in the middle this period. For the reference period the data from the years 1961-1990 was used. The results of this paper predict soil-water storage until the end of this century for the crops evaluated, as well as a comparison of the soil-water storage predictions with the course of the soil-water storage during the reference period.

  8. Estimating soil water evaporation using radar measurements (United States)

    Sadeghi, Ali M.; Scott, H. D.; Waite, W. P.; Asrar, G.


    Field studies were conducted to evaluate the application of radar reflectivity as compared with the shortwave reflectivity (albedo) used in the Idso-Jackson equation for the estimation of daily evaporation under overcast sky and subhumid climatic conditions. Soil water content, water potential, shortwave and radar reflectivity, and soil and air temperatures were monitored during three soil drying cycles. The data from each cycle were used to calculate daily evaporation from the Idso-Jackson equation and from two other standard methods, the modified Penman and plane of zero-flux. All three methods resulted in similar estimates of evaporation under clear sky conditions; however, under overcast sky conditions, evaporation fluxes computed from the Idso-Jackson equation were consistently lower than the other two methods. The shortwave albedo values in the Idso-Jackson equation were then replaced with radar reflectivities and a new set of total daily evaporation fluxes were calculated. This resulted in a significant improvement in computed soil evaporation fluxes from the Idso-Jackson equation, and a better agreement between the three methods under overcast sky conditions.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    socio-cultural, economic system constraints for the implementation and maintenance of conservation .... Purpose of natural resource conservation is therefore ... the soil and water resources through traditional and ..... “Integrated Natural.

  10. The effects of salinity in the soil water balance: A Budyko's approach (United States)

    Perri, S.; Viola, F.; Molini, A.


    Soil degradation and water scarcity pose important constraints on productivity and development of arid and semi-arid countries. Among the main causes of loss of soil fertility, aridification and soil salinization are deeply connected threats enhanced by climate change. Assessing water availability is fundamental for a large number of applications especially in arid regions. An approach often adopted to estimate the long-term rainfall partitioning into evapotranspiration and runoff is the Budyko's curve. However, the classical Budyko framework might not be able to properly reproduce the water balance in salt affected basins, especially under elevated soil salinization conditions. Salinity is a limiting factor for plant transpiration (as well as growth) affecting both short and long term soil moisture dynamics and ultimately the hydrologic balance. Soluble salts cause a reduction of soil water potential similar to the one arising from droughts, although plant adaptations to soil salinity show extremely different traits and can vary from species to species. In a similar context, the salt-tolerance plants are expected to control the amount of soil moisture lost to transpiration in saline soils, also because salinity reduces evaporation. We propose a simple framework to include the effects of salinization on the surface energy and water balance within a simple Budyko approach. By introducing the effects of salinity in the stochastic water balance we are able to include the influence of vegetation type (i.e. in terms of salt-tolerance) on evapotranspiration-runoff partitioning under different climatic conditions. The water balance components are thus compared to data obtained from arid salt-affected regions.

  11. Interstitial water studies on Irish Sea sediments and their relevance to the fate of transuranic nuclides in the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvey, B.R.


    This paper describes the physico-chemical conditions existing in the interstitial waters of sediments in contaminated areas of the Irish Sea, which provide valuable information on the sedimentary environment into which radioactive waste products become incorporated. It is recommended that these measurements be made in areas where transuranic behaviour can be determined, which then would allow useful predictions to be made concerning the possible behaviour of transuranics in other, uncontaminated, environments, if these environments can be physico-chemically correlated in the same way. (author)

  12. The Soil Characteristic Curve at Low Water Contents: Relations to Specific Surface Area and Texture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Resurreccion, Augustus; Møldrup, Per; Schjønning, Per

    Accurate description of the soil-water retention curve (SWRC) at low water contents is important for simulating water dynamics, plant-water relations, and microbial processes in surface soil. Soil-water retention at soil-water matric potential of less than -10 MPa, where adsorptive forces dominate...... that measurements by traditional pressure plate apparatus generally overestimated water contents at -1.5 MPa (plant wilting point). The 41 soils were classified into four textural classes based on the so-called Dexter index n (= CL/OC), and the Tuller-Or (TO) general scaling model describing the water film...... thickness at a given soil-water matric potential ( 10, the estimated SA from the dry soil-water retention was in good agreement with the SA measured using ethylene glycol monoethyl ether (SA_EGME). A strong relationship between the ratio...

  13. Estimation of water retention and availability in soils of Rio Grande do Sul


    Reichert,José Miguel; Albuquerque,Jackson Adriano; Kaiser,Douglas Rodrigo; Reinert,Dalvan José; Urach,Felipe Lavarda; Carlesso,Reimar


    Dispersed information on water retention and availability in soils may be compiled in databases to generate pedotransfer functions. The objectives of this study were: to generate pedotransfer functions to estimate soil water retention based on easily measurable soil properties; to evaluate the efficiency of existing pedotransfer functions for different geographical regions for the estimation of water retention in soils of Rio Grande do Sul (RS); and to estimate plant-available water capacity ...

  14. Chylothorax in dermatomyositis complicated with interstitial pneumonia. (United States)

    Isoda, Kentaro; Kiboshi, Takao; Shoda, Takeshi


    Chylothorax is a disease in which chyle leaks and accumulates in the thoracic cavity. Interstitial pneumonia and pneumomediastinum are common thoracic manifestations of dermatomyositis, but chylothorax complicated with dermatomyositis is not reported. We report a case of dermatomyositis with interstitial pneumonia complicated by chylothorax. A 77-year-old woman was diagnosed as dermatomyositis with Gottron's papules, skin ulcers, anti-MDA5 antibody and rapid progressive interstitial pneumonia. Treatment with betamethasone, tacrolimus and intravenous high-dose cyclophosphamide was initiated, and her skin symptoms and interstitial pneumonia improved once. However, right-sided chylothorax began to accumulate and gradually increase, and at the same time, her interstitial pneumonia began to exacerbate, and skin ulcers began to reappear on her fingers and auricles. Although her chylothorax improved by fasting and parenteral nutrition, she died due to further exacerbations of dermatomyositis and interstitial pneumonia in spite of steroid pulse therapy, increase in the betamethasone dosage, additional intravenous high-dose cyclophosphamide and plasma pheresis. An autopsy showed no lesions such as malignant tumors in the thoracic cavity. This is the first report of chylothorax complicated by dermatomyositis with interstitial pneumonia.

  15. Effects of soil water saturation on sampling equilibrium and kinetics of selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. (United States)

    Kim, Pil-Gon; Roh, Ji-Yeon; Hong, Yongseok; Kwon, Jung-Hwan


    Passive sampling can be applied for measuring the freely dissolved concentration of hydrophobic organic chemicals (HOCs) in soil pore water. When using passive samplers under field conditions, however, there are factors that might affect passive sampling equilibrium and kinetics, such as soil water saturation. To determine the effects of soil water saturation on passive sampling, the equilibrium and kinetics of passive sampling were evaluated by observing changes in the distribution coefficient between sampler and soil (K sampler/soil ) and the uptake rate constant (k u ) at various soil water saturations. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) passive samplers were deployed into artificial soils spiked with seven selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In dry soil (0% water saturation), both K sampler/soil and k u values were much lower than those in wet soils likely due to the contribution of adsorption of PAHs onto soil mineral surfaces and the conformational changes in soil organic matter. For high molecular weight PAHs (chrysene, benzo[a]pyrene, and dibenzo[a,h]anthracene), both K sampler/soil and k u values increased with increasing soil water saturation, whereas they decreased with increasing soil water saturation for low molecular weight PAHs (phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, and pyrene). Changes in the sorption capacity of soil organic matter with soil water content would be the main cause of the changes in passive sampling equilibrium. Henry's law constant could explain the different behaviors in uptake kinetics of the selected PAHs. The results of this study would be helpful when passive samplers are deployed under various soil water saturations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Solubility of Benzo[a]pyrene and Organic Matter of Soil in Subcritical Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Sushkova


    Full Text Available A dynamic subcritical water extraction method of benzo[a]pyrene from soils is under consideration. The optimum conditions for benzo[a]pyrene extraction from soil are described including the soil treatment by subcritical water at 250 °C and 100 atm for 30 min. The effectiveness of developed method was determined using the matrix spiking recovery technique. A comparative analysis was made to evaluate the results of benzo[a]pyrene extraction from soils using the subcritical water and organic solvents. The advantages of the subcritical water extraction involve the use of ecologically friendly solvent, a shorter time for the analysis and a higher amount of benzo[a]pyrene extracted from soil (96 %. The influence of subcritical water extraction on soil properties was measured the investigation of the processes occurring within soil under the influence the high temperature and pressure. Under appropriate conditions of the experiment there is the destruction of the soil organic matter while the composition of the soil mineral fraction remains practically unchanged.

  17. Validation of water sorption-based clay prediction models for calcareous soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arthur, Emmanuel; Razzaghi, Fatemeh; Moosavi, Ali


    on prediction accuracy. The soils had clay content ranging from 9 to 61% and CaCO3 from 24 to 97%. The three water sorption models considered showed a reasonably fair prediction of the clay content from water sorption at 28% relative humidity (RMSE and ME values ranging from 10.6 to 12.1 and −8.1 to −4......Soil particle size distribution (PSD), particularly the active clay fraction, mediates soil engineering, agronomic and environmental functions. The tedious and costly nature of traditional methods of determining PSD prompted the development of water sorption-based models for determining the clay...... fraction. The applicability of such models to semi-arid soils with significant amounts of calcium carbonate and/or gypsum is unknown. The objective of this study was to validate three water sorption-based clay prediction models for 30 calcareous soils from Iran and identify the effect of CaCO3...

  18. Hydrologic characterization of desert soils with varying degrees of pedogenesis: 1. field experiments evaluating plant-relevant soil water behavior (United States)

    Nimmo, J.R.; Perkins, K.S.; Schmidt, K.M.; Miller, D.M.; Stock, J.D.; Singha, K.


    To assess the eff ect of pedogenesis on the soil moisture dynamics infl uencing the character and quality of ecological habitat, we conducted infi ltration and redistribution experiments on three alluvial deposits in the Mojave National Preserve: (i) recently deposited active wash sediments, (ii) a soil of early Holocene age, and (iii) a highly developed soil of late Pleistocene age. At each, we ponded water in a 1-m-diameter infi ltration ring for 2.3 h and monitored soil water content and matric pressure during and atier infi ltration, using probes and electrical resistivity imaging (ERI). Infi ltration and downward fl ow rates were greater in younger material, favoring deep-rooted species. Deep-rooted species tend to colonize the margins of washes, where they are unaff ected by sediment transport that inhibits colonization. The ERI results support important generalizations, for example that shallower than 0.5 m, infi ltrated water persists longer in highly developed soil, favoring shallow-rooted species. Soil moisture data for the two youngest soils suggested that saturation overshoot, which may have signifi cant but unexplored hydroecologic and pedogenic eff ects, occurred at the horizontally advancing weting front. Spatial heterogeneity of soil properties generally increased with pedogenic development. Evidence suggested that some early-stage developmental processes may promote uniformity; the intermediate- age soil appeared to have the least heterogeneity in terms of textural variation with depth, and also the least anisotropy. Lateral heterogeneity was pronounced in older soil, having a multitude of eff ects on the distribution and retention of soil water, and may facilitate certain water-conserving strategies of plants over what would be possible in a laterally homogeneous soil. ?? Soil Science Society of America.

  19. Geoecohydrological mechanisms couple soil and leaf water dynamics and facilitate species coexistence in shallow soils of a tropical semiarid mixed forest. (United States)

    Rodríguez-Robles, Ulises; Arredondo, J Tulio; Huber-Sannwald, Elisabeth; Vargas, Rodrigo


    Trees growing on shallow rocky soils must have exceptional adaptations when underlying weathered bedrock has no deep fractures for water storage. Under semiarid conditions, hydrology of shallow soils is expected to decouple from plant hydrology, as soils dry out as a result of rapid evaporation and competition for water increases between coexisting tree species. Gas exchange and plant-water relations were monitored for 15 months for Pinus cembroides and Quercus potosina tree species in a tropical semiarid forest growing on c. 20-cm-deep soils over impermeable volcanic bedrock. Soil and leaf water potential maintained a relatively constant offset throughout the year in spite of high intra-annual fluctuations reaching up to 5 MPa. Thus, hydrology of shallow soils did not decouple from hydrology of trees even in the driest period. A combination of redistribution mechanisms of water stored in weathered bedrock and hypodermic flow accessible to oak provided the source of water supply to shallow soils, where most of the actively growing roots occurred. This study demonstrates a unique geoecohydrological mechanism that maintains a tightly coupled hydrology between shallow rocky soils and trees, as well as species coexistence in this mixed forest, where oak facilitates water access to pine. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  20. Mediterranean shrub vegetation: soil protection vs. water availability (United States)

    García Estringana, Pablo; Nieves Alonso-Blázquez, M.; Alegre, Alegre; Cerdà, Artemi


    Soil Erosion and Land Degradation are closely related to the changes in the vegetation cover (Zhao et al., 2013). Although other factors such as rainfall intensiy or slope (Ziadat and Taimeh, 2013) the plant covers is the main factor that controls the soil erosion (Haregeweyn, 2013). Plant cover is the main factor of soil erosion processes as the vegetation control the infiltration and runoff generation (Cerdà, 1998a; Kargar Chigani et al., 2012). Vegetation cover acts in a complex way in influencing on the one hand on runoff and soil loss and on the other hand on the amount and the way that rainfall reaches the soil surface. In arid and semiarid regions, where erosion is one of the main degradation processes and water is a scant resource, a minimum percentage of vegetation coverage is necessary to protect the soil from erosion, but without compromising the availability of water (Belmonte Serrato and Romero Diaz, 1998). This is mainly controlled by the vegetation distribution (Cerdà, 1997a; Cammeraat et al., 2010; Kakembo et al., 2012). Land abandonment is common in Mediterranean region under extensive land use (Cerdà, 1997b; García-Ruiz, 2010). Abandoned lands typically have a rolling landscape with steep slopes, and are dominated by herbaceous communities that grow on pasture land interspersed by shrubs. Land abandonment use to trigger an increase in soil erosion, but the vegetation recovery reduces the impact of the vegetation. The goal of this work is to assess the effects of different Mediterranean shrub species (Dorycnium pentaphyllum Scop., Medicago strasseri, Colutea arborescens L., Retama sphaerocarpa, L., Pistacia Lentiscus L. and Quercus coccifera L.) on soil protection (runoff and soil losses) and on rainfall reaching soil surface (rainfall partitioning fluxes). To characterize the effects of shrub vegetation and to evaluate their effects on soil protection, two field experiments were carried out. The presence of shrub vegetation reduced runoff by

  1. Scenario Analysis of Soil and Water Conservation in Xiejia Watershed Based on Improved CSLE Model (United States)

    Liu, Jieying; Yu, Ming; Wu, Yong; Huang, Yao; Nie, Yawen


    According to the existing research results and related data, use the scenario analysis method, to evaluate the effects of different soil and water conservation measures on soil erosion in a small watershed. Based on the analysis of soil erosion scenarios and model simulation budgets in the study area, it is found that all scenarios simulated soil erosion rates are lower than the present situation of soil erosion in 2013. Soil and water conservation measures are more effective in reducing soil erosion than soil and water conservation biological measures and soil and water conservation tillage measures.

  2. Incorporating soil variability in continental soil water modelling: a trade-off between data availability and model complexity (United States)

    Peeters, L.; Crosbie, R. S.; Doble, R.; van Dijk, A. I. J. M.


    Developing a continental land surface model implies finding a balance between the complexity in representing the system processes and the availability of reliable data to drive, parameterise and calibrate the model. While a high level of process understanding at plot or catchment scales may warrant a complex model, such data is not available at the continental scale. This data sparsity is especially an issue for the Australian Water Resources Assessment system, AWRA-L, a land-surface model designed to estimate the components of the water balance for the Australian continent. This study focuses on the conceptualization and parametrization of the soil drainage process in AWRA-L. Traditionally soil drainage is simulated with Richards' equation, which is highly non-linear. As general analytic solutions are not available, this equation is usually solved numerically. In AWRA-L however, we introduce a simpler function based on simulation experiments that solve Richards' equation. In the simplified function soil drainage rate, the ratio of drainage (D) over storage (S), decreases exponentially with relative water content. This function is controlled by three parameters, the soil water storage at field capacity (SFC), the drainage fraction at field capacity (KFC) and a drainage function exponent (β). [ ] D- -S- S = KF C exp - β (1 - SFC ) To obtain spatially variable estimates of these three parameters, the Atlas of Australian Soils is used, which lists soil hydraulic properties for each soil profile type. For each soil profile type in the Atlas, 10 days of draining an initially fully saturated, freely draining soil is simulated using HYDRUS-1D. With field capacity defined as the volume of water in the soil after 1 day, the remaining parameters can be obtained by fitting the AWRA-L soil drainage function to the HYDRUS-1D results. This model conceptualisation fully exploits the data available in the Atlas of Australian Soils, without the need to solve the non

  3. Experimental depletion of different renal interstitial cell populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohman, S.O.; Sundelin, B.; Forsum, U.; Tribukait, B.


    To define different populations of renal interstitial cells and investigate some aspects of their function, we studied the kidneys of normal rats and rats with hereditary diabetes insipidus (DI, Brattleboro) after experimental manipulations expected to alter the number of interstitial cells. DI rats showed an almost complete loss of interstitial cells in their renal papillae after treatment with a high dose of vasopressin. In spite of the lack of interstitial cells, the animals concentrated their urine to the same extent as vasopressin-treated normal rats, indicating that the renomedullary interstitial cells do not have an important function in concentrating the urine. The interstitial cells returned nearly to normal within 1 week off vasopressin treatment, suggesting a rapid turnover rate of these cells. To further distinguish different populations of interstitial cells, we studied the distribution of class II MHC antigen expression in the kidneys of normal and bone-marrow depleted Wistar rats. Normal rats had abundant class II antigen-positive interstitial cells in the renal cortex and outer medulla, but not in the inner medulla (papilla). Six days after 1000 rad whole body irradiation, the stainable cells were almost completely lost, but electron microscopic morphometry showed a virtually unchanged volume density of interstitial cells in the cortex and outer medulla, as well as the inner medulla. Thus, irradiation abolished the expression of the class II antigen but caused no significant depletion of interstitial cells

  4. Soil and Water Conservation for a Better America. A Framework Plan. (United States)

    Soil Conservation Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    Through this framework plan, the Soil Conservation Service (SCS) takes a look ahead to its soil and water conservation mission, a look at its direction and thrust in helping create a desirable America in the decades ahead. The plan attempts to define the nature of soil and water conservation efforts, to put them in perspective, and to present a…

  5. Measuring water content in soil using TDR: A state-of-the-art in 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topp, G.C.; Ferre, P.A.


    Over the past decade or so, the development and continuing refinement of the time-domain reflectometry (TDR) technique for in-situ, nondestructive measurement of water content has revolutionized the study and management of the transfer and storage of water within the soil profile. The principles for the application of TDR to water content are now well accepted and straight forward. For many mineral soils, the calibration for water content has a linear relationship with the square root of the relative permittivity measured by TDR. This allows a two-point calibration. TDR-measured water content has been applied successfully to water balance studies ranging from the km scale of small watersheds to the nun scale of the root-soil interface. Soil probes can be designed to meet many and varied requirements. The performance of a number of probe geometries is presented, including some of their strengths and weaknesses. Although coated soil probes allow measurement in more conductive soils, the probe coatings alter the water-content calibration both in sensitivity and linearity. Three general options are available for determining profiles of soil water content from the soil surface to a depth of 1 m. Soil probes of differing total depths extending to the surface are the most accessible. Soil probes buried at selected depths provide easily repeatable values. The vertically installed single probe, Aith depth segments separated by diodes, allows repeated measurement in a single vertical slice. The portability of TDR instrumentation coupled with the simplicity and flexibility of probes has allowed the mapping of spatial patterns of water content and field-based spatial and temporal soil water content distributions. The usefulness and power of the TDR technique for characterizing soil water content is increasing rapidly through continuing improvements in instrument operating range, probe design, multiplexing and automated data collection. (author)

  6. Evaluation of soil and water salinity for irrigation in North-eastern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For sound land use and water management in irrigated area, knowledge of the chemical composition of soils, water, climate, drainage condition and irrigation methods before action are crucial for sustainability of irrigation projects. The study aimed to evaluate the physicochemical properties of soils and water for intended ...

  7. Radionuclide transport along a boreal hill slope - elevated soil water concentrations in riparian forest soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lidman, Fredrik; Boily, Aasa; Laudon, Hjalmar [Dept. of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, 901 83 Umeaa (Sweden); Koehler, Stephan J. [Dept. of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. 7050, 750 07 Uppsala (Sweden)


    The transport of radionuclides from forest ecosystems and out into surface waters is a crucial process for understanding the long-term fate of radionuclides in the boreal landscape. Boreal forests are typically dominated by podzol soils, but the streams draining the forests are often lined by highly organic, often peat-like soils, which the radionuclides must pass through in order to reach the stream. This so-called riparian zone therefore represents a fundamentally different biogeochemical environment than ordinary forest soils, e.g. by exhibiting significantly lower pH and higher concentrations of organic colloids, which significantly can affect the mobility of many radionuclides. Since the riparian zone is the last terrestrial environment that the groundwater is in contact with before it enters the stream, previous research has demonstrated its profound impact on the stream water chemistry. Hence, the riparian soils should also be important for the transport and accumulation of radionuclides. Therefore, soil water was sampled using suction lysimeters installed at different depths along a 22 m long forested hill slope transect in northern Sweden, following the flow pathway of the groundwater from the uphill podzol to the riparian zone near the stream channel. The analyses included a wide range of hydrochemical parameters and many radiologically important elements, e.g. U, Th, Ni, C, Sr, Cs, REEs and Cl. The sampling was repeated ten times throughout a year in order to also capture the temporal variability of the soil water chemistry. The water chemistry of the investigated transect displayed a remarkable change as the groundwater approached the stream channel. Strongly increased concentrations of many elements were observed in the riparian soils. For instance, the concentrations of Th were more than 100 times higher than in the riparian zone than in the uphill forest, suggesting that the riparian zone may be a hotspot for radionuclide accumulation. The reason

  8. Impacts of soil conditioners and water table management on phosphorus loss in tile drainage from a clay loam soil. (United States)

    Zhang, T Q; Tan, C S; Zheng, Z M; Welacky, T W; Reynolds, W D


    Adoption of waste-derived soil conditioners and refined water management can improve soil physical quality and crop productivity of fine-textured soils. However, the impacts of these practices on water quality must be assessed to ensure environmental sustainability. We conducted a study to determine phosphorus (P) loss in tile drainage as affected by two types of soil conditioners (yard waste compost and swine manure compost) and water table management (free drainage and controlled drainage with subirrigation) in a clay loam soil under corn-soybean rotation in a 4-yr period from 1999 to 2003. Tile drainage flows were monitored and sampled on a year-round continuous basis using on-site auto-sampling systems. Water samples were analyzed for dissolved reactive P (DRP), particulate P (PP), and total P (TP). Substantially greater concentrations and losses of DRP, PP, and TP occurred with swine manure compost than with control and yard waste compost regardless of water table management. Compared with free drainage, controlled drainage with subirrigation was an effective way to reduce annual and cumulative losses of DRP, PP, and TP in tile drainage through reductions in flow volume and P concentration with control and yard waste compost but not with swine manure compost. Both DRP and TP concentrations in tile drainage were well above the water quality guideline for P, affirming that subsurface loss of P from fine-textured soils can be one critical source for freshwater eutrophication. Swine manure compost applied as a soil conditioner must be optimized by taking water quality impacts into consideration. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  9. Determining soil hydrologic characteristics on a remote forest watershed by continuous monitoring of soil water pressures, rainfall and runoff. (United States)

    L.R. Ahuja; S. A. El-Swaify


    Continuous monitoring of soil-water pressures, rainfall and runoff under natural conditions was tested as a technique for determining soil hydrologic characteristics of a remote forest watershed plot. A completely battery-powered (and thus portable) pressure transducer–scanner–recorder system was assembled for monitoring of soil-water pressures in...

  10. Salinity controls on plant transpiration and soil water balance (United States)

    Perri, S.; Molini, A.; Suweis, S. S.; Viola, F.; Entekhabi, D.


    Soil salinization and aridification represent a major threat for the food security and sustainable development of drylands. The two problems are deeply connected, and their interplay is expected to be further enhanced by climate change and projected population growth. Salt-affected land is currently estimated to cover around 1.1 Gha, and is particularly widespread in semi-arid to hyper-arid climates. Over 900 Mha of these saline/sodic soils are potentially available for crop or biomass production. Salt-tolerant plants have been recently proposed as valid solution to exploit or even remediate salinized soils. However the effects of salinity on evapotranspiration, soil water balance and the long-term salt mass balance in the soil, are still largely unexplored. In this contribution we analyze the feedback of evapotranspiration on soil salinization, with particular emphasis on the role of vegetation and plant salt-tolerance. The goal is to introduce a simple modeling framework able to shed some light on how (a) soil salinity controls plant transpiration, and (b) salinization itself is favored/impeded by different vegetation feedback. We introduce at this goal a spatially lumped stochastic model of soil moisture and salt mass dynamics averaged over the active soil depth, and accounting for the effect of salinity on evapotranspiration. Here, the limiting effect of salinity on ET is modeled through a simple plant response function depending on both salt concentration in the soil and plant salt-tolerance. The coupled soil moisture and salt mass balance is hence used to obtain the conditional steady-state probability density function (pdf) of soil moisture for given salt tolerance and salinization level, Our results show that salinity imposes a limit in the soil water balance and this limit depends on plant salt-tolerance mainly through the control of the leaching occurrence (tolerant plants exploit water more efficiently than the sensitive ones). We also analyzed the

  11. Concurrent temporal stability of the apparent electrical conductivity and soil water content (United States)

    Knowledge of spatio-temporal soil water content (SWC) variability within agricultural fields is useful to improve crop management. Spatial patterns of soil water contents can be characterized using the temporal stability analysis, however high density sampling is required. Soil apparent electrical c...

  12. Estimation of soil water storage change from clay shrinkage using satellite radar interferometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brake, te Bram


    Measurements of soil water storage are hard to obtain on scales relevant for water management and policy making. Therefore, this research develops a new measurement methodology for soil water storage estimation in clay containing soils. The proposed methodology relies on the specific property of

  13. Water erosion under simulated rainfall in different soil management systems during soybean growth


    Engel,Fernando Luis; Bertol,Ildegardis; Mafra,Álvaro Luiz; Cogo,Neroli Pedro


    Soil management influences soil cover by crop residues and plant canopy, affecting water erosion. The objective of this research was to quantify water and soil losses by water erosion under different soil tillage systems applied on a typical aluminic Hapludox soil, in an experiment carried out from April 2003 to May 2004, in the Santa Catarina highland region, Lages, southern Brazil. Simulated rainfall was applied during five soybean cropstages, at the constant intensity of 64.0 mm h-1. Treat...

  14. Soil water retention curves of remoulded clay on drying and wetting paths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiwei; Zhang Jian


    The present research focuses on the laboratory measurement of the Soil Water Retention Curve (SWRC), that expresses the relationship between water content (gravimetric or volumetric) or degree of saturation and soil suction. The SWRC plays an important role in an unsaturated soil mechanics framework and is required for the numerical modelling of any process of flow and transport in unsaturated soil problems, already as a part of constitutive model of unsaturated soil. Six remoulded London Clay samples were performed SWRC testing on the drying and wetting path, meanwhile measurement the volume change. The effect of initial water content and various drying/wetting paths were considered in the tests. The results of SWRC show that hysteretic characteristic in boundary drying/wetting curve, the water holding capacity was increased due to the increase of the initial water content. The shape of the SWRC strongly depended on the volume change. (authors)

  15. Modeling of Soil Water and Salt Dynamics and Its Effects on Root Water Uptake in Heihe Arid Wetland, Gansu, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huijie Li


    Full Text Available In the Heihe River basin, China, increased salinity and water shortages present serious threats to the sustainability of arid wetlands. It is critical to understand the interactions between soil water and salts (from saline shallow groundwater and the river and their effects on plant growth under the influence of shallow groundwater and irrigation. In this study, the Hydrus-1D model was used in an arid wetland of the Middle Heihe River to investigate the effects of the dynamics of soil water, soil salinization, and depth to water table (DWT as well as groundwater salinity on Chinese tamarisk root water uptake. The modeled soil water and electrical conductivity of soil solution (ECsw are in good agreement with the observations, as indicated by RMSE values (0.031 and 0.046 cm3·cm−3 for soil water content, 0.037 and 0.035 dS·m−1 for ECsw, during the model calibration and validation periods, respectively. The calibrated model was used in scenario analyses considering different DWTs, salinity levels and the introduction of preseason irrigation. The results showed that (I Chinese tamarisk root distribution was greatly affected by soil water and salt distribution in the soil profile, with about 73.8% of the roots being distributed in the 20–60 cm layer; (II root water uptake accounted for 91.0% of the potential maximal value when water stress was considered, and for 41.6% when both water and salt stress were considered; (III root water uptake was very sensitive to fluctuations of the water table, and was greatly reduced when the DWT was either dropped or raised 60% of the 2012 reference depth; (IV arid wetland vegetation exhibited a high level of groundwater dependence even though shallow groundwater resulted in increased soil salinization and (V preseason irrigation could effectively increase root water uptake by leaching salts from the root zone. We concluded that a suitable water table and groundwater salinity coupled with proper irrigation

  16. Balance point characterization of interstitial fluid volume regulation. (United States)

    Dongaonkar, R M; Laine, G A; Stewart, R H; Quick, C M


    The individual processes involved in interstitial fluid volume and protein regulation (microvascular filtration, lymphatic return, and interstitial storage) are relatively simple, yet their interaction is exceedingly complex. There is a notable lack of a first-order, algebraic formula that relates interstitial fluid pressure and protein to critical parameters commonly used to characterize the movement of interstitial fluid and protein. Therefore, the purpose of the present study is to develop a simple, transparent, and general algebraic approach that predicts interstitial fluid pressure (P(i)) and protein concentrations (C(i)) that takes into consideration all three processes. Eight standard equations characterizing fluid and protein flux were solved simultaneously to yield algebraic equations for P(i) and C(i) as functions of parameters characterizing microvascular, interstitial, and lymphatic function. Equilibrium values of P(i) and C(i) arise as balance points from the graphical intersection of transmicrovascular and lymph flows (analogous to Guyton's classical cardiac output-venous return curves). This approach goes beyond describing interstitial fluid balance in terms of conservation of mass by introducing the concept of inflow and outflow resistances. Algebraic solutions demonstrate that P(i) and C(i) result from a ratio of the microvascular filtration coefficient (1/inflow resistance) and effective lymphatic resistance (outflow resistance), and P(i) is unaffected by interstitial compliance. These simple algebraic solutions predict P(i) and C(i) that are consistent with reported measurements. The present work therefore presents a simple, transparent, and general balance point characterization of interstitial fluid balance resulting from the interaction of microvascular, interstitial, and lymphatic function.

  17. Interstitial cystitis (United States)

    ... symptoms get better. Reduce or stop consuming caffeine, chocolate, carbonated beverages, citrus drinks, and foods with a ... rarely done anymore Support Groups Some people may benefit from taking part in interstitial cystitis support groups . ...

  18. Interstitial Cystitis (United States)

    ... relieve symptoms. Diet. Alcohol, tomatoes, spices, carbonated drinks, chocolate, caffeine, citrus fruits and drinks, pickled foods, artificial ... at scheduled times and using relaxation techniques. Physical therapy. People who have interstitial cystitis may have painful ...

  19. Impacts of Triclosan in Grey water on Soil Microorganisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrow, D.I; Felker, J.M; Baker, K.H


    The use of grey water for irrigation is becoming a common practice in arid regions such as the Southwestern US, the Middle East, Australia, and China. While grey water supplies nutrients to soil ecosystems, the possible impact of trace contaminants, particularly pharmaceuticals and personal care products, has not been determined. This paper examined the impact of triclosan, an antibacterial agent commonly added to consumer products, on microbial populations and microbial diversity in soil irrigated with grey water. While there was no change in the total number of heterotrophic microorganisms in the soil, both the types and the antibiotic resistance of the microorganisms were significantly influenced by triclosan. The proportion of the microbial isolates resistant to antibiotics increased while at the same time, overall diversity of the microbial community decreased.

  20. Comparison among monitoring strategies to assess water flow dynamic and soil hydraulic properties in agricultural soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valdes-Abellan, J.; Jiménez-Martínez, J.; Candela, L.; Tamoh, K.


    Irrigated agriculture is usually performed in semi-arid regions despite scarcity of water resources. Therefore, optimal irrigation management by monitoring the soil is essential, and assessing soil hydraulic properties and water flow dynamics is presented as a first measure. For this purpose, the control of volumetric water content, θ, and pressure head, h, is required. This study adopted two types of monitoring strategies in the same experimental plot to control θ and h in the vadose zone: i) non-automatic and more time-consuming; ii) automatic connected to a datalogger. Water flux was modelled with Hydrus-1D using the data collected from both acquisition strategies independently (3820 daily values for the automatic; less than 1000 for the non-automatic). Goodness-of-fit results reported a better adjustment in case of automatic sensors. Both model outputs adequately predicted the general trend of θ and h, but with slight differences in computed annual drainage (711 mm and 774 mm). Soil hydraulic properties were inversely estimated from both data acquisition systems. Major differences were obtained in the saturated volumetric water content, θs, and the n and α van Genuchten model shape parameters. Saturated hydraulic conductivity, Ks, shown lower variability with a coefficient of variation range from 0.13 to 0.24 for the soil layers defined. Soil hydraulic properties were better assessed through automatic data acquisition as data variability was lower and accuracy was higher. (Author)

  1. Comparison among monitoring strategies to assess water flow dynamic and soil hydraulic properties in agricultural soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Valdes-Abellan


    Full Text Available Abstract Irrigated agriculture is usually performed in semi-arid regions despite scarcity of water resources. Therefore, optimal irrigation management by monitoring the soil is essential, and assessing soil hydraulic properties and water flow dynamics is presented as a first measure. For this purpose, the control of volumetric water content, θ, and pressure head, h, is required. This study adopted two types of monitoring strategies in the same experimental plot to control θ and h in the vadose zone: i non-automatic and more time-consuming; ii automatic connected to a datalogger. Water flux was modelled with Hydrus-1D using the data collected from both acquisition strategies independently (3820 daily values for the automatic; less than 1000 for the non-automatic. Goodness-of-fit results reported a better adjustment in case of automatic sensors. Both model outputs adequately predicted the general trend of θ and h, but with slight differences in computed annual drainage (711 mm and 774 mm. Soil hydraulic properties were inversely estimated from both data acquisition systems. Major differences were obtained in the saturated volumetric water content, θs, and the n and α van Genuchten model shape parameters. Saturated hydraulic conductivity, Ks, shown lower variability with a coefficient of variation range from 0.13 to 0.24 for the soil layers defined. Soil hydraulic properties were better assessed through automatic data acquisition as data variability was lower and accuracy was higher.

  2. Interstitial cystitis: painful bladder syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R F Sholan


    Full Text Available Interstitial cystitis, or painful bladder syndrome, is a chronic inflammatory disease of a bladder of unknown etiology. It negatively affects the quality of life, causes depressive disorders, anxiety, and sexual dysfunction. Despite numerous studies, the etiology of interstitial cystitis is still unclear and it’s considered as painful bladder syndrome with multifactorial origin. According to the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 470/100 000 people (60/100 000 men, 850/100 000 women are diagnosed with interstitial cystitis. Diagnosis of the disease is difficult and is substantially based on clinical symptoms. Pelvic pain, urinary urgency, frequency and nocturia are the basic complaints in this pathology. The diagnosis requires exclusion of diseases with similar manifestations. So interstitial cystitis is frequently misdiagnosed as urinary tract infection, overactive bladder, urethral obstruction or diverticulosis, chronic prostatitis, bladder cancer, vulvodynia, endometriosis, and chronic pelvic pain. Etiopathogenesis of the disease is uncertain, which makes etiologic treatment impossible. Currently scientific discussions on the causes of disease continue as well as different treatment regimens are offered, but are often ineffective, palliative and temporary. The treatment for intersticial cystitis should focus on restoring normal bladder function, prevention of relapse of symptoms and improvement of patients’ quality of life. The literature review presents current view on the terminology, epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment of interstitial cystitis.

  3. Passive Microwave Observation of Soil Water Infiltration (United States)

    Jackson, Thomas J.; Schmugge, Thomas J.; Rawls, Walter J.; ONeill, Peggy E.; Parlange, Marc B.


    Infiltration is a time varying process of water entry into soil. Experiments were conducted here using truck based microwave radiometers to observe small plots during and following sprinkler irrigation. Experiments were conducted on a sandy loam soil in 1994 and a silt loam in 1995. Sandy loam soils typically have higher infiltration capabilities than clays. For the sandy loam the observed brightness temperature (TB) quickly reached a nominally constant value during irrigation. When the irrigation was stopped the TB began to increase as drainage took place. The irrigation rates in 1995 with the silt loam soil exceeded the saturated conductivity of the soil. During irrigation the TB values exhibited a pattern that suggests the occurrence of coherent reflection, a rarely observed phenomena under natural conditions. These results suggested the existence of a sharp dielectric boundary (wet over dry soil) that was increasing in depth with time.

  4. Water-soluble organo-building blocks of aminoclay as a soil-flushing agent for heavy metal contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Young-Chul; Kim, Eun Jung; Ko, Dong Ah; Yang, Ji-Won


    Highlights: ► Aminoclays have synthesized using centered metals with aminopropyl silane. ► Developed aminoclay has unique nano-sized and water-soluble properties. ► Aminoclay showed high heavy metal capacity with metal ions and its less toxicity. ► Aminoclay could be used to remediate heavy metals from soils an alternative soil-flushing agent. - Abstract: We demonstrated that water-soluble aminopropyl magnesium functionalized phyllosilicate could be used as a soil-flushing agent for heavy metal contaminated soils. Soil flushing has been an attractive means to remediate heavy metal contamination because it is less disruptive to the soil environment after the treatment was performed. However, development of efficient and non-toxic soil-flushing agents is still required. We have synthesized aminoclays with three different central metal ions such as magnesium, aluminum, and ferric ions and investigated applicability of aminoclays as soil flushing agents. Among them, magnesium (Mg)-centered aminoclay showed the smallest size distribution and superior water solubility, up to 100 mg/mL. Mg aminoclay exhibited cadmium and lead binding capacity of 26.50 and 91.31 mg/g of Mg clay, respectively, at near neutral pH, but it showed negligible binding affinity to metals in acidic conditions. For soil flushing with Mg clay at neutral pH showed cadmium and lead were efficiently extracted from soils by Mg clay, suggesting strong binding ability of Mg clay with cadmium and lead. As the organic matter and clay compositions increased in the soil, the removal efficiency by Mg clay decreased and the operation time increased.

  5. Responses of seminal wheat seedling roots to soil water deficits. (United States)

    Trejo, Carlos; Else, Mark A; Atkinson, Christopher J


    The aims of this paper are to develop our understanding of the ways by which soil water deficits influence early wheat root growth responses, particularly how seminal roots respond to soil drying and the extent to which information on differences in soil water content are conveyed to the shoot and their impact on shoot behaviour. To achieve this, wheat seedlings have been grown, individually for around 25 days after germination in segmented soil columns within vertical plastic compartments. Roots were exposed to different soil volumetric moisture contents (SVMC) within the two compartments. Experiments where the soil in the lower compartment was allowed to dry to different extents, while the upper was maintained close to field capacity, showed that wheat seedlings allocated proportionally more root dry matter to the lower drier soil compartment. The total production of root, irrespective of the upper or lower SVMC, was similar and there were no detected effects on leaf growth rate or gas exchange. The response of seminal roots to proportionally increase their allocation of dry matter, to the drier soil was unexpected with such plasticity of roots system development traditionally linked to heterogeneous nutrient distribution than accessing soil water. In experiments where the upper soil compartment was allowed to dry, root growth slowed and leaf growth and gas exchange declined. Subsequent experiments used root growth rates to determine when seminal root tips first came into contact with drying soil, with the intentions of determining how the observed root growth rates were maintained as an explanation for the observed changes in root allocation. Measurements of seminal root ABA and ethylene from roots within the drying soil are interpreted with respect to what is known about the physiological control of root growth in drying soil. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Influence of Water Content on the Flow Consistency of Dredged Marine Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosman M. Z.


    Full Text Available In present time, dredged marine soils (DMS are generally considered as geo-waste in Malaysia. It is also known to contain high value of water and low shear strength. Lightly solidified soils such as soilcement slurry and flowable fill are known as controlled low strength materials (CLSM. On site, the CLSM was tested for its consistency by using an open-ended cylinder pipe. The vertical and lateral displacement from the test would determine the quality and workability of the CLSM. In this study, manufactured kaolin powder was mixed with different percentages of water. Cement was also added to compare the natural soil with solidified soil samples. There are two methods of flowability test used, namely the conventional lift method and innovative drop method. The lateral displacement or soil spread diameter values were recorded and averaged. Tests showed that the soil spread diameter corresponded almost linear with the increasing amount of water. The binder-added samples show no significant difference with non-binder sample. Also, the mixing water content and percentage of fines had influenced the soil spread diameter.

  7. Influence of Soil Management on Water Retention from Saturation to Oven Dryness and Dominant Soil Water States in a Vertisol under Crop Rotation (United States)

    Vanderlinden, Karl; Pachepsky, Yakov; Pederera, Aura; Martinez, Gonzalo; Espejo, Antonio Jesus; Giraldez, Juan Vicente


    Unique water transfer and retention properties of Vertisols strongly affect their use in rainfed agriculture in water-limited environments. Despite the agricultural importance of the hydraulic properties of those soils, water retention data dryer than the wilting point are generally scarce, mainly as a result of practical constraints of traditional water retention measurement methods. In this work we provide a detailed description of regionalized water retention data from saturation to oven dryness, obtained from 54 minimally disturbed topsoil (0-0.05m) samples collected at a 3.5-ha experimental field in SW Spain where conventional tillage (CT) and direct drilling (DD) is compared in a wheat-sunflower-legume crop rotation on a Vertisol. Water retention was measured from saturation to oven dryness using sand and sand-kaolin boxes, a pressure plate apparatus and a dew point psychrometer, respectively. A common shape of the water retention curve (WRC) was observed in both tillage systems, with a strong discontinuity in its slope near -0.4 MPa and a decreasing spread from the wet to the dry end. A continuous function, consisting of the sum of a double exponential model (Dexter et al, 2008) and the Groenevelt and Grant (2004) model could be fitted successfully to the data. Two inflection points in the WRC were interpreted as boundaries between the structural and the textural pore spaces and between the textural and the intra-clay aggregate pore spaces. Water retention was significantly higher in DD (ptillage and compaction, increasing and decreasing the amount of the largest pores in CT and DD, respectively, but resulting in a proportionally larger pore space with relevant pore-sizes for water dynamics and agronomic performance. Significant differences in water retention and equivalent pore-sizes at the dry end of the WRC could be associated with the higher organic matter content found in DD. These results explain the superior performance of DD over CT in satisfying

  8. Thermo physical properties of lateritic soil bricks: Influence of water content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meukam, P.; Noumowe, A.; Kofane, T.C.


    This paper presents an experimental study carried out in order to determine the properties of local materials used as construction materials. Cement stabilized compressed bricks were tested. The thermal properties of lateritic soil based materials were determined. The objectives of work reported in this paper are to determine the effect of addition of pozzolan or sawdust in lateritic soil brick on the thermal properties. It was shown that the effect of the incorporation of pozzolan or sawdust is the decreasing of the thermal conductivity and density. The moisture content of these materials can modify their thermal performance. Thus a study of the influence of the water content on the thermal conductivity k and the thermal diffusivity a is presented. The thermal conductivity, as a function of water content, increases rapidly between O% and 12% for lateritic soil. The thermal diffusivity curve presents a maximum for values of water content of 15% for lateritic soil and 8% for lateritic soil-pozzolan or lateritic soil- sawdust. (author)

  9. Improved or Unimproved Urban Areas Effect on Soil and Water Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sally D. Logsdon


    Full Text Available Construction in urban areas usually results in compacted soil, which restricts plant growth and infiltration. Nutrients may be lost in storm runoff water and sediment. The purpose of this study was to determine if existing lawns benefit from aeration and surface compost additions without the negative impact of nutrient loss in runoff. Four sets of lawns were compared, with or without compost plus aeration, as a paired comparison. Surface bulk density was significantly reduced in the treated lawns (1.32 versus 1.42 Mg·m−3. Visual evaluation of soil structure showed improvement in the treated lawns. Of fifteen measurement dates over four years, four dates showed significantly higher surface soil water contents in the treated lawns compared with the untreated lawns. When compared over time, three of the four treated lawns had significantly higher soil water content than the untreated lawns. Nutrient concentrations in rainfall simulator runoff were not significantly different between treated and control lawns, which showed that compost did not negatively impact water quality. Compost and aeration helped restore soil quality for urban soils of recent construction.

  10. Interstitial shadow on chest CT is associated with the onset of interstitial lung disease caused by chemotherapeutic drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niho, Seiji; Goto, Koichi; Yoh, Kiyotaka; Kim, Y.H.; Ohmatsu, Hironobu; Kubota, Kaoru; Saijo, Nagahiro; Nishiwaki, Yutaka


    Pretreatment computerized tomography (CT) films of the chest was studied to clarify the influence of interstitial shadow on developing interstitial lung disease (ILD). Eligible patients were those lung cancer patients who started to receive first-line chemotherapy between October 2001 and March 2004. Patients who received thoracic radiotherapy to the primary lesion, mediastinum, spinal or rib metastases were excluded. We reviewed pretreatment conventional CT and plain X-ray films of the chest. Ground-glass opacity, consolidation or reticular shadow without segmental distribution was defined as interstitial shadow, with this event being graded as mild, moderate or severe. If interstitial shadow was detected on CT films of the chest, but not via plain chest X-ray, it was graded as mild. Patients developing ILD were identified from medial records. A total of 502 patients were eligible. Mild, moderate and severe interstitial shadow was identified in 7, 8 and 5% of patients, respectively. A total of 188 patients (37%) received tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) treatment, namely gefitinib or erlotinib. Twenty-six patients (5.2%) developed ILD either during or after chemotherapy. Multivariate analyses revealed that interstitial shadow on CT films of the chest and treatment history with TKI were associated with the onset of ILD. It is recommended that patients with interstitial shadow on chest CT are excluded from future clinical trials until this issue is further clarified, as it is anticipated that use of chemotherapeutic agents frequently mediate onset of ILD in this context. (author)

  11. Correlation among fluoride and metals in irrigation water and soils of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Correlation among fluoride and metals in irrigation water and soils of Ethiopian Rift Valley. ... The fluoride concentrations in water samples were found in the range of 0.14-8.0 mg/L which is below the WHO limit of fluoride concentration for irrigation (less than 10 mg/L). ... KEY WORDS: Fluoride, Metals, Water, Soil, Ethiopia.

  12. Water Stress Assessment in Jharkhand State Using Soil Data and GIS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper an attempt has been made to study the interrelationship of water resources available with that of soil class and its properties including soil drainage and erosional characteristics which has been used to generate drainage stress map and water stress map inferring the basic reason for water scarcity in the district ...

  13. TDR water content inverse profiling in layered soils during infiltration and evaporation (United States)

    Greco, R.; Guida, A.


    During the last three decades, time domain reflectometry (TDR) has become one of the most commonly used tools for soil water content measurements either in laboratory or in the field. Indeed, TDR provides easy and cheap water content estimations with relatively small disturbance to the investigated soil. TDR measurements of soil water content are based on the strong correlation between relative dielectric permittivity of wet soil and its volumetric water content. Several expressions of the relationship between relative dielectric permittivity and volumetric water content have been proposed, empirically stated (Topp et al., 1980) as well as based on semi-analytical approach to dielectric mixing models (Roth et al., 1990; Whalley, 1993). So far, TDR field applications suffered the limitation due to the capability of the technique of estimating only the mean water content in the volume investigated by the probe. Whereas the knowledge of non homogeneous vertical water content profiles was needed, it was necessary to install either several vertical probes of different length or several horizontal probes placed in the soil at different depths, in both cases strongly increasing soil disturbance as well as the complexity of the measurements. Several studies have been recently dedicated to the development of inversion methods aimed to extract more information from TDR waveforms, in order to estimate non homogeneous moisture profiles along the axis of the metallic probe used for TDR measurements. A common feature of all these methods is that electromagnetic transient through the wet soil along the probe is mathematically modelled, assuming that the unknown soil water content distribution corresponds to the best agreement between simulated and measured waveforms. In some cases the soil is modelled as a series of small layers with different dielectric properties, and the waveform is obtained as the result of the superposition of multiple reflections arising from impedance

  14. Physical and water properties of selected Polish heavy soils of various origins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaczmarek Zbigniew


    Full Text Available The paper presents the characteristics of selected physical, chemical, and water properties of four mineral arable soils characterized with heavy and very heavy texture. Soil samples from genetic horizons of black earths from areas near Kętrzyn, Gniew and Kujawy, and alluvial soils from Żuławy were used. The following properties were determined in the samples of undisturbed and disturbed structure: texture, particle density, bulk density, porosity, natural and hygroscopic moistures, maximal hygroscopic capacity, saturated hydraulic conductivity, potential of water bonding in soil, total and readily available water, total retention in the horizon of 0–50 cm, drainage porosity, content of organic carbon and total nitrogen Parent rocks of these soils were clays, silts and loams of various origin. High content of clay fraction strongly influenced the values of all the analyzed properties. All the examined soils had high content of organic carbon and total nitrogen and reaction close to neutral or alkaline. High content of mineral and organic colloids and, what follows, beneficial state of top horizons’ structure, determined – apart from heavy texture – low soil bulk density and high porosity. The investigated soils were characterized by high field water capacity and wide scopes of total and readily available water. The saturated hydraulic conductivity was low and characteristic to heavy mineral arable soils. The parameter which influenced the variability of analyzed parameters most was texture.

  15. Relating shear strength of unsaturated soils with capillary water retention curve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Annan


    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new water retention model for unsaturated soils, which takes into account capillary condensation of adsorbed water. In the proposed water retention model, the degree of saturation of a soil is separated into that based on capillary water and that based on adsorbed water. Through the analysis of a partially saturated two-cylinder system, a new shear strength criterion for unsaturated soils is proposed, in which only the degree of saturation based on capillary water contributes to the variation of shear strength with suction. The proposed shear strength criterion is justified against thermodynamic principles. The proposed strength criterion is compared against existing criteria in the literature, which shows that it provides a much improved prediction of the experimental data, for a wide range of suction values.

  16. Integrated double mulching practices optimizes soil temperature and improves soil water utilization in arid environments (United States)

    Yin, Wen; Feng, Fuxue; Zhao, Cai; Yu, Aizhong; Hu, Falong; Chai, Qiang; Gan, Yantai; Guo, Yao


    Water shortage threatens agricultural sustainability in many arid and semiarid areas of the world. It is unknown whether improved water conservation practices can be developed to alleviate this issue while increasing crop productivity. In this study, we developed a "double mulching" system, i.e., plastic film coupled with straw mulch, integrated together with intensified strip intercropping. We determined (i) the responses of soil evaporation and moisture conservation to the integrated double mulching system and (ii) the change of soil temperature during key plant growth stages under the integrated systems. Experiments were carried out in northwest China in 2009 to 2011. Results show that wheat-maize strip intercropping in combination with plastic film and straw covering on the soil surface increased soil moisture (mm) by an average of 3.8 % before sowing, 5.3 % during the wheat and maize co-growth period, 4.4 % after wheat harvest, and 4.9 % after maize harvest, compared to conventional practice (control). The double mulching decreased total evapotranspiration of the two intercrops by an average of 4.6 % ( P < 0.05), compared to control. An added feature was that the double mulching system decreased soil temperature in the top 10-cm depth by 1.26 to 1.31 °C in the strips of the cool-season wheat, and by 1.31 to 1.51 °C in the strips of the warm-season maize through the 2 years. Soil temperature of maize strips higher as 1.25 to 1.94 °C than that of wheat strips in the top 10-cm soil depth under intercropping with the double mulching system; especially higher as 1.58 to 2.11 °C under intercropping with the conventional tillage; this allows the two intercrops to grow in a well "collaborative" status under the double mulching system during their co-growth period. The improvement of soil moisture and the optimization of soil temperature for the two intercrops allow us to conclude that wheat-maize intensification with the double mulching system can be used as an

  17. Herbicide monitoring in soil, runoff waters and sediments in an olive orchard. (United States)

    Calderon, Maria Jesus; De Luna, Elena; Gomez, Jose Alfonso; Hermosin, M Carmen


    Occurrences of surface water contamination by herbicides in areas where olive orchards are established reveal a need to understand soil processes affecting herbicide fate at field scale for this popular Mediterranean crop. A monitoring study with two herbicides (terbuthylazine and oxyfluorfen) in the first 2cm of soil, runoff waters, and sediments, was carried out after under natural rainfall conditions following winter herbicide application. At the end of the 107day field experiment, no residues of the soil applied terbuthylazine were recovered, whereas 42% of the oxyfluorfen applied remained in the top soil. Very low levels of both herbicides were measured in runoff waters; however, concentrations were slightly higher for terbuthylazine (0.53% of applied) than for oxyfluorfen (0.03% of applied), relating to their respective water solubilities. Congruent with soil residue data, 38.15% of the applied oxyfluorfen was found in runoff-sediment, compared to only 0.46% for terbuthylazine. Accordingly, the herbicide soil distribution coefficients measured within runoff field tanks was much greater for oxyfluorfen (Kd=3098) than for terbuthylazine (Kd=1.57). The herbicide oxyfluorfen is co-transported with sediment in runoff, remaining trapped and/or adsorbed to soil particle aggregates, due in part to its low water solubility. In contrast, terbuthylazine soil dissipation may be associated more so with leaching processes, favored by its high water solubility, low sorption, and slow degradation. By comparing these two herbicides, our results reaffirm the importance of herbicide physico-chemical properties in dictating their behavior in soil and also suggest that herbicides with low solubility, as seen in the case oxyfluorfen, remain susceptible to offsite transport associated with sediments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Percolation theory and its application for interpretation of soil water retention curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodesova, R.


    The soil porous system has traditionally been deduced from the soil-water retention curve with the assumption of homogeneity and free accessibility of pores, defined as capillary tubes, from the sink/source of water. But real soil fabric is mostly characterized by aggregates. In this case, the soil porous system cannot be modeled as a homogeneous one. To examine the differences between homogeneous and heterogeneous soil porous systems, we studied two types of soils: sandy soil and coarse sandy soil. We applied image processing filters and the ARC/INFO Grid module to analyze pore sizes in both soils from their electron microscope images taken at two different magnifications. We used the resulting pore-size distribution data to generate 3-D porous media consisting of pores and throats. The homogeneous pore structure was created as a mono-modal pore-throat network with one pore-size distribution. The heterogeneous pore structure was designed as a bi-modal pore-throat network with two pore-size distributions, where the pore sizes were hierarchically arranged in the nodes of the network. We applied the percolation model to simulate water and air displacement in these networks. The distribution of water in the nodes of the networks was studied increasing/decreasing steps of pressure head and the drainage and wetting branches of the retention curves were evaluated. The soil-water retention curves modeled for the mono-modal and bi-modal porous systems had different characters. The simulated shape of the retention curve in the mono-modal case was close to the step-like form of a retention curve characteristic of unstructured soil. The shape of the simulated retention curve in the bi-modal case was smoother, more gradual, and closer to the shape of the retention curve of a real, structured soil. (author)

  19. Study on soil-water retention curves for loess aerated zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Zede; Cheng Jinru; Deng An; Masayuki Mukai; Hideo Kamiyama


    The author introduces the measuring method and results of soil-water retention curves of 46 samples taken from ground surface to water table of 28 m depth at CIRP's Field Test Site. The results indicate that the soil-water retention characteristics vary significantly with depth, and the loess-aerated zone at the site can be divided into five layers. From the results, unsaturated hydraulic parameters are deduced, such as conductivity, specific water capacity and equivalent pore diameter. The water velocity calculated from these parameters is satisfactorily consistent with that one obtained from 3 H tracing test carried out at the site

  20. Underground waters and soil contamination studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Vinicius V.M.; Camargos, Claudio C.; Santos, Rosana A.M.


    Maybe the greatest problem associated to the nuclear energy is what to do with the waste generated. As example, in Portugal, two of the most important of uranium mines produced a significant amount of waste, now deposited in several storage facilities. To evaluate the impacts generated, samples of water, sediments and soils were analyzed. The space distribution of these samples revealed that the contamination is restricted in the vicinity of the mining areas, and the biggest problem happened due to the illegal use of waters for irrigation, originated from the mine effluents treatment stations. In Brazil, the radioactive waste remains a problem for the authorities and population, since there is not until now a final repository to storage them. The objective of this work is to do studies with the software FRAC3DVS, which simulates the contamination of soils and underground waters due to radioactive and no radioactive sources of pollution. The obtained results show that this tool can help in environmental evaluations and decision making processes in the site selection of a radioactive waste repository. (author)

  1. Relating soil microbial activity to water content and tillage-induced differences in soil structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjønning, Per; Thomsen, Ingrid Kaag; Petersen, Søren O


    Several studies have identified optima in soil water content for aerobic microbial activity, and this has been ascribed to a balance between gas and solute diffusivity as limiting processes. We investigated the role of soil structure, as created by different tillage practices (moldboard ploughing......, MP, or shallow tillage, ST), in regulating net nitrification, applied here as an index of aerobic microbial activity. Intact soil cores were collected at 0–4 and 14–18 cm depth from a fine sandy (SAND) and a loamy (LOAM) soil. The cores were drained to one of seven matric potentials ranging from − 15...... content to a maximum and then decreased. This relationship was modelled with a second order polynomium. Model parameters did not show any tillage effect on the optimum water content, but the optimum coincided with a lower matric potential in ST (SAND: − 140 to –197 hPa; LOAM: − 37 to − 65 hPa) than in MP...

  2. New methods For Modeling Transport Of Water And Solutes In Soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møldrup, Per

    Recent models for water and solute transport in unsaturated soils have been mechanistically based but numerically very involved. This dissertation concerns the development of mechanistically-based but numerically simple models for calculating and analyzing transport of water and solutes in soil...

  3. Heat and Water Transport in Soils and Across the Soil-Atmosphere Interface: Comparison of Model Concepts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vanderborght, Jan; Smits, Kathleen; Mosthaf, Klaus

    Evaporation from the soil surface represents a water flow and transport process in a porous medium that is coupled with free air flow and with heat fluxes in the system. We give an overview of different model concepts that are used to describe this process. These range from non-isothermal two......-phase flow two-component transport in the porous medium that is coupled with one-phase flow two-component transport in the free air to isothermal water flow in the porous with upper boundary conditions defined by a potential evaporation flux when available energy and transfer to the free air flow...... models were found. The effect of vapor flow in the porous medium on cumulative evaporation could be evaluated using the desorptivity, Sevap, which represents a weighted average of liquid and vapor diffusivity over the range of soil water contents between the soil surface water content and the initial...

  4. Soil water dynamics and evapotranspiration of forage cactus clones under rainfed conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thieres George Freire da Silva


    Full Text Available Abstract: The objective of this work was to evaluate soil water dynamics in areas cultivated with forage cactus clones and to determine how environmental conditions and crop growth affect evapotranspiration. The study was conducted in the municipality of Serra Talhada, in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil. Crop growth was monitored through changes in the cladode area index (CAI and through the soil cover fraction, calculated at the end of the cycle. Real evapotranspiration (ET of the three evaluated clones was obtained as the residual term in the soil water balance method. No difference was observed between soil water balance components, even though the evaluated clones were of different genus and had different CAI increments. Accumulated ET was of 1,173 mm during the 499 days of the experiment, resulting in daily average of 2.35 mm. The CAI increases the water consumption of the Orelha de Elefante Mexicana clone. In dry conditions, the water consumption of the Miúda clone responds more slowly to variation in soil water availability. The lower evolution of the CAI of the IPA Sertânia clone, during the rainy season, leads to a higher contribution of the evaporation component in ET. The atmospheric demand controls the ET of clones only when there is higher soil water availability; in this condition, the water consumption of the Miúda clone decreases more rapidly with the increase of atmospheric demand.

  5. Evaluation of Physicochemical Characteristics of Water and Soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    analysis of the Soil and water samples shows traces of heavy metals when compared ... The research thus point out the need for environmental Education and proper ..... Macro invertebrate community pattems and diversity in relation to water ...

  6. The chemistry of salt-affected soils and waters (United States)

    Knowledge of the chemistry of salt affected soils and waters is necessary for management of irrigation in arid and semi-arid regions. In this chapter we review the origin of salts in the landscape, the major chemical reactions necessary for prediction of the soil solution composition, and the use of...

  7. Optimization of radioactivation analysis for the determination of iodine, bromine, and chlorine contents in soils, plants, soil solutions and rain water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuita, Kouichi


    The conventional analytical procedures for iodine, bromine and chlorine in soils, plants, soil solutions and rain water, especially in the former two, have not been sufficient in their accuracy and sensitivity. With emphasis on the radioactivation analysis known to be a highly accurate analytical method, practical radioactivation procedures with high sensitivity, accurate and covenient, have been investigated for the determination of the three halogen elements in various soils and plants and of the three contained in extremely low concentrations in soil solutions and rain water. Consequently, the following methods were able to be established: (1) non-destructive radioactivation analysis without the chemical separation of bromine and chlorine in plants, soil solutions and rain water; (2) radioactivation analysis by group separating, simultaneous determination of iodine, bromine and chlorine in soils; (3) highsensitivity radioactivation analysis for iodine in plants, soil solutions and rain water. A manual for the analytical procedures was prepared accordingly. (Mori, K.)

  8. Soil Water Balance and Irrigation Strategies in an Agricultural District of Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Ventrella


    Full Text Available An efficient management of water resources is considered very important for Mediterranean regions of Italy in order to improve the economical and environmental sustainability of the agricultural activity. The purpose of this study is to analyze the components of soil water balance in an important district included in the regions of Basilicata and Puglia and situated in the Jonical coastal area of Southern Italy and mainly cropped with horticultural crops. The study was performed by using the spatially distributed and physically based model SIMODIS in order to individuate the best irrigation management maximizing the water use efficiency and minimizing water losses by deep percolation and soil evaporation. SIMODIS was applied taking in to account the soil spatial variability and localization of cadastral units for two crops, durum wheat and water melon. For water melon recognition in 2007 a remote sensed image, from SPOT5 satellite, at the spatial resolution of 10 m, has been used. In 2008, a multi-temporal data set was available, from SPOT5 satellite to produce a land cover map for the classes water melon and durum wheat. Water melon cultivation was simulated adopting different water supply managements: rainfed and four irrigation strategies based on (i soil water availability and (ii plant water status adopting a threshold daily stress value. For each management, several water management indicators were calculated and mapped in GIS environment. For seasonal irrigation depth, actual evapotranspiration and irrigation efficiency were also determined. The analysis allowed to individuate the areas particularly sensitive to water losses by deep percolation because of their hydraulic functions characterized by low water retention and large values of saturated hydraulic conductivity. For these areas, the irrigation based on plant water status caused very high water losses by drainage. On the contrary, the irrigation scheduled on soil base allowed to

  9. Evaluating the Performance of a Surface Barrier on Reducing Soil-Water Flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Z. F.; Strickland, Christopher E.; Field, Jim G.; Parker, Danny L.; Clayton, Ray E.


    One of the most common effective techniques for contaminant remediation in the vadose zone is to use a surface barrier to reduce or eliminate soil-water flow to reduce the contaminant flux to the underlying groundwater. Confirming the reduction of the soil-water flux rate is challenging because of the difficulty of determining the very low soil-water flux beneath the barrier. We propose a hydraulic-conductivity factor, fK, as a conservative indicator for quantifying the reduction of soil-water flow. The factor can be calculated using the measured soil-water content or pressure but does not require the knowledge of the saturated hydraulic conductivity or the hydraulic gradient. The formulas were tested by comparing with changes in hydraulic conductivity, K, from a drainage experiment. The pressure-based formula was further applied to evaluate the performance of the interim surface barrier at T Tank Farm on Hanford Site. Three years after barrier emplacement, the hydraulic conductivity decreased by a factor between 3.8 and 13.0 at the 1-, 2- and 5-m depths. The difference between the conductivity-reduction factor and the flux-rate-reduction factor, fq, was quantified with a numerical simulation. With the calculated fK, the numerically determined fK/fq ratio, and the assumed pre-barrier soil-water flux rate of 100 mm yr-1, the estimated soil-water flux rate 3 years after barrier emplacement was no more than 8.5 mm yr-1 at or above the 5-m depth.

  10. Water-soluble organo-building blocks of aminoclay as a soil-flushing agent for heavy metal contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young-Chul [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering (BK21 program), KAIST, 335 Gwahak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Eun Jung [Advanced Biomass R and D Center, KAIST, 291 Daehakno, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Dong Ah [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering (BK21 program), KAIST, 335 Gwahak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Ji-Won, E-mail: [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering (BK21 program), KAIST, 335 Gwahak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Advanced Biomass R and D Center, KAIST, 291 Daehakno, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Aminoclays have synthesized using centered metals with aminopropyl silane. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Developed aminoclay has unique nano-sized and water-soluble properties. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Aminoclay showed high heavy metal capacity with metal ions and its less toxicity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Aminoclay could be used to remediate heavy metals from soils an alternative soil-flushing agent. - Abstract: We demonstrated that water-soluble aminopropyl magnesium functionalized phyllosilicate could be used as a soil-flushing agent for heavy metal contaminated soils. Soil flushing has been an attractive means to remediate heavy metal contamination because it is less disruptive to the soil environment after the treatment was performed. However, development of efficient and non-toxic soil-flushing agents is still required. We have synthesized aminoclays with three different central metal ions such as magnesium, aluminum, and ferric ions and investigated applicability of aminoclays as soil flushing agents. Among them, magnesium (Mg)-centered aminoclay showed the smallest size distribution and superior water solubility, up to 100 mg/mL. Mg aminoclay exhibited cadmium and lead binding capacity of 26.50 and 91.31 mg/g of Mg clay, respectively, at near neutral pH, but it showed negligible binding affinity to metals in acidic conditions. For soil flushing with Mg clay at neutral pH showed cadmium and lead were efficiently extracted from soils by Mg clay, suggesting strong binding ability of Mg clay with cadmium and lead. As the organic matter and clay compositions increased in the soil, the removal efficiency by Mg clay decreased and the operation time increased.

  11. [Assessment of the impacts of soil erosion on water environment based on the integration of soil erosion process and landscape pattern]. (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Wu, Bing-Fang; Zeng, Yuan; Zhang, Lei


    The integration of the effects of landscape pattern to the assessment of the impacts of soil erosion on eco-environmental is of practical significance in methodological prospect, being able to provide an approach for identifying water body's sediment source area, assessing the potential risks of sediment export of on-site soil erosion to the target water body, and evaluating the capacity of regional landscape pattern in preventing soil loss. In this paper, the RUSLE model was applied to simulate the on-site soil erosion rate. With the consideration of the soil retention potential of vegetation cover and topography, a quantitative assessment was conducted on the impacts of soil erosion in the water source region of the middle route for South-to-North Water Transfer Project on rivers and reservoirs by delineating landscape pattern at point (or cell) scale and sub-watershed level. At point (or grid cell) scale, the index of soil erosion impact intensity (I) was developed as an indicator of the potential risk of sediment export to the water bodies. At sub-watershed level, the landscape leakiness index (LI) was employed to indicate the sediment retention capacity of a given landscape pattern. The results revealed that integrating the information of landscape pattern and the indices of soil erosion process could spatially effectively reflect the impact intensity of in situ soil erosion on water bodies. The LI was significantly exponentially correlated to the mean sediment retention capacity of landscape and the mean vegetation coverage of watershed, and the sediment yield at sub-watershed scale was significantly correlated to the LI in an exponential regression. It could be concluded that the approach of delineating landscape pattern based on soil erosion process and the integration of the information of landscape pattern with its soil retention potential could provide a new approach for the risk evaluation of soil erosion.

  12. Relations between soil surface roughness, tortuosity, tillage treatments, rainfall intensity and soil and water losses from a red yellow latosol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julieta Bramorski


    Full Text Available The soil surface roughness increases water retention and infiltration, reduces the runoff volume and speed and influences soil losses by water erosion. Similarly to other parameters, soil roughness is affected by the tillage system and rainfall volume. Based on these assumptions, the main purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of tillage treatments on soil surface roughness (RR and tortuosity (T and to investigate the relationship with soil and water losses in a series of simulated rainfall events. The field study was carried out at the experimental station of EMBRAPA Southeastern Cattle Research Center in São Carlos (Fazenda Canchim, in São Paulo State, Brazil. Experimental plots of 33 m² were treated with two tillage practices in three replications, consisting of: untilled (no-tillage soil (NTS and conventionally tilled (plowing plus double disking soil (CTS. Three successive simulated rain tests were applied in 24 h intervals. The three tests consisted of a first rain of 30 mm/h, a second of 30 mm/h and a third rain of 70 mm/h. Immediately after tilling and each rain simulation test, the surface roughness was measured, using a laser profile meter. The tillage treatments induced significant changes in soil surface roughness and tortuosity, demonstrating the importance of the tillage system for the physical surface conditions, favoring water retention and infiltration in the soil. The increase in surface roughness by the tillage treatments was considerably greater than its reduction by rain action. The surface roughness and tortuosity had more influence on the soil volume lost by surface runoff than in the conventional treatment. Possibly, other variables influenced soil and water losses from the no-tillage treatments, e.g., soil type, declivity, slope length, among others not analyzed in this study.

  13. Tritium sorption behavior on the percolation of tritiated water into a soil packed bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furuichi, Kazuya, E-mail: [Department of Advanced Energy Engineering, Kyushu University, 6-1, Kasuga-koen, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Katayama, Kazunari; Date, Hiroyuki [Department of Advanced Energy Engineering, Kyushu University, 6-1, Kasuga-koen, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Takeishi, Toshiharu [Factory of Engineering, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Fukada, Satoshi [Department of Advanced Energy Engineering, Kyushu University, 6-1, Kasuga-koen, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan)


    Highlights: • We establish the permeation model of tritiated water in the soil layer. • Saturated hydraulic conductivity of water in soil was gained by using the model. • The isotope exchange reaction coefficient was good agreement with experimental data. - Abstract: Development of tritium transport model in natural soil is an important issue from a viewpoint of safety of fusion reactors. The spill of a large amount of tritiated water to the environment is a concern accident because huge tritiated water is handled in a fusion plant. In this work, a simple tritium transport model was proposed based on the tritium transport model in porous materials. The overall mass transfer coefficient representing isotope exchange reaction between tritiated water and structural water in soil particles was obtained by numerically analyzing the result of the percolation experiment of tritiated water into the soil packed bed. Saturated hydraulic conductivity in the natural soil packed bed was obtained to be 0.033 mm/s. By using this value, the overall mass transfer capacity coefficients representing the isotope exchange reaction between tritiated water percolating through the packed bed and overall structural water on soil particles was determined to be 6.0 × 10{sup −4} 1/s. This value is much smaller than the mass transfer capacity coefficient between tritiated water vapor and water on concrete material and metals.

  14. Gallium interstitial contributions to diffusion in gallium arsenide (United States)

    Schick, Joseph T.; Morgan, Caroline G.


    A new diffusion path is identified for gallium interstitials, which involves lower barriers than the barriers for previously identified diffusion paths [K. Levasseur-Smith and N. Mousseau, J. Appl. Phys. 103, 113502 (2008), P. A. Schultz and O. A. von Lilienfeld, Modelling and Simulation in Materials Science and Engineering 17, 084007 (2009)] for the charge states which dominate diffusion over most of the available range of Fermi energies. This path passes through the ⟨110⟩ gallium-gallium split interstitial configuration, and has a particularly low diffusion barrier of 0.35 eV for diffusion in the neutral charge state. As a part of this work, the character of the charge states for the gallium interstitials which are most important for diffusion is investigated, and it is shown that the last electron bound to the neutral interstitial occupies a shallow hydrogenic bound state composed of conduction band states for the hexagonal interstitial and both tetrahedral interstitials. How to properly account for the contributions of such interstitials is discussed for density-functional calculations with a k-point mesh not including the conduction band edge point. Diffusion barriers for gallium interstitials are calculated in all the charge states which can be important for a Fermi level anywhere in the gap, q = 0, +1, +2, and +3, for diffusion via the ⟨110⟩ gallium-gallium split interstitial configuration and via the hexagonal interstitial configuration. The lowest activation enthalpies over most of the available range of Fermi energies are found to correspond to diffusion in the neutral or singly positive state via the ⟨110⟩ gallium-gallium split interstitial configuration. It is shown that several different charge states and diffusion paths contribute significantly for Fermi levels within 0.2 eV above the valence band edge, which may help to explain some of the difficulties [H. Bracht and S. Brotzmann, Phys. Rev. B 71, 115216 (2005)] which have been

  15. Seasonal Effects on the Relationships Between Soil Water Content, Pore Water Pressure and Shear Strength and Their Implications for Slope Stability (United States)

    Hughes, P. N.


    A soil's shear resistance is mainly dependent upon the magnitude of effective stress. For small to medium height slopes (up to 10m) in clay soils the total stress acting along potential failure planes will be low, therefore the magnitude of effective stress (and hence soil shear strength) will be dominated by the pore-water pressure. The stability of slopes on this scale through periods of increased precipitation is improved by the generation of negative pore pressures (soil suctions) during preceding, warmer, drier periods. These negative pore water pressures increase the effective stress within the soil and cause a corresponding increase in shearing resistance. The relationships between soil water content and pore water pressure (soil water retention curves) are known to be hysteretic, but for the purposes of the majority of slope stability assessments in partially saturated clay soils, these are assumed to be consistent with time. Similarly, the relationship between shear strength and water content is assumed to be consistent over time. This research presents a laboratory study in which specimens of compacted Glacial Till (typical of engineered slopes within the UK) were subjected to repeated cycles of wetting and drying to simulate seasonal cycles. At predetermined water contents, measurements of soil suction were made using tensiometer and dewpoint potentiometer methods. The undrained shear strength of the specimens was then measured using triaxial strength testing equipment. Results indicate that repeated wetting and drying cycles caused a change in the soil water retention behaviour. A reduction in undrained shear strength at corresponding water contents along the wetting and drying paths was also observed. The mechanism for the change in the relationship is believed to be a deterioration in the soil physical structure due to shrink/swell induced micro-cracking. The non-stationarity of these relationships has implications for slope stability assessment.

  16. Root water extraction and limiting soil hydraulic conditions estimated by numerical simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong van Lier, de Q.; Metselaar, K.; Dam, van J.C.


    Root density, soil hydraulic functions, and hydraulic head gradients play an important role in the determination of transpiration-rate-limiting soil water contents. We developed an implicit numerical root water extraction model to solve the Richards equation for the modeling of radial root water

  17. Effect of Nano-Carbon on Water Holding Capacity in a Sandy Soil of the Loess Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beibei Zhou


    Full Text Available The poor water retention capacity of sandy soils commonly aggregate soil erosion and ecological environment on the Chinese Loess Plateau. Due to its strong capacity for absorption and large specific surface area, the use of nanocarbon made of coconut shell as a soil amendment that could improve water retention was investigated. Soil column experiments were conducted in which a layer of nanocarbon mixed well with the soil was formed at a depth of 20 cm below the soil surface. Four different nanocarbon contents by weight (0%, 0.1%, 0.5%, and 1% and five thicknesses of the nanocarbon- soil mixture layer ranging from 1 to 5 cm were considered. Cumulative infiltration and soil water content distributions were determined when water was added to soil columns. Soil Water Characteristic Curves (SWCC were obtained using the centrifuge method. The principal results showed that the infiltration rate and cumulative infiltration increased with the increases of nanocarbon contents, to the thicknesses of the nano carbon-soil mixture layer. Soil water contents that below the soil-nano carbon layer decreased sharply. Both the Brooks-Corey and van Genuchten models could describe well the SWCC of the disturbed sandy soil with various nano carbon contents. Both the saturated water content (θs, residual water content (θr and empirical parameter (α increased with increasing nano carbon content, while the pore-size distribution parameter (n decreased. The available soil water contents were efficiently increased with the increase in nanocarbon contents.

  18. Radon in Soil and Tap Water in Lika-Senj County

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krpan, I.; Miklavcic, I.; Muzevic, I.; Poje, M.; Radolic, V.; Stanic, D.; Vukovic, B.; Petrinec, B.


    Radon concentration in soil and water in settlements of Lika-Senj County was measured in September 2012 with the Alpha GUARD measuring system. The measured values of radon concentrations in soil at 19 locations were in range from 12.6 (Novalja) to 258.7 kBq/m 3 (Plitvièka Jezera) with the mean of 83.5 kBq/m 3 and standard deviation of 69.3 kBq/m 3 . The obtained average value puts the soil of Lika-Senj County, and according to the used soil classification, into soil of medium geogenic radon potential. It is important to emphasize that radon concentration exceeds the value of 100 kBq m -3 in one third of the measured locations which classifies those areas into areas with high geogenic radon potential. Other radionuclides in soil (40K, 137Cs, 226Ra, 238U, 232Th) were also measured and their values were commented and correlated with the values of radon and thoron. Radon concentrations in the municipal water supply systems of Lika-Senj County were in range from 0.2 Bq/l (Otocac) to 11.2 Bq/l (Gospiæ). The highest value was ten times lower than the usual reference level of 100 Bq/l. The estimated maximum annual radon dose, for children, received by drinking water (75 liters per year) from the municipal water supply Gospiæ is 2.9 μSv.(author)

  19. Soil hydrology of agroforestry systems: Competition for water or positive tree-crops interactions? (United States)

    Gerjets, Rowena; Richter, Falk; Jansen, Martin; Carminati, Andrea


    In dry periods during the growing season crops may suffer from severe water stress. The question arises whether the alternation of crop and tree strips might enhance and sustain soil water resources available for crops during drought events. Trees reduce wind exposure, decreasing the potential evapotranspiration of crops and soils; additionally hydraulic lift from the deep roots of trees to the drier top soil might provide additional water for shallow-rooted crops. To understand the above and belowground water relations of agroforestry systems, we measured soil moisture and soil water potential in crop strips as a function of distance to the trees at varying depth as well as meteorological parameters. At the agroforestry site Reiffenhausen, Lower Saxony, Germany, two different tree species are planted, each in one separated tree strip: willow breed Tordis ((Salix viminalis x Salix Schwerinii) x Salix viminalis) and poplar clone Max 1 (Populus nigra x Populus maximowiczii). In between the tree strips a crop strip of 24 m width was established with annual crop rotation, managed the same way as the reference site. During a drought period in May 2016 with less than 2 mm rain in four weeks, an overall positive effect on hydrological conditions of the agroforestry system was observed. The results show that trees shaded the soil surface, lowering the air temperature and further increasing the soil moisture in the crop strips compared to the reference site, which was located far from the trees. At the reference site the crops took up water in the upper soil (sunlight. The two tree species behaved differently. The poplar strips showed more marked diurnal changes in soil water potential, with fast drying during daytime and rewetting during nighttime. We suppose that the rewetting during nighttime was caused by hydraulic lift, which supports passively the drier upper soil with water from the wetter, lower soil layers. This experimental study shows the importance of above- and

  20. Multiscale Bayesian neural networks for soil water content estimation (United States)

    Jana, Raghavendra B.; Mohanty, Binayak P.; Springer, Everett P.


    Artificial neural networks (ANN) have been used for some time now to estimate soil hydraulic parameters from other available or more easily measurable soil properties. However, most such uses of ANNs as pedotransfer functions (PTFs) have been at matching spatial scales (1:1) of inputs and outputs. This approach assumes that the outputs are only required at the same scale as the input data. Unfortunately, this is rarely true. Different hydrologic, hydroclimatic, and contaminant transport models require soil hydraulic parameter data at different spatial scales, depending upon their grid sizes. While conventional (deterministic) ANNs have been traditionally used in these studies, the use of Bayesian training of ANNs is a more recent development. In this paper, we develop a Bayesian framework to derive soil water retention function including its uncertainty at the point or local scale using PTFs trained with coarser-scale Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO)-based soil data. The approach includes an ANN trained with Bayesian techniques as a PTF tool with training and validation data collected across spatial extents (scales) in two different regions in the United States. The two study areas include the Las Cruces Trench site in the Rio Grande basin of New Mexico, and the Southern Great Plains 1997 (SGP97) hydrology experimental region in Oklahoma. Each region-specific Bayesian ANN is trained using soil texture and bulk density data from the SSURGO database (scale 1:24,000), and predictions of the soil water contents at different pressure heads with point scale data (1:1) inputs are made. The resulting outputs are corrected for bias using both linear and nonlinear correction techniques. The results show good agreement between the soil water content values measured at the point scale and those predicted by the Bayesian ANN-based PTFs for both the study sites. Overall, Bayesian ANNs coupled with nonlinear bias correction are found to be very suitable tools for deriving soil

  1. Stabilization of arsenic and chromium polluted soils using water treatment residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sanne Skov

    water and can be used as a soil amendment to decrease the mobility of CCA in contaminated soil. Stabilization with Fe-WTR was tested at the Collstrop site in Hillerød, Denmark. The site has been polluted with a wide range of wood impregnation agents including CCA during 40 years of wood impregnating...... of contaminants. Arsenic, chromium and copper cannot be degraded and existing methods for cleaning the soil are rarely used as they are expensive and technically demanding. Chemical stabilization of polluted soil is an alternative method for soil remediation, especially metal contamination, and consists in adding...... or other sorbents. Iron water treatment residues mainly consist of ferrihydrite, an oxidized iron oxy-hydroxide with a high reactivity and a large specific surface area with a high capacity for adsorption. Iron water treatment residues (Fe-WTR) are a by-product from treatment of groundwater to drinking...

  2. Measurement and inference of profile soil-water dynamics at different hillslope positions in a semiarid agricultural watershed (United States)

    Green, Timothy R.; Erskine, Robert H.


    Dynamics of profile soil water vary with terrain, soil, and plant characteristics. The objectives addressed here are to quantify dynamic soil water content over a range of slope positions, infer soil profile water fluxes, and identify locations most likely influenced by multidimensional flow. The instrumented 56 ha watershed lies mostly within a dryland (rainfed) wheat field in semiarid eastern Colorado. Dielectric capacitance sensors were used to infer hourly soil water content for approximately 8 years (minus missing data) at 18 hillslope positions and four or more depths. Based on previous research and a new algorithm, sensor measurements (resonant frequency) were rescaled to estimate soil permittivity, then corrected for temperature effects on bulk electrical conductivity before inferring soil water content. Using a mass-conservation method, we analyzed multitemporal changes in soil water content at each sensor to infer the dynamics of water flux at different depths and landscape positions. At summit positions vertical processes appear to control profile soil water dynamics. At downslope positions infrequent overland flow and unsaturated subsurface lateral flow appear to influence soil water dynamics. Crop water use accounts for much of the variability in soil water between transects that are either cropped or fallow in alternating years, while soil hydraulic properties and near-surface hydrology affect soil water variability across landscape positions within each management zone. The observed spatiotemporal patterns exhibit the joint effects of short-term hydrology and long-term soil development. Quantitative methods of analyzing soil water patterns in space and time improve our understanding of dominant soil hydrological processes and provide alternative measures of model performance.

  3. Creation of Soil Water and Physical data base and its inclusion in a new version of GIS of Soil Resources Attributive Table

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolev, Boyko


    For better using of GIS of Soil Resources a new version of the attributive table formation was created. This makes possible soil, physical, and water properties to be included into the table. The simulation procedure for soil hydro-physical properties determination was realized by using the soil particle size distribution data only. This develops a calculation algorithm for soil water content dynamic monitoring, which was realized for some of Bulgarian soils. The main aims of the study are: To demonstrate the usefulness of the new version of the attributive table formation. To show how the simulation model can be applied for environment conditions monitoring and agricultural production management. Keywords: environment conditions, simulation model, soil moisture at field capacity, wilting point, effective soil water content, particle size distribution

  4. Water on Mars: Evidence from MER Mission Results (United States)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.


    The Viking and the Mars Exploration Rover missions observed that the surface of Mars is encrusted by a thinly cemented layer, or "duricrust". Elemental analyzes at five sites on Mars show that these soils have sulfur content and chlorine content consistent with the presence of sulfates and halides as mineral cements. The soil is highly enriched in the salt-forming elements compared with rock. Analysis of the soil cementation indicates some features which may be evidence of liquid water. At both MER sites, duricrust textures revealed by the Microscopic Imager show features including the presence of fine sand-sized grains, some of which may be aggregates of fine silt and clay, surrounded by a pervasive light colored material that is associated with microtubular structures and networks of microfractures. Stereo views of undisturbed duricrust surfaces reveal rugged microrelief between 2-3 mm and minimal loose material. Comparisons of microscopic images of duricrust soils obtain before and after placement of the Mossbauer spectrometer indicate differing degrees of compaction and cementation. Two models of a transient water hypothesis are offered, a "top down" hypothesis that emphasizes the surface deposition of frost, melting and downward migration of liquid water and a "bottom up" alternative that proposes the presence of interstitial ice/brine, with the upward capillary migration of liquid water. The viability of both of these models ultimately hinges on the availability of seasonally transient liquid water for brief periods.

  5. A rapid method for measuring soil water content in the field with a areometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calbo Adonai Gimenez


    Full Text Available The availability of a rapid method to evaluate the soil water content (U can be an important tool to determine the moment to irrigate. The soil areometer consists of an elongated hydrostatic balance with a weighing pan, a graduated neck, a float and a pynometric flask. In this work an areometer was adapted to rapidly measure soil water content without the need of drying the soil. The expression U = (M A - M AD/(M M -M A was used to calculate the soil water content. In this equation M M is the mass to level the areometer with the pycnometric flask filled with water, M A the mass to level the areometer with a mass M M of soil in the pycnometer, the volume being completed with water, and similarly M AD the mass added to the pan to level the areometer with a mass M M of dried soil in the pycnometric flask. The convenience of this method is that the values M M and M AD are known. Consequently, the decision on irrigation can be made after a measurement that takes, about, ten minutes. The procedure involves only stirring the soil with water for at least 2 minutes to remove the adhered air. The soil water content data obtained with the areometric method were similar to those obtained weighing the soil before and after drying to constant weight, in an oven at 105º C.

  6. Modeling temporal and large-scale spatial variability of soil respiration from soil water availability, temperature and vegetation productivity indices (United States)

    Reichstein, Markus; Rey, Ana; Freibauer, Annette; Tenhunen, John; Valentini, Riccardo; Banza, Joao; Casals, Pere; Cheng, Yufu; Grünzweig, Jose M.; Irvine, James; Joffre, Richard; Law, Beverly E.; Loustau, Denis; Miglietta, Franco; Oechel, Walter; Ourcival, Jean-Marc; Pereira, Joao S.; Peressotti, Alessandro; Ponti, Francesca; Qi, Ye; Rambal, Serge; Rayment, Mark; Romanya, Joan; Rossi, Federica; Tedeschi, Vanessa; Tirone, Giampiero; Xu, Ming; Yakir, Dan


    Field-chamber measurements of soil respiration from 17 different forest and shrubland sites in Europe and North America were summarized and analyzed with the goal to develop a model describing seasonal, interannual and spatial variability of soil respiration as affected by water availability, temperature, and site properties. The analysis was performed at a daily and at a monthly time step. With the daily time step, the relative soil water content in the upper soil layer expressed as a fraction of field capacity was a good predictor of soil respiration at all sites. Among the site variables tested, those related to site productivity (e.g., leaf area index) correlated significantly with soil respiration, while carbon pool variables like standing biomass or the litter and soil carbon stocks did not show a clear relationship with soil respiration. Furthermore, it was evidenced that the effect of precipitation on soil respiration stretched beyond its direct effect via soil moisture. A general statistical nonlinear regression model was developed to describe soil respiration as dependent on soil temperature, soil water content, and site-specific maximum leaf area index. The model explained nearly two thirds of the temporal and intersite variability of soil respiration with a mean absolute error of 0.82 μmol m-2 s-1. The parameterized model exhibits the following principal properties: (1) At a relative amount of upper-layer soil water of 16% of field capacity, half-maximal soil respiration rates are reached. (2) The apparent temperature sensitivity of soil respiration measured as Q10 varies between 1 and 5 depending on soil temperature and water content. (3) Soil respiration under reference moisture and temperature conditions is linearly related to maximum site leaf area index. At a monthly timescale, we employed the approach by [2002] that used monthly precipitation and air temperature to globally predict soil respiration (T&P model). While this model was able to

  7. Modelling temporal and large-scale spatial variability of soil respiration from soil water availability, temperature and vegetation productivity indices (United States)

    Reichstein, M.; Rey, A.; Freibauer, A.; Tenhunen, J.; Valentini, R.; Soil Respiration Synthesis Team


    Field-chamber measurements of soil respiration from 17 different forest and shrubland sites in Europe and North America were summarized and analyzed with the goal to develop a model describing seasonal, inter-annual and spatial variability of soil respiration as affected by water availability, temperature and site properties. The analysis was performed at a daily and at a monthly time step. With the daily time step, the relative soil water content in the upper soil layer expressed as a fraction of field capacity was a good predictor of soil respiration at all sites. Among the site variables tested, those related to site productivity (e.g. leaf area index) correlated significantly with soil respiration, while carbon pool variables like standing biomass or the litter and soil carbon stocks did not show a clear relationship with soil respiration. Furthermore, it was evidenced that the effect of precipitation on soil respiration stretched beyond its direct effect via soil moisture. A general statistical non-linear regression model was developed to describe soil respiration as dependent on soil temperature, soil water content and site-specific maximum leaf area index. The model explained nearly two thirds of the temporal and inter-site variability of soil respiration with a mean absolute error of 0.82 µmol m-2 s-1. The parameterised model exhibits the following principal properties: 1) At a relative amount of upper-layer soil water of 16% of field capacity half-maximal soil respiration rates are reached. 2) The apparent temperature sensitivity of soil respiration measured as Q10 varies between 1 and 5 depending on soil temperature and water content. 3) Soil respiration under reference moisture and temperature conditions is linearly related to maximum site leaf area index. At a monthly time-scale we employed the approach by Raich et al. (2002, Global Change Biol. 8, 800-812) that used monthly precipitation and air temperature to globally predict soil respiration (T

  8. Soil water distribution on different number of growing years of alfalfa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Aug 30, 2010 ... dNational Engineering Research Center for Water-Saving and ... After alfalfa grew for >18 years, the annual recovery of its soil water at 0 - 200 cm soil depth was 1.49%, ... yield of following crops, or even lead to failure of the.

  9. Modeling of interstitial diffusion of ion-implanted boron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velichko, O.I.; Knyazheva, N.V.


    A model of the interstitial diffusion of ion-implanted boron during rapid thermal annealing of silicon layers previously amorphized by implantation of germanium has been proposed. It is supposed that the boron interstitials are created continuously during annealing due to generation, dissolution, or rearrangement of the clusters of impurity atoms which are formed in the ion-implanted layers with impurity concentration above the solubility limit. The local elastic stresses arising due to the difference of boron atomic radius and atomic radius of silicon also contribute to the generation of boron interstitials. A simulation of boron redistribution during thermal annealing for 60 s at a temperature of 850 C has been carried out. The calculated profile agrees well with the experimental data. A number of the parameters of interstitial diffusion have been derived. In particular, the average migration length of nonequilibrium boron interstitials is equal to 12 nm. It was also obtained that approximately 1.94% of boron atoms were converted to the interstitial sites, participated in the fast interstitial migration, and then became immobile again transferring into a substitutional position or forming the electrically inactive complexes with crystal lattice defects. (authors)

  10. Regulation of tumor invasion by interstitial fluid flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shieh, Adrian C; Swartz, Melody A


    The importance of the tumor microenvironment in cancer progression is undisputed, yet the significance of biophysical forces in the microenvironment remains poorly understood. Interstitial fluid flow is a nearly ubiquitous and physiologically relevant biophysical force that is elevated in tumors because of tumor-associated angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis, as well as changes in the tumor stroma. Not only does it apply physical forces to cells directly, but interstitial flow also creates gradients of soluble signals in the tumor microenvironment, thus influencing cell behavior and modulating cell–cell interactions. In this paper, we highlight our current understanding of interstitial fluid flow in the context of the tumor, focusing on the physical changes that lead to elevated interstitial flow, how cells sense flow and how they respond to changes in interstitial flow. In particular, we emphasize that interstitial flow can directly promote tumor cell invasion through a mechanism known as autologous chemotaxis, and indirectly support tumor invasion via both biophysical and biochemical cues generated by stromal cells. Thus, interstitial fluid flow demonstrates how important biophysical factors are in cancer, both by modulating cell behavior and coupling biophysical and biochemical signals

  11. Effects of soil water and nitrogen availability on photosynthesis and water use efficiency of Robinia pseudoacacia seedlings. (United States)

    Liu, Xiping; Fan, Yangyang; Long, Junxia; Wei, Ruifeng; Kjelgren, Roger; Gong, Chunmei; Zhao, Jun


    The efficient use of water and nitrogen (N) to promote growth and increase yield of fruit trees and crops is well studied. However, little is known about their effects on woody plants growing in arid and semiarid areas with limited water and N availability. To examine the effects of water and N supply on early growth and water use efficiency (WUE) of trees on dry soils, one-year-old seedlings of Robinia pseudoacacia were exposed to three soil water contents (non-limiting, medium drought, and severe drought) as well as to low and high N levels, for four months. Photosynthetic parameters, leaf instantaneous WUE (WUEi) and whole tree WUE (WUEb) were determined. Results showed that, independent of N levels, increasing soil water content enhanced the tree transpiration rate (Tr), stomatal conductance (Gs), intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci), maximum net assimilation rate (Amax), apparent quantum yield (AQY), the range of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) due to both reduced light compensation point and enhanced light saturation point, and dark respiration rate (Rd), resulting in a higher net photosynthetic rate (Pn) and a significantly increased whole tree biomass. Consequently, WUEi and WUEb were reduced at low N, whereas WUEi was enhanced at high N levels. Irrespective of soil water availability, N supply enhanced Pn in association with an increase of Gs and Ci and a decrease of the stomatal limitation value (Ls), while Tr remained unchanged. Biomass and WUEi increased under non-limiting water conditions and medium drought, as well as WUEb under all water conditions; but under severe drought, WUEi and biomass were not affected by N application. In conclusion, increasing soil water availability improves photosynthetic capacity and biomass accumulation under low and high N levels, but its effects on WUE vary with soil N levels. N supply increased Pn and WUE, but under severe drought, N supply did not enhance WUEi and biomass.

  12. Monitoring of water movement in paddy field's soil using a bromide tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asiah Ahmad; Kouichi Yuita


    Water movement in soils at the lower course and the middle course of Sakawa River's paddy field was monitored over an 8 week period using a bromide tracer. The water of soil samples taken one day after bromide application contained high concentrations of bromide at 50 to 60 cm soil depth at lower course. The bromide was concentrated promarily within 20 to 80 cm depth. No downward movement below 80 cm depth was detected six weeks afetr the application. This might indicate the high water table of this area. On the other hand, bromide concentrations were high at 50 cm depth in water of the soils sample taken one day after application from the middle course of Sakawa River plot. However, the concentrations were nearly at background level in all samples taken from the middle course of sakawa River 3 weeks after application. The evidence from bromide's movement shows that water readily penetrate the soils at the middle course of Sakawa River. The downward movement was faster compared to that at lower course

  13. Analyzing ecological restoration strategies for water and soil conservation (United States)

    Mota da Silva, Jonathan; Silva, Marx Leandro Naves; Guimarães, João Luis Bittencourt; Sousa Júnior, Wilson Cabral; Figueiredo, Ricardo de Oliveira; da Rocha, Humberto Ribeiro


    The choice of areas for nature conservation involves the attempt to maximize the benefits, whether by carrying out an economic activity or by the provision of Ecosystem Services. Studies are needed to improve the understanding of the effect of the extent and position along the watershed of restored areas on soil and water conservation. This study aimed to understand how different restoration strategies might reflect in soil conservation and sediment retention. Using InVEST tool, sediment transport was simulated in a small 12 km2 watershed (Posses River, in Southeast Brazil), where one of first Brazilian Payment for Ecosystem Services (PES) projects is being carried out, comparing different hypothetical restoration strategies. With 25% of restoration, sediment export decreased by 78% for riparian restoration, and 27% for the steepest slopes restoration. On the other hand, the decrease in soil loss was lower for riparian restoration, with a 16% decrease, while the steepest slopes restoration reduced it by 21%. This mismatch between the reduction of sediment export and soil loss was explained by the fact that forest not only reduces soil loss locally but also traps sediment arriving from the upper parts of the watershed. While the first mechanism is important to provide soil stability, decreasing the risk of landslip, and to maintain agricultural productivity, the second can improve water quality and decrease the risk of silting, with positive effects on the water reservoirs at the outlet of the watershed. This suggests that Riparian and the Steepest Slopes restoration strategies are complementary in the sense of preventing sediments from reaching the water bodies as well as protecting them at their origin (with the reduction of erosion), so it will be advisable to consider the two types of restoration. PMID:29425214

  14. Analyzing ecological restoration strategies for water and soil conservation. (United States)

    Saad, Sandra Isay; Mota da Silva, Jonathan; Silva, Marx Leandro Naves; Guimarães, João Luis Bittencourt; Sousa Júnior, Wilson Cabral; Figueiredo, Ricardo de Oliveira; Rocha, Humberto Ribeiro da


    The choice of areas for nature conservation involves the attempt to maximize the benefits, whether by carrying out an economic activity or by the provision of Ecosystem Services. Studies are needed to improve the understanding of the effect of the extent and position along the watershed of restored areas on soil and water conservation. This study aimed to understand how different restoration strategies might reflect in soil conservation and sediment retention. Using InVEST tool, sediment transport was simulated in a small 12 km2 watershed (Posses River, in Southeast Brazil), where one of first Brazilian Payment for Ecosystem Services (PES) projects is being carried out, comparing different hypothetical restoration strategies. With 25% of restoration, sediment export decreased by 78% for riparian restoration, and 27% for the steepest slopes restoration. On the other hand, the decrease in soil loss was lower for riparian restoration, with a 16% decrease, while the steepest slopes restoration reduced it by 21%. This mismatch between the reduction of sediment export and soil loss was explained by the fact that forest not only reduces soil loss locally but also traps sediment arriving from the upper parts of the watershed. While the first mechanism is important to provide soil stability, decreasing the risk of landslip, and to maintain agricultural productivity, the second can improve water quality and decrease the risk of silting, with positive effects on the water reservoirs at the outlet of the watershed. This suggests that Riparian and the Steepest Slopes restoration strategies are complementary in the sense of preventing sediments from reaching the water bodies as well as protecting them at their origin (with the reduction of erosion), so it will be advisable to consider the two types of restoration.

  15. Analyzing ecological restoration strategies for water and soil conservation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Isay Saad

    Full Text Available The choice of areas for nature conservation involves the attempt to maximize the benefits, whether by carrying out an economic activity or by the provision of Ecosystem Services. Studies are needed to improve the understanding of the effect of the extent and position along the watershed of restored areas on soil and water conservation. This study aimed to understand how different restoration strategies might reflect in soil conservation and sediment retention. Using InVEST tool, sediment transport was simulated in a small 12 km2 watershed (Posses River, in Southeast Brazil, where one of first Brazilian Payment for Ecosystem Services (PES projects is being carried out, comparing different hypothetical restoration strategies. With 25% of restoration, sediment export decreased by 78% for riparian restoration, and 27% for the steepest slopes restoration. On the other hand, the decrease in soil loss was lower for riparian restoration, with a 16% decrease, while the steepest slopes restoration reduced it by 21%. This mismatch between the reduction of sediment export and soil loss was explained by the fact that forest not only reduces soil loss locally but also traps sediment arriving from the upper parts of the watershed. While the first mechanism is important to provide soil stability, decreasing the risk of landslip, and to maintain agricultural productivity, the second can improve water quality and decrease the risk of silting, with positive effects on the water reservoirs at the outlet of the watershed. This suggests that Riparian and the Steepest Slopes restoration strategies are complementary in the sense of preventing sediments from reaching the water bodies as well as protecting them at their origin (with the reduction of erosion, so it will be advisable to consider the two types of restoration.

  16. Soil sheaths, photosynthate distribution to roots, and rhizosphere water relations for Opuntia ficus-indica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, B.; North, G.B.; Nobel, P.S. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States))


    Soil sheaths incorporating aggregated soil particles surround young roots of many species, but the effects of such sheaths on water movement between roots and the soil are largely unknown. The quantity and location of root exudates associated with soil sheath along the entire length of its young roots, except within 1.4 cm of the tip. The soil sheaths, which average 0.7 mm in thickness, were composed of soil particles and root hairs, both of which were covered with exuded mucilaginous material. As determined with a [sup 14]C pulse-labeling technique, 2% of newly fixed [sup 14]C-photosynthate was translocated into the roots at 3d, 6% at 9 d, and 8% at 15 d after labeling. The fraction of insoluble [sup 14]C in the roots increased twofold from 3 d to 15 d. Over the same time period, 6%-9% of the [sup 14]C translocated to the roots was exuded into the soil. The soluble [sup 14]C compounds exuded into the soil were greater in the 3-cm segment at the root tip than elsewhere along the root, whereas mucilage was exuded relatively uniformly along roots 15 cm in length. The volumetric efflux of water increase for both sheathed and unsheathed roots as the soil water potential decreased form -0.1 MPa to -1.0 MPa. The efflux rate was greater for unsheathed roots than for sheathed roots, which were more turgid and had a higher water potential, especially at lower soil water potentials. During drying, soil particles in the sheaths aggregate more tightly, making the sheaths less permeable to water and possibly creating air gaps. The soil sheaths of O. ficus-indica thus reduce water loss from the roots to a drying soil. 34 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Axysimetrical water infiltration in soil imaged by non-invasive electrical resistivimetry


    Batlle-Aguilar, Jordi; Coquet, Yves; Tucholka, Piotr; Vachier, P.


    Axisymetrical infiltration of water in soil has been largely studied since the development of tension disc infiltrometers. Procedures have been developed to derive the hydraulic properties of soils from axisymetrical infiltration measurements but rely on some simplifying and/or a priori assumptions on the homogeneity of the soil from the point of view of its hydraulic properties and its initial water status prior to infiltration. Such assumptions are difficult to ascertain. We present here an...

  18. Soil-structure interaction Vol.3. Influence of ground water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costantino, C J


    This study has been performed for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) by the Structural Analysis Division of Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The study was conducted during the fiscal year 1965 on the program entitled 'Benchmarking of Structural Engineering Problems' sponsored by NRC. The program considered three separate but complementary problems, each associated with the soil-structure interaction (551) phase of the seismic response analysis of nuclear plant facilities. The reports, all entitled Soil-Structure Interaction, are presented in three separate volumes, namely: Vol. 1 Influence of Layering by AJ Philippacopoulos, Vol. 2 Influence of Lift-Off by C.A. Miller, Vol. 3 Influence of Ground Water by C.J. Costantino. The two problems presented in Volumes 2 and 3 were conducted at the City University of New York (CUNY) under subcontract to BNL. This report, Volume 3 of the report, presents a summary of the first year's effort on the subject of the influence of foundation ground water on the SSI phenomenon. A finite element computer program was developed for the two-phased formulation of the combined soil-water problem. This formulation is based on the Biot dynamic equations of motion for both the solid and fluid phases of a typical soil. Frequency dependent interaction coefficients were generated for the two-dimensional plane problem of a rigid surface footing moving against a saturated linear soil. The results indicate that interaction coefficients are significantly modified as compared to the comparable values for a dry soil, particularly for the rocking mode of response. Calculations were made to study the impact of the modified interaction coefficients on the response of a typical nuclear reactor building. The amplification factors for a stick model placed atop a dry and saturated soil were computed. It was found that pore water caused the rocking response to decrease and translational response to increase over the frequency range of interest, as

  19. Immobilization remediation of Cd-polluted soil with different water condition. (United States)

    Li, Jianrui; Xu, Yingming


    To demonstrate effects of water management on soil Cd immobilization using palygorskite, the investigation evaluated impacts of palygorskite on uptake of Cd present in soils with different water condition by rice plant. Pot experiment results showed that, pH, available Fe and P in untreated soils were higher in continuous flooding than in traditional irrigation and wetting irrigation, which were reasons for lower soil exchangeable Cd and plant Cd in continuous flooding. In control group (untreated soils), compared to traditional irrigation, continuous flooding reduced brown rice Cd by 37.9%, that in wetting irrigation increased by 31.0%. At palygorskite concentrations of 5 g kg -1 , 10 g kg -1 and 15 g kg -1 , brown rice Cd reduced by 16.7%, 44.4% and 55.6% under continuous flooding, 13.8%, 34.5% and 44.8% under traditional irrigation, 13.1%, 36.8% and 47.3% under wetting irrigation (p soils. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Mitigation of soil water repellency improves rootzone water status and yield in precision irrigated apples (United States)

    Kostka, S.; Gadd, N.; Bell, D.


    Water repellent soils are documented to impact a range of hydrological properties, yet studies evaluating the consequences of soil water repellency (SWR) and its mitigation on crop yield and quality are conspicuously absent. With global concerns on drought and water availability and the projected impacts of climate change, development of novel strategies to optimize efficient rootzone delivery of water are required. Co-formulations of alkyl polyglycoside (APG) and ethylene oxide-propylene oxide (EO/PO) block copolymer surfactants have been shown to improve wetting synergistically. The objectives of this study were to determine if this surfactant technology: 1) increased soil water content and wetting front depth in mini-sprinkler irrigated, water repellent, Goulburn Valley clay loam soils and 2) assess the consequence of SWR mitigation on yield of Malus domestica Borkh. Three trials were conducted in the apple varieties 'Pink Lady' (2006/07 and 2007/08) and 'Gala' (2007/08) growing on Goulburn Valley clay loam soils in Victoria, AU. The test design was a randomized complete block with treatments replicated 5-6 times. Plot size varied by location. SWR was mitigated by applying surfactant at initial rates of 0, 5, or 10 L ha-1 in the spring, then at 0, 2.5, or 5 L ha-1 monthly for up to four months and compared to an untreated control. Treatments were applied to tree lines using a hand held small plot sprayer (118 liters of spray solution ha-1) followed by irrigation within 1-3 days of treatment applications. At each location, plots were irrigated by mini sprinklers and received the same irrigation volumes and management practices. Soil volumetric water content (VWC) was monitored at depths of 0-10 and 10-20 cm using a Theta probe (Delta-T Devices, Cambridge, UK). At harvest, fruit number and weights were measured and used for crop yield estimations. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance with mean values summarized and separated using Least Significant Test

  1. Partitioning of hydrophobic pesticides within a soil-water-anionic surfactant system. (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Keller, Arturo A


    Surfactants can be added to pesticide-contaminated soils to enhance the treatment efficiency of soil washing. Our results showed that pesticide (atrazine and diuron) partitioning and desorbability within a soil-water-anionic surfactant system is soil particle-size dependent and is significantly influenced by the presence of anionic surfactant. Anionic surfactant (linear alkylbenzene sulphonate, LAS) sorption was influenced by its complexation with both the soluble and exchangeable divalent cations in soils (e.g. Ca2+, Mg2+). In this study, we propose a new concept: soil system hardness which defines the total amount of soluble and exchangeable divalent cations associated with a soil. Our results showed that anionic surfactant works better with soils having lower soil system hardness. It was also found that the hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs) sorbed onto the LAS-divalent cation precipitate, resulting in a significant decrease in the aqueous concentration of HOC. Our results showed that the effect of exchangeable cations and sorption of HOC onto the surfactant precipitates needs to be considered to accurately predict HOC behavior within soil-water-anionic surfactant systems.

  2. Nitrogen uptake and fertilizer nitrogen use efficiency of wheat under different soil water conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Baiqun; Zhang Wei; Yu Cunzu


    The pot experiment was conducted to study the effects of soil water regime and fertilizer nitrogen rate on the yields, nitrogen uptake and fertilizer nitrogen utilization of wheat by using 15 N tracer method. The results showed that the aboveground biomass, stem yield and grain yield increased with the increase of soil moisture in the fertilizer nitrogen treatments. All the yield increased with the increase of the fertilizer nitrogen rate in the soil water treatments. It was found that both soil water regime and fertilizer nitrogen rate significantly influenced the amount of nitrogen uptake by wheat according to the variance analysis. The amount of nitrogen uptake increased with the rise of the soil moisture in fertilizer nitrogen treatments and the amount also increased with the increase of the urea nitrogen rate in the soil water regime. Soil water regimes not only had an impact on nitrogen uptake but also had a close relationship with soil nitrogen supply and fertilizer nitrogen use efficiency. The soil A values decreased in urea treatment and increased with the rise of the soil moisture in the combination treatment of urea with pig manure. The fertilizer nitrogen use efficiency rose with the rise of the soil moisture in the same fertilizer nitrogen treatment. The fertilizer nitrogen use efficiency of the urea treatment was 13.3%, 27.9% and 32.3% in the soils with 50%, 70% and 90% of the field water capacity, respectively. The fertilizer nitrogen use efficiency in the combination treatment of urea with pig manure was 20.0%, 29.9% and 34.4% in the soils of above three levels, respectively. It was concluded that the low soil moisture restricted urea nitrogen use efficiency (UNUE) and the UNUE could be raised by combination treatment of urea with manure in the soil of enough moisture

  3. Changes in soil aggregate stability under different irrigation doses of waste water (United States)

    Morugán, Alicia; García-Orenes, Fuensanta; Mataix-Solera, Jorge; Arcenegui, Victoria; Bárcenas, Gema


    Freshwater availability and soil degradation are two of the most important environmental problems in the Mediterranean area acerbated by incorrect agricultural use of irrigation in which organic matter is not correctly managed, the use of low quality water for irrigation, and the inefficiency of dose irrigation. For these reasons strategies for saving water and for the restoration of the mean properties of soil are necessary. The use of treated waste water for the irrigation of agricultural land could be a good solution to these problems, as it reduces the utilization of fresh water and could potentially improve key soil properties. In this work we have been studying, for more than three years, the effects on soil properties of different doses of irrigation with waste water. Here we show the results on aggregate stability. The study is located in an agricultural area at Biar (Alicante, SE of Spain), with a crop of grape (Vitis labrusca). Three types of waters are being used in the irrigation of the soil: fresh water (control) (TC), and treated waste water from secondary (T2) and tertiary treatment (T3). Three different doses of irrigation have been applied to fit the efficiency of the irrigation to the crop and soil type: D10 (10 L m-2 every week during 17 months), D50 (50 L m-2 every fifteen days during 14 moths) and D30 (30 L m-2 every week during 6 months up to present day). The results showed a clear decrease of aggregate stability during the period we used the second dose (D50) independent of the type of water used. That dose of irrigation and frequency produced strong wetting and drying cycles (WD) in the soil, and this is suspected to be the main factor responsible for the results. When we changed the dose of irrigation to D30, reducing the quantity per event and increasing the frequency, the soil aggregate stability started to improve. This dose avoids strong drying periods between irrigation events and the aggregate stability is confirmed to be slowly

  4. In situ separation of root hydraulic redistribution of soil water from liquid and vapor transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, Jeffrey [ORNL; Brooks, J Renee [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Corvallis, OR; Dragila, Maria [Oregon State University, Corvallis; Meinzer, Rick [USDA Forest Service


    Nocturnal increases in water potential ( ) and water content (WC) in the upper soil profile are often attributed to root water efflux into the soil, a process termed hydraulic lift or hydraulic redistribution (HR). We have previously reported HR values up to ~0.29 mm day-1 in the upper soil for a seasonally dry old-growth ponderosa pine site. However, unsaturated liquid or vapor flux of water between soil layers independent of roots also contributes to the diurnal patterns in WC, confounding efforts to determine the actual magnitude of HR. In this study, we estimated liquid (Jl) and vapor (Jv) soil water fluxes and their impacts on quantifying HR in situ by applying existing data sets of , WC, temperature (T) and soil physical properties to soil water transport equations. Under moist conditions, Jl between layers was estimated to be larger than necessary to account for measured nocturnal increases in WC of upper soil layers. However, as soil drying progressed unsaturated hydraulic conductivity declined rapidly such that Jl was irrelevant (< 2E-06 cm hr-1 at 0-60 cm depths) to total water flux by early August. In surface soil at depths above 15 cm, large T fluctuations can impact Jv leading to uncertainty concerning the role, if any, of HR in nocturnal WC dynamics. Vapor flux was estimated to be the highest at the shallowest depths measured (20 - 30 cm) where it could contribute up to 40% of hourly increases in nocturnal soil moisture depending on thermal conditions. While both HR and net soil water flux between adjacent layers contribute to WC in the 15-65 cm soil layer, HR was the dominant process and accounted for at least 80% of the diurnal increases in WC. While the absolute magnitude of HR is not easily quantified, total diurnal fluctuations in upper soil water content can be quantified and modeled, and remain highly applicable for establishing the magnitude and temporal dynamics of total ecosystem water flux.

  5. Monitoring the Soil Water Availability of Young Urban Trees in Hamburg, Germany (United States)

    Titel, Selina; Gröngröft, Alexander; Eschenbach, Annette


    In large cities numerous trees have to be planted each year to replace died off or cut down trees or for greening of constructed roads and newly built quarters. The typical age of planted trees is between five and fifteen years. Often the planting takes place in special planting pits to stimulate the tree growth under the restricted urban conditions. Consequently, trees are surrounded by different soil substrates: the soil from the nursery in the root ball, the special planting pit substrate and the surrounding urban soil which is often anthropogenic influenced. Being relocated in the city, trees have to cope with the warmer urban climate, the soil sealing and compaction and the low water storage capacity of the substrate. All factors together increase the probability of dry phases for roadside trees. The aim of this study is to monitor the soil water availability at sites of planted roadside trees during the first years after planting. Therefore, a measuring design was developed, which works automatically and takes the complex below ground structure of the soil into account. This approach consists of 13 soil water tension sensors inside and outside of each planting pit up to one meter depth connected to a data logger. The monitoring devices will finally be installed at 20 roadside trees (amongst others Quercus cerris, Quercus robur, Acer platanoides 'Fairview') in Hamburg, Germany, to identify phases of drought stress. The young trees were mainly planted in spring 2016. Data of the first year of measurements show, that the water tension varied between the different soil substrates and the depth. In the first year of tree growth in the city, soil in the tree root ball became significantly drier than the surrounding soil material. In late summer 2016 the water tension in the topsoil had the potential to cause drought stress below some trees.

  6. Soil Water Retention and Relative Permeability for Full Range of Saturation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Z. F.


    Common conceptual models for unsaturated flow often rely on the oversimplified representation of medium pores as a bundle of cylindrical capillaries and assume that the matric potential is attributed to capillary forces only. The adsorptive surface forces are ignored. It is often assumed that aqueous flow is negligible when a soil is near or at the residual water content. These models are successful at high and medium water contents but often give poor results at low water contents. These models do not apply to conditions at which water content is less than the residual water content. We extend the lower bound of existing water-retention functions and conductivity models from residual water content to the oven-dry condition (i.e., zero water content) by defining a state-dependent, residual-water content for a soil drier than a critical value. Furthermore, a hydraulic conductivity model for smooth uniform spheres was modified by introducing a correction factor to describe the film flow-induced hydraulic conductivity for natural porous media. The total unsaturated hydraulic conductivity is the sum of those due to capillary and film flow. The extended retention and conductivity models were verified with six datasets from the literature. Results show that, when the soil is at high and intermediate water content, there is no difference between the un-extended and the extended models; when the soil is at low water content, the un-extended models overestimate the water content but under-estimate the conductivity while the extended models match the retention and conductivity measurements well.

  7. Arsenic transport in irrigation water across rice-field soils in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polizzotto, Matthew L.; Lineberger, Ethan M.; Matteson, Audrey R.; Neumann, Rebecca B.; Badruzzaman, A. Borhan M.; Ashraf Ali, M.


    Experiments were conducted to analyze processes impacting arsenic transport in irrigation water flowing over bare rice-field soils in Bangladesh. Dissolved concentrations of As, Fe, P, and Si varied over space and time, according to whether irrigation water was flowing or static. Initially, under flowing conditions, arsenic concentrations in irrigation water were below well-water levels and showed little spatial variability across fields. As flowing-water levels rose, arsenic concentrations were elevated at field inlets and decreased with distance across fields, but under subsequent static conditions, concentrations dropped and were less variable. Laboratory experiments revealed that over half of the initial well-water arsenic was removed from solution by oxidative interaction with other water-column components. Introduction of small quantities of soil further decreased arsenic concentrations in solution. At higher soil-solution ratios, however, soil contributed arsenic to solution via abiotic and biotic desorption. Collectively, these results suggest careful design is required for land-based arsenic-removal schemes. -- Highlights: •We analyzed the processes impacting arsenic transport in flowing irrigation water. •Arsenic in Bangladesh rice-field irrigation water varied over space and time. •Arsenic was correlated with Fe, P, and Si in flowing and static water. •Oxidation, adsorption and desorption reactions controlled arsenic concentrations. •Land-based arsenic removal from water will be impacted by hydraulic conditions. -- Arsenic concentrations in flowing and static irrigation water in Bangladesh varied over space and time, suggesting careful design is required for land-based pre-treatment schemes that aim to remove As from solution

  8. Measurement of water content and density of soil using photon multiplescattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ertek, C.; Haselberger, N.


    A gamma-backscatter gauge for field and laboratory applications was set up for the measurement of density and water content of soil at the same time. The method works successfully between 0-40 cm depth of the soil and is superior to the neutron gauge between 0-30 cm depth. The system is extremely simple and practical and can be installed on a tractor during ploughing. The developed method also works for absolute values of densities and moisture content and is able to distinguish the bulk density changes due to vacancies in the soil or the water content taken inside the soil grains

  9. Gamma transmission gauge for assay of integral water content in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fishman, A.; Notea, A.; Segal, Y.


    A photon transmission gauge applied for integral water content measurement in a soil layer was analyzed. The gauge may be used as a control unit for automatic irrigation in a field, or as a scanner employed for establishing an irrigation policy. The characteristic functions of the gauge: response and relative resolving power were developed. The functions provide parameter study at the design stage and interpretational ability at the operational stage. The model led to a design which eliminates sensitivity to water distribution in the examined soil. It is shown that a resolving power of 2% was obtained for a 2.3 mCi 137 Cs source at 53 cm below surface, in measuring water content of 0.2 g water/cm 3 soil during 1000 s. (orig.)

  10. Comparison Of Selected Pedotransfer Functions For The Determination Of Soil Water Retention Curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kupec Michal


    Full Text Available Soil water retention curves were measured using a sandbox and the pressure plate extractor method on undisturbed soil samples from the Borská Lowland. The basic soil properties (e.g. soil texture, dry bulk density of the samples were determined. The soil water retention curve was described using the van Genuchten model (Van Genuchten, 1980. The parameters of the model were obtained using the RETC program (Van Genuchten et al., 1991. For the determination of the soil water retention curve parameters, two pedotransfer functions (PTF were also used that were derived for this area by Skalová (2003 and the Rosetta computer program (Schaap et al., 2001. The performance of the PTFs was characterized using the mean difference and root mean square error.

  11. Tillage for soil and water conservation in the semi-arid Tropics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogmoed, W.


    Soil tillage is the manipulation of soil which is generally considered as necessary to obtain optimum growth conditions for a crop. In the same time the resulting modification of soil structure has serious implications for the behaviour of the soil to erosive forces by water and wind. In

  12. Financial efficiency of major soil and water conservation measures in West Usambara highlands, Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tenge, A.J.M.; Graaff, de J.; Hella, J.P.


    Soil and Water Conservation (SWC) measures are needed to control soil erosion and sustain agricultural production on steep slopes of West Usambara mountains. However, the adoption by farmers of the recommended soil and water conservation measures is low and soil erosion continues to be a problem. It

  13. Effect of biochar on soil structural characteristics: water retention and gas transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Zhencai; Møldrup, Per; Vendelboe, Anders Lindblad

    Biochar addition to agricultural soil has been reported to reduce climate gas emission, as well as improve soil fertility and crop productivity. Little, however, is known about biochar effects on soil structural characteristics. This study investigates if biochar-application changes soil structural...... characteristics, as indicated from water retention and gas transport measurements on intact soil samples. Soil was sampled from a field experiment on a sandy loam with four control plots (C) without biochar and four plots (B) with incorporated biochar at a rate of 20 tons per hectare (plot size, 6 x 8 m). The C......-gas diffusivity on intact 100cm3 soil samples (5 replicates in each plot). We found that biochar application significantly decreased soil bulk density, hereby creating higher porosity. At the same soil-water matric potential, all the soil-gas phase parameters (air-filled porosity, air permeability and gas...

  14. Role of water repellency in aggregate stability of cultivated soils under simulated raindrop impact (United States)

    Kořenková, Lucia; Matúš, Peter


    Soil aggregate stability (AS) is an important indicator of soil physical quality. For the purpose of this research it was hypothesized that particular properties such as water repellency (WR) influence soil aggregation and AS. Directly after sampling, WR was detected for three soils, after a week of air-drying two of these soils still showed some resistance to penetration by a water drop placed on the surface (WDPT test). The study examines AS of air-dried texturally different aggregates of size 0.25-0.5 mm taken from surface layers (5-15 cm depth) of six agriculturally used soils. The procedure involves exposure of soil aggregates to direct impact of water drops. Results showed that soil AS increases in order: cutanic Luvisol (siltic) Chernozem < calcic mollic Fluvisol < mollic grumic Vertisol (pellic) < mollic Fluvisol (calcaric) < gleyic Fluvisol (eutric). Gradual increase in AS can be explained by the increase in soil organic matter content and its hydrophobic properties. Although WR has been most commonly observed in soils under forests and grass cover, the results confirmed that cultivated soils may also create water-stable aggregates, especially in the case when their organic matter induces WR under particular moisture conditions.

  15. Static and dynamic 3 dimensional studies of water in soil using computed tomographic scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crestana, S.; Mascarenhas, S.; Pozzi-Mucelli, R.S.


    Previous work of Petrovic, Siebert and Rieke demonstrated the possibility of using X-ray transmission computed tomography (CT) scanning for soil bulk density analysis in soil. We show in the present work that CT can also be used for the measurement of water content in soil. In our case we also show that CT can be applied to measure and follow dynamically the motion of water in soil in 3-dimensions. Further, more inhomogeneities of water content and motion in soil can be observed with this technique. Using a third generation CT scanner several different techniques can be applied such as differential, real time and spatial distribution scanning modes. A linear dependence was demonstrated for the Hounsfield Units (HU) used in CT and water content. The use of CT for water content and motion in soil in 3-dimensions opens new possibilities in this area of investigations. (author)

  16. The impact of land use on water loss and soil desiccation in the soil profile (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Wang, Li


    Farmlands have gradually been replaced by apple orchards in Shaanxi province, China, and there will be a risk of severe soil-water-storage deficit with the increasing age of the apple trees. To provide a theoretical basis for the sustainable development of agriculture and forestry in the Loess Plateau, soil water content in a 19-year-old apple orchard, a 9-year-old apple orchard, a cornfield and a wheat field in the Changwu Tableland was investigated at different depths from January to October 2014. The results showed that: (1) the soil moisture content is different across the soil profile—for the four plots, the soil moisture of the cornfield is the highest, followed by the 9-year-old apple orchard and the wheat field, and the 19-year-old apple orchard has the lowest soil moisture. (2) There are varying degrees of soil desiccation in the four plots: the most serious degree of desiccation is in the 19-year-old apple orchard, followed by the wheat field and the cornfield, with the least severe desiccation occurring in the 9-year-old apple orchard. Farmland should replace apple orchards for an indefinite period while there is an extremely desiccated soil layer in the apple orchard so as to achieve the purpose of sustainable development. It will be necessary to reduce tree densities, and to carry out other research, if development of the economy and ecology of Changwu is to be sustainable.

  17. Electrical Resistance Imaging for Evaluation of Soil-Water Behavior in Desert Ecosystems (United States)

    Nimmo, J. R.; Perkins, K. S.; Schmidt, K. M.; Miller, D. M.; Stock, J. D.; Singha, K.


    As part of an effort to evaluate habitat types in the Mojave National Preserve, we conducted infiltration/redistribution experiments to investigate unsaturated hydraulic properties and soil-water dynamics. Two investigated locations contrasted sharply in degree of pedogenic development: (1) recently deposited sediments in an active wash and (2) a highly developed soil of late Pleistocene age. Water flow through these materials may be strongly influenced by such features as biotic crusts, vesicular horizons, textural variations, calcic horizons, preferential flow paths, and other forms of vertical and lateral spatial variability. In each location we ponded water in a 1-m-diameter infiltration ring for 2.3 h, generating 1.93 m of infiltration in the active wash and 0.52 m in the Pleistocene soil. Combining input flux data with quantitative knowledge of water content and soil water pressure over space and time provides a basis for estimating soil hydraulic properties. TDR probes and tensiometers, placed outside but within a few m of the infiltration pond at depths to 1.5 m, provided subsurface hydraulic data. In addition to probe measurements, we conducted electrical resistance imaging (ERI) measurements during the infiltration period and for six days of redistribution. Electrodes were in two crossed lines at the surface, 24 in each, at 0.5 m spacing. On each line data were collected over an eight- minute period using a hybrid geometry, with 0 to 6 electrodes skipped between those used for the measurement. Relative change in the inverted resistivities relates to relative change in soil water content. Spatially exhaustive and minimally invasive characterization is valuable because of the extreme difficulty of quantifying soil-moisture distribution over a broad heterogeneous area using a set of individual probes. Soil moisture data directly under the ponded area are especially important, and ERI was our only means for such measurements because probe installation would

  18. Water storage change estimation from in situ shrinkage measurements of clay soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. te Brake


    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to assess the applicability of clay soil elevation change measurements to estimate soil water storage changes, using a simplified approach. We measured moisture contents in aggregates by EC-5 sensors, and in multiple aggregate and inter-aggregate spaces (bulk soil by CS616 sensors. In a long dry period, the assumption of constant isotropic shrinkage proved invalid and a soil moisture dependant geometry factor was applied. The relative overestimation made by assuming constant isotropic shrinkage in the linear (basic shrinkage phase was 26.4% (17.5 mm for the actively shrinking layer between 0 and 60 cm. Aggregate-scale water storage and volume change revealed a linear relation for layers ≥ 30 cm depth. The range of basic shrinkage in the bulk soil was limited by delayed drying of deep soil layers, and maximum water loss in the structural shrinkage phase was 40% of total water loss in the 0–60 cm layer, and over 60% in deeper layers. In the dry period, fitted slopes of the ΔV–ΔW relationship ranged from 0.41 to 0.56 (EC-5 and 0.42 to 0.55 (CS616. Under a dynamic drying and wetting regime, slopes ranged from 0.21 to 0.38 (EC-5 and 0.22 to 0.36 (CS616. Alternating shrinkage and incomplete swelling resulted in limited volume change relative to water storage change. The slope of the ΔV–ΔW relationship depended on the drying regime, measurement scale and combined effect of different soil layers. Therefore, solely relying on surface level elevation changes to infer soil water storage changes will lead to large underestimations. Recent and future developments might provide a basis for application of shrinkage relations to field situations, but in situ observations will be required to do so.

  19. Accumulation of oil and grease in soils irrigated with greywater and their potential role in soil water repellency. (United States)

    Travis, Micheal J; Weisbrod, Noam; Gross, Amit


    The potential impact of oil and grease (O and G) to soils irrigated with greywater (GW) was investigated. Greywater streams were sampled and analyzed for O and G content, along with corresponding GW-irrigated soils. Untreated kitchen GW averaged 200 mg L(-1) O and G, over an order of magnitude more than other GW streams. GW-irrigated soils showed O and G accumulation of up to 200 mg kg(-l) within the first 20-cm of depth. To determine the potential effects of such O and G accumulation on water movement in soil, capillary rise and water drop penetration time (WDPT) experiments were conducted. The results showed up to 60% decrease in capillary rise when sand containing 250 mg kg(-1) O and G was used. Interestingly, no additional reduction in capillary rise was observed at concentrations above 250 mg kg(-1). WDPT was observed to increase linearly with increased O and G content, up to 1000 mg kg(-1). This work demonstrated that O and G in GW used for irrigation can accumulate in soil and may lead to a significant reduction in the soils ability to transmit water.

  20. Competition for light and water in a coupled soil-plant system (United States)

    Manoli, Gabriele; Huang, Cheng-Wei; Bonetti, Sara; Domec, Jean-Christophe; Marani, Marco; Katul, Gabriel


    It is generally accepted that resource availability shapes the structure and function of many ecosystems. Within the soil-plant-atmosphere (SPA) system, resource availability fluctuates in space and time whereas access to resources by individuals is further impacted by plant-to-plant competition. Likewise, transport and transformation of resources within an individual plant is governed by numerous interacting biotic and abiotic processes. The work here explores the co-limitations on water losses and carbon uptake within the SPA arising from fluctuating resource availability and competition. In particular, the goal is to unfold the interplay between plant access and competition for water and light, as well as the impact of transport/redistribution processes on leaf-level carbon assimilation and water fluxes within forest stands. A framework is proposed that couples a three-dimensional representation of soil-root exchanges with a one-dimensional description of stem water flow and storage, canopy photosynthesis, and transpiration. The model links soil moisture redistribution, root water uptake, xylem water flow and storage, leaf potential and stomatal conductance as driven by supply and demand for water and carbon. The model is then used to investigate plant drought resilience of overstory-understory trees simultaneously competing for water and light. Simulation results reveal that understory-overstory interactions increase ecosystem resilience to drought (i.e. stand-level carbon assimilation rates and water fluxes can be sustained at lower root-zone soil water potentials). This resilience enhancement originates from reduced transpiration (due to shading) and hydraulic redistribution in soil supporting photosynthesis over prolonged periods of drought. In particular, the presence of different rooting systems generates localized hydraulic redistribution fluxes that sustain understory transpiration through overstory-understory interactions. Such complex SPA dynamics

  1. The Effect of Water Harvesting Techniques on Runoff, Sedimentation, and Soil Properties (United States)

    Al-Seekh, Saleh H.; Mohammad, Ayed G.


    This study addressed the hydrological processes of runoff and sedimentation, soil moisture content, and properties under the effect of different water harvesting techniques (treatments). The study was conducted at three sites, representing environmental condition gradients, located in the southern part of the West Bank. For each treatment, the study evaluated soil chemical and physical properties, soil moisture at 30 cm depth, surface runoff and sedimentation at each site. Results showed that runoff is reduced by 65-85% and sedimentation by 58-69% in stone terraces and semi-circle bunds compared to the control at the semi-humid site. In addition, stone terraces and contour ridges significantly reduced the amount of total runoff by 80% and 73%, respectively, at the arid site. Soil moisture content was significantly increased by water harvesting techniques compared to the control in all treatments at the three study sites. In addition, the difference between the control and the water harvesting structures were higher in the arid and semi-arid areas than in the semi-humid area. Soil and water conservation, via utilization of water harvesting structures, is an effective principle for reducing the negative impact of high runoff intensity and subsequently increasing soil moisture storage from rainfall. Jessour systems in the valley and stone terraces were effective in increasing soil moisture storage, prolonging the growing season for natural vegetation, and decreasing the amount of supplemental irrigation required for growing fruit trees.

  2. The effect of water harvesting techniques on runoff, sedimentation, and soil properties. (United States)

    Al-Seekh, Saleh H; Mohammad, Ayed G


    This study addressed the hydrological processes of runoff and sedimentation, soil moisture content, and properties under the effect of different water harvesting techniques (treatments). The study was conducted at three sites, representing environmental condition gradients, located in the southern part of the West Bank. For each treatment, the study evaluated soil chemical and physical properties, soil moisture at 30 cm depth, surface runoff and sedimentation at each site. Results showed that runoff is reduced by 65-85% and sedimentation by 58-69% in stone terraces and semi-circle bunds compared to the control at the semi-humid site. In addition, stone terraces and contour ridges significantly reduced the amount of total runoff by 80% and 73%, respectively, at the arid site. Soil moisture content was significantly increased by water harvesting techniques compared to the control in all treatments at the three study sites. In addition, the difference between the control and the water harvesting structures were higher in the arid and semi-arid areas than in the semi-humid area. Soil and water conservation, via utilization of water harvesting structures, is an effective principle for reducing the negative impact of high runoff intensity and subsequently increasing soil moisture storage from rainfall. Jessour systems in the valley and stone terraces were effective in increasing soil moisture storage, prolonging the growing season for natural vegetation, and decreasing the amount of supplemental irrigation required for growing fruit trees.

  3. Water, solute and heat transport in the soil: the Australian connection (United States)

    Knight, John


    The interest of Peter Raats in water, solute and heat transport in the soil has led to scientific and/or personal interactions with several Australian scientists such as John Philip, David Smiles, Greg Davis and John Knight. Along with John Philip and Robin Wooding, Peter was an early user of the Gardner (1958) linearised model of soil water flow, which brought him into competition with John Philip. I will discuss some of Peter's solutions relevant to infiltration from line and point sources, cavities and basins. A visit to Canberra, Australia in the early 1980s led to joint work on soil water flow, and on combined water and solute movement with David Smiles and others. In 1983 Peter was on the PhD committee for Greg Davis at the University of Wollongong, and some of the methods in his thesis 'Mathematical modelling of rate-limiting mechanisms of pyritic oxidation in overburden dumps' were later used by Peter's student Sjoerd van der Zee. David Smiles and Peter wrote a survey article 'Hydrology of swelling clay soils' in 2005. In the last decade Peter has been investigating the history of groundwater and vadose zone hydrology, and recently he and I have been bringing to light the largely forgotten work of Lewis Fry Richardson on finite difference solution of the heat equation, drainage theory, soil physics, and the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum.

  4. Soil Water Measurement Using Actively Heated Fiber Optics at Field Scale. (United States)

    Vidana Gamage, Duminda N; Biswas, Asim; Strachan, Ian B; Adamchuk, Viacheslav I


    Several studies have demonstrated the potential of actively heated fiber optics (AHFO) to measure soil water content (SWC) at high spatial and temporal resolutions. This study tested the feasibility of the AHFO technique to measure soil water in the surface soil of a crop grown field over a growing season using an in-situ calibration approach. Heat pulses of five minutes duration were applied at a rate of 7.28 W m -1 along eighteen fiber optic cable transects installed at three depths (0.05, 0.10 and 0.20 m) at six-hour intervals. Cumulative temperature increase (T cum ) during heat pulses was calculated at locations along the cable. While predicting commercial sensor measurements, the AHFO showed root mean square errors (RMSE) of 2.8, 3.7 and 3.7% for 0.05, 0.10 and 0.20 m depths, respectively. Further, the coefficients of determination (R²) for depth specific relationships were 0.87 (0.05 m depth), 0.46 (0.10 m depth), 0.86 (0.20 m depth) and 0.66 (all depths combined). This study showed a great potential of the AHFO technique to measure soil water at high spatial resolutions (<1 m) and to monitor soil water dynamics of surface soil in a crop grown field over a cropping season with a reasonable compromise between accuracy and practicality.

  5. Isotopic study of water evaporation in a clayey soil, experimentation and modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathieu, R.; Bariac, T.


    The isotopic theory of soil water evaporation in steady-state was applied to the quantification of shallow water table discharge rates in arid and semi-arid climates. This approach is limited by the time needed by the soil to reach the steady state after the last significant rain event. The 1D numerical model ''Moise'', proposed here, was developed for the simulation of the vertical profiles of water and stable isotope contents in a drying soil for any initial profile and atmospheric condition. Six non-perturbed soil columns of 1.1 m length were taken from Barogo, Burkina Faso and were saturated in the laboratory by infiltration and free drainage of pounding water and then allowed to evaporate freely. The columns were then sequentially sampled after 11, 42, 92, 162 and 253 days of drying for 18 O and 2 H isotopic analyses. 18 O profiles show an exponential shape during the first drying stage with a maximum isotopic enrichment at the surface. During the second drying stage, the penetration of very depleted atmospheric vapor tends to lower the isotopic content at the surface. The water and isotopic content were simulated with the Moise model. The model satisfactory reproduces the hydrodynamic evolution and the qualitative evolution of soil water isotopic content, but it largely overestimates the overall enrichment. It is thus plausible that a fraction of the soil water may keep its own isotopic composition with restricted exchanges with the surrounding mobile water and vapor, while a mobile phase can be affected by the isotopic enrichment. (J.S.). 27 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs

  6. Interstitial hydraulic conductivity and interstitial fluid pressure for avascular or poorly vascularized tumors. (United States)

    Liu, L J; Schlesinger, M


    A correct description of the hydraulic conductivity is essential for determining the actual tumor interstitial fluid pressure (TIFP) distribution. Traditionally, it has been assumed that the hydraulic conductivities both in a tumor and normal tissue are constant, and that a tumor has a much larger interstitial hydraulic conductivity than normal tissue. The abrupt transition of the hydraulic conductivity at the tumor surface leads to non-physical results (the hydraulic conductivity and the slope of the TIFP are not continuous at tumor surface). For the sake of simplicity and the need to represent reality, we focus our analysis on avascular or poorly vascularized tumors, which have a necrosis that is mostly in the center and vascularization that is mostly on the periphery. We suggest that there is an intermediary region between the tumor surface and normal tissue. Through this region, the interstitium (including the structure and composition of solid components and interstitial fluid) transitions from tumor to normal tissue. This process also causes the hydraulic conductivity to do the same. We introduce a continuous variation of the hydraulic conductivity, and show that the interstitial hydraulic conductivity in the intermediary region should be monotonically increasing up to the value of hydraulic conductivity in the normal tissue in order for the model to correspond to the actual TIFP distribution. The value of the hydraulic conductivity at the tumor surface should be the lowest in value. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A study on water infiltration barriers with compacted layered soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umeda, Y.; Komori, K.; Fujiwara, A.


    In shallow-ground disposal of low-level radioactive wastes, water movements due to natural processes in the soil covering the disposal facility must be properly controlled. A capillary barrier with compacted layered soils can provide an effective means of controlling water movement in the soil covering placed on a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. An experiment was performed to determine the effectiveness of a full-scale fill as a capillary barrier. The fill used in the experiment was constructed of compacted layers of clay, fine sand, and gravel. Man-made rain was caused to fall on the surfaces of the fill to observe the infiltration of rainwater into the fill and to measure the amount of water drained from within. The experiment established the effectiveness of the capillary barrier

  8. Amending greenroof soil with biochar to affect runoff water quantity and quality. (United States)

    Beck, Deborah A; Johnson, Gwynn R; Spolek, Graig A


    Numbers of greenroofs in urban areas continue to grow internationally; so designing greenroof soil to reduce the amount of nutrients in the stormwater runoff from these roofs is becoming essential. This study evaluated changes in extensive greenroof water discharge quality and quantity after adding biochar, a soil amendment promoted for its ability to retain nutrients in soils and increase soil fertility. Prototype greenroof trays with and without biochar were planted with sedum or ryegrass, with barren soil trays used as controls. The greenroof trays were subjected to two sequential 7.4cm/h rainfall events using a rain simulator. Runoff from the rain events was collected and evaluated. Trays containing 7% biochar showed increased water retention and significant decreases in discharge of total nitrogen, total phosphorus, nitrate, phosphate, and organic carbon. The addition of biochar to greenroof soil improves both runoff water quality and retention. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Modeling of long-range migration of boron interstitials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velichko, O.I.; Burunova, O.N.


    A model of the interstitial migration of ion-implanted dopant in silicon during low-temperature thermal treatment has been formulated. It is supposed that the boron interstitials are created during ion implantation or at the initial stage of annealing. During thermal treatment a migration of these impurity interstitials to the surface and in the bulk of a semiconductor occurs. On this basis, a simulation of boron redistribution during thermal annealing for 35 minutes at a temperature of 800 0 C has been carried out. The calculated boron profile agrees well with the experimental data. A number of the parameters describing the interstitial diffusion have been derived. In particular, the average migration length of nonequilibrium boron interstitials is equal to 0.092 μm at a temperature of 800 0 C. To carry out modeling of ion-implanted boron redistribution, the analytical solutions of nonstationary diffusion equation for impurity interstitials have been obtained. The case of Dirichlet boundary conditions and the case of reflecting boundary on the surface of a semiconductor have been considered. (authors)

  10. Soil water content and evaporation determined by thermal parameters obtained from ground-based and remote measurements (United States)

    Reginato, R. J.; Idso, S. B.; Jackson, R. D.; Vedder, J. F.; Blanchard, M. B.; Goettelman, R.


    Soil water contents from both smooth and rough bare soil were estimated from remotely sensed surface soil and air temperatures. An inverse relationship between two thermal parameters and gravimetric soil water content was found for Avondale loam when its water content was between air-dry and field capacity. These parameters, daily maximum minus minimum surface soil temperature and daily maximum soil minus air temperature, appear to describe the relationship reasonably well. These two parameters also describe relative soil water evaporation (actual/potential). Surface soil temperatures showed good agreement among three measurement techniques: in situ thermocouples, a ground-based infrared radiation thermometer, and the thermal infrared band of an airborne multispectral scanner.

  11. Evaluation of soil water and plant nitrogen Status by nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reichardt, K.; Kirda, C.; Zapata, F.; Hardarson, G.; Axmann, H.


    Methodologies used to estimate soil water and nitrogen status of crops in field experiments are studied. Sampling procedures in a pasture experiment, consisting of three soil transects of 1.8 x 96m, one bare, one cropped to rye grass and one to alfafa, are discussed. Data are analysed with respect to soil water contents measured through the use of neutron probes, N fertilizer uptake using 15 N labelled fertilizer and N 2 fixation, also using isotopic methodology. (Author) [pt

  12. Water deficit mapping of soils in Southern and Insular Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciavatta, C; Vianello, G


    Cross-elaboration of climatic, pedological and vegetational factors allows the water balance of soils to be defined. The data obtained are of particular interest not only for the primary sector, but also for the economy as a whole since the availability of such information is necessary for the correct and rational use of water resources. The application of a methodology, which takes into account the previously mentioned factors, led to the realization of a map showing the overall, annual and monthly water deficit of the soils in Southern Italy, Sicily and Sardinia.

  13. Ion enrichment of snowmelt water by processes within a podzolic soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazlett, P.W.; Foster, N.W.; English, M.C.


    Ion concentrations in snowmelt runoff, forest-floor percolate and mineral-soil percolate collected in a tolerant hardwood forest at the Turkey Lakes Watershed, ON, were determined during the spring snowmelt of 1986. The results were examined to assess the modification of snowmelt water after contact with the forest soil. Concentrations of NO 3 - increased from 17 to 201 μmol c L -1 and SO 4 2- increased from 25 to 107 μmol c L -1 as meltwater passed through the organic layers and the upper mineral-soil horizons. Mineralization of organic N and S, and desorption of So 4 2- from the soil, provide sources of these ions for leaching during the snowmelt period. Ion-exchange reactions in the forest floor and upper mineral soil resulted in a decrease in H + and an increase in Ca 2+ concentration is solution. In the steep topography of this forested basin, the altered snowmelt solutions are rapidly transported downslope towards the aquatic system by lateral flow. Processes within the forest soil may therefore play an important role in determining the effects of snowmelt water on surface water chemistry in the spring

  14. The effect of soil stoniness on the estimation of water retention properties of soils: A case study from central France


    Tetegan, Marion; Richer de Forges, Anne; Verbeque, Bernard; Nicoullaud, Bernard; Desbourdes, Caroline; Bouthier, Alain; Arrouays, Dominique


    Estimation of the water retention capacity of a heterogeneous soil requires knowledge of the hydric properties of each soil phase. Nevertheless, for stony soils, the rock fragments have often been neglected. The objective of this work was then to propose a methodology to improve the calculation of the available water content (AWC) of stony soils at a regional scale. On a 36,200 ha surface area in Beauce located in the Region Centre of France, the AWC was calculated by coupling pedotransfer cl...

  15. Interacting vegetative and thermal contributions to water movement in desert soil (United States)

    Garcia, C.A.; Andraski, Brian J.; Stonestrom, David A.; Cooper, C.A.; Šimůnek, J.; Wheatcraft, S.W.


    Thermally driven water-vapor flow can be an important component of total water movement in bare soil and in deep unsaturated zones, but this process is often neglected when considering the effects of soil–plant–atmosphere interactions on shallow water movement. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the coupled and separate effects of vegetative and thermal-gradient contributions to soil water movement in desert environments. The evaluation was done by comparing a series of simulations with and without vegetation and thermal forcing during a 4.7-yr period (May 2001–December 2005). For vegetated soil, evapotranspiration alone reduced root-zone (upper 1 m) moisture to a minimum value (25 mm) each year under both isothermal and nonisothermal conditions. Variations in the leaf area index altered the minimum storage values by up to 10 mm. For unvegetated isothermal and nonisothermal simulations, root-zone water storage nearly doubled during the simulation period and created a persistent driving force for downward liquid fluxes below the root zone (total net flux ~1 mm). Total soil water movement during the study period was dominated by thermally driven vapor fluxes. Thermally driven vapor flow and condensation supplemented moisture supplies to plant roots during the driest times of each year. The results show how nonisothermal flow is coupled with plant water uptake, potentially influencing ecohydrologic relations in desert environments.

  16. Optimizing operational water management with soil moisture data from Sentinel-1 satellites (United States)

    Pezij, Michiel; Augustijn, Denie; Hendriks, Dimmie; Hulscher, Suzanne


    In the Netherlands, regional water authorities are responsible for management and maintenance of regional water bodies. Due to socio-economic developments (e.g. agricultural intensification and on-going urbanisation) and an increase in climate variability, the pressure on these water bodies is growing. Optimization of water availability by taking into account the needs of different users, both in wet and dry periods, is crucial for sustainable developments. To support timely and well-directed operational water management, accurate information on the current state of the system as well as reliable models to evaluate water management optimization measures are essential. Previous studies showed that the use of remote sensing data (for example soil moisture data) in water management offers many opportunities (e.g. Wanders et al. (2014)). However, these data are not yet used in operational applications at a large scale. The Sentinel-1 satellites programme offers high spatiotemporal resolution soil moisture data (1 image per 6 days with a spatial resolution of 10 by 10 m) that are freely available. In this study, these data will be used to improve the Netherlands Hydrological Instrument (NHI). The NHI consists of coupled models for the unsaturated zone (MetaSWAP), groundwater (iMODFLOW) and surface water (Mozart and DM). The NHI is used for scenario analyses and operational water management in the Netherlands (De Lange et al., 2014). Due to the lack of soil moisture data, the unsaturated zone model is not yet thoroughly validated and its output is not used by regional water authorities for decision-making. Therefore, the newly acquired remotely sensed soil moisture data will be used to improve the skill of the MetaSWAP-model and the NHI as whole. The research will focus among other things on the calibration of soil parameters by comparing model output (MetaSWAP) with the remotely sensed soil moisture data. Eventually, we want to apply data-assimilation to improve

  17. Soil water regime in head water regions - observation, assessment and modelling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tesař, Miroslav; Šír, Miloslav; Syrovátka, Oldřich; Pražák, Josef; Lichner, Ľ.; Kubík, F.


    Roč. 49, č. 6 (2001), s. 355-375 ISSN 0042-790X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK3046108 Keywords : soil water regime * rain fall- runoff relationship * evapotranspiration Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology

  18. Subsurface watering resulted in reduced soil N2O and CO2 emissions and their global warming potentials than surface watering (United States)

    Wei, Qi; Xu, Junzeng; Yang, Shihong; Liao, Linxian; Jin, Guangqiu; Li, Yawei; Hameed, Fazli


    Water management is an important practice with significant effect on greenhouse gases (GHG) emission from soils. Nitrous oxide (N2O) and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their global warming potentials (GWPs) from subsurface watering soil (SUW) were investigated, with surface watering (SW) as a control. Results indicated that the N2O and CO2 emissions from SUW soils were somewhat different to those from SW soil, with the peak N2O and CO2 fluxes from SUW soil reduced by 28.9% and 19.4%, and appeared 72 h and 168 h later compared with SW. The fluxes of N2O and CO2 from SUW soils were lower than those from SW soil in both pulse and post-pulse periods, and the reduction was significantly (p0.1) lower that from SW soil. Moreover, N2O and CO2 fluxes from both watering treatments increased exponentially with increase of soil water-filled pore space (WFPS) and temperature. Our results suggest that watering soil from subsurface could significantly reduce the integrative greenhouse effect caused by N2O and CO2 and is a promising strategy for soil greenhouse gases (GHGs) mitigation. And the pulse period, contributed most to the reduction in emissions of N2O and CO2 from soils between SW and SUW, should be a key period for mitigating GHGs emissions. Response of N2O and CO2 emissions to soil WFPS and temperature illustrated that moisture was the dominant parameters that triggering GHG pulse emissions (especially for N2O), and temperature had a greater effect on the soil microorganism activity than moisture in drier soil. Avoiding moisture and temperature are appropriate for GHG emission at the same time is essential for GHGs mitigation, because peak N2O and CO2 emission were observed only when moisture and temperature are both appropriate.

  19. Do shallow soil, low water availability, or their combination increase the competition between grasses with different root systems in karst soil? (United States)

    Zhao, Yajie; Li, Zhou; Zhang, Jing; Song, Haiyan; Liang, Qianhui; Tao, Jianping; Cornelissen, Johannes H C; Liu, Jinchun


    Uneven soil depth and low water availability are the key limiting factors to vegetation restoration and reconstruction in limestone soils such as in vulnerable karst regions. Belowground competition will possibly increase under limited soil resources. Here, we investigate whether low resource availability (including shallow soil, low water availability, and shallow soil and low water availability combined) stimulates the competition between grasses with different root systems in karst soil, by assessing their growth response, biomass allocation, and morphological plasticity. In a full three-way factorial blocked design of soil depth by water availability by neighbor identity, we grew Festuca arundinacea (deep-rooted) and Lolium perenne (shallow-rooted) under normal versus shallow soil depth, high versus low water availability, and in monoculture (conspecific neighbor) versus mixture (neighbor of the other species). The key results were as follows: (1) total biomass and aboveground biomass in either of the species decreased with reduction of resources but were not affected by planting patterns (monoculture or mixture) even at low resource levels. (2) For F. arundinacea, root biomass, root mass fraction, total root length, and root volume were higher in mixture than in monoculture at high resource level (consistent with resource use complementarity), but lower in mixture than in monoculture at low resource levels (consistent with interspecific competition). In contrast for L. perenne, either at high or low resource level, these root traits had mostly similar values at both planting patterns. These results suggest that deep-rooted and shallow-rooted plant species can coexist in karst regions under current climatic regimes. Declining resources, due to shallow soil, a decrease in precipitation, or combined shallow soil and karst drought, increased the root competition between plants of deep-rooted and shallow-rooted species. The root systems of deep-rooted plants may be

  20. Effect of Water Quality and Temperature on the Efficiency of Two Kinds of Hydrophilic Polymers in Soil. (United States)

    Dehkordi, Davoud Khodadadi


      In this study, evaluation of two-superabsorbent effects, Super-AB-A-300 and Super-AB-A-200 in a sandy soil on the water retention capability and saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks) at different water quality and soil temperature were done. The Super-AB-A-200 was less effective in water uptake than Super-AB-A-300. The efficiency of these polymers in water retention was negatively influenced by the water quality and temperature. The efficiency of these polymer treatments in water uptake reduced significantly (P < 0.05) with increasing soil temperature. In the control soil, the Ks stayed nearly constant with increasing soil temperature. As compared to the untreated control, the treated soil demonstrated a significant (P < 0.05) linear increase of Ks with increasing soil temperature. In the control soil, the water holding properties curve did not change with increasing soil temperature.

  1. Biological soil crusts in deserts: A short review of their role in soil fertility, stabilization, and water relations (United States)

    Belnap, Jayne


    Cyanobacteria and cyanolichens dominate most desert soil surfaces as the major component of biological soil crusts (BSC). BSCs contribute to soil fertility in many ways. BSC can increase weathering of parent materials by up to 100 times. Soil surface biota are often sticky, and help retain dust falling on the soil surface; this dust provides many plant-essential nutrients including N, P, K, Mg, Na, Mn, Cu, and Fe. BSCs also provide roughened soil surfaces that slow water runoff and aid in retaining seeds and organic matter. They provide inputs of newly-fixed carbon and nitrogen to soils. They are essential in stabilizing soil surfaces by linking soil particles together with filamentous sheaths, enabling soils to resist both water and wind erosion. These same sheaths are important in keeping soil nutrients from becoming bound into plant-unavailable forms. Experimental disturbances applied in US deserts show soil surface impacts decrease N and C inputs from soil biota by up to 100%. The ability to hold aeolian deposits in place is compromised, and underlying soils are exposed to erosion. While most undisturbed sites show little sediment production, disturbance by vehicles or livestock produces up to 36 times more sediment production, with soil movement initiated at wind velocities well below commonly-occurring wind speeds. Winds across disturbed areas can quickly remove this material from the soil surface, thereby potentially removing much of current and future soil fertility. Thus, reduction in the cover of cyanophytes in desert soils can both reduce fertility inputs and accelerate fertility losses.

  2. Phosphorus dynamics in soils irrigated with reclaimed waste water or fresh water - A study using oxygen isotopic composition of phosphate (United States)

    Zohar, I.; Shaviv, A.; Young, M.; Kendall, C.; Silva, S.; Paytan, A.


    Transformations of phosphate (Pi) in different soil fractions were tracked using the stable isotopic composition of oxygen in phosphate (??18Op) and Pi concentrations. Clay soil from Israel was treated with either reclaimed waste water (secondary, low grade) or with fresh water amended with a chemical fertilizer of a known isotopic signature. Changes of ??18Op and Pi within different soil fractions, during a month of incubation, elucidate biogeochemical processes in the soil, revealing the biological and the chemical transformation impacting the various P pools. P in the soil solution is affected primarily by enzymatic activity that yields isotopic equilibrium with the water molecules in the soil solution. The dissolved P interacts rapidly with the loosely bound P (extracted by bicarbonate). The oxides and mineral P fractions (extracted by NaOH and HCl, respectively), which are considered as relatively stable pools of P, also exhibited isotopic alterations in the first two weeks after P application, likely related to the activity of microbial populations associated with soil surfaces. Specifically, isotopic depletion which could result from organic P mineralization was followed by isotopic enrichment which could result from preferential biological uptake of depleted P from the mineralized pool. Similar transformations were observed in both soils although transformations related to biological activity were more pronounced in the soil treated with reclaimed waste water compared to the fertilizer treated soil. ?? 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  3. [Three-dimension temporal and spatial dynamics of soil water for the artificial vegetation in the center of Taklimakan desert under saline water drip-irrigation]. (United States)

    Ding, Xin-yuan; Zhou, Zhi-bin; Xu, Xin-wen; Lei, Jia-qiang; Lu, Jing-jing; Ma, Xue-xi; Feng, Xiao


    Three-dimension temporal and spatial dynamics of the soil water characteristics during four irrigating cycles of months from April to July for the artificial vegetation in the center of Taklimakan Desert under saline water drip-irrigation had been analyzed by timely measuring the soil water content in horizontal and vertical distances 60 cm and 120 cm away from the irrigating drips, respectively. Periodic spatial and temporal variations of soil water content were observed. When the precipitation effect was not considered, there were no significant differences in the characteristics of soil water among the irrigation intervals in different months, while discrepancies were obvious in the temporal and spatial changes of soil moisture content under the conditions of rainfall and non-rainfall. When it referred to the temporal changes of soil water, it was a little higher in April but a bit lower in July, and the soil water content in June was the highest among four months because some remarkable events of precipitation happened in this month. However, as a whole, the content of soil moisture was reduced as months (from April to July) went on and it took a decreasing tendency along with days (1-15 d) following a power function. Meanwhile, the characteristics of soil water content displayed three changeable stages in an irrigation interval. When it referred to the spatial distributions of soil water, the average content of soil moisture was reduced along with the horizontal distance following a linear regression function, and varied with double peaks along with the vertical distance. In addition, the spatial distribution characteristics of the soil water were not influenced by the factors of precipitation and irrigating time but the physical properties of soil.

  4. Supercooled interfacial water in fine-grained soils probed by dielectric spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Lorek


    Full Text Available Water substantially affects nearly all physical, chemical and biological processes on the Earth. Recent Mars observations as well as laboratory investigations suggest that water is a key factor of current physical and chemical processes on the Martian surface, e.g. rheological phenomena. Therefore it is of particular interest to get information about the liquid-like state of water on Martian analogue soils for temperatures below 0 °C. To this end, a parallel plate capacitor has been developed to obtain isothermal dielectric spectra of fine-grained soils in the frequency range from 10 Hz to 1.1 MHz at Martian-like temperatures down to −70 °C. Two Martian analogue soils have been investigated: a Ca-bentonite (specific surface of 237 m2 g−1, up to 9.4% w / w gravimetric water content and JSC Mars 1, a volcanic ash (specific surface of 146 m2 g−1, up to 7.4% w / w. Three soil-specific relaxation processes are observed in the investigated frequency–temperature range: two weak high-frequency processes (bound or hydrated water as well as ice and a strong low-frequency process due to counter-ion relaxation and the Maxwell–Wagner effect. To characterize the dielectric relaxation behaviour, a generalized fractional dielectric relaxation model was applied assuming three active relaxation processes with relaxation time of the ith process modelled with an Eyring equation. The real part of effective complex soil permittivity at 350 kHz was used to determine ice and liquid-like water content by means of the Birchak or CRIM equation. There are evidence that bentonite down to −70 °C has a liquid-like water content of 1.17 monolayers and JSC Mars 1 a liquid-like water content of 1.96 monolayers.

  5. Exponential increase of publications related to soil water repellency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, L.W.; Oostindie, K.; Ritsema, C.J.


    Soil water repellency is much more wide-spread than formerly thought. During the last decades, it has been a topic of study for soil scientists and hydrologists in at least 21 States of the USA, in Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Mexico, Colombia, Chile, Congo, Nepal, India, Hong Kong, Taiwan,

  6. Effects of aluminium water treatment residuals, used as a soil amendment to control phosphorus mobility in agricultural soils. (United States)

    Ulén, Barbro; Etana, Ararso; Lindström, Bodil


    Phosphorus (P) leaching from agricultural soils is a serious environmental concern. Application of aluminium water treatment residuals (Al-WTRs) at a rate of 20 Mg ha(-1) to clay soils from central Sweden significantly increased mean topsoil P sorption index (PSI) from 4.6 to 5.5 μmol kg(-1) soil. Mean degree of P saturation in ammonium lactate extract (DPS-AL) significantly decreased from 17 to 13%, as did plant-available P (P-AL). Concentrations of dissolved reactive P (DRP) decreased by 10-85% in leaching water with Al-WTR treatments after exposure of topsoil lysimeters to simulated rain. Soil aggregate stability (AgS) for 15 test soils rarely improved. Three soils (clay loam, silty loam and loam sand) were tested in greenhouse pot experiments. Aluminium-WTR application of 15 or 30 ton ha(-1) to loam sand and a clay loam with P-AL values of 80-100 mg kg(-1) soil significantly increased growth of Italian ryegrass when fertilised with P but did not significantly affect growth of spring barley on any soil. Al-WTR should only be applied to soils with high P fertility where improved crop production is not required.

  7. Soil-water salinity pollution: extent, management and potential impacts on agricultural sustain ability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javid, M.A.; Ali, K.; Javed, M.; Mahmood, A.


    One of the significant environmental hazards of irrigated agriculture is the accumulation of salts in the soil. The presence of large quantities of certain soluble salts badly affects the physical, chemical, biological and fertility characteristics of the soils. This pollution of soil salinity and its toxic degradation directly affects plants, hence impacting the air filters of nature. The soil and water salinity has adversely reduced the yield of our major agricultural crops to an extent that agricultural sustainability is being threatened. Salinity has also dwindled the survival of marine life, livestock, in addition to damaging of construction works. The problem can be estimated from the fact that out of 16.2 m.ha of irrigated land of Pakistan, 6.3 . ha are salt affected in the Indus Plain. The state of water pollution can further be assessed from the fact that presently about 106 MAF of water is diverted from the rivers into the canals of the Indus Plain which contains 28 MT of salts. Due to soil and water pollution more than 40,000 ha of good irrigated land goes out of cultivation every year. This it has drastically reduced the potential of our agricultural lands. Hence, an estimated annual loss of Rs. 14,000 million has been reported due to this soil-water salinity pollution in Pakistan. Some management options to mitigate the soil - water salinity pollution are proposed. (author)

  8. Capacitive Sensors and Breakthrough Curves in Automated Irrigation for Water and Soil Conservation (United States)

    Fahmy Hussein, Mohamed


    Shortness of water resources is the dominant criterion that dampens agricultural expansion in Egypt. Ten times population increase was recorded versus twice increase in the cultivated area during the last 100 years. Significant increase in freshwater supply is not expected in the near future. Consequently, a great deal of water-conservation is required to ameliorate water-use efficiency and to protect soils against sodicity under the prevailing arid-zone conditions. Modern irrigation (pivot, drip and sprinkling) was introduced during the last three decades in newly cultivated lands. However, this was done without automated watering. Moreover, dynamic chemical profile data is lacking in the cultivated lands. These current water conditions are behind this work. Two experimental procedures were used for a conjunctive goal of water and soil conservation. The first procedure used the resonance of analog-oscillators (relative permittivity sensors) based on capacitive Frequency Domain Reflectometry, FDR. Commercially available FDR sensors were calibrated for three soil textures, and solenoids were used to automatically turn on and off irrigation pipes in three experimental plots (via low power AC latching-valves on relay solid-state boards connected to sensors; the valve got closed when soil became sufficiently moist near saturation and opened before reaching wilting point as the relay contacts were defined by variable-resistor on board after sensor calibration). This article reports the results of sensor mV readings versus soil-moisture in the linear parts of calibration diagrams, for known moisture contents from wilting point to saturation, fitted as "power-law of dielectric mixing". The results showed close to optimum watering at soil-surface in the nursery beds when the sensors were sampled every 10 minutes to update the relays. This work is planned to extend to different sensors and drippers for soils with field crops / fruit trees to account for aspects of concern


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. I. Michnevich


    Full Text Available The paper shows that for overall estimation of soil water permeability it is necessary to know a horizontal water permeability value of a soil capillary border in addition to coefficients of filtration and permeability. Relations allowing to determine soil permeability in the area of incomplete saturation, are given in the paper. For a fully developed capillary border some calculation formulae have been obtained in the form of algebraic polynomial versus soil grading (grain composition. These formulae allow to make more accurate calculations while designing and operating  reclamation works.

  10. Heat pulse probe measurements of soil water evaporation in a corn field (United States)

    Latent heat fluxes from cropped fields consist of soil water evaporation and plant transpiration. It is difficult to accurately separate evapotranspiration into evaporation and transpiration. Heat pulse probes have been used to measure bare field subsurface soil water evaporation, however, the appl...

  11. The water budget of heterogeneous areas : impact of soil and rainfall variability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kim, C.P.


    In this thesis the heterogeneity of the soil water budget components is investigated. Heterogeneity of soil hydraulic properties and rainfall rate are taken into account by using stochastic methods. The importance of lateral groundwater flow in causing heterogeneity of the water budget

  12. Regional vegetation water effects on satellite soil moisture estimations for West Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Friesen, J.C.


    Soil moisture information is a vital parameter for water resources planning and food production. In particular for West Africa, where income largely depends on rainfed agriculture, reliable information on available soil water is required for modeling and prediction. Over large areas and,

  13. Selenium status in soil, water and essential crops of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazemi Lyly


    Full Text Available Abstracts As a contributing factor to health, the trace element selenium (Se is an essential nutrient of special interest for humans and all animals. It is estimated that 0.5 to 1 billion people worldwide suffer from Se deficiency. In spite of the important role of Se, its concentrations in soil, water and essential crops have not been studied in Iran. Therefore, the main aim of the current study was to determine the Se content of soil, water, and essential crops (rice in North, wheat in Center, date, and pistachio in South of different regions of Iran. Sampling was performed in the North, South, and Central regions of Iran. In each selected area in the three regions, 17 samples of surface soil were collected; samples of water and essential crops were also collected at the same sampling points. Upon preliminary preparation of all samples, the Se concentrations were measured by ICP-OES Model Varian Vista-MPX. The amount of soil-Se was found to be in the range between 0.04 and 0.45 ppm in the studied areas; the Se content of soil in the central region of Iran was the highest compared to other regions (p

  14. Soil tillage conservation and its effect on erosion control, water management and carbon sequestration (United States)

    Rusu, Dr.; Gus, Dr.; Bogdan, Dr.; Moraru, Dr.; Pop, Dr.; Clapa, Dr.; Pop, Drd.


    The energetic function of the soil expressed through the potential energy accumulated through humus, the biogeochemical function (the circuit of the nutrient elements) are significantly influenced by its hydrophysical function and especially by the state of the bedding- consolidation, soil capacity of retaining an optimal quantity of water, and then its gradual disponibility for plant consumption. The understanding of soil functions and management including nutrient production, stocking, filtering and transforming minerals, water , organic matter , gas circuit and furnishing breeding material, all make the basis of human activity, Earth's past, present and especially future. The minimum tillage soil systems - paraplow, chisel or rotary grape - are polyvalent alternatives for basic preparation, germination bed preparation and sowing, for fields and crops with moderate loose requirements being optimized technologies for: soil natural fertility activation and rationalization, reduction of erosion, increasing the accumulation capacity for water and realization of sowing in the optimal period. By continuously applying for 10 years the minimum tillage system in a crop rotation: corn - soy-bean - wheat - potato / rape, an improvement in physical, hydro-physical and biological properties of soil was observed, together with the rebuilt of structure and increase of water permeability of soil. The minimum tillage systems ensure an adequate aerial-hydrical regime for the biological activity intensity and for the nutrients solubility equilibrium. The vegetal material remaining at the soil surface or superficially incorporated has its contribution to intensifying the biological activity, being an important resource of organic matter. The minimum tillage systems rebuild the soil structure, improving the global drainage of soil which allows a rapid infiltration of water in soil. The result is a more productive soil, better protected against wind and water erosion and needing less

  15. Interactions between soil texture, water, and nutrients control patterns of biocrusts abundance and structure (United States)

    Young, Kristina; Bowker, Matthew; Reed, Sasha; Howell, Armin


    Heterogeneity in the abiotic environment structures biotic communities by controlling niche space and parameters. This has been widely observed and demonstrated in vascular plant and other aboveground communities. While soil organisms are presumably also strongly influenced by the physical and chemical dimensions of the edaphic environment, there are fewer studies linking the development, structure, productivity or function of surface soil communities to specific edaphic gradients. Here, we use biological soil crusts (biocrusts) as a model system to determine mechanisms regulating community structure of soil organisms. We chose soil texture to serve as an edaphic gradient because of soil texture's influence over biocrust distribution on a landscape level. We experimentally manipulated texture in constructed soil, and simultaneously manipulated two main outcomes of texture, water and nutrient availability, to determine the mechanism underlying texture's influence on biocrust abundance and structure. We grew biocrust communities from a field-sourced inoculum on four different soil textures, sieved from the same parent soil material, manipulating watering levels and nutrient additions across soil textures in a full-factorial design over a 5-month period of time. We measured abundance and structure of biocrusts over time, and measured two metrics of function, N2 fixation rates and soil stabilization, at the conclusion of the experiment. Our results showed finer soil textures resulted in faster biocrust community development and dominance by mosses, whereas coarser textures grew more slowly and had biocrust communities dominated by cyanobacteria and lichen. Additionally, coarser textured soils contained cyanobacterial filaments significantly deeper into the soil profile than fine textured soils. N2-fixation values increased with increasing moss cover and decreased with increasing cyanobacterial cover, however, the rate of change depended on soil texture and water amount

  16. Water and dissolved carbon transport in an eroding soil landscape using column experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rieckh, Helene; Gerke, Horst; Glæsner, Nadia


    In the hummocky ground moraine soil landscape, a spatial continuum of more or less eroded soils developed from till under intensive agricultural cultivation. Water flow and solute transport are affected by the variable soil structural and pedological developments, which are posing a challenge...... for flux estimation. The objective of this study was to investigate transport of water, dissolved organic (DOC), and particulate carbon (PC) through soil profiles of an eroded Haplic Luvisol and a heavily eroded Haplic Regosol. We studied 5 soil horizons in three replicates each: Ap (0-20 cm) and E (20...... boundary. Breakthrough curves for a pre-applied tracer (Br-) on the soil surface and a tracer applied with irrigation water (3H2O) were modeled analytically using CXTFIT. The heterogeneity of the Luvisol horizons was generally higher than that of the Regosol horizons, which relates to the higher...

  17. Impact of regression methods on improved effects of soil structure on soil water retention estimates (United States)

    Nguyen, Phuong Minh; De Pue, Jan; Le, Khoa Van; Cornelis, Wim


    Increasing the accuracy of pedotransfer functions (PTFs), an indirect method for predicting non-readily available soil features such as soil water retention characteristics (SWRC), is of crucial importance for large scale agro-hydrological modeling. Adding significant predictors (i.e., soil structure), and implementing more flexible regression algorithms are among the main strategies of PTFs improvement. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the improved effect of categorical soil structure information on estimating soil-water content at various matric potentials, which has been reported in literature, could be enduringly captured by regression techniques other than the usually applied linear regression. Two data mining techniques, i.e., Support Vector Machines (SVM), and k-Nearest Neighbors (kNN), which have been recently introduced as promising tools for PTF development, were utilized to test if the incorporation of soil structure will improve PTF's accuracy under a context of rather limited training data. The results show that incorporating descriptive soil structure information, i.e., massive, structured and structureless, as grouping criterion can improve the accuracy of PTFs derived by SVM approach in the range of matric potential of -6 to -33 kPa (average RMSE decreased up to 0.005 m3 m-3 after grouping, depending on matric potentials). The improvement was primarily attributed to the outperformance of SVM-PTFs calibrated on structureless soils. No improvement was obtained with kNN technique, at least not in our study in which the data set became limited in size after grouping. Since there is an impact of regression techniques on the improved effect of incorporating qualitative soil structure information, selecting a proper technique will help to maximize the combined influence of flexible regression algorithms and soil structure information on PTF accuracy.

  18. Spatio-temporal effects of soil and bedrock variability on grapevine water status in hillslope vineyards. (United States)

    Brillante, Luca; Bois, Benjamin; Mathieu, Olivier; Leveque, Jean


    Hillslope vineyards show various and complex water dynamics between soil and plants, and in order to gain further insight into this phenomenon, 8 grapevine plots were monitored during three vintages, from 2010 to 2013, on Corton Hill, Burgundy, France. Plots were distributed along a topolithosequence from 330 to 270 metres a.s.l. Grapevine water status was monitored weekly by surveying water potential, and, at the end of the season, by the use of the δ13C analysis of grape juice. Soil profile of each plot was described and analysed (soil texture, gravel content, organic carbon, total nitrogen, pH, CEC). Soil volumetric humidity was measured weekly, using TDR probes. A pedotransfer function was developed to transform Electrical Resistivity Imaging (ERI) into soil volume wetness and therefore to spatialise and observe variation in the Fraction of Transpirable Soil Water (FTSW). During the three years of monitoring, grapevines experienced great variation in water status, which ranged from low to considerable water deficit (as expressed by pre-dawn leaf water potential and δ13C analysis of grape juice). With ERI imaging, it was possible to observe differences in water absorption pattern by roots, in different soils, and at different depth. In addition, significant differences were observed in grapevine water status in relation to variations in the physical characteristics of the terroir along the hillslope (i.e. the geo-pedological context, the elevation etc.). Grapevine water behaviour and plant-soil water relationships on the hillslope of Corton Hill have been extensively characterised in this study by ultimate technologies, allowing to present this terroir as a very interesting example for future generalisation and modelling of the hillslope vineyard water dynamics.

  19. New procedure for sampling infiltration to assess post-fire soil water repellency (United States)

    P. R. Robichaud; S. A. Lewis; L. E. Ashmun


    The Mini-disk Infiltrometer has been adapted for use as a field test of post-fire infiltration and soil water repellency. Although the Water Drop Penetration Time (WDPT) test is the common field test for soil water repellency, the Mini-disk Infiltrometer (MDI) test takes less time, is less subjective, and provides a relative infiltration rate. For each test, the porous...

  20. Stability and mobility of self-interstitials and small interstitial clusters in α-iron: ab initio and empirical potential calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willaime, F.; Fu, C.C.; Marinica, M.C.; Dalla Torre, J.


    The stability and mobility of self-interstitials and small interstitial clusters, I n , in α-Fe is investigated by means of calculations performed in the framework of the density functional theory using the SIESTA code. The mono-, di- and tri-interstitials are shown to be made of (parallel) dumbbells and to migrate by nearest-neighbor translation-rotation jumps, according to Johnson's mechanism. The orientation of the dumbbells becomes energetically more favourable for I 5 and larger clusters. The performance of a semi-empirical potential recently developed for Fe, including ab initio self-interstitial data in the fitted properties, is evaluated over the present results. The superiority over previous semi-empirical potentials is confirmed. Finally the impact of the present results on the formation mechanism of loops, observed experimentally in α-Fe is discussed

  1. Temporal fluctuations in soil water repellency following wildfire in chaparral steeplands, southern California (United States)

    K.R. Hubbert; V. Oriol


    Soil water repellency is partularly common in unburned chaparral, and its degree and duration can be influenced by seasonal weather conditions. Water repellency tends to increase in dry soils, whil eit decreases or vanishes following precipitation or extended periods of soil moisture. The 15426 ha Williams Fire provided an opportunity to investigate post-fire...

  2. Sediment predictions in Wadi Al-Naft using soil water assessment tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alwan Imzahim Abdulkareem


    Full Text Available Sediment production is the amount of sediment in the unit area that is transported through the basin by water transfer over a specified period of time. The main aim of present study is to predict sediment yield of Wadi, Al-Naft watershed with 8820 Km2area, that is located in the North-East of Diyala Governorate in Iraq, using Soil-Water Assessment Tool, (SWAT and to predict the impact of land management and the input data including the land use, soil type, and soil texture maps which are obtained from Landsat-8 satellite image. Digital Elevation Model,(DEM with resolution (14 14 meter is used to delineate the watershed with the aid of model. Three Land-sat images were used to cover the study area which were mosaic processed and the study area masked- up from the mosaic, image. The area of study has been registries by Arc-GIS 10.2 and digitized the soil hydrologic group through assistant of Soil Plant Assistant Water Model, (SPAW which was progressed by USDA, Agricultural, Research Service, using the data of soil textural and organic matter from Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO, the available water content, saturated hydraulic conductivity, and bulk density. The results of average, sediment depth and the maximum upland sediment for simulation period (2010-2020 were predicted to be (1.7 mm, and (12.57 Mg/ha, respectively.

  3. Advances in treatment methods for uranium contaminated soil and water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navratil, J.D.


    Water and soil contaminated with actinides, such as uranium and plutonium, are an environmental concern at most U.S. Department of Energy sites, as well as other locations in the world. Remediation actions are on going at many sites, and plans for cleanup are underway at other locations. This paper will review work underway at Clemson University in the area of treatment and remediation of soil and water contaminated with actinide elements. (author)

  4. Seasonal variations in soil water in two woodland savannas of central Brazil with different fire history. (United States)

    Quesada, Carlos Alberto; Hodnett, Martin G; Breyer, Lacê M; Santos, Alexandre J B; Andrade, Sérgio; Miranda, Heloisa S; Miranda, Antonio Carlos; Lloyd, Jon


    Changes in soil water content were determined in two cerrado (sensu stricto) areas with contrasting fire history and woody vegetation density. The study was undertaken near Brasília, Brazil, from 1999 to 2001. Soil water content was measured with a neutron probe in three access tubes per site to a depth of 4.7 m. One site has been protected from fire for more than 30 years and, as a consequence, has a high density of woody plants. The other site had been frequently burned, and has a high herbaceous vegetation density and less woody vegetation. Soil water uptake patterns were strongly seasonal, and despite similarities in hydrological processes, the protected area systematically used more water than the burned area. Three temporarily contiguous patterns of water absorption were differentiated, characterized by variation in the soil depth from which water was extracted. In the early dry season, vegetation used water from throughout the soil profile but with a slight preference for water in the upper soil layers. Toward the peak of the dry season, vegetation had used most or all available water from the surface to a depth of 1.7 m, but continued to extract water from greater depths. Following the first rains, all water used was from the recently wetted upper soil layers only. Evaporation rates were a linear function of soil water availability, indicating a strong coupling of atmospheric water demand and the physiological response of the vegetation.

  5. Response of Eucalyptus grandis trees to soil water deficits

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dye, PJ


    Full Text Available , and sap flow rates revealed that prevention of soil water recharge resulted in only moderate drought stress. At Site 1, the trees abstracted water down to 8 m below the surface, whereas trees at Site 2 obtained most of their water from depths below 8 m. I...

  6. Impact of groundwater levels on evaporation and water-vapor fluxes in highly saline soils (United States)

    Munoz, J. F.; Hernández, M. F.; Braud, I.; Gironas, J. A.; Suarez, F. I.


    In aquifers of arid and hyper-arid zones, such as those occurring in the Chilean Andes high plateau, it is important to determine both the quantity and location of water discharges at the temporal scales of interest to close the basin's water budget and thus, to manage the water resource properly. In zones where shallow aquifers are the main source of water, overexploitation of the water resource changes the dynamics of water, heat and solute transport in the vadose zone. As aquifers are exploited, fluctuations in depth to groundwater are exacerbated. These fluctuations modify both soil structure and evaporation from the ground, which is typically the most important discharge from the water budget and is very difficult to estimate. Therefore, a correct quantification of evaporation from these soils is essential to improve the accuracy of the water balance estimation. The objective of this study was to investigate the evaporation processes and water-vapor fluxes in a soil column filled with a saline soil from the Salar del Huasco basin, Chile. Water content, electrical conductivity and temperature at different depths in the soil profile were monitored to determine the liquid and vapor fluxes within the soil column. The results showed that evaporation is negligible when the groundwater table is deeper than 1 m. For shallower groundwater levels, evaporation increases in an exponential fashion reaching a value of 3 mm/day when the groundwater table is near the surface of the ground. These evaporation rates are on the same order of magnitude than the field measurements, but slightly lower due to the controlled conditions maintained in the laboratory. Isothermal fluid fluxes were predominant over the non-isothermal fluid and water vapor fluxes. The net flux for all the phreatic levels tested in the laboratory showed different behaviors, with ascending or descending flows as a consequence of changes in water content and temperature distribution within the soil. It was

  7. Financial viability of soil and water conservation technologies in northwestern Ethiopian highlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teshome, Akalu; Rolker, D.; Graaff, de J.


    Soil erosion by water is a major threat to food security, environmental sustainability and prospects for rural development in Ethiopia. Successive governments have promoted various soil and water conservation (SWC) measures in order to reduce the effects of land degradation, but adoption rates vary

  8. [Study on soil enzyme activities and microbial biomass carbon in greenland irrigated with reclaimed water].