WorldWideScience

Sample records for soil characterization database

  1. National Geochemical Database: Soil

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Geochemical analysis of soil samples from the National Geochemical Database. Primarily inorganic elemental concentrations, most samples are from the continental US...

  2. NOrth AMerica Soil (NOAM-SOIL) Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, D. A.; Waltman, S. W.; Geng, X.; James, D.; Hernandez, L.

    2009-05-01

    NOAM-SOIL is being created by combining the CONUS-SOIL database with pedon data and soil geographic data coverages from Canada and Mexico. Completion of the in-progress NOrth AMerica Soil (NOAM-SOIL) database will provide complete North America coverage comparable to CONUS. Canadian pedons, which number more than 500, have been painstakingly transcribed to a common format, from hardcopy, and key- entered. These data, along with map unit polygons from the 1:1,000,000 Soil Landscapes of Canada, will be used to create the required spatial data coverages. The Mexico data utilizes the INEGI 1:1,000,000 scale soil map that was digitized by U. S. Geological Survey EROS Data Center in the mid 1990's plus about 20,000 pedons. The pedon data were published on the reverse side of the paper 1:250,000 scale Soil Map of Mexico and key entered by USDA and georeferenced by Penn State to develop an attribute database that can be linked to the 1:1,000,000 scale Soil Map of Mexico based on taxonomic information and geographic proximity. The essential properties that will be included in the NOAM-SOIL data base are: layer thickness (depth to bedrock or reported soil depth); available water capacity; sand, silt, clay; rock fragment volume; and bulk density. For quality assurance purposes, Canadian and Mexican soil scientists will provide peer review of the work. The NOAM-SOIL project will provide a standard reference dataset of soil properties for use at 1km resolution by NACP modelers for all of North America. All data resources, including metadata and selected raw data, will be provided through the Penn State web site: Soil Information for Environmental Modeling and Ecosystem Management (www.soilinfo.psu.edu). Progress on database completion is reported.

  3. Compilation of an integrated 3D soil and agrogeological database for the hydrophysical characterization of the unsaturated zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakacsi, Zsófia; Kuti, László; Pásztor, László; Vatai, József; Szabó, József; Müller, Tamás.

    2010-05-01

    Describing the water movement in the unsaturated zone, numerous soil hydraulic data as input parameter are required concerning the water retention curve and the hydraulic conductivity function as the main hydraulic properties. The direct measurements of the hydraulic parameters are quite difficult and time-consuming; the estimation of them can be an alternative especially for large areas. The most commonly used basis of the estimation is the particle-size distribution (PSD) data or texture class. The aim of our work was to compile an integrated and harmonized 3D pedo- and agrogeological database with the physical properties and stratification of the formations to the depth of the permanent groundwater level, which describes the unsaturated zone in a 690 km2 pilot area. Since the existing pedo- and agrogeological databases are not able to serve separately these 3D model requirements, their integration was necessary. Due to its appropriate spatial and thematic resolution and data processing status, the Digital Kreybig Soil Information System (DKSIS) was chosen as pedological data source of the 3D model. The DKSIS has been compiled in the Research Institute for Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, based on the 1:25,000 scale, national soil mapping program in Hungary. The survey sheets indicate the location of the observation sites. Due to the lack of measured PSD data, the field estimation of the textural classes, and the so-called "capillary rise of water" were used for the definition of the texture classes. The measured water uptake is supposed to have good relation with the textural class of the sample. During the data processing the inconsistent fields vs. capillary data pairs were excluded. In the DKSIS 649 polygons cover the pilot area, 484 soil profiles are occurring and characteristically each profile has two or three horizons. The agrogeological dataset is maintained by the Hungarian Geological Institute and derives

  4. Permafrost Soils Database for Northern Alaska 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    Arctic Landscape Conservation Cooperative — This database contains soil and permafrost stratigraphy for northern Alaska compiled from numerous project data files and reports. The Access Database has main data...

  5. Africa Soil Profiles Database, Version 1.0

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenaars, J.G.B.

    2014-01-01

    The Africa Soil Profiles Database, Version 1.0, was compiled by ISRIC - World Soil Information as a project activity for the Globally integrated- Africa Soil Information Service (AfSIS) project (www.africasoils.net/data/legacyprofile). The Africa Soil Profiles Database is a compilation of

  6. Harmonized World Soil Database (version 1.0)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nachtergaele, F.O.; Velthuizen, van H.; Wiberg, D.; Batjes, N.H.; Dijkshoorn, J.A.; Engelen, van V.W.P.; Fischer, G.; Jones, A.; Montanarela, L.; Petri, M.; Prieler, S.; Teixeira, E.; Shi, X.

    2014-01-01

    METIS-ID: 167825 The Harmonized World Soil Database is a 30 arc-second raster database with over 15000 different soil mapping units that combines existing regional and national updates of soil information worldwide (SOTER, ESD, Soil Map of China, ISRIC-WISE) with the information contained within the

  7. A New Digital Georeferenced Database of Soil Degradation in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Stolbovoi, V.; Fischer, G.

    1997-01-01

    Information on human-induced soil degradation in Russia has now been compiled in a new digital georeferenced database. It comprises the latest data on the status of soil degradation in Russia, including soil deterioration in non-agricultural regions. The information has been linked to a digital soil database, which has been recently prepared for the FAO by the Dokuchaev Soil Institute. Soil degradation attributes were derived from unpublished maps compiled by the State Committee on Land Resou...

  8. Soil Properties Database of Spanish Soils; Base de Datos de Propiedades Edafologicas de los Suelos Espanoles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trueba, C.; Millan, R.; Schmid, T. [CIEMAT. Madrid (Spain); Roquero, C.; Magister, M. [UPM. Madrid (Spain)

    1998-12-31

    The soil vulnerability determines the sensitivity of the soil after an accidental radioactive contamination due to Cs-137 and Sr-90. The Departamento de Impacto Ambiental de la Energia of CIEMAT is carrying out an assessment of the radiological vulnerability of the different Spanish soils found on the Iberian Peninsula. This requires the knowledge of the soil properties for the various types of existing soils. In order to achieve this aim, a bibliographical compilation of soil profiles has been made to characterize the different soil types and create a database of their properties. Depending on the year of publication and the type of documentary source, the information compiled from the available bibliography is very heterogeneous. Therefore, an important effort has been made to normalize and process the information prior to its incorporation to the database. This volume presents the criteria applied to normalize and process the data as the soil properties of the various soil types belonging to the Comunidad Autonoma de Madrid. (Author) 39 refs.

  9. A global database of soil respiration data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Bond-Lamberty

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Soil respiration – RS, the flux of CO2 from the soil to the atmosphere – is probably the least well constrained component of the terrestrial carbon cycle. Here we introduce the SRDB database, a near-universal compendium of published RS data, and make it available to the scientific community both as a traditional static archive and as a dynamic community database that may be updated over time by interested users. The database encompasses all published studies that report one of the following data measured in the field (not laboratory: annual RS, mean seasonal RS, a seasonal or annual partitioning of RS into its sources fluxes, RS temperature response (Q10, or RS at 10 °C. Its orientation is thus to seasonal and annual fluxes, not shorter-term or chamber-specific measurements. To date, data from 818 studies have been entered into the database, constituting 3379 records. The data span the measurement years 1961–2007 and are dominated by temperate, well-drained forests. We briefly examine some aspects of the SRDB data – its climate space coverage, mean annual RS fluxes and their correlation with other carbon fluxes, RS variability, temperature sensitivities, and the partitioning of RS source flux – and suggest some potential lines of research that could be explored using these data. The SRDB database is available online in a permanent archive as well as via a project-hosting repository; the latter source leverages open-source software technologies to encourage wider participation in the database's future development. Ultimately, we hope that the updating of, and corrections to, the SRDB will become a shared project, managed by the users of these data in the scientific community.

  10. Regridded Harmonized World Soil Database v1.2

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set describes select global soil parameters from the Harmonized World Soil Database (HWSD) v1.2, including additional calculated parameters such...

  11. Regridded Harmonized World Soil Database v1.2

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set describes select global soil parameters from the Harmonized World Soil Database (HWSD) v1.2, including additional calculated parameters such as area...

  12. Computer Aided Design for Soil Classification Relational Database ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    unique firstlady

    Computer Aided Design for Soil Classification. Relational Database and Retrieval Techniques. J.E. Atajeromavwo, E.U. Tibi (PhD), O. Ugboh (PhD). Abstract. The paper focuses on the problems associated with classification, storage and retrieval of information on soil data, such as the incompatibility of soil data semantics; ...

  13. Computer Aided Design for Soil Classification Relational Database ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper focuses on the problems associated with classification, storage and retrieval of information on soil data, such as the incompatibility of soil data semantics; inadequate documentation, and lack of indexing; hence it is pretty difficult to efficiently access large database. Consequently, information on soil is very difficult ...

  14. SMEX02 Land Surface Information: Soils Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Soil Moisture Experiment 2002 (SMEX02) took place in Ames, Iowa USA between 25 June and 12 July 2002. The NASA Land Surface Hydrology Data Archive maintains an...

  15. Development of an Engineering Soil Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-27

    that are extremely gravelly and/or stony. Leptosols are azonal soils and particularly common in mountainous regions. LP (WRB) Lixisol LX Lixisols...fluvic materials (Fluvisols). Regosols are extensive in eroding lands, particularly in arid and semi-arid areas and in mountainous terrain. RG (WRB...available to international scientists. Soil Science Society of America Journal 69:649–652. doi:10.2136/sssaj2004.0140. Curtis, J. O. 2005

  16. Progress towards GlobalSoilMap.net soil database of Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adhikari, Kabindra; Bou Kheir, Rania; Greve, Mogens Humlekrog

    2012-01-01

    presents recent advancements in Digital Soil Mapping (DSM) activities in Denmark with an example of soil clay mapping using regression-based DSM techniques. Several environmental covariates were used to build regression rules and national scale soil prediction was made at 30 m resolution. Spatial...... content mapping, the plans for future soil mapping activities in support to GlobalSoilMap.net project initiatives are also included in this paper. Our study thought to enrich and update Danish soil database and Soil information system with new fine resolution soil property maps.......Denmark is an agriculture-based country where intensive mechanized cultivation has been practiced continuously for years leading to serious threats to the soils. Proper use and management of Danish soil resources, modeling and soil research activities need very detailed soil information. This study...

  17. Soil Properties Database of Spanish Soils. Volume XIII.- Navarra and La Rioja; Base de Datos de Propiedades Edafologicas de los Suelos Espanoles. Volumen XIII.- Navarra y La Rioja

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trueba, C.; Millan, R.; Schmid, T.; Lago, C.; Roquero, C.; Magister, M. [Ciemat, Madrid (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    The soil vulnerability determines the sensitivity of the soil after an accidental radioactive contamination due to Cs-137 and Sr-90. The Departamento de Impacto Ambiental de la Energia of CIEMAT is carrying out an assessment of the radiological vulnerability of the different Spanish soils found on the Iberian Peninsula. This requires the knowledge of the soil properties for the various types of existing soils. In order to achieve this aim, a bibliographical compilation of soil profiles has been made to characterize the different soil types and create a database of their properties. depending on the year of publication and the type of documentary source the information prior to its incorporation to the database. This volume presents the criteria applied to normalize and process the data as well as the soil properties of the various soil types belonging to the Comunidades Autonomas of Navarra and La Rioja. (Author) 46 refs.

  18. SYNTHESIS OF DATA CONCERNING SOIL PARTICLE-SIZE FROM THE PROFISOL DATABASE. 2. LUVISOLS AND PELISOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Canarache

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Data on soil particle-size for 768 profiles of Preluvosols, Luvosols, Planosols, Alosols and Vertosols, available in the PROFISOL Database, have been processed. These soil profiles have been grouped into 105 groups, grouping being based on soil genetic type and subtype, topsoil and subsoil texture, and physiographic unit. Average and standard errors were calculated for each group and each horizon. This way, a general characterization of the particle-size of these soils has been obtained. These data confirm that, from this point of view, the changes introduced in SRTS as compared to the earlier SRCS are justified. A more detailed analysis of the coarse sand content seems to be useful for a better characterization of soils than the present-day 6 texture classes.

  19. Characterizing Soil Cracking at the Field Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physical characterization of the soil cracking has always been a major challenge in scaling soil water interaction to the field level. This scaling would allow for the soil water flow in the field to be modeled in two distinct pools: across the soil matrix and in preferential flows thus tackling maj...

  20. Overview of soil phosphorus data from a large international soil database

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batjes, N.H.

    2014-01-01

    An overiew of extractable soil phosphorus (P-Bray, P-Olsen, P-Mehlich and P-water) and P-retention data held in a large profile database is presented. The primary aim is to assess whether representative P-values, by broad soil group (FAO system), can be determined for each of these analytical

  1. Using LUCAS topsoil database to estimate soil organic carbon content in local spectral libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaldi, Fabio; van Wesemael, Bas; Chabrillat, Sabine; Chartin, Caroline

    2017-04-01

    The quantification of the soil organic carbon (SOC) content over large areas is mandatory to obtain accurate soil characterization and classification, which can improve site specific management at local or regional scale exploiting the strong relationship between SOC and crop growth. The estimation of the SOC is not only important for agricultural purposes: in recent years, the increasing attention towards global warming highlighted the crucial role of the soil in the global carbon cycle. In this context, soil spectroscopy is a well consolidated and widespread method to estimate soil variables exploiting the interaction between chromophores and electromagnetic radiation. The importance of spectroscopy in soil science is reflected by the increasing number of large soil spectral libraries collected in the world. These large libraries contain soil samples derived from a consistent number of pedological regions and thus from different parent material and soil types; this heterogeneity entails, in turn, a large variability in terms of mineralogical and organic composition. In the light of the huge variability of the spectral responses to SOC content and composition, a rigorous classification process is necessary to subset large spectral libraries and to avoid the calibration of global models failing to predict local variation in SOC content. In this regard, this study proposes a method to subset the European LUCAS topsoil database into soil classes using a clustering analysis based on a large number of soil properties. The LUCAS database was chosen to apply a standardized multivariate calibration approach valid for large areas without the need for extensive field and laboratory work for calibration of local models. Seven soil classes were detected by the clustering analyses and the samples belonging to each class were used to calibrate specific partial least square regression (PLSR) models to estimate SOC content of three local libraries collected in Belgium (Loam belt

  2. A Global Database of Soil Respiration Data, Version 1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set provides a soil respiration data database (SRDB), a near-universal compendium of published soil respiration (RS) data. Soil respiration, the...

  3. A Global Database of Soil Respiration Data, Version 2.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set provides an updated soil respiration database (SRDB), a near-universal compendium of published soil respiration (RS) data. Soil respiration,...

  4. A Global Database of Soil Respiration Data, Version 3.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides an update of the soil respiration database (SRDB), a near-universal compendium of published soil respiration (RS) data. Soil respiration, the...

  5. A Global Database of Soil Respiration Data, Version 3.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set provides an update of the soil respiration database (SRDB), a near-universal compendium of published soil respiration (RS) data. Soil...

  6. Combining Soil Databases for Topsoil Organic Carbon Mapping in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksoy, Ece; Yigini, Yusuf; Montanarella, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Accuracy in assessing the distribution of soil organic carbon (SOC) is an important issue because of playing key roles in the functions of both natural ecosystems and agricultural systems. There are several studies in the literature with the aim of finding the best method to assess and map the distribution of SOC content for Europe. Therefore this study aims searching for another aspect of this issue by looking to the performances of using aggregated soil samples coming from different studies and land-uses. The total number of the soil samples in this study was 23,835 and they're collected from the "Land Use/Cover Area frame Statistical Survey" (LUCAS) Project (samples from agricultural soil), BioSoil Project (samples from forest soil), and "Soil Transformations in European Catchments" (SoilTrEC) Project (samples from local soil data coming from six different critical zone observatories (CZOs) in Europe). Moreover, 15 spatial indicators (slope, aspect, elevation, compound topographic index (CTI), CORINE land-cover classification, parent material, texture, world reference base (WRB) soil classification, geological formations, annual average temperature, min-max temperature, total precipitation and average precipitation (for years 1960-1990 and 2000-2010)) were used as auxiliary variables in this prediction. One of the most popular geostatistical techniques, Regression-Kriging (RK), was applied to build the model and assess the distribution of SOC. This study showed that, even though RK method was appropriate for successful SOC mapping, using combined databases was not helpful to increase the statistical significance of the method results for assessing the SOC distribution. According to our results; SOC variation was mainly affected by elevation, slope, CTI, average temperature, average and total precipitation, texture, WRB and CORINE variables for Europe scale in our model. Moreover, the highest average SOC contents were found in the wetland areas; agricultural

  7. Combining Soil Databases for Topsoil Organic Carbon Mapping in Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ece Aksoy

    Full Text Available Accuracy in assessing the distribution of soil organic carbon (SOC is an important issue because of playing key roles in the functions of both natural ecosystems and agricultural systems. There are several studies in the literature with the aim of finding the best method to assess and map the distribution of SOC content for Europe. Therefore this study aims searching for another aspect of this issue by looking to the performances of using aggregated soil samples coming from different studies and land-uses. The total number of the soil samples in this study was 23,835 and they're collected from the "Land Use/Cover Area frame Statistical Survey" (LUCAS Project (samples from agricultural soil, BioSoil Project (samples from forest soil, and "Soil Transformations in European Catchments" (SoilTrEC Project (samples from local soil data coming from six different critical zone observatories (CZOs in Europe. Moreover, 15 spatial indicators (slope, aspect, elevation, compound topographic index (CTI, CORINE land-cover classification, parent material, texture, world reference base (WRB soil classification, geological formations, annual average temperature, min-max temperature, total precipitation and average precipitation (for years 1960-1990 and 2000-2010 were used as auxiliary variables in this prediction. One of the most popular geostatistical techniques, Regression-Kriging (RK, was applied to build the model and assess the distribution of SOC. This study showed that, even though RK method was appropriate for successful SOC mapping, using combined databases was not helpful to increase the statistical significance of the method results for assessing the SOC distribution. According to our results; SOC variation was mainly affected by elevation, slope, CTI, average temperature, average and total precipitation, texture, WRB and CORINE variables for Europe scale in our model. Moreover, the highest average SOC contents were found in the wetland areas

  8. Introducing BASE: the Biomes of Australian Soil Environments soil microbial diversity database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissett, Andrew; Fitzgerald, Anna; Meintjes, Thys; Mele, Pauline M; Reith, Frank; Dennis, Paul G; Breed, Martin F; Brown, Belinda; Brown, Mark V; Brugger, Joel; Byrne, Margaret; Caddy-Retalic, Stefan; Carmody, Bernie; Coates, David J; Correa, Carolina; Ferrari, Belinda C; Gupta, Vadakattu V S R; Hamonts, Kelly; Haslem, Asha; Hugenholtz, Philip; Karan, Mirko; Koval, Jason; Lowe, Andrew J; Macdonald, Stuart; McGrath, Leanne; Martin, David; Morgan, Matt; North, Kristin I; Paungfoo-Lonhienne, Chanyarat; Pendall, Elise; Phillips, Lori; Pirzl, Rebecca; Powell, Jeff R; Ragan, Mark A; Schmidt, Susanne; Seymour, Nicole; Snape, Ian; Stephen, John R; Stevens, Matthew; Tinning, Matt; Williams, Kristen; Yeoh, Yun Kit; Zammit, Carla M; Young, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Microbial inhabitants of soils are important to ecosystem and planetary functions, yet there are large gaps in our knowledge of their diversity and ecology. The 'Biomes of Australian Soil Environments' (BASE) project has generated a database of microbial diversity with associated metadata across extensive environmental gradients at continental scale. As the characterisation of microbes rapidly expands, the BASE database provides an evolving platform for interrogating and integrating microbial diversity and function. BASE currently provides amplicon sequences and associated contextual data for over 900 sites encompassing all Australian states and territories, a wide variety of bioregions, vegetation and land-use types. Amplicons target bacteria, archaea and general and fungal-specific eukaryotes. The growing database will soon include metagenomics data. Data are provided in both raw sequence (FASTQ) and analysed OTU table formats and are accessed via the project's data portal, which provides a user-friendly search tool to quickly identify samples of interest. Processed data can be visually interrogated and intersected with other Australian diversity and environmental data using tools developed by the 'Atlas of Living Australia'. Developed within an open data framework, the BASE project is the first Australian soil microbial diversity database. The database will grow and link to other global efforts to explore microbial, plant, animal, and marine biodiversity. Its design and open access nature ensures that BASE will evolve as a valuable tool for documenting an often overlooked component of biodiversity and the many microbe-driven processes that are essential to sustain soil function and ecosystem services.

  9. Uranium soils integrated demonstration: Soil characterization project report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunnane, J.C. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Gill, V.R. [Fernald Environmental Restoration Management Corp., Cincinnati, OH (United States); Lee, S.Y. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Morris, D.E. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Nickelson, M.D. [HAZWRAP, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Perry, D.L. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Tidwell, V.C. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1993-08-01

    An Integrated Demonstration Program, hosted by the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), has been established for investigating technologies applicable to the characterization and remediation of soils contaminated with uranium. Critical to the design of relevant treatment technologies is detailed information on the chemical and physical characteristics of the uranium waste-form. To address this need a soil sampling and characterization program was initiated which makes use of a variety of standard analytical techniques coupled with state-of-the-art microscopy and spectroscopy techniques. Sample representativeness is evaluated through the development of conceptual models in an effort to identify and understand those geochemical processes governing the behavior of uranium in FEMP soils. Many of the initial results have significant implications for the design of soil treatment technologies for application at the FEMP.

  10. Global characterization of surface soil moisture drydowns

    Science.gov (United States)

    McColl, Kaighin A.; Wang, Wei; Peng, Bin; Akbar, Ruzbeh; Short Gianotti, Daniel J.; Lu, Hui; Pan, Ming; Entekhabi, Dara

    2017-04-01

    Loss terms in the land water budget (including drainage, runoff, and evapotranspiration) are encoded in the shape of soil moisture "drydowns": the soil moisture time series directly following a precipitation event, during which the infiltration input is zero. The rate at which drydowns occur—here characterized by the exponential decay time scale τ—is directly related to the shape of the loss function and is a key characteristic of global weather and climate models. In this study, we use 1 year of surface soil moisture observations from NASA's Soil Moisture Active Passive mission to characterize τ globally. Consistent with physical reasoning, the observations show that τ is lower in regions with sandier soils, and in regions that are more arid. To our knowledge, these are the first global estimates of τ—based on observations alone—at scales relevant to weather and climate models.

  11. Evaluation of soil physical quality of Dutch subsoils in two databases with some threshold values

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akker, van den J.J.H.

    2006-01-01

    Soil deformation strongly affects pore continuity. The reduced infiltration triggers surface runoff and erosion. Two Dutch soil databases were analyzed in a preliminary study to the existence of subsoil compaction in The Netherlands

  12. Soil and Terrain Database for Malawi (ver. 1.0) (SOTER_Malawi)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kempen, B.

    2014-01-01

    The Soil and Terrain database for Malawi (version 1.0), at scale 1:1 million, was compiled based on the soil map of Malawi at scale 1:250,000 (compiled by the Land Resources Evaluation Project) that was complemented with soil boundary information from the provisional soil map at scale 1:1 million.

  13. A Global Database of Gas Fluxes from Soils after Rewetting or Thawing, Version 1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This database contains information compiled from published studies on gas flux from soil following rewetting or thawing. The resulting database includes 222 field...

  14. Soil Properties Database of Spanish Soils.- Volume I-Galicia; Base de Datos de Propiedades Edafologicas de los Suelos Espanoles. Volumen I.- Galicia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trueba, C.; Millan, R.; Schmid, T.; roquero, C.; Magister, M.

    1998-12-01

    The soil vulnerability determines the sensitivity of the soil after an accidental radioactive contamination due to Cs-137 and Sr-90. The Departamento de Impacto Ambiental de la Energia of CIEMAT is carrying out an assessment of the radiological vulnerability of the different Spanish soils found on the Iberian Peninsula. This requires the knowledge of the soil properties for the various types of existing soils. In order to achieve this aim, a bibliographical compilation of soil profiles has been made to characterize the different soil types and create a database of their properties. Depending on the year of publication and the type of documentary source, the information compiled from the available bibliography is very heterogeneous. Therefore, an important effort has been made to normalize and process the information prior to its incorporation to the database. This volume presents the criteria applied to normalize and process the data as well as the soil properties of the various soil types belonging to the Comunidad Autonoma de Galicia. (Author) 30 refs.

  15. Soil Properties Database of Spanish Soils. Volume XV.- Aragon; Base de Datos de Propiedades Edafologicas de los Suelos Espanoles. Volumen XV.- Aragon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trueba, C.; Millan, R.; Schmid, T.; Lago, C. [Ciemat, Madrid (Spain); Roquero, C.; Magister, M. [UPM. Madrid (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    The soil vulnerability determines the sensitivity of the soil after an accidental radioactive contamination due to Cs-137 and Sr-90. The Departamento de Impacto Ambiental de la Energia of CIEMAT is carrying out an assessment of the radiological vulnerability of the different Spanish soils found on the Iberian Peninsula. This requires the knowledge of the soil properties for the various types of existing soils. In order to achieve this aim, a bibliographical compilation of soil profiles has been made to characterize the different soil types and create a database of their properties. Depending on the year of publication and the type of documentary source, the information compiled from the available bibliography is very heterogeneous. therefore, an important effort has been made to normalize and process the information prior to its incorporation to the database. This volume presents the criteria applied to normalize and process the data as well as the soil properties of the various soil types belonging to the Comunidad Autonoma of Aragon. (Author) 47 refs.

  16. Soil Properties Database of Spanish Soils Volume IV.- Valencia and Murcia; Base de Datos de Propiedades Edafologicas de los Suelos Espanoles Volumen IV.- Valencia y Murcia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trueba, C.; Millan, R.; Schmid, T.; Roquero, C.; Magister, M.

    1998-12-01

    The soil vulnerability determines the sensitivity of the soil after an accidental radioactive contamination due to Cs-137 and Sr-90. The Departamento de Impacto Ambiental de la Energia of CIEMAT is carrying out an assessment of the radiological vulnerability of the different Spanish soils found on the Iberian Peninsula. This requires the knowledge of the soil properties for the various types of existing soils. In order to achieve this aim, a bibliographical compilation of soil profiles has been made to characterize the different soil types and create a database of their properties. Depending on the year of publication and the type of documentary source, the information compiled from the available bibliography very heterogeneous. Therefore, an important effort has been made to normalize and process the information prior to its incorporation to the database. This volume presents the criteria applied to normalize and process the data as well as the soil properties of the various soil types belonging to the Comunidades Autonomas de Valencia and Murcia. (Author) 63 refs.

  17. Soil Properties Database of Spanish Soils Volume III.- Extremadura; Base de Datos de Propiedades Edafologicas de los Suelos Espanoles Volumen III.- Extremadura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trueba, C.; Millam, R.; Schmid, T.; Roquero, C.; Magister, M.

    1998-12-01

    The soil vulnerability determines the sensitivity of the soil after an accidental radioactive contamination due to Cs-137 and Sr-90. The Departamento de Impacto Ambiental de la Energia of CIEMAT is carrying out an assessment of the radiological vulnerability of the different Spanish soils found on the Iberian Peninsula. This requires the knowledge of the soil properties for the various types of existing soils. In order to achieve this aim, a bibliographical compilation of soil profiles has been made to characterize the different soil types and create a database of their properties. Depending on the year of publication and the type of documentary source, the information compiled from the available bibliography is very heterogeneous. Therefore, an important effort has been made to normalize and process the information prior to its incorporation to the database. This volume presents the criteria applied to normalize and process the data as well as the soil properties of the various soil types belonging to the Comunidad Autonoma de Extremadura. (Author) 50 refs.

  18. Soil Properties Database of Spanish Soils. Volume XIV.- Cataluna; Base de Datos de Propiedades Edafologicas de los Suelos Espanoles. Volumen XIV. Cataluna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trueba, C.; Millan, R.; Schimid, T.; Lago, C. [Ciemat, Madrid (Spain); Roquero, C.; Magister, M. [UPM. Madrid (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    The soil vulnerability determines the sensitivity of the soil after and accidental radioactive contamination due to Cs-137 and Sr-90. The Departamento de Impacto Ambiental de la Energia of CIEMAT is carrying out an assessment of the radiological vulnerability of the different Spanish soils found on the Iberian Peninsula. This requires the knowledge of the soil properties for the various types of existing soils. In order to achieve this aim, a bibliographical compilation of soil profiles has been made to characterize the different soil types and create a database of their properties. Depending on the year of publication and the type of documentary source, the information compiled from the available bibliography is very heterogeneous. Therefore, an important effort has been made to normalize and process the information prior to its incorporation to the database. This volume presents the criteria applied to normalize and process the data as well as the soil properties of the various soil types belonging to the Comunidad Autonoma of Cataluna. (Author) 57 refs.

  19. SYNTHESIS OF DATA CONCERNING SOIL PARTICLE-SIZE FROM THE PROFISOL DATABASE. 3. UMBRISOLS, CAMBISOLS, SPODISOLS AND ANDISOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Canarache

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Data on soil particle-size, available in the PROFISOL Database, have been processed. They refer to 362 profiles of Nigrosols, Humosiosols, Eutricambisols, Districambisols, Prepodzols, Podzols, Criptopodzols and Andosols, grouped into 72 groups, this grouping being based on soil genetic type and subtype, topsoil and subsoil texture, and in some cases on physiographic unit. This way, a general characterization of the particle-size of these soils has been obtained, calculating for each group and each horizon average values and standard errors.

  20. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for Eddy Area, New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  1. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for Otero Area, New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  2. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for Harding County, New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  3. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for Lea County, New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  4. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for Hidalgo County, New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  5. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for Guadalupe County, New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  6. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for Colfax County, New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  7. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for Roosevelt County, New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  8. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for Torrance Area, New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  9. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for Luna County, New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  10. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for Union County, New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  11. Developing High-resolution Soil Database for Regional Crop Modeling in East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, E.; Ines, A. V. M.

    2014-12-01

    The most readily available soil data for regional crop modeling in Africa is the World Inventory of Soil Emission potentials (WISE) dataset, which has 1125 soil profiles for the world, but does not extensively cover countries Ethiopia, Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania in East Africa. Another dataset available is the HC27 (Harvest Choice by IFPRI) in a gridded format (10km) but composed of generic soil profiles based on only three criteria (texture, rooting depth, and organic carbon content). In this paper, we present a development and application of a high-resolution (1km), gridded soil database for regional crop modeling in East Africa. Basic soil information is extracted from Africa Soil Information Service (AfSIS), which provides essential soil properties (bulk density, soil organic carbon, soil PH and percentages of sand, silt and clay) for 6 different standardized soil layers (5, 15, 30, 60, 100 and 200 cm) in 1km resolution. Soil hydraulic properties (e.g., field capacity and wilting point) are derived from the AfSIS soil dataset using well-proven pedo-transfer functions and are customized for DSSAT-CSM soil data requirements. The crop model is used to evaluate crop yield forecasts using the new high resolution soil database and compared with WISE and HC27. In this paper we will present also the results of DSSAT loosely coupled with a hydrologic model (VIC) to assimilate root-zone soil moisture. Creating a grid-based soil database, which provides a consistent soil input for two different models (DSSAT and VIC) is a critical part of this work. The created soil database is expected to contribute to future applications of DSSAT crop simulation in East Africa where food security is highly vulnerable.

  12. 77 FR 12234 - Changes in Hydric Soils Database Selection Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-29

    ... from the Soil Data Mart at: http://soildatamart.nrcs.usda.gov/ . State Lists The State lists are... at the NRCS State offices, local NRCS field office, and on the Soil Data Mart at: http://soildatamart.... Information from the Soil Data Mart is the most up-to-date information as well as the official soil survey...

  13. S-World: A high resolution global soil database for simulation modelling (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoorvogel, J. J.

    2013-12-01

    There is an increasing call for high resolution soil information at the global level. A good example for such a call is the Global Gridded Crop Model Intercomparison carried out within AgMIP. While local studies can make use of surveying techniques to collect additional techniques this is practically impossible at the global level. It is therefore important to rely on legacy data like the Harmonized World Soil Database. Several efforts do exist that aim at the development of global gridded soil property databases. These estimates of the variation of soil properties can be used to assess e.g., global soil carbon stocks. However, they do not allow for simulation runs with e.g., crop growth simulation models as these models require a description of the entire pedon rather than a few soil properties. This study provides the required quantitative description of pedons at a 1 km resolution for simulation modelling. It uses the Harmonized World Soil Database (HWSD) for the spatial distribution of soil types, the ISRIC-WISE soil profile database to derive information on soil properties per soil type, and a range of co-variables on topography, climate, and land cover to further disaggregate the available data. The methodology aims to take stock of these available data. The soil database is developed in five main steps. Step 1: All 148 soil types are ordered on the basis of their expected topographic position using e.g., drainage, salinization, and pedogenesis. Using the topographic ordering and combining the HWSD with a digital elevation model allows for the spatial disaggregation of the composite soil units. This results in a new soil map with homogeneous soil units. Step 2: The ranges of major soil properties for the topsoil and subsoil of each of the 148 soil types are derived from the ISRIC-WISE soil profile database. Step 3: A model of soil formation is developed that focuses on the basic conceptual question where we are within the range of a particular soil property

  14. Soil Properties Database of Spanish Soils Volume II.- Asturias, Cantabria and Pais Vasco; Base de Datos de Propiedades Edafologicas de los Suelos EspaNoles Volumen II.- Asturias, Cantabria y pais Vasco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trueba, C.; Millan, R.; Schmid, T.; Roquero, C.; Magister, M.

    1998-12-01

    The soil vulnerability determines the sensitivity of the soil after accidental radioactive contamination due to Cs-137 and Sr-90. The Departamento de Impacto Ambiental de la Energia of CIEMAT is carrying out an assessment of the radiological vulnerability of the different Spanish soils found on the Iberian Peninsula. This requires the knowledge of the soil properties for the various types of existing soils. In order to achieve this aim, bibliographical compilation of soil profiles has been made to characterize the different soil types and create a database of their properties. Depending on the year of publication and the type of documentary source, the information compiled from the available bibliography is very heterogeneous. Therefore, an important effort has been made to normalize and process the information prior to its incorporation to the database. (Author) 34 refs.

  15. Towards a national-scale understanding of soil erosion in the UK: Building a national soil erosion database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benaud, Pia; Carvalho, Jason; Truckell, Ian; Rickson, Jane; Anderson, Karen; Quine, Timothy; Brazier, Richard

    2015-04-01

    The United Kingdom has a rich dataset of soil erosion observations, which have been collected using a wide range of methodologies, across various spatial and temporal scales. Yet, whilst observations of soil erosion have been carried out along-side agricultural development and intensification, understanding whether or not the UK has a soil erosion problem remains a question to be answered. Furthermore, although good reviews of existing soil erosion rates exist, there isn't a single resource that brings all of this work together. The following work seeks remedy this situation through collating all available, UK-based, soil erosion datasets into a spatially explicit database, describing soil erosion at the national scale. Soil erosion occurs through a complex series of processes, consequently, capturing the full extent of soil erosion requires utilising a suite of techniques across varying spatial and temporal scales, and a wide range of soil types and land management practices. However, preliminary analysis of the geodatabase has highlighted the ad hoc and biased nature of previous soil erosion studies. Exploring the spatial distribution of the datasets has identified a general trend towards conducting erosion studies at locations known to erode. Furthermore, many of the studies use a single research method and are thus unable to capture all erosion processes or pathways. For example, whilst volumetric surveys can quantify soil loss via large rills and gullies, such methods cannot quantify the less-visible, diffuse erosion processes due to sheetwash, wind or tillage (for example). Collating and visualising all UK-based soil erosion datasets has been a useful exercise, however, it has highlighted many shortfalls within existing soil erosion research. The database, therefore, cannot be used to make an unbiased assessment of UK erosion rates. As such, there is a strong argument for a replicable and robust national soil erosion monitoring program to be carried out along

  16. Vegetation relevés and soil measurements in the Netherlands: the Ecological Conditions Database (EC)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wamelink, G.W.W.; Adrichem, van M.H.C.; Dobben, van H.F.; Frissel, J.Y.; Held, den M.E.; Joosten, V.; Malinowska, A.H.; Slim, P.A.; Wegman, R.M.A.

    2012-01-01

    Since its establishment around 1990, the Ecological Conditions Database (EC; GIVD ID EU-00-006) has been accumulating vegetation relevés from the Netherlands, each accompanied by at least one abiotic soil measurement (e.g. pH or nutrient availability). On 1-1-2010, the database contained 8,229

  17. SMEX02 Land Surface Information: Soils Database, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set includes soil moisture data for the following 10 Iowa counties: Boone, Dallas, Franklin, Hamilton, Hardin, Jasper, Marshall, Polk, Story, and Wright....

  18. Geochemistry of soils in the US from the PLUTO database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset contains geochemical data for soils collected in the United States and analyzed in the analytical laboratories of the Geologic Division of the U.S....

  19. Geochemistry of soils in the US from the RASS database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset contains geochemical data for soil samples collected by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) personnel and analyzed in the analytical laboratories of the...

  20. SPECTRAL data-based estimation of soil heat flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R.K.; Irmak, A.; Walter-Shea, Elizabeth; Verma, S.B.; Suyker, A.E.

    2011-01-01

    Numerous existing spectral-based soil heat flux (G) models have shown wide variation in performance for maize and soybean cropping systems in Nebraska, indicating the need for localized calibration and model development. The objectives of this article are to develop a semi-empirical model to estimate G from a normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and net radiation (Rn) for maize (Zea mays L.) and soybean (Glycine max L.) fields in the Great Plains, and present the suitability of the developed model to estimate G under similar and different soil and management conditions. Soil heat fluxes measured in both irrigated and rainfed fields in eastern and south-central Nebraska were used for model development and validation. An exponential model that uses NDVI and Rn was found to be the best to estimate G based on r2 values. The effect of geographic location, crop, and water management practices were used to develop semi-empirical models under four case studies. Each case study has the same exponential model structure but a different set of coefficients and exponents to represent the crop, soil, and management practices. Results showed that the semi-empirical models can be used effectively for G estimation for nearby fields with similar soil properties for independent years, regardless of differences in crop type, crop rotation, and irrigation practices, provided that the crop residue from the previous year is more than 4000 kg ha-1. The coefficients calibrated from particular fields can be used at nearby fields in order to capture temporal variation in G. However, there is a need for further investigation of the models to account for the interaction effects of crop rotation and irrigation. Validation at an independent site having different soil and crop management practices showed the limitation of the semi-empirical model in estimating G under different soil and environment conditions.

  1. Soil and Terrain Database for Tunisia primary data (version 1.0) - scale 1:1 million (SOTER_Tunisia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkshoorn, J.A.; Nachtergaele, F.O.; Huting, J.R.M.

    2013-01-01

    The Soil and Terrain database for Tunisia primary data (version 1.0), at scale 1:1 million (SOTER_Tunisia), was compiled of enhanced soil information within the framework of the FAO's program of Land Degradation Assessment in Drylands (LADA). A SOTER database was compiled based on the digital soil

  2. Soil and Terrain Database for Nepal (version 1.0) - scale 1:1 million (SOTER_Nepal)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkshoorn, J.A.

    2014-01-01

    The Soil and Terrain database for Nepal primary data (version 1.0), at scale 1:1 million (SOTER_Nepal). SOTER_Nepal is generalized from the original Soils and Terrain database of Nepal at scale 1:50,000 compiled by FAO and Nepal's Survey Dept. The SOTER_Nepal database provides generalized

  3. Soils in our big back yard: characterizing the state, vulnerabilities, and opportunities for detecting changes in soil carbon storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, Jennifer W.; Loiesel, Julie; Ryals, Rebecca; Lawrence, Corey; Blankinship, Joseph; Phillips, Claire; Bond-Lamberty, Ben; Todd-Brown, Katherine; Vargas, Rodrigo; Hugelius, Gustaf; Nave, Luke; Malhotra, Avni; Silver, Whendee; Sanderman, Jon

    2017-04-01

    A number of diverse approaches and sciences can contribute to a robust understanding of the I. state, II. vulnerabilities, and III. opportunities for soil carbon in context of its potential contributions to the atmospheric C budget. Soil state refers to the current C stock of a given site, region, or ecosystem/landuse type. Soil vulnerabilities refers to the forms and bioreactivity of C stocks, which determine how soil C might respond to climate, disturbance, and landuse perturbations. Opportunities refer to the potential for soils in their current state to increase capacity for and rate of C storage under future conditions, thereby impacting atmospheric C budgets. In order to capture the state, vulnerability, and opportunities for soil C, a robust C accounting scheme must include at least three science needs: (1) a user-friendly and dynamic database with transparent, shared coding in which data layers of solid, liquid, and gaseous phases share relational metadata and allow for changes over time (2) a framework to characterize the capacity and reactivity of different soil types based on climate, historic, and landscape factors (3) a framework to characterize landuse practices and their impact on physical state, capacity/reactivity, and potential for C change. In order to transfer our science information to practicable implementations for land policies, societal and social needs must also include: (1) metrics for landowners and policy experts to recognize conditions of vulnerability or opportunity (2)communication schemes for accessing salient outcomes of the science. Importantly, there stands an opportunity for contributions of data, model code, and conceptual frameworks in which scientists, educators, and decision-makers can become citizens of a shared, scrutinized database that contributes to a dynamic, improved understanding of our soil system.

  4. Characterization of two benchmark soils of contrasting parent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Detailed characterization of two important agricultural soils of contrasting parent materials, found in southeastern Nigeria was carried out. The Amakama soil formed over Coastal Plain Sands has a deep, well drained profile greater than 240cm deep. The soil texture varies from loamy sand in the surface layer to sandy clay ...

  5. Characterization and classification of soils of Janta area, Plateau ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The soils of Janta area were studied using the grid method of soil survey with a view to characterizing and classifying them and to evaluate their properties for sustainable rice production. The soils were found to have been formed from thick deposits of alluvium over the Namu shale formation. They are deep, poorly to very ...

  6. Characterization of Soil Samples of Enzyme Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeland, P. W.

    1977-01-01

    Described are nine enzyme essays for distinguishing soil samples. Colorimetric methods are used to compare enzyme levels in soils from different sites. Each soil tested had its own spectrum of activity. Attention is drawn to applications of this technique in forensic science and in studies of soil fertility. (Author/AJ)

  7. characterization of geotechnical properties of lateritic soil-bentonite

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-03-01

    Mar 1, 2013 ... Abstract. The purpose of this study was to characterize lateritic soil bentonite mixtures intended for use as low-permeability barrier in municipal waste disposal landfill. Characterization of the soil mix- tures included measurement of Atterberg limits, compaction properties, hydraulic conductivity,.

  8. Exploring public databases to characterize urban flood risks in Amsterdam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaitan, Santiago; ten Veldhuis, Marie-claire; van de Giesen, Nick

    2015-04-01

    Cities worldwide are challenged by increasing urban flood risks. Precise and realistic measures are required to decide upon investment to reduce their impacts. Obvious flooding factors affecting flood risk include sewer systems performance and urban topography. However, currently implemented sewer and topographic models do not provide realistic predictions of local flooding occurrence during heavy rain events. Assessing other factors such as spatially distributed rainfall and socioeconomic characteristics may help to explain probability and impacts of urban flooding. Several public databases were analyzed: complaints about flooding made by citizens, rainfall depths (15 min and 100 Ha spatio-temporal resolution), grids describing number of inhabitants, income, and housing price (1Ha and 25Ha resolution); and buildings age. Data analysis was done using Python and GIS programming, and included spatial indexing of data, cluster analysis, and multivariate regression on the complaints. Complaints were used as a proxy to characterize flooding impacts. The cluster analysis, run for all the variables except the complaints, grouped part of the grid-cells of central Amsterdam into a highly differentiated group, covering 10% of the analyzed area, and accounting for 25% of registered complaints. The configuration of the analyzed variables in central Amsterdam coincides with a high complaint count. Remaining complaints were evenly dispersed along other groups. An adjusted R2 of 0.38 in the multivariate regression suggests that explaining power can improve if additional variables are considered. While rainfall intensity explained 4% of the incidence of complaints, population density and building age significantly explained around 20% each. Data mining of public databases proved to be a valuable tool to identify factors explaining variability in occurrence of urban pluvial flooding, though additional variables must be considered to fully explain flood risk variability.

  9. Soil structure characterized using computed tomographic images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhanqi Cheng; Stephen H. Anderson; Clark J. Gantzer; J. W. Van Sambeek

    2003-01-01

    Fractal analysis of soil structure is a relatively new method for quantifying the effects of management systems on soil properties and quality. The objective of this work was to explore several methods of studying images to describe and quantify structure of soils under forest management. This research uses computed tomography and a topological method called Multiple...

  10. A database and synthesis of northern peatland soil properties and Holocene carbon and nitrogen accumulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loisel, J.; Yu, Z.; Beilman, D.W.; Camill, P.; Alm, J.; Amesbury, M.J.; Anderson, D.; Andersson, S.; Bochicchio, C.; Barber, K.; Belyea, L.R.; Bunbury, J.; Chambers, F.M.; Charman, D.J.; De Vleeschouwer, F.; Fiałkiewicz-Kozieł, B.; Finkelstein, S.A.; Gałka, M.; Garneau, M.; Hammarlund, D; Hinchcliffe, W.; Holmquist, J.; Hughes, P.; Jones, M.C.; Klein, E.S.; Kokfelt, U.; Korhola, A.; Kuhry, P.; Lamarre, A.; Lamentowicz, M.; Large, D.; Lavoie, M.; Macdonald, G.; Magnan, G.; Mäkilä, M.; Mallon, G.; Mathijssen, P.; Mauquoy, D.; McCarroll, J.; Moore, T.R.; Nichols, J.; O'Reilly, B.; Oksanen, P.; Packalen, M.; Peteet, D.; Richard, P.J.H.; Robinson, S.; Ronkainen, T.; Rundgren, M.; Sannel, A.B.K.; Tarnocai, C.; Thom, T.; Tuittila, E.S.; Turetsky, M.; Väliranta, M.; van der Linden, M.; van Geel, B.; van Bellen, S.; Vitt, D.; Zhao, Y.; Zhou, W.

    2014-01-01

    Here, we present results from the most comprehensive compilation of Holocene peat soil properties with associated carbon and nitrogen accumulation rates for northern peatlands. Our database consists of 268 peat cores from 215 sites located north of 45°N. It encompasses regions within which peat

  11. Quantitative soil vapor as an alternative to traditional soil sampling for VOCs: Characterization and remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preslo, L.M.; Estes, T. (ICF Kaiser Engineers, Inc., Rancho Cordova, CA (United States)); Kraemer, M.C.

    1993-10-01

    This paper will present the results of a Soil Vapor Demonstration Project that compared pairs of soils and adjacent soil vapor samples. This study was conducted at the Aerojet General Corporation site in Rancho Cordova, CA. The author will describe the use of soil vapor sampling as a better alternative to traditional soil sampling and analysis for volatile organic compounds, and as a tool to locate possible DNAPL. The paper will present how the Demonstration Project was performed to substantiate to the U.S. EPA and state agencies that soil vapor is a viable and quantitative sampling methodology. This approach utilized various soil properties including measured soil partitioning coefficients, to calculate VOC mass in soils based on soil vapor data and equilibrium conditions. The results showed that traditional soil samples underestimated the mass of VOCs present in over 90 percent of the soil/soil vapor pairs. The paper also will include observations of other physical parameters which were monitored during the program to assess the effect on the soil vapor concentrations. In addition, the flexibility, speed, and cost-effectiveness of sampling allowed for more comprehensive characterization with a higher level of confidence. The data collected demonstrated that the soil vapor technique provides a more comprehensive evaluation of VOC distribution in the vadose zone than traditional soil sampling.

  12. Soil and Terrain Database Soil for China primary data (version 1.0) - scale 1:1 million (SOTER_China)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkshoorn, J.A.; Huting, J.R.M.; Batjes, N.H.

    2013-01-01

    The Soil and Terrain database for China primary data (version 1.0), at scale 1:1 million (SOTER_China), was compiled of enhanced soil information within the framework of the FAO's program of Land Degradation Assessment in Drylands (LADA). The primary database was compiled using the SOTER

  13. SoilEffects - start characterization of the experimental soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løes, Anne-Kristin; Johansen, Anders; Pommeresche, Reidun

    P-AL 2.87/2.31; K-AL 5.25/5.24; Mg-AL 4.34/3.53; Ca-AL 107.6/80.7; K-HNO3 122.4/175 mg of nutrient 100 g-1 dry soil in the grass/arable system. The pH value (H2O) was 5.82/5.87. The accumulated soil respiration and the microbial community structure differed between the grass and the arable system....... Soil respiration seemed to be influenced both by manure Application and cropping system. In 2011, no significant change in the soil microbial community structure was found five days after manure application. This, however, may change with repeated manure applications over several years. Five earthworm......Summary This report describes the establishment, experimental plan and initial soil characteristics of the field experiment linked to the project “Effects of anaerobically digested manure on soil fertility - establishment of a long-term study under Norwegian conditions” (SoilEffects, 2010...

  14. Spatial filtering of a legacy dataset to characterize relationships between soil organic carbon and soil texture

    OpenAIRE

    Stevens, François; Van Bogaert, Patrick; Van Wesemael, Bas

    2015-01-01

    The spatial distribution of soil properties often displays complex and multiscale patterns of variation. It results from multiple soil processes acting simultaneously but at different scales. Hence, characterizing the influence of a given controlling factor on the soil property is made more difficult by the variation due to other controlling factors. In this context, separating the variation of the soil properties by spatial scales could allow disentangling the combined effect of controlling ...

  15. Imaging and Analytical Approaches for Characterization of Soil Mineral Weathering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dohnalkova, Alice; Arey, Bruce; Varga, Tamas; Miller, Micah; Kovarik, Libor

    2017-07-01

    Soil minerals weathering is the primary natural source of nutrients necessary to sustain productivity in terrestrial ecosystems. Soil microbial communities increase soil mineral weathering and mineral-derived nutrient availability through physical and chemical processes. Rhizosphere, the zone immediately surrounding plant roots, is a biogeochemical hotspot with microbial activity, soil organic matter production, mineral weathering, and secondary phase formation all happening in a small temporally ephemeral zone of steep geochemical gradients. The detailed exploration of the micro-scale rhizosphere is essential to our better understanding of large-scale processes in soils, such as nutrient cycling, transport and fate of soil components, microbial-mineral interactions, soil erosion, soil organic matter turnover and its molecular-level characterization, and predictive modeling.

  16. Soil Properties Database of Spanish Soils. Volume VI.- Andalucia (a): Jaen, Cordoba, Sevilla and Huelva; Base de Datos de Propiedades Edafologicas de los Suelos Espanoles. Volumen VI.- Andalucia (a): Jaen, Cordoba, Sevilla y Huelva

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trueba, C.; Millan, R.; Schmid, T.; Lago, C. [Ciemat. Madrid (Spain); Roquero, C.; Magister, M. [UPM. Madrid (Spain)

    1999-05-01

    The soil vulnerability determines the sensitivity of the soil after an accidental radioactive contamination due to Cs-137 and Sr-90. The Department de Impacto Ambiental de la Energia of CIEMAT is carrying out an assessment of the radiological vulnerability of the different Spanish soils found on the Iberian Peninsula. This requires the knowledge of the soil properties for the various types of existing soils. In order to achieve this aim, a bibliographical compilation of soil profiles has been made to characterize the different soil types and create a database of their properties. Depending on the year of publication and the type of documentary source, the information compiled from the available bibliography is very heterogeneous. Therefore, an important effort has been made to normalize and process the information prior to its incorporation to the database. This volume presents the criteria applied to normalize and process the data as well as the soil properties of the various soil types belonging to the provinces of Jaen, Cordoba, Sevilla and Huelva of the Comunidad Autonoma de Andalucia. (Author) 67 refs.

  17. Soil Properties Database of Spanish Soils. Volume VIII.- Castilla-La Mancha (a): Toledo and Ciudad Real; Bade de Datos de Propiedades Edafologicas de los Suelos Espanoles. Volumen VIII.- Castilla-La Mancha (a): Toledo y Ciudad Real

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trueba, C.; Millan, R.; Schmid, T.; Lago, C. [CIEMAT. Madrid (Spain); Roquero, C.; Magister, M. [UPM. Madrid (Spain)

    1999-06-01

    The soil vulnerability determines the sensitivity of the soil after an accidental radioactive contamination due to Cs-137 and Sr-90. The Departamento de Impacto Ambiental de la Energia of CIEMAT is carrying out an assessment of the radiological vulnerability of the different Spanish soils found on the Iberian Peninsula. This requires the knowledge of the soil properties for the various types of existing soils. In order to achieve thin aim, a bibliographical compilation of soil profiles has been made to characterize the different soil types and create a database of their properties. Depending on the year of publication and the type of documentary source, the information compiled from the available bibliography is very heterogeneous. Therefore, an important effort has been made to normalize and process the information prior ot its incorporation to the database. This volume presents the criteria applied to normalize and process the data as well as the soil properties of the various soil types belonging to the provinces of Toledo and Ciudad Real of the Comunidad Autonoma de Castilla-La Mancha. (Author) 32 refs.

  18. Soil Properties Database of Spanish Soils. Volume VII.- Andalucia (b): Cadiz, Malaga, Granada y Almeria; Base de Datos de Propiedades Edafologicas de los Suelos Espanoles. volumen VII.- Andalucia (b): Cadiz, Malaga, Granda y Almeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trueba, C.; Millan, R.; Schmid, T.; Lago, C. [Ciemat. Madrid (Spain); Roquero, C.; Magister, M. [UPM. Madrid (Spain)

    1999-05-01

    The soil vulnerability determines the sensitivity of the soil after an accidental radioactive contamination due to Cs-137 and Sr-90. The Departamento de Impacto Ambiental de la Energia of CIEMAT is carrying out an assessment of the radiological vulnerability of the different Spanish soils found on the Iberian Peninsula. This requires the knowledge of the soil properties for the various types of existing soils. In order to achieve this aim, a bibliographical compilation of soil profiles has been made to characterize the different soil types and create a database of their properties. Depending on the year of publication and the type of documentary source, the information compiled from the available bibliography is very heterogeneous. Therefore, an important effort has been made to normalize and process the information prior its incorporation to the database. This volume presents the criteria applied to normalize and process the data as well as the soil properties of the various soil types belonging to provinces of Cadiz, Malaga, Granada and Almeria of the Comunidad Autonoma de Andalucia. (Author) 78 refs.

  19. Soil Properties Database of Spanish Soils. Volumen XI.- Castilla-Leon (b): Palencia, Valladolid and Avila; Base de Datos de propiedades edafologicas de los suelos espanoles. Volumen XI. Castilla-Leon (b): Palencia, Valladolid y Avila

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trueba, C.; Millan, R.; Schmid, T.; Lago, C. [CIEMAT. Madrid (Spain); Roquero, C.; Magister, M [UPM. Madrid (Spain)

    1999-09-01

    The soil vulnerability determines the sensitivity of the soil after an accidental radioactive contamination due to Cs-137 and Sr-90. The Departamento de Impacto Ambiental de la Energia of CIEMAT is carrying out an assessment of the radiological vulnerability of the different Spanish soils found on the Iberian Peninsula. This requires the knowledge of the soil properties for the various types of existing soils. In order to achieve this aim, a bibliographical compilation of soil profiles has been made to characterize the different soil types and create a database of their properties. Depending on the year of publication and the type of documentary source, the information compiled form the available bibliography is very heterogeneous. Therefore, an important effort has been made to normalize and process the information prior to its incorporation to the database. This volume presents the criteria applied to normalize and process the data as well as the soil properties of the various soil types belonging to the provinces of Palencia. Valladolid and Avila of the Comunidad Autonoma de Castilla-Leon. (Author)

  20. Soil properties Database of Spanish Soils. Volumen IX.- Castilla-La Mancha (b): Guadalajara, Cuenca y Albacete; Base de Datos de Propiedades Edafologicas de los Suelos Espanoles. Volumen IX.- Castila-La Mancha (b): Guadalajara, Cuenca y Albacete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trueba, C.; Millan, R.; Schmid, T.; Lago, C. [CIEMAT. Madrid (Spain); Roquero, C.; Magister, M. [UPC. Madrid (Spain)

    1999-06-01

    The soil vulnerability determines the sensitivity of the soil after an accidental radioactive contamination due to Cs-137 and Sr-90. The Departamento de Impacto Ambiental de la Energia of CIEMAT is carrying out an assessment of the radiological vulnerability of the different Spanish soils found on the Iberian Peninsula. This requires the knowledge of the soil properties for the various types of existing soils. In order to achieve this aim, a bibliographical compilation of soil profiles has been made to characterize the different soil types and create a database of their properties. Depending on the year of publication and the type of documentary source, the information compiled from the available bibliography is very heterogeneous. Therefore, an important effort has been made to normalize and process the information prior to its incorporation to the database. This volume presents the criteria applied to normalize and process the data as well as the soil properties of the various soil types belonging to the provinces of Guadalajara, Cuenca and Albacete of the Comunidad Autonoma de Castilla-La Mancha. (Author) 41 refs.

  1. Soil Properties Database of Spanish Soils. Volume X.- Castilla-Leon (a): Leon, Zamora and Salamanca; Base de datos de propiedades edafologicas de los suelos espanoles. volumen X. Castilla-Leon (a): Leon, Zamora y Salamanca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trueba, C.; Millan, R.; Schmid, T.; Lago, C. [CIEMAT. Madrid (Spain); Roquero, C.; Magister, M. [UPM. Madrid (Spain)

    1999-09-01

    The soil vulnerability determines the sensitivity of the soil after an accidental radioactive contamination due to Cs-137 and Sr-90. The Departamento de Impacto Ambiental de la Energia of CIEMAT is carrying out an assessment of the radiological vulnerability of the different Spanish soils found on the Iberian Peninsula. This requires the knowledge of the soil properties for the various types of existing soils. In order to achieve this aim, a bibliographical compilation of soil profiles has been made to characterize the different soil types and create a database of their properties. Depending on the year of publication and the type of documentary source, the information compiled from the available bibliography is very heterogeneous. Therefore, an important effort has been made to normalize and process the information prior to its incorporation to the database. This volume presents the criteria applied to normalize and process the data as well as the soil properties of the various soil types belonging to the provinces of Leon, Zamora and Salamanca of the Comunidad Autonoma de Castilla-Leon. (Author)

  2. Soil Properties Database of Spanish Soils. Volume XII.- Castilla-Leon (c): Burgos, Soria and Segovia; Base de Datos de Propiedades Edafologicas de los Suelos Espanoles. Volumen XII.- Castilla-Leon (c): Burgos, Soria y Segovia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trueba, C.; Millan, R.; Schmid, T.; Lago, C. [CIEMAT. Madrid (Spain); Roquero, C.; Magister, M. [UPM. Madrid (Spain)

    1999-09-01

    The soil vulnerability determines the sensitivity of the soil after an accidental radioactive contamination due to Cs-137 and Sr-90. The Departamento de Impacto Ambiental de la Energia of CIEMAT is carrying out an assessment of the radiological vulnerability of the different Spanish soils found on the Iberian Peninsula. This requires the knowledge of the soil properties for the various types of existing soils. In order to achieve this aim, a bibliographical compilation of soil profiles has been made to characterize the different soil types and create a database of their properties. Depending on the year of publication and the type of documentary source, the information compiled from the available bibliography is very heterogeneous. Therefore, an important effort has been made to normalize and process the information prior to its incorporation to the database. This volume presents the criteria applied to normalize and process the data as well as the soil properties of the various soil types belonging to the provinces of Burgos, Soria and Segovia of the Comunidad Autonoma de Castilla-Leon. (Author)

  3. Soil Carbon Variability and Change Detection in the Forest Inventory Analysis Database of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, A. M.; Nater, E. A.; Dalzell, B. J.; Perry, C. H.

    2014-12-01

    The USDA Forest Service's Forest Inventory Analysis (FIA) program is a national effort assessing current forest resources to ensure sustainable management practices, to assist planning activities, and to report critical status and trends. For example, estimates of carbon stocks and stock change in FIA are reported as the official United States submission to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. While the main effort in FIA has been focused on aboveground biomass, soil is a critical component of this system. FIA sampled forest soils in the early 2000s and has remeasurement now underway. However, soil sampling is repeated on a 10-year interval (or longer), and it is uncertain what magnitude of changes in soil organic carbon (SOC) may be detectable with the current sampling protocol. We aim to identify the sensitivity and variability of SOC in the FIA database, and to determine the amount of SOC change that can be detected with the current sampling scheme. For this analysis, we attempt to answer the following questions: 1) What is the sensitivity (power) of SOC data in the current FIA database? 2) How does the minimum detectable change in forest SOC respond to changes in sampling intervals and/or sample point density? Soil samples in the FIA database represent 0-10 cm and 10-20 cm depth increments with a 10-year sampling interval. We are investigating the variability of SOC and its change over time for composite soil data in each FIA region (Pacific Northwest, Interior West, Northern, and Southern). To guide future sampling efforts, we are employing statistical power analysis to examine the minimum detectable change in SOC storage. We are also investigating the sensitivity of SOC storage changes under various scenarios of sample size and/or sample frequency. This research will inform the design of future FIA soil sampling schemes and improve the information available to international policy makers, university and industry partners, and the public.

  4. Soil and Terrain Database for Argentina, primary data (version 1.0) - scale 1:1 million (SOTER_Argentina)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkshoorn, J.A.; Huting, J.R.M.

    2014-01-01

    The Soil and Terrain database for Argentina primary data (version 1.0), at scale 1:1 million (SOTER_Argentina), was compiled of enhanced soil information within the framework of the FAO's program Land Degradation Assessment in Drylands (LADA). Primary soil and terrain data for Argentina were

  5. Project plan for the Background Soil Characterization Project on the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-08-01

    The Background Soil characterization Project (BSCP) will provide background concentration levels of selected metals, organic compounds, and radionuclides in soils from uncontaminated on-site areas at the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), and off-site in the western part of Roane County and the eastern part of Anderson County. The BSCP will establish a database, recommend how to use the data for contaminated site assessment, and provide estimates of the potential human health and environmental risks associated with the background level concentrations of potentially hazardous constituents.

  6. Spectral characterization of soil and coal contamination on snow ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 120; Issue 2. Spectral characterization of soil and coal contamination on snow reflectance using hyperspectral analysis. S K Singh A V ... The absorption peak asymmetry was not significant for soil contamination but showed a nature towards left asymmetry for coal.

  7. Characterization and Classification of Soils on an Agricultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    be useful in the management and use of the soils on a sustainable manner. The objective of this research therefore, is to characterize and classify the soils of. Dingyadi District. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Study Area ... wooden mortar and pestle and then sieved through a. 2mm mesh. The sieved samples were stored for.

  8. Databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Ryan

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Databases are deeply embedded in archaeology, underpinning and supporting many aspects of the subject. However, as well as providing a means for storing, retrieving and modifying data, databases themselves must be a result of a detailed analysis and design process. This article looks at this process, and shows how the characteristics of data models affect the process of database design and implementation. The impact of the Internet on the development of databases is examined, and the article concludes with a discussion of a range of issues associated with the recording and management of archaeological data.

  9. Characterization of soil water content variability and soil texture using GPR groundwave techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grote, K.; Anger, C.; Kelly, B.; Hubbard, S.; Rubin, Y.

    2010-08-15

    Accurate characterization of near-surface soil water content is vital for guiding agricultural management decisions and for reducing the potential negative environmental impacts of agriculture. Characterizing the near-surface soil water content can be difficult, as this parameter is often both spatially and temporally variable, and obtaining sufficient measurements to describe the heterogeneity can be prohibitively expensive. Understanding the spatial correlation of near-surface soil water content can help optimize data acquisition and improve understanding of the processes controlling soil water content at the field scale. In this study, ground penetrating radar (GPR) methods were used to characterize the spatial correlation of water content in a three acre field as a function of sampling depth, season, vegetation, and soil texture. GPR data were acquired with 450 MHz and 900 MHz antennas, and measurements of the GPR groundwave were used to estimate soil water content at four different times. Additional water content estimates were obtained using time domain reflectometry measurements, and soil texture measurements were also acquired. Variograms were calculated for each set of measurements, and comparison of these variograms showed that the horizontal spatial correlation was greater for deeper water content measurements than for shallower measurements. Precipitation and irrigation were both shown to increase the spatial variability of water content, while shallowly-rooted vegetation decreased the variability. Comparison of the variograms of water content and soil texture showed that soil texture generally had greater small-scale spatial correlation than water content, and that the variability of water content in deeper soil layers was more closely correlated to soil texture than were shallower water content measurements. Lastly, cross-variograms of soil texture and water content were calculated, and co-kriging of water content estimates and soil texture

  10. Hydro-physical characterization of soils under the Restinga Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Cooper

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Knowledge of the hydraulic properties of the soil is of crucial importance to an understanding of the interactions between vegetation, soil and water. There is little information available about the hydraulic properties of Podzol soils found in tropical regions. The aim of this study was to present the soil morphology and hydraulic properties of a toposequence situated in a permanent plot at the Ilha do Cardoso State Park (Cananéia, SP, Brazil. Ultradetailed soil maps were used to define a toposequence inside the permanent plot. Five profiles, representing the main types of soil, were opened along the toposequence, in which Podzols are dominant. The levels of bulk density, sand content, porosity and permeability in these soils were all high. Consequently, these soils have a high level of hydraulic conductivity with low water retention. This behavior undergoes an alteration in the Bh and Bs horizons due to the accumulation of organic and metallic compounds and a changing structure that modifies the pore distribution. Furthermore, the characterization of the hydro-physical functioning of soils in natural environments is an important source of encouragement to further investigative study of soil water dynamics and its relationship to the native vegetation.

  11. Isolation, characterization and primary screening of soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2014-02-28

    Feb 28, 2014 ... constituents of soil microorganisms, together with some bacteria as well as some fungi. Some inhabit marine environments while others groups live in mangrove environments (Kumar, 2001).They play an important role in decomposition of organic materials such as cellulose and chitin and thereby playing a.

  12. Isolation and Characterization of Soil Fulvic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mir Munsif Ali Talpur

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Fulvic acid was isolated from the agriculture soil of District Naushahro Feroz, Sindh, Pakistan by International Humic Substances Society (IHSS method. The nutrient contents of the soil like N. P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe and Zn were determined by using the Atomic Absorption spectrophotometer (AAS. The Spectroscopic analysis was carried out by studying the UV-Vis, FT-IR and NIR spectra of isolated compounds. The data has been compared with the literature and correlated. Moisture as well as texture shows good water holding capacity and silt- loam type of soil. pH and EC are indicators of the fertility of soil to be beneficial for plantation. The spectral data (UV-Visible, FTIR and NIR supports the characteristic functional groups (-COOH, C=O, -OH, -NH2, C=C, CH2 and Polysaccharides present in Fulvic acid. E4/E6 values depict its hydrophilic nature, having less aromatic and more aliphatic groups. The presence of metal ions indicates its chelating ability.

  13. Resilient Modulus Characterization of Compacted Cohesive Subgrade Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Sas

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Soil investigations concerning cyclic loading focus on the evaluation, in particular, of design parameters, such as elastic modulus, Poisson’s ratio, or resilient modulus. Structures subjected to repeated loading are vulnerable to high deformations, especially when subgrade soils are composed of cohesive, fully-saturated soils. Such subgrade soils in the eastern part of Europe have a glacial genesis and are a mix of sand, silt, and clay fractions. The characteristic of, e.g., Young modulus variation and resilient modulus from repeated loading tests, is presented. Based on performed resonant column and cyclic triaxial tests, an analytical model is proposed. The model takes into consideration actual values of effective stress p′, as well as loading characteristics and the position of the effective stress path. This approach results in better characterization of pavement or industrial foundation systems based on the subgrade soil in undrained conditions. The recoverable strains characterized by the resilient modulus Mr value in the first cycle of loading was between 44 MPa and 59 MPa for confining pressure σ’3 equal to 45 kPa, and between 48 MPa and 78 MPa for σ’3 equal to 90 kPa. During cyclic loading, cohesive soil, at first, degrades. When pore pressure reaches equilibrium, the resilient modulus value starts to increase. The above-described phenomena indicate that, after the plastic deformation caused by excessive load and excess pore water pressure dissipation, the soil becomes resilient.

  14. Soil profile organic carbon prediction with Visible Near Infrared Reflec-tance spectroscopy based on a national database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deng, Fan; Knadel, Maria; Peng, Yi

    This study focuses on the application of the Danish national soil Visible Near Infrared Re-flectance spectroscopy (NIRs) database for predicting SOC in a field. The Conditioned Latin hypercube sam-pling (cLHS) method was used for the selection of 120 soil profiles based on DualEM21s and DEM data...

  15. Effective dielectric mixture model for characterization of diesel contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Mattarneh, H.M.A. [Tenaga National Univ., Kajang (Malaysia). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Essa Ahmad, M. [Al-Balqa Applied Univ. (Jordan). Al-Huson University College; Zain, M.F.M.; Tha, M.R. [Kebangsaan Malaysia Univ., Bangi (Malaysia)

    2007-07-01

    Human exposure to contaminated soil by diesel isomers can have serious health consequences like neurological diseases or cancer. The potential of dielectric measuring techniques for electromagnetic characterization of contaminated soils was investigated in this paper. The purpose of the research was to develop an empirical dielectric mixture model for soil hydrocarbon contamination application. The paper described the basic theory and elaborated in dielectric mixture theory. The analytical and empirical models were explained in simple algebraic formulas. The experimental study was then described with reference to materials, properties and experimental results. The results of the analytical models were also mathematically explained. The proposed semi-empirical model was also presented. According to the result of the electromagnetic properties of dry soil contaminated with diesel, the diesel presence had no significant effect on the electromagnetic properties of dry soil. It was concluded that diesel had no contribution to the soil electrical conductivity, which confirmed the nonconductive character of diesel. The results of diesel-contaminated soil at saturation condition indicated that both dielectric constant and loss factors of soil were decreased with increasing diesel content. 15 refs., 2 tabs., 9 figs.

  16. Soil and Terrain Database for Latin America and the Caribbean (version 2.0) - scale 1:5 million (SOTERLAC)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkshoorn, J.A.; Engelen, van V.W.P.; Huting, J.R.M.; Tempel, P.

    2014-01-01

    The Soil and Terrain database for Latin America and the Caribbean (SOTERLAC), version 2.0, at scale 1:5 million, replaces version 1.02. The update includes changes in the GIS file and in the attributes database. The topographic base of the SOTERLAC map was adapted to a version congruent to the

  17. MannDB: A microbial annotation database for protein characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, C; Lam, M; Smith, J; Zemla, A; Dyer, M; Kuczmarski, T; Vitalis, E; Slezak, T

    2006-05-19

    MannDB was created to meet a need for rapid, comprehensive automated protein sequence analyses to support selection of proteins suitable as targets for driving the development of reagents for pathogen or protein toxin detection. Because a large number of open-source tools were needed, it was necessary to produce a software system to scale the computations for whole-proteome analysis. Thus, we built a fully automated system for executing software tools and for storage, integration, and display of automated protein sequence analysis and annotation data. MannDB is a relational database that organizes data resulting from fully automated, high-throughput protein-sequence analyses using open-source tools. Types of analyses provided include predictions of cleavage, chemical properties, classification, features, functional assignment, post-translational modifications, motifs, antigenicity, and secondary structure. Proteomes (lists of hypothetical and known proteins) are downloaded and parsed from Genbank and then inserted into MannDB, and annotations from SwissProt are downloaded when identifiers are found in the Genbank entry or when identical sequences are identified. Currently 36 open-source tools are run against MannDB protein sequences either on local systems or by means of batch submission to external servers. In addition, BLAST against protein entries in MvirDB, our database of microbial virulence factors, is performed. A web client browser enables viewing of computational results and downloaded annotations, and a query tool enables structured and free-text search capabilities. When available, links to external databases, including MvirDB, are provided. MannDB contains whole-proteome analyses for at least one representative organism from each category of biological threat organism listed by APHIS, CDC, HHS, NIAID, USDA, USFDA, and WHO. MannDB comprises a large number of genomes and comprehensive protein sequence analyses representing organisms listed as high

  18. 471 Soil Characterization and Land Use of Arondizogu Inland Valley ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2010-10-16

    Oct 16, 2010 ... result of demographic pressure on static land resources the traditional land use system (shifting cultivation) was abandoned and rotational bush fallow .... negative charges which is evidence by the presence of variable charge colloids such as sesqioxides. Soil Characterization and Land use of Arondizogu ...

  19. Characterization and Classification of Soils on an Agricultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Characterization, Classification, Agricultural Landscape, Mapping units, and Morphological Properties. INTRODUCTION ..... Plant performs best in bulk densities below 1.4Mgm-3 and 1.6Mgm-3 for clayey and sandy soils respectively (Donahue et al;. 1990). Root growth could also be inhibited due to high bulk.

  20. Characterization of wetland soils developed on limestones parent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wetland soils developed on limestone parent materials were characterized and classified. In the study, eight (8) profile pits were sunk in 3 sites within Cross River State in 2006, described and sampled according to FAO (1988) guidelines. The samples were analysed in the laboratory using routine methods. Results ...

  1. Alaska Geochemical Database (AGDB)-Geochemical data for rock, sediment, soil, mineral, and concentrate sample media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granitto, Matthew; Bailey, Elizabeth A.; Schmidt, Jeanine M.; Shew, Nora B.; Gamble, Bruce M.; Labay, Keith A.

    2011-01-01

    The Alaska Geochemical Database (AGDB) was created and designed to compile and integrate geochemical data from Alaska in order to facilitate geologic mapping, petrologic studies, mineral resource assessments, definition of geochemical baseline values and statistics, environmental impact assessments, and studies in medical geology. This Microsoft Access database serves as a data archive in support of present and future Alaskan geologic and geochemical projects, and contains data tables describing historical and new quantitative and qualitative geochemical analyses. The analytical results were determined by 85 laboratory and field analytical methods on 264,095 rock, sediment, soil, mineral and heavy-mineral concentrate samples. Most samples were collected by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) personnel and analyzed in USGS laboratories or, under contracts, in commercial analytical laboratories. These data represent analyses of samples collected as part of various USGS programs and projects from 1962 to 2009. In addition, mineralogical data from 18,138 nonmagnetic heavy mineral concentrate samples are included in this database. The AGDB includes historical geochemical data originally archived in the USGS Rock Analysis Storage System (RASS) database, used from the mid-1960s through the late 1980s and the USGS PLUTO database used from the mid-1970s through the mid-1990s. All of these data are currently maintained in the Oracle-based National Geochemical Database (NGDB). Retrievals from the NGDB were used to generate most of the AGDB data set. These data were checked for accuracy regarding sample location, sample media type, and analytical methods used. This arduous process of reviewing, verifying and, where necessary, editing all USGS geochemical data resulted in a significantly improved Alaska geochemical dataset. USGS data that were not previously in the NGDB because the data predate the earliest USGS geochemical databases, or were once excluded for programmatic reasons

  2. An Integrative Database System of Agro-Ecology for the Black Soil Region of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuiping Ge

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The comprehensive database system of the Northeast agro-ecology of black soil (CSDB_BL is user-friendly software designed to store and manage large amounts of data on agriculture. The data was collected in an efficient and systematic way by long-term experiments and observations of black land and statistics information. It is based on the ORACLE database management system and the interface is written in PB language. The database has the following main facilities:(1 runs on Windows platforms; (2 facilitates data entry from *.dbf to ORACLE or creates ORACLE tables directly; (3has a metadata facility that describes the methods used in the laboratory or in the observations; (4 data can be transferred to an expert system for simulation analysis and estimates made by Visual C++ and Visual Basic; (5 can be connected with GIS, so it is easy to analyze changes in land use ; and (6 allows metadata and data entity to be shared on the internet. The following datasets are included in CSDB_BL: long-term experiments and observations of water, soil, climate, biology, special research projects, and a natural resource survey of Hailun County in the 1980s; images from remote sensing, graphs of vectors and grids, and statistics from Northeast of China. CSDB_BL can be used in the research and evaluation of agricultural sustainability nationally, regionally, or locally. Also, it can be used as a tool to assist the government in planning for agricultural development. Expert systems connected with CSDB_BL can give farmers directions for farm planting management.

  3. An in-situ soil structure characterization methodology for measuring soil compaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobos, Endre; Kriston, András; Juhász, András; Sulyok, Dénes

    2016-04-01

    The agricultural cultivation has several direct and indirect effects on the soil properties, among which the soil structure degradation is the best known and most detectable one. Soil structure degradation leads to several water and nutrient management problems, which reduce the efficiency of agricultural production. There are several innovative technological approaches aiming to reduce these negative impacts on the soil structure. The tests, validation and optimization of these methods require an adequate technology to measure the impacts on the complex soil system. This study aims to develop an in-situ soil structure and root development testing methodology, which can be used in field experiments and which allows one to follow the real time changes in the soil structure - evolution / degradation and its quantitative characterization. The method is adapted from remote sensing image processing technology. A specifically transformed A/4 size scanner is placed into the soil into a safe depth that cannot be reached by the agrotechnical treatments. Only the scanner USB cable comes to the surface to allow the image acquisition without any soil disturbance. Several images from the same place can be taken throughout the vegetation season to follow the soil consolidation and structure development after the last tillage treatment for the seedbed preparation. The scanned image of the soil profile is classified using supervised image classification, namely the maximum likelihood classification algorithm. The resulting image has two principal classes, soil matrix and pore space and other complementary classes to cover the occurring thematic classes, like roots, stones. The calculated data is calibrated with filed sampled porosity data. As the scanner is buried under the soil with no changes in light conditions, the image processing can be automated for better temporal comparison. Besides the total porosity each pore size fractions and their distributions can be calculated for

  4. Characterization of Models for Time-Dependent Behavior of Soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liingaard, Morten; Augustesen, Anders; Lade, Poul V.

    2004-01-01

    developed for metals and steel but are, to some extent, used to characterize time effects in geomaterials. The third part is a review of constitutive laws that describe not only viscous effects but also the inviscid ( rate-independent) behavior of soils, in principle, under any possible loading condition......  Different classes of constitutive models have been developed to capture the time-dependent viscous phenomena ~ creep, stress relaxation, and rate effects ! observed in soils. Models based on empirical, rheological, and general stress-strain-time concepts have been studied. The first part...

  5. Regional Scale Characterization of Soil Carbon Fractions with Pedometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, H.; Grunwald, S.; Myers, D. B.; Harris, W. G.

    2015-12-01

    Regional scale characterization of the spatial distribution of soil carbon (C) fractions can facilitate a better understanding of the lability and recalcitrance of C across diverse land uses, soils, and climatic gradients. While C lability is associated with decomposition and transport processes in soils in, the stable portion of soil C persists in soil for decades to millennia. To better understand storage, flux and processes of soil C from across the soil-landscape continuum, we upscaled different fractions of soil C. Recalcitrant carbon (RC), hydrolysable carbon (HC) and total carbon (TC) were derived from the topsoil (0-20 cm) at 1,014 georeferenced sites in Florida (~150 000 km2). These were identified using a random-stratified sampling design with landuse-soil suborders strata. The Boruta method was employed for identifying all-relevant variables from the available 327 soil-environmental variables in order to develop the most parsimonious model for TC, RC and HC. We compared eight methods: Classification and Regression Tree (CaRT), Bagged Regression Tree (BaRT), Boosted Regression Tree (BoRT), Random Forest (RF), Support Vector Machine (SVM), Partial Least Square Regression (PLSR), Regression Kriging (RK), and Ordinary Kriging (OK). The accuracy of each method was assessed from 304 randomly chosen samples that were used for validation. Overall, 36, 20 and 25 variables stood out as all-relevant to TC, RC and HC, respectively. We predicted TC with a mean of 4.89 kg m-2 and standard error of 3.71 kg m-2. The prediction performance based on the ratio of prediction error to inter-quartile range in order of accuracy for TC was as follows: RF>BoRT>BaRT>SVM>PLSR>RK>CART>OK; however, BoRT outperformed RF for RC and HC, and the remaining order was identical for RC and HC. The best models, explained 71.6, 73.2, and 32.9 % of the total variation for TC, RC and HC, respectively. No residual spatial autocorrelation was left among the evaluated models. This indicates that

  6. The Current Status of Germplum Database: a Tool for Characterization of Plum Genetic Resources in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Harta

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In Romania, Prunus genetic resources are kept in collections of varieties, populations and biotypes, mainly located in research and development institutes or fruit growing stations and, in the last years, by some private enterprises. Creating the experimental model for the Germplum database based on phenotypic descriptors and SSR molecular markers analysis is an important and topical objective for the efficient characterization of genetic resources and also for establishing a public-private partnership for the effective management of plum germplasm resources in Romania. The technical development of the Germplum database was completed and data will be added continuously after characterizing each new accession.

  7. Characterization of a soil contaminated by oilfield brine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Mutairi, K.; Harris, T. [Univ. of Tulsa, OH (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Brine contamination of soil is a common environmental problem associated with the onshore production of oil and gas. A site of extensive contamination in Oklahoma has been characterized using conductimetry, direct potentiometry (pH- and chloride-selective electrodes), and atomic absorption spectrophotometry (for Na{sup +} and Ca{sup 2+}) to determine the extent of the contamination and the efficacy of various remediation technologies.

  8. Final report on the Background Soil Characterization Project at the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 2: Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    The Background Soil Characterization Project (BSCP) will provide background concentration levels of selected metals organic compounds, and radionuclides in soils from uncontaminated on-site areas at the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), and off-site in the western part of Roane County and the eastern part of Anderson County. The BSCP will establish a database, recommend how to use the data for contaminated site assessment, and provide estimates of the potential human health and environmental risks associated with the background level concentrations of potentially hazardous constituents. This volume contains the data from the Background Soil Characterization Project. When available, the following validation qualifiers are used in the appendixes. When validation qualifiers are not available, the corresponding contract laboratory data qualifiers appearing on the next page are used.

  9. Soil moisture modelling of a SMOS pixel: interest of using the PERSIANN database over the Valencia Anchor Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Juglea

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS Calibration/Validation (Cal/Val activities, this study addresses the use of the PERSIANN-CCS1database in hydrological applications to accurately simulate a whole SMOS pixel by representing the spatial and temporal heterogeneity of the soil moisture fields over a wide area (50×50 km2. The study focuses on the Valencia Anchor Station (VAS experimental site, in Spain, which is one of the main SMOS Cal/Val sites in Europe.

    A faithful representation of the soil moisture distribution at SMOS pixel scale (50×50 km2 requires an accurate estimation of the amount and temporal/spatial distribution of precipitation. To quantify the gain of using the comprehensive PERSIANN database instead of sparsely distributed rain gauge measurements, comparisons between in situ observations and satellite rainfall data are done both at point and areal scale. An overestimation of the satellite rainfall amounts is observed in most of the cases (about 66% but the precipitation occurrences are in general retrieved (about 67%.

    To simulate the high variability in space and time of surface soil moisture, a Soil Vegetation Atmosphere Transfer (SVAT model – ISBA (Interactions between Soil Biosphere Atmosphere is used. The interest of using satellite rainfall estimates as well as the influence that the precipitation events can induce on the modelling of the water content in the soil is depicted by a comparison between different soil moisture data. Point-like and spatialized simulated data using rain gauge observations or PERSIANN – CCS database as well as ground measurements are used. It is shown that a good adequacy is reached in most part of the year, the precipitation differences having less impact upon the simulated soil moisture. The behaviour of simulated surface soil moisture at SMOS scale is verified by the use of remote sensing data from the Advanced

  10. Soil moisture modelling of a SMOS pixel: interest of using the PERSIANN database over the Valencia Anchor Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juglea, S.; Kerr, Y.; Mialon, A.; Lopez-Baeza, E.; Braithwaite, D.; Hsu, K.

    2010-08-01

    In the framework of Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) Calibration/Validation (Cal/Val) activities, this study addresses the use of the PERSIANN-CCS1database in hydrological applications to accurately simulate a whole SMOS pixel by representing the spatial and temporal heterogeneity of the soil moisture fields over a wide area (50×50 km2). The study focuses on the Valencia Anchor Station (VAS) experimental site, in Spain, which is one of the main SMOS Cal/Val sites in Europe. A faithful representation of the soil moisture distribution at SMOS pixel scale (50×50 km2) requires an accurate estimation of the amount and temporal/spatial distribution of precipitation. To quantify the gain of using the comprehensive PERSIANN database instead of sparsely distributed rain gauge measurements, comparisons between in situ observations and satellite rainfall data are done both at point and areal scale. An overestimation of the satellite rainfall amounts is observed in most of the cases (about 66%) but the precipitation occurrences are in general retrieved (about 67%). To simulate the high variability in space and time of surface soil moisture, a Soil Vegetation Atmosphere Transfer (SVAT) model - ISBA (Interactions between Soil Biosphere Atmosphere) is used. The interest of using satellite rainfall estimates as well as the influence that the precipitation events can induce on the modelling of the water content in the soil is depicted by a comparison between different soil moisture data. Point-like and spatialized simulated data using rain gauge observations or PERSIANN - CCS database as well as ground measurements are used. It is shown that a good adequacy is reached in most part of the year, the precipitation differences having less impact upon the simulated soil moisture. The behaviour of simulated surface soil moisture at SMOS scale is verified by the use of remote sensing data from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer on Earth observing System (AMSR-E). We show

  11. An Assessment Of Physicochemical Properties, Heavy Metal Enrichment And Fungal Characterization Of Refined Kerosene Impacted Soil In Anand, Gujarat, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamiyan R Khan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to assess the physico-chemical properties, heavy metal enrichment and fungal isolation and characterization of the top soil samples collected in-situ from aged refined kerosene contaminated as well as uncontaminated garden soil sites in Anand, Gujarat, India. The total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH concentrations were 17,510 mg/kg in kerosene contaminated soil against 142.65 mg/kg for uncontaminated soils. The contamination increased the soil organic carbon, nitrogen and clay to 2.95 %, 0.612 %, 36.22 % as compared to 1.5%, 0.153%, 32.4% respectively in the uncontaminated soil. Increased concentration of heavy metals like Cobalt, Copper, Iron, Zinc and Lead against the uncontaminated soil was encountered. Ten native fungal speciesbelonging to a total of five genera include Aspergillus (A. terreus, A. versicolor, A. niger; Fusarium oxysporum; Penicilliumjanthinellum from the uncontaminated garden soil, whereas the contaminated soil included Aspergillus (A. terreus, A. versicolor , A. niger Candida tropicalis,Cladosporiumbruhnei and Fusarium oxysporum, identified based on 18S rRNA and the nucleotide sequences were submitted to the NCBI, GenBank database. The changes created by kerosene contamination resulted in variation in individual concentrations of physicochemical properties, soil conductivity, pH and soil fertility indices probably dwindle the growth of fungal strains causing a reduction in the fungal population in the kerosene contaminated soil. International Journal of Environment, Volume-2, Issue-1, Sep-Nov 2013, Pages 164-174 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v2i1.9219

  12. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for Socorro County Area, New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  13. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for Catron County, New Mexico, Northern Part

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  14. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for White Sands National Monument, New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  15. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for Dona Ana County Area, New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  16. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for Valencia County, New Mexico, Eastern Part

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  17. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for Grant County, Central and Southern Parts, New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  18. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for Sierra County Area, New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  19. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for Fort Bliss Military Reservation, New Mexico and Texas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  20. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for Tucumcari Area, Northern Quay County, New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  1. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for Ute Mountain Area, Colorado and New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  2. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for Santa Fe County, Area New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  3. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for Mora County Area, New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  4. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for Lincoln County Area, New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  5. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for Carson National Forest, New Mexico, Part of Rio Arriba County

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  6. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for Chaves County, New Mexico, Southern Part

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  7. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for Cabezon Area, New Mexico (Sandoval County, New Mexico)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  8. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for Chaves County, New Mexico, Northern Part

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  9. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for Mescalero-Apache Area, New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  10. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for McKinley County Area, New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  11. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for San Juan County, New Mexico, Eastern Part

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  12. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for De Baca County Area, New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  13. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for Curry County and Southwest Part of Quay County, New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  14. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for San Miguel County Area, New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  15. Chemical characterization of some soils from four counties that produce Flue-cured tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Rodríguez

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The municipalities or counties of Campoalegre and Garzón (State of Huila and Capitanejo and Enciso (State of Santander show different chemical soil characteristics when their origin is taken into account, based on their edaphogenetic environments. For the characterization of the soils from these counties, samples from 65 farms were arranged, based on the database of farmers associated with the Protabaco Company. With the soil samples taken, chemical and texture analyses were performed, codifying the results in order to analyze them, keeping in mind the ideal parameters for the tobacco crop. In the counties of Huila, the texture, pH and organic matter were found to have ideal levels, in contrast to the phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, sulfur and chloride levels which were unsuitable, but the calcium content showed levels between suitable and good. In Santander, the pH, organic matter, phosphorus, calcium, sulfur and chloride were at unsuitable levels, in contrast, the contrary occurred with the texture and potassium which were at normal levels. It is recommended, due to the difference among the chemical parameters, that a fertilization program be handled differently for the zones of Santander and Huila, bearing in mind that the chemical parameters were found to be more limited in Santander than in Huila

  16. Soil health in the Mediterranean region: Development and consolidation of a multifactor index to characterize the health of agricultural lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Eshel; Guy, Levy; Oshri, Rinot; Michael, Borisover; Uri, Yermiyahu; Leah, Tsror; Hanan, Eizenberg; Tal, Svoray; Alex, Furman; Yael, Mishael; Yosef, Steinberger

    2017-04-01

    that are difficult to control), soil-borne diseases, and pesticide fixation and release. We, a group of more than ten Israeli scientists, have recently started a multidisciplinary study aimed at developing and consolidating a multiparameter soil-health index to characterize the health of agricultural soils in Mediterranean regions. Such an index will enable us to quantitatively evaluate the contribution of different cultivation managements and reclamation activities. In order to achieve our goal, a three steps approach was adopted: 1) acquiring a multivariate component database (about 42 variables) that will be quantified in the laboratory and in the fields in two soil types of the most important agricultural region of Israel, at three different soil usage: orchard, field crops and "native" as a reference. The acquired biological, physical, and chemical variables comprise basic quantitative values in the soil health of agricultural land; (2) developing a multivariate soil-health index based on a multivariate correlation, in addition to conducting meetings with farmers and panel discussions with other scientists in the field. The whole study angled to evaluate the relative contribution of each of the biotic and abiotic parameters in order to develop a model related to soil health; and (3) to validate the efficiency of the developed index for characterizing and assessing soil-health state at the various agricultural regions in Israel where conservation and reclamation activities took place. We are open to extend our study to other areas with a Mediterranean climate and look forward to establishing cooperative activities with other research groups.

  17. Global spatiotemporal distribution of soil respiration modeled using a global database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, S.; Carvalhais, N.; Ito, A.; Migliavacca, M.; Nishina, K.; Reichstein, M.

    2015-07-01

    The flux of carbon dioxide from the soil to the atmosphere (soil respiration) is one of the major fluxes in the global carbon cycle. At present, the accumulated field observation data cover a wide range of geographical locations and climate conditions. However, there are still large uncertainties in the magnitude and spatiotemporal variation of global soil respiration. Using a global soil respiration data set, we developed a climate-driven model of soil respiration by modifying and updating Raich's model, and the global spatiotemporal distribution of soil respiration was examined using this model. The model was applied at a spatial resolution of 0.5°and a monthly time step. Soil respiration was divided into the heterotrophic and autotrophic components of respiration using an empirical model. The estimated mean annual global soil respiration was 91 Pg C yr-1 (between 1965 and 2012; Monte Carlo 95 % confidence interval: 87-95 Pg C yr-1) and increased at the rate of 0.09 Pg C yr-2. The contribution of soil respiration from boreal regions to the total increase in global soil respiration was on the same order of magnitude as that of tropical and temperate regions, despite a lower absolute magnitude of soil respiration in boreal regions. The estimated annual global heterotrophic respiration and global autotrophic respiration were 51 and 40 Pg C yr-1, respectively. The global soil respiration responded to the increase in air temperature at the rate of 3.3 Pg C yr-1 °C-1, and Q10 = 1.4. Our study scaled up observed soil respiration values from field measurements to estimate global soil respiration and provide a data-oriented estimate of global soil respiration. The estimates are based on a semi-empirical model parameterized with over one thousand data points. Our analysis indicates that the climate controls on soil respiration may translate into an increasing trend in global soil respiration and our analysis emphasizes the relevance of the soil carbon flux from soil to

  18. Characterizing regional soil mineral composition using spectroscopyand geostatistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, V.L.; de Bruin, S.; Weyermann, J.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Schaepman, M.E.

    2013-01-01

    This work aims at improving the mapping of major mineral variability at regional scale using scale-dependent spatial variability observed in remote sensing data. Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data and statistical methods were combined with laboratory-based mineral characterization of field samples to create maps of the distributions of clay, mica and carbonate minerals and their abundances. The Material Identification and Characterization Algorithm (MICA) was used to identify the spectrally-dominant minerals in field samples; these results were combined with ASTER data using multinomial logistic regression to map mineral distributions. X-ray diffraction (XRD)was used to quantify mineral composition in field samples. XRD results were combined with ASTER data using multiple linear regression to map mineral abundances. We testedwhether smoothing of the ASTER data to match the scale of variability of the target sample would improve model correlations. Smoothing was donewith Fixed Rank Kriging (FRK) to represent the mediumand long-range spatial variability in the ASTER data. Stronger correlations resulted using the smoothed data compared to results obtained with the original data. Highest model accuracies came from using both medium and long-range scaled ASTER data as input to the statistical models. High correlation coefficients were obtained for the abundances of calcite and mica (R2 = 0.71 and 0.70, respectively). Moderately-high correlation coefficients were found for smectite and kaolinite (R2 = 0.57 and 0.45, respectively). Maps of mineral distributions, obtained by relating ASTER data to MICA analysis of field samples, were found to characterize major soil mineral variability (overall accuracies for mica, smectite and kaolinite were 76%, 89% and 86% respectively). The results of this study suggest that the distributions of minerals and their abundances derived using FRK-smoothed ASTER data more closely match the spatial

  19. Characterizing soil erosion potential using electrical resistivity imaging : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-01

    The erosion rate, or erodibility, of soil depends on many soil characteristics including: plasticity, : water content, grain size, percent clay, compaction, and shear strength. Many of these characteristics also : influence soil in situ bulk electric...

  20. Characterizing soil erosion potential using electrical resistivity imaging : technical summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-01

    The erosion rate, or erodibility, of soil depends on many soil characteristics : including: plasticity, water content, grain size, percent clay, compaction, and shear : strength. Many of these characteristics also influence soil in situ bulk electric...

  1. A global spectral library to characterize the world's soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A. Viscarra Rossel, Raphael; Behrens, T.; Ben Dor, E.

    2016-01-01

    Soil provides ecosystemservices, supports human health and habitation, stores carbon and regulatesemissions of greenhouse gases. Unprecedented pressures on soil from degradation and urbanization are threatening agroecological balances and food security. It is important that we learn more about soil...

  2. Development and use of a database of hydraulic properties of European soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wösten, J.H.M.; Nemes, A.; Lilly, A.; Bas, Le C.

    1999-01-01

    Many environmental studies on the protection of European soil and water resources make use of soil water simulation models. A major obstacle to the wider application of these models is the lack of easily accessible and representative soil hydraulic properties. In order to overcome this apparent lack

  3. Profile of a city: characterizing and classifying urban soils in the city of Ghent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delbecque, Nele; Verdoodt, Ann

    2017-04-01

    Worldwide, urban lands are expanding rapidly. Conversion of agricultural and natural landscapes to urban fabric can strongly influence soil properties through soil sealing, excavation, leveling, contamination, waste disposal and land management. Urban lands, often characterized by intensive use, need to deliver many production, ecological and cultural ecosystem services. To safeguard this natural capital for future generations, an improved understanding of biogeochemical characteristics, processes and functions of urban soils in time and space is essential. Additionally, existing (inter)national soil classification systems, based on the identification of soil genetic horizons, do not always allow a functional classification of urban soils. This research aims (1) to gain insight into urban soils and their properties in the city of Ghent (Belgium), and (2) to develop a procedure to functionally incorporate urban soils into existing (inter)national soil classification systems. Undisturbed soil cores (depth up to 1.25 m) are collected at 15 locations in Ghent with different times since development and land uses. Geotek MSCL-scans are taken to determine magnetic susceptibility and gamma density and to obtain high resolution images. Physico-chemical characterization of the soil cores is performed by means of detailed soil profile descriptions, traditional lab analyses, as well as proximal soil sensing techniques (XRF). The first results of this research will be presented and critically discussed to improve future efforts to characterize, classify and evaluate urban soils and their ecosystem services.

  4. Criteria and recommendations for capturing and presenting soil profile images in order to create a database of soil images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oriol Ortiz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to improve the skills of soil scientists in taking photographs of soil profiles for teaching and publishing scientific works. The authors have compiled a set of instructions, recommendations and tips that cover the process from the photographic capture to the selection of an appropriate file format to store or publish a picture, through to editing and post-processing the images. The main topics covered in this paper concern the physical position of the camera when shooting soil profiles, the basic adjustments of the camera, the basic retouching actions, and a list of tips and errors to be avoided.

  5. Comparative analysis of different measurement techniques for characterizing soil surface roughness in agricultural soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Agirre, Alex; Álvarez-Mozos, Jesús; Valle, José Manuel; Rodríguez, Álvaro; Giménez, Rafael

    2016-04-01

    Soil surface roughness can be defined as the variation in soil surface elevations, and as such, it is a key element in hydrology and soil erosion processes. In agricultural soils, roughness is mainly an anthropic factor determined by the type of tillage and management. Roughness is also a property with a high spatial variability, since the same type of tillage can result in surfaces with different roughness depending on the physical characteristics of the soil and atmospheric conditions. In order to quantify roughness and to parameterize its role in different processes, different measurement techniques have been used and several parameters have been proposed in the literature. The objective of this work is to evaluate different measurement techniques and assess their accuracy and suitability for quantifying surface roughness in agricultural soils. With this aim, a comparative analysis of three roughness measurement techniques has been carried out; (1) laser profilometer, (2) convergent photogrammetry and (3) terrestrial laser scanner. Roughness measurements were done in 3 experimental plots (5x5 meters) with different tillage treatments (representing different roughness conditions) obtained with typical agricultural tools. The laser profilometer registered vertically the distance from a reference bar down to the surface. It had a vertical accuracy of 1.25 mm, a sampling interval of 5 mm and a total length profile of 5 m. Eight profiles were taken per plot, four in parallel to tillage direction and four in perpendicular. Convergent photogrammetry consisted of 20-30 images taken per plot from a height of 5-10 m above ground (using an elevation platform), leading to point clouds of ~25 million points per plot. Terrestrial laser scanner measurements were taken from the four sides of each plot at a measurement height of ~1.75 m above ground. After orientating and corregistering the four scans, point clouds of ~60 million points were obtained per plot. The comparative

  6. Chemical characterization and infrared spectroscopy of soil organic matter from two southern brazilian soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. P. Dick

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Soil organic matter from the surface horizon of two Brazilian soils (a Latosol and a Chernosol, in bulk samples (in situ SOM and in HF-treated samples (SOM, was characterized by elemental analyses, diffuse reflectance (DRIFT and transmission Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (T-FTIR. Humic acids (HA, fulvic acids (FA and humin (HU isolated from the SOM were characterized additionally by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-VIS. After sample oxidation and alkaline treatment, the DRIFT technique proved to be more informative for the detection of "in situ SOM" and of residual organic matter than T-FTIR. The higher hydrophobicity index (HI and H/C ratio obtained in the Chernosol samples indicate a stronger aliphatic character of the organic matter in this soil than the Latosol. In the latter, a pronounced HI decrease was observed after the removal of humic substances (HS. The weaker aliphatic character, the higher O/C ratio, and the T-FTIR spectrum obtained for the HU fraction in the Latosol suggest the occurrence of surface coordination of carboxylate ions. The Chernosol HU fraction was also oxygenated to a relatively high extent, but presented a stronger hydrophobic character in comparison with the Latosol HU. These differences in the chemical and functional group composition suggest a higher organic matter protection in the Latosol. After the HF treatment, decreases in the FA proportion and the A350/A550 ratio were observed. A possible loss of FA and condensation of organic molecules due to the highly acid medium should not be neglected.

  7. BACTIBASE second release: a database and tool platform for bacteriocin characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Hamida Jeannette

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background BACTIBASE is an integrated open-access database designed for the characterization of bacterial antimicrobial peptides, commonly known as bacteriocins. Description For its second release, BACTIBASE has been expanded and equipped with additional functions aimed at both casual and power users. The number of entries has been increased by 44% and includes data collected from published literature as well as high-throughput datasets. The database provides a manually curated annotation of bacteriocin sequences. Improvements brought to BACTIBASE include incorporation of various tools for bacteriocin analysis, such as homology search, multiple sequence alignments, Hidden Markov Models, molecular modelling and retrieval through our taxonomy Browser. Conclusion The provided features should make BACTIBASE a useful tool in food preservation or food safety applications and could have implications for the development of new drugs for medical use. BACTIBASE is available at http://bactibase.pfba-lab-tun.org.

  8. CHARACTERIZATION AND CLASSIFICATION OF FLOODPLAIN SOILS IN THE PORTO ALEGRE METROPOLITAN REGION, RS, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís de França da Silva Neto

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTIn the Porto Alegre metropolitan region (PAMR there are a significant proportion of floodplain soils, mainly Planosols and Gleysols, in relation to upland soils. This study aimed to evaluate the morphological, chemical and physical characteristics, and to classify floodplain soils in the PAMR. Six soil profiles were evaluated under different sedimentary lithologies and drainage classes, and samples were collected for chemical and physical analyzes. Two orders of mineral soils (Planosols and Gleysols and one order of organic soil (Organosols were identified. The soils were moderately deep to deep and stratified. In mineral soils hue ranged between 7.5YR and 2.5Y, with the occurrence of Bg, Btg or Cg gley horizons, while in organic soil the colors were neutral. Sand and silt were the predominant particle sizes according to the origin sedimentary deposits. The organic carbon content was negatively related to soil density and positively related to soil specific surface area and with soil cation exchange capacity. Soil chemical characterization showed expressive variation in bases, aluminum and sodium saturation. Ki index and Fe(CBD/Fe(H2SO4 ratio indicated a low soil weathering degree. The different sedimentary lithologies and the soil hydromorphism degree were the main factors related to differences in morphological, physical and chemical characteristics of soils in the PAMR.

  9. Data-mining analysis of the global distribution of soil carbon in observational databases and Earth system models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Shoji; Nanko, Kazuki; Ťupek, Boris; Lehtonen, Aleksi

    2017-03-01

    Future climate change will dramatically change the carbon balance in the soil, and this change will affect the terrestrial carbon stock and the climate itself. Earth system models (ESMs) are used to understand the current climate and to project future climate conditions, but the soil organic carbon (SOC) stock simulated by ESMs and those of observational databases are not well correlated when the two are compared at fine grid scales. However, the specific key processes and factors, as well as the relationships among these factors that govern the SOC stock, remain unclear; the inclusion of such missing information would improve the agreement between modeled and observational data. In this study, we sought to identify the influential factors that govern global SOC distribution in observational databases, as well as those simulated by ESMs. We used a data-mining (machine-learning) (boosted regression trees - BRT) scheme to identify the factors affecting the SOC stock. We applied BRT scheme to three observational databases and 15 ESM outputs from the fifth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) and examined the effects of 13 variables/factors categorized into five groups (climate, soil property, topography, vegetation, and land-use history). Globally, the contributions of mean annual temperature, clay content, carbon-to-nitrogen (CN) ratio, wetland ratio, and land cover were high in observational databases, whereas the contributions of the mean annual temperature, land cover, and net primary productivity (NPP) were predominant in the SOC distribution in ESMs. A comparison of the influential factors at a global scale revealed that the most distinct differences between the SOCs from the observational databases and ESMs were the low clay content and CN ratio contributions, and the high NPP contribution in the ESMs. The results of this study will aid in identifying the causes of the current mismatches between observational SOC databases and ESM outputs

  10. SCOWLP: a web-based database for detailed characterization and visualization of protein interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schroeder Michael

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Currently there is a strong need for methods that help to obtain an accurate description of protein interfaces in order to be able to understand the principles that govern molecular recognition and protein function. Many of the recent efforts to computationally identify and characterize protein networks extract protein interaction information at atomic resolution from the PDB. However, they pay none or little attention to small protein ligands and solvent. They are key components and mediators of protein interactions and fundamental for a complete description of protein interfaces. Interactome profiling requires the development of computational tools to extract and analyze protein-protein, protein-ligand and detailed solvent interaction information from the PDB in an automatic and comparative fashion. Adding this information to the existing one on protein-protein interactions will allow us to better understand protein interaction networks and protein function. Description SCOWLP (Structural Characterization Of Water, Ligands and Proteins is a user-friendly and publicly accessible web-based relational database for detailed characterization and visualization of the PDB protein interfaces. The SCOWLP database includes proteins, peptidic-ligands and interface water molecules as descriptors of protein interfaces. It contains currently 74,907 protein interfaces and 2,093,976 residue-residue interactions formed by 60,664 structural units (protein domains and peptidic-ligands and their interacting solvent. The SCOWLP web-server allows detailed structural analysis and comparisons of protein interfaces at atomic level by text query of PDB codes and/or by navigating a SCOP-based tree. It includes a visualization tool to interactively display the interfaces and label interacting residues and interface solvent by atomic physicochemical properties. SCOWLP is automatically updated with every SCOP release. Conclusion SCOWLP enriches

  11. Characterization and classification of the soils of a toposequence at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The soils are slightly acidic, the base saturation and cation. exchange capacity values are moderate, white organic carbon values are low. It was only pedon I that exhiblted pedogenic clay. The opH values ranged between 1.00 and 1.27. The soils are classified according to the USDA Soil Survey Staff as Plinthic Dystrusta(( ...

  12. characterization of soil and sediments parameters of oguta – izombe

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof

    The high leaching potentials and high transmissive properties of the sediments below the clayey laterite .... impacts, if any, consequent on past petroleum operations. FIG. 2: LITHOLOGIC LOG OF THE THREE BOREHOLES. Top Soil. Top Soil. Top Soil. Silty Sand. Silty Sand ... Rich in micro fauna at the base. Eocene to ...

  13. Characterization of Soil-Water Retention with Coarse Fragments in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The presence of coarse fragments can have profound impact on soil moisture retention characteristics. The study was conducted to assess the effects of coarse fragments on the moisture retention characteristics of 16 soil series, developed over five different parent materials in the Densu basin. Soil profiles were excavated ...

  14. Characterization of wetland soils of Zarama, Bayelsa state, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the soil properties of Zarama, Bayelsa state, Nigeria in relation to iron (Fe) and manganese (Mn) distribution, between October and December, 2005. Four soil profile pits representing varying creek water influences were studied. The soils have acquic moisture and isohyperthermic temperature ...

  15. Mississippi Basin Carbon Project; upland soil database for sites in Yazoo Basin, northern Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, J.W.; Fries, T.L.; Huntington, T.G.

    1999-01-01

    The conversion of land from its native state to an agricultural use commonly results in a significant loss of soil carbon (Mann, 1985; Davidson and Ackerman, 1993). Globally, this loss is estimated to account for as much as 1/3 of the net CO2 emissions for the period of 1850 to 1980 (Houghton et al, 1983). Roughly 20 to 40 percent of original soil carbon is estimated to be lost as CO2 as a result of agricultural conversion, or 'decomposition enhancement', and global models use this estimate along with land conversion data to provide agricultural contributions of CO2 emissions for global carbon budgets (Houghton and others, 1983; Schimel, 1995). As yet, erosional losses of carbon are not included in global carbon budgets explicitly as a factor in land conversion nor implicitly as a portion of the decomposition enhancement. However, recent work by Lal et al (1995) and by Stallard (1998) suggests that significant amounts of eroded soil may be stored in man-made reservoirs and depositional environments as a result of agricultural conversion. Moreover, Stallard points out that if eroding soils have the potential for replacing part of the carbon trapped in man-made reservoirs, then the global carbon budget may grossly underestimate or ignore a significant sink term resulting from the burial of eroded soil. Soil erosion rates are significantly (10X) higher on croplands than on their undisturbed equivalents (Dabney et al, 1997). Most of the concern over erosion is related to diminished productivity of the uplands (Stallings, 1957; McGregor et al, 1993; Rhoton and Tyler, 1990) or to increased hazards and navigability of the lowlands in the late 1800's to early 1900's. Yet because soil carbon is concentrated at the soil surface, with an exponential decline in concentration with depth, it is clear that changes in erosion rates seen on croplands must also impact soil carbon storage and terrestrial carbon budgets as well.

  16. Mississippi Basin Carbon Project: upland soil database for sites in Nishnabotna River basin, Iowa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, J.W.; Fries, T.L.; Haughy, R.; Kramer, L.; Zheng, Shuhui

    2001-01-01

    The conversion of land from its native state to an agricultural use commonly results in a significant loss of soil carbon (Mann, 1985; Davidson and Ackerman, 1993). Globally, this loss is estimated to account for as much as 1/3 of the net CO2 emissions for the period of 1850 to 1980 (Houghton and others, 1983). Roughly 20 to 40 percent of original soil carbon is estimated to be lost as CO2 as a result of agricultural conversion, or "decomposition enhancement". Global models use this estimate along with land conversion data to provide agricultural contributions of CO2 emissions for global carbon budgets (Houghton and others, 1983; Schimel, 1995). Soil erosion rates are significantly (10X) higher on croplands than on their undisturbed equivalents (Dabney and others, 1997). Most of the concern over erosion is related to diminished productivity of the uplands (Stallings, 1957; McGregor and others, 1969; Rhoton, 1990) or to increased hazards and navigability of the lowlands in the late 1800's to early 1900's. Yet because soil carbon is concentrated at the soil surface, with an exponential decline in concentration with depth (Harden et al, 1999), it is clear that changes in erosion rates seen on croplands must also impact soil carbon storage and terrestrial carbon budgets as well. As yet, erosional losses of carbon are not included in global carbon budgets explicitly as a factor in land conversion nor implicitly as a portion of the decomposition enhancement. However, recent work by Lal and others (1995) and by Stallard (1998) suggests that significant amounts of eroded soil may be stored in man-made reservoirs and depositional environments as a result of agricultural conversion. Moreover, Stallard points out that eroding soils have the potential for replacing part of the carbon trapped in man-made reservoirs. If true, then the global carbon budget may grossly underestimate or ignore a significant sink term resulting from the burial of eroded soil.

  17. Effects of nature management on soil functions : development of a method to characterize soil functions and assess the effect of nature management measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geissen, V.; Smit, A.; Zwart, K.B.

    2010-01-01

    Assessments on the sustainability of soil use and management are based on the conservation and improvement of soil functions. A major problem in the use of soil functions in those assessments is the fact that no or few quantitative methods exist to characterize soil functions in the field. It is

  18. A Global Database of Soil Phosphorus Compiled from Studies Using Hedley Fractionation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides concentrations of soil phosphorus (P) compiled from the peer-reviewed literature that cited the Hedley fractionation method (Hedley and...

  19. A Global Database of Soil Phosphorus Compiled from Studies Using Hedley Fractionation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set provides concentrations of soil phosphorus (P) compiled from the peer-reviewed literature that cited the Hedley fractionation method (Hedley...

  20. Gamma-ray computed tomography to characterize soil surface sealing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Luiz F; de Macedo, Jose R; de Souza, Manoel D; Bacchi, Osny O S; Reichardt, Klaus

    2002-09-01

    The application of sewage sludge as a fertilizer on soils may cause compacted surface layers (surface sealing), which can promote changes on soil physical properties. The objective of this work was to study the use of gamma-ray computed tomography, as a diagnostic tool for the evaluation of this sealing process through the measurement of soil bulk density distribution of the soil surface layer of samples subjected to sewage sludge application. Tomographic images were taken with a first generation tomograph with a resolution of 1 mm. The image analysis opened the possibility to obtain soil bulk density profiles and average soil bulk densities of the surface layer and to detect the presence of soil surface sealing. The sealing crust thickness was estimated to be in the range of 2-4 mm.

  1. Alaska Geochemical Database (AGDB) - Geochemical Data for Rock, Sediment, Soil, Mineral, and Concentrate Sample Media

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Alaska Geochemical Database (AGDB) was created and designed to compile and integrate geochemical data from Alaska in order to facilitate geologic mapping,...

  2. Natural radioactivity in soils of the state of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil): Radiological characterization and relationships to geological formation, soil types and soil properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, F C A; Silva, J I R; Lima, E S A; do Amaral Sobrinho, N M B; Perez, D V; Lauria, D C

    2018-02-01

    Located in the south-western part of Brazil, the state of Rio de Janeiro is geotectonically contained within a complex structural province that resulted in the amalgamation of the Western Gondwana Paleocontinent. To undertake an extensive radiological characterization of this complex geological province and investigate the influence of bedrock, soil type and soil chemical-physical characteristics on natural radionuclide levels in soils, 259 surface soil samples were collected that encompassed the main soil types and geological formations throughout the state. Gamma spectrometry analysis of the samples resulted in median values of 114 Bq.kg -1 for 40 K, 32 Bq.kg -1 for 226 Ra and 74 Bq.kg -1 for 228 Ra. The median value for 226 Ra was similar to the world median value for soils, the 40 K value was well below the worldwide value, and that for 228 Ra exceeded the world median value. The intense weathering caused by the high rainfall rates and high temperatures may be responsible for the low levels of 40 K in the soils, of which the strongly acidic and clayey soils are markedly K-depleted. A soil from a high-grade metamorphic rock (granulite) presented the lowest 226 Ra (18 Bq.kg -1 ) content, whereas the highest levels for 226 Ra (92 Bq.kg -1 ) and 228 Ra (139 Bq.kg - 1) were observed in a young soil enriched in primary minerals (Leptsol). A lowland soil (Gleysol) showed the highest median of 40 K (301 Bq.kg -1 ). Strongly acidic soils tended to present high amounts of 226 Ra, and sandy soils tended to contain low levels of 228 Ra. The external radiation dose indicates that the state has a background radiation level within the natural range. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Characterization of soil microarthropod communities in Italian beech forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, F. D.; Menta, C.; Piovesan, G.

    2009-04-01

    The contribution of soil organisms to ecosystem functions such as decomposition, nutrient recycling and the maintenance of physico-chemical properties is well recognised, as is the fact that soil fauna plays an important role in the formation and stabilisation of soil structure. The diversity of soil fauna includes a quarter of described living species, the majority of which are insects and arachnids. Soil fauna plays an essential role in forests and agro-ecosystems by maintaining their functionality and productivity. The aim of this study is to evaluate the biodiversity of soil microarthropods communities in different Italian beech forest. Particular attention is paid to the role of fossorial microarthropods in the maintenance of soil structure and in the organic matter movements. Three beech forests are studied, two located in the North and one in the Centre of Italy. Microarthropods are extracted from litter and soil with a Berlese-Tullgren funnel, identified to order level (class level for myriapods) and counted using a microscope. Relative order abundance and biodiversity are expressed using the Shannon-Weaver diversity index (H) and evenness index (J). Soil biological quality is expressed using the QBS-ar index and Acari/Collembola ratio. The results show a richness of microarthropods: several orders, till 19 different groups, are determined and identified. Acari and collembola are the main represented taxa and, especially in litter samples, pseudoscorpions, different specimens of diplopods (or millipedes) and chilopods (centipedes) are found. Thus the presence in particular of diplopods offers the possibility of studying fossorial microarthropods functions in detail. Furthermore, both in soil and in litter samples, adapted groups are recognized, such as pauropods, symphyla, proturans and diplurans, with specific morphological characteristics that these species suited to soil habitat. Therefore they attest a good level of soil quality and high natural value

  4. AAPCC database characterization of native U.S. venomous snake exposures, 2001-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, Steven A; Boyer, Leslie V; Benson, Blaine E; Rogers, Jody J

    2009-04-01

    Differences in victim demographics, clinical effects, managements, and outcomes among native viperid (rattlesnake, copperhead, and cottonmouth) and elapid (coral snake) species have not been systematically characterized. The database of the American Association of Poison Control Centers from 2001 through 2005 was analyzed. Between 2001 and 2005, there were 23,676 human exposures (average = 4,735/year) to native venomous snakes in the United States reported to U.S. poison centers in all states except Hawaii: 98% were to viperid snakes and 2% to elapids. Overall, 77% of victims were male, 70% were adults >20 years, and 12% were aged less than 10 years. Sixty-five cases involved pregnant women, with rattlesnake bites resulting in moderate or greater effects in over 70%. The overall hospital admission rate was 53%. Outcomes were generally more severe with rattlesnake and copperhead envenomations and in children coral snakebites result in similar hospital admission rates.

  5. Toxic Chemicals in the Soil Environment. Volume 1. Chemical Properties and Characterization of Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-06-01

    SOCIETY OF GREAT BRITTAN (Brown, 1955). I. Amorphous (noncrxstalline cliys) Allophane (examnr1C, Ando soils of Japan) II. Crystalline Minerals A. Two...Lhis silica is usually contaminated with Al to form allophane and imogolite and similar soil mi;nerals. allophane and imogolite are gel- like...1977. Allophane and imogolite. In Minerals in Soil Environments, ed. J. B. Dixon and S. B. Weed. Madison, Wisconsin: Soil Science Society of America

  6. Towards an enhanced use of soil databases for assessing water availability in (sub)tropical regions using fractal-based methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botula Manyala, Y.; Baetens, J.; Baert, G.; Van Ranst, E.; Cornelis, W.

    2012-12-01

    Following the completion of numerous elaborate soil surveys in many (sub)tropical regions of the African continent during the past decades, vast databases with soil properties of the prevailing soil orders in these regions have been assembled in order to support agricultural stakeholders throughout crucial decision-making processes. Unfortunately, even though soil hydraulic properties are of primary interest for designing sustainable farming practices, guiding crop choice and irrigation scheduling, a substantial share of the soil surveys is restricted to the collection of soil chemical properties. This bias principally originates from the fact that soil chemical characteristics like pH, organic carbon/matter (OC/OM), cation exchange capacity (CEC), base saturation (BS) can be determined readily. On the other hand, determination of the hydraulic properties of a soil on the field or in the lab, is much more time consuming, particularly the soil-water retention curve (SWRC) which is generally considered as one of the most important physical property since it constitutes the footprint of a soil. Owing to the incompleteness of most soil databases in (sub)tropical regions, either much valuable information is discarded because the assessment of meaningful indices in land evaluation such as the soil available water capacity (AWC), the hydraulic conductivity are merely based upon those soil samples for which hydraulic properties were measured, or one has to resort to pedotransfer functions (PTFs). The latter are equations for deducing hydraulic properties of a soil from physico-chemical data that are commonly available in soil survey reports (sand, silt, clay, OC/OM, CEC, etc.). Yet, such PTFs are only locally applicable because their derivation rests on statistical or machine learning techniques and has no physical basis. Recently, however, physically-based, and hence globally applicable, fractal methods have been put forward for assessing a soil's SWRC based upon its

  7. Quantifying methane emissions from rice fields in the Taihu Lake region, China by coupling a detailed soil database with biogeochemical model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Zhang

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available As China has approximately 22% of the world's rice paddies, the regional quantification of CH4 emissions from these paddies is important in determining their contribution to the global greenhouse gas effect. This paper reports the use of a biogeochemical model (DeNitrification and DeComposition or DNDC for quantifying CH4 emissions from rice fields in the Taihu Lake region of China. For this application, the DNDC model was linked to a 1:50 000 soil database derived from 1107 paddy soil profiles compiled during the Second National Soil Survey of China in the 1980s–1990s. The simulated results showed that the 2.3 Mha of paddy rice fields in the Taihu Lake region emitted the equivalent of 5.7 Tg C from 1982–2000, with the average CH4 flux ranging from 114 to 138 kg C ha−1 y−1. As for soil subgroups, the highest emission rate (660 kg C ha−1 y−1 was linked to gleyed paddy soils accounting for about 4.4% of the total area of paddy soils. The lowest emission rate (91 kg C ha−1 y−1 was associated with degleyed paddy soils accounting for about 18% of the total area of paddy soils. The most common soil in the area was hydromorphic paddy soils, which accounted for about 53% of the total area of paddy soils with a CH4 flux of 106 kg C ha−1 y−1. On a regional basis, the annual averaged CH4 flux in the Taihu Lake plain soil region and alluvial plain soil region were higher than that in the low mountainous and hilly soil region and the polder soil region. The model simulation was conducted with two databases using polygons or counties as the basic units. The county-based database contained soil information coarser than the polygon system built based on the 1:50 000 soil database. The modeled results with the two databases found similar spatial patterns of CH4 emissions in the Taihu

  8. Soil cover characterization at large scale: the example of Perugia Province in central Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanelli, Giulia; Salciarini, Diana; Tamagnini, Claudio

    2015-04-01

    In the last years, physically-based models aimed at predicting the occurrence of landslides have had a large diffusion because the opportunity of having landslide susceptibility maps can be essential to reduce damages and human losses. On one hand physically-based models rationally analyse problems, because mathematically describe the physical processes that actually happen, on the other hand their diffusion is limited by the difficulty of having and managing accurate data over large areas. For this reason, and also because in the Perugia province geotechnical data are partial and not regularly distributed, a data collection campaign has been started in order to have a wide physical-mechanical data set that can be used to apply any physically-based model. The collected data have been derived from mechanical tests and investigations performed to characterize the soil. The data set includes about 3000 points and each record is characterized by the following quantitative information: coordinates, geological description, cohesion, friction angle. Besides, the records contain the results of seismic tests that allow knowing the shear waves velocity in the first 30 meters of soil. The database covers the whole Perugia province territory and it can be used to evaluate the effects of both rainfall-induced and earthquake-induced landslides. The database has been analysed in order to exclude possible outliers; starting from the all data set, 16 lithological units have been isolated, each one with homogeneous geological features and the same mechanical behaviour. It is important to investigate the quality of the data and know how much they are reliable; therefore statistical analyses have been performed to quantify the dispersion of the data - i.e. relative and cumulative frequency - and also geostatistical analyses to know the spatial correlation - i.e. the variogram. The empirical variogram is a common and useful tool in geostatistics because it quantifies the spatial

  9. Molecular Characterization of Wetland Soil Bacterial Community in Constructed Mesocosms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    mainly determined by bulk soil community for Carex arenaria . Microbial Dechlorination Dechlorination within a wetland is best understood by examining...de Boer, W. (2005). Rhizosphere bacterial community composition in natural stands of carex arenaria (sand sedge) is determined by bulk soil...wetland mesocosms and to identify any bacterial dominance. Carex comosa, Scirpus atrovirens, and Eleocharis erythropoda were planted in multiple

  10. A global spectral library to characterize the world's soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viscarra Rossel, R.A.; Behrens, T.; Ben-Dor, E.; Bartholomeus, H.M.

    2016-01-01

    Soil provides ecosystem services, supports human health and habitation, stores carbon and regulates emissions of greenhouse gases. Unprecedented pressures on soil from degradation and urbanization are threatening agro-ecological balances and food security. It is important that we learn more about

  11. Characterization And Classification Of The Inland Valley Soils Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The pH of the soils ranged from acid (4.7). to neutral 7.4 The percent organic carbon content decreased slightly irregularly with increase in depth with the top soils concentration generally high. Similarly, percent total nitrogen was high with most values greater than 0.2%. However, concentration of available phosphorous ...

  12. Soil characterization in contrasting cropping systems under the fast ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The A1 and A2 production systems were brought about during the 2000 land reform programme. The soil samples were collected during the off season of 2006, 2007 and 2008. The following soil chemical characteristics were determined: Ca, Mg, K, Zn, pH and organic matter. There were significant differences (P=0.001) ...

  13. Laboratory experiments to characterize radiochloride diffusion in unsaturated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldaba, D; Fernández-Torrent, R; Rauret, G; Vidal, M; Rigol, A

    2010-03-01

    Diffusion transport of (36)Cl was examined in seven soils under unsaturated conditions in tubes packed with two portions of each soil having different (36)Cl activity concentrations. Apparent diffusion coefficients (D(a)) derived from diffusion profiles varied within a narrow range (from 3x10(-10) to 7x10(-10) m(2) s(-1)) confirming the minor effect of soil properties on the diffusion of a non-reactive radionuclide like (36)Cl. Instead, packing conditions had a major effect. Solid-liquid distribution coefficients (K(d)) derived from D(a) (0.02-0.2 L kg(-1)) were systematically lower than those obtained from batch experiments (0.6-1.0 L kg(-1)), but with a similar variation pattern among soils. The low values of K(d) (Cl) confirmed an almost negligible radiochloride-soil interaction. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Laboratory experiments to characterize radiochloride diffusion in unsaturated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldaba, D.; Fernandez-Torrent, R.; Rauret, G.; Vidal, M. [Departament de Quimica Analitica, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques 1-11, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Rigol, A. [Departament de Quimica Analitica, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques 1-11, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)], E-mail: annarigol@ub.edu

    2010-03-15

    Diffusion transport of {sup 36}Cl was examined in seven soils under unsaturated conditions in tubes packed with two portions of each soil having different {sup 36}Cl activity concentrations. Apparent diffusion coefficients (D{sub a}) derived from diffusion profiles varied within a narrow range (from 3x10{sup -10} to 7x10{sup -10} m{sup 2} s{sup -1}) confirming the minor effect of soil properties on the diffusion of a non-reactive radionuclide like {sup 36}Cl. Instead, packing conditions had a major effect. Solid-liquid distribution coefficients (K{sub d}) derived from D{sub a} (0.02-0.2 L kg{sup -1}) were systematically lower than those obtained from batch experiments (0.6-1.0 L kg{sup -1}), but with a similar variation pattern among soils. The low values of K{sub d} (Cl) confirmed an almost negligible radiochloride-soil interaction.

  15. Heavy metals in European soils: A geostatistical analysis of the FOREGS geochemical database

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodríguez Lado, L.; Hengl, T.; Reuter, H.I.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the results of modeling the distribution of eight critical heavy metals (arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, mercury, nickel, lead and zinc) in topsoils using 1588 georeferenced samples from the Forum of European Geological Surveys Geochemical database (26 European countries).

  16. Final report on the Background Soil Characterization Project at the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 3: Project Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatmaker, T.L.; Hook, L.A.; Jackson, B.L. [and others

    1993-10-01

    The Background Soil Characterization Project (BSCP) will provide background concentration levels of selected metals, organic compounds, and radionuclides in soils from uncontaminated on-site areas at the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), and off-site in the western part of Roane County and the eastern part of Anderson County. The BSCP will establish a database, recommend how to use the data for contaminated site assessment, and provide estimates of the potential human health and environmental risks associated with the background level concentrations of potentially hazardous constituents. ORR background soil characterization data will be used for two purposes. The first application will be in differentiating between naturally occurring constituents and site-related contamination. This is a very important step in a risk assessment because if sufficient background data are not available, no constituent known to be a contaminant can be eliminated from the assessment even if the sampled concentration is measured at a minimum level. The second use of the background data will be in calculating baseline risks against which site-specific contamination risks can be compared.

  17. Soil/sediment characterization for 216-A-29 ditch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, R.M.

    1997-03-01

    This document provides a detailed description of the environmental samples collected from the 216-A-29 Ditch in 1988. Tables summarizing the laboratory data for radionuclides, metals, and soil chemistry are included.

  18. 4800 Volume 11 No. 3 May 2011 SOIL CHARACTERIZATION IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-05-03

    May 3, 2011 ... Calcium, magnesium and potassium levels were generally low in all the ... 8.0) impairs uptake by the root of micronutrient element cations, ... addition, soil organic matter contains micronutrients essential for plant growth [7, 9].

  19. strength characterization of foundation soils at federal university ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    considerations in designing shallow foundations on granular soils. The designers try to ensure sufficient safety factor against ... University started course program in 2012/2013 session ..... zone of Nigeria, Book of Proceedings, International ...

  20. American association of poison control centers database characterization of human tilmicosin exposures, 2001-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakes, Jennifer; Seifert, Steven

    2008-12-01

    Tilmicosin is a veterinary antibiotic with significant human toxicity at doses commonly used in animals, but the parenteral dose-response relationship has not been well characterized. Human exposures to tilmicosin in the database of the American Association of Poison Control Centers (AAPCC) from 2001 to 2005 were analyzed for demographic associations, exposure dose, clinical effects and outcomes. Over the 5-year period, there were 1,291 single-substance human exposures to tilmicosin. The mean age was 39.1 years, and 80% were male. By route there were 768 (54%) parenteral exposures. Patients with parenteral exposures had a significantly increased likelihood of being seen at a healthcare facility, admission, and admission to an ICU. With nonparenteral exposure, most had no clinical effects or minor effects, and there were no major effects or deaths. With parenteral exposure, moderate effects occurred in 46 (6%), major effects in 2 (0.3%) and there were 4 (0.5%) deaths, two of which were suicides. A dose-response relationship could be demonstrated. Clinical effect durations of up to a week occurred at even the lowest dose range. Over 250 cases of human tilmicosin exposure are reported to poison centers per year and over 150 of those are parenteral. Most exposures produce no or minor effects, but fatalities have occurred with parenteral exposure. The case fatality rate in parenteral exposures is 10 times the case fatality rate for all human exposures in the AAPCC database. Significant adverse and prolonged effects are reported at parenteral doses > 0.5 mL, suggesting that all parenteral exposures should be referred for healthcare facility evaluation.

  1. Phenotypic characterization of Nocardia spp. isolated from Iran soil microflora

    OpenAIRE

    Shadi Habibnia; Masoumeh Rasouli Nasab; Parvin Heidarieh; Mehdi Fatahi Bafghi; Mohammad Reza Pourmand; Seyyed Saeed Eshraghi

    2015-01-01

    Aims: The present study was conducted to identify Nocardia spp. from Iran soil by various phenotypic tests. Materials and Methods: A total of 300 soil samples were collected of five different geographical regions in Iran. Nocardia isolation was performed by paraffin baiting technique. The colonies that were similar to be Nocardia spp. were stained with Gram, partially acid fast and acid-fast. Phenotypic tests were used for identification of Nocardia spp. Results: After analysis of phe...

  2. Hydro-physical characterization of soils under tropical semi-deciduous forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Cooper

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The study of the hydro-physical behavior in soils using toposequences is of great importance for better understanding the soil, water and vegetation relationships. This study aims to assess the hydro-physical and morphological characterization of soil from a toposequence in Galia, state of São Paulo, Brazil. The plot covers an area of 10.24 ha (320 × 320 m, located in a semi-deciduous seasonal forest. Based on ultra-detailed soil and topographic maps of the area, a representative transect from the soil in the plot was chosen. Five profiles were opened for the morphological description of the soil horizons, and hydro-physical and micromorphological analyses were performed to characterize the soil. Arenic Haplustult, Arenic Haplustalf and Aquertic Haplustalf were the soil types observed in the plot. The superficial horizons had lower density and greater hydraulic conductivity, porosity and water retention in lower tensions than the deeper horizons. In the sub-superficial horizons, greater water retention at higher tensions and lower hydraulic conductivity were observed, due to structure type and greater clay content. The differences observed in the water retention curves between the sandy E and the clay B horizons were mainly due to the size distribution, shape and type of soil pores.

  3. Error Characterization of Multiple Sensor Soil Moisture Data for Improved Long-Term Global Soil Moisture Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorigo, Wouter; Scipal, Klaus; de Jeu, Richard; Parinussa, Robert; Wagner, Wolfgang; Naeimi, Vahid

    2009-11-01

    In the framework of the Water Cycle Multi-mission Observation Strategy (WACMOS) project of ESA, a first multi-decadal (30+ years) global soil moisture record is generated by merging data sets from various active and passive microwave sensors. Combining multiple data sets brings many advantages in terms of enhanced temporal and spatial coverage and temporal resolution. Nevertheless, to benefit from this strategy, error budgets of the individual data sets have to be well characterized, and apt strategies for reducing the errors in the final product need to be developed.This study exploits the triple collocation error estimation technique to assess the error and systematic biases between three different independent soil moisture data sets: soil moisture data derived from the AMSR-E radiometer, scatterometer based estimates from MetOp- ASCAT, and modelled soil moisture from the ECMWF ERA Interim reanalysis program. The results suggest that the method provides realistic error estimates and allow us to identify systematic differences between the active and passive microwave derived soil moisture products, e.g. with respect to varying land cover or climatological zones. This in turn will help us in developing adequate strategies for merging active and passive observations for the generation of an accurate long-term soil moisture data set.

  4. Characterization of soil fertility and soil biodiversity with dsDNA as a covariate in a regression estimator for mean microbial biomass C

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bragato, G.; Fornasier, F.; Brus, D.J.

    2016-01-01

    The analytical determination of microbial biomass carbon is time-consuming, which limits its use as a reference biochemical property for characterizing soil fertility and soil biodiversity of soil mapping units (SMUs). This paper explores whether the efficiency of sampling strategies for

  5. Characterizing Journal Access at a Canadian University Using the Journal Citation Reports Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Gale

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This article outlines a simple approach to characterizing the level of access to the scholarly journal literature in the physical sciences and engineering offered by a research library, particularly within the Canadian university system. The method utilizes the “Journal Citation Reports” (JCR database to produce lists of journals, ranked based on total citations, in the subject areas of interest. Details of the approach are illustrated using data from the University of Guelph. The examples cover chemistry, physics, mathematics and statistics, as well as engineering. In assessing the level of access both the Library’s current journal subscriptions and backfiles are considered. To gain greater perspective, data from both 2003 and 2008 is analyzed. In addition, the number of document delivery requests, received from University of Guelph Library users in recent years, are also reviewed. The approach taken in characterizing access to the journal literature is found to be simple and easy to implement, but time consuming. The University of Guelph Library is shown to provide excellent access to the current journal literature in the subject areas examined. Access to the historical literature in those areas is also strong. In making these assessments, a broad and comprehensive array of journals is considered in each case. Document delivery traffic (i.e. Guelph requests is found to have decreased markedly in recent years. This is attributed, at least in part, to improving access to the scholarly literature. For the University of Guelph, collection assessment is an ongoing process that must balance the needs of a diverse group of users. The results of analyses of the kind discussed in this article can be of practical significance and value to that process.

  6. Physiological Characterization of Fungal Inoculum for Biotechnological Remediation of Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nara Ballaminut

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the bioremediating potential of Lentinus crinitus CCIBt2611 according to the physiological condition of the inoculum. Inoculum was prepared using sugarcane ground husk (C:N 90, at several physiological ages and applied in soil contaminated with pentachlorophenol. The inoculum's potential was assessed by evaluating the mycelium's vigor at soil's colonization, determination of peroxidase and phenoloxidase activities, in vitro degradation of Remazol Brilliant Blue R and in vivo degradation of pentachlorophenol. The results showed that the assessed parameters were relevant to identify the quality of the inoculum. For L. crinitus, 10 day old inoculum showed good soil-colonization speed with significant enzymatic activities, indicating the role of Manganese-dependent peroxidase and laccase in degradation, and efficient degradation of pentachlorophenol.

  7. Characterization of Minerals: From the Classroom to Soils to Talc Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamee, Brittani D.

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation addresses different methods and challenges surrounding characterizing and identifying minerals in three environments: in the classroom, in soils, and in talc deposits. A lab manual for a mineralogy and optical mineralogy course prepares students for mineral characterization and identification by giving them the methods and tools…

  8. Evolutive and regressive soil sequences for characterization of soils in laurel forest (Tenerife, Canary Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Asterio Guerra-García

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Soil degradation processes have achieved the recognition of a global environmental problem in recent years. It has been suggested by various international forums and organizations that in order to adequately establish methods to combat land degradation, it is necessary to evaluate this degradation locally and at a detailed scale. The evaluation of soil degradation of natural ecosystems at a detailed scale requires the definition of standards to which to compare this degradation. To define these standards and properly handle the processes that give rise to variations in soil quality and degradation, it is necessary to establish in some detail the pedogenic processes that have or have not taken place in a particular area and which lead to the formation of a mature soil. A mature soil should be considered as standard in these situations and, therefore, a non-degraded soil. This paper presents the possible evolutive and regressive sequences of soil, and provides some examples of using this methodology to evaluate the degradation of the same in the Monteverde of the island of Tenerife. It also presents some physical, chemical and mineralogical properties of climacic mature soils, degraded soils and low quality soils, and examines their similarities and differences in this bioclimatic environment and on different parent materials. Thus it is observed that the main processes of degradation in these areas are related to plant cover modifications that lead to the decreasing protection of the soil surface, which results in the long term, in the onset of degradation processes such as water erosion, biological degradation, loss of andic properties, compaction and sealing and crusting surface, loss of water retention capacity, illuviation, etc. Climacic soils that can be found in areas of steep lava flows are Leptosols, while gently sloping areas are Cambisols and Andosols. On pyroclastic materials there are vitric Andosols and andic Andosols according to

  9. Polymer tensiometers to characterize unsaturated zone processes in dry soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ploeg, van der M.J.

    2008-01-01

    More frequent and intense droughts due to global climate change, together with an increasing agricultural water use emphasize the importance of understanding root water uptake by plants under water-stressed conditions. Root water uptake is driven by potential gradients between water in the soil and

  10. 4800 Volume 11 No. 3 May 2011 SOIL CHARACTERIZATION IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-05-03

    May 3, 2011 ... The other major element to crop production is potassium (K), which is an activator of enzymes that are responsible for ... Acid soils will make essential nutrients unavailable. Most crops ... It activates certain dehydrogenase enzymes; it facilitates sugar translocation and synthesis of nucleic acids and plant.

  11. Characterization of degraded soils in the humid Ethiopian highlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tebebu, Tigist Y.; Bayabil, Haimanote K.; Stoof, C.R.; Giri, Shree K.; Gessess, A.A.; Tilahun, Seifu A.; Steenhuis, Tammo S.

    2017-01-01

    Hard pan is a major cause of land degradation that affects agricultural productivity in developing countries. However, relatively little is known about the interaction of land degradation and hardpans. The objective of this study was, therefore, to investigate soil degradation and the formation of

  12. strength characterization of foundation soils at federal university ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    unconfined compression test is used to measure the shearing resistance and bearing capacity of soils. Value of undrained shear strength without confining pressure is equal to unconfined compressive strength. This value is theoretically twice as big as cohesion [21]. The three parameters are found in this study to be ...

  13. Characterizing the genetic structure of a forensic DNA database using a latent variable approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruijver, Maarten

    2016-07-01

    Several problems in forensic genetics require a representative model of a forensic DNA database. Obtaining an accurate representation of the offender database can be difficult, since databases typically contain groups of persons with unregistered ethnic origins in unknown proportions. We propose to estimate the allele frequencies of the subpopulations comprising the offender database and their proportions from the database itself using a latent variable approach. We present a model for which parameters can be estimated using the expectation maximization (EM) algorithm. This approach does not rely on relatively small and possibly unrepresentative population surveys, but is driven by the actual genetic composition of the database only. We fit the model to a snapshot of the Dutch offender database (2014), which contains close to 180,000 profiles, and find that three subpopulations suffice to describe a large fraction of the heterogeneity in the database. We demonstrate the utility and reliability of the approach with three applications. First, we use the model to predict the number of false leads obtained in database searches. We assess how well the model predicts the number of false leads obtained in mock searches in the Dutch offender database, both for the case of familial searching for first degree relatives of a donor and searching for contributors to three-person mixtures. Second, we study the degree of partial matching between all pairs of profiles in the Dutch database and compare this to what is predicted using the latent variable approach. Third, we use the model to provide evidence to support that the Dutch practice of estimating match probabilities using the Balding-Nichols formula with a native Dutch reference database and θ=0.03 is conservative. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A database on tritium behavior in the chronic HT release experiment. 1. Meteorological data and tritium concentrations in air and soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noguchi, Hiroshi; Yokoyama, Sumi; Kinouchi, Nobuyuki; Murata, Mikio; Amano, Hikaru; Ando, Mariko [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Fukutani, Satoshi

    1999-03-01

    This report comprises a database that can be used to develop and validate tritium models to assess doses to the general public due to HT continuously released from fusion facilities into the atmosphere. The data was collected in the 1994 chronic HT release experiment carried out at the Chalk River Laboratories in Canada. The data set include meteorological conditions such as solar radiation, net solar radiation, wind speed, air temperature and humidity, soil temperature and soil heat flux; soil conditions such as bulk density, water content and free pore volume fraction; HT and HTO concentrations in air, HTO concentrations in soil moisture and HTO deposition to water surface. Evapo-transpiration rates and turbulent diffusivity are estimated and tabulated. The report also contains experimental methods to observe meteorological conditions and take air and soil samples. (author)

  15. Electrochemical characterization of corrosion in materials of grounding systems, simulating conditions of synthetic soils with characteristics of local soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, Y.; Guerrero, L.; Vera-Monroy, S. P.; Blanco, J.; Jimenez, C.

    2017-12-01

    The integrity of structures buried in earthing becomes relevant when analysing maintenance and replacement costs of these systems, as the deterioration is mainly due to two factors, namely: the failures caused in the electrical systems, which are due to the system. Failure in earthing due to corrosion at the interface cause an alteration in the structure of the component material and generates an undesirable resistivity that cause malfunction in this type of protection systems. Two local soils were chosen that were categorized as sandy loam and clay loam type, whose chemical characteristics were simulated by means of an electrolyte corresponding to the amount of ions present determined by a soil characterization based on the CICE (effective cation exchange coefficient), which allows us to deduce the percentage of chloride and sulphate ions present for the different levels established in the experimental matrix. The interaction of these soils with grounding electrodes is a complex problem involving many factors to consider. In this study, the rates and corrosion currents of the different soils on two types of electrodes, one copper and the other AISI 304 stainless steel, were approximated by electrochemical techniques such as potentiodynamic curves and electrochemical impedance spectra. Considerably higher speeds were determined for copper-type electrodes when compared to those based on steel. However, from the Nyquist diagrams, it was noted that copper electrodes have better electrical performance than steel ones. The soil with the highest ionic activity turned out to be the sandy loam. The clay loam soil presents a tendency to water retention and this may be the reason for the different behaviour with respect to ionic mobility. The diffusion control in the steel seems to alter the ionic mobility because its corrosion rates proved to be very similar regardless of the type of soil chemistry. In general, corrosion rates fell since tenths of a millimetre every year to

  16. Geochemical characterization of elements in Vitis vinifera cv. Negroamaro grape berries grown under different soil managements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepi, Salvatore; Coletta, Antonio; Crupi, Pasquale; Leis, Marilena; Russo, Sabrina; Sansone, Luigi; Tassinari, Renzo; Chicca, Milvia; Vaccaro, Carmela

    2016-04-01

    The present geochemical study concerns the impact of viticultural practices in the chemical composition of the grape cultivar "Negroamaro" in Apulia, a southern Italian region renowned for its quality wine. Three types of soil management (SM), two cover cropping with different mixtures, and a soil tillage were considered. For each SM, the vines were irrigated according to two irrigation levels. Chemical composition of soil and of berries of Vitis vinifera cultivar "Negroamaro" were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and multivariate statistics (linear discrimination analysis). In detail, we investigated major and trace elements behavior in the soil according to irrigation levels, the related index of bioaccumulation (BA) and the relationship between trace element concentration and soil management in "Negroamaro" grapes. The results indicate that soil management affects the mobility of major and trace elements. A specific assimilation of these elements in grapes from vines grown under different soil management was confirmed by BA. Multivariate statistics allowed to associate the vines to the type of soil management. This geochemical characterization of elements could be useful to develop fingerprints of vines of the cultivar "Negroamaro" according to soil management and geographical origin.

  17. The isolation, enumeration, and characterization of Rhizobium bacteria of the soil in Wamena Biological Garden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SRI PURWANINGSIH

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The eleven soil samples have been isolated and characterized. The aims of the study were to get the pure culture and some data which described about enumeration and especially their characters in relation to the acids and bases reaction in their growth. The isolation of the bacteria use Yeast Extract Mannitol Agar medium (YEMA while the characterization by using YEMA medium mixed with Brom Thymol Blue and Congo Red indicators respectively. The results showed that eighteen isolates have been isolated which consisted of three low growing and fifteen fast growing bacteria. Two isolates were not indicated Rhizobium and sixteen were Rhizobium. Density of Rhizobium enumeration was varied which related to soil organic matter content. The enumeration bacteria in YEMA medium were in the range of 0.6 x 105 and 11.6 x 105 CFU /g soil. The highest population was found in soil sample of Wieb vegetation.

  18. Criteria and considerations for the choice of pilot areas: towards a 1:250,000 soil database of the EU; working paper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Finke, P.A.

    1996-01-01

    The choice of pilot areas follows from an analysis of problems that must be solved before a georeferenced 1 : 250 000 database of the European Union can be built. These problems are: the harmonization of existing maps and data; the harmonization of additional soil survey and data collection methods;

  19. Multifractal Characterization of Pore Size Distributions of Peat Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joko Sampurno

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses a multifractal analysis of the microscopic structure of peat soil. The aim of this study was to apply the multifractal technique to analyze the properties of five slices of peat soil (L1-L5. Binary images (220 x 220 pixels, with a conversion value of 9.41 μm/pixel were made from the thin slices and then analyzed. This analysis was conducted to obtain the relationship between physical parameters and complexity parameters. The results showed that the spectrum of f(α can describe well the pore size distribution and average size of pores correlated with the value of D(0. A high value of the average pore size is followed by a low D value and vice versa.

  20. Characterization and classification of soils along a typical Hillslope ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Al3+ content of 3.77cmol kg-1 in all the horizons studied. Levels of organic C, total N, avail. P, exch. Ca, Mg, and K, range from being very low in Pedon 1, low to moderate in Pedon 2 but moderate to high in Pedon 3 indicating a gradual improvement in soil fertility from the summit to the toeslope of the hillslope . Kaolinite ...

  1. Characterization and Fertility Status of the Soils of Ayehu Research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The soils were moderately acidic in reaction and silty clay to clay in texture. ... due to the decreasing level of organic carbon (OC) with depth from 2.6 to 0.6% in pedon 1 and from 2.8 to 1.1% in pedon 2. ... (kaolinitic) clay minerals. ... Application of increasing rates of P fertilizer increased both the Olsen and Bray II P ...

  2. Isolation and partial characterization of phosphate solubilizing bacteria isolated from soil and marine samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujahid, Talat Yasmeen; Siddiqui, Khaizran; Ahmed, Rifat; Kazmi, Shahana U; Ahmed, Nuzhat

    2014-09-01

    In the present study the potential of indigenous bacterial isolates from soil rhizosphere and marine environment to promote plant growth was determined. Eight bacterial strains isolated from soil and marine samples were characterized for the phosphate solubilizing activity. Qualitative and quantitative estimation of phosphate solubilization is done. MIC of antibiotic and heavy metals were checked for these strains. Strains show a diverse pattern of antibiotic and heavy metals resistance.

  3. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for Shiprock Area, Parts of San Juan County, New Mexico and Apache County, Arizona

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  4. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for Sandoval County Area, New Mexico (Parts of Los Alamos, Sandoval and Rio Arriba Counties)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  5. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for Gila National Forest, New Mexico, Parts of Catron, Grant and Sierra Counties

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  6. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for Cibola Area, New Mexico, Parts of Cibola, McKinley, and Valencia Counties

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  7. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for Rio Arriba Area, New Mexico, Parts of Rio Arriba and Sandoval Counties

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  8. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for Taos County and Parts of Rio Arriba and Mora Counties, New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  9. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for Lincoln National Forest Area, New Mexico, Parts of Lincoln and Otero Counties

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  10. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for Bernalillo County and Parts of Sandoval and Valencia Counties, New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  11. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for Jicarilla Apache Nation, Parts of Rio Arriba and Sandoval Counties, New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  12. Three dimensional characterization of soil macroporosity by X-ray microtomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passoni, Sabrina [Centro de Ensino Superior dos Campos Gerais, Ponta Grossa, PR (Brazil); Pires, Luiz Fernando, E-mail: lfpires@uepg.br [Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa (UFPG), Ponta Grossa, PR (Brazil). Departamento de Fisica; Heck, Richard [University of Guelph, School of Environmental Sciences, Guelph, Ontario (Canada); Rosa, Jadir Aparecido [Instituto Agronomico do Parana, Polo Regional de Pesquisa de Ponta Grossa, Ponta Grossa, PR (Brazil)

    2015-03-15

    Analysis of the soil pore system represents an important way of characterizing soil structure. Properties such as the shape and number of pores can be determined through soil pore evaluations. This study presents a three-dimensional (3D) characterization of the shape and number of pores of a sub-tropical soil. To do so, a second generation X-ray microtomography equipped with a plain type detector was employed. A voltage of 120 kV and current of 80 mA was applied to the X-ray tube. The soil samples analyzed were collected at three different depths (0-10, 10-20, and 20-30 cm). The results obtained allowed qualitative (images) and quantitative (3D) analyses of the soil structure, revealing the potential of the microtomographic technique, as well as the study of differences in soil macroporosity at different depths. Macroporosity was 5.14 % in the 0-10 cm layer, 5.10 % in the 10-20 cm layer, and 6.64 % in the 20-30 cm layer. The macroporosity of unclassified pores (UN) was 0.30 % (0-10 and 10-20 cm) and 0.40 % (20-30 cm), while equant pores (EQ) had values of 0.01 % at the three depths under analysis. (author)

  13. Software for micromorphometric characterization of soil pores obtained from 2-D image analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Cooper

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Studies of soil porosity through image analysis are important to an understanding of how the soil functions. However, the lack of a simplified methodology for the quantification of the shape, number, and size of soil pores has limited the use of information extracted from images. The present work proposes a software program for the quantification and characterization of soil porosity from data derived from 2-D images. The user-friendly software was developed in C++ and allows for the classification of pores in terms of size, shape, and combinations of size and shape. Using raw data generated by image analysis systems, the software calculates the following parameters for the characterization of soil porosity: total area of pore (Tap, number of pores, pore shape, pore shape and pore area, and pore shape and equivalent pore diameter (EqDiam. In this paper, the input file with the raw soil porosity data was generated using the Noesis Visilog 5.4 image analysis system; however other image analysis programs can be used, in which case, the input file requires a standard format to permit processing by this software. The software also shows the descriptive statistics (mean, standard deviation, variance, and the coefficient of variation of the parameters considering the total number of images evaluated. The results show that the software is a complementary tool to any analysis of soil porosity, allowing for a precise and quick analysis.

  14. Characterization and classification of two soils derived from basic rocks in Pernambuco State Coast, Northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira Lindomário Barros de

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Geomorphic surfaces that present soils derived from basic rocks under warm and humid climate are unique scenarios for studying tropical soils. This paper aimed to characterize and classify two pedons derived from basalt at the Atlantic Forest Zone, Pernambuco State, Northeastern coast of Brazil. Two representative pedons (P1 and P2 were selected on a hillslope at the Cabo de Santo Agostinho municipality. Field macromorphological descriptions were carried out and soil horizon were sampled for physical, chemical, mineralogical and micromorphological characterization. The soils were classified, according to the Brazilian System of Soil Classification (and US Soil Taxonomy as: "Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo distroférrico argissólico" (Typic Hapludox (P1 and "Nitossolo Vermelho distroférrico típico" (Rhodic Paleudult (P2. Pedon 1 differs from Pedon 2 in some aspects. For instance, P1 presents more yellowish colors, absence of clay illuviation, more friable consistence and the prismatic structure undergoes transformation to angular and subangular blocks. Pedon 2 presents ferri-argilans and leptocutans which indicate that vertical and lateral illuviation of clay is an active process in their formation. These chemically poor and mineralogically uniform soils are a result of the high temperature and rainfall of the studied area.

  15. SOILS FROM FĂLCIU HILLS. GIS ANALISYS AND REPRESENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Condorachi

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Soil maps are one of the important products of the soil scientists. Recently, these maps can be made using a GIS which can improve the precision and also soil data management. Below is a pedological assemblage characterization of the soil types and the data processed are extracted from GIS databases. Some maps were created on soil class types and also a general soil map of the studied area.

  16. Characterization of field compaction using shrinkage analysis and visual soil examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannes, Alice; Keller, Thomas; Weisskopf, Peter; Schulin, Rainer; Boivin, Pascal

    2016-04-01

    ) With compaction the sigmoidal shape characterizing a well-structured soil disappeared, and (ii) the basic slope became steeper, indicating lower hydrostructural stability. VESS scores were significantly different between compacted and uncompacted soil and strongly correlated with ShA properties. Based on these relationships, we propose a model characterizing the recovery potential of compacted soil structure. The good agreement between visual examinations and ShA indicates that both methods are well suited for the assessment of soil compaction. ShA is more elaborate, but also more precise and has the advantage to provide valuable addi¬tional quantitative information on the state of physical degradation. References Ball, B.C., Batey, T., Munkholm, L.J., 2007. Field assessment of soil structural quality-a development of the Peerlkamp test. Soil Use Manag. 23, 329-337. Braudeau, E., Frangi, J.P., Mohtar, R.H., 2004. Characterizing nonrigid aggregated soil-water medium using its shrinkage curve. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 68, 359-370.

  17. Characterization of soils at proposed Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothschild, E.R.; Huff, D.D.; Spalding, B.P.; Lee, S.Y.; Clapp, R.B.; Lietzke, D.A.; Stansfield, R.G.; Farrow, N.D.; Farmer, C.D.; Munro, I.L.

    1984-12-01

    To supplement other waste disposal operations on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation, the soils at a potential site for shallow land burial of low-level radioactive waste have been characterized. Proposed Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 7 is located in Melton Valley, east of the current burial facilities in the valley. Physical, chemical, and hydraulic properties of the soils on the site are documented. The thin veneer of soil on proposed SWSA 7 has been mapped in detail and divided into 11 mappable units. In general, the upland soils are well drained, whereas the soils in the lower parts of the site may be poorly drained. Six soil types that are most likely to be affected by waste disposal operations were studied in detail. The soils examined contain little or no carbonate and exhibit low pH. Laboratory studies were carried out to determine the moisture characteristic functions for the six soil types. The laboratory data were combined with field data to produce functions that are directly accessible by numerical models to be used for site evaluation in the future. A total of eighteen soil and sediment samples were collected for determination of their radionuclide adsorption properties. Radioisotopes of I, Cs, Sr, Co, and Am were studied, and all exhibited high Kd's (greater than 23 L/kg) with the exception of I, which had a consistently lower Kd. The cation exchange capacities of the soils averaged 169 meq/kg. Three soil profiles were examined in detail and the mineralogy of the horizons determined. Generally, the southern half of the site appears to be dominated by vermiculite-rich micaceous minerals, whereas in the northern half of the site, kaolinite and micaceous minerals dominate. A preliminary evaluation of the potential erosion on this hilly site was made. Once the site is grass covered, the erosion will be on the order of 0.4 to 4.5 metric tons ha/sup -1/ year/sup -1/.

  18. Analytical results, database management and quality assurance for analysis of soil and groundwater samples collected by cone penetrometer from the F and H Area seepage basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boltz, D.R.; Johnson, W.H.; Serkiz, S.M.

    1994-10-01

    The Quantification of Soil Source Terms and Determination of the Geochemistry Controlling Distribution Coefficients (K{sub d} values) of Contaminants at the F- and H-Area Seepage Basins (FHSB) study was designed to generate site-specific contaminant transport factors for contaminated groundwater downgradient of the Basins. The experimental approach employed in this study was to collect soil and its associated porewater from contaminated areas downgradient of the FHSB. Samples were collected over a wide range of geochemical conditions (e.g., pH, conductivity, and contaminant concentration) and were used to describe the partitioning of contaminants between the aqueous phase and soil surfaces at the site. The partitioning behavior may be used to develop site-specific transport factors. This report summarizes the analytical procedures and results for both soil and porewater samples collected as part of this study and the database management of these data.

  19. Characterization Investigation Study: Volume 3, Radiological survey of surface soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solow, A.J.; Phoenix, D.R.

    1987-12-01

    The Feed Materials Production Center was constructed to produce high purity uranium metal for use at various Department of Energy facilities. The waste products from these operations include general uncontaminated scrap and refuse, contaminated and uncontaminated metal scrap, waste oils, low-level radioactive waste, co-contaminated wastes, mixed waste, toxic waste, sludges from water treatment, and fly ash from the steam plant. This material is estimated to total more than 350,000 cubic meters. Other wastes stored in this area include laboratory chemicals and other combustible materials in the burn pit; fine waste stream sediments in the clear well; fly ash and waste oils in the two fly ash areas; lime-alum sludges and boiler plant blowdown in the lime sludge ponds; and nonradioactive sanitary waste, construction rubble, and asbestos in the sanitary landfill. A systematic survey of the surface soils throughout the Waste Storage Area, associated on-site drainages, and the fly ash piles was conducted using a Field Instrument for Detecting Low-Energy Radiation (FIDLER). Uranium is the most prevalent radioactive element in surface soil; U-238 is the principal radionuclide, ranging from 2.2 to 1790 pCi/g in the general Waste Storage Area. The maximum values for the next highest activity concentrations in the same area were 972 pCi/g for Th-230 and 298 pCi/g for U-234. Elevated activity concentrations of Th-230 were found along the K-65 slurry line, the maximum at 3010 pCi/g. U-238 had the highest value of 761 pCi/g in the drainage just south of pit no. 5. The upper fly ash area had the highest radionuclide activity concentrations in the surface soils with the maximum values for U-238 at 8600 pCi/g, U-235 at 2190 pCi/g, U-234 at 11,400 pCi/g, Tc-99 at 594 pCi/g, Ra-226 at 279 pCi/g, and Th-230 at 164 pCi/g.

  20. Chemical and microbiological characterization of an aged PCB-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stella, T; Covino, S; Burianová, E; Filipová, A; Křesinová, Z; Voříšková, J; Větrovský, T; Baldrian, P; Cajthaml, T

    2015-11-15

    This study was aimed at complex characterization of three soil samples (bulk soil, topsoil and rhizosphere soil) from a site historically contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB). The bulk soil was the most highly contaminated, with a PCB concentration of 705.95 mg kg(-1), while the rhizosphere soil was the least contaminated (169.36 mg kg(-1)). PCB degradation intermediates, namely chlorobenzoic acids (CBAs), were detected in all the soil samples, suggesting the occurrence of microbial transformation processes over time. The higher content of organic carbon in the topsoil and rhizosphere soil than in the bulk soil could be linked to the reduced bioaccessibility (bioavailability) of these chlorinated pollutants. However, different proportions of the PCB congener contents and different bioaccessibility of the PCB homologues indicate microbial biotransformation of the compounds. The higher content of organic carbon probably also promoted the growth of microorganisms, as revealed by phospholipid fatty acid (PFLA) quantification. Tag-encoded pyrosequencing analysis showed that the bacterial community structure was significantly similar among the three soils and was predominated by Proteobacteria (44-48%) in all cases. Moreover, analysis at lower taxonomic levels pointed to the presence of genera (Sphingomonas, Bulkholderia, Arthrobacter, Bacillus) including members with reported PCB removal abilities. The fungal community was mostly represented by Basidiomycota and Ascomycota, which accounted for >80% of all the sequences detected in the three soils. Fungal taxa with biodegradation potential (Paxillus, Cryptococcus, Phoma, Mortierella) were also found. These results highlight the potential of the indigenous consortia present at the site as a starting point for PCB bioremediation processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Field corrosion characterization of soil corrosion of X70 pipeline steel in a red clay soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengrong Wang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The corrosion behavior of X70 pipeline steel buried in red soil environment has been studied. The surface morphology and elemental distribution were determined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM,energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS, and X-ray diffraction (XRD. The corrosion kinetics was evaluated by weight loss measurement. The results show that in red soil, the corrosion rate of X70 steel decreases with time, and follows the exponential decay law. General corrosion with non-uniform and localized pitting occurred on the steel surface. α-FeOOH was the dominate products during corrosion in whole buried periods, and the corrosion products exhibited well protective properties. The potentiodynamic polarization tests revealed that icorr decreased with time, indicating the improvement of corrosion resistance. The results of Electrochemical impendence spectroscopy (EIS are consistent with potentiodynamic polarization tests.

  2. Isolation and characterization of Bacillus thuringiensis from soils in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phenotypic and molecular methods were used to isolate and characterize B. thuringiensis from diverse agro-ecological zones of Ethiopia. Bioassays were used to test the insecticidal activity of B. thuringiensis strains against the major malaria vector, Anopheles arabiensis (Diptera). B. thuringiensis were isolated from 32% of ...

  3. isolation and characterization of bacillus thuringiensis from soils in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    different zones were characterized with regard to maximum growth rate and temperature optima for growth to test if there was local adaptation ... and cyt genes in Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis. The present study shows that this ... selective agar media (Chilcott and Wigley, 1993). Ethiopia is considered to be one of ...

  4. ISRU Soil Mechanics Vacuum Facility: Soil Bin Preparation and Simulant Strength Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinhenz, Julie; Wilkinson, Allen

    2012-01-01

    Testing in relevant environments is key to exploration mission hardware development. This is true on both the component level (in early development) and system level (in late development stages). During ISRU missions the hardware will interface with the soil (digging, roving, etc) in a vacuum environment. A relevant test environment will therefore involve a vacuum chamber with a controlled, conditioned simulant bed. However, in earth-based granular media, such as lunar soil simulant, gases trapped within the material pore structures and water adsorbed to all particle surfaces will release when exposed to vacuum. Early vacuum testing has shown that this gas release can occur violently, which loosens and weakens the simulant, altering the consolidation state. The Vacuum Facility #13, a mid-size chamber (3.66m tall, 1.5m inner diameter) at the NASA Glenn Research Center has been modified to create a soil mechanics test facility. A 0.64m deep by 0.914m square metric ton bed of lunar simulant was placed under vacuum using a variety of pumping techniques. Both GRC-3 and LHT-3M simulant types have been used. An electric cone penetrometer was used to measure simulant strength properties at vacuum including: cohesion, friction angle, bulk density and shear modulus. Simulant disruptions, caused by off gassing, affected the strength properties, but could be mitigated by reducing pump rate. No disruptions were observed at pressures below 2.5Torr, regardless of the pump rate. However, slow off gassing of the soil lead to long test times, a full week, to reach 10-5Torr. This work highlights the need for robotic machine-simulant hardware and operations in vacuum to expeditiously perform (sub-)systems tests.

  5. Characterization of humic acids from tundra soils of northern Western Siberia by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chukov, S. N.; Ejarque, E.; Abakumov, E. V.

    2017-01-01

    Humic acids from polar soils—cryozems (Cryosols), gleyezems (Gleysols), and peat soils (Histosols)—have been studied by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. First information was acquired on the content of free radicals in humic acids from polar soils for the northern regions of Western Siberia (Gydan Peninsula, Belyi Island). It was found that polar soils are characterized by higher contents of free radicals than other zonal soils. This is related to the lower degree of humification of organic matter and the enhanced hydromorphism under continuous permafrost conditions. The low degree of organic matter humification in the cryolithozone was confirmed by the increased content of free radicals as determined by electron paramagnetic resonance, which indicates a low biothermodynamic stability of organic matter.

  6. Characterization of Soil Heterogeneity Across Scales in an Intensively Investigated Soil Volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Matthew; Gimenez, Daniel; Nemes, Attila; Dathe, Annette; French, Helen; Bloem, Esther; Koestel, John; Jarvis, Nick

    2016-04-01

    Heterogeneous water flow in undisturbed soils is a natural occurrence that is complex to model due to potential changes in hydraulic properties in soils over changes in space. The use of geophysical methods, such as Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT), can provide a minimally-invasive approximation of the spatial heterogeneity of the soil. This spatial distribution can then be combined with measured hydraulic properties to inform a model. An experiment was conducted on an Intensively Investigated Soil Volume (IISV), with dimensions of 2m x 1m x 0.8m, located in an agricultural field that is part of the Gryteland catchment in Ås, Norway. The location of the IISV was determined through surface ERT runs at two sequential resolutions. The first run was used to find an area of higher apparent electrical resistivity in a 23.5 x 11.5 m area with 0.5 m spacing. The second run measured apparent electrical resistivity in a 4.7 x 1 m area with 0.1 m spacing, from which the final IISV volume was derived. Distinct features found in the higher resolution run of the IISV, including a recent tire track from a harvester, were used as a spatial reference point for the installation of 20 pairs of TDR probes and tensiometers. The instruments measured water content, temperature and pressure potential at 10 minute intervals and ran continuously for a period of two weeks. After completion of the data collection the IISV was intensively sampled, with 30 samples taken for bulk density, 62 for hydraulic property measurements, and 20 to be used for both CT scanning and hydraulic property measurements. The measurement of hydraulic properties is ongoing and retention will be measured in the 0 - 100 cm range on a sand table, and from 100 - approx. 900 cm with an automated evaporation method. The formation of spatial clusters to represent the soil heterogeneity as relatively homogeneous units based on mesoscale properties like apparent electrical resistivity, bulk density, texture, in

  7. Characterization of sulfate reducing bacteria isolated from urban soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mingliang; Wang, Haixia

    2017-05-01

    Sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) was isolated from urban soil and applied for the remediation of heavy metals pollution from acid mine drainage. The morphology and physiological characteristics (e.g. pH and heavy metals tolerance) of SRB was investigated. The SRB was gram-negative bacteria, long rod with slight curve, cell size 0.5× (1.5-2.0) μm. The pH of medium had significant effect on SRB growth and the efficiency of sulfate reduction, and it showed that the suitable pH range was 5-9 and SRB could not survive at pH less than 4. The maximum tolerance of Fe (II), Zn (II), Cd (II), and Cu (II) under acidic condition (pH 5.0) was about 600 mg/L, 150 mg/L, 25 mg/L and 25 mg/L, respectively. The result indicated that SRB isolated in this study could be used for the bioremediation of acid mine drainage (pH>4) within the heavy metals concentrations tolerance.

  8. Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emily Moghaddas; Ken Hubbert

    2014-01-01

    When managing for resilient forests, each soil’s inherent capacity to resist and recover from changes in soil function should be evaluated relative to the anticipated extent and duration of soil disturbance. Application of several key principles will help ensure healthy, resilient soils: (1) minimize physical disturbance using guidelines tailored to specific soil types...

  9. Isolation and characterization of chitinase from soil fungi, Paecilomyces sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Methanee Homthong

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Chitinolytic fungal strains were isolated from soil in Thailand. They were screened as chitinase producers by testing their shrimp shell digestion ability on potato dextrose agar plates. The chitinase activity was tested with colloidal chitin in culture medium C and basal medium. There was greater activity in culture medium C than in the basal medium. The results of sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis from the culture filtrate of medium C showed three protein bands at about 40 kDa, 46 kDa and 56 kDa. The chitinase gene was sequenced from genomic DNA. The obtained sequence consisted of 713 bp upstream, a 1499 bp open reading frame that was interrupted by three introns and 1698 bp downstream sequences. The intron lengths were 63 bp, 57 bp and 110 bp, respectively. The sequence was found to be the most similar to the chitinase gene of Paecilomyces lilacinus (EF183511. Pairwise alignment of the 1499 bp and P. lilacinus resulted in 72.5% DNA sequence identity, while alignment of the 1269 bp coding sequence and P. lilacinus resulted in 78.5% cDNA sequence identity and 83.5% amino acid sequence identity. The protein structure contained two conserved domains of the putative substrate binding site (S-I-G-G and catalytic domain (D-G-I-D-L-D-W-E, suggesting that this fungal chitinase belonged to the glycosyl hydrolases family 18 chitinase (GH18. Phylogenetic analysis of the chitinase gene from the nematopathogenic fungi suggested that this chitinase sequence was class V chitinase.

  10. Characterizing changes in soil bacterial community structure in response to short-term warming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiong, Jinbo [State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing China; School of Marine Sciences, Ningbo University, Ningbo China; Sun, Huaibo [State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing China; Peng, Fei [Key Laboratory of Desert and Desertification, Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou China; Zhang, Huayong [State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing China; Xue, Xian [Key Laboratory of Desert and Desertification, Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou China; Gibbons, Sean M. [Argonne National Laboratory Biosciences Division, Argonne IL USA; Graduate Program in Biophysical Sciences, University of Chicago, Chicago IL USA; Gilbert, Jack A. [Argonne National Laboratory Biosciences Division, Argonne IL USA; Department of Ecology and Evolution, University of Chicago, Chicago IL USA; Chu, Haiyan [State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing China

    2014-02-18

    High altitude alpine meadows are experiencing considerably greater than average increases in soil surface temperature, potentially as a result of ongoing climate change. The effects of warming on plant productivity and soil edaphic variables have been established previously, but the influence of warming on soil microbial community structure has not been well characterized. Here, the impact of 15 months of soil warming (both + 1 and + 2 degrees C) on bacterial community structure was examined in a field experiment on a Tibetan plateau alpine meadow using bar-coded pyrosequencing. Warming significantly changed (P < 0.05) the structure of the soil bacterial community, but the alpha diversity was not dramatically affected. Changes in the abundance of the Actinobacteria and Alphaproteobacteria were found to contribute the most to differences between ambient (AT) and artificially warmed conditions. A variance partitioning analysis (VPA) showed that warming directly explained 7.15% variation in bacterial community structure, while warming-induced changes in soil edaphic and plant phenotypic properties indirectly accounted for 28.3% and 20.6% of the community variance, respectively. Interestingly, certain taxa showed an inconsistent response to the two warming treatments, for example Deltaproteobacteria showed a decreased relative abundance at + 1 degrees C, but a return to AT control relative abundance at + 2 degrees C. This suggests complex microbial dynamics that could result from conditional dependencies between bacterial taxa.

  11. CEPH family 1362 STR database: an online resource for characterization of PCR products using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Null, Allison P; Muddima, David C

    2002-01-01

    An online database has been established in order to validate electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) for genotyping and to publicize the procedures developed in our laboratory for the characterization of PCR products by ESI-MS. Genotypes derived from short tandem repeat (STR) loci that were obtained using ESI Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICR-MS) have been posted for fifteen members of the CEPH family 1362 pedigree. The website provides specific information such as PCR parameters, PCR product cleanup approaches, and ESI solution compositions to enable other laboratories to reproduce our data. Links are provided to related websites in an effort to integrate information regarding the CEPH family, STR genotyping, and mass spectrometry. The database, currently available at http://www.people.vcu.edu/ -dcmuddim/genotype/ will be routinely updated with genotypes from additional STR loci including PCR parameters as well as PCR cleanup strategies as further developments are completed.

  12. Characterization of methanotrophic bacterial populations in natural and agricultural aerobic soils of the European Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravchenko, Irina; Sukhacheva, Marina; Kizilova, Anna

    2014-05-01

    Atmospheric methane contributes to about 20% of the total radiative forcing by long-lived greenhouse gases, and microbial methane oxidation in upland soils is the only biological sink of methane. Microbial methane oxidation in aerated upland soils is estimated as 15 - 45 Tg yr-1 or 3-9% of the annual sink. Therefore there is need of extensive research to characterize methanotrophic activity in various ecosystems for possible application to reduce atmospheric methane fluxes and to minimize global climate change. The vast majority of known aerobic methanotrophs belongs to the Proteobacteria and placed in the families Methylococcaceae in the Gammaproteobacteria, and Methylocystaceae and Beijerinckiaceae in the Alphaproteobacteria. Known exceptions include the phylum Verrucomicrobia and uncultured methanotrophs such as Candidatus 'Methylomirabilis oxyfera' affiliated with the 'NC10' phylum. Plenty of studies of aerobic methane oxidation and key players of the process have been performed on various types of soils, and it was found that Methylocystis spp and uncultivated methanotrophs are abundant in upland soils. Two of the uncultured groups are upland soil cluster alphaproteobacteria (USCa) and gammaproteobacteria (USCg), as revealed by cultivation-independent surveys of pmoA diversity. Russia is extremely rich in soil types due to its vast territories, and most of these soils have never been investigated from the aspect of methanotrophy. This study addresses methane oxidation activity and diversity of aerobic methanotrophic bacteria in eight types of natural aerobic soils, four of which also had been under agricultural use. Methane fluxes have been measured by in situ static chamber method and methane oxidation rates in soil samples - by radioisotope tracer (14CH4) technique. Changes in methanotroph diversity and abundance were assessed by cloning and Sanger sequencing, and quantitative real-time PCR of pmoA genes. Methanotrophic population of unmanaged soils turned

  13. Screening and Characterization of Potentially Suppressive Soils against Gaeumannomyces graminis under Extensive Wheat Cropping by Chilean Indigenous Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Durán

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Wheat production around the world is severely compromised by the occurrence of “take-all” disease, which is caused by the soil-borne pathogen Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici (Ggt. In this context, suppressive soils are those environments in which plants comparatively suffer less soil-borne pathogen diseases than expected, owing to native soil microorganism activities. In southern Chile, where 85% of the national cereal production takes place, several studies have suggested the existence of suppressive soils under extensive wheat cropping. Thus, this study aimed to screen Ggt-suppressive soil occurrence in 16 locations managed by indigenous “Mapuche” communities, using extensive wheat cropping for more than 10 years. Ggt growth inhibition in vitro screenings allowed the identification of nine putative suppressive soils. Six of these soils, including Andisols and Ultisols, were confirmed to be suppressive, since they reduced take-all disease in wheat plants growing under greenhouse conditions. Suppressiveness was lost upon soil sterilization, and recovered by adding 1% of the natural soil, hence confirming that suppressiveness was closely associated to the soil microbiome community composition. Our results demonstrate that long-term extensive wheat cropping, established by small Mapuche communities, can generate suppressive soils that can be used as effective microorganism sources for take-all disease biocontrol. Accordingly, suppressive soil identification and characterization are key steps for the development of environmentally-friendly and efficient biotechnological applications for soil-borne disease control.

  14. Screening and Characterization of Potentially Suppressive Soils againstGaeumannomyces graminisunder Extensive Wheat Cropping by Chilean Indigenous Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán, Paola; Jorquera, Milko; Viscardi, Sharon; Carrion, Victor J; Mora, María de la Luz; Pozo, María J

    2017-01-01

    Wheat production around the world is severely compromised by the occurrence of "take-all" disease, which is caused by the soil-borne pathogen Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici (Ggt). In this context, suppressive soils are those environments in which plants comparatively suffer less soil-borne pathogen diseases than expected, owing to native soil microorganism activities. In southern Chile, where 85% of the national cereal production takes place, several studies have suggested the existence of suppressive soils under extensive wheat cropping. Thus, this study aimed to screen Ggt-suppressive soil occurrence in 16 locations managed by indigenous "Mapuche" communities, using extensive wheat cropping for more than 10 years. Ggt growth inhibition in vitro screenings allowed the identification of nine putative suppressive soils. Six of these soils, including Andisols and Ultisols, were confirmed to be suppressive, since they reduced take-all disease in wheat plants growing under greenhouse conditions. Suppressiveness was lost upon soil sterilization, and recovered by adding 1% of the natural soil, hence confirming that suppressiveness was closely associated to the soil microbiome community composition. Our results demonstrate that long-term extensive wheat cropping, established by small Mapuche communities, can generate suppressive soils that can be used as effective microorganism sources for take-all disease biocontrol. Accordingly, suppressive soil identification and characterization are key steps for the development of environmentally-friendly and efficient biotechnological applications for soil-borne disease control.

  15. Screening and Characterization of Potentially Suppressive Soils against Gaeumannomyces graminis under Extensive Wheat Cropping by Chilean Indigenous Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán, Paola; Jorquera, Milko; Viscardi, Sharon; Carrion, Victor J.; Mora, María de la Luz; Pozo, María J.

    2017-01-01

    Wheat production around the world is severely compromised by the occurrence of “take-all” disease, which is caused by the soil-borne pathogen Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici (Ggt). In this context, suppressive soils are those environments in which plants comparatively suffer less soil-borne pathogen diseases than expected, owing to native soil microorganism activities. In southern Chile, where 85% of the national cereal production takes place, several studies have suggested the existence of suppressive soils under extensive wheat cropping. Thus, this study aimed to screen Ggt-suppressive soil occurrence in 16 locations managed by indigenous “Mapuche” communities, using extensive wheat cropping for more than 10 years. Ggt growth inhibition in vitro screenings allowed the identification of nine putative suppressive soils. Six of these soils, including Andisols and Ultisols, were confirmed to be suppressive, since they reduced take-all disease in wheat plants growing under greenhouse conditions. Suppressiveness was lost upon soil sterilization, and recovered by adding 1% of the natural soil, hence confirming that suppressiveness was closely associated to the soil microbiome community composition. Our results demonstrate that long-term extensive wheat cropping, established by small Mapuche communities, can generate suppressive soils that can be used as effective microorganism sources for take-all disease biocontrol. Accordingly, suppressive soil identification and characterization are key steps for the development of environmentally-friendly and efficient biotechnological applications for soil-borne disease control. PMID:28861064

  16. Use of laboratory geophysical and geotechnical investigation methods to characterize gypsum rich soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhamidipati, Raghava A.

    Gypsum rich soils are found in many parts of the world, particularly in arid and semi-arid regions. Most gypsum occurs in the form of evaporites, which are minerals that precipitate out of water due to a high rate of evaporation and a high mineral concentration. Gypsum rich soils make good foundation material under dry conditions but pose major engineering hazards when exposed to water. Gypsum acts as a weak cementing material and has a moderate solubility of about 2.5 g/liter. The dissolution of gypsum causes the soils to undergo unpredictable collapse settlement leading to severe structural damages. The damages incur heavy financial losses every year. The objective of this research was to use geophysical methods such as free-free resonant column testing and electrical resistivity testing to characterize gypsum rich soils based on the shear wave velocity and electrical resistivity values. The geophysical testing methods could provide quick, non-intrusive and cost-effective methodologies to screen sites known to contain gypsum deposits. Reconstituted specimens of ground gypsum and quartz sand were prepared in the laboratory with varying amounts of gypsum and tested. Additionally geotechnical tests such as direct shear strength tests and consolidation tests were conducted to estimate the shear strength parameters (drained friction angle and cohesion) and the collapse potential of the soils. The effect of gypsum content on the geophysical and geotechnical parameters of soil was of particular interest. It was found that gypsum content had an influence on the shear wave velocity but had minimal effect on electrical resistivity. The collapsibility and friction angle of the soil increased with increase in gypsum. The information derived from the geophysical and geotechnical tests was used to develop statistical design equations and correlations to estimate gypsum content and soil collapse potential.

  17. Incorporation of satellite remote sensing pan-sharpened imagery into digital soil prediction and mapping models to characterize soil property variability in small agricultural fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yiming; Smith, Scot E.; Grunwald, Sabine; Abd-Elrahman, Amr; Wani, Suhas P.

    2017-01-01

    Soil prediction models based on spectral indices from some multispectral images are too coarse to characterize spatial pattern of soil properties in small and heterogeneous agricultural lands. Image pan-sharpening has seldom been utilized in Digital Soil Mapping research before. This research aimed to analyze the effects of pan-sharpened (PAN) remote sensing spectral indices on soil prediction models in smallholder farm settings. This research fused the panchromatic band and multispectral (MS) bands of WorldView-2, GeoEye-1, and Landsat 8 images in a village in Southern India by Brovey, Gram-Schmidt and Intensity-Hue-Saturation methods. Random Forest was utilized to develop soil total nitrogen (TN) and soil exchangeable potassium (Kex) prediction models by incorporating multiple spectral indices from the PAN and MS images. Overall, our results showed that PAN remote sensing spectral indices have similar spectral characteristics with soil TN and Kex as MS remote sensing spectral indices. There is no soil prediction model incorporating the specific type of pan-sharpened spectral indices always had the strongest prediction capability of soil TN and Kex. The incorporation of pan-sharpened remote sensing spectral data not only increased the spatial resolution of the soil prediction maps, but also enhanced the prediction accuracy of soil prediction models. Small farms with limited footprint, fragmented ownership and diverse crop cycle should benefit greatly from the pan-sharpened high spatial resolution imagery for soil property mapping. Our results show that multiple high and medium resolution images can be used to map soil properties suggesting the possibility of an improvement in the maps' update frequency. Additionally, the results should benefit the large agricultural community through the reduction of routine soil sampling cost and improved prediction accuracy.

  18. Characterization and nutrient release from silicate rocks and influence on chemical changes in soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Ramos Guelfi Silva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The expansion of Brazilian agriculture has led to a heavy dependence on imported fertilizers to ensure the supply of the growing food demand. This fact has contributed to a growing interest in alternative nutrient sources, such as ground silicate rocks. It is necessary, however, to know the potential of nutrient release and changes these materials can cause in soils. The purpose of this study was to characterize six silicate rocks and evaluate their effects on the chemical properties of treated soil, assessed by chemical extractants after greenhouse incubation. The experimental design consisted of completely randomized plots, in a 3 x 6 factorial scheme, with four replications. The factors were potassium levels (0-control: without silicate rock application; 200; 400; 600 kg ha-1 of K2O, supplied as six silicate rock types (breccia, biotite schist, ultramafic rock, phlogopite schist and two types of mining waste. The chemical, physical and mineralogical properties of the alternative rock fertilizers were characterized. Treatments were applied to a dystrophic Red-Yellow Oxisol (Ferralsol, which was incubated for 100 days, at 70 % (w/w moisture in 3.7 kg/pots. The soil was evaluated for pH; calcium and magnesium were extracted with KCl 1 mol L-1; potassium, phosphorus and sodium by Mehlich 1; nickel, copper and zinc with DTPA; and the saturation of the cation exchange capacity was calculated for aluminum, calcium, magnesium, potassium, and sodium, and overall base saturation. The alternative fertilizers affected soil chemical properties. Ultramafic rock and Chapada mining byproduct (CMB were the silicate rocks that most influenced soil pH, while the mining byproduct (MB led to high K levels. Zinc availability was highest in the treatments with mining byproduct and Cu in soil fertilized with Chapada and mining byproduct.

  19. Study of the Matrix Effect on the Plasma Characterization of Heavy Elements in Soil Sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tawfik W.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS has been applied to perform a study of the matrix effect on the plasma characterization of soil sediment targets. The plasma is generated by focusing a pulsed Nd: YAG laser on the target in air at atmospheric pressure. The plasma emission spectrum was detected using a portable Echelle spectrometer (Mechelle 7500 — Multichannel Instruments, Stockholm, Sweden with intensified CCD camera. Spectroscopic analysis of plasma evolution of laser produced plasmas has been characterized in terms of their spectra, and electron temperature. Four heavy elements V, Pb, Mn and Co were determined in the obtained spectra. The LTE and optically thin plasma conditions were verified for the produced plasma. The electron temperature and density were determined using the emission intensity and stark broadening, respectively, of the spectral lines of the heavy elements in the soil sediments. The electron temperature does not change with concentration. For environmental applications, the obtained results showed the capability of the proposed LIBS setup with the portable Mechelle 7500 spectrometer to be applied in-situ for real-time measurements of the variation of the matrix elemental composition of soil sediments by following up only a single element as a marker for the composition of the soil sediment without need of analysis of the other elements.

  20. Construction of the Database of Rat Repeated-dose Toxicity Tests of Pesticides for the Toxicological Characterization of Hepatocyte Hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Akane; Masuda, Miyabi; Kawano, Takuya; Kitsunai, Yoko; Nakayama, Haruka; Nakajima, Hiroyuki; Kojima, Hiroyuki; Kitamura, Shigeyuki; Uramaru, Naoto; Hosaka, Takuomi; Sasaki, Takamitsu; Yoshinari, Kouichi

    2017-01-01

    Liver and hepatocyte hypertrophy can be induced by exposure to chemical compounds, but the mechanisms and toxicological characteristics of these phenomena have not yet been investigated extensively. In particular, it remains unclear whether the hepatocyte hypertrophy induced by chemical compounds should be judged as an adaptive response or an adverse effect. Thus, understanding of the toxicological characteristics of hepatocyte hypertrophy is of great importance to the safety evaluation of pesticides and other chemical compounds. To this end, we have constructed a database of potentially toxic pesticides. Using risk assessment reports of pesticides that are publicly available from the Food Safety Commission of Japan, we extracted all observations/findings that were based on 90-day subacute toxicity tests and 2-year chronic toxicity and carcinogenicity tests in rats. Analysis of the database revealed that hepatocyte hypertrophy was observed for 37-47% of the pesticides investigated (varying depending on sex and testing period), and that centrilobular hepatocyte hypertrophy was the most frequent among the various types of hepatocyte hypertrophy in both the 90-day and 2-year studies. The database constructed in this study enables us to investigate the relationships between hepatocyte hypertrophy and other toxicological observations/findings, and thus will be useful for characterizing hepatocyte hypertrophy.

  1. Characterization of spatial variability of soil physicochemical properties and its impact on Rhodes grass productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tola, E; Al-Gaadi, K A; Madugundu, R; Zeyada, A M; Kayad, A G; Biradar, C M

    2017-02-01

    Characterization of soil properties is a key step in understanding the source of spatial variability in the productivity across agricultural fields. A study on a 16 ha field located in the eastern region of Saudi Arabia was undertaken to investigate the spatial variability of selected soil properties, such as soil compaction 'SC', electrical conductivity 'EC', pH (acidity or alkalinity of soil) and soil texture and its impact on the productivity of Rhodes grass (Chloris gayana L.). The productivity of Rhodes grass was investigated using the Cumulative Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (CNDVI), which was determined from Landsat-8 (OLI) images. The statistical analysis showed high spatial variability across the experimental field based on SC, clay and silt; indicated by values of the coefficient of variation (CV) of 22.08%, 21.89% and 21.02%, respectively. However, low to very low variability was observed for soil EC, sand and pH; with CV values of 13.94%, 7.20% and 0.53%, respectively. Results of the CNDVI of two successive harvests showed a relatively similar trend of Rhodes grass productivity across the experimental area (r = 0.74, p = 0.0001). Soil physicochemical layers of a considerable spatial variability (SC, clay, silt and EC) were utilized to delineate the experimental field into three management zones (MZ-1, MZ-2 and MZ-3); which covered 30.23%, 33.85% and 35.92% of the total area, respectively. The results of CNDVI indicated that the MZ-1 was the most productive zone, as its major areas of 50.28% and 45.09% were occupied by the highest CNDVI classes of 0.97-1.08 and 4.26-4.72, for the first and second harvests, respectively.

  2. Isolation and characterization of soil Streptomyces species as potential biological control agents against fungal plant pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelista-Martínez, Zahaed

    2014-05-01

    The use of antagonist microorganisms against fungal plant pathogens is an attractive and ecologically alternative to the use of chemical pesticides. Streptomyces are beneficial soil bacteria and potential candidates for biocontrol agents. This study reports the isolation, characterization and antagonist activity of soil streptomycetes from the Los Petenes Biosphere Reserve, a Natural protected area in Campeche, Mexico. The results showed morphological, physiological and biochemical characterization of six actinomycetes and their inhibitory activity against Curvularia sp., Aspergillus niger, Helminthosporium sp. and Fusarium sp. One isolate, identified as Streptomyces sp. CACIS-1.16CA showed the potential to inhibit additional pathogens as Alternaria sp., Phytophthora capsici, Colletotrichum sp. and Rhizoctonia sp. with percentages ranging from 47 to 90 %. This study identified a streptomycete strain with a broad antagonist activity that could be used for biocontrol of plant pathogenic fungi.

  3. Characterization and pedogenesis of mangrove soils from Ilhéus-BA, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Haenel Gomes

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Despite its importance, studies of mangrove soils are scarce, especially from a pedological perspective. The objective of this work was to study the genesis of soils in a mangrove environment in northeastern Brazil (Ilhéus, Bahia through a morphological, physical, chemical and mineralogical characterization. All soils presented a sandy texture, which is related to the parent material (Quaternary sand deposits. The tidal flooding and resulting hydromorphic conditions is responsible for dominance of dark grey colors, and high organic matter contents (paludization process. As well as the high values of electrical conductivity (EC and dominance of Na+ in the saturation extract (salinization and solodization processes, respectively. Contrastingly, the M3 profile, with aninga (Montrichardia linifera vegetation, a non-exclusive mangrove plant, showed colors with high chromas due to a lesser influence of tidal flooding. The pH values and the SO4=/Cl- ratios indicated the presence of sulfidic material and, thus, the occurrence of the sulfidization process. The soil organic matter fractionation evidenced the humin as the fraction with the highest content, probably because of removal of most soluble fractions due to tidal action. Similar to mangrove soils from southeast Brazil, the XRD analysis identified kaolinite, mica and expandable 2:1 minerals in the clay fraction.

  4. An observed database to characterize the weather conditions associated with subtropical cyclogenesis over southern-southeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, R.; Porfirio da Rocha, R.

    2012-04-01

    A project to study the climatic, dynamic and synoptic aspects of subtropical cyclones that develop in southern-southeastern coast of Brazil is in development. The weather conditions associated with such cyclones is an important question that must be answered in this project. However, for such characterization it is necessary to use the local meteorological observations of wind, wind gust, rainfall, air temperature, etc. The NCEP (National Center for Environmental Prediction) reanalysis have spatial and time resolutions that provide elements to study the synoptic and dynamics of meteorological events (cyclone, anticyclones, troughs, ridges, monsoons circulations, etc) until the production of complex climatology. However, this analysis has coarse horizontal resolution (~250 Km) that often does not allow the identification of intense meteorological phenomena. A more precise characterization of location and intensity of weather conditions associated with subtropical cyclones would be performed using local observations. Therefore, this work describes the methodology to construct a database of surface weather observations using a relational database management system (RDBMS) MySQL. The data source are SYNOP (Surface Synoptic Observations), METAR (Meteorological Aerodrome Report), NCDC (National Climatic Data Center) and CETESB (Environmental Agency of Sao Paulo State) that are available online through dynamic web page. An iterative algorithm robot was developed to automate the data extraction. Most of the data source are encoded or at non-standard format, hence was developed an algorithm in C++, using the REGEX library, an engine of text pattern search, for decode and handle the exception (erroneous and corrupted data). After the data decoding and formatting it is stored into the MySQL database. The structure of database was divided into categories of tables: a table with the source of data definition, a table with stations information and two sets of tables (for hourly

  5. Study of the Matrix Effect on the Plasma Characterization of Heavy Elements in Soil Sediments

    OpenAIRE

    Tawfik W.; Askar A.

    2007-01-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has been applied to perform a study of the matrix effect on the plasma characterization of soil sediment targets. The plasma is generated by focusing a pulsed Nd: YAG laser on the target in air at atmospheric pressure. The plasma emission spectrum was detected using a portable Echelle spectrometer (Mechelle 7500 — Multichannel Instruments, Stockholm, Sweden) with intensified CCD camera. Spectroscopic analysis of plasma evolu...

  6. Characterization of Bacillus thuringiensis soil isolates from Cuba, with insecticidal activity against mosquitoes

    OpenAIRE

    Aileen González; Raúl Díaz; Manuel Díaz; Yainais Borrero; Rosa Y Bruzón; Bertha Carreras; René Gato

    2011-01-01

    Chemical insecticides may be toxic and cause environmental degradation. Consequently, biological control for insects represents an alternative with low ecological impact. In this work, three soil isolates (A21, A51 and C17) from different regions of the Cuban archipelago were identified, characterized and evaluated against Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus. The new isolates were compared with reference IPS82 strain and two strains isolated from biolarvicides Bactivec and Bactoculicida,...

  7. The deployment of an innovative real-time radiological soil characterization system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Allen; Raymond Danahy; Gregory Laird; Dale Seiller; Joan White; Robert Janke

    2000-09-29

    Fluor Fernald Inc., in conjunction with partners from Argonne National Laboratory, the Department of Energy's Environmental Measurements Laboratory, and Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, has developed a program for characterizing radiological contaminants in soil in real time. The soil characterization system in use at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) for over three years combines gamma ray spectrometry equipment with other technologies to produce a system that can scan large areas of ground and produce color coded maps which display quantitative information regarding isotopic contamination patterns. Software running on a battery powered lap-top computer, is used to control acquisition of gamma spectral data to link the spectral Information with precise detector position measurements from Global Positioning System (GPS) satellites, and to control transmission of data to a central station or van via a wireless Ethernet link where Surfer6 mapping software is used to produce maps showing the position and amount of each target analyte. Either sodium iodide (NaI) gamma ray detectors mounted on three different vehicles for mobile measurements or stationary tripod-mounted hyper-pure germanium (HPGe) detectors can be used in this system to radiologically characterize soil. The operational and performance characteristics, as well as the strengths and limitations of each of these units, will be described. The isotopic information generated by this system can be made available to remediation project mangers within an hour after the completion of a scan to aid in determination of excavation footprints, segregation of contaminated soil and verification of contamination removal. The immediate availability of radiological characterization data made possible by this real-time scanning system has allowed Fluor Fernald to accelerate remediation schedules and reduce costs by avoiding excavation delays and expensive and time consuming

  8. General Approach to Characterize Reservoir Fluids Using a Large PVT Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varzandeh, Farhad; Yan, Wei; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2016-01-01

    prominent issue. Non-cubic Equation of State (EoS) models are an attractive option due to their better description of density and compressibility over a wide temperature and pressure range. Application of these models to reservoir fluids requires development of the corresponding fluid characterization...

  9. Drawing a representative sample from the NCSS soil database: Building blocks for the national wind erosion network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing national wind erosion models for the continental United States requires a comprehensive spatial representation of continuous soil particle size distributions (PSD) for model input. While the current coverage of soil survey is nearly complete, the most detailed particle size classes have c...

  10. (13)C NMR spectroscopy characterization of particle-size fractionated soil organic carbon in subalpine forest and grassland ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiau, Yo-Jin; Chen, Jenn-Shing; Chung, Tay-Lung; Tian, Guanglong; Chiu, Chih-Yu

    2017-12-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) and carbon (C) functional groups in different particle-size fractions are important indicators of microbial activity and soil decomposition stages under wildfire disturbances. This research investigated a natural Tsuga forest and a nearby fire-induced grassland along a sampling transect in Central Taiwan with the aim to better understand the effect of forest wildfires on the change of SOC in different soil particle scales. Soil samples were separated into six particle sizes and SOC was characterized by solid-state (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy in each fraction. The SOC content was higher in forest than grassland soil in the particle-size fraction samples. The O-alkyl-C content (carbohydrate-derived structures) was higher in the grassland than the forest soils, but the alkyl-C content (recalcitrant substances) was higher in forest than grassland soils, for a higher humification degree (alkyl-C/O-alkyl-C ratio) in forest soils for all the soil particle-size fractions. High humification degree was found in forest soils. The similar aromaticity between forest and grassland soils might be attributed to the fire-induced aromatic-C content in the grassland that offsets the original difference between the forest and grassland. High alkyl-C content and humification degree and low C/N ratios in the fine particle-size fractions implied that undecomposed recalcitrant substances tended to accumulate in the fine fractions of soils.

  11. Characterization of Soil Suppressiveness to Root-Knot Nematodes in Organic Horticulture in Plastic Greenhouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giné, Ariadna; Carrasquilla, Marc; Martínez-Alonso, Maira; Gaju, Núria; Sorribas, Francisco J

    2016-01-01

    The fluctuation of Meloidogyne population density and the percentage of fungal egg parasitism were determined from July 2011 to July 2013 in two commercial organic vegetable production sites (M10.23 and M10.55) in plastic greenhouses, located in northeastern Spain, in order to know the level of soil suppressiveness. Fungal parasites were identified by molecular methods. In parallel, pot tests characterized the level of soil suppressiveness and the fungal species growing from the eggs. In addition, the egg parasitic ability of 10 fungal isolates per site was also assessed. The genetic profiles of fungal and bacterial populations from M10.23 and M10.55 soils were obtained by Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE), and compared with a non-suppressive soil (M10.33). In M10.23, Meloidogyne population in soil decreased progressively throughout the rotation zucchini, tomato, and radish or spinach. The percentage of egg parasitism was 54.7% in zucchini crop, the only one in which eggs were detected. Pochonia chlamydosporia was the only fungal species isolated. In M10.55, nematode densities peaked at the end of the spring-summer crops (tomato, zucchini, and cucumber), but disease severity was lower than expected (0.2-6.3). The percentage of fungal egg parasitism ranged from 3 to 84.5% in these crops. The results in pot tests confirmed the suppressiveness of the M10.23 and M10.55 soils against Meloidogyne. The number of eggs per plant and the reproduction factor of the population were reduced (P < 0.05) in both non-sterilized soils compared to the sterilized ones after one nematode generation. P. chlamydosporia was the only fungus isolated from Meloidogyne eggs. In in vitro tests, P. chlamydosporia isolates were able to parasitize Meloidogyne eggs from 50 to 97% irrespective of the site. DGGE fingerprints revealed a high diversity in the microbial populations analyzed. Furthermore, both bacterial and fungal genetic patterns differentiated suppressive from non

  12. Fate of carbon in Alaskan Landscapes Project: database for soils from eddy covariance tower sites, Delta Junction, AK

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Stagg; Harden, Jennifer; Manies, Kristen L.; Munster, Jennie; White, L. Douglas

    2002-01-01

    Soils in Alaska, and in high latitude terrestrial ecosystems in general, contain significant amounts of organic carbon, most of which is believed to have accumulated since the start of the Holocene about 10 ky before present. High latitude soils are estimated to contain 30-40% of terrestrial soil carbon (Melillo et al., 1995; McGuire and Hobbie, 1997), or ~ 300-400 Gt C (Gt = 1015 g), which equals about half of the current atmospheric burden of carbon. Boreal forests in particular are estimated to have more soil carbon than any other terrestrial biome (Post et al., 1982; Chapin and Matthews, 1993). The relations among net primary production, soil carbon storage, recurrent fire disturbance, nutrients, the hydrologic cycle, permafrost and geomorphology are poorly understood in boreal forest. Fire disturbance has been suggested to play a key role in the interactions among the complex biogeochemical processes influencing carbon storage in boreal forest soils (Harden et al., 2000; Zhuang et al., 2002). There has been an observed increase in fire disturbance in North American boreal black spruce (Picea mariana) forests in recent decades (Murphy et al., 1999; Kasichke et al., 2000), concurrent with increases in Alaskan boreal and arctic surface temperatures and warming of permafrost (Osterkamp and Romanofsky, 1999). Understanding the role of fire in long term carbon storage and how recent changes in fire frequency and severity may influence future high latitude soil carbon pools is necessary for those working to understand or mitigate the effects of global climate change.

  13. Alaska Geochemical Database, Version 2.0 (AGDB2)--including “best value” data compilations for rock, sediment, soil, mineral, and concentrate sample media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granitto, Matthew; Schmidt, Jeanine M.; Shew, Nora B.; Gamble, Bruce M.; Labay, Keith A.

    2013-01-01

    The Alaska Geochemical Database Version 2.0 (AGDB2) contains new geochemical data compilations in which each geologic material sample has one “best value” determination for each analyzed species, greatly improving speed and efficiency of use. Like the Alaska Geochemical Database (AGDB, http://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/637/) before it, the AGDB2 was created and designed to compile and integrate geochemical data from Alaska in order to facilitate geologic mapping, petrologic studies, mineral resource assessments, definition of geochemical baseline values and statistics, environmental impact assessments, and studies in medical geology. This relational database, created from the Alaska Geochemical Database (AGDB) that was released in 2011, serves as a data archive in support of present and future Alaskan geologic and geochemical projects, and contains data tables in several different formats describing historical and new quantitative and qualitative geochemical analyses. The analytical results were determined by 85 laboratory and field analytical methods on 264,095 rock, sediment, soil, mineral and heavy-mineral concentrate samples. Most samples were collected by U.S. Geological Survey personnel and analyzed in U.S. Geological Survey laboratories or, under contracts, in commercial analytical laboratories. These data represent analyses of samples collected as part of various U.S. Geological Survey programs and projects from 1962 through 2009. In addition, mineralogical data from 18,138 nonmagnetic heavy-mineral concentrate samples are included in this database. The AGDB2 includes historical geochemical data originally archived in the U.S. Geological Survey Rock Analysis Storage System (RASS) database, used from the mid-1960s through the late 1980s and the U.S. Geological Survey PLUTO database used from the mid-1970s through the mid-1990s. All of these data are currently maintained in the National Geochemical Database (NGDB). Retrievals from the NGDB were used to generate

  14. Polyphasic characterization of a PCP-to-phenol dechlorinating microbial community enriched from paddy soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Naoko [EcoTopia Science Institute, Nagoya University Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan)]. E-mail: ysd75@esi.nagoya-u.ac.jp; Yoshida, Yukina [Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Handa, Yuko [Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Kim, Hyo-Keun [Korea Ginseng and Tobacco Research Institute, Taejon 305-345 (Korea, Republic of); Ichihara, Shigeyuki [Faculty of Agriculture, Meijo University, Nagoya 468-8502 (Japan); Katayama, Arata [EcoTopia Science Institute, Nagoya University Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan)

    2007-08-01

    Dechlorination of PCP has been observed previously under anaerobic condition in paddy soil. However, there is poor information about the dechlorination pathway of PCP and the microbial community associated with the PCP dechlorination in paddy soil. In this study, an anaerobic microbial community dechlorinating PCP was enriched by serial transfers from a paddy soil using a medium containing PCP, lactate and the steam-sterilized paddy soil. The enriched microbial community dechlorinated PCP completely to phenol under the anaerobic condition by a dechlorinating pathway as follows; PCP {sup {yields}} 2,3,4,5-tetrachlorophenol {sup {yields}} 3,4,5-trichlorophenol {sup {yields}} 3,5-dichlorophenol {sup {yields}} 3-chlorophenol {sup {yields}} phenol. Intermediate products such as 3-chlorophenol were not accumulated, which were immediately dechlorinated to phenol. The enriched microbial community was characterized physiologically by testing the effects of electron donors and electron acceptors on the dechlorinating activity. The dechlorinating activity was promoted with lactate, pyruvate, and hydrogen as electron donors but not with acetate. Electron acceptors, nitrate and sulphate, inhibited the dechlorinating activity competitively but not iron (III). The microbial group associated with the anaerobic dechlorination was characterized by the effect of specific inhibitors on the PCP dechlorination. Effects of specific metabolic inhibitors and antibiotics indicated the involvement of Gram-positive spore-forming bacteria with the PCP dechlorinating activity, which was represented as bacteria of phylum Firmicutes. The structure of the microbial community was characterized by fluorescence in situ hybridization, quinone profiling, and PCR-DGGE (denaturing gel gradient electrophoresis). The combined results indicated the predominance of Clostridium species of phylum Firmicutes in the microbial community. Desulfitobacterium spp. known as anaerobic Gram-positive spore

  15. Characterization of ice Content in Permafrost Soils on the Seward Peninsula, Alaska Using Induced Polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, J.; Parsekian, A.; Slater, L.; Plug, L.; Grosse, G.; Walter, K.

    2008-12-01

    Zones of high ice content are imaged using direct current (DC) and induced polarization (IP) electrical measurements in Permafrost soils on the Northern Seward Peninsula. Variable ice content in near surface permafrost as a result of ice wedge development is a major control on thermokarst erosion rates, making the characterization of distribution important to process modeling. A set of IP and DC resistivity measurements were collected at five locations, four in varying generations of thermokarst lake basins and one where there is no evidence of thermokarst lake basin development. GPR data was also collected using 100 and 200 mHz unsheilded antenna at each line, as well as high precision DGPS measurements, vegetation mapping, active layer thickness measurements, and soil characterization using test pits and nearby outcrops. DC resistivity and GPR results correspond well to the active layer probe and test pits dug to the bottom of the active layer. IP imaging shows the location of elevated ice content as strongly nonpolarizable anomolies which correlate to ice wedge ridges measured with GPS and observed from vegetation patterning. Non-polarizable targets found deeper in the permefrost at the site not yet effected by thermokarst erosion indicates that Pleistocene aged ice wedges are below the Holocene ice wedges expressed at the surface as distinct patterning, confirming that ice content distribution may not be easily estimated from surface patterning alone. These observations are confirmed by nearby exposures of ice wedges. The results show that the IP measurements are useful for characterizing ice content distribution in permafrost soils may be used to link ground based observations with larger scale estimates that are needed for process and carbon balance modeling of permafrost soils.

  16. Development and characterization of microsatellite markers for the Pacific abalone ( Haliotis discus) via EST database mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Aibin; Bao, Zhenmin; Wang, Mingling; Chang, Dan; Yuan, Jian; Wang, Xiaolong; Hu, Xiaoli; Liang, Chengzhu; Hu, Jingjie

    2008-05-01

    The EST database of the Pacific abalone ( Haliotis discus) was mined for developing microsatellite markers. A total of 1476 EST sequences were registered in GenBank when data mining was performed. Fifty sequences (approximately 3.4%) were found to contain one or more microsatellites. Based on the length and GC content of the flanking regions, cluster analysis and BLASTN, 13 microsatellite-containing ESTs were selected for PCR primer design. The results showed that 10 out of 13 primer pairs could amplify scorable PCR products and showed polymorphism. The number of alleles ranged from 2 to 13 and the values of H o and H e varied from 0.1222 to 0.8611 and 0.2449 to 0.9311, respectively. No significant linkage disequilibrium (LD) between any pairs of these loci was found, and 6 of 10 loci conformed to the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE). These EST-SSRs are therefore potential tools for studies of intraspecies variation and hybrid identification.

  17. Building a database for statistical characterization of ELMs on DIII-D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritch, B. J.; Marinoni, A.; Bortolon, A.

    2017-10-01

    Edge localized modes (ELMs) are bursty instabilities which occur in the edge region of H-mode plasmas and have the potential to damage in-vessel components of future fusion machines by exposing the divertor region to large energy and particle fluxes during each ELM event. While most ELM studies focus on average quantities (e.g. energy loss per ELM), this work investigates the statistical distributions of ELM characteristics, as a function of plasma parameters. A semi-automatic algorithm is being used to create a database documenting trigger times of the tens of thousands of ELMs for DIII-D discharges in scenarios relevant to ITER, thus allowing statistically significant analysis. Probability distributions of inter-ELM periods and energy losses will be determined and related to relevant plasma parameters such as density, stored energy, and current in order to constrain models and improve estimates of the expected inter-ELM periods and sizes, both of which must be controlled in future reactors. Work supported in part by US DoE under the Science Undergraduate Laboratory Internships (SULI) program, DE-FC02-04ER54698 and DE-FG02- 94ER54235.

  18. Mining, characterization and validation of EST derived microsatellites from the transcriptome database of Allium sativum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chand, Subodh Kumar; Nanda, Satyabrata; Rout, Ellojita; Joshi, Raj Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs) with comprehensive transcript information are valuable resources for development of molecular markers as they are derived from conserved genic regions. The present study highlights the mining of EST database to deduce the class I hyper variable SSRs in A. sativum. From 21694 garlic EST sequences, 642 non-redundant SSRs were identified with an average frequency of 1 per 14.9 kb of garlic transcriptome. The most abundant SSR motifs were the mononucleotides (32.86%) followed by trinucleotides (28.50%) and dinucleotides (13.39%). Among the individual SSRs, (A/T)n accounted for the highest number (137; 21.33%) followed by (G/C)n (74; 11.52%) and (AAG)n (63;9.81%). Primers designed from a robust set of 7 AsESTSSRs resulted in the amplification of 63 polymorphic alleles in 14 accessions of garlic. The resolving power of the markers varied from 4.286 (AsSSR7) to 18.143 (AsSSR13) while the average marker index (MI) was 5.087. These EST-SSRs markers for garlic could be useful for the improvement of garlic linkage map and could be used for evaluating genetic variation and comparative genomics studies in Allium species.

  19. Characterizing the Influence of Plant Growth on Carbon Association with Fresh Soil Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neurath, R.; Jacoby, I. X.; Whitman, T.; Nico, P. S.; Pett-Ridge, J.; Weber, P. K.; Lipton, A.; Firestone, M. K.

    2016-12-01

    The zone of root influence (rhizosphere) is a dynamic soil environment with active carbon release, highly active and phylogentically distinct microbial communities, and unique edaphic properties (i.e. redox, pH). We hypothesize that mineral-SOM associations in the rhizosphere differ from those in bulk soil, possibly altering the persistance and fluxes of this carbon. We investigated how SOM first associates with soil minerals during growth of Avena barbata, a Mediterranean annual grass. We grew A. barbata with 99 atom% 13CO2 and tracked 13C-labeled photosynthate into soil where three minerals types were incubated: quartz, kaolinite, and ferrihydrite. Our work suggests these different mineral types recruit different amounts of mineral-associated carbon and microbial community composition (16S and ITS with Illumina MiSeq). Here, we have focused on the micron scale to characterize the composition and source of mineral-associated SOM. Using scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM), we defined major classes of C compounds, and overlaid those data with characterization of Fe mineral speciation. In the same regions of interest, we used correlated nano-scale secondary ion mass-spectrometry (NanoSIMS) analyses to assess the isotopic enrichment of these C compounds. Based on the degree of 13C-labeling in each feature, we can determine whether the initial source of the OM was plant-derived, bulk soil, or mixed. For a more bulk-scale perspective, we also conducted sequential extractions of SOM associated with Fe and Al phases to look at the bonding chemistry of these compounds. We found that minerals in the rhizosphere had unique SOM compositions, notably, rhizosphere-incubated minerals were more enriched in aromatic compounds. The source of these aromatics is likely from the bulk soil and not from the plants, suggesting re-mobilization of SOM during plant growth. Our work also shows the importance of considering the microbial communities that associate with soil minerals

  20. The use of molecular techniques to characterize the microbial communities in contaminated soil and water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Seidu; Beer, Michael; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravi

    2008-02-01

    Traditionally, the identification and characterization of microbial communities in contaminated soil and water has previously been limited to those microorganisms that are culturable. The application of molecular techniques to study microbial populations at contaminated sites without the need for culturing has led to the discovery of unique and previously unrecognized microorganisms as well as complex microbial diversity in contaminated soil and water which shows an exciting opportunity for bioremediation strategies. Nucleic acid extraction from contaminated sites and their subsequent amplification by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has proved extremely useful in assessing the changes in microbial community structure by several microbial community profiling techniques. This review examines the current application of molecular techniques for the characterization of microbial communities in contaminated soil and water. Techniques that identify and quantify microbial population and catabolic genes involved in biodegradation are examined. In addition, methods that directly link microbial phylogeny to its ecological function at contaminated sites as well as high throughput methods for complex microbial community studies are discussed.

  1. Geochemical indicators and characterization of soil water repellence in three dominant ecosystems of Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Rojas, Miriam; Jiménez-Morillo, Nicasio T.; Jordan, Antonio; Zavala, Lorena M.; Stevens, Jason; González-Pérez, Jose Antonio

    2016-04-01

    H and electrical conductivity (EC) were determined in deionised water (1:2.5 and 1:5 w/v, respectively). The structural characterization of soil organic matter (SOM) was analysed by direct analytical pyrolysis (Py-GC/MS) performed at 500 °C (González-Vila et al., 2009). Only chromatogram peaks with an area higher than 0.2 % were identified and used to obtain the relative abundance of main chemical families in each vegetation cover. Results Our results show that soil water repellence is strongly correlated to microbial activity, pH and electrical conductivity. After Py-GC/MS analysis, soil organic matter in the Banksia woodland and the coastal dune showed a high heterogeneity. In the Banksia woodland two different patterns were observed. Samples under Banksia spp. showed a SOM with clear signs of altereation (humified) that included a high contribution of stable families like unspecific aromatic compounds and alkane/alkene pairs whereas under Eucalyptus spp. showed a less altered SOM with a high relative contribution from lignocellulose (lignin and carbohydrates), together with a low relative content of recalcitrant families. However in the soil samples from coastal dunes a very similar SOM chemical composition was found in all cases. The dominant family was unspecific aromatic compounds (>30%), followed by alkane/alkene pairs and a high relative contribution from N bearing peptide compounds. This, together with a low relative amount of carbohydrate and lignin derived (methoxyphenols) compounds points to a SOM that undergoes great alteration processes, possible because of high turn-over rates. Very low contents of SOM were found in the Pilbara system, under Py-GC/MS detection levels, and therefore it was not possible to establish its chemical composition. A principal components analysis (PCA) axes based on the relative abundances of chemical families of compounds released after SOM pyrolysis (70.9 % of total variation explained in the two first axes) indicate that

  2. Hydraulic characterization of a sealed loamy soil in a Mediterranean vineyard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alagna, Vincenzo; Di Prima, Simone; Bagarello, Vincenzo; Guaitoli, Fabio; Iovino, Massimo; Keesstra, Saskia; Cerdà, Artemi

    2017-04-01

    Water infiltration measurements constitute a common way for an indirect characterization of sealed/crusted soils (Alagna et al., 2013). The Beerkan Estimation of Soil Transfer (BEST) parameters procedure by Lassabatere et al. (2006) is very attractive for practical use since it allows an estimation of both the soil water retention and hydraulic conductivity functions. The BEST method considers certain analytical formulae for the hydraulic characteristic curves and estimates their shape parameters, which are texture dependent, from particle-size analysis by physical-empirical pedotransfer functions. Structure dependent scale parameters are estimated by a beerkan experiment, i.e. a three-dimensional (3D) field infiltration experiment at ideally zero pressure head. BEST substantially facilitates the hydraulic characterization of unsaturated soils, and it is gaining popularity in soil science (Bagarello et al., 2014a; Di Prima, 2015; Di Prima et al., 2016b). Bagarello et al. (2014b) proposed a beerkan derived procedure to explain surface runoff and disturbance phenomena at the soil surface occurring during intense rainfall events. Di Prima et al. (2016a) applied this methodology in a vineyard with a sandy-loam texture. These authors compared this simple methodology with rainfall simulation experiments establishing a physical link between the two methodologies through the kinetic energy of the rainfall and the gravitational potential energy of the water used for the beerkan runs. They also indirectly demonstrated the occurrence of a certain degree of compaction and mechanical breakdown using a minidisk infiltrometer (Decagon, 2014). With this device, they reported a reduction of the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity by 2.3 times, due to the seal formation. The ability of the BEST method to distinguish between crusted and non-crusted soils was demonstrated by Souza et al. (2014). However, the potential of the beerkan runs to detect the effect of the seal on flow and

  3. A New Database Facilitates Characterization of Flavonoid Intake, Sources, and Positive Associations with Diet Quality among US Adults12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson Enns, Cecilia; Goldman, Joseph D; Martin, Carrie L; Steinfeldt, Lois C; Murayi, Theophile; Moshfegh, Alanna J

    2015-01-01

    Background: Epidemiologic studies demonstrate inverse associations between flavonoid intake and chronic disease risk. However, lack of comprehensive databases of the flavonoid content of foods has hindered efforts to fully characterize population intakes and determine associations with diet quality. Objectives: Using a newly released database of flavonoid values, this study sought to describe intake and sources of total flavonoids and 6 flavonoid classes and identify associations between flavonoid intake and the Healthy Eating Index (HEI) 2010. Methods: One day of 24-h dietary recall data from adults aged ≥20 y (n = 5420) collected in What We Eat in America (WWEIA), NHANES 2007–2008, were analyzed. Flavonoid intakes were calculated using the USDA Flavonoid Values for Survey Foods and Beverages 2007–2008. Regression analyses were conducted to provide adjusted estimates of flavonoid intake, and linear trends in total and component HEI scores by flavonoid intake were assessed using orthogonal polynomial contrasts. All analyses were weighted to be nationally representative. Results: Mean intake of flavonoids was 251 mg/d, with flavan-3-ols accounting for 81% of intake. Non-Hispanic whites had significantly higher (P flavonoids (275 mg/d) than non-Hispanic blacks (176 mg/d) and Hispanics (139 mg/d). Tea was the primary source (80%) of flavonoid intake. Regardless of whether the flavonoid contribution of tea was included, total HEI score and component scores for total fruit, whole fruit, total vegetables, greens and beans, seafood and plant proteins, refined grains, and empty calories increased (P flavonoid intake quartiles. Conclusions: A new database that permits comprehensive estimation of flavonoid intakes in WWEIA, NHANES 2007–2008; identification of their major food/beverage sources; and determination of associations with dietary quality will lead to advances in research on relations between flavonoid intake and health. Findings suggest that diet quality

  4. A New Database Facilitates Characterization of Flavonoid Intake, Sources, and Positive Associations with Diet Quality among US Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian, Rhonda S; Wilkinson Enns, Cecilia; Goldman, Joseph D; Martin, Carrie L; Steinfeldt, Lois C; Murayi, Theophile; Moshfegh, Alanna J

    2015-06-01

    Epidemiologic studies demonstrate inverse associations between flavonoid intake and chronic disease risk. However, lack of comprehensive databases of the flavonoid content of foods has hindered efforts to fully characterize population intakes and determine associations with diet quality. Using a newly released database of flavonoid values, this study sought to describe intake and sources of total flavonoids and 6 flavonoid classes and identify associations between flavonoid intake and the Healthy Eating Index (HEI) 2010. One day of 24-h dietary recall data from adults aged ≥ 20 y (n = 5420) collected in What We Eat in America (WWEIA), NHANES 2007-2008, were analyzed. Flavonoid intakes were calculated using the USDA Flavonoid Values for Survey Foods and Beverages 2007-2008. Regression analyses were conducted to provide adjusted estimates of flavonoid intake, and linear trends in total and component HEI scores by flavonoid intake were assessed using orthogonal polynomial contrasts. All analyses were weighted to be nationally representative. Mean intake of flavonoids was 251 mg/d, with flavan-3-ols accounting for 81% of intake. Non-Hispanic whites had significantly higher (P flavonoids (275 mg/d) than non-Hispanic blacks (176 mg/d) and Hispanics (139 mg/d). Tea was the primary source (80%) of flavonoid intake. Regardless of whether the flavonoid contribution of tea was included, total HEI score and component scores for total fruit, whole fruit, total vegetables, greens and beans, seafood and plant proteins, refined grains, and empty calories increased (P flavonoid intake quartiles. A new database that permits comprehensive estimation of flavonoid intakes in WWEIA, NHANES 2007-2008; identification of their major food/beverage sources; and determination of associations with dietary quality will lead to advances in research on relations between flavonoid intake and health. Findings suggest that diet quality, as measured by HEI, is positively associated with flavonoid

  5. Uncertainty assessment of a polygon database of soil organic carbon for greenhouse gas reporting in Canada’s Arctic and sub-arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.F. Hossain

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Canada’s Arctic and sub-arctic consist 46% of Canada’s landmass and contain 45% of the total soil organic carbon (SOC. Pronounced climate warming and increasing human disturbances could induce the release of this SOC to the atmosphere as greenhouse gases. Canada is committed to estimating and reporting the greenhouse gases emissions and removals induced by land use change in the Arctic and sub-arctic. To assess the uncertainty of the estimate, we compiled a site-measured SOC database for Canada’s north, and used it to compare with a polygon database, that will be used for estimating SOC for the UNFCCC reporting. In 10 polygons where 3 or more measured sites were well located in each polygon, the site-averaged SOC content agreed with the polygon data within ±33% for the top 30 cm and within ±50% for the top 1 m soil. If we directly compared the SOC of the 382 measured sites with the polygon mean SOC, there was poor agreement: The relative error was less than 50% at 40% of the sites, and less than 100% at 68% of the sites. The relative errors were more than 400% at 10% of the sites. These comparisons indicate that the polygon database is too coarse to represent the SOC conditions for individual sites. The difference is close to the uncertainty range for reporting. The spatial database could be improved by relating site and polygon SOC data with more easily observable surface features that can be identified and derived from remote sensing imagery.

  6. 3D fluorescence-based characterization of dissolved organic matter components and their impact on soil-structure stability indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Guy; Lordian, Anna; Borisover, Mikhail

    2010-05-01

    Stable soil aggregates and structure are usually associated with increased levels of soil organic matter. A significant fraction of the latter is comprised of humic substances (HS). Opposing findings on the contribution of HS to both stabilization and increased dispersivity of soil aggregates have been reported; these findings could be related to the heterogeneity in the chemical composition of the HS. The objectives of this research were: (i) to characterize the compositional heterogeneity of HS and dissolved organic matter (DOM) in soil solutions, (ii) to evaluate the relations between general soil properties (e.g., organic matter, clay and calcium carbonate content, cation exchange capacity) and concentration and composition of DOM and HS in soil solution, and (iii) to examine the relationships between properties associated with soil structure such as aggregate stability and hydraulic conductivity and the composition of DOM and HS. The composition of HS and DOM in aqueous extracts, obtained from samples collected from cultivated fields of four Israeli soils (loamy sand, loam, sandy clay and clay), was characterized and quantified using 3D fluorescence (and UV-absorption) spectroscopy together with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) supported by dissolved organic carbon (DOC) measurements. Variability in the HS/DOM composition was obtained by including soils with a different history of irrigation, i.e. irrigated by fresh water and by treated wastewater. PARAFAC analysis provided scores proportional to concentrations of three major fluorescent DOM components, two were considered to represent HS and the third to represent proteinous matter (containing tryptophan). Soil structure had been characterized by saturated hydraulic conductivity and an index for aggregate stability. PARAFAC analysis demonstrated that concentrations of fluorescent DOM components in aqueous extracts were influenced by the type of water used for irrigation. This influence was distinctly

  7. Characterizing adsorptive properties and DOC concentrations in soils of Northern European Russian tundra and taiga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosterwoud, Marieke; Temminghoff, Erwin; van der Zee, Sjoerd

    2010-05-01

    Subarctic river basins have an enormous potential to mobilize and transport terrestrial OC to the Arctic Ocean, because 23-48% of the worlds soils organic carbon (SOC) is stored in the high latitude region. Currently the Arctic drainage basin (~24 x 106 km2) processes about 11% of the global dissolved organic carbon (DOC), which is exported to the ocean. About 10-25% of annual C input to the organic surface layer with litter is leached from the organic surface layers. As climate changes, the amount and chemical composition of DOC exported from these basins are expected to change. Adsorption of DOC on mineral phases is the key geochemical process for the release and removal of DOC from this potentially soluble carbon pool. Most DOC leached from organic horizons is adsorbed and retained in the subsoils. The adsorption depends much on the content of sesquioxides and amount of carbon previously accumulated in soils. Besides adsorption, polyvalent metal ions in solution, such as Al and Ca, can cause precipitation of DOC. Along with the decrease of DOC concentrations on its passage through mineral soil, there are major biochemical alterations of DOC composition. Hydrophobic compounds (humic and fulvic acids) of high molecular weight that are rich in acidic functional groups and aromatic compounds adsorb most strongly. Hydrophilic compounds can contribute to DOC adsorption but are also easily desorbed because of the weaker bonding strength. The aim of this study was to characterize the DOC concentrations and their chemical composition as well as the DOC adsorptive properties of soils found in a tundra and taiga catchment of Northern Russia. We sampled soil and soil solution from two catchments in the Komi Republic of European Northern Russia: a tundra (67N/62E) and a taiga (62N/50E). The soil samples were analysed for total organic carbon (Ct) and the content of sequioxides. By extracting soil samples with water we got an impression of the potentially extractable organic

  8. Mineral characterization of soil type ranker formed on serpentines occurring in southern Belgrade environs Bubanj Potok

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cekić Božidar Đ.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses the issue of health risk associated with the presence of chrysotile in the soil type ranker formed on massive serpentines occurring in the area of Bubanj Potok, a settlement located in the southern Belgrade environs, Serbia. Characterization of the ranker soil was conducted by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, micro-Raman spectroscopy and transmission 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy. Scanning electron microscopy figures showed regular shaped smectite (montmorillonite particles, aggregates of chlorite, and elongated sheets of serpentines minerals antigorite. X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the presence of detrital mineral quartz polymorph as well as minor amounts of other mineral species. Micro-Raman spectroscopy identified the presence of dominant minerals, such as montmorillonite, kaolinite, muscovite, gypsum, calcite, albite, amphiboles (hornblende/kaersutite and orthoclase. Important polymorph silica modifications of quartz, olivine (forsterite, pyroxene (enstatite/ferrosilite, diopside/hedenbergite, and serpentine (antigorite/lizardite/chrysotile were identified.

  9. Characterization of ‘Aged’ Metolachlor Sorption in Soil Using an Accelerated Solvent Extraction (ASE) Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorption interactions of pesticides with soil determine pesticide availability for transport and degradation in soil. Thus, knowing and understanding pesticide sorption, particularly in aged soils, is important in determining pesticide fate in soils. Sorption of pesticides is traditionally character...

  10. Isolation, Characterization and Application of Bacterial Population From Agricultural Soil at Sohag Province, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahig, A. E.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Forty soil samples of agriculture soil were collected from two different sites in Sohag province, Egypt, during hot and cold seasons. Twenty samples were from soil irrigated with canal water (site A and twenty samples were from soil irrigated with wastewater (site B. This study aimed to compare the incidence of plasmids in bacteria isolated from soil and to investigate the occurrence of metal and antibiotic resistance bacteria, and consequently to select the potential application of these bacteria in bioremediation. The total bacterial count (CFU/gm in site (B was higher than that in site (A. Moreover, the CFU values in summer were higher than those values in winter at both sites. A total of 771 bacterial isolates were characterized as Bacillus, Micrococcus, Staphylococcus, Pseudomonas, Eschershia, Shigella, Xanthomonas, Acetobacter, Citrobacter, Enterobacter, Moraxella and Methylococcus. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs of Pb+2, Cu+2, Zn+2, Hg+2, Co+2, Cd+2, Cr+3, Te+2, As+2 and Ni+2 for plasmid-possessed bacteria were determined and the highest MICs were 1200 µg/mL for lead, 800 µg/mL for both Cobalt and Arsenate, 1200 µg/mL for Nickel, 1000 µg/ml for Copper and less than 600 µg/mL for other metals. Bacterial isolates from both sites A and B showed multiple heavy metal resistance. A total of 337 bacterial isolates contained plasmids and the incidence of plasmids was approximately 25-50% higher in bacteria isolated from site (B than that from site (A. These isolates were resistance to different antibiotics. Approximately, 61% of the bacterial isolates were able to assimilate insecticide, carbaryl, as a sole source of carbon and energy. However, the Citrobacter AA101 showed the best growth on carbaryl.

  11. Subsurface soil characterization using geoelectrical and geotechnical investigations at a bridge site in Uttarakhand Himalayan region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Anita; Israil, M.; Anbalagan, R.; Gupta, Pravin K.

    2017-09-01

    Geoelectrical characterization of subsurface soil has been done at a bridge foundation site on the banks of Bhagirathi River at Tehri reservoir site, Uttarakhand, India. For this purpose, the Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) and the Standard Penetration Test (SPT) data, recorded at both banks of Bhagirathi River are analyzed. A total of six ERT profiles, recorded on both the West and East banks, were interpreted to determine an electrical resistivity image showing the resistivity variations with depth. The borehole data and geological inputs were used for lithological correlation and calibration of the resistivity values to the subsurface formation. Subsequently the electrical parameter (resistivity) for different subsurface lithological units has been inferred. Further, at selected points, the electrical resistivity sounding data, derived from the ERT, have been correlated with the Standard Penetration Test (SPT) data. This correlation results from the fact that in the subsurface soil both the electrical resistivity variations and the soil strength measured by SPT are controlled by the soil properties: grain size distribution, compactness, porosity and water saturation. It has been observed that the N-values smaller than 16 are unreliable and inconsistent. In the River Borne Material (RBM) on the West Bank it is due to the presence of coarse gravels while on the East Bank it is due to the boulders. The N-values greater than 16 mainly correspond to the weathered rock formation. For these values, there exists a linear relationship between N-values and resistivity with a correlation coefficient greater than 0.80. The coefficients of linear relationship at the two banks vary due to varying amount of clay content. Such a relationship is important for any site in tough Himalayan terrain because it can be used as an alternative to the SPT for determining soil strength parameters from ERT.

  12. Characterization and screening of antimicrobial activity of Micromonospora strains from Thai soils

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    Songsumanus, A.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Rare actinomycete strains were isolated from mountain soils and island soil collected in Thailand. They were screened for antimicrobial activity and characterized for their secondary metabolites.Methodology and results: The strains were isolated by the standard dilution technique using starch casein nitrate agar. They were identified and characterized based on the phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and genotypic characteristics. The chemotaxonomic characteristics of ten isolates coincided with those of the genus Micromonospora. On the basis of phylogenetic analysis using 16S rRNA gene sequences and DNA-DNA relatedness, they were divided into 6 Groups, ASC19-2-1 (Group A was identified as Micromonospora marina; AL8-8 and AL10-3 (Group B were M. aurantiaca; AL7-5 (Group C was M. chalcea; AL3-16 and AL9-20 (Group D were identified as M. chokoriensis; AL9-13 and AL9-22 (Group E were M. tulbaghiae; and AL1-15-2 and AL1-16B (Group F were M. chersina. On the primary screening, only the isolate AL7-5 (Group C could inhibit Kocuria rhizophila ATCC 9341. This isolate produced rakicidin when cultivated on A3M, A11M and A16 media and produced compound BU4664L only on A16 medium.Conclusion, significance and impact of study: The isolation and characterization of the rare actinomycetes from Thai soils will be useful for the taxonomic study and for the discovery of bioactive metabolites that are active against microorganisms.

  13. Regolith Evolved Gas Analyzer (REGA): An Instrument to Characterize the Martian Soil Mineralogy and Atmosphere Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, John H.; McKay, David S.; Ming, Douglas; Allen, Carlton C.; Hedgecock, Jud; Nienaber, Terry

    2000-01-01

    This abstract describes an instrument and experiment to be proposed for a future Mars surface mission to conduct basic research on environmental characterization. The Regolith Evolved Gas Analyzer (REGA) experiment is designed to provide information on Mars surface material properties in preparation for human missions of exploration. The goals of the investigation are: 1) Define and determine surface mineralogy of soil and dust and their effects on humans and machines; and 2) Conduct in-situ investigations aimed at identifying possible evidence of past or present life on Mars.

  14. Enrichment and Characterization of an Autotrophic Ammonia-Oxidizing Archaeon of Mesophilic Crenarchaeal Group I.1a from an Agricultural Soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jung, M.Y.; Park, S.J.; Min, D.; Kim, J.S.; Rijpstra, W.I.C.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Kim, G.J.; Madsen, E.L.; Rhee, S.K.

    2011-01-01

    Soil nitrification is an important process for agricultural productivity and environmental pollution. Though one cultivated representative of ammonia-oxidizing Archaea from soil has been described, additional representatives warrant characterization. We describe an ammonia-oxidizing archaeon (strain

  15. Physics of the Soil Medium OrganizationPart 2: Pedostructure Characterization through Measurement and Modeling of the Soil Moisture Characteristic Curves

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    AMJAD TAYSEER ASSI

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Accurate measurement of the two soil moisture characteristic curves, namely, water retention curve (WRC and soil shrinkage curve (SSC is fundamental for the physical modeling of hydrostructural processes in vadose zone. This paper is the application part following the theory presented in part I about physics of soil medium organization. Two native Aridisols in the state of Qatar named locally Rodah räôd´ə soil and Sabkha săb′kə soil were studied. The paper concluded two main results: the first one is about the importance of having continuous and simultaneous measurement of soil water content, water potential and volume change. Such measurement is imperative for accurate and consistent characterization of each of the two moisture characteristic curves, and consequently the hydrostructural properties of the soil medium. The second is about the simplicity, reliability, strength and uniqueness of identifying the characteristic parameters of the two curves. The results also confirmed the validity of the thermodynamic-based equations of the two characteristic curves presented in part I.

  16. Short-term cover crop decomposition in organic and conventional soils : Characterization of soil C, N, microbial and plant pathogen dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grünwald, N.J.; Hu, S.; Bruggen, van A.H.C.

    2000-01-01

    Stages of oat–vetch cover crop decomposition were characterized over time in terms of carbon and nitrogen cycling, microbial activity and damping-off pathogen dynamics in organically and conventionally managed soils in a field and a controlled incubation experiment. A measurement of relative growth

  17. Links between plant and rhizoplane bacterial communities in grassland soils, characterized using molecular techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunan, Naoise; Daniell, Timothy J; Singh, Brajesh K; Papert, Artemis; McNicol, James W; Prosser, James I

    2005-11-01

    Molecular analysis of grassland rhizosphere soil has demonstrated complex and diverse bacterial communities, with resultant difficulties in detecting links between plant and bacterial communities. These studies have, however, analyzed "bulk" rhizosphere soil, rather than rhizoplane communities, which interact most closely with plants through utilization of root exudates. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that plant species was a major driver for bacterial rhizoplane community composition on individual plant roots. DNA extracted from individual roots was used to determine plant identity, by analysis of the plastid tRNA leucine (trnL) UAA gene intron, and plant-related bacterial communities. Bacterial communities were characterized by analysis of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes using two fingerprinting methods: terminal restriction fragment length polymorphisms (T-RFLP) and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Links between plant and bacterial rhizoplane communities could not be detected by visual examination of T-RFLP patterns or DGGE banding profiles. Statistical analysis of fingerprint patterns did not reveal a relationship between bacterial community composition and plant species but did demonstrate an influence of plant community composition. The data also indicated that topography and other, uncharacterized, environmental factors are important in driving bacterial community composition in grassland soils. T-RFLP had greater potential resolving power than DGGE, but findings from the two methods were not significantly different.

  18. Characterization of Electricity Generated by Soil in Microbial Fuel Cells and the Isolation of Soil Source Exoelectrogenic Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Bin Jiang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Soil has been used to generate electrical power in microbial fuel cells (MFCs and exhibited several potential applications. This study aimed to reveal the effect of soil properties on the generated electricity and the diversity of soil source exoelectrogenic bacteria. Seven soil samples were collected across China and packed into air-cathode MFCs to generate electricity over a 270 d period. The Fe(III-reducing bacteria in soil were enriched and sequenced by Illumina pyrosequencing. Culturable strains of Fe(III-reducing bacteria were isolated and identified phylogenetically. Their exoelectrogenic ability was evaluated by polarization measurement. The results showed that soils with higher organic carbon content but lower soil pH generated higher peak voltage and charge. The sequencing of Fe(III-reducing bacteria showed that Clostridia were dominant in all soil samples. At the family level, Clostridiales Family XI. incertae sedis were dominant in soils with lower organic carbon content but higher pH (>8, while Clostridiaceae, Lachnospiraceae and Planococcaceae were dominant in soils with higher organic carbon content but lower pH. The isolated culturable strains were allied phylogenetically to fifteen different species, of which eleven were Clostridium. The others were Robinsoniella peoriensis, Hydrogenoanaerobacterium saccharovorans, Eubacterium contortum and Oscillibacter ruminantium. The maximum power density generated by the isolates in the MFCs ranged from 16.4 to 28.6 mW m-2. We concluded that soil organic carbon content had the most important effect on power generation and that the Clostridiaceae were the dominant exoelectrogenic bacterial group in soil. This study might lead to the discovery of more soil source exoelectrogenic bacteria species.

  19. Mineralogical and particulate morphological characterization of geophagic clayey soils from Botswana

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    Georges-Ivo Ekosse

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on determining the minerals composition and particle morphology of geophagic clayey soils from Botswana in order to infer on how they could influence human health. Six representative geophagic clayey soils from Botswana were mineralogically characterized using X-ray powder diffractometry (XRPD, optical microscopy, and environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM. Results of identified mineral phases revealed quartz (SiO2 as the most dominant in all samples constituting close to 70 wt %; followed by goethite (FeO.OH having a mean concentration of 9 wt%, and kaolinite (Al2Si2O5(OH4 with a mean concentration of 8 wt%. Other minerals present were smectite ((Na,Ca(Al,Mg6(Si4O103(OH6-n(H2O, mica (AB2-3(Al,SiSi3O10(F,OH2, feldspar (Na/K(AlSi3O8 and hematite (Fe2O3. The quartz particles were generally coarse; and angular to very angular in morphology. Due to ions present in goethite, kaolinite, and smectite, these minerals impact positively on properties of geophagic clayey soils and could possibly influence human health when consumed. The quartz particles could negatively affect dental enamel as a result of mastication; and cause abrasion of the walls of the gastro-intestinal tract which may lead to rupturing. Although the studied clayey soils could have potential to provide medicinal benefits to the consumer, there is need for beneficiation exercise to be conducted to reduce the coarse angular particles contained in them. It is therefore necessary for constructive efforts to be directed at beneficiating geophagic materials which will render them safe for human consumption.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/bcse.v26i3.6

  20. Characterization of Environmental Nano- and Macrocolloid Particles Extracted from Selected Soils and Biosolids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Ghezzi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental nanoparticles found in soil systems and biosolids may pose a considerable risk to groundwater quality as contaminant carriers. Little effort has been invested in the characterization of natural nanocolloids compared to corresponding macrocolloids. This study involved physicochemical, mineralogical, and morphological characterizations of nanocolloids and macrocolloids fractionated from three Kentucky soils and one biosolid. Particle size and morphology were investigated using scanning/transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. Mineralogical composition was determined by X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetric and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy analyses. Zeta potentials and cation exchange capacities assessed surface charge and chemical reactivity. The estimated average hydrodynamic diameter of nanoparticles was nearly twice the ideal 100 nm range, apparently due to irregular particle shapes and partial aggregation. Nanoparticles were also found attached to surfaces of macrocolloids, forming macro-nano aggregates and obscuring some of their physical and chemical characteristics. However, nanocolloids exhibited greater surface reactivity, likely due to their smaller size, poor crystallinity, and morphological shape distortions. In spite of some behavior modification due to nanoaggregation phenomena, nanocolloids appeared to be much more potent vectors of contaminant transport in subsurface environments than their macrosize fractions. Nevertheless, their heterogeneous nature brings to light important considerations in addressing pollution prevention and remediation challenges.

  1. Fertirrigation with sugarcane vinasse: Foreseeing potential impacts on soil and water resources through vinasse characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuess, Lucas T; Rodrigues, Isabella J; Garcia, Marcelo L

    2017-09-19

    This paper reports the characterization of the polluting potential of sugarcane vinasse, the main wastewater from ethanol production. Compositional data from vinasse samples collected from sugarcane biorefineries were used to predict negative effects on the soil, water resources and crops potentially associated with fertirrigation, the primary final destination of vinasse in Brazil. High risks of soil salinization were associated with the land disposal of vinasse, as evidenced by the high levels of total dissolved solids (TDS; >4,000 mg L -1 ) and electrical conductivity (>6.7 dS m -1 ). The high TDS levels coupled with the high biodegradable organic content of vinasse (>14 g L -1 ) also favor organic overloading events, leading to local anaerobiosis conditions. Conversely, soil sodification should not be observed in areas fertirrigated with sugarcane vinasse, given the low Na concentrations (145.1 mg L -1 ) and Ca (>458.4 mg L -1 ) levels. Priority pollutants (Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb and Zn) and phytotoxic elements (Al and Fe) were also found in the analyzed samples; however, relevant environmental impacts should not be associated with these particular constituents. Overall, the relatively simple methodology used herein could efficiently replace massive field data collection to provide a basic understanding of the fate of vinasse in the environment in order to highlight the priority points to be considered in the management of this effluent. In summary, the prompt implementation of treatment plants in distilleries, in addition to a continuous and broad compositional characterization of vinasse, is essential to guarantee its adequate reuse.

  2. Hyper-temporal remote sensing for digital soil mapping: Characterizing soil-vegetation response to climatic variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indices derived from remotely-sensed imagery are commonly used to predict soil properties with digital soil mapping (DSM) techniques. The use of images from single dates or a small number of dates is most common for DSM; however, selection of the appropriate images is complicated by temporal variabi...

  3. NEAR REAL TIME CHARACTERIZATION OF BNL STOCKPILED SOILS, ANOTHER ASTD SUCCESS STORY.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BOWERMAN,B.S.; ADAMS,J.W.; KALB,P.D.; LOCKWOOD,A.

    2003-02-23

    As of October 2001, approximately 7,000 yd{sup 3} of stockpiled soil, contaminated to varying degrees with radioactive materials and heavy metals, remained at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) after the remediation of the BNL Chemical/Animal/Glass Pits disposal area. During the 1997 removal action, the more hazardous/radioactive materials were segregated, along with, chemical liquids and solids, animal carcasses, intact gas cylinders, and a large quantity of metal and glass debris. Nearly all of these materials have been disposed of. In order to ensure that all debris was removed and to characterize the large quantity of heterogeneous soil, BNL initiated an extended sorting, segregation, and characterization project, co-funded by the BNL Environmental Management Directorate and the DOE EM Office of Science and Technology Accelerated Site Technology Deployment (ASTD) program. Project objectives were to remove any non-conforming items, and to assure that mercury and radioactive contaminant levels were within acceptable limits for disposal as low-level radioactive waste. Sorting and segregation were conducted simultaneously. Large stockpiles, ranging from 150 to 1,200 yd{sup 3}, were subdivided into manageable 20 yd{sup 3} ''subpiles'' after powered vibratory screening. The 1/2 inch screen removed gravel and almost all non-conforming items, which were separated for further characterization. Soil that passed through the screen was also visually inspected before being moved to a subpile. Eight samples plus QA duplicates were collected from each subpile for chemical analysis, and a 1-Liter jar of material for gamma spectroscopy. A field lab equipped for chemical analysis and gamma spectroscopy was set up in a trailer close by the stockpile site. Chemical analysis included X-ray fluorescence (XRF) to screen for high (>260 ppm) total mercury concentrations, and modified Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) tests to verify that the soils

  4. Properties of Subsurface Soil Cores from Four Geologic Provinces Surrounding Mars Desert Research Station, Utah: Characterizing Analog Martian Soil in a Human Exploration Scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoker, C. R.; Clarke, J. D. A.; Direito, S.; Foing, B.

    2011-01-01

    The DOMEX program is a NASA-MMAMA funded project featuring simulations of human crews on Mars focused on science activities that involve collecting samples from the subsurface using both manual and robotic equipment methods and analyzing them in the field and post mission. A crew simulating a human mission to Mars performed activities focused on subsurface science for 2 weeks in November 2009 at Mars Desert Research Station near Hanksville, Utah --an important chemical and morphological Mars analog site. Activities performed included 1) survey of the area to identify geologic provinces, 2) obtaining soil and rock samples from each province and characterizing their mineralogy, chemistry, and biology; 3) site selection and reconnaissance for a future drilling mission; 4) deployment and testing of Mars Underground Mole, a percussive robotic soil sampling device; and 5) recording and analyzing how crew time was used to accomplish these tasks. This paper summarizes results from analysis of soil cores

  5. Characterization of trapped lignin-degrading microbes in tropical forest soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeAngelis, K.M.; Allgaier, M.; Chavarria, Y.; Fortney, J.L.; Hugenholz, P.; Simmons, B.; Sublette, K.; Silver, W.L.; Hazen, T.C.

    2011-03-01

    Lignin is often the most difficult portion of plant biomass to degrade, with fungi generally thought to dominate during late stage decomposition. Lignin in feedstock plant material represents a barrier to more efficient plant biomass conversion and can also hinder enzymatic access to cellulose, which is critical for biofuels production. Tropical rain forest soils in Puerto Rico are characterized by frequent anoxic conditions and fluctuating redox, suggesting the presence of lignin-degrading organisms and mechanisms that are different from known fungal decomposers and oxygen-dependent enzyme activities. We explored microbial lignin-degraders by burying bio-traps containing lignin-amended and unamended biosep beads in the soil for 1, 4, 13 and 30 weeks. At each time point, phenol oxidase and peroxidase enzyme activity was found to be elevated in the lignin-amended versus the unamended beads, while cellulolytic enzyme activities were significantly depressed in lignin-amended beads. Quantitative PCR of bacterial communities showed more bacterial colonization in the lignin-amended compared to the unamended beads after one and four weeks, suggesting that the lignin supported increased bacterial abundance. The microbial community was analyzed by small subunit 16S ribosomal RNA genes using microarray (PhyloChip) and by high-throughput amplicon pyrosequencing based on universal primers targeting bacterial, archaeal, and eukaryotic communities. Community trends were significantly affected by time and the presence of lignin on the beads. Lignin-amended beads have higher relative abundances of representatives from the phyla Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Acidobacteria and Proteobacteria compared to unamended beads. This study suggests that in low and fluctuating redox soils, bacteria could play a role in anaerobic lignin decomposition.

  6. Characterization of Trapped Lignin-Degrading Microbes in Tropical Forest Soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeAngelis, Kristen; Allgaier, Martin; Chavarria, Yaucin; Fortney, Julian; Hugenholtz, Phillip; Simmons, Blake; Sublette, Kerry; Silver, Whendee; Hazen, Terry

    2011-07-14

    Lignin is often the most difficult portion of plant biomass to degrade, with fungi generally thought to dominate during late stage decomposition. Lignin in feedstock plant material represents a barrier to more efficient plant biomass conversion and can also hinder enzymatic access to cellulose, which is critical for biofuels production. Tropical rain forest soils in Puerto Rico are characterized by frequent anoxic conditions and fluctuating redox, suggesting the presence of lignin-degrading organisms and mechanisms that are different from known fungal decomposers and oxygen-dependent enzyme activities. We explored microbial lignin-degraders by burying bio-traps containing lignin-amended and unamended biosep beads in the soil for 1, 4, 13 and 30 weeks. At each time point, phenol oxidase and peroxidase enzyme activity was found to be elevated in the lignin-amended versus the unamended beads, while cellulolytic enzyme activities were significantly depressed in lignin-amended beads. Quantitative PCR of bacterial communities showed more bacterial colonization in the lignin-amended compared to the unamended beads after one and four weeks, suggesting that the lignin supported increased bacterial abundance. The microbial community was analyzed by small subunit 16S ribosomal RNA genes using microarray (PhyloChip) and by high-throughput amplicon pyrosequencing based on universal primers targeting bacterial, archaeal, and eukaryotic communities. Community trends were significantly affected by time and the presence of lignin on the beads. Lignin-amended beads have higher relative abundances of representatives from the phyla Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Acidobacteria and Proteobacteria compared to unamended beads. This study suggests that in low and fluctuating redox soils, bacteria could play a role in anaerobic lignin decomposition.

  7. Characterization of trapped lignin-degrading microbes in tropical forest soil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen M DeAngelis

    Full Text Available Lignin is often the most difficult portion of plant biomass to degrade, with fungi generally thought to dominate during late stage decomposition. Lignin in feedstock plant material represents a barrier to more efficient plant biomass conversion and can also hinder enzymatic access to cellulose, which is critical for biofuels production. Tropical rain forest soils in Puerto Rico are characterized by frequent anoxic conditions and fluctuating redox, suggesting the presence of lignin-degrading organisms and mechanisms that are different from known fungal decomposers and oxygen-dependent enzyme activities. We explored microbial lignin-degraders by burying bio-traps containing lignin-amended and unamended biosep beads in the soil for 1, 4, 13 and 30 weeks. At each time point, phenol oxidase and peroxidase enzyme activity was found to be elevated in the lignin-amended versus the unamended beads, while cellulolytic enzyme activities were significantly depressed in lignin-amended beads. Quantitative PCR of bacterial communities showed more bacterial colonization in the lignin-amended compared to the unamended beads after one and four weeks, suggesting that the lignin supported increased bacterial abundance. The microbial community was analyzed by small subunit 16S ribosomal RNA genes using microarray (PhyloChip and by high-throughput amplicon pyrosequencing based on universal primers targeting bacterial, archaeal, and eukaryotic communities. Community trends were significantly affected by time and the presence of lignin on the beads. Lignin-amended beads have higher relative abundances of representatives from the phyla Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Acidobacteria and Proteobacteria compared to unamended beads. This study suggests that in low and fluctuating redox soils, bacteria could play a role in anaerobic lignin decomposition.

  8. Characterization of bacterial community structure in rhizosphere soil of grain legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, S; Aneja, M K; Mayer, J; Munch, J C; Schloter, M

    2005-04-01

    Molecular techniques were used to characterize bacterial community structure, diversity (16S rDNA), and activity (16S rRNA) in rhizospheres of three grain legumes: faba beans (Vicia faba L., cv. Scirocco), peas (Pisum sativum L., cv. Duel) and white lupin (Lupinus albus L., cv. Amiga). All plants were grown in the same soil under controlled conditions in a greenhouse and sampled after fruiting. Amplified 16S rDNA and rRNA products (using universal bacterial primers) were resolved by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Distinct profiles were observed for the three legumes with most of the bands derived from RNA being a subset of those derived from DNA. Comparing the total bacterial profiles with actinomycete-specific ones (using actinomycete-specific primers) highlighted the dominance of this group in the three rhizospheres. 16S PCR and RT-PCR products were cloned to construct libraries and 100 clones from each library were sequenced. Actinomycetes and proteobacteria dominated the clone libraries with differences in the groups of proteobacteria. Absence of beta-subdivision members in pea and gamma-subdivision members of proteobacteria in faba bean rhizosphere was observed. Plant-dependent rhizosphere effects were evident from significant differences in the bacterial community structure of the legume rhizospheres under study. The study gives a detailed picture of both residing and "active" bacterial community in the three rhizospheres. The high abundance of actinomycetes in the rhizospheres of mature legumes indicates their possible role in soil enrichment after the legumes are plowed into the soil as biofertilizers.

  9. Spatially Distributed Characterization of Soil Dynamics Using Travel-Time Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse, Falk; Zink, Matthias; Attinger, Sabine

    2016-04-01

    The description of storage and transport of both water and solved contaminants in catchments is very difficult due to the high heterogeneity of the subsurface properties that govern their fate. This heterogeneity, combined with a generally limited knowledge about the subsurface, results in high degrees of uncertainty. As a result, stochastic methods are increasingly applied, where the relevant processes are modeled as being random. Within these methods, quantities like the catchment travel or residence time of a water parcel are described using probability density functions (PDF). The derivation of these PDF's is typically done by using the water fluxes and states of the catchment. A successful application of such frameworks is therefore contingent on a good quantification of these fluxes and states across the different spatial scales. The objective of this study is to use travel times for the characterization of an ca. 1000 square kilometer, humid catchment in Central Germany. To determine the states and fluxes, we apply the mesoscale Hydrological Model mHM, a spatially distributed hydrological model to the catchment. Using detailed data of precipitation, land cover, morphology and soil type as inputs, mHM is able to determine fluxes like recharge and evapotranspiration and states like soil moisture as outputs. Using these data, we apply the above theoretical framework to our catchment. By virtue of the aforementioned properties of mHM, we are able to describe the storage and release of water with a high spatial resolution. This allows for a comprehensive description of the flow and transport dynamics taking place in the catchment. The spatial distribution of such dynamics is then compared with land cover and soil moisture maps as well as driving forces like precipitation and potential evapotranspiration to determine the most predictive factors. In addition, we investigate how non-local data like the age distribution of discharge flows are impacted by, and

  10. CHARACTERIZATION OF SOIL TRICHODERMA ISOLATES FOR POTENTIAL BIOCONTROL OF PLANT PATHOGENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Matei

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Various fungal strains belonging to genus Trichoderma act as biological control agents for soil born plant pathogens. Two new strains of Trichoderma harzianum (T.h. and Trichoderma viride (T.v. were isolated from forest soils in Ilfov county and their morphological aspects, enzymatic and antagonistic activity were examined. Current chemical fungicides had constantly, in time, less influence on pathogens due to their diversity, adaptability and increasing resistance.The paper present the morphological characterization of two strains of Trichoderma isolated from forest soils. Growth rate was higher in strain T.v.SP456 (0,675mm/h than in strain T.h.P8 (0,505mm/h when fungi were grown on Czapek culture medium.Morphological description is completed with photographs of colonies in Petri plates and microscopical aspects of fungal structures belonging to Trichoderma strains SP456 and P8.Comparative aspects concerning the level of main enzymes released by T.h. isolate P8 and T.v.SP456 in liquid culture media showed differences as a function of genetic structure of each fungal isolate. The optimum culture media for inducing peroxidase, polyphenol-oxidase, β-1,3-glucanase activity in T.v.SP456 isolate was Czapek and PDA for phenil-alanin-ammonium-oxidase and chitinase. T.v.SP456 was more efficient than T.h.P8 concerning enzymes activity.The interaction between Trichoderma fungal strains SP456 and P8 and strawberry plant pathogen strains, three belonging to Botrytis cinerea (S1, P1, P2 and one to Phytophtora spp. were examined, also. Both Trichoderma strains act as mycoparasites for plant pathogens. The inhibition percent of radial growth was higher for T.v.SP456 when compared with T.h.P8 for almost all pathogenic isolates.

  11. Paraquat-loaded alginate/chitosan nanoparticles: preparation, characterization and soil sorption studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Mariana dos Santos; Cocenza, Daniela Sgarbi; Grillo, Renato; de Melo, Nathalie Ferreira Silva; Tonello, Paulo Sérgio; de Oliveira, Luciana Camargo; Cassimiro, Douglas Lopes; Rosa, André Henrique; Fraceto, Leonardo Fernandes

    2011-06-15

    Agrochemicals are amongst the contaminants most widely encountered in surface and subterranean hydrological systems. They comprise a variety of molecules, with properties that confer differing degrees of persistence and mobility in the environment, as well as different toxic, carcinogenic, mutagenic and teratogenic potentials, which can affect non-target organisms including man. In this work, alginate/chitosan nanoparticles were prepared as a carrier system for the herbicide paraquat. The preparation and physico-chemical characterization of the nanoparticles was followed by evaluation of zeta potential, pH, size and polydispersion. The techniques employed included transmission electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The formulation presented a size distribution of 635 ± 12 nm, polydispersion of 0.518, zeta potential of -22.8 ± 2.3 mV and association efficiency of 74.2%. There were significant differences between the release profiles of free paraquat and the herbicide associated with the alginate/chitosan nanoparticles. Tests showed that soil sorption of paraquat, either free or associated with the nanoparticles, was dependent on the quantity of organic matter present. The results presented in this work show that association of paraquat with alginate/chitosan nanoparticles alters the release profile of the herbicide, as well as its interaction with the soil, indicating that this system could be an effective means of reducing negative impacts caused by paraquat. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Paraquat-loaded alginate/chitosan nanoparticles: Preparation, characterization and soil sorption studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos Silva, Mariana dos; Sgarbi Cocenza, Daniela [Department of Environmental Engineering, Sao Paulo State University - UNESP, Avenida Tres de Marco, No. 511, CEP 18087-180, Sorocaba, SP (Brazil); Grillo, Renato; Silva de Melo, Nathalie Ferreira [Department of Environmental Engineering, Sao Paulo State University - UNESP, Avenida Tres de Marco, No. 511, CEP 18087-180, Sorocaba, SP (Brazil); Department of Biochemistry, Institute of Biology, State University of Campinas - UNICAMP, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Tonello, Paulo Sergio [Department of Environmental Engineering, Sao Paulo State University - UNESP, Avenida Tres de Marco, No. 511, CEP 18087-180, Sorocaba, SP (Brazil); Camargo de Oliveira, Luciana [Department of Chemistry, UFSCAr, Campus Sorocaba, SP (Brazil); Lopes Cassimiro, Douglas [Institute of Chemistry, Sao Paulo State University - UNESP, Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Rosa, Andre Henrique [Department of Environmental Engineering, Sao Paulo State University - UNESP, Avenida Tres de Marco, No. 511, CEP 18087-180, Sorocaba, SP (Brazil); Fernandes Fraceto, Leonardo, E-mail: leonardo@sorocaba.unesp.br [Department of Environmental Engineering, Sao Paulo State University - UNESP, Avenida Tres de Marco, No. 511, CEP 18087-180, Sorocaba, SP (Brazil); Department of Biochemistry, Institute of Biology, State University of Campinas - UNICAMP, Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2011-06-15

    Agrochemicals are amongst the contaminants most widely encountered in surface and subterranean hydrological systems. They comprise a variety of molecules, with properties that confer differing degrees of persistence and mobility in the environment, as well as different toxic, carcinogenic, mutagenic and teratogenic potentials, which can affect non-target organisms including man. In this work, alginate/chitosan nanoparticles were prepared as a carrier system for the herbicide paraquat. The preparation and physico-chemical characterization of the nanoparticles was followed by evaluation of zeta potential, pH, size and polydispersion. The techniques employed included transmission electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The formulation presented a size distribution of 635 {+-} 12 nm, polydispersion of 0.518, zeta potential of -22.8 {+-} 2.3 mV and association efficiency of 74.2%. There were significant differences between the release profiles of free paraquat and the herbicide associated with the alginate/chitosan nanoparticles. Tests showed that soil sorption of paraquat, either free or associated with the nanoparticles, was dependent on the quantity of organic matter present. The results presented in this work show that association of paraquat with alginate/chitosan nanoparticles alters the release profile of the herbicide, as well as its interaction with the soil, indicating that this system could be an effective means of reducing negative impacts caused by paraquat.

  13. Characterization of dioxygenases and biosurfactants produced by crude oil degrading soil bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santhakumar Muthukamalam

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Role of microbes in bioremediation of oil spills has become inevitable owing to their eco friendly nature. This study focused on the isolation and characterization of bacterial strains with superior oil degrading potential from crude-oil contaminated soil. Three such bacterial strains were selected and subsequently identified by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis as Corynebacterium aurimucosum, Acinetobacter baumannii and Microbacterium hydrocarbonoxydans respectively. The specific activity of catechol 1,2 dioxygenase (C12O and catechol 2,3 dioxygenase (C23O was determined in these three strains wherein the activity of C12O was more than that of C23O. Among the three strains, Microbacterium hydrocarbonoxydans exhibited superior crude oil degrading ability as evidenced by its superior growth rate in crude oil enriched medium and enhanced activity of dioxygenases. Also degradation of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH in crude oil was higher with Microbacterium hydrocarbonoxydans. The three strains also produced biosurfactants of glycolipid nature as indicated d by biochemical, FTIR and GCMS analysis. These findings emphasize that such bacterial strains with superior oil degrading capacity may find their potential application in bioremediation of oil spills and conservation of marine and soil ecosystem.

  14. Isolation and characterization of a diverse group of phenylacetic acid degrading microorganisms from pristine soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Kevin E; O'Leary, Niall P; Marchesi, Julian R; Dobson, Alan D W; Duetz, Wouter

    2005-11-01

    A diverse range of microorganisms capable of growth on phenylacetic acid as the sole source of carbon and energy were isolated from soil. Sixty six different isolates were identified and grouped according to 16S rRNA gene RFLP analysis. Subsequent sequencing of 16S rDNA from selected strains allowed further characterization of the phenylacetic acid degrading population isolated from soil. Nearly half (30) of the isolates are Bacillus species while the rest of the isolates are strains from a variety of genera namely, Arthrobacter, Pseudomonas, Rhodococcus, Acinetobacter, Enterobacter, Flavobacterium, and Paenibacillus. Sixty-one of the sixty-six strains reproducibly grew in defined minimal liquid culture medium (E2). All strains isolated grew when at least one hydroxylated derivative of phenylacetic acid was supplied as the carbon source, while 59 out of the 61 strains tested, accumulated ortho-hydroxyphenylacetic acid in the assay buffer; when pulsed with phenylacetic acid. Oxygen consumption experiments failed to indicate a clear link between phenylacetic acid and hydroxy-substituted phenylacetic acid in isolates from a broad range of genera.

  15. Diversity of Bacillus thuringiensis isolates from Egyptian soils as shown by molecular characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.S. Salama

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Different techniques were adopted for molecular characterization of several indigenous strains of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt previously isolated from Egyptian soil samples. These isolates show different toxicity levels against neonate larvae of both insect species; Spodoptera littoralis (Biosduval; and Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner. The parasporal crystals among the most potent isolates contained polypeptides of about 127 and 130 kDa. PCR screening for genes encoding different Cry genes was performed. The Cry 1 gene is the most abundant in these isolates (83.33% among tested Cry-type genes, followed by Cry 1 gene subfamilies (Cry 1B and Cry 1C with percentage of 38.88% and 77.77%, respectively. The tested isolates showed the presence of Cry 2A(a,b gene, but not all of these isolates were positive for Cry 2 gene (55.55%. Only 27.77% and 16.66% of the tested isolates harbor Cry 4 and Cry 3 genes, respectively. All strains were negative in PCR assays for the Vip 3Aa1 gene. Moreover, DNA fingerprinting using RAPD-PCR was performed to detect the genetic similarities and dissimilarities among the different isolates and standard strains. Assessment of Bt diversity based on the combined analysis of their protein and RAPD-PCR banding patterns was performed. This study demonstrates that Bt strains isolated from Egyptian soil samples can be distinguished and identified on the basis of the distribution of Cry-type genes and RAPD fingerprints.

  16. Isolation and characterization of antagonistic fungi against potato scab pathogens from potato field soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagawa, Masahiro; Tamaki, Hideyuki; Manome, Akira; Koyama, Osamu; Kamagata, Yoichi

    2010-04-01

    Potato scab is a serious plant disease caused by several Streptomyces sp., and effective control methods remain unavailable. Although antagonistic bacteria and phages against potato scab pathogens have been reported, to the best of our knowledge, there is no information about fungi that are antagonistic to the pathogens. The aim of this study was to isolate fungal antagonists, characterize their phylogenetic positions, determine their antagonistic activities against potato scab pathogens, and highlight their potential use as control agents under lower pH conditions. Fifteen fungal stains isolated from potato field soils were found to have antagonistic activity against three well-known potato scab pathogens: Streptomyces scabiei, Streptomyces acidiscabiei, and Streptomyces turgidiscabiei. These 15 fungal strains were phylogenetically classified into at least six orders and nine genera based on 18S rRNA gene sequencing analysis. These fungal isolates were related to members of the genera Penicillium, Eupenicillium, Chaetomium, Fusarium, Cladosporium, Mortierella, Kionochaeta, Pseudogymnoascus, and Lecythophora. The antagonistic activities of most of the fungal isolates were highly strengthened under the lower pH conditions, suggesting the advantage of combining their use with a traditional method such as soil acidification. This is the first report to demonstrate that phylogenetically diverse fungi show antagonistic activity against major potato scab pathogens. These fungal strains could be used as potential agents to control potato scab disease.

  17. Isolation and characterization of diesel degrading bacteria, Sphingomonas sp. and Acinetobacter junii from petroleum contaminated soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiuzhuo; Wang, Duanchao; Li, Mengmeng; Xiang, Wei-Ning; Achal, Varenyam

    2014-03-01

    Two indigenous bacteria of petroleum contaminated soil were characterized to utilize diesel fuel as the sole carbon and energy sources in this work. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis identified these bacteria as Sphingomonas sp. and Acinetobacter junii. The ability to degrade diesel fuel has been demonstrated for the first time by these isolates. The results of IR analyses showed that Sphingomonas sp. VA1 and A. junii VA2 degraded up to 82.6% and 75.8% of applied diesel over 15 days, respectively. In addition, Sphingomonas sp. VA1 possessed the higher cellular hydrophobicities of 94% for diesel compared to 81% by A. junii VA2. The isolates Sphingomonas sp. VA1 and A. junii VA2 exhibited 24% and 18%, respectively emulsification activity. This study reports two new diesel degrading bacterial species, which can be effectively used for bioremediation of petroleum contaminated sites.

  18. Molecular Characterization of Microbial Communities in a JP-5 Fuel Contaminated Soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barcelona, M.J.; Chang, Y.-J.; Gan, Y.D.; Macnaughton, S.J.; Peacock, A.; Stephen, J.R.; White, D.C.

    1999-04-19

    In this study, lipid biomarker characterization of the bacterial and eukaryotic communities was combined with PCR-DGGE analysis of the eubacterial community to evaluate correlation between JP-4 fuel concentration and community structure shifts. Vadose, capillary fringe and saturated-soils were taken from cores within, up- and down-gradient of the contaminant plume. Significant differences in biomass and proportion of Gram negative bacteria were found inside and outside the plume. Sequence analysis of DGGE bands from within the spill site suggested dominance by a limited number of phylogenetically diverse bacteria. Used in tandem with pollutant quantification, these molecular techniques should facilitate significant improvements over current assessment procedures for determination of remediation end points.

  19. Topographical survey and soil characterization of a candidate site for Radioactive Waste Repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peconick, Diva Godoi de O.; Mourao, Rogerio P., E-mail: godiva@cdtn.br, E-mail: mouraor@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nucelar (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Brazil has already initiated the establishment of a national near-surface repository for the low- and intermediate short-lived radioactive wastes generated within its territory. With two nuclear power plants in operation and a third one under construction, five active nuclear research institutes and another one planned for the intermediate future, operational constraints and social pressure built up for a disposal solution for such a waste category. The Brazilian Nuclear Commission CNEN was tasked at designing, building and commissioning this repository, which implies, among other activities, finding a suitable place for the facility. After an initial technical desk job, a federal land, not far from the NPPs, was appointed and in situ studies for the site characterization were started. This paper describes the topographical survey and soil drilling campaign carried out for the initial evaluation of the feasibility of the site vis-a-vis the applicable national regulations for site selection and disposal facilities licensing. (author)

  20. Isolation and Characterization of Halotolerant Soil Fungi from the Great Salt Plains of Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    EVANS, Sarah; HANSEN, Ryan W.; SCHNEEGURT, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    The Great Salt Plains (GSP) of Oklahoma is an inland terrestrial hypersaline environment where saturated brines leave evaporite crusts of NaCl. The current report examines the fungal community, complementing earlier reports on the bacterial and archaeal communities. Twenty-five fungal isolates from GSP soils were obtained on medium containing 10% NaCl and characterized. Based on 18S rRNA gene sequence analysis, all of the isolates fall within the Ascomycetes, with a predominance of Trichocomaceae, represented by Aspergillus, Eurotium, and Penicillium species. Representatives of Anthrinium, Cladosporium, Debaryomyces, Fusarium, and Ulocladium also were isolated. Overall the isolates were widely halotolerant, with best growth observed at lower salinities and no halophilism. The fungal genera observed were all cosmopolitan, without strong specialization. Taken together, these results support the conclusion that hypersaline environments do not have a characteristic community, in contrast to what was observed at the GSP for bacteria and archaea. PMID:25249710

  1. Partial Characterization of Biosurfactant from Lactobacillus pentosus and Comparison with Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate for the Bioremediation of Hydrocarbon Contaminated Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Moldes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The capability of a cell bound biosurfactant produced by Lactobacillus pentosus, to accelerate the bioremediation of a hydrocarbon-contaminated soil, was compared with a synthetic anionic surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulphate SDS-. The biosurfactant produced by the bacteria was analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR that clearly indicates the presence of OH and NH groups, C=O stretching of carbonyl groups and NH nebding (peptide linkage, as well as CH2–CH3 and C–O stretching, with similar FTIR spectra than other biosurfactants obtained from lactic acid bacteria. After the characterization of biosurfactant by FTIR, soil contaminated with 7,000 mg Kg−1 of octane was treated with biosurfactant from L. pentosus or SDS. Treatment of soil for 15 days with the biosurfactant produced by L. pentosus led to a 65.1% reduction in the hydrocarbon concentration, whereas SDS reduced the octane concentration to 37.2% compared with a 2.2% reduction in the soil contaminated with octane in absence of biosurfactant used as control. Besides, after 30 days of incubation soil with SDS or biosurfactant gave percentages of bioremediation around 90% in both cases. Thus, it can be concluded that biosurfactant produced by L. pentosus accelerates the bioremediation of octane-contaminated soil by improving the solubilisation of octane in the water phase of soil, achieving even better results than those reached with SDS after 15-day treatment.

  2. Partial Characterization of Biosurfactant from Lactobacillus pentosus and Comparison with Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate for the Bioremediation of Hydrocarbon Contaminated Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moldes, A. B.; Paradelo, R.; Vecino, X.; Cruz, J. M.; Gudiña, E.; Rodrigues, L.; Teixeira, J. A.; Domínguez, J. M.; Barral, M. T.

    2013-01-01

    The capability of a cell bound biosurfactant produced by Lactobacillus pentosus, to accelerate the bioremediation of a hydrocarbon-contaminated soil, was compared with a synthetic anionic surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulphate SDS-). The biosurfactant produced by the bacteria was analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) that clearly indicates the presence of OH and NH groups, C=O stretching of carbonyl groups and NH nebding (peptide linkage), as well as CH2–CH3 and C–O stretching, with similar FTIR spectra than other biosurfactants obtained from lactic acid bacteria. After the characterization of biosurfactant by FTIR, soil contaminated with 7,000 mg Kg−1 of octane was treated with biosurfactant from L. pentosus or SDS. Treatment of soil for 15 days with the biosurfactant produced by L. pentosus led to a 65.1% reduction in the hydrocarbon concentration, whereas SDS reduced the octane concentration to 37.2% compared with a 2.2% reduction in the soil contaminated with octane in absence of biosurfactant used as control. Besides, after 30 days of incubation soil with SDS or biosurfactant gave percentages of bioremediation around 90% in both cases. Thus, it can be concluded that biosurfactant produced by L. pentosus accelerates the bioremediation of octane-contaminated soil by improving the solubilisation of octane in the water phase of soil, achieving even better results than those reached with SDS after 15-day treatment. PMID:23691515

  3. Characterization of free nitrogen fixing bacteria of the genus Azotobacter in organic vegetable-grown Colombian soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiménez Avella, Diego; Montaña, José Salvador; Martínez, María Mercedes

    With the purpose of isolating and characterizing free nitrogen fixing bacteria (FNFB) of the genus Azotobacter, soil samples were collected randomly from different vegetable organic cultures with neutral pH in different zones of Boyacá-Colombia. Isolations were done in selective free nitrogen

  4. Screening, identification, and characterization of α-xylosidase from a soil metagenome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzawa, Tomohiko; Kimura, Nobutada; Suenaga, Hikaru; Yaoi, Katsuro

    2016-10-01

    A novel α-xylosidase, MeXyl31, was isolated and characterized from a soil metagenomic library. The amino acid sequence of MeXyl31 showed a slight homology with other characterized α-xylosidases. The optimal pH and temperature of recombinant MeXyl31 were pH 5.5 and 45°C, respectively. Recombinant MeXyl31 had a higher α-xylosidase activity toward pNP α-d-xylopyranoside than pNP α-d-glucopyranoside, isoprimeverose, and other xyloglucan oligosaccharides. The kcat/Km value toward pNP α-d-xylopyranoside was about 750-fold higher than that of isoprimeverose. MeXyl31 activity was strongly inactivated in the presence of zinc and copper ions. MeXyl31 is the first α-xylosidase isolated from the metagenome and, relative to other xyloglucan oligosaccharides, shows higher activity toward pNP α-d-xylopyranoside. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Isolation and characterization of a biosurfactant-producing Fusarium sp. BS-8 from oil contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qazi, Muneer A; Kanwal, Tayyaba; Jadoon, Muniba; Ahmed, Safia; Fatima, Nighat

    2014-01-01

    This study reports characterization of a biosurfactant-producing fungal isolate from oil contaminated soil of Missa Keswal oil field, Pakistan. It was identified as Fusarium sp. BS-8 on the basis of macroscopic and microscopic morphology, and 18S rDNA gene sequence homology. The biosurfactant-producing capability of the fungal isolates was screened using oil displacement activity, emulsification index assay, and surface tension (SFT) measurement. The optimization of operational parameters and culture conditions resulted in maximum biosurfactant production using 9% (v/v) inoculum at 30°C, pH 7.0, using sucrose and yeast extract, as carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively. A C:N ratio of 0.9:0.1 (w/w) was found to be optimum for growth and biosurfactant production. At optimal conditions, it attained lowest SFT (i.e., 32 mN m(-1) ) with a critical micelle concentration of ≥ 1.2 mg mL(-1) . During 5 L shake flask fermentation experiments, the biosurfactant productivity was 1.21 g L(-1) pure biosurfactant having significant emulsifying index (E24 , 70%) and oil-displacing activity (16 mm). Thin layer chromatography and Fourier transform infrared spectrometric analyses indicated a lipopeptide type of the biosurfactant. The Fusarium sp. BS-8 has substantial potential of biosurfactant production, yet it needs to be fully characterized with possibility of relatively new class of biosurfactants. © 2014 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  6. Characterization and Glass Formation of JSC-1 Lunar and Martian Soil Simulants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Chandra S.; Reis, Signo T.; Sen, Subhayu

    2008-01-01

    The space exploration mission of NASA requires human and robotic presence for long duration beyond the low earth orbit (LEO), especially on Moon and Mars. Developing a human habitat or colony on these planets would require a diverse range of materials, whose applications would range from structural foundations, (human) life support, (electric) power generation to components for scientific instrumentations. A reasonable and cost-effective approach for fabricating the materials needed for establishing a self-sufficient human outpost would be to primarily use local (in situ) resources on these planets. Since ancient times, glass and ceramics have been playing a vital role on human civilization. A long term project on studying the feasibility of developing glass and ceramic materials has been undertaken using Lunar and Martian soil simulants (JSC-1) as developed by Johnson Space Center. The first step in this on-going project requires developing a data base on results that fully characterize the simulants to be used for further investigations. The present paper reports characterization data of both JSC-1 Lunar and JSC Mars-1 simulants obtained up to this time via x-ray diffraction analysis, scanning electron microscopy, thermal analysis (DTA, TGA) and chemical analysis. The critical cooling rate for glass formation for the melts of the simulants was also measured in order to quantitatively assess the glass forming tendency of these melts. The importance of the glasses and ceramics developed using in-situ resources for constructing human habitats on Moon or Mars is discussed.

  7. Characterizing rates and mechanisms of soil transport using tephra as a tracer: Charwell River, South Island, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roering, J. J.; Almond, P.; Tonkin, P.; McKean, J.

    2001-12-01

    Downslope transport of soil in the absence of overland flow has been attributed to numerous mechanisms, including particle-by-particle rheologic creep and disturbances associated with biological activity. Process stochasticity and difficulties associated with field measurement have obscured the characterization of long-term soil transport rates and mechanisms. Most modeling studies represent soil transport as a slope and/or soil depth-dependent process, although field evidence is sparse. At our study site along incised fluvial terraces of the Charwell River, South Island, New Zealand, we documented vertical profiles of tephra concentration along a hillslope transect to quantify soil transport. Near the relatively undissected hilltop, we observed a 10 cm thick primary tephra layer (ca 22.6 kyr) within loess deposits approximately 80 cm below the landscape surface. In the downslope direction, the depth to the highly concentrated tephra layer decreases, coincident with an increase in hillslope convexity (which is proportional to erosion rate if soil flux varies linearly with hillslope gradient). Exhumation of the spike in tephra concentration results from landscape lowering due to soil transport processes as evidence for overland flow erosion is lacking. Approximately 20 m downslope of the hilltop, where the depth to the tephra spike declines to 40-50 cm, peak concentrations decrease by a factor of 4 and tephra is distributed uniformly within the upper 40 cm of soil. Further downslope near the valley margin, we observed low and relatively uniform tephra concentrations in the upper soil. The transition from a thin, highly concentrated tephra layer at depth to sparse, widely distributed tephra within the upper soil column may result from soil mixing and transport by tree and plant root activity. The depth of this transition is approximately 50 cm along our transect, coincident with the rooting depth of Podocarpus trees that populated the area through much of the

  8. Characterizing the physio-chemical properties and release kinetics of dissolved organic carbon from thermally treated soils in arid climates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retuta, A.; Webster, J.; McKay, G.; Rosario-Ortiz, F.

    2016-12-01

    The soil matrix contains a significant portion of the global terrestrial carbon reservoir. Potential shifts in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations from incoming raw water sources have severe implications for downstream water treatment facilities and, ultimately, for public health. The process through which DOC desorbs from the soil surface is a topic that lacks widespread consensus; understanding the structural and chemical properties is a crucial step to obtaining both consensus and consistency in this field. The aim of this study is two-fold: to thoroughly profile the physical and chemical properties of DOC from both unperturbed and thermally treated soils and to assess the release kinetics of DOC from the soil surface into solution. The goal was to attempt to systematically, carefully, and fundamentally characterize the soil-solution transference of carbon to inform future studies of this phenomena in a changing and perturbed environment. To accomplish the first objective of this study, soil from three different geographical locations in the Western United States were sampled, processed, and partitioned with portions of it undergoing thermal treatment. Both unperturbed and thermally treated samples were leached in simulated a rain water solution prior to filtration and analyzed for ultra-violet (UV) absorbance and fluorescence spectra to evaluate the physical and chemical properties of the desorbed carbon. The photochemical reactivity of the desorbed DOC in solution was also analyzed by measuring the production of reactive intermediates (RI). To accomplish the second objective, both unperturbed and thermally treated soil samples were leached in a sufficient volume of solution in order to extract 40 mL of leachate in timed increments of 5, 15, 30, 60, and 120 minutes. These leachates were analyzed for total organic carbon (TOC) content and the release kinetics of both soil types were assessed. The results of this study served as critical information in

  9. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico, Parts of Dona Ana, Lincoln, Otero, Sierra and Socorro Counties

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  10. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for Cibola National Forest Area, New Mexico, Parts of Catron, Cibola, McKinley, Sandoval, Sierra and Socorro Counties

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  11. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for Santa Fe National Forest Area, New Mexico, Parts of Mora, Rio Arriba, Sandoval and San Miguel Counties

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  12. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for Chinle Area, Parts of Apache and Navajo Counties, Arizona and San Juan County, New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  13. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for Fort Defiance Area, Parts of Apache and Navajo Counties, Arizona, and McKinley and San Juan Counties, New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  14. Characterization of Several Paddy Soil Types in Bogor, West Java, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurniati

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Paddy soil has different morphology and pedogenic characteristics compared to dry land, due to the influence of inundation during several months in a year. Puddling and drying that occurs in turns (redox cycle in paddy soil can lead to the formation of concretions or rusty Fe and Mn. The main purpose of this study was to understand the changing of the morphological and chemical properties as a result of changing of the dry land to paddy soil. Besides, the study also aimed to understand plow pan layer formation in Podsolic, Latosol, Regosol, and Andosol soil type. Results showed that content of soil density (bulk density of dry land ranged from 0.5 to 1.0, while paddy soil is 0.8 to 1.0 (g cm-3. Bulk density values in all four types of soils increased after the changing. Observation also demonstrated that severity levels of paddy soil is higher than dry land, especially in the second and third soil layers or under the surface of soils. Acidity of dry land was likely to be higher than paddy soil. There were no significant differences in nutrient such as C-organic, P and N. Meanwhile, using dithionite as solvent, paddy soil has higher Fe, Mn, and Al content than that of dry land, and remain the same when extracted with pyrophosphate and oxalate. From the four types of soil observed,the paddy soil showed formation of plow pan layer. This was shown by the soil severity level higher than the topsoil or other layers. Paddy soil had unique properties due to redox reaction, thereby providing soil discoloration i.e darker due to high solubility of Fe, Mn, and Al.

  15. A 30 meter soil properties map of the contiguous United States for use in remote sensing and land surface models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaney, N.; Morgan, C.; McBratney, A.; Wood, E. F.; Yimam, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Soil moisture plays a critical role in the terrestrial water, energy, and biogeochemical cycles. For this reason, numerical weather prediction, global circulation models, and hydrologic monitoring systems increasingly emphasize modeling soil moisture and assimilating soil moisture remote sensing products. In both cases, the prescribed soil hydraulic properties play a pivotal role in accurately describing the soil moisture state. However, an accurate characterization of soil hydraulic properties remains a persistent challenge—existing continental soil databases are too coarse and outdated for contemporary applications. To address this challenge, we have developed the Probabilistic Remapping of SSURGO database (POLARIS); a new soil database that covers the contiguous United States (CONUS) at a 30-meter spatial resolution. POLARIS was constructed using available high-resolution geospatial environmental data and a state-of-the-art machine learning algorithm to remap the rich yet incomplete Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database to create spatially complete probabilistic soil series maps over CONUS (Chaney et al., 2016). These maps are then combined with the vertical profile information of each soil series to create the corresponding maps of soil hydraulic properties and their associated uncertainties. The mapped soil hydraulic properties include soil texture, saturated hydraulic conductivity, porosity, field capacity, and wilting point. POLARIS provides a breakthrough in soil information. To illustrate this database's potential, we will both explore the database at multiple spatial scales and discuss recent land surface modeling results that have used POLARIS to simulate soil moisture at a 30-meter spatial resolution over CONUS between 2004 and 2014. We will discuss the added benefit of using POLARIS and the opportunity it presents to improve the characterization of soil hydraulic properties in land surface models and soil moisture remote sensing. References

  16. Characterization of copper-resistant bacteria and bacterial communities from copper-polluted agricultural soils of central Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altimira Fabiola

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Copper mining has led to Cu pollution in agricultural soils. In this report, the effects of Cu pollution on bacterial communities of agricultural soils from Valparaiso region, central Chile, were studied. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE of the 16S rRNA genes was used for the characterization of bacterial communities from Cu-polluted and non-polluted soils. Cu-resistant bacterial strains were isolated from Cu-polluted soils and characterized. Results DGGE showed a similar high number of bands and banding pattern of the bacterial communities from Cu-polluted and non-polluted soils. The presence of copA genes encoding the multi-copper oxidase that confers Cu-resistance in bacteria was detected by PCR in metagenomic DNA from the three Cu-polluted soils, but not in the non-polluted soil. The number of Cu-tolerant heterotrophic cultivable bacteria was significantly higher in Cu-polluted soils than in the non-polluted soil. Ninety two Cu-resistant bacterial strains were isolated from three Cu-polluted agricultural soils. Five isolated strains showed high resistance to copper (MIC ranged from 3.1 to 4.7 mM and also resistance to other heavy metals. 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses indicate that these isolates belong to the genera Sphingomonas, Stenotrophomonas and Arthrobacter. The Sphingomonas sp. strains O12, A32 and A55 and Stenotrophomonas sp. C21 possess plasmids containing the Cu-resistance copA genes. Arthrobacter sp. O4 possesses the copA gene, but plasmids were not detected in this strain. The amino acid sequences of CopA from Sphingomonas isolates (O12, A32 and A55, Stenotrophomonas strain (C21 and Arthrobacter strain (O4 are closely related to CopA from Sphingomonas, Stenotrophomonas and Arthrobacter strains, respectively. Conclusions This study suggests that bacterial communities of agricultural soils from central Chile exposed to long-term Cu-pollution have been adapted by acquiring Cu genetic determinants

  17. A simplified extraction schema to for the analytical characterization of apple orchard soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sager, Manfred

    2014-05-01

    In agriculture, soil analysis is mainly done to monitor available nutrients as well contaminants, in order to find the optimum fertilization resp. remediation strategy. Traditionally, available nutrients in soils have been obtained from a series of different extractions, some just for one single parameter. In order to simplify the entire procedures, multi-element techniques, like ICP-OES and ICP-MS, have been applied to a sequence of extracts obtained with 0,16M acetic acid and 0,1M oxalate buffer pH 3, which are more suitable for the plasma than traditional salt extractant solutions. Dilute acetic acid should characterize exchangeables plus carbonates, and oxalate buffer the pedogenic oxides. Aqua regia extractions in glass have been replaced by pressure digestion with KClO3 in dilute nitric acid, which yields results equivalent to aqua regia, and additionally permits the determination of total sulfur, as well as acid-leachable boron and silicon. Total digestion was done in PTFE beakers by fuming with HNO3/HClO4, subsequently with HF, and final uptake in 1+1 HCl. The results of total digestion could be verified by XRF analysis of the solid, Ti recovery was the most critical item. The method was applied to 34 soils from apple orchards of different soil types and climatic zones. P and K obtained from standard acetate-lactate extract as well as B obtained from the Baron extract correlated with the results from the acetic acid extract better than 0,9. Just Mg from the CaCl2 extract (Schachtschabel) was independent from all other Mg fractions. The results for Ca, Cu, Mg, Mn, Sr, Pb and Zn obtained from KClO3 digest and from totals, were strongly correlated. The Rare Earth elements formed a strongly intercorrelated group as well after total digestion as in the oxalate leach. Factor analysis was utilized to prove if the obtained fractions part into groups in a geochemically feasible way. The fraction mobilized by dilute acetic acid contained Ca-Mg-carbonates as well as

  18. Characterization of some chemical components, in the soil of different agro- ecosystems of cattle farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Noval-Artiles

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The concentration of some chemical components was characterized, in soils of an agro- ecosystem of a cattle farm with different reliefs, one located in the plains and another in a hilly area. The statistical descriptive variables were calculated for organic matter, pH, P2O5, K2O, Cu, Zn, Fe and Mn; by means of a t- Student test for independent samples, the variables were compared among the rainy and dry seasons. In the agro-ecosystem of the plains the 24.5, 75.4, 20.7, 41.5, 33.9 and 56.6 % of the samples were below the critical limit for organic matter, P2O5, K2O, Cu, Mn and Zn, respectively. In the hilly region the concentrations of the organic matter and the mentioned chemical elements were deficient in a 25, 80, 42.5, 7.5 and 25 %, and 2.5 % in the samples of Fe. They were significant levels of Cu for the rainy season, while in the Mn was significant in the dry season for the agro-ecosystem of the plains, while in the hilly region there were small significant values in the Cu, Fe and Mn in the dry season, on the contrary of the P2O5 that showed small values during the rainy season. It concludes that independent in the agro-ecosystems that there were deficiencies in a percent of the soil samples, equally significant variation existed in the levels of the minerals in conjunction with the season.

  19. Networking our science to characterize the state, vulnerabilities, and management opportunities of soil organic matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harden, Jennifer W.; Hugelius, Gustaf; Ahlstrom, Anders; Blankinship, Joseph; Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; Lawrence, Corey; Loisel, Julie; Malhotra, Avni; Jackson, Robert B.; Ogle, S.M.; Phillips, Claire; Ryals, Rebecca; Todd-Brown, Katherine EO; Vargas, Rodrigo; Vergara, Sintana; Cotrufo, Francesca; Keiluweit, M.; Heckman, Katherine; Crow, Susan; Silver, Whendee; Delonge, Marcia; Nave, Lucas

    2018-02-01

    Over 75% of soil organic carbon (C) in the upper meter of earth’s terrestrial surface has been subjected to cropping, grazing, forestry, or urbanization. As a result, terrestrial C cycling cannot be studied out of land use context. Meanwhile, amendments by soil organic matter demonstrate reliable methodologies to restore and improve soils to a more productive state, therefore soil health and productivity cannot be understood without reference to soil C. Measurements for detecting changes in soil C are needed to constrain and monitor best practices and must reflect processes of C stabilization and destabilization over various timescales, soil types, and spatial scales in order to quantify C sequestration at regional to global scales. We have identified gaps in data, modeling, and communication that underscore the need for an open, shared network to frame and guide the study of soil carbon and its management for sustained production and climate regulation.

  20. Application of flow field-flow fractionation and laser sizing to characterize soil colloids in drained and undrained lysimeters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimbert, Laura J; Haygarth, Philip M; Worsfold, Paul J

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports the use of a new technique, flow field-flow fractionation (FlFFF), for the characterization of soil sampled under grassland. FlFFF can be used to determine the fine colloidal material in the colloids in drained and undrained field lysimeters from soil cores sampled at different depths. Two different grassland lysimeter plots of 1 ha, one drained and one undrained, were investigated, and the soil was sampled at 20-m intervals along a single diagonal transect at three different depths (0-2, 10-12, and 30-32 cm). The results showed that there was a statistically significant (P = 0.05) increase in colloidal material at 30- to 32-cm depth along the transect under the drained lysimeter, which correlates with disturbance of the soil at this depth due to the installation of tile drains at 85-cm depth backfilled to 30-cm depth with gravel. Laser sizing was also used to determine the particles in the size range 1 to 2000 microm and complement the data obtained using FlFFF because laser sizing lacks resolution for the finer colloidal material (0.1-1.0 microm). The laser sizing data showed increased heterogeneity at 30- to 32-cm depth, particularly in the 50 to 250 microm size fraction. Therefore FIFFF characterized the finer material and laser sizing the coarser soil fraction (importance as colloidal material is more mobile than the larger material and consequently an important vector for contaminant transport from agricultural land to catchments.

  1. Characterization and immobilization of cesium-137 in soil at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Ningping; Mason, C.F.V.; Turney, W.R.J.R.

    1996-06-01

    At Los Alamos National Laboratory, cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs) is a major contaminant in soils of Technical Area 21 (TA-21) and is mainly associated with soil particles {<=}2.00 mm. Cesium-137 was not leached by synthetic groundwater or acid rainwater. Soil erosion is a primary mechanism of {sup 137}Cs transport in TA-21. The methodology that controls soil particle runoff can prevent the transport of {sup 137}Cs.

  2. Physical characterization, spectral response and remotely sensed mapping of Mediterranean soil surface crusts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, S.M. de; Addink, E.A.; Duijsing, D.; Beek, L.P.H. van

    2011-01-01

    Soil surface crusting and sealing are frequent but unfavorable processes in Mediterranean areas. Soil crust and seals form on bare soil subject to high-intensity rainfall, resulting in a hard, impenetrable layer that impedes infiltration and hampers the germination and establishment of plants. The

  3. Sediment and process water characterization in support of 300 Area North Process Pond physical soil washing test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Field, J.G.

    1994-02-18

    The sediments in the 300 Area North Process Pond are being considered for clean-up using soil washing processes. Prior to site clean-up several preliminary pilot-scale physical washing campaigns were performed by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) staff in the summer of 1993. WHC used equipment that was obtained from the US Environmental Protection Agency. Specific details are found in the 300-FF-1 Physical Separations CERCLA Treatability Test Plan. Physical soil washing includes separation and proper containment of the contaminant-rich fines and residual liquid effluent and release of the coarse ``clean`` fraction, should it meet minimum performance levels for residual contaminant concentration to the site being cleaned. A goal of the demonstration is to concentrate the contaminants into {le}10% of the soil volume excavated and, therefore, to release {ge}90% of the soil back to the site as clean soil. To support interpretation of the WHC soil washing treatability study, PNL performed some sediment and process water characterization on samples taken during three major and one small campaign. This report documents particle-size distributions in various field washed piles, and chemical and gama emitting radionuclide contents as a function of particle-size distribution for the field washed sediments and contents in the spent process water. All of the particle fractions were separated by wet sieving, but two field samples were also subjected to dry sieving and attrition scrubbing followed by wet sieving.

  4. Interpolation Approaches for Characterizing Spatial Variability of Soil Properties in Tuz Lake Basin of Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorji, Taha; Sertel, Elif; Tanik, Aysegul

    2017-12-01

    Soil management is an essential concern in protecting soil properties, in enhancing appropriate soil quality for plant growth and agricultural productivity, and in preventing soil erosion. Soil scientists and decision makers require accurate and well-distributed spatially continuous soil data across a region for risk assessment and for effectively monitoring and managing soils. Recently, spatial interpolation approaches have been utilized in various disciplines including soil sciences for analysing, predicting and mapping distribution and surface modelling of environmental factors such as soil properties. The study area selected in this research is Tuz Lake Basin in Turkey bearing ecological and economic importance. Fertile soil plays a significant role in agricultural activities, which is one of the main industries having great impact on economy of the region. Loss of trees and bushes due to intense agricultural activities in some parts of the basin lead to soil erosion. Besides, soil salinization due to both human-induced activities and natural factors has exacerbated its condition regarding agricultural land development. This study aims to compare capability of Local Polynomial Interpolation (LPI) and Radial Basis Functions (RBF) as two interpolation methods for mapping spatial pattern of soil properties including organic matter, phosphorus, lime and boron. Both LPI and RBF methods demonstrated promising results for predicting lime, organic matter, phosphorous and boron. Soil samples collected in the field were used for interpolation analysis in which approximately 80% of data was used for interpolation modelling whereas the remaining for validation of the predicted results. Relationship between validation points and their corresponding estimated values in the same location is examined by conducting linear regression analysis. Eight prediction maps generated from two different interpolation methods for soil organic matter, phosphorus, lime and boron parameters

  5. Advanced solvent based methods for molecular characterization of soil organic matter by high-resolution mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tfaily, Malak M.; Chu, Rosalie K.; Tolic, Nikola; Roscioli, Kristyn M.; Anderton, Christopher R.; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana; Robinson, Errol W.; Hess, Nancy J.

    2015-05-19

    Soil organic matter (SOM) a complex, heterogeneous mixture of above and belowground plant litter and animal and microbial residues at various degrees of decomposition, is a key reservoir for carbon (C) and nutrient biogeochemical cycling in soil based ecosystems. A limited understanding of the molecular composition of SOM limits the ability to routinely decipher chemical processes within soil and predict accurately how terrestrial carbon fluxes will response to changing climatic conditions and land use. To elucidate the molecular-level structure of SOM, we selectively extracted a broad range of intact SOM compounds by a combination of different organic solvents from soils with a wide range of C content. Our use of Electrospray ionization (ESI) coupled with Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICR MS) and a suite of solvents with varying polarity significantly expands the inventory of the types of organic molecules present in soils. Specifically, we found that hexane is selective for lipid-like compounds with very low O:C ratios; water was selective for carbohydrates with high O:C ratios; acetonitrile preferentially extracts lignin, condensed structures, and tannin poly phenolic compounds with O:C > 0.5; methanol has higher selectivity towards compounds characterized with low O:C < 0.5; and hexane, MeOH, ACN and water solvents increase the number and types of organic molecules extracted from soil for a broader range of chemically diverse soil types. Our study of SOM molecules by ESI-FTICR MS revealed new insight into the molecular-level complexity of organics contained in soils.

  6. Advanced solvent based methods for molecular characterization of soil organic matter by high-resolution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tfaily, Malak M; Chu, Rosalie K; Tolić, Nikola; Roscioli, Kristyn M; Anderton, Christopher R; Paša-Tolić, Ljiljana; Robinson, Errol W; Hess, Nancy J

    2015-01-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM), a complex, heterogeneous mixture of above and belowground plant litter and animal and microbial residues at various degrees of decomposition, is a key reservoir for carbon (C) and nutrient biogeochemical cycling in soil based ecosystems. A limited understanding of the molecular composition of SOM limits the ability to routinely decipher chemical processes within soil and accurately predict how terrestrial carbon fluxes will respond to changing climatic conditions and land use. To elucidate the molecular-level structure of SOM, we selectively extracted a broad range of intact SOM compounds by a combination of different organic solvents from soils with a wide range of C content. Our use of electrospray ionization (ESI) coupled with Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICR MS) and a suite of solvents with varying polarity significantly expands the inventory of the types of organic molecules present in soils. Specifically, we found that hexane is selective for lipid-like compounds with very low O/C ratios ( 0.5; methanol (MeOH) has higher selectivity toward compounds characterized with low O/C < 0.5; and hexane, MeOH, ACN, and H2O solvents increase the number and types of organic molecules extracted from soil for a broader range of chemically diverse soil types. Our study of SOM molecules by ESI FTICR MS revealed new insight into the molecular-level complexity of organics contained in soils. We present the first comparative study of the molecular composition of SOM from different ecosystems using ultra high-resolution mass spectrometry.

  7. Characterization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil close to secondary copper and aluminum smelters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jicheng; Wu, Jing; Zha, Xiaoshuo; Yang, Chen; Hua, Ying; Wang, Ying; Jin, Jun

    2017-04-01

    A total of 35 surface soil samples around two secondary copper smelters and one secondary aluminum smelter were collected and analyzed for 16 USEPA priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The concentrations of PAHs were highest when the soil sample sites were closest to the secondary copper smelters. And, a level gradient of PAHs was observed in soil samples according to the distance from two secondary copper smelters, respectively. The results suggested that PAH concentrations in surrounding soils may be influenced by secondary copper smelters investigated, whereas no such gradient was observed in soils around the secondary aluminum smelter. Further analysis revealed that PAH patterns in soil samples also showed some difference between secondary copper and aluminum smelter, which may be attributed to the difference in their fuel and smelting process. PAH patterns and diagnostic ratios indicated that biomass burning may be also an important source of PAHs in the surrounding soil in addition to the emissions from the plants investigated.

  8. Isolation and Characterization of Agrobacterium Strains from Soil: A Laboratory Capstone Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim R. Finer

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this investigation, the students’ goal was to isolate and characterize Agrobacterium strains from soil. Following selection and enrichment on 1A-t medium, putative Agrobacterium isolates were characterized by Gram stain reaction and biochemical tests. Isolates were further evaluated using polymerase chain reaction (PCR with different primer sets designed to amplify specific regions of bacterial deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA. Primer sets included AGRH to identify isolates that were members of the Rhizobiaceae, BIOVAR1 primers to identify members of Agrobacterium biovar group I, and a third set, VIRG, to determine presence of virG (only present in pathogenic Agrobacterium strains. During the investigation, students applied previously learned techniques including serial dilution, use of selective/differential media, staining protocols, biochemical analysis, molecular analysis via PCR, and electrophoresis. Students also gained practical experience using photo documentation to record data for an eventual mock journal publication of the capstone laboratory experience. Pre- and post-evaluation of class content knowledge related to the techniques, protocols, and learning objectives of these laboratories revealed significant learning gains in the content areas of Agrobacterium–plant interactions (p ≤ 0.001 and molecular biology (p ≤ 0.01. The capstone journal assignment served as the assessment tool to evaluate mastery and application of laboratory technique, the ability to accurately collect and evaluate data, and critical thinking skills associated with experimental troubleshooting and extrapolation. Analysis of journal reports following the capstone experience showed significant improvement in assignment scores (p ≤ 0.0001 and attainment of capstone experience learning outcomes.

  9. Characterization of Bacillus thuringiensis soil isolates from Cuba, with insecticidal activity against mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Aileen; Díaz, Raúl; Díaz, Manuel; Borrero, Yainais; Bruzón, Rosa Y; Carreras, Bertha; Gato, René

    2011-09-01

    Chemical insecticides may be toxic and cause environmental degradation. Consequently, biological control for insects represents an alternative with low ecological impact. In this work, three soil isolates (A21, A51 and C17) from different regions of the Cuban archipelago were identified, characterized and evaluated against Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus. The new isolates were compared with reference IPS82 strain and two strains isolated from biolarvicides Bactivec and Bactoculicida, respectively. The differentiation was done by morphological, biochemical, bioassays activity and molecular methods (SDS-PAGE, plasmid profile and random amplified polymorphic analysis). All isolates were identified as Bacillus thuringiensis. The A21, A51 and C17 isolates showed higher larvicide activity than Bactivec's isolated reference strain, against both A. aegypti and C. quinquefasciatus. A21 isolate had a protein profile similar to IPS82 and Bactivec strain. A51 and C17 isolates produced a characteristic proteins pattern. A21 and A51 isolates had plasmid patterns similar to IPS82 standard strain, while C17 isolate had different both plasmid profile and protein bands. All the studied isolates showed a diverse RAPD patterns and were different from the strains previously used in biological control in Cuba.

  10. Characterization of lunar soils through spectral features extraction in the NIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mall, U.; Wöhler, C.; Grumpe, A.; Bugiolacchi, R.; Bhatt, M.

    2014-11-01

    Recently launched hyper-spectral instrumentation with ever-increasing data return capabilities deliver the remote-sensing data to characterize planetary soils with increased precision, thus generating the need to classify the returned data in an efficient way for further specialized analysis and detection of features of interest. This paper investigates how lunar near-infrared spectra generated by the SIR-2 on Chandrayaan-1 can be classified into distinctive groups of similar spectra with automated feature extraction algorithms. As common spectral parameters for the SIR-2 spectra, two absorption features near 1300 nm and 2000 and their characteristics provide 10 variables which are used in two different unsupervised clustering methods, the mean-shift clustering algorithm and the recently developed graph cut-based clustering algorithm by Müller et al. (2012). The spectra used in this paper were taken on the lunar near side centering around the Imbrium region of the Moon. More than 100,000 spectra were analyzed.

  11. Characterization of bacterial strains capable of desulphurisation in soil and sediment samples from Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boniek, Douglas; Figueiredo, Débora; Pylro, Victor Satler; Duarte, Gabriela Frois

    2010-09-01

    The presence of sulphur in fossil fuels and the natural environment justifies the study of sulphur-utilising bacterial species and genes involved in the biodesulphurisation process. Technology has been developed based on the natural ability of microorganisms to remove sulphur from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon chains. This biotechnology aims to minimise the emission of sulphur oxides into the atmosphere during combustion and prevent the formation of acid rain. In this study, the isolation and characterization of desulphurising microorganisms in rhizosphere and bulk soil samples from Antarctica that were either contaminated with oil or uncontaminated was described. The growth of selected isolates and their capacity to utilise sulphur based on the formation of the terminal product of desulphurisation via the 4S pathway, 2-hydroxybiphenyl, was analysed. DNA was extracted from the isolates and BOX-PCR and DNA sequencing were performed to obtain a genomic diversity profile of cultivable desulphurising bacterial species. Fifty isolates were obtained showing the ability of utilising dibenzothiophene as a substrate and sulphur source for maintenance and growth when plated on selective media. However, only seven genetically diverse isolates tested positive for sulphur removal using the Gibbs assay. DNA sequencing revealed that these isolates were related to the genera Acinetobacter and Pseudomonas.

  12. Characterization of Diastereo- and Enantioselectivity in Degradation of Synthetic Pyrethroids in Soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shaotong; Li, Zhaoyang; Li, Qiaoling; Zhao, Jiahe; Li, Sen

    2016-01-01

    Permethrin (PM), cypermethrin (CP), and cyfluthrin (CF) are three important synthetic pyrethroids, which contain two, four, and four enantiomeric pairs (diastereomers) and thus have four, eight, and eight stereoisomers, respectively. In this study, the stereo- and enantioselective degradation of PM, CP, and CF in a Shijiazhuang alkaline yellow soil and a Wuhan acidic red soil were studied in detail by a combination of achiral and chiral high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results showed that PM, CP, and CF degraded faster in Shijiazhuang soil than in Wuhan soil, and the dissipation rate followed an order of PM > CF > CP in both soils. The three pyrethroids exhibited similar diastereomer selectivity, while CP and CF showed higher enantioselectivity than PM. Moreover, the trans-diastereomers degraded faster, and showed higher enantioselectivity than the corresponding cis-diastereomers. For PM, the enantiomer 1S-trans-PM degraded most rapidly in both soils. As for CP and CF, the highest enantioselectivity was observed for diastereomer trans-3, and the insecticidally active enantiomer 1R-trans-αS degraded fastest among the 8 CP or CF stereoisomers in both soils. In addition, the Wuhan acidic soil displayed higher diastereomer and enantiomer selectivity than the Shijiazhuang alkaline soil for the three pyrethroids. Further incubation of CF in an alkaline-treated Wuhan soil showed that the dissipation rate greatly increased and the diastereo- and enantioselectivity significantly decreased after the alkaline treatment process. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Micromorphological Aspects of Forensic Geopedology II: Ultramicroscopic vs Microscopic Characterization of Phosphatic Impregnations on Soil Particles in Experimental Burials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ern, S. I. E.; Trombino, L.; Cattaneo, C.

    2012-04-01

    Grows up the importance of the role played by soil scientists in the modern forensic sciences, in particular when buried human remains strongly decomposed or skeletonized are found in different environment situations. Among the different techniques normally used in geopedology, it is usefull to apply in such forensic cases, soil micromorphology (including optical microscopy and ultramicroscopy) that has been underused up today, for various kind of reasons. An interdisciplinary Italian-team, formed by earth scientists and legal medicine, is working on several sets of experimental burial of pigs and piglets in different soil types and for different times of burial, in order to get new evidences on environmental behaviour related to the burial, focalising on geopedological and micropedological aspects. The present work is focused on: - ultramicroscopic (SEM-EDS) characterization of the phosphatic impregnation (by body fluids) on soils sampled under the dead bodies of five couples of pigs, buried respectively for one month, six month, one year, two years and two years and half in two different areas; - microscopic (petrographic microscope) and ultramicroscopic (SEM-EDS) cross characterization of the phosphatic impregnation (by body fluids) on soils sampled under the dead bodies of several piglets, buried for twenty months. The first results show trends of persistency of such phosphatic features, mainly related to the grain size of the impregnated soil particles and weather conditions (or seasons) of exhumation, while apparently time since burial is only marginally effective for the investigated burial period. Further experiments are in progress in order to clarify the pathways of phosphorus precipitation and leaching for longer times of burial and different seasons of exhumation, both from the microscopic and the pedological/chemical point of view.

  14. Soil and geomorphological parameters to characterize natural environmental and human induced changes within the Guadarrama Range (Central Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Thomas; Inclán-Cuartas, Rosa M.; Santolaria-Canales, Edmundo; Saa, Antonio; Rodríguez-Rastrero, Manuel; Tanarro-Garcia, Luis M.; Luque, Esperanza; Pelayo, Marta; Ubeda, Jose; Tarquis, Ana; Diaz-Puente, Javier; De Marcos, Javier; Rodriguez-Alonso, Javier; Hernandez, Carlos; Palacios, David; Gallardo-Díaz, Juan; Fidel González-Rouco, J.

    2016-04-01

    Mediterranean mountain ecosystems are often complex and remarkably diverse and are seen as important sources of biological diversity. They play a key role in the water and sediment cycle for lowland regions as well as preventing and mitigating natural hazards especially those related to drought such as fire risk. However, these ecosystems are fragile and vulnerable to changes due to their particular and extreme climatic and biogeographic conditions. Some of the main pressures on mountain biodiversity are caused by changes in land use practices, infrastructure and urban development, unsustainable tourism, overexploitation of natural resources, fragmentation of habitats, particularly when located close to large population centers, as well as by pressures related toclimate change. The objective of this work is to select soil and geomorphological parameters in order to characterize natural environmental and human induced changes within the newly created National Park of the Sierra de Guadarrama in Central Spain, where the presence of the Madrid metropolitan area is the main factor of impact. This is carried out within the framework of the Guadarrama Monitoring Network (GuMNet) of the Campus de ExcelenciaInternacionalMoncloa, where long-term monitoring of the atmosphere, soil and bedrock are priority. This network has a total of ten stations located to the NW of Madrid and in this case, three stations have been selected to represent different ecosystems that include: 1) an alluvial plain in a lowland pasture area (La Herreria at 920 m a.s.l.), 2) mid mountain pine-forested and pasture area (Raso del Pino at 1801 m a.s.l.) and 3) high mountain grassland and rock area (Dos Hermanas at 2225 m a.s.l.). At each station a site geomorphological description, soil profile description and sampling was carried out. In the high mountain area information was obtained for monitoring frost heave activity and downslope soil movement. Basic soil laboratory analyses have been carried out

  15. Creation of a federated database of blood proteins: a powerful new tool for finding and characterizing biomarkers in serum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Protein biomarkers offer major benefits for diagnosis and monitoring of disease processes. Recent advances in protein mass spectrometry make it feasible to use this very sensitive technology to detect and quantify proteins in blood. To explore the potential of blood biomarkers, we conducted a thorough review to evaluate the reliability of data in the literature and to determine the spectrum of proteins reported to exist in blood with a goal of creating a Federated Database of Blood Proteins (FDBP). A unique feature of our approach is the use of a SQL database for all of the peptide data; the power of the SQL database combined with standard informatic algorithms such as BLAST and the statistical analysis system (SAS) allowed the rapid annotation and analysis of the database without the need to create special programs to manage the data. Our mathematical analysis and review shows that in addition to the usual secreted proteins found in blood, there are many reports of intracellular proteins and good agreement on transcription factors, DNA remodelling factors in addition to cellular receptors and their signal transduction enzymes. Overall, we have catalogued about 12,130 proteins identified by at least one unique peptide, and of these 3858 have 3 or more peptide correlations. The FDBP with annotations should facilitate testing blood for specific disease biomarkers. PMID:24476026

  16. Sensitivity of soil water content simulation to different methods of soil hydraulic parameter characterization as initial input values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Meisam; Seuntjens, Piet; Shahidi, Reihaneh; Joris, Ingeborg; Boënne, Wesley; Cornelis, Wim

    2016-04-01

    Soil hydraulic parameters, which can be derived from in situ and/or laboratory experiments, are key input parameters for modeling water flow in the vadose zone. In this study, we measured soil hydraulic properties with typical laboratory measurements and field tension infiltration experiments using Wooding's analytical solution and inverse optimization along the vertical direction within two typical podzol profiles with sand texture in a potato field. The objective was to identify proper sets of hydraulic parameters and to evaluate their relevance on hydrological model performance for irrigation management purposes. Tension disc infiltration experiments were carried out at five different depths for both profiles at consecutive negative pressure heads of 12, 6, 3 and 0.1 cm. At the same locations and depths undisturbed samples were taken to determine the water retention curve with hanging water column and pressure extractors and lab saturated hydraulic conductivity with the constant head method. Both approaches allowed to determine the Mualem-van Genuchten (MVG) hydraulic parameters (residual water content θr, saturated water content θs,, shape parameters α and n, and field or lab saturated hydraulic conductivity Kfs and Kls). Results demonstrated horizontal differences and vertical variability of hydraulic properties. Inverse optimization resulted in excellent matches between observed and fitted infiltration rates in combination with final water content at the end of the experiment, θf, using Hydrus 2D/3D. It also resulted in close correspondence of  and Kfs with those from Logsdon and Jaynes' (1993) solution of Wooding's equation. The MVG parameters Kfs and α estimated from the inverse solution (θr set to zero), were relatively similar to values from Wooding's solution which were used as initial value and the estimated θs corresponded to (effective) field saturated water content θf. We found the Gardner parameter αG to be related to the optimized van

  17. [Characterization and soil environmental safety assessment of super absorbent polymers in agricultural application].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xi; Liu, Yu-Rong; Zheng, Yuan-Ming; He, Ji-Zheng

    2014-01-01

    Super absorbent polymers (SAPs) are compounds that can absorb a lot of water which can be several folds of their original size and weight. They can increase soil water content and aggregates, promote fertilizer utilization efficiency, and stimulate crop growth. Therefore, SAPs have been widely regarded as a potential agent for water-saving agriculture. In this paper, we reviewed the advances of SAPs in materials, properties and applications in agriculture and pointed out that the absence of influences of SAPs on soil microbial ecology was the main issue in current studies. In regard to the adverse effects on soil environment caused by misuse of SAPs, we should address the systematic safety assessment of SAPs application in the soil, especially the effects on the soil microorganisms, which should be an important part of chemicals risk assessment in the soil application.

  18. Metagenomic characterization of biodiversity in the extremely arid desert soils of Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutovaya, O. V.; Lebedeva, M. P.; Tkhakakhova, A. K.; Ivanova, E. A.; Andronov, E. E.

    2015-05-01

    For the first time, the composition of microbiomes in the biological crust (AKL) horizons of extremely arid desert soils (Aridic Calcisols) developed from saline and nonsaline alluvial deposits in the Ili Depression (eastern Kazakhstan) was analyzed. To describe the diversity of microorganisms in the soil samples, a novel method of pyrosequencing (Roche/454 Life Sciences) was applied. It was shown that bacteria from the Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Verrucomicrobia, Acidobacteria, and Bacteroidetes phyla predominate in all the samples; these are typical representatives of the microbiome of soil crusts. A distinctive feature of the extremely arid soils is the high contribution of cyanobacteria (25-30%) to the total DNA. In the soils developed from saline sediments, representatives from the Rubrobacteraceae, Streptococcaceae, and Caulobacteraceae families and from the Firmicutes phylum predominated. In the soils developed from nonsaline gypsiferous deposits, bacteria from the class of Acidobacteria, subgroup Gp3, of the Methylobacteriaceae family and the class of Subdivision 3 from the Verrucomicrobia phylum predominated.

  19. Biomolecular Characterization of Diazotrophs Isolated from the Tropical Soil in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Shamsuddin, Zulkifli H; Qurban Ali Panhwar; Mohammad Abdul Latif; Umme Aminun Naher; Radziah Othman; Puteri Aminatulhawa Megat Amaddin

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate selected biomolecular characteristics of rice root-associated diazotrophs isolated from the Tanjong Karang rice irrigation project area of Malaysia. Soil and rice plant samples were collected from seven soil series belonging to order Inceptisol (USDA soil taxonomy). A total of 38 diazotrophs were isolated using a nitrogen-free medium. The biochemical properties of the isolated bacteria, such as nitrogenase activity, indoleacetic acid (IAA) production and s...

  20. Characterization of soil chemical properties of strawberry fields using principal component analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gláucia Oliveira Islabão

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the largest strawberry-producing municipalities of Rio Grande do Sul (RS is Turuçu, in the South of the State. The strawberry production system adopted by farmers is similar to that used in other regions in Brazil and in the world. The main difference is related to the soil management, which can change the soil chemical properties during the strawberry cycle. This study had the objective of assessing the spatial and temporal distribution of soil fertility parameters using principal component analysis (PCA. Soil sampling was based on topography, dividing the field in three thirds: upper, middle and lower. From each of these thirds, five soil samples were randomly collected in the 0-0.20 m layer, to form a composite sample for each third. Four samples were taken during the strawberry cycle and the following properties were determined: soil organic matter (OM, soil total nitrogen (N, available phosphorus (P and potassium (K, exchangeable calcium (Ca and magnesium (Mg, soil pH (pH, cation exchange capacity (CEC at pH 7.0, soil base (V% and soil aluminum saturation(m%. No spatial variation was observed for any of the studied soil fertility parameters in the strawberry fields and temporal variation was only detected for available K. Phosphorus and K contents were always high or very high from the beginning of the strawberry cycle, while pH values ranged from very low to very high. Principal component analysis allowed the clustering of all strawberry fields based on variables related to soil acidity and organic matter content.

  1. Free and bound aroma compounds characterization by GC-MS of Negroamaro wine as affected by soil management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toci, Aline T; Crupi, Pasquale; Gambacorta, Giuseppe; Dipalmo, Tiziana; Antonacci, Donato; Coletta, Antonio

    2012-09-01

    Negroamaro is an autochthonous wine grape variety of Southern Italy, which is becoming very important for the Italian wine market. The wine aroma is primary affected by the chemical composition of grapes, which can be influenced also by agronomic practices such as soil management. In this study, the free and bound aroma characterization was performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses, and the influence of two soil managements (cover cropping and soil tillage) was evaluated. A total of 40 volatile compounds were observed in the wine samples. Alcohols (55.7 mg/L), fatty acids (7.0 mg/L) and esters (6.6 mg/L) were found as the main classes in Negroamaro wine. The results showed that the aroma composition of Negroamaro wine was positively affected by soil tillage probably because of the higher water stress (ψ(s)) recorded in the vines from this treatment. Indeed, among the free volatile compounds, higher contents of esters, carboxylic acids, alcohols, phenolics and acetamides together with lower contents of sulfurs compounds were found in soil tillage wine. Conversely, no difference was observed in glycoside volatile compounds. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Characterization of biocontrol bacterial strains isolated from a suppressiveness-induced soil after amendment with composted almond shells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vida, Carmen; Cazorla, Francisco M; de Vicente, Antonio

    The improvement in soil quality of avocado crops through organic amendments with composted almond shells has a positive effect on crop yield and plant health, and enhances soil suppressiveness against the phytopathogenic fungus Rosellinia necatrix. In previous studies, induced soil suppressiveness against this pathogen was related to stimulation of Gammaproteobacteria, especially some members of Pseudomonas spp. with biocontrol-related activities. In this work, we isolated bacteria from this suppressiveness-induced amended soil using a selective medium for Pseudomonas-like microorganisms. We characterized the obtained bacterial collection to aid in identification, including metabolic profiles, antagonistic responses, hybridization to biosynthetic genes of antifungal compounds, production of lytic exoenzymatic activities and plant growth-promotion-related traits, and sequenced and compared amplified 16S rDNA genes from representative bacteria. The final selection of representative strains mainly belonged to the genus Pseudomonas, but also included the genera Serratia and Stenotrophomonas. Their biocontrol-related activities were assayed using the experimental avocado model, and results showed that all selected strains protected the avocado roots against R. necatrix. This work confirmed the biocontrol activity of these Gammaproteobacteria-related members against R. necatrix following specific stimulation in a suppressiveness-induced soil after a composted almond shell application. Copyright © 2017 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Seed Pro-Nutra Care: A tool for characterization of seed storage proteins and database of bioactive peptides having potential health benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anil; Goyal, Ajay; Goel, Anshita; Pandey, Dinesh

    2014-01-01

    Seed storage proteins, the major food proteins, possess unique physicochemical characteristics which determine their nutritional importance and influence their utilization by humans. Here, we describe a database driven tool named Seed Pro-Nutra Care which comprises a systematic compendium of seed storage proteins and their bioactive peptides influencing several vital organ systems for maintenance of health. Seed Pro-Nutra Careis an integrated resource on seed storage protein. This resource help in the (I) Characterization of proteins whether they belong to seed storage protein group or not. (II) Identification the bioactive peptides with their sequences using peptide name (III) Determination of physico chemical properties of seed storage proteins. (IV) Epitope identification and mapping (V) Allergenicity prediction and characterization. Seed Pro-Nutra Care is a compilation of data on bioactive peptides present in seed storage proteins from our own collections and other published and unpublished sources. The database provides an information resource of a variety of seed related biological information and its use for nutritional and biomedical application. http://www.gbpuat-cbsh.ac.in/departments/bi/database/seed_pro_nutra_care/

  4. Chemical and toxicological characterization of slurry reactor biotreatment of explosives-contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griest, W.H.; Stewart, A.J.; Vass, A.A.; Ho, C.H.

    1998-08-01

    Treatment of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT)-contaminated soil in the Joliet Army Ammunition Plant (JAAP) soil slurry bioreactor (SSBR) eliminated detectable TNT but left trace levels of residual monoamino and diamino metabolites under some reactor operating conditions. The reduction of solvent-extractable bacterial mutagenicity in the TNT-contaminated soil was substantial and was similar to that achieved by static pile composts at the Umatilla Army Depot Activity (UMDA) field demonstration. Aquatic toxicity to Ceriodaphnia dubia from TNT in the leachates of TNT-contaminated soil was eliminated in the leachates of JAAP SSBR product soil. The toxicity of soil product leachates to Ceriodaphnia dubia was reasonably predicted using the specific toxicities of the components detected, weighted by their leachate concentrations. In samples where TNT metabolites were observed in the soil product and its leachates, this method determined that the contribution to predicted toxicity values was dominated by trace amounts of the diamino-metabolites, which are very toxic to ceriodaphnia dubia. When the SSBR operating conditions reduced the concentrations of TNT metabolites in the product soils and their leachates to undetectable concentrations, the main contributors to predicted aquatic toxicity values appeared to be molasses residues, potassium, and bicarbonate. Potassium and bicarbonate are beneficial or benign to the environment, and molasses residues are substantially degraded in the environment. Exotoxins, pathogenic bacteria, inorganic particles, ammonia, and dissolved metals did not appear to be important to soil product toxicity.

  5. Development of soft extraction method for structural characterization of boreal forest soil proteins with MALDI-TOF/MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanerva, Sanna; Ketola, Raimo A.; Kitunen, Veikko; Smolander, Aino; Kotiaho, Tapio

    2010-05-01

    Nitrogen (N) is usually the nutrient restricting productivity in boreal forests. Forest soils contain a great amount of nitrogen, but only a small part of it is in mineral form. Most part of soil N is bound in the structures of different organic compounds such as proteins, peptides, amino acids and more stabilized, refractory compounds. Due to the fact that soil organic N has a very important role in soil nutrient cycling and in plant nutrition, there is a need for more detailed knowledge of its chemistry in soil. Conventional methods to extract and analyze soil organic N are usually very destructive for structures of higher molecular weight organic compounds, such as proteins. The aim of this study was to characterize proteins extracted from boreal forest soil by "soft" extraction methods in order to maintain their molecular structure. The organic layer (F) from birch forest floor containing 78% of organic matter was sieved, freeze dried, pulverized, and extracted with a citrate or phosphate buffer (pH 6 or 8). Sequential extraction with the citrate or phosphate buffer and an SDS buffer (pH 6.8), slightly modified from the method of Chen et al. (2009, Proteomics 9: 4970-4973), was also done. Proteins were purified from the soil extract by extraction with buffered phenol and precipitated with methanol + 0.1M ammonium acetate at -20°C. Characterization of proteins was performed with matrix assisted laser desorption ionization - time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS) and the concentration of total proteins was measured using Bradford's method. Bovine serum albumin (BSA) was used as a positive control in the extractions and as a standard protein in Bradford's method. Our results showed that sequential extraction increased the amount of extracted proteins compared to the extractions without the SDS-buffer; however, it must be noted that the use of SDS-buffer very probably increased denaturization of proteins. Purification of proteins from crude soil extracts

  6. Radionuclide sorption-desorption characterization of soils from non-temperate areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gil, C.J.; Rigol, A.; Vidal, M.; Rauret, G. [Barcelona Univ., Dept. de Quimica Analitica (Spain)

    2004-07-01

    The prediction of the radionuclide mobility in terrestrial ecosystems needs of specific information on radionuclide speciation and interaction in soils. Radionuclide transfer in the food chain is the result of a multifactorial process in which, from the soil standpoint, sorption and desorption steps in the solid phase govern the amount of radionuclide that can be available for root uptake. One of the lessons learnt from the Chernobyl accident was that any soil scenario could be contaminated. Therefore, data on radionuclide interaction in various types of soil/climate must be available. Moreover, environmental decision support systems may become useless when extrapolated to other conditions than those used in their construction. The significance of considering the specificity of the scenarios is due to the distinctive interaction in every radionuclide-soil combination. Although relevant information is available for a certain number of radionuclides in soils from temperate areas, there are still gaps of data for significant scenarios, such as those affected by the Mediterranean conditions. The potentially distinctive characteristics of the soils in this area (high carbonate and clay content; low organic matter content; dry seasons followed by potential flooding periods) justify further studies to adapt or verify conclusions and ranges of values for the most significant parameters derived from previous experiments performed in other environmental conditions. Here we present radiostrontium and radiocaesium sorption-desorption data (mainly soil-soil solution distribution coefficient and reversibly sorbed fraction) of soils coming from areas representative of the Spanish territory, including soils from areas close to radioactive facilities. Data obtained are compared with sorption-desorption data previously obtained by the authors in areas affected by the Chernobyl accident and common default data used in prediction models. (author)

  7. Characterization of wet aggregate stability of soils by ¹H-NMR relaxometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchmann, C; Meyer, M; Schaumann, G E

    2015-09-01

    For the assessment of soil structural stability against hydraulic stress, wet sieving or constant head permeability tests are typically used but rather limited in their intrinsic information value. The multiple applications of several tests is the only possibility to assess important processes and mechanisms during soil aggregate breakdown, e.g. the influences of soil fragment release or differential swelling on the porous systems of soils or soil aggregate columns. Consequently, the development of new techniques for a faster and more detailed wet aggregate stability assessment is required. (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance relaxometry ((1)H-NMR relaxometry) might provide these requirements because it has already been successfully applied on soils. We evaluated the potential of (1)H-NMR relaxometry for the assessment of wet aggregate stability of soils, with more detailed information on occurring mechanisms at the same time. Therefore, we conducted single wet sieving and constant head permeability tests on untreated and 1% polyacrylic acid-treated soil aggregates of different textures and organic matter contents, subsequently measured by (1)H-NMR relaxometry after percolation. The stability of the soil aggregates were mainly depending on their organic matter contents and the type of aggregate stabilization, whereby additional effects of clay swelling on the measured wet aggregate stability were identified by the transverse relaxation time (T2) distributions. Regression analyses showed that only the percentage of water stable aggregates could be determined accurately from percolated soil aggregate columns by (1)H-NMR relaxometry measurements. (1)H-NMR relaxometry seems a promising technique for wet aggregate stability measurements but should be further developed for nonpercolated aggregate columns and real soil samples. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Characterization and fine localization of two new genes in Xq28 using the genomic sequence/EST database screening approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faranda, S.; Frattini, A.; Zucchi, I. [Istituto di Tecnologie Biomediche Avanzate, Milan (Italy)] [and others

    1996-06-15

    Two new genes were identified and mapped by searching the EST databases with genomic sequences obtained from putative CpG islands of the rodent-human hybrid X3000. Previous mapping of these CpG islands in the proximity of the host cell factor (HCFC1) and GdX genes automatically localized these two new genes to Xq28 in the interval between the L1 cell adhesion molecule (L1CAM) and the glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) loci. Both genes are relatively short, contain an ORF of 261 and 105 amino acids, respectively, and are ubiquitously expressed. Combining sequencing of selected CpG islands, derived from hybrids containing small portions of the human genome, with an EST database search is an easy method of identifying and mapping new genes to specific regions of the genome. 17 refs., 4 figs.

  9. Characterizing bulk modulus of fine-grained subgrade soils under large capacity construction equipment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Anochie-Boateng, Joseph

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available correlation models for the soil sample tested. These models can be used for evaluating the impact of moisture on bulk modulus of fine-grained soils with similar characteristics for their sustainable use in foundation applications under off-road construction...

  10. Novel Experimental-Modeling Approach for Characterizing Perfluorinated Surfactants in Soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtier-Murias, Denis; Michel, Eric; Rodts, Stéphane; Lafolie, François

    2017-03-07

    Soil contamination is still poorly understood and modeled in part because of the difficulties of looking inside the "black box" constituted by soils. Here, we investigated the application of a recently developed 1 H NMR technique to 19 F NMR relaxometry experiments and utilized the results as inputs for an existing model. This novel approach yields 19 F T 2 NMR relaxation values of any fluorinated contaminant, which are among the most dangerous contaminants, allowing us to noninvasively and directly monitor their fate in soils. Using this protocol, we quantified the amount of a fluorinated xenobiotic (heptafluorobutyric acid, HFBA) in three different environments in soil aggregate packings and monitored contaminant exchange dynamics between these compartments. A model computing HFBA partition dynamics between different soil compartments showed that these three environments corresponded to HFBA in solution (i) between and (ii) inside the soil aggregates and (iii) to HFBA adsorbed to (or strongly interacting with) the soil constituents. In addition to providing a straightforward way of determining the sorption kinetics of any fluorinated contaminant, this work also highlights the strengths of a combined experimental-modeling approach to unambiguously understand experimental data and more generally to study contaminant fate in soils.

  11. Morphostructural characterization of soil conventionally tilled with mechanized and animal traction with and without cover crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Ralisch

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The structural stability and restructuring ability of a soil are related to the methods of crop management and soil preparation. A recommended strategy to reduce the effects of soil preparation is to use crop rotation and cover crops that help conserve and restore the soil structure. The aim of this study was to evaluate and quantify the homogeneous morphological units in soil under conventional mechanized tillage and animal traction, as well as to assess the effect on the soil structure of intercropping with jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis L.. Profiles were analyzed in April of 2006, in five counties in the Southern-Central region of Paraná State (Brazil, on family farms producing maize (Zea mays L., sometimes intercropped with jack bean. The current structures in the crop profile were analyzed using Geographic Information Systems (GIS and subsequently principal component analysis (PCA to generate statistics. Morphostructural soil analysis showed a predominance of compact units in areas of high-intensity cultivation under mechanized traction. The cover crop did not improve the structure of the soil with low porosity and compact units that hamper the root system growth. In areas exposed to animal traction, a predominance of cracked units was observed, where roots grew around the clods and along the gaps between them.

  12. Error characterization of microwave satellite soil moisture data sets using fourier analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract: Soil moisture is a key geophysical variable in hydrological and meteorological processes. Accurate and current observations of soil moisture over mesoscale to global scales as inputs to hydrological, weather and climate modelling will benefit the predictability and understanding of these p...

  13. Characterizing the Soil Ecology of Red Raspberry Produced under Different Production Regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil and rhizosphere ecology play important roles in plant health and development. Using culture-independent microbial community profiling, we investigated the effects of fertilizer (composted dairy solids + mustard seed meal) on fungal communities in soil and endophytic in a raspberry production sy...

  14. Characterizing shear properties of fine-grained subgrade soils under large capacity construction equipment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Anochie-Boateng, Joseph

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available properties including friction angle and cohesion for strength properties and shear modulus of the soil at three moisture states. Mohr-Coulomb failure models were developed together with shear modulus correlations for the soil sample. These models can be used...

  15. Characterization of labile organic carbon in coastal wetland soils of the Mississippi River deltaic plain: Relationships to carbon functionalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodla, Syam K. [School of Plant, Environmental and Soil Sciences, Louisiana State Univ. Agricultural Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Wang, Jim J., E-mail: jjwang@agcenter.lsu.edu [School of Plant, Environmental and Soil Sciences, Louisiana State Univ. Agricultural Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); DeLaune, Ronald D. [Department of Oceanography and Coastal Sciences, School of the Coast and Environment, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States)

    2012-10-01

    Adequate characterization of labile organic carbon (LOC) is essential to the understanding of C cycling in soil. There has been very little evaluation about the nature of LOC characterizations in coastal wetlands, where soils are constantly influenced by different redox fluctuations and salt water intrusions. In this study, we characterized and compared LOC fractions in coastal wetland soils of the Mississippi River deltaic plain using four different methods including 1) aerobically mineralizable C (AMC), 2) cold water extractable C (CWEC), 3) hot water extractable C (HWEC), and 4) salt extractable C (SEC), as well as acid hydrolysable C (AHC) which includes both labile and slowly degradable organic C. Molecular organic C functional groups of these wetland soils were characterized by {sup 13}C solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The LOC and AHC increased with soil organic C (SOC) regardless of wetland soil type. The LOC estimates by four different methods were positively and significantly linearly related to each other (R{sup 2} = 0.62-0.84) and with AHC (R{sup 2} = 0.47-0.71). The various LOC fractions accounted for {<=} 4.3% of SOC whereas AHC fraction represented 16-49% of SOC. AMC was influenced positively by O/N-alkyl and carboxyl C but negatively by alkyl C, whereas CWEC and SEC fractions were influenced only positively by carboxyl C but negatively by alkyl C in SOC. On the other hand, HWEC fraction was found to be only influenced positively by carbonyl C, and AHC positively by O/N-alkyl and alkyl C but negatively by aromatic C groups in SOC. Overall these relations suggested different contributions of various molecular organic C moieties to LOC in these wetlands from those often found for upland soils. The presence of more than 50% non-acid hydrolysable C suggested the dominance of relatively stable SOC pool that would be sequestered in these Mississippi River deltaic plain coastal wetland soils. The results have important implications to the

  16. Characterization of a soil amendment derived from co-composting of agricultural wastes and biochar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curaqueo, Gustavo; Ángel Sánchez-Monedero, Miguel; Meier, Sebastián; Medina, Jorge; Panichini, Marcelo; Borie, Fernando; Navia, Rodrigo

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize a compost blend prepared from sheep manure and oat straw in a co-composting process enriched with oat husk biochar (BC). For this, a co-composting trial was carried out in rotatories bins of 200 L capacity. Three mixtures (piles) were assayed: BC0: sheep manure (SM) 65% w/w with 35% w/w oat straw (OS) and no biochar; BC5: SM 62.5% w/w, 32.5% of OS and 5% of BC and BC10: SM 60% w/w, 30% of OS and 10% of BC. The piles were turned 3 times per week in the first week, and then once a week until the end of the composting process (140 days). The temperature and humidity of the piles were monitored continually and the humidity was maintained in a range from 55% to 65%. The maturity of final compost was evaluated by FTIR and Solvita Test analysis. At the same time a chemical characterization including macro and micro nutrient for each compost was performed and the compost phytotoxic effect was evaluated by a germination test using aqueous extract over lettuce, radish and wheat seeds. FTIR analysis showed bands attributed to aromatic C=C, C=O stretching of amide groups, quinone C=O and/or C=O of H-bonded conjugated ketones (1640 cm-1) which are typical in biological stabilized composts and compost with high concentration of highly aromatic materials such as biochar, which seems to become relatively more intense specially in BC10 treatment. Both composts were characterized by a Solvita maturity index of 7, reflecting an adequate degree of maturation. The CO2 emission was lower in the piles enriched with BC compared to control treatment without BC. In the same way, NH3 index was 5 for all the treatments indicating a null NH3 emission. In this respect, a decrease in the N-NH4 content was related with the use of BC which indicate that BC could reduce N-losses during composting favoring nitrification process. Chemical characterization showed pH values higher than 8 for all piles and EC ranged from 8.6 to 14.7 dS cm-1. The Total N and P

  17. Soil organic degradation: bridging the gap between Rock-Eval pyrolysis and chemical characterization (CPMAS 13C NMR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Remy; Sebag, David; Verrecchia, Eric

    2013-04-01

    Being a source of mineral nutrients, organic matter contributes to soil chemical fertility and acts on soil physical fertility through its role in soil structure. Soil organic matter (SOM) is a key component of soils. Despite the paramount importance of SOM, information on its chemistry and behaviour in soils is incomplete. Numerous methods are used to characterize and monitor OM dynamics in soils using different approaches (Kogel-Knabner, 2000). Two of the main approaches are evaluated and compared in this study. Rock-Eval pyrolysis (RE pyrolysis) provides a description of a SOM's general evolution using its thermal resistance. The second tool (13C CPMAS NMR) aims to give precise and accurate chemical information on OM characterization. The RE pyrolysis technique was designed for petroleum exploration (Lafargue et al., 1998) and because of its simplicity, it has been applied to a variety of other materials such as soils or Recent sediments (Disnar et al., 2000; Sebag, 2006). Recently, RE pyrolysis became a conventional tool to study OM dynamics in soils. In RE pyrolysis, a peak deconvolution is applied to the pyrolysis signal in order to get four main components related to major classes of organic constituents. These components differ in origin and resistance to pyrolysis: labile biological constituents (F1), resistant biological constituents (F2), immature non-biotic constituents (F3) and a mature refractory fraction (F4) (Sebag, 2006; Coppard, 2006). Main advantages of the technique are its repeatability, and rapidity to provide an overview of OM properties and stocks. However, do the four major classes used in the literature reflect a pertinent chemical counterpart? To answer this question, we used 13C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy in the solid state (13C CPMAS NMR) to collect direct information on structural and conformational characteristics of OM. NMR resonances were assigned to chemical structures according to five dominant forms: alkyl C, O

  18. Earthquake Mechanisms of the Mediterranean Area (EMMA) Database 3.0: First-Motion Focal Mechanisms and Their Ability to Characterize the Tectonic Deformation Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannucci, G.; Gasperini, P.

    2006-12-01

    We present a new version (3.0) of the database of Earthquake Mechanisms of the Mediterranean Area (EMMA) of "checked" first-motion focal solutions. The database, developed on MS-ACCESS, uniforms the different formats and notations of the data available in the literature and try to solve misprints, inaccuracies and inconsistencies that make them almost useless for other users (e.g. tests the perpendicularity of nodal planes and/or P and T axes of all solutions and, when both axes and planes are given, even their mutual consistency). An automatic procedure, based on several criteria, permits to choose the most "representative" (best) solution when more than one is available for the same earthquake. The database allows to make selections on the earthquake data and to export data files suitable to be handled by graphic software and user written procedures. For the Mediterranean region the first-motion focal mechanisms available from the literature allows to extend back in time, and to a lower magnitude threshold the data coverage of Centroid Moment Tensor (CMT) focal solutions of available Catalogs (Harvard University, Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Eidgenssische Technische Hochschule, Instituto Andaluz de Geofisica, USGS). With respect to the previous available version (2.1) we improve (+20%) the number of the data (about 7700 focal solutions at present), we add geographic information to the display of the focal solution plot, we permits to display the best solution and the other ones discarded (i.e. non-best). To solve some bias and inconsistence of the collected original data we also add to each mechanism the hypocentral parameters and the magnitude taken from the International Seismological Centre (ISC) Catalog. We verify the ability of EMMA database to characterize the tectonic deformation style, computing the cumulative moment tensor in the Mediterranean area on a regular grid with different seismogenic thickness, using the EMMA and CMT data

  19. Enhanced microbial degradation of cadusafos in soils from potato monoculture: demonstration and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpouzas, Dimitrios G; Karanasios, Evangelos; Menkissoglu-Spiroudi, Urania

    2004-08-01

    Rapid degradation of cadusafos was evident in soils collected from previously-treated field sites from a potato monoculture area in northern Greece. The slower degradation of cadusafos observed in corresponding antibiotic-treated soils as well as in soils from an adjacent previously-untreated field demonstrated the microbial involvement in the rapid degradation of cadusafos in the soils from the previously-treated sites. Application of the non-specific antibacterial antibiotic chloramphenicol or of the Gram+ bacteria-inhibiting antibiotics penicillin + lyncomycin + vancomycin significantly inhibited the rapid biodegradation of cadusafos suggesting that soil bacteria and probably Gram+ bacteria are mainly responsible for the rapid biodegradation of cadusafos in the specific soil. Further experiments showed that the bacterial population of the cadusafos-adapted soil was also able to rapidly degrade the chemically related nematicide ethoprophos but not fenamiphos and oxamyl. This is the first report of the occurrence of enhanced biodegradation of cadusafos in potato fields. In addition, the finding of cross-enhancement between cadusafos and ethoprophos significantly reduces the number of available chemicals which could be alternated to prevent the development of enhanced biodegradation and thus intensifies the problem in potato monoculture areas like the one in northern Greece.

  20. Networking our science to characterize the state, vulnerabilities, and management opportunities of soil organic matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harden, J.W.; Hugelius, Gustaf; Ahlstrom, A.; Blankinship, J. C.; Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; Lawrence, C.; Loisel, Julie; Malhotra, Avni; Jackson, R. B.; Ogle, Stephen; Phillips, C.; Ryals, Rebecca; Todd-Brown, Katherine EO; Vargas, R.; Vergara, Sintana; Cotrufo, Francesca; Keiluweit, M.; Heckman, K. A.; Crow, Susan; Silver, Whendee; Delonge, Marcia; Nave, Lucas

    2018-02-01

    Soil organic matter supports the Earth’s ability to sustain terrestrial ecosystems, provide food and fiber, and retain the largest pool of actively cycling carbon (C). Over 75% ofthe soil organic carbon (SOC) in the top meter of soil is directly affected by human land use. Large land areas have lost SOC as a result of land use practices, yet there are compensatory opportunities to enhance land productivity and SOC storage in degraded lands through improved management practices. Large areas with and without intentional management are also being subjected to rapid changes in climate, making many SOC stocks vulnerable to losses by decomposition or disturbance. In order to quantify potential SOC losses or sequestration at field, regional, and global scales, measurements for detecting changes in SOC are needed. Such measurements and soil-management best practices should be based on well-established and emerging scientific understanding of processes of C stabilization and destabilization over various timescales, soil types, and spatial scales. As newly engaged members of the International Soil Carbon Network, we have identified gaps in data, modeling, and communication that underscore the need for an open, shared network to frame and guide the study of soil organic matter and C and their management for sustained production and climate regulation.

  1. The characterization, mobility, and persistence of roaster-derived arsenic in soils at Giant Mine, NWT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bromstad, Mackenzie J.; Wrye, Lori A.; Jamieson, Heather E.

    2017-07-01

    Approximately 20,000 tonnes of arsenic (As)-bearing emissions from roasting gold (Au)-bearing arsenopyrite ore were aerially released from 1949 to 1999 at Giant Mine, near Yellowknife, Canada. Soil samples collected within 4 km of the former roaster from sites undisturbed by mining or other human activity contain up to 7700 mg/kg total As. Total As concentrations are highest within a few cm of the surface, and particularly enriched in soil pockets on rock outcrops. Scanning electron microscopy and synchrotron microanalysis show that roaster-derived arsenic trioxide (As2O3) has persisted in shallow soils in the area. Roaster-generated maghemite and hematite are also present. These anthropogenic forms of As are much more common in near-surface soils than natural As-bearing minerals. Comparison of the proportions of As, Sb, and Au concentrations in outcrop soil samples and historic As2O3-rich dust captured by emission controls suggest most of the roaster-derived As in soils at Giant was likely deposited before 1964. Topographic restriction by rock outcrops and a dry, cold climate likely contribute to the persistence of As2O3 in outcrop soils.

  2. Evaluating the importance of characterizing soil structure and horizons in parameterizing a hydrologic process model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirus, Benjamin B.

    2015-01-01

    Incorporating the influence of soil structure and horizons into parameterizations of distributed surface water/groundwater models remains a challenge. Often, only a single soil unit is employed, and soil-hydraulic properties are assigned based on textural classification, without evaluating the potential impact of these simplifications. This study uses a distributed physics-based model to assess the influence of soil horizons and structure on effective parameterization. This paper tests the viability of two established and widely used hydrogeologic methods for simulating runoff and variably saturated flow through layered soils: (1) accounting for vertical heterogeneity by combining hydrostratigraphic units with contrasting hydraulic properties into homogeneous, anisotropic units and (2) use of established pedotransfer functions based on soil texture alone to estimate water retention and conductivity, without accounting for the influence of pedon structures and hysteresis. The viability of this latter method for capturing the seasonal transition from runoff-dominated to evapotranspiration-dominated regimes is also tested here. For cases tested here, event-based simulations using simplified vertical heterogeneity did not capture the state-dependent anisotropy and complex combinations of runoff generation mechanisms resulting from permeability contrasts in layered hillslopes with complex topography. Continuous simulations using pedotransfer functions that do not account for the influence of soil structure and hysteresis generally over-predicted runoff, leading to propagation of substantial water balance errors. Analysis suggests that identifying a dominant hydropedological unit provides the most acceptable simplification of subsurface layering and that modified pedotransfer functions with steeper soil-water retention curves might adequately capture the influence of soil structure and hysteresis on hydrologic response in headwater catchments.

  3. Characterization of soil organic matter by FT-IR spectroscopy and its relationship with chlorpyrifos sorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parolo, María Eugenia; Savini, Mónica Claudia; Loewy, Ruth Miriam

    2017-07-01

    Sorption of non-ionic organic compounds to soil is usually expressed as the carbon-normalized partition coefficient (KOC) assuming that the main factor that influences the amount sorbed is the organic carbon content (OC) of the soil. However, KOC can vary across a range of soils. The influence of certain soil characteristics on the chlorpyrifos KOC values variation for 12 representative soils of the Northpatagonian Argentinian region with different physicochemical properties was investigated for this study. The chlorpyrifos sorption coefficients normalized by the OC content were experimentally obtained using the batch equilibrium method; the KOC values ranged between 9000-20,000 L kg-1. The soil characteristics assessed were pH, clay content and spectral data indicative of soil organic matter (SOM) quality measured by FT-IR on the whole soil. The bands considered in the spectroscopic analyses were those corresponding to the aliphatic components, 2947-2858 cm-1 (band A) and the hydrophilic components, 1647-1633 cm-1 (band B). A significant relationship was found (R2 = 0.66) between chlorpyrifos sorption (KOC) and the variables pH and A/B height band ratio. The correlation between the values predicted by the derived model and the experimental data was significant (r = 0.89 p soil properties represents a valuable contribution to the understanding of the attenuation phenomena of the organic contaminants off-site migration in the environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Chemical and Toxicological Characterization of Slurry Reactor Biotreatment of Explosives-Contaminated Soils

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Griest, W

    1998-01-01

    .... The reduction of solvent-extractable bacterial mutagenicity in the TNT-contaminated soil was substantial and was similar to that achieved by static pile composts at the Umatilla Army Depot Activity (UMDA...

  5. Characterization of fluorescent pseudomonas spp. associated with roots and soil of two sorghum genotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorghum, useful for bioenergy feedstock, animal feed, and food, requires economical methods for disease prevention and control. Fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. were isolated from sorghum roots and adherent soil to identify isolates that inhibited sorghum fungal pathogens. Pseudomonads were collected fr...

  6. Novel P450nor Gene Detection Assay Used To Characterize the Prevalence and Diversity of Soil Fungal Denitrifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novinscak, Amy; Goyer, Claudia; Zebarth, Bernie J; Burton, David L; Chantigny, Martin H; Filion, Martin

    2016-08-01

    Denitrifying fungi produce nitrous oxide (N2O), a potent greenhouse gas, as they generally lack the ability to convert N2O to dinitrogen. Contrary to the case for bacterial denitrifiers, the prevalence and diversity of denitrifying fungi found in the environment are not well characterized. In this study, denitrifying fungi were isolated from various soil ecosystems, and novel PCR primers targeting the P450nor gene, encoding the enzyme responsible for the conversion of nitric oxide to N2O, were developed, validated, and used to study the diversity of cultivable fungal denitrifiers. This PCR assay was also used to detect P450nor genes directly from environmental soil samples. Fungal denitrification capabilities were further validated using an N2O gas detection assay and a PCR assay targeting the nirK gene. A collection of 492 facultative anaerobic fungi was isolated from 15 soil ecosystems and taxonomically identified by sequencing the internal transcribed spacer sequence. Twenty-seven fungal denitrifiers belonging to 10 genera had the P450nor and the nirK genes and produced N2O from nitrite. N2O production is reported in strains not commonly known as denitrifiers, such as Byssochlamys nivea, Volutella ciliata, Chloridium spp., and Trichocladium spp. The prevalence of fungal denitrifiers did not follow a soil ecosystem distribution; however, a higher diversity was observed in compost and agricultural soils. The phylogenetic trees constructed using partial P450nor and nirK gene sequences revealed that both genes clustered taxonomically closely related strains together. A PCR assay targeting the P450nor gene involved in fungal denitrification was developed and validated. The newly developed P450nor primers were used on fungal DNA extracted from a collection of fungi isolated from various soil environments and on DNA directly extracted from soil. The results indicated that approximatively 25% of all isolated fungi possessed this gene and were able to convert nitrite to

  7. Site Characterization of Landfill using Soil gas, Hydrochemical and Geophysical Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y.; Ko, K.; Park, S.; Son, J.; Oh, I.

    2005-12-01

    To identify the effect of landfill waste for groundwater and unsaturated soil environment, the expedited site assessment, soil gas, geophysical prospecting, and in-situ chemical analysis of contaminants and indicators of pollution were executed. The aquifer of the study area is mainly composed of 8 to 10 m sandy sediment overlying Jurassic granite. The active sampling method was addressed to investigate the distribution of soil gas at the study area. The spatial distribution of soil gas at the depth of 80-100cm showed the boundary of buried waste and the biodegradation processes and the degree of waste decomposition. The CO2 and CH4 concentration across the disposed direction increased by the intensive decomposition of waste and this indicated the methanogenic condition of unsaturated zone of landfill. The geophysical survey at the municipal landfill was executed to delineate the size and extent of soil and groundwater contamination. The electromagnetic (EM), magnetic, and resistivity method were used for site investigation. From the EM method, we can get the information of soil conductivity directly related to the leachate of the contamination. The magnetic anomalies showed the boundary of landfill which was not identified on the surface due to soil capping. The results of geophysical survey were well matched to those of hydrogeochemical survey carried out inside and near the landfill. Electric conductivity (EC) of the groundwater sampled from low resistivity anomaly region of EM result was higher than background value and the border estimated from the magnetic survey showed good agreement with that estimated from the soil gas detection survey. The monitoring of electrical resistivity survey showed the leakage of leachate from landfill and this results well coincided with the groundwater chemistry. From the research results for groundwater quality, it was considered that the groundwater contamination by leachate from landfill is controlled by groundwater flow

  8. Laboratory characterization of the structural properties controlling dynamical gas transport in Mars-analog soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sizemore, Hanna G.; Mellon, Michael T.

    2008-10-01

    Dynamical transport of gases within the martian regolith controls many climatic processes, and is particularly important in the deposition and/or mobilization of shallow ground ice, as well as exchange of other volatiles between the martian regolith and atmosphere. A variety of theoretical studies have addressed issues related to ground ice dynamics on Mars and in the terrestrial analog environment of the Antarctic Dry Valleys. These theoretical studies have drawn on a limited set of empirical measurements to constrain the structural parameters controlling gas diffusion and flow in soils. Here, we investigate five groups of Mars-analog soils: glass spheres, JSC Mars-1, aeolian dune sand, Antarctic Dry Valley soils, and arctic loess. We present laboratory measurements of the structural properties most relevant to gas transport in these soils: porosity, tortuosity, permeability, bulk and intrinsic densities, grain-size distribution, pore-size distribution and BET surface area. Our results bear directly both on the appropriateness of assumptions made in theoretical studies and on current outstanding issues in the study of shallow ground ice on Mars and in the Dry Valleys. Specifically, we find that (1) measured values of tortuosity are lower than values commonly assumed for Mars by a factor of two to three; (2) diffusive loss of ground ice on Mars can likely proceed up to four times faster than predicted by theoretical studies; (3) soil permeabilities are sufficiently high that flushing of the soil column by bulk flow of atmospheric gases may further speed loss or deposition of shallow ground ice; (4) the pore volume in some Mars-analog soils is sufficiently high to explain high volumetric ice abundances inferred from Mars Odyssey Gamma Ray Spectrometer data as simple pore ice; and (5) measured properties of soils collected in Beacon Valley, Antarctica agree well with assumptions made in theoretical studies and are consistent with rapid loss of ground ice in the

  9. Mouse Phenome Database (MPD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Mouse Phenome Database (MPD) has characterizations of hundreds of strains of laboratory mice to facilitate translational discoveries and to assist in selection...

  10. Physiological characterization of grapevine rootstocks grown in soil with increasing zinc doses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovani Zalamena

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThis study aimed to evaluate the performance of grapevine rootstocks under increasing levels of Zn in the soil and to identify physiological variables that can be used as indicators of excess of Zn in the soil. The rootstocks SO4, Paulsen1103, IAC572, IAC313 and 420A were grown in pots containing soil, which received Zn doses of 0, 20, 40, 80 or 160 mg kg-1 of soil. Dry matter (DM, Zn content in shoots and roots, chlorophyll index, initial fluorescence (Fo, maximum fluorescence (Fm, maximum quantum yield of photosystem II (Fv/Fm, effective quantum yield of photosystem II (Y-II and non-photochemical quenching (NPQ were evaluated. The increase of Zn levels in the soil decreased DM in all rootstocks, and IAC572 was superior to the others. The variation in the indices of chlorophyll a and b had little expression in relation the soil Zn levels, but allowed identifying that the rootstocks Paulsen 1103, 420A and SO4 are sensitive to Zn toxicity and that IAC572 and IAC313 were not sensitive to the tested levels. Fluorescence analysis showed a negative effect of Zn contents on the variables Fo, Fm, Y-II and NPQ in all rootstocks, which proved to be good indicators of Zn phytotoxicity.

  11. Occurrence and Genomic Characterization of ESBL-Producing, MCR-1-Harboring Escherichia coli in Farming Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beiwen Zheng

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The emergence and spread of the mobile colistin resistance gene (mcr-1 has become a major global public health concern. So far, this gene has been widely detected in food animals, pets, food, and humans. However, there is little information on the contamination of mcr-1-containing bacteria in farming soils. In August 2016, a survey of ESBL-producing Escherichia coli isolated from farming soils was conducted in Shandong Province, China. We observed colistin resistance in 12 of 53 (22.6% ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae isolates from farming soil. Six mcr-1-positive E. coli strains originating from a livestock-intensive area were found. The isolates belonged to four different STs (ST2060, ST3014, ST6756, and ST1560 and harbored extensive additional resistance genes. An E. coli with blaNDM-1 was also detected in a soil sample from the same area. Comparative whole genome sequencing and S1-PFGE analysis indicated that mcr-1 was chromosomally encoded in four isolates and located on IncHI2 plasmids in two isolates. To our knowledge, we report the first isolation of mcr-1 in ESBL-producing E. coli from farming soils. This work highlights the importance of active surveillance of colistin-resistant organisms in soil. Moreover, investigations addressing the influence of animal manure application on the transmission of mcr-1-producing bacteria are also warranted.

  12. In-situ characterization of soil moisture content using a monopole probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagnard, F. M.; Guilbert, V.; Fauchard, C.

    2009-06-01

    In this paper, a microwave non-destructive experimental tool based on a monopole antenna is used for the determination of the complex permittivity of soils. The monopole mounted on a ground plane is buried in the soil, and its reflection coefficient measured at the feed point by a vector network analyzer (VNA) depends on the dielectric properties of the surrounding medium at a given frequency. In particular, this study is focused on the evaluation of the change of dielectric properties of different soils with the moisture content. In general, the dependence of the dielectric properties of a soil with the antenna reflection coefficient is nonlinear in nature, and the solution of the inverse problem requires a sophisticated algorithm. Thus, we have used two types of modeling, analytical (Wu's approach) and numerical (FDTD), to further understand the influence of fundamental parameters (antenna geometry and soil properties) on the frequency response of the antenna reflection coefficient. These models have allowed us to develop a novel inverse algorithm for the determination of the mean real permittivity based on the position of the antenna resonant frequencies in a wide frequency range. Moreover, a high resolution algorithm based on the Prony's approach has been developed in order to fit the complex reflection coefficient and determine afterwards the complex permittivity and the volumetric moisture content of a soil. Experimental results from different types of sands have been analyzed.

  13. Index for Characterizing Post-Fire Soil Environments in Temperate Coniferous Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan E. Sandquist

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Many scientists and managers have an interest in describing the environment following a fire to understand the effects on soil productivity, vegetation growth, and wildlife habitat, but little research has focused on the scientific rationale for classifying the post-fire environment. We developed an empirically-grounded soil post-fire index (PFI based on available science and ecological thresholds. Using over 50 literature sources, we identified a minimum of five broad categories of post-fire outcomes: (a unburned, (b abundant surface organic matter ( > 85% surface organic matter, (c moderate amount of surface organic matter ( ≥ 40 through 85%, (d small amounts of surface organic matter ( < 40%, and (e absence of surface organic matter (no organic matter left. We then subdivided each broad category on the basis of post-fire mineral soil colors providing a more fine-tuned post-fire soil index. We related each PFI category to characteristics such as soil temperature and duration of heating during fire, and physical, chemical, and biological responses. Classifying or describing post-fire soil conditions consistently will improve interpretations of fire effects research and facilitate communication of potential responses or outcomes (e.g., erosion potential from fires of varying severities.

  14. Networking our science to characterize the state, vulnerabilities, and management opportunities of soil organic matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, Jennifer W; Hugelius, Gustaf; Ahlström, Anders; Blankinship, Joseph C; Bond-Lamberty, Ben; Lawrence, Corey R; Loisel, Julie; Malhotra, Avni; Jackson, Robert B; Ogle, Stephen; Phillips, Claire; Ryals, Rebecca; Todd-Brown, Katherine; Vargas, Rodrigo; Vergara, Sintana E; Cotrufo, M Francesca; Keiluweit, Marco; Heckman, Katherine A; Crow, Susan E; Silver, Whendee L; DeLonge, Marcia; Nave, Lucas E

    2018-02-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) supports the Earth's ability to sustain terrestrial ecosystems, provide food and fiber, and retains the largest pool of actively cycling carbon. Over 75% of the soil organic carbon (SOC) in the top meter of soil is directly affected by human land use. Large land areas have lost SOC as a result of land use practices, yet there are compensatory opportunities to enhance productivity and SOC storage in degraded lands through improved management practices. Large areas with and without intentional management are also being subjected to rapid changes in climate, making many SOC stocks vulnerable to losses by decomposition or disturbance. In order to quantify potential SOC losses or sequestration at field, regional, and global scales, measurements for detecting changes in SOC are needed. Such measurements and soil-management best practices should be based on well established and emerging scientific understanding of processes of C stabilization and destabilization over various timescales, soil types, and spatial scales. As newly engaged members of the International Soil Carbon Network, we have identified gaps in data, modeling, and communication that underscore the need for an open, shared network to frame and guide the study of SOM and SOC and their management for sustained production and climate regulation. © 2017 The Authors. Global Change Biology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Networking our science to characterize the state, vulnerabilities, and management opportunities of soil organic matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, Jennifer W.; Hugelius, Gustaf; Ahlström, Anders; Blankinship, Joseph C.; Bond-Lamberty, Ben; Lawrence, Corey; Loisel, Julie; Malhotra, Avni; Jackson, Robert B.; Ogle, Stephen M.; Phillips, Claire; Ryals, Rebecca; Todd-Brown, Katherine; Vargas, Rodrigo; Vergara, Sintana E.; Cotrufo, M. Francesca; Keiluweit, Marco; Heckman, Katherine; Crow, Susan E.; Silver, Whendee L.; DeLonge, Marcia; Nave, Lucas E.

    2018-01-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) supports the Earth's ability to sustain terrestrial ecosystems, provide food and fiber, and retains the largest pool of actively cycling carbon. Over 75% of the soil organic carbon (SOC) in the top meter of soil is directly affected by human land use. Large land areas have lost SOC as a result of land use practices, yet there are compensatory opportunities to enhance productivity and SOC storage in degraded lands through improved management practices. Large areas with and without intentional management are also being subjected to rapid changes in climate, making many SOC stocks vulnerable to losses by decomposition or disturbance. In order to quantify potential SOC losses or sequestration at field, regional, and global scales, measurements for detecting changes in SOC are needed. Such measurements and soil-management best practices should be based on well established and emerging scientific understanding of processes of C stabilization and destabilization over various timescales, soil types, and spatial scales. As newly engaged members of the International Soil Carbon Network, we have identified gaps in data, modeling, and communication that underscore the need for an open, shared network to frame and guide the study of SOM and SOC and their management for sustained production and climate regulation.

  16. Application of DRIFTS, 13 C NMR, and py-MBMS to Characterize the Effects of Soil Science Oxidation Assays on Soil Organic Matter Composition in a Mollic Xerofluvent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Margenot, Andrew J.; Calderón, Francisco J.; Magrini, Kimberly A.; Evans, Robert J.

    2016-12-20

    Chemical oxidations are routinely employed in soil science to study soil organic matter (SOM), and their interpretation could be improved by characterizing oxidation effects on SOM composition with spectroscopy. We investigated the effects of routinely employed oxidants on SOM composition in a Mollic Xerofluvent representative of intensively managed agricultural soils in the California Central Valley. Soil samples were subjected to oxidation by potassium permanganate (KMnO4), sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Additionally, non-oxidized and oxidized soils were treated with hydrofluoric acid (HF) to evaluate reduction of the mineral component to improve spectroscopy of oxidation effects. Oxidized non-HF and HF-treated soils were characterized by diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS), 13C cross polarization magic angle spinning (CP-MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and pyrolysis molecular beam mass spectrometry (py-MBMS), and for particle size distribution (PSD) using laser diffractometry (LD). Across the range of soil organic carbon (OC) removed by oxidations (14-72%), aliphatic C-H stretch at 3000-2800 cm-1 (DRIFTS) decreased with OC removal, and this trend was enhanced by HF treatment due to significant demineralization in this soil (70%). Analysis by NMR spectroscopy was feasible only after HF treatment, and did not reveal trends between OC removal and C functional groups. Pyrolysis-MBMS did not detect differences among oxidations, even after HF treatment of soils. Hydrofluoric acid entailed OC loss (13-39%), and for H2O2 oxidized soils increased C:N and substantially decreased mean particle size. This study demonstrates the feasibility of using HF to improve characterizations of SOM composition following oxidations as practiced in soil science, in particular for DRIFTS. Since OC removal by oxidants, mineral removal by HF, and the interaction of oxidants and HF observed for this soil may

  17. X-ray microtomography in the micromorphologic characterization of soil submitted to different management; Microtomografia de raios-X na caracterizacao micromorfologica de solo submetido a diferentes manejos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passoni, Sabrina

    2013-07-01

    The X-ray computed microtomography (CT) represents a non-invasive technique that can be used with success to analyze physical properties by the soil scientists without destroying the structure of the soil. The technique has as advantage over conventional methods the characterization of the soil porous system in three dimensions, which allow morphological property analyses such as connectivity and tortuosity of the pores. However, as the soil is a non-homogeneous and complex system, the CT technique needs specific methodologies for digital image processing, mainly during the segmentation procedure. The objectives of this work were: 1) to develop a methodology for microtomographic digital image processing; 2) to characterize the soil structure by using micromorphology analysis of samples submitted to non-tillage and conventional systems collected in three distinct layers (0-10, 10-20 and 20-30 cm); and 3) to identify possible changes in the porous system of the soil analyzed due to the effect of different management systems. The use of the CT technique and the procedures adopted for microtomographic digital image processing show to be efficient for the micromorphologic characterization of soil porous system. Soil under non-tillage system presented the best results from the agricultural point of view regarding porosity, total number of pores, connectivity and tortuosity in comparison to the conventional tillage. (author)

  18. Characterization of mineral phases of agricultural soil samples of Colombian coffee using Moessbauer spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, Humberto Bustos, E-mail: hbustos@ut.edu.co; Lozano, Dagoberto Oyola; Martinez, Yebrayl Antonio Rojas; Pinilla, Marlene Rivera [Universidad del Tolima, Grupo Ciencia de Materiales y Tecnologia en Plasma (Colombia); Alcazar, German Antonio Perez [Universidad del Valle, Grupo Metalurgia Fisica y Teoria de las Transiciones de Fase (Colombia)

    2012-03-15

    Soil chemical analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Moessbauer spectrometry (MS) of {sup 57}Fe were used to characterize mineral phases of samples taken from the productive layer (horizon A) of agricultural coffee soil from Tolima (Colombia). Chemical analysis shows the chemical and textural parameters of samples from two different regions of Tolima, i.e., Ibague and Santa Isabel. By XRD phases like illite (I), andesine (A) and quartz (Q) in both samples were identified. The quantity of these phases is different for the two samples. The MS spectra taken at room temperature were adjusted by using five doublets, three of them associated to Fe{sup + 3} type sites and the other two to Fe{sup + 2} type sites. According to their isomer shift and quadrupole splitting the presence of phases like illite (detected by DRX), nontronite and biotite (not detected by XRD) can be postulated.

  19. Design and Implementation of the Hepatorenal Fibrocystic Disease Core Center Clinical Database: A Centralized Resource for Characterizing Autosomal Recessive Polycystic Kidney Disease and Other Hepatorenal Fibrocystic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa M. Guay-Woodford

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD and other hepatorenal fibrocystic diseases (HRFD are relatively rare recessive disorders that constitute an important set of childhood nephropathies. Little is known about fundamental pathogenesis, and advances toward clinical trials will require well-characterized patient cohorts and the development of predictive and prognostic biomarkers. Such studies in rare diseases require greater collaboration than the efforts in common diseases where large patient repositories can be built at a single site. For the HRFD, clinical and translational research studies would be well served by centralized case accrual that coordinates collection of clinical data, biospecimens (DNA and tissues, and genetic information. As a part of the NIH-funded Hepatorenal Fibrocystic Disease Core Center, we have established a web-accessible portal to enroll patients with ARPKD and other HRFD and compile baseline and longitudinal clinical information in a REDCap-based clinical database. This central database is structured to collect clinical data from patients throughout the Americas (North, Central, and South. By using informatic analyses, we have defined the first data-driven estimates of ARPKD-related neonatal mortality, as well as the incidence and prevalence of this disease. These data indicate that while ARPKD is a rare disorder, there are hundreds of patients potentially available for deep clinical phenotyping in the United States alone. The centralization and sharing of clinical information and biomaterials from ARPKD and other HRFD patients hold the potential to accelerate progress in understanding disease pathways. Once the database is mature, the well-characterized patient cohorts will provide an important resource for developing clinical trials to evaluate new targeted therapeutic interventions in this spectrum of disorders.

  20. The mitochondrial DNA makeup of Romanians: A forensic mtDNA control region database and phylogenetic characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turchi, Chiara; Stanciu, Florin; Paselli, Giorgia; Buscemi, Loredana; Parson, Walther; Tagliabracci, Adriano

    2016-09-01

    To evaluate the pattern of Romanian population from a mitochondrial perspective and to establish an appropriate mtDNA forensic database, we generated a high-quality mtDNA control region dataset from 407 Romanian subjects belonging to four major historical regions: Moldavia, Transylvania, Wallachia and Dobruja. The entire control region (CR) was analyzed by Sanger-type sequencing assays and the resulting 306 different haplotypes were classified into haplogroups according to the most updated mtDNA phylogeny. The Romanian gene pool is mainly composed of West Eurasian lineages H (31.7%), U (12.8%), J (10.8%), R (10.1%), T (9.1%), N (8.1%), HV (5.4%),K (3.7%), HV0 (4.2%), with exceptions of East Asian haplogroup M (3.4%) and African haplogroup L (0.7%). The pattern of mtDNA variation observed in this study indicates that the mitochondrial DNA pool is geographically homogeneous across Romania and that the haplogroup composition reveals signals of admixture of populations of different origin. The PCA scatterplot supported this scenario, with Romania located in southeastern Europe area, close to Bulgaria and Hungary, and as a borderland with respect to east Mediterranean and other eastern European countries. High haplotype diversity (0.993) and nucleotide diversity indices (0.00838±0.00426), together with low random match probability (0.0087) suggest the usefulness of this control region dataset as a forensic database in routine forensic mtDNA analysis and in the investigation of maternal genetic lineages in the Romanian population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Geotechnical characterization and finite element pipe/soil interaction modeling of a pipeline installed in an actively moving, permafrost slope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bidwell, A. [AMEC Earth and Environmental, Calgary, AB (Canada); Sen, M.; Pederson, I. [Enbridge Pipelines Inc., Edmonton, AB (Canada); Yoosef-Ghodsi, N. [C-FER Technologies, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This paper discussed a pipeline integrity analysis for a buried crude-oil pipeline at a site characterized by unstable permafrost slopes. Data collected from piezometers, inclinometers, and thermistor cables installed as part of a comprehensive geotechnical monitoring program were used to determine the geotechnical character of the site and model pipe/soil interactions. A finite element pipe/soil interaction model was developed to estimate the potential strain to the pipeline capacity in a worst-case scenario involving mass soil movement. The purpose was to determine the necessity of costly mitigation measures. The model showed that the pipeline strain capacity is unlikely to be exceeded in the event of a sudden ground movement at the slope. The soil, permafrost, and slope movement conditions at the site were described along with the methodology and results of the pipe/soil interaction model. The model, in which the pipeline is considered as a continuous structural beam, was used to analyze both the estimated current slope movement and the worst case large magnitude slope movement. To assess the pipeline integrity in the event of mass slope movement, the expected strain demand was compared to the strain capacity, taking into account whether the pipe is heavy wall, line pipe, or containing girth welds. The analysis indicated that the risk of pipeline failure is low in the event of a large magnitude slope movement. The pipe strain measurements were found to be within the design limits for the pipeline. The analysis is relevant to other northern pipeline and linear infrastructure developments. 8 refs., 6 figs.

  2. Characterization of new bacterial catabolic genes and mobile genetic elements by high throughput genetic screening of a soil metagenomic library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquiod, Samuel; Demanèche, Sandrine; Franqueville, Laure; Ausec, Luka; Xu, Zhuofei; Delmont, Tom O; Dunon, Vincent; Cagnon, Christine; Mandic-Mulec, Ines; Vogel, Timothy M; Simonet, Pascal

    2014-11-20

    A mix of oligonucleotide probes was used to hybridize soil metagenomic DNA from a fosmid clone library spotted on high density membranes. The pooled radio-labeled probes were designed to target genes encoding glycoside hydrolases GH18, dehalogenases, bacterial laccases and mobile genetic elements (integrases from integrons and insertion sequences). Positive hybridizing spots were affiliated to the corresponding clones in the library and the metagenomic inserts were sequenced. After assembly and annotation, new coding DNA sequences related to genes of interest were identified with low protein similarity against the closest hits in databases. This work highlights the sensitivity of DNA/DNA hybridization techniques as an effective and complementary way to recover novel genes from large metagenomic clone libraries. This study also supports that some of the identified catabolic genes might be associated with horizontal transfer events. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Characterization of atrazine binding to dissolved organic matter of soil under different types of land use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Long-Ji; Zhao, Yue; Chen, Yan-Ni; Cui, Hong-Yang; Wei, Yu-Quan; Liu, Hai-Long; Chen, Xiao-Meng; Wei, Zi-Min

    2018-01-01

    Atrazine is widely used in agriculture. In this study, dissolved organic matter (DOM) from soils under four types of land use (forest (F), meadow (M), cropland (C) and wetland (W)) was used to investigate the binding characteristics of atrazine. Fluorescence excitation-emission matrix-parallel factor (EEM-PARAFAC) analysis, two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2D-COS) and Stern-Volmer model were combined to explore the complexation between DOM and atrazine. The EEM-PARAFAC indicated that DOM from different sources had different structures, and humic-like components had more obvious quenching effects than protein-like components. The Stern-Volmer model combined with correlation analysis showed that log K values of PARAFAC components had a significant correlation with the humification of DOM, especially for C3 component, and they were all in the same order as follows: meadow soil (5.68)>wetland soil (5.44)>cropland soil (5.35)>forest soil (5.04). The 2D-COS further confirmed that humic-like components firstly combined with atrazine followed by protein-like components. These findings suggest that DOM components can significantly influence the bioavailability, mobility and migration of atrazine in different land uses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Characterization of uranium contaminated soils from DOE Fernald Environmental Management Project Site: Results of Phase 1 characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.Y.; Marsh, J.D. Jr.

    1992-01-01

    The Integrated Demonstration (ID) for remediation of uranium- contaminated soils has been established by the DOE Office of Technology Development. The Fernald (Feed Materials Production Center) site was selected as the DOE facility for the field demonstration. The principle objective of this ID is to evaluate and compare the versatility, efficiency, and economics of various technologies that may be combined into systems for the removal of uranium from contaminated soils. Several leaching solutions were employed to determine their effectiveness in extracting uranium from the soil. The extractants and their means of preparation were: 0.1 N nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}): 6.25 mL of concentrated nitric acid was diluted to 1 L with distilled water; 2% ammonium carbonate ((NH{sub 4}){sub 2}CO{sub 3}): 20 g of (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}CO{sub 3} was dissolved in distilled water and diluted to 1 L; 5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl): 50 mL of NaOCl reagent (Cl < 6%) was diluted to 1 L with distilled water; 0.1 M ethylenediaminetetraacetric acid, disodium salt (EDTA): 37.224 g EDTA was dissolved in distilled water and diluted to 1 L; 2% citric acid monohydrate solution (H{sub 3}C{sub 6}H{sub 5}O{sub 7}{center dot}H{sub 2}O): 20 g of critic acid was diluted to 1 L with distilled water; 0.1 M hydroxylamine-hydrochloride (NH{sub 2}OH{center dot}HCl) in 0.01 N nitric acid: 6.95 g (NH{sub 2}OH{center dot}HCl) was dissolved and diluted to 1 L with 0.01 N HNO{sub 3}. The 0.01 N nitric acid was prepared by diluting 3 mL concentrated nitric acid to 5 L with distilled water; and the sodium citrate-bicarbonate-dithionite (CBD) method: 0.3 M sodium citrate (88 g tribasic sodium citrate, Na{sub 3}C{sub 6}H{sub 5}O{sub 7}{center dot}2H{sub 2}O, per liter); 1 M sodium bicarbonate (84 g NaHCO{sub 3} per liter); and 5 g sodium dithionite, Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 4}.

  5. Biodiversity characterization of cellulolytic bacteria present on native Chaco soil by comparison of ribosomal RNA genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talia, Paola; Sede, Silvana M; Campos, Eleonora; Rorig, Marcela; Principi, Dario; Tosto, Daniela; Hopp, H Esteban; Grasso, Daniel; Cataldi, Angel

    2012-04-01

    Sequence analysis of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene was used to study bacterial diversity of a pristine forest soil and of two cultures of the same soil enriched with cellulolytic bacteria. Our analysis revealed high bacterial diversity in the native soil sample, evidencing at least 10 phyla, in which Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria and Acidobacteria accounted for more than 76% of all sequences. In both enriched samples, members of Proteobacteria were the most frequently represented. The majority of bacterial genera in both enriched samples were identified as Brevundimonas and Caulobacter, but members of Devosia, Sphingomonas, Variovorax, Acidovorax, Pseudomonas, Xanthomonas, Stenotrophomonas, Achromobacter and Delftia were also found. In addition, it was possible to identify cellulolytic taxa such as Acidothermus, Micromonospora, Streptomyces, Paenibacillus and Pseudomonas, which indicates that this ecosystem could be an attractive source for study of novel enzymes for cellulose degradation. Copyright © 2011 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Purification and Characterization of an Extracellular Dextransucrase from Pediococcus pentosaceus Isolated from the Soil of North East India

    OpenAIRE

    Damini Kothari; Seema Patel; Arun Goyal

    2011-01-01

    The extracellular dextransucrase produced from Pediococcus pentosaceus, a new isolate from the soil in Assam, India, was purified and characterized. The enzyme activity of cell-free supernatant was 3.4 U/mL and specific activity was 0.6 U/mg. The crude enzyme was purified by a single-step fractionation using polyethylene glycols of different molecular mass. The specific activity achieved was 18 U/mg with 31-fold purification by PEG 400 and 26 U/mg with 45-fold purification by PEG 1500. The mo...

  7. Soil moisture characterization of the Valencia anchor station. Ground, aircraft measurements and simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopez-Baeza, E; Antolin, M C; Balling, Jan E.

    2009-01-01

    . For the rehearsal activity which successfully took place in April - May 2008, a control area of 10 × 10 km2 was chosen at the VAS study area where a network of ground soil moisture (SM) measuring stations is being set up based on an original definition of homogeneous physio-hydrological units attending to climatic......, soil type, lithology, geology, elevation, slope and vegetation cover conditions. Complementary to the ground measurements, flight operations were performed over this control area using the Helsinki University of Technology TKK Short Skyvan research aircraft which contained onboard a payload constituted...

  8. Relational databases

    CERN Document Server

    Bell, D A

    1986-01-01

    Relational Databases explores the major advances in relational databases and provides a balanced analysis of the state of the art in relational databases. Topics covered include capture and analysis of data placement requirements; distributed relational database systems; data dependency manipulation in database schemata; and relational database support for computer graphics and computer aided design. This book is divided into three sections and begins with an overview of the theory and practice of distributed systems, using the example of INGRES from Relational Technology as illustration. The

  9. Characterization of Bacillus thuringiensis soil isolates from Cuba, with insecticidal activity against mosquitoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aileen González

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Chemical insecticides may be toxic and cause environmental degradation. Consequently, biological control for insects represents an alternative with low ecological impact. In this work, three soil isolates (A21, A51 and C17 from different regions of the Cuban archipelago were identified, characterized and evaluated against Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus. The new isolates were compared with reference IPS82 strain and two strains isolated from biolarvicides Bactivec and Bactoculicida, respectively. The differentiation was done by morphological, biochemical, bioassays activity and molecular methods (SDS-PAGE, plasmid profile and random amplified polymorphic analysis. All isolates were identified as Bacillus thuringiensis. The A21, A51 and C17 isolates showed higher larvicide activity than Bactivec’s isolated reference strain, against both A. aegypti and C. quinquefasciatus. A21 isolate had a protein profile similar to IPS82 and Bactivec strain. A51 and C17 isolates produced a characteristic proteins pattern. A21 and A51 isolates had plasmid patterns similar to IPS82 standard strain, while C17 isolate had different both plasmid profile and protein bands. All the studied isolates showed a diverse RAPD patterns and were different from the strains previously used in biological control in Cuba. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (3: 1007-1016. Epub 2011 September 01.El uso prolongado de insecticidas ha conducido al desarrollo de resistencia en diferentes especies de mosquitos y al incremento de la degradación del ambiente. El control biológico de insectos ha devenido como una alternativa útil y de bajo impacto ambiental. En nuestro estudio fueron identificados, caracterizados tres aislamientos de suelos procedentes de diferentes regiones del archipiélago cubano y comparados con cepas de referencia: aisladas de los biolarvicidas Bactivec y Bactoculicida, además de IPS82. La diferenciación de los mismos se llevó a cabo mediante métodos morfol

  10. 0.05-3 GHz VNA characterization of soil dielectric properties based on the multiline TRL calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowski, Arkadiusz; Szypłowska, Agnieszka; Kafarski, Marcin; Wilczek, Andrzej; Barmuta, Paweł; Skierucha, Wojciech

    2017-02-01

    We present a methodology for characterization of soil relative dielectric permittivity in the frequency range 0.05-3 GHz. Soil samples are placed in a measurement cell constructed out of a EIA 1\\text-5/8'' coaxial transmission line, and then measured with a calibrated vector-network-analyzer. From these measurements the relative dielectric permittivity is obtained by use of a modified Boughriet algorithm. In order to calibrate the vector-network-analyzer directly at the EIA 1\\text-5/8'' coaxial-transmission-line measurement planes, we use the multiline through-reflect-line method. This method, while providing superior vector-network-analyzer calibration accuracy, is also easy to implement since it uses only transmission lines with known lengths and a single unknown highly-reflective termination. The implemented calibration method was compared to a simplified approach that uses the standard SOLT calibration in Type-N reference planes, and then accounts for the Type-N/EIA 1\\text-5/8'' adapters by removing their electrical delay. Experimental results for teflon and soil samples with different moisture content and salinity confirmed the validity of our approach.

  11. Seasonal Fluctuation of the Population and Characterization of Bacillus spp. Isolated from the Coastal Soils of Digha, West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Afrin Azmi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal fluctuation of the population of Bacillus spp. in the coastal soils of Digha, West Bengal, India, was determined and it has been found that, during summer, monsoon, and winter season, the Bacillus population density varied in the range of 0.01–0.236 × 106, 0.11–0.202 × 106, and 0.098–0.155 × 106, respectively. Two-way ANOVA, agglomerative hierarchial cluster (AHC analysis, and principal component analysis (PCA were performed to determine the diversity of Bacillus spp. in both spatial and temporal aspects. During summer season, the population of Bacillus spp. reached a comparatively higher density than monsoon or winter. Spatial variation was also exhibited among the Bacillus spp. in different coastal villages. A total of 25 strains of Bacillus spp. (DSB1–DSB25 were isolated from the coastal soils of different village areas of Digha, during the study period. The isolates were characterized morphologically, physiologically, and biochemically. Colony morphology of each of the isolates was thoroughly studied. Biochemical tests along with fermentation tests, NaCl, pH, and temperature tolerance tests were done. The antibiotic sensitivity of the isolated Bacillus spp. against different standard antibiotics was also assessed. The study revealed that the coastal soils of Digha area were rich in different strains of Bacillus spp. showing significant differences in the morphophysiological and biochemical properties.

  12. Microbial and Mineralogical Characterizations of Soils Collected from the Deep Biosphere of the Former Homestake Gold Mine, South Dakota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rastogi, Gurdeep; Osman, Shariff; Kukkadapu, Ravi K.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Vaishampayan, Parag A.; Andersen, Gary L.; Sani, Rajesh K.

    2010-03-13

    A microbial census on the deep biosphere (1.34 km depth) microbial communities was performed in two soil samples collected from the Ross and number 6 Winze sites of the former Homestake gold mine, Lead, South Dakota using high-density 16S microarrays (PhyloChip). Mineralogical characterization of soil samples was carried out using X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron, and Mössbauer spectroscopic techniques which demonstrated the presence of silicates and iron minerals (phyllosilicates and clays) in both samples. Microarray data revealed extensive bacterial diversity in soils and detected the largest number of taxa in Proteobacteria phylum followed by Firmicutes and Actinobacteria. The archael communities in the deep gold mine environments were less diverse and belonged to phyla Euryarchaeota and Crenarchaeota. Both the samples showed remarkable amount of similar microbial communities (1360 common OTUs) despite of distinct geochemical characteristics. A total of 57 phylotypes could not be classified even at phylum level representing a hitherto unidentified diversity in deep biosphere. PhyloChip data also suggested considerable metabolic diversity in deep biosphere by capturing several physiological groups of bacteria such as sulfur-oxidizer, ammonia-oxidizers, iron-oxidizers, methane-oxidizers, and sulfate-reducers in both samples. Application of high-density microarrays revealed the vast prokaryotic diversity ever reported from deep subsurface habitat of gold mines.

  13. Isolation and characterization of mesotrione-degrading Bacillus sp. from soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batisson, Isabelle [Laboratoire Microorganismes, Genome et Environnement, UMR 6023 CNRS, Universite Blaise-Pascal, 63177 Aubiere Cedex (France)], E-mail: isabelle.batisson@univ-bpclermont.fr; Crouzet, Olivier [Laboratoire Microorganismes, Genome et Environnement, UMR 6023 CNRS, Universite Blaise-Pascal, 63177 Aubiere Cedex (France); Besse-Hoggan, Pascale; Sancelme, Martine [Laboratoire de Synthese et Etude de Systemes a Interet Biologique, UMR 6504 CNRS, Universite Blaise-Pascal, 63177 Aubiere Cedex (France); Mangot, Jean-Francois; Mallet, Clarisse; Bohatier, Jacques [Laboratoire Microorganismes, Genome et Environnement, UMR 6023 CNRS, Universite Blaise-Pascal, 63177 Aubiere Cedex (France)

    2009-04-15

    Dissipation kinetics of mesotrione, a new triketone herbicide, sprayed on soil from Limagne (Puy-de-Dome, France) showed that the soil microflora were able to biotransform it. Bacteria from this soil were cultured in mineral salt solution supplemented with mesotrione as sole source of carbon for the isolation of mesotrione-degrading bacteria. The bacterial community structure of the enrichment cultures was analyzed by temporal temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TTGE). The TTGE fingerprints revealed that mesotrione had an impact on bacterial community structure only at its highest concentrations and showed mesotrione-sensitive and mesotrione-adapted strains. Two adapted strains, identified as Bacillus sp. and Arthrobacter sp., were isolated by colony hybridization methods. Biodegradation assays showed that only the Bacillus sp. strain was able to completely and rapidly biotransform mesotrione. Among several metabolites formed, 2-amino-4-methylsulfonylbenzoic acid (AMBA) accumulated in the medium. Although sulcotrione has a chemical structure closely resembling that of mesotrione, the isolates were unable to degrade it. - A Bacillus sp. strain isolated from soil was able to completely and rapidly biotransform the triketone herbicide mesotrione.

  14. Characterization of acetanilide herbicides degrading bacteria isolated from tea garden soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yei-Shung; Liu, Jian-Chang; Chen, Wen-Ching; Yen, Jui-Hung

    2008-04-01

    Three different green manures were added to the tea garden soils separately and incubated for 40 days. After, incubation, acetanilide herbicides alachlor and metolachlor were spiked into the soils, separately, followed by the isolation of bacteria in each soil at designed intervals. Several bacterial strains were isolated from the soils and identified as Bacillus silvestris, B. niacini, B. pseudomycoides, B. cereus, B. thuringiensis, B. simplex, B. megaterium, and two other Bacillus sp. (Met1 and Met2). Three unique strains with different morphologies were chosen for further investigation. They were B. megaterium, B. niacini, and B. silvestris. The isolated herbicide-degrading bacteria showed optimal performance among three incubation temperatures of 30 degrees C and the best activity in the 10 to 50 microg/ml concentration of the herbicide. Each bacterial strain was able to degrade more than one kind of test herbicides. After incubation for 119 days, B. cereus showed the highest activity to degrade alachlor and propachlor, and B. thuringiensis to degrade metolachlor.

  15. Characterization of new Schistosoma mansoni microsatellite loci in sequences obtained from public DNA databases and microsatellite enriched genomic libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NB Rodrigues

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade microsatellites have become one of the most useful genetic markers used in a large number of organisms due to their abundance and high level of polymorphism. Microsatellites have been used for individual identification, paternity tests, forensic studies and population genetics. Data on microsatellite abundance comes preferentially from microsatellite enriched libraries and DNA sequence databases. We have conducted a search in GenBank of more than 16,000 Schistosoma mansoni ESTs and 42,000 BAC sequences. In addition, we obtained 300 sequences from CA and AT microsatellite enriched genomic libraries. The sequences were searched for simple repeats using the RepeatMasker software. Of 16,022 ESTs, we detected 481 (3% sequences that contained 622 microsatellites (434 perfect, 164 imperfect and 24 compounds. Of the 481 ESTs, 194 were grouped in 63 clusters containing 2 to 15 ESTs per cluster. Polymorphisms were observed in 16 clusters. The 287 remaining ESTs were orphan sequences. Of the 42,017 BAC end sequences, 1,598 (3.8% contained microsatellites (2,335 perfect, 287 imperfect and 79 compounds. The 1,598 BAC end sequences 80 were grouped into 17 clusters containing 3 to 17 BAC end sequences per cluster. Microsatellites were present in 67 out of 300 sequences from microsatellite enriched libraries (55 perfect, 38 imperfect and 15 compounds. From all of the observed loci 55 were selected for having the longest perfect repeats and flanking regions that allowed the design of primers for PCR amplification. Additionally we describe two new polymorphic microsatellite loci.

  16. Structure-based virtual screening and characterization of a novel IL-6 antagonistic compound from synthetic compound database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang J

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Jing Wang,1,* Chunxia Qiao,1,* He Xiao,1 Zhou Lin,1 Yan Li,1 Jiyan Zhang,1 Beifen Shen,1 Tinghuan Fu,2 Jiannan Feng1 1Department of Molecular Immunology, Beijing Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, 2First Affiliated Hospital of PLA General Hospital, Beijing, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: According to the three-dimensional (3D complex structure of (hIL-6·hIL-6R·gp 1302 and the binding orientation of hIL-6, three compounds with high affinity to hIL-6R and bioactivity to block hIL-6 in vitro were screened theoretically from the chemical databases, including 3D-Available Chemicals Directory (ACD and MDL Drug Data Report (MDDR, by means of the computer-guided virtual screening method. Using distance geometry, molecular modeling and molecular dynamics trajectory analysis methods, the binding mode and binding energy of the three compounds were evaluated theoretically. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analysis demonstrated that all the three compounds could block IL-6 binding to IL-6R specifically. However, only compound 1 could effectively antagonize the function of hIL-6 and inhibit the proliferation of XG-7 cells in a dose-dependent manner, whereas it showed no cytotoxicity to SP2/0 or L929 cells. These data demonstrated that the compound 1 could be a promising candidate of hIL-6 antagonist. Keywords: virtual screening, structural optimization, human interlukin-6, small molecular antagonist, XG-7 cells, apoptosis

  17. Molecular characterization of soil organic matter from native vegetation–pasture–sugarcane transitions in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Dener Márcio da Silva, E-mail: denermsoliveira@gmail.com [University of São Paulo, Luiz de Queiroz College of Agriculture, Department of Soil Science, 11 Páduas Dias Avenue, 13418-900 Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Colorado State University, Natural Resource Ecology Laboratory, 1231 East Drive, 80523-1499 Fort Collins, CO (United States); Schellekens, Judith; Cerri, Carlos Eduardo Pellegrino [University of São Paulo, Luiz de Queiroz College of Agriculture, Department of Soil Science, 11 Páduas Dias Avenue, 13418-900 Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2016-04-01

    Replacing pastures (PA) with sugarcane (SG) has been deemed an agronomically feasible strategy for sugarcane expansion in Brazil. However, there are some uncertainties about the environmental impacts regarding this land use change (LUC), mainly related to soil organic matter (SOM), a key factor of environmental sustainability of Brazilian ethanol. LUC-related losses of SOM can overcome the C savings from biofuels. The molecular composition of SOM was evaluated to understand the C dynamics regarding LUC from PA to SG, using native vegetation (NV) as reference. Our study area was located in the south-central region of Brazil. Soil sampling was performed at three depths (0–0.1 m, 0.2–0.3 m and 0.9–1 m) in three representative sites with known LUC history and management practice since 1970. Pyrolysis–gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py–GC/MS) was chosen to study SOM chemistry. Content and isotopic composition of soil organic C and N were also determined. The LUC caused decreases on C and N contents and on δ{sup 13}C isotopic values. Depth was the major factor that influenced SOM composition, while the influence of LUC was mainly evident in surface soils and diminished rapidly with depth. The main difference in SOM composition undergoing the conversion PA-SG was a higher contribution from compounds associated to fresh litter inputs. The high contribution from fresh litter, having a relatively low mean residence time and increasing decomposition rates, is probably a major factor that drives C losses in areas undergoing sugarcane expansion. - Graphical abstract: We chose 3 sites in Brazil (1) and collected soil samples in areas undergoing LUC pasture–sugarcane (2) to evaluate SOM composition using Py–GC/MS (3). The LUC causes shifts on SOM signature (4), highlighting the increase of fresh litter compounds in sugarcane areas (5). - Highlights: • Effect of land use change (LUC) on SOM composition in Brazilian soils • Py-GC/MS of NaOH extractable SOM

  18. Community Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This excel spreadsheet is the result of merging at the port level of several of the in-house fisheries databases in combination with other demographic databases such...

  19. Biofuel Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biofuel Database (Web, free access)   This database brings together structural, biological, and thermodynamic data for enzymes that are either in current use or are being considered for use in the production of biofuels.

  20. Characterization of Rape Field Microwave Emission and Implications to Surface Soil Moisture Retrievals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Loew

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the course of Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS mission calibration and validation activities, a ground based L-band radiometer ELBARA II was situated at the test site Puch in Southern Germany in the Upper Danube Catchment. The experiment is described and the different data sets acquired are presented. The L-band microwave emission of the biosphere (L-MEB model that is also used in the SMOS L2 soil moisture algorithm is used to simulate the microwave emission of a winter oilseed rape field in Puch that was also observed by the radiometer. As there is a lack of a rape parameterization for L-MEB the SMOS default parameters for crops are used in a first step which does not lead to satisfying modeling results. Therefore, a new parameterization for L-MEB is developed that allows us to model the microwave emission of a winter oilseed rape field at the test site with better results. The soil moisture retrieval performance of the new parameterization is assessed in different retrieval configurations and the results are discussed. To allow satisfying results, the periods before and after winter have to be modeled with different parameter sets as the vegetation behavior is very different during these two development stages. With the new parameterization it is possible to retrieve soil moisture from multiangular brightness temperature data with a root mean squared error around 0.045–0.051 m³/m³ in a two parameter retrieval with soil moisture and roughness parameter Hr as free parameters.

  1. Characterization of microbial 'hot spots' in soils": Where are we, and where are we going?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baveye, Philippe C.

    2015-04-01

    Fifty years ago, microbiologists realized that significant progress in our understanding of microbial processes in soils required being able to measure various physical, chemical, and microbial parameters at the scale of microorganisms, i.e., at micrometric or even submicrometric scales, and to identify areas of particularly high microbial activity. Back then, this was only a dream, severely hampered by the crudeness of our measuring instruments. In the intervening years, however, amazing technological progress has transformed that old dream into reality. We are now able to quantify the physical and (bio)chemical environment of soil microorganisms at spatial scales that are commensurate with bacterial cells. In this invited presentation, I will provide an overview of the significant progress achieved in this field over the last few years, and mention a number of further technological advances that are likely to profoundly influence the nature of the research over the next decade. Technology must however remain a means to an end, and therefore it is important to firmly keep in mind that the goal of the research on understanding better how soil processes work at the microscale is to be ultimately in a position to predict the behavior of soils at scales that matter to society at large, for example in terms of food security or global climate change. In that context, part of the research has to focus on how we can upscale information about soil microbial hotspots to macroscopic scales and beyond. I will discuss where we stand on this crucial question, which remains largely open at the moment.

  2. Database Administrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Pam

    2010-01-01

    The Internet and electronic commerce (e-commerce) generate lots of data. Data must be stored, organized, and managed. Database administrators, or DBAs, work with database software to find ways to do this. They identify user needs, set up computer databases, and test systems. They ensure that systems perform as they should and add people to the…

  3. Radiological and hyperfine characterization of soils from the Northeastern region of the Province of Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montes, M. L.; Mercader, R. C.; Taylor, M. A.; Runco, J. [Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Instituto de Fisica La Plata - CONICET, Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas (Argentina); Imbellone, P. [Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Instituto de Geomorfologia y Suelos (Argentina); Rivas, P. C. [Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Instituto de Fisica La Plata - CONICET, Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias y Forestales (Argentina); Desimoni, J., E-mail: desimoni@fisica.unlp.edu.ar [Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Instituto de Fisica La Plata - CONICET, Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas (Argentina)

    2011-11-15

    The activity concentrations of both natural ({sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th chains and {sup 40}K) and anthropogenic ({sup 137}Cs) radionuclides down along the soil profile have been determined in soil samples collected from inland and coastal areas of the La Plata River, located in the Northeastern region of the Province of Buenos Aires, Argentina. These studies were complemented with {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy characterization, pH, texture and organic carbon content measurements. From Moessbauer results, the sample compositions differ from one area to the other. Spectra from both soil samples are dominated by the Fe{sup 3+ } paramagnetic signal. For soil samples from the coastal area, the {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} contribution is lower, Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} was not detected, and the relative areas of each spectral contribution are nearly constant with depth. For samples from the inland area, the Fe{sup 3+ } paramagnetic fraction increases up to 82%, mainly at the expense of the magnetically ordered phase. The main observed activity originates from the decay of {sup 40}K (540-750 Bq/kg), followed by {sup 238}U (60-92 Bq/kg) and {sup 232}Th (37-46 Bq/kg) chains. The activity of {sup 235}U was in all the cases lower than the detection limit (L{sub D} = 0.02 Bq/kg). The only determined anthropogenic nuclide was {sup 137}Cs, arising from the fallout of the Southern Hemisphere nuclear weapon tests. Three of the observed differences in the depth distributions can be described by the dispersion-convection model. A correlation between the natural nuclide activities and the Moessbauer relative fractions was found, whereas no correlation was found between the {sup 137}Cs profile and the relative fraction of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} or with other iron species.

  4. Characterization and selection of biochar for an efficient retention of tricyclazole in a flooded alluvial paddy soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García-Jaramillo, Manuel, E-mail: mgarcia@irnas.csic.es [Instituto de Recursos Naturales y Agrobiología de Sevilla (IRNAS-CSIC), P.O. Box 1052, 41080 Seville (Spain); Cox, Lucía; Knicker, Heike E.; Cornejo, Juan [Instituto de Recursos Naturales y Agrobiología de Sevilla (IRNAS-CSIC), P.O. Box 1052, 41080 Seville (Spain); Spokas, Kurt A. [United States Department of Agriculture–Agricultural Research Service, 1991 Upper Buford Circle, Saint Paul 55108, MN (United States); Hermosín, M.Carmen [Instituto de Recursos Naturales y Agrobiología de Sevilla (IRNAS-CSIC), P.O. Box 1052, 41080 Seville (Spain)

    2015-04-09

    Highlights: • Biochar CEC was inversely correlated with HTT. • Enhanced aromaticity was associated to an improved biochar adsorption of tricyclazole. • The SSA of the biochars was inversely correlated with DOC contents. • Adsorption of tricyclazole was related to high SSA and low DOC content of biochars. • The use of AC and biochar in conjunction provides the slow release of tricyclazole. - Abstract: Biochars, from different organic residues, are increasingly proposed as soil amendments for their agronomic and environmental benefits. A systematic detection method that correlates biochar properties to their abilities to adsorb organic compounds is still lacking. Seven biochars obtained after pyrolysis at different temperatures and from different feedstock (alperujo compost, rice hull, and woody debris), were characterized and tested to reveal potential remedial forms for pesticide capture in flooded soils. Biochar properties were determined by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, specific surface area (SSA) assessment and scanning electron microscopy. In addition, dissolved organic matter (DOM) from these biochars was extracted and quantified in order to evaluate the effect on pesticide sorption. The biochars from alperujo compost presented very high affinity to the fungicide tricyclazole (55.9, 83.5, and 90.3% for B1, B4, and B5, respectively). This affinity was positively correlated with the pyrolysis temperature, the pH, the increased SSA of the biochars, and the enhanced aromaticity. Sorptive capacities were negatively related to DOM contents. The amendment with a mixture of compost and biochar endows the alluvial soil with high sorptive properties (from K{sub fads(soil)} = 9.26 to K{sub fads(mixture)} = 17.89) without impeding the slow release of tricyclazole.

  5. Characterization of the potential mobilization of inorganic pollutants in polluted soils; Caracterisation de la mobilisation potentielle des polluants inorganiques dans les sols pollues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanchard, C.

    2000-03-01

    This work is made of 5 parts. The first chapter presents the regulatory aspects relative to the polluted sites and soils in France and in Europe in order to allow a better understanding of the stakes of this study. Chapter 2 proposes, first, a bibliographic synthesis of the hydro-mechanical and physico-chemical mechanisms controlling the transfer of pollutants in soils, and then, and exhaustive review of the laboratory tests that allow to evaluate the mobility of pollutants in soils. Chapter 3 is devoted to the experimental study of the interaction between a natural soil and 4 metals (As, Cr, Pb, Zn). It comprises the study of the adsorption-desorption kinetics and the implementation of adsorption-desorption isotherms. This chapter also introduces the notion of speciation (sequential extractions) and shows off the role played by the various constituents of the soil. An experiment of lead-humic acid equilibrium setting-up is proposed to evaluate the phenomenon of complexation on organic matter. Chapter 4 proposes to apply the selected laboratory tests to the previous natural soil artificially polluted in order to characterize the parameters necessary to obtain a mobility scale. The procedures are performed first, on a recently polluted soil and on the same soil after several months of aging. Chapter 5 applies the previously tested procedures to an industrial polluted soil (arsenic, chromium, lead, zinc) in order to propose an elaborated methodology for the evaluation of the mobility of inorganic pollutants. (J.S.)

  6. Isolation and characterization of alfalfa-nodulating rhizobia present in acidic soils of central argentina and uruguay

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Papa MF; Balague; Sowinski; Wegener; Segundo; Abarca; Toro; Niehaus; P hler A; Aguilar; Martinez-Drets; Lagares

    1999-04-01

    We describe the isolation and characterization of alfalfa-nodulating rhizobia from acid soils of different locations in Central Argentina and Uruguay. A collection of 465 isolates was assembled, and the rhizobia were characterized for acid tolerance. Growth tests revealed the existence of 15 acid-tolerant (AT) isolates which were able to grow at pH 5.0 and formed nodules in alfalfa with a low rate of nitrogen fixation. Analysis of those isolates, including partial sequencing of the genes encoding 16S rRNA and genomic PCR-fingerprinting with MBOREP1 and BOXC1 primers, demonstrated that the new isolates share a genetic background closely related to that of the previously reported Rhizobium sp. Or191 recovered from an acid soil in Oregon (B. D. Eardly, J. P. Young, and R. K. Selander, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 58:1809-1815, 1992). Growth curves, melanin production, temperature tolerance, and megaplasmid profiles of the AT isolates were all coincident with these characteristics in strain Or191. In addition to the ability of all of these strains to nodulate alfalfa (Medicago sativa) inefficiently, the AT isolates also nodulated the common bean and Leucaena leucocephala, showing an extended host range for nodulation of legumes. In alfalfa, the time course of nodule formation by the AT isolate LPU 83 showed a continued nodulation restricted to the emerging secondary roots, which was probably related to the low rate of nitrogen fixation by the largely ineffective nodules. Results demonstrate the complexity of the rhizobial populations present in the acidic soils represented by a main group of N2-fixing rhizobia and a second group of ineffective and less-predominant isolates related to the AT strain Or191.

  7. Representatividade e potencial de utilização de um banco de dados de solos do Brasil Coverage and potential use of a soil profile database in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Muniz Benedetti

    2008-12-01

    semi-árido (BS. De forma semelhante, a altitude de onde ocorrem as classes de solos foi também muito variável, mas os valores de quartis e mediana indicaram algumas faixas preferenciais. Assim, Cambissolos e Latossolos tendem a ocupar os níveis mais altos da paisagem brasileira, ao passo que 75 % dos perfis de Espodossolos e de Plintossolos situam-se em cotas inferiores a 200 m. Além das potencialidades de uso evidenciadas, a estruturação atual da base de dados permite outras aplicações para atender necessidades específicas de estudo, inclusive no que tange a investigações relacionadas ao sistema de classificação de solos que vem sendo desenvolvido no país.Brazilian soil science is outstanding in tropical soil research, with a wealth of information on the soils of the country. However, this knowledge is not readily available. The aim of this study was to increase the range of a national soil profile database, based on soil surveys of wide extent. The soil taxonomy was updated based on the latest version of the Brazilian Soil Classification System. The updated database was also evaluated for coverage and potential for quantitative analyses. For this purpose, the data were arranged in an electronic database and soil classification updated up to the fourth categorical level of the current taxonomic system. Mainly in the first three levels, the name updating procedure was reliable. Restrictions were observed at the fourth level (sub-group, as measured by the degree of confidence used for the assessment of taxonomic classification accuracy. By updating the soil profiles to the current and standard taxonomic criteria, the databases were internally standardized and became comparable to external data, e.g. spatial distribution, altitude and climate types. Profiles of the different taxonomic groups nationwide were well- represented, as well as most federal States. Furthermore, soil profiles from several taxonomic groups were related to the Köppen climate zones

  8. The StreamCat Dataset: Accumulated Attributes for NHDPlusV2 (Version 2.1) Catchments for the Conterminous United States: State Soil Geographic Database (STATSGO)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset (STATSGO_Set1 and STATSGO_Set2) represents the soil characteristics within individual, local NHDPlusV2 catchments and upstream, contributing watersheds...

  9. The StreamCat Dataset: Accumulated Attributes for NHDPlusV2 Catchments (Version 2.1) for the Conterminous United States: State Soil Geographic Database (STATSGO)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset (STATSGO_Set1 and STATSGO_Set2) represents the soil characteristics within individual, local NHDPlusV2 catchments and upstream, contributing watersheds...

  10. Surface Complexation Modeling in Variable Charge Soils: Charge Characterization by Potentiometric Titration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliano Marchi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Intrinsic equilibrium constants of 17 representative Brazilian Oxisols were estimated from potentiometric titration measuring the adsorption of H+ and OH− on amphoteric surfaces in suspensions of varying ionic strength. Equilibrium constants were fitted to two surface complexation models: diffuse layer and constant capacitance. The former was fitted by calculating total site concentration from curve fitting estimates and pH-extrapolation of the intrinsic equilibrium constants to the PZNPC (hand calculation, considering one and two reactive sites, and by the FITEQL software. The latter was fitted only by FITEQL, with one reactive site. Soil chemical and physical properties were correlated to the intrinsic equilibrium constants. Both surface complexation models satisfactorily fit our experimental data, but for results at low ionic strength, optimization did not converge in FITEQL. Data were incorporated in Visual MINTEQ and they provide a modeling system that can predict protonation-dissociation reactions in the soil surface under changing environmental conditions.

  11. Characterization of soil-cement bricks with incorporation of used foundry sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. F. Leonel

    Full Text Available Abstract In order to contribute to the sustainability of the foundry and construction industrial sectors, this work investigated the possibility of employing used foundry sand (UFS in soil-cement bricks. Modular bricks were prepared with percentages of 10 wt% cement, 0-25 wt% commercial sand, 0-65 wt% used foundry sand, 25-65 wt% clay, and 15-30 wt% gravel dust. A content of 10 wt% Portland cement was adopted to ensure economic feasibility, and gravel was used to improve mechanical strength. The modular bricks were tested to determine their technical properties. The interfaces between the constituent materials were observed by scanning electron microscopy. In durability tests, the bricks showed water absorption and weight loss in accordance with current technical standards. The addition of UFS together with gravel dust reduced water absorption and provided an acceptable level of mechanical resistance, in accordance with established soil-cement standards.

  12. Biomolecular characterization of diazotrophs isolated from the tropical soil in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naher, Umme Aminun; Othman, Radziah; Latif, Mohammad Abdul; Panhwar, Qurban Ali; Amaddin, Puteri Aminatulhawa Megat; Shamsuddin, Zulkifli H

    2013-08-30

    This study was conducted to evaluate selected biomolecular characteristics of rice root-associated diazotrophs isolated from the Tanjong Karang rice irrigation project area of Malaysia. Soil and rice plant samples were collected from seven soil series belonging to order Inceptisol (USDA soil taxonomy). A total of 38 diazotrophs were isolated using a nitrogen-free medium. The biochemical properties of the isolated bacteria, such as nitrogenase activity, indoleacetic acid (IAA) production and sugar utilization, were measured. According to a cluster analysis of Jaccard's similarity coefficients, the genetic similarities among the isolated diazotrophs ranged from 10% to 100%. A dendogram constructed using the unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) showed that the isolated diazotrophs clustered into 12 groups. The genomic DNA rep-PCR data were subjected to a principal component analysis, and the first four principal components (PC) accounted for 52.46% of the total variation among the 38 diazotrophs. The 10 diazotrophs that tested highly positive in the acetylene reduction assay (ARA) were identified as Bacillus spp. (9 diazotrophs) and Burkholderia sp. (Sb16) using the partial 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. In the analysis of the biochemical characteristics, three principal components were accounted for approximately 85% of the total variation among the identified diazotrophs. The examination of root colonization using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) proved that two of the isolated diazotrophs (Sb16 and Sb26) were able to colonize the surface and interior of rice roots and fixed 22%-24% of the total tissue nitrogen from the atmosphere. In general, the tropical soils (Inceptisols) of the Tanjong Karang rice irrigation project area in Malaysia harbor a diverse group of diazotrophs that exhibit a large variation of biomolecular characteristics.

  13. Biomolecular Characterization of Diazotrophs Isolated from the Tropical Soil in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulkifli H Shamsuddin

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate selected biomolecular characteristics of rice root-associated diazotrophs isolated from the Tanjong Karang rice irrigation project area of Malaysia. Soil and rice plant samples were collected from seven soil series belonging to order Inceptisol (USDA soil taxonomy. A total of 38 diazotrophs were isolated using a nitrogen-free medium. The biochemical properties of the isolated bacteria, such as nitrogenase activity, indoleacetic acid (IAA production and sugar utilization, were measured. According to a cluster analysis of Jaccard’s similarity coefficients, the genetic similarities among the isolated diazotrophs ranged from 10% to 100%. A dendogram constructed using the unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA showed that the isolated diazotrophs clustered into 12 groups. The genomic DNA rep-PCR data were subjected to a principal component analysis, and the first four principal components (PC accounted for 52.46% of the total variation among the 38 diazotrophs. The 10 diazotrophs that tested highly positive in the acetylene reduction assay (ARA were identified as Bacillus spp. (9 diazotrophs and Burkholderia sp. (Sb16 using the partial 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. In the analysis of the biochemical characteristics, three principal components were accounted for approximately 85% of the total variation among the identified diazotrophs. The examination of root colonization using scanning electron microscopy (SEM and transmission electron microscopy (TEM proved that two of the isolated diazotrophs (Sb16 and Sb26 were able to colonize the surface and interior of rice roots and fixed 22%–24% of the total tissue nitrogen from the atmosphere. In general, the tropical soils (Inceptisols of the Tanjong Karang rice irrigation project area in Malaysia harbor a diverse group of diazotrophs that exhibit a large variation of biomolecular characteristics.

  14. Isolation and characterization of metaldehyde‐degrading bacteria from domestic soils

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, John C.; Helgason, Thorunn; Sinclair, Chris J.; Moir, James W. B.

    2017-01-01

    Summary Metaldehyde is a common molluscicide, used to control slugs in agriculture and horticulture. It is resistant to breakdown by current water treatment processes, and its accumulation in drinking water sources leads to regular regulatory failures in drinking water quality. To address this problem, we isolated metaldehyde‐degrading microbes from domestic soils. Two distinct bacterial isolates were cultured, that were able to grow prototrophically using metaldehyde as sole carbon and energ...

  15. Characterization of Pu-contaminated soils from Nuclear Site 201 at the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.Y.; Tamura, T.; Larsen, I.L.

    1983-01-01

    Distribution and characteristics of Pu-bearing radioactive particles throughout five soil profiles from Nuclear Site (NS) 201 were investigated. Concentrations of /sup 239/ /sup 240/Pu and /sup 241/Am decreased with depth and most of the contamination was contained in the top 5 cm except in profile 4 where it extended to 10 cm. The mean activity ratio of /sup 239/ /sup 240/Pu to /sup 241/Am and its standard error were 5.8 +- 0.3 (N=42). Most of the total radioactivity of the soils was contributed by 0.25 to 2 mm sand size fraction which comprised 20 to 50% by weight of the soils. The radioactive particles in the 0.25 to 2 mm size fraction occurred as spherical glass particles or as glass coatings on sand particles. The glass coatings had gas voids in the matrix but were not as porous as the radioactive particles from NS 219. After impact grinding the >0.25-mm size fractions for one hour, 85% of the initial activity in a NS 201 sample remained with the particles on the 0.25 mm sieve, whereas in the NS 219 sample only 10% remained. The results show that the radioactive particles from NS 201 were much more stable against the impact grinding force than those from NS 219. Therefore, the NS 201 soils would be expected to have a lower probability of producing respirable-size radioactive particles by saltation during wind erosion. 19 references, 3 figures, 3 tables.

  16. Characterization and origin of organic and inorganic pollution in urban soils in Pisa (Tuscany, Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardelli, Roberto; Vanni, Giacomo; Marchini, Fausto; Saviozzi, Alessandro

    2017-10-12

    We assessed the quality of 31 urban soils in Pisa by analyzing total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs), Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn, and the platinum group elements (PGEs). The risk was evaluated by the geological accumulation index (I geo) and the enrichment factor (EF). Results were compared with those obtained from a non-urban site and with the quantitative limits fixed by Italian legislation. In nearly all the monitored sites, the legal limit for TPH of 60 mg/kg in residential areas was exceeded, indicating widespread and intense pollution throughout the entire city area. The I geo indicated no Cd, Cu, Mn, Ni, and Zn pollution and minimal Pb and Cr pollution due to anthropogenic enrichment. Legal Hg and Zn limits of 1 and 150 mg/kg, respectively, were exceeded in about 20% of sites; Cd (2 mg/kg), Cr (150 mg/kg), and Cu (120 mg/kg) in only one site; and the Ni legal limit of 120 mg/kg was never exceeded. Some urban soils showed a higher Hg level than the more restrictive legal limit of 5 mg/kg concerning areas for industrial use. Based on the soluble, exchangeable, and carbonate-bound fractions, Mn and Zn showed the highest mobility, suggesting a more potential risk of soil contamination than the other metals. The TPH and both Cr and Hg amounts were not correlated with any of the other monitored metals. The total contents of Cd, Pb, Zn, and Cu in soils were positively correlated with each other, suggesting a common origin from vehicular traffic. The PGE values (Pt and Pd) were below the detection limits in 75%-90% of the monitored areas, suggesting that their accumulation is at an early stage.

  17. Characterization of large-insert DNA libraries from soil for environmental genomic studies of Archaea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Treusch, Alexander H; Kletzin, Arnulf; Raddatz, Guenter

    2004-01-01

    Complex genomic libraries are increasingly being used to retrieve complete genes, operons or large genomic fragments directly from environmental samples, without the need to cultivate the respective microorganisms. We report on the construction of three large-insert fosmid libraries in total cove......, are presented and discussed. We thereby extend the genomic information of uncultivated crenarchaeota from soil and offer hints to specific metabolic traits present in this group....

  18. TECHNICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF ECO-COMPATIBLE PLASTIC FILMS FOR SOIL SOLARIZATION: FOUR YEARS OF EXPERIMENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Salvatore Margiotta

    2007-01-01

    Soil solarization relies on solar radiation being converted to heat for the killing of soilborne pathogens. On one hand, this technique can be considered as an environmentally-friendly way to manage soilborne pests, as an alternative of methyl bromide phased-out in 2005, than using chemicals. On the other hand, high employment of traditional plastic sheets in agriculture causes the production of enormous quantities of waste, whose inappropriate management might have negative effects on the en...

  19. Characterization of soil bacterial assemblies in Brazilian savanna-like vegetation reveals acidobacteria dominance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, Janaina F; de Castro, Alinne P; Costa, Marcos M C; Togawa, Roberto C; Júnior, Georgios J Pappas; Quirino, Betania F; Bustamante, Mercedes M C; Williamson, Lynn; Handelsman, Jo; Krüger, Ricardo H

    2012-10-01

    The Brazilian Cerrado is the second largest biome in Brazil and is considered a biodiversity hotspot. In this work, we compared the bacterial communities in Cerrado soil associated with four types of native vegetation (Cerrado Denso, Cerrado sensu stricto, Campo Sujo, and Mata de Galeria) by ribosomal RNA intergenic spacer analysis, terminal fragment restriction length polymorphism and pyrosequencing. The fingerprinting results were very similar. The bacterial communities of Cerrado Denso and Cerrado sensu stricto grouped together and were distinct from those in Campo Sujo and Mata de Galeria. Pyrosequencing generated approximately 40,000 16S rRNA gene sequences per sample and allowed the identification of 17 phyla in soil samples under Cerrado vegetation. Acidobacteria were dominant in all areas studied with a relative frequency of 40-47 %, followed closely by Proteobacteria accounting for 34-40 % of the sequences. Results from all molecular techniques used suggested that the bacterial communities of Cerrado sensu stricto and Cerrado Denso are very similar to each other, while Campo Sujo forms a separate group, and Mata de Galeria is the most distinct with higher species richness. This is the first extensive study of native Cerrado soil microbiota, an important but endangered biome.

  20. Characterization on the rhizoremediation of petroleum contaminated soil as affected by different influencing factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, J.; Wang, R.; Niu, X.; Wang, M.; Zhou, Q.

    2010-06-01

    In this paper, pilot experiments were conducted to analyze the effect of different environmental factors on the rhizoremediation of petroleum contaminated soil. Different plant species (cotton, ryegrass, tall fescue, and alfalfa), addition of fertilizer, different concentration of TPH in soil, bioaugmentation with effective microbial agent (EMA) and PGPR, and remediation time were tested as influencing factors during bioremediation process of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH). The result shows that the remediation process can be enhanced by different plants species with the following order: tall fescue > ryegrass > alfalfa > cotton. The degradation rate of TPH increased with increased fertilizer addition and moderate level of 20 g/m2 urea is best for both plant growth and TPH remediation. High TPH content is toxic to plant growth and inhibits the degradation of petroleum hydrocarbon with 5% TPH content showing the best degradation result in soil planted with ryegrass. Bioaugmentation with different bacteria and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) showed the following results for TPH degradation: cotton + EMA + PGPR > cotton + EMA > cotton + PGPR > cotton > control. Rapid degradation of TPH was found at the initial period of remediation caused by the activity of microorganisms, continuous increase was found from 30-90 d period and slow increase was found from 90 to 150 d. The result suggests that rhizoremediation can be enhanced with the proper control of different influencing factors that affect both plant growth and microbial activity in the rhizosphere environment.

  1. Characterization of a Polyacrylamide Solution Used for Remediation of Petroleum Contaminated Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jongwon Jung

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Biopolymers are viewed as effective and eco-friendly agents in soil modification. This study focuses on the wettability analysis of polyacrylamide (PAM solutions for soil remediation. The contact angle, surface tension, and viscosity of PAM solutions were experimentally evaluated in air- and decane-biopolymer solution systems. Furthermore, a micromodel was used to investigate the pore-scale displacement phenomena during the injection of the PAM solution in decane and or air saturated pores. The contact angle of the PAM solution linearly increases with increasing concentration in air but not in decane. The surface tension between the PAM solution and air decreases at increasing concentration. The viscosity of the PAM solution is highly dependent on the concentration of the solution, shear rate, and temperature. Low flow rate and low concentration result in a low displacement ratio level, which is defined as the volume ratio between the injected and the defended fluids in the pores. The displacement ratio is higher for PAM solutions than distilled water; however, a higher concentration does not necessarily guarantees a higher displacement ratio. Soil remediation could be conducted cost-efficiently at high flow rates but with moderate concentration levels.

  2. Chemical characterization of microbial-dominated soil organic matter in the Garwood Valley, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiaojuan; Simpson, André J.; Gregorich, Edward G.; Elberling, Bo; Hopkins, David W.; Sparrow, Ashley D.; Novis, Philip M.; Greenfield, Lawrence G.; Simpson, Myrna J.

    2010-11-01

    Despite its harsh environmental conditions, terrestrial Antarctica contains a relatively large microbial biomass. Natural abundance carbon and nitrogen stable isotope signatures of organic materials in the dry valleys indicate mixed provenance of the soil organic matter (SOM) with varying proportions of contributions from lichens, mosses, lake-derived algae and cyanobacteria. Here we employed two complementary analytical techniques, biomarker measurements by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and solution-state 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, to provide further information at a molecular-level about the composition and possible source of SOM in the Garwood Valley, Antarctica. The predominance of branched alkanes and short-chain lipids in the solvent extracts indicates that the primary contribution to the SOM was microbial-derived. Chemical structures in the NaOH extracts from soils were also dominated by amide, peptides, and a CH 3-dominating aliphatic region that were characteristic of microbial signatures. Furthermore, the SOM in the Garwood Valley contained compounds that were different from those in the cyanobacteria-dominated mat from a nearby lake (including monoethyl alkanes and enriched side-chain protons). This observation suggests that easily degradable carbon sources from the nearby lake did not dominate the SOM, which is consistent with a fast turnover of the mat-derived organic matter found in the valley. This study highlights the important role of native soil microbes in the carbon transformation and biogeochemistry in terrestrial Antarctica.

  3. Characterization of the N2O-producing soil bacterium Rhizobium azooxidifex sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrendt, Undine; Kämpfer, Peter; Glaeser, Stefanie P; Augustin, Jürgen; Ulrich, Andreas

    2016-06-01

    In the context of studying the bacterial community involved in nitrogen transformation processes in arable soils exposed to different extents of erosion and sedimentation in a long-term experiment (CarboZALF), a strain was isolated that reduced nitrate to nitrous oxide without formation of molecular nitrogen. The presence of the functional gene nirK, encoding the respiratory copper-containing nitrite reductase, and the absence of the nitrous oxide reductase gene nosZ indicated a truncated denitrification pathway and that this bacterium may contribute significantly to the formation of the important greenhouse gas N2O. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence and the housekeeping genes recA and atpD demonstrated that the investigated soil isolate belongs to the genus Rhizobium. The closest phylogenetic neighbours were the type strains of Rhizobium. subbaraonis and Rhizobium. halophytocola. The close relationship with R. subbaraonis was reflected by similarity analysis of the recA and atpD genes and their amino acid positions. DNA-DNA hybridization studies revealed genetic differences at the species level, which were substantiated by analysis of the whole-cell fatty acid profile and several distinct physiological characteristics. Based on these results, it was concluded that the soil isolate represents a novel species of the genus Rhizobium, for which the name Rhizobium azooxidifex sp. nov. (type strain Po 20/26T=DSM 100211T=LMG 28788T) is proposed.

  4. Alaska Geochemical Database Version 2.0 (AGDB2) - Including "Best Value" Data Compilations for Geochemical Data for Rock, Sediment, Soil, Mineral, and Concentrate Sample Media

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Alaska Geochemical Database Version 2.0 (AGDB2) contains new geochemical data compilations in which each geologic material sample has one "best value"...

  5. Exploiting EST databases for the development and characterization of EST-SSR markers in castor bean (Ricinus communis L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Lijun; Yang, Chun; Tian, Bo; Yang, Jun-Bo; Liu, Aizhong

    2010-12-16

    The castor bean (Ricinus communis L.), a monotypic species in the spurge family (Euphorbiaceae, 2n = 20), is an important non-edible oilseed crop widely cultivated in tropical, sub-tropical and temperate countries for its high economic value. Because of the high level of ricinoleic acid (over 85%) in its seed oil, the castor bean seed derivatives are often used in aviation oil, lubricants, nylon, dyes, inks, soaps, adhesive and biodiesel. Due to lack of efficient molecular markers, little is known about the population genetic diversity and the genetic relationships among castor bean germplasm. Efficient and robust molecular markers are increasingly needed for breeding and improving varieties in castor bean. The advent of modern genomics has produced large amounts of publicly available DNA sequence data. In particular, expressed sequence tags (ESTs) provide valuable resources to develop gene-associated SSR markers. In total, 18,928 publicly available non-redundant castor bean EST sequences, representing approximately 17.03 Mb, were evaluated and 7732 SSR sites in 5,122 ESTs were identified by data mining. Castor bean exhibited considerably high frequency of EST-SSRs. We developed and characterized 118 polymorphic EST-SSR markers from 379 primer pairs flanking repeats by screening 24 castor bean samples collected from different countries. A total of 350 alleles were identified from 118 polymorphic SSR loci, ranging from 2-6 per locus (A) with an average of 2.97. The EST-SSR markers developed displayed moderate gene diversity (He) with an average of 0.41. Genetic relationships among 24 germplasms were investigated using the genotypes of 350 alleles, showing geographic pattern of genotypes across genetic diversity centers of castor bean. Castor bean EST sequences exhibited considerably high frequency of SSR sites, and were rich resources for developing EST-SSR markers. These EST-SSR markers would be particularly useful for both genetic mapping and population structure

  6. Microbiological characterization of vegetables and their rhizosphere soil in Eastern Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kłapeć, Teresa; Wójcik-Fatla, Angelina; Cholewa, Alicja; Cholewa, Grażyna; Dutkiewicz, Jacek

    2016-12-23

    The aim of this study was to investigate the bacteriological quality of 5 kinds of vegetables (lettuce, dill, radish, beetroot, carrot) and their rhizosphere soil, originating from conventional farms located in the Lublin Province of Eastern Poland. A total number of 35 samples of fresh vegetables (FV) taken immediately from soil, 35 samples of soil from rhizosphere of these vegetables (SR) and 35 samples of vegetables sold at retail in the markets in Lublin (VR) were examined. The samples were analysed for the content of: aerobic mesophilic bacteria (AMB) grown at 30°C and 37°C, Gram-negative bacteria of Enterobacteriaceae family, faecal coliform (FC) bacteria, Salmonella spp., and Clostridium perfringens. Median AMB values determined at 30°C for FV, SR and VR were 5.27, 5.00, and 5.00 log10 CFU g-1 , respectively, being significantly greater compared to those recorded at 37°C. The exceeding of the threshold value of 6.0 log10 CFU g-1 proposed by Gelosa (1998) was noted only in 5 FV samples grown at 30°C (14.3%), and in 3 FV samples grown at 37°C (8.6%). The threshold value was never exceeded in SR and VR samples. Median concentrations of Enterobacteriaceae determined for FV, SR and VR were 4.03, 3.87, and 3.04 log10 CFU g-1, respectively. Eleven species of Enterobacteriaceae were identified in the FV, SR and VR samples. The percent of samples containing Escherichia coli was greatest for VR (22.9%), smaller for FV (17.1%) and smallest for SR (5.7%). The median concentrations of the faecal coliform bacteria (FC), determined by culture at 44°C, were low, amounting to 1.000 log10 CFU g-1 for FV and SR and 0.00 for VR. All examined vegetable and soil samples tested negative for the presence of Salmonella. The median concentrations of Clostridium perfringens were low, amounting to 0.00 log10 CFU g-1 for all categories of samples. This bacterium was relatively common in soil samples with the prevalence of 40.0%, but very rare in vegetable samples (occurring in 5

  7. Identification of hydrologic and geochemical pathways using high frequency sampling, REE aqueous sampling and soil characterization at Koiliaris Critical Zone Observatory, Crete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moraetis, Daniel, E-mail: moraetis@mred.tuc.gr [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Crete, 73100 Chania (Greece); Stamati, Fotini; Kotronakis, Manolis; Fragia, Tasoula; Paranychnianakis, Nikolaos; Nikolaidis, Nikolaos P. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Crete, 73100 Chania (Greece)

    2011-06-15

    Highlights: > Identification of hydrological and geochemical pathways within a complex watershed. > Water increased N-NO{sub 3} concentration and E.C. values during flash flood events. > Soil degradation and impact on water infiltration within the Koiliaris watershed. > Analysis of Rare Earth Elements in water bodies for identification of karstic water. - Abstract: Koiliaris River watershed is a Critical Zone Observatory that represents severely degraded soils due to intensive agricultural activities and biophysical factors. It has typical Mediterranean soils under the imminent threat of desertification which is expected to intensify due to projected climate change. High frequency hydro-chemical monitoring with targeted sampling for Rare Earth Elements (REE) analysis of different water bodies and geochemical characterization of soils were used for the identification of hydrologic and geochemical pathways. The high frequency monitoring of water chemical data highlighted the chemical alterations of water in Koiliaris River during flash flood events. Soil physical and chemical characterization surveys were used to identify erodibility patterns within the watershed and the influence of soils on surface and ground water chemistry. The methodology presented can be used to identify the impacts of degraded soils to surface and ground water quality as well as in the design of methods to minimize the impacts of land use practices.

  8. Exploiting EST databases for the development and characterization of EST-SSR markers in castor bean (Ricinus communis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Jun-Bo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The castor bean (Ricinus communis L., a monotypic species in the spurge family (Euphorbiaceae, 2n = 20, is an important non-edible oilseed crop widely cultivated in tropical, sub-tropical and temperate countries for its high economic value. Because of the high level of ricinoleic acid (over 85% in its seed oil, the castor bean seed derivatives are often used in aviation oil, lubricants, nylon, dyes, inks, soaps, adhesive and biodiesel. Due to lack of efficient molecular markers, little is known about the population genetic diversity and the genetic relationships among castor bean germplasm. Efficient and robust molecular markers are increasingly needed for breeding and improving varieties in castor bean. The advent of modern genomics has produced large amounts of publicly available DNA sequence data. In particular, expressed sequence tags (ESTs provide valuable resources to develop gene-associated SSR markers. Results In total, 18,928 publicly available non-redundant castor bean EST sequences, representing approximately 17.03 Mb, were evaluated and 7732 SSR sites in 5,122 ESTs were identified by data mining. Castor bean exhibited considerably high frequency of EST-SSRs. We developed and characterized 118 polymorphic EST-SSR markers from 379 primer pairs flanking repeats by screening 24 castor bean samples collected from different countries. A total of 350 alleles were identified from 118 polymorphic SSR loci, ranging from 2-6 per locus (A with an average of 2.97. The EST-SSR markers developed displayed moderate gene diversity (He with an average of 0.41. Genetic relationships among 24 germplasms were investigated using the genotypes of 350 alleles, showing geographic pattern of genotypes across genetic diversity centers of castor bean. Conclusion Castor bean EST sequences exhibited considerably high frequency of SSR sites, and were rich resources for developing EST-SSR markers. These EST-SSR markers would be particularly

  9. Soil Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killham, Ken

    1994-04-01

    Soil Ecology is designed to meet the increasing challenge faced by today's environmental scientists, ecologists, agriculturalists, and biotechnologists for an integrated approach to soil ecology. It emphasizes the interrelations among plants, animals, and microbes, by first establishing the fundamental physical and chemical properties of the soil habitat and then functionally characterizing the major components of the soil biota and some of their most important interactions. The fundamental principles underpinning soil ecology are established and this then enables an integrated approach to explore and understand the processes of soil nutrient (carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus) cycling and the ecology of extreme soil conditions such as soil-water stress. Two of the most topical aspects of applied soil ecology are then selected. First, the ecology of soil pollution is examined, focusing on acid deposition and radionuclide pollution. Second, manipulation of soil ecology through biotechnology is discussed, illustrating the use of pesticides and microbial inocula in soils and pointing toward the future by considering the impact of genetically modified inocula on soil ecology.

  10. CHARACTERIZATION OF SOIL IN AN AREA SUBJECT TO SPILLS RESULTING FROM LANDFILL LEACHATE

    OpenAIRE

    Kemerich, Pedro Daniel da Cunha; Borba, Willian Fernando de; Barros, Guilherme; Gerhardt, Ademir Eloi; Flores, Carlos Eduardo Balestrin; Schwaab, Eduardo Dalvani; Cardozo, Bruna; Ucker, Fernando Ernesto

    2014-01-01

    http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/2236130810939Population growth and consumerism in contemporary civilizations created, make the volume of waste generated is ever increasing, there is increasingly a need to give a correct destination of those materials that are discarded. Landfills are a counterpoint to the old way of disposal of solid waste, the landfill. With the major differences in soil sealing and coverage of periodic layers of trash with a layer of earth. Leaching and decomposition are natural ...

  11. Characterization of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria isolated from polluted soils and containing 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belimov, A A; Safronova, V I; Sergeyeva, T A; Egorova, T N; Matveyeva, V A; Tsyganov, V E; Borisov, A Y; Tikhonovich, I A; Kluge, C; Preisfeld, A; Dietz, K J; Stepanok, V V

    2001-07-01

    Fifteen bacterial strains containing 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase were isolated from the rhizoplane of pea (Pisum sativum L.) and Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.) grown in different soils and a long-standing sewage sludge contaminated with heavy metals. The isolated strains were characterized and assigned to various genera and species, such as Pseudomonas brassicacearum, Pseudomonas marginalis, Pseudomonas oryzihabitans, Pseudomonas putida, Pseudomonas sp., Alcaligenes xylosoxidans, Alcaligenes sp., Variovorax paradoxus, Bacillus pumilus, and Rhodococcus sp. by determination of 16S rRNA gene sequences. The root elongation of Indian mustard and rape (Brassica napus var. oleifera L.) germinating seedlings was stimulated by inoculation with 8 and 13 isolated strains, respectively. The bacteria were tolerant to cadmium toxicity and stimulated root elongation of rape seedlings in the presence of 300 microM CdCl2 in the nutrient solution. The effect of ACC-utilising bacteria on root elongation correlated with the impact of aminoethoxyvinylglycine and silver ions, chemical inhibitors of ethylene biosynthesis. A significant improvement in the growth of rape caused by inoculation with certain selected strains was also observed in pot experiments, when the plants were cultivated in cadmium-supplemented soil. The biomass of pea cv. Sparkle and its ethylene sensitive mutant E2 (sym5), in particular, was increased through inoculation with certain strains of ACC-utilising bacteria in pot experiments in quartz sand culture. The beneficial effect of the bacteria on plant growth varied significantly depending on individual bacterial strains, plant genotype, and growth conditions. The results suggest that plant growth promoting rhizobacteria containing ACC deaminase are present in various soils and offer promise as a bacterial inoculum for improvement of plant growth, particularly under unfavourable environmental conditions.

  12. Isolation and characterization of entomopathogenic bacteria from soil samples from the western region of Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Aileen; Rodríguez, Graciela; Bruzón, Rosa Y; Díaz, Manuel; Companionis, Ariamys; Menéndez, Zulema; Gato, René

    2013-06-01

    The use of insect pathogens is a viable alternative for insect control because of their relative specificity and lower environmental impact. The search for wild strains against dipterans could have an impact on mosquito control programs. We have made an extensive screening of soil in western Cuba to find bacteria with larvicidal activity against mosquitoes. A total of 150 soil samples were collected and isolates were identifying using the API 50 CHB gallery. Phenotypic characteristics were analyzed by hierarchical ascending classification. Quantitative bioassays were conducted under laboratory conditions following the World Health Organization protocol in order to ascertain the toxicity and efficacy of isolates. The protein profiles of the crystal components were determined by SDS-PAGE. Eight hundred and eighty-one bacterial isolates were obtained, and 13 isolates with entomopathogenic activity were isolated from nine samples. Nine isolates displayed higher entomopathogenic activity against both Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. aegypti compared with the reference strain 266/2. All toxic isolates showed higher biological potency than the 266/2 strain. These isolates with high entomopathogenic activity displayed a protein pattern similar to the B. thuringiensis var. israelensis IPS-82 and 266/2 strains. These results are a valuable tool for the control of Diptera of medical importance. © 2013 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  13. Isolation and characterization of metaldehyde-degrading bacteria from domestic soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, John C; Helgason, Thorunn; Sinclair, Chris J; Moir, James W B

    2017-11-01

    Metaldehyde is a common molluscicide, used to control slugs in agriculture and horticulture. It is resistant to breakdown by current water treatment processes, and its accumulation in drinking water sources leads to regular regulatory failures in drinking water quality. To address this problem, we isolated metaldehyde-degrading microbes from domestic soils. Two distinct bacterial isolates were cultured, that were able to grow prototrophically using metaldehyde as sole carbon and energy source. One isolate belonged to the genus Acinetobacter (strain designation E1) and the other isolate belonged to the genus Variovorax (strain designation E3). Acinetobacter E1 was able to degrade metaldehyde to a residual concentration residual metaldehyde remained at the end of growth of the Variovorax E3 strain. Biological degradation of metaldehyde using these bacterial strains or approaches that allow in situ amplification of metaldehyde-degrading bacteria may represent a way forward for dealing with metaldehyde contamination in soils and water. © 2017 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  14. TECHNICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF ECO-COMPATIBLE PLASTIC FILMS FOR SOIL SOLARIZATION: FOUR YEARS OF EXPERIMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Margiotta

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Soil solarization relies on solar radiation being converted to heat for the killing of soilborne pathogens. On one hand, this technique can be considered as an environmentally-friendly way to manage soilborne pests, as an alternative of methyl bromide phased-out in 2005, than using chemicals. On the other hand, high employment of traditional plastic sheets in agriculture causes the production of enormous quantities of waste, whose inappropriate management might have negative effects on the environment. In order to determine a reduction of the charge of plastic waste and to facilitate the waste disposal, one of the most interesting approaches, from an environmental point of view, lies in the location of innovatory plastic films such as co-extruded ultrathin films, which are able to reduce the plastic quantity to be managed, and biodegradable laminates, which after a first usage, will spontaneously start up a degradation process that avoids their collection and their consequent disposal. Beside the ecological proprieties of these innovative films, it is necessary to study their technical and agronomical behavior in order to determine their efficiency and the possibility to be used in place of the traditional plastic films. This paper represents a review of the researches carrier out by the Technical Economics Department of the University of Basilicata (Italy in the last years (1999, 2000, 2002 and 2003 on the technical performances of some innovative plastic films used for soil solarization.

  15. Biological soil crusts from arctic environments: characterization of the prokaryotic community and exopolysaccharidic matrix analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugnai, Gianmarco; Ventura, Stefano; Mascalchi, Cristina; Rossi, Federico; Adessi, Alessandra; De Philippis, Roberto

    2015-04-01

    Biological soil crusts (BSCs) are highly specialized topsoil microbial communities widespread in many ecosystems, from deserts to polar regions. BSCs play an active role in promoting soil fertility and plant growth. In Arctic environments BSCs are involved in promoting primary succession after deglaciation, increasing moisture availability and nutrient immission at the topsoil. The organisms residing on BSCs produce extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) in response to the environmental characteristics, thus contributing to the increase of constraint tolerance. The aim of this study was to investigate the taxonomic diversity of microbial communities, together with the analysis of the chemical features of EPS, from BSC samples collected in several sites near Ny-Ǻlesund, Norway. The phylogenetic composition of the prokaryotic community was assessed through a metagenomic approach. Exopolysaccharidic fractions were quantified using ion-exchange chromatography to determine the monosaccharidic composition. Size exclusion chromatography was used to determine the distribution of the EPS fractions. Abundance of phototrophic microorganisms, which are known to contribute to EPS excretion, was also evaluated. Results underlined the complexity of the microbial communities, showing a high level of diversity within the BSC sampled analyzed. The analysis of the polysaccharide composition displayed a high number of constituent sugars; the matrix was found to be constituted by two main fractions, a higher molecular weight (2 10 exp(6) Da) and a lower molecular weight fraction (< 100 10 exp(3) Da). This study presents novel data concerning EPS of BSCs matrix in relationship with the microbial communities in cold environments.

  16. Chemical and radiochemical characterization of depleted uranium (DU) in Kosovo soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desideri, Donatella; Meli, Maria Assunta; Roselli, Carla; Testa, Corrado

    2002-04-01

    As is well known ammunitions containing depleted uranium (DU) were used by NATO during the Balkan war. The paper deals with the determination of uranium alpha emitting radiosotopes in Kosovo soils by chemical separation and alpha spectrometry. The samples were collected by CISAM (Centro Interforze Studi ed Applicazioni Militari, S. Piero a Grado, Livorno) in the period November 1999-April 2000. The DU distribution in soil appeared very disomogeneous; the isotope weight percentages for U-238, U-235 and U-234 resulted 99.76, 0.24 and 7.24.10(-4) respectively; consequently the activity distribution was 86.42%, 1.31%, 11.63% and the isotope ratios were 1.52.10(-2) and 0.134 for U-235/U-238 and U-234/U-238 showing clearly the presence of DU. A small peak at 4.49 MeV (U-236) in the alpha spectrum indicated that the used DU was the by-product of exhausted uranium reprocessing. In order to determine the chemical and physiological solubility of uranium a fractionation study was carried out by using the Tessier method: 55% of uranium showed a fair solubility, but 45% was solubilized only by 8 M HNO3.

  17. Characterization of Crude Oil Degrading Bacteria Isolated from Contaminated Soils Surrounding Gas Stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Shanab, Reda A I; Eraky, Mohamed; Haddad, Ahmed M; Abdel-Gaffar, Abdel-Rahman B; Salem, Ahmed M

    2016-11-01

    A total of twenty bacterial cultures were isolated from hydrocarbon contaminated soil. Of the 20 isolates, RAM03, RAM06, RAM13, and RAM17 were specifically chosen based on their relatively higher growth on salt medium amended with 4 % crude oil, emulsion index, surface tension, and degradation percentage. These bacterial cultures had 16S rRNA gene sequences that were most similar to Ochrobactrum cytisi (RAM03), Ochrobactrum anthropi (RAM06 and RAM17), and Sinorhizobium meliloti (RAM13) with 96 %, 100 % and 99 %, and 99 % similarity. The tested strains revealed a promising potential for bioremediation of petroleum oil contamination as they could degrade >93 % and 54 % of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) in a liquid medium and soil amended with 4 % crude oil, respectively, after 30 day incubation. These bacteria could effectively remove both aliphatic and aromatic petroleum hydrocarbons. In conclusion, these strains could be considered as good prospects for their application in bioremediation of hydrocarbon contaminated environment.

  18. Effect of Spatial Resolution for Characterizing Soil Properties from Imaging Spectrometer Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, D.; Kumar, P.; Greenberg, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    The feasibility of quantifying soil constituents over large areas using airborne hyperspectral data [0.35 - 2.5 μm] in an ensemble bootstrapping lasso algorithmic framework has been demonstrated previously [1]. However the effects of coarsening the spatial resolution of hyperspectral data on the quantification of soil constituents are unknown. We use Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data collected at 7.6m resolution over Birds Point New Madrid (BPNM) floodway for up-scaling and generating multiple coarser resolution datasets including the 60m Hyperspectral Infrared Imager (HyspIRI) like data. HyspIRI is a proposed visible shortwave/thermal infrared mission, which will provide global data over a spectral range of 0.35 - 2.5μm at a spatial resolution of 60m. Our results show that the lasso method, which is based on point scale observational data, is scalable. We found consistent good model performance (R2) values (0.79 10.1109/TGRS.2015.2417547.

  19. Spectroscopic characterization of organic matter of a soil and vinasse mixture during aerobic or anaerobic incubation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doelsch, Emmanuel; Masion, Armand; Cazevieille, Patrick; Condom, Nicolas

    2009-06-01

    Mineralization potentials are often used to classify organic wastes. These methods involve measuring CO(2) production during batch experiments, so variations in chemical compounds are not addressed. Moreover, the physicochemical conditions are not monitored during the reactions. The present study was designed to address these deficiencies. Incubations of a mixture of soil and waste (vinasse at 20% dry matter from a fermentation industry) were conducted in aerobic and anaerobic conditions, and liquid samples obtained by centrifugation were collected at 2h, 1d and 28 d. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) patterns highlighted that: there was a "soil effect" which increased organic matter (OM) degradation in all conditions compared to vinasse incubated alone; and OM degradation was faster under aerobic conditions since 500 mgkg(-1) of C remained after aerobic incubation, as compared to 4000 mgkg(-1) at the end of the anaerobic incubation period. No changes were detected by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) between 2h and 1d incubation. At 28 days incubation, the FTIR signal of the aerobic samples was deeply modified, thus confirming the high OM degradation. Under anaerobic conditions, the main polysaccharide contributions (nu(C-O)) disappeared at 1000 and 1200 cm(-1), as also confirmed by the (13)C NMR findings. Under aerobic incubation, a 50% decrease in the polysaccharide proportion was observed. Under anaerobic conditions, significant chemical modifications of the organic fraction were detected, namely formation of low molecular weight organic acids.

  20. Molecular characterization of biochars and their influence on microbiological properties of soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chintala, Rajesh; Schumacher, Thomas E; Kumar, Sandeep; Malo, Douglas D; Rice, James A; Bleakley, Bruce; Chilom, Gabriela; Clay, David E; Julson, James L; Papiernik, Sharon K; Gu, Zheng Rong

    2014-08-30

    The tentative connection between the biochar surface chemical properties and their influence on microbially mediated mineralization of C, N, and S with the help of enzymes is not well established. This study was designed to investigate the effect of different biomass conversion processes (microwave pyrolysis, carbon optimized gasification, and fast pyrolysis using electricity) on the composition and surface chemistry of biochar materials produced from corn stover (Zea mays L.), switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), and Ponderosa pine wood residue (Pinus ponderosa Lawson and C. Lawson) and determine the effect of biochars on mineralization of C, N, and S and associated soil enzymatic activities including esterase (fluorescein diacetate hydrolase, FDA), dehydrogenase (DHA), β-glucosidase (GLU), protease (PROT), and aryl sulfatase (ARSUL) in two different soils collected from footslope (Brookings) and crest (Maddock) positions of a landscape. Chemical properties of biochar materials produced from different batches of gasification process were fairly consistent. Biochar materials were found to be highly hydrophobic (low H/C values) with high aromaticity, irrespective of biomass feedstock and pyrolytic process. The short term incubation study showed that biochar had negative effects on microbial activity (FDA and DHA) and some enzymes including β-glucosidase and protease. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Identification and characterization of tebuconazole transformation products in soil by combining suspect screening and molecular typology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storck, Veronika; Lucini, Luigi; Mamy, Laure; Ferrari, Federico; Papadopoulou, Evangelia S; Nikolaki, Sofia; Karas, Panagiotis A; Servien, Remi; Karpouzas, Dimitrios G; Trevisan, Marco; Benoit, Pierre; Martin-Laurent, Fabrice

    2016-01-01

    Pesticides generate transformation products (TPs) when they are released into the environment. These TPs may be of ecotoxicological importance. Past studies have demonstrated how difficult it is to predict the occurrence of pesticide TPs and their environmental risk. The monitoring approaches mostly used in current regulatory frameworks target only known ecotoxicologically relevant TPs. Here, we present a novel combined approach which identifies and categorizes known and unknown pesticide TPs in soil by combining suspect screening time-of-flight mass spectrometry with in silico molecular typology. We used an empirical and theoretical pesticide TP library for compound identification by both non-target and target time-of-flight (tandem) mass spectrometry, followed by structural proposition through a molecular structure correlation program. In silico molecular typology was then used to group TPs according to common molecular descriptors and to indirectly elucidate their environmental parameters by analogy to known pesticide compounds with similar molecular descriptors. This approach was evaluated via the identification of TPs of the triazole fungicide tebuconazole occurring in soil during a field dissipation study. Overall, 22 empirical and 12 yet unknown TPs were detected, and categorized into three groups with defined environmental properties. This approach combining suspect screening time-of-flight mass spectrometry with molecular typology could be extended to other organic pollutants and used to rationalize the choice of TPs to be investigated towards a more comprehensive environmental risk assessment scheme. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Soil Organic Matter Mean Residence Time Measurement: Characterization of Analyitical and Numerical Approaches for the Bombspike Model Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzaioli, F.; Lubritto, C.; Del Galdo, I.; D'Onofrio, A.; Cotrufo, M.; Terrasi, F.

    2008-12-01

    Anthropogenic actions, fossil fuel use and land use change, are drastically altering the global carbon cycle. CO2 in the atmosphere, the most sensitive compartment of the entire cycle, has never been exceeded in the last 650 ka. Terrestrial ecosystems preserve in the soil organic matter(SOM) 1600 PgC, an amount of C twice with respect to the atmosphere. The amounts of carbon in SOM, its exchange fluxes with the atmosphere, the observed sequestering times(ranging from years to centuries)and the possibility of regulation of C in future land management, has led the scientific community to look at a more precise soil C cycle. Recent studies pointed out how, because of the multi compartment nature of soils, SOM cannot be considered as a homogeneous reservoir. The coexistence of several phases in the soil compartment is evidenced by the presence of different SOM carbon pools (fractions) each one characterized by a homogeneous C mean residence time. Considering SOM as a composite compartment drastically increases difficulties in the methodological approach to the study of these pools resulting in complex feedback responses to changing climate conditions. Atmospheric tests of nuclear weapons (banned in 1963 after the test ban treaty) enriched atmospheric 14CO2 doubling its background levels. The signal (bombspike) decreases over time, with an exponential trend (annual rate of 0.4%), because of the net uptake of CO2 from oceans and vegetation; and the dilution caused by fossil CO2 releases. Observed bombspike decrease rate allows dating of atmospheric CO2 with a precision of ± 1 year. Once globally distributed in the atmosphere the bombcarbon signal becomes a SOM marker allowing a sensitive mean residence time measurement of C by means of dynamic models simulating its fate in the soil (bombspike models). Bombspike models rely on the SOM box model, in which first derivative of soil C content over time is expressed by the net balance between net inputs of C and outputs

  3. Hydrodispersive characterization of a sandy porous medium by tracer tests carried out in laboratory on undisturbed soil samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrante, Aldo Pedro; Fallico, Carmine; Rios, Ana C.; Fernanda Rivera, Maria; Santillan, Patricio; Salazar, Mario

    2013-04-01

    The contamination of large areas and correspondent aquifers often imposes to implement some recovery operations which are generally complex and very expensive. Anyway, these interventions necessarily require the preventive characterization of the aquifers to be reclaimed and in particular the knowledge of the relevant hydrodispersive parameters. The determination of these parameters requires the implementation tracer tests for the specific site (Sauty JP, 1978). To reduce cost and time that such test requires tracer tests on undisturbed soil samples, representative of the whole aquifer, can be performed. These laboratory tests are much less expensive and require less time, but the results are certainly less reliable than those obtained by field tests for several reasons, including the particular scale of investigation. In any case the hydrodispersive parameters values, obtained by tests carried out in laboratory, can provide useful information on the considered aquifer, allowing to carry out initial verifications on the transmission and propagation of the pollutants in the aquifer considered. For this purpose, tracer tests with inlet of short time were carried out in the Soil Physics Laboratory of the Department of Soil Protection (University of Calabria), on a series of sandy soil samples with six different lengths, repeating each test with three different water flow velocities (5 m/d; 10 m/s and 15 m/d) (J. Feyen et al., 1998). The lengths of the samples taken into account are respectively 15 cm, 24 cm, 30 cm, 45 cm, 60 cm and 75 cm, while the solution used for each test was made of 100 ml of water and NaCl with a concentration of this substance corresponding to 10 g/L. For the porous medium taken into consideration a particle size analysis was carried out, resulting primarily made of sand, with total porosity equal to 0.33. Each soil sample was placed in a flow cell in which was inlet the tracer from the bottom upwards, measuring by a conductivimeter the

  4. Microbiological characterization of vegetables and their rhizosphere soil in Eastern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Kłapeć

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the bacteriological quality of 5 kinds of vegetables (lettuce, dill, radish, beetroot, carrot and their rhizosphere soil, originating from conventional farms located in the Lublin Province of Eastern Poland. A total number of 35 samples of fresh vegetables (FV taken immediately from soil, 35 samples of soil from rhizosphere of these vegetables (SR and 35 samples of vegetables sold at retail in the markets in Lublin (VR were examined. The samples were analysed for the content of: aerobic mesophilic bacteria (AMB grown at 30°C and 37°C, Gram-negative bacteria of Enterobacteriaceae family, faecal coliform (FC bacteria, Salmonella spp., and Clostridium perfringens. Median AMB values determined at 30°C for FV, SR and VR were 5.27, 5.00, and 5.00 log[sub]10 [/sub]CFU g[sup]-1[/sup] , respectively, being significantly greater compared to those recorded at 37°C. The exceeding of the threshold value of 6.0 log[sub]10 [/sub]CFU g[sup]-1[/sup] proposed by Gelosa (1998 was noted only in 5 FV samples grown at 30°C (14.3%, and in 3 FV samples grown at 37°C (8.6%. The threshold value was never exceeded in SR and VR samples. Median concentrations of Enterobacteriaceae determined for FV, SR and VR were 4.03, 3.87, and 3.04 log[sub]10[/sub] CFU g[sup]-1[/sup], respectively. Eleven species of Enterobacteriaceae were identified in the FV, SR and VR samples. The percent of samples containing Escherichia coli was greatest for VR (22.9%, smaller for FV (17.1% and smallest for SR (5.7%. The median concentrations of the faecal coliform bacteria (FC, determined by culture at 44°C, were low, amounting to 1.000 log[sub]10[/sub] CFU g[sup]-1[/sup] for FV and SR and 0.00 for VR. All examined vegetable and soil samples tested negative for the presence of Salmonella. The median concentrations of Clostridium perfringens were low, amounting to 0.00 log[sub]10[/sub] CFU g[sup]-1[/sup] for all categories of samples. This bacterium

  5. Characterization of novel SLC6A8 variants with the use of splice-site analysis tools and implementation of a newly developed LOVD database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betsalel, Ofir T; Rosenberg, Efraim H; Almeida, Ligia S; Kleefstra, Tjitske; Schwartz, Charles E; Valayannopoulos, Vassili; Abdul-Rahman, Omar; Poplawski, Nicola; Vilarinho, Laura; Wolf, Philipp; den Dunnen, Johan T; Jakobs, Cornelis; Salomons, Gajja S

    2011-01-01

    The X-linked creatine transporter defect is caused by mutations in the SLC6A8 gene. Until now, 66 synonymous and intronic variants in SLC6A8 were detected in our laboratory. To gain more insight in the effect of the detected variants, we applied five free web-based splice-site analysis tools to 25 published variants that were stratified as (non-)disease causing. All were correctly predicted to have no effect (n=18) or to cause erroneous splicing (n=7), with the exception of a pathogenic de novo 24 bp intronic deletion. Second, 41 unclassified variants, including 28 novel, were subjected to analysis by these tools. At least four splice-site analysis tools predicted that three of the variants would affect splicing as the mutations disrupted the canonical splice site. Urinary creatine/creatinine and brain MRS confirmed creatine transporter deficiency in five patients (four families), including one female. Another variant was predicted to moderately affect splicing by all five tools. However, transient transfection of a minigene containing the variant in a partial SLC6A8 segment showed no splicing errors, and thus was finally classified as non-disease causing. This study shows that splice tools are useful for the characterization of the majority of variants, but also illustrates that the actual effect can be misclassified in rare occasions. Therefore, further laboratory studies should be considered before final conclusions on the disease-causing nature are drawn. To provide an accessible database, the 109 currently known SLC6A8 variants, including 35 novel ones, are included in a newly developed LOVD DNA variation database.

  6. Biosurfactant production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa DSVP20 isolated from petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soil and its physicochemical characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Deepak; Ansari, Mohammad Javed; Al-Ghamdi, Ahmad; Adgaba, Nuru; Khan, Khalid Ali; Pruthi, Vikas; Al-Waili, Noori

    2015-11-01

    Among 348 microbial strains isolated from petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soil, five were selected for their ability to produce biosurfactant based on battery of screening assay including hemolytic activity, surface tension reduction, drop collapse assay, emulsification activity, and cell surface hydrophobicity studies. Of these, bacterial isolate DSVP20 was identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa (NCBI GenBank accession no. GQ865644) based on biochemical characterization and the 16S rDNA analysis, and it was found to be a potential candidate for biosurfactant production. Maximum biosurfactant production recorded by P. aeruginosa DSVP20 was 6.7 g/l after 72 h at 150 rpm and at a temperature of 30 °C. Chromatographic analysis and high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) revealed that it was a glycolipid in nature which was further confirmed by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Bioremediation studies using purified biosurfactant showed that P. aeruginosa DSVP20 has the ability to degrade eicosane (97%), pristane (75%), and fluoranthene (47%) when studied at different time intervals for a total of 7 days. The results of this study showed that the P. aeruginosa DSVP20 and/or biosurfactant produced by this isolate have the potential role in bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soil.

  7. Characterization of soil organic matter in perhumid natural cypress forest: comparison of humification in different particle-size fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jenn-Shing; Chung, Tay-Lung; Tian, Guanglong; Chiu, Chih-Yu

    2013-12-01

    The Chamaecyparis forest is a valuable natural resource in eastern Asia. The characteristics of soil humic substances and the influence of environmental factors in natural Chamaecyparis forests in subtropical mountain regions are poorly understood. The study site of a perhumid Chamaecyparis forest is in the Yuanyang Lake Preserved Area in northcentral Taiwan. We collected samples from organic horizons (Oi, Oe and Oa) and from the surface horizon (O/A horizon) at the summit, footslope and lakeshore to characterize the composition of the soil organic matter. Samples of organic horizons were dried and ground, and those of the O/A horizon were passed through wet sieving for different particle-size fractions before analysis. The C chemical structure in the samples was determined with CP/MAS 13C NMR spectra. The ratios of alkyl-C/O-alkyl-C and aromaticity increased with decomposition of litter from the Oi, Oe, to Oa horizon. The ratio of alkyl-C/O-alkyl-C also increased from coarse (> 250 μm) to very fine (climate conditions may narrow the difference in humification from the summit to lakeshore.

  8. Characterization of Italian strong-motion recording sites for a new soil classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacor, F.; Luzi, L.; Bindi, D.; Parolai, S.; Picozzi, M.; Pilz, M.; Mucciarelli, M.; Gallipoli, M.; Paolucci, R.

    2009-12-01

    This works is carried out in the framework of the project S4 “Italian strong-motion database” funded by the Italian Civil Protection, whose aims include the evaluation of the seismic response of accelerometric stations and explore new soil parameters to be used for site classification scheme. Actually, the site classification of the national accelerometric network is mainly based on geological information, since only for few stations detailed geophysical/geotechnical information are available. From the Italian strong motion data set, we developed ground motion prediction equations (GrMPEs) in which the sites are subdivided into three classes based on geology and deposit thickness. We found that the dominant component of variance is related to the inter-station component, suggesting that alternative classification criteria should be adopted in order to reduce the inter-station variability. To evaluate the effectiveness of the average shear wave velocity of the topmost 30m as parameter to classify the soils, we collected about 50 Italian sites, where measures of Vs30 were available, together with a relevant number of seismic recordings. Furthermore, we planned to determinate shear wave velocity profiles at about other 50 accelerometer stations through the active and passive surface wave methods. In this analysis we also considered data from stations in the area of the recently occurred Mw 6.3 Abruzzo earthquake. In particular, the S-wave velocity profile for the village of Onna, that was severely damaged during the earthquake, was included to the data set. We calculated the site response using empirical techniques and simplified theoretical models. Moreover we compared the observed strong motion parameters to those from seismic provisions or from GrMPEs and evaluated the residuals. In many cases the inefficiency of the Vs30 classification was evident, especially for those sites located on deep sedimentary basins. The results confirm that additional parameters

  9. [Characterization of the transfer-related tra region of the conjugative plasmid p19 from a Bacillus subtilis soil strain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poluéktova, E U; Gagarina, E Iu; Nezametdinova, V Z; Shilovskiĭ, I P; Rodionova, S A; Prozorov, A A

    2010-01-01

    The nucleotide sequences of three DNA fragments (total size 30574 bp) of the plasmid p19 from the Bacillus subtilis 19 soil strain have been determined. Thirty open reading frames (ORFs) have been identified in these fragments. oriT of the plasmid has also been identified. As shown by the search for homologs of hypothetical protein products of these ORFs in databases, such homology exists for 18 ORFs. The protein products of nine ORFs can be assumed to have specific functions. Several ORFs were inactivated via insertional mutagenesis, and the conjugation capacity of the mutant plasmids was estimated. According to the data on homology of protein products and the results of ORF inactivation, regions of a total size of about 20 kb from the DNA fragments sequenced by us were inferred to belong to the tra region of p19. As follows from the analysis of the identified ORFs of the p19 tra region, it differs from the earlier described tra regions of other plasmids, irrespective of a certain similarity with the corresponding regions of plasmids of gram-positive bacteria from the genera Bacillus, Clostridium, and Listeria.

  10. Isolation and Characterization of a Glycosyl Hydrolase Family 16 β-Agarase from a Mangrove Soil Metagenomic Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhimao Mai

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A mangrove soil metagenomic library was constructed and a β-agarase gene designated as AgaML was isolated by functional screening. The gene encoded for a 659-amino-acids polypeptide with an estimated molecular mass of 71.6 kDa. The deduced polypeptide sequences of AgaML showed the highest identity of 73% with the glycoside hydrolase family 16 β-agarase from Microbulbifer agarilyticus in the GenBank database. AgaML was cloned and highly expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3. The purified recombinant protein, AgaML, showed optimal activity at 50 °C and pH 7.0. The kinetic parameters of Km and Vmax values toward agarose were 4.6 mg·mL−1 and 967.5 μM·min−1·mg−1, respectively. AgaML hydrolyzed the β-1,4-glycosidic linkages of agar to generate neoagarotetraose (NA4 and neoagarohexaose (NA6 as the main products. These characteristics suggest that AgaML has potential application in cosmetic, pharmaceuticals and food industries.

  11. Geostatistical characterization of the soil of Aguascalientes, México, by using spatial estimation techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magdaleno-Márquez, Ricardo; de la Luz Pérez-Rea, María; Castaño, Víctor M

    2016-01-01

    Four spatial estimation techniques available in commercial computational packages are evaluated and compared, namely: regularized splines interpolation, tension splines interpolation, inverse distance weighted interpolation, and ordinary Kriging estimation, in order to establish the best representation for the shallow stratigraphic configuration in the city of Aguascalientes, in Central Mexico. Data from 478 sample points along with the software ArcGIS (Environmental Systems Research Institute, Inc. (ESRI), ArcGIS, ver. 9.3, Redlands, California 2008) to calculate the spatial estimates. Each technique was evaluated based on the root mean square error, calculated from a validation between the generated estimates and measured data from 64 sample points which were not used in the spatial estimation process. The present study shows that, for the estimation of the hard-soil layer, ordinary Kriging offered the best performance among the evaluated techniques.

  12. Characterization of Vegetation and Soil Scattering Mechanisms across Different Biomes using P-band SAR Polarimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Alemohammad, Seyed Hamed; Jagdhuber, Thomas; Moghaddam, Mahta; Entekhabi, Dara

    2016-01-01

    A quantitative analysis of vegetation and soil scattering mechanisms retrieved from the observations of an airborne P-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) instrument across nine different biomes in North America is presented. The understanding of scattering mechanisms from the surface in the presence of different vegetation densities is necessary for the interpretation of P-band SAR observations and for the design of retrieval algorithms. Observations used here are part of the NASA Airborne Microwave Observatory of Subcanopy and Subsurface (AirMOSS) mission, and data have been collected between 2013 and 2015. A data-driven phase calibration technique is used to correct the phase information in the polarimetric observations. A hybrid (model- and eigen- based) three component decomposition algorithm is developed to separate the contributions of surface, double-bounce and vegetation scattering. The decomposition makes no prior assumptions about vegetation structure and is analytically tractable. Applying the retr...

  13. Bioremediation of petroleum-contaminated soil on Kwajalein Island: Microbiological characterization and biotreatability studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adler, H.I. (Oak Ridge Associated Universities, Inc., TN (United States)); Jolley, R.L.; Donaldson, T.L. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)) (comps.)

    1992-05-01

    Bioremediation technology is being evaluated for use on the Kwajalein Atoll, which is located in the Republic of the Marshall Islands. The study was undertaken by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on behalf of the US Army Kwajalein Atoll (USAKA). During February of 1991, a team from ORNL and The University of Tennessee (UT) visited the USAKA. In addition to making on-site observations regarding microbial abundance and distribution of petroleum contaminants, they brought back to Oak Ridge various soil and water samples for detailed analyses. This report documents the biological studies of these samples and presents observations made during the period from February to April of 1991 by investigators at ORNL, UT, and the Oak Ridge Associated Universities.

  14. Temporal compression of soil erosion processes. A regional analysis of USLE database; La compresion temporal de los procesos de erosion del suelo. Un analisis regional de la base de datos USLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Hidalgo, J. C.; Luis, M.; Lopez-Bermudez, F.

    2009-07-01

    When John Thornes and Denis Brunsden wrote in 1977 How often one hears the researcher (and no less the undergraduate) complain that after weeks of observation nothing happened only to learn that, the day after his departure, a flood caused unprecedented erosion and channel changes (Thrones and Brunsden, 1977, p. 57), they were focussing to important problems in Geomorphology: the extreme events and time compression of geomorphological processes. Time compression is a fundamental characteristic of geomorphological processes, some times produced by extreme events. Extreme events are rare events, defined by deviation from mean values. But from magnitude-frequency analysis we know that few events, not necessarily extreme, are able to produce a high amount of geomorphological work. finally time compression of geomorphological processes can be focused by the analysis of largest events defined by ranks, not magnitude. We have analysed the effects of largest events on total soil erosion by using 594 erosion plots from USLE database. Plots are located in different climate regions of USA and have different length of records. The 10 largest daily events mean contribution value is 60% of total soil erosion. There exist a relationship between such percentage and total daily erosive events recorded. The pattern seems to be independent of climate conditions. We discuss the nature of such relationship and the implications in soil erosion research. (Author) 17 refs.

  15. Refining soil survey information for a Dutch soil series using land use history

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonneveld, M.P.W.; Bouma, J.; Veldkamp, A.

    2002-01-01

    Differences in land-use history within soil series, although not influencing soil classification, lead to variability of non-diagnostic soil properties in soil databases. Regional studies that use soil databases are confronted with this considerable variability. This has, for example, been reported

  16. Annual report on the Background Soil Characterization Project on the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee: Results of Phase 1 investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watkins, D.R.; Goddard, P.L.; Hatmaker, T.L.; Hook, L.A.; Jackson, B.L.; Kimbrough, C.W.; Lee, S.Y.; Lietzke, D.A.; McGin, C.W.; Nourse, B.D.; Schmoyer, R.L.; Shaw, R.A.; Stinnette, S.E.; Switek, J.; Wright, J.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Ammons, J.T.; Branson, J.L.; Burgoa, B.B. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Plant and Soil Science; Lietzke, D.A. [Lietzke (David A.), Rutledge, TN (United States)

    1993-05-01

    Many constituents of potential concern for human health occur naturally at low concentrations in undisturbed soils. The Background soil Characterization Project (BSCP) was undertaken to provide background concentration data on potential contaminants in natural soils on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). The objectives of the BSCP are to provide baseline data for contaminated site assessment and estimates of potential human health risk associated with background concentrations of hazardous and other constituents in native soils. This report presents, evaluates, and documents data and results obtained in Phase I of the project. It is intended to be a stand-alone document for application and use in structuring and conducting remedial investigation and remedial action projects in the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program.

  17. Characterization of plant growth-promoting Bacillus edaphicus NBT and its effect on lead uptake by Indian mustard in a lead-amended soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Xia Fang; Jiang, Chun Yu; He, Lin Yan

    2008-05-01

    The plant growth promotion characteristics of a heavy-metal-resistant strain of Bacillus edaphicus NBT was characterized. The strain was also evaluated for promoting plant growth and lead (Pb) uptake of Brassica juncea L. Czern (Indian mustard) in soil artificially contaminated with 0, 400, and 800 mg Pb.kg-1 soil. Atomic absorption spectrometer analysis demonstrated that strain NBT could release water-soluble Pb from lead carbonate in the solution. Strain NBT had the capacity to produce indole acetic acid, siderophores, and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase. Low and high Pb treatments significantly decreased the growth of Indian mustard. Inoculation with strain NBT was found to increase root dry mass (ranging from 16% to 22%) and above-ground tissue dry mass (ranging from 24% to 30%) of Indian mustard in the Pb-amended soil. Strain NBT was able to mobilize Pb efficiently in plants in Pb-amended soil. In the soil treated with 400 and 800 mg Pb.kg-1 soil, the increase in Pb uptake varied from 18% to 46% in live bacterium-inoculated Indian mustard plants compared with dead bacterium-inoculated control. The strain was also able to colonize and develop in the rhizosphere soil of Indian mustard after root inoculation.

  18. Biochemical Characterization of CPS-1, a Subclass B3 Metallo-β-Lactamase from a Chryseobacterium piscium Soil Isolate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudeta, Dereje Dadi; Pollini, Simona; Docquier, Jean-Denis

    2016-01-01

    CPS-1 is a subclass B3 metallo-β-lactamase from a Chryseobacterium piscium isolated from soil, showing 68 % amino acid identity to GOB-1 enzyme. CPS-1 was overproduced in Escherichia coli Rosetta (DE3), purified by chromatography and biochemically characterized. This enzyme exhibits a broad...

  19. Characterizing the impact of diffusive and advective soil gas transport on the measurement and interpretation of the isotopic signal of soil respiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachary E. Kayler; Elizabeth W. Sulzman; William D. Rugh; Alan C. Mix; Barbara J. Bond

    2010-01-01

    By measuring the isotopic signature of soil respiration, we seek to learn the isotopic composition of the carbon respired in the soil (δ13CR-S) so that we may draw inferences about ecosystem processes. Requisite to this goal is the need to understand how (δ13CR-S) is affected by...

  20. Near real-time characterization of radio-contaminated soils in France: challenges and methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desnoyers, Y. [Geovariances, Avon (France); Dubot, D. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique (CEA), Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)

    2011-07-01

    Over the last 10 years, the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA, Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique) has set up an innovative methodology aiming at characterizing radiological contaminations. The application of the latter relies on various tools such as expertise vehicles with embedded measurement devices and a recently developed software platform called Kartotrak. A Geographic Information System tailored to radiological needs constitutes the heart of the platform; it is surrounded by several modules aiming at (i) sampling preparation, (ii) data analysis and geostatistical modeling and (iii) real-time monitoring and data acquisition. This paper presents a methodological framework for the follow-up of decontamination projects, from doubt removal to the verification of the decontamination process. The use of the radiological characterization methodology and its related developments leads to a better appreciation of the contamination and, most importantly, to the optimization of the waste volumes and the reduction of the global cost of the remediation process. (author)

  1. Database Replication

    CERN Document Server

    Kemme, Bettina

    2010-01-01

    Database replication is widely used for fault-tolerance, scalability and performance. The failure of one database replica does not stop the system from working as available replicas can take over the tasks of the failed replica. Scalability can be achieved by distributing the load across all replicas, and adding new replicas should the load increase. Finally, database replication can provide fast local access, even if clients are geographically distributed clients, if data copies are located close to clients. Despite its advantages, replication is not a straightforward technique to apply, and

  2. Refactoring databases evolutionary database design

    CERN Document Server

    Ambler, Scott W

    2006-01-01

    Refactoring has proven its value in a wide range of development projects–helping software professionals improve system designs, maintainability, extensibility, and performance. Now, for the first time, leading agile methodologist Scott Ambler and renowned consultant Pramodkumar Sadalage introduce powerful refactoring techniques specifically designed for database systems. Ambler and Sadalage demonstrate how small changes to table structures, data, stored procedures, and triggers can significantly enhance virtually any database design–without changing semantics. You’ll learn how to evolve database schemas in step with source code–and become far more effective in projects relying on iterative, agile methodologies. This comprehensive guide and reference helps you overcome the practical obstacles to refactoring real-world databases by covering every fundamental concept underlying database refactoring. Using start-to-finish examples, the authors walk you through refactoring simple standalone databas...

  3. Soil Moisture Characterization of the Valencia Anchor Station. Ground, Aircraft Measurements and Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Baeza, E.; Antolin, M. C.; Balling, J.; Belda, F.; Bouzinac, C.; Camacho, F.; Cano, A.; Carbo, E.; Delwart, S.; Domenech, C.; Ferreira, A. G.; Fidalgo, A.; Juglea, S.; Kerr, Y.; Marco, J.; Millan-Scheiding, C.; Narbon, C.; Rodriguez, D.; Saleh, K.; Sanchis, J.; Skou, N.; Sobjaerg, S.; Soriano, P.; Tamayo, J.; Tauriainen, S.; Torre, E.; Velazquez-Blazquez, A.; Wigneron, J.-P.; Wursteisen, P.

    In the framework of ESA SMOS Mission, the Valencia Anchor Station (VAS) has been selected as a core validation site. Its reasonable homogeneous characteristics make it appropriate to undertake the validation of SMOS Level 2 land products before attempting other more complex areas. Close to SMOS launch (2nd Nov. 2009), ESA defined the SMOS Validation Rehearsal Campaign Plan with the aim of testing the readiness, ensemble coordination and speed of operations, to be able to avoid as far as possible any unexpected deficiencies of the plan and procedure during the real Commissioning Phase campaigns.For the rehearsal activity which successfully took place in April - May 2008, a control area of 10 x 10 km2 was chosen at the VAS study area where a network of ground soil moisture (SM) measuring stations is being set up based on an original definition of homogeneous physio-hydrological units attending to climatic, soil type, lithology, geology, elevation, slope and vegetation cover conditions. Complementary to the ground measurements, flight operations were performed over this control area using the Helsinki University of Technology TKK Short Skyvan research aircraft which contained onboard a payload constituted of the following instruments: (i) L-band EMIRAD radiometer (Technical University of Denmark, TUD), (ii) L-band HUT-2D imaging interferometric radiometer (TKK), (iii) PARIS GPS reflectrometry system (Institute for Space Studies of Catalonia, IEEC), (iv) IR sensor (Finnish Institute of Maritime Research, FIMR).Together with the ground SM measurements, other ground and meteorological measurements from the VAS area, kindly provided by other institutions, are currently been used to simulate passive microwave brightness temperature to obtain satellite "match ups" for validation purposes and to test the retrieval algorithms. The spatialization of the ground measurements up to a SMOS pixel is carried out by using the SURFace EXternalisée (SURFEX) model from Météo France

  4. Characterization of Strains unlike Mesorhizobium loti That Nodulate Lotus spp. in Saline Soils of Granada, Spain ▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorite, María J.; Muñoz, Socorro; Olivares, José; Soto, María J.; Sanjuán, Juan

    2010-01-01

    Lotus species are forage legumes with potential as pastures in low-fertility and environmentally constrained soils, owing to their high persistence and yield under those conditions. The aim of this work was the characterization of phenetic and genetic diversity of salt-tolerant bacteria able to establish efficient symbiosis with Lotus spp. A total of 180 isolates able to nodulate Lotus corniculatus and Lotus tenuis from two locations in Granada, Spain, were characterized. Molecular identification of the isolates was performed by repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR (REP-PCR) and 16S rRNA, atpD, and recA gene sequence analyses, showing the presence of bacteria related to different species of the genus Mesorhizobium: Mesorhizobium tarimense/Mesorhizobium tianshanense, Mesorhizobium chacoense/Mesorhizobium albiziae, and the recently described species, Mesorhizobium alhagi. No Mesorhizobium loti-like bacteria were found, although most isolates carried nodC and nifH symbiotic genes closely related to those of M. loti, considered the type species of bacteria nodulating Lotus, and other Lotus rhizobia. A significant portion of the isolates showed both high salt tolerance and good symbiotic performance with L. corniculatus, and many behaved like salt-dependent bacteria, showing faster growth and better symbiotic performance when media were supplemented with Na or Ca salts. PMID:20435777

  5. Characterization of leached phosphorus from soil, manure, and manure-amended soil by physical and chemical fractionation and diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glæsner, Nadia Andersen; Donner, Erica; Magid, Jakob

    2012-01-01

    with manure. Manure particles themselves were also largely retained by the soil. Combined physical (centrifugation) and chemical (molybdate reactiveness) fractionation of leached P showed that leachates in the manure treated soils were dominated by dissolved unreactive P (DUP), mainly originating from manure......We are challenged to date to fully understand mechanisms controlling phosphorus (P) mobilization in soil. In this study we evaluated physical properties, chemical reactivity, and potential bioavailability of P mobilized in soil during a leaching event and examined how the amounts and properties...... of leached P were influenced by surface application of cattle manure. Leaching experiments on manure itself, and on intact soil columns (14.1 cm inner dia., 25 cm height) before and after manure application, were carried out at an irrigation rate of 1 mm h−1 for 48 h. High concentrations of dissolved...

  6. Isolation and characterization of Bacillus thuringiensis strains native to Assam soil of North East India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabha, Mihir; Sharma, Shaswati; Acharjee, Sumita; Sarmah, Bidyut Kumar

    2017-10-01

    We have identified both crystalliferous and acrystalliferous Bt isolates from the Assam soil of North East India for the first time. A total of 301 Bacillus type colonies were selected based on their appearance and colony morphology. Out of these colonies, 42 isolates had characteristics similar to Bt isolates on MYP (Mannitol Egg Yolk Polymyxin) agar base medium. The ERIC-PCR and 16S rDNA analyses confirmed that 42 isolates are Bacillus thuringiensis. Phase contrast microscopy showed that 37 isolates produced crystal endospore during the sporulation phase and 5 acrystalliferous isolates were also found. Amplification of cry gene was carried out using general Cry primers along with one cry2 gene specific primer. Out of 42 isolates, 50% of the isolates showed presence of cry2 gene followed by cry9 (40.47) and cry1 (40.47). Moreover, 21.42% of isolates showed the presence of more than one cry genes. We also screened these isolates for the possibility of having new Bt genes using universal primer and found two strains having a new type of Cry1I gene with 82 and 85% similarities with the available Cry1I gene sequences. Thus, these new types of Bt gene could be useful for Bt-based bioformulations and generation of transgenic plants.

  7. Identification and characterization of a novel trehalose synthase gene derived from saline-alkali soil metagenomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Jiang

    Full Text Available A novel trehalose synthase (TreS gene was identified from a metagenomic library of saline-alkali soil by a simple activity-based screening system. Sequence analysis revealed that TreS encodes a protein of 552 amino acids, with a deduced molecular weight of 63.3 kDa. After being overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified, the enzymatic properties of TreS were investigated. The recombinant TreS displayed its optimal activity at pH 9.0 and 45 °C, and the addition of most common metal ions (1 or 30 mM had no inhibition effect on the enzymatic activity evidently, except for the divalent metal ions Zn(2+ and Hg(2+. Kinetic analysis showed that the recombinant TreS had a 4.1-fold higher catalytic efficiency (Kcat/K m for maltose than for trehalose. The maximum conversion rate of maltose into trehalose by the TreS was reached more than 78% at a relatively high maltose concentration (30%, making it a good candidate in the large-scale production of trehalsoe after further study. In addition, five amino acid residues, His172, Asp201, Glu251, His318 and Asp319, were shown to be conserved in the TreS, which were also important for glycosyl hydrolase family 13 enzyme catalysis.

  8. Characterization and phylogenetic analysis of biosurfactant-producing bacteria isolated from palm oil contaminated soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanokrat Saisa-ard

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Biosurfactant-producing bacteria were isolated from 89 different soil samples contaminated with palm oil in 35 palm oil industry sites in the south of Thailand. The phylogenetic diversity of the isolates was evaluated by 16S rRNA gene analysis. Among 1,324 colonies obtained, 134 isolates released extracellular biosurfactant when grown on low-cost substrates by a drop collapsing test. Among these, the 53 isolates that showed the highest biosurfactant production on different substrates were found to belong to 42 different bacterial genera. Among these sixteen (Caryophanon; Castellaniella; Filibacter; Geminicoccus; Georgenia; Luteimonas; Mesorhizobium; Mucilaginibacter; Nubsella; Paracoccus; Pedobacter; Psychrobacter; Rahnella; Sphingobium; Sphingopyxis and Sporosarcina were first reported as biosurfactant-producing strains. By using low-cost, agro-industrial by-products or wastes, Azorhizobium doebereinerae AS54 and Geminicoccus roseus AS73 produced extracellular biosurfactant, which exhibited the lowest surface tension reduction (25.5 mN/m and highest emulsification activity (69.0% when palm oil decanter cake and used palm oil was used as a carbon sources, respectively. Overall, this is the first study of a phylogenetic analysis of biosurfactant-producing bacteria from palm oil refinery industry site and their ability to produce biosurfactant on renewable substrates.

  9. Molecular characterization of a Xylanase-producing fungus isolated from fouled soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Punniavan Sakthiselvan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Xylanase (EC 3. 2. 1. 8, hydrolyzes xylo-oligosaccharides into D-xylose and required for complete hydrolysis of native cellulose and biomass conversion. It has broad range of applications in the pulp and paper, pharmaceutical and Agri-food industries. Fifty fungal species were isolated from the fouled soil around an oil refinery and screened for the production of xylanase enzyme by enrichment culture techniques. The isolated fungal strain was identified as Hypocrea lixii SS1 based on the results of biochemical tests and 18s rRNA sequencing. The phylogenetic tree was constructed using the MEGA 5 software. Further, Hypocrea lixii SS1 was tested for the ability to utilize the sunflower oil sludge (waste from the oil industry as the sole carbon source for xylanase production. The growth characteristics of Hypocrea lixii SS1 were also studied and maximum growth was found on the 7th day of incubation. The fungus showed a remarkable xylanase production of 38.9 U/mL. Xylanase was purified using a combination of 0-50% NH4SO2 precipitation, DEAE-sepharose and Sephacryl S-200 chromatography. Single peak obtained in RP-HPLC confirms the purity of xylanase. Further the enzyme produced was affirmed as xylanase with its molecular weight (29 kDa using SDS-PAGE.

  10. RDD Databases

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This database was established to oversee documents issued in support of fishery research activities including experimental fishing permits (EFP), letters of...

  11. Dealer Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The dealer reporting databases contain the primary data reported by federally permitted seafood dealers in the northeast. Electronic reporting was implemented May 1,...

  12. Snowstorm Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Snowstorm Database is a collection of over 500 snowstorms dating back to 1900 and updated operationally. Only storms having large areas of heavy snowfall (10-20...

  13. National database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Helen Grundtvig; Stjernø, Henrik

    1995-01-01

    Artikel om national database for sygeplejeforskning oprettet på Dansk Institut for Sundheds- og Sygeplejeforskning. Det er målet med databasen at samle viden om forsknings- og udviklingsaktiviteter inden for sygeplejen.......Artikel om national database for sygeplejeforskning oprettet på Dansk Institut for Sundheds- og Sygeplejeforskning. Det er målet med databasen at samle viden om forsknings- og udviklingsaktiviteter inden for sygeplejen....

  14. Morphological and molecular characterization of Pisolithus in soil under eucalyptus plantations in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Catarina Megumi Kasuya

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Eighteen Pisolithus basidiomes were collected from Eucalyptus plantations in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. These basidiomes were characterized morphologically and molecularly. The basidiomes varied in shape, color and size. One of them was found underground, indicating a hypogeous fungus. The main morphological distinctive characteristic was spore ornamentation, which distinguished two groups. One group with short and erect spines was identified as Pisolithus microcarpus, and the other with long and curved spines as Pisolithus marmoratus, after analyzing the cladogram obtained by phylogenetic relationship based on internal transcribed spacer (ITS regions of the nuclear ribosomal DNA of these isolates.

  15. Isolation and Characterization of Phenanthrene Degrading Bacteria from Diesel Fuel-Contaminated Antarctic Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Gran-Scheuch

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Antarctica is an attractive target for human exploration and scientific investigation, however the negative effects of human activity on this continent are long lasting and can have serious consequences on the native ecosystem. Various areas of Antarctica have been contaminated with diesel fuel, which contains harmful compounds such as heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH. Bioremediation of PAHs by the activity of microorganisms is an ecological, economical, and safe decontamination approach. Since the introduction of foreign organisms into the Antarctica is prohibited, it is key to discover native bacteria that can be used for diesel bioremediation. By following the degradation of the PAH phenanthrene, we isolated 53 PAH metabolizing bacteria from diesel contaminated Antarctic soil samples, with three of these isolates exhibiting a high phenanthrene degrading capacity. In particular, the Sphingobium xenophagum D43FB isolate showed the highest phenanthrene degradation ability, generating up to 95% degradation of initial phenanthrene. D43FB can also degrade phenanthrene in the presence of its usual co-pollutant, the heavy metal cadmium, and showed the ability to grow using diesel-fuel as a sole carbon source. Microtiter plate assays and SEM analysis revealed that S. xenophagum D43FB exhibits the ability to form biofilms and can directly adhere to phenanthrene crystals. Genome sequencing analysis also revealed the presence of several genes involved in PAH degradation and heavy metal resistance in the D43FB genome. Altogether, these results demonstrate that S. xenophagum D43FB shows promising potential for its application in the bioremediation of diesel fuel contaminated-Antarctic ecosystems.

  16. Isolation and characterization of two soil derived yeasts for bioethanol production on Cassava starch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Gi-Wook; Kim, Yule; Kang, Hyun-Woo [Changhae Institute of Cassava and Ethanol Research, Changhae Ethanol Co., Ltd, Palbok-Dong 829, Dukjin-Gu, Jeonju 561-203 (Korea); Um, Hyun-Ju; Kim, Mina; Kim, Yang-Hoon [Department of Microbiology, Chungbuk National University, 410 Sungbong-Ro, Heungduk-Gu, Cheongju 361-763 (Korea); Chung, Bong-Woo [Department of Bioprocess Engineering, Chonbuk National University, 664-14, 1-Ga, Duckjin-Dong, Duckjin-Gu, Jeonju 561-156 (Korea)

    2010-08-15

    Two ethanol-producing yeast strains, CHY1011 and CHFY0901 were isolated from soil in South Korea using an enrichment technique in a yeast peptone dextrose medium supplemented with 5% (w v{sup -1}) ethanol at 30 C. The phenotypic and physiological characteristics, as well as molecular phylogenetic analysis based on the D1/D2 domains of the large subunit (26S) rRNA gene and the internally transcribed spacer (ITS) 1 + 2 regions suggested that they were novel strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. During shaking flask cultivation, the highest ethanol productivity and theoretical yield of S. cerevisiae CHY1011 in YPD media containing 9.5% total sugars was 1.06 {+-} 0.02 g l{sup -1} h{sup -1} and 95.5 {+-} 1.2%, respectively, while those for S. cerevisiae CHFY0901 were 0.97 {+-} 0.03 g l{sup -1} h{sup -1} and 91.81 {+-} 2.2%, respectively. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation for ethanol production was carried out using liquefied cassava (Manihot esculenta) starch in a 5 l lab-scale jar fermenter at 32 C for 66 h with an agitation speed of 2 Hz. Under these conditions, S. cerevisiae CHY1011 and CHFY0901 yielded a final ethanol concentration of 89.1 {+-} 0.87 g l{sup -1} and 83.8 {+-} 1.11 g l{sup -1}, a maximum ethanol productivity of 2.10 {+-} 0.02 g l{sup -1} h{sup -1} and 1.88 {+-} 0.01 g l{sup -1} h{sup -1}, and a theoretical yield of 93.5 {+-} 1.4% and 91.3 {+-} 1.1%, respectively. These results suggest that S. cerevisiae CHY1011 and CHFY0901 have potential use in industrial bioethanol fermentation processes. (author)

  17. Near-Continuous Isotopic Characterization of Soil N2O Fluxes from Maize Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anex, R. P.; Francis Clar, J.

    2015-12-01

    Isotopomer ratios of N2O and especially intramolecular 15N site preference (SP) have been proposed as indicators of the sources of N2O and for providing insight into the contributions of different microbial processes. Current knowledge, however, is mainly based on pure culture studies and laboratory flask studies using mass spectrometric analysis. Recent development of laser spectroscopic methods has made possible high-precision, in situ measurements. We present results from a maize production field in Columbia County, Wisconsin, USA. Data were collected from the fertilized maize phase of a maize-soybean rotation. N2O mole fractions and isotopic composition were determined using an automatic gas flux measurement system comprising a set of custom-designed automatic chambers, circulating gas paths and an OA-ICOS N2O Isotope Analyzer (Los Gatos Research, Inc., Model 914-0027). The instrument system allows for up to 15 user programmable soil gas chambers. Wide dynamic range and parts-per-billion precision of OA-ICOS laser absorption instrument allows for extremely rapid estimation of N2O fluxes. Current operational settings provide measurements of N2O and its isotopes every 20 seconds with a precision of 0.1 ± 0.050 PPB. Comparison of measurements from four chambers (two between row and two in-row) show very different aggregate N2O flux, but SP values suggest similar sources from nitrifier denitrification and incomplete bacterial denitrification. SP values reported are being measured throughout the current growing season. To date, the majority of values are consistent with an origin from bacterial denitrification and coincide with periods of high water filled pore space.

  18. Characterization of copper-resistant bacteria and bacterial communities from copper-polluted agricultural soils of central Chile

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Altimira, Fabiola; Yáñez, Carolina; Bravo, Guillermo; González, Myriam; Rojas, Luis A; Seeger, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Copper mining has led to Cu pollution in agricultural soils. In this report, the effects of Cu pollution on bacterial communities of agricultural soils from Valparaiso region, central Chile, were studied...

  19. Use of pyrolysis molecular beam mass spectrometry (py-MBMS) to characterize forest soil carbon: method and preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    K.A. Magrini; R.J. Evans; C.M. Hoover; C.C. Elam; M.F. Davis

    2002-01-01

    The components of soil organic matter (SOM) and their degradation dynamics in forest soils are difficult to study and thus poorly understood,due to time-consuming sample collection, preparation, and difficulty of analyzing and identifying major components. As a result, changes in soil organic matter chemical composition as a function of age, forest type, or disturbance...

  20. Screening and Characterization of Potentially Suppressive Soils against Gaeumannomyces graminis under Extensive Wheat Cropping by Chilean Indigenous Communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Durán, Paola; Jorquera, Milko; Viscardi, Sharon; Carrion Bravo, Victor; Mora, María de la Luz; Pozo, María J.

    2017-01-01

    Wheat production around the world is severely compromised by the occurrence of “take-all” disease, which is caused by the soil-borne pathogen Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici (Ggt). In this context, suppressive soils are those environments in which plants comparatively suffer less soil-borne

  1. Feasibility of real-time soil state and flux characterization for wastewater reuse using an embedded sensor network data assimilation approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Che-Chuan; Margulis, Steven A.

    2011-03-01

    SummaryWastewater reuse via irrigation provides the potential for significant increases in water use efficiency; however, excessive solutes from wastewater can pollute the groundwater beneath the irrigated lands. To avoid this adverse impact and provide a mechanism for informing optimal management practices, this study develops a monitoring and modeling system to assimilate embedded sensor network measurements into a hydrologic model to provide real-time soil state and flux estimates. The feasibility of soil characterization with a data assimilation algorithm is investigated through a series of observing system simulation experiments (OSSEs) at a wastewater reuse testbed in Palmdale, California. Results show that state (i.e. soil moisture) estimation in isolation can lead to significant errors if flux estimates are a primary objective of the estimation framework and parameters are not well characterized. Overall, the OSSEs indicate that with sufficient measurement information, the system is capable of providing an accurate characterization of real-time soil state, model parameter, and flux estimates (even in the presence of biases) that could be useful in managing wastewater irrigation to avoid hazardous contamination of the underlying groundwater system.

  2. Characterization of leached phosphorus from soil, manure, and manure-amended soil by physical and chemical fractionation and Diffusive Gradients in Thin films (DGT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glæsner, Nadia; Donner, Erica; Magid, Jakob; Rubæk, Gitte H; Zhang, Hao; Lombi, Enzo

    2012-10-02

    We are challenged to date to fully understand mechanisms controlling phosphorus (P) mobilization in soil. In this study we evaluated physical properties, chemical reactivity, and potential bioavailability of P mobilized in soil during a leaching event and examined how the amounts and properties of leached P were influenced by surface application of cattle manure. Leaching experiments on manure itself, and on intact soil columns (14.1 cm inner dia., 25 cm height) before and after manure application, were carried out at an irrigation rate of 1 mm h(-1) for 48 h. High concentrations of dissolved reactive P (DRP) were found in manure leachates (up to 32 mg L(-1)), whereas concentrations of P in soil leachates were low both before and after manure application (around 0.04 mg L(-1) before application and up to 0.4 mg L(-1) afterward). This result indicates that the soil retained most of the P added with manure. Manure particles themselves were also largely retained by the soil. Combined physical (centrifugation) and chemical (molybdate reactiveness) fractionation of leached P showed that leachates in the manure treated soils were dominated by dissolved unreactive P (DUP), mainly originating from manure. However, centrifugation only removed a small fraction of total particles from the leachates, indicating that the so-called dissolved fraction may be associated with low density particulate matter. Deployment of Diffusive Gradients in Thin films (DGT) devices in the leachates proved to be a good approach for measuring reactive P in soil leachates. The results indicated that total reactive P (TRP) gave a better estimate of potentially bioavailable P than both total P (TP) and DRP in these experiments.

  3. Final report on the Background Soil Characterization Project at the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 1: Results of Field Sampling Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watkins, D.R.; Ammons, J.T.; Branson, J.L. [and others

    1993-10-01

    This report presents, evaluates, and documents data and results obtained in the Background Soil Characterization Project (BSCP). It is intended to be a stand-alone document for application and use in structuring and conducting remedial investigation and remedial action projects in the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program. The objectives of the BSCP consist of the following: determine background concentrations of organics, metals, and radionuclides in natural soils that are key to environmental restoration projects; provide remediation projects with 100% validated data on background concentrations, which are technically and legally defensible; and quantify baseline risks from background constituents for comparison of risks associated with contaminated sites.

  4. Microscopic and spectroscopic characterization of humic substances from a compost amended copper contaminated soil: main features and their potential effects on Cu immobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Jorge; Monreal, Carlos; Chabot, Denise; Meier, Sebastián; González, María Eugenia; Morales, Esteban; Parillo, Rita; Borie, Fernando; Cornejo, Pablo

    2017-06-01

    We characterized humic substances (HS) extracted from a Cu-contaminated soil without compost addition (C) or amended with a wheat straw-based compost (WSC) (H1), co-composted with Fe 2 O 3 (H2), or co-composted with an allophane-rich soil (H3). Extracted HS were characterized under electron microscopy (SEM/TEM), energy-dispersive X-ray (X-EDS), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. In addition, HS extracted from WSC (H4) were characterized at pH 4.0 and 8.0 with descriptive purposes. At pH 4.0, globular structures of H4 were observed, some of them aggregating within a large network. Contrariwise, at pH 8.0, long tubular and disaggregated structures prevailed. TEM microscopy suggests organo-mineral interactions at scales of 1 to 200 nm with iron oxide nanoparticles. HS extracted from soil-compost incubations showed interactions at nanoscale with minerals and crystal compounds into the organic matrix of HS. Bands associated to acidic functional groups of HS may suggest potential sorption interactions with transition metals. We conclude that metal ions and pH have an important role controlling the morphology and configuration of HS from WSC. Characterization of H4 extracted from WSC showed that physicochemical protection of HS could be present in composting systems treated with inorganic materials. Finally, the humified fractions obtained from compost-amended soils may have an important effect on metal-retention, supporting their potential use in metal-contaminated soils.

  5. Three-dimensional fluorescence as a tool to characterize dissolved organic matters in the rhizosphere of plants cropped in soil amended with organic wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djae, Tanalou; Garnier, Cédric; Mounier, Stéphane; Bravin, Matthieu; Doelsch, Emmanuel

    2014-05-01

    Three-dimensional fluorescence is well known to be a powerful technique for the chemical characterization of dissolved organic matters (DOM). The qualification of the DOM by fluorescence intensity could then be connected to the complexation properties toward trace metals. To characterize DOM in the context of agricultural recycling of organic wastes, it is necessary to measure concomitantly the fluorescence properties of DOM in organic wastes, in the bulk-soil and in the soil affected by root activities, i.e. in the rhizosphere. Our study aimed at evaluating the specific fluorescence fingerprint of the different pools of DOM above-cited, as well as the consequences of their interactions on the evolution of the three-dimensional fluorescence of the initial soil DOM. An in-situ experiment was conducted in Reunion Island (Indian Ocean). Two plant species, i.e. a graminaceous species the fescue (Festuca rubra) and a dicotyledonous species the tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), were grown on a soil where we applied two types of organic wastes (pig manure compost and poultry manure compost) at three rates and a mineral fertilizer. Following this experiment, the soil either adhering to the roots (i.e. rhizosphere) or not (i.e. bulk-soil) was sampled and the soil solution was recovered by chemical extraction. Three-dimensional fluorescence spectra as excitation-emission matrix (EEM) plots were recorded with a spectrofluorometer (Hitachi F4500) and the obtained 3D spectra were processed with PARAFAC decomposition software, leading to 3 fluorescent components (terrestrial humic-type). Emission and excitation slits were set at 2.5 nm and a scan rate of 2400 nm.min-1 was selected for the emission monochromator. The wavelength emission range was increased sequentially from 200 to 600 nm and the excitation wavelength from 300 to 550 nm by 5-nm steps. Root activities and organic wastes induced variations of DOM quality. Three fluorescent components of terrestrial humic-type were

  6. Solubility Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 106 IUPAC-NIST Solubility Database (Web, free access)   These solubilities are compiled from 18 volumes (Click here for List) of the International Union for Pure and Applied Chemistry(IUPAC)-NIST Solubility Data Series. The database includes liquid-liquid, solid-liquid, and gas-liquid systems. Typical solvents and solutes include water, seawater, heavy water, inorganic compounds, and a variety of organic compounds such as hydrocarbons, halogenated hydrocarbons, alcohols, acids, esters and nitrogen compounds. There are over 67,500 solubility measurements and over 1800 references.

  7. Identification and characterization of ethanol utilizing fungal flora of oil refinery contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Alok Kumar; Singh, Pratiksha; Singh, Rajesh Kumar; Kashyap, Prem Lal; Chakdar, Hillol; Kumar, Sudheer; Sharma, Arun Kumar

    2014-02-01

    The indigenous fungal flora of three oil refinery contaminated sites (Bharuch, Valsad and Vadodara) of India has been documented in the present investigation. A total seventy-five fungal morphotypes were isolated from these sites and out of them, only fifteen isolates were capable of utilizing ethanol (0-8%; v:v) as a sole source of carbon and energy for growth. Ten percent ethanol was completely lethal for the growth of all the isolated fungus. Biochemical characterization of the potent ethanol utilizing fungal isolates was studied based on substrate utilization profiles using BIOLOG phenotype microarray plates. Based on the morphological characters and Internal Transcribed Spacer region of ribosomal DNA, the fungal isolates were identified as Fusarium brachygibbosum, Fusarium equiseti, Fusarium acuminatum, Pencillium citrinum, Alternaria tenuissima, Septogloeum mori, Hypocrea lixii, Aureobasidium sp., Penicillium sp., and Fusarium sp. Intra-species genetic diversity among Fusarium sp. was evaluated by whole genome analysis with repetitive DNA sequences (ERIC, REP and BOX) based DNA fingerprinting. It was found that these fungus use alcohol dehydrogenase and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase enzymes based metabolism pathway to utilize ethanol for their growth and colonization.

  8. Estimating Soil Organic Carbon Stocks and Spatial Patterns with Statistical and GIS-Based Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi, Junjun; Jing, Changwei; Lin, Shengpan; Zhang, Cao; Liu, Qiankun; DeGloria, Stephen D.; Wu, Jiaping

    2014-01-01

    Accurately quantifying soil organic carbon (SOC) is considered fundamental to studying soil quality, modeling the global carbon cycle, and assessing global climate change. This study evaluated the uncertainties caused by up-scaling of soil properties from the county scale to the provincial scale and from lower-level classification of Soil Species to Soil Group, using four methods: the mean, median, Soil Profile Statistics (SPS), and pedological professional knowledge based (PKB) methods. For the SPS method, SOC stock is calculated at the county scale by multiplying the mean SOC density value of each soil type in a county by its corresponding area. For the mean or median method, SOC density value of each soil type is calculated using provincial arithmetic mean or median. For the PKB method, SOC density value of each soil type is calculated at the county scale considering soil parent materials and spatial locations of all soil profiles. A newly constructed 1∶50,000 soil survey geographic database of Zhejiang Province, China, was used for evaluation. Results indicated that with soil classification levels up-scaling from Soil Species to Soil Group, the variation of estimated SOC stocks among different soil classification levels was obviously lower than that among different methods. The difference in the estimated SOC stocks among the four methods was lowest at the Soil Species level. The differences in SOC stocks among the mean, median, and PKB methods for different Soil Groups resulted from the differences in the procedure of aggregating soil profile properties to represent the attributes of one soil type. Compared with the other three estimation methods (i.e., the SPS, mean and median methods), the PKB method holds significant promise for characterizing spatial differences in SOC distribution because spatial locations of all soil profiles are considered during the aggregation procedure. PMID:24840890

  9. Carbon and Hydrogen Isotopic Composition of Plant Wax n-Alkanes: A Tool for Characterizing Soil Provenance in Forensic Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedentchouk, N.; Wagner, T.; Jones, M.

    2009-04-01

    patterns result from physiological differences among the plants. The relative differences in deltaD and delta13C values of various plant types could be explained by differences in stomatal diffusive conductance to H2O vapour and CO2 gas, so that species with higher stomatal conductance would have D-enriched and 13C-depleted values. We are currently investigating the stomatal conductance of leaves and needles taken from the same plants that were sampled for deltaD and delta13C measurements. Comparison of the isotopic data from the deciduous angiosperm plants growing in Newcastle and Norwich shows that 6 species from Newcastle are more 13C-depleted (delta13C: c. -39 to -35 per mil) than 11 deciduous angiosperm species from Norwich (delta13C: c. -36 to -31 per mil). However, there is no significant difference in the deltaD values between the two locations since the Newcastle data (deltaD: c. -155 to -130 per mil) is within the range of the Norwich data (deltaD: c. -115 to -170 per mil). Our n-alkane isotope data from Newcastle indicate that deciduous angiosperm species have a very different delta13C/dD signature in comparison with that of the evergreen angiosperm species. On the other hand, gymnosperms have deltaD values similar to those of deciduous angiosperms and delta13C values similar to those of evergreen angiosperms. Further results from our compound-specific work, will reveal whether these patterns also characterize the same plant groups in Norwich and whether different weather patterns in Newcastle and Norwich lead to isotopic differences in the same species/plant types. The results of this study will provide a valuable dataset that could be used for higher plant and soil characterization by forensics experts in the UK and elsewhere.

  10. Purification and Characterization of an Extracellular Dextransucrase from Pediococcus pentosaceus Isolated from the Soil of North East India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damini Kothari

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The extracellular dextransucrase produced from Pediococcus pentosaceus, a new isolate from the soil in Assam, India, was purified and characterized. The enzyme activity of cell-free supernatant was 3.4 U/mL and specific activity was 0.6 U/mg. The crude enzyme was purified by a single-step fractionation using polyethylene glycols of different molecular mass. The specific activity achieved was 18 U/mg with 31-fold purification by PEG 400 and 26 U/mg with 45-fold purification by PEG 1500. The molecular mass of dextransucrase determined by non-denaturing SDS-PAGE was approx. 180 kDa. The dextran formation activity of the enzyme was confirmed by activity staining. Optimum conditions for dextransucrase activity were: pH=5.4, reaction temperature 30 °C, 5 % sucrose and 20 mM sodium acetate buffer. A concentration of 1 mM MgCl2 and 6 mM CaCl2 enhanced dextransucrase activity by 5 and 150 %, respectively. The chaotropic agent urea (7 M and chelating agent EDTA (1 mM resulted in the residual enzyme activity of 98 and 80 %, respectively. The organic solvents such as ethanol (50 %, DMSO (90 %, acetone (50 % and acetonitrile (20 % decreased the dextransucrase activity by 80, 91, 94 and 80 %, respectively.

  11. Molecular cloning and characterization of the gene coding for azoreductase from Bacillus sp. OY1-2 isolated from soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Y; Yoda, T; Ruhul, A; Sugiura, W

    2001-03-23

    Azo dyes are regarded as pollutants because they are not readily reduced under aerobic conditions. Bacillus sp. OY1-2 transforms azo dyes into colorless compounds, and this reduction is mediated by a reductase activity for the azo group in the presence of NADPH. A 1.2-kbp EcoRI fragment containing the gene that encodes azoreductase was cloned by screening the genomic library of Bacillus sp. OY1-2 with digoxigenin-labeled probe designed from the N-terminal amino acid sequence of the purified enzyme. An open reading frame encoding the azoreductase, consisting of 178 amino acids, was predicted from the nucleotide sequence. In addition, because only a Bacillus subtillis hypothetical protein was discovered in the public databases (with an amino acid identity of 52.8%), the gene encoding the azoreductase cloned in this study was predicted to be a member of a novel family of reductases. Southern blot analysis revealed that the azoreductase gene exists as a single copy gene on a chromosome. Escherichia coli-expressing recombinant azoreductase gave a ten times greater reducing activity toward azo dyes than the original Bacillus sp. OY1-2. In addition, the expressed azoreductase purified from the recombinant E. coli lysate by Red-Sepharose affinity chromatography showed a similar activity and specificity as the native enzyme. This is the first report describing the sequencing and characterization of a gene encoding the azo dye-reducing enzyme, azoreductase, from aerobic bacteria and its expression in E. coli.

  12. Characterization of Growing Soil Bacterial Communities across a pH gradient Using H218O DNA-Stable Isotope Probing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welty-Bernard, A. T.; Schwartz, E.

    2014-12-01

    Recent studies have established consistent relationships between pH and bacterial diversity and community structure in soils from site-specific to landscape scales. However, these studies rely on DNA or PLFA extraction techniques from bulk soils that encompass metabolically active and inactive, or dormant, communities, and loose DNA. Dormant cells may comprise up to 80% of total live cells. If dormant cells dominate a particular environment, it is possible that previous interpretations of the soil variables assumed to drive communities could be profoundly affected. We used H218O stable isotope probing and bar-coded illumina sequencing of 16S rRNA genes to monitor the response of actively growing communities to changes in soil pH in a soil microcosm over 14 days. This substrate-independent approach has several advantages over 13C or 15N-labelled molecules in that all growing bacteria should be able to make use of water, allowing characterization of whole communities. We hypothesized that Acidobacteria would increasingly dominate the growing community and that Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes would decline, given previously established responses by these taxa to soil pH. Instead, we observed the reverse. Actinobacteria abundance increased three-fold from 26 to 76% of the overall community as soil pH fell from pH 5.6 to pH 4.6. Shifts in community structure and decreases in diversity with declining soil pH were essentially driven by two families, Streptomyceaca and Microbacteracea, which collectively increased from 2 to 40% of the entire community. In contrast, Acidobacteria as a whole declined although numbers of subdivision 1 remained stable across all soil pH levels. We suggest that the brief incubation period in this SIP study selected for growth of acid-tolerant Actinobacteria over Acidobacteria. Taxa within Actinomycetales have been readily cultured over short time frames, suggesting rapid growth patterns. Conversely, taxa within Acidobacteria have been

  13. Isolation and characterization of labile organic phosphorus pools in soils from the Askov long-term field experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Guggenberger, Georg; Bent T. Christensen; Rubæk, Gitte H.

    2000-01-01

    Labile soil organic phosphorus (Po) plays a crucial role in plant P nutrition and in environmental eutrophication. This paper discusses recent studies on the nature of labile soil Po and its response to different fertilization practices. Soil material was obtained from the Askov long-term experiment on animal manure and mineral fertilizers. Our analytical approach combined a macroporous anion exchange resin to isolate labile Po and 31P NMR spectroscopy to assess the chemical composition and o...

  14. Physical chemistry characterization of soils of the Storage Center of Radioactive Wastes; Caracterizacion fisico-quimica de suelos del Centro de Almacenamiento de Desechos Radioactivos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez T, U. O.; Fernandez R, E. [Instituto Tecnologico de Toluca, Av. Tecnologico s/n, 52140 Metepec, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Monroy G, F.; Anguiano A, J., E-mail: uohtrejo@gmail.com [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (MX)

    2011-11-15

    Any type of waste should be confined so that it does not causes damage to the human health neither the environment and for the storage of the radioactive wastes these actions are the main priority. In the Storage Center of Radioactive Wastes the radioactive wastes generated in Mexico by non energy applications are storage of temporary way. The present study is focused in determining the physical chemistry properties of the lands of the Storage Center of Radioactive Wastes like they are: real density, ph, conductivity percentage of organic matter and percentage of humidity. With what is sought to make a characterization to verify the reaction capacity of the soils in case of a possible flight of radioactive material. The results show that there are different density variations, ph and conductivity in all the soil samples; the ph and conductivity vary with regard to the contact time between the soil and their saturation point in water, for the case of the density due to the characteristics of the same soil; for what is not possible to establish a general profile, but is necessary to know the properties of each soil type more amply. Contrary case is the content of organic matter and humidity since both are in minor proportions. (Author)

  15. Accessibility, searchability, transparency and engagement of soil carbon data: The International Soil Carbon Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, Jennifer W.; Hugelius, Gustaf; Koven, Charlie; Sulman, Ben; O'Donnell, Jon; He, Yujie

    2016-04-01

    Soils are capacitors for carbon and water entering and exiting through land-atmosphere exchange. Capturing the spatiotemporal variations in soil C exchange through monitoring and modeling is difficult in part because data are reported unevenly across spatial, temporal, and management scales and in part because the unit of measure generally involves destructive harvest or non-recurrent measurements. In order to improve our fundamental basis for understanding soil C exchange, a multi-user, open source, searchable database and network of scientists has been formed. The International Soil Carbon Network (ISCN) is a self-chartered, member-based and member-owned network of scientists dedicated to soil carbon science. Attributes of the ISCN include 1) Targeted ISCN Action Groups which represent teams of motivated researchers that propose and pursue specific soil C research questions with the aim of synthesizing seminal articles regarding soil C fate. 2) Datasets to date contributed by institutions and individuals to a comprehensive, searchable open-access database that currently includes over 70,000 geolocated profiles for which soil C and other soil properties. 3) Derivative products resulting from the database, including depth attenuation attributes for C concentration and storage; C storage maps; and model-based assessments of emission/sequestration for future climate scenarios. Several examples illustrate the power of such a database and its engagement with the science community. First, a simplified, data-constrained global ecosystem model estimated a global sensitivity of permafrost soil carbon to climate change (g sensitivity) of -14 to -19 Pg C °C-1 of warming on a 100 years time scale. Second, using mathematical characterizations of depth profiles for organic carbon storage, C at the soil surface reflects Net Primary Production (NPP) and its allotment as moss or litter, while e-folding depths are correlated to rooting depth. Third, storage of deep C is highly

  16. Improving the quality of protein identification in non-model species. Characterization of Quercus ilex seed and Pinus radiata needle proteomes by using SEQUEST and custom databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Rodríguez, M Cristina; Pascual, Jesús; Valledor, Luis; Jorrín-Novo, Jesús

    2014-06-13

    Nowadays the most used pipeline for protein identification consists in the comparison of the MS/MS spectra to reference databases. Search algorithms compare obtained spectra to an in silico digestion of a sequence database to find exact matches. In this context, the database has a paramount importance and will determine in a great deal the number of identifications and its quality, being this especially relevant for non-model plant species. Using a single Viridiplantae database (NCBI, UniProt) and TAIR is not the best choice for non-model species since they are underrepresented in databases resulting in poor identification rates. We demonstrate how it is possible to improve the rate and quality of identifications in two orphan species, Quercus ilex and Pinus radiata, by using SEQUEST and a combination of public (Viridiplantae NCBI, UniProt) and a custom-built specific database which contained 593,294 and 455,096 peptide sequences (Quercus and Pinus, respectively). These databases were built after gathering and processing (trimming, contiging, 6-frame translation) publicly available RNA sequences, mostly ESTs and NGS reads. A total of 149 and 1533 proteins were identified from Quercus seeds and Pinus needles, representing a 3.1- or 1.5-fold increase in the number of protein identifications and scores compared to the use of a single database. Since this approach greatly improves the identification rate, and is not significantly more complicated or time consuming than other approaches, we recommend its routine use when working with non-model species. In this work we demonstrate how the construction of a custom database (DB) gathering all available RNA sequences and its use in combination with Viridiplantae public DBs (NCBI, UniProt) significantly improve protein identification when working with non-model species. Protein identification rate and quality is higher to those obtained in routine procedures based on using only one database (commonly Viridiplantae from NCBI

  17. Characterizing Changes of Heavy Metals in the Soils from Different Urban Location of Borujerd, Lorestan Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eisa Solgi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available As more people live in cities and urban areas, evaluation of urban environmental quality is nowadays an unavoidable necessity. Urbanization gives off heavy metals into urban soils and threatens the human health. In this study, urban soil samples were acquired from different locations (Public parks, streets, and squares from Borujerd, Iran. The levels of Cd and Pb in the soils, along with soil pH, electrical conductivity (EC, and particle size distribution (texture, were analyzed. Kriging method by Surfer software was employed to create the spatial distribution maps of Cd, Pb, and geoaccumulation index (Igeo. The average Cd and Pb concentrations in the surface soil samples were 2.50±1.14, and 50.37±34.77 mg/kg dry weight, respectively. The highest mean concentration of Cd was found in street soils and as for Pb in square soils. The interpolation maps illustrated the same behavior for Cd and Pb with elevated concentrations located in the southeast. The mean values of geoaccumulation index (Igeo showed that soils are moderately/strongly contaminated with Cd and moderately contaminated with Pb. In this study, traffic emission, textile industries and probably released untreated municipal wastewater into the soil are anthropogenic sources of Pb and Cd.

  18. Application of DRIFTS, NMR, and py-MBMS to characterize the effects of soil science oxidation assays on soil organic matter composition in a Mollic Xerofluvent

    Science.gov (United States)

    To evaluate whether commonly employed chemical treatments remove structurally distinct fractions of soil organic matter (SOM), a Mollic Xerofluvent under agricultural use was subjected to three distinct oxidation treatments: potassium permanganate (KMnO4), sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), and hydrogen p...

  19. Understanding Variations of Soil Mapping Units and Associated Data for Forensic Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, Melissa D; Southard, Randal J; Parikh, Sanjai J

    2015-07-01

    Soil samples have potential to be useful in forensic investigations, but their utility may be limited due to the inherent variability of soil properties, the wide array of analytical methods, and complexity of data analysis. This study examined the differentiation of similar soils based on both gross (texture, color, mineralogy) and explicit soil properties (elemental composition, cation exchange, Fe-oxyhydroxides). Soils were collected from Fallbrook and adjacent map units from Riverside and San Diego Counties in California. Samples were characterized using multiple techniques, including chemical extracts, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Results were analyzed using multiple analytical approaches to compare counties and land uses. Some analyses (XRD, extractions) were better at distinguishing among samples than others (color, texture). Ratios of rare earth elements were particularly useful for distinguishing samples between counties. This potential to "fingerprint" soils illustrates the usefulness of a comprehensive soil database for criminal investigators. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  20. Development and Application of the GRACEnet Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follett, R.; Del Grosso, S.

    2008-12-01

    More carbon is stored in soil than in the atmosphere. This reservoir is vulnerable to change, and can be a source or sink of atmospheric CO2. It is difficult to precisely quantify the impacts of land management on soil C levels because weather, biological community and other factors act as controls on soil C. Consequently, simulation models that represent the control mechanisms on soil C (plant growth, organic matter decomposition, etc.) have been developed. Field measurements of soil C have been limited because sampling methods are not uniform and model development is constrained by the availability of model input and testing data. A primary goal of the GRACEnet project is to provide a database for soil C data collected from various agricultural systems across the US using standard measurement protocols. The database also includes measurements of nitrous oxide, methane, crop yields, and input data needed to develop and test ecosystem models. Researchers contributing to the database are required to adhere to prescribed data reporting formats. Database users can access complete data sets required to drive and test models and perform queries to extract data subsets. The database has been used to validate and improve ecosystem models. These improved models are currently being used to calculate CO2 and N2O fluxes from agricultural soils for the US National Greenhouse Gas Inventory and to quantify the greenhouse gas mitigation potential of different land management strategies.