WorldWideScience

Sample records for soho joint observing

  1. Preliminary analysis of a CME observed by SOHO and Ulysses Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemporad, A.; Poletto, G.; Romoli, M.; Suess, S. T.

    2003-01-01

    Over the last week of November 2002 SOHO/LASCO observed several Coronal Mass Ejections, most of which occurring in the NW quadrant. At that time SOHO/UVCS was involved in a SOHO-Sun-Ulysses quadrature campaign, making observations off the west limb of the Sun, at a northern latitude of 27 deg. Here we focus on data taken at 1.7 solar radii, over a time interval of approx. 7 hours, on 26/27 November 2002, when a large streamer disruption was imaged by LASCO C2 and C3 coronagraphs. UVCS spectra revealed the presence of lines from both high and low ionization ions, such as C III, O VI, Si VIII, IX, and XII, Fe X and XVIII, which brighten at different times, with a different time scale and at different positions and are apparently related to different phenomena. In particular, the intensity increase and fast disappearance of the C III 977 Angstrom line represents the passage through the UVCS slit of cold material released in a jet imaged by EIT in the He II 304 Angstrom line. The persistent presence of the Fe XVIII 974 Angstrom line is not easily related to any special feature crossing the UVCS slit. We suggest to interpret this behavior in terms of the reconnection events which lead to the formation of loops observed in the EIT He II 304 Angstrom line.

  2. PHOTOMETRIC STUDY OF THE KREUTZ COMETS OBSERVED BY SOHO FROM 1996 TO 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knight, Matthew M.; A'Hearn, Michael F.; Hamilton, Douglas P.; Biesecker, Douglas A.; Faury, Guillaume; Lamy, Philippe; Llebaria, Antoine

    2010-01-01

    We present analysis of the photometry of more than 900 Kreutz comets observed by SOHO from 1996 to 2005. The Kreutz comets have 'sungrazing' orbits with q∼ 1-2 R sun , high inclinations (i ∼ 143 deg.), and periods of 500-1000 years. We find that they do not have a bimodal distance of peak brightness as previously reported, but instead peak from 10.5 R sun to 14 R sun (prior to perihelion), suggesting there is a continuum of compositions rather than two distinct subpopulations. The light curves have two rates of brightening, typically ∝ r -7.3±2.0 when first observed by SOHO (at distances of 30-35 R sun ) then rapidly transitioning to ∝ r -3.8±0.7 between 20 R sun and 30 R sun . It is unclear at what distance the steeper slope begins, but it likely does not extend much beyond the SOHO field of view. We derive nuclear sizes up to ∼50 m in radius for the SOHO-observed comets, with a cumulative size distribution of N(>R) ∝ R -2.2 for comets larger than 5 m in radius. This size distribution cannot explain the largest members of the family seen from the ground, suggesting that either the size distribution does not extend to the largest sizes or that the distribution is not uniform around the orbit. The total mass of the distribution up to the largest expected size (∼500 m) is ∼4 x 10 14 g, much less than the estimated masses of the largest ground-observed members. After correcting for the changing discovery circumstances, the flux of comets reaching perihelion has increased since 1996, and the increase is seen in comets of all sizes. Comparison of the SOHO comets with the Solwind and Solar Maximum Mission discoveries suggests there may have been an overabundance of bright comets arriving from 1979 to 1989, possibly indicative of a changing distribution around the Kreutz orbit.

  3. SOHO - A Sucess Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brekke, P.; Dimitoglou, G.; Drobnes, E.; Fleck, B.; Haugan, S. V.; Sanchez, L.

    2003-04-01

    The Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) provides an unparalleled breadth and depth of information about the Sun: Helioseismology data shed new light on structural and dynamic phenomena in the solar interior; imagers and spectrometers reveal an extremely dynamic solar surface and atmosphere; together with the in situ particle experiments and sky mappers, they expand our knowledge of conditions in the interplanetary space and how it is affected by the Sun. SOHO data are available to scientists and the general public via the mission's website. Numerous products are accessible, from web-friendly real-time images and movies to the mission's online data archive catalog. SOHO has a unique record for active collaboration between its 12 instruments, as well as with other spacecraft and ground-based observatories all over the world. The coordinated observing time (with one or more instruments coordinated) is in fact over 12 hours per day. SOHO is frequently mentioned in the international media, and SOHO movies have become "stock footage" for several news organizations. The latest discoveries are featured on the web pages, and the number of visitors on our web pages continues to grow - we are now serving about 1.75 Terabytes to more than 50,000 users in response to over 7 million requests every month.

  4. The Fall 2000 and Fall 2001 SOHO-Ulysses Quadratures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suess, S. T.; Poletto, G.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    SOHO-Ulysses quadrature occurs when the SOHO-Sun-Ulysses included angle is 90 degrees. It is only at such times that the same plasma leaving the Sun in the direction of Ulysses can first be remotely analyzed with SOHO instruments and then later be sampled in situ by Ulysses instruments. The quadratures in December 2000 and 2001 are of special significance because Ulysses will be near the south and north heliographic poles, respectively, and the solar cycle will be near sunspot maximum. Quadrature geometry is sometimes confusing and observations are influenced by solar rotation. The Fall 2000 and 2001 quadratures are more complex than usual because Ulysses is not in a true polar orbit and the orbital speed of Ulysses about the Sun is becoming comparable to the speed of SOHO about the Sun. In 2000 Ulysses will always be slightly behind the pole but will appear to hang over the pole for over two months because it is moving around the Sun in the same direction as SOHO. In 2001 Ulysses will be slightly in front of the pole so that its footpoint will be directly observable. Detailed plots will be shown of the relative positions of SOHO and Ulysses will their relative positions. In neither case is true quadrature actually achieved, but this works to the observers advantage in 2001.

  5. EIT: Solar corona synoptic observations from SOHO with an Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaboudiniere, J. P.; Gabriel, A. H.; Artzner, G. E.; Michels, D. J.; Dere, K. P.; Howard, R. A.; Catura, R.; Stern, R.; Lemen, J.; Neupert, W.

    1988-01-01

    The Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (EIT) of SOHO (solar and heliospheric observatory) will provide full disk images in emission lines formed at temperatures that map solar structures ranging from the chromospheric network to the hot magnetically confined plasma in the corona. Images in four narrow bandpasses will be obtained using normal incidence multilayered optics deposited on quadrants of a Ritchey-Chretien telescope. The EIT is capable of providing a uniform one arc second resolution over its entire 50 by 50 arc min field of view. Data from the EIT will be extremely valuable for identifying and interpreting the spatial and temperature fine structures of the solar atmosphere. Temporal analysis will provide information on the stability of these structures and identify dynamical processes. EIT images, issued daily, will provide the global corona context for aid in unifying the investigations and in forming the observing plans for SOHO coronal instruments.

  6. Prestigious award for SOHO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-09-01

    SOHO spacecraft artist's impression hi-res Size hi-res: 451 Kb Credits: ESA SOHO spacecraft SOHO is a project of international cooperation between ESA and NASA. SOHO's science ranges from the Sun's hot interior, through its visible surface and stormy atmosphere, and out to distant regions where the wind from the Sun battles with a breeze of atoms coming from among the stars. The award recognises both the outstanding achievements in designing, building and operating the mission, as well as the science it has performed. It is a tribute to a team that has contributed to one of the most successful space missions in history. The International Academy of Astronautics presents this award in recognition of extraordinary performance and achievement by teams of scientists, engineers and managers in the field of astronautics. This honour has been awarded only twice before - to the Russian Mir Space Station Team and the US Space Shuttle Team. Now the SOHO team joins this select group. The citation of the award for the SOHO team reads: "To the team of scientists, engineers and managers for the development and operation of a world-class mission leading to substantial advancements in understanding the Sun and the solar-terrestrial relationship." SOHO has an impressive and unique list of achievements. For instance, it produced the first ever images of the turbulent outer shell of the Sun and of the structure below sunspots. It gave the most precise measurements of the solar temperature structure, the interior rotation and the gas flows inside the Sun. It measured the acceleration of the fast and slow solar winds and discovered new solar phenomena, such as solar tornadoes. It revolutionised our ability to forecast space weather, and helped our understanding of the impact of solar variability on Earth's climate. During eight years of operation, the team has had to face several heart-stopping moments, but with extraordinary team spirit, skill and competence, they turned these

  7. Can SOHO SWAN Detect CMEs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. Cyr, O. C.; Malayeri, M. L.; Yashiro, S.; Quemerais, E.; Bertaux, J.; Howard, R.

    2003-12-01

    We have investigated the possibility that the Solar Wind Anisotropies (SWAN) remote sensing instrument on SOHO may be able to detect coronal mass ejections (CMEs) in neutral Hydrogen Lyman-α emission. We have identified CMEs near the Sun in observations by the SOHO LASCO white-light coronagraphs and in extreme ultraviolet emissions using SOHO EIT. There are very few methods of tracking CMEs after they leave the coronagraph's field-of-view, so this is an important topic to study. The primary science goal of the SWAN investigation is the measurement of large-scale structures in the solar wind, and these are obtained by detecting intensity fluctuations in Lyman-α . SWAN consists of a pair of sensors on opposite panels of SOHO. The instantaneous field-of-view of each sensor unit is a 5° x 5° square, divided into 1° pixels. A gimbaled periscope system allows each sensor to map the intensity distribution of Lyman-α , and the entire sky can be scanned in less than one day. This is the typical mode of operation for this instrument (Bertaux et al., Solar Physics, 162, 403-439, 1995). Beginning in May 2002 the sky-scan mode of the SWAN detectors was interrupted, and they were held stationary for one-or-more 15-hour campaigns each week. During those campaigns the SWAN sensors were positioned above the East or West equator of the Sun at locations chosen to be as close to the Sun as possible (typically 50 solar radii from Sun-center). Based on the LASCO and EIT data, we have identified CMEs whose extrapolated height-time measurements indicated that the events would cross the SWAN field during the campaign period. During 12 months' observation, there were ˜10 CMEs that met two criteria: (1) an event low in the corona near the solar limb could be unambiguously identified in EIT; and (2) the CME could be tracked beyond 20 R⊙ in LASCO C3. We consider these CMEs to be particularly well-observed since the speed measured in LASCO could be reliably extrapolated to the SWAN

  8. Low-Latitude Solar Wind During the Fall 1998 SOHO-Ulysses Quadrature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poletto, G.; Suess, S. T.; Biesecker, D. A.; Esser, R.; Gloeckler, G.; Ko, Y.-K.; Zurbuchen, T. H.

    2002-01-01

    Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOH0)-Ulysses quadratures occur when the SOHO-Sun-Ulysses-included angle is 90 deg. These offer the opportunity to directly compare properties of plasma parcels, observed by SOHO [Dorningo et al.] in the low corona, with properties of the same parcels measured, in due time, in situ, by Ulysses [ Wenzel et al]. We refer the reader to Suess et al. for an extended discussion of SOHO-Ulysses quadrature geometry. Here it suffices to recall that there are two quadratures per year, as SOHO makes its one-year revolution around the Sun. This, because SOHO is at the L1 Lagrangian point, in essentially the same place as the Earth, while Ulysses is in a near-polar -5-year solar orbit with a perihelion of 1.34 AU and aphelion of 5.4 AU.

  9. Determining coronal electron temperatures from observations with UVCS/SOHO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fineschi, S.; Esser, R.; Habbal, S. R.; Karovska, M.; Romoli, M.; Strachan, L.; Kohl, J. L.; Huber, M. C. E.

    1995-01-01

    The electron temperature is a fundamental physical parameter of the coronal plasma. Currently, there are no direct measurements of this quantity in the extended corona. Observations with the Ultraviolet Coronagraph Spectrometer (UVCS) aboard the upcoming Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) mission can provide the most direct determination of the electron kinetic temperature (or, more precisely, the electron velocity distribution along the line of sight). This measurement is based on the observation of the Thomson-scattered Lyman alpha (Ly-alpha) profile. This observation is made particularly challenging by the fact that the integrated intensity of the electron-scattered Ly-alpha line is about 10(exp 3) times fainter than that of the resonantly-scattered Ly-alpha component. In addition, the former is distributed across 50 A (FWHM), unlike the latter that is concentrated in 1 A. These facts impose stringent requirements on the stray-light rejection properties of the coronagraph/spectrometer, and in particular on the requirements for the grating. We make use of laboratory measurements of the UVCS Ly-alpha grating stray-light, and of simulated electron-scattered Ly-alpha profiles to estimate the expected confidence levels of electron temperature determination. Models of different structures typical of the corona (e.g., streamers, coronal holes) are used for this parameter study.

  10. SOHO hunts elusive solar prey

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-10-01

    limited by inclement weather conditions and atmospheric distortion of the Sun’s signal, and of course they cannot observe the Sun at night. Although the weather problem has been removed in orbit around the Earth, observations are still periodically interrupted when an Earth-orbiting spacecraft enters our planet’s shadow. In contrast, SOHO will provide the first long, clean uninterrupted views of the Sun. Science Objectives SOHO will look beyond the visible soar disk, observing through new windows from the centre of the Sun to the Earth. It will examine three regions - the hidden interior of the Sun, the hot transparent solar atmosphere, and the eternal solar wind of charged particles and magnetic fields that continuously flow outward from the Sun. The twelve instruments on board SOHO are designed to study one or two of these regions in a different, yet complimentary way. Their combined data will link events in the Sun’s atmosphere and solar wind changes taking place deep within the Sun. The SOHO mission has three principle scientific objectives: 1. Study of the structure and dynamics of the solar interior 2. Study of the heating mechanisms of the Sun's million-degree atmosphere, or solar corona 3. Investigation of the solar wind, its origin and its acceleration processes. "Never before have solar physicists had the opportunity to work with such a comprehensive observatory giving them access literally to the whole Sun", said Martin C. E. Huber, the Head of ESA's Space Science Department. Taking the pulse of the Sun SOHO wil illuminate the unseen depths of the Sun by recording widespread throbbing motions of the Sun's visible "surface", or photosphere. These oscillations are caused by sounds that are trapped inside the Sun. On striking the surface and rebounding back down, the sound waves cause the gases there to move up and down. Sound waves that penetrate deep within the Sun produce global surface oscillations with longer periods of up to a few hours; smaller

  11. Press briefing on results from the solar spacecraft SOHO

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-04-01

    After its launch on 2 December 1995, SOHO travelled to take up a special orbit 1.5 million kilometres away on the sunward side of the Earth, where the Sun never sets. The full scientific programme began in April 1996. The occasion for the briefing is the celebration of that second anniversary and of the mission's extension to 2003. Organized by the European Space Agency, the briefing will be hosted by the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, which is near Oxford. Leading scientists associated with SOHO will announce to the press some remarkable new discoveries about the Sun's interior, atmosphere and solar wind. They will also briefly review the main achievements of the past two years. The role of SOHO as the chief watchdog for storms on the Sun that may affect the Earth will be demonstrated. Europe's creation of the finest spacecraft ever built to observe the Sun will be recalled by a top engineer from ESA. A speaker from NASA will explain transatlantic contributions to SOHO, which is a project of international cooperation between ESA and NASA. ESA's director of science will also be present, to relate SOHO to ESA's general science programme. A lunch-time talk by the BNSC's director of science completes the line-up of speakers. This is also an exceptional opportunity for the press to meet and interview scientists from all over Europe and the USA, who are attending a meeting at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory of SOHO's Science Working Team (SWT). Journalists are usually excluded from such meetings. The Rutherford Appleton Laboratory plays a prominent part in SOHO, particularly through its provision of the CDS ultraviolet spectrometer. A visit to the CDS group will provide a chance to see what space research is really like. Please indicate your intention to attend, on the accreditation form that follows the schedule. Guidance on how to get to the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory is appended. PROGRAMME Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL), 28 April 1998 10:30 Assembly of

  12. SOHO reveals violent action on the quiet Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-05-01

    SOHO's scientists are impressed by the vigorous action that they see going on every day, because the Sun is in the very quietest phase of its eleven-year cycle of activity. To ground-based observatories it appears extremely calm just now. The early indications of SOHO's performance amply justify the creation of a sungazing spacecraft capable of observing ultraviolet emissions that are blotted out by the Earth's atmosphere. Apart from the imager, two ultraviolet spectrometers and an ultraviolet coronagraph (an imager for the outer atmosphere) are busy analysing the violent processes at a wide range of wavelengths. Between them, these instruments should cure long-lasting ignorance concerning the Sun, especially about why the atmosphere is so hot and what drives the solar wind that blows non-stop into the Solar System. Scientists from other experimental teams use SOHO to explore the Sun from its deep interior to the far reaches of the solar wind. They have watched the supposedly quiet Sun belching huge masses of gas into space. They have mapped a hole burnt by the solar wind in a breeze of gas coming from the stars. And they have detected currents of gas flowing just below the visible surface. SOHO is a project of international cooperation between the European Space Agency and NASA. The spacecraft was built in Europe and instrumented by scientists on both sides of the Atlantic. NASA launched SOHO on 2 December 1995, and also provides the ground stations and an operations centre near Washington. The first results are the more remarkable because SOHO arrived at its vantage point 1,500,000 kilometres out in space only in February, and formally completed its commissioning on 16 April. It has a long life ahead of it. All scientific instruments are working well. The luminosity oscillation imager belonging to the VIRGO experiment had trouble with its lens cover. When opened, the cover rebounded on its hinges and closed again. Commands were devised that gave a shorter impulse

  13. Observations of solar wave/instability phenomena as imaged by EIT/SOHO, TRACE and Yohkoh/SXT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berghmans, D.; McKenzie, D.

    2000-01-01

    On May 13 1998, active region NOAA 8218 was observed in the context of the SOHO/JOP80 campaign by an array of 8 different ground-based and space-born instruments. The emphasis was set on imaging of small-scale dynamics in this relatively small but rapidly evolving AR. In particular, SOHO/EIT (195 Aa), TRACE (171 Aa) and YOHKOH/SXT produced subfield image sequences at their respective highest possible rates. We searched for wave and instability phenomena by using an automated recognition scheme. This result in a wide inventory of propagating disturbances and localized transient brightenings. By comparing the soft X-ray signature as recorded by SXT with the EUV-signature as collected by EIT and TRACE, we are able to distinguish between various types of active region transients. As such we find that the strongest brightenings observed by EIT are indeed the EUV counterparts of the previously reported ARTBs seen by SXT. Weaker brightenings seen by EIT do often not have an X-ray counterpart. Moreover, in an extended system of faint quasi-open loops, we find propagating disturbances, with speeds of the order of 100 km/s, both in EIT and TRACE images. These are interpreted as sonic perturbations. The brightenings will be discussed in this paper while the propagating disturbances are described in the presentation by Eva Robbrecht at this conference

  14. Cluster and SOHO - a joint endeavor by ESA and NASA to address problems in solar, heliospheric, and space plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, R.; Domingo, V.; Shawhan, S.D.; Bohlin, D.

    1988-01-01

    The NASA/ESA Solar-Terrestrial Science Program, which consists of the four-spacecraft cluster mission and the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO), is examined. It is expected that the SOHO spacecraft will be launched in 1995 to study solar interior structure and the physical processes associated with the solar corona. The SOHO design, operation, data, and ground segment are discussed. The Cluster mission is designed to study small-scale structures in the earth's plasma environment. The Soviet Union is expected to contribute two additional spacecraft, which will be similar to Cluster in instrumentation and design. The capabilities, mission strategy, spacecraft design, payload, and ground segment of Cluster are discussed. 19 references

  15. Combined Ulysses Solar Wind and SOHO Coronal Observations of Several West Limb Coronal Mass Ejections. Appendix 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funsten, H. O.; Gosling, J. T.; Riley, P.; St.Cyr, O. C.; Forsyth, R. J.; Howard, R. A.; Schwenn, R.

    2001-01-01

    From October 1996 to January 1997, Ulysses was situated roughly above the west limb of the Sun as observed from Earth at a heliocentric distance of about 4.6 AU and a latitude of about 25 deg. This presents the first opportunity to compare Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) limb observations of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) directly with their solar wind counterparts far from the Sun using the Ulysses data. During this interval, large eruptive events were observed above the west limb of the Sun by the Large Angle Spectrometric Coronagraph (LASCO) on SOHO on October 5, November 28, and December 21-25, 1996. Using the combined plasma and magnetic field data from Ulysses, the October 5 event was clearly identified by several distinguishing signatures as a CME. The November 28 event was also identified as a CME that trailed fast ambient solar wind, although it was identified only by an extended interval of counterstreaming suprathermal electrons. The December 21 event was apparently characterized by a six-day interval of nearly radial field and a plasma rarefaction. For the numerous eruptive events observed by the LASCO coronagraph during December 23-25, Ulysses showed no distinct, CMEs, perhaps because of intermingling of two or more of the eruptive events. By mapping the Ulysses observations back in time to the Sun assuming a constant flow speed, we have identified intervals of plasma that were accelerated or decelerated between the LASCO and Ulysses observations.

  16. Past and Future SOHO-Ulysses Quadratures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suess, Steven; Poletto, G.

    2006-01-01

    With the launch of SOHO, it again became possible to carry out quadrature observations. In comparison with earlier observations, the new capabilities of coronal spectroscopy with UVCS and in situ ionization state and composition with Ulysses/SWICS enabled new types of studies. Results from two studies serve as examples: (i) The acceleration profile of wind from small coronal holes. (ii) A high-coronal reconnecting current sheet as the source of high ionization state Fe in a CME at Ulysses. Generally quadrature observations last only for a few days, when Ulysses is within ca. 5 degrees of the limb. This means luck is required for the phenomenon of interest to lie along the radial direction to Ulysses. However, when Ulysses is at high southern latitude in winter 2007 and high northern latitude in winter 2008, there will be unusually favorable configurations for quadrature observations with SOHO and corresponding bracketing limb observations from STEREO A/B. Specifically, Ulysses will be within 5 degrees of the limb from December 2006 to May 2007 and within 10 degrees of the limb from December 2007 to May 2008. These long-lasting quadratures and bracketing STEREO A/B observations overcome the limitations inherent in the short observation intervals of typical quadratures. Furthermore, ionization and charge state measurements like those on Ulysses will also be made on STEREO and these will be essential for identification of CME ejecta - one of the prime objectives for STEREO.

  17. Micro Coronal Bright Points Observed in the Quiet Magnetic Network by SOHO/EIT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falconer, D. A.; Moore, R. L.; Porter, J. G.

    1997-01-01

    When one looks at SOHO/EIT Fe XII images of quiet regions, one can see the conventional coronal bright points (> 10 arcsec in diameter), but one will also notice many smaller faint enhancements in brightness (Figure 1). Do these micro coronal bright points belong to the same family as the conventional bright points? To investigate this question we compared SOHO/EIT Fe XII images with Kitt Peak magnetograms to determine whether the micro bright points are in the magnetic network and mark magnetic bipoles within the network. To identify the coronal bright points, we applied a picture frame filter to the Fe XII images; this brings out the Fe XII network and bright points (Figure 2) and allows us to study the bright points down to the resolution limit of the SOHO/EIT instrument. This picture frame filter is a square smoothing function (hlargelyalf a network cell wide) with a central square (quarter of a network cell wide) removed so that a bright point's intensity does not effect its own background. This smoothing function is applied to the full disk image. Then we divide the original image by the smoothed image to obtain our filtered image. A bright point is defined as any contiguous set of pixels (including diagonally) which have enhancements of 30% or more above the background; a micro bright point is any bright point 16 pixels or smaller in size. We then analyzed the bright points that were fully within quiet regions (0.6 x 0.6 solar radius) centered on disk center on six different days.

  18. SOHO starts a revolution in the science of the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-07-01

    In addition, SOHO has found clues to the forces that accelerate the solar wind of atomic particles blowing unceasingly through the Solar System. By relating the huge outbursts called coronal mass ejections to preceding magnetic changes in the Sun, SOHO scientists hope to predict such events which, in the Earth's vicinity, endanger power supplies and satellites. SOHO sees differences in the strength of the solar wind in various directions, by mapping a cavity in the cloud of interstellar hydrogen surrounding the Sun. As a bonus, SOHO secured remarkable images of Comet Hyakutake, by ultraviolet and visible light. The revolution in solar science will seem more complete when all the pieces and actions of the Sun, detected by twelve different instruments, are brought together in observations and concepts. Fundamental questions will then be open to re-examination, about the origin of the Sun's magnetism, the cause of its variations in the 11-year cycle of sunspot activity, and the consequences for the Solar System at large. SOHO is greater than the sum of its parts. "SOHO takes solar science by storm," says Roger Bonnet, the European Space Agency's Director of Science, "thanks to its combination of instruments. Unprecedented results from individual telescopes and spectrometers are impressive, of course, but what is breathtaking is SOHO's ability to explore the Sun all the way from its nuclear core to the Earth's vicinity and beyond. We can expect a completely new picture of how agitation inside the Sun, transmitted through the solar atmosphere, directly affects us on the Earth." SOHO is a project of international cooperation between the European Space Agency and NASA. The spacecraft was built in Europe and instrumented by scientists on both sides of the Atlantic. NASA launched SOHO and provides the ground stations and an operations centre at the Goddard Space Flight Center near Washington. SOHO has an uninterrupted view of the Sun from a halo orbit around Lagrangian

  19. SOHO celebrates its first year in space with new results on the solar wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-12-01

    space, and sees it carrying intermittent bright patches corresponding with relatively dense concentrations of solar material. These gusts are milder than the occasional mass ejections also seen by LASCO, which accompany great convulsions in the solar magnetic field. SOHO's solar wind analyser CELIAS has detected many previously unrecorded elements and isotopes among the charged atoms of the solar wind. The solar wind mapper, SWAN, observes the widespread effects of solar wind particles as they interact with the atoms of an interstellar breeze blowing into the solar system. Yet the results on the solar wind represent only a fraction of SOHO's achievements so far, with twelve sets of instruments observing everything from oscillations deep inside the Sun, to the solar influence on energetic cosmic rays coming from the Galaxy. Stealing the show in helioseismology SOHO is a project of international cooperation between the European Space Agency and NASA. The spacecraft was built in Europe and instrumented by scientists on both sides of the Atlantic. NASA launched SOHO and provides the ground stations and an operations centre at the Goddard Space Flight Center near Washington. SOHO has an uninterrupted view of the Sun from a halo orbit around Lagrangian Point N 1 where the gravity of the Sun and the Earth are in balance, 1,500,000 kilometres out on the sunward side of the Earth. The spacecraft's engineering has proved to be excellent and no practical difficulty is anticipated in keeping SOHO operational into the sunspot maximum expected in 2000-2001. SOHO was launched on 2 December 1995. Check-out observations with some instruments began just a few days later. SOHO attained its L1 halo orbit on 14 February 1996, and commissioning was formally completed on 16 April. Already the first results were showing unprecedented images of the solar atmosphere, of the heliosphere filled by the solar wind, and even of the Sun's interior as revealed by oscillations due to sound waves in the

  20. Five years of discoveries with SOHO have made the Sun transparent

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-04-01

    The announcement of these new far-side services coincides with the celebration of Sun-Earth Day 2001, by the European Space Agency, NASA and other agencies. It also marks the fifth anniversary of the commissioning of the European-built SOHO, in April 1996, and the formal start at that time of the observations with a dozen sets of clever solar instruments. European and US scientific teams contributed the instruments to this project of international cooperation between ESA and NASA. "What started as unusual research has become an everyday tool," notes Jean-Loup Bertaux of the CNRS Service d’Aéronomie near Paris, who leads the French-Finnish team responsible for the SWAN instrument. "We should no longer be taken by surprise by highly active regions that suddenly come into view as the Sun rotates." The Sun takes roughly four weeks to turn completely around on its axis, but active regions can appear and grow in only a few days. So until two years ago, no one had any way of telling when an active region might come ‘around the corner’ -- perhaps blazing away with eruptions as soon as it appeared. If an active region can be detected in the middle of the far side it will appear on the eastern (left-hand) side of the visible disk about seven days later. The SWAN team announced the telltale ultraviolet observations in June 1999. In March 2000 Charles Lindsey of Tucson, Arizona, and Doug Braun of Boulder, Colorado, reported that they had detected, with SOHO’s MDI, sound waves reflected from far-side sunspots. Speeded by the intense magnetic fields associated with sunspot regions, the sound waves arrived a few seconds early at the Sun’s near-side face, compared with sound waves from sunspot-free regions. Decoding MDI data from a million points on the Sun’s near side, to obtain an impression of the far side, uses a technique called helioseismic holography and requires a powerful computer. Both discoveries were made retrospectively from SOHO’s archives. Since then

  1. Wide and Narrow CMEs and Their Source Explosions Observed at the Spring 2003 SOHO-Sun-Ulysses Quadrature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suess, Steven; Corti, G.; Poletto, G.; Sterling, A.; Moore, R.

    2006-01-01

    At the time of the spring 2003 Ulysses-SOHO-Sun quadrature, Ulysses was off the East limb of the Sun at 14.5 degrees north latitude and 4.91 AU. LASCO/C2 images show small transient events that originated from near the limb on May 25, 26 and 27 in the north-east quadrant, along with a large Coronal Mass Ejection (CME) that originated from an active region near disk center on May 26. Ulysses data bear clear signatures of the large CME, specifically including an enhanced abundance of highly ionized Fe. SOHO/UVCS spectra at 1.75 solar radii, near the radial direction to Ulysses, give no evidence of emission from high temperature lines, even for the large CME: instead, for the small events, occasional transient high emission in cool lines was observed, such as the CIII 977 Angstrom line usually absent at coronal levels. Each of these events lasted ca. 1 hour or less and never affected lines from ions forming above ca. 106K. Compact eruptions in Helium 304 Angstrom EIT images, related to the small UVCS transients, were observed at the limb of the Sun over the same period. At least one of these surge events produced a narrow CME observed in LASCO/C2. Most probably all these events are compact magnetic explosions (surges/jets, from around a small island of included polarity) which ejected cool material from lower levels. Ulysses data have been analyzed to find evidence of the cool, narrow CME events, but none or little was found. This puzzling scenario, where events seen by UVCS have no in situ counterparts and vice versa, can be partially explained once the region where the large CME originated is recognized as being at the center of the solar disk so that the CME material was actually much further from the Sun than the 1.7 Rsun height of the UVCS slit off the limb. Conversely, the narrow events may simply have missed Ulysses or been too brief for reliable signatures in composition and ionization state. A basic feature demonstrated by these observations is that large

  2. Observation of galactic cosmic ray spallation events from the SoHO mission 20-Year operation of LASCO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutchmy, S.; Tavabi, E.; Urtado, O.

    2018-05-01

    A shower of secondary Cosmic Ray (CR) particles is produced at high altitudes in the Earth's atmosphere, so the primordial Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCRs) are never directly measured outside the Earth magnetosphere and atmosphere. They approach the Earth and other planets in the complex pattern of rigidity's dependence, generally excluded by the magnetosphere. GCRs revealed by images of single nuclear reactions also called spallation events are described here. Such an event was seen on Nov. 29, 2015 using a unique LASCO C3 space coronagraph routine image taken during the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SoHO) mission observing uninterruptedly at the Lagrangian L1 point. The spallation signature of a GCR identified well outside the Earth's magnetosphere is obtained for the 1st time. The resulting image includes different diverging linear "tracks" of varying intensity, leading to a single pixel; this frame identifies the site on the silicon CCD chip of the coronagraph camera. There was no solar flare reported at that time, nor Coronal Mass Ejection (CME) and no evidence of optical debris around the spacecraft. More examples of smaller CR events have been discovered through the 20 years of continuous observations from SoHO. This is the first spallation event from a CR, recorded outside the Earth's magnetosphere. We evaluate the probable energy of these events suggesting a plausible galactic source.

  3. Water production in comets C/2011 L4 (PanSTARRS) and C/2012 F6 (Lemmon) from observations with Soho/Swan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combi, M. R.; Aptekar, G.; Bertaux, J.-L.; Quémerais, E.; Ferron, S.; Mäkinen, J. T. T.

    2014-01-01

    Comets C/2011 L4 (PanSTARRS) and C/2012 F6 (Lemmon) were observed throughout their 2012-2013 apparitions with the Solar Wind Anisotropies (SWAN) all-sky hydrogen Lyα camera on board the Solar and Heliosphere Observatory (SOHO) satellite. SOHO has been in a halo orbit around the L1 Earth-Sun Lagrange point since early 1996 and has been observing the interplanetary medium and comets beginning with C/1996 B2 (Hyakutake). The global water production from these comets was determined from an analysis of the SWAN Lyα camera observations. Comet C/2011 L4 (PanSTARRS), which reached its perihelion distance of 0.302 AU on 2013 March 10.17, was observed on 50 days between 2013 January 29 and April 30. Comet C/2012 F6 (Lemmon), which reached its perihelion distance of 0.731 AU on 2013 March 24.51, was observed on 109 days between 2012 November 29 and 2013 June 31. The maximum water production rates were ∼1 × 10 30 molecules s –1 for both comets. The activities of both comets were asymmetric about perihelion. C/2011 L4 (PanSTARRS) was more active before perihelion than after, but C/2012 F6 (Lemmon) was more active after perihelion than before.

  4. Mapping 3D plasma structure in the solar wind with the L1 constellation: joint observations from Wind, ACE, DSCOVR, and SoHO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, M. L.; Kasper, J. C.; Case, A. W.; Korreck, K. E.; Szabo, A.; Biesecker, D. A.; Prchlik, J.

    2017-12-01

    At this moment in time, four observatories with similar instrumentation- Wind, ACE, DSCOVR, and SoHO- are stationed directly upstream of the Earth and making continuous observations. They are separated by drift-time baselines of seconds to minutes, timescales on which MHD instabilities in the solar wind are known to grow and evolve, and spatial baselines of tens to 200 earth radii, length scales relevant to the Earth's magnetosphere. By comparing measurements of matched solar wind structures from the four vantage points, the form of structures and associated dynamics on these scales is illuminated. Our targets include shocks and MHD discontinuities, stream fronts, locii of reconnection and exhaust flow boundary layers, plasmoids, and solitary structures born of nonlinear instability. We use the tetrahedral quality factors and other conventions adopted for Cluster to identify periods where the WADS constellation is suitably non-degenerate and arranged in such a way as to enable specific types of spatial, temporal, or spatiotemporal inferences. We present here an overview of the geometries accessible to the L1 constellation and timing-based and plasma-based observations of solar wind structures from 2016-17. We discuss the unique potential of the constellation approach for space physics and space weather forecasting at 1 AU.

  5. Risk factors for suicide behaviors in the observational schizophrenia outpatient health outcomes (SOHO study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brugnoli Roberto

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To identify risk factors for suicide using data from a large, 3-year, multinational follow-up study of schizophrenia (SOHO study. Methods Baseline characteristics of 8,871 adult patients with schizophrenia were included in a logistic regression post-hoc analysis comparing patients who attempted and/or committed suicide during the study with those who did not. Results 384 (4.3% patients attempted or committed suicide. Completed suicides were 27 (0.3%. The significant risk factors for suicide behaviors were previous suicidality, depressive symptoms, prolactin-related adverse events, male gender and history of hospitalization for schizophrenia. Conclusions In view of the observational design of the study and the post-hoc nature of the analysis, the identified risk factors should be confirmed by ad-hoc specifically designed studies.

  6. 100 and counting : SOHO's score as the world's top comet finder

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-02-01

    SOHO's comet discoveries would be one fewer without a recent bonus from SWAN. This instrument's name unpacks into Solar Wind Anisotropies, and it was provided by the French Service d'Aéronomie and the Finnish Meteorological Institute. SWAN looks away from the Sun to survey atomic hydrogen in the Solar System, which glows with ultraviolet light and is altered by the solar wind. The instrument also sees large clouds of hydrogen surrounding comets, produced by the break-up of water molecules evaporating from the comets' ice. In December 1999 the International Astronomical Union retrospectively credited SWAN and SOHO with finding Comet 1997 K2 in SWAN full-sky images from May to July 1997. It made number 93 on the SOHO scorecard. This comet remained outside the orbit of the Earth even at its closest approach to the Sun. Although it was presumably a small, faint comet, the gas cloud grew to a width of more than 4 million kilometres. "The discovery was a surprise," said Teemu Mäkinen, a Finnish member of the SWAN group. "Our normal procedure is to observe hydrogen clouds of comets detected by other people. In that respect, SWAN on SOHO is the most important instrument now available for routinely measuring the release of water vapour from comets." When Comet Wirtanen, the target for ESA's Rosetta mission (2003), made its most recent periodic visit to the Sun, it pumped out water vapour at a rate of 20,000 tons a day, according to the SWAN data. For the great Comet Hale-Bopp the rate reached 20 million tons a day and SWAN watched its hydrogen cloud grow to 70 million kilometres -- by far the largest object ever seen in the Solar System.

  7. Image compression software for the SOHO LASCO and EIT experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunes, Mitchell R.; Howard, Russell A.; Hoppel, Karl; Mango, Stephen A.; Wang, Dennis

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the lossless and lossy image compression algorithms to be used on board the Solar Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) in conjunction with the Large Angle Spectrometric Coronograph and Extreme Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope experiments. It also shows preliminary results obtained using similar prior imagery and discusses the lossy compression artifacts which will result. This paper is in part intended for the use of SOHO investigators who need to understand the results of SOHO compression in order to better allocate the transmission bits which they have been allocated.

  8. SOHO-Ulysses Coordinated Studies During the Two Extended Quadratures and the Radial Alignment of 2007-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suess, S. T.; Poletto, G.

    2007-01-01

    During quadrature, plasma seen on the limb of the Sun, along the radi al direction to Ulysses, by SOHO or STEREO can be sampled in situ as lt later passes Ulysses. A figure shows a coronagraph image, the rad ial towards Ulysses at 58 deg. S. and the SOHO/UVCS slit positions d uring one set of observations. A CME subsequently occurred and passed Ulysses (at 3/4 AU) 15 days later.

  9. Sanitising the City: Exploring Hegemonic Gentrification in London's Soho

    OpenAIRE

    Sanders-McDonagh, E.; Peyrefitte, M.; Ryalls, M.

    2016-01-01

    This article will explore the gentrification of Soho, reflecting on ethnographic research undertaken in the area over the past fifteen months, to argue that the recent social, political, and economic changes in Soho must be understood in relation to private, marketized and globalized neoliberal capitalist forces. We argue that the changes to the area result in a heavily-weighted form of gentrification that works to actively and knowingly sanitize the city, removing 'undesirable' people and ve...

  10. The quiet Sun extreme ultraviolet spectrum observed in normal incidence by the SOHO Coronal Diagnostic Spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Brooks, D H; Fludra, A; Harrison, R A; Innes, D E; Landi, E; Landini, M; Lang, J; Lanzafame, A C; Loch, S D; McWhirter, R W P; Summers, H P; Thompson, W T

    1999-01-01

    The extreme ultraviolet quiet Sun spectrum, observed at normal incidence by the Coronal Diagnostic Spectrometer on the SOHO spacecraft, is presented. The spectrum covers the wavelength ranges 308-381 AA and 513-633 AA and is based $9 on data recorded at various positions on the solar disk between October 1996 and February 1997. Datasets at twelve of these `positions' were judged to be free from active regions and data faults and selected for detailed study. A $9 constrained maximum likelihood spectral line fitting code was used to analyse the spectral features. In all over 200 spectrum lines have been measured and about 50 186584dentified. The line identification process consisted of a $9 number of steps. Firstly assignment of well known lines was made and used to obtain the primary wavelength calibration. Variations of wavelengths with position were used to assess the precision of calibration achievable. Then, an $9 analysis method first used in studies with the CHASE experiment, was applied to the new obser...

  11. Notes on Soho and a Reminiscence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melton, Hollis

    1992-01-01

    Discusses George Maciunas' pivotal contributions to the renaissance of SoHo, the New York City community south of Houston Street. Recounts the establishment of Fluxus cooperatives, the history of the FilmMakers' Cinematheque, Maciunas' long struggle with the Attorney General's office, and closes with a description of the February 1978 erotic Flux…

  12. Daylight Adaptive Shading Using Parametric Camshaft Mechanism for SOHO in Jakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sjarifudin Firza Utama

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This research analyzes SOHO (Small Office Home Office which can adjust to the need of visual comfort for the users through natural daylighting and also can be adapted to standard requirements of 14 creative industry workspace in Jakartas. The method of the research is by simulating the SOHO unit with variation of shading opening angles in order to adapt to each unit. Analysis done to every shading opening angle to get the appropriate daylight intensity level which support the work activities in every unit for the whole day. In order for the shading to be able to adapt to the changing daylight condition, previously developed parametric camshaft mechanism was used. The study found that the visual comfort for SOHO with creative industries workers in Jakarta can be achieve by varying the shading opening angles between 15-75°.

  13. SOHO EIT Carrington maps from synoptic full-disk data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, B. J.; Newmark, J. S.; Gurman, J. B.; Delaboudiniere, J. P.; Clette, F.; Gibson, S. E.

    1997-01-01

    The solar synoptic maps, obtained from observations carried out since May 1996 by the extreme-ultraviolet imaging telescope (EIT) onboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO), are presented. The maps were constructed for each Carrington rotation with the calibrated data. The off-limb maps at 1.05 and 1.10 solar radii were generated for three coronal lines using the standard applied to coronagraph synoptic maps. The maps reveal several aspects of the solar structure over the entire rotation and are used in the whole sun month modeling campaign. @txt extreme-ultraviolet imaging telescope

  14. WATER PRODUCTION BY COMET 103P/HARTLEY 2 OBSERVED WITH THE SWAN INSTRUMENT ON THE SOHO SPACECRAFT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combi, M. R.; Bertaux, J.-L.; Quemerais, E.; Ferron, S.; Maekinen, J. T. T.

    2011-01-01

    Global water production rates were determined from the Lyα emission of hydrogen around comet 103P/Hartley 2, observed with the SWAN (Solar Wind Anisotropies) all-sky camera on the SOHO spacecraft from 2010 September 14 through December 12. This time period included the November 4 flyby by the EPOXI spacecraft. Water production was three times lower than during the 1997 apparition also measured by SWAN. In 2010, it increased by a factor of ∼2.5 within one day on September 30 with a similar corresponding drop between November 24 and 30. The total surface area of sublimating water within ±20 days of perihelion was ∼0.5 km 2 , about half of the mean cross section of the nucleus. Outside this period it was ∼0.2 km 2 . The peak value was 90%, implying a significant water production by released nucleus icy fragments.

  15. Solar Polar Field Observed by SOHO/MDI and Hinode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.

    2009-12-01

    Using 1-minute cadence time-series full disk magnetograms taken by SOHO/MDI in 2007 March, and the corresponding Hinode/SOT vector magnetograms, I have studied evolutionary characteristics of magnetic elements in Sun's south polar region in solar minimum. It is found that the lifetime of magnetic elements is 17.0 hours on average with an average lifetime of 21.8 hours for elements with positive field, the dominant polarity in the south pole, and 1.6 hours for elements with negative field. The elements with positive field are dominant in the south pole with a percentage of 76% in element number and 90.5% in magnetic flux. The lifetime and magnetic flux of the elements is found to be highly related. This agrees with some previous studies for the elements in low latitude quiet regions. Using an image cross correlation method, I also measure solar rotation rate at high latitude, up to 85° in latitude, which is ω = 2.914-0.342 × sin2φ-0.482×sin4φ μrad/s sidereal. It agrees with previous studies using spectroscopic and image cross correlation methods, and also agrees with the results from some work using the element tracking method in which the sample of tracked elements is large. The consistency of those results from different data and methods strongly suggests that this rate at high latitude is reliable.

  16. SOHO-Ulysses Coordinated Studies During the Two Extended Quadratures and the Alignment of 2007-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suess, S. T.; Poletto, G.

    2007-01-01

    During SOHO-Sun-Ulysses quadratures the geometry of the configuration makes it possible to sample "in situ" the plasma parcels that are remotely observed in the corona. Although the quadrature position occurs at a well defined instant in time, we typically take data while Ulysses is within +/- 5 degrees of the limb, with the understanding that plasma sampled by Ulysses over this time interval can all be traced to its source in the corona. The relative positions of SOHO and Ulysses in winter 2007 (19 Dec 2006-28 May 2007) are unusual: the SOHO-Sun-Ulysses included angle is always between 85 and 95 degrees - the quadrature lasts for 5 months! This provides an opportunity for extended observations of specific observing objectives. In addition, in summer 2007, Ulysses (at 1.34 AU) is in near-radial alignment with Earth/ACE/Wind and SOHO, allowing us to analyze radial gradients and propagation in the solar wind and inner heliosphere. Our own quadrature campaigns rely heavily on LASCO and UVCS coronal observations: LASCO giving the overall context above 2 solar radii while the UVCS spectrograph acquired data from - 1.5 to, typically, 4-5 solar radii. In the past, coronal parameters have been derived from data acquired by these two experiments and compared with "in situ" data of Ulysses' SWOOPS and SWICS. Data from other experiments like EIT, CDS, SUMER, Sac Peak Fe XIV maps, magnetic field maps from the Wilcox solar magnetograph, MLSO, from MDI, and from the Ulysses magnetograph experiment have been, and will be, used to complement LASCO/UVCS/SWOOPS and SWICS data. We anticipate that observations by ACE/WIND/STEREO/Hinode and other missions will be relevant as well. During the IHY campaigns, Ulysses will be 52-80 degrees south in winter 2007, near sunspot minimum. Hence, our own scientific objective will be to sample high speed wind or regions of transition between slow and fast wind. This might be a very interesting situation - not met in previous quadratures - allowing

  17. Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) Flight Dynamics Simulations Using MATLAB (R)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Headrick, R. D.; Rowe, J. N.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes a study to verify onboard attitude control laws in the coarse Sun-pointing (CSP) mode by simulation and to develop procedures for operational support for the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) mission. SOHO was launched on December 2, 1995, and the predictions of the simulation were verified with the flight data. This study used a commercial off the shelf product MATLAB(tm) to do the following: Develop procedures for computing the parasitic torques for orbital maneuvers; Simulate onboard attitude control of roll, pitch, and yaw during orbital maneuvers; Develop procedures for predicting firing time for both on- and off-modulated thrusters during orbital maneuvers; Investigate the use of feed forward or pre-bias torques to reduce the attitude handoff during orbit maneuvers - in particular, determine how to use the flight data to improve the feed forward torque estimates for use on future maneuvers. The study verified the stability of the attitude control during orbital maneuvers and the proposed use of feed forward torques to compensate for the attitude handoff. Comparison of the simulations with flight data showed: Parasitic torques provided a good estimate of the on- and off-modulation for attitude control; The feed forward torque compensation scheme worked well to reduce attitude handoff during the orbital maneuvers. The work has been extended to prototype calibration of thrusters from observed firing time and observed reaction wheel speed changes.

  18. Two Distinct Types of CME-flare Relationships Based on SOHO and STEREO Observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Soojeong; Moon, Yong-Jae [School of Space Research, Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Rok-Soon; Kim, Sujin; Lee, Jae-Ok, E-mail: moonyj@khu.ac.kr [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-08-20

    In this paper, we present two distinct types of coronal mass ejection (CME)-flare relationships according to their observing time differences using 107 events from 2010 to 2013. The observing time difference, Δ T , is defined as flare peak time minus CME first appearance time at Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory ( STEREO ) COR1 field of view. There are 41 events for group A (Δ T < 0) and 66 events for group B (Δ T ≥ 0). We compare CME 3D parameters (speed and kinetic energy) based on multi-spacecraft data ( SOlar and Heliospheric Observatory ( SOHO ) and STEREO A and B ) and their associated flare properties (peak flux, fluence, and duration). Our main results are as follows. First, there are better relationships between CME and flare parameters for group B than that of group A. In particular, CME 3D kinetic energy for group B is well correlated with flare fluence with the correlation coefficient of 0.67, which is much stronger than that (cc = 0.31) of group A. Second, the events belonging to group A have short flare durations of less than 1 hr (mean = 21 minutes), while the events for group B have longer durations up to 4 hr (mean = 81 minutes). Third, the mean value of height at peak speed for group B is 4.05 Rs, which is noticeably higher than that of group A (1.89 Rs). This is well correlated with the CME acceleration duration (cc = 0.75). A higher height at peak speed and a longer acceleration duration of CME for group B could be explained by the fact that magnetic reconnections for group B continuously occur for a longer time than those for group A.

  19. Structure and dynamics of solar atmosphere: the reign of SOHO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bocchialini, Karine

    2004-01-01

    In this report for Accreditation to Supervise Research (HDR), the author proposes an overview of his research works which particularly addressed the study of the solar atmosphere, notably based on observations made by the SOHO (Solar and Heliospheric Observatory) satellite. After a recall of his curriculum, he presents and comments results obtained in various areas: Corona heating and origin of solar wind, heating by waves, heating by quasi-steady mechanisms, regions which are sources of fast solar wind, sources of Coronal matter ejections. He also presents the different adopted approaches and methods (multi-wavelength analysis, oscillation measurement, statistical analysis) and the various observed structures (chromospheric network, shiny points, Coronal holes, and protuberances)

  20. Effort to recover SOHO spacecraft continue as investigation board focuses on most likely causes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-07-01

    Meanwhile, the ESA/NASA investigation board concentrates its inquiry on three errors that appear to have led to the interruption of communications with SOHO on June 25. Officials remain hopeful that, based on ESA's successful recovery of the Olympus spacecraft after four weeks under similar conditions in 1991, recovery of SOHO may be possible. The SOHO Mission Interruption Joint ESA/NASA Investigation Board has determined that the first two errors were contained in preprogrammed command sequences executed on ground system computers, while the last error was a decision to send a command to the spacecraft in response to unexpected telemetry readings. The spacecraft is controlled by the Flight Operations Team, based at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. The first error was in a preprogrammed command sequence that lacked a command to enable an on-board software function designed to activate a gyro needed for control in Emergency Sun Reacquisition (ESR) mode. ESR mode is entered by the spacecraft in the event of anomalies. The second error, which was in a different preprogrammed command sequence, resulted in incorrect readings from one of the spacecraft's three gyroscopes, which in turn triggered an ESR. At the current stage of the investigation, the board believes that the two anomalous command sequences, in combination with a decision to send a command to SOHO to turn off a gyro in response to unexpected telemetry values, caused the spacecraft to enter a series of ESRs, and ultimately led to the loss of control. The efforts of the investigation board are now directed at identifying the circumstances that led to the errors, and at developing a recovery plan should efforts to regain contact with the spacecraft succeed. ESA and NASA engineers believe the spacecraft is currently spinning with its solar panels nearly edge-on towards the Sun, and thus not generating any power. Since the spacecraft is spinning around a fixed axis, as the spacecraft progresses

  1. Catalogue of {>} 55 MeV Wide-longitude Solar Proton Events Observed by SOHO, ACE, and the STEREOs at {≈} 1 AU During 2009 - 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paassilta, Miikka; Papaioannou, Athanasios; Dresing, Nina; Vainio, Rami; Valtonen, Eino; Heber, Bernd

    2018-04-01

    Based on energetic particle observations made at {≈} 1 AU, we present a catalogue of 46 wide-longitude ({>} 45°) solar energetic particle (SEP) events detected at multiple locations during 2009 - 2016. The particle kinetic energies of interest were chosen as {>} 55 MeV for protons and 0.18 - 0.31 MeV for electrons. We make use of proton data from the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory/Energetic and Relativistic Nuclei and Electron Experiment (SOHO/ERNE) and the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory/High Energy Telescopes (STEREO/HET), together with electron data from the Advanced Composition Explorer/Electron, Proton, and Alpha Monitor (ACE/EPAM) and the STEREO/ Solar Electron and Proton Telescopes (SEPT). We consider soft X-ray data from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) and coronal mass ejection (CME) observations made with the SOHO/ Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph (LASCO) and STEREO/ Coronagraphs 1 and 2 (COR1, COR2) to establish the probable associations between SEP events and the related solar phenomena. Event onset times and peak intensities are determined; velocity dispersion analysis (VDA) and time-shifting analysis (TSA) are performed for protons; TSA is performed for electrons. In our event sample, there is a tendency for the highest peak intensities to occur when the observer is magnetically connected to solar regions west of the flare. Our estimates for the mean event width, derived as the standard deviation of a Gaussian curve modelling the SEP intensities (protons {≈} 44°, electrons {≈} 50°), largely agree with previous results for lower-energy SEPs. SEP release times with respect to event flares, as well as the event rise times, show no simple dependence on the observer's connection angle, suggesting that the source region extent and dominant particle acceleration and transport mechanisms are important in defining these characteristics of an event. There is no marked difference between the speed

  2. Reconstruction of the solar EUV irradiance from 1996 to 2010 based on SOHO/EIT images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haberreiter Margit

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The solar Extreme UltraViolet (EUV spectrum has important effects on the Earth’s upper atmosphere. For a detailed investigation of these effects it is important to have a consistent data series of the EUV spectral irradiance available. We present a reconstruction of the solar EUV irradiance based on SOHO/EIT images, along with synthetic spectra calculated using different coronal features which represent the brightness variation of the solar atmosphere. The EIT images are segmented with the SPoCA2 tool which separates the features based on a fixed brightness classification scheme. With the SOLMOD code we then calculate intensity spectra for the 10–100 nm wavelength range and each of the coronal features. Weighting the intensity spectra with the area covered by each of the features yields the temporal variation of the EUV spectrum. The reconstructed spectrum is then validated against the spectral irradiance as observed with SOHO/SEM. Our approach leads to good agreement between the reconstructed and the observed spectral irradiance. This study is an important step toward understanding variations in the solar EUV spectrum and ultimately its effect on the Earth’s upper atmosphere.

  3. SOHO sees right through the Sun, and finds sunspots on the far side

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-03-01

    The story is told today in the journal Science by Charles Lindsey of Tucson, Arizona, and Doug Braun of Boulder, Colorado. They realised that the analytical witchcraft called helioseismic holography might open a window right through the Sun. And the technique worked when they used it to decode waves seen on the visible surface by one of SOHO's instruments, the Michelson Doppler Imager, or MDI. "We've known for ten years that in theory we could make the Sun transparent all the way to the far side," said Charles Lindsey. "But we needed observations of exceptional quality. In the end we got them, from MDI on SOHO." For more than 100 years scientists have been aware that groups of dark sunspots on the Sun's visible face are often the scene of flares and other eruptions. Nowadays they watch the Sun more closely than ever, because modern systems are much more vulnerable to solar disturbances than old-style technology was. The experts can still be taken by surprise, because the Sun turns on its axis. A large group of previously hidden sunspots can suddenly swing into view on the eastern (left-hand) edge of the Sun. It may already be blazing away with menacing eruptions. With a far-side preview of sunspots, nasty shocks for the space weather forecasters may now be avoidable. Last year, French and Finnish scientists used SWAN, another instrument on SOHO, to detect activity on the far side. They saw an ultraviolet glow lighting up gas in the Solar System beyond the Sun, and moving across the sky like a lighthouse beam as the Sun rotated. The method used by Lindsey and Braun with MDI data is completely different, and it pinpoints the source of the activity on the far side. Solar seismology chalks up another success Detection of sound waves reverberating through the Sun opened its gassy interior for investigation, in much the same way as seismologists learned to explore the Earth's rocky interior with earthquake waves. Using special telescopes on the ground and in space

  4. The LION instrument on SOHO and its scientific objectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. P. McKenna-Lawlor

    Full Text Available A technical description is presented of the low-energy ion and electron (LION instrument on the SOHO spacecraft and its scientific goals are discussed. LION forms part of the comprehensive suprathermal and energetic particle analyzer (COSTEP, which is, in turn, a subset of the COSTEP/ERNE particle analyser collaboration (CEPAC.

  5. The LION instrument on SOHO and its scientific objectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. P. McKenna-Lawlor

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available A technical description is presented of the low-energy ion and electron (LION instrument on the SOHO spacecraft and its scientific goals are discussed. LION forms part of the comprehensive suprathermal and energetic particle analyzer (COSTEP, which is, in turn, a subset of the COSTEP/ERNE particle analyser collaboration (CEPAC.

  6. Destruction of Sun-Grazing Comet C-2011 N3 (SOHO) Within the Low Solar Corona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrijver, C. J.; Brown, J. C.; Battams, K.; Saint-Hilaire, P.; Liu, W.; Hudson, H.; Pesnell, W. D.

    2012-01-01

    Observations of comets in Sun-grazing orbits that survive solar insolation long enough to penetrate into the Suns inner corona provide information on the solar atmosphere and magnetic field as well as on the makeup of the comet. On 6 July 2011, the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) observed the demise of comet C2011 N3 (SOHO) within the low solar corona in five wavelength bands in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV). The comet penetrated to within 0.146 solarradius (100,000 kilometers) of the solar surface before its EUV signal disappeared.

  7. Time-Series Analyses of Supergranule Characteristics Compared Between SDO/HMI, SOHO/MDI and Simulated Datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Peter E.; Pesnell, William Dean

    2012-01-01

    Supergranulation is a well-observed solar phenomenon despite its underlying mechanisms remaining a mystery. Originally considered to arise due to convective motions, alternative mechanisms have been suggested such as the cumulative downdrafts of granules as well as displaying wave-like properties. Supergranule characteristics are well documented, however. Supergranule cells are approximately 35 Mm across, have lifetimes on the order of a day and have divergent horizontal velocities of around 300 mis, a factor of 10 higher than their central radial components. While they have been observed using Doppler methods for more than half a century, their existence is also observed in other datasets such as magneto grams and Ca II K images. These datasets clearly show the influence of supergranulation on solar magnetism and how the local field is organized by the flows of supergranule cells. The Heliospheric and Magnetic Imager (HMI) aboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) continues to produce Doppler images enabling the continuation of supergranulation studies made with SOHO/MDI, but with superior temporal and spatial resolution. The size-distribution of divergent cellular flows observed on the photosphere now reaches down to granular scales, allowing contemporaneous comparisons between the two flow components. SOHO/MDI Doppler observations made during the minima of cycles 22/23 and 23/24 exhibit fluctuations of supergranule characteristics (global averages of the supergranule size, size-range and horizontal velocity) with periods of 3-5 days. Similar fluctuations have been observed in SDO/HMI Dopplergrams and the high correlation between co-temporal HMI & MOl suggest a solar origin. Their nature has been probed by invoking data simulations that produce realistic Dopplergrams based on MOl data.

  8. Project ''REMAD'', Neutron spectrometry. Code ''SOHO - phase II''. First part ''FORMULATION''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaborowski, H.L.

    1982-08-01

    ''SOHO'' is a new neutron spectrometric code with large potential applications besides the BONNER spheres system for which he has been initially developped. This code makes use of a new and original iteractive procedure for the search of approximate solutions from the Fredholm integral Equation of the First kind whose Resolution Function is experimentally and/or mathematically defined (e.g. the Log-Normal Hypothesis for the BONNER Spheres). Upon discretization of the Fredholm integral Equation we get systems of non-exact homogeneous linear equations: Q X = e whose approximate solutions are given when: Q X → 0. We show that the iterative procedure converges absolutely leading to the existence of the approximate solutions, independently of the kind of initialization used. For the applications to health physics of the BONNER sphere ''SOHO'' has been programmed on a HP - 41 CV calculator [fr

  9. WATER PRODUCTION IN COMETS 2001 Q4 (NEAT) AND 2002 T7 (LINEAR) DETERMINED FROM SOHO/SWAN OBSERVATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combi, M. R.; Lee, Y.; Maekinen, J. T. T.; Bertaux, J.-L.; Quemerais, E.

    2009-01-01

    The SWAN all-sky camera on the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) spacecraft detected the hydrogen Lyman-alpha (Lyα) comae of comets 2001 Q4 NEAT and 2002 T7 LINEAR for large portions of their perihelion apparitions in 2003 and 2004. C/2001 Q4 NEAT was observed from 2003 September 14 through 2004 November 2, covering heliocentric distances from 3.23 AU before perihelion to 2.75 AU after, and C/2002 T7 LINEAR was observed from 2003 December 4 through 2004 August 6, covering heliocentric distances from 2.52 AU before perihelion to 2.09 AU after. We combined the full set of comet specific and full-sky observations and used our time-resolved model (TRM), which enables us to extract continuous values of the daily-average value of the water production rate throughout most of this entire period. The average power-law fit to the production rate variation of C/2001 Q4 NEAT with heliocentric distance, r, gives 3.5 x 10 29 r -1.7 and that for C/2002 T7 LINEAR gives 4.6 x 10 29 r -2.0 . Both comets show roughly a factor of 2 asymmetry in activity about perihelion, being more active before perihelion. C/2001 Q4 NEAT showed a production rate outburst about 30 days before perihelion (2004 April 15) and then a large extended increase above the nominal trend from 50 to 70 days after perihelion (2004 July 5-July 25).

  10. Status of Knowledge after Ulysses and SOHO: Session 2: Investigate the Links between the Solar Surface, Corona, and Inner Heliosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suess, Steven

    2006-01-01

    As spacecraft observations of the heliosphere have moved from exploration into studies of physical processes, we are learning about the linkages that exist between different parts of the system. The past fifteen years have led to new ideas for how the heliospheric magnetic field connects back to the Sun and to how that connection plays a role in the origin of the solar wind. A growing understanding these connections, in turn, has led to the ability to use composition, ionization state, the microscopic state of the in situ plasma, and energetic particles as tools to further analyze the linkages and the underlying physical processes. Many missions have contributed to these investigations of the heliosphere as an integrated system. Two of the most important are Ulysses and SOHO, because of the types of measurements they make, their specific orbits, and how they have worked to complement each other. I will review and summarize the status of knowledge about these linkages, with emphasis on results from the Ulysses and SOHO missions. Some of the topics will be the global heliosphere at sunspot maximum and minimum, the physics and morphology of coronal holes, the origin(s) of slow wind, SOHO-Ulysses quadrature observations, mysteries in the propagation of energetic particles, and the physics of eruptive events and their associated current sheets. These specific topics are selected because they point towards the investigations that will be carried out with Solar Orbiter (SO) and the opportunity will be used to illustrate how SO will uniquely contribute to our knowledge of the underlying physical processes.

  11. Magnetic Characteristics of Active Region Heating Observed with TRACE, SOHO/EIT, and Yohkoh/SXT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, J. G.; Falconer, D. A.; Moore, R. L.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Over the past several years, we have reported results from studies that have compared the magnetic structure and heating of the transition region and corona (both in active regions and in the quiet Sun) by combining X-ray and EUV images from Yohkoh and Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) with photospheric magnetograms from ground-based observatories. Our findings have led us to the hypothesis that most heating throughout the corona is driven from near and below the base of the corona by eruptive microflares occurring in compact low-lying "core magnetic fields (i.e., fields rooted along and closely enveloping polarity inversion lines in the photospheric magnetic flux). We now extend these studies, comparing sequences of UV images from Transition Region and Coronal Explorer (TRACE) with longitudinal magnetograms from Kitt Peak and vector magnetograms from MUSIC. These comparisons confirm the previous results regarding the importance of core-field activity to active region heating. Activity in fields associated with satellite polarity inclusions and/or magnetically sheared configurations is especially prominent. This work is funded by NASA's Office of Space Science through the Sun-Earth Connection Guest Investigator Program and the Solar Physics Supporting Research and Technology Program.

  12. Water production rates of recent comets (2016-2017) by SOHO/SWAN: 2P/Encke, 41P/Tuttle-Giacobini-Kresak, 45P/ Honda-Mrkos-Pajdusakova, and C/2015 ER61 (PanSTARRS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combi, Michael R.; Mäkinen, Terhi; Bertaux, Jean-Loup; Quémerais, Eric; Ferron, Stephane

    2017-10-01

    The all-sky hydrogen Lyman-alpha camera, SWAN (Solar Wind Anisotropies), on the SOlar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) satellite makes observations of the hydrogen coma of comets. Most water molecules produced by comets are ultimately photodissociated into two H atoms and one O atom producing a huge atomic hydrogen coma that is routinely observed in the daily full-sky SWAN images in comets of sufficient brightness. Water production rates are calculated using our time-resolved model (Mäkinen & Combi, 2005, Icarus 177, 217), typically yielding about 1 observation every 2 days on the average for each comet over the brightest part of its apparition. Here we describe the progress in analysis of observations of comets observed in 2016 and 2017. These include comets 2P/Encke, 41P/Tuttle-Giacobini-Sresak, 45P/ Honda-Mrkos-Pajdusakova, and C/2015 ER61 (PanSTARRS). A status update on the entire SOHO/SWAN archive of water production rates in comets will also be given.SOHO is an international cooperative mission between ESA and NASA. Support from grants NNX15AJ81G from the NASA Solar System Observations Planetary Astronomy Program and a previous grant NNX13AQ66G from the NASA Planetary Mission Data Analysis Program are gratefully acknowledged, as is support from CNRS, CNES, and the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI).

  13. The Interstellar H Flow: Updated Analysis of SOHO/SWAN Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lallement, Rosine; Quemerais, Eric; Bertaux, Jean-Loup; Ferron, Stephane; Koutroumpa, Dimitra; Schmidt, Walter; Lamy, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    We update two kinds of results obtained with the SWAN instrument on board SOHO. First, we use H cell data recorded in 2001 and derive the H flow direction in the same way the study was done at solar minimum. We again compare with the Helium flow direction and doing so correct for the coordinate system change between the Ulysses and SOHO missions. The deflection plane we obtain is compatible with our previous result within error bars, confirming the potential predominant role of the interstellar magnetic field. In a second part, we extend the computation of the interstellar H ionization as a function of heliographic latitude and time, a quantity which reflects closely the SW flux latitudinal structure. The pattern for the present solar minimum is strikingly different from the previous minimum, with a much wider slow solar wind equatorial belt which persists until at least 2008. Comparing with synoptic LASCO/C2 electron densities we infer from a preliminary study that the acceleration of the high speed solar wind occurs at a higher altitude during this minimum compared to the previous one, a difference expansion models must be able to reproduce.

  14. Correlation and comparative analysis of discriminative validity of the Scale of Oral Health Outcomes for Five-Year-Old Children (SOHO-5) and the Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS) for dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Izabella Barbosa; Ramos-Jorge, Joana; Ramos-Jorge, Maria Letícia; Bönecker, Marcelo; Abanto, Jenny; Marques, Leandro Silva; Paiva, Saul Martins

    2015-03-10

    The perceptions of parents and children regarding oral health are useful to oral public health and clinical practice in pediatric dentistry. The primary aim of the present study was to evaluate the correlation between the total and item scores of the Scale of Oral Health Outcomes for Five-Year-Old Children (SOHO-5) (parental version and child's self-reports) and the Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS). Subsequently, the discriminative validity of these assessment tools regarding dental caries was compared. One hundred twenty-one children randomly selected in the city of Diamantina (Brazil) were submitted to oral examinations. Parents answered the ECOHIS and SOHO-5p (parental version) and children answered the SOHO-5c (child's self-reports). Statistical analysis involved the Mann-Whitney test as well as the calculation of Spearman's correlation coefficients. A significant correlation was found between the SOHO-5p and ECOHIS (r = 0.85), whereas no significant correlations were found between the SOHO-5c and SOHO-5p (r = 0.00) or between the SOHO-5c and ECOHIS (r = -0.41). Significant differences in the impact on quality of life were found between children with severe decay and no severe decay (caries free, with initial or established caries) both the ECOHIS and SOHO-5p (p ≤ 0.05), whereas no difference was found in SOHO-5c (p > 0.05). The ECOHIS and SOHO-5p were correlated with each other. The accounts of the children differed from their parents' reports and were not capable of discriminating dental caries in advanced stages of progression.

  15. UNDERFLIGHT CALIBRATION OF SOHO/CDS AND HINODE/EIS WITH EUNIS-07

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Tongjiang; Brosius, Jeffrey W. [Institute for Astrophysics and Computational Sciences (IACS) in the Department of Physics, Catholic University of America, 620 Michigan Avenue NE, Washington, DC 20064 (United States); Thomas, Roger J.; Rabin, Douglas M.; Davila, Joseph M. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 671, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Young, Peter R. [College of Science, George Mason University, 4400 University Drive, Fairfax, VA 22030 (United States); Del Zanna, Giulio, E-mail: tongjiang.wang@nasa.gov [DAMTP, Centre for Mathematical Sciences, University of Cambridge, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge, CB3 0WA (United Kingdom)

    2011-12-01

    Flights of Goddard Space Flight Center's Extreme Ultraviolet Normal Incidence Spectrograph (EUNIS) sounding rocket in 2006 and 2007 provided updated radiometric calibrations for Solar and Heliospheric Observatory/Coronal Diagnostic Spectrometer (SOHO/CDS) and Hinode/Extreme Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (Hinode/EIS). EUNIS carried two independent imaging spectrographs covering wavebands of 300-370 A in first order and 170-205 A in second order. After each flight, end-to-end radiometric calibrations of the rocket payload were carried out in the same facility used for pre-launch calibrations of CDS and EIS. During the 2007 flight, EUNIS, SOHO/CDS, and Hinode/EIS observed the same solar locations, allowing the EUNIS calibrations to be directly applied to both CDS and EIS. The measured CDS NIS 1 line intensities calibrated with the standard (version 4) responsivities with the standard long-term corrections are found to be too low by a factor of 1.5 due to the decrease in responsivity. The EIS calibration update is performed in two ways. One uses the direct calibration transfer of the calibrated EUNIS-07 short wavelength (SW) channel. The other uses the insensitive line pairs, in which one member was observed by the EUNIS-07 long wavelength (LW) channel and the other by EIS in either the LW or SW waveband. Measurements from both methods are in good agreement, and confirm (within the measurement uncertainties) the EIS responsivity measured directly before the instrument's launch. The measurements also suggest that the EIS responsivity decreased by a factor of about 1.2 after the first year of operation (although the size of the measurement uncertainties is comparable to this decrease). The shape of the EIS SW response curve obtained by EUNIS-07 is consistent with the one measured in laboratory prior to launch. The absolute value of the quiet-Sun He II 304 A intensity measured by EUNIS-07 is consistent with the radiance measured by CDS NIS in quiet regions

  16. Resolving Differences in Absolute Irradiance Measurements Between the SOHO/CELIAS/SEM and the SDO/EVE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieman, S R; Didkovsky, L V; Judge, D L

    The Solar EUV Monitor (SEM) onboard SOHO has measured absolute extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and soft X-ray solar irradiance nearly continuously since January 1996. The EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) on SDO, in operation since April of 2010, measures solar irradiance in a wide spectral range that encompasses the band passes (26 - 34 nm and 0.1 - 50 nm) measured by SOHO/SEM. However, throughout the mission overlap, irradiance values from these two instruments have differed by more than the combined stated uncertainties of the measurements. In an effort to identify the sources of these differences and eliminate them, we investigate in this work the effect of reprocessing the SEM data using a more accurate SEM response function (obtained from synchrotron measurements with a SEM sounding-rocket clone instrument taken after SOHO was already in orbit) and time-dependent, measured solar spectral distributions - i.e ., solar reference spectra that were unavailable prior to the launch of the SDO. We find that recalculating the SEM data with these improved parameters reduces mean differences with the EVE measurements from about 20 % to less than 5 % in the 26 - 34 nm band, and from about 35 % to about 15 % for irradiances in the 0.1 - 7 nm band extracted from the SEM 0.1 - 50 nm channel.

  17. Initiation of Solar Eruptions: Recent Observations and Implications for Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, A. C.

    2006-01-01

    Solar eruptions involve the violent disruption of a system of magnetic field. Just how the field is destabilized and explodes to produce flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs) is still being debated in the solar community. Here I discuss recent observational work into these questions by ourselves (me and my colleagues) and others. Our work has concentrated mainly on eruptions that include filaments. We use the filament motion early in the event as a tracer of the motion of the general erupting coronal field in and around the filament, since that field itself is hard to distinguish otherwise. Our main data sources are EUV images from SOHO/EIT and TRACE, soft Xray images from Yohkoh, and magnetograms from SOHO/MDI, supplemented with coronagraph images from SOHO/LASCO, hard X-ray data, and ground-based observations. We consider the observational findings in terms of three proposed eruption-initiation mechanisms: (i) runaway internal tether-cutting reconnection, (ii) slow external tether-cutting reconnection ("breakout"), and (iii) ideal MHD instability.

  18. Metallographic observations of AISI 304 - copper dissimular joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medeiros, R.C. de; Carvalho Perdigao, S. de

    1982-01-01

    The current work informs on the SMAW dissimilar joints embrittled by molten Copper. Bead on plate of that metal were deposited on four different base metals to evaluate the phenomena. Conventional and non conventional welding methods were employed to obtain dissimilar joints of AISI 304-Cu. The latter were observed metallographically. These results are to be complemented by mechanical testing actually being performed. (Author) [pt

  19. The Solar-Stellar Connection (NAG5-6124: SOHO Guest Investigator Program)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayres, Thomas R.

    1997-01-01

    The following is a final report from the SOHO Guest Investigator program to use the SUMER far-UV spectrometer to obtain imaging spectroscopy in support of the goals of the so-called "solar-stellar connection." In particular, a major emphasis was utilization of the long-slit time-resolved maps of the solar surface in bright far-UV emission lines to deduce how particular aspects of the temporally and spatially averaged line profiles trace back to individual structural features of the magnetically disturbed outer atmosphere; to help interpret the unresolved line profiles from high quality stellar observations (say, with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph). The researchers served two tours of duty in the SOHO Operations Center as SUMER planners, during which time we conducted an extensive series of observing programs. These can be divided into three general categories: surface mapping, translimb spectroscopy, and active region diagnostics. We have analyzed some of the large volumes of data to the point where we have presented them in poster papers, and in invited papers at national and international meetings. Listed below are the titles of the preliminary publications we have written, including brief abstracts to indicate the main results. (1) Chromospheric structure and Dynamics-- Observations -- The chromosphere is a highly structured dynamic 'layer' of the solar outer atmosphere. Here, not only are the effects of mechanical heating first evident (moving upward in altitude from the deep photosphere), but also the amount of nonradiative energy deposited is far greater than in the albeit much hotter overlying transition region and corona. Further, the chromosphere is by far the thickest zone of the solar atmosphere with respect to the pressure scale height. A major goal of stellar astrophysics is to understand how the chromosphere is heated and why it adopts its peculiar structure. A cursory examination of solar filtergrams and high-resolution movies demonstrates

  20. LONGITUDINAL AND RADIAL DEPENDENCE OF SOLAR ENERGETIC PARTICLE PEAK INTENSITIES: STEREO, ACE, SOHO, GOES, AND MESSENGER OBSERVATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lario, D.; Ho, G. C.; Decker, R. B.; Roelof, E. C. [The Johns Hopkins University, Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, MD 20723 (United States); Aran, A. [Departament d' Astronomia i Meteorologia, Institut de Ciencies del Cosmos, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Gomez-Herrero, R.; Dresing, N.; Heber, B., E-mail: david.lario@jhuapl.edu [Institute of Experimental and Applied Physics, Christian-Albrechts University of Kiel, Kiel (Germany)

    2013-04-10

    Simultaneous measurements of solar energetic particle (SEP) events by two or more of the spacecraft located near 1 AU during the rising phase of solar cycle 24 (i.e., STEREO-A, STEREO-B, and near-Earth spacecraft such as ACE, SOHO, and GOES) are used to determine the longitudinal dependence of 71-112 keV electron, 0.7-3 MeV electron, 15-40 MeV proton, and 25-53 MeV proton peak intensities measured in the prompt component of SEP events. Distributions of the peak intensities for the selected 35 events with identifiable solar origin are approximated by the form exp [ - ({phi} - {phi}{sub 0}){sup 2}/2{sigma}{sup 2}], where {phi} is the longitudinal separation between the parent active region and the footpoint of the nominal interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) line connecting each spacecraft with the Sun, {phi}{sub 0} is the distribution centroid, and {sigma} determines the longitudinal gradient. The MESSENGER spacecraft, at helioradii R < 1 AU, allows us to determine a lower limit to the radial dependence of the 71-112 keV electron peak intensities measured along IMF lines. We find five events for which the nominal magnetic footpoint of MESSENGER was less than 20 Degree-Sign apart from the nominal footpoint of a spacecraft near 1 AU. Although the expected theoretical radial dependence for the peak intensity of the events observed along the same field line can be approximated by a functional form R {sup -{alpha}} with {alpha} < 3, we find two events for which {alpha} > 3. These two cases correspond to SEP events occurring in a complex interplanetary medium that favored the enhancement of peak intensities near Mercury but hindered the SEP transport to 1 AU.

  1. LONGITUDINAL AND RADIAL DEPENDENCE OF SOLAR ENERGETIC PARTICLE PEAK INTENSITIES: STEREO, ACE, SOHO, GOES, AND MESSENGER OBSERVATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lario, D.; Ho, G. C.; Decker, R. B.; Roelof, E. C.; Aran, A.; Gómez-Herrero, R.; Dresing, N.; Heber, B.

    2013-01-01

    Simultaneous measurements of solar energetic particle (SEP) events by two or more of the spacecraft located near 1 AU during the rising phase of solar cycle 24 (i.e., STEREO-A, STEREO-B, and near-Earth spacecraft such as ACE, SOHO, and GOES) are used to determine the longitudinal dependence of 71-112 keV electron, 0.7-3 MeV electron, 15-40 MeV proton, and 25-53 MeV proton peak intensities measured in the prompt component of SEP events. Distributions of the peak intensities for the selected 35 events with identifiable solar origin are approximated by the form exp [ – (φ – φ 0 ) 2 /2σ 2 ], where φ is the longitudinal separation between the parent active region and the footpoint of the nominal interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) line connecting each spacecraft with the Sun, φ 0 is the distribution centroid, and σ determines the longitudinal gradient. The MESSENGER spacecraft, at helioradii R –α with α 3. These two cases correspond to SEP events occurring in a complex interplanetary medium that favored the enhancement of peak intensities near Mercury but hindered the SEP transport to 1 AU.

  2. Proton energy spectra during ground level enhancements as measured by EPHIN aboard SOHO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heber, Bernd; Kuehl, Patrick; Klassen, Andreas; Dresing, Nina [Christian-Albrechts-Universitaet zu Kiel, 24118 Kiel (Germany); Gomez-Herrero, Raul [Universidad de Alcala (Spain)

    2016-07-01

    Ground Level Enhancements (GLEs) are solar energetic particle (SEP) events that are recorded by ground-based instrumentation. The energy of the particles is so high that they produce secondary particles in the Earth's atmosphere, i.e. protons and neutrons, which are detected as sudden increases in cosmic ray intensities measured by e.g. neutron monitors. Since the launch of SOHO in December 1995 the neutron monitor network recorded 16 GLEs. The Electron Proton Helium INstrument on board SOHO has been designed to measure protons and helium up to 53 MeV/nucleon as well as electrons up to 8.3 MeV. Above these energies, particles penetrate all detector elements and thus, a separation between different particle species becomes more complicated. Recently we developed a method that allows deriving the energy spectrum for penetrating protons up to more than 1 GeV. In this contribution we present the proton energy spectra and time profiles of above mentioned GLEs and compare them to previous measurements. Although there are differences of up to a factor two the overall shape of the energy spectra agree surprisingly well. Thus it has been demonstrated that EPHIN measurements are a valuable tool for understanding GLE.

  3. The EUV Spectrum of Sunspot Plumes Observed by SUMER on ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tribpo

    Abstract. We present results from sunspot observations obtained by. SUMER on SOHO. In sunspot plumes the EUV spectrum differs from the quiet Sun; continua are observed with different slopes and intensities; emission lines from molecular hydrogen and many unidentified species indicate unique plasma conditions ...

  4. SOHO/SWAN OBSERVATIONS OF SHORT-PERIOD SPACECRAFT TARGET COMETS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combi, M. R.; Lee, Y.; Patel, T. S.; Maekinen, J. T. T.; Bertaux, J.-L.; Quemerais, E.

    2011-01-01

    SWAN, the Solar Wind ANisotropies all-sky hydrogen Lyα camera on the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory spacecraft that makes all-sky images of interplanetary neutral hydrogen, has an ongoing campaign to make special observations of comets, both short- and long-period ones, in addition to the serendipitous observations of comets as part of the all-sky monitoring program. We report here on a study of several short-period comets that were detected by SWAN: 21P/Giacobini-Zinner (1998 and 2005 apparitions), 19P/Borrelly (2001 apparition), 81P/Wild 2 (1997 apparition), and 103P/Hartley 2 (1997 apparition). SWAN observes comets over long continuous stretches of their visible apparitions and therefore provides excellent temporal coverage of the water production. For some of the observations we are also able to analyze an entire sequence of images over many days to several weeks/months using our time-resolved model and extract daily average water production rates over continuous periods of several days to months. The short-term (outburst) and long-term behavior can be correlated with other observations. The overall long-term variation is examined in light of seasonal effects seen in the pre- to post-perihelion differences. For 21P/Giacobini-Zinner and 81P/Wild 2 the activity variations over each apparition were more continuously monitored but nonetheless consistent with previous observations. For 19P/Borrelly we found a very steep variation of water production rates, again consistent with some previous observations, and a variation over six months around perihelion that was reasonably consistent with the spin-axis model of Schleicher et al. and the illumination of the main active areas. During the 1997-1998 apparition of 103P/Hartley 2, the target comet of the EPOXI mission (the Deep Impact extended mission), we found a variation with heliocentric distance (∼r -3.6 ) that was almost as steep as 19P/Borrelly and, given the small measured radius near aphelion, this places

  5. CME Eruption Onset Observations from EIT and SXT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, A. C.

    2004-01-01

    Why CMEs erupt is a major outstanding puzzle of solar physics. Signatures observable at the earliest stages of eruption onset may hold precious clues about the onset mechanism. We present observations in EUV from SOHO/EIT and in soft X-rays from Yohkoh/SXT of the re-eruption and eruption phases of CME expulsion, along with the eruption's magnetic setting found from SOHO/MDI magnetograms. Most of our events involve clearly-observable filament eruptions and multiple neutral lines, and we use the magnetic settings and motions of the filaments to help infer the geometry and behavior of the associated erupting magnetic fields. Pre-eruption and early-eruption signatures include a relatively slow filament rise prior to eruption, and intensity "dimmings" and brightenings, both in the immediate neighborhood of the "core" (location of greatest magnetic shear) of the erupting fields and at locations remote from the core. These signatures and their relative timings place observational constraints on eruption mechanisms; our recent work has focused on implications for the so-called "tether cutting" and "breakout" models, but the same observational constraints are applicable to any model.

  6. Observations of joint persistence and connectivity across boreholes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thapa, B.B.; Karasaki, K.

    1996-01-01

    Observations of joint persistence and connectivity are made by comparison of digital borehole wall images of fractures, fluid conductivity logs and hydraulic injections test results. The fractures were found to be generally impersistent across vertical boreholes about 8 m apart. Many hydraulic connections were found in the same volume of rock. Direct connections through single fractures seem to be rare and connectivity appears to be controlled by fracture networks, even over small volumes.

  7. Solar wind structure suggested by bimodal correlations of solar wind speed and density between the spacecraft SOHO and Wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogilvie, K. W.; Coplan, M. A.; Roberts, D. A.; Ipavich, F.

    2007-08-01

    We calculate the cross-spacecraft maximum lagged-cross-correlation coefficients for 2-hour intervals of solar wind speed and density measurements made by the plasma instruments on the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) and Wind spacecraft over the period from 1996, the minimum of solar cycle 23, through the end of 2005. During this period, SOHO was located at L1, about 200 R E upstream from the Earth, while Wind spent most of the time in the interplanetary medium at distances of more than 100 R E from the Earth. Yearly histograms of the maximum, time-lagged correlation coefficients for both the speed and density are bimodal in shape, suggesting the existence of two distinct solar wind regimes. The larger correlation coefficients we suggest are due to structured solar wind, including discontinuities and shocks, while the smaller are likely due to Alfvénic turbulence. While further work will be required to firmly establish the physical nature of the two populations, the results of the analysis are consistent with a solar wind that consists of turbulence from quiet regions of the Sun interspersed with highly filamentary structures largely convected from regions in the inner solar corona. The bimodal appearance of the distributions is less evident in the solar wind speed than in the density correlations, consistent with the observation that the filamentary structures are convected with nearly constant speed by the time they reach 1 AU. We also find that at solar minimum the fits for the density correlations have smaller high-correlation components than at solar maximum. We interpret this as due to the presence of more relatively uniform Alfvénic regions at solar minimum than at solar maximum.

  8. Gaussian anamorphosis in the analysis step of the EnKF: a joint state-variable/observation approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Amezcua

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The analysis step of the (ensemble Kalman filter is optimal when (1 the distribution of the background is Gaussian, (2 state variables and observations are related via a linear operator, and (3 the observational error is of additive nature and has Gaussian distribution. When these conditions are largely violated, a pre-processing step known as Gaussian anamorphosis (GA can be applied. The objective of this procedure is to obtain state variables and observations that better fulfil the Gaussianity conditions in some sense. In this work we analyse GA from a joint perspective, paying attention to the effects of transformations in the joint state-variable/observation space. First, we study transformations for state variables and observations that are independent from each other. Then, we introduce a targeted joint transformation with the objective to obtain joint Gaussianity in the transformed space. We focus primarily in the univariate case, and briefly comment on the multivariate one. A key point of this paper is that, when (1–(3 are violated, using the analysis step of the EnKF will not recover the exact posterior density in spite of any transformations one may perform. These transformations, however, provide approximations of different quality to the Bayesian solution of the problem. Using an example in which the Bayesian posterior can be analytically computed, we assess the quality of the analysis distributions generated after applying the EnKF analysis step in conjunction with different GA options. The value of the targeted joint transformation is particularly clear for the case when the prior is Gaussian, the marginal density for the observations is close to Gaussian, and the likelihood is a Gaussian mixture.

  9. RECONNECTION OUTFLOWS AND CURRENT SHEET OBSERVED WITH HINODE/XRT IN THE 2008 APRIL 9 'CARTWHEEL CME' FLARE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savage, Sabrina L.; McKenzie, David E.; Longcope, Dana W.; Reeves, Katharine K.; Forbes, Terry G.

    2010-01-01

    Supra-arcade downflows (SADs) have been observed with Yohkoh/SXT (soft X-rays (SXR)), TRACE (extreme ultraviolet (EUV)), SOHO/LASCO (white light), SOHO/SUMER (EUV spectra), and Hinode/XRT (SXR). Characteristics such as low emissivity and trajectories, which slow as they reach the top of the arcade, are consistent with post-reconnection magnetic flux tubes retracting from a reconnection site high in the corona until they reach a lower-energy magnetic configuration. Viewed from a perpendicular angle, SADs should appear as shrinking loops rather than downflowing voids. We present X-ray Telescope (XRT) observations of supra-arcade downflowing loops (SADLs) following a coronal mass ejection (CME) on 2008 April 9 and show that their speeds and decelerations are consistent with those determined for SADs. We also present evidence for a possible current sheet observed during this flare that extends between the flare arcade and the CME. Additionally, we show a correlation between reconnection outflows observed with XRT and outgoing flows observed with LASCO.

  10. Joint action modulates motor system involvement during action observation in 3-year-olds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyer, M.; Hunnius, S.; Elk, M. van; Ede, F.L. van; Bekkering, H.

    2011-01-01

    When we are engaged in a joint action, we need to integrate our partner's actions with our own actions. Previous research has shown that in adults the involvement of one's own motor system is enhanced during observation of an action partner as compared to during observation of an individual actor.

  11. PENGEMBANGAN PERANGKAT LUNAK MANAJEMEN KONEKSI INTERNET UNTUK SOHO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muchammad Husni

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Untuk bisa mengakses Internet, komputer harus terhubung ke Internet melalui Internet Service Provider dan menggunakan IP address Internet. Jumlah IP address Internet saat ini (IPv4 sangat terbatas, oleh karena itu penggunaannya dibatasi dan diatur dengan sistem sewa yang cukup mahal. Alternatif koneksi Internet yang paling murah dan umum digunakan adalah Dial-up, komputer client akan otomatis menggunakan IP address dynamic yang disewakan selama kita terkoneksi. Apabila pada Local Area Network terdapat beberapa komputer yang ingin menggunakan Internet secara bersamaan apakah harus dilakukan Dial-up untuk tiap komputer ? Tidak, terdapat 2 alternativ Internet-Sharing yakni Masquerading dan Proxy. Saat ini terdapat beberapa software yang menyediakan solusi Internet-Sharing dengan Masquerading atau Proxy yang berbasis sistem operasi Windows. Permasalahannya software tersebut tidak handal (lambat dan sering hang dan tidak aman karena banyaknya celah keamanan pada sistem operasi Windows seperti Denial-of-Service dan Trojan. Penggunaan Internet yang tidak terkontrol pada suatu perusahaan dapat menyebabkan efek yang kontraproduktiv pada karyawan, oleh karena itu diperlukan manajemen akses Internet yang efektiv, efisien dan mudah digunakan. Pada makalah ini dikembangkan solusi Internet-Sharing dan Manajemen Koneksi Internet yang handal, aman, fleksibel dan mudah digunakan. Untuk Internet-Sharing menggunakan fasilitas Masquerading yang terdapat pada kernel Linux 2.2 yang terbukti handal dan aman. Sistem manajemen koneksi dan konfigurasi didesain berbasis Web agar mudah digunakan oleh network administrator dan karyawan. Sistem ini juga cocok diaplikasikan pada Internet Café/Warung Internet. Kata kunci : Internet, SOHO, IP, dial-up.

  12. Prospects for joint observations of gravitational waves and gamma rays from merging neutron star binaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patricelli, B.; Razzano, M.; Fidecaro, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo, 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Cella, G. [INFN—Sezione di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo, 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Pian, E.; Stamerra, A. [Scuola Normale Superiore, Piazza dei Cavalieri, 7, 56126 Pisa (Italy); Branchesi, M., E-mail: barbara.patricelli@pi.infn.it, E-mail: massimiliano.razzano@unipi.it, E-mail: giancarlo.cella@pi.infn.it, E-mail: francesco.fidecaro@unipi.it, E-mail: elena.pian@sns.it, E-mail: marica.branchesi@uniurb.it, E-mail: stamerra@oato.inaf.it [Universit\\a di Urbino, Via Aurelio Saffi, 2, 61029 Urbino (Italy)

    2016-11-01

    The detection of the events GW150914 and GW151226, both consistent with the merger of a binary black hole system (BBH), opened the era of gravitational wave (GW) astronomy. Besides BBHs, the most promising GW sources are the coalescences of binary systems formed by two neutron stars or a neutron star and a black hole. These mergers are thought to be connected with short Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs), therefore combined observations of GW and electromagnetic (EM) signals could definitively probe this association. We present a detailed study on the expectations for joint GW and high-energy EM observations of coalescences of binary systems of neutron stars with Advanced Virgo and LIGO and with the Fermi gamma-ray telescope. To this scope, we designed a dedicated Montecarlo simulation pipeline for the multimessenger emission and detection by GW and gamma-ray instruments, considering the evolution of the GW detector sensitivities. We show that the expected rate of joint detection is low during the Advanced Virgo and Advanced LIGO 2016–2017 run; however, as the interferometers approach their final design sensitivities, the rate will increase by ∼ a factor of ten. Future joint observations will help to constrain the association between short GRBs and binary systems and to solve the puzzle of the progenitors of GWs. Comparison of the joint detection rate with the ones predicted in this paper will help to constrain the geometry of the GRB jet.

  13. Nonlinear Adaptive Descriptor Observer for the Joint States and Parameters Estimation

    KAUST Repository

    2016-08-29

    In this note, the joint state and parameters estimation problem for nonlinear multi-input multi-output descriptor systems is considered. Asymptotic convergence of the adaptive descriptor observer is established by a sufficient set of linear matrix inequalities for the noise-free systems. The noise corrupted systems are also considered and it is shown that the state and parameters estimation errors are bounded for bounded noises. In addition, if the noises are bounded and have zero mean, then the estimation errors asymptotically converge to zero in the mean. The performance of the proposed adaptive observer is illustrated by a numerical example.

  14. Nonlinear Adaptive Descriptor Observer for the Joint States and Parameters Estimation

    KAUST Repository

    Unknown author

    2016-01-01

    In this note, the joint state and parameters estimation problem for nonlinear multi-input multi-output descriptor systems is considered. Asymptotic convergence of the adaptive descriptor observer is established by a sufficient set of linear matrix inequalities for the noise-free systems. The noise corrupted systems are also considered and it is shown that the state and parameters estimation errors are bounded for bounded noises. In addition, if the noises are bounded and have zero mean, then the estimation errors asymptotically converge to zero in the mean. The performance of the proposed adaptive observer is illustrated by a numerical example.

  15. Investigation of Quasi-periodic Solar Oscillations in Sunspots Based on SOHO/MDI Magnetograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallunki, J.; Riehokainen, A.

    2012-10-01

    In this work we study quasi-periodic solar oscillations in sunspots, based on the variation of the amplitude of the magnetic field strength and the variation of the sunspot area. We investigate long-period oscillations between three minutes and ten hours. The magnetic field synoptic maps were obtained from the SOHO/MDI. Wavelet (Morlet), global wavelet spectrum (GWS) and fast Fourier transform (FFT) methods are used in the periodicity analysis at the 95 % significance level. Additionally, the quiet Sun area (QSA) signal and an instrumental effect are discussed. We find several oscillation periods in the sunspots above the 95 % significance level: 3 - 5, 10 - 23, 220 - 240, 340 and 470 minutes, and we also find common oscillation periods (10 - 23 minutes) between the sunspot area variation and that of the magnetic field strength. We discuss possible mechanisms for the obtained results, based on the existing models for sunspot oscillations.

  16. Observer Variation in Computed Tomography of the Sacroiliac Joints: A Retrospective Analysis of 1383 Cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geijer, M.; Gadeholt Goethlin, G.; Goethlin, J.H.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Computed tomography (CT) for evaluation of sacroiliitis has a higher diagnostic accuracy than radiography. There is a high degree of interobserver variation in evaluating sacroiliitis on radiographs. Purpose: To evaluate interobserver variation in CT of the sacroiliac joints for evaluation of sacroiliitis in a large number of patients. Material and Methods: 1383 CT examinations of the sacroiliac joints were reviewed by two observers. The outcomes as originally reported and the findings from the reviews were classified as no sacroiliitis, equivocal, unilateral sacroiliitis, or bilateral sacroiliitis. The unweighted kappa statistic was used for assessment of observer agreement. Results: The interobserver agreement between the two reviewers was good (0.6724), with excellent agreement on cases of bilateral sacroiliitis and moderate agreement on cases of unilateral sacroiliitis. Excellent agreement was also reached in normal cases. Compared to the original reports, there were moderate interobserver agreements between both reviewers' findings and the original reports 0.4651 and 0.4481, respectively). Conclusion: The interobserver variation for the diagnosis of sacroiliitis on CT between two reviewers in a study setting showed good agreement, with moderate agreement between each of the observers and the original clinical reports. CT is a reliable method for evaluating the sacroiliac joints for changes of sacroiliitis

  17. Observer Variation in Computed Tomography of the Sacroiliac Joints: A Retrospective Analysis of 1383 Cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geijer, M.; Gadeholt Goethlin, G.; Goethlin, J.H. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Sahlgrenska Univ. Hospital, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2007-08-15

    Background: Computed tomography (CT) for evaluation of sacroiliitis has a higher diagnostic accuracy than radiography. There is a high degree of interobserver variation in evaluating sacroiliitis on radiographs. Purpose: To evaluate interobserver variation in CT of the sacroiliac joints for evaluation of sacroiliitis in a large number of patients. Material and Methods: 1383 CT examinations of the sacroiliac joints were reviewed by two observers. The outcomes as originally reported and the findings from the reviews were classified as no sacroiliitis, equivocal, unilateral sacroiliitis, or bilateral sacroiliitis. The unweighted kappa statistic was used for assessment of observer agreement. Results: The interobserver agreement between the two reviewers was good (0.6724), with excellent agreement on cases of bilateral sacroiliitis and moderate agreement on cases of unilateral sacroiliitis. Excellent agreement was also reached in normal cases. Compared to the original reports, there were moderate interobserver agreements between both reviewers' findings and the original reports 0.4651 and 0.4481, respectively). Conclusion: The interobserver variation for the diagnosis of sacroiliitis on CT between two reviewers in a study setting showed good agreement, with moderate agreement between each of the observers and the original clinical reports. CT is a reliable method for evaluating the sacroiliac joints for changes of sacroiliitis.

  18. Patellar subluxation syndrome. Observation of the patellofemoral joint using CT-scan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yagi, Tomonori; Sasaki, Tetsuto; Susuda, Koichi; Moji, Junichi (Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1983-10-01

    Clinical symptoms of patellar subluxation syndrome associated with pain were investigated for 24 knees of 20 patients, and the state of patella dislocation was observed by CT-scan. The patients had high incidence of an apprehension sign, showing their fear of patellar luxation. Many of them complained of patello-femoral joint pain due to chondromalacia patellae. In order to derive patellar subluxation, the method of CT-Q-contraction was carried out at the extended position of the patellar joint. In patients with patellar subluxation syndrome, the rate of shift in the diseased side was significantly higher than that of the other side, suggesting decreased muscular strength of the musculus vastus of the diseased side. Improvement of the symptoms was seen in all except one of 12 knees operated by the combined method of Green's method with Blauth's more than 6 months before. Availability of this operation was verified by the CT-Q-contraction.

  19. [Observation on therapeutic effect of acupuncture at Yanglingquan (GB 34) on sprain of external ankle joint].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xin-fang; Xu, Hai-bin

    2006-08-01

    To observe the increasing effect of Yanglingquan (GB 34) on sprain of external ankle joint. Seventy-nine cases of sprain of external ankle joint were semi-randomly divided into a treatment group (n = 46) and a control group (n = 33). The treatment group were treated with acupuncture at Yanglingquan (GB 34) and electro-magnetic therapy at local acupoints, and the control group with electro-magnetic therapy. The cured rate and the total effective rate were 67.4% and 91.3% in the treatment group, and 36.4% and 69.7% in the control group, respectively, with a significant difference between the two groups (Psprain of the external ankle joint.

  20. Coracoclavicular joint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kun Sang; Park, Chan Il; Ahn, Jae Doo; Lim, Chong Won [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1970-10-15

    The coracoclvicular joint, a rear abnormality which may be the cause of pain in the shoulder and limitation of motion of the shoulder joint, is discussed. A case of coracoclvicular joint with shoulder pain was observed in 65 yrs old Korean male.

  1. Determination of interstellar pickup ion distributions in the solar wind with SOHO and Cluster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Möbius

    1996-05-01

    Full Text Available Over the last 10 years, the experimental basis for the study of the local interstellar medium has been substantially enhanced by the direct detection of interstellar pickup ions and of interstellar neutral helium within the heliosphere. Pickup ions can be studied for a wide range of interstellar species. However, currently the accuracy of the method to determine the parameters of the interstellar medium, namely neutral density, temperature and relative velocity, is hampered by two problems: (1 In most cases the crucial ionization rates are not available from simultaneous measurements and (2 the transport of the pickup ions in the interplanetary medium substantially modifies the measured spatial distribution of the ions. In this study we will discuss how the enhanced capabilities of the instrumentation on SOHO and Cluster in combination with ongoing efforts to model the pickup ion distributions will lead to a significant improvement over the coming years.

  2. Mapping the solar wind HI outflow velocity in the inner heliosphere by coronagraphic ultraviolet and visible-light observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolei, S.; Susino, R.; Sasso, C.; Bemporad, A.; Andretta, V.; Spadaro, D.; Ventura, R.; Antonucci, E.; Abbo, L.; Da Deppo, V.; Fineschi, S.; Focardi, M.; Frassetto, F.; Giordano, S.; Landini, F.; Naletto, G.; Nicolini, G.; Nicolosi, P.; Pancrazzi, M.; Romoli, M.; Telloni, D.

    2018-05-01

    We investigated the capability of mapping the solar wind outflow velocity of neutral hydrogen atoms by using synergistic visible-light and ultraviolet observations. We used polarised brightness images acquired by the LASCO/SOHO and Mk3/MLSO coronagraphs, and synoptic Lyα line observations of the UVCS/SOHO spectrometer to obtain daily maps of solar wind H I outflow velocity between 1.5 and 4.0 R⊙ on the SOHO plane of the sky during a complete solar rotation (from 1997 June 1 to 1997 June 28). The 28-days data sequence allows us to construct coronal off-limb Carrington maps of the resulting velocities at different heliocentric distances to investigate the space and time evolution of the outflowing solar plasma. In addition, we performed a parameter space exploration in order to study the dependence of the derived outflow velocities on the physical quantities characterising the Lyα emitting process in the corona. Our results are important in anticipation of the future science with the Metis instrument, selected to be part of the Solar Orbiter scientific payload. It was conceived to carry out near-sun coronagraphy, performing for the first time simultaneous imaging in polarised visible-light and ultraviolet H I Lyα line, so providing an unprecedented view of the solar wind acceleration region in the inner corona. The movie (see Sect. 4.2) is available at https://www.aanda.org

  3. Charge state evolution in the solar wind. III. Model comparison with observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landi, E.; Oran, R.; Lepri, S. T.; Zurbuchen, T. H.; Fisk, L. A.; Van der Holst, B. [Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2014-08-01

    We test three theoretical models of the fast solar wind with a set of remote sensing observations and in-situ measurements taken during the minimum of solar cycle 23. First, the model electron density and temperature are compared to SOHO/SUMER spectroscopic measurements. Second, the model electron density, temperature, and wind speed are used to predict the charge state evolution of the wind plasma from the source regions to the freeze-in point. Frozen-in charge states are compared with Ulysses/SWICS measurements at 1 AU, while charge states close to the Sun are combined with the CHIANTI spectral code to calculate the intensities of selected spectral lines, to be compared with SOHO/SUMER observations in the north polar coronal hole. We find that none of the theoretical models are able to completely reproduce all observations; namely, all of them underestimate the charge state distribution of the solar wind everywhere, although the levels of disagreement vary from model to model. We discuss possible causes of the disagreement, namely, uncertainties in the calculation of the charge state evolution and of line intensities, in the atomic data, and in the assumptions on the wind plasma conditions. Last, we discuss the scenario where the wind is accelerated from a region located in the solar corona rather than in the chromosphere as assumed in the three theoretical models, and find that a wind originating from the corona is in much closer agreement with observations.

  4. Charge state evolution in the solar wind. III. Model comparison with observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landi, E.; Oran, R.; Lepri, S. T.; Zurbuchen, T. H.; Fisk, L. A.; Van der Holst, B.

    2014-01-01

    We test three theoretical models of the fast solar wind with a set of remote sensing observations and in-situ measurements taken during the minimum of solar cycle 23. First, the model electron density and temperature are compared to SOHO/SUMER spectroscopic measurements. Second, the model electron density, temperature, and wind speed are used to predict the charge state evolution of the wind plasma from the source regions to the freeze-in point. Frozen-in charge states are compared with Ulysses/SWICS measurements at 1 AU, while charge states close to the Sun are combined with the CHIANTI spectral code to calculate the intensities of selected spectral lines, to be compared with SOHO/SUMER observations in the north polar coronal hole. We find that none of the theoretical models are able to completely reproduce all observations; namely, all of them underestimate the charge state distribution of the solar wind everywhere, although the levels of disagreement vary from model to model. We discuss possible causes of the disagreement, namely, uncertainties in the calculation of the charge state evolution and of line intensities, in the atomic data, and in the assumptions on the wind plasma conditions. Last, we discuss the scenario where the wind is accelerated from a region located in the solar corona rather than in the chromosphere as assumed in the three theoretical models, and find that a wind originating from the corona is in much closer agreement with observations.

  5. A Distant Mirror: Solar Oscillations Observed on Neptune by the Kepler K2 Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaulme, P.; Rowe, J. F.; Bedding, T. R.; Benomar, O.; Corsaro, E.; Davies, G. R.; Hale, S. J.; Howe, R.; Garcia, R. A.; Huber, D.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Starting in 2014 December, Kepler (K2) observed Neptune continuously for 49 days at a 1-minute cadence. The goals consisted of studying its atmospheric dynamics, detecting its global acoustic oscillations, and those of the Sun, which we report on here. We present the first indirect detection of solar oscillations in intensity measurements. Beyond the remarkable technical performance, it indicates how Kepler would see a star like the Sun. The result from the global asteroseismic approach, which consists of measuring the oscillation frequency at maximum amplitude max velocity and the mean frequency separation between mode overtones delta velocity, is surprising as the max velocity measured from Neptune photometry is larger than the accepted value. Compared to the usual reference max velocity of the sun equal to 3100 microhertz, the asteroseismic scaling relations therefore make the solar mass and radius appear larger by 13.8 plus or minus 5.8 percent and 4.3 plus or minus 1.9 percent, respectively. The higher max velocity is caused by a combination of the value of max velocity of the sun, being larger at the time of observations than the usual reference from SOHO/VIRGO/SPM (Variability of solar IRradiance and Gravity Oscillations / on board SOHO (Solar and Heliospheric Observatory) / Sun PhotoMeters) data (3160 plus or minus 10 microhertz), and the noise level of the K2 time series, being 10 times larger than VIRGO's. The peak-bagging method provides more consistent results: despite a low signal-to-noise ratio (S/N), we model 10 overtones for degrees iota equal 0, 1, 2. We compare the K2 data with simultaneous SOHO/VIRGO/SPM photometry and Bison (Birmingham Solar-Oscillations Network) velocity measurements. The individual frequencies, widths, and amplitudes mostly match those from VIRGO and BiSON within 1 sigma, except for the few peaks with the lowest S/N.

  6. Multispacecraft observations of a prominence eruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bemporad

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available On 9 May 2007 a prominence eruption occurred at the West limb. Remarkably, the event was observed by the STEREO/EUVI telescopes and by the HINODE/EIS and SOHO/UVCS spectrometers. We present results from all these instruments. High-cadence (~37 s data from STEREO/EUVI A and B in the He II λ304 line were used to study the 3-D shape and expansion of the prominence. The high spatial resolution EUVI images (~1.5"/pixel have been used to infer via triangulation the 3-D shape and orientation of the prominence 12 min after the eruption onset. At this time the prominence has mainly the shape of a "hook" highly inclined southward, has an average thickness of 0.068 R⊙, a length of 0.43 R⊙ and lies, in first approximation, on a plane. Hence, the prominence is mainly a 2-D structure and there is no evidence for a twisted flux rope configuration. HINODE/EIS was scanning with the 2" slit the region where the filament erupted. The EIS spectra show during the eruption remarkable non-thermal broadening (up to ~100 km s−1 in the region crossed by the filament in spectral lines emitted at different temperatures, possibly with differences among lines from higher Fe ionization stages. The CME was also observed by the SOHO/UVCS instrument: the spectrograph slit was centered at 1.7 R⊙, at a latitude of 5° SW and recorded a sudden increase in the O VI λλ1032–1037 and Si XII λ520 spectral line intensities, representative of the CME front transit.

  7. [Clinical observation on the effect of joint mobilization in treating elderly patients after distal radius fractures operation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xue-Feng; Cai, Hong-Xin; Lin, Ge-Sheng; Fang, Ji-Shi; Wang, Yong; Wu, Zhi-Yong; Tu, Xu-Hui

    2017-07-25

    To investigate the effect of joint mobilization on postoperative wrist joint function, pain and grip strength for elderly patients with distal radius fracture. From January 2015 to June 2016, a total of 67 elderly patients with distal radius fracture were randomly divided into routine exercise group and joint mobilization group. Among them, 37 patients in the routine exercise group underwent conventional distal radius fracture postoperative joint function exercise regimen, including 16 males and 21 females with a mean age of (67.8±3.2) years old ranging from 60 to 72 years old;the injured side was dominant in 23 cases and non-dominant in 14 cases;injury mechanism was fall in 26 cases, traffic accident in 11 cases; for AO type, 6 cases were type B3, 18 cases were type C1, 7 cases were type C2, 6 cases was type C3. Other 30 patients in the joint mobilization group underwent joint mobilization on the basis of the routine exercise group including 14 males and 16 females with a mean age of (67.1±4.0) years old ranging from 61 to 74 years old; the injured side was dominant in 21 cases and non-dominant in 9 cases;injury mechanism was fall in 25 cases, traffic accident in 5 cases;for AO type, 8 cases were type B3, 13 cases were type C1, 6 cases were type C2, 9 cases were type C3. The wrist joint activity, Gartland-Werley wrist joint function score, VAS pain score and grip strength were observed at 3 months afrer treatment. After 3 months' treatment, the VAS in the routine exercise group was higher than that of the joint mobilization group ( P joint mobilization group was higher than that in routine exercise group( P joint mobilization group( P joint mobilization group had no significant difference ( P >0.05). In the comparison of each item of Gartland-Werley, there was no significant difference between two groups in residual deformity and complication( P >0.05); the average score of subjective score, objective score and total score in routine exercise group were

  8. In-pile observation of gas release from sodium-joint carbide pins irradiated in Osiris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colin, M.; Faugere, J.L.; Rouault, J.

    1978-01-01

    Gas release is studied in three sodium-joint carbide pins irradiated in the reactor Osiris at a nominal linear power of 900 W/cm to burn-ups ranging from 4 to 13%. The overall activity, stable gases and radioactive gases are measured. It is found that most of the gas is released in busts, that the release of stable gases speeds up sharply after an incubation time, that the initial bursts are very large and that for each mode of release observed and for each class of nuclide the radioactive gases follow a law R/B=A/lambda.n. An attempt is made to interpret the results in terms of either the formation of gas bubbles in the sodium joint, the existence of a large bubble above the fissile column or the simultaneous release of a large number of smaller bubbles [fr

  9. Correlation in the Coronal Angle between Knee and Hindfoot Was Observed in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis Unless Talocrural Joint Was Destroyed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Nishitani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the compensatory correlation between knee and hindfoot in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA. This cross-sectional study included 218 patients (407 lower extremities. Radiographs of the hindfoot and full-length posteroanterior hip-to-calcaneus standing radiographs were evaluated. The destruction of the hindfoot was evaluated using the Larsen grading system. The coronal angular deformity of the knee and hindfoot was evaluated by the femorotibial angle (FTA and the angle between the tibial shaft and the entire hindfoot (tibiohindfoot angle, THFA. The correlation between FTA and THFA was determined by Pearson’s coefficient. For all patients, FTA correlated to THFA (R = 0.28, p<0.001. The correlation was observed as long as the talocrural joint was preserved (Larsen grade ≤ 2, even if the subtalar joint had been destroyed (Larsen grade ≥ 3. However, the correlation was not observed when the talocrural joint was destroyed (Larsen grade ≥ 3, R = −0.02, p=0.94. The pain in the hindfoot did not correlate with FTA or THFA. In conclusion, a compensatory deformity of the hindfoot against the deformity of the knee was observed in RA, and the correlation was lost when talocrural joint was destroyed.

  10. PRE-DISCOVERY OBSERVATIONS OF DISRUPTING ASTEROID P/2010 A2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jewitt, David; Stuart, Joseph S.; Li Jing

    2011-01-01

    Solar system object P/2010 A2 is the first-noticed example of the aftermath of a recently disrupted asteroid, probably resulting from a collision. Nearly a year elapsed between its inferred initiation in early 2009 and its eventual detection in early 2010. Here, we use new observations to assess the factors underlying the visibility, especially to understand the delayed discovery. We present pre-discovery observations from the LINEAR telescope and set limits to the early-time brightness from SOHO and STEREO satellite coronagraphic images. Consideration of the circumstances of discovery of P/2010 A2 suggests that similar objects must be common, and that future all-sky surveys will reveal them in large numbers.

  11. Simulating multi-spacecraft Heliospheric Imager observations for tomographic reconstruction of interplanetary CMEs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, D.

    2017-12-01

    The multiple, spatially separated vantage points afforded by the STEREO and SOHO missions provide physicists with a means to infer the three-dimensional structure of the solar corona via tomographic imaging. The reconstruction process combines these multiple projections of the optically thin plasma to constrain its three-dimensional density structure and has been successfully applied to the low corona using the STEREO and SOHO coronagraphs. However, the technique is also possible at larger, inter-planetary distances using wide-angle imagers, such as the STEREO Heliospheric Imagers (HIs), to observe faint solar wind plasma and Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs). Limited small-scale structure may be inferred from only three, or fewer, viewpoints and the work presented here is done so with the aim of establishing techniques for observing CMEs with upcoming and future HI-like technology. We use simulated solar wind densities to compute realistic white-light HI observations, with which we explore the requirements of such instruments for determining solar wind plasma density structure via tomography. We exploit this information to investigate the optimal orbital characteristics, such as spacecraft number, separation, inclination and eccentricity, necessary to perform the technique with HIs. Further to this we argue that tomography may be greatly enhanced by means of improved instrumentation; specifically, the use of wide-angle imagers capable of measuring polarised light. This work has obvious space weather applications, serving as a demonstration for potential future missions (such as at L1 and L5) and will prove timely in fully exploiting the science return from the upcoming Solar Orbiter and Parker Solar Probe missions.

  12. Excluding joint probabilities from quantum theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allahverdyan, Armen E.; Danageozian, Arshag

    2018-03-01

    Quantum theory does not provide a unique definition for the joint probability of two noncommuting observables, which is the next important question after the Born's probability for a single observable. Instead, various definitions were suggested, e.g., via quasiprobabilities or via hidden-variable theories. After reviewing open issues of the joint probability, we relate it to quantum imprecise probabilities, which are noncontextual and are consistent with all constraints expected from a quantum probability. We study two noncommuting observables in a two-dimensional Hilbert space and show that there is no precise joint probability that applies for any quantum state and is consistent with imprecise probabilities. This contrasts with theorems by Bell and Kochen-Specker that exclude joint probabilities for more than two noncommuting observables, in Hilbert space with dimension larger than two. If measurement contexts are included into the definition, joint probabilities are not excluded anymore, but they are still constrained by imprecise probabilities.

  13. The first SEPServer event catalogue ~68-MeV solar proton events observed at 1 AU in 1996–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez-Gasén Rosa

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available SEPServer is a three-year collaborative project funded by the seventh framework programme (FP7-SPACE of the European Union. The objective of the project is to provide access to state-of-the-art observations and analysis tools for the scientific community on solar energetic particle (SEP events and related electromagnetic (EM emissions. The project will eventually lead to better understanding of the particle acceleration and transport processes at the Sun and in the inner heliosphere. These processes lead to SEP events that form one of the key elements of space weather. In this paper we present the first results from the systematic analysis work performed on the following datasets: SOHO/ERNE, SOHO/EPHIN, ACE/EPAM, Wind/WAVES and GOES X-rays. A catalogue of SEP events at 1 AU, with complete coverage over solar cycle 23, based on high-energy (~68-MeV protons from SOHO/ERNE and electron recordings of the events by SOHO/EPHIN and ACE/EPAM are presented. A total of 115 energetic particle events have been identified and analysed using velocity dispersion analysis (VDA for protons and time-shifting analysis (TSA for electrons and protons in order to infer the SEP release times at the Sun. EM observations during the times of the SEP event onset have been gathered and compared to the release time estimates of particles. Data from those events that occurred during the European day-time, i.e., those that also have observations from ground-based observatories included in SEPServer, are listed and a preliminary analysis of their associations is presented. We find that VDA results for protons can be a useful tool for the analysis of proton release times, but if the derived proton path length is out of a range of 1 AU < s ≲ 3 AU, the result of the analysis may be compromised, as indicated by the anti-correlation of the derived path length and release time delay from the associated X-ray flare. The average path length derived from VDA is about 1.9 times

  14. Comments on open-quotes interpretations of quantum mechanics, joint measurement of incompatible observables, and counterfactual definitenessclose quotes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stapp, H.P.

    1994-01-01

    Some seeming logical deficiencies in a recent paper are described. The author responds to the arguments of the work by de Muynck, De Baere, and Martens (MDM), who argue it is widely accepted today that some sort of nonlocal effect is needed to resolve the problems raised by the works of Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen (EPR) and John Bell. In MBM a variety of arguments are set forth that aim to invalidate the existing purported proofs of nonlocality and to provide, moreover, a local solution to the problems uncovered by EPR and Bell. Much of the argumentation in MBM is based on the idea of introducing 'nonideal' measurements, which, according to MBM, allow one to construct joint probability distributions for incompatible observables. The existence of a bona fide joint probability distribution for the incompatible observables occurring in the EPRB experiments would entail that Bell's inequalities can be satisfied, and hence that the mathematical basis for the nonlocal effects would disappear. This relult would apparently allow one to eliminate the need for nonlocal effects by considering experiments of this new kind

  15. Total joint Perioperative Surgical Home: an observational financial review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raphael, Darren R; Cannesson, Maxime; Schwarzkopf, Ran; Garson, Leslie M; Vakharia, Shermeen B; Gupta, Ranjan; Kain, Zeev N

    2014-01-01

    The numbers of people requiring total arthroplasty is expected to increase substantially over the next two decades. However, increasing costs and new payment models in the USA have created a sustainability gap. Ad hoc interventions have reported marginal cost reduction, but it has become clear that sustainability lies only in complete restructuring of care delivery. The Perioperative Surgical Home (PSH) model, a patient-centered and physician-led multidisciplinary system of coordinated care, was implemented at UC Irvine Health in 2012 for patients undergoing primary elective total knee arthroplasty (TKA) or total hip arthroplasty (THA). This observational study examines the costs associated with this initiative. The direct cost of materials and services (excluding professional fees and implants) for a random index sample following the Total Joint-PSH pathway was used to calculate per diem cost. Cost of orthopedic implants was calculated based on audit-verified direct cost data. Operating room and post-anesthesia care unit time-based costs were calculated for each case and analyzed for variation. Benchmark cost data were obtained from literature search. Data are presented as mean ± SD (coefficient of variation) where possible. Total per diem cost was $10,042 ± 1,305 (13%) for TKA and $9,952 ± 1,294 (13%) for THA. Literature-reported benchmark per diem cost was $17,588 for TKA and $16,267 for THA. Implant cost was $7,482 ± 4,050 (54%) for TKA and $9869 ± 1,549 (16%) for THA. Total hospital cost was $17,894 ± 4,270 (24%) for TKA and $20,281 ± 2,057 (10%) for THA. In-room to incision time cost was $1,263 ± 100 (8%) for TKA and $1,341 ± 145 (11%) for THA. Surgery time cost was $1,558 ± 290 (19%) for TKA and $1,930 ± 374 (19%) for THA. Post-anesthesia care unit time cost was $507 ± 187 (36%) for TKA and $557 ± 302 (54%) for THA. Direct hospital costs were driven substantially below USA benchmark levels using the Total Joint-PSH pathway. The incremental

  16. Laboratory characterization of rock joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsiung, S.M.; Kana, D.D.; Ahola, M.P.; Chowdhury, A.H.; Ghosh, A.

    1994-05-01

    A laboratory characterization of the Apache Leap tuff joints under cyclic pseudostatic and dynamic loads has been undertaken to obtain a better understanding of dynamic joint shear behavior and to generate a complete data set that can be used for validation of existing rock-joint models. Study has indicated that available methods for determining joint roughness coefficient (JRC) significantly underestimate the roughness coefficient of the Apache Leap tuff joints, that will lead to an underestimation of the joint shear strength. The results of the direct shear tests have indicated that both under cyclic pseudostatic and dynamic loadings the joint resistance upon reverse shearing is smaller than that of forward shearing and the joint dilation resulting from forward shearing recovers during reverse shearing. Within the range of variation of shearing velocity used in these tests, the shearing velocity effect on rock-joint behavior seems to be minor, and no noticeable effect on the peak joint shear strength and the joint shear strength for the reverse shearing is observed

  17. Analysis of EIT/LASCO Observations Using Available MHD Models: Investigation of CME Initiation Propagation and Geoeffectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, S. T.

    2001-01-01

    The Sun's activity drives the variability of geospace (i.e., near-earth environment). Observations show that the ejection of plasma from the sun, called coronal mass ejections (CMEs), are the major cause of geomagnetic storms. This global-scale solar dynamical feature of coronal mass ejection was discovered almost three decades ago by the use of space-borne coronagraphs (OSO-7, Skylab/ATM and P78-1). Significant progress has been made in understanding the physical nature of the CMEs. Observations show that these global-scale CMEs have size in the order of a solar radius (approximately 6.7 x 10(exp 5) km) near the sun, and each event involves a mass of about 10(exp 15) g and an energy comparable to that of a large flare on the order of 10(exp 32) ergs. The radial propagation speeds of CMEs have a wide range from tens to thousands of kilometers per second. Thus, the transit time to near earth's environment [i.e., 1 AU (astronomical unit)] can be as fast as 40 hours to 100 hours. The typical transit time for geoeffective events is approximately 60-80 h. This paper consists of two parts: 1) A summary of the observed CMEs from Skylab to the present SOHO will be presented. Special attention will be made to SOHO/ LASCO/ EIT observations and their characteristics leading to a geoeffectiv a CME 2) The chronological development of theory and models to interpret the physical nature of this fascinating phenomenon will be reviewed. Finally, an example will be presented to illustrate the geoeffectiveness of the CMEs by using both observation and model.

  18. The joint flanker effect and the joint Simon effect: On the comparability of processes underlying joint compatibility effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittrich, Kerstin; Bossert, Marie-Luise; Rothe-Wulf, Annelie; Klauer, Karl Christoph

    2017-09-01

    Previous studies observed compatibility effects in different interference paradigms such as the Simon and flanker task even when the task was distributed across two co-actors. In both Simon and flanker tasks, performance is improved in compatible trials relative to incompatible trials if one actor works on the task alone as well as if two co-actors share the task. These findings have been taken to indicate that actors automatically co-represent their co-actor's task. However, recent research on the joint Simon and joint flanker effect suggests alternative non-social interpretations. To which degree both joint effects are driven by the same underlying processes is the question of the present study, and it was scrutinized by manipulating the visibility of the co-actor. While the joint Simon effect was not affected by the visibility of the co-actor, the joint flanker effect was reduced when participants did not see their co-actors but knew where the co-actors were seated. These findings provide further evidence for a spatial interpretation of the joint Simon effect. In contrast to recent claims, however, we propose a new explanation of the joint flanker effect that attributes the effect to an impairment in the focusing of spatial attention contingent on the visibility of the co-actor.

  19. EIT And SXT Observations of a Quiet-Region Filament Ejection: First Eruption, Then Reconnection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, Alphonse C.; Moore, Ronald L.; Thompson, Barbara J.

    2001-01-01

    We observe a slow-onset quiet-region filament eruption with the Extreme Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (EIT) on the Solar Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) and the Soft X-ray Telescope (SXT) on Yohkoh. This event occurred on 1999 April 18 and was likely the origin of a coronal mass ejection detected by SOHO at 08:30 UT on that day. In the EIT observation, one-half of the filament shows two stages of evolution: stage 1 is a slow, roughly constant upward movement at approximately 1 km/s lasting approximately 0.5 hr, and stage 2 is a rapid upward eruption at approximately 16 km/s occurring just before the filament disappears into interplanetary space. The other half of the filament shows little motion along the line of sight during the time of stage 1 but erupts along with the rest of the filament during stage 2. There is no obvious emission from the filament in the SXT observation until stage 2; at that time, an arcade of EUV and soft X-ray loops forms first at the central location of the filament and then expands outward along the length of the filament channel. A plot of EUV intensity versus time of the central portion of the filament (where the postflare loops initially form) shows a flat profile during stage 1 and a rapid upturn after the start of stage 2. This light curve is delayed from what would be expected if 'tether-cutting' reconnection in the core of the erupting region were responsible for the initiation of the eruption. Rather, these observations suggest that a loss of stability of the magnetic field holding the filament initiates the eruption, with reconnection in the core region occurring only as a by-product.

  20. Improving Soil Moisture Estimation through the Joint Assimilation of SMOS and GRACE Satellite Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girotto, Manuela

    2018-01-01

    Observations from recent soil moisture dedicated missions (e.g. SMOS or SMAP) have been used in innovative data assimilation studies to provide global high spatial (i.e., approximately10-40 km) and temporal resolution (i.e., daily) soil moisture profile estimates from microwave brightness temperature observations. These missions are only sensitive to near-surface soil moisture 0-5 cm). In contrast, the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission provides accurate measurements of the entire vertically integrated terrestrial water storage (TWS) column but, it is characterized by low spatial (i.e., 150,000 km2) and temporal (i.e., monthly) resolutions. Data assimilation studies have shown that GRACE-TWS primarily affects (in absolute terms) deeper moisture storages (i.e., groundwater). In this presentation I will review benefits and drawbacks associated to the assimilation of both types of observations. In particular, I will illustrate the benefits and drawbacks of their joint assimilation for the purpose of improving the entire profile of soil moisture (i.e., surface and deeper water storages).

  1. A Detection of the Same Hot Plasma in the Corona: During a CME and Later at Ulysses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suess, S. T.; Poletto, G.

    2004-01-01

    We show direct evidence for the same very hot plasma being detected remotely from SOHO in the corona and subsequently, at Ulysses in the solar wind. This is, to our knowledge, the first time that such an unambiguous identification has been made in the case of hot plasma. This detection complements studies correlating other plasma and field properties observed to the properties measured at the source in the corona. This observation takes advantage of a SOHO-Sun-Ulysses quadrature, during which the Sun-Ulysses included angle is $90^\\circ$ and it is possible to observe with Ulysses instruments the same plasma that has previously been remotely observed with SOHO instruments in the corona on the limb of the Sun. The identification builds on an existing base of separate SOHO and interplanetary detections of hot plasma. SOHO/UVCS has found evidence for very hot coronal plasma in current sheets in the aftermath of CMEs in the [Fe XVIII] $\\lambda$ \\AA\\ line, implying a temperature on the order of $6\\times 10(exp 6)$ K. This temperature is unusually high even for active regions, but is compatible with the high temperature predicted in current sheets. In the solar wind, ACE data from early 1998 to middle 2000 revealed high frozen-in Fe charge state in many cases to be present in interplanetary plasma.

  2. Pain originating from the sacroiliac joint is a common non-traumatic musculoskeletal complaint in elite inline-speedskaters - an observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruhe Alexander

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Study design Observational study Objectives To investigate common non-traumatic musculoskeletal complaints of the low back in elite inline-speedskaters of the German national team. Summary of background data Traumatic injuries associated with falls or collisions are well documented in speedskaters but so far no studies have investigated non-traumatic low back pain. Previously, the sacroiliac joint was suspected as a frequent origin of complaint, we aimed to investigate this assumption. Methods Two chiropractors examined elite inline-speedskaters of the German national team during three sports events between summer 2010 and 2011. A test cluster of five provocative tests for the sacroiliac joint was selected based on reliability and validity. Results A total of 37 examinations were conducted on 34 athletes with low back pain during the three sport events. The reported pain intensities ranged from mild to moderate pain (VAS 23.4 ± 13.4 to 35.1 ± 19.2. About 90% of cases showed involvement of the SI joint of which again 90% presented with left sided symptoms. Conclusions Non-traumatic complaints of the low back originating from the left sacroiliac joint frequently occur in competitive inline speedskaters.

  3. EIT Observations of Coronal Mass Ejections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurman, J. B.; Fisher, Richard B. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Before the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO), we had only the sketchiest of clues as to the nature and topology of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) below 1.1 - 1.2 solar radii. Occasionally, dimmings (or 'transient coronal holes') were observed in time series of soft X-ray images, but they were far less frequent than CME's. Simply by imaging the Sun frequently and continually at temperatures of 0.9 - 2.5 MK we have stumbled upon a zoo of CME phenomena in this previously obscured volume of the corona: (1) waves, (2) dimmings, and (3) a great variety of ejecta. In the three and a half years since our first observations of coronal waves associated with CME's, combined Large Angle Spectroscopic Coronagraph (LASCO) and extreme ultra-violet imaging telescope (EIT) synoptic observations have become a standard prediction tool for space weather forecasters, but our progress in actually understanding the CME phenomenon in the low corona has been somewhat slower. I will summarize the observations of waves, hot (> 0.9 MK) and cool ejecta, and some of the interpretations advanced to date. I will try to identify those phenomena, analysis of which could most benefit from the spectroscopic information available from ultraviolet coronograph spectrometer (UVCS) observations.

  4. Application of Convolution Neural Network to the forecasts of flare classification and occurrence using SOHO MDI data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eunsu; Moon, Yong-Jae

    2017-08-01

    A Convolutional Neural Network(CNN) is one of the well-known deep-learning methods in image processing and computer vision area. In this study, we apply CNN to two kinds of flare forecasting models: flare classification and occurrence. For this, we consider several pre-trained models (e.g., AlexNet, GoogLeNet, and ResNet) and customize them by changing several options such as the number of layers, activation function, and optimizer. Our inputs are the same number of SOHO)/MDI images for each flare class (None, C, M and X) at 00:00 UT from Jan 1996 to Dec 2010 (total 1600 images). Outputs are the results of daily flare forecasting for flare class and occurrence. We build, train, and test the models on TensorFlow, which is well-known machine learning software library developed by Google. Our major results from this study are as follows. First, most of the models have accuracies more than 0.7. Second, ResNet developed by Microsoft has the best accuracies : 0.86 for flare classification and 0.84 for flare occurrence. Third, the accuracies of these models vary greatly with changing parameters. We discuss several possibilities to improve the models.

  5. [An attempt to use ultrasonic technique for confirming the diagnosis, planning and observation of long-term treatment results of painful temporo-mandibular joint dysfunction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ey-Chmielewska, H

    1998-01-01

    The author presents an attempt of using ultrasonographic technique in diagnosis, planning and observation of treatment results of temporo-mandibular joint pain dysfunctions. Temporo-mandibular joint pain dysfunctions are interchangeably also called temporo-mandibular joint functional disorders. The assessment of pain symptoms in temporo-mandibular joint dysfunctions pain symptoms is principally based on a subjective estimation by the examining practitioner. There is no univocal definition of the disease or a simple index evidencing important symptoms in decision making. Additionally X-ray technique examinations, being hitherto used, in early stages of the disorder do not allow to diagnose it, and are also burdensome to a patient. The aim of this study was to confirm visibility of anatomical elements of the temporo-mandibular joint in an ultrasound examination, assess the mobility of the articular disc before, during and after prosthetic treatment with and without the use of ultrasound technique, and to determine the period of time necessary to obtain a therapeutic effect. The study material consisted of 180 patients, 128 women and 52 men, aged 20 to 60 years, treated by applying prostheses because of temporo-mandibular joint pain dysfunction, in the Department of Prosthetic Dentistry of the Pomeranian Medical Academy. The patients were divided into 2 groups, control and study group. The control group consisted of 90 patients, 63 women and 27 men. In this group prosthetic treatment planning and observation of results was based on a subjective estimation of the practitioner. The study group here comprised 90 patients, 65 women and 25 men, aged 26 to 60 years. In this group prosthetic treatment planning and observation of treatment results were carried on with the use of ultrasound technique. Data from both groups concerning history, results of examinations carried out by ultrasound technique, and the assessment of ultrasound examination were noted on standard

  6. Reliability of agriculture universal joint shafts based on temperature measuring in universal joint bearing assemblies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Аleksandar Asonja

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a research into reliability calculations of agriculture double universal joint shafts based on temperature measuring in cardan-type universal joint bearing assemblies. Special laboratory equipment was developed for this research which is presented in the paper. The objective of this research was to test the real life span of universal joint shafts in the laboratory and in field, to obtain the results which can be used to improve the reliability of universal joint shafts. If the presented research were used along with maintenance measures recommended in the paper and with proper use, the level of reliability of the shafts would be 2.1 times higher. The presented results of the research showed that needle bearings, i.e. bearing assemblies of the joints, are the most critical elements on universal joint shafts and are possible causes of their lower reliability. The second universal joint is the part with the lowest reliability in the observed technical system.

  7. Flare Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benz Arnold O.

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Solar flares are observed at all wavelengths from decameter radio waves to gamma-rays at 100 MeV. This review focuses on recent observations in EUV, soft and hard X-rays, white light, and radio waves. Space missions such as RHESSI, Yohkoh, TRACE, and SOHO have enlarged widely the observational base. They have revealed a number of surprises: Coronal sources appear before the hard X-ray emission in chromospheric footpoints, major flare acceleration sites appear to be independent of coronal mass ejections (CMEs, electrons, and ions may be accelerated at different sites, there are at least 3 different magnetic topologies, and basic characteristics vary from small to large flares. Recent progress also includes improved insights into the flare energy partition, on the location(s of energy release, tests of energy release scenarios and particle acceleration. The interplay of observations with theory is important to deduce the geometry and to disentangle the various processes involved. There is increasing evidence supporting reconnection of magnetic field lines as the basic cause. While this process has become generally accepted as the trigger, it is still controversial how it converts a considerable fraction of the energy into non-thermal particles. Flare-like processes may be responsible for large-scale restructuring of the magnetic field in the corona as well as for its heating. Large flares influence interplanetary space and substantially affect the Earth’s lower ionosphere. While flare scenarios have slowly converged over the past decades, every new observation still reveals major unexpected results, demonstrating that solar flares, after 150 years since their discovery, remain a complex problem of astrophysics including major unsolved questions.

  8. Flare Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benz, Arnold O.

    2017-12-01

    Solar flares are observed at all wavelengths from decameter radio waves to gamma-rays beyond 1 GeV. This review focuses on recent observations in EUV, soft and hard X-rays, white light, and radio waves. Space missions such as RHESSI, Yohkoh, TRACE, SOHO, and more recently Hinode and SDO have enlarged widely the observational base. They have revealed a number of surprises: Coronal sources appear before the hard X-ray emission in chromospheric footpoints, major flare acceleration sites appear to be independent of coronal mass ejections, electrons, and ions may be accelerated at different sites, there are at least 3 different magnetic topologies, and basic characteristics vary from small to large flares. Recent progress also includes improved insights into the flare energy partition, on the location(s) of energy release, tests of energy release scenarios and particle acceleration. The interplay of observations with theory is important to deduce the geometry and to disentangle the various processes involved. There is increasing evidence supporting magnetic reconnection as the basic cause. While this process has become generally accepted as the trigger, it is still controversial how it converts a considerable fraction of the energy into non-thermal particles. Flare-like processes may be responsible for large-scale restructuring of the magnetic field in the corona as well as for its heating. Large flares influence interplanetary space and substantially affect the Earth's ionosphere. Flare scenarios have slowly converged over the past decades, but every new observation still reveals major unexpected results, demonstrating that solar flares, after 150 years since their discovery, remain a complex problem of astrophysics including major unsolved questions.

  9. Ionospheric Electron Heating Associated With Pulsating Auroras: Joint Optical and PFISR Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jun; Donovan, E.; Reimer, A.; Hampton, D.; Zou, S.; Varney, R.

    2018-05-01

    In a recent study, Liang et al. (2017, https://doi.org/10.1002/2017JA024127) repeatedly identified strong electron temperature (Te) enhancements when Swarm satellites traversed pulsating auroral patches. In this study, we use joint optical and Poker Flat Incoherent Scatter Radar (PFISR) observations to further investigate the F region plasma signatures related to pulsating auroras. On 19 March 2015 night, which contained multiple intervals of pulsating auroral activities, we identify a statistical trend, albeit not a one-to-one correspondence, of strong Te enhancements ( 500-1000 K) in the upper F region ionosphere during the passages of pulsating auroras over PFISR. On the other hand, there is no discernible and repeatable density enhancement in the upper F region during pulsating auroral intervals. Collocated optical and NOAA satellite observations suggest that the pulsating auroras are composed of energetic electron precipitation with characteristic energy >10 keV, which is inefficient in electron heating in the upper F region. Based upon PFISR observations and simulations from Liang et al. (2017) model, we propose that thermal conduction from the topside ionosphere, which is heated by precipitating low-energy electrons, offers the most likely explanation for the observed electron heating in the upper F region associated with pulsating auroras. Such a heating mechanism is similar to that underlying the "stable auroral red arcs" in the subauroral ionosphere. Our proposal conforms to the notion on the coexistence of an enhanced cold plasma population and the energetic electron precipitation, in magnetospheric flux tubes threading the pulsating auroral patch. In addition, we find a trend of enhanced ion upflows during pulsating auroral intervals.

  10. Real-time visualization of joint cavitation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory N Kawchuk

    Full Text Available Cracking sounds emitted from human synovial joints have been attributed historically to the sudden collapse of a cavitation bubble formed as articular surfaces are separated. Unfortunately, bubble collapse as the source of joint cracking is inconsistent with many physical phenomena that define the joint cracking phenomenon. Here we present direct evidence from real-time magnetic resonance imaging that the mechanism of joint cracking is related to cavity formation rather than bubble collapse. In this study, ten metacarpophalangeal joints were studied by inserting the finger of interest into a flexible tube tightened around a length of cable used to provide long-axis traction. Before and after traction, static 3D T1-weighted magnetic resonance images were acquired. During traction, rapid cine magnetic resonance images were obtained from the joint midline at a rate of 3.2 frames per second until the cracking event occurred. As traction forces increased, real-time cine magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated rapid cavity inception at the time of joint separation and sound production after which the resulting cavity remained visible. Our results offer direct experimental evidence that joint cracking is associated with cavity inception rather than collapse of a pre-existing bubble. These observations are consistent with tribonucleation, a known process where opposing surfaces resist separation until a critical point where they then separate rapidly creating sustained gas cavities. Observed previously in vitro, this is the first in-vivo macroscopic demonstration of tribonucleation and as such, provides a new theoretical framework to investigate health outcomes associated with joint cracking.

  11. The effects of joint aspiration and intra-articular corticosteroid injection on flexion reflex excitability, quadriceps strength and pain in individuals with knee synovitis: a prospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, David Andrew; McNair, Peter John; Lewis, Gwyn Nancy; Dalbeth, Nicola

    2015-07-28

    Substantial weakness of the quadriceps muscles is typically observed in patients with arthritis. This is partly due to ongoing neural inhibition that prevents the quadriceps from being fully activated. Evidence from animal studies suggests enhanced flexion reflex excitability may contribute to this weakness. This prospective observational study examined the effects of joint aspiration and intra-articular corticosteroid injection on flexion reflex excitability, quadriceps muscle strength and knee pain in individuals with knee synovitis. Sixteen patients with chronic arthritis and clinically active synovitis of the knee participated in this study. Knee pain flexion reflex threshold, and quadriceps peak torque were measured at baseline, immediately after knee joint aspiration alone and 5 ± 2 and 15 ± 2 days after knee joint aspiration and the injection of 40 mg of methylprednisolone acetate. Compared to baseline, knee pain was significantly reduced 5 (p = 0.001) and 15 days (p = 0.009) post intervention. Flexion reflex threshold increased immediately after joint aspiration (p = 0.009) and 5 (p = 0.01) and 15 days (p = 0.002) post intervention. Quadriceps peak torque increased immediately after joint aspiration (p = 0.004) and 5 (p = 0.001) and 15 days (p knee synovitis.

  12. Joint measurements of spin, operational locality and uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, E.; Barnett, S.M.; Aspect, A.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Joint measurements of non-commuting observables are possible within quantum mechanics, if one accepts an increase in the variances of the jointly measured observables. In this contribution, we discuss joint measurements of spin 1/2 along any two directions. Starting from an operational locality principle, we show how to obtain the known bound on how sharp the joint measurement can be. Operational locality here means, that no operation performed at a quantum system at one location can instantaneously affect a system at another location. The measurement bound is general and is here obtained without reference to any quantum measurement formalism. We find that the bound is formally identical to a Bell inequality of the CHSH type, and we also give a direct interpretation of the measurement bound in terms of an uncertainty relation. A simple way to realise the joint measurement for the case of photon polarization is presented. Further to their fundamental interest, quantum joint measurements of non-commuting observables can be related to state estimation. They are also of interest in quantum information, e.g. as strategies for eavesdropping in quantum cryptography. (author)

  13. Essays on equity joint ventures, uncertainty and experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuypers, I.R.P.

    2009-01-01

    Amidst increasingly global competition during the last decades, we observed a sharp increase in the number of joint ventures. As a result, joint ventures have triggered considerable enthusiasm in recent years among scholars and practitioners. However, studies have shown that most joint ventures fail

  14. [Therapeutic effect observation of chronic knee joint pain assisted with the central-square needling technique of the thumb-tack needles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Qi, Si; Liu, Mengyue; Zhao, Yu; Li, Ning

    2017-10-12

    To compare the differences in the clinical therapeutic effects on chronic knee joint pain between the combination of the central-square needling technique of thumb-tack needles with the routine therapy of acupuncture, moxibustion and tuina and the routine therapy of acupuncture, moxibustion and tuina . One hundred and twenty patients of chronic knee joint pain were randomized into an observation group and a control group, 60 cases in each one. In the control group, the routine therapy of acupuncture, moxibustion and tuina was adopted. In the observation group, at the end of treatment with the routine therapy of acupuncture, moxibustion and tuina , the subcutaneous embedding therapy was followed with four thumb-tack needles at the sites 1 to 1.5 cm above, below and bilateral to the main point ( ashi point) separately, and the needles were retained for 24 h to 48 h. The treatment was given once every two days, three times a week, totally 6 times in two weeks; and the follow-up visit was done for 3 months in patients of the two groups. The visual analogue scale (VAS) score before and after each treatment, Lequesne index score before treatment and at the end of follow-up and the case numbers of proactive use of painkillers or receiving acupuncture treatment in the follow-up stage were compared and observed in the patients of the two groups. The VAS score was reduced gradually after treatment in the patients of the two groups. The differences were significant statistically after the second treatment as compared with those before the treatment in the two groups (all P 0.05). In the follow-up stage, there were 0 case in the observation group and 9 cases in the control group in terms of proactive use of painkillers ( P 0.05). The acupuncture scheme in assistance with the central-square needling technique of thumb-tack needles obviously relieves chronic knee joint pain, much better sustains the analgesic effects of acupuncture and improves patient compliance.

  15. Joint Laxity in Preschool Children Born Preterm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo, Domenico M; Velli, Chiara; Lucibello, Simona; Ferrantini, Gloria; Leo, Giuseppina; Brogna, Claudia; Cota, Francesco; Ricci, Daniela; Gallini, Francesca; Romagnoli, Costantino; Vento, Giovanni; Mercuri, Eugenio

    2018-06-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of joint laxity in children born preterm assessed in the first 2 years, the relationship between joint laxity and motor performance at preschool age, and possible changes over time in a subgroup of children followed longitudinally. The revised scale of Beighton Score was used to evaluate joint laxity in a population of 132 preschool children born preterm between 24 and 32 weeks of gestational age. All were assessed for joint laxity between 12 and 24 months of age. Children also performed the Movement Assessment Battery for Children-Second Edition between the age of 3 years and 6 months and 4 years; the age at onset of independent walking also was recorded. The total Beighton Score ranged between 0 and 8. Twenty percent of the cohort showed joint laxity. No differences related to sex or gestational age were observed. Children born preterm with joint laxity achieved later independent walking and achieved lower scores on Movement Assessment Battery for Children-Second Edition than those without joint laxity. In 76 children born preterm, an assessment for joint laxity was repeated once between 25 and 36 months and again after >36 months. No statistically significant difference was observed between the 3 assessments. The Beighton Score can be used to assess generalized joint laxity in children born preterm. As the presence of joint laxity influenced motor competences, the possibility to early identify these infants in the first 2 years is of interest to benefit from early intervention and potentially improve gross motor skills and coordination. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. ERNE observations of energetic particles associated with Earth-directed coronal mass ejections in April and May, 1997

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Anttila

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available Two Earth-directed coronal mass ejections (CMEs, which were most effective in energetic (~1–50 MeV particle acceleration during the first 18 months since the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO launch, occurred on April 7 and May 12, 1997. In the analysis of these events we have deconvoluted the injection spectrum of energetic protons by using the method described by Anttila et al. In order to apply the method developed earlier for data of a rotating satellite (Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites, GOES, we first had to develop a method to calculate the omnidirectional energetic particle intensities from the observations of Energetic and Relativistic Nuclei and Electrons (ERNE, which is an energetic particle detector onboard the three-axis stabilized SOHO spacecraft. The omnidirectional intensities are calculated by fitting an exponential pitch angle distribution from directional information of energetic protons observed by ERNE. The results of the analysis show that, compared to a much faster and more intensive CMEs observed during the previous solar maximum, the acceleration efficiency decreases fast when the shock propagates outward from the Sun. The particles injected at distances <0.5 AU from the Sun dominate the particle flux during the whole period, when the shock propagates to the site of the spacecraft. The main portion of particles injected by the shock during its propagation further outward from the Sun are trapped around the shock, and are seen as an intensity increase at the time of the shock passage.Key words: Interplanetary physics (interplanetary shocks – Solar physics, astrophysics and astronomy (energetic particles; flares and mass ejections

  17. ERNE observations of energetic particles associated with Earth-directed coronal mass ejections in April and May, 1997

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Anttila

    Full Text Available Two Earth-directed coronal mass ejections (CMEs, which were most effective in energetic (~1–50 MeV particle acceleration during the first 18 months since the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO launch, occurred on April 7 and May 12, 1997. In the analysis of these events we have deconvoluted the injection spectrum of energetic protons by using the method described by Anttila et al. In order to apply the method developed earlier for data of a rotating satellite (Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites, GOES, we first had to develop a method to calculate the omnidirectional energetic particle intensities from the observations of Energetic and Relativistic Nuclei and Electrons (ERNE, which is an energetic particle detector onboard the three-axis stabilized SOHO spacecraft. The omnidirectional intensities are calculated by fitting an exponential pitch angle distribution from directional information of energetic protons observed by ERNE. The results of the analysis show that, compared to a much faster and more intensive CMEs observed during the previous solar maximum, the acceleration efficiency decreases fast when the shock propagates outward from the Sun. The particles injected at distances <0.5 AU from the Sun dominate the particle flux during the whole period, when the shock propagates to the site of the spacecraft. The main portion of particles injected by the shock during its propagation further outward from the Sun are trapped around the shock, and are seen as an intensity increase at the time of the shock passage.

    Key words: Interplanetary physics (interplanetary shocks – Solar physics, astrophysics and astronomy (energetic particles; flares and mass ejections

  18. Intra-observer agreement in single and joint double readings of contrast-enhanced breast MRI screening for women with high genetic breast cancer risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo C

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To examine intra-observer reliability (IR for lesion detection on contrast-enhanced breast magnetic resonance images (MRI for screening women at high risk of breast cancer in single and joint double readings, without case selection. Methods: Contrast-enhanced breast MRIs were interpreted twice by the same independent reader and twice in joint readings. IR was assessed for lesion detection, normal MRI identification, mass, non-mass like enhancements (NMLE and focus characterisation, and BI-RADS assessment. Results: MRI examinations for 124 breasts, 65 women (mean age 43.4y were retrospectively reviewed with 110 lesions identified. Abnormal BIRADS (3-5 classifications were found for 52.3% in single readings and 58.5% in joint readings. Seven biopsies were performed for 4 histologically confirmed cancers. IR for BI-RADS classifications was good for single (0.63, 95% CI: 0.49-0.77, and joint readings (0.77, 95% CI: 0.61-0.93. IR for background parenchymal enhancement (BPE was moderate across single (0.53, 95% CI: 0.40-0.65 and joint readings (0.44, 95% CI: 0.33-0.56. IR for BI-RADS category according to each enhancement was poor for single (0.27, 95% CI: 0.10-0.44, and higher for joint readings, (0.58, 95% CI: 0.43-0.72. Conclusions: IR in BI-RADS breast assessments or BI-RADS lesion assessments are better with joint reading in screening for women with high genetic risks, in particular for abnormal MRI (BI-RADS 3, 4 and 5.

  19. High Time-Resolved Kinetic Temperatures of Solar Wind Minor Ions Measured with SOHO/CELIAS/CTOF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janitzek, N. P.; Berger, L.; Drews, C.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, R. F.

    2017-12-01

    Solar wind heavy ions with an atomic number Z > 2 are referred to as minor ions since they represent a fraction of less than one percent of all solar wind ions. They can be therefore regarded as test particles, only reacting to but not driving the dynamics of the solar wind plasma, which makes them a unique diagnostic tool for plasma wave phenomena both in the solar atmosphere and the extended heliosphere. In the past, several studies have investigated the kinetic temperatures of minor ions, but due to low counting statistics these studies are based on ion velocity distribution functions (VDFs) recorded over time periods of several hours. The Charge Time-Of-Flight (CTOF) mass spectrometer as part of the Charge, ELement and Isotope Analysis System (CELIAS) onboard the SOlar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) provides solar wind heavy ion 1D radial VDFs with excellent charge state separation, an unprecedented cadence of 5 minutes and very high counting statistics, exceeding similar state-of-the-art instruments by a factor of ten. In our study, based on CTOF measurements at Langrangian point L1 between DOY 150 and DOY 220 in 1996, we investigate systematically the influence of the VDF time resolution on the derived kinetic temperatures for solar wind silicon and iron ions. The selected ion set spans a wide range of mass-per-charge from 3 amu/e heavy ions with ion-cyclotron waves.

  20. Determination of the spatial movement of the temporomandibular joints (tmj joint heads in patients with muscle and joint dysfunction according to computed tomography (ct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Аркадий Максимович Боян

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Computed tomography (CT is the one of most objective diagnostic methods of TMJ MJD it allows define amplitudes of joint heads movement in sagittal projections to detect an asymmetry of TMJ elements location.Aim of research. Assessment of location of mandibular joint heads and determination of its spatial position in patients with TMJ MJD before treatment and after it using CT.Materials and methods. 50 patients 28-62 years old, 37 women and 13 men who underwent computed tomography (CT of TMJ were under observation.The results of observation were analyzed in details.The studies were carried out using cone-radial computed tomographic scanner «Vatech Pax uni 3d». CT of TMJ was carried out in habitual occlusion before the start of treatment and after removal of TMJ MJD symptoms and complaints. At the study there were measured the width of joint fissure in front, upper and back segments according to N.A. Rabuhina methodology in N.E. Androsova and so-authors modification. Statistical analysis of the data received was carried out using «Statistics» (Statsoft, Inc program.Results. The results of TMJ CT in patients before the start of treatment demonstrated that the sizes of TMJ joint fissure were different. The width of the upper segment of TMJ joint fissure in patients before the start of treatment was reliably less (≤0,001 comparing with an analogous parameter in the group of patients after treatment that indicates the upper location of mandibular head in TMJ with reducing the height of the lower segment of face.So the data of study of the joint fissure width received using TMJ CT demonstrate formation of specific outlines of joint fissure at displacement of mandible and consequently joint head. Information about the joint fissure parameters allows rationally plan and realize orthopedic treatment and the necessary rehabilitation measures in patients with TMJ MJD.Conclusions. The studies demonstrated that the displacements of mandibular joint

  1. Impact of mechanical heterogeneity on joint density in a welded ignimbrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soden, A. M.; Lunn, R. J.; Shipton, Z. K.

    2016-08-01

    Joints are conduits for groundwater, hydrocarbons and hydrothermal fluids. Robust fluid flow models rely on accurate characterisation of joint networks, in particular joint density. It is generally assumed that the predominant factor controlling joint density in layered stratigraphy is the thickness of the mechanical layer where the joints occur. Mechanical heterogeneity within the layer is considered a lesser influence on joint formation. We analysed the frequency and distribution of joints within a single 12-m thick ignimbrite layer to identify the controls on joint geometry and distribution. The observed joint distribution is not related to the thickness of the ignimbrite layer. Rather, joint initiation, propagation and termination are controlled by the shape, spatial distribution and mechanical properties of fiamme, which are present within the ignimbrite. The observations and analysis presented here demonstrate that models of joint distribution, particularly in thicker layers, that do not fully account for mechanical heterogeneity are likely to underestimate joint density, the spatial variability of joint distribution and the complex joint geometries that result. Consequently, we recommend that characterisation of a layer's compositional and material properties improves predictions of subsurface joint density in rock layers that are mechanically heterogeneous.

  2. Public-Private Partnership: Joint recommendations to improve downloads of large Earth observation data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, R.; Murphy, K. J.; Baynes, K.; Lynnes, C.

    2016-12-01

    With the volume of Earth observation data expanding rapidly, cloud computing is quickly changing the way Earth observation data is processed, analyzed, and visualized. The cloud infrastructure provides the flexibility to scale up to large volumes of data and handle high velocity data streams efficiently. Having freely available Earth observation data collocated on a cloud infrastructure creates opportunities for innovation and value-added data re-use in ways unforeseen by the original data provider. These innovations spur new industries and applications and spawn new scientific pathways that were previously limited due to data volume and computational infrastructure issues. NASA, in collaboration with Amazon, Google, and Microsoft, have jointly developed a set of recommendations to enable efficient transfer of Earth observation data from existing data systems to a cloud computing infrastructure. The purpose of these recommendations is to provide guidelines against which all data providers can evaluate existing data systems and be used to improve any issues uncovered to enable efficient search, access, and use of large volumes of data. Additionally, these guidelines ensure that all cloud providers utilize a common methodology for bulk-downloading data from data providers thus preventing the data providers from building custom capabilities to meet the needs of individual cloud providers. The intent is to share these recommendations with other Federal agencies and organizations that serve Earth observation to enable efficient search, access, and use of large volumes of data. Additionally, the adoption of these recommendations will benefit data users interested in moving large volumes of data from data systems to any other location. These data users include the cloud providers, cloud users such as scientists, and other users working in a high performance computing environment who need to move large volumes of data.

  3. MODULATION OF GALACTIC COSMIC RAYS OBSERVED AT L1 IN SOLAR CYCLE 23

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fludra, A., E-mail: Andrzej.Fludra@stfc.ac.uk [RAL Space, STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell, Didcot OX11 0QX (United Kingdom)

    2015-01-20

    We analyze a unique 15 yr record of galactic cosmic-ray (GCR) measurements made by the SOHO Coronal Diagnostic Spectrometer NIS detectors, recording integrated GCR numbers with energies above 1.0 GeV between 1996 July and 2011 June. We are able to closely reproduce the main features of the SOHO/CDS GCR record using the modulation potential calculated from neutron monitor data by Usoskin et al. The GCR numbers show a clear solar cycle modulation: they decrease by 50% from the 1997 minimum to the 2000 maximum of the solar cycle, then return to the 1997 level in 2007 and continue to rise, in 2009 December reaching a level 25% higher than in 1997. This 25% increase is in contrast with the behavior of Ulysses/KET GCR protons extrapolated to 1 AU in the ecliptic plane, showing the same level in 2008-2009 as in 1997. The GCR numbers are inversely correlated with the tilt angle of the heliospheric current sheet. In particular, the continued increase of SOHO/CDS GCRs from 2007 until 2009 is correlated with the decrease of the minimum tilt angle from 30° in mid-2008 to 5° in late 2009. The GCR level then drops sharply from 2010 January, again consistent with a rapid increase of the tilt angle to over 35°. This shows that the extended 2008 solar minimum was different from the 1997 minimum in terms of the structure of the heliospheric current sheet.

  4. Coronal mass ejection kinematics deduced from white light (Solar Mass Ejection Imager) and radio (Wind/WAVES) observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiner, M. J.; Jackson, B. V.; Webb, D. F.; Mizuno, D. R.; Kaiser, M. L.; Bougeret, J.-L.

    2005-09-01

    White-light and radio observations are combined to deduce the coronal and interplanetary kinematics of a fast coronal mass ejection (CME) that was ejected from the Sun at about 1700 UT on 2 November 2003. The CME, which was associated with an X8.3 solar flare from W56°, was observed by the Mauna Loa and Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) Large-Angle Spectrometric Coronograph (LASCO) coronagraphs to 14 R⊙. The measured plane-of-sky speed of the LASCO CME was 2600 km s-1. To deduce the kinematics of this CME, we use the plane-of-sky white light observations from both the Solar Mass Ejection Imager (SMEI) all-sky camera on board the Coriolis spacecraft and the SOHO/LASCO coronagraph, as well as the frequency drift rate of the low-frequency radio data and the results of the radio direction-finding analysis from the WAVES experiment on the Wind spacecraft. In agreement with the in situ observations for this event, we find that both the white light and radio observations indicate that the CME must have decelerated significantly beginning near the Sun and continuing well into the interplanetary medium. More specifically, by requiring self-consistency of all the available remote and in situ data, together with a simple, but not unreasonable, assumption about the general characteristic of the CME deceleration, we were able to deduce the radial speed and distance time profiles for this CME as it propagated from the Sun to 1 AU. The technique presented here, which is applicable to mutual SMEI/WAVES CME events, is expected to provide a more complete description and better quantitative understanding of how CMEs propagate through interplanetary space, as well as how the radio emissions, generated by propagating CME/shocks, relate to the shock and CME. This understanding can potentially lead to more accurate predictions for the onset times of space weather events, such as those that were observed during this unique period of intense solar activity.

  5. F-35 Joint Strike Fighter: Preliminary Observations on Program Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-23

    current fighter aircraft. The cost of extending the lives of current fighter aircraft and acquiring other major weapon systems, while continuing to... Norway . Ongoing Manufacturing and Reliability Progress Continue Page 12 GAO-16-489T rework, and repair costs have remained steady over...Program Progress Why GAO Did This Study With estimated acquisition costs of nearly $400 billion, the F-35 Joint Strike Fighter—also known as the

  6. Joint dynamics and intra-subject variability during countermovement jumps in children and adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raffalt, Peter C; Alkjær, Tine; Simonsen, Erik B

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated lower limb joint work, lower limb joint energy transport and intra-subject variation of the joint dynamics during countermovement jumps in children and adults. Twelve healthy men and eleven healthy boys performed ten maximal countermovement jumps. Three dimensional...... kinematics and kinetics were recorded in synchrony. Hip, knee and ankle joint eccentric and concentric work, joint energy transfer, intra-subject variation of joint moment, joint power and joint moment components were calculated. The children had lower eccentric and concentric hip work and lower eccentric...... work, hip joint moment and hip and knee joint power. Higher intra-subject variation was observed in horizontal joint reaction force components for the children and higher intra-subject variation in the segment angular inertia components was observed for the adults. The joint dynamics of children during...

  7. Effect of joint design on ballistic performance of quenched and tempered steel welded joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balakrishnan, M.; Balasubramanian, V.; Madhusudhan Reddy, G.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Traditional usage of austenitic stainless steel filler for armour steel welding shows poor ballistic performance. • Earlier efforts show dubious success on ballistic resistance of armour steel joints. • Comparative evaluation of equal/unequal joint design on ballistic performance. • Effect of joint design covers the main aspects of successful bullet stoppage. - Abstract: A study was carried out to evaluate the effect of joint design on ballistic performance of armour grade quenched and tempered steel welded joints. Equal double Vee and unequal double Vee joint configuration were considered in this study. Targets were fabricated using 4 mm thick tungsten carbide hardfaced middle layer; above and below which austenitic stainless steel layers were deposited on both sides of the hardfaced interlayer in both joint configurations. Shielded metal arc welding process was used to deposit for all layers. The fabricated targets were evaluated for its ballistic performance and the results were compared in terms of depth of penetration on weld metal. From the ballistic test results, it was observed that both the targets successfully stopped the bullet penetration at weld center line. Of the two targets, the target made with unequal double Vee joint configuration offered maximum resistance to the bullet penetration at weld metal location without any bulge at the rear side. The higher volume of austenitic stainless steel front layer and the presence of hardfaced interlayer after some depth of soft austenitic stainless steel front layer is the primary reason for the superior ballistic performance of this joint

  8. Cloning and joint measurements of incompatible components of spin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brougham, Thomas; Andersson, Erika; Barnett, Stephen M.

    2006-01-01

    A joint measurement of two observables is a simultaneous measurement of both quantities upon the same quantum system. When two quantum-mechanical observables do not commute, then a joint measurement of these observables cannot be accomplished directly by projective measurements alone. In this paper we shall discuss the use of quantum cloning to perform a joint measurement of two components of spin associated with a qubit system. We introduce cloning schemes which are optimal with respect to this task. The cloning schemes may be thought to work by cloning two components of spin onto their outputs. We compare the proposed cloning machines to existing cloners

  9. Life Estimation of Hip Joint Prosthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, C.; Hirani, H.; Chawla, A.

    2015-07-01

    Hip joint is one of the largest weight-bearing structures in the human body. In the event of a failure of the natural hip joint, it is replaced with an artificial hip joint, known as hip joint prosthesis. The design of hip joint prosthesis must be such so as to resist fatigue failure of hip joint stem as well as bone cement, and minimize wear caused by sliding present between its head and socket. In the present paper an attempt is made to consider both fatigue and wear effects simultaneously in estimating functional-life of the hip joint prosthesis. The finite element modeling of hip joint prosthesis using HyperMesh™ (version 9) has been reported. The static analysis (load due to the dead weight of the body) and dynamic analysis (load due to walking cycle) have been described. Fatigue life is estimated by using the S-N curve of individual materials. To account for progressive wear of hip joint prosthesis, Archard's wear law, modifications in socket geometry and dynamic analysis have been used in a sequential manner. Using such sequential programming reduction in peak stress has been observed with increase in wear. Finally life is estimated on the basis of socket wear.

  10. Influence of Different Hip Joint Centre Locations on Hip and Knee Joint Kinetics and Kinematics During the Squat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinclair Jonathan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Identification of the hip joint centre (HJC is important in the biomechanical examination of human movement. However, there is yet to be any published information regarding the influence of different HJC locations on hip and knee joint kinetics during functional tasks. This study aimed to examine the influence of four different HJC techniques on 3- D hip and knee joint kinetics/kinematics during the squat. Hip and knee joint kinetics/kinematics of the squat were obtained from fifteen male participants using an eight camera motion capture system. The 3-D kinetics/kinematics of the squat were quantified using four hip joint centre estimation techniques. Repeated measures ANOVAs were used to compare the discrete parameters as a function of each HJC location. The results show that significant differences in joint angles and moment parameters were evident at both the hip and knee joint in the coronal and transverse planes. These observations indicate that when calculating non-sagittal joint kinetics/kinematics during the squat, researchers should carefully consider their HJC method as it may significantly affect the interpretation of their data.

  11. The dynamic quiet solar corona: 4 days of joint observing with MDI and EIT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrijver, C. J.; Shine, R. A.; Hurlburt, N. E.; Tarbell, T. D.; Lemen, J. R.

    1997-01-01

    The analysis of a sequence of joint extreme ultraviolet imaging telescope (EIT) Fe XII and Michelson Doppler imager (MDI) magnetogram observations of the quiet sun near disk center is presented. It was found that: all the emerging flux above the threshold of approximately 10(sup 17) Mx is associated with enhanced coronal emissions; loop systems between the polarities in ephemeral regions remain visible up to separations of 10000 up to 30000 km; brightenings between approaching opposite polarity network concentrations form when the concentrations are between 5000 and 25000 km apart, and that faint connections up to 40000 km in length form as sets of concentrations of the same polarity coagulate. The coronal emission over patches of the quiet sun depends on the total flux in connected concentrations, on their distance and on the positions and strengths of neighboring concentrations.

  12. Sensory innervation of the temporomandibular joint in the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreessen, D; Halata, Z; Strasmann, T

    1990-01-01

    The sensory innervation of the temporomandibular joints (TMJs) of 8 STR/IN mice was investigated by means of light and electron microscopy. Through the cutting of complete semithin sections in series it was possible to investigate the joints thoroughly. Additionally, one joint with its nerve supply was reconstructed three-dimensionally with a computerized three-dimensional programme. The reconstruction was based on one complete semithin section series. The joint's nerve supply originates from the nervus auriculotemporalis and additionally from motor branches of the n. mandibularis: n. massetericus, n. pterygoideus lateralis and the nn. temporales posteriores. The greatest number of nerve fibres and endings is located in the dorsolateral part of the joint capsule. They lie only in the stratum fibrosum and subsynovially. Neither the stratum synoviale nor the discus articularis contain any nerve fibres or endings, whereas the peri-articular loose connective tissue is richly innervated. The only type of nerve ending observed within the joint was the free nerve ending, which is assumed to serve not only as a nociceptor but also as a polymodal mechanoreceptor. Merely within the insertion of the musculus pterygoideus lateralis at the collum mandibulae single stretch receptors of the Ruffini type were observed. Ultrastructurally, they correspond to those described in the cat's knee joint. Neither lamellated nor nerve endings of the Golgi or Pacini type were observed in the joint or in the peri-articular connective tissue. The unexpected paucity of nerve fibres and endings in the TMJ itself of the mouse suggests that the afferent information from the joint is less important for position sense and movement than the afferent information from muscles, tendons and periodontal ligaments.

  13. Incudomalleal joint formation: the roles of apoptosis, migration and downregulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matalova Eva

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The middle ear of mammals is composed of three endochondrial ossicles, the stapes, incus and malleus. Joints link the malleus to the incus and the incus to the stapes. In the mouse the first arch derived malleus and incus are formed from a single Sox9 and Type II collagen expressing condensation that later subdivides to give rise to two separate ossicles. In contrast the stapes forms from a separate condensation derived from the second branchial arch. Fusion of the malleus and incus is observed in a number of human syndromes and results in conductive hearing loss. Understanding how this joint forms during normal development is thus an important step in furthering our understanding of such defects. Results We show that the developing incudomalleal joint is characterised by a lack of proliferation and discrete areas of apoptosis. Apoptosis has been suggested to aid in the removal of pre-cartilaginous cells from the joint region, allowing for the physical separation of the cartilaginous elements, however, we show that joint initiation is unaffected by blocking apoptosis. There is also no evidence of cell migration out of the presumptive joint region, as observed by labelling of joint and ossicle cells in culture. Using Type II collagen lacZ reporter mice, however, it is evident that cells in the presumptive joint region remain in place and downregulate cartilage markers. Conclusion The malleus and incus first appear as a single united condensation expressing early cartilage markers. The incudomalleal joint region forms by cells in the presumptive joint region switching off cartilage markers and turning on joint markers. Failure in this process may result in fusion of this joint, as observed in human syndromes such as Branchio-Oto-Renal Syndrome or Treacher Collins Syndrome.

  14. Joint probabilities and quantum cognition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acacio de Barros, J.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the existence of joint probability distributions for quantumlike response computations in the brain. We do so by focusing on a contextual neural-oscillator model shown to reproduce the main features of behavioral stimulus-response theory. We then exhibit a simple example of contextual random variables not having a joint probability distribution, and describe how such variables can be obtained from neural oscillators, but not from a quantum observable algebra.

  15. Joint probabilities and quantum cognition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acacio de Barros, J. [Liberal Studies, 1600 Holloway Ave., San Francisco State University, San Francisco, CA 94132 (United States)

    2012-12-18

    In this paper we discuss the existence of joint probability distributions for quantumlike response computations in the brain. We do so by focusing on a contextual neural-oscillator model shown to reproduce the main features of behavioral stimulus-response theory. We then exhibit a simple example of contextual random variables not having a joint probability distribution, and describe how such variables can be obtained from neural oscillators, but not from a quantum observable algebra.

  16. Altered neuromuscular control and ankle joint kinematics during walking in subjects with functional instability of the ankle joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delahunt, Eamonn; Monaghan, Kenneth; Caulfield, Brian

    2006-12-01

    The ankle joint requires very precise neuromuscular control during the transition from terminal swing to the early stance phase of the gait cycle. Altered ankle joint arthrokinematics and muscular activity have been cited as potential factors that may lead to an inversion sprain during the aforementioned time periods. However, to date, no study has investigated patterns of muscle activity and 3D joint kinematics simultaneously in a group of subjects with functional instability compared with a noninjured control group during these phases of the gait cycle. To compare the patterns of lower limb 3D joint kinematics and electromyographic activity during treadmill walking in a group of subjects with functional instability with those observed in a control group. Controlled laboratory study. Three-dimensional angular velocities and displacements of the hip, knee, and ankle joints, as well as surface electromyography of the rectus femoris, peroneus longus, tibialis anterior, and soleus muscles, were recorded simultaneously while subjects walked on a treadmill at a velocity of 4 km/h. Before heel strike, subjects with functional instability exhibited a decrease in vertical foot-floor clearance (12.62 vs 22.84 mm; P joint before, at, and immediately after heel strike (1.69 degrees , 2.10 degrees , and -0.09 degrees vs -1.43 degrees , -1.43 degrees , and -2.78 degrees , respectively [minus value = eversion]; P < .05) compared with controls. Subjects with functional instability were also observed to have an increase in peroneus longus integral electromyography during the post-heel strike time period (107.91%.millisecond vs 64.53%.millisecond; P < .01). The altered kinematics observed in this study could explain the reason subjects with functional instability experience repeated episodes of ankle inversion injury in situations with only slight or no external provocation. It is hypothesized that the observed increase in peroneus longus activity may be the result of a change in

  17. A DISTANT MIRROR: SOLAR OSCILLATIONS OBSERVED ON NEPTUNE BY THE KEPLER K 2 MISSION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaulme, P.; Jackiewicz, J. [Department of Astronomy, New Mexico State University, P.O. Box 30001, MSC 4500, Las Cruces, NM 88003-8001 (United States); Rowe, J. F. [Institut de recherche sur les exoplanètes, iREx, Département de physique, Université de Montréal, Montréal, QC H3C 3J7 (Canada); Bedding, T. R.; Huber, D. [Sydney Institute for Astronomy (SIfA), School of Physics, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Benomar, O. [Center for Space Science, NYUAD Institute, New York University Abu Dhabi, P.O. Box 129188, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Corsaro, E.; Garcia, R. A. [Laboratoire AIM, CEA/DRF-CNRS, Université Paris 7 Diderot, IRFU/SAp, Centre de Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Davies, G. R. [INAF—Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania, Via S. Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania (Italy); Hale, S. J.; Howe, R. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B152TT (United Kingdom); Jiménez, A. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Mathur, S. [Center for Extrasolar Planetary Systems, Space Science Institute, 4750 Walnut Street, Suite #205, Boulder, CO 80301 (United States); Mosser, B. [LESIA, Observatoire de Paris, PSL Research University, CNRS, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Université Denis Diderot, F-92195 Meudon (France); Appourchaux, T.; Boumier, P.; Leibacher, J., E-mail: gaulme@nmsu.edu [Institut d’Astrophysique Spatiale, Université Paris-Sud and CNRS (UMR 8617), Bâtiment 121, F-91405 Orsay cedex (France); and others

    2016-12-10

    Starting in 2014 December, Kepler K 2 observed Neptune continuously for 49 days at a 1 minute cadence. The goals consisted of studying its atmospheric dynamics, detecting its global acoustic oscillations, and those of the Sun, which we report on here. We present the first indirect detection of solar oscillations in intensity measurements. Beyond the remarkable technical performance, it indicates how Kepler would see a star like the Sun. The result from the global asteroseismic approach, which consists of measuring the oscillation frequency at maximum amplitude ν {sub max} and the mean frequency separation between mode overtones Δ ν , is surprising as the ν {sub max} measured from Neptune photometry is larger than the accepted value. Compared to the usual reference ν {sub max,⊙} = 3100 μ Hz, the asteroseismic scaling relations therefore make the solar mass and radius appear larger by 13.8 ± 5.8% and 4.3 ± 1.9%, respectively. The higher ν {sub max} is caused by a combination of the value of ν {sub max,⊙}, being larger at the time of observations than the usual reference from SOHO /VIRGO/SPM data (3160 ± 10 μ Hz), and the noise level of the K 2 time series, being 10 times larger than VIRGO’s. The peak-bagging method provides more consistent results: despite a low signal-to-noise ratio (S/N), we model 10 overtones for degrees ℓ = 0, 1, 2. We compare the K 2 data with simultaneous SOHO /VIRGO/SPM photometry and BiSON velocity measurements. The individual frequencies, widths, and amplitudes mostly match those from VIRGO and BiSON within 1 σ, except for the few peaks with the lowest S/N.

  18. EIT and SXT Observations of a Quiet Region Filament Ejection: First Eruption, Then Reconnection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, Alphonse C.; Moore, Ronald L.; Thompson, Barbara J.; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We observe a slow-onset quiet-region filament eruption with the EUV Imaging Telescope (EIT) on SOHO, and the Soft X-ray Telescope (SXT) on Yohkoh. This event occurred on 1999 April 18, and was likely the origin of a coronal mass ejection (CME) detected by SOHO at 08:30 UT on that day. In EIT, one-half of the filament shows two stages of evolution: Stage I is a slow, roughly constant upward movement at approx. 1 km per second lasting approximately 6.5 hours, and Stage 2 is a rapid upward eruption at approximately 16 kilometers per second occurring just before the filament disappears into interplanetary space. The other half of the filament shows little motion along the line-of-sight during the time of Stage 1, but erupts along with the rest of the filament during Stage 2. There is no obvious emission from the filament in SXT until Stage 2; at that time an arcade of EUV and soft X-ray loops forms first at the central location of the filament, and then expands outward along the length of the filament channel. A plot of EUV intensity versus time of the central portion of the filament (where the postflare loops initially form) shows a flat profile during Stage 1, and a rapid upturn after the start of Stage 2. This lightcurve is delayed from what would be expected if "tether-cutting" reconnection in the core of the erupting region were responsible for the initiation of the eruption. Rather, these observations suggest that a loss of stability of the magnetic field holding the filament initiates the eruption, with reconnection in the core region occurring only as a byproduct.

  19. A new framework of statistical inferences based on the valid joint sampling distribution of the observed counts in an incomplete contingency table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Guo-Liang; Li, Hui-Qiong

    2017-08-01

    Some existing confidence interval methods and hypothesis testing methods in the analysis of a contingency table with incomplete observations in both margins entirely depend on an underlying assumption that the sampling distribution of the observed counts is a product of independent multinomial/binomial distributions for complete and incomplete counts. However, it can be shown that this independency assumption is incorrect and can result in unreliable conclusions because of the under-estimation of the uncertainty. Therefore, the first objective of this paper is to derive the valid joint sampling distribution of the observed counts in a contingency table with incomplete observations in both margins. The second objective is to provide a new framework for analyzing incomplete contingency tables based on the derived joint sampling distribution of the observed counts by developing a Fisher scoring algorithm to calculate maximum likelihood estimates of parameters of interest, the bootstrap confidence interval methods, and the bootstrap testing hypothesis methods. We compare the differences between the valid sampling distribution and the sampling distribution under the independency assumption. Simulation studies showed that average/expected confidence-interval widths of parameters based on the sampling distribution under the independency assumption are shorter than those based on the new sampling distribution, yielding unrealistic results. A real data set is analyzed to illustrate the application of the new sampling distribution for incomplete contingency tables and the analysis results again confirm the conclusions obtained from the simulation studies.

  20. Galactic cosmic ray spectra during solar cycle 23 and 24. Measurement capabilities of the electron proton helium telescope on board SOHO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuehl, Patrick; Dresing, Nina; Gieseler, Jan; Heber, Bernd; Klassen, Andreas [Christian-Albrechts Universitaet zu Kiel (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The solar modulation of galactic cosmic rays (GCR) can be studied in detail by long term variations of the GCR energy spectrum (e.g. on the scales of a solar cycle). With almost 20 years of data, the Electron Proton Helium INstrument (EPHIN) aboard SOHO is well suited for these kind of investigations. Although the design of the instrument is optimized to measure proton and helium isotope spectra up to 50 MeV/nucleon the capability exist that allow to determine energy spectra above 1.5 GeV/nucleon. Therefore we developed a sophisticated inversion method to calculate such proton spectra. The method relies on a GEANT4 Monte Carlo simulation of the instrument and a simplified spacecraft model that calculates the energy response function of EPHIN for electrons, protons and heavier ions. As a result we present galactic cosmic ray spectra from 1995 to 2015. For validation, the derived spectra are compared to AMS, BESS and PAMELA data. Furthermore we discuss the spectra with respect to the solar modulation.

  1. On the solar origin of interplanetary disturbances observed in the vicinity of the Earth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Vilmer

    Full Text Available The solar origin of 40 interplanetary disturbances observed in the vicinity of the Earth between January 1997 and June 1998 is investigated in this paper. Analysis starts with the establishment of a list of Interplanetary Mass Ejections or ICMEs (magnetic clouds, flux ropes and ejecta and of Interplanetary Shocks measured at WIND for the period for which we had previously investigated the coupling of the interplanetary medium with the terrestrial ionospheric response. A search for associated coronal mass ejections (CMEs observed by LASCO/SOHO is then performed, starting from an estimation of the transit time of the inter-planetary perturbation from the Sun to the Earth, assumed to be achieved at a constant speed (i.e. the speed measured at 1 AU. EIT/SOHO and Nançay Radioheliograph (NRH observations are also used as proxies in this identification for the cases when LASCO observations do not allow one to firmly establish the association. The last part of the analysis concerns the identification of the solar source of the CMEs, performed using a large set of solar observations from X-ray to radio wavelengths. In the present study, this association is based on a careful examination of many data sets (EIT, NRH and H images and not on the use of catalogs and of Solar Geophysical Data reports. An association between inter-planetary disturbances and LASCO/CMEs or proxies on the disk is found for 36 interplanetary events. For 32 events, the solar source of activity can also be identified. A large proportion of cases is found to be associated with a flare signature in an active region, not excluding of course the involvement of a filament. Conclusions are finally drawn on the propagation of the disturbances in the interplanetary medium, the preferential association of disturbances detected close to the Earth’s orbit with halos or wide CMEs and the location on the solar disk of solar sources of the interplanetary disturbances during that period

  2. An analysis of a joint shear model for jointed media with orthogonal joint sets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koteras, J.R.

    1991-10-01

    This report describes a joint shear model used in conjunction with a computational model for jointed media with orthogonal joint sets. The joint shear model allows nonlinear behavior for both joint sets. Because nonlinear behavior is allowed for both joint sets, a great many cases must be considered to fully describe the joint shear behavior of the jointed medium. An extensive set of equations is required to describe the joint shear stress and slip displacements that can occur for all the various cases. This report examines possible methods for simplifying this set of equations so that the model can be implemented efficiently form a computational standpoint. The shear model must be examined carefully to obtain a computationally efficient implementation that does not lead to numerical problems. The application to fractures in rock is discussed. 5 refs., 4 figs

  3. In-situ observation of weld joint of austenitic stainless steel due to helium irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamada, S.; Hojou, K.; Hishinuma, A.

    1992-01-01

    Microstructural evolution during helium ions irradiation in a weld metal containing 10% delta-ferrite of a weld joint of Ti-modified austenitic stainless steel were in-situ observed through a transmission electron microcopy. Very fine helium bubbles were observed in high number density in both a delta ferrite phase and a matrix to a dose of 3 x 10 19 ions·m -2 . Entirely different behavior appeared in both phases with increasing dose. Bubbles in a delta-ferrite phase were readily converted into voids during slight increment of dose, and these rapidly grew with additional increasing of dose. On the other hand, finer bubbles in a matrix were very stable during irradiation and did not grow any more up to 2 x 10 20 ions·m -2 . Swelling became much larger in a delta-ferrite phase than in a fcc matrix phase, resultantly ; This means an inverse phenomenon for conventional results that swelling is smaller in a ferrite phase than in a fcc phase. Sigma phase radiation-enhanced precipitated at the grain boundary between a delta-ferrite phase and a matrix at a dose 9 x 10 19 ions·m -2 . This phase grew in two dimensions with increasing dose. The chemical composition of the sigma phase observed during irradiation showed Cr and Mo enrichment, and Fe and Ni depletion compared with those of a sigma phase thermally produced. (author)

  4. Joint probabilities of noncommuting observables and the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen question in Wiener-Siegel quantum theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warnock, R.L.

    1996-02-01

    Ordinary quantum theory is a statistical theory without an underlying probability space. The Wiener-Siegel theory provides a probability space, defined in terms of the usual wave function and its ''stochastic coordinates''; i.e., projections of its components onto differentials of complex Wiener processes. The usual probabilities of quantum theory emerge as measures of subspaces defined by inequalities on stochastic coordinates. Since each point α of the probability space is assigned values (or arbitrarily small intervals) of all observables, the theory gives a pseudo-classical or ''hidden-variable'' view in which normally forbidden concepts are allowed. Joint probabilities for values of noncommuting variables are well-defined. This paper gives a brief description of the theory, including a new generalization to incorporate spin, and reports the first concrete calculation of a joint probability for noncommuting components of spin of a single particle. Bohm's form of the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen Gedankenexperiment is discussed along the lines of Carlen's paper at this Congress. It would seem that the ''EPR Paradox'' is avoided, since to each α the theory assigns opposite values for spin components of two particles in a singlet state, along any axis. In accordance with Bell's ideas, the price to pay for this attempt at greater theoretical detail is a disagreement with usual quantum predictions. The disagreement is computed and found to be large

  5. Pathology of articular cartilage and synovial membrane from elbow joints with and without degenerative joint disease in domestic cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, M; Meuten, D; Lascelles, D

    2014-09-01

    The elbow joint is one of the feline appendicular joints most commonly and severely affected by degenerative joint disease. The macroscopic and histopathological lesions of the elbow joints of 30 adult cats were evaluated immediately after euthanasia. Macroscopic evidence of degenerative joint disease was found in 22 of 30 cats (39 elbow joints) (73.33% cats; 65% elbow joints), and macroscopic cartilage erosion ranged from mild fibrillation to complete ulceration of the hyaline cartilage with exposure of the subchondral bone. Distribution of the lesions in the cartilage indicated the presence of medial compartment joint disease (most severe lesions located in the medial coronoid process of the ulna and medial humeral epicondyle). Synovitis scores were mild overall and correlated only weakly with macroscopic cartilage damage. Intra-articular osteochondral fragments either free or attached to the synovium were found in 10 joints. Macroscopic or histologic evidence of a fragmented coronoid process was not found even in those cases with intra-articular osteochondral fragments. Lesions observed in these animals are most consistent with synovial osteochondromatosis secondary to degenerative joint disease. The pathogenesis for the medial compartmentalization of these lesions has not been established, but a fragmented medial coronoid process or osteochondritis dissecans does not appear to play a role. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. Clinical synovitis in a particular joint is associated with progression of erosions and joint space narrowing in that same joint, but not in patients initially treated with infliximab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klarenbeek, N B; Güler-Yüksel, M; van der Heijde, D M F M; Hulsmans, H M J; Kerstens, P J S M; Molenaar, T H E; de Sonnaville, P B J; Huizinga, T W J; Dijkmans, B A C; Allaart, C F

    2010-12-01

    To assess the relationship between joint tenderness, swelling and joint damage progression in individual joints and to evaluate the influence of treatment on these relationships. First-year data of the Behandel Strategieën (BeSt) study were used, in which patients recently diagnosed as having rheumatoid arthritis (RA) were randomly assigned into four different treatment strategies. Baseline and 1-year x-rays of the hands and feet were assessed using the Sharp-van der Heijde score (SHS). With generalised estimating equations, 3-monthly assessments of tender and swollen joints of year 1 were related to erosion progression, joint space narrowing (JSN) progression and total SHS progression at the individual joint level (definition > 0.5 SHS units) in year 1, corrected for potential confounders and within-patient correlation for multiple joints per patient. During year 1, 59% of all 13 959 joints analysed were ever tender and 45% ever swollen, 2.1% showed erosion progression, 1.9% JSN progression and 3.6% SHS progression. Swelling and tenderness were both independently associated with erosion and JSN progression with comparable OR, although with higher OR in the hands than in the feet. Local swelling and tenderness were not associated with local damage progression in patients initially treated with infliximab. Clinical signs of synovitis are associated with erosion and JSN progression in individual joints after 1 year in RA. A disconnect between synovitis and joint damage progression was observed at joint level in patients who were treated with methotrexate and infliximab as initial treatment, confirming the disconnect between synovitis and the development of joint damage in tumour necrosis factor blockers seen at patient level.

  7. Elbow joint fatigue and bench-press training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yen-Po; Chou, You-Li; Chen, Feng-Chun; Wang, Rong-Tyai; Huang, Ming-Jer; Chou, Paul Pei-Hsi

    2014-01-01

    Bench-press exercises are among the most common form of training exercise for the upper extremity because they yield a notable improvement in both muscle strength and muscle endurance. The literature contains various investigations into the effects of different bench-press positions on the degree of muscle activation. However, the effects of fatigue on the muscular performance and kinetics of the elbow joint are not understood fully. To investigate the effects of fatigue on the kinetics and myodynamic performance of the elbow joint in bench-press training. Controlled laboratory study. Motion research laboratory. A total of 18 physically healthy male students (age = 19.6 ± 0.8 years, height = 168.7 ± 5.5 cm, mass = 69.6 ± 8.6 kg) participated in the investigation. All participants were right-hand dominant, and none had a history of upper extremity injuries or disorders. Participants performed bench-press training until fatigued. Maximal possible number of repetitions, cycle time, myodynamic decline rate, elbow-joint force, and elbow-joint moment. We observed a difference in cycle time in the initial (2.1 ± 0.42 seconds) and fatigue (2.58 ± 0.46 seconds) stages of the bench-press exercise (P = .04). As the participants fatigued, we observed an increase in the medial-lateral force (P = .03) and internal-external moment (P ≤ .04) acting on the elbow joint. Moreover, a reduction in the elbow muscle strength was observed in the elbow extension-flexion (P ≤ .003) and forearm supination-pronation (P ≤ .001) conditions. The results suggest that performing bench-press exercises to the point of fatigue increases elbow-joint loading and may further increase the risk of injury. Therefore, when clinicians design bench-press exercise regimens for general athletic training, muscle strengthening, or physical rehabilitation, they should control carefully the maximal number of repetitions.

  8. Inter-Observer and Intra-Observer Reliability of Clinical Assessments in Knee Osteoarthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maricar, Nasimah; Callaghan, Michael J; Parkes, Matthew J; Felson, David T; O’Neill, Terence W

    2016-01-01

    Background Clinical examination of the knee is subject to measurement error. The aim of this analysis was to determine inter- and intra-observer reliability of commonly used clinical tests in patients with knee osteoarthritis(OA). Methods We studied subjects with symptomatic knee OA who were participants in an open-label clinical trial of intra-articular steroid therapy. Following standardisation of the clinical test procedures, two clinicians assessed 25 subjects independently at the same visit, and the same clinician assessed 88 subjects over an interval period of 2–10 weeks; in both cases prior to the steroid intervention. Clinical examination included assessment of bony enlargement, crepitus, quadriceps wasting, knee effusion, joint-line and anserine tenderness and knee range of movement(ROM). Intra-class correlation coefficients(ICC), estimated kappa(κ), weighted kappa(κω) and Bland and Altman plots were used to determine inter- and intra-observer levels of agreement. Results Using Landis and Koch criteria, inter-observer kappa scores were moderate for patellofemoral joint(κ=0.53) and anserine tenderness(κ=0.48); good for bony enlargement(κ=0.66), quadriceps wasting(κ=0.78), crepitus(κ=0.78), medial tibiofemoral joint tenderness(κ=0.76), and effusion assessed by ballottement(κ=0.73) and bulge sign(κω =0.78); and excellent for lateral tibiofemoral joint tenderness(κ=1.00), flexion(ICC=0.97) and extension(ICC=0.87) ROM. Intra-observer kappa scores were moderate for lateral tibiofemoral joint tenderness(κ=0.60), good for crepitus(κ=0.78), effusion assessed by ballottement test(κ=0.77), patellofemoral joint(κ=0.66), medial tibiofemoral joint(κ=0.64) and anserine(κ=0.73) tenderness and excellent for effusion assessed by bulge sign(κω =0.83), bony enlargement(κ=0.98), quadriceps wasting(κ=0.83), flexion(ICC=0.99) and extension(ICC=0.96) ROM. Conclusion Among individuals with symptomatic knee OA, the reliability of clinical examination of the

  9. Neutron irradiation test of copper alloy/stainless steel joint materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Hirokazu; Kawamura, Hiroshi

    2006-01-01

    As a study about the joint technology of copper alloy and stainless steel for utilization as cooling piping in International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), Al 2 O 3 -dispersed strengthened copper or CuCrZr was jointed to stainless steel by three kinds of joint methods (casting joint, brazing joint and friction welding method) for the evaluation of the neutron irradiation effect on joints. A neutron irradiation test was performed to three types of joints and each copper alloy. The average value of fast neutron fluence in this irradiation test was about 2 x 10 24 n/m 2 (E>1 MeV), and the irradiation temperature was about 130degC. As post-irradiation examinations, tensile tests, hardness tests and observation of fracture surface after the tensile tests were performed. All type joints changed to be brittle by the neutron irradiation effect like each copper alloy material, and no particular neutron irradiation effect due to the effect of joint process was observed. On the casting and friction welding, hardness of copper alloy near the joint boundary changed to be lower than that of each copper alloy by the effect of joint procedure. However, tensile strength of joints was almost the same as that of each copper alloy before/after neutron irradiation. On the other hand, tensile strength of joints by brazing changed to be much lower than CuAl-25 base material by the effect of joint process before/after neutron irradiation. Results in this study showed that the friction welding method and the casting would be able to apply to the joint method of piping in ITER. This report is based on the final report of the ITER Engineering Design Activities (EDA). (author)

  10. MR diagnosis of temporomandibular joint. A study of joint effusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneda, Takashi; Yamashiro, Mitsuaki; Ozawa, Kaoru; Suzuki, Hiromi; Okada, Hiroyuki; Yamamoto, Hirotsugu

    1998-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to evaluate the relationship between correlation of MR joint effusion of the temporomandibular joint and disk position, to evaluate the relationship between joint effusion and aging, and to assess the frequency of MR joint effusion of bilateral temporomandibular joints. The temporomandibular joints of 192 patients with clinical symptoms of temporomandibular joint disorders were imaged bilaterally using high field, surface-coil MR imaging. Oblique sagittal and coronal proton density-weighted and T2-weighted images were obtained. Imaging findings of joint effusion were correlated with disk position, aging, and bilateral temporomandibular joints. MR showed effusion in 4% of the joints with normal superior disk position, 36% of the joints with disk displacement with reduction, and 45% of the joints with disk displacement without reduction. There were significant differences in the incidence of joint effusion between normal disk position and anterior disk displacement with or without reduction. Younger patients less than 40 years were significant higher the incidence of joint effusion than those of older patients. A significant association was seen between joint effusion and aging. MR showed effusion in 17% of the unilateral temporomandibular joint, 24% of the bilateral temporomandibular joints. There was no significant difference between unilateral and bilateral case. These results indicated that joint effusion using MR imaging was associated with varied temporomandibular joint pathologic states. (author)

  11. Scalable Joint Models for Reliable Uncertainty-Aware Event Prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleimani, Hossein; Hensman, James; Saria, Suchi

    2017-08-21

    Missing data and noisy observations pose significant challenges for reliably predicting events from irregularly sampled multivariate time series (longitudinal) data. Imputation methods, which are typically used for completing the data prior to event prediction, lack a principled mechanism to account for the uncertainty due to missingness. Alternatively, state-of-the-art joint modeling techniques can be used for jointly modeling the longitudinal and event data and compute event probabilities conditioned on the longitudinal observations. These approaches, however, make strong parametric assumptions and do not easily scale to multivariate signals with many observations. Our proposed approach consists of several key innovations. First, we develop a flexible and scalable joint model based upon sparse multiple-output Gaussian processes. Unlike state-of-the-art joint models, the proposed model can explain highly challenging structure including non-Gaussian noise while scaling to large data. Second, we derive an optimal policy for predicting events using the distribution of the event occurrence estimated by the joint model. The derived policy trades-off the cost of a delayed detection versus incorrect assessments and abstains from making decisions when the estimated event probability does not satisfy the derived confidence criteria. Experiments on a large dataset show that the proposed framework significantly outperforms state-of-the-art techniques in event prediction.

  12. Estimativa de imagens solares soho através de redes neurais artificiais

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, M. C.; Fernandes, F. C. R.; Cecatto, J. R.; Rios Neto, A.; Rosa, R. R.; Sawant, H. S.

    2003-08-01

    A Rede Neural Artificial (RNA), no âmbito da teoria computacional, constitui uma teoria emergente que, por possuir habilidade em aprender a partir de dados de entrada, encontra diferentes aplicações em diferentes áreas. Um exemplo é a utilização de RNA na caracterização de padrões associados à dinâmica de processos espaço-temporais relacionados a fenômenos físicos não-lineares. Para obter informações sobre o comportamento destes fenômenos físicos utiliza-se, em diversos casos, seqüências de imagens digitalizadas, onde a caracterização de alguns fenômenos espaço-temporais é o procedimento mais viável para descrever a dinâmica das regiões ativas do Sol. Com base em imagens observadas por telescópios a bordo de satélites, estudos de previsão de eventos solares podem ser programados, permitindo prever possíveis efeitos posteriores nas regiões mais próximas da Terra (tempestades geomagnéticas e irregularidades ionosféricas). Neste trabalho avaliamos o desempenho da RNA para estimar padrões espaço-temporais, ou seja, imagens solares em ultravioleta, obtidas através do telescópio a bordo do satélite SOHO. Os resultados mostraram que as RNA conseguem generalizar os padrões de maneira satisfatória sem perder de forma significativa os principais aspectos da configuração global da atmosfera solar, comprovando a eficácia da RNA como ferramenta para esse tipo de aplicação. Portanto, este trabalho comprova a viabilidade de uso desta ferramenta em projetos voltados ao estudo do comportamento solar, em trabalhos do grupo de Física do Meio Interplanetário (FMI) na DAS e em programas desenvolvidos pelo Núcleo de Simulação e Análise de Sistemas Complexos (NUSASC) do Laboratório Associado de Computação e Matemática Aplicada (LAC) do INPE.

  13. Ka-band waveguide rotary joint

    KAUST Repository

    Yevdokymov, Anatoliy

    2013-04-11

    The authors present a design of a waveguide rotary joint operating in Ka-band with central frequency of 33 GHz, which also acts as an antenna mount. The main unit consists of two flanges with a clearance between them; one of the flanges has three circular choke grooves. Utilisation of three choke grooves allows larger operating clearance. Two prototypes of the rotary joint have been manufactured and experimentally studied. The observed loss is from 0.4 to 0.8 dB in 1.5 GHz band.

  14. MR findings of the temporomandibular joint with crepitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sano, Tsukasa; Yamamoto, Mika; Yamaga, Takayoshi; Takahashi, Koji; Masuda, Saeko; Tagaya, Atsuko; Michi, Ken-ichi; Okano, Tomohiro

    1997-01-01

    Crepitus is an important sign for diagnosis of arthrosis of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). The presence of crepitus can be evaluated by the listening test previously proposed by our group. However, TMJ can be diagnosed by MR imaging showing the disc position and related findings including bony changes and joint effusion. This study investigated the relationship between the presence of crepitus and pathology of the joint. Fourteen joints with crepitus diagnosed by the listening test were examined in this study. TMJ was categorized into four types based on findings on double spin echo MR images. The results were as follows: Of fourteen joints with crepitus, five (36%) were showed as normal superior disc position. The remaining 9 joints (64%) were diagnosed with disc displacement, of which, 6 showed reduction, one was without reduction and 2 without reduction were associated with arthrosis. Statistical analysis using the data obtained here and other data showed that the joints with crepitus tended to show disk displacement. There was no significant difference between the degree of certainty about the presence of the crepitus and the distribution of joint pathology. Joint effusion was observed only in the joints with displacement. These results indicated that TMJ with crepitus is associated with varied joint pathology. (author)

  15. MR findings of the temporomandibular joint with crepitus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sano, Tsukasa; Yamamoto, Mika; Yamaga, Takayoshi; Takahashi, Koji; Masuda, Saeko; Tagaya, Atsuko; Michi, Ken-ichi; Okano, Tomohiro [Showa Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Dentistry

    1997-06-01

    Crepitus is an important sign for diagnosis of arthrosis of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). The presence of crepitus can be evaluated by the listening test previously proposed by our group. However, TMJ can be diagnosed by MR imaging showing the disc position and related findings including bony changes and joint effusion. This study investigated the relationship between the presence of crepitus and pathology of the joint. Fourteen joints with crepitus diagnosed by the listening test were examined in this study. TMJ was categorized into four types based on findings on double spin echo MR images. The results were as follows: Of fourteen joints with crepitus, five (36%) were showed as normal superior disc position. The remaining 9 joints (64%) were diagnosed with disc displacement, of which, 6 showed reduction, one was without reduction and 2 without reduction were associated with arthrosis. Statistical analysis using the data obtained here and other data showed that the joints with crepitus tended to show disk displacement. There was no significant difference between the degree of certainty about the presence of the crepitus and the distribution of joint pathology. Joint effusion was observed only in the joints with displacement. These results indicated that TMJ with crepitus is associated with varied joint pathology. (author)

  16. Coronal mass ejections, type II radio bursts, and solar energetic particle events in the SOHO era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Gopalswamy

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Using the extensive and uniform data on coronal mass ejections (CMEs, solar energetic particle (SEP events, and type II radio bursts during the SOHO era, we discuss how the CME properties such as speed, width and solar-source longitude decide whether CMEs are associated with type II radio bursts and SEP events. We discuss why some radio-quiet CMEs are associated with small SEP events while some radio-loud CMEs are not associated with SEP events. We conclude that either some fast and wide CMEs do not drive shocks or they drive weak shocks that do not produce significant levels of particle acceleration. We also infer that the Alfvén speed in the corona and near-Sun interplanetary medium ranges from <200 km/s to ~1600 km/s. Radio-quiet fast and wide CMEs are also poor SEP producers and the association rate of type II bursts and SEP events steadily increases with CME speed and width (i.e. energy. If we consider western hemispheric CMEs, the SEP association rate increases linearly from ~30% for 800 km/s CMEs to 100% for ≥1800 km/s. Essentially all type II bursts in the decametre-hectometric (DH wavelength range are associated with SEP events once the source location on the Sun is taken into account. This is a significant result for space weather applications, because if a CME originating from the western hemisphere is accompanied by a DH type II burst, there is a high probability that it will produce an SEP event.

  17. Magnetic resonance imaging-based temporomandibular joint space evaluation in temporomandibular disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nah, Kyung Soo [Pusan National Univ. College of Dentistry, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-03-15

    Disc and condylar position were observed on MRIs of temporomandibular joint disorder patients and condylar position agreement between MRI and tranascranal radiography was evaluated. MRI and transcranial radiographs of both TM joints from 67 patients with temporomandibular disorder were used. On MRI, the position and shape of disc and condylar position as anterior, middle, posterior was evaluated at medial, center, and lateral views. On transcranial radiographs, condylar position was evaluated using the shortest distance from condyle to fossa in anterior, superior, and posterior directions. 1. On MRI, 96 joints (71.6%) of 134 had anterior disc dispalcement with reduction and 38 joints (28.4%) without reduction. 2. Fourteen (14.6%) of 96 reducible joints showed anterior condylar position. 19 (19.8%) showed central position, 63 joints (65.6%) showed posterior position. Two joints (5.3%) of 38 non-reducible joints showed anterior condylar position, while 9 (23.7%) showed central position, and 27 (71.1%)-posterior position. 3. In 85 joints (63.4%) of 134, the transcranial condylar position agreed with that of the central MRI view, 10 joints (7.5%) with that of medial, 16 joints (11.6%) with that of lateral, and 23 joints (17.2%) disagreed with that of MRI. On MRI, most of the reducible and non-reducible joints showed posterior condylar position. Transcranial radiographs taken with machine designed for TMJ had better agreement of condylar position with that of MRI. Extremely narrow joint spaces or very posterior condylar positions observed on transcranial radiographs had a little more than fifty percent agreement with those of MRIs.

  18. Utilities/industries joint study on seismic isolation systems for LWR: Part II. Observed behaviors of base-isolated general buildings under real earthquakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumura, Takao; Sato, Shoji; Kato, Muneaki

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the observed behavior of base-isolated buildings under real earthquake conditions. These buildings were constructed by five construction companies participating in the Joint Study on Seismic Isolation Systems for lightwater reactors. All the buildings are medium- or low-height buildings of reinforced-concrete structures with combinations of laminated rubber bearing or sliding bearings and various damping devices

  19. Dependence of the Peak Fluxes of Solar Energetic Particles on CME 3D Parameters from STEREO and SOHO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jinhye; Moon, Y.-J.; Lee, Harim

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the relationships between the peak fluxes of 18 solar energetic particle (SEP) events and associated coronal mass ejection (CME) 3D parameters (speed, angular width, and separation angle) obtained from SOHO , and STEREO-A / B for the period from 2010 August to 2013 June. We apply the STEREO CME Analysis Tool (StereoCAT) to the SEP-associated CMEs to obtain 3D speeds and 3D angular widths. The separation angles are determined as the longitudinal angles between flaring regions and magnetic footpoints of the spacecraft, which are calculated by the assumption of a Parker spiral field. The main results are as follows. (1) We find that the dependence of the SEP peak fluxes on CME 3D speed from multiple spacecraft is similar to that on CME 2D speed. (2) There is a positive correlation between SEP peak flux and 3D angular width from multiple spacecraft, which is much more evident than the relationship between SEP peak flux and 2D angular width. (3) There is a noticeable anti-correlation ( r = −0.62) between SEP peak flux and separation angle. (4) The multiple-regression method between SEP peak fluxes and CME 3D parameters shows that the longitudinal separation angle is the most important parameter, and the CME 3D speed is secondary on SEP peak flux.

  20. Dependence of the Peak Fluxes of Solar Energetic Particles on CME 3D Parameters from STEREO and SOHO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jinhye; Moon, Y.-J. [Department of Astronomy and Space Science, Kyung Hee University, Yongin 17104 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Harim, E-mail: jinhye@khu.ac.kr [School of Space Research, Kyung Hee University, Yongin 17104 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-07-20

    We investigate the relationships between the peak fluxes of 18 solar energetic particle (SEP) events and associated coronal mass ejection (CME) 3D parameters (speed, angular width, and separation angle) obtained from SOHO , and STEREO-A / B for the period from 2010 August to 2013 June. We apply the STEREO CME Analysis Tool (StereoCAT) to the SEP-associated CMEs to obtain 3D speeds and 3D angular widths. The separation angles are determined as the longitudinal angles between flaring regions and magnetic footpoints of the spacecraft, which are calculated by the assumption of a Parker spiral field. The main results are as follows. (1) We find that the dependence of the SEP peak fluxes on CME 3D speed from multiple spacecraft is similar to that on CME 2D speed. (2) There is a positive correlation between SEP peak flux and 3D angular width from multiple spacecraft, which is much more evident than the relationship between SEP peak flux and 2D angular width. (3) There is a noticeable anti-correlation ( r = −0.62) between SEP peak flux and separation angle. (4) The multiple-regression method between SEP peak fluxes and CME 3D parameters shows that the longitudinal separation angle is the most important parameter, and the CME 3D speed is secondary on SEP peak flux.

  1. Development of niobium alloy/stainless steel joint by friction welding, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Taiji; Kawamura, Hiroshi.

    1988-08-01

    The niobium alloy and stainless steel have been jointed by the nicrobrazing method generally. However the strength of the jointed part is weaker than that of the mother material. Therefore we developed the niobium alloy(Nb-1 % Zr)/stainless steel(SUS 304) transition joint by the friction welding method. As the tests for the development. We conducted the mechanical tests (tensile test at room temperature, 300 deg C, 500 deg C and 700 deg C, torsion fatigue test and burst test), metallographical observation and electron prove X-ray microanalysis observation. Those tests proved jointed part by the friction welding had enough properties for general uses. (author)

  2. UV observations of local interstellar medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt, V.; Mironova, E.; Fadeev, E.

    2008-12-01

    The methods of the interstellar matter study are described. The brief information of space missions aimed at observations in the unreachable for ground based telescopes UV spectral range (IUE, As- tron, HST and GALEX.) is presented. The history of discovery of H and He atoms entering the Solar System from the local interstellar medium (LISM) is given in brief. The results of observations performed by the group from Stern- berg Astronomical Institute (SAI MSU) and Space Research Institute (IKI RAS) performed with the help of the missions Prognoz-5, Prognoz-6 and the stations Zond-1, Venera and Mars and aimed at estimation of all basic LISM parameters (the velocity of the Sun in relation to LISM, directions of movement, densities of H and He atoms, LISM temperature) are presented. We also describe the present-day investigations of LISM performed with SOHO and ULYSSES mis- sions including the direct registration of He atoms entering the Solar System. The problem of interaction between the incoming flow of the ISM atoms ("in- terstellar wind") and the area of two shocks at the heliopause border (100-200 AU) is discussed. The LISM parameters obtained using the available data are presented in two tables.

  3. Characteristics of solder joints under fatigue loads using piezomechanical actuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Dong-Jin; Spearing, S. Mark

    2003-07-01

    Crack initiation and growth characteristics of solder joints under fatigue loads are investigated using piezomechanical actuation. Cracks in solder joints, which can cause failure in microelectronics components, are induced via piezoelectricity in piezo-ceramic bonded joints. Lead-zirconate-titanate ceramic plates and eutectic Sn-Pb solder bonded in a double-lap shear configuration are used in the investigation. Electric field across each piezo-ceramic plate is applied such that shear stresses/strains are induced in the solder joints. The experiments show that cracks initiate in the solder joints around defects such as voids and grow in length until they coalesce with other cracks from adjacent voids. These observations are compared with the similar thermal cycling tests from the literature to show feasibility and validity of the current method in investigating the fatigue characteristics of solder joints. In some specimens, cracks in the piezo-ceramic plates are observed, and failure in the specimens generally occurred due to piezo-ceramic plate fracture. The issues encountered in implementing this methodology such as low actuation and high processing temperatures are further discussed.

  4. Reliability of joint count assessment in rheumatoid arthritis: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Peter P; Gossec, Laure; Mak, Anselm; March, Lyn

    2014-06-01

    Joint counts are central to the assessment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) but reliability is an issue. To evaluate the reliability and agreement of joint counts (intra-observer and inter-observer) by health care professionals (physicians, nurses, and metrologists) and patients in RA, and the impact of training and standardization on joint count reliability through a systematic literature review. Articles reporting joint count reliability or agreement in RA in PubMed, EMBase, and the Cochrane library between 1960 and 2012 were selected. Data were extracted regarding tender joint counts (TJCs) and swollen joint counts (SJCs) derived by physicians, metrologists, or patients for intra-observer and inter-observer reliability. In addition, methods and effects of training or standardization were extracted. Statistics expressing reliability such as intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were extracted. Data analysis was primarily descriptive due to high heterogeneity. Twenty-eight studies on health care professionals (HCP) and 20 studies on patients were included. Intra-observer reliability for TJCs and SJCs was good for HCPs and patients (range of ICC: 0.49-0.98). Inter-observer reliability between HCPs for TJCs was higher than for SJCs (range of ICC: 0.64-0.88 vs. 0.29-0.98). Patient inter-observer reliability with HCPs as comparators was better for TJCs (range of ICC: 0.31-0.91) compared to SJCs (0.16-0.64). Nine studies (7 with HCPs and 2 with patients) evaluated consensus or training, with improvement in reliability of TJCs but conflicting evidence for SJCs. Intra- and inter-observer reliability was high for TJCs for HCPs and patients: among all groups, reliability was better for TJCs than SJCs. Inter-observer reliability of SJCs was poorer for patients than HCPs. Data were inconclusive regarding the potential for training to improve SJC reliability. Overall, the results support further evaluation for patient-reported joint counts as an outcome measure. © 2013

  5. Tensile and fatigue properties of weld-bonded and adhesive-bonded magnesium alloy joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, W.; Liu, L.; Zhou, Y.; Mori, H.; Chen, D.L.

    2013-01-01

    The microstructures, tensile and fatigue properties of weld-bonded (WB) AZ31B-H24 Mg/Mg joints with different sizes of bonding area were evaluated and compared with the adhesive-bonded (AB) Mg/Mg joints. Typical equiaxed dendritic structures containing divorced eutectic Mg 17 Al 12 particles formed in the fusion zone of both WB-1 (with a bonding area of 35 mm×35 mm) and WB-0.5 (with a bonding area of 17.5 mm×35 mm) joints. Less solidification shrinkage cracking was observed in the WB-0.5 joints than WB-1 joints. While the WB-0.5 joints exhibited a slightly lower maximum tensile shear stress than the AB-0.5 joints (with a bonding area of 17.5 mm×35 mm), the energy absorption was equivalent. Although the AB-0.5 joints exhibited a higher fatigue resistance at higher cyclic stress levels, both the AB-0.5 and WB-0.5 joints showed an equivalent fatigue resistance at lower cyclic stress levels. A higher fatigue limit was observed in the WB-0.5 joints than in the WB-1 joints owing to the presence of fewer shrinkage pores. Cohesive failure mode along the adhesive layer in conjunction with partial nugget pull-out from the weld was observed at the higher cyclic loads, and fatigue failure occurred in the base metal at the lower cyclic loads

  6. [Self-assembly tissue engineering fibrocartilage model of goat temporomandibular joint disc].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hong; Li, Zhen-Qiang; Bi, Yan-Da

    2011-06-01

    To construct self-assembly fibrocartilage model of goat temporomandibular joint disc and observe the biological characteristics of the self-assembled fibrocartilage constructs, further to provide a basis for tissue engineering of the temporomandibular joint disc and other fibrocartilage. Cells from temporomandibular joint discs of goats were harvested and cultured. 5.5 x 10(6) cells were seeded in each agarose well with diameter 5 mm x depth 10 mm, daily replace of medium, cultured for 2 weeks. One day after seeding, goat temporomandibular joint disc cells in agarose wells were gathered and began to self-assemble into a disc-shaped base, then gradually turned into a round shape. When cultured for 2 weeks, hematoxylin-eosin staining was conducted and observed that cells were round and wrapped around by the matrix. Positive Safranin-O/fast green staining for glycosaminoglycans was observed throughout the entire constructs, and picro-sirius red staining was examined and distribution of numerous type I collagen was found. Immunohistochemistry staining demonstrated brown yellow particles in cytoplasm and around extracellular matrix, which showed self-assembly construct can produce type I collagen as native temporomandibular joint disc tissue. Production of extracellular matrix in self-assembly construct as native temporomandibular joint disc tissue indicates that the use of agarose wells to construct engineered temporomandibular joint disc will be possible and practicable.

  7. Body mass and weight thresholds for increased prosthetic joint infection rates after primary total joint arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lübbeke, Anne; Zingg, Matthieu; Vu, Diemlan; Miozzari, Hermes H; Christofilopoulos, Panayiotis; Uçkay, Ilker; Harbarth, Stephan; Hoffmeyer, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Obesity increases the risk of deep infection after total joint arthroplasty (TJA). Our objective was to determine whether there may be body mass index (BMI) and weight thresholds indicating a higher prosthetic joint infection rate. We included all 9,061 primary hip and knee arthroplasties (mean age 70 years, 61% women) performed between March 1996 and December 2013 where the patient had received intravenous cefuroxime (1.5 g) perioperatively. The main exposures of interest were BMI (5 categories: prosthetic joint infection. The mean follow-up time was 6.5 years (0.5-18 years). 111 prosthetic joint infections were observed: 68 postoperative, 16 hematogenous, and 27 of undetermined cause. Incidence rates were similar in the first 3 BMI categories (infection from the early postoperative period onward (adjusted HR = 2.1, 95% CI: 1.3-3.6). BMI ≥ 35 or weight ≥ 100 kg may serve as a cutoff for higher perioperative dosage of antibiotics.

  8. In Situ SEM Observations of Fracture Behavior of Laser Welded-Brazed Al/Steel Dissimilar Joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Hongbo; Tan, Caiwang; Li, Liqun; Ma, Ninshu

    2018-03-01

    Laser welding-brazing of 6061-T6 aluminum alloy to DP590 dual-phase steel with Al-Si12 flux-cored filler wire was performed. The microstructure at the brazing interface was characterized. Fracture behavior was observed and analyzed by in situ scanning electron microscope. The microstructure of the brazing interface showed that inhomogeneous intermetallic compounds formed along the thickness direction, which had a great influence on the crack initiation and propagation. In the top region, the reaction layer at the interface consisted of scattered needle-like Fe(Al,Si)3 and serration-shaped Fe1.8Al7.2Si. In the middle region, the compound at the interface was only serration-shaped Fe1.8Al7.2Si. In the bottom region, the interface was composed of lamellar-shaped Fe1.8Al7.2Si. The cracks were first detected in the bottom region and propagated from bottom to top along the interface. At the bottom region, the crack initiated and propagated along the Fe1.8Al7.2Si/weld seam interface during the in situ tensile test. When the crack propagated into the middle region, a deflection of crack propagation appeared. The crack first propagated along the steel/Fe1.8Al7.2Si interface and then moved along the weld seam until the failure of the joint. The tensile strength of the joint was 146.5 MPa. Some micro-cracks were detected at Fe(Al,Si)3 and the interface between the steel substrate and Fe(Al,Si)3 in the top region while the interface was still connected.

  9. Leaving a joint audit system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Claus; Thinggaard, Frank

    2014-01-01

    determinants model and an audit fee change model and include interaction terms. Findings: The authors find short-term fee reductions in companies switching to single audits, but only where the former joint audit contained a dominant auditor. The authors argue that in this situation bargaining power is more...... with the auditors than in a equally shared joint audit, and that the auditors' incentives to offer an initial fee discount are bigger. Research limitations/implications: The number of observations is constrained by the small Danish capital market. Future research could take a more qualitative research approach......, to examine whether the use of a single audit firm rather than two has an effect on audit quality. The area calls for further theory development covering audit fee and audit quality in joint audit settings. Practical implications: Comapnies should consider their relationship with their auditors before...

  10. Failed total carpometacarpal joint prosthesis of the thumb

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Torben Bæk; Homilius, Morten

    2010-01-01

    Total joint prosthesis in carpometacarpal joint arthritis of the thumb often fails. Loosening of the implant is often treated by resection arthroplasty, and we reviewed 10 patients, mean age 54 years (range 47-63) who were treated by resection arthroplasty after a failed total joint prosthesis. T...... in eight of 10 patients, but the mean Disabilities of the arm, shoulder, and hand (DASH) scores, self-reported pinch-grip-related function, and pain were comparable with our earlier published results with the Elektra carpometacarpal total joint prosthesis.......Total joint prosthesis in carpometacarpal joint arthritis of the thumb often fails. Loosening of the implant is often treated by resection arthroplasty, and we reviewed 10 patients, mean age 54 years (range 47-63) who were treated by resection arthroplasty after a failed total joint prosthesis....... The male:female ratio was 1:4 and the mean duration of observation 32 months (range 6-52). In three patients the revised implant was a MOJE uncemented carpometacarpal joint prosthesis and in seven patients an Elektra uncemented one. At follow-up grip strength was reduced to less than 90% of the other hand...

  11. Disclosing the temperature of columnar jointing in lavas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamur, Anthony; Lavallée, Yan; Iddon, Fiona E; Hornby, Adrian J; Kendrick, Jackie E; von Aulock, Felix W; Wadsworth, Fabian B

    2018-04-12

    Columnar joints form by cracking during cooling-induced contraction of lava, allowing hydrothermal fluid circulation. A lack of direct observations of their formation has led to ambiguity about the temperature window of jointing and its impact on fluid flow. Here we develop a novel thermo-mechanical experiment to disclose the temperature of columnar jointing in lavas. Using basalts from Eyjafjallajökull volcano (Iceland) we show that contraction during cooling induces stress build-up below the solidus temperature (980 °C), resulting in localised macroscopic failure between 890 and 840 °C. This temperature window for incipient columnar jointing is supported by modelling informed by mechanical testing and thermal expansivity measurements. We demonstrate that columnar jointing takes place well within the solid state of volcanic rocks, and is followed by a nonlinear increase in system permeability of <9 orders of magnitude during cooling. Columnar jointing may promote advective cooling in magmatic-hydrothermal environments and fluid loss during geothermal drilling and thermal stimulation.

  12. Degenerative osteoarthritis of atlanto-odontoid joint: CT findings and clinical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Aide; Wang Song; Mao Yunhua

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze the CT appearances and clinical aspects of the degeneration at atlanto-odontoid(A-O) joint. Methods: Thin section axial CT scans, of AO joints were studied in 317 consecutive patients who underwent brain or cervical spine CT examinations. The images were viewed using double-blind method. Observation included: osteophytosis, changes of joint space and transverse ligament, and the clinical symptoms as well. Results: CT findings of AO joint degeneration included: formation of osteophyte, narrowing of joint space, transverse ligament calcification, and joint vacuum phenomenon. Among individuals above 40 years of age, the incidence of degeneration at AO joint went up gradually (P<0.01). Conclusion: Degeneration of AO joint was not uncommon among aged people, CT could better demonstrate the pathological changes

  13. Protection of welded joints against corrosion degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Votava

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Welded joints form an integral part of steel constructions. Welded joints are undetachable joints, which are however subjects of corrosion processes. The internal energy increases during the fusion welding especially in the heat affected places around the welded joint, which become initiating spot of corrosion degradation.The aim of the experiment is to put a welded joint produced by the MAG method to a test of corrosion degradation under the conditions of the norm ČSN ISO 9227 (salt-spray test. Organic and inorganic anticorrosion protections were applied on welded beads. First of all, there were prepared welded beads using the method MAG; secondly, metallographical analyses of welded metal, heat affected places and base material were processed. Further, microhardness as well as analysis of chemical composition using the EDS microscope were analysed. Based on a current trend in anticorrosion protections, there were chosen three types of protective coatings. First protective system was a double-layer synthetic system, where the base layer is formed by paint Pragroprimer S2000 and the upper layer by finishing paint Industrol S 2013. Second protective system is a duplex system formed by a combination of a base zinc coating with Zinorex paint. The last protective system was formed by zinc dipping only. Corrosion resistance of the individual tested samples was evaluated based on degradation of protective coating. The corrosion origin as well as the corrosion process were observed, the main criteria was the observation of welded bead.

  14. The Ageing Effect of Mechanical Joints on the Tyre/Joint Noises Monitored by a Control Vehicle Method without Traffic Disturbance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. K. Wong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the ageing effect of mechanical joints reflecting from the tyre/joint impacting noise by measuring the vehicle structure-borne noise change. Field data is collected applying two measurement methods suitable for newly installed and existing old expansion joints. The measurement methodology is improved by designing and applying a trailer for equipment installation. The main advantage of this method is not to disturb existing traffic by lane closure for measurement. Field measurements were conducted regularly for a study period up to 16 months after new joint replacement to monitor the variation of the structure-borne noise change inside a test vehicle while passing through mechanical joints. Empirical relationship is developed based on the field data of the roadside airborne noise change and the vehicle structure-borne noise change. The roadside tyre/joint noises could be converted using calibrated empirical formula. Key result findings include the following. (1 The vehicle structure-borne noise change is found smallest during the 3rd–6th months even lower than that measured when a new joint is installed. The structure-borne noise change then keeps increasing afterwards till the end of the study period. (2 Similar observations are found in all study cases incorporating various mechanical joint types and test vehicle types.

  15. Identification of Nonlinear Micron-Level Mechanics for a Precision Deployable Joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, S. J.; Peterson, L. D.

    1994-01-01

    The experimental identification of micron-level nonlinear joint mechanics and dynamics for a pin-clevis joint used in a precision, adaptive, deployable space structure are investigated. The force-state mapping method is used to identify the behavior of the joint under a preload. The results of applying a single tension-compression cycle to the joint under a tensile preload are presented. The observed micron-level behavior is highly nonlinear and involves all six rigid body motion degrees-of-freedom of the joint. it is also suggests that at micron levels of motion modelling of the joint mechanics and dynamics must include the interactions between all internal components, such as the pin, bushings, and the joint node.

  16. Friction stir welding of T joints of dissimilar aluminum alloy: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakare, Shrikant B.; Kalyankar, Vivek D.

    2018-04-01

    Aluminum alloys are preferred in the mechanical design due to their advantages like high strength, good corrosion resistance, low density and good weldability. In various industrial applications T joints configuration of aluminum alloys are used. In different fields, T joints having skin (horizontal sheet) strengthen by stringers (vertical sheets) were used to increase the strength of structure without increasing the weight. T joints are usually carried out by fusion welding which has limitations in joining of aluminum alloy due to significant distortion and metallurgical defects. Some aluminum alloys are even non weldable by fusion welding. The friction stir welding (FSW) has an excellent replacement of conventional fusion welding for T joints. In this article, FSW of T joints is reviewed by considering aluminum alloy and various joint geometries for defect analysis. The previous experiments carried out on T joints shows the factors such as tool geometry, fixturing device and joint configurations plays significant role in defect free joints. It is essential to investigate the material flow during FSW to know joining mechanism and the formation of joint. In this study the defect occurred in the FSW are studied for various joint configurations and parameters. Also the effect of the parameters and defects occurs on the tensile strength are studied. It is concluded that the T-joints of different joint configurations can be pretended successfully. Comparing to base metal some loss in tensile strength was observed in the weldments as well as overall reduction of the hardness in the thermos mechanically affected zone also observed.

  17. Design and analysis of push pipe joint under internal pressure and temperature loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abid, M.; Alam, K.

    2005-01-01

    Pipe joints flanged or welded are commonly used in industry for different applications ranging from sewerage to the high pressure and temperature applications. However, with the rapidly changing technological trends, for optimized space such as for heat exchanger applications, pipe joint design needs special consideration, especially for the internal pipe where no flanged/bolted joint due to space constraint can be used. In addition, where joint opening/closing is the requirement for maintenance or other functional purposes, it becomes inevitable to use some special design. In this paper, a push joint proposed is designed, analyzed, optimized and tested for safe stress and operating conditions. An experimental test rig is designed and tests are performed for internal pressure and temperature separately and joint's behaviour is analyzed in detail for any leaks. FEA results are compared and verified with the mathematical results. Based on the experimental observations, the joint is safe as no leaks are observed. (author)

  18. Radiographic parameters of the hip joint from birth to adolescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Than, P.; Kranicz, J.; Bellyei, A. [Dept. of Orthopaedics, Univ. of Pecs, Medical Faculty, Ifjusag utja (Hungary); Sillinger, T. [Dept. of Orthopaedics, Szt Gyorgy County Hospital, Szekesfehervar (Hungary)

    2004-03-01

    Background: Various qualitative and quantitative radiological geometrical parameters can be of great help when assessing dysplasia of the hip joint and in understanding developmental processes of the infant hip. There are few data on the normal values of the hip joint at different ages. Objective: To perform radiographic measurements on hip joints considered to be anatomically normal and to provide data for each age group, thus describing features of the radiographic development of the hip. Materials and methods: Radiographs were examined from 355 children (age 0-16 years) undergoing examination for scoliosis (long film), urography or plain abdominal radiography. Qualitative and quantitative signs were observed and measured, focusing on the Hilgenreiner, Wiberg and Idelberger angles and the decentric distance. Results: Before the age of 9 years measurable data from neighbouring age groups differed significantly, indicating typical radiological changes of the joint. For the same age range, qualitative changes could also be observed. After 9 years of age, radiological development of the normal hip joint during childhood is much slower. (orig.)

  19. High-frequency data observations from space shuttle main engine low pressure fuel turbopump discharge duct flex joint tripod failure investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoladz, T. F.; Farr, R. A.

    1991-01-01

    Observations made by Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) engineers during their participation in the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) low pressure fuel turbopump discharge duct flex joint tripod failure investigation are summarized. New signal processing techniques used by the Component Assessment Branch and the Induced Environments Branch during the failure investigation are described in detail. Moreover, nonlinear correlations between frequently encountered anomalous frequencies found in SSME dynamic data are discussed. A recommendation is made to continue low pressure fuel (LPF) duct testing through laboratory flow simulations and MSFC-managed technology test bed SSME testing.

  20. Determination of Parachute Joint Factors using Seam and Joint Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollmann, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    This paper details the methodology for determining the joint factor for all parachute components. This method has been successfully implemented on the Capsule Parachute Assembly System (CPAS) for the NASA Orion crew module for use in determining the margin of safety for each component under peak loads. Also discussed are concepts behind the joint factor and what drives the loss of material strength at joints. The joint factor is defined as a "loss in joint strength...relative to the basic material strength" that occurs when "textiles are connected to each other or to metals." During the CPAS engineering development phase, a conservative joint factor of 0.80 was assumed for each parachute component. In order to refine this factor and eliminate excess conservatism, a seam and joint testing program was implemented as part of the structural validation. This method split each of the parachute structural joints into discrete tensile tests designed to duplicate the loading of each joint. Breaking strength data collected from destructive pull testing was then used to calculate the joint factor in the form of an efficiency. Joint efficiency is the percentage of the base material strength that remains after degradation due to sewing or interaction with other components; it is used interchangeably with joint factor in this paper. Parachute materials vary in type-mainly cord, tape, webbing, and cloth -which require different test fixtures and joint sample construction methods. This paper defines guidelines for designing and testing samples based on materials and test goals. Using the test methodology and analysis approach detailed in this paper, the minimum joint factor for each parachute component can be formulated. The joint factors can then be used to calculate the design factor and margin of safety for that component, a critical part of the design verification process.

  1. Temporomandibular joint space in children without joint disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larheim, T.A.

    1981-01-01

    Bilateral assessment of the temporomandibular joint space in children without joint disease is reported. Twenty-eight children were examined with conventional radiography and 23 with tomography. High prevalence of asymmetric joint spaces with both techniques indicated that great care should be taken when using narrowing or widening of the joint space as a diagnostic criterion in children with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. Other signs, such as restricted translation of the mandibular head, and clinical symptoms should be evaluated. (Auth.)

  2. Astroinformation resource of the Ukrainian virtual observatory: Joint observational data archive, scientific tasks, and software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vavilova, I. B.; Pakulyak, L. K.; Shlyapnikov, A. A.; Protsyuk, Yu. I.; Savanevich, V. E.; Andronov, I. L.; Andruk, V. N.; Kondrashova, N. N.; Baklanov, A. V.; Golovin, A. V.; Fedorov, P. N.; Akhmetov, V. S.; Isak, I. I.; Mazhaev, A. E.; Golovnya, V. V.; Virun, N. V.; Zolotukhina, A. V.; Kazantseva, L. V.; Virnina, N. A.; Breus, V. V.; Kashuba, S. G.; Chinarova, L. L.; Kudashkina, L. S.; Epishev, V. P.

    2012-04-01

    The overview of the most important components of the national project - Ukrainian Virtual Observatory (UkrVO) - is presented.Among these components, there is the establishment of a Joint Digital Archive (JDA) of observational data obtained at Ukrainian observatories since 1890, including astronegative's JDA (more than 200 thousand plates). Because of this task requires a VO-oriented software, such issues as software verification of content integrity and JDA administration; compliance of image for mats to IVOA standards; photometric and astrometry calibration of images. Among other developments of local UkrVO software the means of automatic registration of moving celestial objects at the starry sky followed by visual inspection of the results as well as stellar fields image processing software are considered. Research projects that use local UkrVO data archives, namely, an analysis of long observational series of active galactic nuclei, the study of solar flares and solar active regions based on spectral observational archives, research and discovery of variable stars, the study of stellar fields in vicinity gamma-ray bursts are discussed. Particular attention is paid to the CoLiTec program, which allows to increase significantly the number of registered small solar system bodies, and to dis cover new ones, in particular, with the help of this program the comets C/2010 X1 (Elenin) and P/2011 N 01 were discovered in ISON-NM observatory. Development of the UkrVO JDA pro to type is noted which provides access to data bases of MAO NAS of Ukraine, Nikolaev Astronomical Observatory and L'viv Astronomical Observatory.

  3. Leakage flow-induced vibration of an eccentric tube-in-tube slip joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulcahy, T.M.

    1985-08-01

    Eccentricity of a specific slip-joint design separating two cantilevered, telescoping tubes did not create any self-excited lateral vibrations that had not been observed previously for a concentric slip joint. In fact, the eccentricity made instabilities less likely to occur, but only marginally. Most important, design rules previously established to avoid instabilities for the concentric slip joint remain valid for the eccentric slip joint. 6 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs

  4. Hot prominence detected in the core of a coronal mass ejection. II. Analysis of the C III line detected by SOHO/UVCS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jejčič, S.; Susino, R.; Heinzel, P.; Dzifčáková, E.; Bemporad, A.; Anzer, U.

    2017-11-01

    Context. We study the physics of erupting prominences in the core of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and present a continuation of a previous analysis. Aims: We determine the kinetic temperature and microturbulent velocity of an erupting prominence embedded in the core of a CME that occurred on August 2, 2000 using the Ultraviolet Coronagraph and Spectrometer observations (UVCS) on board the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) simultaneously in the hydrogen Lα and C III lines. We develop the non-LTE (departures from the local thermodynamic equilibrium - LTE) spectral diagnostics based on Lα and Lβ measured integrated intensities to derive other physical quantities of the hot erupting prominence. Based on this, we synthesize the C III line intensity to compare it with observations. Methods: Our method is based on non-LTE modeling of eruptive prominences. We used a general non-LTE radiative-transfer code only for optically thin prominence points because optically thick points do not allow the direct determination of the kinetic temperature and microturbulence from the line profiles. The input parameters of the code were the kinetic temperature and microturbulent velocity derived from the Lα and C III line widths, as well as the integrated intensity of the Lα and Lβ lines. The code runs in three loops to compute the radial flow velocity, electron density, and effective thickness as the best fit to the Lα and Lβ integrated intensities within the accuracy defined by the absolute radiometric calibration of UVCS data. Results: We analyzed 39 observational points along the whole erupting prominence because for these points we found a solution for the kinetic temperature and microturbulent velocity. For these points we ran the non-LTE code to determine best-fit models. All models with τ0(Lα) ≤ 0.3 and τ0(C III) ≤ 0.3 were analyzed further, for which we computed the integrated intensity of the C III line using a two-level atom. The best agreement between

  5. Fatigue and thermal fatigue of Pb-Sn solder joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frear, D.; Grivas, D.; McCormack, M.; Tribula, D.; Morris, J.W. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents a fundamental investigation of the fatigue and thermal fatigue characteristics, with an emphasis on the microstructural development during fatigue, of Sn-Pb solder joints. Fatigue tests were performed in simple shear on both 60Sn-40Pb and 5Sn-95Pb solder joints. Isothermal fatigue tests show increasing fatigue life of 60Sn-40Pb solder joints with decreasing strain and temperature. In contrast, such behavior was not observed in the isothermal fatigue of 5Sn-95Pb solder joints. Thermal fatigue results on 60Sn-40Pb solder cycled between -55 0 C and 125 0 C show that a coarsened region develops in the center of the joint. Both Pb-rich and Sn-rich phases coarsen, and cracks form within these coarsened regions. The failure mode 60Sn-40Pb solder joints in thermal and isothermal fatigue is similar: cracks form intergranularly through the Sn-rich phase or along Sn/Pb interphase boundaries. Extensive cracking is found throughout the 5Sn-95Pb joint for both thermal and isothermal fatigue. In thermal fatigue the 5Sn-95Pb solder joints failed after fewer cycles than 60Sn-40Pb

  6. A Slow Streamer Blowout at the Sun and Ulysses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seuss, S. T.; Bemporad, A.; Poletto, G.

    2004-01-01

    On 10 June 2000 a streamer on the southeast limb slowly disappeared from LASCO/C2 over approximately 10 hours. A small CME was reported in C2. A substantial interplanetary CME (ICME) was later detected at Ulysses, which was at quadrature with the Sun and SOHO at the time. This detection illustrates the properties of an ICME for a known solar source and demonstrates that the identification can be done even beyond 3 AU. Slow streamer blowouts such as this have long been known but are little studied. We report on the SOHO observation of a coronal mass ejection (CME) on the solar limb and the subsequent in situ detection at Ulysses, which was near quadrature at the time, above the location of the CME. SOHO-Ulysses quadrature was 13 June, when Ulysses was 3.36 AU from the Sun and 58.2 degrees south of the equator off the east limb. The slow streamer blowout was on 10 June, when the SOHO-Sun-Ulysses angle was 87 degrees.

  7. Kinematics of the lateral ligamentous constraints of the elbow joint

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Bo Sanderhoff; Søjbjerg, Jens Ole; Dalstra, Michel

    1996-01-01

    preventer of elbow joint laxity. The LCLC was observed to be a complex structure of ligamentous fibers rather than discreet bands. The LCLC forms a ligamentous constraint between the lateral humeral epicondyle and the ulna, stabilizing the elbow joint and forming a base for radial head stability...

  8. Joint forces and torques when walking in shallow water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orselli, Maria Isabel Veras; Duarte, Marcos

    2011-04-07

    This study reports for the first time an estimation of the internal net joint forces and torques on adults' lower limbs and pelvis when walking in shallow water, taking into account the drag forces generated by the movement of their bodies in the water and the equivalent data when they walk on land. A force plate and a video camera were used to perform a two-dimensional gait analysis at the sagittal plane of 10 healthy young adults walking at comfortable speeds on land and in water at a chest-high level. We estimated the drag force on each body segment and the joint forces and torques at the ankle, knee, and hip of the right side of their bodies using inverse dynamics. The observed subjects' apparent weight in water was about 35% of their weight on land and they were about 2.7 times slower when walking in water. When the subjects walked in water compared with walking on land, there were no differences in the angular displacements but there was a significant reduction in the joint torques which was related to the water's depth. The greatest reduction was observed for the ankle and then the knee and no reduction was observed for the hip. All joint powers were significantly reduced in water. The compressive and shear joint forces were on average about three times lower during walking in water than on land. These quantitative results substantiate the use of water as a safe environment for practicing low-impact exercises, particularly walking. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Joint Replacement (Finger and Wrist Joints)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... All Topics A-Z Videos Infographics Symptom Picker Anatomy Bones Joints Muscles Nerves Vessels Tendons About Hand Surgery What is a Hand Surgeon? What is a Hand Therapist? Media Find a Hand Surgeon Home Anatomy Joint Replacement Email to a friend * required fields ...

  10. Joint Operation Planning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2006-01-01

    .... It sets forth joint doctrine to govern the joint operation planning activities and performance of the Armed Forces of the United States in joint operations, and provides the joint doctrinal basis...

  11. Jointness for the Rest of Us: Reforming Joint Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    transferred to the Joint Staff. 13 DOD’s instinct to “overly centralize planning, organization, and management.”20 The authors contend that this...2. 3 John F. Schank and others, Who is Joint? Reevaluating the Joint Duty Assignment List : A Study Prepared for the Joint Staff, by the RAND...and code those billets as such. Once identified, DOD must expand the Joint Duty Assignment List (JDAL) to include billets that offer enlisted personnel

  12. Periprosthetic joint infection: are patients with multiple prosthetic joints at risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, S Mehdi; Casper, David S; Restrepo, Camilo; Zmistowski, Benjamin; Parvizi, Javad; Sharkey, Peter F

    2012-06-01

    Patients who present with a periprosthetic joint infection in a single joint may have multiple prosthetic joints. The risk of these patients developing a subsequent infection in another prosthetic joint is unknown. Our purposes were (1) to identify the risk of developing a subsequent infection in another prosthetic joint and (2) to describe the time span and organism profile to the second prosthetic infection. We retrospectively identified 55 patients with periprosthetic joint infection who had another prosthetic joint in place at the time of presentation. Of the 55 patients, 11 (20%) developed a periprosthetic joint infection in a second joint. The type of organism was the same as the first infection in 4 (36%) of 11 patients. The time to developing a second infection averaged 2.0 years (range, 0-6.9 years). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Adaptive observer for the joint estimation of parameters and input for a coupled wave PDE and infinite dimensional ODE system

    KAUST Repository

    Belkhatir, Zehor

    2016-08-05

    This paper deals with joint parameters and input estimation for coupled PDE-ODE system. The system consists of a damped wave equation and an infinite dimensional ODE. This model describes the spatiotemporal hemodynamic response in the brain and the objective is to characterize brain regions using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) data. For this reason, we propose an adaptive estimator and prove the asymptotic convergence of the state, the unknown input and the unknown parameters. The proof is based on a Lyapunov approach combined with a priori identifiability assumptions. The performance of the proposed observer is illustrated through some simulation results.

  14. Design of a Virtual Player for Joint Improvisation with Humans in the Mirror Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Chao; Alderisio, Francesco; Słowiński, Piotr; Tsaneva-Atanasova, Krasimira; di Bernardo, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Joint improvisation is often observed among humans performing joint action tasks. Exploring the underlying cognitive and neural mechanisms behind the emergence of joint improvisation is an open research challenge. This paper investigates jointly improvised movements between two participants in the mirror game, a paradigmatic joint task example. First, experiments involving movement coordination of different dyads of human players are performed in order to build a human benchmark. No designation of leader and follower is given beforehand. We find that joint improvisation is characterized by the lack of a leader and high levels of movement synchronization. Then, a theoretical model is proposed to capture some features of their interaction, and a set of experiments is carried out to test and validate the model ability to reproduce the experimental observations. Furthermore, the model is used to drive a computer avatar able to successfully improvise joint motion with a human participant in real time. Finally, a convergence analysis of the proposed model is carried out to confirm its ability to reproduce joint movements between the participants.

  15. Temporomandibular joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westesson, P.L.; Hatala, M.; Tallents, R.H.; Katzberg, R.W.; Musgrave, M.; Levitt, S.

    1990-01-01

    This paper determines the frequency of MR signs of abnormal temporomandibular joints (TMJs) in asymptomatic volunteers. Forty-two volunteers with 84 clinically normal TMJs were imaged in the sagittal and coronal planes with surface coil MR imaging. Sagittal closed and open and coronal closed views were obtained bilaterally in all volunteers. The images were classified as normal (superior disk position) or abnormal (disk displacement of degenerative joint disease). Eighteen joints in 11 volunteers were abnormal; 12 had disk displacement with reduction and six had disk displacement without reduction, with associated degenerative joint disease in three of the six. Asymptomatic internal derangement and degenerative joint disease occur in about one-fourth of asymptomatic volunteers

  16. Experimental Investigation of the Influence of Joint Geometric Configurations on the Mechanical Properties of Intermittent Jointed Rock Models Under Cyclic Uniaxial Compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Dai, Feng; Fan, Pengxian; Xu, Nuwen; Dong, Lu

    2017-06-01

    Intermittent joints in rock mass are quite sensitive to cyclic loading conditions. Understanding the fatigue mechanical properties of jointed rocks is beneficial for rational design and stability analysis of rock engineering projects. This study experimentally investigated the influences of joint geometry (i.e., dip angle, persistency, density and spacing) on the fatigue mechanism of synthetic jointed rock models. Our results revealed that the stress-strain curve of jointed rock under cyclic loadings is dominated by its curve under monotonic uniaxial loadings; the terminal strain in fatigue curve is equal to the post-peak strain corresponding to the maximum cyclic stress in the monotonic stress-strain curve. The four joint geometrical parameters studied significantly affect the fatigue properties of jointed rocks, including the irreversible strains, the fatigue deformation modulus, the energy evolution, the damage variable and the crack coalescence patterns. The higher the values of the geometrical parameters, the lower the elastic energy stores in this jointed rock, the higher the fatigue damage accumulates in the first few cycles, and the lower the fatigue life. The elastic energy has certain storage limitation, at which the fatigue failure occurs. Two basic micro-cracks, i.e., tensile wing crack and shear crack, are observed in cyclic loading and unloading tests, which are controlled principally by joint dip angle and persistency. In general, shear cracks only occur in the jointed rock with higher dip angle or higher persistency, and the jointed rock is characterized by lower fatigue strength, larger damage variable and lower fatigue life.

  17. Sacroiliac Joint/Sacrum Uptake Ratio Measured by Quantitative Sacroiliac Joint Scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Young Yiul; Park, Seon Yang; Lee, Myung Chul; Choi, Sang Jae; Cho, Bo Youn; Choe, Kang Won; Koh, Chang Soon

    1982-01-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic usefulness and significance of quantitative sacroiliac joint scintigraphy in the assessment of sacroiliitis, we measured Sacroiliac Joint/Sacrum Uptake Ratio (SIS Ratio) by region of interest (ROI) method using 99m Tc-methylene diphosphonate. The observed results were as follows:1) Using ROI method, the SIS ratios for the control group of 65 persons were 1.05±0.08 (left) and 1.06±0.07 (right) which were narrower in range than those of slice method (mean±S.D.) 2) The effects of age, gender and laterality on SIS ratio were not significant. 3) In left side, one of 6 patients with rheumatoid arthritis had SIS ratio in excess of 2 standard deviation of normal control group, and remainder had SIS ratios within normal limit. In right side, 3 patients had SIS ratios in excess of 2 standard deviation of normal control group, and remainder, within normal limit. 4) In both sacroiliac joint, 2 of 3 patients having sacroiliitis clinically with Reiter's syndrome whose pelvis A-P X-ray findings showed normal had high SIS ratios (left/right; 1.31/1.69, 1.90/1.80), but SIS ratio of one patient who bad no evidence of sacroiliitis clinically was within normal limit. 5) In 6 patients with ankylosing spondylitis in both sacroiliac joints, q whose pelvis A-P X-ray findings showed severe sclerotic change of sacroiliac pints had SIS ratio within normal limit or below that of normal control group, and SIS ratios of 2 patients whose pelvis A-P X-ray findings showed were increased. 6) 4 of 5 patients with low back pain of which cause could not be evaluated clinically and radiologically had SIS ratios in excess of that of normal control group. It would be concluded the quantitative sacroiliac joint scintigraphy is useful and sensitive screening method in the diagnosis as well as in the assessment clinical activity of sacroiliitis.

  18. Cloning of observables

    OpenAIRE

    Ferraro, Alessandro; Galbiati, Matteo; Paris, Matteo G. A.

    2005-01-01

    We introduce the concept of cloning for classes of observables and classify cloning machines for qubit systems according to the number of parameters needed to describe the class under investigation. A no-cloning theorem for observables is derived and the connections between cloning of observables and joint measurements of noncommuting observables are elucidated. Relationships with cloning of states and non-demolition measurements are also analyzed.

  19. Tomographic study of temporomandibular joints before orthodontic treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Ki Jeong [Kyung Hee Univ. College of Dentistry, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-12-15

    To determine whether there is a relationship between abnormal temporomandibular joint radiographic findings and age or gender in a sample of preorthodontic patients. Individualized corrected sagittal tomographs of 188 temporomandibular joints in 94 preorthodontic patients, aged 11 to 29 years, were taken and viewed by an observer blinded to clinical records. The study population was divided into 2 aged groups (11-15 years and 16-29 years) for comparative purpose. Temporomandibular joint radiographic findings were classified as normal or abnormal. There was no difference in ratio of abnormal to normal findings between the both aged groups. The frequency of osseous abnormalities was similar with that of abnormalities of condylar position. Abnormalities in CP and JS were most frequent in all aged groups. There is no significant difference between ages or genders for temporomandibular joint radiographic abnormalities.

  20. Grasp cueing and joint attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschentscher, Nadja; Fischer, Martin H

    2008-10-01

    We studied how two different hand posture cues affect joint attention in normal observers. Visual targets appeared over lateralized objects, with different delays after centrally presented hand postures. Attention was cued by either hand direction or the congruency between hand aperture and object size. Participants pressed a button when they detected a target. Direction cues alone facilitated target detection following short delays but aperture cues alone were ineffective. In contrast, when hand postures combined direction and aperture cues, aperture congruency effects without directional congruency effects emerged and persisted, but only for power grips. These results suggest that parallel parameter specification makes joint attention mechanisms exquisitely sensitive to the timing and content of contextual cues.

  1. Bony ankylosis of temporomandibular joint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byeong Do; Yoon, Young Nam; Um, Ki Doo; Ra, Jong Ill; Lee, Wan [School of Dentistry, Wonkwang University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-06-15

    Ankylosis of joint is defined as limited movement due to infection, trauma, or surgical procedure. A 59-year-old female with a chief complaint of limited movements during mouth opening had a positive history of trauma to her right TMJ area about 5 years ago. From that time, progressive mouth opening limitation and intermittent pain have occurred. At the time of admission the patient showed mandibular deviation to the right side during mouth opening, with a maximum opening limited to 5 mm. On plain radiographs, right condylar enlargement and joint space reduction by newly formed bony tissues were observed. CT scans showed right condylar enlargement, cortical sclerosis, and thickening of the condyle, articular fossa and articular eminence.

  2. Determination of brazed joint constitutive law by inverse method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovato, G.; Moret, F.; Gallo, P. le; Cailletaud, G.; Pilvin, P.

    1993-01-01

    An important parameter often neglected for the calculation of residual stresses in brazed ceramic/metal assemblies is the joint constitutive law. In situ camber measurements on a model system (axisymmetric TZM/InCuSil ABA/316L samples) performed using a special vertical dilatometer during the whole brazing thermal cycle are compared with results of FEM calculations based on published filler metal constitutive laws. A strong disagreement is observed. Actual constitutive law of the joint is determined from these measurements using a numerical inverse method. Calculated displacements are fully consistent with experimental ones. True solidification temperature of the joint is determined. The identified constitutive law of the joint exhibits a low flow stress from solidification temperature to 320 C. (orig.)

  3. Joint resistance measurements of pancake and terminal joints for JT-60SA EF coils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obana, Tetsuhiro, E-mail: obana.tetsuhiro@LHD.nifs.ac.jp [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Takahata, Kazuya; Hamaguchi, Shinji; Mito, Toshiyuki; Imagawa, Shinsaku [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Kizu, Kaname; Murakami, Haruyuki; Yoshida, Kiyoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 801-1 Mukoyama, Naka, Ibaraki 311-0193 (Japan)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • To evaluate the joint fabrication technology for the JT-60SA EF coils, joint resistance measurements were conducted with a joint sample. • The joint sample was composed of pancake and terminal joints. • The measurements demonstrated that both joints fulfilled the design requirement. • Considering the measurements, the characteristics of both joints were investigated using an analytical model that represents the joints. -- Abstract: To evaluate the joint fabrication technology for the JT-60SA EF coils, joint resistance measurements were conducted using a sample consisting of pancake and terminal joints. Both joints are shake-hands lap joints composed of cable-in-conduit conductors and a pure copper saddle-shaped spacer. The measurements demonstrated that both joints fulfilled the design requirement. Considering these measurements, the characteristics of both joints were investigated using analytical models that represent the joints. The analyses indicated that the characteristics of the conductors used in the joints affect the characteristics of the joints.

  4. Joint instability and osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blalock, Darryl; Miller, Andrew; Tilley, Michael; Wang, Jinxi

    2015-01-01

    Joint instability creates a clinical and economic burden in the health care system. Injuries and disorders that directly damage the joint structure or lead to joint instability are highly associated with osteoarthritis (OA). Thus, understanding the physiology of joint stability and the mechanisms of joint instability-induced OA is of clinical significance. The first section of this review discusses the structure and function of major joint tissues, including periarticular muscles, which play a significant role in joint stability. Because the knee, ankle, and shoulder joints demonstrate a high incidence of ligament injury and joint instability, the second section summarizes the mechanisms of ligament injury-associated joint instability of these joints. The final section highlights the recent advances in the understanding of the mechanical and biological mechanisms of joint instability-induced OA. These advances may lead to new opportunities for clinical intervention in the prevention and early treatment of OA.

  5. Multi-joint postural behavior in patients with knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcot, Katia; Sagawa, Yoshimasa; Hoffmeyer, Pierre; Suvà, Domizio; Armand, Stéphane

    2015-12-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated balance impairment in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Although it is currently accepted that postural control depends on multi-joint coordination, no study has previously considered this postural strategy in patients suffering from knee OA. The objectives of this study were to investigate the multi-joint postural behavior in patients with knee OA and to evaluate the association with clinical outcomes. Eighty-seven patients with knee OA and twenty-five healthy elderly were recruited to the study. A motion analysis system and two force plates were used to investigate the joint kinematics (trunk and lower body segments), the lower body joint moments, the vertical ground reaction force ratio and the center of pressure (COP) during a quiet standing task. Pain, functional capacity and quality of life status were also recorded. Patients with symptomatic and severe knee OA adopt a more flexed posture at all joint levels in comparison with the control group. A significant difference in the mean ratio was found between groups, showing an asymmetric weight distribution in patients with knee OA. A significant decrease in the COP range in the anterior-posterior direction was also observed in the group of patients. Only small associations were observed between postural impairments and clinical outcomes. This study brings new insights regarding the postural behavior of patients with severe knee OA during a quiet standing task. The results confirm the multi-joint asymmetric posture adopted by this population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Joint Instability and Osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darryl Blalock

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Joint instability creates a clinical and economic burden in the health care system. Injuries and disorders that directly damage the joint structure or lead to joint instability are highly associated with osteoarthritis (OA. Thus, understanding the physiology of joint stability and the mechanisms of joint instability-induced OA is of clinical significance. The first section of this review discusses the structure and function of major joint tissues, including periarticular muscles, which play a significant role in joint stability. Because the knee, ankle, and shoulder joints demonstrate a high incidence of ligament injury and joint instability, the second section summarizes the mechanisms of ligament injury-associated joint instability of these joints. The final section highlights the recent advances in the understanding of the mechanical and biological mechanisms of joint instability-induced OA. These advances may lead to new opportunities for clinical intervention in the prevention and early treatment of OA.

  7. Cloning of observables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferraro, Alessandro; Galbiati, Matteo; Paris, Matteo G A

    2006-01-01

    We introduce the concept of cloning for classes of observables and classify cloning machines for qubit systems according to the number of parameters needed to describe the class under investigation. A no-cloning theorem for observables is derived and the connections between cloning of observables and joint measurements of noncommuting observables are elucidated. Relationships with cloning of states and non-demolition measurements are also analysed. (letter to the editor)

  8. International joint ventures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Karsten Engsig

    2001-01-01

    The article analysis problems connected with corporate joint ventures. Among others the possible conflicts between the joint venture agreement and the statutes of the companies is examined, as well as certain problems connected to the fact that the joint venture partners have created commen control...... over their joint company....

  9. Increasing the Strength of Adhesively Bonded Joints by Tapering the Adherends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GUESS, TOMMY R.; METZINGER, KURT E.

    1999-01-01

    Wind turbine blades are often fabricated with composite materials. These composite blades are frequently attached to a metallic structure with an adhesive bond. For the baseline composite-to-steel joint considered in this study, failure typically occurs when the adhesive debonds from the steel adherend. Previous efforts established that the adhesive peel stresses strongly influence the strength of these joints for both single-cycle and fatigue loading. This study focused on reducing the adhesive peel stresses present in these joints by tapering the steel adherends. Several different tapers were evaluated using finite element analysis before arriving at a final design. To confirm that the selected taper was an improvement to the existing design, the baseline joint and the modified joint were tested in both compression and tension. In these axial tests, the compressive strengths of the joints with tapered adherends were greater than those of the baseline joints for both single-cycle and low-cycle fatigue. In addition, only a minor reduction in tensile strength was observed for the joints with tapered adherends when compared to the baseline joints. Thus, the modification would be expected to enhance the overall performance of this joint

  10. Joint Chiefs of Staff > About > The Joint Staff > Senior Enlisted Advisor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content (Press Enter). Toggle navigation Joint Chiefs of Staff Joint Chiefs of Staff Joint Chiefs of Staff Facebook Twitter YouTube Flickr Blog Instagram Search JCS: Search Search Search JCS: Search Home Media News Photos Videos Publications About The Joint Staff Chairman Vice Chairman

  11. Atraumatic Anterior Dislocation of the Hip Joint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadahiko Ohtsuru

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dislocation of the hip joint in adults is usually caused by high-energy trauma such as road traffic accidents or falls from heights. Posterior dislocation is observed in most cases. However, atraumatic anterior dislocation of the hip joint is extremely rare. We present a case of atraumatic anterior dislocation of the hip joint that was induced by an activity of daily living. The possible causes of this dislocation were anterior capsule insufficiency due to developmental dysplasia of the hip, posterior pelvic tilt following thoracolumbar kyphosis due to vertebral fracture, and acetabular anterior coverage changes by postural factor. Acetabular anterior coverage changes in the sagittal plane were measured using a tomosynthesis imaging system. This system was useful for elucidation of the dislocation mechanism in the present case.

  12. A joint-constraint model for human joints using signed distance-fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engell-Nørregård, Morten Pol; Abel, Sarah Maria Niebe; Erleben, Kenny

    2012-01-01

    We present a local joint-constraint model for a single joint which is based on distance fields. Our model is fast, general, and well suited for modeling human joints. In this work, we take a geometric approach and model the geometry of the boundary of the feasible region, i.e., the boundary of all...... allowed poses. A region of feasible poses can be built by embedding motion captured data points in a signed distance field. The only assumption is that the feasible poses form a single connected set of angular values. We show how signed distance fields can be used to generate fast and general joint......-joint dependencies, or joints with more than three degrees of freedom. The resolution of the joint-constraints can be tweaked individually for each degree of freedom, which can be used to optimize memory usage. We perform a comparative study of the key-properties of various joint-constraint models, as well...

  13. Estimation of Joint types and Joint Limits from Motion capture data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engell-Nørregård, Morten Pol; Erleben, Kenny

    2009-01-01

    It is time-consuming for an animator to explicitly model joint types and joint limits of articulated figures. In this paper we describe a simple and fast approach to automated joint estimation from motion capture data of articulated figures. Our method will make the joint modeling more efficient ...

  14. Coronal Mass Ejections

    CERN Document Server

    Kunow, H; Linker, J. A; Schwenn, R; Steiger, R

    2006-01-01

    It is well known that the Sun gravitationally controls the orbits of planets and minor bodies. Much less known, however, is the domain of plasma fields and charged particles in which the Sun governs a heliosphere out to a distance of about 15 billion kilometers. What forces activates the Sun to maintain this power? Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) and their descendants are the troops serving the Sun during high solar activity periods. This volume offers a comprehensive and integrated overview of our present knowledge and understanding of Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) and their descendants, Interplanetary CMEs (ICMEs). It results from a series of workshops held between 2000 and 2004. An international team of about sixty experimenters involved e.g. in the SOHO, ULYSSES, VOYAGER, PIONEER, HELIOS, WIND, IMP, and ACE missions, ground observers, and theoreticians worked jointly on interpreting the observations and developing new models for CME initiations, development, and interplanetary propagation. The book provides...

  15. Pseudotumor of the Hip due to Fungal Prosthetic Joint Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Artiaco

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pseudotumors associated with total hip arthroplasty have been associated with metal-on-metal and metal-on-polyethylene total hip arthroplasties due to a granulomatous foreign-body reaction to methyl methacrylate, polyethylene, or metal ion release, but they have not been related to prosthetic joint infections. In this paper, we report an unusual case of Candida albicans total hip arthroplasty infection, causing a large inflammatory pseudotumor of the hip joint. Fungal periprosthetic joint infections are a rare clinical entity and difficult to diagnose, and a pseudotumor may be part of their clinical presentation. They should be suspected in immunodeficient host patients when clinical symptoms of prosthetic joint infections are observed.

  16. United States -- Mexican joint ventures: A case history approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, N.L.; Chidester, R.J.; Hughes, K.R.; Fowler, R.A.

    1993-03-01

    Because the Mexican government has encouraged investment in Mexico by increasing the percentage of ownership of a Mexican business that a US company can hold, joint ventures are more attractive now than they had been in the past. This study provides preliminary information for US renewable energy companies who are interested in forming a joint venture with a Mexican company. This report is not intended to be a complete reference but does identifies a number of important factors that should be observed when forming a Mexican joint venture: (1)Successful joint ventures achieve the goals of each partner. (2)It is essential that all parties agree to the allocation of responsibilities. (3)Put everything in writing. (4)Research in depth the country or countries in which you are considering doing business.

  17. Radiologic Analysis and Clinical Study of the Upper One-third Joint Technique for Fluoroscopically Guided Sacroiliac Joint Injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Junghyun; Park, Hue Jung; Moon, Dong Eon; Sa, Gye Jeol; Kim, Young Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Sacroiliac intraarticular injection by the traditional technique can be challenging to perform when the joint is covered with osteophytes or is extremely narrow. To examine whether there is enough space for the needle to be advanced from the L5-S1 interspinous space to the upper one-third sacroiliac joint (SIJ) by magnetic resonance image (MRI) analysis as an alternative to fluoroscopically guided SIJ injection with the lower one-third joint technique, and to determine the feasibility of this novel technique in clinical practice. MRI analysis and observational study. An interventional pain management practice at a university hospital. We analyzed 200 axial T2-weighted MRIs between the L5 and S1 vertebrae of 100 consecutive patients. The following measurements were obtained on both sides: 1) the thickness of fat in the midline; 2) the distance between the midline (Point C) and the junction (Point A) of the skin and the imaginary line that connects the SIJ and the most medial cortex of the ilium; 3) the distance between the midline (Point C) and the junction (Point B) of the skin and the imaginary line that connects the SIJ and the L5 spinous process; 4) the distance between the SIJ and midline (Point C) on the skin, or between the SIJ and the midpoint (Point C') of the line from Point A to Point B; and 5) the angle between the sagittal line and the imaginary line that connects the SIJ and the midline on the skin. The upper one-third joint technique was performed to establish the feasibility of the alternative technique in 20 patients who had unsuccessful sacroiliac intraarticular injections using the lower one-third joint technique. The mean distances from the midline to Point A and to Point B were 21.9 ± 13.7 mm and 27.8 ± 13.6 mm, respectively. The mean distance between the SIJ and Point C (or Point C') was 81.0 ± 13.3 mm. The angle between the sagittal line and the imaginary line that connects the SIJ and the midline on the skin was 42.8 ± 5.1°. The success

  18. Sacroiliac joint pain as an important element of psoriatic arthritis diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczyk-Wasielewska, Agnieszka; Skorupska, Elżbieta; Samborski, Włodzimierz

    2013-04-01

    Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by the coexistence of arthritis with psoriasis of the skin and nails. The sacroiliac joints were observed in 34-78% of patients with psoriatic arthritis. Due to such a high prevalence of SIJ dysfunction, understanding pathophysiology of pain and the associated pain pattern becomes a very important aspect of PsA diagnosis. As far as the etiology of SI joint dysfunction is concerned, it has not been disambiguated yet. Among the main causative factors, injuries and strains of the structures surrounding the joint are noted. Joint pathology usually manifests itself by pain occurring within the area of the joint. The causes of pain may be divided into two categories: intra-articular and extra-articular. Pain caused by the SI joint may be nociceptive or neural in nature, whereas the pain pattern characteristic of the joint correlates with its innervation and is consistent with S2 dorsal rami.

  19. A Study of the Oklahoma City Urban Heat Island Effect Using a WRF/Single-Layer Urban Canopy Model, a Joint Urban 2003 Field Campaign, and MODIS Satellite Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hengyue Zhang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The urban heat island effect (UHI for inner land regions was investigated using satellite data, ground observations, and simulations with an Single-Layer Urban Canopy Parameterization (SLUCP coupled into the regional Weather Research Forecasting model (WRF, http://wrf-model.org/index.php. Specifically, using the satellite-observed surface skin temperatures (Tskin, the intensity of the UHI was first compared for two inland cities (Xi’an City, China, and Oklahoma City (OKC, which have different city populations and building densities. The larger population density and larger building density in Xi’an lead to a stronger skin-level UHI by 2 °C. However, the ground observed 2 m surface air temperature (Tair observations showed an urban cooling island effect (UCI over the downtown region in OKC during the daytime of 19 July 2003, from a DOE field campaign (Joint Urban 2003. To understand this contrast between satellite-based Tskin and ground-based Tair, a sensitivity study using WRF/SLUCP was analyzed. The model reproduced a UCI in OKC. Furthermore, WRF/Noah/SLUCM simulations were also compared with the Joint Urban 2003 ground observations, including wind speeds, wind directions, and energy fluxes. Although the WRF/SLUCM model failed to simulate these variables accurately, it reproduced the diurnal variations of surface temperatures, wind speeds, wind directions, and energy fluxes reasonably well.

  20. Is early osteoarthritis associated with differences in joint congruence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conconi, Michele; Halilaj, Eni; Parenti Castelli, Vincenzo; Crisco, Joseph J

    2014-12-18

    Previous studies suggest that osteoarthritis (OA) is related to abnormal or excessive articular contact stress. The peak pressure resulting from an applied load is determined by many factors, among which is shape and relative position and orientation of the articulating surfaces or, referring to a more common nomenclature, joint congruence. It has been hypothesized that anatomical differences may be among the causes of OA. Individuals with less congruent joints would likely develop higher peak pressure and thus would be more exposed to the risk of OA onset. The aim of this work was to determine if the congruence of the first carpometacarpal (CMC) joint differs with the early onset of OA or with sex, as the female population has a higher incidence of OA. 59 without and 38 with early OA were CT-scanned with their dominant or arthritic hand in a neutral configuration. The proposed measure of joint congruence is both shape and size dependent. The correlation of joint congruence with pathology and sex was analyzed both before and after normalization for joint size. We found a significant correlation between joint congruence and sex due to the sex-related differences in size. The observed correlation disappeared after normalization. Although joint congruence increased with size, it did not correlate significantly with the onset of early OA. Differences in joint congruence in this population may not be a primary cause of OA onset or predisposition, at least for the CMC joint. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Critical joints in large composite aircraft structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, W. D.; Bunin, B. L.; Hart-Smith, L. J.

    1983-01-01

    A program was conducted at Douglas Aircraft Company to develop the technology for critical structural joints of composite wing structure that meets design requirements for a 1990 commercial transport aircraft. The prime objective of the program was to demonstrate the ability to reliably predict the strength of large bolted composite joints. Ancillary testing of 180 specimens generated data on strength and load-deflection characteristics which provided input to the joint analysis. Load-sharing between fasteners in multirow bolted joints was computed by the nonlinear analysis program A4EJ. This program was used to predict strengths of 20 additional large subcomponents representing strips from a wing root chordwise splice. In most cases, the predictions were accurate to within a few percent of the test results. In some cases, the observed mode of failure was different than anticipated. The highlight of the subcomponent testing was the consistent ability to achieve gross-section failure strains close to 0.005. That represents a considerable improvement over the state of the art.

  2. Strength and Failure Mechanism of Composite-Steel Adhesive Bond Single Lap Joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Wei

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon fiber-reinforced plastics- (CFRP- steel single lap joints with regard to tensile loading with two levels of adhesives and four levels of overlap lengths were experimentally analyzed and numerically simulated. Both joint strength and failure mechanism were found to be highly dependent on adhesive type and overlap length. Joints with 7779 structural adhesive were more ductile and produced about 2-3 kN higher failure load than MA830 structural adhesive. Failure load with the two adhesives increased about 147 N and 176 N, respectively, with increasing 1 mm of the overlap length. Cohesion failure was observed in both types of adhesive joints. As the overlap length increased, interface failure appeared solely on the edge of the overlap in 7779 adhesive joints. Finite element analysis (FEA results revealed that peel and shear stress distributions were nonuniform, which were less severe as overlap length increased. Severe stress concentration was observed on the overlap edge, and shear failure of the adhesive was the main reason for the adhesive failure.

  3. Optimized bolt tightening strategies for gasketed flanged pipe joints of different sizes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abid, Muhammad; Khan, Ayesha; Nash, David Hugh; Hussain, Masroor; Wajid, Hafiz Abdul

    2016-01-01

    Achieving a proper preload in the bolts of a gasketed bolted flanged pipe joint during joint assembly is considered important for its optimized performance. This paper presents results of detailed non-linear finite element analysis of an optimized bolt tightening strategy of different joint sizes for achieving proper preload close to the target stress values. Industrial guidelines are considered for applying recommended target stress values with TCM (torque control method) and SCM (stretch control method) using a customized optimization algorithm. Different joint components performance is observed and discussed in detail.

  4. Epi-Soho Pilotproject; Das Epi-Soho Pilotprojekt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinz, E.; Enseling, A. [Inst. Wohnen und Umwelt GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    EPI-SoHo is a project within the framework of the European 'Intelligent Energy - Europe' Programme (IEE). The EPI-SoHo mission is to improve efficient and rational use of energy across social housing stocks, contributing to better standards of living and global environ-mental benefits. The EPI-SoHo objectives are to develop the structure for generic implementation techniques for cost effective, large scale energy performance assessments, for the integration of energy efficiency within social housing portfolio management and collaborative structures between local authorities, social housing associations and private actors on sustainable issues. (orig.)

  5. Transarticular invasion of bone tumours across the sacroiliac joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chhaya, S.; White, L.M.; Kandel, R.; Wunder, J.S.; Ferguson, P.; Agur, A.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the pattern of tumour spread across the SI articulation, correlating with cadaveric anatomic observations, in order to better understand the local spread of tumour and to assist in the assessment of local staging. Twenty-four consecutive patients (14 male, 10 female; age range 22-89 years, mean 52 years) with primary bone tumours of the iliac bone or sacrum abutting the SI joint, in whom surgical resection of the SI joint was performed, were studied following institutional ethics approval. In all patients, preoperative magnetic resonance (MR) imaging studies of the pelvis and SI joint were reviewed for imaging evidence of transarticular extension across the SI joint. Gross pathologic and histologic assessment of possible transarticular SI joint tumour extension was performed in all patients. Nine cadaveric pelvic specimens without pelvic neoplastic disease (4 male, 5 female; age range 20-84 years, mean 59 years, median 58 years) were anatomically dissected and the articular anatomy of the SI joint examined macroscopically. Twelve of the twenty-four patients demonstrated imaging and histological evidence of transarticular SI joint invasion. Eight tumours infiltrated only the interosseous ligamentous aspect of the SI joint. In the remaining four cases, extensive tumour infiltrated both the cartilaginous and ligamentous aspects of the joint. No case showed tumour involvement isolated to the cartilaginous aspect of the joint. Among the cadaveric specimens studied, degenerative changes were found involving the majority of cases (6/9), with cartilage thinning and fibrillation and antero-superior marginal osteophytes seen involving the cartilaginous portion of the SI joint articulation. Four of the nine specimens demonstrated central ossification bridging the iliac and sacral aspects of the ligamentous (interosseous) SI joint. (orig.)

  6. Transarticular invasion of bone tumours across the sacroiliac joint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chhaya, S. [University of Toronto, Department of Medical Imaging, Mount Sinai Hospital and the University Health Network, Toronto (Canada); University of Texas Health Science Centre, Department of Radiology, San Antonio, TX (United States); White, L.M. [University of Toronto, Department of Medical Imaging, Mount Sinai Hospital and the University Health Network, Toronto (Canada); Kandel, R. [University of Toronto, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto (Canada); Wunder, J.S.; Ferguson, P. [Univeristy of Toronto, University Musculoskeletal Oncology Unit, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto (Canada); Agur, A. [University of Toronto, Division of Anatomy, Department of Surgery, Toronto (Canada)

    2005-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the pattern of tumour spread across the SI articulation, correlating with cadaveric anatomic observations, in order to better understand the local spread of tumour and to assist in the assessment of local staging. Twenty-four consecutive patients (14 male, 10 female; age range 22-89 years, mean 52 years) with primary bone tumours of the iliac bone or sacrum abutting the SI joint, in whom surgical resection of the SI joint was performed, were studied following institutional ethics approval. In all patients, preoperative magnetic resonance (MR) imaging studies of the pelvis and SI joint were reviewed for imaging evidence of transarticular extension across the SI joint. Gross pathologic and histologic assessment of possible transarticular SI joint tumour extension was performed in all patients. Nine cadaveric pelvic specimens without pelvic neoplastic disease (4 male, 5 female; age range 20-84 years, mean 59 years, median 58 years) were anatomically dissected and the articular anatomy of the SI joint examined macroscopically. Twelve of the twenty-four patients demonstrated imaging and histological evidence of transarticular SI joint invasion. Eight tumours infiltrated only the interosseous ligamentous aspect of the SI joint. In the remaining four cases, extensive tumour infiltrated both the cartilaginous and ligamentous aspects of the joint. No case showed tumour involvement isolated to the cartilaginous aspect of the joint. Among the cadaveric specimens studied, degenerative changes were found involving the majority of cases (6/9), with cartilage thinning and fibrillation and antero-superior marginal osteophytes seen involving the cartilaginous portion of the SI joint articulation. Four of the nine specimens demonstrated central ossification bridging the iliac and sacral aspects of the ligamentous (interosseous) SI joint. (orig.)

  7. Sports Activity Following Cementless Metaphyseal Hip Joint Arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Czech Szymon

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available An adequate level of physical activity has a substantial effect on both mental and physical human health. Physical activity is largely dependent on the function of the musculoskeletal and articular system. One of the most frequent diseases of this system is degenerative joint disease. Due to the changing and more demanding lifestyles and patients’ willingness to be involved in sports activity, the expectations of hip joint arthroplasty are becoming increasingly high. Alleviating pain ceases to be the only reason for which patients choose surgical interventions, while the expectations often include involvement in various sports. Only few studies contain recommendations concerning the frequency, type and intensity of sports activity which are acceptable after hip joint arthroplasty. The aim of the study was to evaluate function and physical activity of people following cementless short-stem hip joint arthroplasty in the observation of at least five years. The study group comprised 106 patients who underwent total hip arthroplasty due to degenerative joint diseases, chosen according to inclusion criteria. Patients underwent routine physical examinations following the Harris Hip Score protocol, responded to the UCLA scale and questionnaires concerning pre-surgical and current physical activity. Our results demonstrated that hip joint arthroplasty in people suffering from degenerative joint diseases has a beneficial effect on their level of functioning and physical activity. Although physical activity and the level of functioning obviously reduced as a person aged, the level of physical activity continued to be very high in both groups, with function of the hip joint evaluated as very good.

  8. Sports Activity Following Cementless Metaphyseal Hip Joint Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czech, Szymon; Hermanson, Jacek; Rodak, Piotr; Stołtny, Tomasz; Rodak, Łukasz; Kasperczyk, Sławomir; Koczy, Bogdan; Mielnik, Michał

    2017-12-01

    An adequate level of physical activity has a substantial effect on both mental and physical human health. Physical activity is largely dependent on the function of the musculoskeletal and articular system. One of the most frequent diseases of this system is degenerative joint disease. Due to the changing and more demanding lifestyles and patients' willingness to be involved in sports activity, the expectations of hip joint arthroplasty are becoming increasingly high. Alleviating pain ceases to be the only reason for which patients choose surgical interventions, while the expectations often include involvement in various sports. Only few studies contain recommendations concerning the frequency, type and intensity of sports activity which are acceptable after hip joint arthroplasty. The aim of the study was to evaluate function and physical activity of people following cementless short-stem hip joint arthroplasty in the observation of at least five years. The study group comprised 106 patients who underwent total hip arthroplasty due to degenerative joint diseases, chosen according to inclusion criteria. Patients underwent routine physical examinations following the Harris Hip Score protocol, responded to the UCLA scale and questionnaires concerning pre-surgical and current physical activity. Our results demonstrated that hip joint arthroplasty in people suffering from degenerative joint diseases has a beneficial effect on their level of functioning and physical activity. Although physical activity and the level of functioning obviously reduced as a person aged, the level of physical activity continued to be very high in both groups, with function of the hip joint evaluated as very good.

  9. Biomechanics of unilateral and bilateral sacroiliac joint stabilization: laboratory investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Derek P; Parrish, Robin; Gundanna, Mukund; Leasure, Jeremi; Yerby, Scott A; Kondrashov, Dimitriy

    2018-03-01

    OBJECTIVE Bilateral symptoms have been reported in 8%-35% of patients with sacroiliac (SI) joint dysfunction. Stabilization of a single SI joint may significantly alter the stresses on the contralateral SI joint. If the contralateral SI joint stresses are significantly increased, degeneration may occur; alternatively, if the stresses are significantly reduced, bilateral stabilization may be unnecessary for patients with bilateral symptoms. The biomechanical effects of 1) unilateral stabilization on the contralateral SI joint and 2) bilateral stabilization on both SI joints are currently unknown. The objectives of this study were to characterize bilateral SI joint range of motion (ROM) and evaluate and compare the biomechanical effects of unilateral and bilateral implant placement for SI joint fusion. METHODS A lumbopelvic model (L5-pelvis) was used to test the ROM of both SI joints in 8 cadavers. A single-leg stance setup was used to load the lumbar spine and measure the ROM of each SI joint in flexion-extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation. Both joints were tested 1) while intact, 2) after unilateral stabilization, and 3) after bilateral stabilization. Stabilization consisted of lateral transiliac placement of 3 triangular titanium plasma-sprayed (TPS) implants. RESULTS Intact testing showed that during single-leg stance the contralateral SI joint had less ROM in flexion-extension (27%), lateral bending (32%), and axial rotation (69%) than the loaded joint. Unilateral stabilization resulted in significant reduction of flexion-extension ROM (46%) on the treated side; no significant ROM changes were observed for the nontreated side. Bilateral stabilization resulted in significant reduction of flexion-extension ROM of the primary (45%) and secondary (75%) SI joints. CONCLUSIONS This study demonstrated that during single-leg loading the ROMs for the stance (loaded) and swing (unloaded) SI joints are significantly different. Unilateral stabilization for SI

  10. Helioseismic inferences of the solar cycles 23 and 24: GOLF and VIRGO observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salabert, D.; García, R. A.; Jiménez, A.

    2014-12-01

    The Sun-as-a star helioseismic spectrophotometer GOLF and photometer VIRGO instruments onboard the SoHO spacecraft are collecting high-quality, continuous data since April 1996. We analyze here these unique datasets in order to investigate the peculiar and weak on-going solar cycle 24. As this cycle 24 is reaching its maximum, we compare its rising phase with the rising phase of the previous solar cycle 23.

  11. Reliability of Tubular Joints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    In this paper the preliminary results obtained by tests on tubular joints are presented. The joints are T-joints and the loading is static. It is the intention in continuation of these tests to perform tests on other types of joints (e.g. Y-joints) and also with dynamic loading. The purpose...... of the test is partly to obtain empirical data for the ultimate load-carrying capacity of tubular T-joints and partly to obtain some experience in performing tests with tubular joints. It is well known that tubular joints are usually designed in offshore engineering on the basis of empirical formulas obtained...... by experimental test results. Therefore, there is a need for performing experimental tests in this area....

  12. Creep simulation of adhesively bonded joints using modified generalized time hardening model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadigh, Mohammad Ali Saeimi [Azarbaijan Shahid Madani University, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    Creep behavior of double lap adhesively bonded joints was investigated using experimental tests and numerical analysis. Firstly, uniaxial creep tests were carried out to obtain the creep characteristics and constitutive parameters of the adhesive at different stress and temperature levels. Generalized time hardening model was used to predict the creep behavior of the adhesive. This model was modified to simulate the creep behavior at different stress and temperature levels. Secondly, the developed model was used to simulate the creep behavior of bonded joints using finite element based numerical analysis. Creep deformations of the joints were measured experimentally and good agreement was observed in comparison with the results obtained using numerical simulation. Afterward, stress redistribution due to the creep along the adhesively bonded joint was obtained numerically. It was observed that temperature level had a significant effect on the stress redistribution along the adhesive thickness.

  13. Material constitutive model for jointed rock mass behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, R.K.

    1980-11-01

    A material constitutive model is presented for jointed rock masses which exhibit preferred planes of weakness. This model is intended for use in finite element computations. The immediate application is the thermomechanical modelling of a nuclear waste repository in hard rock, but the model seems appropriate for a variety of other static and dynamic geotechnical problems as well. Starting with the finite element representations of a two-dimensional elastic body, joint planes are introduced in an explicit manner by direct modification of the material stiffness matrix. A novel feature of this approach is that joint set orientations, lengths and spacings are readily assigned through the sampling of a population distribution statistically determined from field measurement data. The result is that the fracture characteristics of the formations have the same statistical distribution in the model as is observed in the field. As a demonstration of the jointed rock mass model, numerical results are presented for the example problem of stress concentration at an underground opening

  14. Multinuclide digital subtraction imaging in symptomatic prostnetic joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chafetz, N.; Hattner, R.S.; Ruarke, W.C.; Helms, C.A.; Genant, H.K.; Murray, W.R.

    1985-01-01

    One hundred eleven patients with symptomatic prosthetic joints (86 hips, 23 knees, and two shoulders) were evaluated for prosthetic loosening and infection by combined technetium-99m-MDP/gallium-67 digital subtraction imaging. Clinical correlation was based on the assessment of loosening and bacterial cultures obtained at the time of surgery in 54 patients, joint aspiration cultures obtained in 37 patients, and long-term clinical follow-up for greater than 1.5 years in an additional 15 patients. Results revealed an 80-90% predictive value of a positive test for loosening, and a 95% predictive value of a negative test for infection. However, because of the low sensitivities and specificities observed, this approach to the evaluation of symptomatic prosthetic joints does not seem cost effective

  15. Effect of welding processes on the impression creep resistance of type 316 LN stainless steel weld joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasudevan, M.; Vasantharaja, P.; Sisira, P.; Divya, K.; Ganesh Sundara Raman, S.

    2016-01-01

    Type 316 LN stainless steel is the major structural material used in the construction of fast breeder reactors. Activated Tungsten Inert Gas (A-TIG) welding , a variant of the TIG welding process has been found to enhance the depth of penetration significantly during autogenous welding and also found to enhance the creep rupture life in stainless steels. The present study aims at comparing the effect of TIG and A-TIG welding processes on the impression creep resistance of type 316 LN stainless steel base metal, fusion zone and heat affected zone (HAZ) of weld joints. Optical and TEM have been used to correlate the microstructures with the observed creep rates of various zones of the weld joints. Finer microstructure and higher ferrite content was observed in the TIG weld joint fusion zone. Coarser grain structure was observed in the HAZ of the weld joints. Impression creep rate of A-TIG weld joint fusion zone was almost equal to that of the base metal and lower than that of the TIG weld joint fusion zone. A-TIG weld joint HAZ was found to have lower creep rate compared to that of conventional TIG weld joint HAZ due to higher grain size. HAZ of the both the weld joints exhibited lower creep rate than the base metal. (author)

  16. Minimum joint space width (mJSW) of patellofemoral joint on standing ''skyline'' radiographs: test-retest reproducibility and comparison with quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (qMRI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simoni, Paolo; Jamali, Sanaa; Alvarez Miezentseva, Victoria; Albert, Adelin; Totterman, Saara; Schreyer, Edward; Tamez-Pena, Jose G.; Zobel, Bruno Beomonte; Gillet, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    To assess the intraobserver, interobserver, and test-retest reproducibility of minimum joint space width (mJSW) measurement of medial and lateral patellofemoral joints on standing ''skyline'' radiographs and to compare the mJSW of the patellofemoral joint to the mean cartilage thickness calculated by quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (qMRI). A couple of standing ''skyline'' radiographs of the patellofemoral joints and MRI of 55 knees of 28 volunteers (18 females, ten males, mean age, 48.5 ± 16.2 years) were obtained on the same day. The mJSW of the patellofemoral joint was manually measured and Kellgren and Lawrence grade (KLG) was independently assessed by two observers. The mJSW was compared to the mean cartilage thickness of patellofemoral joint calculated by qMRI. mJSW of the medial and lateral patellofemoral joint showed an excellent intraobserver agreement (interclass correlation (ICC) = 0.94 and 0.96), interobserver agreement (ICC = 0.90 and 0.95) and test-retest agreement (ICC = 0.92 and 0.96). The mJSW measured on radiographs was correlated to mean cartilage thickness calculated by qMRI (r = 0.71, p < 0.0001 for the medial PFJ and r = 0.81, p < 0.0001 for the lateral PFJ). However, there was a lack of concordance between radiographs and qMRI for extreme values of joint width and KLG. Radiographs yielded higher joint space measures than qMRI in knees with a normal joint space, while qMRI yielded higher joint space measures than radiographs in knees with joint space narrowing and higher KLG. Standing ''skyline'' radiographs are a reproducible tool for measuring the mJSW of the patellofemoral joint. The mJSW of the patellofemoral joint on radiographs are correlated with, but not concordant with, qMRI measurements. (orig.)

  17. The effect of controlled shot peening on fusion welded joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lah, Nur Azida Che; Ali, Aidy; Ismail, Napsiah; Chai, Lim Poon; Mohamed, Abdul Aziz

    2010-01-01

    This work examines the effect of controlled shot peening (CSP) treatment on the fatigue strength of an ASTM A516 grade 70 carbon steel welded joint. Metallurgical modifications, hardness, elemental compositions, and internal discontinuities, such as porosity, inclusions, lack of penetration, and undercut found in treated and untreated fusion welded joints, were characterized. The fatigue results of as-welded and peened skimmed joints were compared. It was observed that the effect of the CSP and skimming processes improved the fatigue life of the fusion weld by 50% on MMA-welded, 63% on MIG-welded, and 60% on TIG-welded samples.

  18. Running in ostriches (Struthio camelus): three-dimensional joint axes alignment and joint kinematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubenson, Jonas; Lloyd, David G; Besier, Thor F; Heliams, Denham B; Fournier, Paul A

    2007-07-01

    Although locomotor kinematics in walking and running birds have been examined in studies exploring many biological aspects of bipedalism, these studies have been largely limited to two-dimensional analyses. Incorporating a five-segment, 17 degree-of-freedom (d.f.) kinematic model of the ostrich hind limb developed from anatomical specimens, we quantified the three-dimensional (3-D) joint axis alignment and joint kinematics during running (at approximately 3.3 m s(-1)) in the largest avian biped, the ostrich. Our analysis revealed that the majority of the segment motion during running in the ostrich occurs in flexion/extension. Importantly, however, the alignment of the average flexion/extension helical axes of the knee and ankle are rotated externally to the direction of travel (37 degrees and 21 degrees , respectively) so that pure flexion and extension at the knee will act to adduct and adbuct the tibiotarsus relative to the plane of movement, and pure flexion and extension at the ankle will act to abduct and adduct the tarsometatarsus relative to the plane of movement. This feature of the limb anatomy appears to provide the major lateral (non-sagittal) displacement of the lower limb necessary for steering the swinging limb clear of the stance limb and replaces what would otherwise require greater adduction/abduction and/or internal/external rotation, allowing for less complex joints, musculoskeletal geometry and neuromuscular control. Significant rotation about the joints' non-flexion/extension axes nevertheless occurs over the running stride. In particular, hip abduction and knee internal/external and varus/valgus motion may further facilitate limb clearance during the swing phase, and substantial non-flexion/extension movement at the knee is also observed during stance. Measurement of 3-D segment and joint motion in birds will be aided by the use of functionally determined axes of rotation rather than assumed axes, proving important when interpreting the

  19. The tensile strength of mechanical joint prototype of lontar fiber composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bale, Jefri; Adoe, Dominggus G. H.; Boimau, Kristomus; Sakera, Thomas

    2018-03-01

    In the present study, an experimental activity has been programmed to investigate the effect of joint prototype configuration on tensile strength of lontar (Borassus Flabellifer) fiber composite. To do so, a series of tests were conducted to establish the tensile strength of different joint prototype configuration specimen of lontar fiber composite. In addition, post observation of macroscope was used to map damage behavior. The analysis of lontar fiber composite is a challenge since the material has limited information than others natural fiber composites materials. The results shown that, under static tensile loading, the tensile strength of 13 MPa produced by single lap joint of lontar fiber composite is highest compare to 11 MPa of tensile strength generated by step lap joint and double lap joint where produced the lowest tensile strength of 6 MPa. It is concluded that the differences of tensile strength depend on the geometric dimensions of the cross-sectional area and stress distribution of each joint prototype configuration.

  20. A Cadaveric Study on Sacroiliac Joint Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yu-Cong; Li, Yi-Kai; Yu, Cheng-Fu; Yang, Xian-Wen; Chen, Run-Qi

    2015-01-01

    The scope of this study was to explore the possibility as well as the feasibility of sacroiliac joint injection following simple X-ray clip location. For the cadaveric study, 10 fixed sacroiliac joint (SIJ) sectional specimens, 4 dried cadaveric pelvises and 21 embalmed adult cadaveric pelvises were dissected, followed by an injection of contrast agent into the joint. The irrigation of the agent was observed through CT scanning. For the radiologic study, 188 CT scans of ankylosing spondylitis patients (143 male, 45 female) were collected from 2010 to 2012, in Nanfang Hospital. What was measured was (1) Distance between the posterior midline and sagittal synovium; (2) Length of the sagittal synovium; (3) Distance between the midpoint of the sagittal synovium and posterior superior iliac spine; and (4) Distance between the superficial skin vertical to the sagittal synovium point were measured. For the practice-based study: 20 patients (17 males and 3 females) with early ankylosing spondylitis, from Nanfang Hospital affiliated with Southern Medical University were recruited, and sacroiliac joint unguided injections were done on the basis of the cadaveric and radiologic study. Only the inferior 1/3rd portion parallel to the posterior midline could be injected into since the superior 2/3rd portion were filled with interosseous ligaments. Thirteen of the 20 patients received successful injections as identified by CT scan using the contrast agent. Sacroiliac joint injection following simple X-ray clip location is possible and feasible if the operation is performed by trained physicians familiar with the sacroiliac joint and its surrounding anatomic structures. PMID:25692437

  1. Autologous Fat Transfer for Thumb Carpometacarpal Joint Osteoarthritis: A Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herold, Christian; Rennekampff, Hans-Oliver; Groddeck, Robert; Allert, Sixtus

    2017-08-01

    Most operations for carpometacarpal joint osteoarthritis of the thumb irreversibly alter or destroy the anatomy. There is a high demand for minimally invasive alternatives. The authors report the results of autologous fat transfer for treatment of thumb carpometacarpal joint osteoarthritis. In a prospective study, 50 patients with thumb carpometacarpal joint osteoarthritis were observed for 1 year after autologous fat transfer. Manual liposuction and centrifugation were performed. Pain rating according to visual analogue pain scale; objective force of pinch grip and fist closure; and Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand questionnaire scores before and after treatment were analyzed. The average pain in stage 2 patients preoperatively was 7.7 ± 1.3; it was 1.8 ± 1.9 after 6 months and 2.4 ± 3.1 after 12 months. Patients with stage 2 osteoarthritis demonstrated a superior benefit from this treatment compared with patients with either stage 3 or stage 4 thumb carpometacarpal joint osteoarthritis. There were similar improvements for the parameters strength and Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand questionnaire score. No serious adverse events were observed. Autologous fat transplantation is an appealing alternative, especially in early-stage basal joint osteoarthritis of the thumb. The low invasiveness of the procedure and early recovery of patients compared with classical procedures such as trapeziectomy, and the superior long-term results compared with classical injection therapy, make this approach feasible as a first-line therapy in early-stage basal joint osteoarthritis of the thumb. Therapeutic, IV.

  2. Electrochemical heterogeneity and corrosion resistance of a welded titanium-zirconium joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polyakov, S.G.; Goncharov, A.B.; Onoprienko, L.M.; Smiyan, O.D.

    1992-01-01

    The electrochemical behavior and corrosion resistance of various welded joints of zirconium alloy N-2.5 with commercial titanium VT1 made by the argon-arc method are studied. Electrochemical heterogeneity is studied by measuring the distribution of potentials over the surface, galvanic currents, and recording of polarization curves for different zones of a welded joint in 5% sulfuric acid solution at 340 K. It is established that electrochemical heterogeneity of the zones of an N-2.5 + VT1 welded joint leads to acceleration of the cathodic process in a welded joint and the anodic process along the fusion line from the titanium direction where the greatest hydrogenation of the metal and corrosion damage is correspondingly observed

  3. Does generalized joint hypermobility predict joint injury in sport? A review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Donaldson, Peter R

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether persons with generalized joint hypermobility have an increased risk of lower limb joint injury during sport. DATA SOURCES: PubMed, CINAHL, EMBASE, and SportDiscus were searched through February 2009, without language restrictions, using terms related to risk; hip, ankle, and knee injuries; and joint instability. Reference lists of included studies and relevant reviews were searched by hand. STUDY SELECTION: Selection criteria were peer-reviewed studies with a prospective design that used an objective scale to measure generalized joint hypermobility; the participants were engaged in sport activity, and the injury data were quantitative and based on diagnosis by a health professional, were self-reported, or resulted in time lost to athletic participation. The studies were screened by 1 researcher and checked by a second. Study methods were independently assessed by 2 investigators using the 6-point scale for prognostic studies developed by Pengel. Disagreements were resolved through discussion. Of 4841 studies identified, 18 met inclusion criteria. Of these, 8 were included in random-effects meta-analyses. DATA EXTRACTION: The data extracted by 2 reviewers included participant and sport characteristics and details of joint hypermobility and injury measurements. More detailed data for 4 investigations were obtained from the study authors. Where possible, hypermobility was defined as >\\/=4 of 9 points on the British Society of Rheumatology Scale (BSRS). MAIN RESULTS: Lower limb joint injuries (3 studies, 1047 participants) occurred in 14% of participants. Using the BSRS of joint hypermobility, any lower limb injury was not associated with hypermobility [odds ratio (OR), 1.43; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.56-3.67]. Using the original authors\\' definitions, hypermobility was associated with risk of knee joint injuries (OR, 2.62; 95% CI, 1.04-6.58) in 5 studies. In 4 studies in which the BSRS could be used (1167 participants; incidence

  4. Microstructure of friction stir welded joints of 2017A aluminium alloy sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mroczka, K; Dutkiewicz, J; Pietras, A

    2010-03-01

    The present study examines a friction stir welded 2017A aluminium alloy. Transmission electron microscope investigations of the weld nugget revealed the average grain size of 5 microm, moderate density of dislocations as well as the presence of nanometric precipitates located mostly in grains interiors. Scanning electron microscope observations of fractures showed the presence of ductile fracture in the region of the weld nugget with brittle precipitates in the lower part. The microhardness analysis performed on the cross-section of the joints showed fairly small changes; however, after the artificial ageing process an increase in hardness was observed. The change of the joint hardness subject to the ageing process indicates partial supersaturation in the material during friction stir welding and higher precipitation hardening of the joint.

  5. New aspects of radionuclide therapy of bone and joint diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, M.

    2001-01-01

    Whereas in developing countries P-32 is widely used for radionuclide therapy of painful bone metastases, in Europe three radionuclides or radiopharmaceutical agents are available for pain palliation: Sr-89, Sm-153-EDTMP, and Re-186-HEDP. Radionuclide therapy for pain palliation is indicated for bone pain due to metastatic malignancy that has involved multiple skeletal sites and has evoked an osteoblastic response on bone scintigraphy. Response rates of about 70-80% in patients with breast or prostate cancer is reported in the literature, less in metastatic lesions of other primary malignancies. Sm-153-EDTMP may also be used for curative treatment of primary bone tumours or their metastases. Radiosynovectomy as therapeutic procedure or rheumatoid arthritis, other inflammatory joint diseases, persistent synovial perfusion, and other joint diseases is widely used. Using Y-90 for the knee joint, Re-186 for middle sized joints, and Er-169 for small joints an improvement of symptoms may be observed in about 70-80%. (author)

  6. Lateral collateral ligament of the elbow joint

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Bo Sanderhoff; Vaesel, M T; Søjbjerg, Jens Ole

    1996-01-01

    The structure and kinematics of the lateral collateral ligament of the elbow joint were investigated in 10 cadaveric specimens. The lateral collateral ligament was observed to be a distinct part of the lateral collateral ligament complex. It contains posterior fibers that pass through the annular....... Division of the posterolateral capsule caused no further laxity. Cutting the lateral collateral ligament induced a maximum laxity of 11.8 degrees at 110 degrees of flexion in forced varus and a maximum laxity of 20.6 degrees at 110 degrees of flexion in forced external rotation. The corresponding maximal...... posterior radial head translation was observed at 80 degrees to 100 degrees of flexion and was 5.7 mm in forced varus and 8.1 mm in forced external rotation. This study suggests the lateral collateral ligament to be an important stabilizer of the humeroulnar joint and the radial head in forced varus...

  7. A computational model for three-dimensional jointed media with a single joint set

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koteras, J.R.

    1994-02-01

    This report describes a three-dimensional model for jointed rock or other media with a single set of joints. The joint set consists of evenly spaced joint planes. The normal joint response is nonlinear elastic and is based on a rational polynomial. Joint shear stress is treated as being linear elastic in the shear stress versus slip displacement before attaining a critical stress level governed by a Mohr-Coulomb faction criterion. The three-dimensional model represents an extension of a two-dimensional, multi-joint model that has been in use for several years. Although most of the concepts in the two-dimensional model translate in a straightforward manner to three dimensions, the concept of slip on the joint planes becomes more complex in three dimensions. While slip in two dimensions can be treated as a scalar quantity, it must be treated as a vector in the joint plane in three dimensions. For the three-dimensional model proposed here, the slip direction is assumed to be the direction of maximum principal strain in the joint plane. Five test problems are presented to verify the correctness of the computational implementation of the model

  8. The effects of welded joint characteristics on its properties in HDPE thermal fusion welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Hongbin; Peng, Jun

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, PE100 pipes with the diameter of 200 mm and the thickness of 11.9 mm were used as material. The welded joints were obtained in different welding pressures with the optimal welding temperature of 220∘C. Reheating process on the welded joints with the temperature of 130∘C was carried out. The joints exhibited X-type, and the cause of X-type joints was discussed. The temperature field in the forming process of welded joints was measured, and tensile and bending tests on welded joints were carried out. The fracture surface of welded joints was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and crystallinity calculation was taken by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The mechanism of X-type weld profile effects on welded joints properties was analyzed. It was concluded that the mechanical properties of welded joints decrease with the reduced X distance between lines.

  9. A Modelling Method of Bolt Joints Based on Basic Characteristic Parameters of Joint Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuansheng, Li; Guangpeng, Zhang; Zhen, Zhang; Ping, Wang

    2018-02-01

    Bolt joints are common in machine tools and have a direct impact on the overall performance of the tools. Therefore, the understanding of bolt joint characteristics is essential for improving machine design and assembly. Firstly, According to the experimental data obtained from the experiment, the stiffness curve formula was fitted. Secondly, a finite element model of unit bolt joints such as bolt flange joints, bolt head joints, and thread joints was constructed, and lastly the stiffness parameters of joint surfaces were implemented in the model by the secondary development of ABAQUS. The finite element model of the bolt joint established by this method can simulate the contact state very well.

  10. Dialysis-related amyloidosis of the hip joints in long-term hemodialysis patients. MRI findings of hip joints in twelve female hemodialysis patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Hitoe; Shibuya, Asuka; Ando, Minoru; Akiba, Takashi; Nitta, Kosaku

    2007-01-01

    We report a female with amyloid arthropathy of the hip joints. She was a 67-year-old woman who had been treated by hemodialysis for 22 years. She had demonstrated a 5-month history of continuous low-grade fever and pain in her left hip and she was finally unable to walk by herself. Findings on X-ray films and MRI of the hip joints suggested avascular necrosis in both femur heads. To palliate symptoms, bipolar surgery on the left hip joint was performed. Pathological examination of bone tissue specimen demonstrated that there was some , β 2 -microglobulin (β 2 -MG)-related amyloid accumulation in the femur head. Based on this clinical experience, we performed MRI screening for amyloid lesions of the hip joints in another 11 asymptomatic female patients undergoing hemodialysis for 20 years or more. Cystic lesions of the hip joints were observed in 8 patients, amyloid arthropathy in 2 patients, and fluid trapped in the joint in 1 patient. Patients with amyloidosis had significantly lower serum β 2 -MG levels than patients without amyloidosis (28.6 mg/L versus 41.4 mg/L; p=0.0339). Our findings show that dialysis-related amyloidosis of the hip joints is one of the potential and significant problems in female patients on long-term hemodialysis therapy. It may be important to screen for this pathological condition in long-term hemodialysis patients. (author)

  11. Joint ventures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Karsten Engsig

    Afhandlingen analysere de konkurrenceretlige og selskabsretlige regler som er bestemmende for hvordan et joint venture samarbejde er struktureret......Afhandlingen analysere de konkurrenceretlige og selskabsretlige regler som er bestemmende for hvordan et joint venture samarbejde er struktureret...

  12. A STUDY ON OSTEOARTHRITIS OF KNEE JOINT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayyappan Nair

    2016-09-01

    Clinical Examination the symptoms that was found highest in frequency was tenderness in one ninety six cases, Limitation of joint movements in one hundred seventy three cases, crepitus in twenty five cases and gross deformation in fifteen cases. The association of investigations showed strong significance with the positivity. Subchondral sclerosis was present in forty eight cases, narrowing of joint space on X-ray was seen in two hundred and seventeen cases, osteophyte formation/ subchondral cyst was observed in twenty five cases. Deformation of joint and loose bodies was observed in twelve cases. On treatment osteotomy was successful in forty nine cases, medical line of treatment was successful or at least stopped the progression of the disease in two hundred two cases. Arthroscopic procedure was successful in twenty cases and joint replacement in eleven cases. CONCLUSION The study successfully evaluates the different signs and symptoms that are commonly involved in osteoarthritis. In the present study we also were successful in showing the association of different investigations and modes of treatment in successfully treating the cases of osteoarthritis.

  13. Analysis and measurement of residual stress distribution of vanadium/ceramics joints for fusion reactor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemoto, Y.; Ueda, K.

    1998-01-01

    Vanadium alloys are considered as candidate structural materials for fusion reactor system. When vanadium alloys are used in fusion reactor system, joining with ceramics for insulating is one of material issues to be solved to make component of fusion reactor. In the application of ceramics/metal jointing and coating, residual stress caused by difference of thermal expansion rate between ceramics and metals is an important factor in obtaining good bonding strength and soundness of coating. In this work, residual stress distribution in direct diffusion bonded vanadium/alumina joint (jointing temperature: 1400 C) was measured by small area X-ray diffraction method. And the comparison of finite element method (FEM) analysis and actual stress distribution was carried out. Tensile stress concentration at the edge of the boundary of the joint in alumina was observed. The residual stress concentration may cause cracks in alumina, or failure of bonding. Actually, cracks in alumina caused by thermal stress after bonding at 1500 C was observed. The stress concentration of the joint must be reduced to obtain good bonded joint. Lower bonding temperature or to devise the shape of the outer surface of the joint will reduce the stress concentration. (orig.)

  14. A New Method for Determination of Joint Roughness Coefficient of Rock Joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigui Du

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The joint roughness coefficient (JRC of rock joints has the characteristic of scale effect. JRC measured on small-size exposed rock joints should be evaluated by JRC scale effect in order to obtain the JRC of actual-scale rock joints, since field rock joints are hardly fully exposed or well saved. Based on the validity analysis of JRC scale effect, concepts of rate of JRC scale effect and effective length of JRC scale effect were proposed. Then, a graphic method for determination of the effective length of JRC scale effect was established. Study results show that the JRC of actual-scale rock joints can be obtained through a fractal model of JRC scale effect according to the statistically measured results of the JRC of small-size partial exposed rock joints and by the selection of fractal dimension of JRC scale effect and the determination of effective length of JRC scale effect.

  15. Anatomical study of the articular branches innervated the hip and knee joint with reference to mechanism of referral pain in hip joint disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Junya; Manabe, Yoshitaka; Oyamada, Joichi; Kataoka, Hideki; Nakano, Jiro; Saiki, Kazunobu; Okamoto, Keishi; Tsurumoto, Toshiyuki; Okita, Minoru

    2018-03-25

    Referred pain in the anterior knee joint is the most common symptom in hip disease patients. The development of referred pain is considered to be related to dichotomizing peripheral sensory fibers. However, no gross anatomical findings identify any dichotomizing fibers innervating both the hip and knee joints. We dissected the femoral and obturator nerves in human cadavers to investigate the distribution of the articular branches in the hip and knee joints. Fourteen embalmed left lower limbs from 14 Japanese adult cadavers (five from females, nine from males, average age 73.8 ± 14.1 years) were observed macroscopically. The articular branches of the femoral and obturator nerves were dissected at the anterior margin of the groin toward the thigh region. After dissections of the articular nerves of the hip joints, the femoral and obturator nerves were exposed from proximally to distally to identify the articular nerves of the knee joints. The branching pattern of the articular branches in the hip and knee joints was recorded. In six of 14 limbs (42.9%), the femoral nerve supplied articular branches to the anteromedial aspect of both the hip and knee joints. These articular branches were derived from the same bundle of femoral nerve. These gross anatomical findings suggested that dichotomizing peripheral sensory fibers innervate the hip and knee joints and these could relate to the referred pain confirmed in the anterior knee joints of patients with hip disease. Clin. Anat., 2018. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Associations between alpha angle and herniation pit on MRI revisited in 185 asympomatic hip joints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eun Chae; Choi, Jung Ah [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    To evaluate the association between alpha angle and herniation pit on MRI in asymptomatic hip joints and their associations with demographic variables.Hip MRI of 185 asymptomatic hip joints of 105 adults (age 18 to 80 years) from September 2011 through December 2012 were retrospectively studied. Alpha angles were measured on oblique axial MR images by 2 observers. Herniation pit was determined by 1 observer. Size measures, prevalence, and statistical analyses were conducted regarding its association with age, gender, laterality (right or left hip). Intra- and inter-observer agreements were determined by intra-class correlation coefficient. The prevalence of herniation pit in asymptomatic hips was 21.6%. The range of alpha angle was 27.6-65.0 degrees. Seventeen and 16 out of 185 (9.1% and 8.6%) hip joints showed alpha angle of ≥ 55 degrees in first and second measurement sessions, respectively. There was no association between alpha angle ≥ 55 and presence of herniation pit. There was no association between alpha angle ≥ 55 and the size of herniation pit. Inter-observer agreement of alpha angle was 0.485 between first measurements of first vs. second observer, respectively. Intra-observer agreement of alpha angle was 0.654, respectively. Forty (21.6%) of 185 hip joints (35 of 105 patients, 33.3%) had herniation pit, with no difference according to age, gender, or laterality of hip joint. There is no association between alpha angle ≥ 55 degrees and presence of herniation pit or demographic variables.

  17. Multidisciplinary approach for in-deep assessment of joint prosthesis failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessarolo, F; Caola, I; Piccoli, F; Dorigotti, P; Demattè, E; Molinari, M; Malavolta, M; Barbareschi, M; Caciagli, P; Nollo, G

    2009-01-01

    In spite of advancement in biomaterials and biomechanics, in development of new osteo-integrative materials and coatings, and in macro- micro- component design, a non negligible fraction of the implanted prosthesis fails before the expected lifetime. A prospective observational clinical study has been conducted to define and apply a set of experimental techniques to in-deep assess the failure of joint prosthesis. Microbiological, histological and micro-structural techniques were implemented to specifically address phenomena occurring at the tissue-implant interface. Results obtained from 27 cases of prosthetic joint failure are discussed in terms of sensitivity and specificity. A procedural flow-chart is finally proposed for the assessment of joint prosthesis failure.

  18. Development for dissimilar metal joint between stainless steel and zirconium by explosive bonding technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onuma, Tsutomu; Matsumoto, Toshimi; Asano, Chooichi; Funamoto, Takao; Hirose, Yasuo; Sasada, Yasuhiro.

    1988-01-01

    Development of dissimilar metal joints between stainless steel and Zr for application to nuclear fuel reprocessing equipment was studied. Two dissimilar metal joints (Zr to SUS 304 L joint and its joint using Ta as insert metal) were made by the explosive bonding technique. After bonding, microstructure, tensile strength and corrosion test of dissimilar metal joints were investigated. The results indicated that: (1) The good dissimilar metal joint is obtained between stainless steel and Zr with a Ta insert metal by using explosive bonding technique. (2) A Ta insert metal retards a growth of intermetallic compounds at the bonding interface. (3) The strength of the dissimilar metal joint in this study is higher than that of Zr metal. Any local attack was not observed at the bonding interface after corrosion test. (author)

  19. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TEMPOROMANDIBULAR-JOINT MOBILITY AND PERIPHERAL JOINT MOBILITY RECONSIDERED

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, P.U.; DEBONT, L.G.M.; VANDERWEELE, L.T.; Boering, G.

    The purpose of this paper was to study the relationship between temporomandibular joint (TMJ) mobility and mobility of joints and to study the general character of joint mobility in 83 subjects, 55 females and 28 males (mean age 26.7, range 13-46 years). The subjects were recruited from the

  20. Dual joint space arthrography in temporomandibular joint disorders: Comparison with single inferior joint space arthrography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hyung Sik; Chang, Duk Soo; Lee, Kyung Soo; Kim, Woo Sun; Sung, Jung Ho; Jun, Young Hwan [Capital Armed Forces General Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1989-02-15

    The temporomandibular joint(TMJ) is really a complex of two synovial space separated by fibrocartilaginous disc. Single inferior joint space arthrography is commonly performed for evaluation of TMJ disorders, which is known to be superior in demonstrating joint dynamics. But it reveals only the inferior surface of the disc. Therefore, dual space arthrography is superior to demonstrate the soft tissue anatomic feature of the joint such as disc position and shape. Authors performed 83 TMJ arthrograms in TMJ problems. Initially, the inferior joint space was done and then the superior space was sequentially contrasted. The follow results were noted: 1. In all cases, dual space arthrography revealed accurate disc shape and positions. 2. Concordant findings between the two techniques: 68 cases (82%). Discordance between the two techniques: 15 cases (18%) 3. Possible causes of discordance between inferior and dual space arthrography. a) Normal varians of anterior recess: 3 cases b) Posterior disc displacement: 4 cases c) Influence of the patient's head position change :4 cases d) False perforation: 2 cases e) Reduction change: 2 cases 4. In 5 cases with anterior displacement, dual space arthrography gave additional findings such as adhesion within the superior space, which could not be evaluated by single inferior space.

  1. Modelling the formation of sheeting joints with FRACOD2D (FRActure propagation CODe)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanaro, Flavio; Amemiya, Kiyoshi; Yamada, Atsuo

    2008-01-01

    This contribution shows an application of the newly developed gravity acceleration function in the BEM-DDM code FRACOD 2D . The influence of the model geometry, material parameters and boundary stresses on the initiation and propagation of sheeting joints due to rebound by removal of the overburden is studied. The models seem to capture the pattern of sheeting joints and the depth of their occurrence. The influence of the sheeting joints on the stress distributions in the rock mass also seem to be realistic and in agreement with field observations. The results indicate that the stresses measured in-situ at several sites in crystalline rock might exhibit the same features as the numerical results by FRACOD 2D . For example, the horizontal stress is found to be rather high at the surface of the models as it was observed in Forsmark, Sweden. Moreover, stresses where sheeting joints are developing are so severe to justify damage and fracturing of the intact rock observed in terms of fracture frequency and laboratory sample damage close to the surface at the Shobasama and MIU Construction Site, Mizunami, Japan. (author)

  2. Joint Electromagnetic Spectrum Management Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-20

    promulgate command-specific policy and guidance for EMS use, the joint restricted frequency list (JRFL) process, the joint communications–electronics...joint communications–electronics operating instructions (JCEOI) and joint restricted frequency list (JRFL). Examples of FM include providing the...joint restricted frequency list Figure III-4. Joint Frequency Management Office Spectrum Management Process Chapter III III-10 JP 6-01 assignments

  3. Delamination-Debond Behaviour of Composite T- Joints in Wind Turbine Blades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulasik, H; Coker, D

    2014-01-01

    Wind turbine industry utilizes composite materials in turbine blade structural designs because of their high strength/stiffness to weight ratio. T-joint is one of the design configurations of composite wind turbine blades. T-joints consist of a skin panel and a stiffener co-bonded or co-cured together with a filler material between them. T-joints are prone to delaminations between skin/stiffener plies and debonds between skin-stiffener-filler interfaces. In this study, delamination/debond behavior of a co-bonded composite T-joint is investigated under 0° pull load condition by 2D finite element method. Using Abaqus® commercial FE software, zero-thickness cohesive elements are used to simulate delamination/debond in ply interfaces and bonding lines. Pulling load at 0° is applied and load-displacement behavior and failure scenario are observed. The failure sequence consists of debonding of filler/stringer interface during one load drop followed by a second drop in which the 2nd filler/stringer debonds, filler/skin debonding and skin delamination leading to total loss of load carrying capacity. This type of failure initiation has been observed widely in the literature. When the debond strength is increased 30%, failure pattern is found to change in addition to increasing the load capacity by 200% before total loss of loading carrying capacity occurs. Failure initiation and propagation behavior, initial and max failure loads and stress fields are affected by the property change. In all cases mixed-mode crack tip loading is observed in the failure initiation and propagation stages. In this paper, the detailed delamination/debonding history in T-joints is predicted with cohesive elements for the first time

  4. Biomechanical evaluation of native acromioclavicular joint ligaments and two reconstruction techniques in the presence of the sternoclavicular joint: A cadaver study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masionis, Povilas; Šatkauskas, Igoris; Mikelevičius, Vytautas; Ryliškis, Sigitas; Bučinskas, Vytautas; Griškevičius, Julius; Martin Oliva, Xavier; Monzó Planella, Mariano; Porvaneckas, Narūnas; Uvarovas, Valentinas

    2017-01-01

    Where is over 100 reconstruction techniques described for acromioclavicular (AC) joint reconstruction. Although, it is not clear whether the presence of the sternoclavicular (SC) joint influences the biomechanical properties of native AC ligaments and reconstruction techniques. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the biomechanical properties of native AC joint ligaments and two reconstruction techniques in cadavers with the SC joint still present. We tested eight fresh-frozen cadaver hemithoraces for superior translation (70 N load) and translation increment after 1000 cycles (loading from 20 to 70 N) in a controlled laboratory study. There were three testing groups created: native ligaments, the single coracoclavicular loop (SCL) technique, and the two coracoclavicular loops (TCL) technique. Superior translation was measured after static loading. Translation increment was calculated as the difference between superior translation after cyclic and static loading. Native AC ligaments showed significantly lower translation than the SCL ( p = 0.023) and TCL ( p = 0.046) groups. The SCL had a significantly lower translation increment than native AC ligaments ( p = 0.028). There was no significant difference between reconstruction techniques in terms of translation ( p = 0.865) and translation increment ( p = 0.113). Native AC joint ligaments had better static properties than both reconstruction techniques and worse dynamic biomechanical properties than the SCL technique. The SCL technique appeared to be more secure than the TCL technique. The presence of the SC joint did not have an observable influence on test results.

  5. Joint diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weissman, S.D.

    1989-01-01

    The authors discuss how x-ray examination is essential in the diagnosis and evaluation of the arthritides. Most arthritides are first suspected by the clinician, and x-ray evaluation of these entities along with laboratory testing is important for confirmation of the clinical diagnosis and in staging of the disease process. Several arthritides are often diagnosed first by the podiatrist on x-ray evaluation, including pseudogout, ankylosing spondylitis, early rheumatoid arthritis, degenerative joint disease, and tuberculosis of bone. The joint responds to insult in only a limited number of ways that become apparent on x-ray. The soft tissues surrounding the joint, the articulating bones, and alignment of the joint space may all be involved by the arthritic process. On roentgenographic examination, the soft tissues must be examined for edema, masses, calcifications, and atrophy. The articulating bones must be examined for demineralization, erosions, osteophytes, periosteal reaction, cysts and sclerosis

  6. The nuclear core of sun: theoretical perspectives and characterization of the scientific performances of the GOLF / SOHO experiment detector; La region nucleaire du soleil: perspectives theoriques et caracterisation des performances scientifiques du detecteur de l`experience GOLF / SOHO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dzitko, H

    1995-06-23

    The subject of this thesis is the nuclear core of the sun. The first part is theoretical and concerns neutrino flux predictions. A precise description of the solar plasma is necessary to predict boron, beryllium and CNO cycle neutrinos. We treat here the nuclear reaction rates. They are mainly determined by the cross sections and the enhancement factors due to plasma particles, the co-called screening factors. We have discussed the various possible formalisms that could be used in stellar evolution and performed direct calculations of screened cross sections. We concluded that the screening prescriptions which have been used so far in stellar evolution should be replaced by the Mitler formalism. Next, we examine the cross section uncertainties and we show that it is possible to get a better agreement between theory and experiment. Discrepancies between the gallium experiments and the calculations suggest that we should go beyond the classical solar model. This has motivated our study on possible magnetic fields deeply buried in the solar core. We discuss here the influence of a magnetic pressure perturbation on solar evolution. In the experimental part of this work, we deal with the GOLF experiment, one of the three helio-seismological experiments on board the space probe SOHO. The purpose of this instrument is the study of the global oscillation modes in the frequency range 10{sup -7} to 6 10{sup -3} Hz with a sensitivity for frequencies higher than 2 10{sup -4} Hz of about 1 mm/s over 20 days of continuous integration at counting rates of 12 10{sup 6} cs/s. One part of this work was devoted to the precise characterization of the photomultipliers and their associated electronics in order to select them according to their intrinsic performances. This step was followed by long duration tests of three weeks simulating as well as possible the flight conditions. We show that the detection chain effectively meets the stability requirements of around 10{sup -7} by

  7. Histological study of the human temporo-mandibular joint and its surrounding muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravetti, P; Membre, H; El Haddioui, A; Gérard, H; Fyard, J P; Mahler, P; Gaudy, J F

    2004-10-01

    This is a histological study of the human temporo-mandibular joint and its surrounding muscles. Using a microscopic study of serial sections from anatomical specimens from six subjects, the detailed anatomy of the joint is presented with particular regard to the histology. This study has allowed, in particular, the description of the ligaments and capsule as well as the insertions of the masticatory muscles (temporalis, masseter, lateral pterygoid) on this joint. These observations are then compared with the anatomical and histological data already reported on this subject. This study shows that the bulk of the muscular fibres of the lateral pterygoid passes under the foot of the disc is attached over the whole height of the condylar, unite and extend as far as the medial pole of the joint under the insertion of the articular disc. An insertion of the temporo-masseter musculo-tendinous complex on the anterior and lateral capsulo-discal structures was observed. The lateral pterygoid is composed of a succession of tendinous and fleshy fibres. This study confirms the thickening of the lateral capsule that corresponds to a lateral collateral ligament, and the absence of a medial collateral ligament. Medial stability is conferred by the lateral ligament of the contralateral joint.

  8. Shoe midsole longitudinal bending stiffness and running economy, joint energy, and EMG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Jean-Pierre R; Stefanyshyn, Darren J

    2006-03-01

    It has been shown that mechanical energy is dissipated at the metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint during running and jumping. Furthermore, increasing the longitudinal bending stiffness of the midsole significantly reduced the energy dissipated at the MTP joint and increased jump performance. It was hypothesized that increasing midsole longitudinal bending stiffness would also lead to improvements in running economy. This study investigated the influence of midsole longitudinal bending stiffness on running economy (performance variable) and evaluated the local effects on joint energetics and muscular activity. Carbon fiber plates were inserted into running shoe midsoles and running economy, joint energy, and electromyographic (EMG) data were collected on 13 subjects. Approximately a 1% metabolic energy savings was observed when subjects ran in a stiff midsole relative to the control midsole. Subjects with a greater body mass had a greater decrease in oxygen consumption rates in the stiff midsole relative to the control midsole condition. The stiffer midsoles showed no significant differences in energy absorption at the MTP joint compared with the control shoe. Finally, no significant changes were observed in muscular activation. Increasing midsole longitudinal bending stiffness led to improvements in running economy, yet the underlying mechanisms that can be attributed to this improvement are still not fully understood.

  9. Imaging findings of charcot joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng Quanfei; Zhou Chunxiang; Chen Yingming; Jiang Bo

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the MRI characters of Charcot joint, and to evaluate the diagnostic value of X-ray, CT, and MRI on Charcot joint. Methods: Eight patients with 8 Charcot joints underwent X-ray, CT, and MR examinations. 6 of them had syringomyelia, 1 patient had injury of the spinal cord, and 1 case had diabetes. All 8 patients had sensory reduction or deficit in the sick extremities. Results: There were two types of Charcot joint, hypertrophic and atrophic. Radiographic and CT features of hypertrophic joint (n=3) showed hyperostotic osteosclerosis and mammoth osteophytes in the sick bones, periarticular ossification, and articular disorganization. Radiographic and CT features of atrophic joint (n=5) showed extensive bone resorption (destruction), periarticular debris, and articular disorganization. Main MRI features of Charcot joint included hydrarthrosis within joint capsule, thickened, loose, and elongated joint capsule with para-joint, peri-diaphysis, and inter-muscular extension in a pseudopodia pattern. The irregular joint capsule wall was presented as mild hypointensity on T 1 WI, slight hyper-intensity on T 2 WI, and was markedly enhanced after Gd-DTPA was administrated, which was considered as a characteristic manifestation of the lesion. Soft tissue mass containing hypo-intense stripes on both T 1 WI and T 2 WI was commonly noted adjacent to the involved joint. Conclusion: X-rays plain film is the first choice for the diagnosis of Charcot joint, and MRI is pretty useful in the diagnosis of Charcot joint

  10. [Staple fixation for the treatment of hamate metacarpal joint injury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yang-Hua; Zeng, Lin-Ru; Huang, Zhong-Ming; Yue, Zhen-Shuang; Xin, Da-Wei; Xu, Can-Da

    2014-03-01

    To investigate the effcacy of the staple fixation for the treatment of hamate metacarpal joint injury. From May 2009 to November 2012,16 patients with hamate metacarpal joint injury were treated with staple fixation including 10 males and 6 females with an average age of 33.6 years old ranging from 21 to 57 years. Among them, 11 cases were on the fourth or fifth metacarpal base dislocation without fractures, 5 cases were the fourth or fifth metacarpal base dislocation with avulsion fractures of the back of hamatum. Regular X-ray review was used to observe the fracture healing, joint replacement and position of staple fixation. The function of carpometacarpal joint and metacarpophalangeal joint were evaluated according to ASIA (TAM) system evaluation method. All incision were healed well with no infection. All patients were followed up from 16 to 24 months with an average of (10.0 +/- 2.7) months. No dislocation recurred, the position of internal fixator was good,no broken nail and screw withdrawal were occurred. Five patients with avulsion fracture of the back of hamatum achieved bone healing. The function of carpometacarpal joint and metacarpophalangeal was excellent in 10 cases,good in 5 cases, moderate in 1 case. The application of the staple for the treatment of hamatometacarpal joint injury has the advantages of simple operation, small trauma, reliable fixation, early postoperative function exercise and other advantages, which is the ideal operation mode for hamatometacarpal joint injury.

  11. On the anatomy of the temporomandibular joint and the muscles that act upon it: observations on the gray whale, Eschrichtius robustus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Adli, Joseph J; Deméré, Thomas A

    2015-04-01

    The temporomandibular joint and its associated musculature are described in a neonate gray whale (Eschrichtius robustus) and serve as the basis for direct anatomical comparisons with the temporomandibular region in other clades of baleen whales (Mysticeti). Members of the right whale/bowhead whale clade (Balaenidae) are known to possess a synovial lower jaw joint, while members of the rorqual clade (Balaenopteridae) have a nonsynovial temporomandibular joint characterized by a highly flexible fibrocartilaginous pad and no joint capsule. In contrast, the gray whale possesses a modified temporomandibular joint (intermediate condition), with a vestigial joint cavity lacking a fibrous capsule, synovial membrane, and articular disk. In addition, the presence of a rudimentary fibrocartilaginous pad appears to be homologous to that seen in balaenopterid mysticetes. The intrinsic temporomandibular musculature in the gray whale was found to include a multibellied superficial masseter and a single-bellied deep masseter. The digastric and internal pterygoid muscles in E. robustus are enlarged relative to the condition documented in species of Balaenoptera. A relatively complex insertion of the temporalis muscle on the dentary is documented in the gray whale and the low, knob-like process on the gray whale dentary is determined to be homologous with the prominent coronoid process of rorquals. Comparison with the anatomy of the temporomandibular musculature in rorquals reveals an increased importance of alpha rotation of the dentary in the gray whale. This difference in muscular morphology and lines of muscle action is interpreted as representing adaptations for suction feeding. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. On the radiation exposure in temporomandibular joint examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rother, U.; Hildebrandt, K.H.

    1979-01-01

    The radiation exposure caused by standardized examinations of the temporomandibular joint has been determined with the aid of 660 exposures of an Alderson phantom. Comparative examinations were performed with the classic contact technique according to Parma to elucidate the results obtained. The lowest surface exposure was observed in contact examinations of the temporomandibular joint. Application of a flat cone led to a 13-fold reduction in surface exposure compared to contact examinations according to Parma. Furthermore, radiation exposure strongly decreased from the irradiation field to the adjacent area if a cone (flat cone and ear cone) was used. (author)

  13. Formation of tough composite joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brun, M.K.

    1997-05-01

    Joints which exhibit tough fracture behavior were formed in a composite with a Si/SiC matrix reinforced with Textron SCS-6 fibers with either boron nitride or silicon nitride fiber coatings. In composites with BN coatings fibers were aligned uniaxially, while composites with Si 3 N 4 -coated fibers had a 0/90 degree architecture. Lapped joints (joints with overlapping fingers) were necessary to obtain tough behavior. Geometrical requirements necessary to avoid brittle joint failure have been proposed. Joints with a simple overlap geometry (only a few fingers) would have to be very long in order to prevent brittle failure. Typical failure in these joints is caused by a crack propagating along the interfaces between the joint fingers. Joints of the same overall length, but with geometry changed to be symmetric about the joint centerline and with an extra shear surface exhibited tough fractures accompanied with extensive fiber pullout. The initial matrix cracking of these joints was relatively low because cracks propagated easily through the ends of the fingers. Joints with an optimized stepped sawtooth geometry produced composite-like failures with the stress/strain curves containing an elastic region followed by a region of rising stress with an increase of strain. Increasing the fiber/matrix interfacial strength from 9 to 25 MPa, by changing the fiber coating, increased matrix cracking and ultimate strength of the composite significantly. The best joints had matrix cracking stress and ultimate strength of 138 and 240 MPa, respectively. Joint failure was preceded by multiple matrix cracking in the entire composite. The high strength of the joints will permit building of structures containing joints with only a minor reduction of design stresses

  14. Characterization of HIP bonded DS-Cu/SS316L joints for fusion experimental reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanari, Moriyasu; Hatano, Toshihisa; Sato, Satoshi; Furuya, Kazuyuki; Kuroda, Toshimasa; Enoeda, Mikio; Abe, Tetsuya; Takatsu, Hideyuki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment

    1998-02-01

    A shielding blanket design in a fusion reactor such as ITER has been proposed to be a modular structure integrated with the first wall. In view of the fabrication, HIP(Hot Isostatic Pressing) method has been proposed for the joining of dispersion strengthened copper (DS-Cu) and type 316L stainless steel (SS316L) at the first wall. Characterization of DS-Cu in HIP joints bonded at three different temperatures has been performed placing emphasis on metallurgical quality at the interfacial region of some hundred {mu}m by means of conventional observation and testing techniques. SEM(Scanning Electron Microscope) observation of these joints before and after intergranular corrosion to DS-Cu have shown that in two joints HIPed at 1253K and 1303K some voids of 1-4{mu}m exist in the vicinity to the interface, while in the other one HIPed at 1323K there is no void and the joint reveals good bondability. And in all the joints grain boundary has been developed parallel to the interface. SEM observation of DS-Cu grains have shown that in a joint at 1323K the grains have slightly coarsened to the size larger than as-received DS-Cu by a factor of 2, despite the hardness of that remains as as-received DS-Cu. While in the other two joints grain remains as large as as-received DS-Cu. EPMA(Electron Prove Microscopic Analysis) of aluminium in DS-Cu has shown that in all the joints accumulation of alumina has occurred in the vicinity to the interface and the length of the accumulated region increases as the increase of the HIP temperature and reaches up to 50{mu}m from the interface at 1323K. Vickers hardness test have shown that in a joint bonded at 1323K the hardness decreases to the level of an oxygen free copper in the vicinity to the interface, implying that the distribution of alumina has changed. From these experiments, it can be concluded that the joint at 1323K has exhibited the highest performance in terms of bondability. (J.P.N.)

  15. Radiographic changes and factors associated with subsequent progression of damage in weight-bearing joints of patients with rheumatoid arthritis under TNF-blocking therapies-three-year observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushita, Isao; Motomura, Hiraku; Seki, Eiko; Kimura, Tomoatsu

    2017-07-01

    The long-term effects of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-blocking therapies on weight-bearing joints in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have not been fully characterized. The purpose of this study was to assess the radiographic changes of weight-bearing joints in patients with RA during 3-year of TNF-blocking therapies and to identify factors related to the progression of joint damage. Changes in clinical variables and radiological findings in 243 weight-bearing joints (63 hips, 54 knees, 71 ankles, and 55 subtalar joints) in 38 consecutive patients were investigated during three years of treatment with TNF-blocking agents. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify risk factors for the progression of weight-bearing joint damage. Seventeen (14.5%) of proximal weight-bearing joints (hips and knees) showed apparent radiographic progression during three years of treatment, whereas none of the proximal weight-bearing joints showed radiographic evidence of improvement or repair. In contrast, distal weight-bearing joints (ankle and subtalar joints) displayed radiographic progression and improvement in 20 (15.9%) and 8 (6.3%) joints, respectively. Multivariate logistic analysis for proximal weight-bearing joints identified the baseline Larsen grade (p bearing joints identified disease activity at one year after treatment (p bearing joints. Disease activity after treatment was an independent factor for progression of damage in proximal and distal weight-bearing joints. Early treatment with TNF-blocking agents and tight control of disease activity are necessary to prevent the progression of damage of the weight-bearing joints.

  16. STAMINA OF A GASKETED BOLTED FLANGED PIPE JOINT UNDER DYNAMIC LOADING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Abid

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Gasketed bolted flange joints are the most critical components in pipelines for their sealing and strength under operating conditions. Most of the work available in literature is under static loading, whereas in industry, cyclic loads are applied due to the vibrating machinery such as motors, pumps, sloshing in offshore applications and in the ships etc. In this study a three dimensional finite element analysis of a gasketed joint is carried out using a spiral wound gasket under bolt up and dynamic operating conditions (internal pressure, axial and bending singly and in combination. The cyclic axial loads are concluded relatively more challenging for both the sealing and strength of the joint. Higher magnitudes of loads and frequencies are also observed more challenging to the joints performance.

  17. Estimation of creep life of thick welded joints using a simple model. Creep characteristics in thick welded joint and their improvements. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakacho, Keiji; Yamazaki, Masayoshi

    2001-01-01

    The information of the creep behavior of the thick welded joint is very important to secure the safety of the elevated temperature vessels like the nuclear reactors. The creep behavior of the thick welded point is very complex, thence it is difficult to practice the experiment or the theoretical analysis. A simple accurate model for theoretical analysis was developed in the first study. The simple model is constructed of several one-dimensional finite elements which can analyze three-dimensional creep behavior under a assumption. The model is easy to treat, and needs only a little labor and computation time to simulate the creep curve and local strain of the thick welded joint. In this second study, the capability of the model is expanded to estimate the creep life of the thick welded joint. New model can easily estimate the time of the rupture of the thick welded joint. It is verified comparing the result with the experimental one that the model can accurately predict the creep life. The histories of the local strains to the rupture time may be observed in the simulation by using the model. The information will be useful to improve the creep characteristics of the joints. (author)

  18. Body mass index and the rheumatoid arthritis swollen joint count: an observational study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, Liron; Davis, Lisa A.; Bright, Christina M.; Kerr, Gail S.; Lazaro, Deana M.; Khan, Nasim A.; Richards, J. Steuart; Johnson, Dannette S.; Cannon, Grant W.; Reimold, Andreas M.; Mikuls, Ted R.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Obesity is a prevalent condition and a serious health concern. The relationship between obesity and RA disease activity and severity has not been adequately examined, and there are concerns that periarticular adipose tissue may reduce the utility of the joint examination. Methods We used a cross-sectional study to compare the performance of swollen joint count (SJC) in subjects with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) across body mass index (BMI) strata. Specifically, regression techniques tested for associations of SJC and seven RA disease activity/severity measures (including high sensitivity c-reactive protein, radiographic changes, and multi-dimensional health assessment questionnaire scores) within BMI quartiles. We also evaluated the association of BMI with radiographic evidence of RA in multivariate analyses and the association of BMI with SJC. Clinical and laboratory data from 980 Veterans Affairs Rheumatoid Arthritis (VARA) registry participants were analyzed using linear and logistic regression. Results Associations were evident between SJC and six of the seven examined RA disease activity/severity measures. SJC predicts RA disease activity/severity at least as well in more obese subjects as in subjects with lower BMIs, and there was a trend towards better performance in higher BMI individuals. Subjects with higher BMIs were marginally less likely to be characterized by radiographic changes (O.R. 0.98, p=0.051). We found no association between BMI and SJC. Conclusions BMI does not obscure the relationship of SJC and objective disease activity measures. There is a borderline association of higher BMI and likelihood of radiographic changes characteristic of RA after controlling for clinical characteristics. PMID:22623288

  19. Optimal Joint Detection and Estimation That Maximizes ROC-Type Curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wunderlich, Adam; Goossens, Bart; Abbey, Craig K

    2016-09-01

    Combined detection-estimation tasks are frequently encountered in medical imaging. Optimal methods for joint detection and estimation are of interest because they provide upper bounds on observer performance, and can potentially be utilized for imaging system optimization, evaluation of observer efficiency, and development of image formation algorithms. We present a unified Bayesian framework for decision rules that maximize receiver operating characteristic (ROC)-type summary curves, including ROC, localization ROC (LROC), estimation ROC (EROC), free-response ROC (FROC), alternative free-response ROC (AFROC), and exponentially-transformed FROC (EFROC) curves, succinctly summarizing previous results. The approach relies on an interpretation of ROC-type summary curves as plots of an expected utility versus an expected disutility (or penalty) for signal-present decisions. We propose a general utility structure that is flexible enough to encompass many ROC variants and yet sufficiently constrained to allow derivation of a linear expected utility equation that is similar to that for simple binary detection. We illustrate our theory with an example comparing decision strategies for joint detection-estimation of a known signal with unknown amplitude. In addition, building on insights from our utility framework, we propose new ROC-type summary curves and associated optimal decision rules for joint detection-estimation tasks with an unknown, potentially-multiple, number of signals in each observation.

  20. Experimental joint immobilization in guinea pigs. Effects on the knee joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcondesdesouza, J. P.; Machado, F. F.; Sesso, A.; Valeri, V.

    1980-01-01

    In young and adult guinea pigs, the aftermath experimentally induced by the immobilization of the knee joint in hyperextended forced position was studied. Joint immobilization which varied from one to nine weeks was attained by plaster. Eighty knee joints were examined macro and microscopically. Findings included: (1) muscular hypotrophy and joint stiffness in all animals, directly proportional to the length of immobilization; (2) haemoarthrosis in the first week; (3) intra-articular fibrous tissue proliferation ending up with fibrous ankylosis; (4) hyaline articular cartilage erosions; (5) various degrees of destructive menisci changes. A tentative explanation of the fibrous tissue proliferation and of the cartilage changes is offered.

  1. Transcranial radiograph and magnetic resonance imaging in the evaluation of osseous changes of the temporomandibular joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Soo Beom; Koh, Kwang Joon

    2002-01-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of transcranial radiographs and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) in the assessment of osseous changes of the condylar head and articular eminence. Osseous changes of the TMJ were evaluated in forty-three patients. Osseous changes of the condylar head and articular eminence were observed in 41 joints and 64 joints, respectively on transcranial radiographs, and 48 joints and 59 joints, respectively on MRI. The flattening, sclerosis, erosion, and osteophyte formation of the condylar heads were observed in 36.6%, 43.9%, 12.2%, and 7.3%, respectively on transcranial radiographs compared with 35.4%, 20.8%, 37.5%, and 6.3%, respectively on MRI. While, the flattening, sclerosis, and erosion of the articular eminences were observed in 26.6%, 67.2%, and 6.2%, respectively on transcranial radiographs compared with 32.2%, 59.3%, and 8.5%, respectively on MRI. There were no statistical differences between transcranial radiographs and MRI scans in the detection of osseous changes of the TMJ. However, MRI scans were superior to the transcranial radiographs in the detection of erosion of the condylar head (p<0.01).

  2. Transcranial radiograph and magnetic resonance imaging in the evaluation of osseous changes of the temporomandibular joint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Soo Beom; Koh, Kwang Joon [School of Dentistry, Chonbuk National University, Chonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-06-15

    To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of transcranial radiographs and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) in the assessment of osseous changes of the condylar head and articular eminence. Osseous changes of the TMJ were evaluated in forty-three patients. Osseous changes of the condylar head and articular eminence were observed in 41 joints and 64 joints, respectively on transcranial radiographs, and 48 joints and 59 joints, respectively on MRI. The flattening, sclerosis, erosion, and osteophyte formation of the condylar heads were observed in 36.6%, 43.9%, 12.2%, and 7.3%, respectively on transcranial radiographs compared with 35.4%, 20.8%, 37.5%, and 6.3%, respectively on MRI. While, the flattening, sclerosis, and erosion of the articular eminences were observed in 26.6%, 67.2%, and 6.2%, respectively on transcranial radiographs compared with 32.2%, 59.3%, and 8.5%, respectively on MRI. There were no statistical differences between transcranial radiographs and MRI scans in the detection of osseous changes of the TMJ. However, MRI scans were superior to the transcranial radiographs in the detection of erosion of the condylar head (p<0.01).

  3. Prosthesis of the wrist-joint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldmeier, C.

    1983-02-25

    Function of the hand-joint and the well-being of patients can be severely affected by arthrosis of the wrist-joint. Therapeutically, arthrodesis usually results in a painfree status of stiffness. A painless and well functioning joint can be achieved by alloplastic joint replacement or resurfacing. The possibilities and clinical results in cases of arthrosis of the carpo-metacarpal joint of the thumb, pseudarthrosis of the scaphoid, aseptic necrosis of the Lunate and severe arthrosis of the radio-carpal joint are demonstrated.

  4. High-Performance Data Analysis Tools for Sun-Earth Connection Missions, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Interactive Data Language (IDL) is a standard tool used by many researchers in observational fields. Present day Sun-Earth Connection missions like SOHO, or...

  5. [Short-term effectiveness of Swanson artificial joint replacement in treating posttraumatic metacarpophalangeal joint stiffness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hui; Shen, Xiangqian; Xu, Jihua; Huang, Xin; Ye, Po; Wu, Shoucheng

    2011-11-01

    To investigate the short-term effectiveness of Swanson artificial joint replacement in treating post-traumatic metacarpophalangeal joint stiffness. Between August 2007 and May 2010, 11 cases (13 fingers) of metacarpophalangeal joint stiffness with soft tissue defects underwent Swanson artificial joint replacement. There were 7 males (9 fingers) and 4 females (4 fingers), aged 43 to 65 years with an average of 49 years. The involved fingers included 4 thumbs, 4 index fingers, 3 middle fingers, and 2 ring fingers. The types of injury included open and crush injury in 8 fingers, fracture of the metacarpophalangeal joint in 3 fingers, metacarpophalangeal joint severing in 2 fingers. The time from joint stiffness to hospitalization was 12 to 48 weeks (mean, 24 weeks). The joint activity was (136.82 +/- 28.96) degrees. According to total active motion (TAM) assessment, included good in 1 finger, fair in 6 fingers, and poor in 6 fingers before operation. The activities of daily living were assessed by Sollerman score, which was 45.64 +/- 11.04. The X-ray films and CT scan showed traumatic arthritis of the metacarpophalangeal joint. The incision healed by first intention. All patients were followed up 12 to 34 months (mean, 24.1 months). At last follow-up, the joint activity was (194.64 +/- 28.86) degrees, showing significant difference when compared with preoperative value (t = 25.214, P = 0.000). According to TAM assessment, including excellent in 1 finger, good in 4 fingers, fair in 7 fingers, and poor in 1 finger. The Sollerman score was 67.45 +/- 8.20 postoperatively, showing significant difference when compared with the preoperative score (t = -10.470, P = 0.000). X-ray examination showed no prosthesis fracture, periprosthetic fracture, or joint dislocation occurred at last follow-up. Swanson artificial joint replacement can be applied to treat post-traumatic metacarpophalangeal joint stiffness, which can improve the joint activity and has satisfactory short

  6. A Review of Natural Joint Systems and Numerical Investigation of Bio-Inspired GFRP-to-Steel Joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelos I. Avgoulas

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available There are a great variety of joint types used in nature which can inspire engineering joints. In order to design such biomimetic joints, it is at first important to understand how biological joints work. A comprehensive literature review, considering natural joints from a mechanical point of view, was undertaken. This was used to develop a taxonomy based on the different methods/functions that nature successfully uses to attach dissimilar tissues. One of the key methods that nature uses to join dissimilar materials is a transitional zone of stiffness at the insertion site. This method was used to propose bio-inspired solutions with a transitional zone of stiffness at the joint site for several glass fibre reinforced plastic (GFRP to steel adhesively bonded joint configurations. The transition zone was used to reduce the material stiffness mismatch of the joint parts. A numerical finite element model was used to identify the optimum variation in material stiffness that minimises potential failure of the joint. The best bio-inspired joints showed a 118% increase of joint strength compared to the standard joints.

  7. Prosthesis of the wrist-joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldmeier, C.

    1983-01-01

    Function of the hand-joint and the well-being of patients can be severely affected by arthrosis of the wrist-joint. Therapeutically, arthrodesis usually results in a painfree status of stiffness. A painless and well functioning joint can be achieved by alloplastic joint replacement or resurfacing. The possibilities and clinical results in cases of arthrosis of the carpo-metacarpal joint of the thumb, pseudarthrosis of the scaphoid, aseptic necrosis of the Lunate and severe arthrosis of the radio-carpal joint are demonstrated. (orig.) [de

  8. AN ESTIMATE OF THE NEARBY INTERSTELLAR MAGNETIC FIELD USING NEUTRAL ATOMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heerikhuisen, J.; Pogorelov, N. V.

    2011-01-01

    The strength and orientation of the magnetic field in the nearby interstellar medium have remained elusive, despite continual improvements in observations and models. Data from NASA's Voyager mission and the Solar Wind ANisotropies (SWAN) experiment on board Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) have placed observational constraints on the magnetic field, and the more recent Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) data appear to also bear an imprint of the interstellar magnetic field (ISMF). In this paper, we combine computational models of the heliosphere with data from Voyager, SOHO/SWAN, and IBEX to estimate both the strength and direction of the nearby ISMF. On the basis of our simulations, we find that a field strength of 2-3 μG pointing from ecliptic coordinates (220-224, 39-44), combined with an interstellar hydrogen density of ∼0.15 cm -3 , produces results most consistent with observations.

  9. Design of mechanical joints

    CERN Document Server

    Blake, Alexander

    2018-01-01

    A cornerstone publication that covers the basic principles and practical considerations of design methodology for joints held by rivets, bolts, weld seams, and adhesive materials, Design of Mechanical Joints gives engineers the practical results and formulas they need for the preliminary design of mechanical joints, combining the essential topics of joint mechanics...strength of materials...and fracture control to provide a complete treatment of problems pertinent to the field of mechanical connections.

  10. Joint involvement in Lö fgren's syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. N. Egorova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study the clinical, laboratory, and instrumental features of joint involvement in patients with Löfgren's syndrome.Patients and methods. Examinations were made in 125 patients, among whom there were 21 men and 104 women (male:female ratio, 1:5; mean age, 42±12 years (from 18 to 69 years, the referral diagnoses were erythema nodosum (EN, panniculitis or vasculitis.Results. All the patients complained of painful red indurations on the upper and lower extremities; there were also complaints of joint pain (83%, cough, weakness, hyperhidrosis, dyspnea, myalgia, and sore throat (55%, and subfebrile temperatures (50%. Arthralgias were noted in all the cases; 70% had arthritis that was observed manly in the ankle joints (62%. In all the patients, joint damage was concurrent with EN. Articular manifestations preceded EN in 35 (28% patients. Laboratory tests showed that the median erythrocyte sedimentation rate was 20 [14; 31] mm/hr and C-reactive protein (CRP was 10 [6; 21] mg/l. Elevated CRP levels were significantly more common in arthritis (p = 0.003 and nodular fusion (p=0.04 and directly related to the number of subcutaneous nodules (p=0.008; r=0.29. Chest computed tomography revealed intrathoracic lymphadenopathy in all the patients; ground glass lung tissue injury (Stage II was identified in 42% of cases. Joint damage did not depend on the X-ray stage of sarcoidosis. 54% of the patients took nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, 60% received hydroxychloroquine 600 mg/day, and 50% had glucocorticoids (GC 4–6 mg/day. 35% of the patients received combined therapy with GC and cyclophosphamide 200 mg/week or methotrexate 15 mg/week. Articular syndrome virtually completely regressed during a year. Arthralgias in the ankle persisted in a few (4% cases.

  11. Maximally incompatible quantum observables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinosaari, Teiko, E-mail: teiko.heinosaari@utu.fi [Turku Centre for Quantum Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Turku, FI-20014 Turku (Finland); Schultz, Jussi, E-mail: jussi.schultz@gmail.com [Dipartimento di Matematica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Toigo, Alessandro, E-mail: alessandro.toigo@polimi.it [Dipartimento di Matematica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Milano, Via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Ziman, Mario, E-mail: ziman@savba.sk [RCQI, Institute of Physics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dúbravská cesta 9, 84511 Bratislava (Slovakia); Faculty of Informatics, Masaryk University, Botanická 68a, 60200 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2014-05-01

    The existence of maximally incompatible quantum observables in the sense of a minimal joint measurability region is investigated. Employing the universal quantum cloning device it is argued that only infinite dimensional quantum systems can accommodate maximal incompatibility. It is then shown that two of the most common pairs of complementary observables (position and momentum; number and phase) are maximally incompatible.

  12. Maximally incompatible quantum observables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinosaari, Teiko; Schultz, Jussi; Toigo, Alessandro; Ziman, Mario

    2014-01-01

    The existence of maximally incompatible quantum observables in the sense of a minimal joint measurability region is investigated. Employing the universal quantum cloning device it is argued that only infinite dimensional quantum systems can accommodate maximal incompatibility. It is then shown that two of the most common pairs of complementary observables (position and momentum; number and phase) are maximally incompatible.

  13. A CATALOG OF CORONAL 'EIT WAVE' TRANSIENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, B. J.; Myers, D. C.

    2009-01-01

    Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) Extreme ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (EIT) data have been visually searched for coronal 'EIT wave' transients over the period beginning from 1997 March 24 and extending through 1998 June 24. The dates covered start at the beginning of regular high-cadence (more than 1 image every 20 minutes) observations, ending at the four-month interruption of SOHO observations in mid-1998. One hundred and seventy six events are included in this catalog. The observations range from 'candidate' events, which were either weak or had insufficient data coverage, to events which were well defined and were clearly distinguishable in the data. Included in the catalog are times of the EIT images in which the events are observed, diagrams indicating the observed locations of the wave fronts and associated active regions, and the speeds of the wave fronts. The measured speeds of the wave fronts varied from less than 50 to over 700 km s -1 with 'typical' speeds of 200-400 km s -1 .

  14. Validation of functional calibration and strap-down joint drift correction for computing 3D joint angles of knee, hip, and trunk in alpine skiing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasel, Benedikt; Spörri, Jörg; Schütz, Pascal; Lorenzetti, Silvio; Aminian, Kamiar

    2017-01-01

    To obtain valid 3D joint angles with inertial sensors careful sensor-to-segment calibration (i.e. functional or anatomical calibration) is required and measured angular velocity at each sensor needs to be integrated to obtain segment and joint orientation (i.e. joint angles). Existing functional and anatomical calibration procedures were optimized for gait analysis and calibration movements were impractical to perform in outdoor settings. Thus, the aims of this study were 1) to propose and validate a set of calibration movements that were optimized for alpine skiing and could be performed outdoors and 2) to validate the 3D joint angles of the knee, hip, and trunk during alpine skiing. The proposed functional calibration movements consisted of squats, trunk rotations, hip ad/abductions, and upright standing. The joint drift correction previously proposed for alpine ski racing was improved by adding a second step to reduce separately azimuth drift. The system was validated indoors on a skiing carpet at the maximum belt speed of 21 km/h and for measurement durations of 120 seconds. Calibration repeatability was on average boots. Joint angle precision was <4.9° for all angles and accuracy ranged from -10.7° to 4.2° where the presence of an athlete-specific bias was observed especially for the flexion angle. The improved joint drift correction reduced azimuth drift from over 25° to less than 5°. In conclusion, the system was valid for measuring 3D joint angles during alpine skiing and could be used outdoors. Errors were similar to the values reported in other studies for gait. The system may be well suited for within-athlete analysis but care should be taken for between-athlete analysis because of a possible athlete-specific joint angle bias.

  15. Part I. Remembering No. 2 (Ladislav Loerinc). EMO joint venture, joint-stock company - really completely useless organ?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaha, M.

    2008-01-01

    In this chapter author reviewed the story of the EMO joint venture, joint-stock company, between Slovenske elektrarne, a. s. and EdF. EMO joint venture, joint-stock company, was established to complete the Mochovce nuclear power plant. EMO joint venture, joint-stock company was closed after one year of work. History of EMO joint venture, joint-stock company, was described by its former general manager Mr. Ladislav Loerinc.

  16. Scoring haemophilic arthropathy on X-rays: improving inter- and intra-observer reliability and agreement using a consensus atlas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foppen, Wouter; Schaaf, Irene C. van der; Beek, Frederik J.A. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology (Netherlands); Verkooijen, Helena M. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology (Netherlands); University Medical Center Utrecht, Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, Utrecht (Netherlands); Fischer, Kathelijn [University Medical Center Utrecht, Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, Utrecht (Netherlands); University Medical Center Utrecht, Van Creveldkliniek, Department of Hematology, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2016-06-15

    The radiological Pettersson score (PS) is widely applied for classification of arthropathy to evaluate costly haemophilia treatment. This study aims to assess and improve inter- and intra-observer reliability and agreement of the PS. Two series of X-rays (bilateral elbows, knees, and ankles) of 10 haemophilia patients (120 joints) with haemophilic arthropathy were scored by three observers according to the PS (maximum score 13/joint). Subsequently, (dis-)agreement in scoring was discussed until consensus. Example images were collected in an atlas. Thereafter, second series of 120 joints were scored using the atlas. One observer rescored the second series after three months. Reliability was assessed by intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), agreement by limits of agreement (LoA). Median Pettersson score at joint level (PS{sub joint}) of affected joints was 6 (interquartile range 3-9). Using the consensus atlas, inter-observer reliability of the PS{sub joint} improved significantly from 0.94 (95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.91-0.96) to 0.97 (CI 0.96-0.98). LoA improved from ±1.7 to ±1.1 for the PS{sub joint}. Therefore, true differences in arthropathy were differences in the PS{sub joint} of >2 points. Intra-observer reliability of the PS{sub joint} was 0.98 (CI 0.97-0.98), intra-observer LoA were ±0.9 points. Reliability and agreement of the PS improved by using a consensus atlas. (orig.)

  17. Effect of Strain Rate on Joint Strength and Failure Mode of Lead-Free Solder Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jian; Lei, Yongping; Fu, Hanguang; Guo, Fu

    2018-03-01

    In surface mount technology, the Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu solder joint has a shorter impact lifetime than a traditional lead-tin solder joint. In order to improve the impact property of SnAgCu lead-free solder joints and identify the effect of silver content on tensile strength and impact property, impact experiments were conducted at various strain rates on three selected SnAgCu based solder joints. It was found that joint failure mainly occurred in the solder material with large plastic deformation under low strain rate, while joint failure occurred at the brittle intermetallic compound layer without any plastic deformation at a high strain rate. Joint strength increased with the silver content in SnAgCu alloys in static tensile tests, while the impact property of the solder joint decreased with increasing silver content. When the strain rate was low, plastic deformation occurred with failure and the tensile strength of the Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu solder joint was higher than that of Sn-0.3Ag-0.7Cu; when the strain rate was high, joint failure mainly occurred at the brittle interface layer and the Sn-0.3Ag-0.7Cu solder joint had a better impact resistance with a thinner intermetallic compound layer.

  18. Forming a multinational joint venture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatia, N.K.; Garb, R.H.; Statton, T.D.

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses the basis and mechanics for forming a multinational joint venture. The topics of the paper include the motivations for a joint venture, selection of the appropriate co-venturer, management of the multinational joint venture, and the joint venture agreement. The authors state that a joint venture is not applicable or desirable in all instances and to be successful, must be carefully planned

  19. Joint imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hengst, W.

    1984-01-01

    Joint imaging is a proven diagnostic procedure which has become indispensable to the detection and treatment of different joint diseases in almost all disciplines. The method is suited for early diagnosis of joint affections both in soft tissue and bone which cannot be detected by X-ray or other procedures. The local activity accumulation depends on the rate of metabolism and is visualized in the scan, which in turn enables the extension and floridity of focal lesions to be evaluated and followed-up. Although joint scans may often give hints to probabilities relevant to differential diagnosis, the method is non-specific and only useful if based on the underlying clinical picture and X-ray finding, if possible. The radiation exposure is very low and does not represent a hazard in cases of adequate assessment of indication. In pregnant women and children the assessment of indication has to be based on very strict principles. The method is suited for out-patient diagnosis and can be applied in all installations equipped with a gamma camera and a technetium generator. (orig.) [de

  20. Managing Joint Production Motivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindenberg, Siegwart; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    2011-01-01

    We contribute to the microfoundations of organizational performance by proffering the construct of joint production motivation. Under such motivational conditions individuals see themselves as part of a joint endeavor, each with his or her own roles and responsibilities; generate shared...... representations of actions and tasks; cognitively coordinate cooperation; and choose their own behaviors in terms of joint goals. Using goal-framing theory, we explain how motivation for joint production can be managed by cognitive/symbolic management and organizational design....

  1. Mechanics of Suture Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yaning; Song, Juha; Ortiz, Christine; Boyce, Mary; Ortiz Group/DMSE/MIT Team; Boyce Group/ME/MIT Team

    2011-03-01

    Biological sutures are joints which connect two stiff skeletal or skeletal-like components. These joints possess a wavy geometry with a thin organic layer providing adhesion. Examples of biological sutures include mammalian skulls, the pelvic assembly of the armored fish Gasterosteus aculeatus (the three-spined stickleback), and the suture joints in the shell of the red-eared slider turtle. Biological sutures allow for movement and compliance, control stress concentrations, transmit loads, reduce fatigue stress and absorb energy. In this investigation, the mechanics of the role of suture geometry in providing a naturally optimized joint is explored. In particular, analytical and numerical micromechanical models of the suture joint are constructed. The anisotropic mechanical stiffness and strength are studied as a function of suture wavelength, amplitude and the material properties of the skeletal and organic components, revealing key insights into the optimized nature of these ubiquitous natural joints.

  2. Effects of changing speed on knee and ankle joint load during walking and running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de David, Ana Cristina; Carpes, Felipe Pivetta; Stefanyshyn, Darren

    2015-01-01

    Joint moments can be used as an indicator of joint loading and have potential application for sports performance and injury prevention. The effects of changing walking and running speeds on joint moments for the different planes of motion still are debatable. Here, we compared knee and ankle moments during walking and running at different speeds. Data were collected from 11 recreational male runners to determine knee and ankle joint moments during different conditions. Conditions include walking at a comfortable speed (self-selected pacing), fast walking (fastest speed possible), slow running (speed corresponding to 30% slower than running) and running (at 4 m · s(-1) ± 10%). A different joint moment pattern was observed between walking and running. We observed a general increase in joint load for sagittal and frontal planes as speed increased, while the effects of speed were not clear in the transverse plane moments. Although differences tend to be more pronounced when gait changed from walking to running, the peak moments, in general, increased when speed increased from comfortable walking to fast walking and from slow running to running mainly in the sagittal and frontal planes. Knee flexion moment was higher in walking than in running due to larger knee extension. Results suggest caution when recommending walking over running in an attempt to reduce knee joint loading. The different effects of speed increments during walking and running should be considered with regard to the prevention of injuries and for rehabilitation purposes.

  3. Generalised joint hypermobility and knee joint hypermobility: prevalence, knee joint symptoms and health-related quality of life in a Danish adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junge, Tina; Henriksen, Peter; Hansen, Sebrina; Østengaard, Lasse; Golightly, Yvonne M; Juul-Kristensen, Birgit

    2017-10-27

    Several biomechanical factors, such as knee joint hypermobility (KJH), are suggested to play a role in the etiology of knee joint symptoms and knee osteoarthritis. Nevertheless, the prevalence or consequences of KJH solely or included in the classification of generalized joint hypermobility (GJHk) is unknown for a general population. Therefore, the objectives were to report the prevalence of self-reported GJHk and KJH, as well as the association of these conditions to knee joint symptoms, severity and duration of symptoms, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in a Danish adult population. This study is a cross-sectional population-based survey of 2056 Danish adults. Respondents received online questionnaires of GJHk and KJH, knee joint symptoms, the severity and duration of these, as well as HRQoL. Total response rate was 49% (n = 1006). The prevalence of self-reported GJHk and KJH was 13% and 23%, mostly representing women. More than half of the respondents with GJHk and KJH had knee joint symptoms. The odds for reporting knee joint symptoms, severity of knee joint symptoms and duration of knee joint symptoms were twice as high for respondents with GJHk and KJH. Respondents with GJHk and KJH reported lower HRQoL. GJHk and KJH were frequently reported in the Danish adult population, mostly in women. Respondents with GJHk and KJH were two times more likely to report knee joint-related symptoms such as pain, reduced performance of usual activity and lower HRQoL. The impact of these conditions on HRQoL is comparable with knee osteoarthritis. © 2017 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  4. Joint Intentionality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koreň Ladislav

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available According to the shared intentionality hypothesis proposed by Michael Tomasello, two cognitive upgrades – joint and collective intentionality, respectively – make human thinking unique. Joint intentionality, in particular, is a mindset supposed to account for our early, species-specific capacity to participate in collaborative activities involving two (or a few agents. In order to elucidate such activities and their proximate cognitive-motivational mechanism, Tomasello draws on philosophical accounts of shared intentionality. I argue that his deference to such cognitively demanding accounts of shared intentional activities is problematic if his theoretical ambition is in part to show that and how early (prelinguistic and precultural capacities for joint action contribute to the development of higher cognitive capacities.

  5. Effect of Shielding Gas on the Properties of AW 5083 Aluminum Alloy Laser Weld Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyskoč, Maroš; Sahul, Miroslav; Sahul, Martin

    2018-04-01

    The paper deals with the evaluation of the shielding gas influence on the properties of AW 5083 aluminum alloy weld joints produced with disk laser. Butt weld joints were produced under different shielding gas types, namely Ar, He, Ar + 5 vol.% He, Ar + 30 vol.% He and without shielding weld pool. Light and electron microscopy, computed tomography, microhardness measurements and tensile testing were used for evaluation of weld joint properties. He-shielded weld joints were the narrowest ones. On the other hand, Ar-shielded weld joints exhibited largest weld width. The choice of shielding gas had significant influence on the porosity level of welds. The lowest porosity was observed in weld joint produced in Ar with the addition of 5 vol.% He shielding atmosphere (only 0.03%), while the highest level of porosity was detected in weld joint produced in pure He (0.24%). Except unshielded aluminum alloy weld joint, the lowest tensile strength was recorded in He-shielded weld joints. On the contrary, the highest average microhardness was measured in He-shielded weld joints.

  6. Minimum joint space width (mJSW) of patellofemoral joint on standing ''skyline'' radiographs: test-retest reproducibility and comparison with quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (qMRI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simoni, Paolo; Jamali, Sanaa; Alvarez Miezentseva, Victoria [CHU de Liege, Diagnostic Imaging Departement, Domanine du Sart Tilman, Liege (Belgium); Albert, Adelin [CHU de Liege, Biostatistics Departement, Domanine du Sart Tilman, Liege (Belgium); Totterman, Saara; Schreyer, Edward; Tamez-Pena, Jose G. [Qmetrics Technologies, Rochester, NY (United States); Zobel, Bruno Beomonte [Campus Bio-Medico University, Diagnostic Imaging Departement, Rome (Italy); Gillet, Philippe [CHU de Liege, Orthopaedic surgery Department, Domanine du Sart Tilman, Liege (Belgium)

    2013-11-15

    To assess the intraobserver, interobserver, and test-retest reproducibility of minimum joint space width (mJSW) measurement of medial and lateral patellofemoral joints on standing ''skyline'' radiographs and to compare the mJSW of the patellofemoral joint to the mean cartilage thickness calculated by quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (qMRI). A couple of standing ''skyline'' radiographs of the patellofemoral joints and MRI of 55 knees of 28 volunteers (18 females, ten males, mean age, 48.5 {+-} 16.2 years) were obtained on the same day. The mJSW of the patellofemoral joint was manually measured and Kellgren and Lawrence grade (KLG) was independently assessed by two observers. The mJSW was compared to the mean cartilage thickness of patellofemoral joint calculated by qMRI. mJSW of the medial and lateral patellofemoral joint showed an excellent intraobserver agreement (interclass correlation (ICC) = 0.94 and 0.96), interobserver agreement (ICC = 0.90 and 0.95) and test-retest agreement (ICC = 0.92 and 0.96). The mJSW measured on radiographs was correlated to mean cartilage thickness calculated by qMRI (r = 0.71, p < 0.0001 for the medial PFJ and r = 0.81, p < 0.0001 for the lateral PFJ). However, there was a lack of concordance between radiographs and qMRI for extreme values of joint width and KLG. Radiographs yielded higher joint space measures than qMRI in knees with a normal joint space, while qMRI yielded higher joint space measures than radiographs in knees with joint space narrowing and higher KLG. Standing ''skyline'' radiographs are a reproducible tool for measuring the mJSW of the patellofemoral joint. The mJSW of the patellofemoral joint on radiographs are correlated with, but not concordant with, qMRI measurements. (orig.)

  7. Hip Joint Trevor Disease: Literature Review and a Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hallaj Moghadam

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Trevor disease or dysplasia epiphysealis hemimelica (DEH is an extremely rare condition with incidence of about 1:1,000,000. Male to female ratio of reporting case is 3:1, and usually diagnosed between two and eight years old. It usually affects the medial portion of the joint, but lateral involvement is not uncommon. Hip-joint was affected in less than 4% of existing cases in the literature. It would be very important to precisely mange the hip involvement to prevent from further articular cartilage destruction in this very young age. We report an infant boy with isolated DEH of hip. We found a total of 271 cases of DEH that reported between 1926 and 2017.The most sites of involvement are ankle joint and around the knee. Our search reaches out to ten cases of hip involvement. Hip involvement needs a patient specified decision. We observed our patient for three years with a desirable hip joint function.

  8. Joint Spectral Analysis for Early Bright X-ray Flares of γ-Ray Bursts ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. A joint spectral analysis for early bright X-ray flares that were simultaneously observed with Swift BAT and XRT are present. Both BAT and XRT lightcurves of these flares are correlated. Our joint spectral anal- ysis shows that the radiations in the two energy bands are from the same spectral component, which can ...

  9. Formation of sheeting joints in Yosemite National Park, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, S. J.

    2009-04-01

    The formation of sheeting joints (i.e., "exfoliation joints"), opening mode fractures subparallel to the Earth's surface, has been a classic unresolved problem in geology. Diverse new observations and analyses support the hypothesis that sheeting joints develop in response to a near-surface tension induced by compressive stresses parallel to a convex slope (hypothesis 1) rather than the conventional explanation that the joints form as a result of removal of overburden by erosion (hypothesis 2). The opening mode displacements across the joints together with the absence of mineral precipitates within the joints mean that sheeting joints open in response to a near-surface tension normal to the surface (N) rather than a pressurized fluid. An absolute tension must arise in the shallow subsurface if a plot of N as a function of depth normal to the surface (z) has a positive slope at the surface (z=0). The differential equations of static equilibrium require that this slope (derivative) equals k2 P22 + k3 P33 - ?g cosβ, where k2 and k3 are the principal curvatures of the surface, P22 and P33 are the respective surface-parallel normal stresses along the principal curvatures, ? is the material density, g is gravitational acceleration, and β is the slope. This derivative will be positive and sheeting joints can open if the surface-parallel stress in at least one direction is sufficiently compressive (negative) and the curvature in that direction is sufficiently convex (negative). Hypotheses 1 and 2 are being tested using geologic mapping and aerial LIDAR data from Yosemite National Park, California. The abundance of sheeting joints on convex ridges there, where erosion is a local minimum, coupled with their scarcity in the adjacent concave valleys, where erosion is a local maximum, is consistent with hypothesis 1 but inconsistent with hypothesis 2. At several sites with sheeting joints, measurements of the current topographic curvatures and the current surface

  10. Joint weak value for all order coupling using continuous variable and qubit probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Asmita; Pan, Alok Kumar; Panigrahi, Prasanta K.

    2017-11-01

    The notion of weak measurement in quantum mechanics has gained a significant and wide interest in realizing apparently counterintuitive quantum effects. In recent times, several theoretical and experimental works have been reported for demonstrating the joint weak value of two observables where the coupling strength is restricted to the second order. In this paper, we extend such a formulation by providing a complete treatment of joint weak measurement scenario for all-order-coupling for the observable satisfying A 2 = 𝕀 and A 2 = A, which allows us to reveal several hitherto unexplored features. By considering the probe state to be discrete as well as continuous variable, we demonstrate how the joint weak value can be inferred for any given strength of the coupling. A particularly interesting result we pointed out that even if the initial pointer state is uncorrelated, the single pointer displacement can provide the information about the joint weak value, if at least third order of the coupling is taken into account. As an application of our scheme, we provide an all-order-coupling treatment of the well-known Hardy paradox by considering the continuous as well as discrete meter states and show how the negative joint weak probabilities emerge in the quantum paradoxes at the weak coupling limit.

  11. Features of Joint Capsule Formation After Antenatal Action of Antigen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Fedotchenko

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper using morphometric, histological, histochemical and statistical methods, we have investigated the dynamics of hip joint capsule formation in white laboratory rats during the postnatal period after intrefetal introduction of antigen. It is found that antenatal effect of antigen leads to an increase in the number of lymphocytes, in particular PNA+, in joint capsule. Against this background, we observed an increase in the proportion of cells, the basic substance and elastic fibers, while reducing the content of collagen fibers, violations in polysaccharides and fibroblasts distribution that indicates the development of dysplastic processes in the hip joint and can be regarded as the leading factor of coxarthrosis development. Experimentally, we have detected arachnodactylia as a visual clinical manifestation of dysplasia.

  12. JOINT ANALYSIS OF X-RAY AND SUNYAEV-ZEL'DOVICH OBSERVATIONS OF GALAXY CLUSTERS USING AN ANALYTIC MODEL OF THE INTRACLUSTER MEDIUM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasler, Nicole; Bulbul, Esra; Bonamente, Massimiliano; Landry, David; Carlstrom, John E.; Culverhouse, Thomas L.; Gralla, Megan; Greer, Christopher; Hennessy, Ryan; Leitch, Erik M.; Mantz, Adam; Marrone, Daniel P.; Plagge, Thomas; Hawkins, David; Lamb, James W.; Muchovej, Stephen; Joy, Marshall; Kolodziejczak, Jeffery; Miller, Amber; Mroczkowski, Tony

    2012-01-01

    We perform a joint analysis of X-ray and Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect data using an analytic model that describes the gas properties of galaxy clusters. The joint analysis allows the measurement of the cluster gas mass fraction profile and Hubble constant independent of cosmological parameters. Weak cosmological priors are used to calculate the overdensity radius within which the gas mass fractions are reported. Such an analysis can provide direct constraints on the evolution of the cluster gas mass fraction with redshift. We validate the model and the joint analysis on high signal-to-noise data from the Chandra X-ray Observatory and the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Array for two clusters, A2631 and A2204.

  13. Oscillatory brain correlates of live joint attention: a dual-EEG study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanny eLachat

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Joint attention consists in following another’s gaze onto an environmental object, which leads to the alignment of both subjects' attention onto this object. It is a fundamental mechanism of non-verbal communication, and it is essential for dynamic, online, interindividual synchronization during interactions. We aimed at investigating the oscillatory brain correlates of joint attention in a face-to-face paradigm where dyads of participants dynamically oriented their attention toward objects during joint and no-joint attention periods respectively. We also manipulated task instruction: in socially-driven instructions, the participants had to follow explicitly their partner’s gaze, while in color-driven instructions, the objects to be looked at were designated at by their color so that no explicit gaze following was required. We focused on oscillatory activities in the 10 Hz frequency range, where parieto-occipital alpha and the centro-parietal mu rhythms have been described, as these rhythms have been associated with attention and social coordination processes respectively. We tested the hypothesis of a modulation of these oscillatory activities by joint attention. We used dual EEG to record simultaneously the brain activities of the participant dyads during our live, face-to-face joint attention paradigm. We showed that joint attention periods – as compared to the no-joint attention periods – were associated with a decrease of signal power between 11 and 13 Hz over a large set of left centro-parieto-occipital electrodes, encompassing the scalp regions where alpha and mu rhythms have been described. This 11-13 Hz signal power decrease was observed independently of the task instruction: it was similar when joint versus no-joint attention situations were socially-driven and when they were color-driven. These results are interpreted in terms of the processes of attention mirroring, social coordination, and mutual attentiveness associated

  14. Effect of friction stir lap welding conditions on joint strength of aluminium alloy 6060

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yazdanian, S; Chen, Z W

    2009-01-01

    Strength of lap joints made by friction stir welding (FSW) depends strongly on how material flows forming the weld nugget zone during FSW and also on how the joint is loaded during testing. Understanding of this processing-property relationship is currently inadequate. In this study, the effects of pin length, welding speed and rotation rate on weld strength using aluminium alloy 6060 were investigated. It has been found that the pin length needed to be slightly greater than the thickness of the sheet for an adequate joint to be established. However, further increase in pin length did not benefit the joint strength. The major factor affecting joint strength has been found to be the rotation speed. An increase in rotation speed resulted in lowering the joint strength. Various modes of fracture have been observed and these modes relate to the degree of hooking and softening. Explanation of how the speed values relate to heat input and material flow and then to the joint strength is given.

  15. The temporomandibular joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, W.

    1984-01-01

    Whilst the temporomandibular joint is in many ways unique, it is subject to all the diseases and disorders found in joints in other parts of the human skeleton. By far the most common disorder is injury, followed by arthropathy, acute and chronic dislocations, ankylosis, and in rare instances, neoplasms. The diagnosis and management of the temporomandibular joint are the primary responsibility of the oral surgeon. Nevertheless, this anatomical region is an area in which the cooperation of medical and dental disciplines may be required for the satisfactory conclusion of treatment. The more so when the disease process involves either associated psychosomatic illness or malignancy. The mainstay of the diagnosis is a careful radiological examination of the joint. There exists a delicate relationship between the dentition, the muscles of mastication, and the temporomandibular articulation, which is controlled by arthrokinetic reflex activity of the branches of the 5th cranial nerve. Imbalance between one or more of the components of this integrated system frequently leads to disturbances in function. Pain-dysfunction disorders constitute the larger part of temporomandibular joint disturbances generally encountered

  16. Benign joint hypermobility syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwona Słowińska

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Benign joint hypermobility syndrome (BJHS, commonly known as loose ligament syndrome, is a non-inflammatory rheumatic condition. It is characterised by a greater than normal range of motion of the joints of the limbs and spine. The prevalence of the syndrome in preschool-age children is estimated to be between 2% and 30%, depending on ethnic background (with higher prevalence in Asian and African populations, occurring most often in families with a history of the condition and more frequently in girls. This paper presents a case report of a 12-year-old girl. A broad differential diagnostic approach to recurrent joint inflammation with joint effusion and pain made it possible to establish a diagnosis of benign joint hypermobility syndrome. The child met the Brighton criteria; her Beighton score was 7 out of 9. Patient education aimed at eliminating abnormal joint movement and an appropriate rehabilitation programme play key roles in the treatment of BJHS.

  17. Is running associated with degenerative joint disease?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panush, R.S.; Schmidt, C.; Caldwell, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    Little information is available regarding the long-term effects, if any, of running on the musculoskeletal system. The authors compared the prevalence of degenerative joint disease among 17 male runners with 18 male nonrunners. Running subjects (53% marathoners) ran a mean of 44.8 km (28 miles)/wk for 12 years. Pain and swelling of hips, knees, ankles and feet and other musculoskeletal complaints among runners were comparable with those among nonrunners. Radiologic examinations (for osteophytes, cartilage thickness, and grade of degeneration) also were without notable differences among groups. They did not find an increased prevalence of osteoarthritis among the runners. Our observations suggest that long-duration, high-mileage running need to be associated with premature degenerative joint disease in the lower extremities

  18. [Acupuncture combined with magnetic therapy for treatment of temple-jaw joint dysfunction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Hui; Zhang, Wen

    2009-04-01

    To compare clinical therapeutic effects of acupuncture combined with magnetic therapy and simple magnetic therapy on temple-jaw joint dysfunction. Eighty-two cases were randomly divided into an observation group (n = 52) and a control group (n = 30). The observation group was treated with acupuncture at Xiaguan (ST 7), Jiache (ST 6), Hegu (LI 4), etc. and AL-2 low frequency electromagnetic comprehensive treatment instrument; the control group was treated with AL-2 low frequency electromagnetic comprehensive treatment instrument. The cured and markedly effective rate of 90.4% in the observation group was significantly better than 66.7% in the control group (P magnetic therapy is significantly better than that of the simple magnetic therapy on temple-jaw joint dysfunction.

  19. Towards Scalable Strain Gauge-Based Joint Torque Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    D’Imperio, Mariapaola; Cannella, Ferdinando; Caldwell, Darwin G.; Cuschieri, Alfred

    2017-01-01

    During recent decades, strain gauge-based joint torque sensors have been commonly used to provide high-fidelity torque measurements in robotics. Although measurement of joint torque/force is often required in engineering research and development, the gluing and wiring of strain gauges used as torque sensors pose difficulties during integration within the restricted space available in small joints. The problem is compounded by the need for a scalable geometric design to measure joint torque. In this communication, we describe a novel design of a strain gauge-based mono-axial torque sensor referred to as square-cut torque sensor (SCTS), the significant features of which are high degree of linearity, symmetry, and high scalability in terms of both size and measuring range. Most importantly, SCTS provides easy access for gluing and wiring of the strain gauges on sensor surface despite the limited available space. We demonstrated that the SCTS was better in terms of symmetry (clockwise and counterclockwise rotation) and more linear. These capabilities have been shown through finite element modeling (ANSYS) confirmed by observed data obtained by load testing experiments. The high performance of SCTS was confirmed by studies involving changes in size, material and/or wings width and thickness. Finally, we demonstrated that the SCTS can be successfully implementation inside the hip joints of miniaturized hydraulically actuated quadruped robot-MiniHyQ. This communication is based on work presented at the 18th International Conference on Climbing and Walking Robots (CLAWAR). PMID:28820446

  20. A personalized 3D-printed prosthetic joint replacement for the human temporomandibular joint: From implant design to implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackland, David C; Robinson, Dale; Redhead, Michael; Lee, Peter Vee Sin; Moskaljuk, Adrian; Dimitroulis, George

    2017-05-01

    Personalized prosthetic joint replacements have important applications in cases of complex bone and joint conditions where the shape and size of off-the-shelf components may not be adequate. The objective of this study was to design, test and fabricate a personalized 3D-printed prosthesis for a patient requiring total joint replacement surgery of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). The new 'Melbourne' prosthetic TMJ design featured a condylar component sized specifically to the patient and fixation screw positions that avoid potential intra-operative damage to the mandibular nerve. The Melbourne prosthetic TMJ was developed for a 58-year-old female recipient with end-stage osteoarthritis of the TMJ. The load response of the prosthesis during chewing and a maximum-force bite was quantified using a personalized musculoskeletal model of the patient's masticatory system developed using medical images. The simulations were then repeated after implantation of the Biomet Microfixation prosthetic TMJ, an established stock device. The maximum condylar stresses, screw stress and mandibular stress at the screw-bone interface were lower in the Melbourne prosthetic TMJ (259.6MPa, 312.9MPa and 198.4MPa, respectively) than those in the Biomet Microfixation device (284.0MPa, 416.0MPa and 262.2MPa, respectively) during the maximum-force bite, with similar trends also observed during the chewing bite. After trialing surgical placement and evaluating prosthetic TMJ stability using cadaveric specimens, the prosthesis was fabricated using 3D printing, sterilized, and implanted into the female recipient. Six months post-operatively, the prosthesis recipient had a normal jaw opening distance (40.0 mm), with no complications identified. The new design features and immediate load response of the Melbourne prosthetic TMJ suggests that it may provide improved clinical and biomechanical joint function compared to a commonly used stock device, and reduce risk of intra-operative nerve damage

  1. Sacroiliac joint dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilaslan, Hakan; Arslan, Ahmet; Koç, Omer Nadir; Dalkiliç, Turker; Naderi, Sait

    2010-07-01

    Sacroiliac joint dysfunction is a disorder presenting with low back and groin pain. It should be taken into consideration during the preoperative differential diagnosis of lumbar disc herniation, lumbar spinal stenosis and facet syndrome. Four cases with sacroiliac dysfunction are presented. The clinical and radiological signs supported the evidence of sacroiliac dysfunction, and exact diagnosis was made after positive response to sacroiliac joint block. A percutaneous sacroiliac fixation provided pain relief in all cases. The mean VAS scores reduced from 8.2 to 2.2. It is concluded that sacroiliac joint dysfunction diagnosis requires a careful physical examination of the sacroiliac joints in all cases with low back and groin pain. The diagnosis is made based on positive response to the sacroiliac block. Sacroiliac fixation was found to be effective in carefully selected cases.

  2. [Meniscoids of the intervertebral joints].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kos, J; Hert, J; Sevcík, P

    2002-01-01

    A large amount of material was used to study the distribution, location and shape of meniscoids in intervertebral joints of the human spine, from the atlanto-occipital joint to the sacrum, in order to find out how many of intervertebral joints had mobile meniscoids. These might be regarded as possible causes of spinal blockade or other vertebrogenous complaints. The materials provided by the Department of Anatomy and Department of Forensic Medicine at the Faculty of Medicine of Charles University in Pilznen included 20 cadaverous spines from humans aged 20 to 80 years. Access to each joint was provided by dissection of the articular capsule from the lower articular processes of the vertebra situated above. In the orthograde view, all meniscoids were described in terms of shape, size, consistence and location. Their structure was ascertained by histological examination of cross sections stained with haematoxylin and eosin. Meniscoids varying in shape and size were found in all of the intervertebral joints. They were classified by their histological structure as synovial, fat and fibrous meniscoids. The first category was observed frequently, the last only rarely. A total of 29 mobile meniscoids were recorded, most of them in the lumbar spine. Most of the meniscoids present in the cervical spine were of synovial and less frequently of fat types. Meniscoids found in the thoracic spine were poorly developed synovial ones and those present in the lumbar spine were of all types and were also largest in size. The most conspicuous meniscoids were seen in the spines that showed degenerative changes in intervertebral joints. Large fat pads were found in atlanto-occipital and atlanto-axial joints. Mobile meniscoids, most of them present in the lumbar spine (6.4% of all joints.), were connected with the capsule by a thin pedicle and it was possible to move them over a half of the articular surface. Some inter-individual changes were also found; in some spines, the most

  3. Measurement of gastrocnemius muscle elasticity by shear wave elastography: association with passive ankle joint stiffness and sex differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chino, Kentaro; Takahashi, Hideyuki

    2016-04-01

    Passive joint stiffness is an important quantitative measure of flexibility, but is affected by muscle volume and all of the anatomical structures located within and over the joint. Shear wave elastography can assess muscle elasticity independent of the influences of muscle volume and the other nearby anatomical structures. We determined how muscle elasticity, as measured using shear wave elastography, is associated with passive joint stiffness and patient sex. Twenty-six healthy men (24.4 ± 5.9 years) and 26 healthy women (25.2 ± 4.8 years) participated in this study. The passive ankle joint stiffness and tissue elasticity of the medial gastrocnemius (MG) were quantified with the ankle in 30° plantar flexion (PF), a neutral anatomical position (NE), and 20° dorsiflexion (DF). No significant difference in passive joint stiffness by sex was observed with the ankle in PF, but significantly greater passive ankle joint stiffness in men than in women was observed in NE and DF. The MG elasticity was not significantly associated with joint stiffness in PF or NE, but it was significantly associated with joint stiffness in DF. There were no significant differences in MG elasticity by sex at any ankle position. Muscle elasticity, measured independent of the confounding effects of muscle volume and the other nearby anatomical structures, is associated with passive joint stiffness in the joint position where the muscle is sufficiently lengthened, but does not vary by sex in any joint position tested.

  4. Metallic joints for very high vacuum; Joints metalliques pour ultra-vide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paigne, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    After defining three main types of joint; three types of distribution of the tightening force in the clamps are demonstrated; the distribution of stresses, distortion and displacements in these clamps is then calculated by means of the theory of elasticity. This is followed by experimental results on a particular means of tightening (i.e. screw-clamps). From a brief discussion on the behaviour of the clamps it is possible finally to define other types of joint deriving from the main types originally foreseen. (author) [French] Apres avoir defini trois principaux types de joints, on met en evidence trois types de distribution des forces de serrage des brides; puis on calcule a l'aide de la theorie de l'elasticite la distribution des contraintes, deformations et deplacements dans ces brides. On donne ensuite des resultats experimentaux sur un mode de serrage particulier (cas des serres-joints). Une discussion sommaire sur le comportement des brides permet de definir finalement d'autres types de joints derivant des types principaux envisages initialement. (auteur)

  5. Acromioclavicular joint separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devan Pandya, BS

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available History of present illness: A 30-year-old male was brought in by ambulance to the emergency department as a trauma activation after a motorcycle accident. The patient was the helmeted rider of a motorcycle traveling at an unknown speed when he lost control and was thrown off his vehicle. He denied loss of consciousness, nausea, or vomiting. The patient’s vital signs were stable and his only complaint was pain around his left shoulder. On exam, the patient had a prominent left clavicle without skin compromise. He had adequate range of motion in the left shoulder with moderate pain, and his left upper extremity was neurovascularly intact. Significant findings: Plain films of the left shoulder showed elevation of the left clavicle above the acromion. There was an increase in the acromioclavicular (AC and coracoclavicular (CC distances (increased joint distances marked with red and blue arrows, respectively. A normal AC joint measures 1-3 mm whereas a normal CC distance measures 11-13 mm.1 The injury was classified as a Rockwood type III AC joint separation. Discussion: The AC joint is a synovial joint between an oval facet on the acromion and a similar facet on the distal end of the clavicle. Horizontal stability is provided by the AC joint while axial stability is provided by the CC joint.2,3 AC joint injuries account for about 9%-12% of shoulder girdle injuries, and the most common mechanism is direct trauma.4,5 Initial evaluation with imaging includes plain films with three views: the anterior-posterior (AP view with the shoulder in internal and external rotation as well as an axillary, or scapula-Y view (sensitivity 40%, specificity 90% for all films.6,7 AC joint injuries are classified by the Rockwood system.8 Type I involves a sprain or incomplete tear of the AC ligaments with an intact CC ligament. The AC joint appears normal on X-ray, but can become widened with stress, achieved by having the patient hold a 10-15 pound weight from each

  6. Hip joint injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medicine into the joint. The provider uses a real-time x-ray (fluoroscopy) to see where to place ... Wakefield RJ. Arthrocentesis and injection of joints and soft tissue. In: Firestein GS, Budd RC, Gabriel SE, ...

  7. Radiographic appearance of the normal temporomandibular joint in newborns and small children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larheim, T.A.

    1981-01-01

    The radiographic anatomy of the normal temporomandibular joint in newborns and children up to 4 years of age was investigated, partly on specimens, obtained at autopsy, with methods corresponding to clinical procedures, and partly on patients. A rather flat mandibular fossa and immature mandibular head were found at birth, whereas a well-developed articular tubercle and an adult-like radiographic appearance of the joint were found at about one year of age. No evident changes of the radiographic anatomy seemed to occur from one to 4 years of age. A striking similarity was observed between the dystrophic temporomandibular joint in patients with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis and micrognathia and the normal radiographic appearance in the first months of life, indicating an early involvement of this joint in patients developing micrognathia. (Auth.)

  8. Failure Mechanisms of SAC/Fe-Ni Solder Joints During Thermal Cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Li-Yin; Liu, Zhi-Quan; Li, Cai-Fu

    2017-08-01

    Thermal cycling tests have been conducted on Sn-Ag-Cu/Fe- xNi ( x = 73 wt.% or 45 wt.%) and Sn-Ag-Cu/Cu solder joints according to the Joint Electron Device Engineering Council industrial standard to study their interfacial reliability under thermal stress. The interfacial intermetallic compounds formed for solder joints on Cu, Fe-73Ni, and Fe-45Ni were 4.5 μm, 1.7 μm, and 1.4 μm thick, respectively, after 3000 cycles, demonstrating excellent diffusion barrier effect of Fe-Ni under bump metallization (UBM). Also, two deformation modes, viz. solder extrusion and fatigue crack formation, were observed by scanning electron microscopy and three-dimensional x-ray microscopy. Solder extrusion dominated for solder joints on Cu, while fatigue cracks dominated for solder joints on Fe-45Ni and both modes were detected for those on Fe-73Ni. Solder joints on Fe-Ni presented inferior reliability during thermal cycling compared with those on Cu, with characteristic lifetime of 3441 h, 3190 h, and 1247 h for Cu, Fe-73Ni, and Fe-45Ni UBM, respectively. This degradation of the interfacial reliability for solder joints on Fe-Ni is attributed to the mismatch in coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) at interconnection level. The CTE mismatch at microstructure level was also analyzed by electron backscatter diffraction for clearer identification of recrystallization-related deformation mechanisms.

  9. The aging process in the sacroiliac joint. Helical computed tomography analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibata, Yasuaki; Shirai, Yasumasa; Miyamoto, Masabumi [Nippon Medical School, Tokyo (Japan)

    2002-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the frequency of degenerative changes in the sacroiliac joint by age, sex, laterality, body mass index, and childbearing experience, based on computed tomography (CT) images obtained from the lower back of symptom-free subjects in different age groups. These data were used to trace the development of the sacroiliac joint until the occurrence of osteoarthritis with aging. CT transverse and coronal images were examined for the presence of the following degenerative signs: joint space narrowing, sclerosis, osteophytes, cysts, and erosion. The results indicated that joint degeneration begins in the 20s and tends to progress with age. Each form of degeneration was markedly more frequent in the 40s or older, and some type of degeneration was observed in the joints of all subjects aged 50 years or older. In terms of the localization of the joint degeneration, sclerosis was common on the upper and middle anterior of the articular surface of the ilium, osteophytes were common on the anterior surface of the sacrum. Degeneration had progressed further in women than in men in every age group, and tended to progress faster in parous than in nulliparous women, It was presumed that the birth of the first child, rather than subsequent births had the greatest effect on the sacroiliac joint. (author)

  10. 3D Analysis of the Proximal Interphalangeal Joint Kinematics during Flexion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Hess

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Dynamic joint motion recording combined with CT-based 3D bone and joint surface data is accepted as a helpful and precise tool to analyse joint. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the feasibility of these techniques for quantitative motion analysis of the interphalangeal joint in 3D. Materials and Method. High resolution motion data was combined with an accurate 3D model of a cadaveric index finger. Three light-emitting diodes (LEDs were used to record dynamic data, and a CT scan of the finger was done for 3D joint surface geometry. The data allowed performing quantitative evaluations such as finite helical axis (FHA analysis, coordinate system optimization, and measurement of the joint distances in 3D. Results. The FHA varies by 4.9±1.7° on average. On average, the rotation in adduction/abduction and internal/external rotation were 0.3±0.91° and 0.1±0.97°, respectively. During flexion, a translational motion between 0.06 mm and 0.73 mm was observed. Conclusions. The proposed technique and methods appear to be feasible for the accurate assessment and evaluation of the PIP joint motion in 3D. The presented method may help to gain additional insights for the design of prosthetic implants, rehabilitation, and new orthotic devices.

  11. Design and Vibration Suppression Control of a Modular Elastic Joint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Liu

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel mechatronic design philosophy is introduced to develop a compact modular rotary elastic joint for a humanoid manipulator. The designed elastic joint is mainly composed of a brushless direct current (DC motor, harmonic reducer, customized torsional spring, and fail-safe brake. The customized spring considerably reduces the volume of the elastic joint and facilitates the construction of a humanoid manipulator which employs this joint. The large central hole along the joint axis brings convenience for cabling and the fail-safe brake can guarantee safety when the power is off. In order to reduce the computational burden on the central controller and simplify system maintenance, an expandable electrical system, which has a double-layer control structure, is introduced. Furthermore, a robust position controller for the elastic joint is proposed and interpreted in detail. Vibration of the elastic joint is suppressed by means of resonance ratio control (RRC. In this method, the ratio between the resonant and anti-resonant frequency can be arbitrarily designated according to the feedback of the nominal spring torsion. Instead of using an expensive torque sensor, the spring torque can be obtained by calculating the product of spring stiffness and deformation, due to the high linearity of the customized spring. In addition, to improve the system robustness, a motor-side disturbance observer (DOb and an arm-side DOb are employed to estimate and compensate for external disturbances and system uncertainties, such as model variation, friction, and unknown external load. Validity of the DOb-based RRC is demonstrated in the simulation results. Experimental results show the performance of the modular elastic joint and the viability of the proposed controller further.

  12. Development of a Full Ice-cream Cone Model for Halo Coronal Mass Ejections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Na, Hyeonock; Moon, Y.-J.; Lee, Harim, E-mail: nho0512@khu.ac.kr, E-mail: moonyj@khu.ac.kr [School of Space Research, Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-20

    It is essential to determine three-dimensional parameters (e.g., radial speed, angular width, and source location) of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) for the space weather forecast. In this study, we investigate which cone type represents a halo CME morphology using 29 CMEs (12 Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) /Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph (LASCO) halo CMEs and 17 Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory ( STEREO )/Sun–Earth Connection Coronal and Heliospheric Investigation COR2 halo CMEs) from 2010 December to 2011 June. These CMEs are identified as halo CMEs by one spacecraft ( SOHO or one of STEREO A and B ) and limb ones by the other spacecraft (One of STEREO A and B or SOHO ). From cone shape parameters of these CMEs, such as their front curvature, we find that the CME observational structures are much closer to a full ice-cream cone type than a shallow ice-cream cone type. Thus, we develop a full ice-cream cone model based on a new methodology that the full ice-cream cone consists of many flat cones with different heights and angular widths to estimate the three-dimensional parameters of the halo CMEs. This model is constructed by carrying out the following steps: (1) construct a cone for a given height and angular width, (2) project the cone onto the sky plane, (3) select points comprising the outer boundary, and (4) minimize the difference between the estimated projection speeds with the observed ones. By applying this model to 12 SOHO /LASCO halo CMEs, we find that 3D parameters from our method are similar to those from other stereoscopic methods (i.e., a triangulation method and a Graduated Cylindrical Shell model).

  13. Development of a Full Ice-cream Cone Model for Halo Coronal Mass Ejections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Na, Hyeonock; Moon, Y.-J.; Lee, Harim

    2017-01-01

    It is essential to determine three-dimensional parameters (e.g., radial speed, angular width, and source location) of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) for the space weather forecast. In this study, we investigate which cone type represents a halo CME morphology using 29 CMEs (12 Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) /Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph (LASCO) halo CMEs and 17 Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory ( STEREO )/Sun–Earth Connection Coronal and Heliospheric Investigation COR2 halo CMEs) from 2010 December to 2011 June. These CMEs are identified as halo CMEs by one spacecraft ( SOHO or one of STEREO A and B ) and limb ones by the other spacecraft (One of STEREO A and B or SOHO ). From cone shape parameters of these CMEs, such as their front curvature, we find that the CME observational structures are much closer to a full ice-cream cone type than a shallow ice-cream cone type. Thus, we develop a full ice-cream cone model based on a new methodology that the full ice-cream cone consists of many flat cones with different heights and angular widths to estimate the three-dimensional parameters of the halo CMEs. This model is constructed by carrying out the following steps: (1) construct a cone for a given height and angular width, (2) project the cone onto the sky plane, (3) select points comprising the outer boundary, and (4) minimize the difference between the estimated projection speeds with the observed ones. By applying this model to 12 SOHO /LASCO halo CMEs, we find that 3D parameters from our method are similar to those from other stereoscopic methods (i.e., a triangulation method and a Graduated Cylindrical Shell model).

  14. Development of a Full Ice-cream Cone Model for Halo Coronal Mass Ejections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Hyeonock; Moon, Y.-J.; Lee, Harim

    2017-04-01

    It is essential to determine three-dimensional parameters (e.g., radial speed, angular width, and source location) of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) for the space weather forecast. In this study, we investigate which cone type represents a halo CME morphology using 29 CMEs (12 Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO)/Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph (LASCO) halo CMEs and 17 Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO)/Sun-Earth Connection Coronal and Heliospheric Investigation COR2 halo CMEs) from 2010 December to 2011 June. These CMEs are identified as halo CMEs by one spacecraft (SOHO or one of STEREO A and B) and limb ones by the other spacecraft (One of STEREO A and B or SOHO). From cone shape parameters of these CMEs, such as their front curvature, we find that the CME observational structures are much closer to a full ice-cream cone type than a shallow ice-cream cone type. Thus, we develop a full ice-cream cone model based on a new methodology that the full ice-cream cone consists of many flat cones with different heights and angular widths to estimate the three-dimensional parameters of the halo CMEs. This model is constructed by carrying out the following steps: (1) construct a cone for a given height and angular width, (2) project the cone onto the sky plane, (3) select points comprising the outer boundary, and (4) minimize the difference between the estimated projection speeds with the observed ones. By applying this model to 12 SOHO/LASCO halo CMEs, we find that 3D parameters from our method are similar to those from other stereoscopic methods (I.e., a triangulation method and a Graduated Cylindrical Shell model).

  15. Parameter identification for joint elements in a revolute-joint detector manipulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preissner, C.; Shu, D.; Royston, T.

    2005-01-01

    A revolute-joint robot is being developed for the spatial positioning of an x-ray detector at the Advanced Photon Source. Commercially available revolute-joint manipulators do not meet our size, positioning, or payload specifications. One idea being considered is the modification of a commercially available robot, with the goal of improving the repeatability and trajectory accuracy. Theoretical, computational, and experimental procedures are being used to (1) identify, (2) simulate the dynamics of an existing robot system using a multibody approach, and eventually (3) design an improved version, with low dynamic positioning uncertainty. A key aspect of the modeling and performance prediction is accurate stiffness and damping values for the robot joints. This paper discusses the experimental identification of the stiffness and damping parameters for one robot harmonic drive joint

  16. Patellofemoral joint motion: Evaluation by ultrafast computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanford, W.; Phelan, J.; Kathol, M.H.; Rooholamini, S.A.; El-Khoury, G.Y.; Palutsis, G.R.; Albright, J.P.

    1988-01-01

    Patellofemoral maltracking is a recognized cause of peripatellar pain. Clinicians currently rely on observation, palpation, and static radiographic images to evaluate the symptomatic patient. Ultrafast computed tomography (ultrafast CT) offers objective observations of the dynamic influences of muscle contraction on the patellofemoral joint as the knee is actively moved through a range of motion from 90 0 C flexion of full extension. This study reports our initial observations and establishes a range of normal values so that patients with a clinical suspicion of patellar maltracking may be evaluated. (orig./GDG)

  17. Patellofemoral joint motion: Evaluation by ultrafast computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanford, W.; Phelan, J.; Kathol, M.H.; Rooholamini, S.A.; El-Khoury, G.Y.; Palutsis, G.R.; Albright, J.P.

    1988-10-01

    Patellofemoral maltracking is a recognized cause of peripatellar pain. Clinicians currently rely on observation, palpation, and static radiographic images to evaluate the symptomatic patient. Ultrafast computed tomography (ultrafast CT) offers objective observations of the dynamic influences of muscle contraction on the patellofemoral joint as the knee is actively moved through a range of motion from 90/sup 0/C flexion of full extension. This study reports our initial observations and establishes a range of normal values so that patients with a clinical suspicion of patellar maltracking may be evaluated. (orig./GDG).

  18. Hot prominence detected in the core of a coronal mass ejection: Analysis of SOHO/UVCS L alpha and SOHO/LASCO visible-light observations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Heinzel, Petr; Susino, R.; Jejčič, S.; Bemporad, A.; Anzer, U.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 589, May (2016), A128/1-A128/11 ISSN 0004-6361 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-18495S Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : Sun * filaments * prominences Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 4.378, year: 2014

  19. Steroid-associated hip joint collapse in bipedal emus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Zhen Zheng

    Full Text Available In this study we established a bipedal animal model of steroid-associated hip joint collapse in emus for testing potential treatment protocols to be developed for prevention of steroid-associated joint collapse in preclinical settings. Five adult male emus were treated with a steroid-associated osteonecrosis (SAON induction protocol using combination of pulsed lipopolysaccharide (LPS and methylprednisolone (MPS. Additional three emus were used as normal control. Post-induction, emu gait was observed, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI was performed, and blood was collected for routine examination, including testing blood coagulation and lipid metabolism. Emus were sacrificed at week 24 post-induction, bilateral femora were collected for micro-computed tomography (micro-CT and histological analysis. Asymmetric limping gait and abnormal MRI signals were found in steroid-treated emus. SAON was found in all emus with a joint collapse incidence of 70%. The percentage of neutrophils (Neut % and parameters on lipid metabolism significantly increased after induction. Micro-CT revealed structure deterioration of subchondral trabecular bone. Histomorphometry showed larger fat cell fraction and size, thinning of subchondral plate and cartilage layer, smaller osteoblast perimeter percentage and less blood vessels distributed at collapsed region in SAON group as compared with the normal controls. Scanning electron microscope (SEM showed poor mineral matrix and more osteo-lacunae outline in the collapsed region in SAON group. The combination of pulsed LPS and MPS developed in the current study was safe and effective to induce SAON and deterioration of subchondral bone in bipedal emus with subsequent femoral head collapse, a typical clinical feature observed in patients under pulsed steroid treatment. In conclusion, bipedal emus could be used as an effective preclinical experimental model to evaluate potential treatment protocols to be developed for prevention of

  20. Dynamic modeling method of the bolted joint with uneven distribution of joint surface pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shichao; Gao, Hongli; Liu, Qi; Liu, Bokai

    2018-03-01

    The dynamic characteristics of the bolted joints have a significant influence on the dynamic characteristics of the machine tool. Therefore, establishing a reasonable bolted joint dynamics model is helpful to improve the accuracy of machine tool dynamics model. Because the pressure distribution on the joint surface is uneven under the concentrated force of bolts, a dynamic modeling method based on the uneven pressure distribution of the joint surface is presented in this paper to improve the dynamic modeling accuracy of the machine tool. The analytic formulas between the normal, tangential stiffness per unit area and the surface pressure on the joint surface can be deduced based on the Hertz contact theory, and the pressure distribution on the joint surface can be obtained by the finite element software. Futhermore, the normal and tangential stiffness distribution on the joint surface can be obtained by the analytic formula and the pressure distribution on the joint surface, and assigning it into the finite element model of the joint. Qualitatively compared the theoretical mode shapes and the experimental mode shapes, as well as quantitatively compared the theoretical modal frequencies and the experimental modal frequencies. The comparison results show that the relative error between the first four-order theoretical modal frequencies and the first four-order experimental modal frequencies is 0.2% to 4.2%. Besides, the first four-order theoretical mode shapes and the first four-order experimental mode shapes are similar and one-to-one correspondence. Therefore, the validity of the theoretical model is verified. The dynamic modeling method proposed in this paper can provide a theoretical basis for the accurate dynamic modeling of the bolted joint in machine tools.

  1. Solar flare leaves sun quaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-05-01

    energy, and produce X-rays, microwaves and a shock wave that heats the solar surface. Kosovichev and Zharkova developed a theory that predicts the nature and magnitude of the shock waves that this beam of energetic electrons should create when they slam down into the solar atmosphere. Although their theory directed them to the right area to search for the seismic waves, the waves that they found were 10 times stronger than they had predicted. "They were so strong that you can see them in the raw data," Kosovichev says. The solar seismic waves appear to be compression waves like the "P" waves generated by an earthquake. They travel throughout the Sun's interior. In fact, the waves should recombine on the opposite side of the Sun from the location of the flare to create a faint duplicate of the original ripple pattern, Kosovichev predicts. Now that they know how to find them, the SOHO scientists say that the seismic waves generated by solar flares should allow them to verify independently some of the conditions in the solar interior that they have inferred from studying the pattern of waves that are continually ruffling the Sun's surface. SOHO is part of the International Solar-Terrestrial Physics (ISTP) program, a global effort to observe and understand our star and its effects on our environment. The ISTP mission includes more than 20 satellites, coupled with with ground-based observatories and modeling centers, that allow scientists to study the Sun, the Earth, and the space between them in unprecedented detail. ISTP is a joint program of NASA, ESA, Japan's Institute for Astronautical Science, and Russia's Space Research Institute. Still images of the solar quake can be found at the following internet address: FTP://PAO.GSFC.NASA.GOV/newsmedia/QUAKE/ For further information, please contact : ESA Public Relations Division Tel:+33(0)1.53.69.71.55 Fax: +33(0)1.53.69.76.90 3

  2. Quantifying the impact of transient joint symptoms, chronic joint symptoms, and arthritis: a population-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busija, Lucy; Buchbinder, Rachelle; Osborne, Richard H

    2009-10-15

    To estimate the prevalence and co-occurrence of self-reported doctor-diagnosed arthritis, chronic joint symptoms (pain, aching, stiffness, or swelling on most days for a month), and transient joint symptoms (pain, aching, stiffness, or swelling but not on most days for a month), and to compare the sociodemographic characteristics, activity limitations, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of people with joint conditions with those who have no self-reported doctor-diagnosed arthritis and no joint symptoms. Data from the 2004 population-based South Australian Health Omnibus Survey (n = 2,840, ages 18-96 years) were used in the study. Activity limitations were assessed using 10 activity limitations questions from the Short Form 36 health survey. HRQOL was assessed using the Assessment of Quality of Life scale. Half of all respondents reported having joint problems, with 26%, 11%, and 13% reporting self-reported doctor-diagnosed arthritis, chronic joint symptoms, and transient joint symptoms, respectively. Chronic joint conditions (self-reported doctor-diagnosed arthritis and chronic joint symptoms) accounted for 74% of all joint problems and were associated with higher odds of activity limitations and poorer HRQOL. The frequency of transient and chronic joint symptoms was highest among middle-aged participants (ages 45-54 years for transient and 45-64 years for chronic joint symptoms) and those who had a body mass index in the obese range. Prevalence of self-reported doctor-diagnosed arthritis increased with age and was higher among women and those who were overweight or obese. This study documented the high prevalence and impact of joint conditions in the community. Chronic joint conditions affect daily life and are substantial barriers for effective public health interventions aimed at reducing obesity and inactivity.

  3. Joint Motion Quality in Chondromalacia Progression Assessed by Vibroacoustic Signal Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bączkowicz, Dawid; Majorczyk, Edyta

    2016-11-01

    Because of the specific biomechanical environment of the patellofemoral joint, chondral disorders, including chondromalacia, often are observed in this articulation. Chondromalacia via pathologic changes in cartilage may lead to qualitative impairment of knee joint motion. To determine the patellofemoral joint motion quality in particular chondromalacia stages and to compare with controls. Retrospective, comparative study. Voivodship hospitals, university biomechanical laboratory. A total of 89 knees with chondromalacia (25 with stage I; 30 with stage II and 34 with stage III) from 50 patients and 64 control healthy knees (from 32 individuals). Vibroacoustic signal pattern analysis of joint motion quality. For all knees vibroacoustic signals were recorded. Each obtained signal was described by variation of mean square, mean range (R4), and power spectral density for frequency of 50-250 Hz (P1) and 250-450 Hz (P2) parameters. Differences between healthy controls and all chondromalacic knees as well as chondromalacia patellae groups were observed as an increase of analyzed parameters (P chondromalacia patellae was found. All chondromalacia groups were differentiated by the use of all analyzed parameters (P chondromalacia. Chondromalacia generates abnormal vibroacoustic signals, and there seems to be a relationship between the level of signal amplitude as well as frequency and cartilage destruction from the superficial layer to the subchondral bone. IV. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Can symptomatic acromioclavicular joints be differentiated from asymptomatic acromioclavicular joints on 3-T MR imaging?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Hye Jung; Lee, Sun Joo; Kim, Jung Han; Cha, Seong Sook; Park, Young Mi; Park, Ji Sung; Lee, Jun Woo; Oh, Minkyung

    2013-04-01

    To evaluate retrospectively whether symptomatic acromioclavicular joints can be differentiated from asymptomatic acromioclavicular joints on 3-T MR imaging. This study included 146 patients who underwent physical examination of acromioclavicular joints and 3-T MR imaging of the shoulder. Among them, 67 patients showing positive results on physical examination were assigned to the symptomatic group, whereas 79 showing negative results were assigned to the asymptomatic group. The following MR findings were compared between the symptomatic and asymptomatic groups: presence of osteophytes, articular surface irregularity, subchondral cysts, acromioclavicular joint fluid, subacromial fluid, subacromial bony spurs, joint capsular distension, bone edema, intraarticular enhancement, periarticular enhancement, superior and inferior joint capsular distension degree, and joint capsular thickness. The patients were subsequently divided into groups based on age (younger, older) and the method of MR arthrography (direct MR arthrography, indirect MR arthrography), and all the MR findings in each subgroup were reanalyzed. The meaningful cutoff value of each significant continuous variable was calculated using receiver operating characteristic analysis. The degree of superior capsular distension was the only significant MR finding of symptomatic acromioclavicular joints and its meaningful cutoff value was 2.1mm. After subgroup analyses, this variable was significant in the older age group and indirect MR arthrography group. On 3-T MR imaging, the degree of superior joint capsular distension might be a predictable MR finding in the diagnosis of symptomatic acromioclavicular joints. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. MP Joint Arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... All Topics A-Z Videos Infographics Symptom Picker Anatomy Bones Joints Muscles Nerves Vessels Tendons About Hand Surgery What is a Hand Surgeon? What is a Hand Therapist? Media Find a Hand Surgeon Home Anatomy MP Joint Arthritis Email to a friend * required ...

  6. Influence of solder joint length to the mechanical aspect during the thermal stress analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, J. S.; Khor, C. Y.; Rahim, Wan Mohd Faizal Wan Abd; Ishak, Muhammad Ikman; Rosli, M. U.; Jamalludin, Mohd Riduan; Zakaria, M. S.; Nawi, M. A. M.; Aziz, M. S. Abdul; Ani, F. Che

    2017-09-01

    Solder joint is an important interconnector in surface mount technology (SMT) assembly process. The real time stress, strain and displacement of the solder joint is difficult to observe and assess the experiment. To tackle these problems, simulation analysis was employed to study the von Mises stress, strain and displacement in the thermal stress analysis by using Finite element based software. In this study, a model of leadless electronic package was considered. The thermal stress analysis was performed to investigate the effect of the solder length to those mechanical aspects. The simulation results revealed that solder length gives significant effect to the maximum von Mises stress to the solder joint. Besides, changes in solder length also influence the displacement of the solder joint in the thermal environment. The increment of the solder length significantly reduces the von Mises stress and strain on the solder joint. Thus, the understanding of the physical parameter for solder joint is important for engineer prior to designing the solder joint of the electronic component.

  7. Potential of optical spectral transmission measurements for joint inflammation measurements in rheumatoid arthritis patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, A. J. Louise; Rensen, Wouter H. J.; de Bokx, Pieter K.; de Nijs, Ron N. J.

    2012-08-01

    Frequent monitoring of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients enables timely treatment adjustments and improved outcomes. Currently this is not feasible due to a shortage of rheumatologists. An optical spectral transmission device is presented for objective assessment of joint inflammation in RA patients, while improving diagnostic accuracy and clinical workflow. A cross-sectional, nonrandomized observational study was performed with this device. In the study, 77 proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joints in 67 patients have been analyzed. Inflammation of these PIP joints was also assessed by a rheumatologist with a score varying from 1 (not inflamed) to 5 (severely inflamed). Out of 77 measurements, 27 were performed in moderate to strongly inflamed PIP joints. Comparison between the clinical assessment and an optical measurement showed a correlation coefficient r=0.63, p<0.001, 95% CI [0.47, 0.75], and a ROC curve (AUC=0.88) that shows a relative good specificity and sensitivity. Optical spectral transmission measurements in a single joint correlate with clinical assessment of joint inflammation, and therefore might be useful in monitoring joint inflammation in RA patients.

  8. Functional disorders of the temporomandibular joints: Internal derangement of the temporomandibular joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chih-Ling; Wang, Ding-Han; Yang, Mu-Chen; Hsu, Wun-Eng; Hsu, Ming-Lun

    2018-04-01

    Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is one of the most complex joints of the human body. Due to its unique movement, in terms of combination of rotation and translator movement, disc of the joint plays an important role to maintain its normal function. In order to sustain the normal function of the TMJ, disc must be kept in proper position as well as maintain normal shape in all circumstances. Once the disc is not any more in its normal position during function of the joint, disturbance of the joint can be occurred which will lead to subsequent distortion of the disc. Shape of the disc can be influenced by many factors i.e.: abnormal function or composition of the disc itself. Etiology of the internal derangement of the disc remains controversial. Multifactorial theory has been postulated in most of previous manuscripts. Disc is composed of mainly extracellular matrix. Abnormal proportion of collagen type I & III may also leads to joint hypermobility which may be also a predisposing factor of this disorder. Thus it can be recognized as local manifestation of a systemic disorder. Different treatment modalities with from conservative treatment to surgical intervention distinct success rate have been reported. Recently treatment with extracellular matrix injection becomes more and more popular to strengthen the joint itself. Since multifactorial in character, the best solution of the treatment modalities should be aimed to resolve possible etiology from different aspects. Team work may be indication to reach satisfied results. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  9. Verification of Strength of the Welded Joints by using of the Aramis Video System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pała Tadeusz

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the paper are presented the results of strength analysis for the two types of the welded joints made according to conventional and laser technologies of high-strength steel S960QC. The hardness distributions, tensile properties and fracture toughness were determined for the weld material and heat affect zone material for both types of the welded joints. Tests results shown on advantage the laser welded joints in comparison to the convention ones. Tensile properties and fracture toughness in all areas of the laser joints have a higher level than in the conventional one. The heat affect zone of the conventional welded joints is a weakness area, where the tensile properties are lower in comparison to the base material. Verification of the tensile tests, which carried out by using the Aramis video system, confirmed this assumption. The highest level of strains was observed in HAZ material and the destruction process occurred also in HAZ of the conventional welded joint.

  10. Triple correlation in temporomandibular joint dysfunction: MR imaging with arthrography, arthroscopy, and open surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, V.M.; Farole, A.; Karasick, D.

    1988-01-01

    Triple correlation of MR imaging with arthrography, arthroscopy, and open surgery was performed in 24 patients (34 temporomandibular joints) with ages ranging from 17 to 66 years. MR imaging showed disk position and morphologic features accurately in 30 joints (88%). It was false negative in one joint and false positive in three joints (9%). Degenerative changes were accurately detected with MR imaging, arthrography, and arthroscopy. Adhesions were diagnosed with arthrography in eight joints, arthroscopy in 14, and MR imaging in none. Disk perforations seen at open surgery were not detected with MR imaging. In conclusion, there is an overlap of information presented by various modalities. MR imaging is better than arthrography detecting disk morphologic features and displacement. Arthrography may add information by showing meniscal dynamics. Arthroscopy entails direct observation of superior joint space only and can detect adhesions and perforations better, but it may alter disk position and dynamics. In the more difficult cases, triple correlation may be needed, as modalities can be complementary

  11. Water flow in single rock joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakami, Eva

    1989-05-01

    To study the hydromechanical properties of single rock joints a technique to make transparent replicas of natural joint surfaces has been developed. Five different joint samples were replicated and studied. The aperture distribution of the joints were obtained through a measurement method provided by the transparent replicas. The principle behind the method is that a water drop with a known volume, which is placed inside a joint, will cover a certain area of the surface depending on the average size of aperture at the actual point. Flow tests were performed on the same joint replicas. The tortuousity of the flow and the velocity along single stream lines were measured using colour injections into the water flow through the joints. The equivalent hydraulic apertures determined from the flow tests where shown to be smaller than the average mechanical apertures. The velocity of the flow varies strongly between different paths over the joint depending on the spatial distribution of the apertures. The degree of matedness between the joint surfaces is an important factor influencing the channeling character of the joints. (author) (38 refs.)

  12. Application of low field intensity joint MRI in ankle injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhenyu; Wang Wei

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To observe the diagnostic value of the low field intensity joint magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in traumatic ankles. Methods: Through a retrospective examination and collection of 50 cases with complete information and checked by arthroscope or/and operated from Jan 2007 to Jun 2010, the diagnostic value ligament of the ankle joint, bone contusion,occult fracture, talus cartilage, and tendon could be evaluated. Cases of fracture for which could be diagnosed by X rays and CT were not included in this research. Results: The special low field intensity joint MRI had a high diagnostic sensitivity of 88.9% to ligamentum talofibulare anterius, but was only 50% sensitive to ligamentum calcaneofibulare. Its sensitivity to injury of ligamentum deltoideum and distal tibiofibular syndesmosis was up to 100%. Tendon injury, bone contusion and occult fracture could be exactly diagnosed. Its total sensitivity on talus cartilage traumatism was 70.6%. Its diagnosis sensitivity to talus cartilage traumatism at the 3rd-5th period by Mintz was 90%, with a lower one of 42.9% at the 1st-2nd period. Talus cartilage traumatism could be exactly predicted by osseous tissue dropsy below cartilage. Conclusion: The special low field intensity joint MRI is highly applicable to the diagnosis on ankle joint traumatism and facilitates clinical treatment. (authors)

  13. Bistable Articulated Joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graighead, Norwood D., II; Preliasco, R. J.; Hult, T. D.

    1986-01-01

    Joint with four-bar-linkage geometry has following attributes: Springs to fully extended fully folded positions. Automatically locks in its extended position. Joint combines zero backlash, positive locking, and centerline pivoting. Used in folding tool handles, portable antenna booms, and many other deployable structures.

  14. [Classification and Treatment of Sacroiliac Joint Dislocation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Zhen; Huang, Zhong; Li, Liang; Meng, Wei-Kun; Liu, Lei; Zhang, Hui; Wang, Guang-Lin; Huang, Fu-Guo

    2017-09-01

    To develop a renewed classification and treatment regimen for sacroiliac joint dislocation. According to the direction of dislocation of sacroiliac joint,combined iliac,sacral fractures,and fracture morphology,sacroiliac joint dislocation was classified into 4 types. Type Ⅰ (sacroiliac anterior dislocation): main fracture fragments of posterior iliac wing dislocated in front of sacroiliac joint. Type Ⅱ (sacroiliac posterior dislocation): main fracture fragments of posterior iliac wing dislocated in posterior of sacroiliac joint. Type Ⅲ (Crescent fracturedislocation of the sacroiliac joint): upward dislocation of posterior iliac wing with oblique fracture through posterior iliac wing. Type ⅢA: a large crescent fragment and dislocation comprises no more than onethird of sacroiliac joint,which is typically inferior. Type ⅢB: intermediatesize crescent fragment and dislocation comprises between one and twothirds of joint. Type ⅢC: a small crescent fragment where dislocation comprises most,but not the entire joint. Different treatment regimens were selected for different types of fractures. Treatment for type Ⅰ sacroiliac joint dislocation: anterior iliac fossa approach pry stripping reset; sacroiliac joint fixed with sacroiliac screw through percutaneous. Treatment for type Ⅱ sacroiliac joint dislocation: posterior sacroiliac joint posterior approach; sacroiliac joint fixed with sacroiliac screw under computer guidance. Treatment for type ⅢA and ⅢB sacroiliac joint dislocation: posterior sacroiliac joint approach; sacroiliac joint fixed with reconstruction plate. Treatment for type ⅢC sacroiliac joint dislocation: sacroiliac joint closed reduction; sacroiliac joint fixed with sacroiliac screw through percutaneous. Treatment for type Ⅳ sacroiliac joint dislocation: posterior approach; sacroiliac joint fixed with spinal pelvic fixation. Results of 24 to 72 months patient follow-up (mean 34.5 months): 100% survival,100% wound healing,and 100

  15. First 3D view of solar eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-07-01

    CME as seen by LASCO Figure 1. A classical three-part CME inside the LASCO C3 field of view, showing a bright frontal loop (shaped like a lightbulb)surrounding a dark cavity with a bright core. This CME is headed roughly 90 degrees away from Earth. The uniform disk in the centre of the image is where the occulter is placed, blocking out all direct sunlight. The approximate size of the Sun is indicated by the white circle in the middle. Click here CME as seen by LASCO Figure 2. A similar CME heading almost directly towards Earth, observed by LASCO C2 which has a smaller field of view than C3. The size of the Sun is indicated by the larger circle, and the x-marked circle on the Sun shows the origin of the CME. Panel a shows the total intensity (darker means more intensity) as imaged directly by LASCO. Only the narrow lower end of the 'lightbulb' shape is visible - the widest portion has expanded beyond the field of view, whereas the front part and the core are too dim to be seen or hidden behind the occulter. Panel d is a topographic map of the material shown in panel a. The distance from the plane of the Sun to the material is colour coded - the scale in units of solar radii is shown on the side. Panels b and c show the intensity as it would have appeared to an observer positioned to the side of the Sun or directly above it, respectively. Click here CMEs are the most powerful eruptions in the Solar System, with thousands of millions of tonnes of electrified gas being blasted from the Sun's atmosphere into space at millions of kilometres per hour. Researchers believe that CMEs are launched when solar magnetic fields become strained and suddenly 'snap' to a new configuration, like a rubber band that has been twisted to the breaking point. To fully understand the origin of these powerful blasts and the process that launches them from the Sun, scientists need to see the structure of CMEs in three dimensions. "Views in three dimensions will help us to better predict CME

  16. Facet joint syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zigrai, M.; Zakovic, J.; Brezinova, M.; Pavlovicova, M.

    2002-01-01

    It is the purpose of the study to demonstrate the clinical relevance of degenerative changes in the facet joint of patients with low back pain irradiating to the lower extremities, and discuss some problems relating to diagnosis and different diagnosis. 119 patients presenting the listed bellow syndromes are covered by the study: scoliosis, polytopic pain vertebral syndrome, paresis and history of trauma. all patients undergo comprehensive neurological examination with special attention focused on the spine: CT and plain x-rays are taken of the lumbosacral segment to assess the condition of the facet joints. The neurological examination demonstrates in all cases pain syndrome in the lumbar spine referred to one or both lower extremities. In 56% it is a matter of persisting pain, and in 44% - recurrent. More than half of the patients complain of sacroiliac (SI) dislocation and palpatory pain. Unilateral or bilateral degenerative changes are documented by imaging studies in all patients, including: subchondral thickening, osteopathy narrowing the lateral or central part of the spinal canal with ensuing nerve root compression. The lumbosacral zygoapophyseal joints are source of pseudoradicular pain. A correlation between clinical picture and GT changes is noted in all patients with facet joint syndrome. CT is an indispensable method in diagnosing facet joint syndrome. (authors)

  17. Lower limb joint work and joint work contribution during downhill and uphill walking at different inclinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Nathalie; Strutzenberger, Gerda; Ameshofer, Lisa Maria; Schwameder, Hermann

    2017-08-16

    Work performance and individual joint contribution to total work are important information for creating training protocols, but were not assessed so far for sloped walking. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to analyze lower limb joint work and joint contribution of the hip, knee and ankle to total lower limb work during sloped walking in a healthy population. Eighteen male participants (27.0±4.7yrs, 1.80±0.05m, 74.5±8.2kg) walked on an instrumented ramp at inclination angles of 0°, ±6°, ±12° and ±18° at 1.1m/s. Kinematic and kinetic data were captured using a motion-capture system (Vicon) and two force plates (AMTI). Joint power curves, joint work (positive, negative, absolute) and each joint's contribution to total lower limb work were analyzed throughout the stance phase using an ANOVA with repeated measures. With increasing inclination positive joint work increased for the ankle and hip joint and in total during uphill walking. Negative joint work increased for each joint and in total work during downhill walking. Absolute work was increased during both uphill (all joints) and downhill (ankle & knee) walking. Knee joint contribution to total negative and absolute work increased during downhill walking while hip and ankle contributions decreased. This study identified, that, when switching from level to a 6° and from 6° to a 12° inclination the gain of individual joint work is more pronounced compared to switching from 12° to an 18° inclination. The results might be used for training recommendations and specific training intervention with respect to sloped walking. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. JOINT ANALYSIS OF X-RAY AND SUNYAEV-ZEL'DOVICH OBSERVATIONS OF GALAXY CLUSTERS USING AN ANALYTIC MODEL OF THE INTRACLUSTER MEDIUM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasler, Nicole; Bulbul, Esra; Bonamente, Massimiliano; Landry, David [Department of Physics, University of Alabama, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States); Carlstrom, John E.; Culverhouse, Thomas L.; Gralla, Megan; Greer, Christopher; Hennessy, Ryan; Leitch, Erik M.; Mantz, Adam; Marrone, Daniel P.; Plagge, Thomas [Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Hawkins, David; Lamb, James W.; Muchovej, Stephen [Owens Valley Radio Observatory, California Institute of Technology, Big Pine, CA 93513 (United States); Joy, Marshall; Kolodziejczak, Jeffery [Space Science-VP62, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Miller, Amber [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Mroczkowski, Tony [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); and others

    2012-04-01

    We perform a joint analysis of X-ray and Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect data using an analytic model that describes the gas properties of galaxy clusters. The joint analysis allows the measurement of the cluster gas mass fraction profile and Hubble constant independent of cosmological parameters. Weak cosmological priors are used to calculate the overdensity radius within which the gas mass fractions are reported. Such an analysis can provide direct constraints on the evolution of the cluster gas mass fraction with redshift. We validate the model and the joint analysis on high signal-to-noise data from the Chandra X-ray Observatory and the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Array for two clusters, A2631 and A2204.

  19. Improving observational study estimates of treatment effects using joint modeling of selection effects and outcomes: the case of AAA repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, A James; Cotterill, Philip; Schermerhorn, Marc L; Landon, Bruce E

    2011-12-01

    When 2 treatment approaches are available, there are likely to be unmeasured confounders that influence choice of procedure, which complicates estimation of the causal effect of treatment on outcomes using observational data. To estimate the effect of endovascular (endo) versus open surgical (open) repair, including possible modification by institutional volume, on survival after treatment for abdominal aortic aneurysm, accounting for observed and unobserved confounding variables. Observational study of data from the Medicare program using a joint model of treatment selection and survival given treatment to estimate the effects of type of surgery and institutional volume on survival. We studied 61,414 eligible repairs of intact abdominal aortic aneurysms during 2001 to 2004. The outcome, perioperative death, is defined as in-hospital death or death within 30 days of operation. The key predictors are use of endo, transformed endo and open volume, and endo-volume interactions. There is strong evidence of nonrandom selection of treatment with potential confounding variables including institutional volume and procedure date, variables not typically adjusted for in clinical trials. The best fitting model included heterogeneous transformations of endo volume for endo cases and open volume for open cases as predictors. Consistent with our hypothesis, accounting for unmeasured selection reduced the mortality benefit of endo. The effect of endo versus open surgery varies nonlinearly with endo and open volume. Accounting for institutional experience and unmeasured selection enables better decision-making by physicians making treatment referrals, investigators evaluating treatments, and policy makers.

  20. Behavior of an epoxy-polysulfide adhesive in wood joints exposed to moisture content changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon P. Krueger

    1965-01-01

    The mechanical behavior of a flexible epoxy-resin adhesive system was observed in joints of plywood to lumber. The joints were subjected to internal swelling stresses caused by an increase in moisture content. Previous experimental work at the U.S. Forest Products Laboratory has shown that this adhesive system acts as a strain-absorbing cushion and thus has a...

  1. Fluoroscopy-Guided Sacroiliac Intraarticular Injection via the Middle Portion of the Joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurosawa, Daisuke; Murakami, Eiichi; Aizawa, Toshimi

    2017-09-01

    Sacroiliac intraarticular injection is necessary to confirm sacroiliac joint (SIJ) pain and is usually performed via the caudal one-third portion of the joint. However, this is occasionally impossible for anatomical reasons, and the success rate is low in clinical settings. We describe a technique via the middle portion of the joint. Observational study. Enrolled were 69 consecutive patients (27 men and 42 women, with an average age of 53 years) in whom the middle portion of 100 joints was targeted. With the patient lying prone-oblique with the painful side down, a spinal needle was inserted into the middle portion of the joint. Subsequently, the fluoroscopy tube was angled at a caudal tilt of 25-30° to clearly detect the recess between the ilium and sacrum and the needle depth and direction. When the needle reached the posterior joint line, 2% lidocaine was injected after the contrast medium outlined the joint. The success rate of the injection method was 80% (80/100). Among 80 successful cases, four were previously unsuccessful when the conventional method was used. Intraarticular injection using the new technique was unsuccessful in 20 joints; in three of these cases, the conventional method proved successful, and no techniques were successful in the other 17 cases. The injection technique via the middle portion of the joint can overcome some of the difficulties of the conventional injection method and can improve the chances of successful intraarticular injection. © 2016 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  2. [Temporo-mandibular joint. Morpho-functional considerations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scutariu, M D; Indrei, Anca

    2004-01-01

    The temporo-mandibular joint is distinguished from most other synovial joints of the body by two features: 1. the two jointed components carry teeth whose position and occlusion introduce a very strong influence on the movements of the temporo-mandibular joint and 2. its articular surfaces are not covered by hyaline cartilage, but by a dense, fibrous tissue. This paper describes the parts of the temporo-mandibular joint: the articular surfaces (the condylar process of the mandible and the glenoid part of the temporal bone), the fibrocartilaginous disc which is interposed between the mandibular and the temporal surface, the fibrous capsule of the temporo-mandibular joint and the ligaments of this joint. All these parts present a very strong adaptation at the important functions of the temporo-mandibular joint.

  3. Utilization of Facet Joint and Sacroiliac Joint Interventions in Medicare Population from 2000 to 2014: Explosive Growth Continues!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Hirsch, Joshua A; Pampati, Vidyasagar; Boswell, Mark V

    2016-10-01

    Increasing utilization of interventional techniques in managing chronic spinal pain, specifically facet joint interventions and sacroiliac joint injections, is a major concern of healthcare policy makers. We analyzed the patterns of utilization of facet and sacroiliac joint interventions in managing chronic spinal pain. The results showed significant increase of facet joint interventions and sacroiliac joint injections from 2000 to 2014 in Medicare FFS service beneficiaries. Overall, the Medicare population increased 35 %, whereas facet joint and sacroiliac joint interventions increased 313.3 % per 100,000 Medicare population with an annual increase of 10.7 %. While the increases were uniform from 2000 to 2014, there were some decreases noted for facet joint interventions in 2007, 2010, and 2013, whereas for sacroiliac joint injections, the decreases were noted in 2007 and 2013. The increases were for cervical and thoracic facet neurolysis at 911.5 % compared to lumbosacral facet neurolysis of 567.8 %, 362.9 % of cervical and thoracic facet joint blocks, 316.9 % of sacroiliac joints injections, and finally 227.3 % of lumbosacral facet joint blocks.

  4. The influence of joint technologies on ELV recyclability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soo, Vi Kie; Compston, Paul; Doolan, Matthew

    2017-10-01

    Stricter vehicle emission legislation has led to the increasing use of lightweight materials and multi-material concepts to reduce the vehicle mass. To account for the complexity of multi-material vehicle designs, the choice of joining techniques used is becoming more diverse. Moreover, the different material combinations, and their respective joining methods play an important role in determining the potential of full material separation in a closed-loop system. This paper evaluates the types of joining technologies used in the automotive industry, and identifies those that hinder the sorting of ELV materials. The study is based on an industrial shredding trial of car doors. Observations from the case study showed that steel screws and bolts are increasingly used to combine different material types and are less likely to be perfectly liberated during the shredding process. The characteristics of joints that lead to impurities and valuable material losses, such as joint strength, material type, size, diameter, location, and protrusion level, can influence the material liberation in the current sorting practices and thus, lead to ELV waste minimisation. Additionally, the liberation of joints is also affected by the density and thickness of materials being joined. Correlation analyses are carried out to further support the influence of mechanical screws and bolts on material separation efficiencies. The observations are representative of the initial phases of current global ELV sorting practices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Pluralism in Theories of Responsibility: Joint Criminal Enterprise versus Joint Perpetration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cupido, M.; van Sliedregt, E.; Vasiliev, S.

    2014-01-01

    This paper scrutinizes the alleged pluralism between JCE and joint perpetration. It illustrates that the ICC and the ICTY in practice establish criminal responsibility under JCE and joint perpetration based on the participants’ cooperation in, and informed contribution to, a (criminal) organization

  6. Joint attention studies in normal and autistic children using NIRS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Ujwal; Hall, Michael; Gutierrez, Anibal; Messinger, Daniel; Rey, Gustavo; Godavarty, Anuradha

    2011-03-01

    Autism is a socio-communication brain development disorder. It is marked by degeneration in the ability to respond to joint attention skill task, from as early as 12 to 18 months of age. This trait is used to distinguish autistic from nonautistic. In this study Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is being applied for the first time to study the difference in activation and connectivity in the frontal cortex of typically developing (TD) and autistic children between 4-8 years of age in response to joint attention task. The optical measurements are acquired in real time from frontal cortex using Imagent (ISS Inc.) - a frequency domain based NIRS system in response to video clips which engenders a feeling of joint attention experience in the subjects. A block design consisting of 5 blocks of following sequence 30 sec joint attention clip (J), 30 sec non-joint attention clip (NJ) and 30 sec rest condition is used. Preliminary results from TD child shows difference in brain activation (in terms of oxy-hemoglobin, HbO) during joint attention interaction compared to the nonjoint interaction and rest. Similar activation study did not reveal significant differences in HbO across the stimuli in, unlike in an autistic child. Extensive studies are carried out to validate the initial observations from both brain activation as well as connectivity analysis. The result has significant implication for research in neural pathways associated with autism that can be mapped using NIRS.

  7. Sex Differences in Limb and Joint Stiffness in Recreational Runners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinclair Jonathan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Female runners are known to be at greater risk from chronic running injuries than age-matched males, although the exact mechanisms are often poorly understood. The aim of the current investigation was to determine if female recreational runners exhibit distinct limb and joint stiffness characteristics in relation to their male counterparts. Methods. Fourteen male and fourteen female runners ran over a force platform at 4.0 m · s-1. Lower limb kinematics were collected using an eight-camera optoelectric motion capture system operating at 250 Hz. Measures of limb and joint stiffness were calculated as a function of limb length and joint moments divided by the extent of limb and joint excursion. All stiffness and joint moment parameters were normalized to body mass. Sex differences in normalized limb and knee and ankle joint stiffness were examined statistically using independent samples t tests. Results. The results indicate that normalized limb (male = 0.18 ± 0.07, female = 0.37 ± 0.10 kN · kg · m-1 and knee stiffness (male = 5.59 ± 2.02, female = 7.34 ± 1.78 Nm · kg · rad-1 were significantly greater in female runners. Conclusions. On the basis that normalized knee and limb stiffness were shown to be significantly greater in female runners, the findings from the current investigation may provide further insight into the aetiology of the distinct injury patterns observed between sexes.

  8. Measurement Uncertainty Relations for Discrete Observables: Relative Entropy Formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barchielli, Alberto; Gregoratti, Matteo; Toigo, Alessandro

    2018-02-01

    We introduce a new information-theoretic formulation of quantum measurement uncertainty relations, based on the notion of relative entropy between measurement probabilities. In the case of a finite-dimensional system and for any approximate joint measurement of two target discrete observables, we define the entropic divergence as the maximal total loss of information occurring in the approximation at hand. For fixed target observables, we study the joint measurements minimizing the entropic divergence, and we prove the general properties of its minimum value. Such a minimum is our uncertainty lower bound: the total information lost by replacing the target observables with their optimal approximations, evaluated at the worst possible state. The bound turns out to be also an entropic incompatibility degree, that is, a good information-theoretic measure of incompatibility: indeed, it vanishes if and only if the target observables are compatible, it is state-independent, and it enjoys all the invariance properties which are desirable for such a measure. In this context, we point out the difference between general approximate joint measurements and sequential approximate joint measurements; to do this, we introduce a separate index for the tradeoff between the error of the first measurement and the disturbance of the second one. By exploiting the symmetry properties of the target observables, exact values, lower bounds and optimal approximations are evaluated in two different concrete examples: (1) a couple of spin-1/2 components (not necessarily orthogonal); (2) two Fourier conjugate mutually unbiased bases in prime power dimension. Finally, the entropic incompatibility degree straightforwardly generalizes to the case of many observables, still maintaining all its relevant properties; we explicitly compute it for three orthogonal spin-1/2 components.

  9. Elbow joint instability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Bo Sanderhoff; Henriksen, M G; Søjbjerg, Jens Ole

    1994-01-01

    The effect of simultaneous ulnar and radial collateral ligament division on the kinematics of the elbow joint is studied in a cadaveric model. Severance of the anterior part of the ulnar collateral ligament and the annular ligament led to significant elbow joint instability in valgus and varus...

  10. Imaging and spectroscopic observations of the 9 March 2016 Total Solar Eclipse in Palangkaraya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kholish, Abdul Majid Al; Jihad, Imanul; Andika, Irham Taufik; Puspitaningrum, Evaria; Ainy, Fathin Q.; Ramadhan, Sahlan; Arifyanto, M. Ikbal; Malasan, Hakim L.

    2016-01-01

    The March 9 th 2016 total solar eclipse observation was carried out at Universitas Palangkaraya, Central Kalimantan. Time-resolved imaging of the Sun has been conducted before, after, and during totality of eclipse while optical spectroscopic observation has been carried out only at the totality. The imaging observation in white light was done to take high resolution images of solar corona. The images were taken with a DSLR camera that is attached to a refractor telescope (d=66 mm, f/5.9). Despite cloudy weather during the eclipse moments, we managed to obtain the images with lower signal-to-noise ratio, including identifiable diamond ring, prominence and coronal structure. The images were processed using standard reduction procedure to increase the signal-to-noise ratio and to enhance the corona. Then, the coronal structure is determined and compared with ultraviolet data from SOHO to analyze the correlation between visual and ultraviolet corona. The spectroscopic observation was conducted using a slit-less spectrograph and a DSLR camera to obtain solar flash spectra. The flash spectra taken during the eclipse show emissions of H 4861 Å, He I 5876 Å, and H 6563 Å. The Fe XIV 5303 Å and Fe X 6374 Å lines are hardly detected due to low signal-to-noise ratio. Spectral reduction and analysis are conducted to derive the emission lines intensity relative to continuum intensity. We use the measured parameters to determine the temperature of solar chromosphere. (paper)

  11. CME Dynamics Using STEREO and LASCO Observations: The Relative Importance of Lorentz Forces and Solar Wind Drag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachdeva, Nishtha; Subramanian, Prasad; Vourlidas, Angelos; Bothmer, Volker

    2017-09-01

    We seek to quantify the relative contributions of Lorentz forces and aerodynamic drag on the propagation of solar coronal mass ejections (CMEs). We use Graduated Cylindrical Shell (GCS) model fits to a representative set of 38 CMEs observed with the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) and the Solar and Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) spacecraft. We find that the Lorentz forces generally peak between 1.65 and 2.45 R⊙ for all CMEs. For fast CMEs, Lorentz forces become negligible in comparison to aerodynamic drag as early as 3.5 - 4 R⊙. For slow CMEs, however, they become negligible only by 12 - 50 R⊙. For these slow events, our results suggest that some of the magnetic flux might be expended in CME expansion or heating. In other words, not all of it contributes to the propagation. Our results are expected to be important in building a physical model for understanding the Sun-Earth dynamics of CMEs.

  12. Forced-air warming discontinued: periprosthetic joint infection rates drop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott D. Augustine

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have shown that the waste heat from forced-air warming (FAW escapes near the floor and warms the contaminated air resident near the floor. The waste heat then forms into convection currents that rise up and contaminate the sterile field above the surgical table. It has been shown that a single airborne bacterium can cause a periprosthetic joint infection (PJI following joint replacement surgery. We retrospectively compared PJI rates during a period of FAW to a period of air-free conductive fabric electric warming (CFW at three hospitals. Surgical and antibiotic protocols were held constant. The pooled multicenter data showed a decreased PJI rate of 78% following the discontinuation of FAW and a switch to air-free CFW (n=2034; P=0.002. The 78% reduction in joint implant infections observed when FAW was discontinued suggests that there is a link between the waste FAW heat and PJIs.

  13. Do the radial head prosthesis components fit with the anatomical structures of the proximal radioulnar joint?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegmann, Kilian; Hain, Moritz K; Ries, Christian; Neiss, Wolfram F; Müller, Lars P; Burkhart, Klaus J

    2015-09-01

    The fitting accuracy of radial head components has been investigated in the capitulo-radial joint, and reduced contact after prosthetic replacement of the radial head has been observed. The kinematics of the proximal radioulnar joint (PRUJ) are affected by radial head arthroplasty as well, but have not yet been investigated in this regard. The elbow joints of 60 upper extremities of formalin-fixed body donors were disarticulated to obtain a good view of the PRUJ. Each specimen was mounted on the examining table and radial head position in the native PRUJ was assessed in neutral position, full pronation, and full supination. Measurements were repeated after implantation of mono- and bi-polar prostheses. Analysis of the distribution of the joint contacts in the compartments showed significant differences after radial head replacement. In comparison to the native joint, after bipolar and monopolar radial head replacement, the physiological shift of the proximal radius was altered. The physiological shift of the joint contact of the radial head from anterior to posterior during forearm rotation that was found in the native joint in our cadaver model was not observed after prosthetic replacement. With higher conformity and physiological kinematic of radial head prostheses, possibly lower shear forces and lower contact pressures would be generated. The tested radial head prostheses do not replicate the physiological kinematics of the radial head. Further development in the prosthesis design has to be made. The meticulous reconstruction of the annular ligament seems to be of importance to increase joint contact.

  14. Preoperative Pain Neuroscience Education Combined With Knee Joint Mobilization for Knee Osteoarthritis: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lluch, Enrique; Dueñas, Lirios; Falla, Deborah; Baert, Isabel; Meeus, Mira; Sánchez-Frutos, José; Nijs, Jo

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to first compare the effects of a preoperative treatment combining pain neuroscience education (PNE) with knee joint mobilization versus biomedical education with knee joint mobilization on central sensitization (CS) in patients with knee osteoarthritis, both before and after surgery. Second, we wanted to compare the effects of both interventions on knee pain, disability, and psychosocial variables. Forty-four patients with knee osteoarthritis were allocated to receive 4 sessions of either PNE combined with knee joint mobilization or biomedical education with knee joint mobilization before surgery. All participants completed self-administered questionnaires and quantitative sensory testing was performed at baseline, after treatment and at a 1 month follow-up (all before surgery), and at 3 months after surgery. Significant and clinically relevant differences before and after surgery were found after treatments for both knee pain and disability, and some measures of CS (ie, widespread hyperalgesia, CS inventory), with no significant between-group differences. Other indicators of CS (ie, conditioned pain modulation, temporal summation) did not change over time following either treatment, and in some occasions the observed changes were not in the expected direction. Patients receiving PNE with knee joint mobilization achieved greater improvements in psychosocial variables (pain catastrophizing, kinesiophobia) both before and after surgery. Preoperative PNE combined with knee joint mobilization did not produce any additional benefits over time for knee pain and disability, and CS measures compared with biomedical education with knee joint mobilization. Superior effects in the PNE with knee joint mobilization group were only observed for psychosocial variables related to pain catastrophizing and kinesiophobia.

  15. Fatigue strength evaluation of friction stir welded aluminium joints using the nominal and notch stress concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barsoum, Z.; Khurshid, M.; Barsoum, I.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Fatigue testing and evaluation of friction stir welded butt and overlap joints. ► Evaluation based on nominal and effective notch stress concept. ► Comparison with different design recommendations and codes. ► Higher fatigue strength and SN-slopes is observed. ► New fatigue design recommendations proposed for FSW joints. -- Abstract: In this study the fatigue strength is investigated for Friction Stir Welded (FSW) overlap and butt welded joints in different thicknesses based on nominal and effective notch stress concepts. The fatigue test results are compared with fatigue strength recommendations according to EN 1999-1-3 and International Institute of Welding (IIW). The results are also compared with available published data and Finite Element Analysis (FEA) is carried out to investigate the effect of plate thickness and nugget size on the fatigue strength of overlap joints. 3–3 mm butt welded joints shows the highest fatigue strength in comparison with 3–5 mm butt welded and overlap joints. Slopes of the SN-curves for two different joint types differ from the slope recommended by IIW. A specific failure trend is observed in overlap FSW joints. However, the slopes of the SN-curves are in close agreement with slopes found in EN 1999-1-3. The slopes of various published results and test results presented in this study are in good agreement with each other. The suggested fatigue design curves for the nominal and effective notch stress concept have a higher slope than given for fusion welds by IIW.

  16. Fluid extravasation of the articular capsule as a complication of temporomandibular joint pumping and perfusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, Kenichi; Watahiki, Ryuichirou; Tamura, Hidetoshi; Ogura, Motoi; Shibuya, Masayuki [Kameda General Hospital, Kamogawa, Chiba (Japan)

    2002-11-01

    This report is a retrospective study of fluid extravasation as a complication of temporomandibular joint pumping and perfusion. Contrast-enhanced 3D-CT of the upper joint compartment was performed for presurgical diagnosis before temporomandibular joint arthroscopic surgery in our hospital from 1996 to 2000. From these cases, 43 joints and 38 patients were selected because they had not improved under conservative treatment during the previous six months. Fluid extravasation of the articular capsule was recognized in 9 joints (20.9%) in 9 patients, 3 males and 6 females. Two of the nine patients had undergone arthroscopic observation before surgery. This test had revealed only thin articular capsule, not a perforation, in any of these cases. The data indicate only extremely tiny perforations or infiltration leakage due to the fluid pressure in the upper joint compartment during pumping or perfusion. Oral and maxillofacial surgeons should be aware of this complication. (author)

  17. First Joint Observations of Radio Aurora by the VHF and HF Radars of the ISTP SB RAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berngardt, O. I.; Lebedev, V. P.; Kutelev, K. A.; Kushnarev, D. S.; Grkovich, K. V.

    2018-01-01

    Two modern radars for diagnosis of the ionosphere by the radio-wave backscattering method, namely, the Irkutsk incoherent scatter radar at VHF (IISR, 154-162 MHz) and the Ekaterinburg coherent radar at HF (EKB, 8-20 MHz) are operated at the Institute of Solar-Terrestrial Physics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (ISTP SB RAS). The paper analyzes the results of joint observations of strong scattering (radio aurora) on June 8, 2015. To determine the geographical position of the radio aurora, we developed original methods that take into account both the features of the radio-wave propagation and the features of the radar antenna systems. It is shown that there are areas where the spatial position of the HF and VHF radio aurora can coincide. This permits using the radars as a single complex for diagnosis of the characteristics of small-scale high-latitude irregularities in the ionospheric E and F layers. A comparative analysis of the characteristics and temporal dynamics of the radio-aurora region in the HF and VHF ranges is performed. Using the DMSP satellite data, it has been shown that the radio aurora dynamics during this experiment with the EKB radar can be related with the spatial dynamics of the localized area with high electric field, which moves from high to equatorial latitudes. It is found that due to the broader field of view, radio aurora at the HF radar was stably observed 6-12 min earlier than at the VHF radar. This permits using the EKB radar data for prediction of the radio-aurora detection by the IISR radar.

  18. Evaluation of brazing joint of graphites and molybdenum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishiyama, Shintarou; Kodaira, Tsuneo; Oku, Tatsuo

    1991-01-01

    Bonding test of six kinds of graphites to molybdenum was performed in the following conditions: Brazing elements was obtained by mixing of titanium nickel and copper in the range of 90∼51w%, 40∼10w%, 31∼0w%, respectively. Nonpressed brazing was performed at maximum temperature 1,000degC in a vacuum. Strength tests of these brazed joints were done in the conditions of at high temperature up to, 1,100degC in a vacuum, after 200 heat cycles from room temperature to about 900degC. Optical observation were performed before and after electron beam tests at 3.0 kW/cm 2 ·0.1 s·5 shots. The following results were derived: (1) The good mixing condition was found for titanium, nickel and copper brazing material at 64, 23 and 13w%, respectively. (2) Bending strengths of the brazed joints at room temperature were found to be proportional to the bending strengths of the graphite. (3) Bending strengths of the brazed joints shows no change until tested temperature reached 900degC in a vacuum. (4) Bending strength of the brazed joints showed no change after 200 heat cycles in the temperature range of room ∼ about 900degC and the electron beam tests. (author)

  19. A Euclid, LSST and WFIRST Joint Processing Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chary, Ranga-Ram; Joint Processing Working Group

    2018-01-01

    Euclid, LSST and WFIRST are the flagship cosmological projects of the next decade. By mapping several thousand square degrees of sky and covering the electromagnetic spectrum from the optical to the NIR with (sub-)arcsec resolution, these projects will provide exciting new constraints on the nature of dark energy and dark matter. The ultimate cosmological, astrophysical and time-domain science yield from these missions, which will detect several billions of sources, requires joint processing at the pixel-level. Three U.S. agencies (DOE, NASA and NSF) are supporting an 18-month study which aims to 1) assess the optimal techniques to combine these, and ancillary data sets at the pixel level; 2) investigate options for an interface that will enable community access to the joint data products; and 3) identify the computing and networking infrastructure to properly handle and manipulate these large datasets together. A Joint Processing Working Group (JPWG) is carrying out this study and consists of US-based members from the community and science/data processing centers of each of these projects. Coordination with European partners is envisioned in the future and European Euclid members are involved in the JPWG as observers. The JPWG will scope the effort and resources required to build up the capabilities to support scientific investigations using joint processing in time for the start of science surveys by LSST and Euclid.

  20. Development of an Arthroscopic Joint Capsule Injury Model in the Canine Shoulder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Kovacevic

    Full Text Available The natural history of rotator cuff tears can be unfavorable as patients develop fatty infiltration and muscle atrophy that is often associated with a loss of muscle strength and shoulder function. To facilitate study of possible biologic mechanisms involved in early degenerative changes to rotator cuff muscle and tendon tissues, the objective of this study was to develop a joint capsule injury model in the canine shoulder using arthroscopy.Arthroscopic surgical methods for performing a posterior joint capsulectomy in the canine shoulder were first defined in cadavers. Subsequently, one canine subject underwent bilateral shoulder joint capsulectomy using arthroscopy, arthroscopic surveillance at 2, 4 and 8 weeks, and gross and histologic examination of the joint at 10 weeks.The canine subject was weight-bearing within eight hours after index and follow-up surgeries and had no significant soft tissue swelling of the shoulder girdle or gross lameness. Chronic synovitis and macroscopic and microscopic evidence of pathologic changes to the rotator cuff bony insertions, tendons, myotendinous junctions and muscles were observed.This study demonstrates feasibility and proof-of-concept for a joint capsule injury model in the canine shoulder. Future work is needed to define the observed pathologic changes and their role in the progression of rotator cuff disease. Ultimately, better understanding of the biologic mechanisms of early progression of rotator cuff disease may lead to clinical interventions to halt or slow this process and avoid the more advanced and often irreversible conditions of large tendon tears with muscle fatty atrophy.

  1. Influence of step length and landing pattern on patellofemoral joint kinetics during running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willson, J D; Ratcliff, O M; Meardon, S A; Willy, R W

    2015-12-01

    Elevated patellofemoral joint kinetics during running may contribute to patellofemoral joint symptoms. The purpose of this study was to test for independent effects of foot strike pattern and step length on patellofemoral joint kinetics while running. Effects were tested relative to individual steps and also taking into account the number of steps required to run a kilometer with each step length. Patellofemoral joint reaction force and stress were estimated in 20 participants running at their preferred speed. Participants ran using a forefoot strike and rearfoot strike pattern during three different step length conditions: preferred step length, long (+10%) step length, and short (-10%) step length. Patellofemoral kinetics was estimated using a biomechanical model of the patellofemoral joint that accounted for cocontraction of the knee flexors and extensors. We observed independent effects of foot strike pattern and step length. Patellofemoral joint kinetics per step was 10-13% less during forefoot strike conditions and 15-20% less with a shortened step length. Patellofemoral joint kinetics per kilometer decreased 12-13% using a forefoot strike pattern and 9-12% with a shortened step length. To the extent that patellofemoral joint kinetics contribute to symptoms among runners, these running modifications may be advisable for runners with patellofemoral pain. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Joint Conditional Random Field Filter for Multi-Object Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luo Ronghua

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Object tracking can improve the performance of mobile robot especially in populated dynamic environments. A novel joint conditional random field Filter (JCRFF based on conditional random field with hierarchical structure is proposed for multi-object tracking by abstracting the data associations between objects and measurements to be a sequence of labels. Since the conditional random field makes no assumptions about the dependency structure between the observations and it allows non-local dependencies between the state and the observations, the proposed method can not only fuse multiple cues including shape information and motion information to improve the stability of tracking, but also integrate moving object detection and object tracking quite well. At the same time, implementation of multi-object tracking based on JCRFF with measurements from the laser range finder on a mobile robot is studied. Experimental results with the mobile robot developed in our lab show that the proposed method has higher precision and better stability than joint probabilities data association filter (JPDAF.

  3. Theoretical Analysis of Stress Distribution in Bonded Single Strap and Stiffened Joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnam Ghoddous

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper, distribution of peeling stress in two types of adhesively-bonded joints is investigated. The joints are a single strap and a stiffened joint. Theses joints are under uniform tensile load and materials are assumed orthotropic. Layers can be identical or different in mechanical or geometrical properties. A two-dimensional elasticity theory that includes the complete stress-strain and the complete strain-displacement relations for adhesive and adherends is used in this analysis. The displacement is assumed to be linear in the adhesive layer. A set of differential equations was derived and solved by using appropriate boundary conditions. Results revealed that the peak peeling stress developed within the adhesive layer is a function of geometrical and mechanical properties. FEM solution is used as the second method to verify the analytical results. A good agreement is observed between analytical and FEM solutions.

  4. Collapse postulate for observables with continuous area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivas, M.D.

    1979-03-01

    In order to provide a mathematical framework for discussing the statistical correlations between the outcomes, when an arbitrary sequence of observables are measured, it is necessary to generalize the conventional von Neumann-Lueders collapse postulate to observables with a continuous spectrum. It is shown that the standard prescription in conventional quantum theory for the joint probabilities of compatible observables is sufficient to characterize, more or less completely, the appropriate ''generalized collapse postulate'' which associates with each observable a unique ''finitely additive expectation valued measure''. An interesting feature of the collapse associated with observables with continuous spectra, which again follows from the basic principles of conventional quantum theory, is that it must be formulated in terms of the so-called non-normal conditional expectations, which implies that the joint probabilities associated with successive observations of such observables are not in general σ-additive. The implications of this non-σ-additivity on the determination of expectation values, correlation functions etc., are also investigated. It is demonstrated that the basic prescriptions introduced in this paper constitute a natural completion of the framework of conventional quantum theory for discussing the statistics of an arbitrary sequence of observations

  5. Collapse postulate for observables with continuous spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivas, M.D.; Madras Univ.

    1980-01-01

    In order to provide a mathematical framework for discussing the statistical correlations between the outcomes, when an arbitrary sequence of observables are measured, it is necessary to generalize the conventional von Neumann-Lueders collapse postulate to observables with a continuous spectrum. It is shown that the standard prescription in conventional quantum theory for the joint probabilities of compatible observables is sufficient to characterize, more or less completely, the appropriate 'generalized collapse postulate' which associates with each observable a unique 'finitely additive expectation valued measure'. An interesting feature of the collapse associated with observables with continuous spectra, which again follows from the basic principles of conventional quantum theory, is that it must be formulated in terms of the so-called non-normal conditional expectations, which implies that the joint probabilities associated with successive observations of such observables are not in general sigma-additive. The implications of this non-sigma-additivity on the determination of expectation values, correlation functions etc., are also investigated. It is demonstrated that the basic prescriptions introduced in this paper constitute a natural completion of the framework of conventional quantum theory for discussing the statistics of an arbitrary sequence of observations. (orig.) 891 HJ/orig. 892 CKA

  6. Response of knee fibrocartilage to joint destabilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyment, N A; Hagiwara, Y; Jiang, X; Huang, J; Adams, D J; Rowe, D W

    2015-06-01

    A major challenge to understanding osteoarthritis (OA) pathology is identifying the cellular events that precede the onset of cartilage damage. The objective of this study is to determine the effect of joint destabilization on early changes to fibrocartilage in the joint. The anterior cruciate ligament was transected in collagen reporter mice (Col1CFP and ColXRFP). Mineralization labels were given every 2 weeks to measure new mineralized cartilage apposition. Novel fluorescent histology of mineralized tissue was used to characterize the changes in fibrocartilage at 2 and 4 weeks post-injury. Changes in fibrocartilaginous structures of the joint occur as early as 2 weeks after injury and are well developed by 4 weeks. The alterations are seen in multiple entheses and in the medial surface of the femoral and tibial condyles. In the responding entheses, mineral apposition towards the ligament midsubstance results in thickening of the mineralize fibrocartilage. These changes are associated with increases in ColX-RFP, Col1-CFP reporter activity and alkaline phosphatase enzyme activity. Mineral apposition also occurs in the fibrocartilage of the non-articular regions of the medial condyles by 2 weeks and develops into osteophytes by 4 weeks post-injury. An unexpected observation is punctate expression of tartrate resistant acid phosphatase activity in unmineralized fibrochondrocytes adjacent to active appositional mineralization. These observations suggest that fibrocartilage activates prior to degradation of the articular cartilage. Thus clinical and histological imaging of fibrocartilage may be an earlier indicator of disease initiation and may indicate a more appropriate time to start preventative treatment. Copyright © 2015 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Probabilistic structural assessment of conical grouted joint using numerical modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Njomo-Wandji, Wilfried; Natarajan, Anand; Dimitrov, Nikolay

    2018-01-01

    Conical grouted joints have been proposed as a solution for the relative settlement observed between the sleeve and the pile on monopiles for wind turbines. In this paper, the influence of the design parameters such as steel wall thicknesses and conical angle on the failure modes associated...... to continual loadings are assessed based on finite element analysis. It is found that both the sleeve's and pile's wall thicknesses have a significant impact on the grouted joint health. Namely, the larger are the wall thicknesses, the more vulnerable the grout is with respect to fatigue and material...

  8. Infant Responding to Joint Attention, Executive Processes, and Self-Regulation in Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hecke, Amy Vaughan; Mundy, Peter; Block, Jessica J.; Delgado, Christine E. F.; Parlade, Meaghan V.; Pomares, Yuly B.; Hobson, Jessica A.

    2011-01-01

    Infant joint attention is related to behavioral and social outcomes, as well as language in childhood. Recent research and theory suggests that the relations between joint attention and social-behavioral outcomes may reflect the role of executive self-regulatory processes in the development of joint attention. To test this hypothesis two- studies were conducted. The first, cross-sectional study examined the development of responding to joint attention skill (RJA) in terms of increasing executive efficiency of responding between 9 and 18 months of age. The results indicated that development of RJA was characterized by a decreased latency to shift attention in following another person’s gaze and head turn, as well as an increase in the proportion of correct RJA responses exhibited by older infants. The second study examined the longitudinal relations between 12-month measures of responding to joint attention (RJA) and 36-month attention regulation in a delay of gratification task. The results indicated that responding to joint attention at 12-months was significantly related to children’s use of three types of self-regulation behaviors while waiting for a snack reward at 36 months of age. These observations are discussed in light of a developmental theory of attention regulation and joint attention in infancy. PMID:22206892

  9. Dynamic MR imaging of the temporomandibular joint arthrosis using spoiled GRASS sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suenaga, Shigeaki; Hamamoto, Sadatoshi; Kawano, Kazunori

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantitatively evaluate contrast enhancement effects of the posterior disk attachment in the temporomandibular joint arthrosis using dynamic MRI with bilateral surface coils. One hundred twenty-four temporomandibular joints in 96 symptomatic patients and 27 control subjects were examined with a spoiled GRASS pulse sequence (TR: 35 ms, TE: 8 ms, flip angle: 60deg). One sagittal scan was performed prior to injection, then 0.1 mmol/kg of Gd-DTPA was given as a rapid bolus injection, immediately after which scans were performed at 30 seconds intervals for a period of 5 minutes. Signal intensity (SI) was measured from the ROI of the posterior disk attachment region. The contrast enhancement effects may be calculated by SI ratio (SIR) = ( SI post -SI pre )/SI pre , where SI post and SI pre were the signal intensities after and before administration of contrast medium. The time intensity curve of SIR versus time after injection was obtained on each symptoms. Join pain group (85 joints) tended to show a rapid enhancement pattern, while control group (54 joints), joint sound or opening limitation group (39 joints), and asymptomatic group (68 joints) showed a relatively gradual enhancement pattern. The drop of SIR in four groups were hardly observed during examination. Mean peak SIR of control group, joint pain group, joint sound or opening limitation group, and asymptomatic group was 0.62±0.24 (SD), 1.53±0.69, 0.73±0.38 and 0.78±0.44 respectively. The mean SIR of pain group was significantly (P<0.001, t-test) higher than that of other groups. These results suggested that dynamic MRI of the temporomandibular joint may effectively depict the inflammatory changes of the posterior disk attachment. (author)

  10. Dynamic MR imaging of the temporomandibular joint arthrosis using spoiled GRASS sequence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suenaga, Shigeaki; Hamamoto, Sadatoshi; Kawano, Kazunori (Kagoshima Univ. (Japan). Dental School) (and others)

    1994-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantitatively evaluate contrast enhancement effects of the posterior disk attachment in the temporomandibular joint arthrosis using dynamic MRI with bilateral surface coils. One hundred twenty-four temporomandibular joints in 96 symptomatic patients and 27 control subjects were examined with a spoiled GRASS pulse sequence (TR: 35 ms, TE: 8 ms, flip angle: 60deg). One sagittal scan was performed prior to injection, then 0.1 mmol/kg of Gd-DTPA was given as a rapid bolus injection, immediately after which scans were performed at 30 seconds intervals for a period of 5 minutes. Signal intensity (SI) was measured from the ROI of the posterior disk attachment region. The contrast enhancement effects may be calculated by SI ratio (SIR) = ( SI[sup post]-SI[sup pre])/SI[sup pre], where SI[sup post] and SI[sup pre] were the signal intensities after and before administration of contrast medium. The time intensity curve of SIR versus time after injection was obtained on each symptoms. Join pain group (85 joints) tended to show a rapid enhancement pattern, while control group (54 joints), joint sound or opening limitation group (39 joints), and asymptomatic group (68 joints) showed a relatively gradual enhancement pattern. The drop of SIR in four groups were hardly observed during examination. Mean peak SIR of control group, joint pain group, joint sound or opening limitation group, and asymptomatic group was 0.62[+-]0.24 (SD), 1.53[+-]0.69, 0.73[+-]0.38 and 0.78[+-]0.44 respectively. The mean SIR of pain group was significantly (P<0.001, t-test) higher than that of other groups. These results suggested that dynamic MRI of the temporomandibular joint may effectively depict the inflammatory changes of the posterior disk attachment. (author).

  11. A New Radiofrequency Ablation Procedure to Treat Sacroiliac Joint Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jianguo; Chen, See Loong; Zimmerman, Nicole; Dalton, Jarrod E; LaSalle, Garret; Rosenquist, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Low back pain may arise from disorders of the sacroiliac joint in up to 30% of patients. Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of the nerves innervating the sacroiliac joint has been shown to be a safe and efficacious strategy. We aimed to develop a new RFA technique to relieve low back pain secondary to sacroiliac joint disorders. Methodology development with validation through prospective observational non-randomized trial (PONRT). Academic multidisciplinary health care system, Ohio, USA. We devised a guide-block to facilitate accurate placement of multiple electrodes to simultaneously ablate the L5 dorsal ramus and lateral branches of the S1, S2, and S3 dorsal rami. This was achieved by bipolar radiofrequency ablation (b-RFA) to create a strip lesion from the lateral border of the base of the sacral superior articular process (L5-S1 facet joint) to the lateral border of the S3 sacral foramen. We applied this technique in 31 consecutive patients and compared the operating time, x-ray exposure time and dose, and clinical outcomes with patients (n = 62) who have been treated with the cooled radiofrequency technique. Patients' level of pain relief was reported as 80% pain relief at one, 3, 6, and 12 months after the procedure. The relationship between RFA technique and duration of pain relief was evaluated using interval-censored multivariable Cox regression. The new technique allowed reduction of operating time by more than 50%, x-ray exposure time and dose by more than 80%, and cost by more than $1,000 per case. The percent of patients who achieved > 50% pain reduction was significantly higher in the b-RFA group at 3, 6, and 12 months follow-up, compared to the cooled radiofrequency group. No complications were observed in either group. Although the major confounding factors were taken into account in the analysis, use of historical controls does not balance observed and unobserved potential confounding variables between groups so that the reported results are potentially

  12. The morphology of synovial grooves (Fossae synoviales) in joints of cattle of different age groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wegener, K. M.; Heje, N. I.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    1993-01-01

    The joint cartilage of the head of the radius, the metacarpal bone, the tibial cochlea, the proximal trochlea of the talus and the metatarsal bone of 26 cattle in the age groups fetuses, 0 days, 2-5 weeks, 2-5 months, 7-13 months, 2-3.5 years, and 5-7 years were examined macroscopically...... animals aged from 3 weeks to 13 months dyschondroplastic (osteochondrotic) lesions were observed in the joint cartilage both inside and outside the groove areas on one or more joint surfaces....

  13. Non-destructive testing of CFC/Cu joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casalegno, V.; Ferraris, M.; Salvo, M.; Vesprini, R.; Merola, M.

    2006-01-01

    Reliable non-destructive tests (NDT) are fundamental for the manufacturing of ITER components, especially for high heat flux plasma facing components. NDT include various techniques, which allow inspection of a component without impairing serviceability; it's important to detect and characterize defects (type, size and position) as well as the set-up of acceptance standards in order to predict their influence on the component performance in service conditions. The present study shows a description of NDT used to assess the manufacturing quality of CFC (carbon fibre reinforced carbon matrix composites)/Cu/CuCrZr joints. In the ITER divertor, armor tiles made of CFC are joined to the cooling structure made of precipitation hardened copper alloy CuCrZr; a soft pure Cu interlayer is required between the heat sink and the armour in order to mitigate the stresses at the joint interface. NDT on CFC/Cu joint are difficult because of the different behavior of CFC and copper with regard to physical excitations (e.g. ultrasonic wave) used to test the component; furthermore the response to this input must be accurately studied to identify the detachment of CFC tiles from Cu alloy. The inspected CFC/Cu/CuCrZr joints were obtained through direct casting of pure Cu on modified CFC surface and subsequently through brazing of CFC/Cu joints to CuCrZr by a Cu-based alloy. Different non-destructive methods were used for inspecting these joints: lock-in thermography, ultrasonic inspections, microtomography and microradiography. The NDT tests were followed by metallographic investigation on the samples, since the reliability of a certain non destructive test can be only validated by morphological evidence of the detected defects. This study will undertake a direct comparison of NDT used on CFC/Cu joints in terms of real flaws presence. The purpose of this work is to detect defects at the joining interface as well as in the cast copper ( for instance voids). The experimental work was

  14. Strategy of arm movement control is determined by minimization of neural effort for joint coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dounskaia, Natalia; Shimansky, Yury

    2016-06-01

    Optimality criteria underlying organization of arm movements are often validated by testing their ability to adequately predict hand trajectories. However, kinematic redundancy of the arm allows production of the same hand trajectory through different joint coordination patterns. We therefore consider movement optimality at the level of joint coordination patterns. A review of studies of multi-joint movement control suggests that a 'trailing' pattern of joint control is consistently observed during which a single ('leading') joint is rotated actively and interaction torque produced by this joint is the primary contributor to the motion of the other ('trailing') joints. A tendency to use the trailing pattern whenever the kinematic redundancy is sufficient and increased utilization of this pattern during skillful movements suggests optimality of the trailing pattern. The goal of this study is to determine the cost function minimization of which predicts the trailing pattern. We show that extensive experimental testing of many known cost functions cannot successfully explain optimality of the trailing pattern. We therefore propose a novel cost function that represents neural effort for joint coordination. That effort is quantified as the cost of neural information processing required for joint coordination. We show that a tendency to reduce this 'neurocomputational' cost predicts the trailing pattern and that the theoretically developed predictions fully agree with the experimental findings on control of multi-joint movements. Implications for future research of the suggested interpretation of the trailing joint control pattern and the theory of joint coordination underlying it are discussed.

  15. A Catalog of Coronal "EIT Wave" Transients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, B. J.; Myers, D. C.

    2009-01-01

    Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) Extreme ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (EIT) data have been visually searched for coronal "EIT wave" transients over the period beginning from 1997 March 24 and extending through 1998 June 24. The dates covered start at the beginning of regular high-cadence (more than one image every 20 minutes) observations, ending at the four-month interruption of SOHO observations in mid-1998. One hundred and seventy six events are included in this catalog. The observations range from "candidate" events, which were either weak or had insufficient data coverage, to events which were well defined and were clearly distinguishable in the data. Included in the catalog are times of the EIT images in which the events are observed, diagrams indicating the observed locations of the wave fronts and associated active regions, and the speeds of the wave fronts. The measured speeds of the wave fronts varied from less than 50 to over 700 km s(exp -1) with "typical" speeds of 200-400 km s(exp -1).

  16. About the Joint Chiefs of Staff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content (Press Enter). Toggle navigation Joint Chiefs of Staff Joint Chiefs of Staff Joint Chiefs of Staff Facebook Twitter YouTube Flickr Blog Instagram Search JCS: Search Search Search JCS: Search Home Media News Photos Videos Publications About The Joint Staff Chairman Vice Chairman

  17. Joint enterprise and the role of the intermediator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Pernille; Simonsen, Jesper

    2005-01-01

    , by analyzing the failure of inte-grating groupware into two global virtual teams within industry. We present an empirically driven interpretive case study conducted in a large distributed global or-ganization. Based on the empirical observations, we reveal two organizational factors challenging the inte......-gration process: The importance of joint enterprise and the role of the intermediator....

  18. Radiosynoviorthesis of acromioclavicular joint using 169Er-citrate: prospective evaluation of efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vereb, Marika; Liepe, Knut; Fischer, Manfred; Kaliska, Lucia; Noskovicova, Lucia; Balogova, Sona

    2018-01-01

    There is a clinical need for therapeutic alternative in patients with persisting painful arthritis of AC-joint and failure of previous treatments. However, no radiopharmaceutical is currently explicitly approved for radiosynoviorthesis of acromioclavicular joint. The aim of our study was to prospectively assess the efficacy and safety of radiosynoviorthesis of acromioclavicular joint using erbium-169 citrate. Radiosynoviorthesis of acromioclavicular joint was performed in 51 consecutive patients (18 males, 33 females) mean age 64.3 (range 43.8-82.6, median 63.6) years with clinically confirmed arthritis of 85 acromioclavicular joints. The efficacy of RSO was reported by patients according to 10-step visual analogue scale of pain (VAS) (0 = no pain, 10 = most severe pain) at 6 months after radiosynoviorthesis and by ranking the global therapeutic effect of RSO in 4 categories (1 = the best effect, 4 = no change). To assess the variation of blood perfusion in treated joints, the efficacy of RSO was also evaluated by variation of target (acromioclavicular joint)/non-target (soft tissue) uptake ratio (T/NTR) of metylendiphosphonate (99mTc) measured as number of counts over region of interest on blood pool phase of two-phase bone scintigraphy performed before and 6 months after RSO. Radiosynoviorthesis was followed by significant decrease in VAS, mean - 3.1 (-47%). Excellent, good, moderate and bad response was observed in 57 (67%), 25 (29%), 1 (1%) and in 2 (2%) of acromioclavicular joints respectively. A significant correlation between decrease of T/NTR and variation of VAS in % (ρ = 0.532, p acromioclavicular joint in whom previous line(s) of treatment did not lead to satisfactory pain relief.

  19. Joint-2D-SL0 Algorithm for Joint Sparse Matrix Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sparse matrix reconstruction has a wide application such as DOA estimation and STAP. However, its performance is usually restricted by the grid mismatch problem. In this paper, we revise the sparse matrix reconstruction model and propose the joint sparse matrix reconstruction model based on one-order Taylor expansion. And it can overcome the grid mismatch problem. Then, we put forward the Joint-2D-SL0 algorithm which can solve the joint sparse matrix reconstruction problem efficiently. Compared with the Kronecker compressive sensing method, our proposed method has a higher computational efficiency and acceptable reconstruction accuracy. Finally, simulation results validate the superiority of the proposed method.

  20. Joint production and corporate pricing: An empirical analysis of joint products in the petroleum industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karimnejad, H.

    1990-01-01

    This dissertation investigates the pricing mechanism of joint products in large multi-plant and multi-product corporations. The primary objective of this dissertation is to show the consistency of classical theories of production with corporate pricing of joint products. This dissertation has two major parts. Part One provides a theoretical framework for joint production and corporate pricing. In this part, joint production is defined and its historical treatment by classical and contemporary economists is analyzed. Part Two conducts an empirical analysis of joint products in the US petroleum industry. Methods of cost allocation are used in the pricing of each individual petroleum product. Three methods are employed to distribute joint production costs to individual petroleum products. These methods are, the sales value method, the barrel gravity method and the average unit cost method. The empirical findings of dissertation provide useful guidelines for pricing policies of large multi-product corporations

  1. Knee joint mobilization reduces secondary mechanical hyperalgesia induced by capsaicin injection into the ankle joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sluka, K A; Wright, A

    2001-01-01

    Joint mobilization is a treatment approach commonly used by physical therapists for the management of a variety of painful conditions. However, the clinical effectiveness when compared to placebo and the neurophysiological mechanism of action are not known. The purpose of this study was to establish that application of a manual therapy technique will produce antihyperalgesia in an animal model of joint inflammation and that the antihyperalgesia produced by joint mobilization depends on the time of treatment application. Capsaicin (0.2%, 50 microl) was injected into the lateral aspect of the left ankle joint and mechanical withdrawal threshold assessed before and after capsaicin injection in Sprague-Dawley rats. Joint mobilization of the ipsilateral knee joint was performed 2 h after capsaicin injection for a total of 3 min, 9 min or 15 min under halothane anaesthesia. Control groups included animals that received halothane for the same time as the group that received joint mobilization and those whose limbs were held for the same duration as the mobilization (no halothane). Capsaicin resulted in a decreased mechanical withdrawal threshold by 2 h after injection that was maintained through 4 h. Both 9 and 15 min of mobilization, but not 3 min of mobilization, increased the withdrawal threshold to mechanical stimuli to baseline values when compared with control groups. The antihyperalgesic effect of joint mobilization lasted 30 min. Thus, joint mobilization (9 or 15 min duration) produces a significant reversal of secondary mechanical hyperalgesia induced by intra-articular injection of capsaicin. Copyright 2001 European Federation of Chapters of the International Association for the Study of Pain.

  2. Expansion joints for LMFBR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dzenus, M.; Hundhausen, W.; Jansing, W.

    1979-10-15

    This discourse recounts efforts put into the SNR-2 project; specifically the development of compensation devices. The various prototypes of these compensation devices are described and the state of development reviewed. The expansion joints were developed on the basis of specific design criteria whereby differentiation is made between expansion joints of small and large nominal diameter. Expansion joints for installation in the sodium-filled primary piping are equipped with safety bellows in addition to the actual working bellows.

  3. Effect of Abrasive Waterjet Peening Surface Treatment of Steel Plates on the Strength of Single-Lap Adhesive Joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil Anasiewicz

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of comparative study of shear strength of single–lap adhesive joints, depending on the method of surface preparation of steel plates with increased corrosion resistance. The method of preparing adherend surfaces is often one of the most important factors determining the strength of adhesive joints. Appropriate geometric surface development and cleaning of the surface enhances adhesion forces between adherend material and adhesive. One of the methods of shaping engineering materials is waterjet cutting, which in the AWJP – abrasive waterjet peening variant, serves to shape flat surfaces of the material by changing the roughness and introducing stresses into the surface layer. These changes are valuable when preparing adhesive joints. In the study, surface roughness parameters obtained with AWJP treatment, were analyzed in direct relation to the strength of the adhesive joint. As a consequence of the experimental results analysis, the increase in the strength of the adhesive joints was observed in a certain range of parameters used for AWJP treatment. A decrease in shear strength of adhesive joint with the most modified topography of overlap surface was observed.

  4. Mechanical behaviour of wood T-joints. Experimental and numerical investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.L. dos Santos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Results of a double-shear single-dowel wood connection tested under monotonic quasi-static compression loading are presented and discussed in this paper. The wood used in this study was a pine wood, namely the Pinus pinaster species, which is one of the most important Portuguese species. Each connection (specimen consists of three wood members: a centre member, loaded in compression along the parallel-tograin direction and two simply supported side members, loaded along the perpendicular-to-grain direction (Tconnection. The load transfer between wood members was assured by means of a steel dowel, which is representative of the most common joining technique applied for structural details in wooden structures. The complete load-slip behaviour of the joint is obtained until failure. In particular, the values of the stiffness, the ultimate loads and the ductility were evaluated. Additionally, this investigation proposed non-linear 3D finite element models to simulate the T-joint behaviour. The interaction between the dowel and the wood members was simulated using contact finite elements. A plasticity model, based on Hill’s criterion, was used to simulate the joint ductility and cohesive damage modelling was applied to simulate the brittle failure modes (splitting observed in the side members of the joint. The simulation procedure allowed a satisfactory description of the non-linear behaviour of the T-joint including the collapse prediction.

  5. Experimental Investigation on High-Cycle Fatigue of Inconel 625 Superalloy Brazed Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianqiang; Demers, Vincent; Turner, Daniel P.; Bocher, Philippe

    2018-04-01

    The high-cycle fatigue performance and crack growth pattern of transient liquid phase-brazed joints in a nickel-based superalloy Inconel 625 were studied. Assemblies with different geometries and types of overlaps were vacuum-brazed using the brazing paste Palnicro-36M in conditions such as to generate eutectic-free joints. This optimal microstructure provides the brazed assemblies with static mechanical strength corresponding to that of the base metal. However, eutectic micro-constituents were observed in the fillet region of the brazed assembly due to an incomplete isothermal solidification within this large volume of filler metal. The fatigue performance increased significantly with the overlap distance for single-lap joints, and the best performance was found for double-lap joints. It was demonstrated that these apparent changes in fatigue properties according to the specimen geometry can be rationalized when looking at the fatigue data as a function of the local stress state at the fillet radii. Fatigue cracks were nucleated from brittle eutectic phases located at the surface of the fillet region. Their propagation occurred through the bimodal microstructure of fillet and the diffusion region to reach the base metal. High levels of crack path tortuosity were observed, suggesting that the ductile phases found in the microstructure may act as a potential crack stopper. The fillet region must be considered as the critical region of a brazed assembly for fatigue applications.

  6. Mini replants: fingertip replant distal to the IP or DIP joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dautel, G; Barbary, S

    2007-01-01

    Amputations through the distal interphalangeal joint or distal to this joint are frequent and they represent probably one of the best indications for replantation. Details on the vascular anatomy of the fingertip have to be perfectly known by the surgeon who will have to deal with these replantations. Factors such as age, mechanism of amputation and type of anastomosis will influence the overall success rate of the procedure. Return of a true static two points discrimination can be observed in children even in the absence of any neural repair.

  7. The Sun as you never saw it before

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-02-01

    The remarkable images come from SOHO's visible-light coronagraph LASCO. It masks the intense rays from the Sun's surface in order to reveal the much fainter glow of the solar atmosphere, or corona. Operated with its widest field of view, in its C3 instrument, LASCO's unprecedented sensitivity enables it to see the thin ionized gas of the solar wind out to the edges of the picture, 22 million kilometres from the Sun's surface. Many stars are brighter than the gas, and they create the background scene. The results alter human perceptions of the Sun. Nearly 30 years ago, Apollo photographs of the Earth persuaded everyone of what until then they knew only in theory, that we live on a small planet. Similarly the new imagery shows our motion in orbit around the Sun, and depicts it as one star among - yet close enough to fill the sky emanations that engulf us. For many centuries even astrologers knew that the Sun was in Sagittarius in December and drifting towards the next zodiacal constellation, Capricornus. This was a matter of calculation only, because the Sun's own brightness prevented a direct view of the starfield. The SOHO-LASCO movie makes this elementary point of astronomy a matter of direct observation for the first time. The images are achievable only from a vantage point in space, because the blue glow of the Earth's atmosphere hides the stars during the day. A spacial allocation of observing time, and of data tranmission from the SOHO spacecraft, enabled the LASCO team to obtain large numbers of images over the period 22-28 December 1996. Since then, a sustained effort in image processing, frame by frame, has achieved a result of high technical and aesthetic quality. Only now is the leader of the LASCO team, Guenter Brueckner of the US Naval Research Laboratory, satisfied with the product and ready to authorize its release. "I spend my life examining the Sun," Brueckner says, "but this movie is a special thrill. For a moment I forget the years of effort that

  8. Multi-spacecraft Observations of the Coronal and Interplanetary Evolution of a Solar Eruption Associated with Two Active Regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Huidong; Liu, Ying D.; Wang, Rui; Zhao, Xiaowei; Zhu, Bei; Yang, Zhongwei, E-mail: liuxying@spaceweather.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Space Weather, National Space Science Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2017-05-10

    We investigate the coronal and interplanetary evolution of a coronal mass ejection (CME) launched on 2010 September 4 from a source region linking two active regions (ARs), 11101 and 11103, using extreme ultraviolet imaging, magnetogram, white-light, and in situ observations from SDO , STEREO , SOHO , VEX , and Wind . A potential-field source-surface model is employed to examine the configuration of the coronal magnetic field surrounding the source region. The graduated cylindrical shell model and a triangulation method are applied to determine the kinematics of the CME in the corona and interplanetary space. From the remote sensing and in situ observations, we obtain some key results: (1) the CME was deflected in both the eastward and southward directions in the low corona by the magnetic pressure from the two ARs, and possibly interacted with another ejection, which caused that the CME arrived at VEX that was longitudinally distant from the source region; (2) although VEX was closer to the Sun, the observed and derived CME arrival times at VEX are not earlier than those at Wind , which suggests the importance of determining both the frontal shape and propagation direction of the CME in interplanetary space; and (3) the ICME was compressed in the radial direction while the longitudinal transverse size was extended.

  9. The return period analysis of natural disasters with statistical modeling of bivariate joint probability distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ning; Liu, Xueqin; Xie, Wei; Wu, Jidong; Zhang, Peng

    2013-01-01

    New features of natural disasters have been observed over the last several years. The factors that influence the disasters' formation mechanisms, regularity of occurrence and main characteristics have been revealed to be more complicated and diverse in nature than previously thought. As the uncertainty involved increases, the variables need to be examined further. This article discusses the importance and the shortage of multivariate analysis of natural disasters and presents a method to estimate the joint probability of the return periods and perform a risk analysis. Severe dust storms from 1990 to 2008 in Inner Mongolia were used as a case study to test this new methodology, as they are normal and recurring climatic phenomena on Earth. Based on the 79 investigated events and according to the dust storm definition with bivariate, the joint probability distribution of severe dust storms was established using the observed data of maximum wind speed and duration. The joint return periods of severe dust storms were calculated, and the relevant risk was analyzed according to the joint probability. The copula function is able to simulate severe dust storm disasters accurately. The joint return periods generated are closer to those observed in reality than the univariate return periods and thus have more value in severe dust storm disaster mitigation, strategy making, program design, and improvement of risk management. This research may prove useful in risk-based decision making. The exploration of multivariate analysis methods can also lay the foundation for further applications in natural disaster risk analysis. © 2012 Society for Risk Analysis.

  10. Rock mass joint treated by jet grouting at Diavik A418 dike south abutment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baisre, C.A. [SNC-Lavalin, Montreal, PQ (Canada); Hatch Energy, Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    In order to exploit the diamond pipes at the Diavik mines, located in the Northwest Territories, two dikes were built into the Lac de Gras, dikes A154 and A418. However, during the construction of the curtain grouting of the A418 Dike, the pressure grouting technique did not achieve the desired closure of a subhorizontal joint located at variable depth beneath the dike foundation into the granite rock mass at the south abutment. The joint was filled mainly with silt, sand and gravel. This paper reviewed the problems with the pressure grouting treatment methodology, and the final decision of the designers and construction manager to treat the joint by jet grouting. The paper outlined pressure grouting, with particular reference to technical specifications; curtain grouting analysis; and joint grouting investigation. The joint treatment by jet grouting was described and the most important features of the core drilling after jetting were outlined. The permeability of the joint was reduced significantly in the treated area, according to observations made during jetting and in the recovered cores and the permeability tests. 1 tab., 7 figs.

  11. Seismic Properties of Moment-resisting Timber Joints with a Combination of Bolts and Nails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awaludin A.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Improvement of cyclic or dynamic performance of timber connections has been intensively conducted since the overall response of wooden structures is merely a function of joint performance. For a bolted joint, filling the lead-hole clearance with epoxy resin or gluing high embedding-strength materials at the interface of the individual timber member are probably the most common methods. This study presents cyclic test results of moment-resisting joints with a combination of bolts and nails. The nails were placed closer to the joint centroid than the bolts, acting as additional fasteners and were expected to improve the seismic performance of the joints. Static-cyclic test results confirmed the increase of joint stiffness and moment resistance due to the additional nails. The nails contribute to the increase of hysteretic damping significantly though pinching behavior or narrowing the hysteresis loops close to zero rotation points was still observed. The results indicated that contribution of nails or bolts on moment resistance and hysteretic damping can be superimposed.

  12. The contribution of quasi-joint stiffness of the ankle joint to gait in patients with hemiparesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekiguchi, Yusuke; Muraki, Takayuki; Kuramatsu, Yuko; Furusawa, Yoshihito; Izumi, Shin-Ichi

    2012-06-01

    The role of ankle joint stiffness during gait in patients with hemiparesis has not been clarified. The purpose of this study was to determine the contribution of quasi-joint stiffness of the ankle joint to spatiotemporal and kinetic parameters regarding gait in patients with hemiparesis due to brain tumor or stroke and healthy individuals. Spatiotemporal and kinetic parameters regarding gait in twelve patients with hemiparesis due to brain tumor or stroke and nine healthy individuals were measured with a 3-dimensional motion analysis system. Quasi-joint stiffness was calculated from the slope of the linear regression of the moment-angle curve of the ankle joint during the second rocker. There was no significant difference in quasi-joint stiffness among both sides of patients and the right side of controls. Quasi-joint stiffness on the paretic side of patients with hemiparesis positively correlated with maximal ankle power (r=0.73, Phemiparesis. In contrast, healthy individuals might decrease quasi-joint stiffness to avoid deceleration of forward tilt of the tibia. Our findings might be useful for selecting treatment for increased ankle stiffness due to contracture and spasticity in patients with hemiparesis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Transition joints in INDUS-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sridhar, R.; Amalraj, William; Shukla, S.K.; Jain, A.K.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: A large number of welding joints are being employed in the fabrication of Indus-2 synchrotron storage ring being constructed at CAT. Apart from the TIG welded joints of aluminium alloy vacuum chambers, there are many other joints which are made between dissimilar metals. Stainless steel pipes are friction welded with aluminium pipes and are to be used as pumping ducts between vacuum pumps and the vacuum chambers. Similarly stainless steel flanges are fastened with aluminium flanges through a diamond seal. These joints are tested for a leak tightness of 2 x 10 -10 torr lit/sec of helium. This paper describes the details of the friction welded joints and their application in the Indus-2 synchrotron storage ring

  14. Induction brazing of complex joints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Poul; Zhang, Wenqi; Bay, Niels

    2003-01-01

    , or if the hottest area is located outside the joint interface, a number of defects may appear: the braze metal may flow away from the joint, the flux may burn off, poor binding of the braze metal may appear or the braze metal may be overheated. Joint geometry as well as electro-magnetic properties of the work piece...... presents a combined numerical and experimental method for fast determination of appropriate coil geometry and position in induction brazing tube-to-plate joints of different ratios between tube and plate thickness and different combinations of the materials stainless steel, brass and copper. The method has...... proven to give successful results in brazing tube-plate joints of copper-brass, copper-stainless steel, stainless steel-brass, and stainless steel-stainless steel....

  15. Space shuttle SRM field joint: Review paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mohammad Gharouni

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to Challenger space shuttle accident in 1986, significant research has been done concerning structural behavior of field joints in solid rocket boosters (SRB. The structural deformations between the clevis inner leg and the tang (male-to-female parts of joint, the sealing of the O-ring to prevent the hot gas in joints, has been neglected causing the failure of the vehicle. Redesigning the field joint in SRB engine by accurate analysis of dynamic and thermal loads and by design of insulator and good O-ring, the leakiness of combustion hot gases was eliminated. Some parts of field joint such as capture feature (CF and its third O-ring, J-leg insulator and shim were added to redesigned field joint. Also, some adjustments in sealing system and pins were done to promote the efficiency of the field joint. Due to different experimental analysis on assembled field joints with default imperfections, redesigned joints operated well. These redesigned field joints are commonly used in aerospace and mechanical structures. This paper investigates the original and the redesigned field joints with additional explanations of different parts of the redesigned joints.

  16. Human Activity Recognition in Real-Times Environments using Skeleton Joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Kumar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this research work, we proposed a most effective noble approach for Human activity recognition in real-time environments. We recognize several distinct dynamic human activity actions using kinect. A 3D skeleton data is processed from real-time video gesture to sequence of frames and getter skeleton joints (Energy Joints, orientation, rotations of joint angles from selected setof frames. We are using joint angle and orientations, rotations information from Kinect therefore less computation required. However, after extracting the set of frames we implemented several classification techniques Principal Component Analysis (PCA with several distance based classifiers and Artificial Neural Network (ANN respectively with some variants for classify our all different gesture models. However, we conclude that use very less number of frame (10-15% for train our system efficiently from the entire set of gesture frames. Moreover, after successfully completion of our classification methods we clinch an excellent overall accuracy 94%, 96% and 98% respectively. We finally observe that our proposed system is more useful than comparing to other existing system, therefore our model is best suitable for real-time application such as in video games for player action/gesture recognition.

  17. Computed tomography of sternoclavicular joint lesions in spondylarthropathies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louvel, J.P.; Duvey, A.; Silva, F. da; Primard, E.; Mejjad, O.; Henry, J.; Le Loet, X.

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate the computed tomography (CT) findings of inflammatory lesions of the sternoclavicular joints (SCJ) in spondylarthropathies. Design and patients. CT scans of the SCJs were obtained in 23 patients (group 1) with inflammatory SCJ lesions in spondylarthropathies. These scans were reviewed by four readers and compared with the CT scans of 23 matched controls (group 2). Each reader had to complete a 27-item grid. Results and conclusion. In the 23 patients of group 1, the mean number of observed signs was 5.3±4.2 higher (P<0.01) than in the group of 23 matched controls (2.4±1.6). Four signs were more frequently observed (P<0.05) in group 1: surrounded subchondral clavicular erosions and cysts, surrounded subchondral sternal cysts and sternal bone sclerosis. A cyst and/or an erosion was associated with hyperostosis and/or bone sclerosis in 9 of 23 patients in group 1. This association was not observed in group 2; the difference was significant (P<0.001). A cyst and/or an erosive lesion was observed 18 times in group 1 versus 11 times in group 2; the difference was significant (P<0.05). Conversely, signs of degenerative lesions (osteophytes, subchondral sclerosis, unevenness of joint surface) were no more frequently observed in controls than in group 1. This study emphasizes the diagnostic value of CT, in particular in the identification of inflammatory lesions, even when pre-existing degenerative disease is present. (orig.). With 3 figs., 2 tabs

  18. Branching miter joints : principles and artwork

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeff, T.; Verhoeff, K.; Hart, G.W.; Sarhangi, R.

    2010-01-01

    A miter joint connects two beams, typically of the same cross section, at an angle such that the longitudinal beam edges continue across the joint. When more than two beams meet in one point, like in a tree, we call this a branching joint. In a branching miter joint, the beams’ longitudinal edges

  19. Alterations in walking knee joint stiffness in individuals with knee osteoarthritis and self-reported knee instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, Jonathan A; Gorman, Shannon; Fitzgerald, G Kelley; Farrokhi, Shawn

    2016-01-01

    Increased walking knee joint stiffness has been reported in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA) as a compensatory strategy to improve knee joint stability. However, presence of episodic self-reported knee instability in a large subgroup of patients with knee OA may be a sign of inadequate walking knee joint stiffness. The objective of this work was to evaluate the differences in walking knee joint stiffness in patients with knee OA with and without self-reported instability and examine the relationship between walking knee joint stiffness with quadriceps strength, knee joint laxity, and varus knee malalignment. Overground biomechanical data at a self-selected gait velocity was collected for 35 individuals with knee OA without self-reported instability (stable group) and 17 individuals with knee OA and episodic self-reported instability (unstable group). Knee joint stiffness was calculated during the weight-acceptance phase of gait as the change in the external knee joint moment divided by the change in the knee flexion angle. The unstable group walked with lower knee joint stiffness (p=0.01), mainly due to smaller heel-contact knee flexion angles (pknee flexion excursions (pknee stable counterparts. No significant relationships were observed between walking knee joint stiffness and quadriceps strength, knee joint laxity or varus knee malalignment. Reduced walking knee joint stiffness appears to be associated with episodic knee instability and independent of quadriceps muscle weakness, knee joint laxity or varus malalignment. Further investigations of the temporal relationship between self-reported knee joint instability and walking knee joint stiffness are warranted. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Investigation on edge joints of Inconel 625 sheets processed with laser welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caiazzo, F.; Alfieri, V.; Cardaropoli, F.; Sergi, V.

    2017-08-01

    Laser welding of Inconel 625 edge joint beads in square groove configuration was investigated. The use of different weld geometries in new aerospace solutions explains research on edge joints. A structured plan was carried out in order to characterize the process defining the influence of laser power and welding speed and to study possible interactions among the governing factors. As weld pool protection is crucial in order to obtain sound joints when processing superalloys, a special glove box for gas supply was designed to upgrade the welding head. Welded joints were characterized referring to bead profile, microstructure and X-rays. It was found that heat input plays an important role as it affects welding stability, porosity content and bead shape. Results suggest operating with low values of heat input to reduce porosity and guarantee stable bead conformation. Furthermore, a decrease in the grain size has been observed as a consequence of decreasing heat input.

  1. Single and Multiple Object Tracking Using a Multi-Feature Joint Sparse Representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Weiming; Li, Wei; Zhang, Xiaoqin; Maybank, Stephen

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, we propose a tracking algorithm based on a multi-feature joint sparse representation. The templates for the sparse representation can include pixel values, textures, and edges. In the multi-feature joint optimization, noise or occlusion is dealt with using a set of trivial templates. A sparse weight constraint is introduced to dynamically select the relevant templates from the full set of templates. A variance ratio measure is adopted to adaptively adjust the weights of different features. The multi-feature template set is updated adaptively. We further propose an algorithm for tracking multi-objects with occlusion handling based on the multi-feature joint sparse reconstruction. The observation model based on sparse reconstruction automatically focuses on the visible parts of an occluded object by using the information in the trivial templates. The multi-object tracking is simplified into a joint Bayesian inference. The experimental results show the superiority of our algorithm over several state-of-the-art tracking algorithms.

  2. Altered Tibiofemoral Joint Contact Mechanics and Kinematics in Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis and Episodic Complaints of Joint Instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrokhi, Shawn; Voycheck, Carrie A.; Klatt, Brian A.; Gustafson, Jonathan A.; Tashman, Scott; Fitzgerald, G. Kelley

    2014-01-01

    Background To evaluate knee joint contact mechanics and kinematics during the loading response phase of downhill gait in knee osteoarthritis patients with self-reported instability. Methods Forty-three subjects, 11 with medial compartment knee osteoarthritis and self-reported instability (unstable), 7 with medial compartment knee osteoarthritis but no reports of instability (stable), and 25 without knee osteoarthritis or instability (control) underwent Dynamic Stereo X-ray analysis during a downhill gait task on a treadmill. Findings The medial compartment contact point excursions were longer in the unstable group compared to the stable (p=0.046) and the control groups (p=0.016). The peak medial compartment contact point velocity was also greater for the unstable group compared to the stable (p=0.047) and control groups (p=0.022). Additionally, the unstable group demonstrated a coupled movement pattern of knee extension and external rotation after heel contact which was different than the coupled motion of knee flexion and internal rotation demonstrated by stable and control groups. Interpretation Our findings suggest that knee joint contact mechanics and kinematics are altered during the loading response phase of downhill gait in knee osteoarthritis patients with self-reported instability. The observed longer medial compartment contact point excursions and higher velocities represent objective signs of mechanical instability that may place the arthritic knee joint at increased risk for disease progression. Further research is indicated to explore the clinical relevance of altered contact mechanics and kinematics during other common daily activities and to assess the efficacy of rehabilitation programs to improve altered joint biomechanics in knee osteoarthritis patients with self-reported instability. PMID:24856791

  3. Opportunities to Learn Scientific Thinking in Joint Doctoral Supervision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Sofie; Grout, Brian W.; Rump, Camilla Østerberg

    2015-01-01

    Research into doctoral supervision has increased rapidly over the last decades, yet our understanding of how doctoral students learn scientific thinking from supervision is limited. Most studies are based on interviews with little work being reported that is based on observation of actual supervision. While joint supervision has become widely…

  4. Hip joint replacement - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100006.htm Hip joint replacement - series—Normal anatomy To use the ... to slide 5 out of 5 Overview The hip joint is made up of two major parts: ...

  5. Sacroiliac joint pain - aftercare

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000610.htm Sacroiliac joint pain - aftercare To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The sacroiliac joint (SIJ) is a term used to describe ...

  6. Joint Attention in Autism: Teaching Smiling Coordinated with Gaze to Respond to Joint Attention Bids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krstovska-Guerrero, Ivana; Jones, Emily A.

    2013-01-01

    Children with autism demonstrate early deficits in joint attention and expressions of affect. Interventions to teach joint attention have addressed gaze behavior, gestures, and vocalizations, but have not specifically taught an expression of positive affect such as smiling that tends to occur during joint attention interactions. Intervention was…

  7. Sacroiliac joint tuberculosis: surgical management by posterior open-window focal debridement and joint fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Guo; Jiang, Li-Yuan; Yi, Zhang; Ping, Li; Duan, Chun-Yue; Yong, Cao; Liu, Jin-Yang; Hu, Jian-Zhong

    2017-11-29

    Sacroiliac joint tuberculosis(SJT) is relatively uncommon, but it may cause severe sacroiliac joint destruction and functional disorder. Few studies in the literature have been presented on SJT, reports of surgical treatment for SJT are even fewer. In this study, we retrospectively reviewed surgical management of patients with severe SJT of 3 different types and proposed to reveal the clinical manifestations and features and aim to determine the efficiency and security of such surgical treatment. We reviewed 17 patients with severe SJT of 3 different types who underwent posterior open-window focal debridement and bone graft for joint fusion. Among them,five patients with anterior sacral abscess had anterior abscess curettage before debridement. Two patients with lumbar vertebral tuberculosis received one-stage posterior tuberculous debridement, interbody fusion and instrumentation. Follow-up was performed 36 months (26 to 45 months) using the following parameters: erythrocyte sedimentation rate(ESR), status of joint bony fusion on CT scan, visual analogue scale (VAS) and the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI). Buttock pain and low back pain were progressively relieved with time. 6 months later, pain was not obvious, and ESR resumed to normal levels within 3 months. Solid fusion of the sacroiliac joint occurred within 12 months in all cases. No complications or recurrence occurred. At final follow-up, all patients had no pain or only minimal discomfort over the affected joint and almost complete functional recovery. Posterior open-window focal debridement and joint fusion is an efficient and secure surgical method to treat severe SJT. If there is an abscess in the front of the sacroiliac joint, anterior abscess curettage should be performed as a supplement.

  8. Observational Evidence for the Associated Formation of Blobs and Raining Inflows in the Solar Corona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez-Diaz, E.; Rouillard, A. P.; Lavraud, B.; Pinto, R. F.; Plotnikov, I.; Genot, V.; Davies, J. A.; Sheeley, N. R.; Kilpua, E.

    2017-01-01

    The origin of the slow solar wind is still a topic of much debate. The continual emergence of small transient structures from helmet streamers is thought to constitute one of the main sources of the slow wind. Determining the height at which these transients are released is an important factor in determining the conditions under which the slow solar wind forms. To this end, we have carried out a multipoint analysis of small transient structures released from a north–south tilted helmet streamer into the slow solar wind over a broad range of position angles during Carrington Rotation 2137. Combining the remote-sensing observations taken by the Solar-TErrestrial RElations Observatory ( STEREO ) mission with coronagraphic observations from the SOlar and Heliospheric Observatory ( SOHO ) spacecraft, we show that the release of such small transient structures (often called blobs), which subsequently move away from the Sun, is associated with the concomitant formation of transient structures collapsing back toward the Sun; the latter have been referred to by previous authors as “raining inflows.” This is the first direct association between outflowing blobs and raining inflows, which locates the formation of blobs above the helmet streamers and gives strong support that the blobs are released by magnetic reconnection.

  9. Observational Evidence for the Associated Formation of Blobs and Raining Inflows in the Solar Corona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Diaz, E.; Rouillard, A. P.; Lavraud, B.; Pinto, R. F.; Plotnikov, I.; Genot, V. [Institut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planétologie, Paul Sabatier University, Toulouse, 9 avenue Colonel Roche, BP 44346-31028, Toulouse Cedex 4A (France); Davies, J. A. [RAL Space, STFC-Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Campus, Science and Technology Facilities Council Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Campus, Didcot OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Sheeley, N. R. [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Naval Research Laboratory, Code 7600, 4555 Overlook Avenue SW, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Kilpua, E., E-mail: eduardo.sanchez-diaz@irap.omp.eu, E-mail: alexis.rouillard@irap.omp.eu, E-mail: benoit.lavraud@irap.omp.eu, E-mail: rui.pinto@irap.omp.eu, E-mail: illya.plotnikov@irap.omp.eu, E-mail: vincent.genot@irap.omp.eu, E-mail: jackie.davies@stfc.ac.uk, E-mail: neil.sheeley@nrl.navy.mil, E-mail: emilia.kilpua@helsinki.fi [Space Physics Department, Department of Physics, P.O. Box 64 FI-00014, University of Helsinki, Helsinki (Finland)

    2017-01-20

    The origin of the slow solar wind is still a topic of much debate. The continual emergence of small transient structures from helmet streamers is thought to constitute one of the main sources of the slow wind. Determining the height at which these transients are released is an important factor in determining the conditions under which the slow solar wind forms. To this end, we have carried out a multipoint analysis of small transient structures released from a north–south tilted helmet streamer into the slow solar wind over a broad range of position angles during Carrington Rotation 2137. Combining the remote-sensing observations taken by the Solar-TErrestrial RElations Observatory ( STEREO ) mission with coronagraphic observations from the SOlar and Heliospheric Observatory ( SOHO ) spacecraft, we show that the release of such small transient structures (often called blobs), which subsequently move away from the Sun, is associated with the concomitant formation of transient structures collapsing back toward the Sun; the latter have been referred to by previous authors as “raining inflows.” This is the first direct association between outflowing blobs and raining inflows, which locates the formation of blobs above the helmet streamers and gives strong support that the blobs are released by magnetic reconnection.

  10. Joint audits - benefit or burden?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Claus; Thinggaard, Frank

    a joint audit regime to a single auditor/voluntary joint audit regime. The dataset used in this paper has been collected for the full population of non-financial Danish companies listed on the Copenhagen Stock Exchange (CSE) in the years 2004 and 2005. We find that a majority of firms perceive joint...

  11. The Forward Observer Personal Computer Simulator (FOPCSIM)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brannon, David

    2002-01-01

    This joint thesis addresses the need for a task trainer for the artillery forward observer task, In recent years, declining budgets, limitations on artillery ammunition and encroachment into training...

  12. [Development of polyaxial locking plate screw system of sacroiliac joint].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Weijie; Xie, Xuesong; Zhou, Shuping; Zhang, Yonghu

    2014-09-01

    To develop an instrument for sacroiliac joint fixation with less injury and less complications. Firstly, 18 adult pelvic specimens (8 males and 10 females) were used to measure the anatomical data related to the locking plates and locking screws on the sacrum and ilium, and the polyaxial locking plate screw system of the sacroiliac joint was designed according to the anatomic data. This system was made of medical titanium alloy. Then 4 adult male plevic specimens were harvested and the experiment was divided into 3 groups: group A (normal pelvic), group B (the dislocated sacroiliac joint fixed with sacroiliac screws), and group C (the dislocated sacroiliac joint fixed with polyaxial locking plate screw system). The vertical displacement of sacroiliac joint under the condition of 0-700 N vertical load and the horizontal displacement on angle under the condition of 0-12 N·m torsional load were compared among the 3 groups by using the biological material test system. Finally, the simulated application test was performed on 1 adult male cadaveric specimen to observe soft tissue injury and the position of the locking plate and screw by X-ray films. According to the anatomic data of the sacrum and ilium, the polyaxial locking plate screw system of the sacroiliac joint was designed. The biomechanical results showed that the vertical displacement of the sacroiliac joint under the condition of 0-700 N vertical load in group A was significantly bigger than that in group B and group C (P 0.05). The horizontal displacement on angle under the condition of 0-12 N·m torsional load in group A was significantly less than that in group B and group C (P 0.05). The test of simulating application showed that the specimen suffered less soft tissue injury, and this instrument could be implanted precisely and safely. The polyaxial locking plate screw system of the sacroiliac joint has the advantages of smaller volume and less injury; polyaxial fixation enables flexible adjustment screw

  13. 12 CFR 347.107 - Joint ventures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Joint ventures. 347.107 Section 347.107 Banks... INTERNATIONAL BANKING § 347.107 Joint ventures. (a) Joint ventures. If a bank, directly or indirectly, acquires or holds an equity interest in a foreign organization that is a joint venture, and the bank or its...

  14. DINAMICS OF KNEE JOINT SPACE ASYMMETRY ON X-RAY AS A MARKER OF KNEE OSTEOARTHRITIS REHABILITATION EFFICACY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheveleva, N; Minbayeva, L; Belyayeva, Y

    2017-03-01

    Reducing of articular cartilage functional volume in knee joint osteoarthritis occurs unevenly and accompanied with pathological changes of lower limb axis as a result of connective tissue and muscle structures dysfunction. Evaluation of X-ray knee joint space asymmetry seems to be informative to analyze the dynamics of lower extremities biomechanical imbalances characteristic for knee joint osteoarthritis. However, standardized method of X-ray joint space determining does not include its symmetry calculation. The purpose of the study was optimization of knee joint radiological examination by developing of X-ray knee joint space asymmetry index calculation method. The proposed method was used for comparative analysis of extracorporeal shock-wave therapy efficacy in 30 patients with knee joint osteoarthritis of 2-3 degrees (Kellgren-Lawrence, 1957). As a result of the conducted treatment statistically significant decrease of the X-ray knee joint space asymmetry index was observed (Me(Q1;Q3): Z=5.20, pknee joint space asymmetry index, calculated according to the proposed method, allows to evaluate dynamics of articular surfaces congruency changes and provide differentiated approach to the treatment of knee joint osteoarthritis.

  15. Partially linear mixed-effects joint models for skewed and missing longitudinal competing risks outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Tao; Lu, Minggen; Wang, Min; Zhang, Jun; Dong, Guang-Hui; Xu, Yong

    2017-12-18

    Longitudinal competing risks data frequently arise in clinical studies. Skewness and missingness are commonly observed for these data in practice. However, most joint models do not account for these data features. In this article, we propose partially linear mixed-effects joint models to analyze skew longitudinal competing risks data with missingness. In particular, to account for skewness, we replace the commonly assumed symmetric distributions by asymmetric distribution for model errors. To deal with missingness, we employ an informative missing data model. The joint models that couple the partially linear mixed-effects model for the longitudinal process, the cause-specific proportional hazard model for competing risks process and missing data process are developed. To estimate the parameters in the joint models, we propose a fully Bayesian approach based on the joint likelihood. To illustrate the proposed model and method, we implement them to an AIDS clinical study. Some interesting findings are reported. We also conduct simulation studies to validate the proposed method.

  16. 26 CFR 1.6015-1 - Relief from joint and several liability on a joint return.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... they claim losses attributable to H's limited partnership interest in Partnership A. In January 2006... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Relief from joint and several liability on a... joint and several liability on a joint return. (a) In general. (1) An individual who qualifies and...

  17. JET Joint Undertaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keen, B.E.

    1987-03-01

    The paper presents the progress report of the Joint European Torus (JET) Joint Undertaking, 1986. The report contains a survey of the scientific and technical achievements on JET during 1986; the more important articles referred to in this survey are reproduced as appendices to this Report. The last section discusses developments which might improve the overall performance of the machine. (U.K.)

  18. Swivel Joint For Liquid Nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, James F.

    1988-01-01

    Swivel joint allows liquid-nitrogen pipe to rotate through angle of 100 degree with respect to mating pipe. Functions without cracking hard foam insulation on lines. Pipe joint rotates on disks so mechanical stress not transmitted to thick insulation on pipes. Inner disks ride on fixed outer disks. Disks help to seal pressurized liquid nitrogen flowing through joint.

  19. Cervical joint position sense in neck pain. Immediate effects of muscle vibration versus mental training interventions: a RCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beinert, K; Preiss, S; Huber, M; Taube, W

    2015-12-01

    Impaired cervical joint position sense is a feature of chronic neck pain and is commonly argued to rely on abnormal cervical input. If true, muscle vibration, altering afferent input, but not mental interventions, should have an effect on head repositioning acuity and neck pain perception. The aim of the present study was to determine the short-term effects of neck muscle vibration, motor imagery, and action observation on cervical joint position sense and pressure pain threshold in people with chronic neck pain. Forty-five blinded participants with neck pain received concealed allocation and were randomized in three treatment groups. A blinded assessor performed pre- and post-test measurement. Patients were recruited from secondary outpatient clinics in the southwest of Germany. Chronic, non specific neck pain patients without arm pain were recruited for this study. A single intervention session of 5 minutes was delivered to each blinded participant. Patients were either allocated to one of the following three interventions: (1) neck muscle vibration; (2) motor imagery; (3) action observation. Primary outcomes were cervical joint position sense acuity and pressure pain threshold. Repeated measures ANOVAs were used to evaluate differences between groups and subjects. Repositioning acuity displayed significant time effects for vibration, motor imagery, and action observation (all Ppain threshold demonstrated a time*group effect (P=0.042) as only vibration significantly increased pressure pain threshold (P=0.01). Although motor imagery and action observation did not modulate proprioceptive, afferent input, they nevertheless improved cervical joint position sense acuity. This indicates that, against the common opinion, changes in proprioceptive input are not prerequisite to improve joint repositioning performance. However, the short-term applications of these cognitive treatments had no effect on pressure pain thresholds, whereas vibration reduced pressure pain

  20. Minimally invasive arthrodesis for chronic sacroiliac joint dysfunction using the SImmetry SI Joint Fusion system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Larry E; Block, Jon E

    2014-01-01

    Chronic sacroiliac (SI) joint-related low back pain (LBP) is a common, yet under-diagnosed and undertreated condition due to difficulties in accurate diagnosis and highly variable treatment practices. In patients with debilitating SI-related LBP for at least 6 months duration who have failed conservative management, arthrodesis is a viable option. The SImmetry(®) SI Joint Fusion System is a novel therapy for SI joint fusion, not just fixation, which utilizes a minimally invasive surgical approach, instrumented fixation for immediate stability, and joint preparation with bone grafting for a secure construct in the long term. The purpose of this report is to describe the minimally invasive SI Joint Fusion System, including patient selection criteria, implant characteristics, surgical technique, postoperative recovery, and biomechanical testing results. Advantages and limitations of this system will be discussed.

  1. Joint design of QC-LDPC codes for coded cooperation system with joint iterative decoding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shunwai; Yang, Fengfan; Tang, Lei; Ejaz, Saqib; Luo, Lin; Maharaj, B. T.

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we investigate joint design of quasi-cyclic low-density-parity-check (QC-LDPC) codes for coded cooperation system with joint iterative decoding in the destination. First, QC-LDPC codes based on the base matrix and exponent matrix are introduced, and then we describe two types of girth-4 cycles in QC-LDPC codes employed by the source and relay. In the equivalent parity-check matrix corresponding to the jointly designed QC-LDPC codes employed by the source and relay, all girth-4 cycles including both type I and type II are cancelled. Theoretical analysis and numerical simulations show that the jointly designed QC-LDPC coded cooperation well combines cooperation gain and channel coding gain, and outperforms the coded non-cooperation under the same conditions. Furthermore, the bit error rate performance of the coded cooperation employing jointly designed QC-LDPC codes is better than those of random LDPC codes and separately designed QC-LDPC codes over AWGN channels.

  2. Durability of shrink joints; Bestaendighet hos krympskarvar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsaeus Nilsson, Stefan; Saellberg, Sven-Erik

    2007-07-01

    automatically lead to any dramatic changes in material properties. Of the tested variants, all but one was completely tight and the mechanical strength levels were in line with what the manufacturers state in their data sheets for most of the joints. The measured shrink forces show that relaxation is not a big problem. The material in the joint sleeve will continue to strive towards it non-expanded state of equilibrium, and for the non-crosslinked samples, this actually resulted in an increase in shrink force over time. Since the materials and constructions do work, one may indirectly conclude that the problems are mainly caused by the installation, which, in turn, is likely to a large extent a consequence of difficult working conditions and demanding installation procedures. According to experience, the sealing materials are decisive for the ease of installation. From the fitter's point of view, the sealing material should be soft (more forgiving) and fibre reinforced (easier to handle) and it should come in wide strips (easier to apply). When it comes to sleeves, the shrinking work is faster with crosslinked material (PEX). An important observation is also that sleeves with built-in sealant and/or adhesive are harder to keep clean at the work site. Hence, the most important thing is that the installation is done in a proper manner and that appropriate conditions for the fitter to achieve this is provided at the work site. It is hard to single out the best or the worst joint system, but some recommendations may be given: Remember to depressurise the joint during shrinking to avoid unnecessary pressure loads on the seal. Use a sleeve of crosslinked polyethylene if a fast installation is important. If non-crosslinked sleeves are used, choose a double expanded variant. Use a sealing material with easy handling and forgiving characteristics, e.g., the type used for Nitto NeoCover or Raychem TPSM. If extra strength is needed, use a stronger sealant, such as, e.g., a mastic

  3. Innervation of the Anterior Sacroiliac Joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Marcus; Ng, Garrett; Mashriqi, Faizullah; Iwanaga, Joe; Alonso, Fernando; Tubbs, Kevin; Loukas, Marios; Oskouian, Rod J; Tubbs, R Shane

    2017-11-01

    Sacroiliac joint pain can be disabling and recalcitrant to medical therapy. The innervation of this joint is poorly understood, especially its anterior aspect. Therefore, the present cadaveric study was performed to better elucidate this anatomy. Twenty-four cadaveric sides underwent dissection of the anterior sacroiliac joint, with special attention given to any branches from regional nerves to this joint. No femoral, obturator, or lumbosacral trunk branches destined to the anterior sacroiliac joint were identified in the 24 sides. In 20 sides, one or two small branches (less than 0.5 mm in diameter) were found to arise from the L4 ventral ramus (10%), the L5 ventral ramus (80%), or simultaneously from both the L4 and L5 ventral rami (10%). The length of the branches ranged from 5 to 31 mm (mean, 14 mm). All these branches arose from the posterior part of the nerves and traveled to the anterior surface of the sacroiliac joint. No statistical significance was found between sides or sexes. An improved knowledge of the innervation of the anterior sacroiliac joint might decrease suffering in patients with chronic sacroiliac joint pain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The joint venture alternative to mergers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enders, R J

    1995-02-01

    However, while a joint venture may be "safe" from antitrust challenge, it is not without some practical difficulties, especially with respect to consolidating services at one location or jointly offering services provided at multiple facilities. These practical concerns include: 1. Who will exercise operational management of the joint venture? 2. How will the joint venture deal with different pricing for services that will be provided at multiple locations? 3. What criteria will be used to decide the location at which consolidated tertiary services will be offered? 4. In what circumstances can the joint venture be unwound, either in its entirety or as to discrete functions? When clinical services have been consolidated at one location, there is an appropriate concern by the other hospital that it will be unable to provide or re-enter the market for those services if the joint venture dissolves. These operational concerns, of course, are not addressed in the Consent Decree. Thus, even if a joint venture relationship survives antitrust scrutiny, the parties must still negotiate and resolve these operational issues in order for the joint venture to be viable.

  5. Space Station alpha joint bearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everman, Michael R.; Jones, P. Alan; Spencer, Porter A.

    1987-01-01

    Perhaps the most critical structural system aboard the Space Station is the Solar Alpha Rotary Joint which helps align the power generation system with the sun. The joint must provide structural support and controlled rotation to the outboard transverse booms as well as power and data transfer across the joint. The Solar Alpha Rotary Joint is composed of two transition sections and an integral, large diameter bearing. Alpha joint bearing design presents a particularly interesting problem because of its large size and need for high reliability, stiffness, and on orbit maintability. The discrete roller bearing developed is a novel refinement to cam follower technology. It offers thermal compensation and ease of on-orbit maintenance that are not found in conventional rolling element bearings. How the bearing design evolved is summarized. Driving requirements are reviewed, alternative concepts assessed, and the selected design is described.

  6. Joint engagement in infants and its relationship to their visual impairment measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urqueta Alfaro, Andrea; Morash, Valerie S; Lei, Daisy; Orel-Bixler, Deborah

    2018-02-01

    Coordination of attention between a social partner and an external focus of shared interest, called joint engagement, is associated with positive developmental outcomes such as better language, socio-emotional, and theory of mind skills in sighted infants. Current measures of joint engagement rely on an infant's visual behaviors, making it difficult to study joint engagement in infants with low or no vision. In a naturalistic observational study, 20 infants with various levels of visual impairments - mean ages: 1.08 years (N=9) and 1.62 years (N=18), were videotaped during 30-min free play sessions with their caregivers. Seven infants were tested at both ages. Videos were coded to determine the percentage of time the dyads participated in joint engagement. Results showed that all visually impaired infants participated in joint engagement, with a significant increase between earlier and later ages. Infants' visual impairment levels were described in terms of visual acuity and contrast sensitivity as measured using both visual evoked potential and preferential looking techniques. Of the visual measurements, infants' reduction in contrast sensitivity measured with preferential looking, alone, predicted the infants' percentage of time in joint engagement across ages. Contrary to prior research that exclusively focused on visual acuity, this finding supports the need to include contrast sensitivity measurements in studies with visually impaired infants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Primary degenerative joint disease of the shoulder in a colony of Beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, J.P.; Pool, R.R.; Miyabayashi, T.

    1987-01-01

    Shoulder joints of 149 Beagles over 8 years old at the time of death (mean age, 13.8 years +/- 3.21), were examined radiographically throughout their life-times for the frequency of degenerative joint disease (DJD). Clinical histories revealed no underlying cause for DJD. The shoulder joints of a subgroup of 18 dogs were examined at necropsy, and thin sections of the joints were evaluated radiographically and histologically. Serial clinical radiographic studies indicated that normal shoulder joint development during the first year of life was followed by the appearance of subchondral bone sclerosis and bony remodeling of normal joint contour, and by the formation of periarticular osteophytes and enthesiophytes. All changes were progressive with age and typical for DJD in dogs. Bilateral involvement was common. Evaluation of specimens obtained at necropsy revealed: articular cartilage change with roughening of the surface layer, degeneration and death of superficial chondrocytes, exposure of deeper layers of chondrocytes that had proliferated with fissuring of the damaged cartilage, total cartilage loss with polishing of the exposed subchondral bone, mixed patterns of subchondral bone sclerosis and osteoporosis, change in contour of the articular surfaces, and formation of periarticular osteophytes and enthesiophytes. Joint capsule thickening, synovitis, pannus formation, and synovial chondroma formation were observed. Because of the available clinical information, in addition to the typical changes of DJD, it was thought that the changes were primary. Instability appeared to play a role in the pathogenesis of the joint disease described; however, it was not clear whether the instability caused abnormal forces on healthy cartilage or whether the primary cartilage wear caused the instability

  8. [Application of joint reconstruction with autogenous coronoid process graft to treat temporomandibular joint ankylosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Qing-tiao; Huang, Xuan-ping; Jiang, Xian-fang; Yang, Yuan-yuan; Li, Hua; Lin, Xi

    2013-08-01

    To evaluate the clinical effect of joint reconstruction by using autogenous coronoid process graft to treat temporomandibular joint(TMJ) ankylosis. Nine cases of TMJ ankylosis from September 2008 to September 2010 were surgically treated by joint reconstruction with autogenous coronoid process graft, using autogenous articular disc or prosthodontic membrane as interpositional material. Mouth opening, occlusion and cone beam CT(CBCT) were used for evaluation before and after surgery. Satisfactory mouth opening was achieved in all patients and no one got occlusal changes or reankylosis during follow-up. CBCT showed that coronoid process graft reached bone union with the ramus and turned to be round. It is effective to cure TMJ ankylosis through joint reconstruction with autogenous coronoid process graft.

  9. Re-analysis of fatigue data for welded joints using the notch stress approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mikkel Melters; Mouritsen, Ole Ø.; Hansen, Michael Rygaard

    2010-01-01

    Experimental fatigue data for welded joints have been collected and subjected to re-analysis using the notch stress approach according to IIW recommendations. This leads to an overview regarding the reliability of the approach, based on a large number of results (767 specimens). Evidently......-welded joints agree quite well with the FAT 225 curve; however a reduction to FAT 200 is suggested in order to achieve approximately the same safety as observed in the nominal stress approach....

  10. Association of Gastrocnemius Muscle Stiffness With Passive Ankle Joint Stiffness and Sex-Related Difference in the Joint Stiffness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chino, Kintaro; Takashi, Hideyuki

    2017-11-15

    Passive ankle joint stiffness is affected by all structures located within and over the joint, and is greater in men than in women. Localized muscle stiffness can be assessed by ultrasound shear wave elastography, and muscle architecture such as fascicle length and pennation angle can be measured by B-mode ultrasonography. Thus, we assessed localized muscle stiffness of the medial gastrocnemius (MG) with consideration of individual variability in the muscle architecture, and examined the association of the muscle stiffness with passive ankle joint stiffness and the sex-related difference in the joint stiffness. Localized muscle stiffness of the MG in 16 men and 17 women was assessed at 10° and 20° plantar flexion, neutral anatomical position, 10° and 20° dorsiflexion. Fascicle length and pennation angle of the MG were measured at these joint positions. Passive ankle joint stiffness was determined by the ankle joint angle-torque relationship. Localized MG muscle stiffness was not significantly correlated with passive ankle joint stiffness, and did not show significant sex-related difference, even when considering the muscle architecture. This finding suggest that muscle stiffness of the MG would not be a prominent factor to determine passive ankle joint stiffness and the sex-related difference in the joint stiffness.

  11. Joint involvement in patients affected by systemic lupus erythematosus: application of the swollen to tender joint count ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Cipriano

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Joint involvement is a common manifestation in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE. According to the SLE disease activity index 2000 (SLEDAI-2K, joint involvement is present in case of ≥2 joints with pain and signs of inflammation. However this definition could fail to catch all the various features of joint involvement. Alternatively the Swollen to Tender joint Ratio (STR could be used. This new index, which was originally proposed for rheumatoid arthritis (RA patients, is based on the count of 28 swollen and tender joints. Our study is, therefore, aimed to assess joint involvement in a SLE cohort using the STR. SLE patients with joint symptoms (≥1 tender joint were enrolled over a period of one month. Disease activity was assessed by SLEDAI-2K. We performed the swollen and tender joint count (0-28 and calculated the STR. Depending on the STR, SLE patients were grouped into three categories of disease activity: low (STR1.0. We also calculated the disease activity score based on a 28-joint count and the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (DAS28-ESR. We enrolled 100 SLE patients [F/M 95/5, mean±standard deviation (SD age 46.3±10.6 years, mean±SD disease duration 147.1±103.8 months]. The median of tender and swollen joints was 4 (IQR 7 and 1 (IQR 2.5, respectively. The median STR value was 0.03 (IQR 0.6. According to the STR, disease activity was low in 70 patients, moderate in 23 and high in 7. A significant correlation was identified between STR values and DAS28 (r=0.33, p=0.001. The present study suggests a correlation between STR and DAS28, allowing an easier and faster assessment of joint involvement with the former index.

  12. Semi-Automated Quantification of Finger Joint Space Narrowing Using Tomosynthesis in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa, Shota; Kamishima, Tamotsu; Sutherland, Kenneth; Kasahara, Hideki; Shimizu, Yuka; Fujimori, Motoshi; Yasojima, Nobutoshi; Ono, Yohei; Kaneda, Takahiko; Koike, Takao

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of the study is to validate the semi-automated method using tomosynthesis images for the assessment of finger joint space narrowing (JSN) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), by using the semi-quantitative scoring method as the reference standard. Twenty patients (14 females and 6 males) with RA were included in this retrospective study. All patients underwent radiography and tomosynthesis of the bilateral hand and wrist. Two rheumatologists and a radiologist independently scored JSN with two modalities according to the Sharp/van der Heijde score. Two observers independently measured joint space width on tomosynthesis images using an in-house semi-automated method. More joints with JSN were revealed with tomosynthesis score (243 joints) and the semi-automated method (215 joints) than with radiography (120 joints), and the associations between tomosynthesis scores and radiography scores were demonstrated (P tomosynthesis scores with r = -0.606 (P tomosynthesis images was in almost perfect agreement with intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) values of 0.964 and 0.963, respectively. The semi-automated method using tomosynthesis images provided sensitive, quantitative, and reproducible measurement of finger joint space in patients with RA.

  13. Microstructure and failure mechanisms of refill friction stir spot welded 7075-T6 aluminum alloy joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Zhikang; Yang, Xinqi; Zhang, Zhaohua; Cui, Lei; Li, Tielong

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► There is a correlation between the void in the weld and the joint strength. ► The preferable mechanical properties can be obtained by lowering rotational speed. ► The alclad has an adverse effect on the mechanical properties. -- Abstract: In this paper, the microstructure and mechanical properties of 7075-T6 aluminum alloy joints joined by refill friction stir spot welding (RFSSW) were investigated. The keyhole was refilled successfully, and the microstructure of the weld exhibited variations in the grain sizes in the width and the thickness directions. There existed defects (hook, voids, bonding ligament, etc.) associated to the material flow in the weld. Mechanical properties of the joint have been investigated in terms of hardness and tensile/shear and cross-tension test, and the fracture mechanisms were observed by SEM (scanning electron microscope). The hardness profile of the weld exhibited a W-shaped appearance in the macroscopic level, which reached the minimum at the boundary of the sleeve and the clamping ring. The variation laws between tensile/shear and cross-tension strength and processing parameters were rather complicated. The void in the weld played an important role in determining the strength of the joint. On the whole, the preferable strength can be obtained at lower rotational speed. Shear fracture mode was observed under tensile–shear loadings, and nugget debonding, plug type fracture (on the upper sheet) and plug type fracture (on the lower sheet) modes were observed under cross-tension loadings. It was also observed that the main feature affecting the mechanical properties of the joint is the alclad between the upper and lower sheets and the connecting qualities between the stir zone and thermo-mechanically affected zone.

  14. Progress in JT-60 joint research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Haruyuki; Kikuchi, Mitsuru; Inutake, Masaaki

    2007-01-01

    It consists of five chapters; 1) introduction, 2) management system of joint plan and researches, 3) progress of joint researches, 4) results of researches and 5) summary. The second chapter stated the structure of management system of JT-60 joint researches, progress of management of the JT-60 experimental theme system, invitation the public to joint researches and selection of the subjects. The progress of joint researches contained the number of subjects, research members and organizations, change of joint research fields, remote control system of experiments, analysis code group, and number of reports. The main results of researches such as development of operation without center solenoid, Magneto-Hydro-Dynamics (MHD) control by electron cyclotron wave, plasma-wall interaction, application of laser technologies to plasma measurement, and comparison between tokamak and helical are reported. (S.Y.)

  15. Discordant inflammatory changes in the apophyseal and sacroiliac joints: serial observations in enthesitis-related arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amies, Thomas; Vendhan, Kanimozhi; Humphries, Paul; Sen, Debajit; Ioannou, Yiannis; Hall-Craggs, Margaret A

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the extent to which inflammation of the sacroiliac joints (SIJs) and apophyseal joints (AJs) changes concordantly after treatment in enthesitis-related arthritis (ERA). Methods: A retrospective study was performed with institutional review board approval. 31 young patients with ERA who had been scanned between March 2009 and November 2014 were included. All patients had post-contrast imaging of the SIJs and lumbar spine and short tau inversion-recovery (STIR) images of the SIJs. The severity of sacroiliitis was scored using a modification of an established technique, and inflammation of the AJs was evaluated using a recently described grading system. The changes in SIJ and AJ scores after treatment were classified as either concordant or discordant, and the proportion of scan pairs in these groups was recorded. In addition, the correlation between change in SIJ STIR score (Δnfla) and change in AJ score (ΔAJ) was assessed using Spearman's correlation coefficient. Results: Of a total of 43 scan pairs, the changes in inflammation were concordant in 16 scan pairs and discordant in 27 scan pairs. There was no significant correlation between Δnfla and ΔAJ (R = 0.14, p = 0.37). Conclusion: Inflammatory changes in the SIJs and AJs are often discordant. This may be a reason why patients experience ongoing back pain despite apparent improvement in one or the other site. Advances in knowledge: Inflammation may behave differently at different anatomical sites. The SIJs and AJs should both be imaged in patients with ERA with back pain. PMID:27376529

  16. Low Level Laser Therapy for chronic knee joint pain patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Takashi; Ebihara, Satoru; Ohkuni, Ikuko; Izukura, Hideaki; Harada, Takashi; Ushigome, Nobuyuki; Ohshiro, Toshio; Musha, Yoshiro; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Tsuchiya, Kazuaki; Kubota, Ayako

    2014-12-27

    Chronic knee joint pain is one of the most frequent complaints which is seen in the outpatient clinic in our medical institute. In previous studies we have reported the benefits of low level laser therapy (LLLT) for chronic pain in the shoulder joints, elbow, hand, finger and the lower back. The present study is a report on the effects of LLLT for chronic knee joint pain. Over the past 5 years, 35 subjects visited the outpatient clinic with complaints of chronic knee joint pain caused by the knee osteoarthritis-induced degenerative meniscal tear. They received low level laser therapy. A 1000 mW semi-conductor laser device was used to deliver 20.1 J/cm(2) per point in continuous wave at 830nm, and four points were irradiated per session (1 treatment) twice a week for 4 weeks. A visual analogue scale (VAS) was used to determine the effects of LLLT for the chronic pain and after the end of the treatment regimen a significant improvement was observed (pknee joint range of motion. Discussions with the patients revealed that it was important for them to learn how to avoid postures that would cause them knee pain in everyday life in order to have continuous benefits from the treatment. The present study demonstrated that 830 nm LLLT was an effective form of treatment for chronic knee pain caused by knee osteoarthritis. Patients were advised to undertake training involving gentle flexion and extension of the knee.

  17. Inferior olive mirrors joint dynamics to implement an inverse controller.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Icaza, Rodrigo; Boahen, Kwabena

    2012-10-01

    To produce smooth and coordinated motion, our nervous systems need to generate precisely timed muscle activation patterns that, due to axonal conduction delay, must be generated in a predictive and feedforward manner. Kawato proposed that the cerebellum accomplishes this by acting as an inverse controller that modulates descending motor commands to predictively drive the spinal cord such that the musculoskeletal dynamics are canceled out. This and other cerebellar theories do not, however, account for the rich biophysical properties expressed by the olivocerebellar complex's various cell types, making these theories difficult to verify experimentally. Here we propose that a multizonal microcomplex's (MZMC) inferior olivary neurons use their subthreshold oscillations to mirror a musculoskeletal joint's underdamped dynamics, thereby achieving inverse control. We used control theory to map a joint's inverse model onto an MZMC's biophysics, and we used biophysical modeling to confirm that inferior olivary neurons can express the dynamics required to mirror biomechanical joints. We then combined both techniques to predict how experimentally injecting current into the inferior olive would affect overall motor output performance. We found that this experimental manipulation unmasked a joint's natural dynamics, as observed by motor output ringing at the joint's natural frequency, with amplitude proportional to the amount of current. These results support the proposal that the cerebellum-in particular an MZMC-is an inverse controller; the results also provide a biophysical implementation for this controller and allow one to make an experimentally testable prediction.

  18. The effect of sliding velocity on the mechanical response of an artificial joint in Topopah Spring Member tuff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsson, W.A.

    1994-04-01

    A smooth artificial joint in Topopah Spring Member tuff was sheared at constant normal stress at velocities from 0 to 100 μm/s to determine the velocity-dependence of shear strength. Two different initial conditions were used: (1) unprimed -- the joint had been shear stress-free since last application of normal stress, and before renewed shear loading; and (2) primed -- the joint had undergone a slip history after application of normal stress, but before the current shear loading. Observed steady-state rate effects were found to be about 3 times lager than for some other silicate rocks. These different initial conditions affected the character of the stress-slip curve immediately after the onset of slip. Priming the joint causes a peak in the stress-slip response followed by a transient decay to the steady-state stress, i.e., slip weakening. Slide-hold-slide tests exhibit time-dependent strengthening. When the joint was subjected to constant shear stress, no slip was observed; that is, joint creep did not occur. One set of rate data was collected from a surface submerged in tap water, the friction was higher for this surface, but the rate sensitivity was the same as that for surfaces tested in the air-dry condition

  19. Cancer risk among patients with finger and hand joint and temporo-mandibular joint prostheses in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryzek, J P; Mellemkjaer, L; McLaughlin, J K; Blot, W J; Olsen, J H

    1999-05-31

    The use of artificial joint implants has risen greatly over the past years. However, few investigations of the cancer risk associated with implants have been performed. We investigated cancer risk in patients with finger and hand joint and temporo-mandibular (TMJ) joint implants. A nationwide cohort in Denmark of patients with finger and hand joint prostheses (n = 858) or TMJ implants (n = 389) was followed from January 1, 1977, to December 31, 1995, to evaluate any potential cancer risks subsequent to receiving these implants. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) for all cancers were 1.0 (95% CI = 0.8-1.2) for the finger and hand joint cohort and 1.1 (95% CI = 0.8-1.7) for the TMJ cohort. A significant risk for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma was found in the finger and hand joint cohort (SIR = 3.8, 95% CI = 1.5-7.8). When the finger and hand joint cohort was stratified by diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis, the excess risk was seen only in the group with rheumatoid arthritis. This is consistent with past studies, which have found an association between rheumatoid arthritis and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Our results provide evidence that the cancer risk for patients with finger and hand joint prostheses and TMJ implants is similar to that for the general population.

  20. Results of Joint Observations of Jupiter's Atmosphere by Juno and a Network of Earth-Based Observing Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orton, Glenn; Momary, Thomas; Bolton, Scott; Levin, Steven; Hansen, Candice; Janssen, Michael; Adriani, Alberto; Gladstone, G. Randall; Bagenal, Fran; Ingersoll, Andrew

    2017-04-01

    The Juno mission has promoted and coordinated a network of Earth-based observations, including both Earth-proximal and ground-based facilities, to extend and enhance observations made by the Juno mission. The spectral region and timeline of all of these observations are summarized in the web site: https://www.missionjuno.swri.edu/planned-observations. Among the earliest of these were observation of Jovian auroral phenomena at X-ray, ultraviolet and infrared wavelengths and measurements of Jovian synchrotron radiation from the Earth simultaneously with the measurement of properties of the upstream solar wind. Other observations of significance to the magnetosphere measured the mass loading from Io by tracking its observed volcanic activity and the opacity of its torus. Observations of Jupiter's neutral atmosphere included observations of reflected sunlight from the near-ultraviolet through the near-infrared and thermal emission from 5 μm through the radio region. The point of these measurements is to relate properties of the deep atmosphere that are the focus of Juno's mission to the state of the "weather layer" at much higher atmospheric levels. These observations cover spectral regions not included in Juno's instrumentation, provide spatial context for Juno's often spatially limited coverage of Jupiter, and they describe the evolution of atmospheric features in time that are measured only once by Juno. We will summarize the results of measurements during the approach phase of the mission that characterized the state of the atmosphere, as well as observations made by Juno and the supporting campaign during Juno's perijoves 1 (2016 August 27), 3 (2016 December 11), 4 (2017 February 2) and possibly "early" results from 5 (2017 March 27). Besides a global network of professional astronomers, the Juno mission also benefited from the enlistment of a network of dedicated amateur astronomers who provided a quasi-continuous picture of the evolution of features observed by

  1. Expansion joints for LMFBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzenus, M.; Hundhausen, W.; Jansing, W.

    1980-01-01

    This discourse recounts efforts put into the SNR-2 project; specifically the development of compensation devices. The various prototypes of these compensation devices are described and the state of the development reviewed. Large Na (sodium)-heat transfer systems require a lot of valuable space if the component lay-out does not include compensation devices. So, in order to condense the spatial requirement as much as possible, expansion joints must be integrated into the pipe system. There are two basic types to suit the purpose: axial expansion joints and angular expansion joints. The expansion joints were developed on the basis of specific design criteria whereby differentiation is made between expansion joints of small and large nominal diameter. Expansion joints for installation in the sodium-filled primary piping are equipped with safety bellows in addition to the actual working bellows. Expansion joints must be designed and mounted in a manner to completely withstand seismic forces. The design must exclude any damage to the bellows during intermittent operations, that is, when sodium is drained the bellows' folds must be completely empty; otherwise residual solidified sodium could destroy the bellows when restarting. The expansion joints must be engineered on the basis of the following design data for the secondary system of the SNR project: working pressure: 16 bar; failure mode pressure: 5 events; failure mode: 5 sec., 28.5 bar, 520 deg. C; working temperature: 520 deg. C; temperature transients: 30 deg. C/sec.; service life: 200,000 h; number of load cycles: 10 4 ; material: 1.4948 or 1.4919; layer thickness of folds: 0.5 mm; angular deflection (DN 800): +3 deg. C or; axial expansion absorption (DN 600): ±80 mm; calculation: ASME class. The bellows' development work is not handled within this scope. The bellows are supplied by leading manufacturers, and warrant highest quality. Multiple bellows were selected on the basis of maximum elasticity - a property

  2. Results from Joint Observations of Jupiter's Atmosphere by Juno and a Network of Earth-Based Observing Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orton, G. S.; Bolton, S. J.; Levin, S.; Hansen, C. J.; Janssen, M. A.; Adriani, A.; Gladstone, R.; Bagenal, F.; Ingersoll, A. P.; Momary, T.; Payne, A.

    2016-12-01

    The Juno mission has promoted and coordinated a network of Earth-based observations, including both space- and ground-based facilities, to extend and enhance observations made by the Juno mission. The spectral region and timeline of all of these observations are summarized in the web site: https://www.missionjuno.swri.edu/planned-observations. Among the earliest of these were observation of Jovian auroral phenomena at X-ray, ultraviolet and infrared wavelengths and measurements of Jovian synchrotron radiation from the Earth simultaneously with the measurement of properties of the upstream solar wind described elsewhere in this meeting. Other observations of significance to the magnetosphere measured the mass loading from Io by tracking its observed volcanic activity and the opacity of its torus. Observations of Jupiter's neutral atmosphere included observations of reflected sunlight from the near-ultraviolet through the near-infrared and thermal emission from 5 microns through the radio region. The point of these measurements is to relate properties of the deep atmosphere that are the focus of Juno's mission to the state of the "weather layer" at much higher atmospheric levels. These observations cover spectral regions not included in Juno's instrumentation, provide spatial context for Juno's often spatially limited coverage of Jupiter, and they describe the evolution of atmospheric features in time that are measured only once by Juno. We will summarize the results of measurements during the approach phase of the mission that characterized the state of the atmosphere, as well as observations made by Juno and the supporting campaign during Juno's perijoves 1 (August 27), 2 (October 19), 3 (November 2), 4 (November 15), and 5 (November 30). The Juno mission also benefited from the enlistment of a network of dedicated amateur astronomers who, besides providing input needed for public operation of the JunoCam visible camera, tracked the evolution of features in Jupiter

  3. Induction of osteoarthritis by injecting monosodium iodoacetate into the patellofemoral joint of an experimental rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Ikufumi; Matsuzaki, Taro; Kuroki, Hiroshi; Hoso, Masahiro

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the histopathological changes in the patellofemoral joint using a rat model of osteoarthritis that was induced using monosodium iodoacetate, and to establish a novel model of patellofemoral osteoarthritis in a rat model using histopathological analysis. Sixty male rats were used. Osteoarthritis was induced through a single intra-articular injection of monosodium iodoacetate in both knee joints. Animals were equally divided into two experimental groups based on the monosodium iodoacetate dose: 0.2 mg and 1.0 mg. Histopathological changes in the articular cartilage of the patellofemoral joint and the infrapatellar fat pad were examined at 3 days, 1 week, 2 weeks, 4 weeks, 8 weeks, and 12 weeks after the monosodium iodoacetate injection. In the 1.0-mg group, the representative histopathological findings of osteoarthritis were observed in the articular cartilage of the patellofemoral joint over time. Additionally, the Osteoarthritis Research Society International scores of the patellofemoral joint increased over time. The synovitis scores of the infrapatellar fat pad in both groups were highest at 3 days, and then the values decreased over time. The fibrosis score of the infrapatellar fat pad in the 1.0-mg group increased with time, whereas the fibrosis score in the 0.2-mg group remained low. Representative histopathological findings of osteoarthritis were observed in the articular cartilage of the patellofemoral joint in a rat model of osteoarthritis induced using monosodium iodoacetate. With appropriate selection, this model may be regarded as an ideal patellofemoral osteoarthritis model.

  4. Surgical anatomy of the sternoclavicular joint: a qualitative and quantitative anatomical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jared T; Campbell, Kevin J; Michalski, Max P; Wilson, Katharine J; Spiegl, Ulrich J A; Wijdicks, Coen A; Millett, Peter J

    2014-10-01

    The quantitative anatomical relationships of the main ligamentous, tendinous, and osseous structures of the sternoclavicular joint have not been widely investigated. The purpose of this study was to provide a quantitative description of the sternoclavicular joint in relation to relevant surgical landmarks. We dissected eleven nonpaired, fresh-frozen cadaveric sternoclavicular joints from four men and seven women (mean age at death, fifty-three years; range, thirty-three to sixty-four years) and measured the ligaments, musculature, and osseous landmarks with use of a three-dimensional coordinate-measuring device. The clavicular pectoralis ridge, located at the 9:30 clock-face position on a right clavicle, served as a reliable osseous landmark for reference to the soft-tissue attachments around the sternoclavicular joint. The costoclavicular ligament was the largest ligament of the sternoclavicular joint, with 80% greater footprint area than that of the posterior sternoclavicular ligament. Articular cartilage covered 67% of the medial end of the clavicle and was located anteroinferiorly. The sternohyoid muscle inserted directly over the posterior sternoclavicular joint and the medial end of the clavicle, whereas the sternothyroid muscle inserted 9.5 mm inferior to the posterior-superior articular margin of the manubrium and coursed 19.8 mm laterally along the first rib. An avascular plane that can serve as a "safe zone" for posterior dissection was observed in each specimen, posterior to the sternoclavicular joint and anterior to the sternohyoid and sternothyroid muscles. The clavicular pectoralis ridge can be used as an intraoperative guide for clavicle orientation and tunnel placement in sternoclavicular ligament reconstruction. Sternoclavicular joint resection arthroplasty should avoid injuring the costoclavicular ligament, which is the largest sternoclavicular joint ligament. Resection of only the anteroinferior aspect of the medial end of the clavicle may

  5. Tensile Properties of Friction Stir Welded Joints of AA 2024-T6 Alloy at Different Welding Speeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avula, Dhananjayulu; Devuri, Venkateswarlu; Cheepu, Muralimohan; Dwivedi, Dheerendra Kumar

    2018-03-01

    The influence of welding speed on the friction stir welded joint properties of hardness, tensile properties, defects and microstructure characterization are studied in the present study. The friction stir welding was conducted on AA2014-T6 heat treated alloy with 5 mm thickness plate in butt joint configuration. The welding speed was varied from 8 mm/min to 120 mm/min at the fixed travel speed and load conditions. It is observed that the welding speeds at higher rate with wide range can be possible to weld this alloy at higher rates of tool revolution suggesting that the inherent capability of friction stir welding technique for aluminum 2014 alloys. The strength of the joints gradually increases with enhancing of welding speed. The micro structural observations exhibited the formation of equiaxed grains in the stir zone and slightly in the thermo-mechanically affected zone. In addition, the size of the grains decreases with increase in welding speed owing to the presence of low heat input. Hence the hardness of the joints slightly increased in the stir zones over the other zones of the weld nugget. The joint strength initially increases with the welding speed and starts to decreases after reaching to the maximum value. The relationship between the welding conditions and friction stir welded joint properties has been discussed.

  6. Fermi GBM Observations During the Second Observing Run of LIGO/Virgo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Adam; Fermi-GBM

    2018-01-01

    The Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) is a prolific detector of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and detects more short duration GRBs than any other instrument currently in operation. Short GRBs are thought to be associated with the mergers of binary neutron star systems (or neutron star-black hole systems), and are therefore considered likely counterparts to gravitational-wave detections from LIGO/Virgo. We report on the GBM observations during the second observing run of LIGO/Virgo and detail the physical and astrophysical insights that might be gleaned from a joint detection of a short GRB and a gravitational-wave source.

  7. The volume of the human knee joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matziolis, Georg; Roehner, Eric; Windisch, Christoph; Wagner, Andreas

    2015-10-01

    Despite its clinical relevance, particularly in septic knee surgery, the volume of the human knee joint has not been established to date. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine knee joint volume and whether or not it is dependent on sex or body height. Sixty-one consecutive patients (joints) who were due to undergo endoprosthetic joint replacement were enrolled in this prospective study. During the operation, the joint volume was determined by injecting saline solution until a pressure of 200 mmHg was achieved in the joint. The average volume of all knee joints was 131 ± 53 (40-290) ml. The volume was not found to be dependent on sex, but it was dependent on the patients' height (R = 0.312, p = 0.014). This enabled an estimation of the joint volume according to V = 1.6 height - 135. The considerable inter-individual variance of the knee joint volume would suggest that it should be determined or at least estimated according to body height if the joint volume has consequences for the diagnostics or therapy of knee disorders.

  8. Enhanced lubricant film formation through micro-dimpled hard-on-hard artificial hip joint: An in-situ observation of dimple shape effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Dipankar; Rebenda, David; Sasaki, Shinya; Hekrle, Pavel; Vrbka, Martin; Zou, Min

    2018-05-01

    This study evaluates the impact of dimple shapes on lubricant film formation in artificial hip joints. Micro-dimples with 20-50 µm lateral size and 1 ± 0.2 µm depths were fabricated on CrCoMo hip joint femoral heads using a picosecond laser. Tribological studies were performed using a pendulum hip joint simulator to apply continuous swing flexion-extension motions. The results revealed a significantly enhanced lubricant film thickness (≥ 500 nm) with micro-dimpled prosthesis heads at equilibrium position after the lubricant film has fully developed. The average lubricant film thickness of dimpled prostheses with square- and triangular-shaped dimple arrays over time is about 3.5 that of the non-dimpled prosthesis (204 nm). Remarkably, the prosthesis with square-shaped dimple arrays showed a very fast lubricant film formation reaching their peak values within 0.5 s of pendulum movement, followed by prosthesis with triangular-shaped dimple arrays with a transition period of 42.4 s. The fully developed lubricant film thicknesses (≥ 700 nm) are significantly higher than the surface roughness (≈ 25 nm) demonstrating a hydrodynamic lubrication. Hardly any scratches appeared on the post-experimental prosthesis with square-shaped dimple array and only a few scratches were found on the post-experimental prosthesis with triangular-shaped dimple arrays. Thus, prostheses with square-shaped dimple arrays could be a potential solution for durable artificial hip joints. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Health monitoring of 90° bolted joints using fuzzy pattern recognition of ultrasonic signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalalpour, M; El-Osery, A I; Austin, E M; Reda Taha, M M

    2014-01-01

    Bolted joints are important parts for aerospace structures. However, there is a significant risk associated with assembling bolted joints due to potential human error during the assembly process. Such errors are expensive to find and correct if exposed during environmental testing, yet checking the integrity of individual fasteners after assembly would be a time consuming task. Recent advances in structural health monitoring (SHM) can provide techniques to not only automate this process but also make it reliable. This integrity monitoring requires damage features to be related to physical conditions representing the structural integrity of bolted joints. In this paper an SHM technique using ultrasonic signals and fuzzy pattern recognition to monitor the integrity of 90° bolted joints in aerospace structures is described. The proposed technique is based on normalized fast Fourier transform (NFFT) of transmitted signals and fuzzy pattern recognition. Moreover, experimental observations of a case study on an aluminum 90° bolted joint are presented. We demonstrate the ability of the proposed method to efficiently monitor and indicate bolted joint integrity. (paper)

  10. RSRM Nozzle-to-Case Joint J-leg Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrechtsen, Kevin U.; Eddy, Norman F.; Ewing, Mark E.; McGuire, John R.

    2003-01-01

    Since the beginning of the Space Shuttle Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) program, nozzle-to-case joint polysulfide adhesive gas paths have occurred on several flight motors. These gas paths have allowed hot motor gases to reach the wiper O-ring. Even though these motors continue to fly safely with this condition, a desire was to reduce such occurrences. The RSRM currently uses a J-leg joint configuration on case field joints and igniter inner and outer joints. The J-leg joint configuration has been successfully demonstrated on numerous RSRM flight and static test motors, eliminating hot gas intrusion to the critical O-ring seals on these joints. Using the proven technology demonstrated on the case field joints and igniter joints, a nozzle-to-case joint J-leg design was developed for implementation on RSRM flight motors. This configuration provides an interference fit with nozzle fixed housing phenolics at assembly, with a series of pressurization gaps incorporated outboard of the joint mating surface to aid in joint pressurization and to eliminate any circumferential flow in this region. The joint insulation is bonded to the nozzle phenolics using the same pressure sensitive adhesive used in the case field joints and igniter joints. An enhancement to the nozzle-to-case joint J-leg configuration is the implementation of a carbon rope thermal barrier. The thermal barrier is located downstream of the joint bondline and is positioned within the joint in a manner where any hot gas intrusion into the joint passes through the thermal barrier, reducing gas temperatures to a level that would not affect O-rings downstream of the thermal barrier. This paper discusses the processes used in reaching a final nozzle-to-case joint J-leg design, provides structural and thermal results in support of the design, and identifies fabrication techniques and demonstrations used in arriving at the final configuration.

  11. Triple pelvic osteotomy: effect on limb function and progression of degenerative joint disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, A.L.; Smith, C.W.; Pijanowski, G.J.; Hungerford, L.L.

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate prospectively the outcome of 21 clinical patients treated with triple pelvic osteotomies during the year following surgery. Specific aims included documenting the time of and extent of improved limb function as measured by force plate analysis, evaluating the progression of degenerative joint disease (DJD) in the treated and untreated coxofemoral joints, and determining whether or not triple pelvic osteotomy resulted in degenerative joint changes in the ipsilateral stifle and hock. Twelve dogs were treated unilaterally and nine dogs were treated bilaterally with triple pelvic osteotomies. There were no differences in mean anteversion angles, angles of inclination, or preoperative DJD between treated hips and untreated hips. Degenerative joint disease progressed significantly in all hips regardless of treatment. Two cases developed hyperextension of their hocks after the triple pelvic osteotomies. However, no radiographic evidence of DJD was observed for any of the stifles or hocks at any observation time. A significant increase in vertical peak force (VPF) scores was noted for treated legs by two-to-three months after surgery, which continued over time. Untreated legs did not show a significant change in VPF scores over time. No differences were found in progression to higher scores when unilaterally treated legs, first-side treated legs, and second-side treated legs were compared

  12. Experimental investigation on full scale RC beam-column joint of NPP structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thandavamoorthy, T.S.; Lakshmanan, N.; Reddy, G.R.; Kushwaha, H.S.

    2003-01-01

    The Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) structures in India are constructed using reinforced concrete. The beam-column joint in these structures are critical sub-assemblages because they ensure continuity of a structure and transfer forces from one element to another. Under seismic excitation, the beam-column joint region is subjected to horizontal and vertical shear forces whose magnitudes are typically many times higher than those within the adjacent beams and columns. In view of the increased incidence of seismicity in the country, the safety of these structures against earthquake loading assumes greater significance. There is a growing need to look into the seismic safety aspect of existing RC frame type structures in NPPs, which have been designed as per codes prevalent at the time of their construction. Seismic performance of such joints has not been studied extensively in India. Therefore experimental testing of full scale joint identical to those available in the existing NPP structures, was carried out to study its behaviour and evaluate its capacity. The size of the beam of the joint was 2000 mm x 610 mm x 915 mm and column 2915 mm x 610 mm x 915 mm. The percentage reinforcement of the beam was 4.95 and column 1.5. Such full scale and heavily reinforced concrete joint was cast successfully in the laboratory and tested under monotonic loading. The paper presents a complete description of the experimental testing, observations made during testing as for cracking, deflection and rotation of joint, discussion of results obtained, etc. Conclusions drawn from the investigation are also presented. (author)

  13. Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) pain revisited with dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tasali, N.; Cubuk, R.; Aricak, M.; Ozarar, M.; Saydam, B.; Nur, H.; Tuncbilek, N.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: We aimed to assess the contrast enhancement patterns of the retrodiscal tissue with dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging (DCE-MRI) with respect to different temporomandibular joint disc pathologies. Additionally, we questioned the relationship between the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) pain and the contrast enhancement pattern of the retrodiscal tissue regardless of the TMJ disc position. Materials and methods: 52 joints of 26 patients (4 males and 22 females) who have pain in at least at one of their TMJ were included in this study. For the qualitative analysis, the joints were divided into four groups in terms of their disc positions: normal (1), partially displaced with or without reduction (2), totally dislocated with reduction (3) and totally dislocated without reduction (4). Besides, two different joint groups were constituted, namely the painful group and painless group according to the clinical findings without taking the TMJ disc positions into account. Quantitative analyses were made by means of measuring signal intensity ratios (SI) ratio at the retrodiscal tissue (from internal side and external side of the each joint) using DCE-MRI and these measurements were analyzed with paired samples t test to define the difference between the measurements. At the second stage, the time-dependent arithmetical mean values of the SI ratios were calculated for each joint group and significant differences between the groups were questioned using analysis of variance (ANOVA) test. Besides, painful and painless groups which were classified on the basis of the clinical data were compared according to the mean SI ratios found for each joint and the significant differences between these two groups were assessed by means of Student's T test. The results were assessed in 95% confidence interval where the significance level was p < 0.05. Results: A significant difference was observed between the internal and external contrast enhancement of the joints with partial