WorldWideScience

Sample records for software potential threat

  1. Security in software-defined wireless sensor networks: threats, challenges and potential solutions

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pritchard, SW

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available have focused on low resource cryptography methods to secure the network [27] - [29], [33]. Cryptography methods are separated into symmetric cryptography and asymmetric cryptography. While symmetric cryptography solutions are preferred due to low... implementation cost and efficiency [5], they present many problems when managing large networks and attempts to improve this cryptography for WSNs [11] have resulted in the cost of resources. Symmetric cryptography is also difficult to implement in software...

  2. Threats Management Throughout the Software Service Life-Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erlend Andreas Gjære

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Software services are inevitably exposed to a fluctuating threat picture. Unfortunately, not all threats can be handled only with preventive measures during design and development, but also require adaptive mitigations at runtime. In this paper we describe an approach where we model composite services and threats together, which allows us to create preventive measures at design-time. At runtime, our specification also allows the service runtime environment (SRE to receive alerts about active threats that we have not handled, and react to these automatically through adaptation of the composite service. A goal-oriented security requirements modelling tool is used to model business-level threats and analyse how they may impact goals. A process flow modelling tool, utilising Business Process Model and Notation (BPMN and standard error boundary events, allows us to define how threats should be responded to during service execution on a technical level. Throughout the software life-cycle, we maintain threats in a centralised threat repository. Re-use of these threats extends further into monitoring alerts being distributed through a cloud-based messaging service. To demonstrate our approach in practice, we have developed a proof-of-concept service for the Air Traffic Management (ATM domain. In addition to the design-time activities, we show how this composite service duly adapts itself when a service component is exposed to a threat at runtime.

  3. Software Requirement Specifications For ASocial Media Threat Assessment Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    media means a much higher volume of threats than before, which taxes law enforcement’s ability to investigate each one. Complicating the investigation...Obtaining the identity of a Twitter account holder requires court paperwork based on probable cause or exigent circumstances. Second, social media...instant connectivity of social media means a much higher number of threats than before, which taxes law enforcement’s ability to investigate each one

  4. Evaluation of Potential Biological Threats in Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pozdnyakova, L.; Slavina, N.; Pozdnyakov, S.

    2007-01-01

    Dilating of biological threats spectrum, EDI diffusion opportunities and routes, unpredictability of outbreaks connected with connatural, technogenic, terrorist factors determines constant monitoring and readiness for operative BPA indication and identification. Scientific analytical approach of existing and probable regional bio-threats evaluation is necessary for adequate readiness system creation and maintenance of medical counteraction tactics to probable biological threats. Basing on the international experience, we carry out analysis of a situation present in Ukraine and routes for the decisions. The basic directions are: - Evaluation of a reality for EDI penetration from abroad and presence of conditions for their further diffusion inside the country. - Revealing of presence and definition of connatural EDI foci biocenoses features and BPAs. - Appropriate level of biological safety and physical protection of bio-laboratories and pathogens collections maintenance. - Gene/molecular and phenotypical definition of EDI circulating strains. - Creation of the circulating EDI gene/ phenotypic characteristics regional data bank. - Ranging of EDI actual for area. - Introduction of GPT, mathematical modeling and forecasting for tactics development in case of technogenic accidents and connatural outbreaks. - Methodical basis and equipment improvement for BPA system indication for well-timed identification of natural, or modified agent. - Education and training The international cooperation in maintenance of biosafety and bioprotection within the framework of scientific programs, grants, exchange of experience, introduction of international standards and rules are among basic factors in the decision for creating system national biosafety for countries not included in EU and the NATO. (author)

  5. Software and the Virus Threat: Providing Authenticity in Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-03-01

    x . . . x x x x . 2100 Plastique (9) . x x x x x . . x x , . . 3012 Wo ian (2) . x x x x . . . x x . . . . 2064 Doom Z x . x x. . x x x x 2504 Flip...shot+ Software Concepts Design (212) 889 6438 594 Third Avenue New York, NY 10016 FShield McAfee Associates (408) 988-3832 4423 Cheeney Street Santa

  6. Software Development Initiatives to Identify and Mitigate Security Threats - Two Systematic Mapping Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Silva

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Software Security and development experts have addressed the problem of building secure software systems. There are several processes and initiatives to achieve secure software systems. However, most of these lack empirical evidence of its application and impact in building secure software systems. Two systematic mapping studies (SM have been conducted to cover the existent initiatives for identification and mitigation of security threats. The SMs created were executed in two steps, first in 2015 July, and complemented through a backward snowballing in 2016 July. Integrated results of these two SM studies show a total of 30 relevant sources were identified; 17 different initiatives covering threats identification and 14 covering the mitigation of threats were found. All the initiatives were associated to at least one activity of the Software Development Lifecycle (SDLC; while 6 showed signs of being applied in industrial settings, only 3 initiatives presented experimental evidence of its results through controlled experiments, some of the other selected studies presented case studies or proposals.

  7. Potential future land use threats to California's protected areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Tamara Sue; Sleeter, Benjamin Michael; Davis, Adam Wilkinson

    2015-01-01

    Increasing pressures from land use coupled with future changes in climate will present unique challenges for California’s protected areas. We assessed the potential for future land use conversion on land surrounding existing protected areas in California’s twelve ecoregions, utilizing annual, spatially explicit (250 m) scenario projections of land use for 2006–2100 based on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Special Report on Emission Scenarios to examine future changes in development, agriculture, and logging. We calculated a conversion threat index (CTI) for each unprotected pixel, combining land use conversion potential with proximity to protected area boundaries, in order to identify ecoregions and protected areas at greatest potential risk of proximal land conversion. Our results indicate that California’s Coast Range ecoregion had the highest CTI with competition for extractive logging placing the greatest demand on land in close proximity to existing protected areas. For more permanent land use conversions into agriculture and developed uses, our CTI results indicate that protected areas in the Central California Valley and Oak Woodlands are most vulnerable. Overall, the Eastern Cascades, Central California Valley, and Oak Woodlands ecoregions had the lowest areal percent of protected lands and highest conversion threat values. With limited resources and time, rapid, landscape-level analysis of potential land use threats can help quickly identify areas with higher conversion probability of future land use and potential changes to both habitat and potential ecosystem reserves. Given the broad range of future uncertainties, LULC projections are a useful tool allowing land managers to visualize alternative landscape futures, improve planning, and optimize management practices.

  8. Software development tools using GPGPU potentialities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudnik, V.A.; Kudryavtsev, V.I.; Sereda, T.M.; Us, S.A.; Shestakov, M.V.

    2011-01-01

    The paper deals with potentialities of various up-to-date software development tools for making use of graphic processor (GPU) parallel computing resources. Examples are given to illustrate the use of present-day software tools for the development of applications and realization of algorithms for scientific-technical calculations performed by GPGPU. The paper presents some classes of hard mathematical problems of scientific-technical calculations, for which the GPGPU can be efficiently used. is possible. To reduce the time of calculation program development with the use of GPGPU capabilities, various dedicated programming systems and problem-oriented subroutine libraries are recommended. Performance parameters when solving the problems with and without the use of GPGPU potentialities are compared.

  9. Quantitative Analysis of the Security of Software-Defined Network Controller Using Threat/Effort Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zehui Wu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available SDN-based controller, which is responsible for the configuration and management of the network, is the core of Software-Defined Networks. Current methods, which focus on the secure mechanism, use qualitative analysis to estimate the security of controllers, leading to inaccurate results frequently. In this paper, we employ a quantitative approach to overcome the above shortage. Under the analysis of the controller threat model we give the formal model results of the APIs, the protocol interfaces, and the data items of controller and further provide our Threat/Effort quantitative calculation model. With the help of Threat/Effort model, we are able to compare not only the security of different versions of the same kind controller but also different kinds of controllers and provide a basis for controller selection and secure development. We evaluated our approach in four widely used SDN-based controllers which are POX, OpenDaylight, Floodlight, and Ryu. The test, which shows the similarity outcomes with the traditional qualitative analysis, demonstrates that with our approach we are able to get the specific security values of different controllers and presents more accurate results.

  10. Threat Assessment of Potential Terrorist Attacks to the Transport Infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Nowacki

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents threat assessment of potential terrorist attacks to the transport infrastructure. The range of transportation infrastructure has spread and includes railway, inland waterways, road, maritime, air, intermodal transport infrastructure and intelligent transport systems (ITS. ITS service is the provision of an ITS application through a well-defined organisational and operational framework with the aim of contributing to the user safety, efficiency, comfort and/or to facilitate or support transport and travel operations. Terrorism means acts of violence committed by groups that view themselves as victimized by some notable historical wrong. Although these groups have no formal connection with governments, they usually have the financial and moral backing of sympathetic governments. Typically, they stage unexpected attacks on civilian targets, including transport infrastructure, with the aim of sowing fear and confusion. Based on the analyses, transportation infrastructure is potentially threatened with terrorism attacks, especially road and rail infrastructure (about 23 %, and to a smaller degree the maritime and air transport infrastructure (about 2 %. There were 90,3% of incidents involve land transport (74,5% – vehicles, 9,5% – buses, 6,3% - rail covered the 41-year period 1967-2007 in the USA. Legal steps to fight terrorism have been taken on the international level, furthermore, some institutions have been established for this purpose.

  11. Nuclear industry powering up to tackle potential threats from cyberspace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shepherd, John

    2015-01-01

    In June 2015, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), in cooperation with international agencies including the crime-fighting organisation Interpol, will host a major conference on the protection of computer systems and networks that support operations at the world's nuclear facilities. According to the IAEA, the use of computers and other digital electronic equipment in physical protection systems at nuclear facilities, as well as in facility safety systems, instrumentation, information processing and communication, ''continues to grow and presents an ever more likely target for cyber-attack''. The international nuclear industry is right to take heed of ever-evolving security threats, deal with them accordingly, and be as open and transparent as security allows about what is being done, which will reassure the general public. However, the potential menace of cyberspace should not be allowed to become such a distraction that it gives those who are ideologically opposed to nuclear another stick with which to beat the industry.

  12. Nuclear industry powering up to tackle potential threats from cyberspace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepherd, John [nuclear 24, Brighton (United Kingdom)

    2015-06-15

    In June 2015, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), in cooperation with international agencies including the crime-fighting organisation Interpol, will host a major conference on the protection of computer systems and networks that support operations at the world's nuclear facilities. According to the IAEA, the use of computers and other digital electronic equipment in physical protection systems at nuclear facilities, as well as in facility safety systems, instrumentation, information processing and communication, ''continues to grow and presents an ever more likely target for cyber-attack''. The international nuclear industry is right to take heed of ever-evolving security threats, deal with them accordingly, and be as open and transparent as security allows about what is being done, which will reassure the general public. However, the potential menace of cyberspace should not be allowed to become such a distraction that it gives those who are ideologically opposed to nuclear another stick with which to beat the industry.

  13. Tetanus: A Potential Public Health Threat in Times of Disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelstein, Paige; Teisch, Laura; Allen, Casey J; Ruiz, Gabriel

    2017-06-01

    for trauma and critical patients to become familiar with the protocols for treatment and immunization of patients that have tetanus-prone wounds, as well as recognize the potential for outbreaks in the settings of major natural disasters. Finkelstein P , Teisch L , Allen CJ , Ruiz G . Tetanus: a potential public health threat in times of disaster. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2017;32(3):339-342.

  14. Potential Threats of Information Disclosure in Social Media: a Systematic Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budi Yulianto

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Along with the growth of social media, a variety of potential threats to users is also increasing. These kinds of threats often occur because the users accidentally or unknowingly disclose their information or identity on social media. Threats resulted from the disclosure of information are needed to be known so that the users can understand the risks that arise and take precautions. This research was aimed to summarize the potential threats arising from the information disclosure in social media. The research method used was a systematic literature review to explore and summarize the literatures that discuss the specific topic. The research results show that the potential threats are mostly social threats and identity theft. 

  15. Interrelationships Among Men’s Threat Potential, Facial Dominance, and Vocal Dominance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengyang Han

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The benefits of minimizing the costs of engaging in violent conflict are thought to have shaped adaptations for the rapid assessment of others’ capacity to inflict physical harm. Although studies have suggested that men’s faces and voices both contain information about their threat potential, one recent study suggested that men’s faces are a more valid cue of their threat potential than their voices are. Consequently, the current study investigated the interrelationships among a composite measure of men’s actual threat potential (derived from the measures of their upper-body strength, height, and weight and composite measures of these men’s perceived facial and vocal threat potential (derived from dominance, strength, and weight ratings of their faces and voices, respectively. Although men’s perceived facial and vocal threat potential were positively correlated, men’s actual threat potential was related to their perceived facial, but not vocal, threat potential. These results present new evidence that men’s faces may be a more valid cue of these aspects of threat potential than their voices are.

  16. Data and software tools for gamma radiation spectral threat detection and nuclide identification algorithm development and evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portnoy, David; Fisher, Brian; Phifer, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The detection of radiological and nuclear threats is extremely important to national security. The federal government is spending significant resources developing new detection systems and attempting to increase the performance of existing ones. The detection of illicit radionuclides that may pose a radiological or nuclear threat is a challenging problem complicated by benign radiation sources (e.g., cat litter and medical treatments), shielding, and large variations in background radiation. Although there is a growing acceptance within the community that concentrating efforts on algorithm development (independent of the specifics of fully assembled systems) has the potential for significant overall system performance gains, there are two major hindrances to advancements in gamma spectral analysis algorithms under the current paradigm: access to data and common performance metrics along with baseline performance measures. Because many of the signatures collected during performance measurement campaigns are classified, dissemination to algorithm developers is extremely limited. This leaves developers no choice but to collect their own data if they are lucky enough to have access to material and sensors. This is often combined with their own definition of metrics for measuring performance. These two conditions make it all but impossible for developers and external reviewers to make meaningful comparisons between algorithms. Without meaningful comparisons, performance advancements become very hard to achieve and (more importantly) recognize. The objective of this work is to overcome these obstacles by developing and freely distributing real and synthetically generated gamma-spectra data sets as well as software tools for performance evaluation with associated performance baselines to national labs, academic institutions, government agencies, and industry. At present, datasets for two tracks, or application domains, have been developed: one that includes temporal

  17. Data and software tools for gamma radiation spectral threat detection and nuclide identification algorithm development and evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Portnoy, David; Fisher, Brian; Phifer, Daniel

    2015-06-01

    The detection of radiological and nuclear threats is extremely important to national security. The federal government is spending significant resources developing new detection systems and attempting to increase the performance of existing ones. The detection of illicit radionuclides that may pose a radiological or nuclear threat is a challenging problem complicated by benign radiation sources (e.g., cat litter and medical treatments), shielding, and large variations in background radiation. Although there is a growing acceptance within the community that concentrating efforts on algorithm development (independent of the specifics of fully assembled systems) has the potential for significant overall system performance gains, there are two major hindrances to advancements in gamma spectral analysis algorithms under the current paradigm: access to data and common performance metrics along with baseline performance measures. Because many of the signatures collected during performance measurement campaigns are classified, dissemination to algorithm developers is extremely limited. This leaves developers no choice but to collect their own data if they are lucky enough to have access to material and sensors. This is often combined with their own definition of metrics for measuring performance. These two conditions make it all but impossible for developers and external reviewers to make meaningful comparisons between algorithms. Without meaningful comparisons, performance advancements become very hard to achieve and (more importantly) recognize. The objective of this work is to overcome these obstacles by developing and freely distributing real and synthetically generated gamma-spectra data sets as well as software tools for performance evaluation with associated performance baselines to national labs, academic institutions, government agencies, and industry. At present, datasets for two tracks, or application domains, have been developed: one that includes temporal

  18. Yellow Fever Remains a Potential Threat to Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Pedro F C; Monath, Thomas P

    2016-08-01

    Yellow fever (YF) remains a serious public health threat in endemic countries. The recent re-emergence in Africa, initiating in Angola and spreading to Democratic Republic of Congo and Uganda, with imported cases in China and Kenya is of concern. There is such a shortage of YF vaccine in the world that the World Health Organization has proposed the use of reduced doses (1/5) during emergencies. In this short communication, we discuss these and other problems including the risk of spread of YF to areas free of YF for decades or never before affected by this arbovirus disease.

  19. Nuclear proliferation and the potential threat of nuclear terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ElBaradei, M.

    2005-01-01

    The Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency emphasises that security strategies can no longer be effective based solely on the concept of national boundaries. The article describes the security problems which have grown along with the development of 'internationalism' and the author defines the need for cooperation, assistance, regional and international networks to combat the threat quoting the IAEA's nuclear security plan as an example of how this may be achieved. In stressing the urgency Dr ElBaradei concludes: 'May it not ultimately be said of our civilisation that we created the inventions that led to our own demise'. (author)

  20. Nuclear proliferation and the potential threat of nuclear terrorism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ElBaradei, M. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    2005-01-15

    The Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency emphasises that security strategies can no longer be effective based solely on the concept of national boundaries. The article describes the security problems which have grown along with the development of 'internationalism' and the author defines the need for cooperation, assistance, regional and international networks to combat the threat quoting the IAEA's nuclear security plan as an example of how this may be achieved. In stressing the urgency Dr ElBaradei concludes: 'May it not ultimately be said of our civilisation that we created the inventions that led to our own demise'. (author)

  1. Assessing the potential threat landscape of a proposed reintroduction site for carnivores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha K Page

    Full Text Available This study provides a framework to assess the feasibility of reintroducing carnivores into an area, using African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus as an example. The Great Fish River Nature Reserve in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa, has been identified as a potential reserve to reintroduce wild dogs, and we applied this framework to provide a threat assessment of the surrounding area to determine potential levels of human-wildlife conflict. Although 56% of neighbouring landowners and local communities were positive about a wild dog reintroduction, data collected from questionnaire surveys revealed that human-wild dog conflict is a potential threat to wild dog survival in the area. Additional potential threats include diseases, snaring, poaching and hunting wild dogs for the use of traditional medicine. A threat index was developed to establish which properties harboured the greatest threats to wild dogs. This index was significantly influenced by the respondent's first language (isiXhosa had more positive indices, education level (poorer education was synonymous with more positive threat indices, land use (wildlife ranching being the most negative and land tenure (community respondents had more positive indices than private landowners. Although threats are present, they can be effectively mitigated through strategies such as carnivore education programs, vaccination campaigns and anti-snare patrols to promote a successful reintroduction of this endangered canid.

  2. Assessing the potential threat landscape of a proposed reintroduction site for carnivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Samantha K; Parker, Daniel M; Peinke, Dean M; Davies-Mostert, Harriet T

    2015-01-01

    This study provides a framework to assess the feasibility of reintroducing carnivores into an area, using African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) as an example. The Great Fish River Nature Reserve in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa, has been identified as a potential reserve to reintroduce wild dogs, and we applied this framework to provide a threat assessment of the surrounding area to determine potential levels of human-wildlife conflict. Although 56% of neighbouring landowners and local communities were positive about a wild dog reintroduction, data collected from questionnaire surveys revealed that human-wild dog conflict is a potential threat to wild dog survival in the area. Additional potential threats include diseases, snaring, poaching and hunting wild dogs for the use of traditional medicine. A threat index was developed to establish which properties harboured the greatest threats to wild dogs. This index was significantly influenced by the respondent's first language (isiXhosa had more positive indices), education level (poorer education was synonymous with more positive threat indices), land use (wildlife ranching being the most negative) and land tenure (community respondents had more positive indices than private landowners). Although threats are present, they can be effectively mitigated through strategies such as carnivore education programs, vaccination campaigns and anti-snare patrols to promote a successful reintroduction of this endangered canid.

  3. Detecting Insider Threats Using Ben-ware: Beneficial Intelligent Software for Identifying Anomalous Human Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    McGough, Andrew Stephen; Arief, Budi; Gamble, Carl; Wall, David; Brennan, John; Fitzgerald, John; van Moorsel, Aad; Alwis, Sujeewa; Theodoropoulos, Georgios; Ruck-Keene, Ed

    2015-01-01

    The insider threat problem is a significant and ever present issue faced by any organisation. While security mechanisms can be put in place to reduce the chances of external agents gaining access to a system, either to steal assets or alter records, the issue is more complex in tackling insider threat. If an employee already has legitimate access rights to a system, it is much more difficult to prevent them from carrying out inappropriate acts, as it is hard to determine whether the acts are ...

  4. Optimizing the Performance of Radionuclide Identification Software in the Hunt for Nuclear Security Threats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fotion, Katherine A.

    2016-01-01

    The Radionuclide Analysis Kit (RNAK), my team's most recent nuclide identification software, is entering the testing phase. A question arises: will removing rare nuclides from the software's library improve its overall performance? An affirmative response indicates fundamental errors in the software's framework, while a negative response confirms the effectiveness of the software's key machine learning algorithms. After thorough testing, I found that the performance of RNAK cannot be improved with the library choice effect, thus verifying the effectiveness of RNAK's algorithms - multiple linear regression, Bayesian network using the Viterbi algorithm, and branch and bound search.

  5. The global nephrology workforce: emerging threats and potential solutions!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, Muhammad U; Elsayed, Mohamed E; Stack, Austin G

    2016-02-01

    Amidst the rising tide of chronic kidney disease (CKD) burden, the global nephrology workforce has failed to expand in order to meet the growing healthcare needs of this vulnerable patient population. In truth, this shortage of nephrologists is seen in many parts of the world, including North America, Europe, Australia, New Zealand, Asia and the African continent. Moreover, expert groups on workforce planning as well as national and international professional organizations predict further reductions in the nephrology workforce over the next decade, with potentially serious implications. Although the full impact of this has not been clearly articulated, what is clear is that the delivery of care to patients with CKD may be threatened in many parts of the world unless effective country-specific workforce strategies are put in place and implemented. Multiple factors are responsible for this apparent shortage in the nephrology workforce and the underpinning reasons may vary across health systems and countries. Potential contributors include the increasing burden of CKD, aging workforce, declining interest in nephrology among trainees, lack of exposure to nephrology among students and residents, rising cost of medical education and specialist training, increasing cultural and ethnic disparities between patients and care providers, increasing reliance on foreign medical graduates, inflexible work schedules, erosion of nephrology practice scope by other specialists, inadequate training, reduced focus on scholarship and research funds, increased demand to meet quality of care standards and the development of new care delivery models. It is apparent from this list that the solution is not simple and that a comprehensive evaluation is required. Consequently, there is an urgent need for all countries to develop a policy framework for the provision of kidney disease services within their health systems, a framework that is based on accurate projections of disease burden, a

  6. Preliminary Evaluation of Moniliformin as a Potential Threat for Teleosts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Goncalves

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Aquaculture feed manufacturers and producers increasingly recognize the importance of mycotoxins, which contaminate plant-based meals used in compound aquafeeds, and their potential to negatively impact production. Though data on the worldwide occurrence of legislated mycotoxins e.g., trichothecenes and zearalenone (ZEN are well documented, relatively little information is available regarding other mycotoxins also produced by Fusarium, notably moniliformin (MON. Given that MON is known to affect the survival, growth, skeletal formation and bone mineralization in terrestrial species, its widespread occurrence on maize and maize by-products typically used in aquaculture makes it relevant to study these parameters in teleost fish. In the present work we have tested the effect of MON exposure on survival, bone development and mineralization using zebrafish (Danio rerio as a model species and fish derived osteo-chondroprogenitor cell line for in vitro studies. Moniliformin exposure did not decrease bone mineralization in zebrafish larvae or extracellular matrix mineralization in the mineralogenic cell line VSa13. Here, the minimal in vitro cytotoxicity concentration was found to be 1000 µg L−1 MON. Incidence of deformities was also not altered by MON at the concentration tested (450 µg L−1 although larval growth was affected, as shown by a decrease in the standard length of exposed specimens at 20 days post fertilization. Survival decreased significantly in larvae exposed to MON concentrations higher than 900 μg L−1. Influence of MON on survival and growth might be relevant for aquaculture industry. As MON is a water-soluble mycotoxin, its leaching from feed is highly probable, so MON assimilation into the surrounding aqueous environment should also be considered. Tested levels in fish larvae are within the reported occurrence levels of MON in commercial feed and plant meals.

  7. The empowerment potential of public sector software (PSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradip Ninan Thomas

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Investigations into the potential for public sector software (PSS to empower citizens are at a very nascent stage. This article explores the theoretical basis for, and practical advantages of, PSS, in the making of an informed and pro-active citizenry. Using the example of the emerging PSS movement in India and in particular the ICT literacy movement in Kerala, South India, it argues, that access to and use of software based on the principles of free and open source has the potential to contribute to an empowered citizenry. However the very concept of PSS is contested by major private software companies given that they stand to lose from public investments that are based on open standards. The article argues that PSS can contribute to the making of an ‘information commons’ and that the need of the hour is for innovative and creative solutions to the information deficits faced by communities in India and elsewhere.

  8. Optimizing the Performance of Radionuclide Identification Software in the Hunt for Nuclear Security Threats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fotion, Katherine A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-08-18

    The Radionuclide Analysis Kit (RNAK), my team’s most recent nuclide identification software, is entering the testing phase. A question arises: will removing rare nuclides from the software’s library improve its overall performance? An affirmative response indicates fundamental errors in the software’s framework, while a negative response confirms the effectiveness of the software’s key machine learning algorithms. After thorough testing, I found that the performance of RNAK cannot be improved with the library choice effect, thus verifying the effectiveness of RNAK’s algorithms—multiple linear regression, Bayesian network using the Viterbi algorithm, and branch and bound search.

  9. Assessment of small hydropower potential by software. Case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moldoveanu Alexandru

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The rivers hydropower potential is considered one of the oldest renewable energy source used in the electricity production process. A method to investigate the possibility to construct a micro hydropower system on a small river is presented. The analysis and the hydropower assessment were done by using Vapidro-Aste software. Results point out that micro-hydro units can be implemented in remote locations or hybrid renewable energy systems, while the environmental flow is guaranteed.

  10. Potential Errors and Test Assessment in Software Product Line Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartmut Lackner

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Software product lines (SPL are a method for the development of variant-rich software systems. Compared to non-variable systems, testing SPLs is extensive due to an increasingly amount of possible products. Different approaches exist for testing SPLs, but there is less research for assessing the quality of these tests by means of error detection capability. Such test assessment is based on error injection into correct version of the system under test. However to our knowledge, potential errors in SPL engineering have never been systematically identified before. This article presents an overview over existing paradigms for specifying software product lines and the errors that can occur during the respective specification processes. For assessment of test quality, we leverage mutation testing techniques to SPL engineering and implement the identified errors as mutation operators. This allows us to run existing tests against defective products for the purpose of test assessment. From the results, we draw conclusions about the error-proneness of the surveyed SPL design paradigms and how quality of SPL tests can be improved.

  11. Bureaucracy, Safety and Software: a Potentially Lethal Cocktail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatton, Les

    This position paper identifies a potential problem with the evolution of software controlled safety critical systems. It observes that the rapid growth of bureaucracy in society quickly spills over into rules for behaviour. Whether the need for the rules comes first or there is simple anticipation of the need for a rule by a bureaucrat is unclear in many cases. Many such rules lead to draconian restrictions and often make the existing situation worse due to the presence of unintended consequences as will be shown with a number of examples.

  12. A knowledge-based approach to estimating the magnitude and spatial patterns of potential threats to soil biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orgiazzi, Alberto; Panagos, Panos; Yigini, Yusuf; Dunbar, Martha B; Gardi, Ciro; Montanarella, Luca; Ballabio, Cristiano

    2016-03-01

    Because of the increasing pressures exerted on soil, below-ground life is under threat. Knowledge-based rankings of potential threats to different components of soil biodiversity were developed in order to assess the spatial distribution of threats on a European scale. A list of 13 potential threats to soil biodiversity was proposed to experts with different backgrounds in order to assess the potential for three major components of soil biodiversity: soil microorganisms, fauna, and biological functions. This approach allowed us to obtain knowledge-based rankings of threats. These classifications formed the basis for the development of indices through an additive aggregation model that, along with ad-hoc proxies for each pressure, allowed us to preliminarily assess the spatial patterns of potential threats. Intensive exploitation was identified as the highest pressure. In contrast, the use of genetically modified organisms in agriculture was considered as the threat with least potential. The potential impact of climate change showed the highest uncertainty. Fourteen out of the 27 considered countries have more than 40% of their soils with moderate-high to high potential risk for all three components of soil biodiversity. Arable soils are the most exposed to pressures. Soils within the boreal biogeographic region showed the lowest risk potential. The majority of soils at risk are outside the boundaries of protected areas. First maps of risks to three components of soil biodiversity based on the current scientific knowledge were developed. Despite the intrinsic limits of knowledge-based assessments, a remarkable potential risk to soil biodiversity was observed. Guidelines to preliminarily identify and circumscribe soils potentially at risk are provided. This approach may be used in future research to assess threat at both local and global scale and identify areas of possible risk and, subsequently, design appropriate strategies for monitoring and protection of soil

  13. A Biological Security Motivation System for Potential Threats: Are There Implications for Policy-Making?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Z Woody

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Research indicates that there is a specially adapted, hard-wired brain circuit, the security motivation system, which evolved to manage potential threats, such as the possibility of contamination or predation. The existence of this system may have important implications for policy-making related to security. The system is sensitive to partial, uncertain cues of potential danger, detection of which activates a persistent, potent motivational state of wariness or anxiety. This state motivates behaviours to probe the potential danger, such as checking, and to correct for it, such as washing. Engagement in these behaviours serves as the terminating feedback for the activation of the system. Because security motivation theory makes predictions about what kinds of stimuli activate security motivation and what conditions terminate it, the theory may have applications both in understanding how policy-makers can best influence others, such as the public, and also in understanding the behavior of policy-makers themselves.

  14. The potential distribution of cassava mealybug (Phenacoccus manihoti, a threat to food security for the poor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Yonow

    Full Text Available The cassava mealybug is a clear and present threat to the food security and livelihoods of some of the world's most impoverished citizens. Niche models, such as CLIMEX, are useful tools to indicate where and when such threats may extend, and can assist with planning for biosecurity and the management of pest invasions. They can also contribute to bioeconomic analyses that underpin the allocation of resources to alleviate poverty. Because species can invade and establish in areas with climates that are different from those that are found in their native range, it is essential to define robust range-limiting mechanisms in niche models. To avoid spurious results when applied to novel climates, it is necessary to employ cross-validation techniques spanning different knowledge domains (e.g., distribution data, experimental results, phenological observations. We build upon and update a CLIMEX niche model by Parsa et al. (PloS ONE 7: e47675, correcting inconsistent parameters and re-fitting it based on a careful examination of geographical distribution data and relevant literature. Further, we consider the role of irrigation, the known distribution of cassava production and a targeted review of satellite imagery to refine, validate and interpret our model and results. In so doing, we bring new insights into the potential spread of this invasive insect, enabling us to identify potential bio-security threats and biological control opportunities. The fit of the revised model is improved, particularly in relation to the wet and dry limits to establishment, and the parameter values are biologically plausible and accord with published scientific literature.

  15. Protecting facilities against terrorism and sabotage. Is Jamaica prepared to deal with this potential threat?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, E.D.

    2001-01-01

    courts of the land. Our airports, oil refinery and some utility facilities are located in close proximity to the sea. This is very accessible to attack from the sea. Our other essential facilities are not as easily accessed as they are located inland and may be more difficult to access. All these facilities have security protection, but none is equipped to deal with any level of terrorism. No security equipment currently being used has the capability to combat, detect and or prevent any terrorist attacks or acts of sabotage. The nation needs to expand resources to set up units to focus on this potential threat. This unit should focus on analysis of threats from: terrorism; the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction; vulnerabilities attended on increasing economic and societal dependence on information technologies. There is a wide variety of novel attacks available to the terrorist today; it would be advised that the unit, through constant training and workshops, be aware of as many of these attack methods as possible. There should be collaboration between several entities to analyze and plan for the potential threats. The army and police forces will have to be complemented by scientists who have expert knowledge on this subject area. Experts could be drawn from: i. Information and communications centers; ii. Banking and finance entities; iii. Utility entities; iv. Environment protection agencies; v. Land, air and sea transportation agencies; vi. Fire services; vii. Law enforcement agencies; viii. Defense (army and police); ix. Health services; x. Oil and gas refineries; xi. Disaster preparedness program. This group would examine issues such as: How to reduce the vulnerabilities of their institutions to terrorist attacks (threat/vulnerability management); How to respond to terrorist acts? Guideline or rules to follow when faced with the problem of terrorism (crisis management); How to deal with the aftermath of terrorist attacks, including providing essential aids

  16. The effect of panic disorder versus anxiety sensitivity on event-related potentials during anticipation of threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Elizabeth S; Weinberg, Anna; Nelson, Brady D; Meissel, Emily E E; Shankman, Stewart A

    2018-03-01

    Attention-related abnormalities are key components of the abnormal defensive responding observed in panic disorder (PD). Although behavioral studies have found aberrant attentional biases towards threat in PD, psychophysiological studies have been mixed. Predictability of threat, an important feature of threat processing, may have contributed to these mixed findings. Additionally, anxiety sensitivity, a dimensional trait associated with PD, may yield stronger associations with cognitive processes than categorical diagnoses of PD. In this study, 171 participants with PD and/or depression and healthy controls completed a task that differentiated anticipation of predictable vs. unpredictable shocks, while startle eyeblink and event-related potentials (ERPs [N100, P300]) were recorded. In all participants, relative to the control condition, probe N100 was enhanced to both predictable and unpredictable threat, whereas P300 suppression was unique to predictable threat. Probe N100, but not P300, was associated with startle eyeblink during both threatening conditions, and was strongest for unpredictable threat. PD was not associated with ERPs, but anxiety sensitivity (physical concerns) was positively associated with probe N100 (indicating reduced responding) in the unpredictable condition independent of PD diagnosis. Vulnerability to panic-related psychopathology may be characterized by aberrant early processing of threat, which may be especially evident during anticipation of unpredictable threats. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Assessing Potential of VIIRS Data for Contribution to a Forest Threat Early Warning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruce, Joseph P.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the contributions by the Rapid Prototyping Capability (RPC) towards using Visible Infrared Imager / Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) data in assessing the damage to forests. The Healthy Forest Restoration Act of 2003 mandates development of national Early Warning System (EWS) for forest threat monitoring and mitigation. NASA Stennis is working with the US Forest Service to develop needed components of this EWS. The use of MODIS data for monitoring forest disturbance at broad regional scales is a componet of this program. This RPC experiment was initiated to assess potential of the MODIS follow-on, VIIRS, for monitoring forest disturbance at broad scales and thereby contributing to the EWS. This presentation reviews the potential use of the VIIRS to examine the damage to forests caused by gyspy moths in the West Virginia and Virginia area.

  18. Potential threats on pottery as local wisdom in Sitiwinangun Cirebon district

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putri, D. P.

    2018-05-01

    This study is aimed to find out the type of threats of pottery as a local wisdom of Sitiwinangun Village. The study used qualitative approach which included observation, interviews, direct involvement and literature study as technique to collect the data. The data was analyzed by descriptive exploratory analysis. The finding results showed that the production of Sitiwinangun pottery, in the technique and motifs, were still produced according to the ancestors. Pottery has a closed-relationship to agrarian culture of Sitiwinangun's society. In cultivating season, the soil was used not only used to cultivate rice and palawija (crops planted as second crop in dry season) but it was also used to dig a layer of soil as the raw material of pottery. There were some potential threats on Sitiwinangun Pottery such as a reduction in raw material because of the land-settlement, slow regeneration, and consumers' preferred on household appliance made of plastic. Nevertheless, it never decreases the spirit of Sitiwinangun society to maintain the pottery as their local wisdom. They keep on their principle that the nature gives the value on their life and the value is an ancestral heritage that must be maintained in modern era in order to preserve the environment. Furthermore, the most important is that pottery is not only made as the functional object for human activity but it is made as the local knowledge of Sitiwinagun that very allows to be learnt intact and sustainable.

  19. UN_PAT: a software for calculating transient grounding potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johny Hernán Montaña

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results from work done at the National University of Colombia and from a PhD thesis written there. This work was aimed at implementing software for analysing the transient behaviour of any configuration of grounding system buried in lineal, homogeneous and isotropic soil. The hybrid electromagnetic model (HEM was used because it presents high versatility and low computation time. The UN_PAT software was written in C++; it used free libraries with the aim of being free software so that it could be modified and improved in future work. The software results were validated with other software, with results from another analysis model and experimental results; some of these comparisons are given in this paper.

  20. Adversary modeling: an analysis of criminal activities analogous to potential threats to nuclear safeguard systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heineke, J.M.

    1978-12-20

    This study examines and analyzes several classes of incidents in which decision makers are confronted with adversaries. The classes are analogous to adversaries in a material control system in a nuclear facility. Both internal threats (bank frauds and embezzlements) and external threats (aircraft hijackings and hostage-type terrorist events were analyzed. (DLC)

  1. Adversary modeling: an analysis of criminal activities analogous to potential threats to nuclear safeguard systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heineke, J.M.

    1978-01-01

    This study examines and analyzes several classes of incidents in which decision makers are confronted with adversaries. The classes are analogous to adversaries in a material control system in a nuclear facility. Both internal threats (bank frauds and embezzlements) and external threats (aircraft hijackings and hostage-type terrorist events were analyzed

  2. State Anxiety Carried Over From Prior Threat Increases Late Positive Potential Amplitude During an Instructed Emotion Regulation Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Walker S.; Larson, Christine L.

    2018-01-01

    Emotion regulation has important consequences for emotional and mental health (Saxena, Dubey & Pandey, 2011) and is dependent on executive function (Eisenberg, Smith & Spinrad, 2011). Because state anxiety disrupts executive function (Robinson, Vytal, Cornwell & Grillon, 2013), we tested whether state anxiety disrupts emotion regulation by having participants complete an instructed emotion regulation task, while under threat of unpredictable shock and while safe from shock. We used the late positive potential (LPP) component of the event related potential to measure emotion regulation success. We predicted that LPP responses to negatively valenced images would be modulated by participants’ attempts to increase and decrease their emotions when safe from shock, but not while under threat of shock. Our manipulation check revealed an order effect such that for participants who completed the threat of shock condition first self-reported state anxiety carried over into the subsequent safe condition. Additionally, we found that although instructions to regulate affected participants’ ratings of how unpleasant the images made them feel, instructions to regulate had no effect on LPP amplitude regardless of threat condition. Instead we found that participants who received the threat condition prior to safe had greater LPP responses to all images in the safe condition. We posit that the carryover of anxiety resulted in misattribution of arousal and potentiation of neural responses to the images in the safe condition. Thus, our results imply that physiological arousal and cognition combine to influence the basic neural response to emotional stimuli. PMID:27055095

  3. Potential and real ecological threat of heavy metals in contaminated soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motuzova, Galina; Barsova, Natalia; Makarichev, Ivan; Karpova, Elena

    2013-04-01

    Introduction. Microelements or heavy metals (HM) occur in nature and are required for living organisms at low concentrations. High content of HM in soils characterize their potential danger for ecosystem. Their real ecological threat is presented by the mobility of HM in soils. The aim of this work was to characterize the potential and real danger of HM on the basis of HM mobility in soils and their influence of the most important soils properties. Materials and methods. Two types of materials are presented in this paper. The first ones are presented by the summarized information about the content of Cu, Zn, Mn and their mobile species in the soils of Russia and are included into the National Atlas of Russian soils (2011). The second part is presented by the results of laboratory experiments with some samples of Podzols, Podzoluvisol and Chernozem. The following parameters have been determined: a) the main chemical properties of soils; b) the water extracts from soils were investigated by the potentiometric titration with HM salts; c) the properties of the samples of humic acids (HA, extracted by 1n. NaOH) and HA-Cu complexes were determined: molecular-masses distribution (MMD), infrared spectra (IRS), hydrophobility, 1? NMR spectra Results and discussions. The major part of HM in soils of natural landscapes is firmly bound to several minerals. Their threat for living organisms is largely dependent on a relatively higher mobility of HM in soils. The main factors affecting the mobility of HM include soil reaction and sorption processes. In soils of natural landscapes the share of mobile HM compounds is estimated as some per cents from their total content. Having used the data about microelements in soils, their availability to living organisms, 14 natural biogeochemical provinces have been distinguished at the territory of the European part of the former USSR. It permitted to show the adverse impact rendered by microelements at low or high concentrations on living

  4. Potential of VIIRS Data for Regional Monitoring of Gypsy Moth Defoliation: Implications for Forest Threat Early Warning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruce, Joseph P.; Ryan, Robert E.; Smoot, James C.; Prados, Donald; McKellip, Rodney; Sader. Steven A.; Gasser, Jerry; May, George; Hargrove, William

    2007-01-01

    A NASA RPC (Rapid Prototyping Capability) experiment was conducted to assess the potential of VIIRS (Visible/Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite) data for monitoring non-native gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) defoliation of forests. This experiment compares defoliation detection products computed from simulated VIIRS and from MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) time series products as potential inputs to a forest threat EWS (Early Warning System) being developed for the USFS (USDA Forest Service). Gypsy moth causes extensive defoliation of broadleaved forests in the United States and is specifically identified in the Healthy Forest Restoration Act (HFRA) of 2003. The HFRA mandates development of a national forest threat EWS. This system is being built by the USFS and NASA is aiding integration of needed satellite data products into this system, including MODIS products. This RPC experiment enabled the MODIS follow-on, VIIRS, to be evaluated as a data source for EWS forest monitoring products. The experiment included 1) assessment of MODIS-simulated VIIRS NDVI products, and 2) evaluation of gypsy moth defoliation mapping products from MODIS-simulated VIIRS and from MODIS NDVI time series data. This experiment employed MODIS data collected over the approximately 15 million acre mid-Appalachian Highlands during the annual peak defoliation time frame (approximately June 10 through July 27) during 2000-2006. NASA Stennis Application Research Toolbox software was used to produce MODIS-simulated VIIRS data and NASA Stennis Time Series Product Tool software was employed to process MODIS and MODIS-simulated VIIRS time series data scaled to planetary reflectance. MODIS-simulated VIIRS data was assessed through comparison to Hyperion-simulated VIIRS data using data collected during gypsy moth defoliation. Hyperion-simulated MODIS data showed a high correlation with actual MODIS data (NDVI R2 of 0.877 and RMSE of 0.023). MODIS-simulated VIIRS data for the same

  5. Invasive Lionfish (Pterois volitans): A Potential Human Health Threat for Ciguatera Fish Poisoning in Tropical Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Alison; Garcia, Ana C.; Flores Quintana, Harold A.; Smith, Tyler B.; Castillo, Bernard F.; Reale-Munroe, Kynoch; Gulli, Joseph A.; Olsen, David A.; Hooe-Rollman, Jennifer I.; Jester, Edward L. E.; Klimek, Brian J.; Plakas, Steven M.

    2013-01-01

    Invasive Indo-Pacific lionfish (Pterois volitans) have rapidly expanded in the Western Atlantic over the past decade and have had a significant negative impact on reef fish biodiversity, habitat, and community structure, with lionfish out-competing native predators for resources. In an effort to reduce this population explosion, lionfish have been promoted for human consumption in the greater Caribbean region. This study examined whether the geographical expansion of the lionfish into a known ciguatera-endemic region can pose a human health threat for ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP). More than 180 lionfish were collected from waters surrounding the US Virgin Islands throughout 2010 and 2011. Ciguatoxin testing included an in vitro neuroblastoma cytotoxicity assay for composite toxicity assessment of sodium-channel toxins combined with confirmatory liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. A 12% prevalence rate of ciguatoxic lionfish exceeding the FDA guidance level of 0.1 µg/kg C-CTX-1 equivalents was identified in fish from the U.S. Virgin Islands, highlighting a potential consumption risk in this region. This study presents the first evidence that the invasive lionfish, pose a direct human health risk for CFP and highlights the need for awareness and research on this food safety hazard in known endemic areas. PMID:24378919

  6. Invasive lionfish (Pterois volitans): a potential human health threat for ciguatera fish poisoning in tropical waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Alison; Garcia, Ana C; Quintana, Harold A Flores; Smith, Tyler B; Castillo, Bernard F; Reale-Munroe, Kynoch; Gulli, Joseph A; Olsen, David A; Hooe-Rollman, Jennifer I; Jester, Edward L E; Klimek, Brian J; Plakas, Steven M

    2013-12-27

    Invasive Indo-Pacific lionfish (Pterois volitans) have rapidly expanded in the Western Atlantic over the past decade and have had a significant negative impact on reef fish biodiversity, habitat, and community structure, with lionfish out-competing native predators for resources. In an effort to reduce this population explosion, lionfish have been promoted for human consumption in the greater Caribbean region. This study examined whether the geographical expansion of the lionfish into a known ciguatera-endemic region can pose a human health threat for ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP). More than 180 lionfish were collected from waters surrounding the US Virgin Islands throughout 2010 and 2011. Ciguatoxin testing included an in vitro neuroblastoma cytotoxicity assay for composite toxicity assessment of sodium-channel toxins combined with confirmatory liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. A 12% prevalence rate of ciguatoxic lionfish exceeding the FDA guidance level of 0.1 µg/kg C-CTX-1 equivalents was identified in fish from the U.S. Virgin Islands, highlighting a potential consumption risk in this region. This study presents the first evidence that the invasive lionfish, pose a direct human health risk for CFP and highlights the need for awareness and research on this food safety hazard in known endemic areas.

  7. Invasive Lionfish (Pterois volitans: A Potential Human Health Threat for Ciguatera Fish Poisoning in Tropical Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Robertson

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Invasive Indo-Pacific lionfish (Pterois volitans have rapidly expanded in the Western Atlantic over the past decade and have had a significant negative impact on reef fish biodiversity, habitat, and community structure, with lionfish out-competing native predators for resources. In an effort to reduce this population explosion, lionfish have been promoted for human consumption in the greater Caribbean region. This study examined whether the geographical expansion of the lionfish into a known ciguatera-endemic region can pose a human health threat for ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP. More than 180 lionfish were collected from waters surrounding the US Virgin Islands throughout 2010 and 2011. Ciguatoxin testing included an in vitro neuroblastoma cytotoxicity assay for composite toxicity assessment of sodium-channel toxins combined with confirmatory liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. A 12% prevalence rate of ciguatoxic lionfish exceeding the FDA guidance level of 0.1 µg/kg C-CTX-1 equivalents was identified in fish from the U.S. Virgin Islands, highlighting a potential consumption risk in this region. This study presents the first evidence that the invasive lionfish, pose a direct human health risk for CFP and highlights the need for awareness and research on this food safety hazard in known endemic areas.

  8. Software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macedo, R.; Budd, G.; Ross, E.; Wells, P.

    2010-07-15

    The software section of this journal presented new software programs that have been developed to help in the exploration and development of hydrocarbon resources. Software provider IHS Inc. has made additions to its geological and engineering analysis software tool, IHS PETRA, a product used by geoscientists and engineers to visualize, analyze and manage well production, well log, drilling, reservoir, seismic and other related information. IHS PETRA also includes a directional well module and a decline curve analysis module to improve analysis capabilities in unconventional reservoirs. Petris Technology Inc. has developed a software to help manage the large volumes of data. PetrisWinds Enterprise (PWE) helps users find and manage wellbore data, including conventional wireline and MWD core data; analysis core photos and images; waveforms and NMR; and external files documentation. Ottawa-based Ambercore Software Inc. has been collaborating with Nexen on the Petroleum iQ software for steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) producers. Petroleum iQ integrates geology and geophysics data with engineering data in 3D and 4D. Calgary-based Envirosoft Corporation has developed a software that reduces the costly and time-consuming effort required to comply with Directive 39 of the Alberta Energy Resources Conservation Board. The product includes an emissions modelling software. Houston-based Seismic Micro-Technology (SMT) has developed the Kingdom software that features the latest in seismic interpretation. Holland-based Joa Oil and Gas and Calgary-based Computer Modelling Group have both supplied the petroleum industry with advanced reservoir simulation software that enables reservoir interpretation. The 2010 software survey included a guide to new software applications designed to facilitate petroleum exploration, drilling and production activities. Oil and gas producers can use the products for a range of functions, including reservoir characterization and accounting. In

  9. Historical evolution of human anthrax from occupational disease to potentially global threat as bioweapon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amelio, Enrico; Gentile, Bernardina; Lista, Florigio; D'Amelio, Raffaele

    2015-12-01

    Anthrax is caused by Bacillus anthracis, which can naturally infect livestock, wildlife and occupationally exposed humans. However, for its resistance due to spore formation, ease of dissemination, persistence in the environment and high virulence, B. anthracis has been considered the most serious bioterrorism agent for a long time. During the last century anthrax evolved from limited natural disease to potentially global threat if used as bioweapon. Several factors may mitigate the consequences of an anthrax attack, including 1. the capability to promptly recognize and manage the illness and its public health consequences; 2. the limitation of secondary contamination risk through an appropriate decontamination; and 3. the evolution of genotyping methods (for microbes characterization at high resolution level) that can influence the course and/or focus of investigations, impacting the response of the government to an attack. A PubMed search has been done using the key words “bioterrorism anthrax”. Over one thousand papers have been screened and the most significant examined to present a comprehensive literature review in order to discuss the current knowledge and strategies in preparedness for a possible deliberate release of B. anthracis spores and to indicate the most current and complete documents in which to deepen. The comprehensive analysis of the two most relevant unnatural anthrax release events, Sverdlovsk in the former Soviet Union (1979) and the contaminated letters in the USA (2001), shows that inhalational anthrax may easily and cheaply be spread resulting in serious consequences. The damage caused by an anthrax attack can be limited if public health organization, first responders, researchers and investigators will be able to promptly manage anthrax cases and use new technologies for decontamination methods and in forensic microbiology.

  10. Defensive motivation and attention in anticipation of different types of predictable and unpredictable threat: A startle and event-related potential investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Brady D; Hajcak, Greg

    2017-08-01

    Predictability is an important characteristic of threat that impacts defensive motivation and attentional engagement. Supporting research has primarily focused on actual threat (e.g., shocks), and it is unclear whether the predictability of less intense threat (e.g., unpleasant pictures) similarly affects motivation and attention. The present study utilized a within-subject design and examined defensive motivation (startle reflex and self-reported anxiety) and attention (probe N100 and P300) in anticipation of shocks and unpleasant pictures during a no, predictable, and unpredictable threat task. This study also examined the impact of predictability on the P300 to shocks and late positive potential (LPP) to unpleasant pictures. The startle reflex and self-reported anxiety were increased in anticipation of both types of threat relative to no threat. Furthermore, startle potentiation in anticipation of unpredictable threat was greater for shocks compared to unpleasant pictures, but there was no difference for predictable threat. The probe N100 was enhanced in anticipation of unpredictable threat relative to predictable threat and no threat, and the probe P300 was suppressed in anticipation of predictable and unpredictable threat relative to no threat. These effects did not differ between the shock and unpleasant picture trials. Finally, the P300 and early LPP component were increased in response to unpredictable relative to predictable shocks and unpleasant pictures, respectively. The present study suggests that the unpredictability of unpleasant pictures increases defensive motivation, but to a lesser degree relative to actual threat. Moreover, unpredictability enhances attentional engagement in anticipation of, and in reaction to, both types of threat. © 2017 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  11. Computer Security of NPP Instrumentation and Control Systems: Cyber Threats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klevtsov, A.L.; Trubchaninov, S.A.

    2015-01-01

    The paper is devoted to cyber threats, as one of the aspects in computer security of instrumentation and control systems for nuclear power plants (NPP). The basic concepts, terms and definitions are shortly addressed. The paper presents a detailed analysis of potential cyber threats during the design and operation of NPP instrumentation and control systems. Eleven major types of threats are considered, including: the malicious software and hardware Trojans (in particular, in commercial-off-the-shelf software and hardware), computer attacks through data networks and intrusion of malicious software from an external storage media and portable devices. Particular attention is paid to the potential use of lower safety class software as a way of harmful effects (including the intrusion of malicious fragments of code) on higher safety class software. The examples of actual incidents at various nuclear facilities caused by intentional cyber attacks or unintentional computer errors during the operation of software of systems important to NPP safety.

  12. Ontario Hydro experience in the identification and mitigation of potential failures in safety critical software systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huget, R.G.; Viola, M.; Froebel, P.A.

    1995-01-01

    Ontario Hydro has had experience in designing and qualifying safety critical software used in the reactor shutdown systems of its nuclear generating stations. During software design, an analysis of system level hazards and potential hardware failure effects provide input to determining what safeguards will be needed. One form of safeguard, called software self checks, continually monitor the health of the computer on line. The design of self checks usually is a trade off between the amount of computing resources required, the software complexity, and the level of safeguarding provided. As part of the software verification activity, a software hazards analysis is performed, which identifiers any failure modes that could lead to the software causing an unsafe state, and which recommends changes to mitigate that potential. These recommendations may involve a re-structuring of the software to be more resistant to failure, or the introduction of other safeguarding measures. This paper discusses how Ontario Hydro has implemented these aspects of software design and verification into safety critical software used in reactor shutdown systems

  13. A horizon scanning assessment of current and potential future threats to migratory shorebirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, William J.; Alves, José A.; Amano, Tatsuya; Chang, Charlotte H.; Davidson, Nicholas C.; Finlayson, C. Max; Gill, Jennifer A.; Gill, Robert E.; González, Patricia M.; Gunnarsson, Tómas Grétar; Kleijn, David; Spray, Chris J.; Székely, Tamás; Thompson, Des B.A.

    2012-01-01

    We review the conservation issues facing migratory shorebird populations that breed in temperate regions and use wetlands in the non-breeding season. Shorebirds are excellent model organisms for understanding ecological, behavioural and evolutionary processes and are often used as indicators of wetland health. A global team of experienced shorebird researchers identified 45 issues facing these shorebird populations, and divided them into three categories (natural, current anthropogenic and future issues). The natural issues included megatsunamis, volcanoes and regional climate changes, while current anthropogenic threats encompassed agricultural intensification, conversion of tidal flats and coastal wetlands by human infrastructure developments and eutrophication of coastal systems. Possible future threats to shorebirds include microplastics, new means of recreation and infectious diseases. We suggest that this review process be broadened to other taxa to aid the identification and ranking of current and future conservation actions.

  14. Microbiological air pollution of production room of the meat processing plant as a potential threat to the workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Breza-Boruta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Production rooms of the meat plants are the specific environment that require constant monitoring of microbiological air purity. Bioaerosols pose a threat to the safety of produced food and a considerable risk to health of exposed workers. The aim of this study was to estimate the air microbiological pollution in production rooms of the meat processing plant and exposure of the workers to biological aerosol. Material and methods. Air samples were collected at 3 stands in production rooms during winter, with the compaction method using the impactor MAS-100. The total number of bacteria and moulds, Staphylococci and bacteria of the family Enterobacteriaceae were determined in the studied bioaerosol. The concentration of microorganisms was presented in the form of colony forming units in 1m3 of air. Results. The highest concentration of mesophylic bacteria was found at stand 1 – at the freezing tunnel; whereas the highest contamination with staphylococci and fungal aerosol was found in the room where several workers were employed at packing frozen food. Among determined fungi predominated moulds of the genera: Penicillium, Alternaria and Cladosporium. Also species of potentially pathogenic fungi which produce toxins and have allergizing properties were detected in the studied bioaerosol. Bacteria of the family Enterobacteriaceae, which also may cause many infavourable health effects in exposed people, occurred at all stands. Conclusion. The concentration level and microbial composition in the inhaled air make valuable information for determination of occupational risk and a potential threat to workers of their workstations. Potentially pathogenic microorganisms present in the studied air (staphylococci, bacteria of the family Enterobacteriaceae and some moulds according to the Directive 2000/54/EC l belong to the 2nd group of risk and threat of harmful biological agents. Identification of biological threats makes it easier for the

  15. The potential role of open source software in overcoming digital poverty

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kinyondo, J

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Developing countries, such as Tanzania, are characterized by digital poverty and a lack of information and communication technology (ICT) acceptance. The use of open source software (OSS) has been proposed as a potential strategy for addressing ICT...

  16. Gauging the threat: the first population estimate for white sharks in South Africa using photo identification and automated software.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison V Towner

    Full Text Available South Africa is reputed to host the world's largest remaining population of white sharks, yet no studies have accurately determined a population estimate based on mark-recapture of live individuals. We used dorsal fin photographs (fin IDs to identify white sharks in Gansbaai, South Africa, from January 2007-December 2011. We used the computer programme DARWIN to catalogue and match fin IDs of individuals; this is the first study to successfully use the software for white shark identification. The programme performed well despite a number of individual fins showing drastic changes in dorsal fin shape over time. Of 1682 fin IDs used, 532 unique individuals were identified. We estimated population size using the open-population POPAN parameterisation in Program MARK, which estimated the superpopulation size at 908 (95% confidence interval 808-1008. This estimated population size is considerably larger than those described at other aggregation areas of the species and is comparable to a previous South African population estimate conducted 16 years prior. Our assessment suggests the species has not made a marked recovery since being nationally protected in 1991. As such, additional international protection may prove vital for the long-term conservation of this threatened species.

  17. Potential Threats Posed by Tetrodotoxins in UK Waters: Examination of Detection Methodology Used in Their Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew D. Turner

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Tetrodotoxin is a neurotoxin responsible for many human fatalities, most commonly following the consumption of pufferfish. Whilst the source of the toxin has not been conclusively proven, it is thought to be associated with various species of marine bacteria. Whilst the toxins are well studied in fish and gastropods, in recent years, there have been a number of reports of tetrodotoxin occurring in bivalve shellfish, including those harvested from the UK and other parts of Europe. This paper reviews evidence concerning the prevalence of tetrodotoxins in the UK together with methodologies currently available for testing. Biological, biomolecular and chemical methods are reviewed, including recommendations for further work. With the recent development of quantitative chromatographic methods for these and other hydrophilic toxins, as well as the commercial availability of rapid testing kits, there are a number of options available to ensure consumers are protected against this threat.

  18. Invasive ornamental fish: a potential threat to aquatic biodiversity in peninsular India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.D.M. Knight

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Alien fish find their way into newer habitats and ecosystems opportunistically. Once in a new habitat, these species try to occupy empty niches and compete with native species. An alien species becomes invasive wherever it has a competetive advantage over native species. Ecology of aquatic invasive alien species is rather poorly understood as most attention has been on invertebrates as that which spread through ballast water. Invasive alien species of fish that have taken advantage of the aquarium trade are emerging as the most important threats to fragile aquatic habitats. Regulations to this trade are rather weak and there is a general lack of data on the ecological impact of alien fish species despite the fact that a third of the world’s worst aquatic invasive species are aquarium or ornamental species.

  19. Effects of Aging Stereotype Threat on Working Self-Concepts: An Event-Related Potentials Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoshan Zhang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Although the influence of stereotype threat (ST on working self-concepts has been highlighted in recent years, its neural underpinnings are unclear. Notably, the aging ST, which largely influences older adults’ cognitive ability, mental and physical health, did not receive much attention. In order to investigate these issues, electroencephalogram (EEG data were obtained from older adults during a modified Stroop task using neutral words, positive and negative self-concept words in aging ST vs. neutral control conditions. Results showed longer reaction times (RTs for identifying colors of words under the aging ST compared to the neutral condition. More importantly, the negative self-concept elicited more positive late P300 amplitudes and enhanced theta band activities compared to the positive self-concept or neutral words under the aging ST condition, whereas no difference was found between these self-concepts and neutral words in the control condition. Furthermore, the aging ST induced smaller theta band synchronization and enhanced alpha band synchronization compared to the control condition. Moreover, we also observed valence differences in self-concepts where the negative self-concept words reduced early P150/N170 complex relative to neutral words. These findings suggest that priming ST could activate negative self-concepts as current working self-concept, and that this influence occurred during a late neural time course.

  20. Mercury contamination, a potential threat to the globally endangered aquatic warbler Acrocephalus paludicola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacyna, Aneta Dorota; Martínez, Carlos Zumalacárregui; Miguélez, David; Jiguet, Frédéric; Polkowska, Żaneta; Wojczulanis-Jakubas, Katarzyna

    2017-12-01

    Mercury (Hg) contamination is considered a global concern for humans and wildlife, and although the number of studies dealing with that issue continues to increase, some taxonomic groups such as small passerine birds are largely understudied. In this paper, concentration of mercury in the aquatic warbler (Acrocephalus paludicola) feathers, a globally threatened passerine species, was examined. The concentration differences between two ages and sexes were investigated. The comparison of feathers taken on autumn migrants of two age categories act as a comparison of the species' exposure within the two different areas (European breeding or African wintering grounds). The average Hg concentration for all sampled individuals [2.32 μg/g dw (range 0.38-12.76)] is relatively high, compared with values found in other passerine species. An age difference was found, with first-year individuals displaying higher mercury concentrations than adults. This indicates that birds are exposed to mercury pollution during the breeding season, i.e., in the continental floodplains of eastern Europe. The average Hg concentration in feathers grown on the breeding grounds was 3.88 ± 2.59 μg/g dw, closer to the critical value of 5 μg/g dw, which is considered to impair the health of individuals. The findings suggest that mercury pollution may constitute a threat so far neglected for the endangered aquatic warbler.

  1. Beware of the predatory science journal: A potential threat to the integrity of medical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johal, Jaspreet; Ward, Robert; Gielecki, Jerzy; Walocha, Jerzy; Natsis, Kostantinos; Tubbs, R Shane; Loukas, Marios

    2017-09-01

    The issue of predatory journals has become increasingly more prevalent over the past decade, as the open-access model of publishing has gained prominence. Although the open-access model is well intentioned to increase accessibility of biomedical research, it is vulnerable to exploitation by those looking to corrupt medical academia and circumvent ethics and research standards. Predatory journals will achieve publication by either soliciting unsuspecting researchers who have legitimate research but fall victim to these predators or researchers looking to quickly publish their research without a thorough review process. Some features of predatory journals are a quick non-peer-review process, falsely listing or exaggerating the credibility of editorial board members, and either lack of or falsification of institutional affiliations and database listings. These predatory journals are a serious threat to the integrity of medical research, as they will infect the available literature with unsubstantiated articles, and allow low-quality research. A number of steps can be taken to prevent the spread and increase awareness of predatory publishers, and these must be done to maintain the integrity of medical academia. Clin. Anat. 30:767-773, 2017. © 2017Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Identifying at-risk employees: A behavioral model for predicting potential insider threats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greitzer, Frank L.; Kangas, Lars J.; Noonan, Christine F.; Dalton, Angela C.

    2010-09-01

    A psychosocial model was developed to assess an employee’s behavior associated with an increased risk of insider abuse. The model is based on case studies and research literature on factors/correlates associated with precursor behavioral manifestations of individuals committing insider crimes. In many of these crimes, managers and other coworkers observed that the offenders had exhibited signs of stress, disgruntlement, or other issues, but no alarms were raised. Barriers to using such psychosocial indicators include the inability to recognize the signs and the failure to record the behaviors so that they could be assessed by a person experienced in psychosocial evaluations. We have developed a model using a Bayesian belief network with the help of human resources staff, experienced in evaluating behaviors in staff. We conducted an experiment to assess its agreement with human resources and management professionals, with positive results. If implemented in an operational setting, the model would be part of a set of management tools for employee assessment that can raise an alarm about employees who pose higher insider threat risks. In separate work, we combine this psychosocial model’s assessment with computer workstation behavior to raise the efficacy of recognizing an insider crime in the making.

  3. Effects of Aging Stereotype Threat on Working Self-Concepts: An Event-Related Potentials Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Baoshan; Lin, Yao; Gao, Qianyun; Zawisza, Magdalena; Kang, Qian; Chen, Xuhai

    2017-01-01

    Although the influence of stereotype threat (ST) on working self-concepts has been highlighted in recent years, its neural underpinnings are unclear. Notably, the aging ST, which largely influences older adults’ cognitive ability, mental and physical health, did not receive much attention. In order to investigate these issues, electroencephalogram (EEG) data were obtained from older adults during a modified Stroop task using neutral words, positive and negative self-concept words in aging ST vs. neutral control conditions. Results showed longer reaction times (RTs) for identifying colors of words under the aging ST compared to the neutral condition. More importantly, the negative self-concept elicited more positive late P300 amplitudes and enhanced theta band activities compared to the positive self-concept or neutral words under the aging ST condition, whereas no difference was found between these self-concepts and neutral words in the control condition. Furthermore, the aging ST induced smaller theta band synchronization and enhanced alpha band synchronization compared to the control condition. Moreover, we also observed valence differences in self-concepts where the negative self-concept words reduced early P150/N170 complex relative to neutral words. These findings suggest that priming ST could activate negative self-concepts as current working self-concept, and that this influence occurred during a late neural time course. PMID:28747885

  4. On the Behaviour, abundance, habitat use and potential threats of the Gangetic Dolphin Platanista gangetica in southern West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahua Roy Chowdhury

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The Ganga River Dolphin Platanista gangetica Roxburgh, 1801 is a globally endangered cetacean found in the River system of Ganga, Brahmaputra and Meghna in Bangladesh and India.  A survey and research were conducted from 2012–2014 to explore the behaviour, abundance, habitat use and potential threats of the Dolphin in the lower, middle and upper stretches of the river Ganga and its tributaries in southern West Bengal.  The study recorded different types of surfacing patterns with respect to their age class as well as on diurnal activity pattern of the individual. The adults and sub-adults were found to have different types of surfacing during different hours of the day.  The morning and afternoon were observed to be feeding hours of the Dolphin.  Multiple potential threats were encountered during the present study such as destructive fishing gears, dumping of solid and municipal waste, industrial effluents, agricultural run-off, construction of water structures, water extraction and reduction of river depth attributed to siltation.  These factors contributed to the present study of the river dolphins in the Ganga, which are localised at certain pockets in good number.  

  5. Cultural landscapes as heritage in Malaysia: Potentials, threats, and current practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahmad, R.

    2013-01-01

    The rural cultural landscape in Malaysia is relatively under-researched. The current heritage practices focus on built heritage as national heritage, which implies the everyday landscapes of the rural areas have been neglected as potential heritage and have received little attention from politicians

  6. REDUCING THE THREAT TO CONTROL INVASIVE SIGNAL CRAYFISH REDUCING: THE POTENTIAL USE OF PHEROMONES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    STEBBING P. D.

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available The need for an effective method of controlling invasive species of crayfish is of utmost importance given the plight of Europe’s native crayfish species. Many techniques have been applied to the growing problem with little success. Pheromones have been used to control terrestrial insect pests for a number of years with many success stories. The concept of applying pheromone control methods to the aquatic environment is by no means new, but has not been previously developed. This paper discusses the preliminary results from field trials testing traps baited with Pacifastacus leniusculus pheromones, and the potential application of the pheromones in controlling P. leniusculus populations.

  7. The potential of computer software that supports the diagnosis of workplace ergonomics in shaping health awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubkowska, Wioletta

    2017-11-01

    The growing prevalence of health problems among computer workstation workers has become one of the biggest threats to the overall health of our population. That is why many modern scientists are looking for ways and methods to prevent and reverse these negative trends. The purpose of this article is to present the potential for practical use of computer programs to design an ergonomic workplace and postural loads. These programs help configure the computer workstation correctly and adopt the correct body position during work, which reduces the risk of health problems. Creating visually attractive programs helps encourage and inspire those who work with a computer to introduce ergonomic solutions and reject the sedentary lifestyle.

  8. Evaluation of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy analysis potential for addressing radiological threats from a distance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaona, I.; Serrano, J.; Moros, J.; Laserna, J.J.

    2014-01-01

    Although radioactive materials are nowadays valuable tools in nearly all fields of modern science and technology, the dangers stemming from the uncontrolled use of ionizing radiation are more than evident. Since preparedness is a key issue to face the risks of a radiation dispersal event, development of rapid and efficient monitoring technologies to control the contamination caused by radioactive materials is of crucial interest. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) exhibits appealing features for this application. This research focuses on the assessment of LIBS potential for the in-situ fingerprinting and identification of radioactive material surrogates from a safe distance. LIBS selectivity and sensitivity to detect a variety of radioactive surrogates, namely 59 Co, 88 Sr, 130 Ba, 133 Cs, 193 Ir and 238 U, on the surface of common urban materials at a distance of 30 m have been evaluated. The performance of the technique for nuclear forensics has been also studied on different model scenarios. Findings have revealed the difficulties to detect and to identify the analytes depending on the surface being interrogated. However, as demonstrated, LIBS shows potential enough for prompt and accurate gathering of essential evidence at a number of sites after the release, either accidental or intentional, of radioactive material. The capability of standoff analysis confers to LIBS unique advantages in terms of fast and safe inspection of forensic scenarios. The identity of the radioactive surrogates is easily assigned from a distance and the sensitivity to their detection is in the range of a few hundreds of ng per square centimeter. - Highlights: • Distant identification of radioactive surrogates on urban surfaces has been proved. • LIBS sensitivity to distant detection of radioactive surrogates has been checked. • Influences of the atmosphere on emission signals have been ascertained. • Usage of standoff LIBS for identifying forensic evidences has been

  9. Evaluation of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy analysis potential for addressing radiological threats from a distance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaona, I.; Serrano, J.; Moros, J.; Laserna, J.J., E-mail: laserna@uma.es

    2014-06-01

    Although radioactive materials are nowadays valuable tools in nearly all fields of modern science and technology, the dangers stemming from the uncontrolled use of ionizing radiation are more than evident. Since preparedness is a key issue to face the risks of a radiation dispersal event, development of rapid and efficient monitoring technologies to control the contamination caused by radioactive materials is of crucial interest. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) exhibits appealing features for this application. This research focuses on the assessment of LIBS potential for the in-situ fingerprinting and identification of radioactive material surrogates from a safe distance. LIBS selectivity and sensitivity to detect a variety of radioactive surrogates, namely {sup 59}Co, {sup 88}Sr, {sup 130}Ba, {sup 133}Cs, {sup 193}Ir and {sup 238}U, on the surface of common urban materials at a distance of 30 m have been evaluated. The performance of the technique for nuclear forensics has been also studied on different model scenarios. Findings have revealed the difficulties to detect and to identify the analytes depending on the surface being interrogated. However, as demonstrated, LIBS shows potential enough for prompt and accurate gathering of essential evidence at a number of sites after the release, either accidental or intentional, of radioactive material. The capability of standoff analysis confers to LIBS unique advantages in terms of fast and safe inspection of forensic scenarios. The identity of the radioactive surrogates is easily assigned from a distance and the sensitivity to their detection is in the range of a few hundreds of ng per square centimeter. - Highlights: • Distant identification of radioactive surrogates on urban surfaces has been proved. • LIBS sensitivity to distant detection of radioactive surrogates has been checked. • Influences of the atmosphere on emission signals have been ascertained. • Usage of standoff LIBS for identifying

  10. Leather waste--potential threat to human health, and a new technology of its treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolomaznik, K; Adamek, M; Andel, I; Uhlirova, M

    2008-12-30

    In this paper, the authors deal with the problem of processing various types of waste generated by leather industry, with special emphasis to chrome-tanned waste. The agent that makes this waste potentially hazardous is hexavalent chromium. Its compounds can have negative effects on human health and some CrVI salts are considered carcinogens. The authors present the risks of spontaneous oxidization of CrIII to CrVI in the open-air dumps as well as the possible risks of wearing bad quality shoes, in which the chromium content is not controlled. There are several ways of handling primary leather waste, but no satisfactory technology has been developed for the secondary waste (manipulation waste, e.g. leather scraps and used leather products). In this contribution, a new three-step hybrid technology of processing manipulation waste is presented and tested under laboratory, pilot-scale and industrial conditions. The filtrate can be used as a good quality NPK fertilizer. The solid product, titanium-chromium sludge, can serve as an inorganic pigment in glass and ceramic industry. Further, the authors propose selective collection of used leather products (e.g. old shoes), the hydrolysable parts of which can be also processed by the new hybrid technology.

  11. Arsenic and lead in foods: a potential threat to human health in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Saiful; Ahmed, Md Kawser; Habibullah-Al-Mamun, Md; Islam, Kazi Nazrul; Ibrahim, Md; Masunaga, Shigeki

    2014-01-01

    The non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risk of arsenic and lead to adults and children via daily dietary intake of food composites in Bangladesh was estimated. The target hazard quotients (THQs), hazard index (HI) and target carcinogenic risk (TR) were calculated to evaluate the non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic health risk from arsenic and lead. Most of the individual food composites contain a considerable amount of arsenic and lead. The highest mean concentrations of arsenic were found in cereals (0.254 mg kg⁻¹ fw) and vegetables (0.250 mg kg⁻¹ fw), and lead in vegetables (0.714 mg kg⁻¹ fw) and fish (0.326 mg kg⁻¹ fw). The results showed the highest THQs of arsenic in cereals and lead in vegetables for both adults and children which exceeded the safe limit (> 1) indicating that cereals and vegetables are the main food items contributing to the potential health risk. The estimated TR from ingesting dietary arsenic and lead from most of the foods exceeded 10⁻⁶, indicating carcinogenic risks for all adult people of the study area.

  12. Industrially contaminated areas in Serbia as a potential public health threat to the exposed population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matić Branislava I.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mining and mineral processing is still a vital source of income in Serbia, due to mineral abundance in copper, lead, zinc, antimony. Copper mining and metal-processing are located in the east: Bor, Veliki Krivelj, Cerovo, Majdanpek. Abandoned sites from antimony mining and processing and secondary lead smelter are at the western border: Zajača, Krupanj, Stolice. Coal mining and power plants are surrounding Belgrade: Obrenovac (2 power plants, Grabovac (plant ash landfill, Kolubara and Kostolac. Main objective is to focus on potential public health hazards from industrial contamination in Serbia. Key public health issue is presence of As and Cd in ambient air PM10 close to industrially contaminated sites due to the fact that ores have high naturally occurring contents of heavy metals and metalloids. Data originate from Serbian Environmental Protection Agency, Mining and Metallurgy Institute Bor, Belgrade Institute of Public Health, as part of continuous measurement of air quality within State network of automatic stations. Concentration of As in PM10 are extremely above the limit value in Bor and Lazarevac, with Cd values slightly increased in Bor. Serbia lacks the legal framework for continuous and institutionalized follow-up of population groups vulnerable to hazardous environmental exposure, although measured concentration indicate urgent need for such activities.

  13. Potential threat to licensed nuclear activities from insiders (insider study). Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullen, S.A.; Davidson, J.J.; Jones, H.B. Jr.

    1980-07-01

    The Insider Study was undertaken by NRC staff at the request of the Commission. Its objectives were to: (1) determine the characteristics of potential insider adversaries to licensed nuclear activities; (2) examine security system vulnerabilities to insider adversaries; and (3) assess the effectiveness of techniques used to detect or prevent insider malevolence. The study analyzes insider characteristics as revealed in incidents of theft or sabotage that occurred in the nuclear industry, analogous industries, government agencies, and the military. Adversary characteristics are grouped into four categories: position-related, behavioral, resource and operational. It also analyzes (1) the five security vulnerabilities that most frequently accounted for the success of the insider crimes in the data base; (2) the 11 means by which insider crimes were most often detected; and (3) four major and six lesser methods aimed at preventing insider malevolence. In addition to case history information, the study contains data derived from non-NRC studies and from interviews with over 100 security experts in industry, government (federal and state), and law enforcement

  14. The effect of proposed software products' features on the satisfaction and dissatisfaction of potential customers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Azham; Mkpojiogu, Emmanuel O. C.; Yusof, Muhammad Mat

    2016-08-01

    This paper reports the effect of proposed software products features on the satisfaction and dissatisfaction of potential customers of proposed software products. Kano model's functional and dysfunctional technique was used along with Berger et al.'s customer satisfaction coefficients. The result shows that only two features performed the most in influencing the satisfaction and dissatisfaction of would-be customers of the proposed software product. Attractive and one-dimensional features had the highest impact on the satisfaction and dissatisfaction of customers. This result will benefit requirements analysts, developers, designers, projects and sales managers in preparing for proposed products. Additional analysis showed that the Kano model's satisfaction and dissatisfaction scores were highly related to the Park et al.'s average satisfaction coefficient (r=96%), implying that these variables can be used interchangeably or in place of one another to elicit customer satisfaction. Furthermore, average satisfaction coefficients and satisfaction and dissatisfaction indexes were all positively and linearly correlated.

  15. Domestic dogs in rural area of fragmented Atlantic Forest: potential threats to wild animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edilberto Martinez

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Domestic dogs' skills such as hunting and herding shifted as man migrated from rural areas to developing urban centers and led to a change in human-dog relationship and in the purpose of these animals in the properties. The countryside of Viçosa is characterized by small coffee farms surrounded by borders with fragments from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. The close proximity of these environments favors the encounter between domestic and wild animals which may lead to dog attacks to wild animals and, consequently, disease transmission. The aim of this study was to understand the role of dogs in the rural environment and assess the possible risks they offer to native fauna. The data were obtained from structured questionnaires answered by dogs' owners from rural Viçosa. Results regarding the socioeconomic status of the owners revealed that the majority belonged to either the middle class or low educational level categories. In addition, it was observed that there is a preference for male dogs due to its guard activity and that most dogs live unconstrained. Even though most dogs are provided with good food management, 58% of them prey on wildlife. However, more than half of the dogs do not consume their prey which can be explained by the inherited ability of artificial selection but 36.5% of them have scavenger diet. Most of the dogs were immunized against rabies, whereas, only 28.8% were immunized against infectious diseases such as leptospirosis, distemper and parvovirus. In conclusion, the management of dogs by rural owners, mainly unrestrained living, and allied to inadequate vaccination coverage suggest that dogs are predators of Viçosa's rural wildlife and potential disseminators of disease.

  16. Heat impact on schoolchildren in Cameroon, Africa: potential health threat from climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tord Kjellstrom

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Health impacts related to climate change are potentially an increasing problem in Cameroon, especially during hot seasons when there are no means for protective and adaptive actions. Objective: To describe environmental conditions in schools and to evaluate the impact of heat on schoolchildren's health during school days in the Cameroon cities of Yaoundé and Douala. Methods: Schoolchildren (N=285 aged 12–16 years from public secondary schools completed a questionnaire about their background, general symptoms, and hot feelings in a cross-sectional study. In Yaoundé, 50 schoolchildren were individually interviewed during school days about hourly symptoms (fatigue, headache, and feeling very hot and performance. Lascar dataloggers were used to measure indoor classroom temperatures and humidity. Results: There was a significant correlation between daily indoor temperature and the percentages of schoolchildren who felt very hot, had fatigue, and headaches in Yaoundé. A high proportion of schoolchildren felt very hot (48%, had fatigue (76%, and headaches (38% in Yaoundé. Prevalences (% were higher among girls than boys for headaches (58 vs 39, feeling ‘very hot overall’ (37 vs 21, and ‘very hot in head’ (21 vs 18. Up to 62% were absentminded and 45% had slow writing speed. High indoor temperatures of 32.5°C in Yaoundé and 36.6°C in Douala were observed in school. Conclusions: Headache, fatigue, and feeling very hot associated with high indoor air temperature were observed among schoolchildren in the present study. Longitudinal data in schools are needed to confirm these results. School environmental conditions should be improved in order to enhance learning.

  17. An approach for assessing potential sediment-bound contaminant threats near the intake of a drinking water treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fei; Anderson, William B; Huck, Peter M

    2013-01-01

    To assist in assessing a potential contaminated sediment threat near a drinking water intake in a large lake, a technique known as the fingerprint analysis of leachate contaminants (FALCON), was investigated and enhanced to help draw more statistically significant definitive conclusions. This represents the first application of this approach, originally developed by the USEPA to characterize and track leachate penetration in groundwater and contaminant migration from waste and landfill sites, in a large lake from the point-of-view of source water protection. FALCON provided valuable information regarding contaminated sediment characterization, source attribution, and transport within a surface water context without the need for knowledge of local hydrodynamic conditions, potentially reducing reliance on complicated hydrodynamic analysis. A t-test to evaluate the significance of correlations was shown to further enhance the FALCON procedure. In this study, the sensitivity of FALCON was found to be improved by using concentration data from both conserved organics and heavy metals in combination. Furthermore, data analysis indicated that it may be possible to indirectly assess the success of remediation efforts (and the corresponding need to plan for a treatment upgrade in the event of escalating contaminant concentrations) by examining the temporal change in correlation between the source and intake sediment fingerprints over time. This method has potential for widespread application in situations where conserved contaminants such as heavy metals and higher molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), are being or have previously been deposited in sediment somewhere in, or within range of, an intake protection zone. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Threat modeling designing for security

    CERN Document Server

    Shostack, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Adam Shostack is responsible for security development lifecycle threat modeling at Microsoft and is one of a handful of threat modeling experts in the world. Now, he is sharing his considerable expertise into this unique book. With pages of specific actionable advice, he details how to build better security into the design of systems, software, or services from the outset. You'll explore various threat modeling approaches, find out how to test your designs against threats, and learn effective ways to address threats that have been validated at Microsoft and other top companies. Systems secur

  19. Climate change and nesting behaviour in vertebrates: a review of the ecological threats and potential for adaptive responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainwaring, Mark C; Barber, Iain; Deeming, Denis C; Pike, David A; Roznik, Elizabeth A; Hartley, Ian R

    2017-11-01

    Nest building is a taxonomically widespread and diverse trait that allows animals to alter local environments to create optimal conditions for offspring development. However, there is growing evidence that climate change is adversely affecting nest-building in animals directly, for example via sea-level rises that flood nests, reduced availability of building materials, and suboptimal sex allocation in species exhibiting temperature-dependent sex determination. Climate change is also affecting nesting species indirectly, via range shifts into suboptimal nesting areas, reduced quality of nest-building environments, and changes in interactions with nest predators and parasites. The ability of animals to adapt to sustained and rapid environmental change is crucial for the long-term persistence of many species. Many animals are known to be capable of adjusting nesting behaviour adaptively across environmental gradients and in line with seasonal changes, and this existing plasticity potentially facilitates adaptation to anthropogenic climate change. However, whilst alterations in nesting phenology, site selection and design may facilitate short-term adaptations, the ability of nest-building animals to adapt over longer timescales is likely to be influenced by the heritable basis of such behaviour. We urgently need to understand how the behaviour and ecology of nest-building in animals is affected by climate change, and particularly how altered patterns of nesting behaviour affect individual fitness and population persistence. We begin our review by summarising how predictable variation in environmental conditions influences nest-building animals, before highlighting the ecological threats facing nest-building animals experiencing anthropogenic climate change and examining the potential for changes in nest location and/or design to provide adaptive short- and long-term responses to changing environmental conditions. We end by identifying areas that we believe warrant the

  20. Opening of Offshore Oil Business in Mexico and Associated Framework to Cope with Potential Maritime Security Threats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Ávila-Zúáiga-Nordfjeld

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available After 75 years of State oil monopoly, Mexico performed the first business oil round in 2015 involving the private sector. This auction-round offered 14 oil exploration fields located on the continental shelf to private companies. The development and exploitation of these hydrocarbon fields faces significant challenges regarding security. The economic loss for theft of hydrocarbons through illegal connections to pipelines is estimated to 973 million, 125 thousand U.S. dollar, only for the year of 2014. While productive research has been made, it has mainly focused on transportation systems and basically, pipelines. The development and establishment of policies prioritizing maritime security and protection of critical offshore infrastructure against theft of hydrocarbons, drugs organizations and terror attacks needs to be included in the national agenda to improve maritime security and mitigate potential security threats at sea, including damage to the marine environment. This could increase the trust of investors and stakeholders and would contribute to the faster development of new exploration and production fields. While the International Ship and Port Facility Security Code (ISPS Code is the cornerstone for the construction of the port?s security program and establishes the requirements of the Port Facility Security Plan (PFSP, including oil port facilities, it has not been fully implemented in several important Mexican ports. It is concluded that some important ports lack many of the core security processes, procedures and controls that should be included in any PFSP. This article briefly reviews the situation of the oil industry from a security perspective and discusses key elements of maritime security; addressing the necessity of the inclusion of maritime security and protection of critical oil infrastructure offshore in the national agenda that would provide for future research directions in the maritime security domain and contribute to

  1. Stereotype Threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Steven J; Logel, Christine; Davies, Paul G

    2016-01-01

    When members of a stigmatized group find themselves in a situation where negative stereotypes provide a possible framework for interpreting their behavior, the risk of being judged in light of those stereotypes can elicit a disruptive state that undermines performance and aspirations in that domain. This situational predicament, termed stereotype threat, continues to be an intensely debated and researched topic in educational, social, and organizational psychology. In this review, we explore the various sources of stereotype threat, the mechanisms underlying stereotype-threat effects (both mediators and moderators), and the consequences of this situational predicament, as well as the means through which society and stigmatized individuals can overcome the insidious effects of stereotype threat. Ultimately, we hope this review alleviates some of the confusion surrounding stereotype threat while also sparking further research and debate.

  2. Lead from hunting activities and its potential environmental threat to wildlife in a protected wetland in Yucatan, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcega-Cabrera, Flor; Noreña-Barroso, Elsa; Oceguera-Vargas, Ismael

    2014-02-01

    This study provides insights into the status of lead in the protected wetland of El Palmar, located on the northwestern littoral of the Yucatan Peninsula. This reserve is ecologically and economically important because it provides feeding and breeding habitats for many species, as well as being an ecotourism destination (especially for bird watching). Although it is a protected area, duck species are heavily hunted within the reserve during the winter. As a result, animals feeding or living in sediments could be exposed to anthropogenic lead. Total lead and its geochemical fractionated forms were measured in sediment cores from six selected sites in "El Palmar" wetland, during pre- and post-hunting seasons, to approximate the potential environmental threat (especially for benthonic living/feeding organisms). Anthropogenic lead concentrations detected in soil cores ranged from below the minimum infaunal community effect level (30.24 μg g(-1)) during the pre-hunting season, to bordering the probable infaunal community effect level (112.18 μg g(-1)) during the post-hunting season, according to SquiiRTs NOAA guidelines. Yet, these results were lower than expected based on the intensity of hunting. Consequently, this article explores the possibility that the lower than expected lead concentration in sediments results from (1) degradation of shot and transformation to soluble or particulate forms; or (2) ingestion of lead shot by benthic and other lacustrine species living in the protected area. Geochemical fractionation of lead demonstrated that in the top 6 cm of the soil column at heavily active hunting sites (EP5 and EP6), lead was associated with the lithogenic fraction (average 45 percent) and with the organic fraction (average 20 percent). Bioavailable lead (sum of lead adsorbed to the carbonates, Fe/Mn oxyhydroxides and organic fractions) in sediments was lower than 50 percent for the heavily active hunting areas and higher for the rest of the sites

  3. Population status, distribution and potential threats of the Blue Bull Boselaphus tragocamelus (Mammalia: Cetartiodactyla: Bovidae along the Tinau River of Rupandehi District, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan Aryal

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The status and conservation of the Blue Bull Boselaphus tragocamelus is becoming one of the prominent discourses of wildlife research.  The study was carried out along the Tinau River at Rupandehi District in western Nepal to ascertain the population status, distribution and potential threats to the Blue Bull.  The study was conducted along six transect lines in the forest.  A total of 40 Blue Bulls were recorded in different transects.  The average group size was five.  The average population density was 0.228 Blue Bulls per ha and the sex ratio was 1 male: 3 females.  The potential threats of the Blue Bull along the Tinau River were habitat destruction, overgrazing, conflict, flooding and accident.  

  4. Object and Facial Recognition in Augmented and Virtual Reality: Investigation into Software, Hardware and Potential Uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Erin

    2017-01-01

    As augmented and virtual reality grows in popularity, and more researchers focus on its development, other fields of technology have grown in the hopes of integrating with the up-and-coming hardware currently on the market. Namely, there has been a focus on how to make an intuitive, hands-free human-computer interaction (HCI) utilizing AR and VR that allows users to control their technology with little to no physical interaction with hardware. Computer vision, which is utilized in devices such as the Microsoft Kinect, webcams and other similar hardware has shown potential in assisting with the development of a HCI system that requires next to no human interaction with computing hardware and software. Object and facial recognition are two subsets of computer vision, both of which can be applied to HCI systems in the fields of medicine, security, industrial development and other similar areas.

  5. Insider threats to cybersecurity

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lakha, D

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ? Acting on opportunity Taking revenge for perceived injustice Making a statement Doing competitor s bidding Seeing themselves as a future competition INSIDER THREATS | Combating it! Darshan Lakha 7 5 January 2017 General Investigations...! Darshan Lakha 11 5 January 2017 Monitor user actions Use auditing to monitor access to files Examine cached Web files Monitor Web access at the firewall Monitor incoming and outgoing e-mail messages Control what software employees can install...

  6. Screening-level exposure-based prioritization to identify potential POPs, vPvBs and planetary boundary threats among Arctic contaminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efstathios Reppas-Chrysovitsinos

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A report that reviews Arctic contaminants that are not currently regulated as persistent organic pollutants (POPs under international treaties was recently published by the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP. We evaluated 464 individual chemicals mentioned in the AMAP report according to hazard profiles for POPs, very persistent and very bioaccumulative (vPvB chemicals, and two novel and distinct hazard profiles we derived from the planetary boundary threat framework. The two planetary boundary threat profiles assign high priority to chemicals that will be mobile and poorly reversible environmental contaminants. Utilizing persistence as a proxy for poor reversibility, we defined two exposure-based hazard profiles; airborne persistent contaminants (APCs and waterborne persistent contaminants (WPCs that are potential planetary boundary threats. We used in silico estimates of physicochemical properties and multimedia models to calculate hazard metrics for persistence, bioaccumulation and long-range transport potential, then we synthesized this information into four exposure-based hazard scores of the potential of each AMAP chemical to fit each of the POP, vPvB, APC and WPC exposure-based hazard profiles. As an alternative to adopting a “bright line” score that represented cause for concern, we scored the AMAP chemicals by benchmarking against a reference set of 148 known and relatively well-studied contaminants and expressed their exposure-based hazard scores as percentile ranks against the scores of the reference set chemicals. Our results show that scores in the four exposure-based hazard profiles provide complementary information about the potential environmental exposure-based hazards of the AMAP chemicals. Our POP, vPvB, APC and WPC exposure-based hazard scores identify high priority chemicals for further study from among the AMAP contaminants.

  7. Software platform for managing the classification of error- related potentials of observers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asvestas, P.; Ventouras, E.-C.; Kostopoulos, S.; Sidiropoulos, K.; Korfiatis, V.; Korda, A.; Uzunolglu, A.; Karanasiou, I.; Kalatzis, I.; Matsopoulos, G.

    2015-09-01

    Human learning is partly based on observation. Electroencephalographic recordings of subjects who perform acts (actors) or observe actors (observers), contain a negative waveform in the Evoked Potentials (EPs) of the actors that commit errors and of observers who observe the error-committing actors. This waveform is called the Error-Related Negativity (ERN). Its detection has applications in the context of Brain-Computer Interfaces. The present work describes a software system developed for managing EPs of observers, with the aim of classifying them into observations of either correct or incorrect actions. It consists of an integrated platform for the storage, management, processing and classification of EPs recorded during error-observation experiments. The system was developed using C# and the following development tools and frameworks: MySQL, .NET Framework, Entity Framework and Emgu CV, for interfacing with the machine learning library of OpenCV. Up to six features can be computed per EP recording per electrode. The user can select among various feature selection algorithms and then proceed to train one of three types of classifiers: Artificial Neural Networks, Support Vector Machines, k-nearest neighbour. Next the classifier can be used for classifying any EP curve that has been inputted to the database.

  8. Web Based Interactive Software in International Business: The Case of the Global Market Potential System Online (GMPSO[C])

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janavaras, Basil J.; Gomes, Emanuel; Young, Richard

    2008-01-01

    This paper seeks to confirm whether students using the Global Market Potential System Online (GMPSO) web based software, (http://globalmarketpotential.com), for their class project enhanced their knowledge and understanding of international business. The challenge most business instructors and practitioners face is to determine how to bring the…

  9. Nuclear proliferation and the potential threat of nuclear terrorism. 8 November 2004, Sydney, Australia, Asia-Pacific Nuclear Safeguards and Security Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ElBaradei, M.

    2004-01-01

    Today, the focus of the world is on nuclear proliferation and the potential threat of nuclear terrorism in Asia and the Pacific, and this address is presenting the perspectives on the challenges IAEA faces, and how the IAEA is working to strengthen nuclear security and the nuclear non-proliferation regime. But one would emphasize at the outset that, while much of our work must begin locally and regionally, we must not forget to think globally, because ultimately the existence of a nuclear threat anywhere is a threat everywhere, and as a global community, we will win or lose this battle together. This presentation, discusses cooperation, assistance, regional and international networks, and the importance of learning from each other. In effect, the focal subject is 'security culture', a mindset that, while providing the impetus for local and regional action, thinks globally and is fully capable of extending across borders. Sixty years ago, on a day in August, the dawn of the Nuclear Age in Asia left nearly a quarter of a million people dead, with two devices considered crude by modern standards. For six decades, we have managed to avoid a repeat of that event, but remain haunted by the prospect. It is my firm belief that we cannot move out from under the shadow of Hiroshima and Nagasaki until we are ready to make that move collectively, and build a system of security that transcends borders, that focuses on the equal value of every human life, and in which nuclear weapons have no place. May it not ultimately be said of our civilization that we created the inventions that led to our own demise

  10. The threats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunel, S.; Touchard, P.; Ferrandery, J.L.

    2005-01-01

    Second chapter of the book on the geopolitics of the sustainable development, this chapter deals with the threats of the climatic change on the earth and the humans. the authors analyze the consequences of the climatic change on the developing countries of the South and the necessity of a sustainable development implementation in the North. They inform on the resources depletion, the water problem, the nuclear activities and the public health and the french government policy facing the sustainable management of the territory. (A.L.B.)

  11. Analytical exploration of the thermodynamic potentials by using symbolic computation software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hantsaridou, Anastasia P; Polatoglou, Hariton M

    2005-01-01

    Thermodynamics is a very general theory, based on fundamental symmetries. It generalizes classical mechanics and incorporates theoretical concepts such as field and field equations. Although all these ingredients are of the highest importance for a scientist, they are not given the attention they perhaps deserve in most undergraduate courses. Nowadays, powerful computers in conjunction with equally powerful software can ease the exploration of the crucial ideas of thermodynamics. The purpose of the present work is to show how the utilization of symbolic computation software can lead to a complementary understanding of thermodynamics. The method was applied to first and second year physics students in the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (Greece) during the 2002-2003 academic year. The results indicate that symbolic computation software is appropriate not only for enhancing the teaching of the fundamental principles in thermodynamics and their applications, but also for increasing students' motivation for learning

  12. Potential errors when fitting experience curves by means of spreadsheet software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sark, W.G.J.H.M. van; Alsema, E.A.

    2010-01-01

    Progress ratios (PRs) are widely used in forecasting development of many technologies; they are derived from historical data represented in experience curves. Fitting the double logarithmic graphs is easily done with spreadsheet software like Microsoft Excel, by adding a trend line to the graph. However, it is unknown to many that these data are transformed to linear data before a fit is performed. This leads to erroneous results or a transformation bias in the PR, as we demonstrate using the experience curve for photovoltaic technology: logarithmic transformation leads to overestimates of progress ratios and underestimates of goodness of fit. Therefore, other graphing and analysis software is recommended.

  13. Potential errors when fitting experience curves by means of spreadsheet software

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Sark, W.G.J.H.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074628526; Alsema, E.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073416258

    2010-01-01

    Progress ratios (PRs) are widely used in forecasting development of many technologies; they are derived from historical data represented in experience curves. Fitting the double logarithmic graphs is easily done with spreadsheet software like Microsoft Excel, by adding a trend line to the graph.

  14. Intelligent software systems and SMiRT: Potentials, actual results, expectations, trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jovanovic, A.

    1993-01-01

    The paper gives a survey of recent development trends in the area of knowledge-based systems, hypermedia, neural networks and other similar technologies which are on the baseline of modern 'intelligent' software systems, applied in the areas relevant for SMiRT: power plant operation, design and analysis of structural components, materials, and many others. The paper highlights the historical background of these trends, as well as the methodologies and technologies which made such a development possible ('enabling methodologies/technologies'). Examples from several, SMiRT characteristic application areas are mentioned, in order to give an illustration what the deployment of an intelligent software system can mean in practice. Finally, a summary of these result is made and future perspectives indicated. (author)

  15. A spin-off company helps to unlock the full potential of Invenio software

    CERN Multimedia

    Andrew Purcell

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the success of Invenio meant that the team of software developers based in the CERN IT Department were receiving more and more requests to assist organisations in creating new Invenio installations, as well as providing support for them. The large number of support requests required a new solution. CERN therefore decided to help a team of budding young entrepreneurs to set up a company to provide specialist Invenio support.   The TIND team visits the CERN Data Centre. Image: Martin Fürbach. What do the CERN Document Server, the CERN Open Data Portal, EUDAT’s B2SHARE, INSPIRE and Zenodo all have in common? Easy, they all run using the open-source software Invenio. The Invenio software suite is designed to support online digital libraries and document repositories. On the CERN Document Server, for instance, it manages around 1.5 million bibliographic records. Since its launch in 2002, a highly active open-source community has grown around Invenio...

  16. Insider Threats in the Software Development Lifecycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-05

    customer service) or their managers Technical (e.g. scientists, programmers , engineers) or sales Gender Male Fairly equally split between male...insider desire to steal org information insider sense of loyalty to organization precipitating event (e.g., proposal by competitor) information stolen...Current Current (within 30 days of resignation) Type of position Technical (e.g. sys admins, programmers , DBAs) Non-technical (e.g. data entry

  17. Flexible training under threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, Anita; Eaton, Jennifer

    2002-10-01

    As the number of women in medicine and the general demand for a better work-life balance rises, flexible training is an increasingly important mechanism for maintaining the medical workforce. The new pay deal, together with entrenched cultural attitudes, are potential threats. Ways forward include more substantive part-time posts, more part-time opportunities at consultant level, and using positive experiences as a way of tackling attitudes in the less accepting specialties.

  18. Threat-level-dependent manipulation of signaled body size: dog growls' indexical cues depend on the different levels of potential danger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bálint, Anna; Faragó, Tamás; Miklósi, Ádám; Pongrácz, Péter

    2016-11-01

    Body size is an important feature that affects fighting ability; however, size-related parameters of agonistic vocalizations are difficult to manipulate because of anatomical constraints within the vocal production system. Rare examples of acoustic size modulation are due to specific features that enable the sender to steadily communicate exaggerated body size. However, one could argue that it would be more adaptive if senders could adjust their signaling behavior to the fighting potential of their actual opponent. So far there has been no experimental evidence for this possibility. We tested this hypothesis by exposing family dogs (Canis familiaris) to humans with potentially different fighting ability. In a within-subject experiment, 64 dogs of various breeds consecutively faced two threateningly approaching humans, either two men or two women of different stature, or a man and a woman of similar or different stature. We found that the dogs' vocal responses were affected by the gender of the threatening stranger and the dog owner's gender. Dogs with a female owner, or those dogs which came from a household where both genders were present, reacted with growls of lower values of the Pitch-Formant component (including deeper fundamental frequency and lower formant dispersion) to threatening men. Our results are the first to show that non-human animals react with dynamic alteration of acoustic parameters related to their individual indexical features (body size), depending on the level of threat in an agonistic encounter.

  19. The global partnership: its achievements, missed opportunities and potential to address future threats from the spread of CBRN materials and expertise - 59335

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heyes, Alan; Bowen, Wyn; Chalmers, Hugh

    2012-01-01

    Document available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: In 2002, the G8 launched the Global Partnership (GP) against the Spread of Weapons and Materials of Mass Destruction. The partnerships budget was placed at $20 billion over 10 years, and it was supported by some 23 countries and the European Union (EU).Though it has had little public recognition, the partnership has been one of the G8's most successful initiatives and has led to many benefits, including improved international security and addressing a sizeable proportion of the Cold War nuclear and chemical weapons arsenal in the Former Soviet Union. Its future, however, remains undecided, as its funding is set to expire in less than two years. In 2009 and 2010 Kings College London with generous funding support from the US John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, carried out a detailed evaluation of the achievements and benefits of the GP to date, its failings and lost opportunities, and potential future direction. Our findings indicate that the partnership has aided security in the Former Soviet Union and had a significant number of wider benefits with the potential to continue to do the same on a broader geographic level in future. As such, it is a valuable tool to assist the international community to work together to address global threats relating to chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear materials and related expertise and the G8 should take steps to renew its funding. (authors)

  20. The European Union Joint Procurement Agreement for cross-border health threats: what is the potential for this new mechanism of health system collaboration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzopardi-Muscat, Natasha; Schroder-Bäck, Peter; Brand, Helmut

    2017-01-01

    The Joint Procurement Agreement (JPA) is an innovative instrument for multi-country procurement of medical countermeasures against cross-border health threats. This paper aims to assess its potential performance. A literature review was conducted to identify key features of successful joint procurement programmes. Documentary analysis and a key informants' interview were carried out to analyse the European Union (EU) JPA. Ownership, equity, transparency, stable central financing, standardisation, flexibility and gradual development were identified as important prerequisites for successful establishment of multi-country joint procurement programmes in the literature while security of supply, favourable prices, reduction of operational costs and administrative burden and creation of professional expert networks were identified as desirable outcomes. The EU JPA appears to fulfil the criteria of ownership, transparency, equity, flexibility and gradual development. Standardisation is only partly fulfilled and central EU level financing is not provided. Security of supply is an important outcome for all EU Member States (MS). Price savings, reduction in administrative burden and creation of professional networks may be particularly attractive for the smaller MS. The JPA has the potential to increase health system collaboration and efficiency at EU level provided that the incentives for sustained commitment of larger MS are sufficiently attractive.

  1. PORT SECURITY-Threats and Vulnerabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Kusi, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this thesis is to identify the threats and the vulnerabilities concerning Takoradi port, and finally recommend measure to overcome the identified threats and vul-nerabilities. Various categories of potential threats and vulnerabilities have been studied throughout the literature review. However, because each port presents a unique sets of threats and vulnerabilities, there was a need to look critically into how Takoradi port operations are being conducted in other to ide...

  2. Capparis spinosa L. in A Systematic Review: A Xerophilous Species of Multi Values and Promising Potentialities for Agrosystems under the Threat of Global Warming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Chedraoui

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Caper (Capparis spinosa L. is a xerophytic shrub with a remarkable adaptability to harsh environments. This plant species is of great interest for its medicinal/pharmacological properties and its culinary uses. Its phytochemical importance relies on many bioactive components present in different organs and its cultivation can be of considerable economic value. Moreover, taxonomic identification of C. spinosa L. has been difficult due to its wide heterogeneity, and many authors fell into confusion due to the scarcity of genetic studies. The present review summarizes information concerning C. spinosa L. including agronomic performance, botanical description, taxonomical approaches, traditional pharmacological uses, phytochemical evaluation and genetic studies. This knowledge represents an important tool for further research studies and agronomic development on this indigenous species with respect to the emerging climatic change in the Eastern Mediterranean countries. Indeed, this world region is particularly under the threat of global warming and it appears necessary to rethink agricultural systems to adapt them to current and futures challenging environmental conditions. Capparis spinosa L. could be a part of this approach. So, this review presents a state of the art considering caper as a potential interesting crop under arid or semi-arid regions (such as Eastern Mediterranean countries within the climate change context. The aim is to raise awareness in the scientific community (geneticists, physiologists, ecophysiologists, agronomists, … about the caper strengths and interest to the development of this shrub as a crop.

  3. Survey and documentation of the potential and actual invasive alien plant species and other biological threats to biodiversity in Awash National Park, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebsebe DEMISSEW

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted at the Awash National Park (ANP Ethiopia, todocument Invasive Alien Species (IAS and to assess the spread of Prosopis juliflora (Sw. DC. A total of 64 sample plots were laid systematically along the altitudinal gradient of 750 to 1916 m.Potential IAS were recorded. IAS which may threaten biodiversity of the park includes species such as Prosopis juliflora, Parthenium hysterophorus L., Cryptostegia grandiflora Roxb. ex R. Br., Parkinsonia aculeata L., Senna occidentalis (L. Link, Datura ferox L. and Xanthium strumarium L. Except P. juliflora and P. hysterophorus, all others were not recorded in Ethiopia as IAS. P.juliflora was recorded in three plots with cover of 1% to 10%. P. juliflora was also found spread in different parts of the park particularly following the route of cattle movement. P. hysterophoruswas recorded in and around nine sample plots. Plot 46, 47 and 48 werehighly infested by P. hysterophorus which covered more than 60, 70 and 80% of the ground layer respectively. C. grandiflora was recorded in 11 plots with cover ranging from 1% to 35%. In view of all the natural as well as anthropogenic threats to the biodiversity of the Park, the ANP is at high risk. The rich biodiversity needsimmediate management intervention.

  4. Capparis spinosa L. in A Systematic Review: A Xerophilous Species of Multi Values and Promising Potentialities for Agrosystems under the Threat of Global Warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chedraoui, Stephanie; Abi-Rizk, Alain; El-Beyrouthy, Marc; Chalak, Lamis; Ouaini, Naim; Rajjou, Loïc

    2017-01-01

    Caper ( Capparis spinosa L.) is a xerophytic shrub with a remarkable adaptability to harsh environments. This plant species is of great interest for its medicinal/pharmacological properties and its culinary uses. Its phytochemical importance relies on many bioactive components present in different organs and its cultivation can be of considerable economic value. Moreover, taxonomic identification of C. spinosa L. has been difficult due to its wide heterogeneity, and many authors fell into confusion due to the scarcity of genetic studies. The present review summarizes information concerning C. spinosa L. including agronomic performance, botanical description, taxonomical approaches, traditional pharmacological uses, phytochemical evaluation and genetic studies. This knowledge represents an important tool for further research studies and agronomic development on this indigenous species with respect to the emerging climatic change in the Eastern Mediterranean countries. Indeed, this world region is particularly under the threat of global warming and it appears necessary to rethink agricultural systems to adapt them to current and futures challenging environmental conditions. Capparis spinosa L. could be a part of this approach. So, this review presents a state of the art considering caper as a potential interesting crop under arid or semi-arid regions (such as Eastern Mediterranean countries) within the climate change context. The aim is to raise awareness in the scientific community (geneticists, physiologists, ecophysiologists, agronomists, …) about the caper strengths and interest to the development of this shrub as a crop.

  5. Potential Solution of a Hardware-Software System V-Cluster for Big Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morra, G.; Tufo, H.; Yuen, D. A.; Brown, J.; Zihao, S.

    2017-12-01

    Today it cannot be denied that the Big Data revolution is taking place and is replacing HPC and numerical simulation as the main driver in society. Outside the immediate scientific arena, the Big Data market encompass much more than the AGU. There are many sectors in society that Big Data can ably serve, such as governments finances, hospitals, tourism, and, last by not least, scientific and engineering problems. In many countries, education has not kept pace with the demands from students outside computer science to get into Big Data science. Ultimate Vision (UV) in Beijing attempts to address this need in China by focusing part of our energy on education and training outside the immediate university environment. UV plans a strategy to maximize profits in our beginning. Therefore, we will focus on growing markets such as provincial governments, medical sectors, mass media, and education. And will not address issues such as performance for scientific collaboration, such as seismic networks, where the market share and profits are small by comparison. We have developed a software-hardware system, called V-Cluster, built with the latest NVIDIA GPUs and Intel CPUs with ample amounts of RAM (over couple of Tbytes) and local storage. We have put in an internal network with high bandwidth (over 100 Gbits/sec) and each node of V-Cluster can run at around 40 Tflops. Our system can scale linearly with the number of codes. Our main strength in data analytics is the use of graph-computing paradigm for optimizing the transfer rate in collaborative efforts. We focus in training and education with our clients in order to gain experience in learning about new applications. We will present the philosophy of this second generation of our Data Analytic system, whose costs fall far below those offered elsewhere.

  6. Affirmative Action and Stereotype Threat

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, Alma

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides experimental evidence on the effect of affirmative action (AA). In particular, we investigate whether affirmative action has a ”stereotype threat effect” – that is, whether AA cues a negative stereotype that leads individuals to conform to the stereotype and adversely affects their performance. Stereotype threat has been shown in the literature to be potentially significant for individuals who identify strongly with the domain of the stereotype and who engage in complex st...

  7. Airborne Particulate Threat Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrick Treado; Oksana Klueva; Jeffrey Beckstead

    2008-12-31

    Aerosol threat detection requires the ability to discern between threat agents and ambient background particulate matter (PM) encountered in the environment. To date, Raman imaging technology has been demonstrated as an effective strategy for the assessment of threat agents in the presence of specific, complex backgrounds. Expanding our understanding of the composition of ambient particulate matter background will improve the overall performance of Raman Chemical Imaging (RCI) detection strategies for the autonomous detection of airborne chemical and biological hazards. Improving RCI detection performance is strategic due to its potential to become a widely exploited detection approach by several U.S. government agencies. To improve the understanding of the ambient PM background with subsequent improvement in Raman threat detection capability, ChemImage undertook the Airborne Particulate Threat Assessment (APTA) Project in 2005-2008 through a collaborative effort with the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), under cooperative agreement number DE-FC26-05NT42594. During Phase 1 of the program, a novel PM classification based on molecular composition was developed based on a comprehensive review of the scientific literature. In addition, testing protocols were developed for ambient PM characterization. A signature database was developed based on a variety of microanalytical techniques, including scanning electron microscopy, FT-IR microspectroscopy, optical microscopy, fluorescence and Raman chemical imaging techniques. An automated particle integrated collector and detector (APICD) prototype was developed for automated collection, deposition and detection of biothreat agents in background PM. During Phase 2 of the program, ChemImage continued to refine the understanding of ambient background composition. Additionally, ChemImage enhanced the APICD to provide improved autonomy, sensitivity and specificity. Deliverables included a Final Report detailing our

  8. The Energy Efficiency Potential of Cloud-Based Software: A U.S. Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masanet, Eric [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Shehabi, Arman [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Liang, Jiaqi [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Ramakrishnan, Lavanya [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ma, XiaoHui [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Hendrix, Valerie [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Walker, Benjamin [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Mantha, Pradeep [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-06-03

    The energy use of data centers is a topic that has received much attention, given that data centers currently account for 1-2% of global electricity use. However, cloud computing holds great potential to reduce data center energy demand moving forward, due to both large reductions in total servers through consolidation and large increases in facility efficiencies compared to traditional local data centers. However, analyzing the net energy implications of shifts to the cloud can be very difficult, because data center services can affect many different components of society’s economic and energy systems.

  9. Cyber threat metrics.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frye, Jason Neal; Veitch, Cynthia K.; Mateski, Mark Elliot; Michalski, John T.; Harris, James Mark; Trevino, Cassandra M.; Maruoka, Scott

    2012-03-01

    Threats are generally much easier to list than to describe, and much easier to describe than to measure. As a result, many organizations list threats. Fewer describe them in useful terms, and still fewer measure them in meaningful ways. This is particularly true in the dynamic and nebulous domain of cyber threats - a domain that tends to resist easy measurement and, in some cases, appears to defy any measurement. We believe the problem is tractable. In this report we describe threat metrics and models for characterizing threats consistently and unambiguously. The purpose of this report is to support the Operational Threat Assessment (OTA) phase of risk and vulnerability assessment. To this end, we focus on the task of characterizing cyber threats using consistent threat metrics and models. In particular, we address threat metrics and models for describing malicious cyber threats to US FCEB agencies and systems.

  10. Addressing Software Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Brandon

    2015-01-01

    Historically security within organizations was thought of as an IT function (web sites/servers, email, workstation patching, etc.) Threat landscape has evolved (Script Kiddies, Hackers, Advanced Persistent Threat (APT), Nation States, etc.) Attack surface has expanded -Networks interconnected!! Some security posture factors Network Layer (Routers, Firewalls, etc.) Computer Network Defense (IPS/IDS, Sensors, Continuous Monitoring, etc.) Industrial Control Systems (ICS) Software Security (COTS, FOSS, Custom, etc.)

  11. Technology transfer - insider protection workshop (Safeguards Evaluation Method - Insider Threat)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strait, R.S.; Renis, T.A.

    1986-01-01

    The Safeguards Evaluation Method - Insider Threat, developed by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, is a field-applicable tool to evaluate facility safeguards against theft or diversion of special nuclear material (SNM) by nonviolent insiders. To ensure successful transfer of this technology from the laboratory to DOE field offices and contractors, LLNL developed a three-part package. The package includes a workbook, user-friendly microcomputer software, and a three-day training program. The workbook guides an evaluation team through the Safeguards Evaluation Method and provides forms for gathering data. The microcomputer software assists in the evaluation of safeguards effectiveness. The software is designed for safeguards analysts with no previous computer experience. It runs on an IBM Personal Computer or any compatible machine. The three-day training program is called the Insider Protection Workshop. The workshop students learn how to use the workbook and the computer software to assess insider vulnerabilities and to evaluate the benefits and costs of potential improvements. These activities increase the students' appreciation of the insider threat. The workshop format is informal and interactive, employing four different instruction modes: classroom presentations, small-group sessions, a practical exercise, and ''hands-on'' analysis using microcomputers. This approach to technology transfer has been successful: over 100 safeguards planners and analysts have been trained in the method, and it is being used at facilities through the DOE complex

  12. The threat from without

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lassi Saressalo

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available Of greatest importance in ethnic folklore are the recognised and unrecognised elements that are used when founding identity on tradition. For the aim of ethnic identification is to note and know the cultural features that connect me with people like me and separate me from people who are not like me. Every group and each of its members thus needs an opponent, a contact partner in order to identify itself. What about the Lapps? The ethnocentric values of ethnic folklore provide a model for this generalising comparison. 'They' are a potential danger, are unknown, strange, a threat from beyond the fells. They are sufficiently common for the group's ethnic feeling. It is here that we find tradition, folk tales, describing the community's traditional enemies, describing the threat from without, engendering preconceived ideas, conflicts and even war. The Lapps have never had an empire, they have never conquered others' territory, they have never engaged in systematic warfare against other peoples. For this reason Lapp tradition lacks an offensive ethnic folklore proper with emphasis on aggression, power, violence, heroism and an acceptance of the ideology of subordinating others. On the contrary,Lapp folklore is familiar with a tradition in which strangers are always threatening the Lapps' existence, plundering their territories, burning and destroying. The Lapp has always had to fight against alien powers, to give in or to outwit the great and powerful enemy. In the Lapp tradition the staalo represents an outside threat that cannot be directly concretised. If foes are regarded as concrete enemies that may be defeated in physical combat or that can be made to look ridiculous, a staalo is more mythical, more supranormal, more vague. One basic feature of the staalo tradition is that it only appears as one party to a conflict. The stories about the Lapp who succeeds in driving away a staalo threatening the community, to outwit the stupid giant or to kill

  13. BACTERIAL AIR MICROFLORA ISOLATES IN TWO OBSTETRICS AND GYNAECOLOGY UNITS OF A HOSPITAL IN NIGERIA ARE POTENTIAL THREATS OF NOSOCOMIAL INFECTIONS.

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Ever since the history of infirmaries, nosocomial infections have been of grave threats to hospital set-ups, the deadliest being nosocomial respiratory tract infection (RTI). Nosocomial RTI was consequently investigated in two units of Obstetrics and Gynaecology department of a hospital in Nigeria using the and ldquo;Settling Plate and rdquo; technique and various culture media for bacteria isolation. Identification of the isolates was done on the basis of each isolate\\'s cultural, morpholog...

  14. Addressing the insider threat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hochberg, J.G.; Jackson, K.A.; McClary, J.F.; Simmonds, D.D.

    1993-05-01

    Computers have come to play a major role in the processing of information vital to our national security. As we grow more dependent on computers, we also become more vulnerable to their misuse. Misuse may be accidental, or may occur deliberately for purposes of personal gain, espionage, terrorism, or revenge. While it is difficult to obtain exact statistics on computer misuse, clearly it is growing. It is also clear that insiders -- authorized system users -- are responsible for most of this increase. Unfortunately, their insider status gives them a greater potential for harm This paper takes an asset-based approach to the insider threat. We begin by characterizing the insider and the threat posed by variously motivated insiders. Next, we characterize the asset of concern: computerized information of strategic or economic value. We discuss four general ways in which computerized information is vulnerable to adversary action by the insider: disclosure, violation of integrity, denial of service, and unauthorized use of resources. We then look at three general remedies for these vulnerabilities. The first is formality of operations, such as training, personnel screening, and configuration management. The second is the institution of automated safeguards, such as single-use passwords, encryption, and biometric devices. The third is the development of automated systems that collect and analyze system and user data to look for signs of misuse.

  15. Addressing the insider threat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hochberg, J.G.; Jackson, K.A.; McClary, J.F.; Simmonds, D.D.

    1993-01-01

    Computers have come to play a major role in the processing of information vital to our national security. As we grow more dependent on computers, we also become more vulnerable to their misuse. Misuse may be accidental, or may occur deliberately for purposes of personal gain, espionage, terrorism, or revenge. While it is difficult to obtain exact statistics on computer misuse, clearly it is growing. It is also clear that insiders -- authorized system users -- are responsible for most of this increase. Unfortunately, their insider status gives them a greater potential for harm This paper takes an asset-based approach to the insider threat. We begin by characterizing the insider and the threat posed by variously motivated insiders. Next, we characterize the asset of concern: computerized information of strategic or economic value. We discuss four general ways in which computerized information is vulnerable to adversary action by the insider: disclosure, violation of integrity, denial of service, and unauthorized use of resources. We then look at three general remedies for these vulnerabilities. The first is formality of operations, such as training, personnel screening, and configuration management. The second is the institution of automated safeguards, such as single-use passwords, encryption, and biometric devices. The third is the development of automated systems that collect and analyze system and user data to look for signs of misuse.

  16. Understanding Cyber Threats and Vulnerabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luiijf, H.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    This chapter reviews current and anticipated cyber-related threats to the Critical Information Infrastructure (CII) and Critical Infrastructures (CI). The potential impact of cyber-terrorism to CII and CI has been coined many times since the term was first coined during the 1980s. Being the

  17. DOE site-specific threat assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, D.J.; Al-Ayat, R.A.; Judd, B.R.

    1985-01-01

    A facility manager faced with the challenges of protecting a nuclear facility against potential threats must consider the likelihood and consequences of such threats, know the capabilities of the facility safeguards and security systems, and make informed decisions about the cost-effectivness of safeguards and security upgrades. To help meet these challenges, the San Francisco Operations Office of the Department of Energy, in conjunction with the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, has developed a site-specific threat assessment approach and a quantitative model to improve the quality and consistency of site-specific threat assessment and resultant security upgrade decisions at sensitive Department of Energy facilities. 5 figs

  18. The Nature of the Bioterrorism Threat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Regens, J. L.

    2003-02-25

    This analysis provides an overview of the nature of the bioterrorism threat. It identifies potential CDC Class A biological agents that are likely candidates for use in a terrorist incident and describes the known sources of vulnerability. The paper also summarizes S&T resources/needs and assesses response options for achieving effective biodefense against terrorist threats.

  19. Insiders and Insider Threats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hunker, Jeffrey; Probst, Christian W.

    2011-01-01

    Threats from the inside of an organization’s perimeters are a significant problem, since it is difficult to distinguish them from benign activity. In this overview article we discuss defining properties of insiders and insider threats. After presenting definitions of these terms, we go on to disc......Threats from the inside of an organization’s perimeters are a significant problem, since it is difficult to distinguish them from benign activity. In this overview article we discuss defining properties of insiders and insider threats. After presenting definitions of these terms, we go...

  20. Software reengineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridge, Ernest M., III

    1991-01-01

    Today's software systems generally use obsolete technology, are not integrated properly with other software systems, and are difficult and costly to maintain. The discipline of reverse engineering is becoming prominent as organizations try to move their systems up to more modern and maintainable technology in a cost effective manner. JSC created a significant set of tools to develop and maintain FORTRAN and C code during development of the Space Shuttle. This tool set forms the basis for an integrated environment to re-engineer existing code into modern software engineering structures which are then easier and less costly to maintain and which allow a fairly straightforward translation into other target languages. The environment will support these structures and practices even in areas where the language definition and compilers do not enforce good software engineering. The knowledge and data captured using the reverse engineering tools is passed to standard forward engineering tools to redesign or perform major upgrades to software systems in a much more cost effective manner than using older technologies. A beta vision of the environment was released in Mar. 1991. The commercial potential for such re-engineering tools is very great. CASE TRENDS magazine reported it to be the primary concern of over four hundred of the top MIS executives.

  1. Countering Insider Threats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Probst, Christian W.; Hunker, Jeffrey; Gollmann, Dieter

    threat, and to develop a common vision of how an insider can be categorized as well as an integrated approach that allows a qualitative reasoning about the threat and the possibilities of attacks. This report gives an overview of the discussions and presentations during the week, as well as the outcome...

  2. Insider threat to secure facilities: data analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Three data sets drawn from industries that have experienced internal security breaches are analyzed. The industries and the insider security breaches are considered analogous in one or more respects to insider threats potentially confronting managers in the nuclear industry. The three data sets are: bank fraud and embezzlement (BF and E), computer-related crime, and drug theft from drug manufacturers and distributors. A careful analysis by both descriptive and formal statistical techniques permits certain general conclusions on the internal threat to secure industries to be drawn. These conclusions are discussed and related to the potential insider threat in the nuclear industry. 49 tabs

  3. Identifying and Mitigating Insider Threats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Probst, Christian W.

    2011-01-01

    Organisations face many threats that coarsely can be separated in inside threats and outside threats. Threats from insiders are especially hard to counter since insiders have special knowledge and privileges. Therefore, malicious insider actions are hard to distinguish from benign actions. After ...... discussing new definitions of insiders and insider threats, this article gives an overview of how to mitigate insider threats and discusses conflicting goals when dealing with insider threats....

  4. "Exclusive Dealing Contract and Inefficient Entry Threat"

    OpenAIRE

    Noriyuki Yanagawa; Ryoko Oki

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of exclusive dealing contracts in a simple model with manufacturers-distributors relations. We consider entrants in both manufacturing and distribution sectors. It is well-known that a potential entry threat is welfare increasing under homogenous price competition, even though the potential entrant is less productive. This paper reexamines this intuition by employing the above model. We show that the entry threat of a less-productive manufacturer is welfare dec...

  5. Incinerators, Hazardous Waste, To identify and locate abandoned oil production facilities and apparatus which pose a potential threat for creating an oil spill through either natural or accidental causes., Published in 1998, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Louisiana State University (LSU).

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — Incinerators, Hazardous Waste dataset current as of 1998. To identify and locate abandoned oil production facilities and apparatus which pose a potential threat for...

  6. Ransomware - Threats Vulnerabilities And Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadeem Shah

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Attack methodologies transform with the transforming dynamics of technology. Consequently it becomes imperative that individuals and organization implement the highest levels of security within their devices and infrastructure for optimal protection against these rapidly evolving attacks. Ransomware is one such attack that never fails to surprise in terms of its ability to identify vulnerabilities and loopholes in technology. This paper discusses the categories of ransomware its common attack vectors and provides a threat landscape with the aim to highlight the true potential and destructive nature of such malware based attacks. In this paper we also present the most current ransomware attack that is still a potential threat and also provide recommendations and strategies for prevention and protection against these attacks. A novel solution is also discussed that could be further worked upon in the future by other researchers and vendors of security devices.

  7. An Examination of Stereotype Threat Effects on Girls' Mathematics Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganley, Colleen M.; Mingle, Leigh A.; Ryan, Allison M.; Ryan, Katherine; Vasilyeva, Marina; Perry, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    Stereotype threat has been proposed as 1 potential explanation for the gender difference in standardized mathematics test performance among high-performing students. At present, it is not entirely clear how susceptibility to stereotype threat develops, as empirical evidence for stereotype threat effects across the school years is inconsistent. In…

  8. Examining perceived stereotype threat among overweight/obese adults using a multi-threat framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carels, Robert A; Domoff, Sarah E; Burmeister, Jacob M; Koball, Afton M; Hinman, Nova G; Davis, Alan K; Wagner Oehlhof, Marissa; Leroy, Michelle; Bannon, Erin; Hoffmann, Debra A

    2013-01-01

    The Multi-Threat Framework accounts for potentially different forms of stereotype threat that differ in target (i.e., the individual or the group) and source (i.e., the self or others). This investigation examined how these different forms of perceived stereotype threat were related to concepts, such as group identity, stereotype endorsement, stigma consciousness, etc., among overweight and obese individuals. 216 adults completed an online survey. Participants' mean age was 23.6 (SD 10.1; range 18-64) years and mean BMI was 31.6 (SD 7.5) kg/m². Participants reported a history of feeling threatened by stereotypes related to weight. When reflecting on past experiences of perceived stereotype threat, participants reported greater levels of self/own stereotype threat compared to group stereotype threat. Level of stereotype threat was related to a number of personal characteristics (i.e., sex, BMI) and individual factors (i.e., group identity, stigma consciousness, fear of fat). Individuals who are overweight report a history of being threatened by negative stereotypes. The findings support the Multi-Threat Framework for stereotype threat based on body weight. Overweight individuals' susceptibility to stereotype threat may vary systematically depending on several factors. Future research should examine weight-related stereotypes' impact on cognitive and behavioral outcomes. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg

  9. Examining Perceived Stereotype Threat among Overweight/Obese Adults Using a Multi-Threat Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A. Carels

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The Multi-Threat Framework accounts for potentially different forms of stereotype threat that differ in target (i.e., the individual or the group and source (i.e., the self or others. This investigation examined how these different forms of perceived stereotype threat were related to concepts, such as group identity, stereotype endorsement, stigma consciousness, etc., among overweight and obese individuals. Method: 216 adults completed an online survey. Participants' mean age was 23.6 (SD 10.1; range 18-64 years and mean BMI was 31.6 (SD 7.5 kg/m2. Results: Participants reported a history of feeling threatened by stereotypes related to weight. When reflecting on past experiences of perceived stereotype threat, participants reported greater levels of self/own stereotype threat compared to group stereotype threat. Level of stereotype threat was related to a number of personal characteristics (i.e., sex, BMI and individual factors (i.e., group identity, stigma consciousness, fear of fat. Conclusion: Individuals who are overweight report a history of being threatened by negative stereotypes. The findings support the Multi-Threat Framework for stereotype threat based on body weight. Overweight individuals' susceptibility to stereotype threat may vary systematically depending on several factors. Future research should examine weight-related stereotypes' impact on cognitive and behavioral outcomes.

  10. Spatial characteristics of cadmium in topsoils in a typical e-waste recycling area in southeast China and its potential threat to shallow groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Chunfa; Luo, Yongming; Deng, Shaopo; Teng, Ying; Song, Jing

    2014-01-01

    Informal electrical and electronic waste (e-waste) recycling often creates secondary sources of cadmium (Cd) pollution. To characterize the total Cd concentration (Cd total ) in topsoil and evaluate the threat of Cd in topsoils to shallow groundwater, 187 topsoil samples and 12 shallow groundwater samples were collected in a typical e-waste recycling area in southeast China. Soil organic matter content, soil pH and Cd total in topsoil, pH and dissolved Cd concentration in shallow groundwater were measured. Cd total in the topsoils showed an inverse distribution trend with soil pH in that high Cd concentrations (and low pH values) were found in the surrounding area of the metal recycling industrial park where there were many family-operated e-waste recycling facilities before the industrial park was established and with low concentrations (and high pH values) in other areas, and they had similar spatial correlation structures. Cd accumulation and acidification were synchronous in topsoils, and soil pH was significantly correlated with Cd total in topsoils with low to moderate negative correlation coefficient (r = − 0.24), indicating that both of them maybe correlated with informal recycling. The shallow groundwater in the surrounding area of the metal recycling industrial park was seriously contaminated by Cd, and topsoil Cd accumulation and acidification in the surrounding area of e-waste recycling sites significantly increase the risk of shallow groundwater contaminated by Cd. Action is urgently required to control Cd accumulation and acidification by improving the recycling operations of e-wastes in order to reduce the risk of Cd leaching from topsoils and shallow groundwater contamination. - Highlights: • We characterize the Cd total in topsoils, pH and SOM in a typical e-waste recycling area. • The relationships between Cd total in topsoils, pH, and SOM were studied. • Impact of topsoil Cd accumulation and acidification on shallow groundwater quality

  11. Spatial characteristics of cadmium in topsoils in a typical e-waste recycling area in southeast China and its potential threat to shallow groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chunfa; Luo, Yongming; Deng, Shaopo; Teng, Ying; Song, Jing

    2014-02-15

    Informal electrical and electronic waste (e-waste) recycling often creates secondary sources of cadmium (Cd) pollution. To characterize the total Cd concentration (Cdtotal) in topsoil and evaluate the threat of Cd in topsoils to shallow groundwater, 187 topsoil samples and 12 shallow groundwater samples were collected in a typical e-waste recycling area in southeast China. Soil organic matter content, soil pH and Cdtotal in topsoil, pH and dissolved Cd concentration in shallow groundwater were measured. Cdtotal in the topsoils showed an inverse distribution trend with soil pH in that high Cd concentrations (and low pH values) were found in the surrounding area of the metal recycling industrial park where there were many family-operated e-waste recycling facilities before the industrial park was established and with low concentrations (and high pH values) in other areas, and they had similar spatial correlation structures. Cd accumulation and acidification were synchronous in topsoils, and soil pH was significantly correlated with Cdtotal in topsoils with low to moderate negative correlation coefficient (r=-0.24), indicating that both of them maybe correlated with informal recycling. The shallow groundwater in the surrounding area of the metal recycling industrial park was seriously contaminated by Cd, and topsoil Cd accumulation and acidification in the surrounding area of e-waste recycling sites significantly increase the risk of shallow groundwater contaminated by Cd. Action is urgently required to control Cd accumulation and acidification by improving the recycling operations of e-wastes in order to reduce the risk of Cd leaching from topsoils and shallow groundwater contamination. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Toxicological Threats of Plastic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plastics pose both physical (e.g., entanglement, gastrointestinal blockage, reef destruction) and chemical threats (e.g., bioaccumulation of the chemical ingredients of plastic or toxic chemicals sorbed to plastics) to wildlife and the marine ecosystem.

  13. THE BIOTERRORISM THREAT: TECHNOLOGICAL AND POLITICAL CONSIDERATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. F. PILAT

    2000-03-01

    Bioterrorism--along with biowarfare, from which it may not always be distinguishable in practice--will be a feature of the strategic landscape in the 21st century and is high on the US national security agenda. Bioterrorism poses a potential threat to the US population, agriculture, interests, friends and allies, and military forces (asymmetric threats). Yet these possibilities have not been widely pursued or realized by terrorists. The perceived threat is far worse than anything experienced to date, and is largely technologically driven.

  14. Poland and Global Threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleer, Jerzy

    2016-01-01

    This essay seeks to present the specifics of global threats, as well as the reasons for them being universal in nature, and for their persistence. A certain classification of the threats is also engaged in. At the same time, an attempt is made to show the specific threats present - irrespective of their global counterparts - in different regions, and even in different states. The genesis and nature of the latter are demonstrated in a somewhat ad hoc manner by reference to the threats considered to face Poland. If the global threats are truly universal, and arise out of the changes taking place around the world in the last half-century (primarily around the twin phenomena of globalisation and the information revolution), a specific reverse kind of situation applies to decolonisation, plus the collapse of the communist system and the transformation into market economies that apply to formerly communist countries. Equally, some at least of the threats facing Poland may have even a longer history, given that they are very much influenced by past economic and political development, as well as the dominant cultural system.

  15. Spatial characteristics of cadmium in topsoils in a typical e-waste recycling area in southeast China and its potential threat to shallow groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Chunfa, E-mail: wchf1680@sina.com [Department of Agricultural Resources and Environment, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, 219 Ningliu Road, Nanjing 210044 (China); Key Laboratory of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 71 East Beijing Road, Nanjing 210008 (China); Luo, Yongming [Key Laboratory of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 71 East Beijing Road, Nanjing 210008 (China); Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 17 Chunhui Rd, Yantai 264003 (China); Deng, Shaopo; Teng, Ying; Song, Jing [Key Laboratory of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 71 East Beijing Road, Nanjing 210008 (China)

    2014-02-01

    Informal electrical and electronic waste (e-waste) recycling often creates secondary sources of cadmium (Cd) pollution. To characterize the total Cd concentration (Cd{sub total}) in topsoil and evaluate the threat of Cd in topsoils to shallow groundwater, 187 topsoil samples and 12 shallow groundwater samples were collected in a typical e-waste recycling area in southeast China. Soil organic matter content, soil pH and Cd{sub total} in topsoil, pH and dissolved Cd concentration in shallow groundwater were measured. Cd{sub total} in the topsoils showed an inverse distribution trend with soil pH in that high Cd concentrations (and low pH values) were found in the surrounding area of the metal recycling industrial park where there were many family-operated e-waste recycling facilities before the industrial park was established and with low concentrations (and high pH values) in other areas, and they had similar spatial correlation structures. Cd accumulation and acidification were synchronous in topsoils, and soil pH was significantly correlated with Cd{sub total} in topsoils with low to moderate negative correlation coefficient (r = − 0.24), indicating that both of them maybe correlated with informal recycling. The shallow groundwater in the surrounding area of the metal recycling industrial park was seriously contaminated by Cd, and topsoil Cd accumulation and acidification in the surrounding area of e-waste recycling sites significantly increase the risk of shallow groundwater contaminated by Cd. Action is urgently required to control Cd accumulation and acidification by improving the recycling operations of e-wastes in order to reduce the risk of Cd leaching from topsoils and shallow groundwater contamination. - Highlights: • We characterize the Cd{sub total} in topsoils, pH and SOM in a typical e-waste recycling area. • The relationships between Cd{sub total} in topsoils, pH, and SOM were studied. • Impact of topsoil Cd accumulation and acidification on

  16. The northern naked-tailed armadillo in the Lacandona rainforest, Mexico: new records and potential threats Armadillo de cola desnuda en la selva lacandona, México: nuevos registros y amenazas potenciales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo González-Zamora

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We review historic occurrences in Mexico of one of the least known Xenarthra of Mesoamerica - the northern naked-tailed armadillo (Cabassous centralis Miller, 1899. We document 6 new records in the Lacandona rainforest, southern Mexico, and through interviews with local people, we assess potential threats for this species in the region. In addition to being locally rare, our results show that hunting and death by road-kill may be major threats to this species in the region.Se revisaron los registros históricos en México de uno de los xenartros menos conocidos de Mesoamérica - el armadillo de cola desnuda (Cabassous centralis Miller, 1899. Se documentan 6 nuevos registros en la selva lacandona, sur de México. A través de entrevistas con pobladores locales, se evaluaron las amenazas potenciales para esta especie en la región. Además de ser localmente rara, nuestros resultados muestran que la cacería y las muertes por atropellamiento pueden ser las principales amenazas para esta especie en la región.

  17. Space Station Program threat and vulnerability analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Meter, Steven D.; Veatch, John D.

    1987-01-01

    An examination has been made of the physical security of the Space Station Program at the Kennedy Space Center in a peacetime environment, in order to furnish facility personnel with threat/vulnerability information. A risk-management approach is used to prioritize threat-target combinations that are characterized in terms of 'insiders' and 'outsiders'. Potential targets were identified and analyzed with a view to their attractiveness to an adversary, as well as to the consequentiality of the resulting damage.

  18. Mobbing, threats to employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Vene

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available RQ: Is there a connection among perception of hostile and unethical communication, timely removal of causes and employee satisfaction?Purpose: Perceived mobbing in the organization, analysing causes and timely removal of them without any effect; achieve an environment of satisfied employees. The purpose is to study the relationship amongthe categories: perceiving mobbing, removing the effects, employee satisfaction.Methods: Qualitative research approach, method of interview by using the seven steps principles.Results: The findings clearly state that being aware of the negative factors and psychological abuse in organizations was present. The interview participants perceived different negative behaviours especially by the female population and from the side of superiors. In some organizations perceived negative factors are insults,insinuations, low wages, inadequate working day, competition, lobbying, and verbal threats. All negative factors lead to serious implications for employees, in which the organization can lose its reputation, productivity is reduced, costs of employment can increase with more sick leaves and in extreme cases, the results can be soserious that the organization can end in bankruptcy or liquidation.Organization: The result of the study warns management to acceptcertain actions and remediate the situation in organizations. The employer and managers must do everything to protect their subordinates from violence and potential offenders.Society: The research study warns on the seriousness of mobbing among employees, the aim is to bring the issue to individuals and society. The victim usually needs help (health costs, losses in the pension system, increased unemployment, and lower productivity of the whole society.Originality: In view of the sensitivity of the issues, the author concludes that the existing research studies are based especially on closed questions (questionnaires; however, interviews create mutual trust between

  19. Different groups, different threats: a multi-threat approach to the experience of stereotype threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Jenessa R

    2011-04-01

    Two studies demonstrated that different negatively stereotyped groups are at risk for distinct forms of stereotype threats. The Multi-Threat Framework articulates six distinct stereotype threats and the unique constellations of variables (e.g., group identification, stereotype endorsement) that elicit each stereotype threat. Previous research suggests that different negatively stereotyped groups systematically vary across these stereotype threat elicitors; a pilot study confirms these differences. Across two studies, groups that tend to elicit low stereotype endorsement (religion, race/ethnicity, congenital blindness) were less likely to report experiencing self-as-source stereotype threats (stereotype threats requiring stereotype endorsement) and groups that tend to elicit low group identification (mental illness, obesity, blindness later in life) were less likely to report experiencing group-as-target stereotype threats (stereotype threats requiring group identification). This research suggests that traditional models may overlook the experiences of stereotype threats within some groups and that interventions tailored to address differences between stereotype threats will be most effective.

  20. Exploiting the potential of free software to evaluate root canal biomechanical preparation outcomes through micro-CT images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, A A; Silva, E J; Roter, J M; Belladona, F G; Alves, H D; Lopes, R T; Paciornik, S; De-Deus, G A

    2015-11-01

    To propose an automated image processing routine based on free software to quantify root canal preparation outcomes in pairs of sound and instrumented roots after micro-CT scanning procedures. Seven mesial roots of human mandibular molars with different canal configuration systems were studied: (i) Vertucci's type 1, (ii) Vertucci's type 2, (iii) two individual canals, (iv) Vertucci's type 6, canals (v) with and (vi) without debris, and (vii) canal with visible pulp calcification. All teeth were instrumented with the BioRaCe system and scanned in a Skyscan 1173 micro-CT before and after canal preparation. After reconstruction, the instrumented stack of images (IS) was registered against the preoperative sound stack of images (SS). Image processing included contrast equalization and noise filtering. Sound canal volumes were obtained by a minimum threshold. For the IS, a fixed conservative threshold was chosen as the best compromise between instrumented canal and dentine whilst avoiding debris, resulting in instrumented canal plus empty spaces. Arithmetic and logical operations between sound and instrumented stacks were used to identify debris. Noninstrumented dentine was calculated using a minimum threshold in the IS and subtracting from the SS and total debris. Removed dentine volume was obtained by subtracting SS from IS. Quantitative data on total debris present in the root canal space after instrumentation, noninstrumented areas and removed dentine volume were obtained for each test case, as well as three-dimensional volume renderings. After standardization of acquisition, reconstruction and image processing micro-CT images, a quantitative approach for calculation of root canal biomechanical outcomes was achieved using free software. © 2014 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Counter-terrorism threat prediction architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, Lynn A.; Krause, Lee S.

    2004-09-01

    This paper will evaluate the feasibility of constructing a system to support intelligence analysts engaged in counter-terrorism. It will discuss the use of emerging techniques to evaluate a large-scale threat data repository (or Infosphere) and comparing analyst developed models to identify and discover potential threat-related activity with a uncertainty metric used to evaluate the threat. This system will also employ the use of psychological (or intent) modeling to incorporate combatant (i.e. terrorist) beliefs and intent. The paper will explore the feasibility of constructing a hetero-hierarchical (a hierarchy of more than one kind or type characterized by loose connection/feedback among elements of the hierarchy) agent based framework or "family of agents" to support "evidence retrieval" defined as combing, or searching the threat data repository and returning information with an uncertainty metric. The counter-terrorism threat prediction architecture will be guided by a series of models, constructed to represent threat operational objectives, potential targets, or terrorist objectives. The approach would compare model representations against information retrieved by the agent family to isolate or identify patterns that match within reasonable measures of proximity. The central areas of discussion will be the construction of an agent framework to search the available threat related information repository, evaluation of results against models that will represent the cultural foundations, mindset, sociology and emotional drive of typical threat combatants (i.e. the mind and objectives of a terrorist), and the development of evaluation techniques to compare result sets with the models representing threat behavior and threat targets. The applicability of concepts surrounding Modeling Field Theory (MFT) will be discussed as the basis of this research into development of proximity measures between the models and result sets and to provide feedback in support of model

  2. SIP threats detection system

    OpenAIRE

    Vozňák, Miroslav; Řezáč, Filip

    2010-01-01

    The paper deals with detection of threats in IP telephony, the authors developed a penetration testing system that is able to check up the level of protection from security threats in IP telephony. The SIP server is a key komponent of VoIP infrastructure and often becomes the aim of attacks and providers have to ensure the appropriate level of security. We have developed web-based penetration system which is able to check the SIP server if can face to the most common attacks.The d...

  3. Simulation Based Studies in Software Engineering: A Matter of Validity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breno Bernard Nicolau de França

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite the possible lack of validity when compared with other science areas, Simulation-Based Studies (SBS in Software Engineering (SE have supported the achievement of some results in the field. However, as it happens with any other sort of experimental study, it is important to identify and deal with threats to validity aiming at increasing their strength and reinforcing results confidence. OBJECTIVE: To identify potential threats to SBS validity in SE and suggest ways to mitigate them. METHOD: To apply qualitative analysis in a dataset resulted from the aggregation of data from a quasi-systematic literature review combined with ad-hoc surveyed information regarding other science areas. RESULTS: The analysis of data extracted from 15 technical papers allowed the identification and classification of 28 different threats to validity concerned with SBS in SE according Cook and Campbell’s categories. Besides, 12 verification and validation procedures applicable to SBS were also analyzed and organized due to their ability to detect these threats to validity. These results were used to make available an improved set of guidelines regarding the planning and reporting of SBS in SE. CONCLUSIONS: Simulation based studies add different threats to validity when compared with traditional studies. They are not well observed and therefore, it is not easy to identify and mitigate all of them without explicit guidance, as the one depicted in this paper.

  4. Stereotype Threat in Organizations: An Examination of its Scope, Triggers, and Possible Interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Kray, Laura J.; Shirako, Aiwa

    2009-01-01

    This chapter explores stereotype threat in organizational contexts. Building on the understanding that stereotype threat involves concerns about confirming a negative stereotype about one’s group, we begin by elucidating the scope of potential stereotype threat effects in organizations. We first examine the ubiquity of evaluations in organizations, which are at the heart of stereotype threat. Next we specify the potential psychological consequences of stereotype threat on targeted individua...

  5. SOTEA, a software tool for ascertaining the efficiency potential of electrical drives - Final report; SOTEA, Softwaretool zur Ermittlung des Effizienzpotenzials bei elektrischen Antrieben - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunner, C. U. [S.A.F.E. Schweizerische Agentur fuer Energieeffizienz, Zuerich (Switzerland); Heldstab, T. [hematik, Heldstab Systemoptimierung und Informatik, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2009-08-15

    As a scientific base for the Swiss electric motor efficiency implementation program Topmotors a software tool for industry managers has been developed and tested. The software allows an energy efficiency engineer in a first contact with industrial managers and with few simple data on the plant operation to estimate the energy efficiency potential of electric motor systems including pay-back and investment. The data can be fed to a laptop computer on site and the results can be shown immediately. The software has been programmed and tested with five prime users. The generally positive reactions were evaluated and the tool subsequently improved. 11 industrial objects with a total of 77.6 GWh electricity consumption and 7.9 million CHF electricity cost were studied. The SOTEA estimate is an annual efficiency improvement of the electric motor systems of 6.9 GWh (11 % of electricity for motors) with an average pay-back time of 1.7 years. The SOTEA software tool is publicly available since September 2008 under www.topmotors.ch, from 1 April 2009 in a Beta-2b version. It has been downloaded until 28 June 2009 218 times by 132 persons. It will be improved with results from new pilot studies. To avoid problems with different update versions a direct internet solution will be studied. The program will also be made available internationally for English speaking users for the IEA 4E EMSA project: International Energy Agency, Implementing Agreement for Efficient Electrical End-Use Equipment, Electric Motor Systems Annex www.motorsystems.org. (authors)

  6. Software engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Sommerville, Ian

    2010-01-01

    The ninth edition of Software Engineering presents a broad perspective of software engineering, focusing on the processes and techniques fundamental to the creation of reliable, software systems. Increased coverage of agile methods and software reuse, along with coverage of 'traditional' plan-driven software engineering, gives readers the most up-to-date view of the field currently available. Practical case studies, a full set of easy-to-access supplements, and extensive web resources make teaching the course easier than ever.

  7. The threat of proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palme, Olof.

    1986-01-01

    The paper on the threat of proliferation, is a keynote speech delivered to the Colloquium on Nuclear War, Nuclear Proliferation and their Consequences, Geneva, 1985. Topics discussed in the address include: nuclear weapons, nuclear war, terrorists, Non-Proliferation Treaty, nuclear disarmament, and leadership in world affairs. (UK)

  8. Queen Quality and the Impact of Honey Bee Diseases on Queen Health: Potential for Interactions between Two Major Threats to Colony Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmaeil Amiri

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Western honey bees, Apis mellifera, live in highly eusocial colonies that are each typically headed by a single queen. The queen is the sole reproductive female in a healthy colony, and because long-term colony survival depends on her ability to produce a large number of offspring, queen health is essential for colony success. Honey bees have recently been experiencing considerable declines in colony health. Among a number of biotic and abiotic factors known to impact colony health, disease and queen failure are repeatedly reported as important factors underlying colony losses. Surprisingly, there are relatively few studies on the relationship and interaction between honey bee diseases and queen quality. It is critical to understand the negative impacts of pests and pathogens on queen health, how queen problems might enable disease, and how both factors influence colony health. Here, we review the current literature on queen reproductive potential and the impacts of honey bee parasites and pathogens on queens. We conclude by highlighting gaps in our knowledge on the combination of disease and queen failure to provide a perspective and prioritize further research to mitigate disease, improve queen quality, and ensure colony health.

  9. Landfills in Jiangsu province, China, and potential threats for public health: Leachate appraisal and spatial analysis using geographic information system and remote sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Kun; Zhou Xiaonong; Yan Weian; Hang Derong; Steinmann, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Waste disposal is of growing environmental and public health concern in China where landfilling is the predominant method of disposal. The assessment of potential health hazards posed by existing landfills requires sound information, and processing of a significant amount of spatial data. Geographical information system (GIS) and remote sensing (RS) are valuable tools for assessing health impacts due to landfills. The aims of this study were: (i) to analyze the leachate and gas emissions from landfills used for domestic waste disposal in a metropolitan area of Jiangsu province, China, (ii) to investigate remotely-sensed environmental features in close proximity to landfills, and (iii) to evaluate the compliance of their location and leachate quality with the relevant national regulations. We randomly selected five landfills in the metropolitan areas of Wuxi and Suzhou city, Jiangsu province, established a GIS database and examined whether data were in compliance with national environmental and public health regulations. The leachates of the sampled landfills contained heavy metals (Pb, As, Cr 6+ and Hg) and organic compounds in concentrations considered harmful to human health. Measured methane concentrations on landfill surfaces were low. Spatial analysis of the location of landfills with regard to distance from major water bodies, sensible infrastructure and environmental conditions according to current national legislation resulted in the rejection of four of the five sites as inappropriate for landfills. Our results call for rigorous evaluation of the spatial location of landfills in China that must take into consideration environmental and public health criteria

  10. Beyond Extinction: Prolonged Conditioning and Repeated Threat Exposure Abolish Contextual Renewal of Fear-Potentiated Startle Discrimination but Leave Expectancy Ratings Intact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leer, Arne; Haesen, Kim; Vervliet, Bram

    2018-01-01

    Extinction treatments decrease fear via repeated exposures to the conditioned stimulus (CS) and are associated with a return of fear. Alternatively, fear can be reduced via reductions in the perceived intensity of the unconditioned stimulus (US), e.g., through repeated exposures to the US. Promisingly, the few available studies show that repeated US exposures outperform standard extinction. US exposure treatments can decrease fear via two routes: (1) by weakening the CS-US association (extinction-like mechanism), and/or (2) by weakening the subjective US aversiveness (habituation-like mechanism). The current study further investigated the conditions under which US exposure treatment may reduce renewal, by adding a group in which CS-US pairings continued following fear acquisition. During acquisition, participants learned that one of two visual stimuli (CS+/CS-) predicted the occurrence of an aversive electrocutaneous stimulus (US). Next, the background context changed and participants received one of three interventions: repeated CS exposures, (2) repeated US exposures, or (3) continued CS-US pairings. Following repeated CS exposures, test presentations of the CSs in the original conditioning context revealed intact CS+/CS- differentiation in the fear-potentiated startle reflex, while the differentiation was abolished in the other two groups. Differential US expectancy ratings, on the other hand, were intact in all groups. Skin conductance data were inconclusive because standard context renewal following CS exposures did not occur. Unexpectedly, there was no evidence for a habituation-like process having taken place during US exposures or continued CS-US pairings. The results provide further evidence that US exposures outperform the standard extinction treatment and show that effects are similar when US exposures are part of CS-US pairings.

  11. Energy Rebound as a Potential Threat to a Low-Carbon Future: Findings from a New Exergy-Based National-Level Rebound Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul E. Brockway

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available 150 years ago, Stanley Jevons introduced the concept of energy rebound: that anticipated energy efficiency savings may be “taken back” by behavioural responses. This is an important issue today because, if energy rebound is significant, this would hamper the effectiveness of energy efficiency policies aimed at reducing energy use and associated carbon emissions. However, empirical studies which estimate national energy rebound are rare and, perhaps as a result, rebound is largely ignored in energy-economy models and associated policy. A significant difficulty lies in the components of energy rebound assessed in empirical studies: most examine direct and indirect rebound in the static economy, excluding potentially significant rebound of the longer term structural response of the national economy. In response, we develop a novel exergy-based approach to estimate national energy rebound for the UK and US (1980–2010 and China (1981–2010. Exergy—as “available energy”—allows a consistent, thermodynamic-based metric for national-level energy efficiency. We find large energy rebound in China, suggesting that improvements in China’s energy efficiency may be associated with increased energy consumption (“backfire”. Conversely, we find much lower (partial energy rebound for the case of the UK and US. These findings support the hypothesis that producer-sided economies (such as China may exhibit large energy rebound, reducing the effectiveness of energy efficiency, unless other policy measures (e.g., carbon taxes are implemented. It also raises the prospect we need to deploy renewable energy sources faster than currently planned, if (due to rebound energy efficiency policies cannot deliver the scale of energy reduction envisaged to meet climate targets.

  12. Automating risk analysis of software design models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frydman, Maxime; Ruiz, Guifré; Heymann, Elisa; César, Eduardo; Miller, Barton P

    2014-01-01

    The growth of the internet and networked systems has exposed software to an increased amount of security threats. One of the responses from software developers to these threats is the introduction of security activities in the software development lifecycle. This paper describes an approach to reduce the need for costly human expertise to perform risk analysis in software, which is common in secure development methodologies, by automating threat modeling. Reducing the dependency on security experts aims at reducing the cost of secure development by allowing non-security-aware developers to apply secure development with little to no additional cost, making secure development more accessible. To automate threat modeling two data structures are introduced, identification trees and mitigation trees, to identify threats in software designs and advise mitigation techniques, while taking into account specification requirements and cost concerns. These are the components of our model for automated threat modeling, AutSEC. We validated AutSEC by implementing it in a tool based on data flow diagrams, from the Microsoft security development methodology, and applying it to VOMS, a grid middleware component, to evaluate our model's performance.

  13. SOFTWARE OPEN SOURCE, SOFTWARE GRATIS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Aini Rakhmawati

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Berlakunya Undang – undang Hak Atas Kekayaan Intelektual (HAKI, memunculkan suatu alternatif baru untuk menggunakan software open source. Penggunaan software open source menyebar seiring dengan isu global pada Information Communication Technology (ICT saat ini. Beberapa organisasi dan perusahaan mulai menjadikan software open source sebagai pertimbangan. Banyak konsep mengenai software open source ini. Mulai dari software yang gratis sampai software tidak berlisensi. Tidak sepenuhnya isu software open source benar, untuk itu perlu dikenalkan konsep software open source mulai dari sejarah, lisensi dan bagaimana cara memilih lisensi, serta pertimbangan dalam memilih software open source yang ada. Kata kunci :Lisensi, Open Source, HAKI

  14. Software Epistemology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    in-vitro decision to incubate a startup, Lexumo [7], which is developing a commercial Software as a Service ( SaaS ) vulnerability assessment...LTS Label Transition System MUSE Mining and Understanding Software Enclaves RTEMS Real-Time Executive for Multi-processor Systems SaaS Software ...as a Service SSA Static Single Assignment SWE Software Epistemology UD/DU Def-Use/Use-Def Chains (Dataflow Graph)

  15. Potential risks and threats to international security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iurie RICHICINSCHI

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Today we can ascertain with certainty that in the early part of the 21st century, the challenges addressed to the current security environment tend to become increasingly diffuse, less predictable and multidimensional, being both a feature of external security, as well as an internal one and, of course, becoming an indispensable part of security policies and strategies. Therefore, the need for international cooperation as a foundation for the stability of the security environment has increased. It should provide a sense of trust and peace by ensuring the absence of danger both for the individual and for the community to which he belongs.

  16. Detecting Potential Insider Threats Through Email Datamining

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-01

    2.1% Mime 1.1% Hotmail 1.0% Version 0.9% Return 0.7% SMTP 0.7% Type 0.7% MSN 0.7% Mailer 0.8...September 11 attacks and one on the last days of Enron prior to the bankruptcy. An additional topic that emerges is focused on AOL, Yahoo, and Hotmail ...0.0039039999 thought 0.0026032187 22 23 yahoo 0.0109859817 yahoo 0.0209943801 mime 0.0109363170 tm 0.0069047296 hotmail 0.0097741578 sponsor 0.0065174312

  17. Threat Assessment: Do Lone Terrorists Differ from Other Lone Offenders?

    OpenAIRE

    Diane M. Zierhoffer

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluates the viability of a threat assessment model developed to calculate the risk of targeted violence as a predictor of violence by potential lone terrorists. There is no profile, to date, which would assist in the identification of a lone terrorist prior to an attack. The threat assessment model developed by Borum, Fein, Vossekuil, and Berglund and described in “Threat Assessment: Defining an approach for evaluating risk of targeted violence” (1999) poses ten questions about t...

  18. Implementation of metal-friendly EAM/FS-type semi-empirical potentials in HOOMD-blue: A GPU-accelerated molecular dynamics software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lin; Zhang, Feng; Wang, Cai-Zhuang; Ho, Kai-Ming; Travesset, Alex

    2018-04-01

    We present an implementation of EAM and FS interatomic potentials, which are widely used in simulating metallic systems, in HOOMD-blue, a software designed to perform classical molecular dynamics simulations using GPU accelerations. We first discuss the details of our implementation and then report extensive benchmark tests. We demonstrate that single-precision floating point operations efficiently implemented on GPUs can produce sufficient accuracy when compared against double-precision codes, as demonstrated in test simulations of calculations of the glass-transition temperature of Cu64.5Zr35.5, and pair correlation function g (r) of liquid Ni3Al. Our code scales well with the size of the simulating system on NVIDIA Tesla M40 and P100 GPUs. Compared with another popular software LAMMPS running on 32 cores of AMD Opteron 6220 processors, the GPU/CPU performance ratio can reach as high as 4.6. The source code can be accessed through the HOOMD-blue web page for free by any interested user.

  19. Software reliability

    CERN Document Server

    Bendell, A

    1986-01-01

    Software Reliability reviews some fundamental issues of software reliability as well as the techniques, models, and metrics used to predict the reliability of software. Topics covered include fault avoidance, fault removal, and fault tolerance, along with statistical methods for the objective assessment of predictive accuracy. Development cost models and life-cycle cost models are also discussed. This book is divided into eight sections and begins with a chapter on adaptive modeling used to predict software reliability, followed by a discussion on failure rate in software reliability growth mo

  20. Terrorist threats of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jozsef Solymosi; Jozser Ronaky; Zoltan Levai; Arpad Vincze; Laszlo Foldi

    2004-01-01

    More than one year has passed since the terrible terrorist attacks against the United States. The tragic event fundamentally restructured our security policy approach and made requirements of countering terrorism a top priority of the 21st century. In one year a lot of studies were published and the majority of them analyses primarily the beginnings of terrorism then focus on the interrelations of causes and consequences of the attacks against the WTC. In most of the cases the authors can only put their questions most of which have remained unanswered to date. Meanwhile, in a short while after the attacks the secret assessments of threat levels of potential targets and areas were also prepared. One of the high priority fields is the issue of nuclear, biological, and chemical security, in short NBC-security. Here and now we focus on component N, that is the assessment techniques of nuclear security in short, without aiming at completeness. Our definite objective is to make non-expert readers understand - and present a concrete example as it is done in risk analysis - the real danger-level of nuclear facilities and especially the terrorist threat. Our objective is not to give tips to terrorists but to provide them with deterring arguments and at the same time calm worried people. In our communique we give an overview of international practice of nuclear antiterrorism and of preventive nuclear protection in Hungary. (author)

  1. Computer software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, L E

    1986-10-01

    Software is the component in a computer system that permits the hardware to perform the various functions that a computer system is capable of doing. The history of software and its development can be traced to the early nineteenth century. All computer systems are designed to utilize the "stored program concept" as first developed by Charles Babbage in the 1850s. The concept was lost until the mid-1940s, when modern computers made their appearance. Today, because of the complex and myriad tasks that a computer system can perform, there has been a differentiation of types of software. There is software designed to perform specific business applications. There is software that controls the overall operation of a computer system. And there is software that is designed to carry out specialized tasks. Regardless of types, software is the most critical component of any computer system. Without it, all one has is a collection of circuits, transistors, and silicone chips.

  2. Finding Security Patterns to Countermeasure Software Vulnerabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Borstad, Ole Gunnar

    2008-01-01

    Software security is an increasingly important part of software development as the risk from attackers is constantly evolving through increased exposure, threats and economic impact of security breaches. Emerging security literature describes expert knowledge such as secure development best practices. This knowledge is often not applied by software developers because they lack security awareness, security training and secure development methods and tools. Existing methods and tools require to...

  3. Threats to international science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisslinger, Carl

    The role of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) as effective agents for promoting world science is seriously threatened. It is ironic that the threat comes from Norway and Denmark, two countries that have demonstrated a deep commitment to individual freedom and human rights. Motivated by a sincere desire to express their strongest disapproval of the “apartheid” policies of the government of the Republic of South Africa, these countries have passed laws that have the effect of rejecting the International Council of Scientific Unions (ICSU) principles of nondiscrimination and free circulation of scientists.

  4. Software didattico: integrazione scolastica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Ferlino

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Discussion of the use of educational software for school integration. Requires being aware of its potential effectiveness and know that it also lies in the choice of functional products.

  5. Science and Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelt, C. A.

    2017-12-01

    Earth science attempts to understand how the earth works. This research often depends on software for modeling, processing, inverting or imaging. Freely sharing open-source software is essential to prevent reinventing the wheel and allows software to be improved and applied in ways the original author may never have envisioned. For young scientists, releasing software can increase their name ID when applying for jobs and funding, and create opportunities for collaborations when scientists who collect data want the software's creator to be involved in their project. However, we frequently hear scientists say software is a tool, it's not science. Creating software that implements a new or better way of earth modeling or geophysical processing, inverting or imaging should be viewed as earth science. Creating software for things like data visualization, format conversion, storage, or transmission, or programming to enhance computational performance, may be viewed as computer science. The former, ideally with an application to real data, can be published in earth science journals, the latter possibly in computer science journals. Citations in either case should accurately reflect the impact of the software on the community. Funding agencies need to support more software development and open-source releasing, and the community should give more high-profile awards for developing impactful open-source software. Funding support and community recognition for software development can have far reaching benefits when the software is used in foreseen and unforeseen ways, potentially for years after the original investment in the software development. For funding, an open-source release that is well documented should be required, with example input and output files. Appropriate funding will provide the incentive and time to release user-friendly software, and minimize the need for others to duplicate the effort. All funded software should be available through a single web site

  6. Categorizing threat : building and using a generic threat matrix.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodard, Laura; Veitch, Cynthia K.; Thomas, Sherry Reede; Duggan, David Patrick

    2007-09-01

    The key piece of knowledge necessary for building defenses capable of withstanding or surviving cyber and kinetic attacks is an understanding of the capabilities posed by threats to a government, function, or system. With the number of threats continuing to increase, it is no longer feasible to enumerate the capabilities of all known threats and then build defenses based on those threats that are considered, at the time, to be the most relevant. Exacerbating the problem for critical infrastructure entities is the fact that the majority of detailed threat information for higher-level threats is held in classified status and is not available for general use, such as the design of defenses and the development of mitigation strategies. To reduce the complexity of analyzing threat, the threat space must first be reduced. This is achieved by taking the continuous nature of the threat space and creating an abstraction that allows the entire space to be grouped, based on measurable attributes, into a small number of distinctly different levels. The work documented in this report is an effort to create such an abstraction.

  7. Preparing the Virtual Battlefield for War: A Cyber Threat "Survival Kit" for Commanders

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moore, Carol

    2004-01-01

    .... The process presented in this paper merges the structured approach of the IPB with the software/network security community's "Security Threat Modeling" approach into a new process called Intelligence...

  8. Threats, protests greet conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struck, D

    1994-09-04

    In preparation for the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development, Egypt has deployed 14,000 police to protect participants from threatened violence. The Vatican has joined forces with Muslim fundamentalists to condemn the conference as a vehicle for imposing Western ideals, particularly abortion, on Third world countries. In addition, the opposition is raising the specter of a descent of homosexuals onto Cairo and Muslim fundamentalists have threatened to murder Western representatives. A suit filed by Islamic lawyers, aimed at stopping the conference, failed. Sudan and Saudi Arabia plan to boycott the conference, and it remains uncertain whether Libya will be represented. Conference organizers have not been deterred by the threats and note that the controversy has drawn public attention to the central issues under debate.

  9. Nuclear Threats and Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garry Jacobs

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This article presents highlights and insights from the International Conference on “Nuclear Threats and Security” organized by the World Academy of Art and Science in association with the European Leadership Network and the Dag Hammarskjöld University College of International Relations and Diplomacy and sponsored by NATO at the Inter-University Centre, Dubrovnik on September 14-16, 2012. The conference examined important issues related to nuclear non-proliferation and disarmament, the legality of nuclear weapons and their use, illicit trade in nuclear materials, the dangers of nuclear terrorism, nuclear- and cyber-security. Papers and video recordings of the major presentations and session summaries can be found here.

  10. Software Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jeremy

      Innovation is the forgotten key to modern systems development - the element that defines the enterprising engineer, the thriving software firm and the cutting edge software application.  Traditional forms of technical education pay little attention to creativity - often encouraging overly...

  11. Software engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Sommerville, Ian

    2016-01-01

    For courses in computer science and software engineering The Fundamental Practice of Software Engineering Software Engineering introduces readers to the overwhelmingly important subject of software programming and development. In the past few years, computer systems have come to dominate not just our technological growth, but the foundations of our world's major industries. This text seeks to lay out the fundamental concepts of this huge and continually growing subject area in a clear and comprehensive manner. The Tenth Edition contains new information that highlights various technological updates of recent years, providing readers with highly relevant and current information. Sommerville's experience in system dependability and systems engineering guides the text through a traditional plan-based approach that incorporates some novel agile methods. The text strives to teach the innovators of tomorrow how to create software that will make our world a better, safer, and more advanced place to live.

  12. Software safety hazard analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, J.D.

    1996-02-01

    Techniques for analyzing the safety and reliability of analog-based electronic protection systems that serve to mitigate hazards in process control systems have been developed over many years, and are reasonably well understood. An example is the protection system in a nuclear power plant. The extension of these techniques to systems which include digital computers is not well developed, and there is little consensus among software engineering experts and safety experts on how to analyze such systems. One possible technique is to extend hazard analysis to include digital computer-based systems. Software is frequently overlooked during system hazard analyses, but this is unacceptable when the software is in control of a potentially hazardous operation. In such cases, hazard analysis should be extended to fully cover the software. A method for performing software hazard analysis is proposed in this paper

  13. The Business Case for Automated Software Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzies, Tim; Elrawas, Oussama; Hihn, Jairus M.; Feather, Martin S.; Madachy, Ray; Boehm, Barry

    2007-01-01

    Adoption of advanced automated SE (ASE) tools would be more favored if a business case could be made that these tools are more valuable than alternate methods. In theory, software prediction models can be used to make that case. In practice, this is complicated by the 'local tuning' problem. Normally. predictors for software effort and defects and threat use local data to tune their predictions. Such local tuning data is often unavailable. This paper shows that assessing the relative merits of different SE methods need not require precise local tunings. STAR 1 is a simulated annealer plus a Bayesian post-processor that explores the space of possible local tunings within software prediction models. STAR 1 ranks project decisions by their effects on effort and defects and threats. In experiments with NASA systems. STARI found one project where ASE were essential for minimizing effort/ defect/ threats; and another project were ASE tools were merely optional.

  14. Software requirements

    CERN Document Server

    Wiegers, Karl E

    2003-01-01

    Without formal, verifiable software requirements-and an effective system for managing them-the programs that developers think they've agreed to build often will not be the same products their customers are expecting. In SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS, Second Edition, requirements engineering authority Karl Wiegers amplifies the best practices presented in his original award-winning text?now a mainstay for anyone participating in the software development process. In this book, you'll discover effective techniques for managing the requirements engineering process all the way through the development cy

  15. Hindrances are not threats: advancing the multidimensionality of work stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuckey, Michelle R; Searle, Ben J; Boyd, Carolyn M; Winefield, Anthony H; Winefield, Helen R

    2015-04-01

    The challenge-hindrance framework has proved useful for explaining inconsistencies in relationships between work stressors and important outcomes. By introducing the distinction between threat and hindrance to this framework, we capture the potential for personal harm or loss (threat) associated with stressors, as distinct from the potential to block goal attainment (hindrance) or promote gain (challenge). In Study 1, survey data were collected from 609 retail workers, 220 of whom responded 6 months later. The results supported a 3-factor threat-hindrance-challenge stressor structure and showed that threat stressors are associated with increased psychological distress and emotional exhaustion, and reduced dedication, whereas hindrance stressors undermine dedication but may not be related to distress or exhaustion with threats included in the model. Study 2 utilized a diary study design, with data collected from 207 workers over 3 workdays. Findings revealed that the threat, hindrance, and challenge appraisals of individual workers are statistically distinct, and associated with stressors and well-being as anticipated: threats with role conflict and anxiety, hindrances with organizational constraints and fatigue, and challenges with skill demands and enthusiasm. Overall, moving to a 3-dimensional challenge-hindrance-threat framework for stressors and stress appraisals will support a more accurate picture regarding the nature, processes, and effects of stressors on individuals and organizations, and ensure prevention efforts are not misguided. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Puerto Rico Land-Based Threat to Benthic Habitats

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set describes the potential threat of sediment delivery and land-based sources of pollution to benthic habitats. This dataset is derived from NOAA's study,...

  17. USVI Land-Based Threat to Benthic Habitats

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set describes the potential threat of sediment delivery and land-based sources of pollution to benthic habitats. This dataset is derived from NOAA's study,...

  18. Benefits of Photosimulation and Sensor Fusion for Threat Detection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bankowski, E; Bednarz, D; Bryk, D; Jozwiak, R; Lane, K; Meitzler, T; Sohn, E. J

    2003-01-01

    .... Detecting potential threats that are camouflaged or difficult to see is important not only for military acquisition problems but, also for crowd surveillance as well as tactical use such as on border patrols...

  19. Threat Assessment in College Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornell, Dewey

    2010-01-01

    In 2007, the landscape of campus safety changed abruptly with the Virginia Tech shooting and the subsequent wave of anonymous threats in colleges across the country. In response to the tragedy, the Virginia state legislature mandated that every public institution of higher education establish a "threat assessment team." Both the FBI and the U.S.…

  20. Bio-threat microparticle simulants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farquar, George Roy; Leif, Roald N

    2012-10-23

    A bio-threat simulant that includes a carrier and DNA encapsulated in the carrier. Also a method of making a simulant including the steps of providing a carrier and encapsulating DNA in the carrier to produce the bio-threat simulant.

  1. Bio-threat microparticle simulants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farquar, George Roy; Leif, Roald

    2014-09-16

    A bio-threat simulant that includes a carrier and DNA encapsulated in the carrier. Also a method of making a simulant including the steps of providing a carrier and encapsulating DNA in the carrier to produce the bio-threat simulant.

  2. Bomb Threat Assessments. Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunkel, Ronald F.

    2010-01-01

    This information provides a brief, summary outline of how investigators should assess anonymous bomb threats at schools. Applying these principles may help administrators and law enforcement personnel accurately assess the viability and credibility of a threat and appropriately gauge their response. Any credible evidence provided by teachers or…

  3. Software Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Donna; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Reviewed are seven software packages for Apple and IBM computers. Included are: "Toxicology"; "Science Corner: Space Probe"; "Alcohol and Pregnancy"; "Science Tool Kit Plus"; Computer Investigations: Plant Growth"; "Climatrolls"; and "Animal Watch: Whales." (CW)

  4. Software Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Shelly J., Ed.; Knaupp, Jon, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Reviewed is computer software on: (1) classification of living things, a tutorial program for grades 5-10; and (2) polynomial practice using tiles, a drill-and-practice program for algebra students. (MNS)

  5. Software Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Anne, Ed.; Radziemski, Cathy, Ed.

    1988-01-01

    Three pieces of computer software are described and reviewed: HyperCard, to build and use varied applications; Iggy's Gnees, for problem solving with shapes in grades kindergarten-two; and Algebra Shop, for practicing skills and problem solving. (MNS)

  6. Do pneumonia readmissions flagged as potentially preventable by the 3M PPR software have more process of care problems? A cross-sectional observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borzecki, Ann M; Chen, Qi; Restuccia, Joseph; Mull, Hillary J; Shwartz, Michael; Gupta, Kalpana; Hanchate, Amresh; Strymish, Judith; Rosen, Amy

    2015-12-01

    In the USA, administrative data-based readmission rates such as the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services' all-cause readmission measures are used for public reporting and hospital payment penalties. To improve this measure and identify better quality improvement targets, 3M developed the Potentially Preventable Readmissions (PPRs) measure. It matches clinically related index admission and readmission diagnoses that may indicate readmissions resulting from admission- or post-discharge-related quality problems. To examine whether PPR software-flagged pneumonia readmissions are associated with poorer quality of care. Using a retrospective observational study design and Veterans Health Administration (VA) data, we identified pneumonia discharges associated with 30-day readmissions, and then flagged cases as PPR-yes or PPR-no using the PPR software. To assess quality of care, we abstracted electronic medical records of 100 random readmissions using a tool containing explicit care processes organised into admission work-up, in-hospital evaluation/treatment, discharge readiness and post-discharge period. We derived quality scores, scaled to a maximum of 25 per section (maximum total score=100) and compared cases by total and section-specific mean scores using t tests and effect size (ES) to characterise the clinical significance of findings. Our abstraction sample was selected from 11,278 pneumonia readmissions (readmission rate=16.5%) during 1 October 2005-30 September 2010; 77% were flagged as PPR-yes. Contrary to expectations, total and section mean quality scores were slightly higher, although non-significantly, among PPR-yes (N=77) versus PPR-no (N=23) cases (respective total scores, 71.2±8.7 vs 65.8±11.5, p=0.14); differences demonstrated ES >0.30 overall and for admission work-up and post-discharge period sections. Among VA pneumonia readmissions, PPR categorisation did not produce the expected quality of care findings. Either PPR-yes cases are not more

  7. The sound of danger: threat sensitivity to predator vocalizations, alarm calls, and novelty in gulls.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah A MacLean

    Full Text Available The threat sensitivity hypothesis predicts that organisms will evaluate the relative danger of and respond differentially to varying degrees of predation threat. Doing so allows potential prey to balance the costs and benefits of anti-predator behaviors. Threat sensitivity has undergone limited testing in the auditory modality, and the relative threat level of auditory cues from different sources is difficult to infer across populations when variables such as background risk and experience are not properly controlled. We experimentally exposed a single population of two sympatric gull species to auditory stimuli representing a range of potential threats in order to compare the relative threat of heterospecific alarm calls, conspecific alarms calls, predator vocalizations, and novel auditory cues. Gulls were able to discriminate among a diverse set of threat indicators and respond in a graded manner commensurate with the level of threat. Vocalizations of two potential predators, the human voice and bald eagle call, differed in their threat level compared to each other and to alarm calls. Conspecific alarm calls were more threatening than heterospecfic alarm calls to the larger great black-backed gull, but the smaller herring gull weighed both equally. A novel cue elicited a response intermediate between known threats and a known non-threat in herring gulls, but not great black-backed gulls. Our results show that the relative threat level of auditory cues from different sources is highly species-dependent, and that caution should be exercised when comparing graded and threshold threat sensitive responses.

  8. Psychoanalysis and the nuclear threat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, H.B.; Jacobs, D.; Rubin, L.J.

    1988-01-01

    {ital Psychoanalysis and the Nuclear Threat} provides coverage of the dynamic and clinical considerations that follow from life in the nuclear age. Of special clinical interest are chapters dealing with the developmental consequences of the nuclear threat in childhood, adolescence, and adulthood, and those exploring the technical issues raised by the occurrence in analytic and psychotherapeutic hours of material related to the nuclear threat. Additional chapters bring a psychoanalytic perspective to bear on such issues as the need to have enemies, silence as the real crime, love, work, and survival in the nuclear age, the relationship of the nuclear threat to issues of mourning and melancholia, apocalyptic fantasies, the paranoid process, considerations of the possible impact of gender on the nuclear threat, and the application of psychoanalytic thinking to nuclear arms strategy. Finally, the volume includes the first case report in the English language---albeit a brief psychotherapy---involving the treatment of a Hiroshima survivor.

  9. Frequently updated noise threat maps created with use of supercomputing grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szczodrak Maciej

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available An innovative supercomputing grid services devoted to noise threat evaluation were presented. The services described in this paper concern two issues, first is related to the noise mapping, while the second one focuses on assessment of the noise dose and its influence on the human hearing system. The discussed serviceswere developed within the PL-Grid Plus Infrastructure which accumulates Polish academic supercomputer centers. Selected experimental results achieved by the usage of the services proposed were presented. The assessment of the environmental noise threats includes creation of the noise maps using either ofline or online data, acquired through a grid of the monitoring stations. A concept of estimation of the source model parameters based on the measured sound level for the purpose of creating frequently updated noise maps was presented. Connecting the noise mapping grid service with a distributed sensor network enables to automatically update noise maps for a specified time period. Moreover, a unique attribute of the developed software is the estimation of the auditory effects evoked by the exposure to noise. The estimation method uses a modified psychoacoustic model of hearing and is based on the calculated noise level values and on the given exposure period. Potential use scenarios of the grid services for research or educational purpose were introduced. Presentation of the results of predicted hearing threshold shift caused by exposure to excessive noise can raise the public awareness of the noise threats.

  10. Water Privatization: A Threat to Human Rights?

    OpenAIRE

    Pavelich, Kelly

    2017-01-01

    In developing countries, women often have responsibilities that are water dependent, such as collecting water and tending to the sick (Sewpaul, 2008: 45) As unpolluted water supplies diminish, these tasks become increasingly difficult to accomplish. Women face greater threats to their security as they are forced to walk farther, occasionally into dangerous areas, and lose several hours of their day, potentially reducing the household income and resulting in missed economic opportunities (Sewp...

  11. THREAT ENSEMBLE VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    software and manual TEVA-SPOT is used by water utilities to optimize the number and location of contamination detection sensors so that economic and/or public health consequences are minimized. TEVA-SPOT is interactive, allowing a user to specify the minimization objective (e.g., the number of people exposed, the time to detection, or the extent of pipe length contaminated). It also allows a user to specify constraints. For example, a TEVA-SPOT user can employ expert knowledge during the design process by identifying either existing or unfeasible sensor locations. Installation and maintenance costs for sensor placement can also be factored into the analysis. Python and Java are required to run TEVA-SPOT

  12. Threat evaluation for impact assessment in situation analysis systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Jean; Paradis, Stephane; Allouche, Mohamad

    2002-07-01

    Situation analysis is defined as a process, the examination of a situation, its elements, and their relations, to provide and maintain a product, i.e., a state of situation awareness, for the decision maker. Data fusion is a key enabler to meeting the demanding requirements of military situation analysis support systems. According to the data fusion model maintained by the Joint Directors of Laboratories' Data Fusion Group, impact assessment estimates the effects on situations of planned or estimated/predicted actions by the participants, including interactions between action plans of multiple players. In this framework, the appraisal of actual or potential threats is a necessary capability for impact assessment. This paper reviews and discusses in details the fundamental concepts of threat analysis. In particular, threat analysis generally attempts to compute some threat value, for the individual tracks, that estimates the degree of severity with which engagement events will potentially occur. Presenting relevant tracks to the decision maker in some threat list, sorted from the most threatening to the least, is clearly in-line with the cognitive demands associated with threat evaluation. A key parameter in many threat value evaluation techniques is the Closest Point of Approach (CPA). Along this line of thought, threatening tracks are often prioritized based upon which ones will reach their CPA first. Hence, the Time-to-CPA (TCPA), i.e., the time it will take for a track to reach its CPA, is also a key factor. Unfortunately, a typical assumption for the computation of the CPA/TCPA parameters is that the track velocity will remain constant. When a track is maneuvering, the CPA/TCPA values will change accordingly. These changes will in turn impact the threat value computations and, ultimately, the resulting threat list. This is clearly undesirable from a command decision-making perspective. In this regard, the paper briefly discusses threat value stabilization

  13. Software Authentication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolford, J.K.; Geelhood, B.D.; Hamilton, V.A.; Ingraham, J.; MacArthur, D.W.; Mitchell, D.J.; Mullens, J.A.; Vanier, P. E.; White, G.K.; Whiteson, R.

    2001-01-01

    The effort to define guidance for authentication of software for arms control and nuclear material transparency measurements draws on a variety of disciplines and has involved synthesizing established criteria and practices with newer methods. Challenges include the need to protect classified information that the software manipulates as well as deal with the rapid pace of innovation in the technology of nuclear material monitoring. The resulting guidance will shape the design of future systems and inform the process of authentication of instruments now being developed. This paper explores the technical issues underlying the guidance and presents its major tenets

  14. Software engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Thorin, Marc

    1985-01-01

    Software Engineering describes the conceptual bases as well as the main methods and rules on computer programming. This book presents software engineering as a coherent and logically built synthesis and makes it possible to properly carry out an application of small or medium difficulty that can later be developed and adapted to more complex cases. This text is comprised of six chapters and begins by introducing the reader to the fundamental notions of entities, actions, and programming. The next two chapters elaborate on the concepts of information and consistency domains and show that a proc

  15. Bomb Threat Becomes Real News.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastaldo, Evann

    1999-01-01

    Discusses how the staff of the newspaper at Camarillo High School (California) covered a bomb threat at their school. Describes how they, overnight, conducted interviews, took and developed photographs, produced the layout, and published the newspaper. (RS)

  16. Today's threat and tomorrow's reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, L.R.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The events of September 11 have only confirmed our past nightmares and warnings to industries, agencies, and governments. The threat of even more significant catastrophic attacks, using nuclear materials, was just as real ten years ago, as it is today. In many cases, our vulnerability remains the same as years ago. There is a dire need for all organizations to agree upon threats and vulnerabilities, and to implement appropriate protections, for nuclear materials or other 'means' to achieve an event of mass destruction. All appropriate organizations (industries, agencies, and governments) should be able to define, assess, and recognize international threats and vulnerabilities in the same manner. In complimentary fashion, the organizations should be able to implement safeguards against this consistent generic threat. On an international scale the same threats, and most vulnerabilities, pose high risks to all of these organizations and societies. Indeed, in today's world, the vulnerabilities of one nation may clearly pose great risk to another nation. Once threats and vulnerabilities are consistently recognized, we can begin to approach their mitigation in a more 'universal' fashion by the application of internationally recognized and accepted security measures. The path to recognition of these security measures will require agreement on many diverse issues. However, once there is general agreement, we can then proceed to the acquisition of diverse national and international resources with which to implement the security measures 'universally' to eliminate 'weak-links' in the chain of nuclear materials, on a truly international scale. I would like to discuss: developing a internationally acceptable 'generic' statement of threat, vulnerability assessment process, and security measure; proposing this international statement of threat, vulnerability assessment process, and appropriate security measures to organizations (industries, agencies, and governments

  17. Reviews, Software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science Teacher, 1988

    1988-01-01

    Reviews two computer software packages for use in physical science, physics, and chemistry classes. Includes "Physics of Model Rocketry" for Apple II, and "Black Box" for Apple II and IBM compatible computers. "Black Box" is designed to help students understand the concept of indirect evidence. (CW)

  18. Software Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnaman, Daniel E.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Reviews four educational software packages for Apple, IBM, and Tandy computers. Includes "How the West was One + Three x Four,""Mavis Beacon Teaches Typing,""Math and Me," and "Write On." Reviews list hardware requirements, emphasis, levels, publisher, purchase agreements, and price. Discusses the strengths…

  19. Software Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Diane, Ed.

    1989-01-01

    Reviewed is a computer software package entitled "Audubon Wildlife Adventures: Grizzly Bears" for Apple II and IBM microcomputers. Included are availability, hardware requirements, cost, and a description of the program. The murder-mystery flavor of the program is stressed in this program that focuses on illegal hunting and game…

  20. Software Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teles, Elizabeth, Ed.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Reviewed are two computer software packages for Macintosh microcomputers including "Phase Portraits," an exploratory graphics tool for studying first-order planar systems; and "MacMath," a set of programs for exploring differential equations, linear algebra, and other mathematical topics. Features, ease of use, cost, availability, and hardware…

  1. MIAWARE Software

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilkowski, Bartlomiej; Pereira, Oscar N. M.; Dias, Paulo

    2008-01-01

    is automatically generated. Furthermore, MIAWARE software is accompanied with an intelligent search engine for medical reports, based on the relations between parts of the lungs. A logical structure of the lungs is introduced to the search algorithm through the specially developed ontology. As a result...

  2. Hypersonic Threats to the Homeland

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-28

    ADAM) system . This ground based system protects 7 soldiers against rocket threats and utilizes a 10 kW laser with an effective range out to...early warning systems for response to hypersonic threats . The integration of directed energy defensive systems with Space Based Infrared Sensors (SBIRS...and early warning radars already in operation will save costs. By capitalizing on Terminal High Altitude Area Defense (THAAD) system capabilities

  3. Cyber Conflicts as a New Global Threat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Kosenkov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an attempt is made to analyze the potential threats and consequences of cyber conflicts and, in particular, the risks of a global cyber conflict. The material is based on a comprehensive analysis of the nature of cyber conflict and its elements from both technical and societal points of view. The approach used in the paper considers the societal component as an essential part of cyber conflicts, allowing basics of cyber conflicts often disregarded by researchers and the public to be highlighted. Finally, the conclusion offers an opportunity to consider cyber conflict as the most advanced form of modern warfare, which imposes the most serious threat and whose effect could be comparable to weapons of mass destruction.

  4. End the nuclear threat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douglas, Michael

    2005-01-01

    's promises and commitments. Fulfilling our promises in the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, now with 189 member States, must be a primary aim. This Treaty, essential to our security, will be reviewed formally in 2005 at the UN. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) performs a vital role under the Treaty - it's the world's nuclear inspectorate to check that countries are not pursuing nuclear weapons. I've had the chance to visit the UN and IAEA at their headquarters in Vienna, Austria, and know how tough the job can be. We need to back the IAEA and make sure it stays strong in our fight against nuclear weapons. At the 2000 Review of the Treaty, the US along with all other parties to the Treaty made a pledge. Let me remind you of what was promised, and I quote: 'an unequivocal undertaking by the nuclear weapons States to accomplish the total elimination of their nuclear arsenals. leading to nuclear disarmament.' There are tens of thousands of nuclear weapons in the world, over 90% are possessed by Russia and the US. Most are many times more devastating than those used on Hiroshima. The arsenals of Russia and the US are armed, targeted and poised, waiting for three short computer signals to fire. These hair trigger devices represent the devastation of approximately 100,000 Hiroshimas and pose a horrific threat to life. The use of a nuclear weapon could take place by accident or design by States, or even terrorists. These weapons pose an unacceptable risk to the planet. We must demonstrate our unambiguous commitment to fulfill our promises. Other-wise, the prospect of more nuclear weapons States, and the construction of new nuclear weapons, will only increase human peril. The world needs a more effective non-proliferation and disarmament regime and is looking to us for leadership

  5. Maritime Threat Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    Shipments,” Congressional Budget Officer, 26 March 2006. 33 has the potential for mass casualties and the “ cinematic ” effect that Al-Qaeda and other...unknown enemy in a high traffic area. While it is still a two dimensional representation on a LCD screen, it does allow for the realism of the

  6. Anti-malware software and medical devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    Just as much as healthcare information systems, medical devices need protection against cybersecurity threats. Anti-malware software can help safeguard the devices in your facility-but it has limitations and even risks. Find out what steps you can take to manage anti-malware applications in your devices.

  7. The potential of pyrolysis technology in climate change mitigation - influence of process design and - parameters, simulated in SuperPro Designer software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomsen, T.; Hauggaard-Nielsen, H.; Bruun, E.W.; Ahrenfeldt, J.

    2011-01-15

    This report investigates whether or not it would be possible to produce carbon-negative energy from pyrolysis of wheat straw in a series of Danish agricultural scenarios. A combination of process simulation in SuperPro Designer software, correlations derived from literature studies and experimental work, and overall balance calculations has been applied in the process. The study deviates from other studies of pyrolysis and biochar production by the inclusion of substitution energy impact on the overall carbon-balance. Substitution energy is integrated to account for the gap between the energy production from the pyrolysis and the full energy potential of the biomass, quantified by complete conversion in either combustion or gasification systems. It was concluded that it is feasible to produce carbon-negative energy under a variation of different settings, but also that the negative carbon-balance is only robust for the slow pyrolysis scenario. The CO{sub 2} benefit of the most carbon-negative slow pyrolysis process is estimated to be around 10 % of the atmospheric carbon stored in the original biomass when natural gas is applied for energy substitution. This process avoids the emission of around 150-200 kg CO{sub 2}/ton wheat straw with substitution energy with a Denmark 2007 average carbon-intensity. This result is weighted against the net emissions of the carbon-'neutral' process of conventional combustion. This emission is in this report estimated to be around 50 - 150 kg CO{sub 2}/ton straw depending on scenario settings. The final results of the study have been compared to another study with convincing results. Results concluded that the primary force of the pyrolysis technology is the recalcitrant char product and not the pyrolysis oil. Based on this, the study suggests that despite the trend in commercial pyrolysis technology that focuses on fast pyrolysis processes with maximized bio-oil production, the twin challenge of climate mitigation and

  8. Entry Threat and Entry Deterrence: The Timing of Broadband Rollout

    OpenAIRE

    Mo Xiao; Peter F. Orazem

    2007-01-01

    Past empirical literature provides strong evidence that competition increases when new firms enter a market. However, rarely have economists been able to examine how competition changes with the threat of entry. This paper uses the evolution of the zip code level market structure of facilities-based broadband providers from 1999 to 2004 to investigate how a firm adjusts its entry strategy when facing the threat of additional entrants. We identify the potential entrant into a local market as t...

  9. Survey of threat studies related to the nuclear power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, N.R.

    1977-08-01

    A considerable effort has been directed toward the determination of threat characteristics, resulting in a voluminous collection of documents. This report summarizes several of the major studies in order to make the information more accessible. This summary includes only studies involving attacks on nuclear material, plus those incidents which because of their objectives, resources, or motivations may lend insight into potential threat against nuclear facilities or material

  10. Bioboxes: standardised containers for interchangeable bioinformatics software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belmann, Peter; Dröge, Johannes; Bremges, Andreas; McHardy, Alice C; Sczyrba, Alexander; Barton, Michael D

    2015-01-01

    Software is now both central and essential to modern biology, yet lack of availability, difficult installations, and complex user interfaces make software hard to obtain and use. Containerisation, as exemplified by the Docker platform, has the potential to solve the problems associated with sharing software. We propose bioboxes: containers with standardised interfaces to make bioinformatics software interchangeable.

  11. When to make proprietary software open source

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caulkins, J.P.; Feichtinger, G.; Grass, D.; Hartl, R.F.; Kort, P.M.; Seidl, A.

    Software can be distributed closed source (proprietary) or open source (developed collaboratively). While a firm cannot sell open source software, and so loses potential sales revenue, the open source software development process can have a substantial positive impact on the quality of a software,

  12. Software Tools for Software Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-10-01

    COMMUNICATIONS, AND COMPUTER SCIENCES I ,(AIRMICS) FO~SOFTWARE TOOLS (.o FOR SOF1 ’ARE MAINTENANCE (ASQBG-1-89-001) October, 1988 DTIC ELECTE -ifB...SUNWW~. B..c Program An~Iysw HA.c C-Tractr C Cobol Stncturing Facility VS Cobol 11 F-Scan Foctma Futbol Cobol Fortran Sltiuc Code Anaiyaer Fortran IS

  13. Resilient Military Systems and the Advanced Cyber Threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Information Grid ( GIG ). Commercial technologies that enable the automation of some network maintenance activities and provide real-time mitigation of...will result in a serious competitive disadvantage to the U.S. economy . Key findings of the study include:  The cyber threat is serious, with...malware and other software attacks and then assuming that those systems are likely compromised. The larger GIG is then protected from those systems

  14. Teleradiology: threat or opportunity?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarvis, L.; Stanberry, B.

    2005-01-01

    The rapid advances in information technology and communication bandwidth have spawned an equally rapid development of clinical teleradiology. Current computer technology and communication capability allow easy transfer of diagnostic images, of any complexity, to any location in the world. This provides the opportunity to acquire swift primary and secondary diagnostic opinions from the remotest of locations, often at economically attractive rates, with the potential for easing the burden on hard-pressed departments of radiology. However, this comes at the potential cost of distancing the clinical radiologist from the patient, with consequent impact upon direct clinical care. As this technology advances across the world, it is vital that UK radiologists are familiar with the clinical implications, the medicolegal framework within which the field operates and the associated governance issues. This paper reviews current practice and discusses the associated risks

  15. The threat of nuclear terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maerli, M.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: There have always been enormous gaps between the potential of a weapon and the abilities and/or the will to employ it by terrorists. New means and methods of violence with unknown outcomes could be less appealing for sub-national groups. Conventional 'off the shelf' weaponry is thus likely to remain the major tools for traditional terrorists. However, the analysis show that while the risk of nuclear terrorism may be remote, it should not and cannot be excluded. Rigorous standards and means the protection, control and accounting of fissile materials are thus needed. 'Nuclear terrorism' can be defined as acts of violence and destruction where the means applied are nuclear devices, or threats of use of such means, to create a condition of fear, to get attention, or to blackmail to have wider effect on others than the directly targeted victim(s). Nuclear terrorism is a subset of radiological terrorism, were the means (or threats) applied are radioactive substances. While being distinctly dissimilar in terms of technical approaches and damage potentials, many of the features with regards to public threat perception are likely to be similar. No non-state actors have ever deployed or used a nuclear device, and the number of (publicly known) nuclear bomb treats has been limited. However, there is a disturbing interest among some terrorist organizations in acquiring nuclear weapon capabilities, probably for tactical purposes. The biological and chemical programs of the Japanese 'Aum Shinrikyo' cult that culminated in the Tokyo metro attack is highly publicized. Less well-known is the nuclear weapon program of the group. Nuclear material was acquired from the sect's properties in Australia and markets were explored to purchase nuclear technology via straw trading companies. Another highly profiled terrorist group with obvious nuclear intentions is the 'Al- Qa'ida', the group of bin Laden. The recent trail for the bombings of the U.S. embassies in Nairobi, Kenya

  16. Green Software Products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jagroep, E.A.

    2017-01-01

    The rising energy consumption of the ICT industry has triggered a quest for more green, energy efficient ICT solutions. The role of software as the true consumer of power and its potential contribution to reach sustainability goals has increasingly been acknowledged. At the same time, it is shown to

  17. EPIQR software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flourentzos, F. [Federal Institute of Technology, Lausanne (Switzerland); Droutsa, K. [National Observatory of Athens, Athens (Greece); Wittchen, K.B. [Danish Building Research Institute, Hoersholm (Denmark)

    1999-11-01

    The support of the EPIQR method is a multimedia computer program. Several modules help the users of the method to treat the data collected during a diagnosis survey, to set up refurbishment scenario and calculate their cost or energy performance, and finally to visualize the results in a comprehensive way and to prepare quality reports. This article presents the structure and the main features of the software. (au)

  18. Software preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadej Vodopivec

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Comtrade Ltd. covers a wide range of activities related to information and communication technologies; its deliverables include web applications, locally installed programs,system software, drivers, embedded software (used e.g. in medical devices, auto parts,communication switchboards. Also the extensive knowledge and practical experience about digital long-term preservation technologies have been acquired. This wide spectrum of activities puts us in the position to discuss the often overlooked aspect of the digital preservation - preservation of software programs. There are many resources dedicated to digital preservation of digital data, documents and multimedia records,but not so many about how to preserve the functionalities and features of computer programs. Exactly these functionalities - dynamic response to inputs - render the computer programs rich compared to documents or linear multimedia. The article opens the questions on the beginning of the way to the permanent digital preservation. The purpose is to find a way in the right direction, where all relevant aspects will be covered in proper balance. The following questions are asked: why at all to preserve computer programs permanently, who should do this and for whom, when we should think about permanent program preservation, what should be persevered (such as source code, screenshots, documentation, and social context of the program - e.g. media response to it ..., where and how? To illustrate the theoretic concepts given the idea of virtual national museum of electronic banking is also presented.

  19. Digital Threat and Vulnerability Management: The SVIDT Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland W. Scholz

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The Digital Revolution is inducing major threats to many types of human systems. We present the SVIDT method (a Strengths, Vulnerability, and Intervention Assessment related to Digital Threats for managing the vulnerabilities of human systems with respect to digital threats and changes. The method first performs a multilevel system–actor analysis for assessing vulnerabilities and strengths with respect to digital threats. Then, the method identifies threat scenarios that may become real. By constructing, evaluating, and launching interventions against all identified digital threats and their critical negative outcomes, the resilience of a specific human system can be improved. The evaluation of interventions is done when strengthening the adaptive capacity, i.e., a system’s capability to cope with negative outcomes that may take place in the future. The SVIDT method is embedded in the framework of coupled human–environment systems, the theory of risk and vulnerability assessment, types of adaptation (assimilation vs. accommodation, and a comprehensive sustainability evaluation. The SVIDT method is exemplarily applied to an enterprise (i.e., a Swiss casino for which online gaming has become an essential digital-business field. The discussion reflects on the specifics of digital threats and discusses both the potential benefits and limitations of the SVIDT method.

  20. Asymmetric threat data mining and knowledge discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, John F.; Pagels, Michael A.; Palk, Justin

    2001-03-01

    Asymmetric threats differ from the conventional force-on- force military encounters that the Defense Department has historically been trained to engage. Terrorism by its nature is now an operational activity that is neither easily detected or countered as its very existence depends on small covert attacks exploiting the element of surprise. But terrorism does have defined forms, motivations, tactics and organizational structure. Exploiting a terrorism taxonomy provides the opportunity to discover and assess knowledge of terrorist operations. This paper describes the Asymmetric Threat Terrorist Assessment, Countering, and Knowledge (ATTACK) system. ATTACK has been developed to (a) data mine open source intelligence (OSINT) information from web-based newspaper sources, video news web casts, and actual terrorist web sites, (b) evaluate this information against a terrorism taxonomy, (c) exploit country/region specific social, economic, political, and religious knowledge, and (d) discover and predict potential terrorist activities and association links. Details of the asymmetric threat structure and the ATTACK system architecture are presented with results of an actual terrorist data mining and knowledge discovery test case shown.

  1. Establishing software quality assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malsbury, J.

    1983-01-01

    This paper is concerned with four questions about establishing software QA: What is software QA. Why have software QA. What is the role of software QA. What is necessary to ensure the success of software QA

  2. Understanding How the "Open" of Open Source Software (OSS) Will Improve Global Health Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Erin; Blazes, David; Lewis, Sheri

    2016-01-01

    Improving global health security will require bold action in all corners of the world, particularly in developing settings, where poverty often contributes to an increase in emerging infectious diseases. In order to mitigate the impact of emerging pandemic threats, enhanced disease surveillance is needed to improve early detection and rapid response to outbreaks. However, the technology to facilitate this surveillance is often unattainable because of high costs, software and hardware maintenance needs, limited technical competence among public health officials, and internet connectivity challenges experienced in the field. One potential solution is to leverage open source software, a concept that is unfortunately often misunderstood. This article describes the principles and characteristics of open source software and how it may be applied to solve global health security challenges.

  3. Safety Regulations in organizations and enterprises under supervision of Federal environmental, industrial and nuclear supervision service of Russia (Rostechnadzor), Central Region. Short overview of sites which potentially are dangerous for terrorist threat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasselblat, A.D.

    2010-01-01

    on the territory of 19 sites of Russian Federation - basically, these are central regions of Russia's Europe part on the territory of Central Federal region of Russian Federation (with exceptions, indicated in Central interregional territory administration). The region territory is 650, 7 thousands square kilometers, which increases the territory of such country as France. This is the most industrially developed region of Russia, where the third part of whole country's population is living and 40% of industrial enterprises are focused. 600 (592) organizations (enterprises, institutions), dealing with radionuclides are under the control of Central inter regional territory administration, where 1,5 thousands (1514) radiation - dangerous sites are included. The total number of sealed sources in controlled organizations is 21425 pieces with activity 4,2 E +17 Bq. 6250 sources from this amount has activity approximately 9,8 E +15 Bq worked off its period - 29% from total amount, most of them were disposed in specialized organizations dealing with radioactive wastes. According to the activity approximately 50% are industrial enterprises, 30% research organizations, 10% medical institutions, 5% education and others belong to agricultural, transport and service organizations. Among mentioned enterprises, there are sites which belong to potentially radiation-dangerous. Their danger was identified in agreement with Rospotrebnadzor authorities' category according to potential radiation hazard (in accordance with rules on ensuring the radiation safety OSPORB - 99): 5 organizations - 1 category; 4 organizations - 2 category. These organizations require specific measures and efforts on ensuring physical protection of sites and measures on terrorist threat prevention. The control of indicated activity is carried out by 10 inspections departments located within the jurisdiction of territories (with group of inspectors or separate inspector in each region of Russian Federation, in

  4. Core software security security at the source

    CERN Document Server

    Ransome, James

    2013-01-01

    First and foremost, Ransome and Misra have made an engaging book that will empower readers in both large and small software development and engineering organizations to build security into their products. This book clarifies to executives the decisions to be made on software security and then provides guidance to managers and developers on process and procedure. Readers are armed with firm solutions for the fight against cyber threats.-Dr. Dena Haritos Tsamitis. Carnegie Mellon UniversityIn the wake of cloud computing and mobile apps, the issue of software security has never been more importan

  5. Factors That Affect Software Testability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voas, Jeffrey M.

    1991-01-01

    Software faults that infrequently affect software's output are dangerous. When a software fault causes frequent software failures, testing is likely to reveal the fault before the software is releases; when the fault remains undetected during testing, it can cause disaster after the software is installed. A technique for predicting whether a particular piece of software is likely to reveal faults within itself during testing is found in [Voas91b]. A piece of software that is likely to reveal faults within itself during testing is said to have high testability. A piece of software that is not likely to reveal faults within itself during testing is said to have low testability. It is preferable to design software with higher testabilities from the outset, i.e., create software with as high of a degree of testability as possible to avoid the problems of having undetected faults that are associated with low testability. Information loss is a phenomenon that occurs during program execution that increases the likelihood that a fault will remain undetected. In this paper, I identify two brad classes of information loss, define them, and suggest ways of predicting the potential for information loss to occur. We do this in order to decrease the likelihood that faults will remain undetected during testing.

  6. Near-Earth Object Survey Simulation Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidu, Shantanu P.; Chesley, Steven R.; Farnocchia, Davide

    2017-10-01

    There is a significant interest in Near-Earth objects (NEOs) because they pose an impact threat to Earth, offer valuable scientific information, and are potential targets for robotic and human exploration. The number of NEO discoveries has been rising rapidly over the last two decades with over 1800 being discovered last year, making the total number of known NEOs >16000. Pan-STARRS and the Catalina Sky Survey are currently the most prolific NEO surveys, having discovered >1600 NEOs between them in 2016. As next generation surveys such as Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) and the proposed Near-Earth Object Camera (NEOCam) become operational in the next decade, the discovery rate is expected to increase tremendously. Coordination between various survey telescopes will be necessary in order to optimize NEO discoveries and create a unified global NEO discovery network. We are collaborating on a community-based, open-source software project to simulate asteroid surveys to facilitate such coordination and develop strategies for improving discovery efficiency. Our effort so far has focused on development of a fast and efficient tool capable of accepting user-defined asteroid population models and telescope parameters such as a list of pointing angles and camera field-of-view, and generating an output list of detectable asteroids. The software takes advantage of the widely used and tested SPICE library and architecture developed by NASA’s Navigation and Ancillary Information Facility (Acton, 1996) for saving and retrieving asteroid trajectories and camera pointing. Orbit propagation is done using OpenOrb (Granvik et al. 2009) but future versions will allow the user to plug in a propagator of their choice. The software allows the simulation of both ground-based and space-based surveys. Performance is being tested using the Grav et al. (2011) asteroid population model and the LSST simulated survey “enigma_1189”.

  7. Prefrontal inhibition of threat processing protects working memory from interference.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert James Clarke

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Bottom-up processes can interrupt ongoing cognitive processing in order to adaptively respond to emotional stimuli of high potential significance, such as those that threaten wellbeing. However it is vital that this interference can be modulated in certain contexts to focus on current tasks. Deficits in the ability to maintain the appropriate balance between cognitive and emotional demands can severely impact on day-to-day activities. This fMRI study examined this interaction between threat processing and cognition; 18 adult participants performed a visuospatial working memory (WM task with two load conditions, in the presence and absence of anxiety induction by threat of electric shock. Threat of shock interfered with performance in the low cognitive load condition; however interference was eradicated under high load, consistent with engagement of emotion regulation mechanisms. Under low load the amygdala showed significant activation to threat of shock that was modulated by high cognitive load. A directed top-down control contrast identified two regions associated with top-down control; ventrolateral PFC and dorsal ACC. Dynamic causal modelling provided further evidence that under high cognitive load, top-down inhibition is exerted on the amygdala and its outputs to prefrontal regions. Additionally, we hypothesised that individual differences in a separate, non-emotional top-down control task would predict the recruitment of dorsal ACC and ventrolateral PFC during top-down control of threat. Consistent with this, performance on a separate dichotic listening task predicted dorsal ACC and ventrolateral PFC activation during high WM load under threat of shock, though activation in these regions did not directly correlate with WM performance. Together, the findings suggest that under high cognitive load and threat, top-down control is exerted by dACC and vlPFC to inhibit threat processing, thus enabling WM performance without threat

  8. Software Authority Transition through Multiple Distributors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyusunk Han

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The rapid growth in the use of smartphones and tablets has changed the software distribution ecosystem. The trend today is to purchase software through application stores rather than from traditional offline markets. Smartphone and tablet users can install applications easily by purchasing from the online store deployed in their device. Several systems, such as Android or PC-based OS units, allow users to install software from multiple sources. Such openness, however, can promote serious threats, including malware and illegal usage. In order to prevent such threats, several stores use online authentication techniques. These methods can, however, also present a problem whereby even licensed users cannot use their purchased application. In this paper, we discuss these issues and provide an authentication method that will make purchased applications available to the registered user at all times.

  9. Software authority transition through multiple distributors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Kyusunk; Shon, Taeshik

    2014-01-01

    The rapid growth in the use of smartphones and tablets has changed the software distribution ecosystem. The trend today is to purchase software through application stores rather than from traditional offline markets. Smartphone and tablet users can install applications easily by purchasing from the online store deployed in their device. Several systems, such as Android or PC-based OS units, allow users to install software from multiple sources. Such openness, however, can promote serious threats, including malware and illegal usage. In order to prevent such threats, several stores use online authentication techniques. These methods can, however, also present a problem whereby even licensed users cannot use their purchased application. In this paper, we discuss these issues and provide an authentication method that will make purchased applications available to the registered user at all times.

  10. Cyber threats within civil aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitner, Kerri A.

    Existing security policies in civil aviation do not adequately protect against evolving cyber threats. Cybersecurity has been recognized as a top priority among some aviation industry leaders. Heightened concerns regarding cyber threats and vulnerabilities surround components utilized in compliance with the Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA) Next Generation Air Transportation (NextGen) implementation. Automated Dependent Surveillance-B (ADS-B) and Electronic Flight Bags (EFB) have both been exploited through the research of experienced computer security professionals. Civil aviation is essential to international infrastructure and if its critical assets were compromised, it could pose a great risk to public safety and financial infrastructure. The purpose of this research was to raise awareness of aircraft system vulnerabilities in order to provoke change among current national and international cybersecurity policies, procedures and standards. Although the education of cyber threats is increasing in the aviation industry, there is not enough urgency when creating cybersecurity policies. This project intended to answer the following questions: What are the cyber threats to ADS-B of an aircraft in-flight? What are the cyber threats to EFB? What is the aviation industry's response to the issue of cybersecurity and in-flight safety? ADS-B remains unencrypted while the FAA's mandate to implement this system is rapidly approaching. The cyber threat of both portable and non-portable EFB's have received increased publicity, however, airlines are not responding quick enough (if at all) to create policies for the use of these devices. Collectively, the aviation industry is not being proactive enough to protect its aircraft or airport network systems. That is not to say there are not leaders in cybersecurity advancement. These proactive organizations must set the standard for the future to better protect society and it's most reliable form of transportation.

  11. Software Prototyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Fiol, Guilherme; Hanseler, Haley; Crouch, Barbara Insley; Cummins, Mollie R.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Health information exchange (HIE) between Poison Control Centers (PCCs) and Emergency Departments (EDs) could improve care of poisoned patients. However, PCC information systems are not designed to facilitate HIE with EDs; therefore, we are developing specialized software to support HIE within the normal workflow of the PCC using user-centered design and rapid prototyping. Objective To describe the design of an HIE dashboard and the refinement of user requirements through rapid prototyping. Methods Using previously elicited user requirements, we designed low-fidelity sketches of designs on paper with iterative refinement. Next, we designed an interactive high-fidelity prototype and conducted scenario-based usability tests with end users. Users were asked to think aloud while accomplishing tasks related to a case vignette. After testing, the users provided feedback and evaluated the prototype using the System Usability Scale (SUS). Results Survey results from three users provided useful feedback that was then incorporated into the design. After achieving a stable design, we used the prototype itself as the specification for development of the actual software. Benefits of prototyping included having 1) subject-matter experts heavily involved with the design; 2) flexibility to make rapid changes, 3) the ability to minimize software development efforts early in the design stage; 4) rapid finalization of requirements; 5) early visualization of designs; 6) and a powerful vehicle for communication of the design to the programmers. Challenges included 1) time and effort to develop the prototypes and case scenarios; 2) no simulation of system performance; 3) not having all proposed functionality available in the final product; and 4) missing needed data elements in the PCC information system. PMID:27081404

  12. An overview of non-traditional nuclear threats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geelhood, B.D.; Wogman, N.A.

    2005-01-01

    In view of the terrorist threats to the United States, the country needs to consider new vectors and weapons related to nuclear and radiological threats against our homeland. The traditional threat vectors, missiles and bombers, have expanded to include threats arriving through the flow of commerce. The new commerce-related vectors include: sea cargo, truck cargo, rail cargo, air cargo, and passenger transport. The types of weapons have also expanded beyond nuclear warheads to include radiation dispersal devices (RDD) or 'dirty' bombs. The consequences of these nuclear and radiological threats are both economic and life threatening. The defense against undesirable materials entering our borders involves extensive radiation monitoring at ports of entry. The radiation and other signatures of potential nuclear and radiological threats are examined along with potential sensors to discover undesirable items in the flow of commerce. Techniques to improve radiation detection are considered. A strategy of primary and secondary screening is proposed to rapidly clear most cargo and carefully examine suspect cargo. (author)

  13. Application of agile methodologies in software development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Aca D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the potentials for the development of software using agile methodologies. Special consideration is devoted to the potentials and advantages of use of the Scrum methodology in the development of software and the relationship between the implementation of agile methodologies and the software development projects.

  14. Music Software and Emerging Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, G. David

    1992-01-01

    Traces the history of instructional computing in music education. Describes the development of music software and hardware. Discusses potential benefits of using the newly developed software in the classroom. Suggests that educators and musicians interact with the publishing community to help define their needs in music education. (DK)

  15. threat or opportunity to distance education throughput at the south

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    plt

    requirements in particular, potentially increased risk of failure. .... E-portfolios can be used as evidence of achieved ... DoD should devise innovative strategies to resolve the de facto isolation of DE .... well-prepared, hard-copy study guides. ... managing the potential threats associated.63 The free use of technology by soldier ...

  16. Global Software Engineering: A Software Process Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Ita; Casey, Valentine; Burton, John; McCaffery, Fergal

    Our research has shown that many companies are struggling with the successful implementation of global software engineering, due to temporal, cultural and geographical distance, which causes a range of factors to come into play. For example, cultural, project managementproject management and communication difficulties continually cause problems for software engineers and project managers. While the implementation of efficient software processes can be used to improve the quality of the software product, published software process models do not cater explicitly for the recent growth in global software engineering. Our thesis is that global software engineering factors should be included in software process models to ensure their continued usefulness in global organisations. Based on extensive global software engineering research, we have developed a software process, Global Teaming, which includes specific practices and sub-practices. The purpose is to ensure that requirements for successful global software engineering are stipulated so that organisations can ensure successful implementation of global software engineering.

  17. Software system safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uber, James G.

    1988-01-01

    Software itself is not hazardous, but since software and hardware share common interfaces there is an opportunity for software to create hazards. Further, these software systems are complex, and proven methods for the design, analysis, and measurement of software safety are not yet available. Some past software failures, future NASA software trends, software engineering methods, and tools and techniques for various software safety analyses are reviewed. Recommendations to NASA are made based on this review.

  18. Cyber Threats to Nuclear Infrastructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, Robert S.; Moskowitz, Paul; Schanfein, Mark; Bjornard, Trond; St. Michel, Curtis

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear facility personnel expend considerable efforts to ensure that their facilities can maintain continuity of operations against both natural and man-made threats. Historically, most attention has been placed on physical security. Recently however, the threat of cyber-related attacks has become a recognized and growing world-wide concern. Much attention has focused on the vulnerability of the electric grid and chemical industries to cyber attacks, in part, because of their use of Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems. Lessons learned from work in these sectors indicate that the cyber threat may extend to other critical infrastructures including sites where nuclear and radiological materials are now stored. In this context, this white paper presents a hypothetical scenario by which a determined adversary launches a cyber attack that compromises the physical protection system and results in a reduced security posture at such a site. The compromised security posture might then be malevolently exploited in a variety of ways. The authors conclude that the cyber threat should be carefully considered for all nuclear infrastructures.

  19. Cyber Threats to Nuclear Infrastructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert S. Anderson; Paul Moskowitz; Mark Schanfein; Trond Bjornard; Curtis St. Michel

    2010-07-01

    Nuclear facility personnel expend considerable efforts to ensure that their facilities can maintain continuity of operations against both natural and man-made threats. Historically, most attention has been placed on physical security. Recently however, the threat of cyber-related attacks has become a recognized and growing world-wide concern. Much attention has focused on the vulnerability of the electric grid and chemical industries to cyber attacks, in part, because of their use of Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems. Lessons learned from work in these sectors indicate that the cyber threat may extend to other critical infrastructures including sites where nuclear and radiological materials are now stored. In this context, this white paper presents a hypothetical scenario by which a determined adversary launches a cyber attack that compromises the physical protection system and results in a reduced security posture at such a site. The compromised security posture might then be malevolently exploited in a variety of ways. The authors conclude that the cyber threat should be carefully considered for all nuclear infrastructures.

  20. Threat from Emerging Vectorborne Viruses

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-06-09

    Reginald Tucker reads an abridged version of the commentary by CDC author Ronald Rosenberg, Threat from Emerging Vectorborne Viruses.  Created: 6/9/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 6/9/2016.

  1. The threat of soil salinity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daliakopoulos, I.N.; Tsanis, I.K.; Koutroulis, A.; Kourgialas, N.N.; Varouchakis, A.E.; Karatzas, G.P.; Ritsema, C.J.

    2016-01-01

    Soil salinisation is one of the major soil degradation threats occurring in Europe. The effects of salinisation can be observed in numerous vital ecological and non-ecological soil functions. Drivers of salinisation can be detected both in the natural and man-made environment, with climate and

  2. Insider Threat Security Reference Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    this challenge. CMU/SEI-2012-TR-007 | 2 2 The Components of the ITSRA Figure 2 shows the four layers of the ITSRA. The Business Security layer......organizations improve their level of preparedness to address the insider threat. Business Security Architecture Data Security Architecture

  3. Bomb Threats Taking Financial Toll

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Darcia Harris

    2004-01-01

    Despite all its efforts to crack down on the bomb scares that disrupted classes again and again in 2003, North Carolina's Orange County district fell victim to yet another false alarm this school year, 2004. For some schools, bomb threats have become more routine than fire drills, with each incident ringing up multi-thousand-dollar tabs for…

  4. Exploring the organizational impact of software-as-a-Service on software vendors the role of organizational integration in software-as-a-Service development and operation

    CERN Document Server

    Stuckenberg, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    Software-as-a-Service has gained momentum as a software delivery and pricing model within the software industry. Existing practices of software vendors are challenged by a potential paradigm shift. This book analyzes the implications of Software-as-a-Service on software vendors using a business model and value chain perspective. The analysis of qualitative data from software vendors highlights the role of organizational integration within software vendors. By providing insights regarding the impact of Software-as-a-Service on organizational structures and processes of software vendors, this st

  5. Heterogeneous Defensive Naval Weapon Assignment To Swarming Threats In Real Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    come under fire from multiple sources simultaneously. These threats would be engaged in a numbers game , seeking to saturate the battlespace with many...optimization extension that uses the Python modeling language. B. TEST SCENARIO The following test scenario was developed to validate the models...Adaptive rapid response to swarming threats Concept Briefing. Presented at Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA. Python [Computer Software]. (2015

  6. Computing and software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    White, G. C.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The reality is that the statistical methods used for analysis of data depend upon the availability of software. Analysis of marked animal data is no different than the rest of the statistical field. The methods used for analysis are those that are available in reliable software packages. Thus, the critical importance of having reliable, up–to–date software available to biologists is obvious. Statisticians have continued to develop more robust models, ever expanding the suite of potential analysis methods available. But without software to implement these newer methods, they will languish in the abstract, and not be applied to the problems deserving them. In the Computers and Software Session, two new software packages are described, a comparison of implementation of methods for the estimation of nest survival is provided, and a more speculative paper about how the next generation of software might be structured is presented. Rotella et al. (2004 compare nest survival estimation with different software packages: SAS logistic regression, SAS non–linear mixed models, and Program MARK. Nests are assumed to be visited at various, possibly infrequent, intervals. All of the approaches described compute nest survival with the same likelihood, and require that the age of the nest is known to account for nests that eventually hatch. However, each approach offers advantages and disadvantages, explored by Rotella et al. (2004. Efford et al. (2004 present a new software package called DENSITY. The package computes population abundance and density from trapping arrays and other detection methods with a new and unique approach. DENSITY represents the first major addition to the analysis of trapping arrays in 20 years. Barker & White (2004 discuss how existing software such as Program MARK require that each new model’s likelihood must be programmed specifically for that model. They wishfully think that future software might allow the user to combine

  7. The Potential Role of Grid-Like Software in Bedside Chest Radiography in Improving Image Quality and Dose Reduction: An Observer Preference Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Su Yeon; Chae, Kum Ju; Goo, Jin Mo

    2018-01-01

    To compare the observer preference of image quality and radiation dose between non-grid, grid-like, and grid images. Each of the 38 patients underwent bedside chest radiography with and without a grid. A grid-like image was generated from a non-grid image using SimGrid software (Samsung Electronics Co. Ltd.) employing deep-learning-based scatter correction technology. Two readers recorded the preference for 10 anatomic landmarks and the overall appearance on a five-point scale for a pair of non-grid and grid-like images, and a pair of grid-like and grid images, respectively, which were randomly presented. The dose area product (DAP) was also recorded. Wilcoxon's rank sum test was used to assess the significance of preference. Both readers preferred grid-like images to non-grid images significantly ( p software significantly improved the image quality of non-grid images to a level comparable to that of grid images with a relatively lower level of radiation exposure.

  8. Cognitive and affective components of challenge and threat states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijen, Carla; Jones, Marc V; McCarthy, Paul J; Sheffield, David; Allen, Mark S

    2013-01-01

    We explored the cognitive and affective components of the Theory of Challenge and Threat States in Athletes (TCTSA) using a cross-sectional design. One hundred and seventy-seven collegiate athletes indicated how they typically approached an important competition on measures of self-efficacy, perceived control, achievement goals, emotional states and interpretation of emotional states. Participants also indicated to what extent they typically perceived the important competition as a challenge and/or a threat. The results suggest that a perception of challenge was not predicted by any of the cognitive components. A perception of threat was positively predicted by avoidance goals and negatively predicted by self-efficacy and approach goals. Both challenge and threat had a positive relationship with anxiety. Practical implications of this study are that an avoidance orientation appeared to be related to potentially negative constructs such as anxiety, threat and dejection. The findings may suggest that practitioners and researchers should focus on reducing an avoidance orientation, however the results should be treated with caution in applied settings, as this study did not examine how the combination of constructs exactly influences sport performance. The results provided partial support for the TCTSA with stronger support for proposed relationships with threat rather than challenge states.

  9. Does Stereotype Threat Affect Women in Academic Medicine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Diana Jill; Joseph, Anne; van Ryn, Michelle; Carnes, Molly

    2012-01-01

    Multiple complex factors contribute to the slow pace of women’s advancement into leadership positions in academic medicine. In this article, the authors propose that stereotype threat--under which individuals who are members of a group characterized by negative stereotypes in a particular domain perform below their actual abilities in that domain when group membership is emphasized--may play an important role in the underrepresentation of women in leadership positions in academic medicine. Research to objectively assess the impact of stereotype threat for women in academic medicine is feasible and necessary to confirm this hypothesis. Still, a number of conditions present in the academic medicine community today have been shown to trigger stereotype threat in other settings, and stereotype threat fits with existing research on gender in academic medicine. In the meantime, academic health centers should implement relatively simple measures supported by experimental evidence from other settings to reduce the risk of stereotype threat, including: (1) introducing the concept of stereotype threat to the academic medicine community; (2) engaging all stakeholders, male and female, to promote identity safety by enacting and making faculty aware of policies to monitor potential instances of discrimination, and training faculty to provide performance feedback that is free of gender bias; (3) counteracting the effects of sex segregation at academic health centers by increasing exposure to successful female leaders; (4) reducing gender stereotype priming by avoiding stereotypically male criteria for promotion, grants, and awards; and (5) building leadership efficacy among female physicians and scientists. PMID:22361794

  10. Does stereotype threat affect women in academic medicine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Diana Jill; Joseph, Anne; van Ryn, Michelle; Carnes, Molly

    2012-04-01

    Multiple complex factors contribute to the slow pace of women's advancement into leadership positions in academic medicine. In this article, the authors propose that stereotype threat--under which individuals who are members of a group characterized by negative stereotypes in a particular domain perform below their actual abilities in that domain when group membership is emphasized--may play an important role in the underrepresentation of women in leadership positions in academic medicine. Research to objectively assess the impact of stereotype threat for women in academic medicine is feasible and necessary to confirm this hypothesis. Still, a number of conditions present in the academic medicine community today have been shown to trigger stereotype threat in other settings, and stereotype threat fits with existing research on gender in academic medicine. In the meantime, academic health centers should implement relatively simple measures supported by experimental evidence from other settings to reduce the risk of stereotype threat, including (1) introducing the concept of stereotype threat to the academic medicine community, (2) engaging all stakeholders, male and female, to promote identity safety by enacting and making faculty aware of policies to monitor potential instances of discrimination, and training faculty to provide performance feedback that is free of gender bias, (3) counteracting the effects of sex segregation at academic health centers by increasing exposure to successful female leaders, (4) reducing gender stereotype priming by avoiding stereotypically male criteria for promotion, grants, and awards, and (5) building leadership efficacy among female physicians and scientists.

  11. Software Project Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-07-01

    incorporated into the sys- Kotler88 tem. Several interesting concepts are presented, but Kotler , P. Marketing Planning: Analysis, Planning, the bulk of the...the development organiza- In some environments, a software product is de- tion. veloped on speculation that there is a market for Teaching Consideration...development houses find it necessary to b. Types of plans know what the potential market for the product There are a number of plans developed in

  12. Applying the multi-threat framework of stereotype threat in the context of digital gaming.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte R Pennington

    Full Text Available Females often report experiencing stigmatisation pertaining to their competency in digital gaming communities. Employing the principles of the multi-threat framework of stereotype threat, the current research examined the impact of gender-related stereotypes on females' gaming performance and related self-perceptions. In Experiment 1, 90 females were assigned to one of three conditions in which they were primed that their performance would be either diagnostic of their personal (self-as-target or gender group's ability (group-as-target or would be non-diagnostic of gaming ability (control. In Experiment 2, 90 females were primed that their performance would be judged by a group of other females (in-group source or males (out-group source, or would be non-diagnostic of ability (control. Participants then completed a casual gaming task, as well as measures of competence beliefs, self-efficacy and self-esteem. Findings from Experiment 1 indicate that neither a self-as-target nor a group-as-target stereotype affected significantly gaming performance, or game-related self-efficacy, self-esteem and competency beliefs. Findings from Experiment 2 reveal further that females' gaming performance and associated self-perceptions were not impacted significantly by an in-group or out-group source of stereotype threat. The discussion turns to potential explanations for these findings, proposing that females may not perceive negative gender-gaming stereotypes to be an accurate representation of their personal or social group's gaming ability. We also discuss the implications of the experimental design and difficulty, as well as the potential for domain identification to moderate performance outcomes under stereotype threat.

  13. Applying the multi-threat framework of stereotype threat in the context of digital gaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, Charlotte R; Kaye, Linda K; McCann, Joseph J

    2018-01-01

    Females often report experiencing stigmatisation pertaining to their competency in digital gaming communities. Employing the principles of the multi-threat framework of stereotype threat, the current research examined the impact of gender-related stereotypes on females' gaming performance and related self-perceptions. In Experiment 1, 90 females were assigned to one of three conditions in which they were primed that their performance would be either diagnostic of their personal (self-as-target) or gender group's ability (group-as-target) or would be non-diagnostic of gaming ability (control). In Experiment 2, 90 females were primed that their performance would be judged by a group of other females (in-group source) or males (out-group source), or would be non-diagnostic of ability (control). Participants then completed a casual gaming task, as well as measures of competence beliefs, self-efficacy and self-esteem. Findings from Experiment 1 indicate that neither a self-as-target nor a group-as-target stereotype affected significantly gaming performance, or game-related self-efficacy, self-esteem and competency beliefs. Findings from Experiment 2 reveal further that females' gaming performance and associated self-perceptions were not impacted significantly by an in-group or out-group source of stereotype threat. The discussion turns to potential explanations for these findings, proposing that females may not perceive negative gender-gaming stereotypes to be an accurate representation of their personal or social group's gaming ability. We also discuss the implications of the experimental design and difficulty, as well as the potential for domain identification to moderate performance outcomes under stereotype threat.

  14. Cyber Security Threats to Safety-Critical, Space-Based Infrastructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, C. W.; Atencia Yepez, A.

    2012-01-01

    Space-based systems play an important role within national critical infrastructures. They are being integrated into advanced air-traffic management applications, rail signalling systems, energy distribution software etc. Unfortunately, the end users of communications, location sensing and timing applications often fail to understand that these infrastructures are vulnerable to a wide range of security threats. The following pages focus on concerns associated with potential cyber-attacks. These are important because future attacks may invalidate many of the safety assumptions that support the provision of critical space-based services. These safety assumptions are based on standard forms of hazard analysis that ignore cyber-security considerations This is a significant limitation when, for instance, security attacks can simultaneously exploit multiple vulnerabilities in a manner that would never occur without a deliberate enemy seeking to damage space based systems and ground infrastructures. We address this concern through the development of a combined safety and security risk assessment methodology. The aim is to identify attack scenarios that justify the allocation of additional design resources so that safety barriers can be strengthened to increase our resilience against security threats.

  15. Sandia software guidelines: Software quality planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-08-01

    This volume is one in a series of Sandia Software Guidelines intended for use in producing quality software within Sandia National Laboratories. In consonance with the IEEE Standard for Software Quality Assurance Plans, this volume identifies procedures to follow in producing a Software Quality Assurance Plan for an organization or a project, and provides an example project SQA plan. 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  16. Avoidable Software Procurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    software license, software usage, ELA, Software as a Service , SaaS , Software Asset...PaaS Platform as a Service SaaS Software as a Service SAM Software Asset Management SMS System Management Server SEWP Solutions for Enterprise Wide...delivery of full Cloud Services , we will see the transition of the Cloud Computing service model from Iaas to SaaS , or Software as a Service . Software

  17. SECURITY THREATS IN CENTRAL ASIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çağla Gül Yesevi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study will analyze main security threats in Central Asia. It is obvious thatsince the end of Cold War, there have been many security threats in Central Asiaas internal weakness of Central Asian states, terrorism, transnational crime,economic insecurity, environmental issues, drug trafficking, ethnic violence,regional instability. This study will propose thatwith increasing interdependence,states need each other to solve these global security problems. In that sense,regional and sub-regional cooperation between Central Asian states and with otherregional actors has been witnessed. It is clear that the withdrawal of NATO fromAfghanistan will destabilize Central Asia. This study will investigate overallsecurity situation in Central Asia and affects andcontributions of regionalorganizations to Eurasian security

  18. Simulation and evaluation of solar potential in Tehran, Kerman and Yazd for a 500 kW photovoltaic power plant using PVsyst software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badri, A.; Emadifar, R.; Eldoromi, M.

    2016-01-01

    Today, electricity has become an essential part of the life. At present, a large part of the electricity is supplied by thermal power plants and hydropower plants. With increasing concerns about greenhouse gas emissions and other environmental issues new technologies such as using solar energy for electricity generation are recommended. In this paper, a typical 500-kilowatt solar power plant connected to the grid is evaluated. Simulations are implemented by PVsyst software and its performance on different climatic conditions is investigated. Moreover, the performance ratio and different types of energy losses (such as losses due to temperature increases, the domestic network losses, losses of power electronics (convertors)) are calculated. Finally, the amount of energy produced and injected into the network and the annual income from the construction to the south of Tehran, Kerman and Yazd are compared. Results show that the city of Yazd as a suitable site for the construction of the plant is the best alternative among other two options.

  19. The potential of pyrolysis technology in climate change mitigation – influence of process design and –parameters, simulated in SuperPro Designer Software

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Tobias; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Bruun, Esben

    This report investigates whether or not it would be possible to produce carbon-negative energy from pyrolysis of wheat straw in a series of Danish agricultural scenarios. A combination of process simulation in SuperPro Designer software, correlations derived from literature studies and experimental...... on scenario settings. The final results of the study have been compared to another study with convincing results. Results concluded that the primary force of the pyrolysis technology is the recalcitrant char product and not the pyrolysis oil. Based on this, the study suggests that despite the trend...... in commercial pyrolysis technology that focuses on fast pyrolysis processes with maximized bio-oil production, the twin challenge of climate mitigation and sustainable energy production is most efficiently addressed with a combination of slow pyrolysis and complete biomass conversion through combustion...

  20. Filling in biodiversity threat gaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joppa, L. N.; O'Connor, Brian; Visconti, Piero

    2016-01-01

    increase to 10,000 times the background rate should species threatened with extinction succumb to pressures they face (4). Reversing these trends is a focus of the Convention on Biological Diversity's 2020 Strategic Plan for Biodiversity and its 20 Aichi Targets and is explicitly incorporated...... into the United Nations' 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and its 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). We identify major gaps in data available for assessing global biodiversity threats and suggest mechanisms for closing them....

  1. Military Expenditure, Threats, and Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Aizenman, Joshua; Glick, Reuven

    2003-01-01

    This paper clarifies one of the puzzling results of the economic growth literature: the impact of military expenditure is frequently found to be non-significant or negative, yet most countries spend a large fraction of their GDP on defense and the military. We start by empirical evaluation of the non- linear interactions between military expenditure, external threats, corruption, and other relevant controls. While growth falls with higher levels of military spending, given the values of the o...

  2. Interaction of threat and verbal working memory in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Nilam; Vytal, Katherine; Pavletic, Nevia; Stoodley, Catherine; Pine, Daniel S; Grillon, Christian; Ernst, Monique

    2016-04-01

    Threat induces a state of sustained anxiety that can disrupt cognitive processing, and, reciprocally, cognitive processing can modulate an anxiety response to threat. These effects depend on the level of cognitive engagement, which itself varies as a function of task difficulty. In adults, we recently showed that induced anxiety impaired working memory accuracy at low and medium but not high load. Conversely, increasing the task load reduced the physiological correlates of anxiety (anxiety-potentiated startle). The present work examines such threat-cognition interactions as a function of age. We expected threat to more strongly impact working memory in younger individuals by virtue of putatively restricted cognitive resources and weaker emotion regulation. This was tested by examining the influence of age on the interaction of anxiety and working memory in 25 adolescents (10 to 17 years) and 25 adults (22 to 46 years). Working memory load was manipulated using a verbal n-back task. Anxiety was induced using the threat of an aversive loud scream and measured via eyeblink startle. Findings revealed that, in both age groups, accuracy was lower during threat than safe conditions at low and medium but not high load, and reaction times were faster during threat than safe conditions at high load but did not differ at other loads. Additionally, anxiety-potentiated startle was greater during low and medium than high load. Thus, the interactions of anxiety with working memory appear similar in adolescents and adults. Whether these similarities reflect common neural mechanisms would need to be assessed using functional neuroimaging. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  3. Software engineering architecture-driven software development

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, Richard F

    2013-01-01

    Software Engineering: Architecture-driven Software Development is the first comprehensive guide to the underlying skills embodied in the IEEE's Software Engineering Body of Knowledge (SWEBOK) standard. Standards expert Richard Schmidt explains the traditional software engineering practices recognized for developing projects for government or corporate systems. Software engineering education often lacks standardization, with many institutions focusing on implementation rather than design as it impacts product architecture. Many graduates join the workforce with incomplete skil

  4. Transmitting the sum of all fears: Iranian nuclear threat salience among offspring of Holocaust survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrira, Amit

    2015-07-01

    Many Israelis are preoccupied with the prospect of a nuclear-armed Iran, frequently associating it with the danger of annihilation that existed during the Holocaust. The current article examined whether offspring of Holocaust survivors (OHS) are especially preoccupied and sensitive to the Iranian threat, and whether this susceptibility is a part of their increased general image of actual and potential threats, defined as the hostile world scenario (HWS). Study 1 (N = 106) showed that relative to comparisons, OHS reported more preoccupation with the Iranian nuclear threat. Moreover, the positive relationship between the salience of the Iranian threat and symptoms of anxiety was stronger among OHS. Study 2 (N = 450) replicated these findings, while focusing on the Iranian nuclear threat salience and symptoms of psychological distress. It further showed that OHS reported more negative engagement with the HWS (i.e., feeling that surrounding threats decrease one's sense of competence), which in turn mediated their increased preoccupation with the Iranian threat. The results suggest that intergenerational transmission of the Holocaust trauma includes heightened preoccupation with and sensitivity to potential threats of annihilation, and that the specific preoccupation with threats of annihilation reflects a part of a more general preoccupation with surrounding threats. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Autobiographical memory sources of threats in dreams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafrenière, Alexandre; Lortie-Lussier, Monique; Dale, Allyson; Robidoux, Raphaëlle; De Koninck, Joseph

    2018-02-01

    Temporal sources of dream threats were examined through the paradigm of the Threat Simulation Theory. Two groups of young adults (18-24 years old), who did not experience severe threatening events in the year preceding their dream and reported a dream either with or without threats, were included. Participants (N = 119) kept a log of daily activities and a dream diary, indicating whether dream components referred to past experiences. The occurrence of oneiric threats correlated with the reporting of threats in the daily logs, their average severity, and the stress level experienced the day preceding the dream. The group whose dreams contained threats had significantly more references to temporal categories beyond one year than the group with dreams without threats. Our findings suggest that in the absence of recent highly negative emotional experiences, the threat simulation system selects memory traces of threatening events experienced in the past. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Software Tools for In-Situ Documentation of Built Heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smars, P.

    2013-07-01

    The paper presents open source software tools developed by the author to facilitate in-situ documentation of architectural and archæological heritage. The design choices are exposed and related to a general issue in conservation and documentation: taking decisions about a valuable object under threat . The questions of level of objectivity is central to the three steps of this process. It is our belief that in-situ documentation has to be favoured in this demanding context, full of potential discoveries. The very powerful surveying techniques in rapid development nowadays enhance our vision but often tend to bring back a critical part of the documentation process to the office. The software presented facilitate a direct treatment of the data on the site. Emphasis is given to flexibility, interoperability and simplicity. Key features of the software are listed and illustrated with examples (3D model of Gothic vaults, analysis of the shape of a column, deformation of a wall, direct interaction with AutoCAD).

  7. Distributed Sensor Network Software Development Testing through Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brennan, Sean M. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2003-12-01

    The distributed sensor network (DSN) presents a novel and highly complex computing platform with dif culties and opportunities that are just beginning to be explored. The potential of sensor networks extends from monitoring for threat reduction, to conducting instant and remote inventories, to ecological surveys. Developing and testing for robust and scalable applications is currently practiced almost exclusively in hardware. The Distributed Sensors Simulator (DSS) is an infrastructure that allows the user to debug and test software for DSNs independent of hardware constraints. The exibility of DSS allows developers and researchers to investigate topological, phenomenological, networking, robustness and scaling issues, to explore arbitrary algorithms for distributed sensors, and to defeat those algorithms through simulated failure. The user speci es the topology, the environment, the application, and any number of arbitrary failures; DSS provides the virtual environmental embedding.

  8. Spatial Pattern Determination of Biodiversity Threats at Landscape Level (Case Study: Golestan Province)

    OpenAIRE

    R. Mirzaei; A. Esmaili-Sari; M. R. Hemami; H. R. Rezaei

    2015-01-01

    Mapping spatial patterns of potential biodiversity threats is one of the important steps for effective conservation planning and activities. To determine the spatial patterns of threats in Golestan province, 12 criteria in four main groups including structural (fractal coefficient of perimeter, circularity ratio of area, average slope), compositional aspects of biodiversity (presence of species at risk), non-biological threats (distance to city, distance to village, distance to road, distance...

  9. Stereotype Threat, Test Anxiety, and Mathematics Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tempel, Tobias; Neumann, Roland

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the combined effects of stereotype threat and trait test anxiety on mathematics test performance. Stereotype threat and test anxiety interacted with each other in affecting performance. Trait test anxiety predicted performance only in a diagnostic condition that prevented stereotype threat by stereotype denial. A state measure of…

  10. The software life cycle

    CERN Document Server

    Ince, Darrel

    1990-01-01

    The Software Life Cycle deals with the software lifecycle, that is, what exactly happens when software is developed. Topics covered include aspects of software engineering, structured techniques of software development, and software project management. The use of mathematics to design and develop computer systems is also discussed. This book is comprised of 20 chapters divided into four sections and begins with an overview of software engineering and software development, paying particular attention to the birth of software engineering and the introduction of formal methods of software develop

  11. Terrorism and global security: The nuclear threat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beres, L.R.

    1987-01-01

    In the seven years since this book was first published, the threat of nuclear terrorism has increased dramatically. The enormous destructive potential of nuclear technology inevitably raises the specter of the use of nuclear explosives or radioactivity by insurgent groups. The author explores the political bases of terrorism by considering the factors that might foster nuclear terrorism, the forms it could take, and the probable consequences of such acts. New to this edition is the author's examination of the essential distinctions between lawful insurgencies and terrorism, as well as his analysis of the impact of recent U.S. foreign policy. The author explores the United State's all-consuming rivalry with the Soviet Union, arguing that it has created an atmosphere ripe for anti-U.S. terrorism and that the only viable option for the super-powers is cooperation in an effort to control terrorist activities. He also discusses the ''Reagan doctrine,'' which he believes has increased the long-term threat of nuclear terrorism against the U.S. by its continuing support of authoritarian regimes and by its active opposition to Marxist regimes such as those in Nicaragua and Angola. The book concludes by presenting the first coherent strategy for countering nuclear terrorism-embracing both technological and behavioral measures. The proposal includes policies for deterrence and situation management on national and international scales and emphasizes the logic of a major reshaping of world order

  12. Initial perspectives on process threat management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whiteley, James R. Rob; Mannan, M. Sam

    2004-01-01

    Terrorist and criminal acts are now considered credible risks in the process industries. Deliberate attacks on the nation's petroleum refineries and chemical plants would pose a significant threat to public welfare, national security, and the US economy. To-date, the primary response of government and industry has been on improved security to prevent attacks and the associated consequences. While prevention is clearly preferred, the potential for successful attacks must be addressed. If plant security is breached, the extent of the inflicted damage is determined by the available plant safety systems and procedures. We refer to this 'inside the gate' response as process threat management. The authors have initiated a joint industry/academia study to address: - the level of safety provided by existing plant equipment and safety systems in response to a terrorist act, and; - identification of process (rather than security) needs or opportunities to address this new safety concern. This paper describes the initial perspectives and issues identified by the team at the beginning of the study

  13. Improving Visual Threat Detection: Research to Validate the Threat Detection Skills Trainer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    26 Threat Detection and Mitigation Strategies...quicker when identifying threats in relevant locations. This task utilized the Flicker paradigm (Rensink, O’Regan, & Clark, 1997; Scholl, 2000...the meaning and implication of threats, why cues were relevant, strategies used to detect and mitigate threats, and challenges when attempting to

  14. Regulation in a Brave New World: Safeguarding against Subversive Threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornosty, Jason

    2011-01-01

    Biotechnology is a rapidly advancing science that has the potential to revolutionize medicine and transform human abilities. Accompanying these positives are an underdiscussed category of threats to principles of human rights and equality. Although any technology might be used to inegalitarian ends, biotechnology has the capacity to beget…

  15. Threats and opportunities for post-closure development in dolomitic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mining-related impacts such as large-scale land degradation associated with dewatering of karstic aquifers and widespread pollution of surface water and groundwater systems are discussed. Based on this, potential threats and opportunities for post-mining scenarios are identified in a series of 3 papers. Part 1 of this series ...

  16. Law Enforcement Use of Threat Assessments to Predict Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Tracey Michelle

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative, descriptive multiple case study was to explore what process, policies and procedures, or set of empirically supported norms governed law enforcement officers in a selected county in the southwest region of the United States when threat assessments were conducted on potentially violent subjects threatening mass…

  17. The nuclear threat and the Nuclear Threat Initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtis, Charles

    2001-01-01

    Full text: President and chief operating officer of the Nuclear Threat Initiative (NTI), was invited by the IAEA Director General to speak about NTI and its mission at the IAEA Safeguards Symposium. Established by CNN founder Ted Turner and former U.S. Senator Sam Nunn, NTI is a charitable organization working to strengthen global security by reducing the risk of use and preventing the spread of nuclear, biological and chemical weapons. The foundation is global, concentrating not just on the United States, Russia, and other nations of the former Soviet Union, but also on those regions of greatest proliferation concern in Asia and the Middle East. NTI is working to close what it perceives as an increasingly dangerous gap between the threat from nuclear, biological and chemical weapons and the global response. NTI is supported by a pledge from Mr. Turner of at least $250 million over five years, among the largest sums any private individual has ever invested in these security issues. NTI's Board of Directors, an international team of experienced and knowledgeable experts, determines the overall direction of the foundation. (author)

  18. Effects of threat management interactions on conservation priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auerbach, Nancy A; Wilson, Kerrie A; Tulloch, Ayesha I T; Rhodes, Jonathan R; Hanson, Jeffrey O; Possingham, Hugh P

    2015-12-01

    Decisions need to be made about which biodiversity management actions are undertaken to mitigate threats and about where these actions are implemented. However, management actions can interact; that is, the cost, benefit, and feasibility of one action can change when another action is undertaken. There is little guidance on how to explicitly and efficiently prioritize management for multiple threats, including deciding where to act. Integrated management could focus on one management action to abate a dominant threat or on a strategy comprising multiple actions to abate multiple threats. Furthermore management could be undertaken at sites that are in close proximity to reduce costs. We used cost-effectiveness analysis to prioritize investments in fire management, controlling invasive predators, and reducing grazing pressure in a bio-diverse region of southeastern Queensland, Australia. We compared outcomes of 5 management approaches based on different assumptions about interactions and quantified how investment needed, benefits expected, and the locations prioritized for implementation differed when interactions were taken into account. Managing for interactions altered decisions about where to invest and in which actions to invest and had the potential to deliver increased investment efficiency. Differences in high priority locations and actions were greatest between the approaches when we made different assumptions about how management actions deliver benefits through threat abatement: either all threats must be managed to conserve species or only one management action may be required. Threatened species management that does not consider interactions between actions may result in misplaced investments or misguided expectations of the effort required to mitigate threats to species. © 2015 The Authors. Conservation Biology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc., on behalf of Society for Conservation Biology.

  19. Analyzing Cyber-Physical Threats on Robotic Platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad Yousef, Khalil M; AlMajali, Anas; Ghalyon, Salah Abu; Dweik, Waleed; Mohd, Bassam J

    2018-05-21

    Robots are increasingly involved in our daily lives. Fundamental to robots are the communication link (or stream) and the applications that connect the robots to their clients or users. Such communication link and applications are usually supported through client/server network connection. This networking system is amenable of being attacked and vulnerable to the security threats. Ensuring security and privacy for robotic platforms is thus critical, as failures and attacks could have devastating consequences. In this paper, we examine several cyber-physical security threats that are unique to the robotic platforms; specifically the communication link and the applications. Threats target integrity, availability and confidential security requirements of the robotic platforms, which use MobileEyes/arnlServer client/server applications. A robot attack tool (RAT) was developed to perform specific security attacks. An impact-oriented approach was adopted to analyze the assessment results of the attacks. Tests and experiments of attacks were conducted in simulation environment and physically on the robot. The simulation environment was based on MobileSim; a software tool for simulating, debugging and experimenting on MobileRobots/ActivMedia platforms and their environments. The robot platform PeopleBot TM was used for physical experiments. The analysis and testing results show that certain attacks were successful at breaching the robot security. Integrity attacks modified commands and manipulated the robot behavior. Availability attacks were able to cause Denial-of-Service (DoS) and the robot was not responsive to MobileEyes commands. Integrity and availability attacks caused sensitive information on the robot to be hijacked. To mitigate security threats, we provide possible mitigation techniques and suggestions to raise awareness of threats on the robotic platforms, especially when the robots are involved in critical missions or applications.

  20. Analyzing Cyber-Physical Threats on Robotic Platforms †

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Robots are increasingly involved in our daily lives. Fundamental to robots are the communication link (or stream) and the applications that connect the robots to their clients or users. Such communication link and applications are usually supported through client/server network connection. This networking system is amenable of being attacked and vulnerable to the security threats. Ensuring security and privacy for robotic platforms is thus critical, as failures and attacks could have devastating consequences. In this paper, we examine several cyber-physical security threats that are unique to the robotic platforms; specifically the communication link and the applications. Threats target integrity, availability and confidential security requirements of the robotic platforms, which use MobileEyes/arnlServer client/server applications. A robot attack tool (RAT) was developed to perform specific security attacks. An impact-oriented approach was adopted to analyze the assessment results of the attacks. Tests and experiments of attacks were conducted in simulation environment and physically on the robot. The simulation environment was based on MobileSim; a software tool for simulating, debugging and experimenting on MobileRobots/ActivMedia platforms and their environments. The robot platform PeopleBotTM was used for physical experiments. The analysis and testing results show that certain attacks were successful at breaching the robot security. Integrity attacks modified commands and manipulated the robot behavior. Availability attacks were able to cause Denial-of-Service (DoS) and the robot was not responsive to MobileEyes commands. Integrity and availability attacks caused sensitive information on the robot to be hijacked. To mitigate security threats, we provide possible mitigation techniques and suggestions to raise awareness of threats on the robotic platforms, especially when the robots are involved in critical missions or applications. PMID:29883403

  1. Analyzing Cyber-Physical Threats on Robotic Platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalil M. Ahmad Yousef

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Robots are increasingly involved in our daily lives. Fundamental to robots are the communication link (or stream and the applications that connect the robots to their clients or users. Such communication link and applications are usually supported through client/server network connection. This networking system is amenable of being attacked and vulnerable to the security threats. Ensuring security and privacy for robotic platforms is thus critical, as failures and attacks could have devastating consequences. In this paper, we examine several cyber-physical security threats that are unique to the robotic platforms; specifically the communication link and the applications. Threats target integrity, availability and confidential security requirements of the robotic platforms, which use MobileEyes/arnlServer client/server applications. A robot attack tool (RAT was developed to perform specific security attacks. An impact-oriented approach was adopted to analyze the assessment results of the attacks. Tests and experiments of attacks were conducted in simulation environment and physically on the robot. The simulation environment was based on MobileSim; a software tool for simulating, debugging and experimenting on MobileRobots/ActivMedia platforms and their environments. The robot platform PeopleBotTM was used for physical experiments. The analysis and testing results show that certain attacks were successful at breaching the robot security. Integrity attacks modified commands and manipulated the robot behavior. Availability attacks were able to cause Denial-of-Service (DoS and the robot was not responsive to MobileEyes commands. Integrity and availability attacks caused sensitive information on the robot to be hijacked. To mitigate security threats, we provide possible mitigation techniques and suggestions to raise awareness of threats on the robotic platforms, especially when the robots are involved in critical missions or applications.

  2. Animal Botulism Outcomes in the AniBioThreat Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woudstra, Cédric; Tevell Åberg, Annica; Skarin, Hanna

    2013-01-01

    and botulinum neurotoxins are considered potential weapons for bioterrorism and have been included in the Australia Group List of Biological Agents. In 2010 the European Commission (DG Justice, Freedom and Security) funded a 3-year project named AniBioThreat to improve the EU's capacity to counter animal...... new genetic information to better understand the diversity of these Clostridia and develop detection methods targeting both highly specific genetic markers of these Clostridia and the neurotoxins they are able to produce. Several European institutes participating in the AniBioThreat project...

  3. Teamwork in Distributed Agile Software Development

    OpenAIRE

    Gurram, Chaitanya; Bandi, Srinivas Goud

    2013-01-01

    Context: Distributed software development has become a most desired way of software development. Application of agile development methodologies in distributed environments has taken a new trend in developing software due to its benefits of improved communication and collaboration. Teamwork is an important concept that agile methodologies facilitate and is one of the potential determinants of team performance which was not focused in distributed agile software development. Objectives: This res...

  4. New threats to academic freedom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minerva, Francesca

    2014-05-01

    Using a specific case as an example, the article argues that the Internet allows dissemination of academic ideas to the general public in ways that can sometimes pose a threat to academic freedom. Since academic freedom is a fundamental element of academia and since it benefits society at large, it is important to safeguard it. Among measures that can be taken in order to achieve this goal, the publication of anonymous research seems to be a good option. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Nuclear terrorism - Threat or not?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomper, Miles A.; Tarini, Gabrielle

    2017-11-01

    A terrorist attack using nuclear or radiological materials is a low-probability event, but if executed, would lead to unprecedented socio-economic, material, and psychological disruption and damage. This chapter seeks to provide a sound assessment of the scope and nature of the threat by examining the different types of nuclear terrorism, each of which poses different risks, involves different barriers to success, and requires different terrorist capabilities. In addition, the chapter aims to provide an overview of the sources and nature of terrorists' motivations to employ a nuclear attack.

  6. The threat of nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This report aims to describe the present threat of nuclear war, with particular reference to New Zealand, and the increasing concern felt by many scientists, from a scientific viewpoint but in non-technical language. It surveys what is known about nuclear weapons and the consequences of their use, and attention is drawn to the importance of penetrating the language and examining the assumptions made in the propaganda about n uclear deterrence . The tasks involved in maintaining the present peace and attempting to establish an agreed disarmament is examined. The report pays particular attention to the roles of scientists in these endeavours

  7. Stereotype threat and female communication styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Hippel, Courtney; Wiryakusuma, Cindy; Bowden, Jessica; Shochet, Megan

    2011-10-01

    A large body of research has documented the performance-debilitating effects of stereotype threat for individuals, but there is a paucity of research exploring interpersonal consequences of stereotype threat. Two experiments tested the hypothesis that stereotype threat would change the style in which women communicate. Results indicate that women who experience stereotype threat regarding leadership abilities react against the stereotype by adopting a more masculine communication style. Study 2 provides evidence that self-affirmation eliminates this effect of stereotype threat on women's communication styles. A third study demonstrates an ironic consequence of this effect of stereotype threat on women's communication--when women under stereotype threat adopt a more masculine communication style, they are rated as less warm and likeable, and evaluators indicate less willingness to comply with their requests. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.

  8. ESTSC - Software Best Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    DOE Scientific and Technical Software Best Practices December 2010 Table of Contents 1.0 Introduction 2.0 Responsibilities 2.1 OSTI/ESTSC 2.2 SIACs 2.3 Software Submitting Sites/Creators 2.4 Software Sensitivity Review 3.0 Software Announcement and Submission 3.1 STI Software Appropriate for Announcement 3.2

  9. Software Assurance Competency Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    COTS) software , and software as a service ( SaaS ). L2: Define and analyze risks in the acquisition of contracted software , COTS software , and SaaS ...2010a]: Application of technologies and processes to achieve a required level of confidence that software systems and services function in the...

  10. Conceptualizing threats to tobacco control from international economic agreements: the Brazilian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drope, Jeffrey; McGrady, Benn; Bialous, Stella Aguinaga; Lencucha, Raphael; Silva, Vera Luiza da Costa E

    2017-10-19

    Using the results of dozens of interviews with key actors involved in tobacco control policymaking, we examine these actors' perceptions of threats to tobacco control policy efforts from international economic policies on trade and investment. We also evaluate, from a legal perspective, the genuine threats that exist or potential challenges that economic policies may pose to the Brazilian government's public health efforts. We find that most actors did not perceive these economic policies as a major threat to tobacco control. Objectively, we found that some threats do exist. For example, Brazil's attempt to ban most tobacco additives and flavorings continues to met resistance at the World Trade Organization.

  11. Existential and psychological problems connected with Threat Predicting Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamcarz Piotr

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to present a very important phenomenon affecting human integrity and homeostasis that is Threat Prediction Process. This process can be defined as “experiencing apprehension concerning results of potential/ actual dangers,” (Mamcarz, 2015 oscillating in terminological area of anxiety, fear, stress, restlessness. Moreover, it highlights a cognitive process distinctive for listed phenomenon’s. The process accompanied with technological and organization changes increases number of health problems affecting many populations. Hard work conditions; changing life style; or many social and political threats have influence on people’s quality of life that are even greater and more dangerous than physical and psychological factors, which, in turn, have much more consequences for human normal functioning. The present article is based on chosen case studies of a qualitative analysis of threat prediction process

  12. Stereotype Threat and College Academic Performance: A Latent Variables Approach*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Jayanti; Massey, Douglas S.

    2013-01-01

    Stereotype threat theory has gained experimental and survey-based support in helping explain the academic underperformance of minority students at selective colleges and universities. Stereotype threat theory states that minority students underperform because of pressures created by negative stereotypes about their racial group. Past survey-based studies, however, are characterized by methodological inefficiencies and potential biases: key theoretical constructs have only been measured using summed indicators and predicted relationships modeled using ordinary least squares. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Freshman, this study overcomes previous methodological shortcomings by developing a latent construct model of stereotype threat. Theoretical constructs and equations are estimated simultaneously from multiple indicators, yielding a more reliable, valid, and parsimonious test of key propositions. Findings additionally support the view that social stigma can indeed have strong negative effects on the academic performance of pejoratively stereotyped racial-minority group members, not only in laboratory settings, but also in the real world. PMID:23950616

  13. Software attribute visualization for high integrity software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pollock, G.M.

    1998-03-01

    This report documents a prototype tool developed to investigate the use of visualization and virtual reality technologies for improving software surety confidence. The tool is utilized within the execution phase of the software life cycle. It provides a capability to monitor an executing program against prespecified requirements constraints provided in a program written in the requirements specification language SAGE. The resulting Software Attribute Visual Analysis Tool (SAVAnT) also provides a technique to assess the completeness of a software specification.

  14. Threat and error management for anesthesiologists: a predictive risk taxonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruskin, Keith J.; Stiegler, Marjorie P.; Park, Kellie; Guffey, Patrick; Kurup, Viji; Chidester, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review Patient care in the operating room is a dynamic interaction that requires cooperation among team members and reliance upon sophisticated technology. Most human factors research in medicine has been focused on analyzing errors and implementing system-wide changes to prevent them from recurring. We describe a set of techniques that has been used successfully by the aviation industry to analyze errors and adverse events and explain how these techniques can be applied to patient care. Recent findings Threat and error management (TEM) describes adverse events in terms of risks or challenges that are present in an operational environment (threats) and the actions of specific personnel that potentiate or exacerbate those threats (errors). TEM is a technique widely used in aviation, and can be adapted for the use in a medical setting to predict high-risk situations and prevent errors in the perioperative period. A threat taxonomy is a novel way of classifying and predicting the hazards that can occur in the operating room. TEM can be used to identify error-producing situations, analyze adverse events, and design training scenarios. Summary TEM offers a multifaceted strategy for identifying hazards, reducing errors, and training physicians. A threat taxonomy may improve analysis of critical events with subsequent development of specific interventions, and may also serve as a framework for training programs in risk mitigation. PMID:24113268

  15. Assessment of terrorist threats to the Canadian energy sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shull, A. [Carleton Univ., Ottawa, ON (Canada). Norman Paterson School of International Affairs]|[Ottawa Univ., ON (Canada). Faculty of Law

    2006-03-15

    A critical terrorist threat assessment of Canadian energy systems was presented, as well as an analysis of integrated continental systems. Recent responses to heightened threat levels on the part of the Canadian government have ranged from information sharing to emergency preparedness and disaster mitigation strategies. This paper examined threats that the energy sector has traditionally encountered and argued that response capabilities do not match current threats posed by terrorism. The potential of a terrorist attack on the Canadian energy infrastructure is significant and has been referred to as a possible target by terrorist organizations. Actions taken by the Canadian government in response to heightened threat levels were examined. A review of energy industry security measures included outlines of: the natural gas industry, the electric sector, and nuclear reactors and waste. It was noted that not all elements of the critical energy infrastructure share the same level of risk. Recommendations included increased information sharing between government agencies and the private sector; resiliency standards in densely populated areas; and insulating the energy grid against a cascading blackout through the use of DC rather than AC lines. 59 refs.

  16. Assessment of terrorist threats to the Canadian energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shull, A.

    2006-01-01

    A critical terrorist threat assessment of Canadian energy systems was presented, as well as an analysis of integrated continental systems. Recent responses to heightened threat levels on the part of the Canadian government have ranged from information sharing to emergency preparedness and disaster mitigation strategies. This paper examined threats that the energy sector has traditionally encountered and argued that response capabilities do not match current threats posed by terrorism. The potential of a terrorist attack on the Canadian energy infrastructure is significant and has been referred to as a possible target by terrorist organizations. Actions taken by the Canadian government in response to heightened threat levels were examined. A review of energy industry security measures included outlines of: the natural gas industry, the electric sector, and nuclear reactors and waste. It was noted that not all elements of the critical energy infrastructure share the same level of risk. Recommendations included increased information sharing between government agencies and the private sector; resiliency standards in densely populated areas; and insulating the energy grid against a cascading blackout through the use of DC rather than AC lines. 59 refs

  17. Managing threats from emerging technologies: can safeguards show the way?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leffer, Teri N.

    2014-01-01

    The system of international nuclear safeguards implemented by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is primarily a means of verification of states’ commitments under various legal instruments, principally the Nuclear Non‑Proliferation Treaty (NPT), to utilize controlled nuclear fission for peaceful purposes only. However, the safeguards system can also be seen as a mechanism through which states acted to reduce the threat posed by a new technology that had a transformative impact on existing national security paradigms when it emerged in the twentieth century. In the twenty‑first century, new technologies with equally profound national security implications are emerging. These include biotechnology and synthetic biology, nano technology, information technology, cognitive science, robotics and artificial intelligence. Throughout its history, the safeguards system has evolved to accommodate new technologies, new undertakings and new threats. Because multiple emerging technologies now constitute potential national security threats, it is appropriate to consider whether and how the lessons and successes of the safeguards system, including its capacity to evolve in response to changing requirements, could be leveraged to mitigate the threat posed by these new technologies. This paper addresses the possibility of re‑imagining safeguards in a way that makes them applicable to a broader range of technology‑based threats without compromising their effectiveness for their original purpose.

  18. If it bleeds, it leads: separating threat from mere negativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kveraga, Kestutis; Boshyan, Jasmine; Adams, Reginald B; Mote, Jasmine; Betz, Nicole; Ward, Noreen; Hadjikhani, Nouchine; Bar, Moshe; Barrett, Lisa F

    2015-01-01

    Most theories of emotion hold that negative stimuli are threatening and aversive. Yet in everyday experiences some negative sights (e.g. car wrecks) attract curiosity, whereas others repel (e.g. a weapon pointed in our face). To examine the diversity in negative stimuli, we employed four classes of visual images (Direct Threat, Indirect Threat, Merely Negative and Neutral) in a set of behavioral and functional magnetic resonance imaging studies. Participants reliably discriminated between the images, evaluating Direct Threat stimuli most quickly, and Merely Negative images most slowly. Threat images evoked greater and earlier blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) activations in the amygdala and periaqueductal gray, structures implicated in representing and responding to the motivational salience of stimuli. Conversely, the Merely Negative images evoked larger BOLD signal in the parahippocampal, retrosplenial, and medial prefrontal cortices, regions which have been implicated in contextual association processing. Ventrolateral as well as medial and lateral orbitofrontal cortices were activated by both threatening and Merely Negative images. In conclusion, negative visual stimuli can repel or attract scrutiny depending on their current threat potential, which is assessed by dynamic shifts in large-scale brain network activity. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Benefits of integrating complementarity into priority threat management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadés, Iadine; Nicol, Sam; van Leeuwen, Stephen; Walters, Belinda; Firn, Jennifer; Reeson, Andrew; Martin, Tara G; Carwardine, Josie

    2015-04-01

    Conservation decision tools based on cost-effectiveness analysis are used to assess threat management strategies for improving species persistence. These approaches rank alternative strategies by their benefit to cost ratio but may fail to identify the optimal sets of strategies to implement under limited budgets because they do not account for redundancies. We devised a multiobjective optimization approach in which the complementarity principle is applied to identify the sets of threat management strategies that protect the most species for any budget. We used our approach to prioritize threat management strategies for 53 species of conservation concern in the Pilbara, Australia. We followed a structured elicitation approach to collect information on the benefits and costs of implementing 17 different conservation strategies during a 3-day workshop with 49 stakeholders and experts in the biodiversity, conservation, and management of the Pilbara. We compared the performance of our complementarity priority threat management approach with a current cost-effectiveness ranking approach. A complementary set of 3 strategies: domestic herbivore management, fire management and research, and sanctuaries provided all species with >50% chance of persistence for $4.7 million/year over 20 years. Achieving the same result cost almost twice as much ($9.71 million/year) when strategies were selected by their cost-effectiveness ranks alone. Our results show that complementarity of management benefits has the potential to double the impact of priority threat management approaches. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  20. Threats and opportunities of plant pathogenic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarkowski, Petr; Vereecke, Danny

    2014-01-01

    Plant pathogenic bacteria can have devastating effects on plant productivity and yield. Nevertheless, because these often soil-dwelling bacteria have evolved to interact with eukaryotes, they generally exhibit a strong adaptivity, a versatile metabolism, and ingenious mechanisms tailored to modify the development of their hosts. Consequently, besides being a threat for agricultural practices, phytopathogens may also represent opportunities for plant production or be useful for specific biotechnological applications. Here, we illustrate this idea by reviewing the pathogenic strategies and the (potential) uses of five very different (hemi)biotrophic plant pathogenic bacteria: Agrobacterium tumefaciens, A. rhizogenes, Rhodococcus fascians, scab-inducing Streptomyces spp., and Pseudomonas syringae. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Disarming the Threat to Feminist Identification: An Application of Personal Construct Theory to Measurement and Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Bonnie; Martin, Annelise; Brewster, Melanie E.

    2012-01-01

    Many individuals endorse feminist values but do not identify as feminist. The present set of studies tests the concept of threat, grounded in G. A. Kelly's personal construct theory of personality, as a potential factor in feminist nonidentification. Study 1 introduces the theoretically grounded "Feminist Threat Index" and evaluates its…

  2. Threat Assessment: Do Lone Terrorists Differ from Other Lone Offenders?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane M. Zierhoffer

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the viability of a threat assessment model developed to calculate the risk of targeted violence as a predictor of violence by potential lone terrorists. There is no profile, to date, which would assist in the identification of a lone terrorist prior to an attack. The threat assessment model developed by Borum, Fein, Vossekuil, and Berglund and described in “Threat Assessment: Defining an approach for evaluating risk of targeted violence” (1999 poses ten questions about the patterns of thinking and behaviors that may precipitate an attack of targeted violence. Three terrorists are studied to assess the model’s value as a predictor of terrorism. It is assessed for its use within law enforcement, during an investigation of someone brought to attention as a possible terrorist and for family members or friends who suspect potential terrorist behavior. Would these questions encourage someone to report a friend to prevent a possible attack? This threat assessment model provides a foundation for future research focused on developing a structured risk assessment for lone terrorists. In its present form, the questions can assist both citizens and law enforcement personnel in identifying the patterns of thought and behavior potentially indicative of a lone terrorist.

  3. Insider Threat to Computer Security at Nuclear Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, Rebecca Lynn [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2018-01-29

    After completing this session, you should be able to: Describe the Insider Threat; Characterize the cyber insider threat; Describe preventive measures against the insider threat; Describe protective measures against the insider threat.

  4. Movements Indicate Threat Response Phases in Children at Risk for Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinnis, Ellen W; McGinnis, Ryan S; Muzik, Maria; Hruschak, Jessica; Lopez-Duran, Nestor L; Perkins, Noel C; Fitzgerald, Kate; Rosenblum, Katherine L

    2017-09-01

    Temporal phases of threat response, including potential threat (anxiety), acute threat (startle, fear), and post-threat response modulation, have been identified as the underlying markers of anxiety disorders. Objective measures of response during these phases may help identify children at risk for anxiety; however, the complexity of current assessment techniques prevent their adoption in many research and clinical contexts. We propose an alternative technology, an inertial measurement unit (IMU), that enables noninvasive measurement of the movements associated with threat response, and test its ability to detect threat response phases in young children at a heightened risk for developing anxiety. We quantified the motion of 18 children (3-7 years old) during an anxiety-/fear-provoking behavioral task using an IMU. Specifically, measurements from a single IMU secured to the child's waist were used to extract root-mean-square acceleration and angular velocity in the horizontal and vertical directions, and tilt and yaw range of motion during each threat response phase. IMU measurements detected expected differences in child motion by threat phase. Additionally, potential threat motion was positively correlated to familial anxiety risk, startle range of motion was positively correlated with child internalizing symptoms, and response modulation motion was negatively correlated to familial anxiety risk. Results suggest differential theory-driven threat response phases and support previous literature connecting maternal child risk to anxiety with behavioral measures using more feasible objective methods. This is the first study demonstrating the utility of an IMU for characterizing the motion of young children to mark the phases of threat response modulation. The technique provides a novel and objective measure of threat response for mental health researchers.

  5. Reliability of software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopetz, H.

    1980-01-01

    Common factors and differences in the reliability of hardware and software; reliability increase by means of methods of software redundancy. Maintenance of software for long term operating behavior. (HP) [de

  6. Software reliability studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppa, Mary Ann; Wilson, Larry W.

    1994-01-01

    There are many software reliability models which try to predict future performance of software based on data generated by the debugging process. Our research has shown that by improving the quality of the data one can greatly improve the predictions. We are working on methodologies which control some of the randomness inherent in the standard data generation processes in order to improve the accuracy of predictions. Our contribution is twofold in that we describe an experimental methodology using a data structure called the debugging graph and apply this methodology to assess the robustness of existing models. The debugging graph is used to analyze the effects of various fault recovery orders on the predictive accuracy of several well-known software reliability algorithms. We found that, along a particular debugging path in the graph, the predictive performance of different models can vary greatly. Similarly, just because a model 'fits' a given path's data well does not guarantee that the model would perform well on a different path. Further we observed bug interactions and noted their potential effects on the predictive process. We saw that not only do different faults fail at different rates, but that those rates can be affected by the particular debugging stage at which the rates are evaluated. Based on our experiment, we conjecture that the accuracy of a reliability prediction is affected by the fault recovery order as well as by fault interaction.

  7. Space Flight Software Development Software for Intelligent System Health Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevino, Luis C.; Crumbley, Tim

    2004-01-01

    The slide presentation examines the Marshall Space Flight Center Flight Software Branch, including software development projects, mission critical space flight software development, software technical insight, advanced software development technologies, and continuous improvement in the software development processes and methods.

  8. Software Engineering Guidebook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, John; Wenneson, Greg

    1993-01-01

    The Software Engineering Guidebook describes SEPG (Software Engineering Process Group) supported processes and techniques for engineering quality software in NASA environments. Three process models are supported: structured, object-oriented, and evolutionary rapid-prototyping. The guidebook covers software life-cycles, engineering, assurance, and configuration management. The guidebook is written for managers and engineers who manage, develop, enhance, and/or maintain software under the Computer Software Services Contract.

  9. Consequences of a changing CBRN threat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medema, J.

    2009-01-01

    The OPCW now counts 186 member States. Member States that possessed chemical weapons (CW) are destroying those weapons, albeit at a slow pace. In the coming decade most, if not all, of the 100.000 + tons of CW from the previous century will have been destroyed. Of the 12± States, not part of the OPCW, four of them potentially have CW but their quantities are restricted to less than 1000 tons. About one kg of the more potent nerve agent or Mustard gas is required to produce on average one casualty amongst unprotected troops, 1000 tons potentially can produce 1 million casualties. Protection, passive chemical defense, is therefore mandatory. However, once a detection and protection system is in place, with a protection factor of say one thousand, the amount required to produce one casualty amongst troops in a military scenario becomes prohibitive. Furthermore, available CW quantities will have been reduced by pre-emptive airstrikes and the aggressor will have little chance to fully deploy his CW capability. The threat from massive CW with units facing several attacks per week has changed to incidental attacks on a smaller scale and with far lower frequency. This should have consequences for the chemical defense posture of the forces, Detection and protection are still required but the protection can have a lower capacity, less spares per individual. Because the number of incidents will be far lower it might be more cost effective to abandon contaminated equipment than to decontaminate it. As the number of CW casualties entering the military medical system will be small it might be better to find cures for diseases from biological weapons than to spent money on improved therapies for nerve agent or mustard. Although research in CW medical over the last 50 years was great, it has not produced a therapy for mustard or a significant improvement over the old therapy for nerve agent poisoning. With a declining CW threat the BW threat is on the rise, making a passive

  10. R2U2: Monitoring and Diagnosis of Security Threats for Unmanned Aerial Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, Johann; Moosbruger, Patrick; Rozier, Kristin Y.

    2015-01-01

    We present R2U2, a novel framework for runtime monitoring of security properties and diagnosing of security threats on-board Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS). R2U2, implemented in FPGA hardware, is a real-time, REALIZABLE, RESPONSIVE, UNOBTRUSIVE Unit for security threat detection. R2U2 is designed to continuously monitor inputs from the GPS and the ground control station, sensor readings, actuator outputs, and flight software status. By simultaneously monitoring and performing statistical reasoning, attack patterns and post-attack discrepancies in the UAS behavior can be detected. R2U2 uses runtime observer pairs for linear and metric temporal logics for property monitoring and Bayesian networks for diagnosis of security threats. We discuss the design and implementation that now enables R2U2 to handle security threats and present simulation results of several attack scenarios on the NASA DragonEye UAS.

  11. Stereotype threat and executive functions: which functions mediate different threat-related outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydell, Robert J; Van Loo, Katie J; Boucher, Kathryn L

    2014-03-01

    Stereotype threat research shows that women's math performance can be reduced by activating gender-based math stereotypes. Models of stereotype threat assert that threat reduces cognitive functioning, thereby accounting for its negative effects. This work provides a more detailed understanding of the cognitive processes through which stereotype threat leads women to underperform at math and to take risks, by examining which basic executive functions (inhibition, shifting, and updating) account for these outcomes. In Experiments 1 and 2, women under threat showed reduced inhibition, reduced updating, and reduced math performance compared with women in a control condition (or men); however, only updating accounted for women's poor math performance under threat. In Experiment 3, only updating accounted for stereotype threat's effect on women's math performance, whereas only inhibition accounted for the effect of threat on risk-taking, suggesting that distinct executive functions can account for different stereotype threat-related outcomes.

  12. Countering the Nuclear Terrorist Threat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vantine, H C

    2002-01-01

    The nuclear/radioactive threat to homeland security posed by terrorists can be broken into four categories. Of highest concern is the use of an improvised nuclear device (IND). An IND, as its name implies, is a nuclear explosive device. It produces nuclear yield, and this nuclear yield has catastrophic effects. An IND is the ultimate terrorist weapon, and terrorist groups are actively attempting to acquire nuclear weapons. Detonation of an IND could dwarf the devastation of the September 11 attack on the World Trade Center. Dealing with the aftermath of an IND would be horrific. Rescue efforts and cleanup would be hazardous and difficult. Workers would have to wear full protection suits and self-contained breathing apparatus. Because of the residual radioactivity, in certain locations they could only work short times before acquiring their ''lifetime'' dose. As with the Chernobyl event, some rescue workers might well expose themselves to lethal doses of radiation, adding to the casualty toll. Enormous volumes of contaminated debris would have to be removed and disposed. If a terrorist group decides not to pursue an actual nuclear device, it might well turn to Radiological Dispersal Devices (RDDs) or ''dirty bombs'' as they are often called. RDDs spread radioactivity but they do not generate nuclear yield. The fabrication of an RDD requires radioactive material and a dispersal mechanism. Radioactive materials are used all over the world for medical, industrial, and research applications. Standards for safe handling and accountability of radioactive material vary around the world. Stories in the press suggest inadequate controls on radiological materials in parts of the world. The effects of an RDD vary widely, and are measured in terms of contamination area, health effects to the exposed population, and economic consequences. Even a negligible, but measurable, exposure would exploit the general public's fear of things radioactive and would have significant

  13. Effect of evaluation threat on procrastination behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Ngoc H

    2007-06-01

    The author evaluated the effects of evaluation apprehension and trait procrastination on behaviors. The author examined private university students from southern California (N = 72) on two independent variables: evaluation threat (manipulated) and trait procrastination (nonmanipulated). The author found a significant interaction effect between type of evaluation threat and level of trait procrastination on the number of days to complete an assigned essay. Post hoc analyses showed high trait procrastinators in the high evaluation threat group significantly delayed returning essays compared with those in the low evaluation threat group. Also, in the low evaluation threat group, low trait procrastinators delayed more than did high trait procrastinators. These results suggest that educators can reduce behavioral delays by increasing evaluation threat, depending on a student's level of trait procrastination.

  14. Does imminent threat capture and hold attention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koster, Ernst H W; Crombez, Geert; Van Damme, Stefaan; Verschuere, Bruno; De Houwer, Jan

    2004-09-01

    According to models of attention and emotion, threat captures and holds attention. In behavioral tasks, robust evidence has been found for attentional holding but not for attentional capture by threat. An important explanation for the absence of attentional capture effects is that the visual stimuli used posed no genuine threat. The present study investigated whether visual cues that signal an aversive white noise can elicit attentional capture and holding effects. Cues presented in an attentional task were simultaneously provided with a threat value through an aversive conditioning procedure. Response latencies showed that threatening cues captured and held attention. These results support recent views on attention to threat, proposing that imminent threat captures attention in everyone. (c) 2004 APA, all rights reserved

  15. Considering threats of nuclear terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Satoshi

    2013-01-01

    Anti-terrorism measures of nuclear power station in Japan consisted of three physical protection areas separated into limited access area, protected area with disposition of riot police riding in special guard vehicle, and inner area. Drilling of measures to protect against terrorism had been conducted based on design basis threat (DBT) and effectiveness of anti-terrorism measures corresponding with updated DBT had been evaluated by the inspection. Since nuclear power station had been target of terrorism using bomb, aircraft or military operation in overseas countries, anti-terrorism measures of nuclear power station in Japan should be paid more attention so as to overcome their weakness supported by Government's commitments like United States. (T. Tanaka)

  16. Global threat reduction initiative (GTRI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamberlain, Travis

    2009-01-01

    The Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) is a vital part of the global efforts to combat nuclear terrorism. GTRI's unique mission to reduce and protect vulnerable nuclear and radiological material located at civilian sites both in the United States and abroad directly addresses recommendations of the bipartisan 9/11 Commission. GTRI efforts are focused on the first line of defense, namely securing or removing vulnerable nuclear and radiological material at the source. The international community has promulgated guidance on the best practice on the technical and administrative aspects of radiological source security, and the GTRI seeks to provide technical assistance to national bodies and individual facilities to adopt this best practice. This presentation will discuss security concepts that are implemented by the GTRI in cooperation with the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization's Regional Security of Radioactive Sources Project. (author)

  17. Real threat of nuclear smuggling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, P.; Woessner, P.N.

    1996-01-01

    Trade in uranium and plutonium during the past five years has given smuggling unprecedented relevance to international security. Yet there is considerable controversy over the threat nuclear smuggling poses. Even though serious efforts are being made to attack the problem at the source, the international community has been slow to respond to the dangers that nuclear smuggling presents. We suggest that systematic multinational measures be taken as soon as possible to inhibit theft at the source, to disrupt trafficking and to deter buyers. The U.S., Germany, Russia and other nations with an interest in the nuclear problem should set up a 'flying squad' with an investigative arm, facilities for counter terrorist and counter extortion actions and a disaster management team. This paper discusses these issues. 3 refs

  18. Contraband and threat material detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowrey, J. D.; Dunn, W.L.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: A pressing threat in modern society is the effective use of improvised explosive devices or IED's. One of the commonly used techniques to detect explosives is radiography. A primary drawback of this method is that humans are required in order to examine the image of each target. This requires trained personnel, who are subject to fatigue if many targets are being examined in rapid succession. Other trace element techniques generally require collection of samples from or near the surface of suspect targets. The signature-based radiation scanning (SBRS) technology has been developed to counter this threat. This technology can result in automated systems, requiring minimal operator involvement, that can rapidly identify IEDs from standoff. Preliminary research indicates that explosive samples of 5-10 kg or greater hidden in various targets can be detected from standoffs of more than a meter, with high sensitivity and high specificity. Many common explosives have similar concentrations of hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen and oxygen (HCNO). As neutrons interact with HCNO materials, unique signatures are created based on the specific composition of the material. We collect signatures from the HCNO prompt and inelastically scattered gamma rays and from scattered neutrons. Two neutron detectors (one bare and one cadmium-covered) are used in order to provide some measure of the back-scattered neutron spectrum. A library of signature templates, based on signatures detected from known targets containing known explosives in various configurations, is created. Similar signatures can be collected for suspect targets. Then a template-matching technique is used to construct two figure-of-merit metrics. The values of these metrics can be used to differentiate between safe targets and IEDs. Laboratory tests have been conducted using a high purity Germanium (HPGe) detector and two europium-doped lithium-iodide neutron detectors (one bare and one covered with cadmium) are used to

  19. Sensor-guided threat countermeasure system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Brent C.; Hackel, Lloyd A.; Hermann, Mark R.; Armstrong, James P.

    2012-12-25

    A countermeasure system for use by a target to protect against an incoming sensor-guided threat. The system includes a laser system for producing a broadband beam and means for directing the broadband beam from the target to the threat. The countermeasure system comprises the steps of producing a broadband beam and directing the broad band beam from the target to blind or confuse the incoming sensor-guided threat.

  20. Insider Threat Mitigation Workshop Instructional Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibbs, Philip [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Larsen, Robert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); O' Brien, Mike [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Rodriquez, Jose [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Insiders represent a formidable threat to nuclear facilities. This set of workshop materials covers methodologies to analyze and approaches to mitigate the threat of an insider attempting abrupt theft of nuclear materials. This report is a compilation of workshop materials consisting of lectures on technical and administrative measures used in Physical Protection (PP) and Material Control and Accounting (MC&A) and methods for analyzing their effectiveness against a postulated insider threat.

  1. Gender, Stereotype Threat and Mathematics Test Scores

    OpenAIRE

    Ming Tsui; Xiao Y. Xu; Edmond Venator

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: Stereotype threat has repeatedly been shown to depress womens scores on difficult math tests. An attempt to replicate these findings in China found no support for the stereotype threat hypothesis. Our math test was characterized as being personally important for the student participants, an atypical condition in most stereotype threat laboratory research. Approach: To evaluate the effects of this personal demand, we conducted three experiments. Results: ...

  2. Testing Scientific Software: A Systematic Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanewala, Upulee; Bieman, James M.

    2014-01-01

    Context Scientific software plays an important role in critical decision making, for example making weather predictions based on climate models, and computation of evidence for research publications. Recently, scientists have had to retract publications due to errors caused by software faults. Systematic testing can identify such faults in code. Objective This study aims to identify specific challenges, proposed solutions, and unsolved problems faced when testing scientific software. Method We conducted a systematic literature survey to identify and analyze relevant literature. We identified 62 studies that provided relevant information about testing scientific software. Results We found that challenges faced when testing scientific software fall into two main categories: (1) testing challenges that occur due to characteristics of scientific software such as oracle problems and (2) testing challenges that occur due to cultural differences between scientists and the software engineering community such as viewing the code and the model that it implements as inseparable entities. In addition, we identified methods to potentially overcome these challenges and their limitations. Finally we describe unsolved challenges and how software engineering researchers and practitioners can help to overcome them. Conclusions Scientific software presents special challenges for testing. Specifically, cultural differences between scientist developers and software engineers, along with the characteristics of the scientific software make testing more difficult. Existing techniques such as code clone detection can help to improve the testing process. Software engineers should consider special challenges posed by scientific software such as oracle problems when developing testing techniques. PMID:25125798

  3. Testing Scientific Software: A Systematic Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanewala, Upulee; Bieman, James M

    2014-10-01

    Scientific software plays an important role in critical decision making, for example making weather predictions based on climate models, and computation of evidence for research publications. Recently, scientists have had to retract publications due to errors caused by software faults. Systematic testing can identify such faults in code. This study aims to identify specific challenges, proposed solutions, and unsolved problems faced when testing scientific software. We conducted a systematic literature survey to identify and analyze relevant literature. We identified 62 studies that provided relevant information about testing scientific software. We found that challenges faced when testing scientific software fall into two main categories: (1) testing challenges that occur due to characteristics of scientific software such as oracle problems and (2) testing challenges that occur due to cultural differences between scientists and the software engineering community such as viewing the code and the model that it implements as inseparable entities. In addition, we identified methods to potentially overcome these challenges and their limitations. Finally we describe unsolved challenges and how software engineering researchers and practitioners can help to overcome them. Scientific software presents special challenges for testing. Specifically, cultural differences between scientist developers and software engineers, along with the characteristics of the scientific software make testing more difficult. Existing techniques such as code clone detection can help to improve the testing process. Software engineers should consider special challenges posed by scientific software such as oracle problems when developing testing techniques.

  4. NASA Software Engineering Benchmarking Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rarick, Heather L.; Godfrey, Sara H.; Kelly, John C.; Crumbley, Robert T.; Wifl, Joel M.

    2013-01-01

    was its software assurance practices, which seemed to rate well in comparison to the other organizational groups and also seemed to include a larger scope of activities. An unexpected benefit of the software benchmarking study was the identification of many opportunities for collaboration in areas including metrics, training, sharing of CMMI experiences and resources such as instructors and CMMI Lead Appraisers, and even sharing of assets such as documented processes. A further unexpected benefit of the study was the feedback on NASA practices that was received from some of the organizations interviewed. From that feedback, other potential areas where NASA could improve were highlighted, such as accuracy of software cost estimation and budgetary practices. The detailed report contains discussion of the practices noted in each of the topic areas, as well as a summary of observations and recommendations from each of the topic areas. The resulting 24 recommendations from the topic areas were then consolidated to eliminate duplication and culled into a set of 14 suggested actionable recommendations. This final set of actionable recommendations, listed below, are items that can be implemented to improve NASA's software engineering practices and to help address many of the items that were listed in the NASA top software engineering issues. 1. Develop and implement standard contract language for software procurements. 2. Advance accurate and trusted software cost estimates for both procured and in-house software and improve the capture of actual cost data to facilitate further improvements. 3. Establish a consistent set of objectives and expectations, specifically types of metrics at the Agency level, so key trends and models can be identified and used to continuously improve software processes and each software development effort. 4. Maintain the CMMI Maturity Level requirement for critical NASA projects and use CMMI to measure organizations developing software for NASA. 5

  5. Information security practices emerging threats and perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Awad, Ahmed; Woungang, Isaac

    2017-01-01

    This book introduces novel research targeting technical aspects of protecting information security and establishing trust in the digital space. New paradigms, and emerging threats and solutions are presented in topics such as application security and threat management; modern authentication paradigms; digital fraud detection; social engineering and insider threats; cyber threat intelligence; intrusion detection; behavioral biometrics recognition; hardware security analysis. The book presents both the important core and the specialized issues in the areas of protection, assurance, and trust in information security practice. It is intended to be a valuable resource and reference for researchers, instructors, students, scientists, engineers, managers, and industry practitioners. .

  6. Prevention and preparedness for response to nuclear and radiological threats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradeepkumar, K.S.

    2016-01-01

    Challenges from smuggled or illegally transported radioactive sources with malevolent intention of causing potential threats to the society are much higher to those potential radiological emergencies from misplaced, orphan or lost radioactive sources. Large number of radioactive sources world over is transported for its application in various fields. The emergency preparedness and response system is less developed for potential radiological emergencies caused by them compared to those at nuclear facilities which are kept in readiness to respond to any kind of emergency. After the terrorist attack on WTC of 2001, there is significant concern world over about the malicious use of nuclear and other radioactive material. This calls for prevention of stealing/smuggling of radioactive materials and improving the emergency response system. Use of Radiological Dispersal Device (RDD) and Improvised Nuclear Device (IND) are considered as possible radiological and nuclear threats, can lead to large area contamination in addition to the injuries caused by blast and thermal effects. (author)

  7. Presentation of the ASTRAL software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This report presents the ASTRAL software (ASTRAL means technical assistance in post-accidental radioprotection) which is aimed to be used as an aid-to-decision tool in the case of an important release of radionuclides in the environment by assessing radionuclide concentration in different environments and food products, determining the potential exposure to irradiation of concerned populations, foreseeing the evolution of the situation, and proposing different scenarios for the management of contaminated areas. The report describes the software general operation, presents the calculation module (main functionalities, concentration index calculation, dose calculation or radiological impact calculation, how countermeasures are taken into account), the data bases (contextual data, data for radio-ecological calculations and for radiological calculations), the software ergonomics (general principles, result selection and display, result printing and input data). Its briefly evokes the development quality assurance, and describes the software implementation architecture

  8. The CBRNE Threat Needs New Dedicated Analysers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stienstra, S.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: After the 9-11 attack by terrorists several governments realized their vulnerability towards creative asymmetric attacks. Due to increasing complexity of our society we create more vulnerability towards terror attacks. More chemical substances than we realize can be misused to destabilize our modern society. Recently aircraft passengers were confronted with new regulations, which limit the amount of fluid, which a passenger can bring on board with hand luggage. How far should we go limiting the allowance to bring liquids and substances on board? It indicates that we need new analytic instruments for screening the safety of luggage in all types of transport. Study Design: An inventory was made of the present demand for safe transport and its vulnerability to terror attacks. Also the safety and safety awareness in public buildings, offices and industrial complexes was assessed. Knowing the demand for a certain safety level, an inventory was made to identify analytical equipment, which can be used to check passengers and luggage on possible threats. The same can be used for protecting public areas, offices and industrial complexes. Results And Discussion: It is amazing how some governments, financially driven, underestimate the consequences of CBRNE incidences and disasters. Both threats due to release of dangerous substances just by accident and deliberate abuse of chemicals and/or biologicals by terror organizations is underestimated. Financial rationales are often the cause that the preparedness is less that technically could be possible. Still some commercial companies realize the importance of safety and preparedness towards terror attacks and take their precautions. Several detection systems are now under development and a new market of safety devices comes into existence. Conclusion: Key question is how far we would like to go with defending us with technical devices against potential terror attacks. Also the design of buildings, transport

  9. Exploring the function of selective attention and hypervigilance for threat in anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Helen J; Benson, Valerie; Donnelly, Nick; Hadwin, Julie A

    2014-02-01

    Theoretical frameworks of anxiety propose that attentional biases to threat-related stimuli cause or maintain anxious states. The current paper draws on theoretical frameworks and key empirical studies to outline the distinctive attentional processes highlighted as being important in understanding anxiety. We develop a conceptual framework to make a distinction between two attentional biases: selective attention to threat and hypervigilance for threat. We suggest that these biases each have a different purpose and can account for the typical patterns of facilitated and impaired attention evident in anxious individuals. The framework is novel in its specification of the eye movement behavior associated with these attentional biases. We highlight that selective attention involves narrowing overt attention onto threat to ensure that these stimuli receive processing priority, leading to rapid engagement with task-relevant threat and delayed disengagement from task-irrelevant threat. We show that hypervigilance operates in the presence and absence of threat and involves monitoring for potential dangers via attentional broadening or excessive scanning of the environment with numerous eye movements, leading to improved threat detection and increased distraction from task-irrelevant threat. We conclude that future research could usefully employ eye movement measures to more clearly understand the diverse roles of attention in anxiety. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. New software methods in radar ornithology using WSR-88D weather data and potential application to monitoring effects of climate change on bird migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mead, Reginald; Paxton, John; Sojda, Richard S.; Swayne, David A.; Yang, Wanhong; Voinov, A.A.; Rizzoli, A.; Filatova, T.

    2010-01-01

    Radar ornithology has provided tools for studying the movement of birds, especially related to migration. Researchers have presented qualitative evidence suggesting that birds, or at least migration events, can be identified using large broad scale radars such as the WSR-88D used in the NEXRAD weather surveillance system. This is potentially a boon for ornithologists because such data cover a large portion of the United States, are constantly being produced, are freely available, and have been archived since the early 1990s. A major obstacle to this research, however, has been that identifying birds in NEXRAD data has required a trained technician to manually inspect a graphically rendered radar sweep. A single site completes one volume scan every five to ten minutes, producing over 52,000 volume scans in one year. This is an immense amount of data, and manual classification is infeasible. We have developed a system that identifies biological echoes using machine learning techniques. This approach begins with training data using scans that have been classified by experts, or uses bird data collected in the field. The data are preprocessed to ensure quality and to emphasize relevant features. A classifier is then trained using this data and cross validation is used to measure performance. We compared neural networks, naive Bayes, and k-nearest neighbor classifiers. Empirical evidence is provided showing that this system can achieve classification accuracies in the 80th to 90th percentile. We propose to apply these methods to studying bird migration phenology and how it is affected by climate variability and change over multiple temporal scales.

  11. Impact of Internet of Things on Software Business Model and Software Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Murari, Bhanu Teja

    2016-01-01

    Context: Internet of things (IoT) technology is rapidly increasing and changes the business environment for a software organization. There is a need to understand what are important factors of business model should a software company focus on obtaining benefits from the potential that IoT offers. This thesis also focuses on finding the impact of IoT on software business model and software industry especially on software development. Objectives: In this thesis, we do research on IoT software b...

  12. Ensuring Software IP Cleanliness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahshad Koohgoli

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available At many points in the life of a software enterprise, determination of intellectual property (IP cleanliness becomes critical. The value of an enterprise that develops and sells software may depend on how clean the software is from the IP perspective. This article examines various methods of ensuring software IP cleanliness and discusses some of the benefits and shortcomings of current solutions.

  13. Commercial Literacy Software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balajthy, Ernest

    1997-01-01

    Presents the first year's results of a continuing project to monitor the availability of software of relevance for literacy education purposes. Concludes there is an enormous amount of software available for use by teachers of reading and literacy--whereas drill-and-practice software is the largest category of software available, large numbers of…

  14. Ensuring Software IP Cleanliness

    OpenAIRE

    Mahshad Koohgoli; Richard Mayer

    2007-01-01

    At many points in the life of a software enterprise, determination of intellectual property (IP) cleanliness becomes critical. The value of an enterprise that develops and sells software may depend on how clean the software is from the IP perspective. This article examines various methods of ensuring software IP cleanliness and discusses some of the benefits and shortcomings of current solutions.

  15. Statistical Software Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-04-13

    multiversion software subject to coincident errors. IEEE Trans. Software Eng. SE-11:1511-1517. Eckhardt, D.E., A.K Caglayan, J.C. Knight, L.D. Lee, D.F...J.C. and N.G. Leveson. 1986. Experimental evaluation of the assumption of independence in multiversion software. IEEE Trans. Software

  16. Agile Software Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biju, Soly Mathew

    2008-01-01

    Many software development firms are now adopting the agile software development method. This method involves the customer at every level of software development, thus reducing the impact of change in the requirement at a later stage. In this article, the principles of the agile method for software development are explored and there is a focus on…

  17. Improving Software Developer's Competence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsson, Pekka; Kautz, Karlheinz; Sieppi, Heikki

    2002-01-01

    Emerging agile software development methods are people oriented development approaches to be used by the software industry. The personal software process (PSP) is an accepted method for improving the capabilities of a single software engineer. Five original hypotheses regarding the impact...

  18. Software - Naval Oceanography Portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    are here: Home › USNO › Earth Orientation › Software USNO Logo USNO Navigation Earth Orientation Products GPS-based Products VLBI-based Products EO Information Center Publications about Products Software Search databases Auxiliary Software Supporting Software Form Folder Earth Orientation Matrix Calculator

  19. Software Engineering Education Directory

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-04-01

    and Engineering (CMSC 735) Codes: GPEV2 * Textiooks: IEEE Tutoria on Models and Metrics for Software Management and Engameeing by Basi, Victor R...Software Engineering (Comp 227) Codes: GPRY5 Textbooks: IEEE Tutoria on Software Design Techniques by Freeman, Peter and Wasserman, Anthony 1. Software

  20. Great software debates

    CERN Document Server

    Davis, A

    2004-01-01

    The industry’s most outspoken and insightful critic explains how the software industry REALLY works. In Great Software Debates, Al Davis, shares what he has learned about the difference between the theory and the realities of business and encourages you to question and think about software engineering in ways that will help you succeed where others fail. In short, provocative essays, Davis fearlessly reveals the truth about process improvement, productivity, software quality, metrics, agile development, requirements documentation, modeling, software marketing and sales, empiricism, start-up financing, software research, requirements triage, software estimation, and entrepreneurship.

  1. Threats: power, family mealtimes, and social influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepburn, Alexa; Potter, Jonathan

    2011-03-01

    One of the most basic topics in social psychology is the way one agent influences the behaviour of another. This paper will focus on threats, which are an intensified form of attempted behavioural influence. Despite the centrality to the project of social psychology, little attention has been paid to threats. This paper will start to rectify this oversight. It reviews early examples of the way social psychology handles threats and highlights key limitations and presuppositions about the nature and role of threats. By contrast, we subject them to a programme of empirical research. Data comprise video records of a collection of family mealtimes that include preschool children. Threats are recurrent in this material. A preliminary conceptualization of features of candidate threats from this corpus will be used as an analytic start point. A series of examples are used to explicate basic features and dimensions that build the action of threatening. The basic structure of the threats uses a conditional logic: if the recipient continues problem action/does not initiate required action then negative consequences will be produced by the speaker. Further analysis clarifies how threats differ from warnings and admonishments. Sequential analysis suggests threats set up basic response options of compliance or defiance. However, recipients of threats can evade these options by, for example, reworking the unpleasant upshot specified in the threat, or producing barely minimal compliance. The implications for broader social psychological concerns are explored in a discussion of power, resistance, and asymmetry; the paper ends by reconsidering the way social influence can be studied in social psychology. ©2010 The British Psychological Society.

  2. DETECTION OF MALICIOUS SOFTWARE USING CLASSICAL AND NEURAL NETWORK CLASSIFICATION METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Zhernakov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Formulation of the problem: the spectrum of problems solved by modern mobile systems such as Android is constantly growing. This is because on the one hand by the potential opportunities that are implemented in hardware, as well as their integration with modern information technologies, which in turn harmoniously complement and create powerful ardware and software information systems, capable of performing many functions, including pro- information boards. Increasing the flow of information, complexity of the processes and of the hardware and software component devices such as Android, forcing developers to create new means of protection, efficiency and qualitative performing the process. This is especially important in the development of automated systems instrumental performing classification (clustering of existing software into two classes: safe and malicious software. The aim is to increase the reliability and quality of recognition of modern built-in security of information, as well as the rationale and the selection methods of carrying out these functions. The methods used are: to accomplish the goals are analyzed and used classical methods of classification, neural network method based on standard architectures, and support vector machine (SVM - machine. Novelty: The paper presents the concept of the use of support vector in identifying deleterious software developed methodological, algorithmic and software that implements this concept in relation to the means of mobile communication. Result: The obtained qualitative and quantitative characteristics-security software. Practical value: the technique of development of advanced information security systems in mobile environments such as Android. It presents an approach to the description of behavioral malware (based on the following virus: none - wakes - Analysis of weaknesses - the action: a healthy regime or attack (threat.

  3. Are All Interventions Created Equal? A Multi-Threat Approach to Tailoring Stereotype Threat Interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Shapiro, Jenessa R.; Williams, Amy M.; Hambarchyan, Mariam

    2012-01-01

    To date, stereotype threat interventions have been considered interchangeable. Across 4 experiments, the present research demonstrates that stereotype threat interventions need to be tailored to the specific form of experienced stereotype threat to be effective. The Multi-Threat Framework (Shapiro & Neuberg, 2007) distinguishes between group-as-target stereotype threats—concerns that a stereotype-relevant performance will reflect poorly on the abilities of one’s group—and self-as-target stere...

  4. Secure Software Configuration Management Processes for nuclear safety software development environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, I.-Hsin

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The proposed method emphasizes platform-independent security processes. → A hybrid process based on the nuclear SCM and security regulations is proposed. → Detailed descriptions and Process Flow Diagram are useful for software developers. - Abstract: The main difference between nuclear and generic software is that the risk factor is infinitely greater in nuclear software - if there is a malfunction in the safety system, it can result in significant economic loss, physical damage or threat to human life. However, secure software development environment have often been ignored in the nuclear industry. In response to the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) revised the Regulatory Guide (RG 1.152-2006) 'Criteria for use of computers in safety systems of nuclear power plants' to provide specific security guidance throughout the software development life cycle. Software Configuration Management (SCM) is an essential discipline in the software development environment. SCM involves identifying configuration items, controlling changes to those items, and maintaining integrity and traceability of them. For securing the nuclear safety software, this paper proposes a Secure SCM Processes (S 2 CMP) which infuses regulatory security requirements into proposed SCM processes. Furthermore, a Process Flow Diagram (PFD) is adopted to describe S 2 CMP, which is intended to enhance the communication between regulators and developers.

  5. Views on Software Testability

    OpenAIRE

    Shimeall, Timothy; Friedman, Michael; Chilenski, John; Voas, Jeffrey

    1994-01-01

    The field of testability is an active, well-established part of engineering of modern computer systems. However, only recently have technologies for software testability began to be developed. These technologies focus on accessing the aspects of software that improve or depreciate the ease of testing. As both the size of implemented software and the amount of effort required to test that software increase, so will the important of software testability technologies in influencing the softwa...

  6. Agile software assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Nierstrasz Oscar; Lungu Mircea

    2012-01-01

    Informed decision making is a critical activity in software development but it is poorly supported by common development environments which focus mainly on low level programming tasks. We posit the need for agile software assessment which aims to support decision making by enabling rapid and effective construction of software models and custom analyses. Agile software assessment entails gathering and exploiting the broader context of software information related to the system at hand as well ...

  7. Software component quality evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clough, A. J.

    1991-01-01

    The paper describes a software inspection process that can be used to evaluate the quality of software components. Quality criteria, process application, independent testing of the process and proposed associated tool support are covered. Early results indicate that this technique is well suited for assessing software component quality in a standardized fashion. With automated machine assistance to facilitate both the evaluation and selection of software components, such a technique should promote effective reuse of software components.

  8. Evaluative threat and ambulatory blood pressure: cardiovascular effects of social stress in daily experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Timothy W; Birmingham, Wendy; Uchino, Bert N

    2012-11-01

    Physiological effects of social evaluation are central in models of psychosocial influences on physical health. Experimental manipulations of evaluative threat evoke substantial cardiovascular and neuroendocrine responses in laboratory studies, but only preliminary evidence is available regarding naturally occurring evaluative threats in daily life. In such nonexperimental ambulatory studies, it is essential to distinguish effects of evaluative threat from related constructs known to alter stress, such as ability perceptions and concerns about appearance. 94 married, working couples (mean age 29.2 years) completed a 1-day (8 a.m. to 10 p.m.) ambulatory blood pressure protocol with random interval-contingent measurements using a Suntech monitor and Palm Pilot-based measures of control variables and momentary experiences of social-evaluative threat, concerns about appearance, and perceived ability. In hierarchical analyses for couples and multiple measurement occasions (Proc Mixed; SAS) and controlling individual differences (BMI, age, income) and potential confounds (e.g., posture, activity), higher reports of social-evaluative threat were associated with higher concurrent systolic (estimate = .87, SE = .34) and diastolic blood pressure (estimate = 1.06; SE = .26), both p social-evaluative threat remained significant when perceived ability and appearance concerns were controlled. Naturally occurring social-evaluative threat during daily activity is associated with increased systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Given associations between ambulatory blood pressure and risk of cardiovascular disease, the findings support conceptual models of threats to the social self as a potentially important influence on physical health.

  9. Personal privacy, information assurance, and the threat posed by malware techology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stytz, Martin R.; Banks, Sheila B.

    2006-04-01

    In spite of our best efforts to secure the cyber world, the threats posed to personal privacy by attacks upon networks and software continue unabated. While there are many reasons for this state of affairs, clearly one of the reasons for continued vulnerabilities in software is the inability to assess their security properties and test their security systems while they are in development. A second reason for this growing threat to personal privacy is the growing sophistication and maliciousness of malware coupled with the increasing difficulty of detecting malware. The pervasive threat posed by malware coupled with the difficulties faced when trying to detect its presence or an attempted intrusion make addressing the malware threat one of the most pressing issues that must be solved in order to insure personal privacy to users of the internet. In this paper, we will discuss the threat posed by malware, the types of malware found in the wild (outside of computer laboratories), and current techniques that are available for from a successful malware penetration. The paper includes a discussion of anti-malware tools and suggestions for future anti-malware efforts.

  10. Landscape planning for the future: using fossil records to independently validate potential threats, opportunities and likely future range-shifts for socio-economically valuable plant species in Europe and sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macias Fauria, M.; Willis, K. J.

    2011-12-01

    Bioclimatic Envelope Models (BEMs) for a set of socio-economically important tree species in Europe were independently validated using a hindcasting approach and fossil pollen records spanning the last 1000 years, including the Medieval Warm Period (MWP), the Little Ice Age (LIA) and the 20th Century warming (PRES). The aim was to determine the accuracy of combining BEMs and palaeoecological data to predict continental-scale changes in distribution, and the availability of fossil data to hindcast economically important species. Eight types of BEMs were implemented in this study, covering most state-of-the-art modelling techniques. Present and palaeoclimatic data were obtained from the Atmosphere-Ocean Global Circulation Model ECHO-G. Last millenium was divided into three climatically distinct periods: MWP (AD 900-1300), LIA (AD 1600-1850) and PRES (AD 1900-2000). Models were calibrated for each period and validated with climatic and pollen data from the remaining periods. Successfully validated models were projected onto a 1-degree European grid, allowing the reconstruction of past modelled species distributions. BEMs were successfully validated with independent data. Strong model performance suggested high potential for BEMs to be used to model future species distributions, and highlighted the importance of palaeoecological data to independently validate these models, taking into account the scales at which this data operates. Although valid, BEMs showed poorer performance with species heavily managed and/or growing in heterogeneous terrain or with discontinuous distributions. Last millennium in Europe was characterized by an increase of crop woody species and a decline of forest species, suggesting an increasing land use by humans. The same approach was then implemented to a set of sub-Saharan plant species of high importance as a source of food, wood, and other ecosystem services such as carbon storage or erosion protection. The African study covered most of the

  11. The Smallpox Threat: The School Nurse's Role

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Mary E.; Didion, Judy

    2003-01-01

    Today, with the threat of bioterrorism and war, there is a new dimension to the traditional role of the school nurse. The smallpox threat to public health will invoke the school nurse's role as an educator, liaison, and consultant in the community. This article discusses smallpox, the vaccination process, adverse effects, and postvaccination care.…

  12. How you perceive threat determines your behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Fernandes Junior

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The prioritization of processing emotional stimuli usually produces deleterious effects on task performance when it distracts from a task. One common explanation is that brain resources are consumed by emotional stimuli, diverting resources away from executing the task. Viewing unpleasant stimuli also generates defensive reactions, and these responses may be at least partially responsible for the effect of the emotional modulation observed in various reaction time (RT paradigms. We investigated whether modulatory effects on RT vary if we presented threat stimuli to prompt different defensive responses. To trigger different responses, we manipulated threat perception by moving the direction of threatening stimuli. Threatening or neutral stimuli were presented as distractors during a bar orientation discrimination task. The results demonstrated that threat stimuli directed towards the observer produced a decrease in RT; in contrast, threat stimuli directed away from the observer produced an increase in RT, when compared to neutral stimuli. Accelerated RT during direct threat stimuli was attributed to increased motor preparation resulting from strong activation of the defense response cascade. In contrast, no direct threat stimuli likely activated the defense cascade, but less intensively, prompting immobility. Different threat stimuli produced varying effects, which was interpreted as evidence that the modulation of RT by emotional stimuli represents the summation of attentional and motivational effects. Additionally, participants who had been previously exposed to diverse types of violent crime were more strongly influenced by direct threat stimuli. In sum, our data support the concept that emotions are indeed action tendencies.

  13. Game Theoretic Risk Analysis of Security Threats

    CERN Document Server

    Bier, Vicki M

    2008-01-01

    Introduces reliability and risk analysis in the face of threats by intelligent agents. This book covers applications to networks, including problems in both telecommunications and transportation. It provides a set of tools for applying game theory TO reliability problems in the presence of intentional, intelligent threats

  14. Eastern forest environmental threat assessment center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern Research Station. USDA Forest Service

    2010-01-01

    The Eastern Forest Environmental Threat Assessment Center (EFETAC) provides the latest research and expertise concerning threats to healthy forests – such as insects and disease, wildland loss, invasive species, wildland fire, and climate change – to assist forest landowners, managers and scientists throughout the East. Established in 2005, EFETAC is a joint effort of...

  15. Bomb Threats and Bomb Search Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of the Treasury, Washington, DC.

    This pamphlet explains how to be prepared and plan for bomb threats and describes procedures to follow once a call has been received. The content covers (1) preparation for bomb threats, (2) evacuation procedures, (3) room search methods, (4) procedures to follow once a bomb has been located, and (5) typical problems that search teams will…

  16. Prototyping of CBRN threat assessment system. Phase 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ina, Shinichiro; Suzuki, Tomoyuki; Maeno, Akihiro; Sakaue, Motoki

    2015-01-01

    Recently, chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear threats, that is, CBRN threats have emerged. In order to support the Japan Self Defense Forces unit coping with the CBRN threats, it is important to take measures against these invisible threats. Our CBRN threat assessment system will make invisible CBRN threats visible. This report describes a prototyping of the CBRN threat assessment system (PHASE 1) carried out from fiscal year 2012-2014. (author)

  17. Software Security Assurance: A State-of-Art Report (SAR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-07-31

    analysis of security management processes: includes organizational assessment, asset valuation , threat identification, vulnerability assessment...Available from: http://www.cigital.com/papers/download/bsi2-misuse.pdf 200 Meledath Damodaran , “Secure Software Development Using Use Cases and Misuse

  18. In Brief: Forecasting meningitis threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2008-12-01

    The University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR), in conjunction with a team of health and weather organizations, has launched a project to provide weather forecasts to medical officials in Africa to help reduce outbreaks of meningitis. The forecasts will enable local health care providers to target vaccination programs more effectively. In 2009, meteorologists with the National Center for Atmospheric Research, which is managed by UCAR, will begin issuing 14-day forecasts of atmospheric conditions in Ghana. Later, UCAR plans to work closely with health experts from several African countries to design and test a decision support system to provide health officials with useful meteorological information. ``By targeting forecasts in regions where meningitis is a threat, we may be able to help vulnerable populations. Ultimately, we hope to build on this project and provide information to public health programs battling weather-related diseases in other parts of the world,'' said Rajul Pandya, director of UCAR's Community Building Program. Funding for the project comes from a $900,000 grant from Google.org, the philanthropic arm of the Internet search company.

  19. Modulation of the startle reflex by heat pain: does threat play a role?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn-Hofmann, C; Lautenbacher, S

    2015-02-01

    Previous studies have indicated that the startle reflex is potentiated by phasic, but not by tonic, heat pain, although the latter is seen as more strongly associated with emotional responses and more similar to clinical pain. The threat value of pain might be a decisive variable, which is not influenced alone by stimulus duration. This study aimed at comparing startle responses to tonic heat pain stimulation with varying degrees of threat. We hypothesized that the expectation of unpredictable temperature increases would evoke higher threat and thereby potentiate startle compared with the expectation of constant stimulation. Healthy, pain-free subjects (n = 40) underwent painful stimulation in two conditions (low/high threat) in balanced order. The only difference between the two conditions was that in the high-threat condition 50% of the trials were announced to include a short further noxious temperature increase at the end. Startle tones were presented prior to this temperature increase still in the phase of anticipation. We observed startle potentiation in the high-threat compared with the low-threat condition, but only in those participants who took part first in the high-threat condition. Habituation could not account for these findings, as we detected no significant decline of startle responses in the course of both conditions. Our results suggest that subjective threat might indeed be decisive for the action of pain on startle; the threat level appears not only influenced by actual expectations but also by previous experiences with pain as threatening or not. © 2014 European Pain Federation - EFIC®

  20. Software Quality Assurance Metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRae, Kalindra A.

    2004-01-01

    Software Quality Assurance (SQA) is a planned and systematic set of activities that ensures conformance of software life cycle processes and products conform to requirements, standards and procedures. In software development, software quality means meeting requirements and a degree of excellence and refinement of a project or product. Software Quality is a set of attributes of a software product by which its quality is described and evaluated. The set of attributes includes functionality, reliability, usability, efficiency, maintainability, and portability. Software Metrics help us understand the technical process that is used to develop a product. The process is measured to improve it and the product is measured to increase quality throughout the life cycle of software. Software Metrics are measurements of the quality of software. Software is measured to indicate the quality of the product, to assess the productivity of the people who produce the product, to assess the benefits derived from new software engineering methods and tools, to form a baseline for estimation, and to help justify requests for new tools or additional training. Any part of the software development can be measured. If Software Metrics are implemented in software development, it can save time, money, and allow the organization to identify the caused of defects which have the greatest effect on software development. The summer of 2004, I worked with Cynthia Calhoun and Frank Robinson in the Software Assurance/Risk Management department. My task was to research and collect, compile, and analyze SQA Metrics that have been used in other projects that are not currently being used by the SA team and report them to the Software Assurance team to see if any metrics can be implemented in their software assurance life cycle process.

  1. FS-OpenSecurity: A Taxonomic Modeling of Security Threats in SDN for Future Sustainable Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunsick Sung

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Software Defined Networking (SDN has brought many changes in terms of the interaction processes between systems and humans. It has become the key enabler of software defined architecture, which allows enterprises to build a highly agile Information Technology (IT infrastructure. For Future Sustainability Computing (FSC, SDN needs to deliver on many information technology commitments—more automation, simplified design, increased agility, policy-based management, and network management bond to more liberal IT workflow systems. To address the sustainability problems, SDN needs to provide greater collaboration and tighter integration with networks, servers, and security teams that will have an impact on how enterprises design, plan, deploy and manage networks. In this paper, we propose FS-OpenSecurity, which is a new and pragmatic security architecture model. It consists of two novel methodologies, Software Defined Orchestrator (SDO and SQUEAK, which offer a robust and secure architecture. The secure architecture is required for protection from diverse threats. Usually, security administrators need to handle each threat individually. However, handling threats automatically by adapting to the threat landscape is a critical demand. Therefore, the architecture must handle defensive processes automatically that are collaboratively based on intelligent external and internal information.

  2. Software Engineering Program: Software Process Improvement Guidebook

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide experience-based guidance in implementing a software process improvement program in any NASA software development or maintenance community. This guidebook details how to define, operate, and implement a working software process improvement program. It describes the concept of the software process improvement program and its basic organizational components. It then describes the structure, organization, and operation of the software process improvement program, illustrating all these concepts with specific NASA examples. The information presented in the document is derived from the experiences of several NASA software organizations, including the SEL, the SEAL, and the SORCE. Their experiences reflect many of the elements of software process improvement within NASA. This guidebook presents lessons learned in a form usable by anyone considering establishing a software process improvement program within his or her own environment. This guidebook attempts to balance general and detailed information. It provides material general enough to be usable by NASA organizations whose characteristics do not directly match those of the sources of the information and models presented herein. It also keeps the ideas sufficiently close to the sources of the practical experiences that have generated the models and information.

  3. From Software Development to Software Assembly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sneed, Harry M.; Verhoef, Chris

    2016-01-01

    The lack of skilled programming personnel and the growing burden of maintaining customized software are forcing organizations to quit producing their own software. It's high time they turned to ready-made, standard components to fulfill their business requirements. Cloud services might be one way to

  4. Current Status of the Cyber Threat Assessment for Nuclear Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Doo [KINAC, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    In December 2014, unknown hackers hacked internal documents sourced from Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power (KHNP) and those electronic documents were posted five times on a Social Network Service (SNS). The data included personal profiles, flow charts, manuals and blueprints for installing pipes in the nuclear power plant. Although the data were not critical to operation or sabotage of the plant, it threatened people and caused social unrest in Korea and neighboring countries. In December 2015, cyber attack on power grid caused a blackout for hundreds of thousands of people in Ukraine. The power outage was caused by a sophisticated attack using destructive malware called 'BlackEnergy'. Cyber attacks are reality in today's world and critical infrastructures are increasingly targeted. Critical infrastructures, such as the nuclear power plant, need to be proactive and protect the nuclear materials, assets and facilities from potential cyber attacks. The threat assessment document and its detailed procedure are confidential for the State. Nevertheless, it is easy to find cooperation on assessing and evaluating the threats of nuclear materials and facilities with other government departments or agencies including the national police. The NSSC and KINAC also cooperated with the National Intelligence Service (NIS) and National Security Research Institute (NSR). However, robust cyber threat assessment system and regular consultative group should be established with domestic and overseas organization including NIS, NSR, the National Police Agency and the military force to protect and ensure to safety of people, public and environment from rapidly changing and upgrading cyber threats.

  5. Current Status of the Cyber Threat Assessment for Nuclear Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyun Doo

    2016-01-01

    In December 2014, unknown hackers hacked internal documents sourced from Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power (KHNP) and those electronic documents were posted five times on a Social Network Service (SNS). The data included personal profiles, flow charts, manuals and blueprints for installing pipes in the nuclear power plant. Although the data were not critical to operation or sabotage of the plant, it threatened people and caused social unrest in Korea and neighboring countries. In December 2015, cyber attack on power grid caused a blackout for hundreds of thousands of people in Ukraine. The power outage was caused by a sophisticated attack using destructive malware called 'BlackEnergy'. Cyber attacks are reality in today's world and critical infrastructures are increasingly targeted. Critical infrastructures, such as the nuclear power plant, need to be proactive and protect the nuclear materials, assets and facilities from potential cyber attacks. The threat assessment document and its detailed procedure are confidential for the State. Nevertheless, it is easy to find cooperation on assessing and evaluating the threats of nuclear materials and facilities with other government departments or agencies including the national police. The NSSC and KINAC also cooperated with the National Intelligence Service (NIS) and National Security Research Institute (NSR). However, robust cyber threat assessment system and regular consultative group should be established with domestic and overseas organization including NIS, NSR, the National Police Agency and the military force to protect and ensure to safety of people, public and environment from rapidly changing and upgrading cyber threats

  6. Implementing Software Safety in the NASA Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetherholt, Martha S.; Radley, Charles F.

    1994-01-01

    Until recently, NASA did not consider allowing computers total control of flight systems. Human operators, via hardware, have constituted the ultimate safety control. In an attempt to reduce costs, NASA has come to rely more and more heavily on computers and software to control space missions. (For example. software is now planned to control most of the operational functions of the International Space Station.) Thus the need for systematic software safety programs has become crucial for mission success. Concurrent engineering principles dictate that safety should be designed into software up front, not tested into the software after the fact. 'Cost of Quality' studies have statistics and metrics to prove the value of building quality and safety into the development cycle. Unfortunately, most software engineers are not familiar with designing for safety, and most safety engineers are not software experts. Software written to specifications which have not been safety analyzed is a major source of computer related accidents. Safer software is achieved step by step throughout the system and software life cycle. It is a process that includes requirements definition, hazard analyses, formal software inspections, safety analyses, testing, and maintenance. The greatest emphasis is placed on clearly and completely defining system and software requirements, including safety and reliability requirements. Unfortunately, development and review of requirements are the weakest link in the process. While some of the more academic methods, e.g. mathematical models, may help bring about safer software, this paper proposes the use of currently approved software methodologies, and sound software and assurance practices to show how, to a large degree, safety can be designed into software from the start. NASA's approach today is to first conduct a preliminary system hazard analysis (PHA) during the concept and planning phase of a project. This determines the overall hazard potential of

  7. The ATLAS Trigger Simulation with Legacy Software

    CERN Document Server

    Bernius, Catrin; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Physics analyses at the LHC require accurate simulations of the detector response and the event selection processes, generally done with the most recent software releases. The trigger response simulation is crucial for determination of overall selection efficiencies and signal sensitivities and should be done with the same software release with which data were recorded. This requires potentially running with software dating many years back, the so-called legacy software. Therefore having a strategy for running legacy software in a modern environment becomes essential when data simulated for past years start to present a sizeable fraction of the total. The requirements and possibilities for such a simulation scheme within the ATLAS software framework were examined and a proof-of-concept simulation chain has been successfully implemented. One of the greatest challenges was the choice of a data format which promises long term compatibility with old and new software releases. Over the time periods envisaged, data...

  8. Software Reuse Within the Earth Science Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, James J.; Olding, Steve; Wolfe, Robert E.; Delnore, Victor E.

    2006-01-01

    Scientific missions in the Earth sciences frequently require cost-effective, highly reliable, and easy-to-use software, which can be a challenge for software developers to provide. The NASA Earth Science Enterprise (ESE) spends a significant amount of resources developing software components and other software development artifacts that may also be of value if reused in other projects requiring similar functionality. In general, software reuse is often defined as utilizing existing software artifacts. Software reuse can improve productivity and quality while decreasing the cost of software development, as documented by case studies in the literature. Since large software systems are often the results of the integration of many smaller and sometimes reusable components, ensuring reusability of such software components becomes a necessity. Indeed, designing software components with reusability as a requirement can increase the software reuse potential within a community such as the NASA ESE community. The NASA Earth Science Data Systems (ESDS) Software Reuse Working Group is chartered to oversee the development of a process that will maximize the reuse potential of existing software components while recommending strategies for maximizing the reusability potential of yet-to-be-designed components. As part of this work, two surveys of the Earth science community were conducted. The first was performed in 2004 and distributed among government employees and contractors. A follow-up survey was performed in 2005 and distributed among a wider community, to include members of industry and academia. The surveys were designed to collect information on subjects such as the current software reuse practices of Earth science software developers, why they choose to reuse software, and what perceived barriers prevent them from reusing software. In this paper, we compare the results of these surveys, summarize the observed trends, and discuss the findings. The results are very

  9. Raising consciousness about the nuclear threat through music

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ungerleider, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    This dissertation examines the use of music, in particular topical collaborative group song writing, as a tool for raising consciousness about the threat of nuclear war. Consciousness raising is one way to overcome the phenomenon of denial and to increase discussion and social action in response to the nuclear threat. This dissertation measures the impact of a group song writing workshop on developing critical problem-solving in adult groups; it reviews how music is applied in psychological research and clinical work, has been used historically as a tool in social-change movements in America, and is used in the contemporary field of peace education. The perspectives of several theorists who discuss the potential of music to contribute to social change are presented. It is concluded that consciousness about the nuclear threat - in terms of naming and analyzing - can be raised by working with music's potential for developing affective, expressive, and collaborative capabilities in individuals and groups. Potential applications of the group song writing workshop are in schools, with peace organizations, music groups, and in relation to other social issues.

  10. 49 CFR 1544.303 - Bomb or air piracy threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bomb or air piracy threats. 1544.303 Section 1544... AND COMMERCIAL OPERATORS Threat and Threat Response § 1544.303 Bomb or air piracy threats. (a) Flight.... (d) Notification. Upon receipt of any bomb threat against the security of a flight or facility, or...

  11. The adoption of social enterprise software

    OpenAIRE

    Engelstätter, Benjamin; Sarbu, Miruna

    2011-01-01

    Social enterprise software is a highly promising software application for firms, though it is still in an infancy state. It offers rapid real-time information transfer based on business collaboration tools or instant messaging. The software collects and processes customer data from surveys, consumer feedback, reviews, blogs or social networks. This enables firms to build up detailed customer profiles potentially anticipating upcoming trends. We analyze the determinants of social enterprise so...

  12. Are all interventions created equal? A multi-threat approach to tailoring stereotype threat interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Jenessa R; Williams, Amy M; Hambarchyan, Mariam

    2013-02-01

    To date, stereotype threat interventions have been considered interchangeable. Across 4 experiments, the present research demonstrates that stereotype threat interventions need to be tailored to the specific form of experienced stereotype threat to be effective. The Multi-Threat Framework (Shapiro & Neuberg, 2007) distinguishes between group-as-target stereotype threats-concerns that a stereotype-relevant performance will reflect poorly on the abilities of one's group-and self-as-target stereotype threats-concerns that a stereotype-relevant performance will reflect poorly on one's own abilities. The present experiments explored Black college students' performance on diagnostic intelligence tests (Experiments 1 and 3) and women's interest (Experiment 2) and performance (Experiment 4) in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM). Across the 4 experiments, participants were randomly assigned to experience either a group-as-target or self-as-target stereotype threat. Experiments 1 and 2 revealed that role model interventions were successful at protecting only against group-as-target stereotype threats, and Experiments 3 and 4 revealed that self-affirmation interventions were successful at protecting only against self-as-target stereotype threats. The present research provides an experimental test of the Multi-Threat Framework across different negatively stereotyped groups (Black students, female students), different negatively stereotyped domains (general intelligence, STEM), and different outcomes (test performance, career interest). This research suggests that interventions should address the range of possible stereotype threats to effectively protect individuals against these threats. Through an appreciation of the distinct forms of stereotype threats and the ways in which interventions work to reduce them, this research aims to facilitate a more complete understanding of stereotype threat. (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  13. Forecasting Lightning Threat Using WRF Proxy Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaul, E. W., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Given that high-resolution WRF forecasts can capture the character of convective outbreaks, we seek to: 1. Create WRF forecasts of LTG threat (1-24 h), based on 2 proxy fields from explicitly simulated convection: - graupel flux near -15 C (captures LTG time variability) - vertically integrated ice (captures LTG threat area). 2. Calibrate each threat to yield accurate quantitative peak flash rate densities. 3. Also evaluate threats for areal coverage, time variability. 4. Blend threats to optimize results. 5. Examine sensitivity to model mesh, microphysics. Methods: 1. Use high-resolution 2-km WRF simulations to prognose convection for a diverse series of selected case studies. 2. Evaluate graupel fluxes; vertically integrated ice (VII). 3. Calibrate WRF LTG proxies using peak total LTG flash rate densities from NALMA; relationships look linear, with regression line passing through origin. 4. Truncate low threat values to make threat areal coverage match NALMA flash extent density obs. 5. Blend proxies to achieve optimal performance 6. Study CAPS 4-km ensembles to evaluate sensitivities.

  14. Establishing 'design basis threat' in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maerli, M.B.; Naadland, E.; Reistad, O.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: INFCIRC 225 (Rev. 4) assumes that a state's physical protection system should be based on the state's evaluation of the threat, and that this should be reflected in the relevant legislation. Other factors should also be considered, including the state's emergency response capabilities and the existing and relevant measures of the state's system of accounting for and control of nuclear material. A design basis threat developed from an evaluation by the state of the threat of unauthorized removal of nuclear material and of sabotage of nuclear material and nuclear facilities is an essential element of a state's system of physical protection. The state should continuously review the threat, and evaluate the implications of any changes in that threat for the required levels and the methods of physical protection. As part of a national design basis threat assessment, this paper evaluates the risk of nuclear or radiological terrorism and sabotage in Norway. Possible scenarios are presented and plausible consequences are discussed with a view to characterize the risks. The need for more stringent regulatory requirements will be discussed, together with the (positive) impact of improved systems and procedures of physical protection on nuclear emergency planning. Special emphasis is placed on discussing the design basis threat for different scenarios in order to systemize regulatory efforts to update the current legislation, requirement for operators' contingency planning, response efforts and the need for emergency exercises. (author)

  15. Problems and Tools for the Detection of Threats to Personnel Security in the Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Victorovna Kuznetsova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The investigation of threats negatively affecting the state and the development of human resources as well as the varieties of security threats is of particular importance in the theory and practice of personnel security measures. The purpose of the article is to identify and classify the ideas of the main threats to personnel security of the region (the research is carried out on the example of the Irkutsk region. On the basis of the content analysis of Russian regulatory legal acts and scientific publications, external and internal threats to personnel security of the region are highlighted. As a result, the list of threats to personnel security of the region consisting of 37 stands is composed. The political, economic, demographic, social, technical and technological, ecological, legal, ethnocultural forms of threats are demonstrated. The authors came to the conclusion that the internal threats to personnel security of the region (first of all socio-economic are dominant. An assessment of the urgency and relevance of the threats to the personnel security of the region is given. With the use of the technology of the hierarchical factorial analysis, the types of threats (factors of the lowest level were identified and their influence on the general level of the urgency of personnel security threats (a factor of the highest level is estimated. It is revealed that legal threats, as well as threats caused by the low labour potential of the region, have the most significant impact on the estimation of the urgency of threats. The study applies the following analysis methods — a content analysis, the analysis of linear and cross-distribution, hierarchical factor and correlation analysis. The analysis is based on the data of the expert survey conducted in the Irkutsk region (2015. To determine the relationship (coherence of the expert evaluations, the Kendall’s coefficient of concordance is calculated. The received results can be used for studying

  16. Energy Tracking Software Platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan Davis; Nathan Bird; Rebecca Birx; Hal Knowles

    2011-04-04

    Acceleration has created an interactive energy tracking and visualization platform that supports decreasing electric, water, and gas usage. Homeowners have access to tools that allow them to gauge their use and track progress toward a smaller energy footprint. Real estate agents have access to consumption data, allowing for sharing a comparison with potential home buyers. Home builders have the opportunity to compare their neighborhood's energy efficiency with competitors. Home energy raters have a tool for gauging the progress of their clients after efficiency changes. And, social groups are able to help encourage members to reduce their energy bills and help their environment. EnergyIT.com is the business umbrella for all energy tracking solutions and is designed to provide information about our energy tracking software and promote sales. CompareAndConserve.com (Gainesville-Green.com) helps homeowners conserve energy through education and competition. ToolsForTenants.com helps renters factor energy usage into their housing decisions.

  17. Chronology of awareness about US National Park external threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafer, Craig L

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this paper is to raise understanding of the history of protected area external threat awareness in the United States and at World Protected Area Congresses. The earliest concerns about external threats to US national parks began in the late nineteenth century: a potential railroad transgression of Yellowstone National Park in the 1880s. During the early and mid 1930s, George Wright and colleagues focused on outside boundary concerns like of hunting and trapping of furbearers, grazing, logging, disease and hybridization between species. In the 1960s, a worldwide recognition began about the role of outside habitat fragmentation/isolation on nature reserves and human generated stressors crossing their boundaries. The State of the Park Report 1980 added a plethora of threats: oil/gas and geothermal exploration and development, hydropower and reclamation projects, urban encroachment, roads, resorts, and recreational facilities. The early 1980s ushered in political interference with NPS threats abatement efforts as well as Congressional legislative initiatives to support the abatement challenges of the agency. By 1987, the Government Accounting Office issued its first report on National Park Service (NPS) progress in dealing with external threats. Climate change impacts on parks, especially in terms of animals adjusting their temperature and moisture requirements by latitude and altitude, surfaced in the technical literature by the mid-1980s. By 1992, the world parks community stressed the need to integrate protected areas into the surrounding landscape and human community. The importance of the matrix has gradually gained appreciation in the scientific community. This chronology represents one example of national park and protected areas' institutional history contributing to the breath of modern conservation science.

  18. Software Engineering Improvement Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    In performance of this task order, bd Systems personnel provided support to the Flight Software Branch and the Software Working Group through multiple tasks related to software engineering improvement and to activities of the independent Technical Authority (iTA) Discipline Technical Warrant Holder (DTWH) for software engineering. To ensure that the products, comments, and recommendations complied with customer requirements and the statement of work, bd Systems personnel maintained close coordination with the customer. These personnel performed work in areas such as update of agency requirements and directives database, software effort estimation, software problem reports, a web-based process asset library, miscellaneous documentation review, software system requirements, issue tracking software survey, systems engineering NPR, and project-related reviews. This report contains a summary of the work performed and the accomplishments in each of these areas.

  19. Spotting software errors sooner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munro, D.

    1989-01-01

    Static analysis is helping to identify software errors at an earlier stage and more cheaply than conventional methods of testing. RTP Software's MALPAS system also has the ability to check that a code conforms to its original specification. (author)

  20. Avionics and Software Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of the AES Avionics and Software (A&S) project is to develop a reference avionics and software architecture that is based on standards and that can be...

  1. Paladin Software Support Lab

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Paladin Software Support Environment (SSE) occupies 2,241 square-feet. It contains the hardware and software tools required to support the Paladin Automatic Fire...

  2. Pragmatic Software Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaen, Ivan; Jensen, Rikke Hagensby

    2014-01-01

    We understand software innovation as concerned with introducing innovation into the development of software intensive systems, i.e. systems in which software development and/or integration are dominant considerations. Innovation is key in almost any strategy for competitiveness in existing markets......, for creating new markets, or for curbing rising public expenses, and software intensive systems are core elements in most such strategies. Software innovation therefore is vital for about every sector of the economy. Changes in software technologies over the last decades have opened up for experimentation......, learning, and flexibility in ongoing software projects, but how can this change be used to facilitate software innovation? How can a team systematically identify and pursue opportunities to create added value in ongoing projects? In this paper, we describe Deweyan pragmatism as the philosophical foundation...

  3. Process mining software repositories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poncin, W.; Serebrenik, A.; Brand, van den M.G.J.

    2011-01-01

    Software developers' activities are in general recorded in software repositories such as version control systems, bug trackers and mail archives. While abundant information is usually present in such repositories, successful information extraction is often challenged by the necessity to

  4. Vibrio Parahaemolyticus: The Threat of Another Vibrio Acquiring Pandemic Potential

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramamurthy, T.; Nair, G.B.

    investigations of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in oysters following outbreaks in Washington, Texas, and New York. (1997 and 1998). Appl. Envrion. Microbiol. 66, 4649- 4654. DePaola, A., Ulaszek, J., Kaysner, C. A., Tenge, B. J., Nordstrom, J. L., Wells, J., Puhr, N...-710. Andrews, L. S., DeBlanc, S., Veal, C. D., Park, D. L., 2003. Response of Vibrio parahaemolyticus O3:K6 to a hot water/ cold shock pasteurization process. Food Addit. Contam. 20, 331-334. Bag, P. K., Nandi, S., Bhadra, R. K., Ramamurthy, T., Bhattacharya, S...

  5. Phytophthora megakarya : A potential threat to the cocoa industry in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A severe black pod disease of cocoa in Ghana caused by Phytophthora megakarya was first reported in 1985, even though there is evidence that the fungus might have existed earlier. Until then, only Phytophthora palmivora which causes a less severe black pod disease was known in Ghana. P. megakarya has changed ...

  6. Hybrid Warfare in the Baltics: Threats and Potential Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-23

    aggression across the conflict spectrum. The research described in this report was conducted within the Strategy and Doctrine Program of RAND Project...Estonia has undertaken regular war games and exercises to understand how to respond to different forms of Russian aggression , including practicing...use only. Unauthorized posting of this publication online is prohibited. Permission is given to duplicate this document for personal use only, as

  7. Radioactive Materials in Medical Institutions as a Potential Threat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radalj, Z.

    2007-01-01

    In numerous health institutions ionizing sources are used in everyday practice. Most of these sources are Roentgen machines and accelerators which produce radiation only when in use. However, there are many institutions, e.g., Nuclear medicine units, where radioactive materials are used for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. This institutions store a significant amount of radioactive materials in form of open and closed sources of radiation. Overall activity of open radiation sources can reach over a few hundred GBq. Open sources of radiation are usually so called short-living isotopes. Since they are used on daily basis, a need for a continuous supply of the radioactive materials exists (on weekly basis). Transportation phase is probably the most sensitive phase because of possible accidents or sabotage. Radiological terrorism is a new term. Legislation in the area of radiological safety is considered complete and well defined, and based on the present regulatory mechanism, work safety with radiation sources is considered relatively high. However, from time to time smaller accidents do happen due to mishandling, loose of material (possible stealing), etc. Lately, the safety issue of ionizing sources is becoming more important. In this matter we can expect activities in two directions, one which is going towards stealing and 'smuggling' of radioactive materials, and the other which would work or provoke accidents at the location where the radiation sources are.(author)

  8. Quantifying Security Threats and Their Potential Impacts: A Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aissa, Anis Ben [University of Tunis, Belvedere, Tunisia; Abercrombie, Robert K [ORNL; Sheldon, Frederick T [ORNL; Mili, Ali [New Jersey Insitute of Technology

    2010-01-01

    In earlier works, we present a computational infrastructure that allows an analyst to estimate the security of a system in terms of the loss that each stakeholder stands to sustain as a result of security breakdowns. In this paper, we illustrate this infrastructure by means of an e-commerce application.

  9. Prions: Potential Threat to Mankind and Dental Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay R Bhoosreddy

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Prion diseases are fatal, infectious, neurodegenerative disorders with special implications for infection control in the health care system. The causative agent is highly resistant to routine disinfection and sterilization processes and has been transmitted during health care interactions. Thus, it is important to use evidence gained through research and case reports to minimize risk of infection. There is no data suggesting that prions are transmitted easily during dental sittings but there remains a rare risk of such transmission if appropriate infection measures are not adhered to.

  10. Stereotype threat and social function in opioid substitution therapy patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Hippel, Courtney; Henry, Julie D; Terrett, Gill; Mercuri, Kimberly; McAlear, Karen; Rendell, Peter G

    2017-06-01

    People with a history of substance abuse are subject to widespread stigmatization. It seems likely that this societal disapproval will result in feelings of stereotype threat, or the belief that one is the target of demeaning stereotypes. If so, stereotype threat has the potential to contribute to functional difficulties including poor social outcomes. Eighty drug users on opioid substitution therapy and 84 demographically matched controls completed measures of mental health and social function. The opioid substitution therapy group were additionally asked to complete a measure that focused on their feelings of stereotype threat in relation to their drug use history. Bivariate correlations and hierarchical regression analyses were conducted to establish the magnitude and specificity of the relationship between stereotype threat and social functioning. Relative to controls, the opioid substitution therapy group reported higher levels of negative affect and schizotypy, and poorer social functioning, with all three of these indices significantly correlated with their feelings of stereotype threat. The results also showed that stereotype threat contributed significant unique variance to social functioning in the opioid substitution therapy group, even after taking into account other background, clinical, and mental health variables. Social functioning is an important aspect of recovery, yet these data indicate that people with a history of drug abuse who believe they are the target of stereotypical attitudes have poorer social functioning. This relationship holds after controlling for the impact of other variables on social functioning, including mental health. The theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed. Concerns about being stereotyped can shape the social experiences of opioid substitution therapy patients. Opioid substitution therapy patients who feel negatively stereotyped experience greater social function deficits, and this

  11. Candida Biofilms: Threats, Challenges, and Promising Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalheiro, Mafalda; Teixeira, Miguel Cacho

    2018-01-01

    Candida species are fungal pathogens known for their ability to cause superficial and systemic infections in the human host. These pathogens are able to persist inside the host due to the development of pathogenicity and multidrug resistance traits, often leading to the failure of therapeutic strategies. One specific feature of Candida species pathogenicity is their ability to form biofilms, which protects them from external factors such as host immune system defenses and antifungal drugs. This review focuses on the current threats and challenges when dealing with biofilms formed by Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis, and Candida parapsilosis, highlighting the differences between the four species. Biofilm characteristics depend on the ability of each species to produce extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and display dimorphic growth, but also on the biofilm substratum, carbon source availability and other factors. Additionally, the transcriptional control over processes like adhesion, biofilm formation, filamentation, and EPS production displays great complexity and diversity within pathogenic yeasts of the Candida genus. These differences not only have implications in the persistence of colonization and infections but also on antifungal resistance typically found in Candida biofilm cells, potentiated by EPS, that functions as a barrier to drug diffusion, and by the overexpression of drug resistance transporters. The ability to interact with different species in in vivo Candida biofilms is also a key factor to consider when dealing with this problem. Despite many challenges, the most promising strategies that are currently available or under development to limit biofilm formation or to eradicate mature biofilms are discussed. PMID:29487851

  12. Candida Biofilms: Threats, Challenges, and Promising Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalheiro, Mafalda; Teixeira, Miguel Cacho

    2018-01-01

    Candida species are fungal pathogens known for their ability to cause superficial and systemic infections in the human host. These pathogens are able to persist inside the host due to the development of pathogenicity and multidrug resistance traits, often leading to the failure of therapeutic strategies. One specific feature of Candida species pathogenicity is their ability to form biofilms, which protects them from external factors such as host immune system defenses and antifungal drugs. This review focuses on the current threats and challenges when dealing with biofilms formed by Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis , and Candida parapsilosis , highlighting the differences between the four species. Biofilm characteristics depend on the ability of each species to produce extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and display dimorphic growth, but also on the biofilm substratum, carbon source availability and other factors. Additionally, the transcriptional control over processes like adhesion, biofilm formation, filamentation, and EPS production displays great complexity and diversity within pathogenic yeasts of the Candida genus. These differences not only have implications in the persistence of colonization and infections but also on antifungal resistance typically found in Candida biofilm cells, potentiated by EPS, that functions as a barrier to drug diffusion, and by the overexpression of drug resistance transporters. The ability to interact with different species in in vivo Candida biofilms is also a key factor to consider when dealing with this problem. Despite many challenges, the most promising strategies that are currently available or under development to limit biofilm formation or to eradicate mature biofilms are discussed.

  13. Optimization of Antivirus Software

    OpenAIRE

    Catalin BOJA; Adrian VISOIU

    2007-01-01

    The paper describes the main techniques used in development of computer antivirus software applications. For this particular category of software, are identified and defined optimum criteria that helps determine which solution is better and what are the objectives of the optimization process. From the general viewpoint of software optimization are presented methods and techniques that are applied at code development level. Regarding the particularities of antivirus software, the paper analyze...

  14. Open Source Software Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    appropriate to refer to FOSS or FLOSS (L for Libre , where the alternative term “ libre software ” has popularity in some parts of the world) in order...Applying Social Network Analysis to Community-Drive Libre Software Projects, Intern. J. Info. Tech. and Web Engineering, 2006, 1(3), 27-28. 17...Open Source Software Development* Walt Scacchi Institute for Software Researcher University of California, Irvine Irvine, CA 92697-3455 USA Abstract

  15. Gammasphere software development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piercey, R.B.

    1994-01-01

    This report describes the activities of the nuclear physics group at Mississippi State University which were performed during 1993. Significant progress has been made in the focus areas: chairing the Gammasphere Software Working Group (SWG); assisting with the porting and enhancement of the ORNL UPAK histogramming software package; and developing standard formats for Gammasphere data products. In addition, they have established a new public ftp archive to distribute software and software development tools and information

  16. Software engineer's pocket book

    CERN Document Server

    Tooley, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Software Engineer's Pocket Book provides a concise discussion on various aspects of software engineering. The book is comprised of six chapters that tackle various areas of concerns in software engineering. Chapter 1 discusses software development, and Chapter 2 covers programming languages. Chapter 3 deals with operating systems. The book also tackles discrete mathematics and numerical computation. Data structures and algorithms are also explained. The text will be of great use to individuals involved in the specification, design, development, implementation, testing, maintenance, and qualit

  17. Software Testing Requires Variability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Bærbak

    2003-01-01

    Software variability is the ability of a software system or artefact to be changed, customized or configured for use in a particular context. Variability in software systems is important from a number of perspectives. Some perspectives rightly receive much attention due to their direct economic...... impact in software production. As is also apparent from the call for papers these perspectives focus on qualities such as reuse, adaptability, and maintainability....

  18. Threat appeals in health communication: messages that elicit fear and enhance perceived efficacy positively impact on young male drivers

    OpenAIRE

    Carey, R. N.; Sarma, K. M.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Health communications often present graphic, threat-based representations of the potential consequences of health-risk behaviours. These 'threat appeals' feature prominently in public health campaigns, but their use is controversial, with studies investigating their efficacy reporting inconsistent, and often negative, findings. This research examined the impact of a threat-based road safety advertisement on the driving behaviour of young male drivers. METHODS: To address limitati...

  19. Threat appeals in health communication: messages that elicit fear and enhance perceived efficacy positively impact on young male drivers

    OpenAIRE

    Rachel N. Carey; Kiran M. Sarma

    2016-01-01

    Background Health communications often present graphic, threat-based representations of the potential consequences of health-risk behaviours. These ?threat appeals? feature prominently in public health campaigns, but their use is controversial, with studies investigating their efficacy reporting inconsistent, and often negative, findings. This research examined the impact of a threat-based road safety advertisement on the driving behaviour of young male drivers. Methods To address limitations...

  20. Short-term serotonergic but not noradrenergic antidepressant administration reduces attentional vigilance to threat in healthy volunteers

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, Susannah E; Yiend, Jenny; Lester, Kathryn J; Cowen, Philip J; Harmer, Catherine J

    2009-01-01

    Anxiety is associated with threat-related biases in information processing such as heightened attentional vigilance to potential threat. Such biases are an important focus of psychological treatments for anxiety disorders. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are effective in the treatment of a range of anxiety disorders. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of an SSRI on the processing of threat in healthy volunteers. A selective noradrenergic reuptake inhibitor (SNRI), ...

  1. Computer software quality assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ives, K.A.

    1986-06-01

    The author defines some criteria for the evaluation of software quality assurance elements for applicability to the regulation of the nuclear industry. The author then analyses a number of software quality assurance (SQA) standards. The major extracted SQA elements are then discussed, and finally specific software quality assurance recommendations are made for the nuclear industry

  2. Software Architecture Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Jeffrey M.

    2013-01-01

    Many software systems eventually undergo changes to their basic architectural structure. Such changes may be prompted by new feature requests, new quality attribute requirements, changing technology, or other reasons. Whatever the causes, architecture evolution is commonplace in real-world software projects. Today's software architects, however,…

  3. XES Software Communication Extension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leemans, M.; Liu, C.

    2017-01-01

    During the execution of software, execution data can be recorded. With the development of process mining techniques on the one hand, and the growing availability of software execution data on the other hand, a new form of software analytics comes into reach. That is, applying process mining

  4. Neutron Scattering Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Home Page | Facilities | Reference | Software | Conferences | Announcements | Mailing Lists Neutron Scattering Banner Neutron Scattering Software A new portal for neutron scattering has just been established sets KUPLOT: data plotting and fitting software ILL/TAS: Matlab probrams for analyzing triple axis data

  5. XES Software Event Extension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leemans, M.; Liu, C.

    2017-01-01

    During the execution of software, execution data can be recorded. With the development of process mining techniques on the one hand, and the growing availability of software execution data on the other hand, a new form of software analytics comes into reach. That is, applying process mining

  6. ARC Software and Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archives RESEARCH ▼ Research Areas Ongoing Projects Completed Projects SOFTWARE CONTACT ▼ Primary Contacts Researchers External Link MLibrary Deep Blue Software Archive Most research conducted at the ARC produce software code and methodologies that are transferred to TARDEC and industry partners. These

  7. XES Software Telemetry Extension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leemans, M.; Liu, C.

    2017-01-01

    During the execution of software, execution data can be recorded. With the development of process mining techniques on the one hand, and the growing availability of software execution data on the other hand, a new form of software analytics comes into reach. That is, applying process mining

  8. Specifications in software prototyping

    OpenAIRE

    Luqi; Chang, Carl K.; Zhu, Hong

    1998-01-01

    We explore the use of software speci®cations for software prototyping. This paper describes a process model for software prototyping, and shows how specifications can be used to support such a process via a cellular mobile phone switch example.

  9. Software Engineering for Portability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanchev, Ivan

    1990-01-01

    Discussion of the portability of educational software focuses on the software design and development process. Topics discussed include levels of portability; the user-computer dialog; software engineering principles; design techniques for student performance records; techniques of courseware programing; and suggestions for further research and…

  10. Software Acquisition and Software Engineering Best Practices

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Eslinger, S

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this white paper is to address the issues raised in the recently published Senate Armed Services Committee Report 106-50 concerning Software Management Improvements for the Department of Defense (DoD...

  11. Software Quality Assurance in Software Projects: A Study of Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Faisal Shafique Butt; Sundus Shaukat; M. Wasif Nisar; Ehsan Ullah Munir; Muhammad Waseem; Kashif Ayyub

    2013-01-01

    Software quality is specific property which tells what kind of standard software should have. In a software project, quality is the key factor of success and decline of software related organization. Many researches have been done regarding software quality. Software related organization follows standards introduced by Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI) to achieve good quality software. Quality is divided into three main layers which are Software Quality Assurance (SQA), Software Qu...

  12. Continuous improvement of software quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivertsen, Terje

    1999-04-01

    The present report is the first Halden Work Report delivered from the OECD Halden Reactor Project's research activity on formal methods and software quality. Of particular concern in this activity is to reach a consensus between regulators, licensees and the nuclear industry on questions related to the effective, industrial use of formal methods. The report gives considerable attention to the importance of continuous improvement as a characteristic of a living software quality system, and to the need of providing a basis for software process/product quality integration. In particular, the report discusses these aspects from the perspectives of defect prevention, formal methods, Total Quality Management (TQM), and Bayesian Belief Nets. Another concern is to promote controlled experiments on the use of new methods, techniques, and tools. This is achieved partly by reviewing suggestions on the collection and experimental use of data, and by surveying a number of metrics believed to have some potential for comparison studies (author) (ml)

  13. The Economics of Educational Software Portability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Joao Batista Araujo e

    1990-01-01

    Discusses economic issues that affect the portability of educational software. Topics discussed include economic reasons for portability, including cost effectiveness; the nature and behavior of educational computer software markets; the role of producers, buyers, and consumers; potential effects of government policies; computer piracy; and…

  14. The effect of stereotype threat on performance of a rhythmic motor skill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Meghan E; Seitchik, Allison E; Brown, Adam J; Sternad, Dagmar; Harkins, Stephen G

    2015-04-01

    Many studies using cognitive tasks have found that stereotype threat, or concern about confirming a negative stereotype about one's group, debilitates performance. The few studies that documented similar effects on sensorimotor performance have used only relatively coarse measures to quantify performance. This study tested the effect of stereotype threat on a rhythmic ball bouncing task, where previous analyses of the task dynamics afforded more detailed quantification of the effect of threat on motor control. In this task, novices hit the ball with positive racket acceleration, indicative of unstable performance. With practice, they learn to stabilize error by changing their ball-racket impact from positive to negative acceleration. Results showed that for novices, stereotype threat potentiated hitting the ball with positive racket acceleration, leading to poorer performance of stigmatized females. However, when the threat manipulation was delivered after having acquired some skill, reflected by negative racket acceleration, the stigmatized females performed better. These findings are consistent with the mere effort account that argues that stereotype threat potentiates the most likely response on the given task. The study also demonstrates the value of identifying the control mechanisms through which stereotype threat has its effects on outcome measures. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  15. Community Changes Address Common Health Threat

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast helps residents living in multiunit housing, like apartments and condos, understand the threat of secondhand smoke. It also helps residents understand what steps they can take to breathe a little easier if involuntarily exposed to secondhand smoke

  16. Crowdsourcing for children : exploring threats and opportunities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wit, J.M.S.; Manojlovic, S.; Gavrilo, K.; Khan, J.V.; Hansson, K.; Aitamurto, T.; Ludwig, T.; Gupta, N.; Muller, M.

    2016-01-01

    Children are increasingly being engaged in product development, but they have yet to be introduced to the concept of crowdsourcing. Several opportunities and threats when designing a crowdsourcing platform specifically for children are proposed as topics for further discussion.

  17. 25 CFR 11.402 - Terroristic threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... ORDER CODE Criminal Offenses § 11.402 Terroristic threats. A person is guilty of a misdemeanor if he or she threatens to commit any crime of violence with purpose to terrorize another or to cause evacuation...

  18. Advanced Insider Threat Mitigation Workshop Instructional Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibbs, Philip [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Larsen, Robert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); O' Brien, Mike [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Edmunds, Tom [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2009-02-01

    Insiders represent a formidable threat to nuclear facilities. This set of workshop materials covers methodologies to analyze and approaches to mitigate the threat of an insider attempting abrupt and protracted theft of nuclear materials. This particular set of materials is an update of a January 2008 version to add increased emphasis on Material Control and Accounting and its role with respect to protracted insider nuclear material theft scenarios. This report is a compilation of workshop materials consisting of lectures on technical and administrative measures used in Physical Protection (PP) and Material Control and Accounting (MC&A) and methods for analyzing their effectiveness against a postulated insider threat. The postulated threat includes both abrupt and protracted theft scenarios. Presentation is envisioned to be through classroom instruction and discussion. Several practical and group exercises are included for demonstration and application of the analysis approach contained in the lecture/discussion sessions as applied to a hypothetical nuclear facility.

  19. Children's Threats: When Are They Serious?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mental illness, such as depression, mania, psychosis, or bipolar disorder use of alcohol or illicit drugs disciplinary problems ... mental health professional with experience evaluating children and adolescents. Evaluation of any serious threat must be done ...

  20. Terrorism: Current and Long Term Threats

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jenkins, Brian

    2001-01-01

    Despite the high level of anxiety the American people are currently experiencing, we may still not fully comprehend the seriousness of the current and near-term threats we confront or the longer-term...

  1. Antibiotic and Antimicrobial Resistance: Threat Report 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Form Controls Cancel Submit Search The CDC Antibiotic / Antimicrobial Resistance Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Antibiotic / Antimicrobial Resistance About Antimicrobial Resistance Biggest Threats Emerging Drug ...

  2. Emerging influenza virus: A global threat

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAKASH KUMAR

    Emerging influenza virus: A global threat. 475. J. Biosci. ... pathogens and are of major global health concern. Recently, ..... cases among persons in 14 countries in Asia, the Middle ... of influenza, investment in pandemic vaccine research and.

  3. Licensing safety critical software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archinoff, G.H.; Brown, R.A.

    1990-01-01

    Licensing difficulties with the shutdown system software at the Darlington Nuclear Generating Station contributed to delays in starting up the station. Even though the station has now been given approval by the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) to operate, the software issue has not disappeared - Ontario Hydro has been instructed by the AECB to redesign the software. This article attempts to explain why software based shutdown systems were chosen for Darlington, why there was so much difficulty licensing them, and what the implications are for other safety related software based applications

  4. A Quantitative Threats Analysis for the Florida Manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runge, Michael C.; Sanders-Reed, Carol A.; Langtimm, Catherine A.; Fonnesbeck, Christopher J.

    2007-01-01

    The Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) is an endangered marine mammal endemic to the southeastern United States. The primary threats to manatee populations are collisions with watercraft and the potential loss of warm-water refuges. For the purposes of listing, recovery, and regulation under the Endangered Species Act (ESA), an understanding of the relative effects of the principal threats is needed. This work is a quantitative approach to threats analysis, grounded in the assumption that an appropriate measure of status under the ESA is based on the risk of extinction, as quantified by the probability of quasi-extinction. This is related to the qualitative threats analyses that are more common under the ESA, but provides an additional level of rigor, objectivity, and integration. In this approach, our philosophy is that analysis of the five threat factors described in Section 4(a)(1) of the ESA can be undertaken within an integrated quantitative framework. The basis of this threats analysis is a comparative population viability analysis. This involves forecasting the Florida manatee population under different scenarios regarding the presence of threats, while accounting for process variation (environmental, demographic, and catastrophic stochasticity) as well as parametric and structural uncertainty. We used the manatee core biological model (CBM) for this viability analysis, and considered the role of five threats: watercraft-related mortality, loss of warm-water habitat in winter, mortality in water-control structures, entanglement, and red tide. All scenarios were run with an underlying parallel structure that allowed a more powerful estimation of the effects of the various threats. The results reflect our understanding of manatee ecology (as captured in the structure of the CBM), our estimates of manatee demography (as described by the parameters in the model), and our characterization of the mechanisms by which the threats act on manatees. As an

  5. A Model for Situation and Threat Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    CUBRC , Inc.) 8151 Needwood #T103 Derwood, MD 20855 UNITED STATES steinberg@cubrc.org A model is presented for situation and threat assessment...PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Subject Matter Expert (SME) Calspan-UB Research Center ( CUBRC , Inc.) 8151 Needwood #T103 Derwood, MD...1 A Model for Situation and Threat Assessment Alan Steinberg CUBRC , Inc. steinberg@cubrc.org November, 2005 2 Objectives • Advance the state-of

  6. Advanced insider threat mitigation workshop instructional materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibbs, Philip [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Larsen, Robert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); O Brien, Mike [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Edmunds, Tom [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2008-11-01

    Insiders represent a formidable threat to nuclear facilities. This set of workshop materials covers methodologies to analyze and approaches to mitigate the threat of an insider attempting abrupt and protracted theft of nuclear materials. This particular set of materials is a n update of a January 2008 version to add increased emphasis on Material Control and Accounting and its role with respect to protracted insider nuclear material theft scenarios.

  7. Software support environment design knowledge capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dollman, Tom

    1990-01-01

    The objective of this task is to assess the potential for using the software support environment (SSE) workstations and associated software for design knowledge capture (DKC) tasks. This assessment will include the identification of required capabilities for DKC and hardware/software modifications needed to support DKC. Several approaches to achieving this objective are discussed and interim results are provided: (1) research into the problem of knowledge engineering in a traditional computer-aided software engineering (CASE) environment, like the SSE; (2) research into the problem of applying SSE CASE tools to develop knowledge based systems; and (3) direct utilization of SSE workstations to support a DKC activity.

  8. Disease-threat model explains acceptance of genetically modified products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prokop Pavol

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural selection favoured survival of individuals who were able to avoid disease. The behavioural immune system is activated especially when our sensory system comes into contact with disease-connoting cues and/or when these cues resemble disease threat. We investigated whether or not perception of modern risky technologies, risky behaviour, expected reproductive goals and food neophobia are associated with the behavioural immune system related to specific attitudes toward genetically modified (GM products. We found that respondents who felt themselves more vulnerable to infectious diseases had significantly more negative attitudes toward GM products. Females had less positive attitudes toward GM products, but engaging in risky behaviours, the expected reproductive goals of females and food neophobia did not predict attitudes toward GM products. Our results suggest that evolved psychological mechanisms primarily designed to protect us against pathogen threat are activated by modern technologies possessing potential health risks.

  9. Training organizational supervisors to detect and prevent cyber insider threats: two approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dee H. Andrews

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Cyber insider threat is intentional theft from, or sabotage of, a cyber system by someone within the organization. This article explores the use of advanced cognitive and instructional principles to accelerate learning in organizational supervisors to mitigate the cyber threat. It examines the potential advantage of using serious games to engage supervisors. It also posits two systematic instructional approaches for this training challenge – optimal path modelling and a competency-based approach. The paper concludes by discussing challenges of evaluating training for seldom occurring real world phenomena, like detecting a cyber-insider threat.

  10. Reducing the risk of cyber threats in utilities through log management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patnaik, A. [ArcSight, Cupertino, CA (United States)

    2010-01-15

    Electrical blackouts caused by terrorists hacking into targeted control systems have already occurred in Brazil. A patchwork of security tools is needed to reduce potential threats. The continuous collection and analysis of data is also needed to detect cyber threats. The real time correlation of logs across all systems, applications and users is needed to ensure the reliability and security of the power grid. Solutions must also integrate well with identity management sources in order to prevent remote access account hijacking. Effective log management can be used to detect threats and reduce the risk of power outages. 1 fig.

  11. HAZARD ANALYSIS SOFTWARE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sommer, S; Tinh Tran, T.

    2008-01-01

    Washington Safety Management Solutions, LLC developed web-based software to improve the efficiency and consistency of hazard identification and analysis, control selection and classification, and to standardize analysis reporting at Savannah River Site. In the new nuclear age, information technology provides methods to improve the efficiency of the documented safety analysis development process which includes hazard analysis activities. This software provides a web interface that interacts with a relational database to support analysis, record data, and to ensure reporting consistency. A team of subject matter experts participated in a series of meetings to review the associated processes and procedures for requirements and standard practices. Through these meetings, a set of software requirements were developed and compiled into a requirements traceability matrix from which software could be developed. The software was tested to ensure compliance with the requirements. Training was provided to the hazard analysis leads. Hazard analysis teams using the software have verified its operability. The software has been classified as NQA-1, Level D, as it supports the analysis team but does not perform the analysis. The software can be transported to other sites with alternate risk schemes. The software is being used to support the development of 14 hazard analyses. User responses have been positive with a number of suggestions for improvement which are being incorporated as time permits. The software has enforced a uniform implementation of the site procedures. The software has significantly improved the efficiency and standardization of the hazard analysis process

  12. Software Validation in ATLAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodgkinson, Mark; Seuster, Rolf; Simmons, Brinick; Sherwood, Peter; Rousseau, David

    2012-01-01

    The ATLAS collaboration operates an extensive set of protocols to validate the quality of the offline software in a timely manner. This is essential in order to process the large amounts of data being collected by the ATLAS detector in 2011 without complications on the offline software side. We will discuss a number of different strategies used to validate the ATLAS offline software; running the ATLAS framework software, Athena, in a variety of configurations daily on each nightly build via the ATLAS Nightly System (ATN) and Run Time Tester (RTT) systems; the monitoring of these tests and checking the compilation of the software via distributed teams of rotating shifters; monitoring of and follow up on bug reports by the shifter teams and periodic software cleaning weeks to improve the quality of the offline software further.

  13. Insular threat associations within taxa worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclerc, Camille; Courchamp, Franck; Bellard, Céline

    2018-04-23

    The global loss of biodiversity can be attributed to numerous threats. While pioneer studies have investigated their relative importance, the majority of those studies are restricted to specific geographic regions and/or taxonomic groups and only consider a small subset of threats, generally in isolation despite their frequent interaction. Here, we investigated 11 major threats responsible for species decline on islands worldwide. We applied an innovative method of network analyses to disentangle the associations of multiple threats on vertebrates, invertebrates, and plants in 15 insular regions. Biological invasions, wildlife exploitation, and cultivation, either alone or in association, were found to be the three most important drivers of species extinction and decline on islands. Specifically, wildlife exploitation and cultivation are largely associated with the decline of threatened plants and terrestrial vertebrates, whereas biological invasions mostly threaten invertebrates and freshwater fish. Furthermore, biodiversity in the Indian Ocean and near the Asian coasts is mostly affected by wildlife exploitation and cultivation compared to biological invasions in the Pacific and Atlantic insular regions. We highlighted specific associations of threats at different scales, showing that the analysis of each threat in isolation might be inadequate for developing effective conservation policies and managements.

  14. Fear, threat and efficacy in threat appeals: message involvement as a key mediator to message acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cauberghe, Verolien; De Pelsmacker, Patrick; Janssens, Wim; Dens, Nathalie

    2009-03-01

    In a sample of 170 youngsters, the effect of two versions of a public service announcement (PSA) threat appeal against speeding, placed in four different contexts, on evoked fear, perceived threat (severity and probability of occurrence), perceived response efficacy and self-efficacy, message involvement and anti-speeding attitude and anti-speeding intention is investigated. Evoked fear and perceived threat and efficacy independently influence message involvement. Message involvement is a full mediator between evoked fear, perceived threat and efficacy perception on the one hand, and attitudes towards the message and behavioral intention to accept the message on the other. Speeding experience has a significantly negative impact on anti-speeding attitudes. Message and medium context threat levels and context thematic congruency have a significant effect on evoked fear and to a lesser extent on perceived threat.

  15. Standard Compliant Hazard and Threat Analysis for the Automotive Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristian Beckers

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The automotive industry has successfully collaborated to release the ISO 26262 standard for developing safe software for cars. The standard describes in detail how to conduct hazard analysis and risk assessments to determine the necessary safety measures for each feature. However, the standard does not concern threat analysis for malicious attackers or how to select appropriate security countermeasures. We propose the application of ISO 27001 for this purpose and show how it can be applied together with ISO 26262. We show how ISO 26262 documentation can be re-used and enhanced to satisfy the analysis and documentation demands of the ISO 27001 standard. We illustrate our approach based on an electronic steering column lock system.

  16. Analyzing Software Errors in Safety-Critical Embedded Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Robyn R.

    1994-01-01

    This paper analyzes the root causes of safty-related software faults identified as potentially hazardous to the system are distributed somewhat differently over the set of possible error causes than non-safety-related software faults.

  17. Threats from urban expansion, agricultural transformation and forest loss on global conservation priority areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moilanen, Atte; Di Minin, Enrico

    2017-01-01

    Including threats in spatial conservation prioritization helps identify areas for conservation actions where biodiversity is at imminent risk of extinction. At the global level, an important limitation when identifying spatial priorities for conservation actions is the lack of information on the spatial distribution of threats. Here, we identify spatial conservation priorities under three prominent threats to biodiversity (residential and commercial development, agricultural expansion, and forest loss), which are primary drivers of habitat loss and threaten the persistence of the highest number of species in the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List, and for which spatial data is available. We first explore how global priority areas for the conservation of vertebrate (mammals, birds, and amphibians) species coded in the Red List as vulnerable to each threat differ spatially. We then identify spatial conservation priorities for all species vulnerable to all threats. Finally, we identify the potentially most threatened areas by overlapping the identified priority areas for conservation with maps for each threat. We repeat the same with four other well-known global conservation priority area schemes, namely Key Biodiversity Areas, Biodiversity Hotspots, the global Protected Area Network, and Wilderness Areas. We find that residential and commercial development directly threatens only about 4% of the global top 17% priority areas for species vulnerable under this threat. However, 50% of the high priority areas for species vulnerable to forest loss overlap with areas that have already experienced some forest loss. Agricultural expansion overlapped with ~20% of high priority areas. Biodiversity Hotspots had the greatest proportion of their total area under direct threat from all threats, while expansion of low intensity agriculture was found to pose an imminent threat to Wilderness Areas under future agricultural expansion. Our results

  18. The concept of ego threat in social and personality psychology: is ego threat a viable scientific construct?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leary, Mark R; Terry, Meredith L; Batts Allen, Ashley; Tate, Eleanor B

    2009-08-01

    Although widely invoked as an explanation for psychological phenomena, ego threat has been conceptualized and induced in a variety of ways. Most contemporary research conceptualizes ego threat as a threat to a person's self-image or self-esteem, but experimental operationalizations of ego threat usually confound threats to self-esteem with threats to public image or decreased control over negative events, leading to an inability to distinguish the effects of threats to people's personal egos from threats to public image or threats to feelings of control. This article reviews research on ego threat, discusses experimental manipulations that confound ego threat with other processes, and makes recommendations regarding the use of ego threat as a construct in personality and social psychology.

  19. Open source IPSEC software in manned and unmanned space missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Jacob

    Network security is a major topic of research because cyber attackers pose a threat to national security. Securing ground-space communications for NASA missions is important because attackers could endanger mission success and human lives. This thesis describes how an open source IPsec software package was used to create a secure and reliable channel for ground-space communications. A cost efficient, reproducible hardware testbed was also created to simulate ground-space communications. The testbed enables simulation of low-bandwidth and high latency communications links to experiment how the open source IPsec software reacts to these network constraints. Test cases were built that allowed for validation of the testbed and the open source IPsec software. The test cases also simulate using an IPsec connection from mission control ground routers to points of interest in outer space. Tested open source IPsec software did not meet all the requirements. Software changes were suggested to meet requirements.

  20. Nuclear threats in the vicinity of the Nordic countries. A database, Nordic Nuclear Safety Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margrethe, I.; Eikelmann, H.

    2003-01-01

    The acute phase of an accident and the possibility of high exposure of the populations are always the most important threats in the emergency preparedness work. Radioactive contamination from an accident can however also cause long time effects for land use and enhanced doses to special population groups and economic problems for agriculture, grazing animals, reindeer industry, hunting, freshwater fishing, tourism and recreation. For planning purposes it is always valuable to be aware of potential radiation hazard and other potential threats in the vicinity of the Nordic countries. Thus, mapping such threats in a Nordic context is an important factor in emergency preparedness in the Nordic countries. The project has dealt with threats from the north west of Russia and the Baltic states. The results from the different activities in the project is generated in a web based database called the 'the base of knowledge'. (orig.)

  1. Weapons of mass destruction - current security threat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durdiak, J.; Gafrik, A.; Pulis, P.; Susko, M.

    2005-01-01

    officially own such weaponry and the states that are reasonably suspected to own such weaponry or try to obtain it. All the data are from open and unclassified sources published in professional periodicals and on the Internet. This chapter describes also the potential threats and consequences of terrorists' obtaining nuclear weapons. The Chemical Weapons remind that this kind of WMD has been in use since ancient history. The chemical weapons development has reached its peak in the twentieth century, along with their first mass use in combat during WW I. The next period brought the development of exceptionally efficient chemical weapons, such as the nerve-paralyzing substances. Use of chemical weapons is documented during WW II, the Vietnam War and in the Iran-Iraq War. Further chapters focus on the detailed description of individual toxic substances - nerve paralyzing, general toxic, blister, choking, physically and psychically disabling and irritating agents - their attributes, the mechanism of their effects, intoxication symptoms and possibilities of protection. Attention is paid to the process of chemical disarmament and chemical terrorism as well, stressing the threat posed by terrorists abusing dangerous industrial chemical substances present in the states' infrastructure. The next part is dedicated to the phenomenon of biological weapons nicknamed, along with chemical weapons, 'the poor man's nuclear weapon'. Given the revolutionary progress and wide availability of bio-technologies it presents the most probable weapon of mass destruction that terrorists could use to achieve their goals. The biological weapons are defined here as 'pathogenic microorganisms, the toxic products of their metabolism, certain live organisms and some synthetic substances inducing mass disease or death of humans or animals or destroying agriculture'. A short description follows of pathogenic microorganisms such as bacteria, rickettsia, viruses, molds, certain toxins that present a cross

  2. Fear, threat and efficacy in threat appeals: Message involvement as a key mediator to message acceptance

    OpenAIRE

    Cauberghe, Verolien; De Pelsmacker, Patrick; JANSSENS, Wim; Dens, Nathalie

    2009-01-01

    In a sample of 170 youngsters, the effect of two versions of a public service announcement (PSA) threat appeal against speeding, placed in four different contexts. on evoked fear, perceived threat (severity and probability of occurrence), perceived response efficacy and self-efficacy, message involvement and anti-speeding attitude and anti-speeding intention is investigated. Evoked fear and perceived threat and efficacy independently influence message involvement...

  3. FY1995 study of very flexible software structures based on soft-software components; 1995 nendo yawarankana software buhin ni motozuku software no choju kozo ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop the method and tools for changing the software structure flexibly along with the continuous continuous change of its environment and conditions of use. The goal is the software of very high adaptability by using soft-software components and flexible assembly. The CASE tool platform Sapid based on a fine-grained repository was developed and enforced for raising the abstraction level of program code and for mining potential flexible components. To reconstruct the software adaptable to a required environment, the SQM (Software Quark Model) was used in managing interconnectivity and other semantic relationships of among components. On these two basic systems, we developed various methods and tools such as those for static and dynamic analysis of very flexible software structures, program transformation description, program pattern extraction and composition component optimization by partial evaluation, component extraction by function slicing, code encapsulation, and component navigation and application. (NEDO)

  4. Software Innovation in a Mission Critical Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredrickson, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Operating in mission-critical environments requires trusted solutions, and the preference for "tried and true" approaches presents a potential barrier to infusing innovation into mission-critical systems. This presentation explores opportunities to overcome this barrier in the software domain. It outlines specific areas of innovation in software development achieved by the Johnson Space Center (JSC) Engineering Directorate in support of NASA's major human spaceflight programs, including International Space Station, Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (Orion), and Commercial Crew Programs. Software engineering teams at JSC work with hardware developers, mission planners, and system operators to integrate flight vehicles, habitats, robotics, and other spacecraft elements for genuinely mission critical applications. The innovations described, including the use of NASA Core Flight Software and its associated software tool chain, can lead to software that is more affordable, more reliable, better modelled, more flexible, more easily maintained, better tested, and enabling of automation.

  5. Intercomparison of alpha particle spectrometry software packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-08-01

    Software has reached an important level as the 'logical controller' at different levels, from a single instrument to an entire computer-controlled experiment. This is also the case for software packages in nuclear instruments and experiments. In particular, because of the range of applications of alpha-particle spectrometry, software packages in this field are often used. It is the aim of this intercomparison to test and describe the abilities of four such software packages. The main objectives of the intercomparison were the ability of the programs to determine the peak areas and the peak area uncertainties, and the statistical control and stability of reported results. In this report, the task, methods and results of the intercomparison are presented in order to asist the potential users of such software and to stimulate the development of even better alpha-particle spectrum analysis software

  6. At a global scale, do climate change threatened species also face a greater number of non-climatic threats?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas B. Fortini

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available For many species the threats of climate change occur in a context of multiple existing threats. Given the current focus of global change ecology in identifying and understanding species vulnerable to climate change, we performed a global analysis to characterize the multi-threat context for species threatened by climate change. Utilizing 30,053 species from the International Union for Conservation of Nature’s (IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, we sought to evaluate if species threatened by climate change are more likely threatened by a greater number of non-climatic threats than species not threatened by climate change. Our results show that species threatened by climate change are generally impacted by 21% more non-climatic threats than species not threatened by climate change. Across all species, this pattern is related to IUCN risk status, where endangered species threatened by climate change face 33% more non-climatic threats than endangered species not threatened by climate change. With the clear challenges of assessing current and projected impacts of climate change on species and ecosystems, research often requires reductionist approaches that result in downplaying this multi-threat context. This cautionary note bears relevance beyond climate change threatened species as we also found other (but not all anthropogenic threats are also similarly associated with more threats. Our findings serve as a reminder that ecological research should seriously consider these potential threat interactions, especially for species under elevated conservation concern.

  7. NASA software documentation standard software engineering program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    The NASA Software Documentation Standard (hereinafter referred to as Standard) can be applied to the documentation of all NASA software. This Standard is limited to documentation format and content requirements. It does not mandate specific management, engineering, or assurance standards or techniques. This Standard defines the format and content of documentation for software acquisition, development, and sustaining engineering. Format requirements address where information shall be recorded and content requirements address what information shall be recorded. This Standard provides a framework to allow consistency of documentation across NASA and visibility into the completeness of project documentation. This basic framework consists of four major sections (or volumes). The Management Plan contains all planning and business aspects of a software project, including engineering and assurance planning. The Product Specification contains all technical engineering information, including software requirements and design. The Assurance and Test Procedures contains all technical assurance information, including Test, Quality Assurance (QA), and Verification and Validation (V&V). The Management, Engineering, and Assurance Reports is the library and/or listing of all project reports.

  8. Securing Cloud Hypervisors: A Survey of the Threats, Vulnerabilities, and Countermeasures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Patrick Barrowclough

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The exponential rise of the cloud computing paradigm has led to the cybersecurity concerns, taking into account the fact that the resources are shared and mediated by a ‘hypervisor’ that may be attacked and user data can be compromised or hacked. In order to better define these threats to which a cloud hypervisor is exposed, we conducted an in-depth analysis and highlighted the security concerns of the cloud. We basically focused on the two particular issues, i.e., (a data breaches and (b weak authentication. For in-depth analysis, we have successfully demonstrated a fully functional private cloud infrastructure running on CloudStack for the software management and orchestrated a valid hack. We analyzed the popular open-source hypervisors, followed by an extensive study of the vulnerability reports associated with them. Based on our findings, we propose the characterization and countermeasures of hypervisor’s vulnerabilities. These investigations can be used to understand the potential attack paths on cloud computing and Cloud-of-Things (CoT applications and identify the vulnerabilities that enabled them.

  9. The influence of stereotype threat on immigrants: review and meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Appel, Markus; Weber, Silvana; Kronberger, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    In many regions around the world students with certain immigrant backgrounds underachieve in educational settings. This paper provides a review and meta-analysis on one potential source of the immigrant achievement gap: stereotype threat, a situational predicament that may prevent students to perform up to their full abilities. A meta-analysis of 19 experiments suggests an overall mean effect size of 0.63 (random effects model) in support of stereotype threat theory. The results are complemen...

  10. Software Maintenance and Evolution: The Implication for Software ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Software Maintenance and Evolution: The Implication for Software Development. ... Software maintenance is the process of modifying existing operational software by correcting errors, ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  11. The School Advanced Ventilation Engineering Software (SAVES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The School Advanced Ventilation Engineering Software (SAVES) package is a tool to help school designers assess the potential financial payback and indoor humidity control benefits of Energy Recovery Ventilation (ERV) systems for school applications.

  12. Threat and defense as goal regulation: from implicit goal conflict to anxious uncertainty, reactive approach motivation, and ideological extremism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Kyle; McGregor, Ian; Prentice, Mike

    2011-12-01

    Four studies investigated a goal regulation view of anxious uncertainty threat (Gray & McNaughton, 2000) and ideological defense. Participants (N = 444) were randomly assigned to have achievement or relationship goals implicitly primed. The implicit goal primes were followed by randomly assigned achievement or relationship threats that have reliably caused generalized, reactive approach motivation and ideological defense in past research. The threats caused anxious uncertainty (Study 1), reactive approach motivation (Studies 2 and 3), and reactive ideological conviction (Study 4) only when threat-relevant goals had first been primed, but not when threat-irrelevant goals had first been primed. Reactive ideological conviction (Study 4) was eliminated if participants were given an opportunity to attribute their anxiety to a mundane source. Results support a goal regulation view of anxious uncertainty, threat, and defense with potential for integrating theories of defensive compensation.

  13. Cloud Service Provider Methods for Managing Insider Threats: Analysis Phase 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    of Standards and Technology (NIST) Special Publication 800-145 (NIST SP 800-145) defines three types of cloud services : Software as a Service ( SaaS ...among these three models. NIST SP 800-145 describes the three service models as follows: SaaS —The capability provided to the consumer is to use the...Cloud Service Provider Methods for Managing Insider Threats: Analysis Phase I Greg Porter November 2013 TECHNICAL NOTE CMU/SEI-2013-TN-020

  14. Software Defined Networking Demands on Software Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galinac Grbac, T.; Caba, Cosmin Marius; Soler, José

    2015-01-01

    Software Defined Networking (SDN) is a networking approach based on a centralized control plane architecture with standardised interfaces between control and data planes. SDN enables fast configuration and reconfiguration of the network to enhance resource utilization and service performances....... This new approach enables a more dynamic and flexible network, which may adapt to user needs and application requirements. To this end, systemized solutions must be implemented in network software, aiming to provide secure network services that meet the required service performance levels. In this paper......, we review this new approach to networking from an architectural point of view, and identify and discuss some critical quality issues that require new developments in software technologies. These issues we discuss along with use case scenarios. Here in this paper we aim to identify challenges...

  15. RUSSIA'S ECONOMIC SECURITY: THREATS TO NATIONAL INTERESTS AND THEIR REFLECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. N. Dudin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of this study due to the fact that at the present time the situation inRussiais complemented by the negative consequences of market reforms in the economy. According to statistical studies in the country with infl ation of about 10% per year among the total population of more than 20% of people with incomes below the subsistence minimum, and the income gap between the highest-income populations and low-income groups more than 12 times. The inequitable distribution of material and spiritual wealth, unemployment (over 9%, ignoring the legitimate rights and interests of a particular person and their direct violation, corruption, alcoholism, drug addiction largely led to the reproduction of aggression, violence in the country. The recession has limited the ability of the material support of the institutions of culture, education, health. The majority of the population is a feeling of uncertainty, future uncertainty, anxiety, loss of landmarks.Objectives The purpose of this work is the identifi cation and characterization of threats to economic security of theRussian Federationat the present time, and to develop recommendations for the prevention of threats to the national interests ofRussia.Method’s. The methodological basis of this article was legal, comparative and economic-statistical methods of analysis. Results. In the framework of the submitted article, the authors found that threats to the economic security ofRussiaare potential dangers that can occur when inept and ineffi cient use of economic resources ofRussiaon the domestic and foreign markets. Major threats to the economic security of theRussian Federationare: bankruptcy, weak absorption lines; corruption; threats to small business development; investment crisis, the massive outfl ow of capital; the crisis in the social sphere; food addiction; the crisis of industrial policy, as well as strengthening the role and place of TNCs.Conclusions and Relevance. The practical

  16. Software engineering in industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Story, C. M.

    1989-12-01

    Can software be "engineered"? Can a few people with limited resources and a negligible budget produce high quality software solutions to complex software problems? It is possible to resolve the conflict between research activities and the necessity to view software development as a means to an end rather than as an end in itself? The aim of this paper is to encourage further thought and discussion on various topics which, in the author's experience, are becoming increasingly critical in large current software production and development projects, inside and outside high energy physics (HEP). This is done by briefly exploring some of the software engineering ideas and technologies now used in the information industry, using, as a case-study, a project with many similarities to those currently under way in HEP.

  17. The Development of Detailed Threats Model Applicable for Information Risk Assessment of Enterprise Information System Virtualization Claster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Vladimirovna Mashkina

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This research on the development of the model object protection - virtual segment industrial enterprises and the development of threat models, with particular attention paid to assisted virtualization hypervisor type I - full virtualization using the system software, working directly with the hardware.

  18. Managing Cultural Variation in Software Process Improvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kræmmergaard, Pernille; Müller, Sune Dueholm; Mathiassen, Lars

    The scale and complexity of change in software process improvement (SPI) are considerable and managerial attention to organizational culture during SPI can therefore potentially contribute to successful outcomes. However, we know little about the impact of variations in organizational subculture ...... organizations can have important implications for SPI outcomes. Furthermore, it provides insights into how software managers can practically assess subcultures to inform decisions about and help prepare plans for SPI initiatives.......The scale and complexity of change in software process improvement (SPI) are considerable and managerial attention to organizational culture during SPI can therefore potentially contribute to successful outcomes. However, we know little about the impact of variations in organizational subculture...

  19. Candida Biofilms: Threats, Challenges, and Promising Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mafalda Cavalheiro

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Candida species are fungal pathogens known for their ability to cause superficial and systemic infections in the human host. These pathogens are able to persist inside the host due to the development of pathogenicity and multidrug resistance traits, often leading to the failure of therapeutic strategies. One specific feature of Candida species pathogenicity is their ability to form biofilms, which protects them from external factors such as host immune system defenses and antifungal drugs. This review focuses on the current threats and challenges when dealing with biofilms formed by Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis, and Candida parapsilosis, highlighting the differences between the four species. Biofilm characteristics depend on the ability of each species to produce extracellular polymeric substances (EPS and display dimorphic growth, but also on the biofilm substratum, carbon source availability and other factors. Additionally, the transcriptional control over processes like adhesion, biofilm formation, filamentation, and EPS production displays great complexity and diversity within pathogenic yeasts of the Candida genus. These differences not only have implications in the persistence of colonization and infections but also on antifungal resistance typically found in Candida biofilm cells, potentiated by EPS, that functions as a barrier to drug diffusion, and by the overexpression of drug resistance transporters. The ability to interact with different species in in vivo Candida biofilms is also a key factor to consider when dealing with this problem. Despite many challenges, the most promising strategies that are currently available or under development to limit biofilm formation or to eradicate mature biofilms are discussed.

  20. Content specificity of attention bias to threat in anxiety disorders: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pergamin-Hight, Lee; Naim, Reut; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H; Bar-Haim, Yair

    2015-02-01

    Despite the established evidence for threat-related attention bias in anxiety, the mechanisms underlying this bias remain unclear. One important unresolved question is whether disorder-congruent threats capture attention to a greater extent than do more general or disorder-incongruent threat stimuli. Evidence for attention bias specificity in anxiety would implicate involvement of previous learning and memory processes in threat-related attention bias, whereas lack of content specificity would point to perturbations in more generic attention processes. Enhanced clarity of mechanism could have clinical implications for the stimuli types used in Attention Bias Modification Treatments (ABMT). Content specificity of threat-related attention bias in anxiety and potential moderators of this effect were investigated. A systematic search identified 37 samples from 29 articles (N=866). Relevant data were extracted based on specific coding rules, and Cohen's d effect size was used to estimate bias specificity effects. The results indicate greater attention bias toward disorder-congruent relative to disorder-incongruent threat stimuli (d=0.28, pattention tasks, or type of disorder-incongruent stimuli. No evidence of publication bias was observed. Implications for threat bias in anxiety and ABMT are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Improving Insider Threat Training Awareness and Mitigation Programs at Nuclear Facilities.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbott, Shannon [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-06-01

    In recent years, insider threat programs have become an important aspect of nuclear security, and nuclear security training courses. However, many nuclear security insider threat programs fail to address the insider threat attack and monitoring potential that exists on information technology (IT) systems. This failure is critical because of the importance of information technology and networks in today’s world. IT systems offer an opportunity to perpetrate dangerous insider attacks, but they also present an opportunity to monitor for them and prevent them. This paper suggests a number of best practices for monitoring and preventing insider attacks on IT systems, and proposes the development of a new IT insider threat tabletop that can be used to help train nuclear security practitioners on how best to implement IT insider threat prevention best practices. The development of IT insider threat best practices and a practical tabletop exercise will allow nuclear security practitioners to improve nuclear security trainings as it integrates a critical part of insider threat prevention into the broader nuclear security system.

  2. The role of perceived threat in the emergence of PTSD and depression symptoms during warzone deployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, Cynthia L; Cobb, Adam R; Lee, Han-Joo; Telch, Michael J

    2016-07-01

    Numerous studies have shown that level of exposure to combat-related stressors is a robust risk factor for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression among military personnel deployed to a warzone. Threat perception of warzone experiences assessed retrospectively has been consistently linked to increased risk for PTSD and depression months or even years after returning from deployment. However, little is known about concurrent relations between perceived threat, deployment stress, and stress-related symptoms during deployment. Using a novel in-theater web-based assessment system, we investigated the unique and joint contribution of threat perception and deployment stressors in predicting the emergence of PTSD and depression symptoms during deployment. Soldiers (N = 150) completed assessments of deployment stressors, perceived threat, PTSD symptoms, and depression symptoms throughout deployment to Iraq. Results revealed that perceived threat potentiated the increase in PTSD symptoms as a result of increases in deployment stressors. In contrast, perceived threat, but not warzone stressors, uniquely predicted depression symptoms. Results highlight the important role of threat perception as a risk marker for the acute experience of depression and PTSD symptoms during deployment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. A software product certification model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heck, P.M.; Klabbers, M.D.; van Eekelen, Marko

    2010-01-01

    Certification of software artifacts offers organizations more certainty and confidence about software. Certification of software helps software sales, acquisition, and can be used to certify legislative compliance or to achieve acceptable deliverables in outsourcing. In this article, we present a

  4. Software verification for nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilburn, N.P.

    1985-08-01

    Why verification of software products throughout the software life cycle is necessary is considered. Concepts of verification, software verification planning, and some verification methodologies for products generated throughout the software life cycle are then discussed

  5. Software evolution and maintenance

    CERN Document Server

    Tripathy, Priyadarshi

    2014-01-01

    Software Evolution and Maintenance: A Practitioner's Approach is an accessible textbook for students and professionals, which collates the advances in software development and provides the most current models and techniques in maintenance.Explains two maintenance standards: IEEE/EIA 1219 and ISO/IEC14764Discusses several commercial reverse and domain engineering toolkitsSlides for instructors are available onlineInformation is based on the IEEE SWEBOK (Software Engineering Body of Knowledge)

  6. Software for microcircuit systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunz, P.F.

    1978-10-01

    Modern Large Scale Integration (LSI) microcircuits are meant to be programed in order to control the function that they perform. The basics of microprograming and new microcircuits have already been discussed. In this course, the methods of developing software for these microcircuits are explored. This generally requires a package of support software in order to assemble the microprogram, and also some amount of support software to test the microprograms and to test the microprogramed circuit itself. 15 figures, 2 tables

  7. Hospital Management Software Development

    OpenAIRE

    sobogunGod, olawale

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to implement a hospital management software which is suitable for small private hospitals in Nigeria, especially for the ones that use a file based system for storing information rather than having it stored in a more efficient and safer environment like databases or excel programming software. The software developed within this thesis project was specifically designed for the Rainbow specialist hospital which is based in Lagos, the commercial neurological cente...

  8. Computer software configuration management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelletier, G.

    1987-08-01

    This report reviews the basic elements of software configuration management (SCM) as defined by military and industry standards. Several software configuration management standards are evaluated given the requirements of the nuclear industry. A survey is included of available automated tools for supporting SCM activities. Some information is given on the experience of establishing and using SCM plans of other organizations that manage critical software. The report concludes with recommendations of practices that would be most appropriate for the nuclear power industry in Canada

  9. Gammasphere software development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piercey, R.B.

    1993-01-01

    Activities of the nuclear physics group are described. Progress was made in organizing the Gammasphere Software Working Group, establishing a nuclear computing facility, participating in software development at Lawrence Berkeley, developing a common data file format, and adapting the ORNL UPAK software to run at Gammasphere. A universal histogram object was developed that defines a file format and provides for an objective-oriented programming model. An automated liquid nitrogen fill system was developed for Gammasphere (110 Ge detectors comprise the sphere)

  10. Software quality management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bishop, D.C.; Pymm, P.

    1991-01-01

    As programmable electronic (software-based) systems are increasingly being proposed as design solutions for high integrity applications in nuclear power stations, the need to adopt suitable quality management arrangements is paramount. The authors describe Scottish Nuclear's strategy for software quality management and, using the main on-line monitoring system at Torness Power Station as an example, explain how this strategy is put into practice. Particular attention is given to the topics of software quality planning and change control. (author)

  11. Software Process Improvement Defined

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaen, Ivan

    2002-01-01

    This paper argues in favor of the development of explanatory theory on software process improvement. The last one or two decades commitment to prescriptive approaches in software process improvement theory may contribute to the emergence of a gulf dividing theorists and practitioners....... It is proposed that this divide be met by the development of theory evaluating prescriptive approaches and informing practice with a focus on the software process policymaking and process control aspects of improvement efforts...

  12. Assuring Software Reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    technologies and processes to achieve a required level of confidence that software systems and services function in the intended manner. 1.3 Security Example...that took three high-voltage lines out of service and a software fail- ure (a race condition3) that disabled the computing service that notified the... service had failed. Instead of analyzing the details of the alarm server failure, the reviewers asked why the following software assurance claim had

  13. Software evolution with XVCL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Weishan; Jarzabek, Stan; Zhang, Hongyu

    2004-01-01

    This chapter introduces software evolution with XVCL (XML-based Variant Configuration Language), which is an XML-based metaprogramming technique. As the software evolves, a large number of variants may arise, especially whtn such kinds of evolutions are related to multiple platforms as shown in our...... case study. Handling variants and tracing the impact of variants across the development lifecycle is a challenge. This chapter shows how we can maintain different versions of software in a reuse-based way....

  14. FASTBUS software status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustavson, D.B.

    1980-10-01

    Computer software will be needed in addition to the mechanical, electrical, protocol and timing specifications of the FASTBUS, in order to facilitate the use of this flexible new multiprocessor and multisegment data acquisition and processing system. Software considerations have been important in the FASTBUS design, but standard subroutines and recommended algorithms will be needed as the FASTBUS comes into use. This paper summarizes current FASTBUS software projects, goals and status

  15. Software configuration management

    CERN Document Server

    Keyes, Jessica

    2004-01-01

    Software Configuration Management discusses the framework from a standards viewpoint, using the original DoD MIL-STD-973 and EIA-649 standards to describe the elements of configuration management within a software engineering perspective. Divided into two parts, the first section is composed of 14 chapters that explain every facet of configuration management related to software engineering. The second section consists of 25 appendices that contain many valuable real world CM templates.

  16. Solar Asset Management Software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iverson, Aaron [Ra Power Management, Inc., Oakland, CA (United States); Zviagin, George [Ra Power Management, Inc., Oakland, CA (United States)

    2016-09-30

    Ra Power Management (RPM) has developed a cloud based software platform that manages the financial and operational functions of third party financed solar projects throughout their lifecycle. RPM’s software streamlines and automates the sales, financing, and management of a portfolio of solar assets. The software helps solar developers automate the most difficult aspects of asset management, leading to increased transparency, efficiency, and reduction in human error. More importantly, our platform will help developers save money by improving their operating margins.

  17. Essential software architecture

    CERN Document Server

    Gorton, Ian

    2011-01-01

    Job titles like ""Technical Architect"" and ""Chief Architect"" nowadays abound in software industry, yet many people suspect that ""architecture"" is one of the most overused and least understood terms in professional software development. Gorton's book tries to resolve this dilemma. It concisely describes the essential elements of knowledge and key skills required to be a software architect. The explanations encompass the essentials of architecture thinking, practices, and supporting technologies. They range from a general understanding of structure and quality attributes through technical i

  18. Energy threat to valuable land

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caufield, C.

    1982-01-01

    Having considered the varying estimates of future UK energy requirements which have been made, the impact on the environment arising from the use of valuable sites for energy production is examined. It is shown that energy installations of all kinds clash with areas of natural beauty or ecological importance. As an example, a recent investigation of potential sites for nuclear power stations found that most of them were on or next to sites of special scientific interest, and other areas officially designated to be regarded as special or to be protected in some way. (U.K.)

  19. Software engineering the current practice

    CERN Document Server

    Rajlich, Vaclav

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION History of Software EngineeringSoftware PropertiesOrigins of SoftwareBirth of Software EngineeringThird Paradigm: Iterative ApproachSoftware Life Span ModelsStaged ModelVariants of Staged ModelSoftware Technologies Programming Languages and CompilersObject-Oriented TechnologyVersion Control SystemSoftware ModelsClass DiagramsUML Activity DiagramsClass Dependency Graphs and ContractsSOFTWARE CHANGEIntroduction to Software ChangeCharacteristics of Software ChangePhases of Software ChangeRequirements and Their ElicitationRequirements Analysis and Change InitiationConcepts and Concept

  20. THE THREATS TO THE ECONOMIC SAFETY OF STAVROPOL REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.V. Novikova

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with defining of threats to the economic safety of Stavropol region in food, manufacturing, infrastructural, financial, social and innovative industries of the region. Among these threats besides those relating to the Russian Federation on the whole there are also specific regional threats. They are: extremis; resource depletion; uncivilized redistribution of property; the reduction of tax potential; the destruction of the regional agro-industrial sector; the depletion of agricultural (arable land; the low level of competitiveness of processing industries; the breakdown of social welfare in rural areas; the price and tariff increases exceeding the population income growth; the increasing differentiation of population income and its poverty level; the high level of unemployment; the decline in material and technical and financial opportunities of businesses in procedure implementation and innovation mastering; the drain on workers from the region and the dismantling of sector research; the drop in all kinds of financing; the decline of research and development activities efficiency; regular lowering of domestic innovative markets; the low level of innovative infrastructure development; the availability of high investment risks; low effectiveness of carried out scientific and technological programmers and projects.

  1. TANDI: threat assessment of network data and information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holsopple, Jared; Yang, Shanchieh Jay; Sudit, Moises

    2006-04-01

    Current practice for combating cyber attacks typically use Intrusion Detection Sensors (IDSs) to passively detect and block multi-stage attacks. This work leverages Level-2 fusion that correlates IDS alerts belonging to the same attacker, and proposes a threat assessment algorithm to predict potential future attacker actions. The algorithm, TANDI, reduces the problem complexity by separating the models of the attacker's capability and opportunity, and fuse the two to determine the attacker's intent. Unlike traditional Bayesian-based approaches, which require assigning a large number of edge probabilities, the proposed Level-3 fusion procedure uses only 4 parameters. TANDI has been implemented and tested with randomly created attack sequences. The results demonstrate that TANDI predicts future attack actions accurately as long as the attack is not part of a coordinated attack and contains no insider threats. In the presence of abnormal attack events, TANDI will alarm the network analyst for further analysis. The attempt to evaluate a threat assessment algorithm via simulation is the first in the literature, and shall open up a new avenue in the area of high level fusion.

  2. Management of Software Development Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felician ALECU

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Any major software development starts with the Initiating process group. Once the charter document is approved, the Planning and then to the Executing stages will follow. Monitoring and Controlling is measuring the potential performance deviation of the project in terms of schedule and costs and performs the related Integrated Change Control activities. At the end, during the Closing, the program/project manager will check the entire work is completed and the objectives are met.

  3. Agile software development

    CERN Document Server

    Dingsoyr, Torgeir; Moe, Nils Brede

    2010-01-01

    Agile software development has become an umbrella term for a number of changes in how software developers plan and coordinate their work, how they communicate with customers and external stakeholders, and how software development is organized in small, medium, and large companies, from the telecom and healthcare sectors to games and interactive media. Still, after a decade of research, agile software development is the source of continued debate due to its multifaceted nature and insufficient synthesis of research results. Dingsoyr, Dyba, and Moe now present a comprehensive snapshot of the kno

  4. Optimization of Antivirus Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the main techniques used in development of computer antivirus software applications. For this particular category of software, are identified and defined optimum criteria that helps determine which solution is better and what are the objectives of the optimization process. From the general viewpoint of software optimization are presented methods and techniques that are applied at code development level. Regarding the particularities of antivirus software, the paper analyzes some of the optimization concepts applied to this category of applications

  5. Dtest Testing Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Abhinandan; Cameron, Jonathan M.; Myint, Steven

    2013-01-01

    This software runs a suite of arbitrary software tests spanning various software languages and types of tests (unit level, system level, or file comparison tests). The dtest utility can be set to automate periodic testing of large suites of software, as well as running individual tests. It supports distributing multiple tests over multiple CPU cores, if available. The dtest tool is a utility program (written in Python) that scans through a directory (and its subdirectories) and finds all directories that match a certain pattern and then executes any tests in that directory as described in simple configuration files.

  6. Software quality assurance

    CERN Document Server

    Laporte, Claude Y

    2018-01-01

    This book introduces Software Quality Assurance (SQA) and provides an overview of standards used to implement SQA. It defines ways to assess the effectiveness of how one approaches software quality across key industry sectors such as telecommunications, transport, defense, and aerospace. * Includes supplementary website with an instructor's guide and solutions * Applies IEEE software standards as well as the Capability Maturity Model Integration for Development (CMMI) * Illustrates the application of software quality assurance practices through the use of practical examples, quotes from experts, and tips from the authors

  7. Software architecture 2

    CERN Document Server

    Oussalah, Mourad Chabanne

    2014-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, software architectures have significantly contributed to the development of complex and distributed systems. Nowadays, it is recognized that one of the critical problems in the design and development of any complex software system is its architecture, i.e. the organization of its architectural elements. Software Architecture presents the software architecture paradigms based on objects, components, services and models, as well as the various architectural techniques and methods, the analysis of architectural qualities, models of representation of architectural templa

  8. Software as quality product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enders, A.

    1975-01-01

    In many discussions on the reliability of computer systems, software is presented as the weak link in the chain. The contribution attempts to identify the reasons for this situation as seen from the software development. The concepts correctness and reliability of programmes are explained as they are understood in the specialist discussion of today. Measures and methods are discussed which are particularly relevant as far as the obtaining of fault-free and reliable programmes is concerned. Conclusions are drawn for the user of software so that he is in the position to judge himself what can be justly expected frm the product software compared to other products. (orig./LH) [de

  9. Essence: Facilitating Software Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaen, Ivan

    2008-01-01

      This paper suggests ways to facilitate creativity and innovation in software development. The paper applies four perspectives – Product, Project, Process, and People –to identify an outlook for software innovation. The paper then describes a new facility–Software Innovation Research Lab (SIRL......) – and a new method concept for software innovation – Essence – based on views, modes, and team roles. Finally, the paper reports from an early experiment using SIRL and Essence and identifies further research....

  10. Global Software Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebert, Christof; Kuhrmann, Marco; Prikladnicki, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Professional software products and IT systems and services today are developed mostly by globally distributed teams, projects, and companies. Successfully orchestrating Global Software Engineering (GSE) has become the major success factor both for organizations and practitioners. Yet, more than...... and experience reported at the IEEE International Conference on Software Engineering (ICGSE) series. The outcomes of our analysis show GSE as a field highly attached to industry and, thus, a considerable share of ICGSE papers address the transfer of Software Engineering concepts and solutions to the global stage...

  11. Software Intensive Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Horvitz, E; Katz, D. J; Rumpf, R. L; Shrobe, H; Smith, T. B; Webber, G. E; Williamson, W. E; Winston, P. H; Wolbarsht, James L

    2006-01-01

    .... Additionally, recommend that DoN invest in software engineering, particularly as it complements commercial industry developments and promotes the application of systems engineering methodology...

  12. Contractor Software Charges

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Granetto, Paul

    1994-01-01

    .... Examples of computer software costs that contractors charge through indirect rates are material management systems, security systems, labor accounting systems, and computer-aided design and manufacturing...

  13. Decentralized Software Architecture

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Khare, Rohit

    2002-01-01

    .... While the term "decentralization" is familiar from political and economic contexts, it has been applied extensively, if indiscriminately, to describe recent trends in software architecture towards...

  14. Software architecture 1

    CERN Document Server

    Oussalah , Mourad Chabane

    2014-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, software architectures have significantly contributed to the development of complex and distributed systems. Nowadays, it is recognized that one of the critical problems in the design and development of any complex software system is its architecture, i.e. the organization of its architectural elements. Software Architecture presents the software architecture paradigms based on objects, components, services and models, as well as the various architectural techniques and methods, the analysis of architectural qualities, models of representation of architectural template

  15. Software Radar Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang Jun

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the definition and the key features of Software Radar, which is a new concept, are proposed and discussed. We consider the development of modern radar system technology to be divided into three stages: Digital Radar, Software radar and Intelligent Radar, and the second stage is just commencing now. A Software Radar system should be a combination of various modern digital modular components conformed to certain software and hardware standards. Moreover, a software radar system with an open system architecture supporting to decouple application software and low level hardware would be easy to adopt "user requirements-oriented" developing methodology instead of traditional "specific function-oriented" developing methodology. Compared with traditional Digital Radar, Software Radar system can be easily reconfigured and scaled up or down to adapt to the changes of requirements and technologies. A demonstration Software Radar signal processing system, RadarLab 2.0, which has been developed by Tsinghua University, is introduced in this paper and the suggestions for the future development of Software Radar in China are also given in the conclusion.

  16. Stereotype threat affects financial decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Priyanka B; Steele, Claude M

    2010-10-01

    The research presented in this article provides the first evidence that one's decision making can be influenced by concerns about stereotypes and the devaluation of one's identity. Many studies document gender differences in decision making, and often attribute these differences to innate and stable factors, such as biological and hormonal differences. In three studies, we found that stereotype threat affected decision making and led to gender differences in loss-aversion and risk-aversion behaviors. In Study 1, women subjected to stereotype threat in academic and business settings were more loss averse than both men and women who were not facing the threat of being viewed in light of negative stereotypes. We found no gender differences in loss-aversion behavior in the absence of stereotype threat. In Studies 2a and 2b, we found the same pattern of effects for risk-aversion behavior that we had observed for loss-aversion behavior. In addition, in Study 2b, ego depletion mediated the effects of stereotype threat on women's decision making. These results suggest that individuals' decision making can be influenced by stereotype concerns.

  17. Security Requirements for New Threats at International Airports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Nowacki

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper refers to security requirements for new threats international airports, taking specifically into consideration current challenges within processing of passengers, in light of types of current major threats, in a way ensuring positive passenger experience within their journey. In addition, within the scope of this paper, presented initial outcome of study research among professional aviation stakeholder?s environment, on current threats in the area of security and protection of airport infrastructure. The airports are a very demanding environment: seasonal traffic, fluctuating passenger volumes and last minute changes mean there is a lot of flexibility required in order to meet specific needs of airport authorities and their clients or the passengers (Dolnik, 2009. Therefore, security in aviation sector has been a big issue for civil aviation authorities, as airports are susceptible targets for terrorist attacks. The list of incidents is extensive and gets longer every year despite strict security measures. Within decades, aviation has become the backbone of our global economy bringing people to business, tourists to vacation destinations and products to markets. Statistically flying remains the safest mode of travelling compared to other modes of transportation. However, simultaneously terrorists and criminals continue in their quest to explore new ways of disrupting air transportation and the challenge to secure airports and airline assets remain real. This calls for greater awareness of security concerns in the aviation sector. The key element, how to protects against terrorist modus operandi, is to stay ahead of recent threats, incidents and breaches occurring worldwide. It requires implementation of effective data sharing systems, in order to proactively monitor potential risks and vulnerabilities within different type of aviation ecosystems.

  18. Social software in global software development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giuffrida, Rosalba; Dittrich, Yvonne

    2010-01-01

    variety of tools such as: instant messaging, internet forums, mailing lists, blogs, wikis, social network sites, social bookmarking, social libraries, virtual worlds. Though normally rather belonging to the private realm, the use of social software in corporate context has been reported, e.g. as a way...

  19. 49 CFR 1546.301 - Bomb or air piracy threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bomb or air piracy threats. 1546.301 Section 1546... Threat Response § 1546.301 Bomb or air piracy threats. No foreign air carrier may land or take off an airplane in the United States after receiving a bomb or air piracy threat against that airplane, unless the...

  20. NASA's Software Safety Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsay, Christopher M.

    2007-01-01

    NASA relies more and more on software to control, monitor, and verify its safety critical systems, facilities and operations. Since the 1960's there has hardly been a spacecraft launched that does not have a computer on board that will provide command and control services. There have been recent incidents where software has played a role in high-profile mission failures and hazardous incidents. For example, the Mars Orbiter, Mars Polar Lander, the DART (Demonstration of Autonomous Rendezvous Technology), and MER (Mars Exploration Rover) Spirit anomalies were all caused or contributed to by software. The Mission Control Centers for the Shuttle, ISS, and unmanned programs are highly dependant on software for data displays, analysis, and mission planning. Despite this growing dependence on software control and monitoring, there has been little to no consistent application of software safety practices and methodology to NASA's projects with safety critical software. Meanwhile, academia and private industry have been stepping forward with procedures and standards for safety critical systems and software, for example Dr. Nancy Leveson's book Safeware: System Safety and Computers. The NASA Software Safety Standard, originally published in 1997, was widely ignored due to its complexity and poor organization. It also focused on concepts rather than definite procedural requirements organized around a software project lifecycle. Led by NASA Headquarters Office of Safety and Mission Assurance, the NASA Software Safety Standard has recently undergone a significant update. This new standard provides the procedures and guidelines for evaluating a project for safety criticality and then lays out the minimum project lifecycle requirements to assure the software is created, operated, and maintained in the safest possible manner. This update of the standard clearly delineates the minimum set of software safety requirements for a project without detailing the implementation for those