Bell-Sakyi, L.; Růžek, Daniel; Gould, E. A.
Roč. 49, č. 3 (2009), s. 209-219 ISSN 0168-8162 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/08/1509; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06009 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Ornithodoros moubata * soft tick * tick-borne encephalitis Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.391, year: 2009
Tahir, Djamel; Socolovschi, Cristina; Marié, Jean-Lou; Ganay, Gautier; Berenger, Jean-Michel; Bompar, Jean-Michel; Blanchet, Denis; Cheuret, Marie; Mediannikov, Oleg; Raoult, Didier; Davoust, Bernard; Parola, Philippe
In French Guiana, located on the northeastern coast of South America, bats of different species are very numerous. The infection of bats and their ticks with zoonotic bacteria, especially Rickettsia species, is so far unknown. In order to improve knowledge of these zoonotic pathogens in this French overseas department, the presence and diversity of tick-borne bacteria was investigated with molecular tools in bat ticks. In the beginning of 2013, 32 bats were caught in Saint-Jean-du-Maroni, an area close to the coast of French Guiana, and the ticks of these animals were collected. A total of 354 larvae of Argasidae soft ticks (Ornithodoros hasei) from 12 bats (Noctilio albiventris) were collected and 107 of them were analysed. DNA was extracted from the samples and quantitative real-time PCR was carried out to detect Rickettsia spp., Bartonella spp., Borrelia spp. and Coxiella burnetii. All tested samples were negative for Bartonella spp., Borrelia spp. and Coxiella burnetii. Rickettsia DNA was detected in 31 (28.9%) ticks. An almost entire (1118 base pairs long) sequence of the gltA gene was obtained after the amplification of some positive samples on conventional PCR and sequencing. A Bayesian tree was constructed using concatenated rrs, gltA, ompA, ompB, and gene D sequences. The study of characteristic sequences shows that this Rickettsia species is very close (98.3-99.8%) genetically to R. peacockii. Nevertheless, the comparative analysis of sequences obtained from gltA, ompA, ompB, rrs and gene D fragments demonstrated that this Rickettsia is different from the other members of the spotted fever group. The sequences of this new species were deposited in GenBank as Candidatus Rickettsia wissemanii. This is the first report showing the presence of nucleic acid of Rickettsia in Ornithodoros hasei ticks from South American bats. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Salát, Jiří; Paesen, G.C.; Řezáčová, Pavlína; Kotsyfakis, Michalis; Kovářová, Zuzana; Šanda, Miloslav; Majtán, J.; Grunclová, Lenka; Horká, Helena; Andersen, J. F.; Brynda, Jiří; Horn, Martin; Nunn, M. A.; Kopáček, Petr; Kopecký, Jan; Mareš, Michael
Roč. 429, č. 1 (2010), s. 103-112 ISSN 0264-6021 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB500960702; GA AV ČR IAA600960811; GA ČR(CZ) GAP207/10/2183; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06009 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518; CEZ:AV0Z40550506; CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : cathepsin * cystatin * Ornithodoros moubata * parasite * peptidase inhibitor Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 5.016, year: 2010
Full Text Available The epidemiology of vector-borne zoonoses depends on the movement of both hosts and vectors, which can differ greatly in intensity across spatial scales. Because of their life history traits and small size, vector dispersal may be frequent, but limited in distance. However, little information is available on vector movement patterns at local spatial scales, and particularly for ticks, transmitting the greatest diversity of recognized infectious agents. To test the degree to which ticks can disperse and disseminate pathogens at local scales, we investigated the temporal dynamics and population structure of the soft tick Ornithodoros maritimus within a colony of its seabird host, the Yellow-legged gull Larus michahellis. Ticks were repeatedly sampled at a series of nests during the host breeding season. In half of the nests, ticks were collected (removal sampling, in the other half, ticks were counted and returned to the nest. A subsample of ticks was screened for known bacteria, viruses and parasites using a high throughput real-time PCR system to examine their distribution within the colony. The results indicate a temporal dynamic in the presence of tick life stages over the season, with the simultaneous appearance of juvenile ticks and hatched chicks, but no among-nest spatial structure in tick abundance. Removal sampling significantly reduced tick numbers, but only from the fourth visit onward. Seven bacterial isolates, one parasite species and one viral isolate were detected but no spatial structure in their presence within the colony was found. These results suggest weak isolation among nests and that tick dispersal is likely frequent enough to quickly recolonize locally-emptied patches and disseminate pathogens across the colony. Vector-mediated movements at local scales may therefore play a key role in pathogen emergence and needs to be considered in conjunction with host movements for predicting pathogen circulation and for establishing
Grunclová, L.; Horn, Martin; Vancová, Marie; Sojka, D.; Franta, Z.; Mareš, Michael; Kopáček, Petr
Roč. 387, č. 12 (2006), s. 1635-1644 ISSN 1431-6730 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA6022307; GA ČR(CZ) GA206/06/0865; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06009 Grant - others:FRVŠ(CZ) 524/03/H133 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518; CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : cystatin * tick * midgut Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.752, year: 2006
Grunclová, L.; Fouquier, H.; Hypša, Václav; Kopáček, Petr
Roč. 27, č. 8 (2003), s. 651-660 ISSN 0145-305X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/00/0266 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6022909; CEZ:MSM 123100003 Keywords : Ornithodoros moubata * lysozyme * innate immunity Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.390, year: 2003
Lafri, Ismail; Leulmi, Hamza; Baziz-Neffah, Fadhila; Lalout, Reda; Mohamed, Chergui; Mohamed, Karakallah; Parola, Philippe; Bitam, Idir
Argasid ticks are vectors of viral and bacterial agents that can infect humans and animals. In Africa, relapsing fever borreliae are neglected arthropod-borne pathogens that cause mild to deadly septicemia and miscarriage. It would be incredibly beneficial to be able to simultaneous detect and identify other pathogens transmitted by Argasid ticks. From 2012 to 2014, we conducted field surveys in 4 distinct areas of Algeria. We investigated the occurrence of soft ticks in rodent burrows and yellow-legged gull (Larus michahellis) nests in 10 study sites and collected 154 soft ticks. Molecular identification revealed the occurrence of two different soft tick genera and five species, including Carios capensis in yellow-legged gull nests and Ornithodoros occidentalis, Ornithodoros rupestris, Ornithodoros sonrai, Ornithodoros erraticus in rodent burrows. Rickettsial DNA was detected in 41/154, corresponding to a global detection rate of 26.6%. Sequences of the citrate synthase (gltA) gene suggest that this agent is a novel spotted fever group Rickettsia. For the first time in Algeria, we characterize a novel Rickettsia species by molecular means in soft ticks. Copyright © 2015 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Argasid ticks include vectors of relapsing fevers caused by Borrelia spp. in humans, and they can transmit arboviruses and other bacterial pathogens. Knowledge about soft ticks (Ixodida: Argasidae in Algeria is incomplete, and distribution data need to be updated. Here we report a series of entomologic investigations that we conducted in five different areas in Algeria between 2012 and 2015. Ticks were identified by entomologic keys and molecular tools (16S rRNA gene. Six distinct species belonging to two genera were identified, including Ornithodoros capensis s.s., Ornithodoros rupestris, Ornithodoros occidentalis, Ornithodoros erraticus, Ornithodoros sonrai and Argas persicus. The present study highlights the distribution of soft ticks, the establishment of an update inventory with nine species and associated pathogens detected in argasid ticks in Algeria. Keywords: Argasid, Borrelia, Ornithodoros, Rickettsia
Lafri, I; Benredjem, W; Neffah-Baaziz, F; Lalout, R; Abdelouahed, K; Gassen, B; Bakhouch, S; Chergui, M; Karakellah, M; Adjmi-Hamoudi, H; Bitam, I
Argasid ticks include vectors of relapsing fevers caused by Borrelia spp. in humans, and they can transmit arboviruses and other bacterial pathogens. Knowledge about soft ticks ( Ixodida: Argasidae ) in Algeria is incomplete, and distribution data need to be updated. Here we report a series of entomologic investigations that we conducted in five different areas in Algeria between 2012 and 2015. Ticks were identified by entomologic keys and molecular tools (16S rRNA gene). Six distinct species belonging to two genera were identified, including Ornithodoros capensis s.s., Ornithodoros rupestris, Ornithodoros occidentalis, Ornithodoros erraticus, Ornithodoros sonrai and Argas persicus. The present study highlights the distribution of soft ticks, the establishment of an update inventory with nine species and associated pathogens detected in argasid ticks in Algeria.
Full Text Available African swine fever (ASF is a frequently devastating hemorrhagic disease of domestic pigs and wild boar and Ornithodoros erraticus sensu stricto argasid ticks are the only biological vectors of African swine fever virus (ASFV known to occur in Europe. Recently this disease emerged in Eastern Europe and Russian Federation, showing a huge potential for a rapid spread between countries. There is some risk of re-emergence of ASF in the countries where these ticks exist, that can contribute for the persistence of infection and compromise control measures. In this study we aimed to identify factors that determine the probability of infection and its dynamics in the tick vector Ornithodoros erraticus sensu stricto, with two Portuguese strains of ASFV. Our results suggest that these ticks have a high likelihood of excreting the two haemadsorbing ASF viruses of different host origins and that, in field surveys, the analysis of adults and 5th nymphal stage can provide the best chance of detecting virus infection. The results also indicate that infection of pigs with highly virulent ASF viruses will promote higher rates of infection and a higher likelihood for virus excretion by ticks. Nevertheless, there is also a risk, although lower, that ticks can become infected on pigs that have overcome the acute phase of infection, which was simulated in our study by membrane feeding ticks with low titres of virus. We believe these results can be valuable in designing and interpreting the results of ASF control programmes, and future work can also be undertaken as our dataset is released under open access, to perform studies in risk assessment for ASFV persistence in a region where O. erraticus sensu stricto ticks are present.
Carvalho Ferreira, de H.C.; Zúquete, S.T.; Wijnveld, M.; Weesendorp, E.; Jongejan, F.; Stegeman, J.A.; Loeffen, W.L.A.
African swine fever (ASF) is caused by African swine fever virus (ASFV), a tick-borne DNA virus. Soft ticks of the genus Ornithodoros are the only biological vectors of ASFV recognized so far. Although other hard ticks have been tested for vector competence, two commonly found tick species in
de Carvalho Ferreira, Helena C; Tudela Zúquete, Sara; Wijnveld, Michiel; Weesendorp, Eefke; Jongejan, Frans; Stegeman, Arjan; Loeffen, Willie L A
African swine fever (ASF) is caused by African swine fever virus (ASFV), a tick-borne DNA virus. Soft ticks of the genus Ornithodoros are the only biological vectors of ASFV recognized so far. Although other hard ticks have been tested for vector competence, two commonly found tick species in
Kopáček, Petr; Ždychová, J.; Yoshiga, T.; Weise, C.; Rudenko, Natalia; Law, J. H.
Roč. 33, č. 1 (2003), s. 103-113 ISSN 0965-1748 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/00/0266 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6022909; CEZ:MSM 123100003 Keywords : ferritin * iron metabolism * tick Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.358, year: 2003
Connat, Jean-Louis; Diehl, Peter A.; Morici, M
The fate of injected [3H]ecdysone ([3H]E) and 20-hydroxy-[3H]ecdysone ([3H]20E) has been investigated in the female tick Ornithodoros moubata (Murray, 1877; sensu Walton, 1962). When injected into fed mated vitellogenic females, [3H]E is converted into [3H]20E and two apolar classes of metabolites, AP1 and AP2. Injected [3H]20E is directly converted into AP1 and AP2. AP2 is incorporated into the ovaries in a high proportion and at the end of the vitellogenic cycle represents about 25% of the ...
Luz, Hermes Ribeiro; Muñoz-Leal, Sebastián; Almeida, Juliana Cardoso de; Faccini, João Luiz Horacio; Labruna, Marcelo Bahia
In this paper, the authors report ticks parasitizing bats from the Serra das Almas Natural Reserve (RPPN) located in the municipality of Crateús, state of Ceará, in the semiarid Caatinga biome of northeastern Brazil. The study was carried out during nine nights in the dry season (July 2012) and 10 nights in the rainy season (February 2013). Only bats of the Phyllostomidae and Mormoopidae families were parasitized by ticks. The species Artibeus planirostris and Carolia perspicillata were the most parasitized. A total of 409 larvae were collected and classified into three genera: Antricola (n = 1), Nothoaspis (n = 1) and Ornithodoros (n = 407). Four species were morphologically identified as Nothoaspis amazoniensis, Ornithodoros cavernicolous, Ornithodoros fonsecai, Ornithodoros hasei, and Ornithodoros marinkellei. Ornithodoros hasei was the most common tick associated with bats in the current study. The present study expand the distributional ranges of at least three soft ticks into the Caatinga biome, and highlight an unexpected richness of argasid ticks inhabiting this arid ecosystem.
Hermes Ribeiro Luz
Full Text Available Abstract In this paper, the authors report ticks parasitizing bats from the Serra das Almas Natural Reserve (RPPN located in the municipality of Crateús, state of Ceará, in the semiarid Caatinga biome of northeastern Brazil. The study was carried out during nine nights in the dry season (July 2012 and 10 nights in the rainy season (February 2013. Only bats of the Phyllostomidae and Mormoopidae families were parasitized by ticks. The species Artibeus planirostris and Carolia perspicillata were the most parasitized. A total of 409 larvae were collected and classified into three genera: Antricola (n = 1, Nothoaspis (n = 1 and Ornithodoros (n = 407. Four species were morphologically identified as Nothoaspis amazoniensis, Ornithodoros cavernicolous, Ornithodoros fonsecai, Ornithodoros hasei, and Ornithodoros marinkellei. Ornithodoros hasei was the most common tick associated with bats in the current study. The present study expand the distributional ranges of at least three soft ticks into the Caatinga biome, and highlight an unexpected richness of argasid ticks inhabiting this arid ecosystem.
Wolf, Rafael William; Aragona, Mônica; Muñoz-Leal, Sebastián; Pinto, Leticia Borges; Melo, Andréia Lima Tomé; Braga, Isis Assis; Costa, Jackeliny dos Santos; Martins, Thiago Fernandes; Marcili, Arlei; Pacheco, Richard de Campos; Labruna, Marcelo B; Aguiar, Daniel Moura
Taking into account the diversity of small terrestrial mammals of the Pantanal, the present study aimed to verify the occurrence of infection by Ehrlichia spp., Anaplasma spp., Rickettsia spp., Hepatozoon spp., Babesia spp. and parasitism by ticks in non-volant small mammals collected in the Brazilian Pantanal. Samples of blood, liver and spleen were collected from 64 captured animals, 22 marsupials and 42 rodents. Pathogen detection was performed by the use of genus-specific Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) assays. Ticks collected from the animals consisted of Amblyomma sculptum and Amblyomma triste nymphs, and Ornithodoros guaporensis larvae. None of the vertebrate samples (blood, liver, or spleen) yielded detectable DNA of Rickettsia spp. or Ehrlichia spp. The blood of the rodent Hylaeamys megacephalus yielded an Anaplasma sp. genotype (partial 16S rRNA gene) 99% similar to multiple Anaplasma spp. genotypes around the world. The blood of three rodents of the species Calomys callosus were positive for a novel Hepatozoon sp. agent, phylogenetically related (18S rDNA gene) to distinct Hepatozoon genotypes that have been detected in rodents from different parts of the world. One marsupial (Monodelphis domestica) and three rodents (Thrichomys pachyurus) were positive to novel piroplasmid genotypes, phylogenetically (18S rDNA gene) related to Theileria bicornis, Cytauxzoon manul, and Cytauxzoon felis. The present study provides the first molecular detection of Hepatozoon sp. and piroplasmids in small mammals in Brazil. Additionally, we expanded the distribution of O. guaporensis to Brazil, since this tick species was previously known to occur only in Bolivia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Sh Salari Lak
Full Text Available Background: West Azerbaijan is considered as a main region for domestic animal breeding. Due to importance of herd as a main host and ticks as a vector of relapsing fever and CCHF, a comprehensive study was undertaken in the region.Methods: Outdoor, indoor collection as well as ticks stick to the animals' body were collected and identified. The study was conducted during the whole seasons in 2004-2005.Results: During four seasons a total of 2728 ticks of two families (Ixodidae and Argasidae were collected comprising 7 genera of 5 hard ticks and two genera of soft ticks including Haemaphysalis, Hyalomma, Rhipicephalus, Boophilus and Dermacentor. The soft ticks were Ornithodoros and Argas. These 7 genera included 18 species. The main species were Haemaphysalis inermis, H. punctata, H. sulcata, H. numidiana, H. concinna, Hyalomma marginatum, Hy. anatolicum, Hy. detritum, Hy. dromedarii, Hy. asiaticum, Hy. schulzei, H. aegyptium, Rhipicephalus bursa, R. sangiuneus, Dermacentor marginatus, Boophilus annulatus, Ornithodoros lahorensis, and Argas persicus. Frequency of ticks during different seasons was different. A pyrethroid insecticide, cypermethrin, which is widely used for tick control was tested against soft ticks. The test method was based on WHO recommendation. At the LD50 level A. persicus needs more concentration than O. lahorensis.Conclusion: Ornithodoros and Argas are the more prevalent soft ticks in the region. Distribution and prevalence of hard ticks was varied in different seasons. Results of this study will provide a clue for vectors of tick-borne diseases in the region for local authorities for implementation of tick control.
Dupejová, J.; Štěrba, Ján; Vancová, Marie; Grubhoffer, Libor
Roč. 4, January (2011), s. 4 ISSN 1756-3305 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06009; GA AV ČR KJB600960906 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : ORNITHODOROS PARKERI * BOOPHILUS MICROPLUS * MASS-SPECTROMETRY * CATTLE TICK * SOFT TICK * DORIN M * PROTEINS * HEMOLYMPH * VITELLOGENIN * LIPOPROTEIN Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 2.937, year: 2011
... Tweet Share Compartir PREVENT BITES Avoid ticks on people, on pets and in the yard. More REMOVE TICKS Find ... Follow the Steps Ticks Home Avoiding ticks On people On pets In the yard Removing a tick Symptoms of ...
Lafri, Ismail; El Hamzaoui, Basma; Bitam, Idir; Leulmi, Hamza; Lalout, Reda; Mediannikov, Oleg; Chergui, Mohamed; Karakellah, Mohamed; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe
Argasid ticks (soft ticks) are blood-feeding arthropods that can parasitize rodents, birds, humans, livestock and companion animals. Ticks of the Ornithodoros genus are known to be vectors of relapsing fever borreliosis in humans. In Algeria, little is known about relapsing fever borreliosis and other bacterial pathogens transmitted by argasid ticks. Between May 2013 and October 2015, we investigated the presence of soft ticks in 20 rodent burrows, 10 yellow-legged gull (Larus michahellis) nests and animal shelters in six locations in two different bioclimatic zones in Algeria. Six species of argasid ticks were identified morphologically and through 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The presence and prevalence of Borrelia spp., Bartonella spp., Rickettsia spp. and Anaplasmataceae was assessed by qPCR template assays in each specimen. All qPCR-positive samples were confirmed by standard PCR, followed by sequencing the amplified fragments. Two Borrelia species were identified: Borrelia hispanica in Ornithodoros occidentalis in Mostaganem, and Borrelia cf. turicatae in Carios capensis in Algiers. One new Bartonella genotype and one new Anaplasmataceae genotype were also identified in Argas persicus. The present study highlights the presence of relapsing fever borreliosis agents, although this disease is rarely diagnosed in Algeria. Other bacteria of unknown pathogenicity detected in argasid ticks which may bite humans deserve further investigation.
Full Text Available Argasid ticks (soft ticks are blood-feeding arthropods that can parasitize rodents, birds, humans, livestock and companion animals. Ticks of the Ornithodoros genus are known to be vectors of relapsing fever borreliosis in humans. In Algeria, little is known about relapsing fever borreliosis and other bacterial pathogens transmitted by argasid ticks.Between May 2013 and October 2015, we investigated the presence of soft ticks in 20 rodent burrows, 10 yellow-legged gull (Larus michahellis nests and animal shelters in six locations in two different bioclimatic zones in Algeria. Six species of argasid ticks were identified morphologically and through 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The presence and prevalence of Borrelia spp., Bartonella spp., Rickettsia spp. and Anaplasmataceae was assessed by qPCR template assays in each specimen. All qPCR-positive samples were confirmed by standard PCR, followed by sequencing the amplified fragments. Two Borrelia species were identified: Borrelia hispanica in Ornithodoros occidentalis in Mostaganem, and Borrelia cf. turicatae in Carios capensis in Algiers. One new Bartonella genotype and one new Anaplasmataceae genotype were also identified in Argas persicus.The present study highlights the presence of relapsing fever borreliosis agents, although this disease is rarely diagnosed in Algeria. Other bacteria of unknown pathogenicity detected in argasid ticks which may bite humans deserve further investigation.
Moreira-Soto, Rolando D; Moreira-Soto, Andrés; Corrales-Aguilar, Eugenia; Calderón-Arguedas, Ólger; Troyo, Adriana
Rickettsiae are intracellular bacteria commonly associated with hematophagous arthropods. Most of them have been described in hard ticks, but some have been found in soft ticks. Here we report the detection and isolation of a new Rickettsia from Ornithodoros knoxjonesi larvae collected from Balantiopteryx plicata (Emballonuridae) in Nicoya, Costa Rica. Two ticks were processed to detect Rickettsia spp. genes gltA, ompA, ompB, and htrA by PCR. Part of the macerate was also inoculated into Vero E6 and C6/36 cell lines, and cells were evaluated by Giménez stain, indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA), and PCR. Both ticks were positive by PCR and rickettsial growth was successful in Vero E6 cells. Amplification and sequencing of near full length rrs, gltA, sca4 genes, and fragments of ompA and ompB showed that the Rickettsia sp. was different from described species. The highest homologies were with 'Candidatus Rickettsia wissemanii' and Rickettsia peacockii: 99.70% (1321/1325) with both sequences for rrs, 99.58% (1172/1177) and 99.76% (1246/1249) for gltA, 99.26% with both sequences (2948/2970 and 2957/2979) for sca4, 98.78% (485/491) and 98.39% (2069/2115) for ompA, and 98.58 (1453/1474) and 98.92% (1459/1475) for ompB; respectively. Bat blood, spleen, liver, and lung samples analyzed for Rickettsia detection were negative. Results demonstrate that the Rickettsia isolated from O. knoxjonesi is probably an undescribed species that belongs to the spotted fever group, for which 'Candidatus Rickettsia nicoyana' is proposed. Considering that B. plicata inhabits areas where contact with humans may occur and that human parasitism by Ornithodoros has been reported in the country, it will be important to continue with the characterization of this species and its pathogenic potential. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Honig, Jessica E.; Osborne, Jane C.; Nichol, Stuart T.
The genus Nairovirus (family Bunyaviridae) contains seven serogroups consisting of 34 predominantly tick-borne viruses, including several associated with severe human and livestock diseases [e.g., Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) and Nairobi sheep disease (NSD), respectively]. Before this report, no comparative genetic studies or molecular detection assays had been developed for this virus genus. To characterize at least one representative from each of the seven serogroups, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) primers targeting the L polymerase-encoding region of the RNA genome of these viruses were successfully designed based on conserved amino acid motifs present in the predicted catalytic core region. Sequence analysis showed the nairoviruses to be a highly diverse group, exhibiting up to 39.4% and 46.0% nucleotide and amino acid identity differences, respectively. Virus genetic relationships correlated well with serologic groupings and with tick host associations. Hosts of these viruses include both the hard (family Ixodidae) and soft (family Argasidae) ticks. Virus phylogenetic analysis reveals two major monophyletic groups: hard tick and soft tick-vectored viruses. In addition, viruses vectored by Ornithodoros, Carios, and Argas genera ticks also form three separate monophyletic lineages. The striking similarities between tick and nairovirus phylogenies are consistent with possible coevolution of the viruses and their tick hosts. Fossil and phylogenetic data placing the hard tick-soft tick divergence between 120 and 92 million years ago suggest an ancient origin for viruses of the genus Nairovirus
Ginsberg, H.S.; Faulde, M.K.
The most common vector-borne diseases in both Europe and North America are transmitted by ticks. Lyme borreliosis (LB), a tick-borne bacterial zoonosis, is the most highly prevalent. Other important tick-borne diseases include TBE (tick-borne encephalitis) and Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever in Europe, Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) in North America, and numerous less common tick-borne bacterial, viral, and protozoan diseases on both continents. The major etiological agent of LB is Borrelia burgdorferi in North America, while in Europe several related species of Borrelia can also cause human illness. These Borrelia genospecies differ in clinical manifestations, ecology (for example, some have primarily avian and others primarily mammalian reservoirs), and transmission cycles, so the epizootiology of LB is more complex in Europe than in North America. Ticks dwell predominantly in woodlands and meadows, and in association with animal hosts, with only limited colonization of human dwellings by a few species. Therefore, suburbanization has contributed substantially to the increase in tick-borne disease transmission in North America by fostering increased exposure of humans to tick habitat. The current trend toward suburbanization in Europe could potentially result in similar increases in transmission of tick-borne diseases. Incidence of tick-borne diseases can be lowered by active public education campaigns, targeted at the times and places of greatest potential for encounter between humans and infected ticks. Similarly, vaccines (e.g., against TBE) are most effective when made available to people at greatest risk, and for high-prevalence diseases such as LB. Consultation with vector-borne disease experts during the planning stages of new human developments can minimize the potential for residents to encounter infected ticks (e.g., by appropriate dwelling and landscape design). Furthermore, research on tick vectors, pathogens, transmission ecology, and on
Full Text Available As evidence of global changes is accumulating, scientists are challenged to detect distribution changes of vectors, reservoirs and pathogens caused by anthropogenic and/or environmental changes. Statistical and mathematical distribution models are emerging for ixodid hard ticks whereas no prediction has ever been developed for argasid ones. These last organisms remain unknown and under-reported; they differ from hard ticks by many structural, biological and ecological properties, which complicate direct adaptation of hard tick models. However, investigations on bibliographic resources concerning these ticks suggest that distribution modelling based on natural niche concept and using environmental factors especially climate is also possible, bearing in mind the scale of prediction and their specificities including their nidicolous lifestyle, an indiscriminate host feeding and a short bloodmeal duration, as well as a flexible development cycle through diapause periods.
Full Text Available Background: Besides of transmitting several diseases to animals, and tick paralysis, Ornithodoros lahorensis induce skin lesions. This experiment was done to determine histopathological features of adult O. lahorensis bite on rat.Methods: In this investigation adult male rats were infested with O. lahorensis ticks. Animals were divided into two groups and euthanized two days and two weeks after infestation. The skin samples were fixed in 10% buffer formal saline and processed and sections were stained with hematoxylin & eosin.Results: The lesions reflected the clinical and gross findings, with hyperemia, edema and vacuolation in the early stages, cellular infiltrations, principally lymphocyte accompanied vascular changes. Newly formed fibrous tissue with large number of hyperemic capillaries and active inflammatory process in which lymphocytes and eosinophils were the predominant cells, were seen after two weeks. Foci of necrosis in the epithelium with remnant of infiltration of polymorphonucular cells with sever hemorrhages were also evident. Vascular changes included prevascular infiltration of lymphocyte and fibrinoied necrosis on the vessel walls.Conclusion: This study well documented the different pathological changes of skin of rats with O. lahorensis.
Moemenbellah-Fard, M D; Benafshi, O; Rafinejad, J; Ashraf, H
Tick-borne relapsing fever (TBRF) is a neglected zoonotic disease caused by infection with spirochaetes of the genus Borrelia. Humans usually contract it from the bite of infected soft ticks of the genus Ornithodoros. In Iran, where the disease is endemic in the mountainous north-western provinces, reports of over 200 cases annually probably under-estimate the true incidence. The species, distribution and infection of ticks that are potential vectors of Borrelia and the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of the local TBRF cases were recently investigated in the villages in and around the county town of Bijar, in north-western Iran. A blood sample from each suspected case of TBRF was checked for B. persica by dark-field microscopy, data were collected on the demographics and clinical manifestations of each confirmed case, and the prevalence of tick infection with borreliae and the monthly incidence of TBRF were evaluated. Between 2000 and 2007, 148 cases of TBRF (each with fever, chills and headache) were passively detected in the town. Most (115) of these were confirmed by microscopy, with the other subjects categorized as probable (21) or suspected cases (12) of TBRF. Most (91%) of the 148 subjects were young people, and most came from rural areas and lived in large households in the old mud-and-thatch houses of Bijar. Most (82%) of the cases occurred during the summer or early autumn. Overall, 8543 soft ticks (Ornithodoros tholozani, O. lahorensis, Argas persicus and A. reflexus) were collected by clustered random sampling. When a random sample of the O. tholozani ticks (96 of the 577 collected) was checked for B. persica infection, by being crushed and then inoculated intraperitoneally into a mouse or suckling Syrian hamster, 19 were found infected. Peaks in the monthly incidence of TBRF occurred as the numbers of O. tholozani in the tick collections peaked, and it seems likely that most of the cases were caused by B. persica transmitted by O
Full Text Available Tick-borne diseases such as relapsing fever and Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF are of public health impor¬tance in Iran. There are 471 reported cases of relapsing fever in 2003, according to the Ministry of Health of Iran.The num¬ber of cases has been increased in recent years. Its distribution is more or less prevalent in different parts of Iran. The aim of this study was to find out the fauna and natural infection of soft ticks with Borrelia in Qazvin Province, during their sea¬sonal activity. The province covers 15821 km² between 48-45 to 50-50 east of Greenwich Meridian of longitude and 35-37 to 36-45 north latitude of the equator. For this purpose a field study was carried out in the region. A total of 54 villages from 19 districts were selected ran¬domly and ticks were collected from their habitats according to the standard method. A total of 3197 Argasidae ticks were collected from human dwellings, poultry and animal shelters. They belonged to Argas and Or¬nithodoros genera which 36.8% were Argas persicus, 4% A. reflexus, 6.4% O. canestrini, 45.5% O. lahorensis and 7.3% O. tholozani. It should be noted that 12 ticks of O. erraticus were collected from 12 rodents borrows. We found that 8.82 % of O. tholozani ticks were infected with Borrelia persica and half of the O. erraticus were infected with Borrelia microti. All the people who are in¬volved with veterinary activities should be aware of disease transmission by the ticks. In the endemic area of the disease tick control is recommended.
LUIS E. PATERNINA
Full Text Available RESUMEN Las garrapatas revisten gran importancia en el campo biomédico por sus hábitos hematófagos y asociación con la transmisión de agentes patógenos a humanos y animales. El objetivo de esta investigación fue establecer las especies de garrapatas que parasitan perros en tres poblaciones del área rural del Caribe colombiano. Durante los meses de agosto y diciembre del año 2006 se realizó búsqueda activa de garrapatas sobre caninos domésticos de las localidades de El Campín, Sabanas del Potrero y Escobar Arriba, departamento de Sucre. Las garrapatas recolectadas fueron almacenadas en viales con etanol al 70% e identificadas empleando claves morfológicas de referencia para cada familia. Para la determinación de especie en la familia Argasidae se realizaron estimaciones morfométricas de estructuras externas. Se recolectaron 420 garrapatas a partir de 50 caninos infestados, de un total de 134 perros examinados, que corresponde a una tasa de infestación del 37,3%. Las garrapatas fueron identificadas como Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus y Amblyomma ovale pertenecientes a la familia Ixodidae, y Ornithodoros (Alectorobius puertoricensis de la familia Argasidae. La especie predominante fue R. sanguineus (92,1% en los estados de larva, ninfa y adulto, seguida por larvas de O. puertoricensis, que fueron halladas en menor número sobre caninos de las tres localidades. Se registra, por primera vez en América, el parasitismo de O. puertoricensis sobre caninos domésticos y se confirma su presencia en Colombia. Palabras clave: garrapatas, perros, Ornithodoros puertoricensis, Ixodida, Colombia. ABSTRACT Ticks are very important from the biomedical point of view, by their hematophagic activity and their role in the transmission of pathogenic microorganisms to man and animals. The main goal of this work was to establish the tick species parasiting dogs in three rural localities of the Colombian Caribbean. From
Brown, Vienna R; Bevins, Sarah N
African swine fever (ASF) is caused by African swine fever virus (ASFV), which can cause substantial morbidity and mortality events in swine. The virus can be transmitted via direct and indirect contacts with infected swine, their products, or competent vector species, especially Ornithodoros ticks. Africa and much of Eastern Europe are endemic for ASF; a viral introduction to countries that are currently ASF free could have severe economic consequences due to the loss of production from infected animals and the trade restrictions that would likely be imposed as a result of an outbreak. We identified vulnerabilities that could lead to ASFV introduction or persistence in the United States or other ASF-free regions. Both legal and illegal movements of live animals, as well as the importation of animal products, byproducts, and animal feed, pose a risk of virus introduction. Each route is described, and current regulations designed to prevent ASFV and other pathogens from entering the United States are outlined. Furthermore, existing ASFV research gaps are highlighted. Laboratory experiments to evaluate multiple species of Ornithodoros ticks that have yet to be characterized would be useful to understand vector competence, host preferences, and distribution of competent soft tick vectors in relation to high pig production areas as well as regions with high feral swine (wild boar or similar) densities. Knowledge relative to antigenic viral proteins that contribute to host response and determination of immune mechanisms that lead to protection are foundational in the quest for a vaccine. Finally, sampling of illegally imported and confiscated wild suid products for ASFV could shed light on the types of products being imported and provide a more informed perspective relative to the risk of ASFV importation.
Vienna R. Brown
Full Text Available African swine fever (ASF is caused by African swine fever virus (ASFV, which can cause substantial morbidity and mortality events in swine. The virus can be transmitted via direct and indirect contacts with infected swine, their products, or competent vector species, especially Ornithodoros ticks. Africa and much of Eastern Europe are endemic for ASF; a viral introduction to countries that are currently ASF free could have severe economic consequences due to the loss of production from infected animals and the trade restrictions that would likely be imposed as a result of an outbreak. We identified vulnerabilities that could lead to ASFV introduction or persistence in the United States or other ASF-free regions. Both legal and illegal movements of live animals, as well as the importation of animal products, byproducts, and animal feed, pose a risk of virus introduction. Each route is described, and current regulations designed to prevent ASFV and other pathogens from entering the United States are outlined. Furthermore, existing ASFV research gaps are highlighted. Laboratory experiments to evaluate multiple species of Ornithodoros ticks that have yet to be characterized would be useful to understand vector competence, host preferences, and distribution of competent soft tick vectors in relation to high pig production areas as well as regions with high feral swine (wild boar or similar densities. Knowledge relative to antigenic viral proteins that contribute to host response and determination of immune mechanisms that lead to protection are foundational in the quest for a vaccine. Finally, sampling of illegally imported and confiscated wild suid products for ASFV could shed light on the types of products being imported and provide a more informed perspective relative to the risk of ASFV importation.
Perner, Jan; Provazník, Jan; Schrenková, Jana; Urbanová, Veronika; Ribeiro, J.M.C.; Kopáček, Petr
Roč. 6, NOV 8 (2016), č. článku 36695. ISSN 2045-2322 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-11043S Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : glutathione peroxidase gene * Boophilus microplus * salivary glands * cattle tick * molecular cloning * Aedes aegypti * lyme disease * hard tick * Ornithodoros moubata Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.259, year: 2016
Štěrba, J.; Dupejová, J.; Fišer, M.; Vancová, Marie; Grubhoffer, Libor
Roč. 4, - (2011), e127 ISSN 1756-3305 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06009; GA AV ČR KJB600960906; GA ČR GA206/09/1782 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : AMERICAN DOG TICK * INNATE IMMUNITY * DORIN-M * RHIPICEPHALUS-APPENDICULATUS * MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION * DERMACENTOR-VARIABILIS * ORNITHODOROS-MOUBATA * LECTINS * HEMOLYMPH * BINDING Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.937, year: 2011 http://www.parasitesandvectors.com/content/pdf/1756-3305-4-127.pdf
... Control How to Remove a Tick Deer Tick Ecology Tick-Borne Diseases Anaplasmosis Babesiosis Borrelia miyamotoi infections ... repellents containing the active ingredient DEET can be applied to the skin (be sure to strictly follow ...
... ticks that bite humans How ticks spread disease Diseases transmitted by ticks Trends in tickborne diseases Tickborne diseases ... Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID) Division of Vector-Borne Diseases (DVBD) Email Recommend Tweet YouTube Instagram Listen Watch ...
... ticks that bite humans How ticks spread disease Diseases transmitted by ticks Trends in tickborne diseases Tickborne diseases ... Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID) Division of Vector-Borne Diseases (DVBD) Email Recommend Tweet YouTube Instagram Listen Watch ...
Full Text Available Background: The distribution and ecological preferences of ticks of domestic animals in North of Iran were studied four times a year from 2002 to 2005. Methods: A total of 1720 tick specimens were collected from cattle, sheep and goats from different localities of Caspian Sea areas consisting of Guilan, Mazandaran, Golestan and Ardebil provinces, Iran. Results: Fourteen tick species were identified as Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum (5.23%, H.marginatum (20.34%, H.detritum (3.48%, Haemaphysalis punctata (12.79%, Haem. Parva (0.58%, Haem.concinna (0.58%, Haem.choldokovsky (6.97%, Ixodes ricinus (2.32%, Rhipicephalus sanguineus (19.76%, Rh.bursa (4.65%, Boophilus annulatus (9.88%, Dermacentor niveus (6.39%, D. marginatus (1.74% and Ornithodoros lahorensis (5.23%. Both Dermacentor and Ornithodoros were found only in Ardebil with cold climatic conditions and high altitude. The only ticks, which were found in forest area, were Boophilus annulatus and Ixodes ricinus. Conclusion: The veterinary and public health importance of the above species should be emphasized.
Muñoz-Leal, Sebastián; Eriksson, Alan; Santos, Carolina Ferreira; Fischer, Erich; de Almeida, Juliana Cardoso; Luz, Hermes R; Labruna, Marcelo B
Ticks associated with bats have been poorly documented in the Neotropical Zoogeographical Region. In this study, a total of 1028 bats were sampled for tick infestations in the southern portion of the Brazilian Pantanal. A total of 368 ticks, morphologically identified as Ornithodoros hasei (n = 364) and O. mimon (n = 4), were collected from the following bat species: Artibeus planirostris, Platyrrhinus lineatus, Phyllostomus hastatus, Mimon crenulatum and Noctilio albiventris. Morphological identification of O. hasei was confirmed by molecular analysis. Regarding the most abundant bat species, only 40 (6.2%) out of 650 A. planirostris were infested by O. hasei, with a mean intensity of 7.2 ticks per infested bat, or a mean abundance of 0.44 ticks per sampled bat. Noteworthy, one single P. hastatus was infested by 55 O. hasei larvae, in contrast to the 2.5-7.2 range of mean intensity values for the whole study. As a complement to the present study, a total of 8 museum bat specimens (6 Noctilio albiventris and 2 N. leporinus), collected in the northern region of Pantanal, were examined for tick infestations. These bats contained 176 ticks, which were all morphologically identified as O. hasei larvae. Mean intensity of infestation was 22, with a range of 1-46 ticks per infested bat. Our results suggest that A. planirostris might play an important role in the natural life cycle of O. hasei in the Pantanal.
Mastropaolo, Mariano; Beltrán-Saavedra, L Fabián; Guglielmone, Alberto A
The tick species reported in Bolivia are reviewed here as (1) endemic or established: Ornithodoros echimys, O. guaporensis, O. hasei, O. kohlsi, O. mimon, O. peropteryx, O. rostratus, Otobius megnini, Amblyomma auricularium, A. cajennense, A. calcaratum, A. coelebs, A. dubitatum, A. humerale, A. incisum, A. longirostre, A. naponense, A. nodosum, A. oblongoguttatum, A. ovale, A. parvitarsum, A. parvum, A. pecarium, A. pseudoconcolor, A. rotundatum, A. scalpturatum, A. tigrinum, A. triste, Dermacentor nitens, Haemaphysalis juxtakochi, H. leporispalustris, I. boliviensis, I. cooleyi, I. luciae, Rhipicephalus microplus, R. sanguineus, and (2) erroneously reported: Ornithodoros puertoricensis, O. talaje, O. turicata, Amblyomma americanum, A. maculatum, A. multipunctum, Ixodes ricinus, I. scapularis, Rhipicephalus annulatus. Many of these records are lacking locality and/or host, and some of them need new findings for confirmation. Some of the species recorded may represent a threat for human and animal health, therefore would be of great value to make a countrywide survey of ticks in order to update the information presented in this work. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Labruna, Marcelo B; Jorge, Rodrigo S P; Sana, Dênis A; Jácomo, Anah Tereza A; Kashivakura, Cyntia K; Furtado, Mariana M; Ferro, Claudia; Perez, Samuel A; Silveira, Leandro; Santos, Tarcísio S; Marques, Samuel R; Morato, Ronaldo G; Nava, Alessandra; Adania, Cristina H; Teixeira, Rodrigo H F; Gomes, Albério A B; Conforti, Valéria A; Azevedo, Fernando C C; Prada, Cristiana S; Silva, Jean C R; Batista, Adriana F; Marvulo, Maria Fernanda V; Morato, Rose L G; Alho, Cleber J R; Pinter, Adriano; Ferreira, Patrícia M; Ferreira, Fernado; Barros-Battesti, Darci M
species), Dermacentor (1 species), Rhipicephalus (1 species), and Boophilus (1 species). Additional 5 tick species (3 Amblyomma species and 1 species from each of the genera Ixodes and Ornithodoros) were reported in the literature. The most common ticks on Carnivora hosts were Amblyomma ovale (found on 14 host species), Amblyomma cajennense (10 species), Amblyomma aureolatum (10 species), Amblyomma tigrinum (7 species), Amblyomma parvum (7 species), and Boophilus microplus (7 species).
In this podcast for kids, the Kidtastics talk about the dangers of ticks and how to protect yourself from them. Created: 4/9/2013 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Date Released: 4/9/2013.
... ticks that bite humans How ticks spread disease Diseases transmitted by ticks Trends in tickborne diseases Tickborne diseases ... Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID) Division of Vector-Borne Diseases (DVBD) Email Recommend Tweet YouTube Instagram Listen Watch ...
... cycling of virus between argasid soft ticks (Ornithodoros moubata complex) and wild ... The technique consists essentially of the enzymatic synthesis of millions of ... hybridization of specific DNA primers to the template and extension of the ...
Full Text Available A total of 586 reptiles, belonging to 35 species and five subspecies, were examined in surveys aimed at determining the species spectrum and geographic distribution of ticks that infest them. Of these reptiles 509 were tortoises, 28 monitor or other lizards, and 49 snakes. Nine ixodid tick species, of which seven belonged to the genus Amblyomma, and one argasid tick, Ornithodoros compactus were recovered. Seven of the ten tick species are parasites of reptiles. Amongst these seven species Amblyomma marmoreum was most prevalent and numerous on leopard tortoises, Geochelone pardalis; Amblyomma nuttalli was present only on Bell's hinged tortoises, Kinixys belliana; and most Amblyomma sylvaticum were collected from angulate tortoises, Chersina angulata. Amblyomma exornatum (formerly Aponomma exornatum was only recovered from monitor lizards, Varanus spp.; most Amblyomma latum (formerly Aponomma latum were from snakes; and a single nymph of Amblyomma transversale (formerly Aponomma transversale was collected from a southern African python, Python natalensis. All 30 Namaqualand speckled padloper tortoises, Homopus signatus signatus, examined were infested with O. compactus. The seasonal occurrence of A. sylvaticum and the geographic distribution of this tick and of A. marmoreum, A. nuttalli, A. exornatum, A. latum and O. compactus are illustrated.
Ivan G. Horak
Full Text Available The distributions of endemic tick vector species as well as the presence of species not endemic to Free State Province, South Africa, were determined during surveys or opportunistic collections from livestock, wildlife and vegetation. Amongst endemic ticks, the presence of Rhipicephalus appendiculatus was confirmed in the north of the province, whilst Rhipicephalus decoloratus was collected at 31 localities mostly in the centre and east, and Ixodes rubicundus at 11 localities in the south, south-west and centre of the province. Amongst the non-endemic species adult Amblyomma hebraeum were collected from white rhinoceroses (Ceratotherium simum on four privately owned farms, whilst the adults of Rhipicephalus microplus were collected from cattle and a larva from vegetation at four localities in the east of the province. The collection of Rhipicephalus evertsi mimeticus from a sheep in the west of the province is the second record of its presence in the Free State, whereas the presence of Haemaphysalis silacea on helmeted guineafowl (Numida meleagris and vegetation in the centre of the province represents a first record for this species in the Free State. The first collection of the argasid tick, Ornithodoros savignyi, in the Free State was made from a domestic cow and from soil in the west of the province. The localities at which the ticks were collected have been plotted and the ticks’ role in the transmission or cause of disease in domestic livestock and wildlife is discussed.
Tissot Dupont, H; Raoult, D
Due to their worldwide distribution, from hottest to coldest climates, and due to their behaviour, ticks are capable of transmitting numerous human and animal bacterial viral or parasitous diseases. Depending on the disease, they play the role of biological vector or intermediate host. In France, six tick borne diseases are of epidemiologic importance. Q fever (not often tick-borne), Mediterranean Spotted Fever, Lyme disease, Turalemia (human and animal), Babesiosis and Tick-borne Viral Encephalitis.
Full Text Available Background: Q fever is a widespread zoonotic disease caused by Coxiella burnetii. Ticks may act as vectors, and many epidemiological studies aim to assess C. burnetii prevalence in ticks. Because ticks may also be infected with Coxiella-like bacteria, screening tools that differentiate between C. burnetii and Coxiella-like bacteria are essential. Methods: In this study, we screened tick specimens from 10 species (Ornithodoros rostratus, O. peruvianus, O. capensis, Ixodes ricinus, Rhipicephalus annulatus, R. decoloratus, R. geigy, O. sonrai, O. occidentalis, and Amblyomma cajennense known to harbor specific Coxiella-like bacteria, by using quantitative PCR primers usually considered to be specific for C. burnetii and targeting, respectively, the IS1111, icd, scvA, p1, and GroEL/htpB genes. Results: We found that some Coxiella-like bacteria, belonging to clades A and C, yield positive PCR results when screened with primers initially believed to be C. burnetii-specific. Conclusions: These results suggest that PCR-based surveys that aim to detect C. burnetii in ticks by using currently available methods must be interpreted with caution if the amplified products cannot be sequenced. Future molecular methods that aim at detecting C. burnetii need to take into account the possibility that cross-reactions may exist with Coxiella-like bacteria.
Full Text Available Objective: To ascertain the prevalence of the Anaplasma/Ehrlichia infections in tick population within four provinces of Iran. Methods: A total of 384 tick specimens were collected from domestic animals inhabiting in four provinces (East Azerbaijan, Gilan, South Khorasan and Yazd. Specimens were identified based on morphological analysis. The detection of Anaplasma spp./Ehrlichia spp. within tick samples was carried out by nested PCR amplification of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene accompanied by DNA sequencing and analysis for verification. Results: A total of 10 tick species were identified as follows: Ornithodoros lahorensis (O. lahorensis (44.8%, Hyalomma dromedarii (15.6%, Dermacentor marginatus (13.5%, Hyalomma anatolicum (11.2%, Hyalomma asiaticum (5.7%, Hyalomma marginatum (4.9%, Rhipicephalus sanguineus (2.3%, Hyalomma detritum (1.0%, Dermacentor niveus (0.5% and Argas persicus (0.3%. The percentage distribution of Anaplasma/Ehrlichia was 55.5% (213 across 384 studied ticks. Conclusions: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of Anaplasma ovis infection in O. lahorensis in Iran. We also conjecture the prevalence of Ehrlichia spp. in Yazd Province based on sequencing results; also, it is suggested that O. lahorensis is a potential vector in the studied area. This survey highlights the importance of Argasidae family to verify and correlate their threat in causing anaplasmosis and other diseases in animals.
Samish, M.; Ginsberg, H.; Glazer, I.; Bowman, A.S.; Nuttall, P.
Ticks have numerous natural enemies, but only a few species have been evaluated as tick biocontrol agents (BCAs). Some laboratory results suggest that several bacteria are pathogenic to ticks, but their mode of action and their potential value as biocontrol agents remain to be determined. The most promising entomopathogenic fungi appear to be Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana, strains of which are already commercially available for the control of some pests. Development of effective formulations is critical for tick management. Entomopathogenic nematodes that are pathogenic to ticks can potentially control ticks, but improved formulations and selection of novel nematode strains are needed. Parasitoid wasps of the genus Ixodiphagus do not typically control ticks under natural conditions, but inundative releases show potential value. Most predators of ticks are generalists, with a limited potential for tick management (one possible exception is oxpeckers in Africa). Biological control is likely to play a substantial role in future IPM programmes for ticks because of the diversity of taxa that show high potential as tick BCAs. Considerable research is required to select appropriate strains, develop them as BCAs, establish their effectiveness, and devise production strategies to bring them to practical use.
Sojka, Daniel; Franta, Zdeněk; Frantová, Helena; Bartošová, Pavla; Horn, Martin; Váchová, Jana; O’Donoghue, A. J.; Eroy-Reveles, A. A.; Craik, C. S.; Knudsen, G. M.; Caffrey, C. R.; McKerrow, J. H.; Mareš, Michael; Kopáček, Petr
Roč. 287, č. 25 (2012), s. 21152-21163 ISSN 0021-9258 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600960910; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06009; GA AV ČR KJB600960911; GA ČR GPP502/11/P682; GA AV ČR IAA400550705; GA ČR(CZ) GAP207/10/2183 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : RHIPICEPHALUS BOOPHILUS MICROPLUS * HARD TICK * ORNITHODOROS-MOUBATA * ASPARTIC PROTEINASE * RECOGNITION DOMAIN * MOLECULAR- CLONING * ACTIVE-SITE * EXPRESSION * INHIBITOR * PROTEASE Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.651, year: 2012
Full Text Available Tratando de verificar la posible infección por borrelias en el Ornithodoros Forcosus Neumann, 1908, se realizaron observaciones experimentales en las que se utilizó un total de 1,655 especímenes de esta garrapata. En tales estudios se emplearon pericotes blancos y cobayos. Con triturado de garrapatas fueron inoculados 68 animales (64 pericotes y 4 cobayos y 37 (16 pericotes y 21 cobayos fueron empleados para alimentar sobre ellos varios lotes de garrapatas. Los resultados de todas estas observaciones fueron negativas. Las garrapatas con las que se han efectuado estos estudios procedían de las localidades de Limabamba, Mariscal Benavides, Camporredondo, Ocalli y Luya, todas en el departamento de Amazonas, y a altitudes que varían entre 1,400 y 2,300 metros sobre el nivel del mar. Desde que la fiebre recurrente parece ser endémica en el Perú, especialmente en localidades de considerable altitud, es de suponer que en este país sea trasmitida principalmente por piojos.
Telmadarraiy, Z; Ghiasi, Seyed Mojtaba; Moradi, Maryam
for the presence of CCHF virus genome using gel-based and real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reactions (RT-PCR). The results showed CCHF infection in almost 28% of ticks collectively. Also, of 56 livestock sera, around 39% were IgG-positive. The presence of anti-CCHF virus IgG antibodies and the CCHF...... in the adjacent districts. A comprehensive study was carried out to assess the epidemiological aspects of the disease in this province. In the study area, 130 ticks were collected from randomly selected villages and classified into 9 species of hard tick and 2 species of soft tick. All ticks were analyzed...
Bratton, Robert L; Corey, Ralph
Tick-borne diseases in the United States include Rocky Mountain spotted fever, Lyme disease, ehrlichiosis, tularemia, babesiosis, Colorado tick fever, and relapsing fever. It is important for family physicians to consider these illnesses when patients present with influenza-like symptoms. A petechial rash initially affecting the palms and soles of the feet is associated with Rocky Mountain spotted fever, whereas erythema migrans (annular macule with central clearing) is associated with Lyme disease. Various other rashes or skin lesions accompanied by fever and influenza-like illness also may signal the presence of a tick-borne disease. Early, accurate diagnosis allows treatment that may help prevent significant morbidity and possible mortality. Because 24 to 48 hours of attachment to the host are required for infection to occur, early removal can help prevent disease. Treatment with doxycycline or tetracycline is indicated for Rocky Mountain spotted fever, Lyme disease, ehrlichiosis, and relapsing fever. In patients with clinical findings suggestive of tick-borne disease, treatment should not be delayed for laboratory confirmation. If no symptoms follow exposure to tick bites, empiric treatment is not indicated. The same tick may harbor different infectious pathogens and transmit several with one bite. Advising patients about prevention of tick bites, especially in the summer months, may help prevent exposure to dangerous vector-borne diseases.
Holzer, B R
It is known for many years that tick-borne diseases have worldwide a high economical impact on farming industry and veterinary medicine. But only in the last twenty years the importance of such diseases were notified in human medicine by the medical community and the public with emerging of the tick borne encephalitis virus and the description of Borrelia burgdorferi. It is often forgotten that many other infectious agents as bacteria, virus, Rickettsia or protozoa can be transmitted by ticks. Such diseases are rarely diagnosed in Europe either they are overlooked and misdiagnosed or they are connected with special professional activities. The development of new regions for tourism with different out door activities (adventure trips, trekking, hunting) leads to an exposure to different tick borne diseases, which are often misdiagnosed.
Economic losses due to ticks and tick-borne disease of livestock fall disproportionately on developing countries. Currently, tick control relies mostly on pesticides and parasite-resistant cattle. Release of a commercial recombinant vaccine against Boophilus microplus in Australia in 1994 showed that anti-tick vaccines are a feasible alternative. For vaccines, it is important to understand the efficacy needed for a beneficial outcome. In this, it is relevant that some tick antigens affect multiple tick species; that existing vaccines could be improved by the inclusion of additional tick antigens; and that vaccination against ticks can have an impact on tick-borne disease. Practically, although recombinant vaccine manufacture involves relatively few steps, issues of intellectual property rights (IPR) and requirements for registration of a product may affect economic viability of manufacture. Hence practical vaccines for the developing world will require both successful science and a creative 'business solution' for delivery in a cost-effective way. (author)
Jones, Jefferson M; Hranac, Carter R; Schumacher, Mare; Horn, Kim; Lee, Darlene M; Terriquez, Joel; Engelthaler, David M; Peoples, Marie; Corrigan, Jennifer; Replogle, Adam; Souders, Nina; Komatsu, Kenneth K; Nieto, Nathan C
During August 2014, five high school students who had attended an outdoor education camp were hospitalized with a febrile illness, prompting further investigation. Ten total cases of tick-borne relapsing fever (TBRF) were identified-six cases confirmed by culture or visualization of spirochetes on blood smear and four probable cases with compatible symptoms (attack rate: 23%). All patients had slept in the campsite's only cabin. Before the camp, a professional pest control company had rodent proofed the cabin, but no acaricides had been applied. Cabin inspection after the camp found rodents and Ornithodoros ticks, the vector of TBRF. Blood samples from a chipmunk trapped near the cabin and from patients contained Borrelia hermsii with identical gene sequences (100% over 630 base pairs). Health departments in TBRF endemic areas should consider educating cabin owners and pest control companies to apply acaricides during or following rodent proofing, because ticks that lack rodents for a blood meal might feed on humans. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.
... this issue Tick Talk Block Tick Bites and Lyme Disease En español Send us your comments When warm ... mainly in the mid-Atlantic and southern states. Lyme disease is the most common tick-borne illness. It’s ...
... virus, Siberian tick-borne encephalitis virus, and Far eastern Tick-borne encephalitis virus (formerly known as Russian ... viruses are closely related to TBEV and Far-eastern TBE, and include Omsk hemorrhagic fever virus in ...
Acosta, Juan Carlos
Full Text Available El objetivo de la presente comunicación es reportar por primera vez un caso de parasitismo en Rhinella arenarum y a la vez mencionar el primer registro del género Ornithodoros en el departamento de Valle Fértil, San Juan, Argentina. Siendo el primer registro de parasitismo de anfibios por Ornithodoros en la Argentina y el segundo para el neotrópico.
Huntington, Mark K; Allison, Jay
In addition to being a nuisance, ticks can carry disease. This article presents a brief review of ticks and associated tick-borne disease relevant to South Dakota and surrounding regions. Tick-borne diseases of special relevance in South Dakota include tularemia, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, and Lyme disease. A number of others may also be encountered in the state as well. Prompt treatment of suspected cases is important to ensure a successful recovery, and tick-avoidance measures can reduce the risks of acquiring them. Most of these conditions are nationally reportable infectious diseases. Copyright© South Dakota State Medical Association.
Rolla, G; Heffler, E; Boita, M
Anaphylaxis is a serious systemic allergic reaction with rapid onset and potentially life-threatening. We report in detail a case of severe nocturnal anaphylaxis due to pigeon tick bite showing the diagnostic value of the extract and the recombinant allergen in the diagnostic procedures (basophil...... reagents. Because of the growing number of pigeons in Middle and Southern Europe cities, some cases of idiopathic anaphylaxis could potentially be caused by A. reflexus in those countries. The identification of pigeon ticks as a trigger of anaphylaxis would greatly improve medical care and advice...
Cabezas-Cruz, A.; Valdés, James J.
Roč. 11, JUL 2014 (2014), s. 47 ISSN 1742-9994 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0032 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : ticks * venom * secreted proteins * toxicoses * pathogens * convergence Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.051, year: 2014
Kopáček, Petr; Hajdušek, Ondřej; Burešová, Veronika; Daffre, S.
Roč. 708, - (2010), 137-162 ISSN 0065-2598 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/10/2136; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06009 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : tick * pathogen transmission * innate immunity Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 1.379, year: 2010
Dr. Chris Paddock, a rickettsiologist and infectious disease pathologist discusses a tick-transmitted bacterium, Rickettsia parkeri. Created: 8/18/2011 by National Center for Emerging Zoonotic and Infectious Diseases (NCEZID). Date Released: 8/18/2011.
McGarry, John W
There are approximately twenty species of hard (ixodid) ticks worldwide that frequently affect human populations, many of which are associated with serious, sometimes fatal disease(s). When a tick travel souvenir is presented in the clinic, the risk must be immediately assessed by identifying the tick in question, ascertaining its disease vector status and determining if there has been the opportunity for the transfer of potential pathogens. This short review on identification of disease vector ticks and aspects of blood feeding and disease transmission includes the results of an examination of 59 specimens removed from UK domestic travellers and international travellers between 2002 and 2010. Sixteen tick species belonging to six genera were recorded and almost all showed evidence of blood feeding, which appears to contradict the view that because of their size, adult ticks are found early and therefore present an insignificant risk. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Dumpis, U; Crook, D; Oksi, J
Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is a zoonotic arbovirus infection endemic to Russia and Eastern and Central Europe. Despite being a common and serious life-threatening disease for which a mass vaccination program was implemented in Austria, there is only limited reference to this disease in the English-language literature. TBE is transmitted to humans usually by the bite of a tick (either Ixodes persulcatus or Ixodes ricinus); occasionally, cases occur following consumption of infected unpasteurized milk. Transmission is seasonal and occurs in spring and summer, particularly in rural areas favored by the vector. TBE is a serious cause of acute central nervous system disease, which may result in death or long-term neurological sequelae. Effective vaccines are available in a few countries. The risk for travelers of acquiring TBE is increasing with the recent rise in tourism to areas of endemicity during spring and summer.
Gazyağci, Aycan Nuriye; Aydenızöz, Meral
Ticks which are commonly found all around the world are ectoparasites which are obliged to suck blood from vertebrates such as mammals and birds during all of their periods of develeopment. They may cause toxicities and paralyses in the course of blood sucking through saliva injection and the attachment sites may become ports of entry for secondary agents. Healthy animals that are severely infested by ticks can show a decreased yield and anemia. Young and sick animals can even die. Besides this, ticks are both biological and mechanical vectors for viruses, bacteria, rickettsias, spirochaetas, protozoons and helminths. Ten percent of the ticks identified in the world are associated with 200 diseases. In this review the taxonomy and morphology of ticks, some of the important diseases they carry and the diagnosis and treatment of these diseases are mentioned.
CDCâs tick expert, Dr. Christopher Paddock, discusses ticks found in a new location. Created: 8/4/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID). Date Released: 8/4/2016.
Full Text Available Birds, particularly passerines, can be parasitized by Ixodid ticks, which may be infected with tick-borne pathogens, like Borrelia spp., Babesia spp., Anaplasma, Rickettsia/Coxiella, and tick-borne encephalitis virus. The prevalence of ticks on birds varies over years, season, locality and different bird species. The prevalence of ticks on different species depends mainly on the degree of feeding on the ground. In Europe, the Turdus spp., especially the blackbird, Turdus merula, appears to be most important for harboring ticks. Birds can easily cross barriers, like fences, mountains, glaciers, desserts and oceans, which would stop mammals, and they can move much faster than the wingless hosts. Birds can potentially transport tick-borne pathogens by transporting infected ticks, by being infected with tick-borne pathogens and transmit the pathogens to the ticks, and possibly act as hosts for transfer of pathogens between ticks through co-feeding. Knowledge of the bird migration routes and of the spatial distribution of tick species and tick-borne pathogens is crucial for understanding the possible impact of birds as spreaders of ticks and tick-borne pathogens. Successful colonization of new tick species or introduction of new tick-borne pathogens will depend on suitable climate, vegetation and hosts. Although it has never been demonstrated that a new tick species, or a new tick pathogen, actually has been established in a new locality after being seeded there by birds, evidence strongly suggests that this could occur.
Full Text Available A review of the ticks (Acari, Ixodida of the State of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil, was completed as a step towards a definitive list (currently indicated as 12 of such species, their hosts and distribution. The ticks: Argas miniatus (poultry, Ixodes loricatus (opossums, Amblyomma aureolatum (dogs, A. calcaratum (anteaters, A. cooperi (capybaras, A. nodosum (anteaters, A. tigrinum (dogs (Neotropical and Rhipicephalus sanguineus (dogs (introduced, cosmopolitan, Afrotropical were confirmed as present, in addition to the predominant, Boophilus microplus (cattle (introduced, pan-tropical, Oriental. Of the further 18 species thus far reported in the literature as present in the state, but unavailable for examination: only Ornithodoros brasiliensis (humans and their habitations (Neotropical, Ixodes affinis (deer (Nearctic/Neotropical and I. auritulus (birds (Nearctic/Neotropical/Afrotropical/ Australasian are considered likely; 13 species would benefit from corroborative local data but the majority appear unlikely; reports of A. maculatum (Nearctic/Neotropical, but circum-Caribbean are considered erroneous; the validity of A. fuscum is in doubt. The very recent, first known report of the tropical Anocentor nitens (horses(Nearctic/Neotropical, but still apparent absence of the tropical A. cajennense (catholic (Nearctic/Neotropical and the sub-tropical/temperate Ixodes pararicinus (cattle (Neotropical in Rio Grande do Sul are important for considerations on their current biogeographical distribution and its dynamics in South America. The state has relatively long established, introduced ("exotic", Old World tick species (B. microplus, R. sanguineus that continue to represent significant pests and disease vectors to their traditional, introduced domestic animal hosts, cattle and urban dogs. There are also indigenous, New World ticks (A. miniatus, O. brasiliensis, A. aureolatum, A. nitens, as both long established and possibly newly locally
Shirani, Darush; Rakhshanpoor, Alaleh; Cutler, Sally J.; Ghazinezhad, Behnaz; Naddaf, Saied Reza
Tick-borne relapsing fever is an endemic disease in Iran, with most cases attributed to infection by B. persica, which is transmitted by Ornithodoros tholozani soft ticks. Here, we report spirochetemia in blood of a puppy residing in Tehran, Iran. The causative species was identified by use of highly discriminative IGS sequencing; the 489 bp IGS sequence obtained in our study showed 99% identity (100% coverage) when compared with Borrelia persica sequences derived from clinical cases or from ...
Stephanie L. Richards
Full Text Available Improvements to risk assessments are needed to enhance our understanding of tick-borne disease epidemiology. We review tick vectors and duration of tick attachment required for pathogen transmission for the following pathogens/toxins and diseases: (1 Anaplasma phagocytophilum (anaplasmosis; (2 Babesia microti (babesiosis; (3 Borrelia burgdorferi (Lyme disease; (4 Southern tick-associated rash illness; (5 Borrelia hermsii (tick-borne relapsing fever; (6 Borrelia parkeri (tick-borne relapsing fever; (7 Borrelia turicatae (tick-borne relapsing fever; (8 Borrelia mayonii; (9 Borrelia miyamotoi; (10 Coxiella burnetii (Query fever; (11 Ehrlichia chaffeensis (ehrlichiosis; (12 Ehrlichia ewingii (ehrlichiosis; (13 Ehrlichia muris; (14 Francisella tularensis (tularemia; (15 Rickettsia 364D; (16 Rickettsia montanensis; (17 Rickettsia parkeri (American boutonneuse fever, American tick bite fever; (18 Rickettsia ricketsii (Rocky Mountain spotted fever; (19 Colorado tick fever virus (Colorado tick fever; (20 Heartland virus; (21 Powassan virus (Powassan disease; (22 tick paralysis neurotoxin; and (23 Galactose-α-1,3-galactose (Mammalian Meat Allergy-alpha-gal syndrome. Published studies for 12 of the 23 pathogens/diseases showed tick attachment times. Reported tick attachment times varied (<1 h to seven days between pathogen/toxin type and tick vector. Not all studies were designed to detect the duration of attachment required for transmission. Knowledge of this important aspect of vector competence is lacking and impairs risk assessment for some tick-borne pathogens.
Tokarz, Rafal; Sameroff, Stephen; Leon, Maria Sanchez; Jain, Komal; Lipkin, W Ian
Ticks are implicated as hosts to a wide range of animal and human pathogens. The full range of microbes harbored by ticks has not yet been fully explored. As part of a viral surveillance and discovery project in arthropods, we used unbiased high-throughput sequencing to examine viromes of ticks collected on Long Island, New York in 2013. We detected and sequenced the complete genome of a novel rhabdovirus originating from a pool of Amblyomma americanum ticks. This virus, which we provisionally name Long Island tick rhabdovirus, is distantly related to Moussa virus from Africa. The Long Island tick rhabdovirus may represent a novel species within family Rhabdoviridae.
Onnela, Jukka-Pekka; Töyli, Juuso; Kaski, Kimmo
Tick size is an important aspect of the micro-structural level organization of financial markets. It is the smallest institutionally allowed price increment, has a direct bearing on the bid-ask spread, influences the strategy of trading order placement in electronic markets, affects the price formation mechanism, and appears to be related to the long-term memory of volatility clustering. In this paper we investigate the impact of tick size on stock returns. We start with a simple simulation to demonstrate how continuous returns become distorted after confining the price to a discrete grid governed by the tick size. We then move on to a novel experimental set-up that combines decimalization pilot programs and cross-listed stocks in New York and Toronto. This allows us to observe a set of stocks traded simultaneously under two different ticks while holding all security-specific characteristics fixed. We then study the normality of the return distributions and carry out fits to the chosen distribution models. Our empirical findings are somewhat mixed and in some cases appear to challenge the simulation results.
Masood Akhtar*, Faqir Muhammad, Laeeq Akbar Lodhi, Iftikhar Hussain and M. Irfan Anwar1
Full Text Available Tick and tick borne diseases cause many problems to man and domestic animals world wide. These problems are most closely associated with domestic animals in tropical and subtropical areas around the globe. Currently tick control depends largely on the use of different chemicals. But the development of resistance against commonly available acaricides has created problem in this regard and animal population is becoming susceptible to both the ticks and diseases they transmit, with disastrous outcomes. The ability of manipulating organisms on molecular level and recent advancement in immunological procedures has provided alternatives for tick control. The objective of this review is to update/summarize the recent advances in the development of immunity against tick infestation in animals.
Kocan, K M
Development in and transmission of hemoparasites by tick vectors are phenomena closely synchronized with the tick feeding cycle. In all known life cycles, initial infection of tick tissues occurs in midgut epithelial cells and transmission is effected as ticks feed after parasites have developed and multiplied in salivary glands. Many factors reviewed affect development and transmission of hemoparasites by ticks including age of ticks, artificial temperature, climate and/or season, tick stage or sex, hemoparasite variation, concurrent infection of ticks with other pathogens, host cell susceptibility, transovarial transmission, effect of hemoparasites on tick biology, and the effect of infecting parasitemia level in cattle on infection rates in ticks. Four hemoparasites of cattle, Anaplasma marginale, Cowdria ruminantium, Theileria parva, and Babesia spp., are all dependent on ticks for biological transmission. Babesia is transmitted transovarially whereas the other three are transmitted transstadially. Mechanical transfer of infective blood via fomites and mouthparts of biting arthropods is also a major means of transmission for Anaplasma marginale but not of the others. Potential control methods for hemoparasites that target parasites as they are developing in their respective tick hosts include tick control, vaccines (against ticks and parasites), and drugs (against ticks and parasites). Successful application of control strategies will be dependent upon thorough understanding of parasite developmental cycles, biology of the tick vectors and the immune response of cattle to ticks and to hemoparasites. The most effective control measures will be those that are targeted against both ticks and the hemoparasites they vector.
Full Text Available Abstract Background A variety of human diseases transmitted by arthropod vectors, including ticks, are emerging around the globe. Birds are known to be hosts of ticks and can disperse exotic ticks and tick-borne pathogens. In Taiwan, previous studies have focused predominantly on mammals, leaving the role of birds in the maintenance of ticks and dissemination of tick-borne pathogens undetermined. Methods Ticks were collected opportunistically when birds were studied from 1995 to 2013. Furthermore, to improve knowledge on the prevalence and mean load of tick infestation on birds in Taiwan, ticks were thoroughly searched for when birds were mist-netted at seven sites between September 2014 and April 2016 in eastern Taiwan. Ticks were identified based on both morphological and molecular information and were screened for potential tick-borne pathogens, including the genera Anaplasma, Babesia, Borrelia, Ehrlichia and Rickettsia. Finally, a list of hard tick species collected from birds in Taiwan was compiled based on past work and the current study. Results Nineteen ticks (all larvae were recovered from four of the 3096 unique mist-netted bird individuals, yielding a mean load of 0.006 ticks/individual and an overall prevalence of 0.13%. A total of 139 ticks from birds, comprising 48 larvae, 35 nymphs, 55 adults and one individual of unknown life stage, were collected from 1995 to 2016, and 11 species of four genera were identified, including three newly recorded species (Haemaphysalis wellingtoni, Ixodes columnae and Ixodes turdus. A total of eight tick-borne pathogens were detected, with five species (Borrelia turdi, Anaplasma sp. clone BJ01, Ehrlichia sp. BL157-9, Rickettsia helvetica and Rickettsia monacensis not previously isolated in Taiwan. Overall, 16 tick species of five genera have been recorded feeding on birds, including nine species first discovered in this study. Conclusion Our study demonstrates the paucity of information on ticks of
Flicek, Barbara Fouts
Tick bites are best prevented by people avoiding tick-infested areas. When this is not possible, tick bites may be prevented by the wearing of long trousers that are tucked into boots. The best method to avoid tick bites is twofold: application of a topical deet (N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide) repellent to exposed skin, and treatment of clothing with permethrin. This system is currently used by the US Army to protect soldiers. Ticks can crawl underneath clothing and bite untreated portions of the body; therefore, treating clothing is imperative. Permethrin is nontoxic to humans, and can be used in any age group. Permethrin is commercially available. Checking clothing regularly while in tick-infested areas is highly recommended to back up the few hours of protection provided by the insect repellents. It is also recommended that the entire body be carefully screened for ticks and other parasites by campers and hunters while they are staying in and after leaving infested areas. Any tick found should be removed immediately. Removing ticks may not be easy. It is best to use blunt, rounded forceps, and a magnifying glass to remove ticks, especially when immature ticks are found. The forceps are used to grasp the mouthparts of the tick as close as possible to the skin, and then the tick is pulled upward, perpendicular to the skin, with a continuous and steady action. Usually any mouth parts of the tick retained in the skin are eliminated uneventfully by the body. Other methods of removing ticks, such as using fingers, lighted cigarettes, petroleum jelly, or suntan oil, should be avoided. Killing the tick in situ may increase the risk of regurgitation by the tick and the transmission of infectious agents. Most stick bites are uncomplicated, and result only in benign cutaneous inflammatory reactions that may be pruritic for a few days. As a result of mouthparts being retained at the feeding site, a granuloma may rarely develop. There are no data to indicate that antimicrobial
Samish, M; Glazer, I
Entomopathogenic steinemematid and heterorhabditid nematodes are increasingly used to control insect pests of economically important crops. Laboratory and field simulation trials show that ticks are also susceptible to these nematodes. The authors review the potential of entomogenous nematodes for the control of ticks.
This podcast will help health care providers identify patients who are at increased risk of getting tick bites and provide these patients with tick bite prevention and removal tips. Created: 2/14/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID). Date Released: 2/14/2012.
Mar 31, 2015 ... Objective: Ticks play a significant role in the transmission of pathogenic agents to animals. In Côte d'Ivoire, ..... dog, grasscutter constitute the new host for adults of this tick species in ... among West African rodent, Thryonomys.
Full Text Available Abstract Ticks act as vectors of many pathogens of domestic animals and humans. Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Europe is transmitted by the ixodid tick vector Ixodes ricinus. A. phagocytophilum causes a disease with diverse clinical signs in various hosts. A great genetic diversity of the groESL operon of A. phagocytophilum has been found in ticks elsewhere. In Slovenia, the variety of the groESL operon was conducted only on deer samples. In this study, the prevalence of infected ticks was estimated and the diversity of A. phagocytophilum was evaluated. On 8 locations in Slovenia, 1924 and 5049 (6973 I. ricinus ticks were collected from vegetation in the years 2005 and 2006, respectively. All three feeding stages of the tick's life cycle were examined. The prevalence of ticks infected with A. phagocytophilum in the year 2005 and in the year 2006 was 0.31% and 0.63%, respectively, and it did not differ considerably between locations. The similarity among the sequences of groESL ranged from 95.6% to 99.8%. They clustered in two genetic lineages along with A. phagocytophilum from Slovenian deer. One sequence formed a separate cluster. According to our study, the prevalence of A. phagocytophilum in ticks is comparable to the findings in other studies in Europe, and it does not vary considerably between locations and tick stages. According to groESL operon analysis, two genetic lineages have been confirmed and one proposed. Further studies on other genes would be useful to obtain more information on genetic diversity of A. phagocytophilum in ticks in Slovenia.
Estrada-Peña, Agustín; de la Fuente, José
A number of tick-borne diseases of humans have increased in incidence and geographic range over the past few decades, and there is concern that they will pose an even greater threat to public health in future. Although global warming is often cited as the underlying mechanism favoring the spread of tick-borne diseases, climate is just one of many factors that determine which tick species are found in a given geographic region, their population density, the likelihood that they will be infected with microbes pathogenic for humans and the frequency of tick-human contact. This article provides basic information needed for microbiologists to understand the many factors that affect the geographic range and population density of ticks and the risk of human exposure to infected ticks. It first briefly summarizes the life cycle and basic ecology of ticks and how ticks and vertebrate hosts interact, then reviews current understanding of the role of climate, sociodemographic factors, agricultural development and changes in human behavior that affect the incidence of tick-borne diseases. These concepts are then illustrated in specific discussions of tick-borne encephalitis and Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
D'Ambrosio, Giancarlo; Giudice, Gian F.; Raidal, Martti
We study 'soft leptogenesis', a new mechanism of leptogenesis which does not require flavour mixing among the right-handed neutrinos. Supersymmetry soft-breaking terms give a small mass splitting between the CP-even and CP-odd right-handed sneutrino states of a single generation and provide a CP-violating phase sufficient to generate a lepton asymmetry. The mechanism is successful if the lepton-violating soft bilinear coupling is unconventionally (but not unnaturally) small. The values of the right-handed neutrino masses predicted by soft leptogenesis can be low enough to evade the cosmological gravitino problem
Full Text Available Ticks are reservoir and transmission vectors of many bacteria, viruses and parasites, which are pathogenic for humans. Early and correct tick removal is crucial as prevention of tick-borne diseases. The aim of the study is an attempt at rationalization of tick-borne disease prevention using a multifunctional container for Tick Twister®. In practice, it should enable people to use Tick Twister® in all circumstances contributing to the improvement of efficiency in tick-borne diseases prevention, and as a result, to a decrease in their frequency and after effects.
Davies, Saran; Abdullah, Swaid; Helps, Chris; Tasker, Séverine; Newbury, Hannah; Wall, Richard
In a study of tick and tick-borne pathogen prevalence, between May and October 2016, 278 veterinary practices in Great Britain examined 1855 cats. Six-hundred and one cats were found to have attached ticks. The most frequently recorded tick species was Ixodes ricinus (57.1%), followed by Ixodes hexagonus (41.4%) and Ixodes trianguliceps (1.5%). Male cats, 4-6 years of age living in rural areas were most likely to be carrying a tick; hair length and tick treatment history had no significant association with attachment. For cats that were parasitized by ticks in large urban areas, I. hexagonus was the most frequent species recorded. Molecular analysis was possible for 541 individual tick samples, others were too damaged for analysis; Babesia spp., and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato were identified in 1.1% (n=6) and 1.8% (n=10) of these, respectively. Babesia spp. included Babesia vulpes sp. nov./Babesia microti-like (n=4) in I. hexagonus and Babesia venatorum (n=2) in I. ricinus. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. species included Borrelia garinii (n=6) and Borrelia afzelii (n=4). The majority of B. burgorferi s.l. cases were found in I. ricinus, with B. afzelii in one I. hexagonus nymph. No Borrelia or Babesia spp. were present in I. trianguliceps. To determine a true prevalence for ticks on cats, practices that only submitted questionnaires from cats with ticks and practices that submitted fewer than 5 returns per week were removed; amongst those considered to have adhered strictly to the collection protocol, feline tick prevalence amongst cats that had access to the outdoors was 6.6%. These results show that ticks can be found on cats throughout Great Britain, which harbour a range of species of Babesia and B. burgdorferi s.l. and that cats, particularly in green spaces within urban areas, may form an important host for I. hexagonus, a known vector of pathogens. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Background Ticks are implicated as hosts to a wide range of animal and human pathogens. The full range of microbes harbored by ticks has not yet been fully explored. Methods As part of a viral surveillance and discovery project in arthropods, we used unbiased high-throughput sequencing to examine viromes of ticks collected on Long Island, New York in 2013. Results We detected and sequenced the complete genome of a novel rhabdovirus originating from a pool of Amblyomma americanum ticks. This virus, which we provisionally name Long Island tick rhabdovirus, is distantly related to Moussa virus from Africa. Conclusions The Long Island tick rhabdovirus may represent a novel species within family Rhabdoviridae. PMID:24517260
Fan, Guihong; Thieme, Horst R; Zhu, Huaiping
Ticks play a critical role as vectors in the transmission and spread of Lyme disease, an emerging infectious disease which can cause severe illness in humans or animals. To understand the transmission dynamics of Lyme disease and other tick-borne diseases, it is necessary to investigate the population dynamics of ticks. Here, we formulate a system of delay differential equations which models the stage structure of the tick population. Temperature can alter the length of time delays in each developmental stage, and so the time delays can vary geographically (and seasonally which we do not consider). We define the basic reproduction number [Formula: see text] of stage structured tick populations. The tick population is uniformly persistent if [Formula: see text] and dies out if [Formula: see text]. We present sufficient conditions under which the unique positive equilibrium point is globally asymptotically stable. In general, the positive equilibrium can be unstable and the system show oscillatory behavior. These oscillations are primarily due to negative feedback within the tick system, but can be enhanced by the time delays of the different developmental stages.
Full Text Available Abstract The overwhelming majority of animal conservation projects are focused on vertebrates, despite most of the species on Earth being invertebrates. Estimates state that about half of all named species of invertebrates are parasitic in at least one stage of their development. The dilemma of viewing parasites as biodiversity or pest has been discussed by several authors. However, ticks were omitted. The latest taxonomic synopses of non-fossil Ixodidae consider valid 700 species. Though, how many of them are still extant is almost impossible to tell, as many of them are known only from type specimens in museums and were never collected since their original description. Moreover, many hosts are endangered and as part of conservation efforts of threatened vertebrates, a common practice is the removal of, and treatment for external parasites, with devastating impact on tick populations. There are several known cases when the host became extinct with subsequent coextinction of their ectoparasites. For our synoptic approach we have used the IUCN status of the host in order to evaluate the status of specifically associated hard-ticks. As a result, we propose a number of 63 coendangered and one extinct hard-tick species. On the other side of the coin, the most important issue regarding tick-host associations is vectorial transmission of microbial pathogens (i.e. viruses, bacteria, protozoans. Tick-borne diseases of threatened vertebrates are sometimes fatal to their hosts. Mortality associated with pathogens acquired from ticks has been documented in several cases, mostly after translocations. Are ticks a real threat to their coendangered host and should they be eliminated? Up to date, there are no reliable proofs that ticks listed by us as coendangered are competent vectors for pathogens of endangered animals.
McCoy, Karen D; Léger, Elsa; Dietrich, Muriel
Determining patterns of host use, and the frequency at which these patterns change, are of key importance if we are to understand tick population dynamics, the evolution of tick biodiversity, and the circulation and evolution of associated pathogens. The question of whether ticks are typically host specialists or host generalists has been subject to much debate over the last half-century. Indeed, early research proposed that morphological diversity in ticks was linked to host specific adaptations and that most ticks were specialists. Later work disputed this idea and suggested that ticks are largely limited by biogeographic conditions and tend to use all locally available host species. The work presented in this review suggests that the actual answer likely lies somewhere between these two extremes. Although recent observational studies support the view that phylogenetically diverse host species share ticks when found on similar ecological ranges, theory on host range evolution predicts that host specialization should evolve in ticks given their life history characteristics. Contemporary work employing population genetic tools to examine host-associated population structure in several tick systems support this prediction and show that simple species records are not enough to determine whether a parasite is a true host generalist; host specialization does evolve in ticks at local scales, but may not always lead to speciation. Ticks therefore seem to follow a pattern of being global generalists, local specialists. Given this, the notion of host range needs to be modified from an evolutionary perspective, where one simply counts the number of hosts used across the geographic distribution, to a more ecological view, where one considers host use at a local scale, if we are to better understand the circulation of tick-borne pathogens and exposure risks for humans and livestock.
The mitochondrial genomes of Nuttalliella namaqua (Ixodoidea: Nuttalliellidae and Argas africolumbae (Ixodoidae: Argasidae: estimation of divergence dates for the major tick lineages and reconstruction of ancestral blood-feeding characters.
Ben J Mans
Full Text Available Ixodida are composed of hard (Ixodidae, soft (Argasidae and the monotypic Nuttalliellidae (Nuttalliella namaqua tick families. Nuclear 18S rRNA analysis suggested that N. namaqua was the closest extant relative to the last common ancestral tick lineage. The mitochondrial genomes of N. namaqua and Argas africolumbae were determined using next generation sequencing and de novo assembly to investigate this further. The latter was included since previous estimates on the divergence times of argasids lacked data for this major genus. Mitochondrial gene order for both was identical to that of the Argasidae and Prostriata. Bayesian analysis of the COI, Cytb, ND1, ND2 and ND4 genes confirmed the monophyly of ticks, the basal position of N. namaqua to the other tick families and the accepted systematic relationships of the other tick genera. Molecular clock estimates were derived for the divergence of the major tick lineages and supported previous estimates on the origins of ticks in the Carboniferous. N. namaqua larvae fed successfully on lizards and mice in a prolonged manner similar to many argasids and all ixodids. Excess blood meal-derived water was secreted via the salivary glands, similar to ixodids. We propose that this prolonged larval feeding style eventually gave rise to the long feeding periods that typify the single larval, nymphal and adult stages of ixodid ticks and the associated secretion of water via the salivary glands. Ancestral reconstruction of characters involved in blood-feeding indicates that most of the characteristics unique to either hard or soft tick families were present in the ancestral tick lineage.
Sonenshine, Daniel E; Macaluso, Kevin R
Ticks transmit a greater variety of pathogenic agents that cause disease in humans and animals than any other haematophagous arthropod, including Lyme disease, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, human granulocytic anaplasmosis, babesiosis, tick-borne encephalitis, Crimean Congo haemorhagic fever, and many others (Gulia-Nuss et al., 2016). Although diverse explanations have been proposed to explain their remarkable vectorial capacity, among the most important are their blood feeding habit, their long term off-host survival, the diverse array of bioactive molecules that disrupt the host's natural hemostatic mechanisms, facilitate blood flow, pain inhibitors, and minimize inflammation to prevent immune rejection (Hajdušek et al., 2013). Moreover, the tick's unique intracellular digestive processes allow the midgut to provide a relatively permissive microenvironment for survival of invading microbes. Although tick-host-pathogen interactions have evolved over more than 300 million years (Barker and Murrell, 2008), few microbes have been able to overcome the tick's innate immune system, comprising both humoral and cellular processes that reject them. Similar to most eukaryotes, the signaling pathways that regulate the innate immune response, i.e., the Toll, IMD (Immunodeficiency) and JAK-STAT (Janus Kinase/ Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription) also occur in ticks (Gulia-Nuss et al., 2016). Recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) on the microbial surface triggers one or the other of these pathways. Consequently, ticks are able to mount an impressive array of humoral and cellular responses to microbial challenge, including anti-microbial peptides (AMPs), e.g., defensins, lysozymes, microplusins, etc., that directly kill, entrap or inhibit the invaders. Equally important are cellular processes, primarily phagocytosis, that capture, ingest, or encapsulate invading microbes, regulated by a primordial system of thioester-containing proteins
Daniel E. Sonenshine
Full Text Available Ticks transmit a greater variety of pathogenic agents that cause disease in humans and animals than any other haematophagous arthropod, including Lyme disease, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, human granulocytic anaplasmosis, babesiosis, tick-borne encephalitis, Crimean Congo haemorhagic fever, and many others (Gulia-Nuss et al., 2016. Although diverse explanations have been proposed to explain their remarkable vectorial capacity, among the most important are their blood feeding habit, their long term off-host survival, the diverse array of bioactive molecules that disrupt the host's natural hemostatic mechanisms, facilitate blood flow, pain inhibitors, and minimize inflammation to prevent immune rejection (Hajdušek et al., 2013. Moreover, the tick's unique intracellular digestive processes allow the midgut to provide a relatively permissive microenvironment for survival of invading microbes. Although tick-host-pathogen interactions have evolved over more than 300 million years (Barker and Murrell, 2008, few microbes have been able to overcome the tick's innate immune system, comprising both humoral and cellular processes that reject them. Similar to most eukaryotes, the signaling pathways that regulate the innate immune response, i.e., the Toll, IMD (Immunodeficiency and JAK-STAT (Janus Kinase/ Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription also occur in ticks (Gulia-Nuss et al., 2016. Recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs on the microbial surface triggers one or the other of these pathways. Consequently, ticks are able to mount an impressive array of humoral and cellular responses to microbial challenge, including anti-microbial peptides (AMPs, e.g., defensins, lysozymes, microplusins, etc., that directly kill, entrap or inhibit the invaders. Equally important are cellular processes, primarily phagocytosis, that capture, ingest, or encapsulate invading microbes, regulated by a primordial system of thioester
Full Text Available The importance of tick-borne diseases is increasing all over the world, including Turkey. The tick-borne disease outbreaks reported in recent years and the abundance of tick species and the existence of suitable habitats increase the importance of studies related to the epidemiology of ticks and tick-borne pathogens in Turkey. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of and to determine the infection rates of some tick-borne pathogens, including Babesia spp., Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and spotted fever group rickettsiae in the ticks removed from humans in different parts of Ankara.A total of 169 ticks belonging to the genus Haemaphysalis, Hyalomma, Ixodes and Rhipicephalus were collected by removing from humans in different parts of Ankara. Ticks were molecularly screened for Babesia spp., Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and spotted fever group rickettsiae by PCR and sequencing analysis. We detected 4 Babesia spp.; B. crassa, B. major, B. occultans and B. rossi, one Borrelia spp.; B. burgdorferi sensu stricto and 3 spotted fever group rickettsiae; R. aeschlimannii, R. slovaca and R. hoogstraalii in the tick specimens analyzed. This is the report showing the presence of B. rossi in a region that is out of Africa and in the host species Ha. parva. In addition, B. crassa, for which limited information is available on its distribution and vector species, and B. occultans, for which no conclusive information is available on its presence in Turkey, were identified in Ha. parva and H. marginatum, respectively. Two human pathogenic rickettsia species (R. aeschlimannii and R. slovaca were detected with a high prevalence in ticks. Additionally, B. burgdorferi sensu stricto was detected in unusual tick species (H. marginatum, H. excavatum, Hyalomma spp. (nymph and Ha. parva.This study investigates both the distribution of several tick-borne pathogens affecting humans and animals, and the presence of new tick-borne pathogens in Turkey
Full Text Available Ticks are hematophagous arachnids transmitting a wide variety of pathogens including viruses, bacteria, and protozoans to their vertebrate hosts. The tick vector competence has to be intimately linked to the ability of transmitted pathogens to evade tick defense mechanisms encountered on their route through the tick body comprising midgut, hemolymph, salivary glands or ovaries. Tick innate immunity is, like in other invertebrates, based on an orchestrated action of humoral and cellular immune responses. The direct antimicrobial defense in ticks is accomplished by a variety of small molecules such as defensins, lysozymes or by tick-specific antimicrobial compounds such as microplusin/hebraein or 5.3-kDa family proteins. Phagocytosis of the invading microbes by tick hemocytes seems to be mediated by the primordial complement-like system composed of thioester-containing proteins, fibrinogen-related lectins and convertase-like factors. Moreover, an important role in survival of the ingested microbes seems to be played by host proteins and redox balance maintenance in the tick midgut. Here, we summarize recent knowledge about the major components of tick immune system and focus on their interaction with the relevant tick-transmitted pathogens, represented by spirochetes (Borrelia, rickettsiae (Anaplasma, and protozoans (Babesia. Availability of the tick genomic database and feasibility of functional genomics based on RNA interference greatly contribute to the understanding of molecular and cellular interplay at the tick-pathogen interface and may provide new targets for blocking the transmission of tick pathogens.
Miller, Matthew J; Esser, Helen J; Loaiza, Jose R; Herre, Edward Allen; Aguilar, Celestino; Quintero, Diomedes; Alvarez, Eric; Bermingham, Eldredge
In the tropics, ticks parasitize many classes of vertebrate hosts. However, because many tropical tick species are only identifiable in the adult stage, and these adults usually parasitize mammals, most attention on the ecology of tick-host interactions has focused on mammalian hosts. In contrast, immature Neotropical ticks are often found on wild birds, yet difficulties in identifying immatures hinder studies of birds' role in tropical tick ecology and tick-borne disease transmission. In Panama, we found immature ticks on 227 out of 3,498 individually-sampled birds representing 93 host species (24% of the bird species sampled, and 13% of the Panamanian land bird fauna). Tick parasitism rates did not vary with rainfall or temperature, but did vary significantly with several host ecological traits. Likewise, Neotropical-Nearctic migratory birds were significantly less likely to be infested than resident species. Using a molecular library developed from morphologically-identified adult ticks specifically for this study, we identified eleven tick species parasitizing birds, indicating that a substantial portion of the Panamanian avian species pool is parasitized by a diversity of tick species. Tick species that most commonly parasitized birds had the widest diversity of avian hosts, suggesting that immature tick species are opportunistic bird parasites. Although certain avian ecological traits are positively associated with parasitism, we found no evidence that individual tick species show specificity to particular avian host ecological traits. Finally, our data suggest that the four principal vectors of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever in the Neotropics rarely, if ever, parasitize Panamanian birds. However, other tick species that harbor newly-discovered rickettsial parasites of unknown pathogenicity are frequently found on these birds. Given our discovery of broad interaction between Panamanian tick and avian biodiversity, future work on tick ecology and the dynamics of
Matthew J Miller
Full Text Available In the tropics, ticks parasitize many classes of vertebrate hosts. However, because many tropical tick species are only identifiable in the adult stage, and these adults usually parasitize mammals, most attention on the ecology of tick-host interactions has focused on mammalian hosts. In contrast, immature Neotropical ticks are often found on wild birds, yet difficulties in identifying immatures hinder studies of birds' role in tropical tick ecology and tick-borne disease transmission. In Panama, we found immature ticks on 227 out of 3,498 individually-sampled birds representing 93 host species (24% of the bird species sampled, and 13% of the Panamanian land bird fauna. Tick parasitism rates did not vary with rainfall or temperature, but did vary significantly with several host ecological traits. Likewise, Neotropical-Nearctic migratory birds were significantly less likely to be infested than resident species. Using a molecular library developed from morphologically-identified adult ticks specifically for this study, we identified eleven tick species parasitizing birds, indicating that a substantial portion of the Panamanian avian species pool is parasitized by a diversity of tick species. Tick species that most commonly parasitized birds had the widest diversity of avian hosts, suggesting that immature tick species are opportunistic bird parasites. Although certain avian ecological traits are positively associated with parasitism, we found no evidence that individual tick species show specificity to particular avian host ecological traits. Finally, our data suggest that the four principal vectors of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever in the Neotropics rarely, if ever, parasitize Panamanian birds. However, other tick species that harbor newly-discovered rickettsial parasites of unknown pathogenicity are frequently found on these birds. Given our discovery of broad interaction between Panamanian tick and avian biodiversity, future work on tick ecology
Ginsberg, Howard S.; Edited by Sonenshine, Daniel E.; Roe, R. Michael
Biology of Ticks is the most comprehensive work on tick biology and tick-borne diseases. This second edition is a multi-authored work, featuring the research and analyses of renowned experts across the globe. Spanning two volumes, the book examines the systematics, biology, structure, ecological adaptations, evolution, genomics and the molecular processes that underpin the growth, development and survival of these important disease-transmitting parasites. Also discussed is the remarkable array of diseases transmitted (or caused) by ticks, as well as modern methods for their control. This book should serve as a modern reference for students, scientists, physicians, veterinarians and other specialists. Volume I covers the biology of the tick and features chapters on tick systematics, tick life cycles, external and internal anatomy, and others dedicated to specific organ systems, specifically, the tick integument, mouthparts and digestive system, salivary glands, waste removal, salivary glands, respiratory system, circulatory system and hemolymph, fat body, the nervous and sensory systems and reproductive systems. Volume II includes chapters on the ecology of non-nidicolous and nidicolous ticks, genetics and genomics (including the genome of the Lyme disease vector Ixodes scapularis) and immunity, including host immune responses to tick feeding and tick-host interactions, as well as the tick's innate immune system that prevents and/or controls microbial infections. Six chapters cover in depth the many diseases caused by the major tick-borne pathogens, including tick-borne protozoa, viruses, rickettsiae of all types, other types of bacteria (e.g., the Lyme disease agent) and diseases related to tick paralytic agents and toxins. The remaining chapters are devoted to tick control using vaccines, acaricides, repellents, biocontrol, and, finally, techniques for breeding ticks in order to develop tick colonies for scientific study.
... described in humans following bites of the lone star tick, Amblyomma americanum . The rash may be accompanied ... of Vector-Borne Diseases (DVBD) Email Recommend Tweet YouTube Instagram Listen Watch RSS ABOUT About CDC Jobs ...
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Full Text Available Abstract Background In The Netherlands, the incidence of Lyme borreliosis is on the rise. Besides its causative agent, Borrelia burgdorferi s.l., other potential pathogens like Rickettsia, Babesia and Ehrlichia species are present in Ixodes ricinus ticks. The risk of disease associated with these microorganisms after tick-bites remains, however, largely unclear. A prospective study was performed to investigate how many persons with tick-bites develop localized or systemic symptoms and whether these are associated with tick-borne microorganisms. Results In total, 297 Ixodes ricinus ticks were collected from 246 study participants who consulted a general practitioner on the island of Ameland for tick bites. Ticks were subjected to PCR to detect DNA of Borrelia burgdorferi s.l., Rickettsia spp., Babesia spp. or Ehrlichia/Anaplasma spp.. Sixteen percent of the collected ticks were positive for Borrelia burgdorferi s.l., 19% for Rickettsia spp., 12% for Ehrlichia/Anaplasma spp. and 10% for Babesia spp.. At least six months after the tick bite, study participants were interviewed on symptoms by means of a standard questionnaire. 14 out of 193 participants (8.3% reported reddening at the bite site and 6 participants (4.1% reported systemic symptoms. No association between symptoms and tick-borne microorganisms was found. Attachment duration ≥24 h was positively associated with reddening at the bite site and systemic symptoms. Using logistic regression techniques, reddening was positively correlated with presence of Borrelia afzelii, and having 'any symptoms' was positively associated with attachment duration. Conclusion The risk of contracting acute Lyme borreliosis, rickettsiosis, babesiosis or ehrlichiosis from a single tick bite was
Mihalca, Andrei Daniel
It is known that traded exotic animals carry with them an immense number of associated symbionts, including parasites. Reptiles are no exception. Most of the imported reptiles originate from tropical countries and their possibility to carry potentially dangerous pathogens is high. According to CITES, Europe is currently the main reptile importer in the world. Despite this, there is no review or analysis available for the risk related to the importation of tick-borne diseases with traded reptile to the EU. The main aim of the manuscript is to provide a review on the available literature on ticks introduced to and exchanged between European countries via the live reptile trade. So far, the published reports of ticks imported on reptiles are limited to few European countries: Italy, Poland, Spain, Netherlands, Belgium, Slovenia and UK. The following species have been reported: Hyalomma aegyptium, Amblyomma dissimile, Amblyomma exornatum, Amblyomma flavomaculatum, Amblyomma fuscolineatum, Amblyomma latum, Amblyomma quadricavum, Amblyomma marmoreum, Amblyomma nuttalli, Amblyomma sparsum, Amblyomma sphenodonti, Amblyomma transversale and Amblyomma varanense. The majority of species are of African origin, followed by American and Asian species. All groups of reptiles (chelonians, snakes, lizards, crocodiles, tuataras) were involved. However, it seems that certain groups (i.e. tortoises of genus Testudo, monitor lizards of genus Varanus, snakes of genus Python) are more important as host for imported ticks, but this may be related to higher levels of international trade. Even fewer are the reports of tick-borne pathogens associated with imported reptile ticks. Despite the diversity of tick species reported on imported reptiles, the situations of truly invasive species are atypical and are limited in natural environments to maximum two cases where H. aegyptium was involved. Otherwise, the risk associated with reptile trade for introduction of invasive tick to Europe is low
Full Text Available Background/Aim. Despite numerous research of Lyme disease (LD, there are still many concerns about environmental of infectious agent of LD, as well as its prophylaxis, diagnosis and treatment. The aim of this work was to determine the risk of LD in relation to the way of removing ticks and duration of tick attachment. Methods. In the period from 2000 to 2007 a prospective study was conducted including persons with tick bite referred to the Institute of Epidemiology, Military Medical Academy, and followed for the occurrence of early Lyme disease up to six months after a tick bite. Epidemiological questionnaire was used to collect relevant information about the place and time of tick bites, the way of a removing tick, duration of tick attachment, remnants of a tick left in the skin (parts of the mouth device and the signs of clinical manifestations of LD. Duration of tick attachment was determined on the basis of size of engorged tick and epidemiological data. Removed ticks were determined by the key of Pomerancev. Professional removing of attached tick was considered to be removing of tick with mechanical means by healthcare personnel. Fisher's exact test, Chi squares test and calculation of the relative risk (RR were used for data analysis. Results. Of 3 126 patients with tick bite, clinical manifestations of LD were demonstrated in 19 (0.61%. In the group of subjects (n = 829 in which a tick was not removed professionally there were 17 (2.05% cases with LD, while in the group of respondents (n=2 297 in who a tick was removed professionally there were 2 (0.09% cases with LD after tick bite (RR, 23.55; p < 0.0001. The disease was most frequent in the group of respondents with incompletely and unprofessionally removed ticks (2.46%. In the groups of patients with unprofessionally but completely removed ticks LD occurred in 0.89%, while in the group of subjects with a tick removed by an expert, but incompletely in 0.78% cases. The disease occurred
Fialová, Anna; Cimburek, Zdeněk; Iezzi, G.; Kopecký, Jan
Roč. 12, č. 7 (2010), s. 580-585 ISSN 1286-4579 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600960811 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518; CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : Tick-borne encephalitis virus * Dendritic cell * Tick saliva * Ixodes ricinus Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 2.726, year: 2010
Whitesides, George M
This description of "soft robotics" is not intended to be a conventional review, in the sense of a comprehensive technical summary of a developing field. Rather, its objective is to describe soft robotics as a new field-one that offers opportunities to chemists and materials scientists who like to make "things" and to work with macroscopic objects that move and exert force. It will give one (personal) view of what soft actuators and robots are, and how this class of soft devices fits into the more highly developed field of conventional "hard" robotics. It will also suggest how and why soft robotics is more than simply a minor technical "tweak" on hard robotics and propose a unique role for chemistry, and materials science, in this field. Soft robotics is, at its core, intellectually and technologically different from hard robotics, both because it has different objectives and uses and because it relies on the properties of materials to assume many of the roles played by sensors, actuators, and controllers in hard robotics. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Skotheim, Jan; Mahadevan, Laksminarayanan
We study the lubrication of fluid-immersed soft interfaces and show that elastic deformation couples tangential and normal forces and thus generates lift. We consider materials that deform easily, due to either geometry (e.g a shell) or constitutive properties (e.g. a gel or a rubber), so that the effects of pressure and temperature on the fluid properties may be neglected. Four different system geometries are considered: a rigid cylinder moving tangentially to a soft layer coating a rigid substrate; a soft cylinder moving tangentially to a rigid substrate; a cylindrical shell moving tangentially to a rigid substrate; and finally a journal bearing coated with a thin soft layer, which being a conforming contact allows us to gauge the influence of contact geometry. In addition, for the particular case of a soft layer coating a rigid substrate we consider both elastic and poroelastic material responses. Finally, we consider the role of contact geometry in the context of the journal bearing, a conforming contact. For all these cases we find the same generic behavior: there is an optimal combination of geometric and material parameters that maximizes the dimensionless normal force as a function of the softness.
Full Text Available Recent advances in climate research together with a better understanding of tick-pathogen interactions, the distribution of ticks and the diagnosis of tick-borne pathogens raise questions about the impact of environmental factors on tick abundance and spread and the prevalence and transmission of tick-borne pathogens. While undoubtedly climate plays a role in the changes in distribution and seasonal abundance of ticks, it is always difficult to disentangle factors impacting on the abundance of tick hosts from those exerted by human habits. All together, climate, host abundance and social factors may explain the upsurge of epidemics transmitted by ticks to humans. Herein we focused on tick-borne pathogens that affect humans with pandemic potential. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. (Lyme disease, Anaplasma phagocytophilum (human granulocytic anaplasmosis and tick-borne encephalitis virus (tick-borne encephalitis are transmitted by Ixodes spp. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever is transmitted by Hyalomma spp. In this review, we discussed how vector tick species occupy the habitat as a function of different climatic factors, and how these factors impact on tick survival and seasonality. How molecular events at the tick-pathogen interface impact on pathogen transmission is also discussed. Results from statistically and biologically derived models are compared to show that while statistical models are able to outline basic information about tick distributions, biologically derived models are necessary to evaluate pathogen transmission rates and understand the effect of climatic variables and host abundance patterns on pathogen transmission. The results of these studies could be used to build early alert systems able to identify the main factors driving the subtle changes in tick distribution and seasonality and the prevalence of tick-borne pathogens.
Dudek, Krzysztof; Skórka, Piotr; Sajkowska, Zofia Anna; Ekner-Grzyb, Anna; Dudek, Monika; Tryjanowski, Piotr
The success of ectoparasites depends primarily on the site of attachment and body condition of their hosts. Ticks usually tend to aggregate on vertebrate hosts in specific areas, but the distribution pattern may depend on host body size and condition, sex, life stage or skin morphology. Here, we studied the distribution of ticks on lizards and tested the following hypothesis: occurrence or high abundance of ticks is confined with body parts with smaller scales and larger interscalar length because such sites should provide ticks with superior attachment conditions. This study was performed in field conditions in central Poland in 2008-2011. In total, 500 lizards (Lacerta agilis) were caught and 839 ticks (Ixodes ricinus, larvae and nymphs) were collected from them. Using generalised linear mixed models, we found that the ticks were most abundant on forelimbs and their axillae, with 90% of ticks attached there. This part of the lizard body and the region behind the hindlimb were covered by the smallest scales with relatively wide gaps between them. This does not fully support our hypothesis that ticks prefer locations with easy access to skin between scales, because it does not explain why so few ticks were in the hindlimb area. We found that the abundance of ticks was positively correlated with lizard body size index (snout-vent length). Tick abundance was also higher in male and mature lizards than in female and young individuals. Autotomy had no effect on tick abundance. We found no correlation between tick size and lizard morphology, sex, autotomy and body size index. The probability of occurrence of dead ticks was positively linked with the total number of ticks on the lizard but there was no relationship between dead tick presence and lizard size, sex or age. Thus lizard body size and sex are the major factors affecting the abundance of ticks, and these parasites are distributed nearly exclusively on the host's forelimbs and their axillae. Copyright © 2015
Mulenga, Albert; Kim, Tae Kwon; Ibelli, Adriana Mércia Guaratini
We previously identified a cross-tick species conserved tick feeding stimuli responsive Amblyomma americanum (Aam) AV422 gene. This study demonstrates that AamAV422 belongs to a novel group of arthropod proteins that is characterized by 14 cysteine amino acid residues: C(23)-X7/9-C(33)-X23/24-C(58)-X8-C(67)-X7-C(75)-X23-C(99)-X15-C(115)-X10-C(126)-X24/25/33-C(150)C(151)-X7-C(159)-X8-C(168)-X23/24-C(192)-X9/10-C(202) predicted to form seven disulfide bonds. We show that AamAV422 protein is a ubiquitously expressed protein that is injected into the host within the first 24h of the tick attaching onto the host as revealed by Western blotting analyses of recombinant (r)AamAV422, tick saliva and dissected tick organ protein extracts using antibodies to 24 and 48 h tick saliva proteins. Native AamAV422 is apparently involved with mediating tick anti-hemostasis and anti-complement functions in that rAamAV422 delayed plasma clotting time in a dose responsive manner by up to ≈ 160 s, prevented platelet aggregation by up to ≈ 16% and caused ≈ 24% reduction in production of terminal complement complexes. Target validation analysis revealed that rAamAV422 is a potential candidate for a cocktail or multivalent tick vaccine preparation in that RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated silencing of AamAV422 mRNA caused a statistically significant (≈ 44%) reduction in tick engorgement weights, which is proxy for amounts of ingested blood. We speculate that AamAV422 is a potential target antigen for development of the highly desired universal tick vaccine in that consistent with high conservation among ticks, antibodies to 24h Ixodes scapularis tick saliva proteins specifically bound rAamAV422. We discuss data in this study in the context of advancing the biology of tick feeding physiology and discovery of potential target antigens for tick vaccine development. Copyright © 2013 Australian Society for Parasitology Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sarah I. Bonnet
Full Text Available Ticks are among the most important vectors of pathogens affecting humans and other animals worldwide. They do not only carry pathogens however, as a diverse group of commensal and symbiotic microorganisms are also present in ticks. Unlike pathogens, their biology and their effect on ticks remain largely unexplored, and are in fact often neglected. Nonetheless, they can confer multiple detrimental, neutral, or beneficial effects to their tick hosts, and can play various roles in fitness, nutritional adaptation, development, reproduction, defense against environmental stress, and immunity. Non-pathogenic microorganisms may also play a role in driving transmission of tick-borne pathogens (TBP, with many potential implications for both human and animal health. In addition, the genetic proximity of some pathogens to mutualistic symbionts hosted by ticks is evident when studying phylogenies of several bacterial genera. The best examples are found within members of the Rickettsia, Francisella, and Coxiella genera: while in medical and veterinary research these bacteria are traditionally recognized as highly virulent vertebrate pathogens, it is now clear to evolutionary ecologists that many (if not most Coxiella, Francisella, and Rickettsia bacteria are actually non-pathogenic microorganisms exhibiting alternative lifestyles as mutualistic ticks symbionts. Consequently, ticks represent a compelling yet challenging system in which to study microbiomes and microbial interactions, and to investigate the composition, functional, and ecological implications of bacterial communities. Ultimately, deciphering the relationships between tick microorganisms as well as tick symbiont interactions will garner invaluable information, which may aid in the future development of arthropod pest and vector-borne pathogen transmission control strategies.
Full Text Available Ticks are unique among hematophagous arthropods by continuous attachment to host skin and blood feeding for days; complexity and diversity of biologically active molecules differentially expressed in saliva of tick species; their ability to modulate the host defenses of pain and itch, hemostasis, inflammation, innate and adaptive immunity, and wound healing; and, the diverse array of infectious agents they transmit. All of these interactions occur at the cutaneous interface in a complex sequence of carefully choreographed host defense responses and tick countermeasures resulting in an environment that facilitates successful blood feeding and establishment of tick-borne infectious agents within the host. Here, we examine diverse patterns of tick attachment to host skin, blood feeding mechanisms, salivary gland transcriptomes, bioactive molecules in tick saliva, timing of pathogen transmission, and host responses to tick bite. Ticks engage and modulate cutaneous and systemic immune defenses involving keratinocytes, natural killer cells, dendritic cells, T cell subpopulations (Th1, Th2, Th17, Treg , B cells, neutrophils, mast cells, basophils, endothelial cells, cytokines, chemokines, complement, and extracellular matrix. A framework is proposed that integrates tick induced changes of skin immune effectors with their ability to respond to tick-borne pathogens. Implications of these changes are addressed. What are the consequences of tick modulation of host cutaneous defenses? Does diversity of salivary gland transcriptomes determine differential modulation of host inflammation and immune defenses and therefore, in part, the clades of pathogens effectively transmitted by different tick species? Do ticks create an immunologically modified cutaneous environment that enhances specific pathogen establishment? Can tick saliva molecules be used to develop vaccines that block pathogen transmission?
Hofmeester, Tim R.
Diseases that are transmitted by arthropod vectors from animal hosts to humans – so called zoonotic vector-borne diseases – have increased in incidence in the last decades. In North America and Europe, tick-borne pathogens cause the majority of vector-borne diseases, including Lyme borreliosis and tick-borne encephalitis. The pathogens causing these diseases are transmitted by tick species within the Ixodes ricinus complex. These are generalist ticks that have a multi-year lifecycle with thre...
Søndergaard, Morten; Markussen, Thomas; Wetton, Barnabas
Soft Clouding is a blended concept, which describes the aim of a collaborative and transdisciplinary project. The concept is a metaphor implying a blend of cognitive, embodied interaction and semantic web. Furthermore, it is a metaphor describing our attempt of curating a new semantics of sound...... archiving. The Soft Clouding Project is part of LARM - a major infrastructure combining research in and access to sound and radio archives in Denmark. In 2012 the LARM infrastructure will consist of more than 1 million hours of radio, combined with metadata who describes the content. The idea is to analyse...... the concept of ‘infrastructure’ and ‘interface’ on a creative play with the fundamentals of LARM (and any sound archive situation combining many kinds and layers of data and sources). This paper will present and discuss the Soft clouding project from the perspective of the three practices and competencies...
To determine the prevalence and abundance of hard ticks infesting camels, 414 nomadic one - humped camels in Kano State, northwestern Nigeria were selected by random sampling and examined for the presence of ticks on their bodies between January and December 2007. Three species of ticks, Amblyomma ...
Voluntary collections of ticks from domestic dogs and cats by veterinary practitioners across Florida were conducted over a 10 month period. Of the 1,337 ticks submitted, five species of ixodid ticks were identified and included Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Amblyomma americanum, A. maculatum, Dermacen...
Ticks are important hematophagous arthropod ectoparasites and like mosquitoes, are vectors for a wide variety of human and animal pathogens. Ticks have significant world-wide health and economic impacts. In the U.S., major impacts include the ability of the blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis, to tr...
The Ixodidae include the most common tick species encountered in Europe. The ticks transmit a variety of bacterial and protozoan agents of medical and veterinary significance. The aim of the current work was to investigate distribution of Ixodes ricinus and Dermacentor reticulatus ticks in Kyiv, the...
Miller, Matthew J.; Esser, Helen J.; Loaiza, Jose R.; Herre, Edward Allen; Aguilar, Celestino; Quintero, Diomedes; Alvarez, Eric; Bermingham, Eldredge
In the tropics, ticks parasitize many classes of vertebrate hosts. However, because many tropical tick species are only identifiable in the adult stage, and these adults usually parasitize mammals, most attention on the ecology of tick-host interactions has focused on mammalian hosts. In
The Python/Boa Family is found in most part of tropics. It is a highly domesticated pet and can easily be handled (Cansdale 1962). Snakes are commonly infected by ticks more importantly the hand bodied ticks (Fowler, 1986).However, under captive condition, ticks usually exert a lot of burden on their hosts being carriers of ...
A. A. Chernikova
Full Text Available The article presents the basic information relating to the clinical and immunological features of ixodes tick-borne borreliosis in children living in the Primorsky region. Research objective: to to analyze the effectiveness of the inclusion to the treatment scheme meglumine acridon acetate (cycloferon in pills for the treatment of children with ixodes tick-borne borreliosis.The study included 55 children with ixodes tick-borne borreliosis at the age of 4–12 years: 25 children of the main group and 30 children of the comparison group who received traditional therapy. In the treatment scheme of children of the main group, the drug meglumine acridon acetate (cycloferon was included. The use of cycloferon in the complex therapy of patients with ixodes tick-borne borreliosis resulted in a reduction in the duration of the manifestation of the main clinical symptoms of the disease, facilitated the synthesis of serum interleukine IL-10 by blood cells and inhibited the production of interleukine-1α and γ-interferon, which led to a faster formation of Th1 / Th2 type Immune response. Positive dynamics during treatment persisted in the study of the catamnesis of the patients observed for 5 years after the disease. There were no cases of chronic ixodes tick-borne borreliosis.
Bush, Larry M; Vazquez-Pertejo, Maria T
Lyme disease is the most commonly reported tick-borneillness in the United States. Thecausative spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi is transmitted by 4 species of Ixodes tick species. Over 90% of US cases occur in northeasternstates from Maine to Virginia, and in Wisconsin, Minnesota, and Michigan. Infection also takes place in northern California and Oregon. Lyme borreliosis is also diagnosed in parts of Europe, China, and Japan. The white-footed mouse is the primary animal reservoir for B. burgdorferi in the U.S. and the preferred host for nymphal and larval forms of the deer tick. Deer are hosts for the adult ticks but do not carry the spirochete. Signs and symptomsof infection occur in 3 stages; early localized, typified by erythema migrans; early disseminated with a flu-like syndrome, neurologic, and cardiac manifestations; and late, characteristically with arthritis. Although, the term 'Chronic Lyme Disease' has been assigned to many patients with a variety of unexplained symptoms, experts in the field question the validity of this diagnosis and warn against prolonged unproven antimicrobial therapies. Diagnosis relies upon clinical evaluation and is supported by serologic testing using a 2-step process which requires careful interpretation. Treatmentvaries with stage of disease, but normally includes doxycycline, amoxicillin,and ceftriaxone. Currently, no preventative vaccine is available. In some geographic areas, patients may be confected with Babesia, Ehrlichia, and Anaplasma since the same Ixodes ticks transmit these pathogens. Copyright © 2018 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Ergunay, K.; Tkachev, S.; Kozlova, I.; Růžek, Daniel
Roč. 16, č. 1 (2016), s. 4-12 ISSN 1530-3667 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP502/11/2116 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : tick-borne encephalitis * serology * PCR * tick(s) * rodents Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.045, year: 2016
Russart, Nathan M; Dougherty, Michael W; Vaughan, Jefferson A
Ticks were sampled at nine locations throughout North Dakota during early summer of 2010, using flagging techniques and small mammals trapping. In total, 1,762 ticks were collected from eight of the nine locations. The dominant species were Dermacentor variabilis (Say) (82%), found throughout the state, and Ixodes scapularis Say (17%), found in northeastern counties. A few nymphal and adult I. scapularis tested positive for Borrelia burgdorferi (3%) and Anaplasma phagocytophilum (8%). This is the first report of I. scapularis and associated pathogens occurring in North Dakota and provides evidence for continued westward expansion of this important vector tick species in the United States.
Kramer, Rebecca K.
As advanced as modern machines are, the building blocks have changed little since the industrial revolution, leading to rigid, bulky, and complex devices. Future machines will include electromechanical systems that are soft and elastically deformable, lending them to applications such as soft robotics, wearable/implantable devices, sensory skins, and energy storage and transport systems. One key step toward the realization of soft systems is the development of stretchable electronics that remain functional even when subject to high strains. Liquid-metal traces embedded in elastic polymers present a unique opportunity to retain the function of rigid metal conductors while leveraging the deformable properties of liquid-elastomer composites. However, in order to achieve the potential benefits of liquid-metal, scalable processing and manufacturing methods must be identified.
Susana Rueda Pérez
Full Text Available There is medical consensus on the need to remove the tick within 24 hours the mite parasites to the human host, to avoid possible complications. The preferred way is by gently traction the mite, aided by forceps without twisting or chokes with toxic agents, because of the possibility that the mite excretes bacteria mixed with substances. The average time of extraction is estimated between one or three minutes. In children parasitized by ticks this amount of time can be excessive when it’s necessary restraint without the consent of the minor. Using this technique we reduce the time to seconds and the damage caused to the skin is minimal.
Alkadhi, H.; Kollias, S.S.
The tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) virus gives rise to epidemic encephalitis. Mild forms usually manifest as influenza-like episodes or are clinically silent. MRI is usually normal in TBE. We describe severe TBE in a patient who presented with fever and altered mental status after a tick bite and a specific antibody response to TBE. MRI revealed pronounced signal abnormalities in the basal ganglia and thalamus, without contrast enhancement. These findings coincide well with neuropathological studies of severe nerve cell degeneration with inflammatory cell infiltrates, neuronophagia and reactive astrocytosis in the deep grey matter. We review the literature and discuss the relevant differential diagnosis. (orig.)
T. S. Pinegina
Full Text Available The results of the study outcomes of tick-borne encephalitis in adults in the Tomsk Region. Patients conducted a comprehensive clinical and laboratory examination. Revealed the prevalence of autonomic disorders in individuals who have had at different periods of tick-borne encephalitis, which is regarded as the effects of tick-borne infection. Residual effects of tick-borne encephalitis occurs mainly in the form of light paresis after suffering a focal forms. Among the chronic (progredient forms of tick-borne encephalitis often formed hyperkinetic options. Most of the study revealed the presence of precipitating factors that could have an influence on the outcome. Fundamental diffe rences in all-clinical and immunological analyses at patients with various outcomes of tick-borne encephalitis it wasn't noted. KEY WORDS: tick-borne encephalitis, Tomsk Region, the outcomes.
J.nfection and treatment method ofimmunisation has been devised ... providing research and training and in extension work on. TBDs. ... systems, cattle types, level of disease risk, disease control policies ... This paper highlights tick .control,.
Yurchenko, Oksana O; Dubina, Dmytro O; Vynograd, Nataliya O; Gonzalez, Jean-Paul
Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is the most common tick-borne viral infection in Eurasia; thousands of human cases are annually reported from several European countries. Several tick species are vectors of the tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), while TBE appears to be spreading from the Eurasian continent westward to Europe. Fifteen study sites were chosen from five territories of southern Ukraine, including Odessa, Mykolaiv, Kherson Oblast, the Autonomous Republic of Crimea, and Sevastopol. Tick collection was performed in spring season of three consecutive years (1988-1990) using either flagging technique or direct collection of specimens feeding on cattle. A total of 15,243 tick imagoes and nymphs were collected from nine species, including Dermacentor marginatus, D. reticulatus, Haemaphysalis parva, H. punctata, Hyalomma marginatum, Ixodes ricinus, Rhipicephalus bursa, R. rossicus, and R. sanguineus, pooled in 282 monospecific samples. Supernatant of grinded pool was used for inoculation to suckling mice for virus isolation. Eight TBEV isolates were identified from ticks among six study sites. Ticks showed a minimum infection rate from 0.11% to 0.81%. Phylogenetic analysis of the envelope (E) protein gene of seven isolates, assigned all to the European subtype (TBEV-Eu) showing a maximum identity of 97.17% to the "Pan" TBEV-Eu reference strain. Compared to 104 TBEV-Eu isolates they clustered within the same clade as the Pan reference strain and distinguished from other TBEV-Eu isolates. Amino acid sequence analysis of the South Ukrainian TBEV-Eu isolates revealed the presence of four amino acid substitutions 67 (N), 266 (R), 306 (V), and 407 (R), in the ectodomains II and III and in the stem-anchor region of the E protein gene. This study confirmed TBEV-Eu subtype distribution in the southern region of Ukraine, which eventually overlaps with TBEV-FE (Far Eastern subtype) and TBEV-Sib (Siberian subtype) domains, showing the heterogeneity of TBEV circulating in
Eremeeva, Marina E; Dasch, Gregory A
Rickettsiae are obligately intracellular bacteria that are transmitted to vertebrates by a variety of arthropod vectors, primarily by fleas and ticks. Once transmitted or experimentally inoculated into susceptible mammals, some rickettsiae may cause febrile illness of different morbidity and mortality, and which can manifest with different types of exhanthems in humans. However, most rickettsiae circulate in diverse sylvatic or peridomestic reservoirs without having obvious impacts on their vertebrate hosts or affecting humans. We have analyzed the key features of tick-borne maintenance of rickettsiae, which may provide a deeper basis for understanding those complex invertebrate interactions and strategies that have permitted survival and circulation of divergent rickettsiae in nature. Rickettsiae are found in association with a wide range of hard and soft ticks, which feed on very different species of large and small animals. Maintenance of rickettsiae in these vector systems is driven by both vertical and horizontal transmission strategies, but some species of Rickettsia are also known to cause detrimental effects on their arthropod vectors. Contrary to common belief, the role of vertebrate animal hosts in maintenance of rickettsiae is very incompletely understood. Some clearly play only the essential role of providing a blood meal to the tick while other hosts may supply crucial supplemental functions for effective agent transmission by the vectors. This review summarizes the importance of some recent findings with known and new vectors that afford an improved understanding of the eco-epidemiology of rickettsiae; the public health implications of that information for rickettsial diseases are also described. Special attention is paid to the co-circulation of different species and genotypes of rickettsiae within the same endemic areas and how these observations may influence, correctly or incorrectly, trends, and conclusions drawn from the surveillance of
Kotál, Jan; Langhansová, H.; Lieskovská, J.; Andersen, J. F.; Francischetti, I.M.B.; Chavakis, T.; Kopecký, J.; Pedra, J. H. F.; Kotsyfakis, Michalis; Chmelař, J.
Roč. 128, OCT 14 2015 (2015), s. 58-68 ISSN 1874-3919 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP502/12/2409 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Adaptive immunity * Innate immunity * Saliva * Salivary glands * Tick Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.867, year: 2015
Izzard, Leonard; Graves, Stephen; Cox, Erika; Fenwick, Stan; Unsworth, Nathan; Stenos, John
A novel rickettsia was detected in Ixodes tasmani ticks collected from Tasmanian devils. A total of 55% were positive for the citrate synthase gene by quantitative PCR. According to current criteria for rickettsia speciation, this new rickettsia qualifies as Candidatus Rickettsia tasmanensis, named after the location of its detection.
D'Amico, G.; Dumitrache, M.O.; Matei, I.A.; Ionică, A.M.; Gherman, C.M.; Sándor, A.D.; Modrý, David; Mihalca, A. D.
Roč. 71, č. 2 (2017), s. 139-149 ISSN 0168-8162 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Dermacentor spp. * Haemaphysalis spp. * Ixodes spp. * Rhipicephalus spp. * wildlife * tick-host associations Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine OBOR OECD: Veterinary science Impact factor: 1.760, year: 2016
Samish, M; Alekseev, E; Glazer, I
Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) are lethal to ticks even though they do not use their normal propagation cycle within tick cadavers. The tick Boophilus annulatus was found to be far more susceptible to EPNs than Hyalomma excavatum, Rhipicephalus bursa, or Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Ticks seem to be less susceptible to nematodes when feeding on a host. Preimaginal tick stages were less susceptible to nematodes than adult ticks. The mortality rate of unfed females was highest, followed by unfed males, and engorged females. The virulence of nematodes to ticks varied greatly among different nematode strains. In most cases, the Heterorhabditis sp. strains were the most virulent strains tested in petri dishes. In buckets containing sandy soil sprayed with 50 nematodes/cm2 and engorged B. annulatus females, the LT50 of the ticks was less than five days. The addition of manure to soil or a manure extract to petri dishes reduced nematode virulence. Since ticks spend most of their life cycle in the upper humid layer of the ground, and many nematode strains share this same ecological niche, the use of EPNs for biocontrol of ticks appears promising.
Kuo, Chi-Chien; Shu, Pei-Yun; Mu, Jung-Jung; Lee, Pei-Lung; Wu, Yin-Wen; Chung, Chien-Kung; Wang, Hsi-Chieh
Ticks are second to mosquitoes as the most important disease vectors, and recent decades have witnessed the emergence of many novel tick-borne rickettsial diseases, but systematic surveys of ticks and tick-borne rickettsioses are generally lacking in Asia. We collected and identified ticks from small mammal hosts between 2006 and 2010 in different parts of Taiwan. Rickettsia spp. infections in ticks were identified by targeting ompB and gltA genes with nested polymerase chain reaction. In total, 2,732 ticks were collected from 1,356 small mammals. Rhipicephalus haemaphysaloides Supino (51.8% of total ticks), Haemaphysalis bandicota Hoogstraal & Kohls (28.0%), and Ixodes granulatus Supino (20.0%) were the most common tick species, and Rattus losea Swinhoe (44.7% of total ticks) and Bandicota indica Bechstein (39.9%) were the primary hosts. The average Rickettsia infective rate in 329 assayed ticks was 31.9% and eight Rickettsia spp. or closely related species were identified. This study shows that rickettsiae-infected ticks are widespread in Taiwan, with a high diversity of Rickettsia spp. circulating in the ticks. Because notifiable rickettsial diseases in Taiwan only include mite-borne scrub typhus and flea-borne murine typhus, more studies are warranted for a better understanding of the real extent of human risks to rickettsioses in Taiwan. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Rossiter, Jonathan; Iida, Fumiya; Cianchetti, Matteo; Margheri, Laura
This book offers a comprehensive, timely snapshot of current research, technologies and applications of soft robotics. The different chapters, written by international experts across multiple fields of soft robotics, cover innovative systems and technologies for soft robot legged locomotion, soft robot manipulation, underwater soft robotics, biomimetic soft robotic platforms, plant-inspired soft robots, flying soft robots, soft robotics in surgery, as well as methods for their modeling and control. Based on the results of the second edition of the Soft Robotics Week, held on April 25 – 30, 2016, in Livorno, Italy, the book reports on the major research lines and novel technologies presented and discussed during the event.
Kamani, Joshua; Baneth, Gad; Mumcuoglu, Kosta Y.; Waziri, Ndadilnasiya E.; Eyal, Osnat; Guthmann, Yifat; Harrus, Shimon
Background Only limited information is currently available on the prevalence of vector borne and zoonotic pathogens in dogs and ticks in Nigeria. The aim of this study was to use molecular techniques to detect and characterize vector borne pathogens in dogs and ticks from Nigeria. Methodology/Principal Findings Blood samples and ticks (Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Rhipicephalus turanicus and Heamaphysalis leachi) collected from 181 dogs from Nigeria were molecularly screened for human and animal vector-borne pathogens by PCR and sequencing. DNA of Hepatozoon canis (41.4%), Ehrlichia canis (12.7%), Rickettsia spp. (8.8%), Babesia rossi (6.6%), Anaplasma platys (6.6%), Babesia vogeli (0.6%) and Theileria sp. (0.6%) was detected in the blood samples. DNA of E. canis (23.7%), H. canis (21.1%), Rickettsia spp. (10.5%), Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis (5.3%) and A. platys (1.9%) was detected in 258 ticks collected from 42 of the 181 dogs. Co- infections with two pathogens were present in 37% of the dogs examined and one dog was co-infected with 3 pathogens. DNA of Rickettsia conorii israelensis was detected in one dog and Rhipicephalus sanguineus tick. DNA of another human pathogen, Candidatus N. mikurensis was detected in Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Heamaphysalis leachi ticks, and is the first description of Candidatus N. mikurensis in Africa. The Theileria sp. DNA detected in a local dog in this study had 98% sequence identity to Theileria ovis from sheep. Conclusions/Significance The results of this study indicate that human and animal pathogens are abundant in dogs and their ticks in Nigeria and portray the potential high risk of human exposure to infection with these agents. PMID:23505591
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Only limited information is currently available on the prevalence of vector borne and zoonotic pathogens in dogs and ticks in Nigeria. The aim of this study was to use molecular techniques to detect and characterize vector borne pathogens in dogs and ticks from Nigeria. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Blood samples and ticks (Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Rhipicephalus turanicus and Heamaphysalis leachi collected from 181 dogs from Nigeria were molecularly screened for human and animal vector-borne pathogens by PCR and sequencing. DNA of Hepatozoon canis (41.4%, Ehrlichia canis (12.7%, Rickettsia spp. (8.8%, Babesia rossi (6.6%, Anaplasma platys (6.6%, Babesia vogeli (0.6% and Theileria sp. (0.6% was detected in the blood samples. DNA of E. canis (23.7%, H. canis (21.1%, Rickettsia spp. (10.5%, Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis (5.3% and A. platys (1.9% was detected in 258 ticks collected from 42 of the 181 dogs. Co- infections with two pathogens were present in 37% of the dogs examined and one dog was co-infected with 3 pathogens. DNA of Rickettsia conorii israelensis was detected in one dog and Rhipicephalus sanguineus tick. DNA of another human pathogen, Candidatus N. mikurensis was detected in Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Heamaphysalis leachi ticks, and is the first description of Candidatus N. mikurensis in Africa. The Theileria sp. DNA detected in a local dog in this study had 98% sequence identity to Theileria ovis from sheep. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results of this study indicate that human and animal pathogens are abundant in dogs and their ticks in Nigeria and portray the potential high risk of human exposure to infection with these agents.
Full Text Available We have killed wild animals for obtaining food and decimated forests for many reasons. Nowadays, we are burning fossil fuels as never before and even exploring petroleum in deep waters. The impact of these activities on our planet is now visible to the naked eye and the debate on climate change is warming up in scientific meetings and becoming a priority on the agenda of both scientists and policy decision makers. On the occasion of the Impact of Environmental Changes on Infectious Diseases (IECID meeting, held in the 2015 in Sitges, Spain, I was invited to give a keynote talk on climate change, biodiversity, ticks and tick-borne diseases. The aim of the present article is to logically extend my rationale presented on the occasion of the IECID meeting. This article is not intended to be an exhaustive review, but an essay on climate change, biodiversity, ticks and tick-borne diseases. It may be anticipated that warmer winters and extended autumn and spring seasons will continue to drive the expansion of the distribution of some tick species (e.g., Ixodes ricinus to northern latitudes and to higher altitudes. Nonetheless, further studies are advocated to improve our understanding of the complex interactions between landscape, climate, host communities (biodiversity, tick demography, pathogen diversity, human demography, human behaviour, economics, and politics, also considering all ecological processes (e.g., trophic cascades and other possible interacting effects (e.g., mutual effects of increased greenhouse gas emissions and increased deforestation rates. The multitude of variables and interacting factors involved, and their complexity and dynamism, make tick-borne transmission systems beyond (current human comprehension. That is, perhaps, the main reason for our inability to precisely predict new epidemics of vector-borne diseases in general.
Fajs, Luka; Durmiši, Emina; Knap, Nataša; Strle, Franc; Avšič-Županc, Tatjana
Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is the most important arboviral agent causing infections of the central nervous system in central Europe. Previous studies have shown that TBEV exhibits pronounced genetic variability, which is often correlated to the geographical origin of TBEV. Genetic variability of TBEV has previously been studied predominantly in rodents and ticks, while information about the variability in patients is scarce. In order to understand the molecular relationships of TBEV between natural hosts, vectors and humans, as well as correlation between phylogenetic and geographical clustering, sequences of TBEV E and NS5 protein genes, were obtained by direct sequencing of RT-PCR products from TBE-confirmed patients as well as from rodents and ticks collected from TBE-endemic regions in Slovenia. A total of 27 partial E protein gene sequences representing 15 human, 4 rodent and 8 tick samples and 30 partial NS5 protein gene sequences representing 17 human, 5 rodent and 8 tick samples were obtained. The complete genome sequence of TBEV strain Ljubljana I was simultaneously obtained. Phylogenetic analysis of the E and NS5 protein gene sequences revealed a high degree of TBEV variability in patients, ticks and rodents. Furthermore, an evident correlation between geographical and phylogenetic clustering was shown that was independent of the TBEV host. Moreover, we show the presence of a possible recombination event in the TBEV genome obtained from a patient sample, which was supported with multiple recombination event detection methods. This is the first study that simultaneously analyzed the genetic relationships of directly sequenced TBEV samples from patients, ticks and rodents and provides the largest set of patient-derived TBEV sequences up to date. In addition, we have confirmed the geographical clustering of TBEV sequences in Slovenia and have provided evidence of a possible recombination event in the TBEV genome, obtained from a patient. PMID
Malaisri, Premnika; Hirunkanokpun, Supanee; Baimai, Visut; Trinachartvanit, Wachareeporn; Ahantarig, Arunee
We collected a total of 169 adult hard ticks and 120 nymphs from under the leaves of plants located along tourist nature trails in ten localities. The results present data examining the vector competence of ticks of different genera and the presence of Rickettsia and Anaplasma species. The ticks belonged to three genera, Amblyomma, Dermacentor, and Haemaphysalis, comprising 11 species. Rickettsia bacteria were detected at three collection sites, while Anaplasma bacteria were detected at only one site. Phylogenetic analysis revealed new rickettsia genotypes from Thailand that were closely related to Rickettsia tamurae, Rickettsia monacensis, and Rickettsia montana. This study was also the first to show that Anaplasma bacteria are found in Haemaphysalis shimoga ticks and are closely related evolutionarily to Anaplasma bovis. These results provide additional information for the geographical distribution of tick species and tick-borne bacteria in Thailand and can therefore be applied for ecotourism management. © 2015 The Society for Vector Ecology.
Offerdahl, Danielle K.; Clancy, Niall G.; Bloom, Marshall E.
The tick-borne flaviviruses (TBFV) occur worldwide and the tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) members of the group often cause severe, debilitating neurological disease in humans. Although the primary route of infection is through the bite of an infected tick, alimentary infection through the consumption of TBEV-contaminated dairy products is also well-documented and is responsible for some disease in endemic areas. Experimental infection of goats, cattle, and sheep with TBEV shows that the...
Jones, E H; Hinckley, A F; Hook, S A; Meek, J I; Backenson, B; Kugeler, K J; Feldman, K A
We examined whether pet ownership increased the risk for tick encounters and tickborne disease among residents of three Lyme disease-endemic states as a nested cohort within a randomized controlled trial. Information about pet ownership, use of tick control for pets, property characteristics, tick encounters and human tickborne disease were captured through surveys, and associations were assessed using univariate and multivariable analyses. Pet-owning households had 1.83 times the risk (95% CI = 1.53, 2.20) of finding ticks crawling on and 1.49 times the risk (95% CI = 1.20, 1.84) of finding ticks attached to household members compared to households without pets. This large evaluation of pet ownership, human tick encounters and tickborne diseases shows that pet owners, whether of cats or dogs, are at increased risk of encountering ticks and suggests that pet owners are at an increased risk of developing tickborne disease. Pet owners should be made aware of this risk and be reminded to conduct daily tick checks of all household members, including the pets, and to consult their veterinarian regarding effective tick control products. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Kjær, Lene Jung; Korslund, L.; Kjelland, V.
satellite images to run Boosted Regression Tree machine learning algorithms to predict overall distribution (presence/absence of ticks) and relative tick abundance of nymphs and larvae in southern Scandinavia. For nymphs, the predicted abundance had a positive correlation with observed abundance...... the predicted distribution of larvae was mostly even throughout Denmark, it was primarily around the coastlines in Norway and Sweden. Abundance was fairly low overall except in some fragmented patches corresponding to forested habitats in the region. Machine learning techniques allow us to predict for larger...... the collected ticks for pathogens and using the same machine learning techniques to develop prevalence maps of the ScandTick region....
Papa, Anna; Xanthopoulou, Kyriaki; Kotriotsiou, Tzimoula; Papaioakim, Miltiadis; Sotiraki, Smaragda; Chaligiannis, Ilias; Maltezos, Efstratios
Ticks serve as vectors and reservoirs for a variety of bacterial, viral and protozoan pathogens affecting humans and animals. Unusual increased tick aggressiveness was observed in 2008-2009 in northeastern Greece. The aim of the study was to check ticks removed from persons during 2009 for infection with Rickettsia species. A total of 159 ticks were removed from 147 persons who sought medical advice in a hospital. Tick identification was performed morphologically using taxonomic keys. DNA was extracted from each individual tick and a PCR assay targeting the rickettsial outer membrane protein A gene of Rickettsia spp. was applied. Most of the adult ticks (132/153, 86.3%) were Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Rickettsiae were detected in 23 of the 153 (15.0%) adult ticks. Five Rickettsiae species were identified: R. aeschlimannii, R. africae (n=6), R. massilae (4), R. monacensis (1), and Candidatus R. barbariae (1). To our knowledge, this is the first report of R. africae, R. monacensis, and Candidatus R. barbariae in Greece. Several Rickettsia species were identified in ticks removed from humans in Greece, including those that are prevalent in northern and southern latitudes. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Diana Nayibe Polanco Echeverry
Full Text Available Hard ticks are blood-sucking ectoparasites of Ixodidae family. These mites have been always considered disrupting agents of livestock systems, where they are recognized as the cause of economic and production losses. However, their ecological role is important for the dynamic equilibrium of the production systems bovine meat or milk. Knowing their biolog y and ecolog y can shed light on the sanitary decisions made in relation to these organisms. This review article presents issues related to classification, characteristics, and life cycle of hard ticks and relations vector-parasite-host. In addition, it addresses the control of ectoparasites on conventional livestock systems and the implica-tions that these models of intervention might have on agro-ecosystem.
Robin K. Kuriakose
Conclusions and importance: Despite the low risk for Lyme disease, which is endemic to the Adirondack region where the patient was affected, doxycycline was prescribed for prophylaxis. In any case of suspected tick penetration to the ocular surface, immediate ophthalmologic consultation and prompt removal via the method mentioned above is recommended, as well as attention paid to the Infectious Diseases Society of America guidelines regarding prophylaxis.
Ehlers, Julian; Ganzhorn, Jörg U; Silaghi, Cornelia; Krüger, Andreas; Pothmann, Daniela; Ratovonamana, R Yedidya; Veit, Alexandra; Keller, Christian; Poppert, Sven
Little is known about the role of endemic ticks as vectors for bacterial and protozoan pathogens for animals and humans in Madagascar and their interaction in anthropogenic habitats where humans, their livestock and native Malagasy species (vectors and hosts) come into more frequent contact than in natural forest ecosystems. The aims of the study were (1) to test whether habitat degradation is associated with increased infestation of tortoises by ticks and (2) to investigate whether ticks carried Babesia, Borrelia or Rickettsia species that might be pathogenic for humans and livestock. We studied hard ticks of two endemic Malagasy tortoises, Astrochelys radiata and Pyxis arachnoides in March and April 2013 in southwest Madagascar. Two tortoise habitats were compared, the National Park of Tsimanampetsotsa and the adjacent degraded pasture and agricultural land at the end of the wet season. Ticks were screened for protozoan and bacterial pathogens via PCR on DNA isolated from ticks using genus-specific primers. Only one out of 42 A. radiata collected from both habitats had ticks. The low prevalence did not allow further analyses of the effect of habitat degradation. Forty-two P. arachnoides were found in the anthropogenic habitat and 36 individuals in the national park. Tick infestation rates of P. arachnoides differed significantly between the two study sites. Tortoises inside the park had lower tick prevalence than outside (8 of 36 (22%) versus 32 of 42 individuals (76%)) and infected animals tended to have fewer ticks inside than outside the park. All ticks collected in both habitats were adults of the ixodid tick Amblyomma chabaudi, which is supposed to be a host-specific tick of P. arachnoides. Screening for Borrelia sp. and Babesia sp. was negative in all ticks. But all A. chabaudi ticks were infected with Rickettsia africae, known to cause spotted fever in humans. Thus, habitat degradation seems to be linked to higher infestation of tortoises with ticks with
... muscles, tendons, fat, and blood vessels. Soft tissue sarcoma is a cancer of these soft tissues. There ... have certain genetic diseases. Doctors diagnose soft tissue sarcomas with a biopsy. Treatments include surgery to remove ...
Lopes, Marcos G; May Junior, Joares; Foster, Rebecca J; Harmsen, Bart J; Sanchez, Emma; Martins, Thiago F; Quigley, Howard; Marcili, Arlei; Labruna, Marcelo B
The agents of spotted fevers in Latin America are Rickettsia rickettsii, R. parkeri, Rickettsia sp. strain Atlantic rainforest, and R. massiliae. In Continental Central America, R. rickettsii remains the only known pathogenic tick-borne rickettsia. In the present study, ticks were collected from wild mammals in natural areas of Belize. Besides providing new data of ticks from Belize, we investigated rickettsial infection in some of these ticks. Our results provide ticks harboring rickettsial agents for the first time in Central America. Between 2010 and 2015, wild mammals were lived-trapped in the tropical broadleaf moist forests of central and southern Belize. Ticks were collected from the animals and identified to species by morphological and molecular analysis (DNA sequence of the tick mitochondrial 16S RNA gene). Some of the ticks were tested for rickettsial infection by molecular methods (DNA sequences of the rickettsial gltA and ompA genes). A total of 84 ticks were collected from 8 individual hosts, as follows: Amblyomma pacae from 3 Cuniculus paca; Amblyomma ovale and Amblyomma coelebs from a Nasua narica; A. ovale from an Eira Barbara; A. ovale, Amblyomma cf. oblongoguttatum, and Ixodes affinis from a Puma concolor; and A. ovale, A. coelebs, A. cf. oblongoguttatum, and I. affinis from two Panthera onca. Three rickettsial agents were detected: Rickettsia amblyommii in A. pacae, Rickettsia sp. strain Atlantic rainforest in A. ovale, and Rickettsia sp. endosymbiont in Ixodes affinis. The present study provides unprecedented records of ticks harboring rickettsial agents in the New World. An emerging rickettsial pathogen of South America, Rickettsia sp. strain Atlantic rainforest, is reported for the first time in Central America. Besides expanding the distribution of 3 rickettsial agents in Central America, our results highlight the possible occurrence of Rickettsia sp. strain Atlantic rainforest-caused spotted fever human cases in Belize, since its possible
Full Text Available Background: Rhipicephalus (Boophilus annulatus tick is one of the most important ectoparasite of cattle. Recently, several laboratories in the world have been concentrated on immunizing cattle against tick using various types of tissue extracts of ticks. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of immunization of cattle with tick salivary gland extract on biological parameters of ticks and humoral immune responses of cattle.Methods: Fourteen more dominant protein bands identified as immunogenic by Western-blot analysis were eluted from polyacrylamide gel. Test and control groups were injected three times with eluted proteins and sterile PBS (pH= 7.2 respectively with equivalent amount of adjuvant. After four weeks a tick challenge was performed. Finally, biological parameters of collected engorged female ticks were recorded and humoral immune responses to immunization measured by ELISA.Results: The results indicated immunization of cattle resulted in reduction in mean tick counts, attachment, engorgement weights, feeding index, egg mass weight, hatchability and fertility index (respectively 63.1%, 62.6%, 30.2%, 36.4%, 40%, 78.7% and 13.3% and increased duration of feeding, pre-oviposition and incubation period of eggs (respectively 8.6%, 45 and 31.34%. All changes were statistically significant (P< 0.05. Results showed an increase in antibody production of test group from the first week after immunization. The antibody level was boosted following tick infestation.Conclusion: This investigation indicates that immunization of cattle with these antigens could induce a protective immune response against Rh. (B. annulatus tick that would be expected to provide a safe non-chemical means of tick control.
A compact energy concept opposes the existing development course of energy supply. This concept does without projects for opening-up oil and gas occurrences in the Arctic and in offshore seas, and also without a further extension of nuclear energy. Energy consumption is to be stabilized in the long-run on today's level by a utilization of energy which is to be substantially improved in a technical and economic respect. Oil and gas are to be replaced by 'soft', regenerative, mainly decentralized energy sources, in the course of about 30 years time. Solar energy is to be used for heating and service water, biogas as motor fuel being generated primarily from reference which will come from agriculture and forestry. Wind and hydroelectric power are to be used for generating electricity. In the first part, concepts for the present and future energy policy are discussed, in the second part, a lot of figures are given, supporting the respective arguments. In the third part the relationships between social and energy-economic developments are pointed out. (UA) [de
Hajdušek, Ondřej; Almazán, C.; Loosová, Gabriela; Villar, M.; Canales, M.; Grubhoffer, L.; Kopáček, Petr; de la Fuente, J.
Roč. 28, č. 17 (2010), s. 2993-2998 ISSN 0264-410X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600960910; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06009 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : tick ferritin 2 * tick-protective vaccine Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.572, year: 2010
Vargová, Blažena; Majláth, Igor; Kurimský, Juraj; Cimbala, Roman; Kosterec, Michal; Tryjanowski, Piotr; Jankowiak, Łukasz; Raši, Tomáš; Majláthová, Viktória
Factors associated with the increased usage of electronic devices, wireless technologies and mobile phones nowadays are present in increasing amounts in our environment. All living organisms are constantly affected by electromagnetic radiation which causes serious environmental pollution. The distribution and density of ticks in natural habitats is influenced by a complex of abiotic and biotic factors. Exposure to radio-frequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) constitutes a potential cause altering the presence and distribution of ticks in the environment. Our main objective was to determine the affinity of Dermacentor reticulatus ticks towards RF-EMF exposure. Originally designed and constructed radiation-shielded tube (RST) test was used to test the affinity of ticks under controlled laboratory conditions. All test were performed in an electromagnetic compatibility laboratory in an anechoic chamber. Ticks were irradiated using a Double-Ridged Waveguide Horn Antenna to RF-EMF at 900 and 5000 MHz, 0 MHz was used as control. The RF-EMF exposure to 900 MHz induced a higher concentration of ticks on irradiated arm of RST as opposed to the RF-EMF at 5000 MHz, which caused an escape of ticks to the shielded arm. This study represents the first experimental evidence of RF-EMF preference in D. reticulatus. The projection of obtained results to the natural environment could help assess the risk of tick borne diseases and could be a tool of preventive medicine.
A case of a heavy tick infestation of dogs in a private kennel that resisted treatment with diazinon is reported. Application is by the conventional acaricidal tick dips and subsequent acaricidal spraying of the premises on three consecutive occasions which yielded no result. However a change of drug from diazinon to ...
Růžek, Daniel; Dobler, G.; Mantke, O. D.
Roč. 8, č. 4 (2010), s. 223-232 ISSN 1477-8939 R&D Projects: GA ČR GPP302/10/P438; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06009 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Tick-borne encephalitis * Tick-borne encephalitis virus * Pathogenesis * Clinical data Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology
Bermudez, S.E.; Esser, H.J.; Miranda, R.; Moreno, R.S.
This study reports ticks collected from wild carnivores from different habitat types in Panama. We examined 94 individual wild carnivores and we found 87 parasitized by ticks: seven coyotes, six crab-eating foxes, 54 coatis, four raccoons, five ocelots, two pumas, two gray foxes, two skunks, and one
A preliminary trial of a cocktail of recombinant RAS-1-2 and RIM 36 antigens was conducted in Uganda to assess the effects of ant-tick vaccines against Rhipicephalus appendiculatus tick feeding on Zebu cattle under both experimental and natural conditions. Under experimental conditions, over a period of 28 days, the ...
The effect of tick control by strategic dipping in synthetic pyrethroids on growth and survival rates of calves in Eastern Tanzania where Theileria parva and other tick borne infections (babesiosis, anaplasmosis and ehrlichiosis) are endemic was measured. One day to five months old Tanganyika short horn zebu (Bos indicus) ...
An assessment of protozoan parasite load in the ticks infesting cattle entering the country by hooves through a major trans-boundary route in Ogun State was carried out using ... This is the first report on protozoan parasites detected in ticks infesting cattle entering Nigeria through a major trans-boundary route in Nigeria.
Jurisic, Aleksandar D; Petrovic, Aleksandra P; Rajkovic, Dragana V; Nicin, Slobodan Dj
In recent years, in urban areas of Novi Sad, unique ecological conditions, specific floristic and faunistic composition and poor habits of citizens in sense of public health, facilitate the development and maintenance of ticks. Regarding the importance of ticks as vectors of severe human and animal diseases, complex and detailed studies are conducted with an aim to find the most efficient methods for tick control. Two tick species, Ixodes ricinus and Dermacentor marginatus, were identified during a 3-year period on the territory of Municipality of Novi Sad. During 2006, the efficacy of the pyrethroid lambda-cyhalothrin in tick control varied from 60.7 to 100%. The highest efficacy recorded in 2007 was 92.3%. The efficacy of lambda-cyhalothrin in 2008 varied from 39.1 to 100%. Lambda-cyhalothrin showed high efficacy in tick control at localities which were improved before the application (mowed, litter removed, abundance control and euthanasia of abandoned cats and dogs). The results of this research indicate that lambda-cyhalothrin has a toxic effect on ticks and could be used as efficient acaricide for tick control, although its efficacy depends on formulation, terrain features and methods of application.
This thesis focuses on the emergence and establishment of equine tick-borne infections in the Netherlands, with particular attention to their diagnosis, clinical relevance and treatment. Four tick-borne agents (Borrelia burgdorferi, Theileria equi, Babesia caballi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum)
Dabaja, Mayssaa Fawaz; Tempesta, Maria; Bayan, Ali; Vesco, Gesualdo; Vesco, Gesualdo; Greco, Grazia; Torina, Alessandra; Blanda, Valeria; La Russa, Francesco; Scimeca, Salvatore; Ezzedine, Mohamad; Mortada, Hussein; Raoult, Didier; Fournier, Pierre Edouard; Mortada, Mohamad
Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) are ectoparasites infesting livestock in every geographic area in the world and they are vectors of several viral, bacterial, and protozoan pathogens to animals and humans worldwide. A deep knowledge of the geographical distribution of these arthropods would have a key role in the control of tick-borne diseases. Few data are available about tick presence in domestic ruminants in Lebanon. The study aimed at providing an analysis of tick presence and distribution in Lebanon. Ticks were collected from cattle, sheep, and goats farms distributed in 6 Lebanese provinces between June and September 2014. A total of 272 adult hard ticks were randomly collected from domestic ruminants (cattle, sheep, and goats) located at 37 Lebanese farms, distributed among 30 villages. Ticks belonged to 4 Ixodidae genera: Rhipicephalus (72.4%), Haemaphysalis (11.4%), Dermacentor (8.1%), and Hyalomma (8.1%). They included the following species: Rhipicephalus annulatus (50.7%), Rhipicephalus turanicus (18.8%), Hyalomma anatolicum (8.1%), Haemaphylasis punctata (11.4%), Dermacentor marginatus (8.1%), Rhipicephalus sanguineus (2.5%), and Rhipicephalus bursa (0.4%). Rhipicephalus turanicus and H. anatolicum were found on cattle, sheep, and goats, R. annulatus on cattle and sheep, R. sanguineus, D. marginatus and Hea. punctata on sheep and goats, while R. bursa was collected only on sheep. Tick species involved in pathogen transmission were found and some of the identi ed species were recorded in Lebanon for the rst time.
Lyme disease is transmitted by the bite of blacklegged ticks and affects up to 300,000 Americans each year. This podcast discusses ways to prevent tick bites. Created: 5/14/2015 by MMWR. Date Released: 5/14/2015.
Sprong, H.; Trentelman, J.; Seemann, I.; Grubhoffer, Libor; Rego, Ryan O. M.; Hajdušek, Ondřej; Kopáček, Petr; Šíma, Radek; Nijhof, A.M.; Anguita, J.; Winter, P.; Rotter, B.; Havlíková, S.; Klempa, B.; Schetters, T.P.; Hovius, J.W.R.
Roč. 7, FEB 2014 (2014), s. 77 ISSN 1756-3305 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Ixodes ricinus * vaccine * Lyme borreliosis * tick-borne encephalitis * babesiosis * public health Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 3.430, year: 2014
de la Fuente, J.; Antunes, S.; Bonnet, S.; Cabezas Cruz, Alejandro; Domingos, A.G.; Estrada-Peňa, A.; Johnson, N.; Kocan, K.M.; Mansfield, K. L.; Nijhof, A.M.; Papa, A.; Rudenko, Natalia; Villar, M.; Alberdi, P.; Torina, A.; Ayllón, N.; Vancová, Marie; Golovchenko, Maryna; Grubhoffer, Libor; Caracappa, S.; Fooks, A. R.; Gortazar, C.; Rego, Ryan O. M.
Roč. 7, APR 7 (2017), č. článku 114. ISSN 2235-2988 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 278976 - ANTIGONE Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : tick * Anaplasma * flavivirus * Babesia * Borrelia * Microbiome * immunology * vaccine Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Biochemistry and molecular biology Impact factor: 4.300, year: 2016
de la Fuente, J.; Kopáček, Petr; Lew-Tabor, A.; Maritz-Olivier, C.
Roč. 38, č. 12 (2016), s. 754-769 ISSN 0141-9838 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-11043S EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 278976 - ANTIGONE Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : interactomics * reverse genetics * systems biology * tick * vaccine * vaccinology Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.493, year: 2016
Richter, Dania; Matuschka, Franz-Rainer; Spielman, Andrew; Mahadevan, L.
The tick Ixodes ricinus uses its mouthparts to penetrate the skin of its host and to remain attached for about a week, during which time Lyme disease spirochaetes may pass from the tick to the host. To understand how the tick achieves both tasks, penetration and attachment, with the same set of implements, we recorded the insertion events by cinematography, interpreted the mouthparts’ function by scanning electron microscopy and identified their points of articulation by confocal microscopy. Our structural dynamic observations suggest that the process of insertion and attachment occurs via a ratchet-like mechanism with two distinct stages. Initially, the two telescoping chelicerae pierce the skin and, by moving alternately, generate a toehold. Subsequently, a breaststroke-like motion, effected by simultaneous flexure and retraction of both chelicerae, pulls in the barbed hypostome. This combination of a flexible, dynamic mechanical ratchet and a static holdfast thus allows the tick to solve the problem of how to penetrate skin and also remain stuck for long periods of time. PMID:24174106
This book presents an extended form of the 1994 Dirac Memorial Lecture delivered by Pierre Gilles de Gennes at Cambridge University. The main task of the presentation is to show the beauty and richness of structural forms and phenomena which are observed at soft interfaces between two media. They are much more complex than forms and phenomena existing in each phase separately. Problems are discussed including both traditional, classical techniques, such as the contact angle in static and dynamic partial wetting, as well as the latest research methodology, like 'environmental' scanning electron microscopes. The book is not a systematic lecture on phenomena but it can be considered as a compact set of essays on topics which particularly fascinate the author. The continuum theory widely used in the book is based on a deep molecular approach. The author is particularly interested in a broad-minded rheology of liquid systems at interfaces with specific emphasis on polymer melts. To study this, the author has developed a special methodology called anemometry near walls. The second main topic presented in the book is the problem of adhesion. Molecular processes, energy transformations and electrostatic interaction are included in an interesting discussion of the many aspects of the principles of adhesion. The third topic concerns welding between two polymer surfaces, such as A/A and A/B interfaces. Of great worth is the presentation of various unsolved, open problems. The kind of topics and brevity of description indicate that this book is intended for a well prepared reader. However, for any reader it will present an interesting picture of how many mysterious processes are acting in the surrounding world and how these phenomena are perceived by a Nobel Laureate, who won that prize mainly for his investigations in this field. (book review)
Identify the favorable predilection sites of ticks and to measure the tick burden within breeds, different age groups and ... Study period, tick collection and identification methods. Ticks were collected from half body .... reported in many parts of Ethiopia, such as in Rift Valley Solomon Gebre et al., (2001), Hararghe Gulilat Asrat ...
Schuijt, T.J.; Narasimhan, S.; Daffre, S.; Deponte, K.; Hovius, J.W.R.; van 't Veer, C.; van der Poll, T.; Bakhtiari, K.; Meijers, J.C.M.; Boder, E.T.; van Dam, A.P.; Fikrig, E.
Repeated exposure of rabbits and other animals to ticks results in acquired resistance or immunity to subsequent tick bites and is partially elicited by antibodies directed against tick antigens. In this study we demonstrate the utility of a yeast surface display approach to identify tick salivary
Garcia-Martí, Irene; Zurita-Milla, Raul; Swart, Arno; Wijngaard, van den Kees C.; Vliet, van Arnold J.H.; Bennema, Sita; Harms, Margriet
Tick populations and tick-borne diseases like Lyme borreliosis have been steadily increasing since the mid-1990s. Realizing the threat that ticks pose to public health, two Dutch citizen science projects have collected tick bite reports since 2006. This unique volunteered geographical dataset,
Skarphédinsson, Sigurdur; Lyholm, Birgitte Fjendbo; Ljungberg, Marianne
% of adult ticks. The difference in prevalence between Anaplasma and Borrelia in adult ticks supports the idea that their maintenance cycles in nature may be different. Ticks were also infected with Rickettsia helvetica. Our study indicates that A. phagocytophilum prevalence in ticks in Denmark is as high...
We have recently shown that repellency of the tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato by the tick resistant dog breed Beagle is mediated by volatile organic compounds 2-hexanone and benzaldehyde present in Beagle dog odour. Ectoparasite location on animal hosts is affected by variation in odour com...
Corinne P. Oechslin
Full Text Available Abstract Background Throughout Europe, Ixodes ricinus transmits numerous pathogens. Its widespread distribution is not limited to rural but also includes urbanized areas. To date, comprehensive data on pathogen carrier rates of I. ricinus ticks in urban areas of Switzerland is lacking. Results Ixodes ricinus ticks sampled at 18 (sub- urban collection sites throughout Switzerland showed carrier rates of 0% for tick-borne encephalitis virus, 18.0% for Borrelia burgdorferi (sensu lato, 2.5% for Borrelia miyamotoi, 13.5% for Rickettsia spp., 1.4% for Anaplasma phagocytophilum, 6.2% for "Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis", and 0.8% for Babesia venatorum (Babesia sp., EU1. Site-specific prevalence at collection sites with n > 45 ticks (n = 9 significantly differed for B. burgdorferi (s.l., Rickettsia spp., and "Ca. N. mikurensis", but were not related to the habitat type. Three hundred fifty eight out of 1078 I. ricinus ticks (33.2% tested positive for at least one pathogen. Thereof, about 20% (71/358 were carrying two or three different potentially disease-causing agents. Using next generation sequencing, we could detect true pathogens, tick symbionts and organisms of environmental or human origin in ten selected samples. Conclusions Our data document the presence of pathogens in the (sub- urban I. ricinus tick population in Switzerland, with carrier rates as high as those in rural regions. Carriage of multiple pathogens was repeatedly observed, demonstrating the risk of acquiring multiple infections as a consequence of a tick bite.
Gondard, M.; Cabezas Cruz, Alejandro; Charles, R. A.; Vayssier-Taussat, M.; Albina, E.; Moutailler, S.
Roč. 7, NOV 29 (2017), č. článku 490. ISSN 2235-2988 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : tick-borne pathogens * ticks * Caribbean * epidemiology * newhigh-throughput technologies * surveillance Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology Impact factor: 4.300, year: 2016
While white-tailed deer are not reservoir hosts for the Lyme disease agent, Borrelia burgdorferi, they are the keystone host animal on which adult female blacklegged ticks engorge on blood that is essential to production of tick eggs and completion of the life cycle. This session explores current re...
Glatz, Martin; Means, Terry; Haas, Josef; Steere, Allen C; Müllegger, Robert R
Little is known about the immunomodulation by tick saliva during a natural tick bite in human skin, the site of the tick-host interaction. We examined the expression of chemokines, cytokines and leucocyte markers on the mRNA levels and histopathologic changes in human skin biopsies of tick bites (n=37) compared to unaffected skin (n=9). Early tick-bite skin lesions (skin. With longer tick attachment (>24 hours), the numbers of innate immune cells and mediators (not significantly) declined, whereas the numbers of lymphocytes (not significantly) increased. Natural tick bites by Ixodes ricinus ticks initially elicit a strong local innate immune response in human skin. Beyond 24 hours of tick attachment, this response usually becomes less, perhaps because of immunomodulation by tick saliva. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
The occurrence of Ixodes ricinus ticks and important tick-borne pathogens in areas with high tick-borne encephalitis prevalence in different altitudinal levels of the Czech Republic. Part I. Ixodes ricinus ticks and tick-borne encephalitis virus
Daniel, M.; Danielová, V.; Kříž, B.; Růžek, Daniel; Fialová, A.; Malý, M.; Materna, J.; Pejčoch, M.; Erhart, Jan
Roč. 65, č. 2 (2016), s. 118-128 ISSN 1210-7913 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Ixodes ricinus * tick-borne encephalitis virus * occurence * altitude * region * season Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 0.500, year: 2016
Zajkowska, Joanna; Malzahn, Elzbieta; Kondrusik, Maciej; Grygorczuk, Sambor; Pancewicz, Sławomir S; Kuśmierczyk, Justyna; Czupryna, Piotr; Hermanowska-Szpakowicz, Teresa
Currently observed markedly increased incidence of various tick borne diseases in many parts of Europe is due to documented climatic changes as well anthropogenic influence on habitat structure. One of the analyzed factors is tendency to increase of the spring temperatures, especially in the third decade of the April. Such conditions (spring temperatures above 7-10 degrees C) let the nymphs and larvae of Ixodes ricinus to feed simultaneously on rodents. This increases the risk of infection of Ixodes ricinus with TBE virus, so dangerous for humans.
Full Text Available Herpesviruses are a large group of DNA viruses infecting mainly vertebrates. Murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV68 is often used as a model in studies of the pathogenesis of clinically important human gammaherpesviruses such as Epstein-Barr virus and Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus. This rodent virus appears to be geographically widespread; however, its natural transmission cycle is unknown. Following detection of MHV68 in field-collected ticks, including isolation of the virus from tick salivary glands and ovaries, we investigated whether MHV68 is a tick-borne virus. Uninfected Ixodes ricinus ticks were shown to acquire the virus by feeding on experimentally infected laboratory mice. The virus survived tick molting, and the molted ticks transmitted the virus to uninfected laboratory mice on which they subsequently fed. MHV68 was isolated from the tick salivary glands, consistent with transmission via tick saliva. The virus survived in ticks without loss of infectivity for at least 120 days, and subsequently was transmitted vertically from one tick generation to the next, surviving more than 500 days. Furthermore, the F1 generation (derived from F0 infected females transmitted MHV68 to uninfected mice on which they fed, with MHV68 M3 gene transcripts detected in blood, lung, and spleen tissue of mice on which F1 nymphs and F1 adults engorged. These experimental data fulfill the transmission criteria that define an arthropod-borne virus (arbovirus, the largest biological group of viruses. Currently, African swine fever virus (ASFV is the only DNA virus recognized as an arbovirus. Like ASFV, MHV68 showed evidence of pathogenesis in ticks. Previous studies have reported MHV68 in free-living ticks and in mammals commonly infested with I. ricinus, and neutralizing antibodies to MHV68 have been detected in large mammals (e.g., deer including humans. Further studies are needed to determine if these reports are the result of tick-borne transmission
Kolb, Philipp; Vorreiter, Jolanta; Habicht, J?ri; Bentrop, Detlef; Wallich, Reinhard; Nassal, Michael
Ticks transmit numerous pathogens, including borreliae, which cause Lyme disease. Tick saliva contains a complex mix of anti-host defense factors, including the immunosuppressive cysteine-rich secretory glycoprotein Salp15 from Ixodes scapularis ticks and orthologs like Iric-1 from Ixodes ricinus. All tick-borne microbes benefit from the immunosuppression at the tick bite site; in addition, borreliae exploit the binding of Salp15 to their outer surface protein C (OspC) for enhanced transmissi...
Full Text Available Cattle ticks, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus, are a serious threat to animal health and production. Some ticks feed on a single host species while others such as R. microplus infest multiple hosts. White tailed deer (WTD play a role in the maintenance and expansion of cattle tick populations. However, cattle ticks fed on WTD show lower weight and reproductive performance when compared to ticks fed on cattle, suggesting the existence of host factors that affect tick feeding and reproduction. To elucidate these factors, a proteomics approach was used to characterize tick and host proteins in R. microplus ticks fed on cattle and WTD. The results showed that R. microplus ticks fed on cattle have overrepresented tick proteins involved in blood digestion and reproduction when compared to ticks fed on WTD, while host proteins were differentially represented in ticks fed on cattle or WTD. Although a direct connection cannot be made between differentially represented tick and host proteins, these results suggested that differentially represented host proteins together with other host factors could be associated with higher R. microplus tick feeding and reproduction observed in ticks fed on cattle.
· Although debates over Chinese soft power have increased in\\ud recent years, there is no shared definition of what ‘soft power’\\ud actually means. The definition seems to change depending on\\ud what the observer wants to argue.\\ud · External analyses of soft power often include a focus on\\ud economic relations and other material (hard) sources of power\\ud and influence.\\ud · Many Chinese analyses of soft power focus on the promotion of a\\ud preferred (positive) understanding of China’s inter...
Ann L. Carr
Full Text Available Ticks are the vector of many human and animal diseases; and host detection is critical to this process. Ticks have a unique sensory structure located exclusively on the 1st pairs of legs; the fore-tarsal Haller’s organ, not found in any other animals, presumed to function like the insect antennae in chemosensation but morphologically very different. The mechanism of tick chemoreception is unknown. Utilizing next-generation sequencing and comparative transcriptomics between the 1st and 4th legs (the latter without the Haller’s organ, we characterized 1st leg specific and putative Haller’s organ specific transcripts from adult American dog ticks, Dermacentor variabilis. The analysis suggested that the Haller’s organ is involved in olfaction, not gustation. No known odorant binding proteins like those found in insects, chemosensory lipocalins or typical insect olfactory mechanisms were identified; with the transcriptomic data only supporting a possible olfactory G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR signal cascade unique to the Haller’s organ. Each component of the olfactory GPCR signal cascade was identified and characterized. The expression of GPCR, Gαo and β-arrestin transcripts identified exclusively in the 1st leg transcriptome, and putatively Haller’s organ specific, were examined in unfed and blood-fed adult female and male D. variabilis. Blood feeding to repletion in adult females down-regulated the expression of all three chemosensory transcripts in females but not in males; consistent with differences in post-feeding tick behavior between sexes and an expected reduced chemosensory function in females as they leave the host. Data are presented for the first time of the potential hormonal regulation of tick chemosensation; behavioral assays confirmed the role of the Haller’s organ in N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide (DEET repellency but showed no role for the Haller’s organ in host attachment. Further research is needed to understand
Bødker, Rene; Vrbová, Erika; Højgaard, Jesper
Since the end of the ice age, spring migrating birds from Africa and Europe and autumn migrating birds from Northern Scandinavia have entered Denmark, and recently a small wave of long migrating carnivores have started arriving in Denmark from Central Europe. Theoretically, migrating birds could...... introduce new tick species as well as tick-associated pathogens to Denmark. These migrating animals may also carry ticks and pathogens which already exist in native tick populations in Denmark. The potential supplement of native ticks and existing pathogens to the established high density tick populations...... in Danish forest and nature areas can be expected to be of little practical importance. However, some of the infected ticks, introduced by migrating birds, may be deposited in private gardens and public parks that are otherwise not able to sustain a viable tick population. Migrating birds may therefore...
Wong, Li Ping; Tay, Sun Tee; Bulgiba, Awang; Zandi, Keivan; Kho, Kai Ling; Koh, Fui Xian; Ong, Bee Lee; Jaafar, Tariq; Hassan Nizam, Quaza Nizamuddin
Background Farmworkers are at high-risk for tick bites, which potentially transmit various tick-borne diseases. Previous studies show that personal prevention against tick bites is key, and certain factors namely, knowledge, experience of tick bites, and health beliefs influence compliance with tick bites preventive behaviour. This study aimed to assess these factors and their associations with tick bite preventive practices among Malaysian farmworkers. Methods A total of eight cattle, goat and sheep farms in six states in Peninsular Malaysia participated in a cross-sectional survey between August and October 2013 Results A total of 151 (72.2%) out of 209 farmworkers answered the questionnaire. More than half of the farmworkers (n = 91) reported an experience of tick bites. Farms with monthly acaricide treatment had significantly (P<0.05) a low report of tick bites. Tick bite exposure rates did not differ significantly among field workers and administrative workers. The mean total knowledge score of ticks for the overall farmworkers was 13.6 (SD±3.2) from 20. The mean total tick bite preventive practices score for all farmworkers was 8.3 (SD±3.1) from 15. Fixed effect model showed the effects of four factors on tick bite prevention: (1) farms, (2) job categories (administrative workers vs. field workers), (3) perceived severity of tick bites, and (4) perceived barriers to tick bite prevention. Conclusions A high proportion of farmworkers, including administrative workers, reported an experience of tick bites. The effectiveness of monthly acaricide treatment was declared by low reports of tick bites on these farms. Tick bite preventive practices were insufficient, particularly in certain farms and for administrative workers. Our findings emphasise the need to have education programmes for all farmworkers and targeting farms with low prevention practices. Education and health programmes should increase the perception of the risk of tick bites and remove perceived
Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Oliveira-Filho, Edmilson F; Soares, Fábio Angelo M; Souza, Bruno O F; Valença, Raul Baltazar P; Sá, Fabrício B
Ticks infesting amphibians and reptiles in the State of Pernambuco are reviewed, based on the current literature and new collections recently carried out by the authors. To date, three tick species have been found on amphibians and reptiles in Pernambuco. Amblyomma fuscum appears to be exclusively associated with Boa constrictor, its type host. Amblyomma rotundatum has a relatively low host-specificity, being found on toads, snakes, and iguana. Amblyomma dissimile has been found on a lizard and also small mammals (i.e., rodents and marsupials). New tick-host associations and locality records are given.
Keskin, Adem; Selçuk, Ahmet Yesari; Kefelioğlu, Haluk
Ticks are obligate ectoparasites of a vast range of terrestrial vertebrates which may play an important role in the transmission of many zoonotic pathogens to humans and animals. In the current study, we performed an investigation on ticks infesting some small mammals captured from Samsun and Tokat provinces, Northern Turkey. One hundred forty-five mammalian samples belonging to four species, namely Cricetulus migratorius (n = 1), Apodemus flavicollis (n = 17), Crocidura suaveolens (n = 102) and Sorex volnuchini (n = 25), were examined for the presence of tick infestations. A total of 273 (74 larvae, 194 nymphs, 5 females) hard ticks were collected from 88 mammalian samples. Ticks were identified as Ixodes laguri (1 nymph), I. redikorzevi (22 larvae, 186 nymphs, 5 females), I. ricinus (52 larvae, 4 nymphs) and Rhipicephalus turanicus (3 nymphs). Here, we also provided new tick mammalian host associations for Turkey. In addition, I. laguri and I. redikorzevi ticks were recorded for the first time in Samsun province of Turkey.
Full Text Available The efficacy of orally administered powdered aloe juice (Aloe ferox was evaluated against ticks on cattle and against ticks and fleas on dogs. Twelve calves were each infested over a 25-day period with approximately 4000 larvae of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus decoloratus and allocated to 3 groups of 4 calves each. Three days after the last larval infestation and daily for 22 days thereafter, the calves in 1 group were fed 5 mg / kg body weight and those in another 25 mg / kg body weight of powdered aloe juice incorporated in game maintenance pellets, while the animals in the 3rd group received only pellets. Detached female ticks were collected daily and counted and the weights and the fertility of groups of 50 engorged female ticks collected from the animals were ascertained. The powdered aloe juice in the game maintenance pellets had no effect on the tick burdens of the calves or on the fertility of the ticks. Six dogs, in each of 2 groups, were treated daily for 15 consecutive days, commencing on Day -5 before the 1st tick infestation, with either 0.39 g or 0.74 g of powdered aloe juice, administered orally in gelatin capsules, while a 3rd group of 6 dogs served as untreated controls. All the dogs were challenged with Haemaphysalis leachi on Days 0 and +7, and with Ctenocephalides felis on Days+1and +8, and efficacy assessments were made 1 day after flea and 2 days after tick challenge, respectively. Treatment was not effective against ticks or fleas on the dogs.
Hajdušek, Ondřej; Šíma, Radek; Perner, Jan; Loosová, Gabriela; Harcubová, Adéla; Kopáček, Petr
Roč. 7, č. 4 (2016), s. 565-572 ISSN 1877-959X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-11043S; GA ČR GP13-27630P; GA ČR GP13-12816P EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 316304 - MODBIOLIN Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : tick * iron * heme * RNAi * vaccine Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.230, year: 2016
Chmelař, J.; Kotál, Jan; Karim, S.; Kopáček, Petr; Francischetti, I.M.B.; Pedra, J. H. F.; Kotsyfakis, Michalis
Roč. 32, č. 3 (2016), s. 242-254 ISSN 1471-4922 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP502/12/2409; GA ČR GA13-11043S EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 268177 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : next-generation sequencing * sialomes * systems biology * tick-borne pathogens Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 6.333, year: 2016
Galay, Remil Linggatong; Miyata, Takeshi; Umemiya-Shirafuji, Rika; Mochizuki, Masami; Fujisaki, Kozo; Tanaka, Tetsuya
Ticks (Parasitiformes: Ixodida) are known for their obligate blood feeding habit and their role in transmitting pathogens to various vertebrate hosts. Tick control using chemical acaricides is extensively used particularly in livestock management, but several disadvantages arise from resistance development of many tick species, and concerns on animal product and environmental contamination. Vaccination offers better protection and more cost-effective alternative to application of chemical acaricides, addressing their disadvantages. However, an ideal anti-tick vaccine targeting multiple tick species and all the tick stages is still wanting. Here, we describe the procedures involved in the evaluation of a vaccine candidate antigen against ticks at the laboratory level, from the preparation of recombinant proteins, administration to the rabbit host and monitoring of antibody titer, to tick infestation challenge and determination of the effects of immunization to ticks.
Fyumagwa, Robert D; Simmler, Pascale; Meli, Marina L; Hoare, Richard; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina; Lutz, Hans
In 2001, Ngorongoro Crater was infested with high density of ticks on grassland, livestock and wildlife which was also associated with high mortality. Adult ticks were collected, identified, processed for nucleic acids extraction and a molecular analysis was performed to determine the range of tick species harboring Anaplasma marginale. The real-time PCR was used in the amplification of rickettsia DNA in tick pools (n=527) from 11 identified tick species. Six tick species were detected with A. marginale DNA including Amblyomma gemma, Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, R. compositus, R.decoloratus, R. praetextatus and R. pulchellus. The detection rate in each tick species was 3%, 0.7%, 2%, 13%, 1.8%, and 6.2%, respectively. Five of the positive tick species excluding R.decoloratus have previously not been described to transmit A. marginale. High diversity of tick species detected with A. marginale in Ngorongoro Crater is likely to increase a risk to susceptible animals of contracting the infection.
Tomico, Oscar; Wilde, Danielle
Soft wearables include clothing and textile-based accessories that incorporate smart textiles and soft electronic interfaces to enable responsive and interactive experiences. When designed well, they leverage the cultural, sociological and material qualities of textiles, fashion and dress; divers...
Tomico Plasencia, O.; Wilde, D.
Soft wearables include clothing and textile-based accessories that incorporate smart textiles and soft electronic interfaces to enable responsive and interactive experiences. When designed well, they leverage the cultural, sociological and material qualities of textiles, fashion and dress; diverse
Full Text Available Two hundred and twenty-five small mammals belonging to 16 species were examined for ticks in Free State, Mpumalanga and Limpopo Provinces, South Africa, and 18 ixodid tick species, of which two could only be identified to genus level, were recovered. Scrub hares, Lepus saxatilis, and Cape hares, Lepus capensis, harboured the largest number of tick species. In Free State Province Namaqua rock mice, Aethomys namaquensis, and four-striped grass mice, Rhabdomys pumilio, were good hosts of the immature stages of Haemaphysalis leachi and Rhipicephalus gertrudae, while in Mpumalanga and Limpopo Provinces red veld rats, Aethomys chrysophilus, Namaqua rock mice and Natal multimammate mice, Mastomys natalensis were good hosts of H. leachi and Rhipicephalus simus. Haemaphysalis leachi was the only tick recovered from animals in all three provinces.
Waleed Ibrahem Jalil
Conclusions: The high isolation rate of aerobic pathogens from ticks might reflect the active contribution of this arthropod in environmental contamination and increase the probability of transmitting bacterial pathogens to their hosts.
... Done The Federal government is Funding states, territories, industry, university, and international groups to detect and respond ... and tents, with permethrin or buy permethrin-treated clothing and gear. Take steps to control ticks and ...
Schetters, T.P.; Bishop, R.; Crampton, M.; Kopáček, Petr; Lew-Tabor, A.; Maritz-Olivier, C.; Miller, R.; Mosqueda, J.; Patarroyo, J.; Rodriguez-Valle, M.; Scoles, G.A.; de la Fuente, J.
Roč. 9, FEB 24 (2016), s. 105 ISSN 1756-3305 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : CATVAC * vaccine * cattle * tick * Rhipicephalus microplus Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 3.080, year: 2016
Demoner, Larissa de Castro; Rubini, Adriano Stefani; Paduan, Karina dos Santos; Metzger, Betina; de Paula Antunes, João Marcelo Azevedo; Martins, Thiago Fenandes; Mathias, Maria Izabel Camargo; O'Dwyer, Lucia Helena
Hepatozoon canis is a common apicomplexan parasite of dogs. In Brazil, in addition to Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Amblyomma ovale, Amblyomma cajennense, and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus have been suggested to act as vectors. The present study aimed to evaluate, under controlled conditions, the acquisition of H. canis by A. ovale, R. sanguineus, and A. cajennense after feeding on naturally infected dogs. Cytological and histophatological examinations were performed to recover oocysts and other sporogonic stages of the protozoan from the experimentally infected nymphs and adults. None of the R. sanguineus (n=30) or A. cajennense nymphs (n=15) that were dissected after feeding on H. canis naturally infected dogs became infected by the hemoparasite. Likewise, none of the R. sanguineus (n=165) and A. cajennense (n=114) adult ticks that were fed as nymphs on dogs demonstrated infection. Additionally, A. cajennense adult ticks were incapable of acquiring the infection, since no parasite was found in 62 adults that fed on H. canis-infected dogs. With regard to A. ovale ticks, 2 different infestations were carried out. Firstly, a dog with naturally occurring hepatozoonosis was infested with A. ovale adults originating from Rondônia, Brazil. Ticks fed to full engorgement. A total of 31 adults was collected from the dog and dissected on the third day after natural detachment. Oocysts were detected in 13 (42%) of the ticks. The second experimental infestation was carried out using adult ticks originating from São Paulo, Brazil. Surprisingly, of the 103 dissected ticks, only one (1%) contained oocysts in the hemocoel. No other sporogonic stage was found. Results indicate that different strains of A. ovale ticks may exist in Brazil with different susceptibilities to pathogens. Furthermore, it is possible that R. sanguineus and A. cajennense have little or no importance in the transmission of H. canis in rural areas of Brazil. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights
Tick-borne protozoan diseases, Theileriosis and Babesiosis, are major health and management problems of cattle, small ruminants and buffaloes in Africa, Asia and Latin America. Recently, tickborne diseases were ranked high in terms of their impact on poor farming communities in developing countries. Whereas the global economic importance of ticks is particularly high for livestock, there is also a relevant impact on public health in the northern hemisphere.
Rathinavelu, Sivaprakash; Broadwater, Anne; de Silva, Aravinda M.
The Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, inhabits the gut lumen of the tick vector. At this location the spirochete is exposed to host blood when a tick feeds. We report here on studies that were done with normal and complement-deficient (C3-knockout) mice to determine if the host complement system killed spirochetes within the vector. We found that spirochete numbers within feeding nymphs were not influenced by complement, most likely because host complement was inactivated within ...
Ostfeld, Richard S; Brunner, Jesse L
The evidence that climate warming is changing the distribution of Ixodes ticks and the pathogens they transmit is reviewed and evaluated. The primary approaches are either phenomenological, which typically assume that climate alone limits current and future distributions, or mechanistic, asking which tick-demographic parameters are affected by specific abiotic conditions. Both approaches have promise but are severely limited when applied separately. For instance, phenomenological approaches (e.g. climate envelope models) often select abiotic variables arbitrarily and produce results that can be hard to interpret biologically. On the other hand, although laboratory studies demonstrate strict temperature and humidity thresholds for tick survival, these limits rarely apply to field situations. Similarly, no studies address the influence of abiotic conditions on more than a few life stages, transitions or demographic processes, preventing comprehensive assessments. Nevertheless, despite their divergent approaches, both mechanistic and phenomenological models suggest dramatic range expansions of Ixodes ticks and tick-borne disease as the climate warms. The predicted distributions, however, vary strongly with the models' assumptions, which are rarely tested against reasonable alternatives. These inconsistencies, limited data about key tick-demographic and climatic processes and only limited incorporation of non-climatic processes have weakened the application of this rich area of research to public health policy or actions. We urge further investigation of the influence of climate on vertebrate hosts and tick-borne pathogen dynamics. In addition, testing model assumptions and mechanisms in a range of natural contexts and comparing their relative importance as competing models in a rigorous statistical framework will significantly advance our understanding of how climate change will alter the distribution, dynamics and risk of tick-borne disease.
Rickettsia parkeri in Gulf Coast Ticks, Southeastern Virginia, USA Chelsea L. Wright, Robyn M. Nadolny, Ju Jiang, Allen L. Richards, Daniel E...Virginia. We found that 43.1% of the adult Gulf Coast ticks collected in the summer of 2010 carried Rickettsia parkeri, suggesting that persons living in...or visiting southeastern Virginia are at risk for infection with this pathogen. Rickettsia parkeri is an obligate intracellular bacterium belonging
Kim, Tae Kwon; Ibelli, Adriana Mércia Guaratini; Mulenga, Albert
In this study we characterized Amblyomma americanum (Aam) tick calreticulin (CRT) homolog in tick feeding physiology. In nature, different tick species can be found feeding on the same animal host. This suggests that different tick species found feeding on the same host can modulate the same host anti-tick defense pathways to successfully feed. From this perspective it’s plausible that different tick species can utilize universally conserved proteins such as CRT to regulate and facilitate fee...
Full Text Available Abstract The brown dog tick (Rhipicephalus sanguineus is the most widespread tick in the world and a well-recognized vector of many pathogens affecting dogs and occasionally humans. This tick can be found on dogs living in both urban and rural areas, being highly adapted to live within human dwellings and being active throughout the year not only in tropical and subtropical regions, but also in some temperate areas. Depending on factors such as climate and host availability, Rh. sanguineus can complete up to four generations per year. Recent studies have demonstrated that ticks exposed to high temperatures attach and feed on humans and rabbits more rapidly. This observation suggests that the risk of human parasitism by Rh. sanguineus could increase in areas experiencing warmer and/or longer summers, consequently increasing the risk of transmission of zoonotic agents (e.g., Rickettsia conorii and Rickettsia rickettsii. In the present article, some aspects of the biology and ecology of Rh. sanguineus ticks are discussed including the possible impact of current climate changes on populations of this tick around the world.
Full Text Available Ticks are tiny crawling bugs in the spider family that feed by sucking blood from animals. They are second only to mosquitoes as vectors of human disease, both infectious and toxic. Infected ticks spread over a hundred diseases, some of which are fatal if undetected. They spread the spirochete (which multiplies in the insect's gut with a subsequent bite to the next host. We describe the only reported cases of peri ocular tick bite from India that presented to us within a span of 3 days and its management. Due suspicion and magnification of the lesions revealed the ticks which otherwise masqueraded as small skin tags/moles on gross examination. The ticks were firmly latched on to the skin and careful removal prevented incarceration of the mouth parts. Rickettsial diseases that were believed to have disappeared from India are reemerging and their presence has recently been documented in at least 11 states in the country. Among vector borne diseases, the most common, Lyme disease, also known as the great mimicker, can present with rheumatoid arthritis, fibromyalgia, depression, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, multiple sclerosis, chronic fatigue syndrome, cardiac manifestations, encephalitis, and mental illness, to name some of the many associations. Common ocular symptoms and signs include conjunctivitis, keratitis, uveitis, and retinitis. Early detection and treatment of tick borne diseases is important to prevent multi system complications that can develop later in life.
Haranahalli Vasanthachar Manjunathachar
Full Text Available Role of livestock in improvement of a country ’s economy is inevitable. Livestock contributes a lion ’s share in agricultural sector of developing countries. Several developing countries have adopted the use of exotic germplasm to improve the productivity of their native breeds, which has brought down the disease resistance. Among various problems hindering the growth and productivity of livestock, parasite related problem plays a major role. Tick and tick borne diseases are prevalent in 80% of the cattle population around the globe. They cause various worries to the farmers by transmitting major disease causing pathogens and jeopardize animal health leading to poor production. Ticks transmit various pathogenic agents like virus, bacteria, protozoa and other parasites as well. Many of them are dangerous for the livestock health and some are also zoonotic hence, need to be checked at the initial stages. Control of ticks is the major concern in the present situation as the use of anti-parasitic drugs has led to the current trend of resistance development. Search for an effective alternative method has begun; vaccination will be a better alternative and promising tool for protecting livestock from the tick infestations and thereby tick borne diseases.
Cordeiro, Matheus Dias; de Azevedo Baêta, Bruna; Cepeda, Patricia Barizon; Teixeira, Rafaella Câmara; Ribeiro, Carla Carolina Dias Uzedo; de Almeida Valim, Jaqueline Rodrigues; Pinter, Adriano; da Fonseca, Adivaldo Henrique
This study aimed to evaluate, by means of artificial feeding, the interaction between a pathogenic rickettsia and the hard tick R. microplus. We used partially engorged females fed on calves free of Rickettsia spp. Group 1 (G1), containing 20 ticks, was fed bovine blood only. Group 2 (G2), containing 20 ticks, was fed blood containing uninfected VERO cells, and group 3 (G3), containing 40 ticks, was fed blood containing VERO cells infected with Rickettsia parkeri. Biological parameters of the non-parasitic phase and a possible bacterial transmission to the tick eggs and to guinea pigs were evaluated. At the end of oviposition, all G3 females were PCR-positive for genes specific for the genus Rickettsia. Although no guinea pigs were infected, the experimental infection of R. microplus by R. parkeri caused a deleterious effect on the oviposition and provided the first report of transovarian transmission of rickettsia in this tick. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Akimov I. А.
Full Text Available This study presents the results of content analysis of published works on ixodid ticks in urban conditions in order to determine the species diversity, the vectors of research interests at various stages. Information about ticks in the cities up to the 1980s is incidental, to the point of exclusive, after this point there is targeted research in urban landscapes. There are 106 or 15 % of hard ticks of the world fauna registered in the urban territory, 26 species or 3.7 % being the most abundant. Of the urban hard tick species, 23 (88.5 % can attack humans, and 12 species are the most adapted to the urban landscape: Ixodes ricinus, I. persulcatus, Dermacentor reticulatus, D. marginatus, I. pavlovskyi, I. scapularis (dammini, Amblyomma cajennense, Haemaphysalis longicornis, I. hexagonus, Hyalomma marginatum, Am. americanum, and Rhipicephalus sanguineus. It was determined that the most likely causes of the growing number of publications on ixodids urban landscapes are: global accelerating urbanization, the development of recreational areas, the development of green tourism, the growth of the prestige of outdoor recreation, the creation of new, especially of the landscape parks and a tendency to preserve the native landscape in the cities, a significant increase in the density of populations of common species of hard ticks adapted to living in urban environment. The vectors of further work in urban landscapes will be directed to exact planning of monitoring studies of ixodids and associated tick-borne infections.
Yu Da; Liang Jiangguo; Yu Haining; Wu Haifeng; Xu Chunhua; Liu Jingze; Lai Ren
Some studies done to date suggest that B-cell inhibitory factor occurred in tick saliva. In this study, a novel protein having B-cell inhibitory activity was purified and characterized from the salivary glands of the hard tick, Hyalomma asiaticum asiaticum. This protein was named B-cell inhibitory factor (BIF). The cDNA encoding BIF was cloned by cDNA library screening. The predicted protein from the cDNA sequence is composed of 138 amino acids including the mature BIF. No similarity was found by Blast search. The lipopolysaccharide-induced B-cell proliferation was inhibited by BIF. This is First report of the identification and characterization of B-cell inhibitory protein from tick. The current study facilitates the study of identifying the interaction among tick, Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, and host
Xin, Xiaolong; Li, Wenting
Molodtsov introduced the concept of soft sets, which can be seen as a new mathematical tool for dealing with uncertainty. In this paper, we initiate the study of soft congruence relations by using the soft set theory. The notions of soft quotient rings, generalized soft ideals and generalized soft quotient rings, are introduced, and several related properties are investigated. Also, we obtain a one-to-one correspondence between soft congruence relations and idealistic soft rings and a one-to-one correspondence between soft congruence relations and soft ideals. In particular, the first, second, and third soft isomorphism theorems are established, respectively. PMID:24949493
Full Text Available The genus Anaplasma (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae includes obligate tick-transmitted intracellular organisms, Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Anaplasma marginale that multiply in both vertebrate and tick host cells. Recently, we showed that A. marginale affects the expression of tick genes that are involved in tick survival and pathogen infection and multiplication. However, the gene expression profile in A. phagocytophilum-infected tick cells is currently poorly characterized. The objectives of this study were to characterize tick gene expression profile in Ixodes scapularis ticks and cultured ISE6 cells in response to infection with A. phagocypthilum and to compare tick gene expression responses in A. phagocytophilum- and A. marginale-infected tick cells by microarray and real-time RT-PCR analyses. The results of these studies demonstrated modulation of tick gene expression by A. phagocytophilum and provided evidence of different gene expression responses in tick cells infected with A. phagocytophilum and A. marginale. These differences in Anaplasma-tick interactions may reflect differences in pathogen life cycle in the tick cells.
Full Text Available The Republic of Cuba is a popular destination for Russian tourists and about 30-50 thousands of Russian citizens visit Cuba annually. However, the recreational activity is often associated with the risk of Ixodid ticks bites and infection with tick-borne pathogens. According to published literature, the fauna of the hard tick in Cuba is represented by nine species including Ixodes capromydis, Amblyomma albopictum, A. cajennense, A. dissimile, A. quadricavum, A. torrei, Dermacentor nitens, Rhipicephalus sanguineus and R. (Boophilus microplus. Five of these species, i.e. A. cajennense, A. dissimile, D. nitens, R. sanguineus and R. (Boophilus microplus, were reported as human parasites. Ticks are spread over the most part of the island territory. Several tick-borne pathogens should be considered as a potential threat for the bitten humans in Cuba, including Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Rickettsia sp., Anaplasma sp., Ehrlichia sp., Coxiella sp., thogotovirus and Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus. Implications for the epidemiology of tick-borne infections in the Russian Federation are discussed.
Gleim, Elizabeth R; Conner, L Mike; Berghaus, Roy D; Levin, Michael L; Zemtsova, Galina E; Yabsley, Michael J
Some tick populations have increased dramatically in the past several decades leading to an increase in the incidence and emergence of tick-borne diseases. Management strategies that can effectively reduce tick populations while better understanding regional tick phenology is needed. One promising management strategy is prescribed burning. However, the efficacy of prescribed burning as a mechanism for tick control is unclear because past studies have provided conflicting data, likely due to a failure of some studies to simulate operational management scenarios and/or account for other predictors of tick abundance. Therefore, our study was conducted to increase knowledge of tick population dynamics relative to long-term prescribed fire management. Furthermore, we targeted a region, southwestern Georgia and northwestern Florida (USA), in which little is known regarding tick dynamics so that basic phenology could be determined. Twenty-one plots with varying burn regimes (burned surrounded by burned [BB], burned surrounded by unburned [BUB], unburned surrounded by burned [UBB], and unburned surrounded by unburned [UBUB]) were sampled monthly for two years while simultaneously collecting data on variables that can affect tick abundance (e.g., host abundance, vegetation structure, and micro- and macro-climatic conditions). In total, 47,185 ticks were collected, of which, 99% were Amblyomma americanum, 0.7% were Ixodes scapularis, and fewer numbers of Amblyomma maculatum, Ixodes brunneus, and Dermacentor variabilis. Monthly seasonality trends were similar between 2010 and 2011. Long-term prescribed burning consistently and significantly reduced tick counts (overall and specifically for A. americanum and I. scapularis) regardless of the burn regimes and variables evaluated. Tick species composition varied according to burn regime with A. americanum dominating at UBUB, A. maculatum at BB, I. scapularis at UBB, and a more even composition at BUB. These data indicate that
Elizabeth R Gleim
Full Text Available Some tick populations have increased dramatically in the past several decades leading to an increase in the incidence and emergence of tick-borne diseases. Management strategies that can effectively reduce tick populations while better understanding regional tick phenology is needed. One promising management strategy is prescribed burning. However, the efficacy of prescribed burning as a mechanism for tick control is unclear because past studies have provided conflicting data, likely due to a failure of some studies to simulate operational management scenarios and/or account for other predictors of tick abundance. Therefore, our study was conducted to increase knowledge of tick population dynamics relative to long-term prescribed fire management. Furthermore, we targeted a region, southwestern Georgia and northwestern Florida (USA, in which little is known regarding tick dynamics so that basic phenology could be determined. Twenty-one plots with varying burn regimes (burned surrounded by burned [BB], burned surrounded by unburned [BUB], unburned surrounded by burned [UBB], and unburned surrounded by unburned [UBUB] were sampled monthly for two years while simultaneously collecting data on variables that can affect tick abundance (e.g., host abundance, vegetation structure, and micro- and macro-climatic conditions. In total, 47,185 ticks were collected, of which, 99% were Amblyomma americanum, 0.7% were Ixodes scapularis, and fewer numbers of Amblyomma maculatum, Ixodes brunneus, and Dermacentor variabilis. Monthly seasonality trends were similar between 2010 and 2011. Long-term prescribed burning consistently and significantly reduced tick counts (overall and specifically for A. americanum and I. scapularis regardless of the burn regimes and variables evaluated. Tick species composition varied according to burn regime with A. americanum dominating at UBUB, A. maculatum at BB, I. scapularis at UBB, and a more even composition at BUB. These data
... Texas Animal Health Commission. The program was established to eliminate bovine babesiosis, a severe and... ticks (collectively referred to as ``fever ticks'') carry protozoan parasites that cause babesiosis. The...
Each year PestWise programs form new partnerships to address ongoing and emerging issues. Reducing the risk from ticks and tick-borne disease is an issue of importance and EPA is contributing to a larger federal effort.
Silvana Regina Favoretto
Full Text Available Introduction This study assessed the viability of the rabies virus in the argasid tick Carios fonsecai following experimental infection. Methods The mouse inoculation test (MIT, fluorescent antibody test (FAT and polymerase chain reaction (PCR were used. The rabies virus was administered to ticks via the intra-coelomic route, and the ticks were sacrificed at different time points. Results The inoculated ticks were negative for rabies according to the MIT. Ticks macerated with rabies virus were positive according to the MIT and FAT. All of the tick lots tested by PCR were positive. Conclusions The rabies virus became unviable shortly after its inoculation into tick bodies. Ticks are not likely to play an important role in the epidemiology of rabies.
Full Text Available The economic importance of tick infestation on camels are important as they are important meat and milk producer animals in the less vegetation area of Iran and their health and production are greatly affected by the high tick infestation. In this investigation, tick infestations on camels (Camelus dromedarius were determined in Qeshm Island, Iran. A total number of 912 adult ticks (472 males and 440 females were collected and identified. Hyalomma dromedarii was the predominant tick specie and accounted for 61.9% of the adult ticks. Other hard ticks were H. anatolicum excavatum (22 %, H. asiaticum asiaticum (14.2 %, H. marginatum (1.9 %, H. impeltatum (0.4 % and Ripicephalus bursa (0.4 %. In conclusion, The provision of tick control programs in the Qeshm Island would seem a prerequisite for improving camel meat and milk production.
King Roberta S
Full Text Available Abstract Background Ixodes scapularis, commonly known as the blacklegged or deer tick, is the main vector of Lyme disease in the United States. Recent progress in transcriptome research has uncovered hundreds of different proteins expressed in the salivary glands of hard ticks, the majority of which have no known function, and include many novel protein families. We recently identified transcripts coding for two putative cytosolic sulfotransferases in these ticks which recognized phenolic monoamines as their substrates. In this current study, we characterize the genetic expression of these two cytosolic sulfotransferases throughout the tick life cycle as well as the enzymatic properties of the corresponding recombinant proteins. Interestingly, the resultant recombinant proteins showed sulfotransferase activity against both neurotransmitters dopamine and octopamine. Results The two sulfotransferase genes were coded as Ixosc SULT 1 & 2 and corresponding proteins were referred as Ixosc Sult 1 and 2. Using gene-specific primers, the sulfotransferase transcripts were detected throughout the blacklegged tick life cycle, including eggs, larvae, nymphs, adult salivary glands and adult midgut. Notably, the mRNA and protein levels were altered upon feeding during both the larval and nymphal life stages. Quantitative PCR results confirm that Ixosc SULT1 was statistically increased upon blood feeding while Ixosc SULT 2 was decreased. This altered expression led us to further characterize the function of these proteins in the Ixodid tick. The sulfotransferase genes were cloned and expressed in a bacterial expression system, and purified recombinant proteins Ixosc Sult 1(R and 2(R showed sulfotransferase activity against neurotransmitters dopamine and octopamine as well as the common sulfotransferase substrate p-nitrophenol. Thus, dopamine- or octopamine-sulfonation may be involved in altering the biological signal for salivary secretion in I. scapularis
Helen J. Esser
Full Text Available Identifying the factors that influence the species diversity and distribution of ticks (Acari: Ixodida across vertebrate host taxa is of fundamental ecological and medical importance. Host body size is considered one of the most important determinants of tick abundance, with larger hosts having higher tick burdens. The species diversity of tick assemblages should also be greater on larger-bodied host species, but empirical studies testing this hypothesis are lacking. Here, we evaluate this relationship using a comparative dataset of feeding associations from Panama between 45 tick species and 171 host species that range in body size by three orders of magnitude. We found that tick species diversity increased with host body size for adult ticks but not for immature ticks. We also found that closely related host species tended to have similar tick species diversity, but correcting for host phylogeny did not alter the relationships between host body size and tick species diversity. The distribution of tick species was highly aggregated, with approximately 20% of the host species harboring 80% of all tick species, following the Pareto principle or 20/80 Rule. Thus, the aggregated pattern commonly observed for tick burdens and disease transmission also holds for patterns of tick species richness. Our finding that the adult ticks in this system preferentially parasitize large-bodied host species suggests that the ongoing anthropogenic loss of large-bodied vertebrates is likely to result in host-tick coextinction events, even when immature stages feed opportunistically. As parasites play critical roles in ecological and evolutionary processes, such losses may profoundly affect ecosystem functioning and services.
Labruna,Marcelo Bahia; Barbieri,Fábio Silva; Martins,Thiago Fernandes; Brito,Luciana Gatto; Ribeiro,Francisco Dimas Sales
In the present study, we provide new tick records from Vilhena Municipality, in the Southeast of the State of Rondônia, Northern Brazil. Ticks collected from a capybara, Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris (Linnaeus), were identified as Amblyomma romitii Tonelli-Rondelli (1 female), and Amblyomma sp. (1 larva). Ticks collected from a harpy eagle, Harpia harpyja (Linnaeus), were identified as Amblyomma cajennense (Fabricius) (16 nymphs) and Haemaphysalis juxtakochi Cooley (1 nymph). Ticks collected from...
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cattle; exposure to tick infestation... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.12 Cattle; exposure to tick infestation after treatment or inspection prohibited. The cattle shall not be exposed to tick infestation...
Wieren, van S.E.; Braks, Marieta A.H.; Lahr, J.
Ticks are important vectors of a large number of pathogenic organisms. In the Netherlands, Ixodes ricinus is the most abundant tick species and the main vector for several Borrelia species that may cause Lyme borreliosis. Many chemicals have been developed for tick control. In this chapter, a few
Marchal, Claire; Schramm, Frederic; Kern, Aurélie; Luft, Benjamin J.; Yang, Xiaohua; Schuijt, Tim J.; Hovius, Joppe W.; Jaulhac, Benoît; Boulanger, Nathalie
Tick saliva has potent immunomodulatory properties. In arthropod-borne diseases, this effect is largely used by microorganisms to increase their pathogenicity and to evade host immune responses. We show that in Lyme borreliosis, tick salivary gland extract and a tick saliva protein, Salp15, inhibit
George, J E; Pound, J M; Davey, R B
Toward the end of the nineteenth century a complex of problems related to ticks and tick-borne diseases of cattle created a demand for methods to control ticks and reduce losses of cattle. The discovery and use of arsenical solutions in dipping vats for treating cattle to protect them against ticks revolutionized tick and tick-borne disease control programmes. Arsenic dips for cattle were used for about 40 years before the evolution of resistance of ticks to the chemical, and the development and marketing of synthetic organic acaricides after World War II provided superior alternative products. Most of the major groups of organic pesticides are represented on the list of chemicals used to control ticks on cattle. Unfortunately, the successive evolution of resistance of ticks to acaricides in each chemical group with the concomitant reduction in the usefulness of a group of acaricides is a major reason for the diversity of acaricides. Whether a producer chooses a traditional method for treating cattle with an acaricide or uses a new method, he must recognize the benefits, limitations and potential problems with each application method and product. Simulation models and research were the basis of recommendations for tick control strategies advocating approaches that reduced reliance on acaricides. These recommendations for controlling ticks on cattle are in harmony with recommendations for reducing the rate of selection for acaricide resistance. There is a need to transfer knowledge about tick control and resistance mitigation strategies to cattle producers.
T.H. Nicholls; S.M. Callister
In a tick-spirochete survey conducted from fall 1989 through fall 1992 in northwestern Wisconsin, 4,256 birds (composed of 91 species) were examined for ticks. Infestations were recorded for 400 birds (composed of 30 species). Of 1,184 ticks taken from 335 birds (composed of 26 species), 60 (5%) Haemaphysalis leporispalustris (Packard) from eight species of birds were...
Van Treuren, Will; Ponnusamy, Loganathan; Brinkerhoff, R. Jory; Gonzalez, Antonio; Parobek, Christian M.; Juliano, Jonathan J.; Andreadis, Theodore G.; Falco, Richard C.; Ziegler, Lorenza Beati; Hathaway, Nicholas; Keeler, Corinna; Emch, Michael; Bailey, Jeffrey A.; Roe, R. Michael; Apperson, Charles S.; Knight, Rob
Ixodes scapularis is the principal vector of Lyme disease on the East Coast and in the upper Midwest regions of the United States, yet the tick is also present in the Southeast, where Lyme disease is absent or rare. A closely related species, I. affinis, also carries the pathogen in the South but does not seem to transmit it to humans. In order to better understand the geographic diversity of the tick, we analyzed the microbiota of 104 adult I. scapularis and 13 adult I. affinis ticks captured in 19 locations in South Carolina, North Carolina, Virginia, Connecticut, and New York. Initially, ticks from 4 sites were analyzed by 454 pyrosequencing. Subsequently, ticks from these sites plus 15 others were analyzed by sequencing with an Illumina MiSeq machine. By both analyses, the microbiomes of female ticks were significantly less diverse than those of male ticks. The dissimilarity between tick microbiomes increased with distance between sites, and the state in which a tick was collected could be inferred from its microbiota. The genus Rickettsia was prominent in all locations. Borrelia was also present in most locations and was present at especially high levels in one site in western Virginia. In contrast, members of the family Enterobacteriaceae were very common in North Carolina I. scapularis ticks but uncommon in I. scapularis ticks from other sites and in North Carolina I. affinis ticks. These data suggest substantial variations in the Ixodes microbiota in association with geography, species, and sex. PMID:26150449
Speybroeck, N; Madder, M; Van Den Bossche, P; Mtambo, J; Berkvens, N; Chaka, G; Mulumba, M; Brandt, J; Tirry, L; Berkvens, D
Distribution data for epidemiologically important ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) in the Southern Province of Zambia, one of the main cattle areas of the country, are presented. Boophilus microplus (Canestrini) was not recorded in southern Zambia, whereas Boophilus decoloratus (Koch) is present throughout the area. New distribution patterns for less economically important ixodid ticks are also discussed. Southern Zambia is a transition zone because it is the most northern area in Africa where mixed Rhipicephalus appendiculatus Neumann and Rhipicephalus zambeziensis Walker, Norval & Corwin populations were reported. Although a second generation of adult R. appendiculatus/R. zamnbeziensis was encountered, simulations indicated that this phenomenon is very rare in southern Zambia, mainly because of the colder temperatures during the early dry season and lower rainfall. These simulations were supported by a development trial under experimental conditions. Tick body size measurements showed that southern Zambian ticks are larger than eastern Zambian R. appendiculatus. It is hypothesized that body size is related to diapausing intensity in this species. The epidemiological consequences are that a different approach to control Theileria parva (Theiler) (Piroplasmida: Theileriidae) and other tick-borne diseases is needed in southern Zambia, compared to the one adopted in eastern Zambia.
Haditsch, Martin; Kunze, Ursula
Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is a vector-borne disease that is primarily transmitted to humans by infected ticks and causes infection of the central nervous system. Clinical presentations range from meningitis to encephalitis with or without myelitis, and infection may result in death or long-term neurological sequelae. TBE is endemic in regions of at least 27 European as well as in some Asian countries. Infection and disease, however, can be averted successfully by tick-bite prevention and active vaccination. The risk of infection has shifted from daily life and occupational exposure to leisure-time activities, including travelling. Outdoor activities during the tick season with contact with nature increase the risk of tick bites. Although the number of travel-associated cases is unknown, it is certainly under-estimated because there is hardly any awareness of TBE in non-endemic countries. Therefore, the majority of cases remain undiagnosed, also because of the lack of diagnostic serology, as there is no routine screening for TBE in non-endemic regions. Because of the increasing number of travellers from TBE non-endemic to endemic regions, and in view of the fact that TBE was included in the list of notifiable diseases in the European Union in September 2012, this disease needs to become an important issue in travel medicine. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The abundance and activity of ectoparasites and its hosts are affected by various abiotic factors, such as climate and other organisms (predators, pathogens and competitors presenting thus multiples forms of association (obligate to facultative, permanent to intermittent and superficial to subcutaneous developed during long co-evolving processes. Ticks are ectoparasites widespread globally and its eco epidemiology are closely related to the environmental conditions. They are obligatory hematophagous ectoparasites and responsible as vectors or reservoirs at the transmission of pathogenic fungi, protozoa, viruses, rickettsia and others bacteria during their feeding process on the hosts. Ticks constitute the second vector group that transmit the major number of pathogens to humans and play a role primary for animals in the process of diseases transmission. Many studies on bioecology of ticks, considering the information related to their population dynamics, to the host and the environment, comes possible the application and efficiency of tick control measures in the prevention programs of vector-borne diseases. In this review were considered some taxonomic, morphological, epidemiological and clinical fundamental aspects related to the tick-borne infections that affect human and animal populations.
Soft matter (polymers, colloids, surfactants and liquid crystals) are an important class of materials in modern technology. They also form the basis of many future technologies, for example in medical and environmental applications. Soft matter shows complex behaviour between fluids and solids, and used to be a synonym of complex materials. Due to the developments of the past two decades, soft condensed matter can now be discussed on the same sound physical basis as solid condensedmatter. The purpose of this book is to provide an overview of soft matter for undergraduate and graduate students
Full Text Available The present study was carried out during the month of January 2014 when a total of 148 dogs with history of various diseases were presented to the Campus Veterinary Hospital, Teaching Veterinary Clinical Complex, College of Veterinary Science, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad, India. Out of 148 dogs that were presented to the hospital, 48 dogs had the clinical signs of loss of hair, itching, and reduced food intake. The dogs were restless and continuously rubbed their bodies against the walls in the houses, and scratching with their legs. Clinical examination of the dogs revealed presence of alopecia, pruritus, and the formation of small crusts. All 48 dogs were treated with ivermectin by subcutaneous injection dosed at 0.02 mL/kg body weight at a weekly interval for 2 to 3 weeks. All dogs were bathed with cypermethrin shampoo weekly once for 2-3 weeks. In the present study, it was observed that ivermectin/cypermethrin combination therapy was effective for the management of tick infestation in dogs.
Nadolny, Robyn; Gaff, Holly; Carlsson, Jens; Gauthier, David
Two species of ixodid tick, Ixodes affinis Neumann and Amblyomma maculatum Koch, are simultaneously expanding their ranges throughout the mid-Atlantic region of the US. Although we have some understanding of the ecology and life history of these species, the ecological mechanisms governing where and how new populations establish and persist are unclear. To assess population connectivity and ancestry, we sequenced a fragment of the 16S mitochondrial rRNA gene from a representative sample of individuals of both species from populations throughout the eastern US. We found that despite overlapping host preferences throughout ontogeny, each species exhibited very different genetic and geographic patterns of population establishment and connectivity. I. affinis was of two distinct mitochondrial clades, with a clear geographic break separating northern and southern populations. Both I. affinis populations showed evidence of recent expansion, although the southern population was more genetically diverse, indicating a longer history of establishment. A. maculatum exhibited diverse haplotypes that showed no significant relationship with geographic patterns and little apparent connectivity between sites. Heteroplasmy was also observed in the 16S mitochondrial rRNA gene in 3.5% of A. maculatum individuals. Genetic evidence suggests that these species rely on different key life stages to successfully disperse into novel environments, and that host vagility, habitat stability and habitat connectivity all play critical roles in the establishment of new tick populations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Andrea S. Varela-Stokes
Full Text Available Interest in microbial communities, or microbiota, of blood-feeding arthropods such as ticks (order Parasitiformes, suborder Ixodida is increasing. Studies on tick microorganisms historically emphasized pathogens of high medical or veterinary importance. Current techniques allow for simultaneous detection of pathogens of interest, non-pathogenic symbionts, like Coxiella-LE and Francisella-LE, and microorganisms of unknown pathogenic potential. While each generation of ticks begins with a maternally acquired repertoire of microorganisms, microhabitats off and on vertebrate hosts can alter the microbiome during the life cycle. Further, blood-feeding may allow for horizontal exchange of various pathogenic microbiota that may or may not also be capable of vertical transmission. Thus, the tick microbiome may be in constant flux. The geographical spread of tick vector populations has resulted in a broader appreciation of tick-borne diseases and tick-associated microorganisms. Over the last decade, next-generation sequencing technology targeting the 16S rRNA gene led to documented snapshots of bacterial communities among life stages of laboratory and field-collected ticks, ticks in various feeding states, and tick tissues. Characterizing tick bacterial communities at population and individual tissue levels may lead to identification of markers for pathogen maintenance, and thus, indicators of disease “potential” rather than disease state. Defining the role of microbiota within the tick may lead to novel control measures targeting tick-bacterial interactions. Here, we review our current understanding of microbial communities for some vectors in the family Ixodidae (hard ticks in North America, and interpret published findings for audiences in veterinary and medical fields with an appreciation of tick-borne disease.
Sameroff, Stephen; Tagliafierro, Teresa; Jain, Komal; Williams, Simon H.; Cucura, D. Moses; Rochlin, Ilia; Monzon, Javier; Carpi, Giovanna; Tufts, Danielle; Diuk-Wasser, Maria; Brinkerhoff, Jory; Lipkin, W. Ian
ABSTRACT Ticks carry a wide range of known human and animal pathogens and are postulated to carry others with the potential to cause disease. Here we report a discovery effort wherein unbiased high-throughput sequencing was used to characterize the virome of 2,021 ticks, including Ixodes scapularis (n = 1,138), Amblyomma americanum (n = 720), and Dermacentor variabilis (n = 163), collected in New York, Connecticut, and Virginia in 2015 and 2016. We identified 33 viruses, including 24 putative novel viral species. The most frequently detected viruses were phylogenetically related to members of the Bunyaviridae and Rhabdoviridae families, as well as the recently proposed Chuviridae. Our work expands our understanding of tick viromes and underscores the high viral diversity that is present in ticks. IMPORTANCE The incidence of tick-borne disease is increasing, driven by rapid geographical expansion of ticks and the discovery of new tick-associated pathogens. The examination of the tick microbiome is essential in order to understand the relationship between microbes and their tick hosts and to facilitate the identification of new tick-borne pathogens. Genomic analyses using unbiased high-throughput sequencing platforms have proven valuable for investigations of tick bacterial diversity, but the examination of tick viromes has historically not been well explored. By performing a comprehensive virome analysis of the three primary tick species associated with human disease in the United States, we gained substantial insight into tick virome diversity and can begin to assess a potential role of these viruses in the tick life cycle. PMID:29564401
Yabsley, Michael J; Nims, Todd N; Savage, Mason Y; Durden, Lance A
Ticks were collected from 38 black bears (Ursus americanus floridanus) from northwestern Florida (n = 18) from 2003 to 2005 and southern Georgia (n = 20) in 2006. Five species (Amblyomma americanum, A. maculatum, Dermacentor variabilis, Ixodes scapularis, and I. affinis) were collected from Florida bears, and 4 species (A. americanum, A. maculatum, D. variabilis, I. scapularis) were collected from bears in Georgia. Ixodes scapularis was the most frequently collected tick, followed by D. variabilis, A. americanum, A. maculatum, and I. affinis. The collection of I. affinis from a Florida bear represents a new host record. A subset of ticks was screened for pathogens and putative symbionts by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The zoonotic tick-borne pathogens Ehrlichia chaffeensis and Rickettsia parkeri were detected in 1 of 23 (4.3%) A. americanum and 1 of 12 (8.3%) A. maculatum, respectively. The putative zoonotic pathogen "Rickettsia amblyommii" was detected in 4 (17.4%) A. americanum and 1 (8.3%) A. maculatum. Other putative symbiotic rickettsiae detected included R. bellii and R. montanensis in D. variabilis, a Rickettsia cooleyi-like sp. and Rickettsia sp. Is-1 in I. scapularis, and Rickettsia TR39-like sp. in I. scapularis and A. americanum. All ticks were PCR-negative for Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Panola Mountain Ehrlichia sp., E. ewingii, Francisella tularensis, and Borrelia spp.
Soares, J F; Soares, H S; Barbieri, A M; Labruna, M B
In the laboratory, Amblyomma cajennense (Acari: Ixodidae) (Fabricius) larvae, nymphs and adults were exposed to Rickettsia rickettsii by feeding on needle-inoculated animals, and thereafter reared on uninfected guinea pigs or rabbits. Regardless of the tick stage that acquired the infection, subsequent tick stages were shown to be infected (confirming transstadial and transovarial transmissions) and were able to transmit R. rickettsii to uninfected animals, as demonstrated by serological and molecular analyses. However, the larval, nymphal and adult stages of A. cajennense were shown to be partially refractory to R. rickettsii infection, as in all cases, only part of the ticks became infected by this agent, after being exposed to rickettsemic animals. In addition, less than 50% of the infected engorged females transmitted rickettsiae transovarially, and when they did so, only part of the offspring became infected, indicating that vertical transmission alone is not enough to maintain R. rickettsii in A. cajennense for multiple generations. Finally, the R. rickettsii-infected tick groups had lower reproductive performance than the uninfected control group. Our results indicate that A. cajennense have a low efficiency to maintain R. rickettsii for successive generations, as R. rickettsii-infection rates should decline drastically throughout the successive tick generations. © 2011 The Authors. Medical and Veterinary Entomology © 2011 The Royal Entomological Society.
Tomico Plasencia, O.; Wilde, D.
Soft wearables include clothing and textile-based accessories that incorporate smart textiles and soft electronic interfaces to enable responsive and interactive experiences. When designed well, soft wearables leverage the cultural, sociological and material qualities of textiles, fashion and dress;
Garcia, Gustavo Rocha; Maruyama, Sandra Regina; Nelson, Kristina T; Ribeiro, José Marcos Chaves; Gardinassi, Luiz Gustavo; Maia, Antonio Augusto Mendes; Ferreira, Beatriz Rossetti; Kooyman, Frans N J; de Miranda Santos, Isabel K F
Males of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus produce salivary immunoglobulin-binding proteins and allotypic variations in IgG are associated with tick loads in bovines. These findings indicate that antibody responses may be essential to control tick infestations. Infestation loads with cattle ticks are heritable: some breeds carry high loads of reproductively successful ticks, in others, few ticks feed and they reproduce inefficiently. Different patterns of humoral immunity against tick salivary proteins may explain these phenotypes. We describe the profiles of humoral responses against tick salivary proteins elicited during repeated artificial infestations of bovines of a tick-resistant (Nelore) and a tick-susceptible (Holstein) breed. We measured serum levels of total IgG1, IgG2 and IgE immunoglobulins and of IgG1 and IgG2 antibodies specific for tick salivary proteins. With liquid chromatography followed by mass spectrometry we identified tick salivary proteins that were differentially recognized by serum antibodies from tick-resistant and tick-susceptible bovines in immunoblots of tick salivary proteins separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis. Baseline levels of total IgG1 and IgG2 were significantly higher in tick-susceptible Holsteins compared with resistant Nelores. Significant increases in levels of total IgG1, but not of IgG2 accompanied successive infestations in both breeds. Resistant Nelores presented with significantly higher levels of salivary-specific antibodies before and at the first challenge with tick larvae; however, by the third challenge, tick-susceptible Holsteins presented with significantly higher levels of IgG1 and IgG2 tick salivary protein-specific antibodies. Importantly, sera from tick-resistant Nelores reacted with 39 tick salivary proteins in immunoblots of salivary proteins separated in two dimensions by electrophoresis versus only 21 spots reacting with sera from tick-susceptible Holsteins. Levels of tick saliva
Full Text Available We introduce the concept of possibility fuzzy soft set and its operation and study some of its properties. We give applications of this theory in solving a decision-making problem. We also introduce a similarity measure of two possibility fuzzy soft sets and discuss their application in a medical diagnosis problem.
P. Kofman (Paul); A. Vaal, de (Albert); C.G. de Vries (Casper)
textabstractNon-parametric tolerance limits are employed to calculate soft margins such as advocated in Williamson's target zone proposal. In particular, the tradeoff between softness and zone width is quantified. This may be helpful in choosing appropriate margins. Furthermore, it offers
Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard
Learning of soft skills are becoming more and more necessary due to the complexe development of modern companies and their environments. However, there seems to be a 'gap' between intentions and reality regarding need of soft skills and the possiblities to be educated in this subject in particular...
Tomico, Oscar; Wilde, Danielle
of soft wearables. Throughout, we will experiment with how embodied design research techniques might be shared, developed, and used as direct and unmediated vehicles for their own reporting. Rather than engage in oral presentations, participants will lead each other through a proven embodied method...... and knowledge transfer in the context of soft wearables....
Sacks, J J; Pinner, T A; Parker, R L
In South Carolina, 1974-1980, only two matches were found between 536 Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) cases and 965 individuals who submitted ticks that tested rickettsial antigen positive. In neither case did the positive test prevent RMSF. Tick rickettsial positivity rates varied inversely with human RMSF attack rates in different geographic areas. A physician survey established it as unlikely that RMSF occurred in positive tick submitters (PTS), and that although not recommended, 34 per cent of asymptomatic PTS received prophylactic treatment. Only 18 per cent of positive ticks were engorged. Tick testing appears ineffective in preventing RMSF. PMID:6869643
Welc-Falęciak, R; Bajer, A; Paziewska-Harris, A; Baumann-Popczyk, A; Siński, E
The aims of this study were: (1) to estimate Babesia prevalence in the most common species of tick in Poland, Ixodes ricinus, in two recreational areas (Urwitałt in the Mazury Lake District and Bielański Forest in Warsaw), and (2) to evaluate the molecular diversity of Babesia isolates in questing I. ricinus in Poland. Questing ticks were collected from vegetation in forest areas in Urwitałt near Mikołajki and in Bielański Forest (Warsaw). Purified genomic DNA was used with specific primers to amplify a fragment of the Babesia spp. 18S rRNA gene. Tick-drag indices for I. ricinus were high in both study areas, reaching somewhat higher values in Urwitałt than in Bielański Forest. The overall prevalence of Babesia spp. in examined ticks was 1.6%. In Urwitałt, two strains of B. microti were identified using rRNA sequences: the enzootic Munich strain and an isolate close to the zoonotic Jena strain. The proportion of infections due to these two strains in questing ticks reversed over a six-year period. During 3 years of study in Bielański Forest, all Babesia isolates obtained from I. ricinus were identical to Babesia sp. EU1 (B. venatorum), previously recognized as an agent of human babesiosis. This study has confirmed the presence of enzoonotic and zoonotic Babesia species/strains in the abundant human-biting tick I. ricinus in recreational areas in Poland. It has also shown that the distribution of different genotypes has changed over time, however the reasons for these fluctuations still remain to be investigated.
Khater, Hanem F; Seddiek, Shaker A; El-Shorbagy, Mohamed M; Ali, Ali M
The fowl tick, Argas persicus (Oken), is of veterinary importance as a parasite of poultry and wild birds. The antitick efficacy, in vitro and in vivo, of peracetic acid (PAA) and deltamethrin (DMT) was tested separately against A. persicus through the dipping technique. PAA (0.5 %) was highly efficient against soft tick larvae (A. persicus), resulting in 100 % mortality after 2 min. The lethal concentrations LC(50) and LC(95) were 0.310 and 0.503 %, respectively. The lethal time values LT(50) and LT(95) were 5.34 and 40.00 min, respectively, after treatment with PAA (0.25 %). Two minutes after exposure to DMT, LC(50) and LC(95) values were 0.033 and 0.052 % (33.204 and 51.527 mg/L), respectively. The LT(50) and LT(95) values were 27.03 and 305.46 min, respectively, after treatment with 0.025 % DMT (25 mg/L). After dipping in PAA (0.5 %), the chickens did not show respiratory signs or inflammation on the eyes and/or skin. By contrast, temporary coughing, sneezing, and ocular inflammations without dermatitis were observed in chickens dipped in DMT (0.05 % or 50 mg /L). Seven days posttreatment (PT), the reduction in the percentages of A. persicus infesting laying hens were 99.15 and 63.42 % after dipping in PAA and DMT, respectively. However, complete elimination of the number of ticks occurred after 28 days PT with DMT. PAA inhibits molting effectively (28 %) when compared with that of DMT (52 %). Results indicated that PAA is a more potent and promising acaricide against A. persicus (in vitro and in vivo) than DMT.
Khater, Hanem F; Seddiek, Shaker A; El-Shorbagy, Mohamed M; Ali, Ali M
The fowl tick, Argas persicus (Oken), is of veterinary importance as a parasite of poultry and wild birds. The antitick efficacy, in vitro and in vivo, of peracetic acid (PAA) and deltamethrin (DMT) was tested separately against A. persicus through the dipping technique. PAA (0.5%) was highly efficient against soft tick larvae (A. persicus), resulting in 100 % mortality after 2 min. The lethal concentrations LC₅₀ and LC₉₅ were 0.310 and 0.503 %, respectively. The lethal time values LT₅₀ and LT₉₅ were 5.34 and 40.00 min, respectively, after treatment with PAA (0.25%). Two minutes after exposure to DMT, LC₅₀ and LC₉₅ values were 0.0033 and 0.0052% (33.204 and 51.527 mg/L), respectively. The LT₅₀ and LT₉₅ values were 27.03 and 305.46 min, respectively, after treatment with 0.0025% DMT (25 mg/L). After dipping in PAA (0.5%), the chickens did not show respiratory signs or inflammation on the eyes and/or skin. By contrast, temporary coughing, sneezing, and ocular inflammations without dermatitis were observed in chickens dipped in DMT (0.005 % or 50 mg /L). Seven days posttreatment (PT), the reduction in the percentages of A. persicus infesting laying hens were 99.15 and 63.42% after dipping in PAA and DMT, respectively. However, complete elimination of the number of ticks occurred after 28 days PT with DMT. PAA inhibits molting effectively (28%) when compared with that of DMT (52%). Results indicated that PAA is a more potent and promising acaricide against A. persicus (in vitro and in vivo) than DMT.
Yang, Dian; Whitesides, George M.
A soft actuator is described, including: a rotation center having a center of mass; a plurality of bucklable, elastic structural components each comprising a wall defining an axis along its longest dimension, the wall connected to the rotation center in a way that the axis is offset from the center of mass in a predetermined direction; and a plurality of cells each disposed between two adjacent bucklable, elastic structural components and configured for connection with a fluid inflation or deflation source; wherein upon the deflation of the cell, the bucklable, elastic structural components are configured to buckle in the predetermined direction. A soft actuating device including a plurality of the soft actuators and methods of actuation using the soft actuator or soft actuating device disclosed herein are also described.
Hajdušek, Ondřej; Šíma, Radek; Ayllón, N.; Jalovecká, M.; Pernes, J.; de la Fuente, J.; Kopáček, Petr
Roč. 3, Jul 2013 (2013), a26 ISSN 2235-2988 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/10/2136; GA ČR GA13-11043S; GA ČR GP13-27630P; GA ČR GP13-12816P; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0032 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 316304 - MODBIOLIN Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Anaplasma * Babesia * Borrelia * antimicrobial peptides * innate immunity * phagocytosis * tick * tick-borne diseases Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 2.620, year: 2013
Markeshin, S Ia; Evstaf'ev, I L; Kovin, V V; Evstratov, Iu V
About a hundred of patients with tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) were recorded over the latest decade in the Crimea, and 60 TBE virus strains were isolated from the ticks collected on the peninsula. The results of studies carried out in 1986-1990 helped define the borders of 4 local natural foci of TBE, study their acarifauna, detect the principal TBE vector--Ixodes ricinus (with a mean virophority of 0.6%), and distinguish two foci with a combination of TBE and Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever.
Full Text Available of guinea pigs and cattle against ticks. Nature. 1979;280(5722):491–3. 5. de la Fuente J, Contreras M. Tick vaccines: current status and future directions. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2015;14(10):1367–76. 6. de la Fuente J, Almazan C, Canales M, de la Lastra JM P... 2016 Accepted: 14 February 2016 References 1. Grace D, Songe M, Knight-Jones T. Impact of neglected diseases on animal productivity and public health in Africa. In: 21st conference of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) regional commission...
Burnard, Delaney; Weaver, Haylee; Gillett, Amber; Loader, Joanne; Flanagan, Cheyne; Polkinghorne, Adam
Members of the order Chlamydiales are known for their potential as human and veterinary bacterial pathogens. Despite this recognition, epidemiological factors such as routes of transmission are yet to be fully defined. Ticks are well known vectors for many other infections with several reports recently describing the presence of bacteria in the order Chlamydiales in these arthropods. Australian wildlife are hosts to an extensive range of tick species. Evidence is also growing that the marsupial hosts these ticks parasitise can also be infected by a number of bacteria in the order Chlamydiales, with at least one species, Chlamydia pecorum, posing a significant conservation threat. In the current study, we investigated the presence and identity of Chlamydiales in 438 ixodid ticks parasitizing wildlife in Australia by screening with a pan-Chlamydiales specific targeting the 16S rRNA gene. Pan-Chlamydiales specific PCR assays confirmed the common presence of Chlamydiales in Australian ticks parasitising a range of native wildlife. Interestingly, we did not detect any Chlamydiaceae, including C. pecorum, the ubiquitous pathogen of the koala. Instead, the Chlamydiales diversity that could be resolved indicated that Australian ticks carry at least six novel Chlamydiales genotypes. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA sequences (663 bp) of these novel Chlamydiales suggests that three of these genotypes are associated with the Simkaniaceae and putatively belong to three distinct novel strains of Fritschea spp. and three genotypes are related to the "Ca. Rhabdochlamydiaceae" and putatively belong to a novel genus, Rhabdochlamydia species and strain, respectively. Sequence results suggest Australian wildlife ticks harbour a range of unique Chlamydiales bacteria that belong to families previously identified in a range of arthropod species. The results of this work also suggest that it is unlikely that arthropods act as vectors of pathogenic members of the family
Pandit, Pranav; Bandivdekar, Ruta; Geevarghese, G; Pande, Satish; Mandke, Omkar
In total, 167 individuals of 30 species of snakes belonging to 22 genera and five families were examined for tick infestation from November 2008 to March 2010. Only two species of snakes, Ptyas mucosa (L., 1758) (Indian rat snake) and Naja naja (L., 1758) (spectacled cobra), were found infested by ticks. All ticks collected were identified to be Amblyomma gervaisi [previously Aponomma gervaisi (Lucas, 1847) 1. The average prevalence of these ticks on Indian rat snakes (n=48) was 29.16%, with abundance of 7.02 ticks per individual; on spectacled cobras (n=20), average prevalence was 30.00%, with abundance of 6.9 ticks per individual. The nymphs and males were predominant. All the ticks were found on the dorsal aspect of the body of the snake, and no ticks were recorded on the head, tail, or ventral body. The rate of tick infestation was highest in scrubland and was lowest in evergreen forests. Female Indian rat snakes showed higher tick infestation rates than male Indian rat snakes. Using Mann-Whitney U test, we found that longer snakes of both species had significantly higher rate of tick infestation in both the species of snakes.
E. A. Bessolitsyna
Full Text Available The objects of this study are Ixodes ticks which were collected in different areas of Kirov province. The aim of the study is to determine the proportion of TBEV infected ticks using the reverse transcription and PCR, dependingon time, place, and methods of collection in the Kirov province as well as of ticks specific and sexual identity. The study found that from the two tick species that were tested only taiga tick (Ixodes persulcatus but not the meadow thick (Dermacentor reticulatus was the TBEV vector. Study also has shown that both males and females ticks can be the TBEV vectors. Moreover, it was proved the importance of ticks testing which were gathered not only from human but also from animals, primary from dogs, and from the plants.
Andersson, Martin O; Tolf, Conny; Tamba, Paula; Stefanache, Mircea; Radbea, Gabriel; Rubel, Franz; Waldenström, Jonas; Dobler, Gerhard; Chițimia-Dobler, Lidia
Babesia spp., Theileria spp., and Hepatozoon spp. are tick-transmitted apicomplexan parasites that cause several important diseases in animals. To increase current knowledge about the diversity of tick-transmitted pathogens in Romania, we investigated the occurrence of Babesia spp., Theileria spp., and Hepatozoon spp. in a wide range of tick species infesting animal hosts. We collected 852 ticks from 10 different animal species from 20 counties in Romania. The assessment was based on detection of parasite DNA by PCR. Five different apicomplexan parasite species were detected; among them three different species of Babesia: B. canis, B. microti, and B. ovis. Hepatozoon canis was the most frequently detected parasite, found predominately in Ixodes ricinus ticks collected from domestic dogs. It was also detected in I. ricinus collected from goat, fox, and cat. Furthermore, H. canis was found in Haemaphysalis punctata and Haemaphysalis concinna ticks. In addition, Theileria buffeli was detected in Rhipicephalus bursa ticks collected from cattle.
Bhusri, Benjaporn; Sariya, Ladawan; Mongkolphan, Chalisa; Suksai, Parut; Kaewchot, Supakarn; Changbunjong, Tanasak
Hepatozoon spp. are protozoan parasites that infect a wide range of domestic and wild animals. The infection occurs by ingestion of an infected tick. This study was carried out to detect and characterize Hepatozoon spp. in ticks collected from captive lions ( Panthera leo ) in Thailand based on the partial 18S rRNA gene sequence. A total of 30 ticks were collected and identified as Rhipicephalus sanguineus . The collected ticks were separated into 10 tick pools by sex and life stages. Of the 10 tick pools examined, only one (10%) was found to be infected with the Hepatozoon species. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis showed a clustering of the partial 18S rRNA gene sequence like that of H. felis from the GenBank database. This is the first report of H. felis in R. sanguineus ticks collected from captive lions in Thailand. Our results indicated that R. sanguineus may be a possible vector of feline Hepatozoon in Thailand.
Full Text Available Anaplasma phagocytophilum is a zoonotic agent of public health importance, infecting both humans and animals. An investigation of the presence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum as well as Anaplasma platys was conducted in a forest area of Selenge province, Mongolia, where ticks are widely distributed and tick-borne diseases are highly endemic. Ticks were collected and tested using polymerase chain reaction based on groEL methodology. Anaplasma phagocytophilum was detected in 14 (6% of Ixodes persulcatus ticks and four (1% Dermacentor nuttalli ticks; infection of Anaplasma platys was detected in 1% of Ixodes persulcatus ticks and 10% of Dermacentor nuttalli ticks. The phylogenetic tree showed that the Anaplasma phagocytophilum clustered with the Russian group, most likely due to similar geographical locations. This finding is significant for both veterinary and public health officials given that these agents can cause both animal and human illness.
Alyssa D. Ammazzalorso
Full Text Available Background. Blacklegged ticks (Ixodes scapularis are important disease vectors in the United States, known to transmit a variety of pathogens to humans, including bacteria, protozoa, and viruses. Their importance as a disease vector necessitates reliable and comparable methods for extracting microbial DNA from ticks. Furthermore, to explore the population genetics or genomics of this tick, appropriate DNA extraction techniques are needed for both the vector and its microbes. Although a few studies have investigated different methods of DNA isolation from ticks, they are limited in the number and types of DNA extraction and lack species-specific quantification of DNA yield.Methods. Here we determined the most efficient and consistent method of DNA extraction from two different developmental stages of I. scapularis—nymph and adult—that are the most important for disease transmission. We used various methods of physical disruption of the hard, chitinous exoskeleton, as well as commercial and non-commercial DNA isolation kits. To gauge the effectiveness of these methods, we quantified the DNA yield and confirmed the DNA quality via PCR of both tick and microbial genetic material.Results. DNA extraction using the Thermo GeneJET Genomic DNA Purification Kit resulted in the highest DNA yields and the most consistent PCR amplification when combined with either cutting or bead beating with select matrices across life stages. DNA isolation methods using ammonium hydroxide as well as the MoBio PowerSoil kit also produced strong and successful PCR amplification, but only for females.Discussion. We contrasted a variety of readily available methods of DNA extraction from single individual blacklegged ticks and presented the results through a quantitative and qualitative assessment.
Full Text Available Rickettsia conorii conorii is the etiological agent of Mediterranean spotted fever, which is transmitted by the brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus. The relationship between the Rickettsia and its tick vector are still poorly understood one century after the first description of this disease.An entomological survey was organized in Algeria to collect ticks from the houses of patients with spotted fever signs. Colonies of R. conorii conorii-infected and non-infected ticks were established under laboratory conditions. Gimenez staining and electron microscopy on the ovaries of infected ticks indicated heavy rickettsial infection. The transovarial transmission of R. conorii conorii in naturally infected Rh. sanguineus ticks was 100% at eleven generations, and the filial infection rate was up to 99% according to molecular analyses. No differences in life cycle duration were observed between infected and non-infected ticks held at 25°C, but the average weight of engorged females and eggs was significantly lower in infected ticks than in non-infected ticks. The eggs, larvae and unfed nymphs of infected and non-infected ticks could not tolerate low (4°C or high (37°C temperatures or long starvation periods. R. conorii conorii-infected engorged nymphs that were exposed to a low or high temperature for one month experienced higher mortality when they were transferred to 25°C than non-infected ticks after similar exposure. High mortality was observed in infected adults that were maintained for one month at a low or high temperature after tick-feeding on rabbits.These preliminary results suggest that infected quiescent ticks may not survive the winter and may help explain the low prevalence of infected Rh. sanguineus in nature. Further investigations on the influence of extrinsic factors on diapaused R. conorii-infected and non-infected ticks are required.
Štěrba, Ján; Vancová, Marie; Štěrbová, Jarmila; Bell-Sakyi, L.; Grubhoffer, Libor
Roč. 389, MAY 2014 (2014), s. 93-99 ISSN 0008-6215 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP302/11/1901; GA ČR GAP302/12/2490; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06009; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0032; GA ČR GA206/09/1782 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : tick * Ixodes ricinus * sialic acid * tick cell line Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.929, year: 2014
Ala E. Tabor
Full Text Available Ticks are able to transmit tick-borne infectious agents to vertebrate hosts which cause major constraints to public and livestock health. The costs associated with mortality, relapse, treatments, and decreased production yields are economically significant. Ticks adapted to a hematophagous existence after the vertebrate hemostatic system evolved into a multi-layered defense system against foreign invasion (pathogens and ectoparasites, blood loss, and immune responses. Subsequently, ticks evolved by developing an ability to suppress the vertebrate host immune system with a devastating impact particularly for exotic and crossbred cattle. Host genetics defines the immune responsiveness against ticks and tick-borne pathogens. To gain an insight into the naturally acquired resistant and susceptible cattle breed against ticks, studies have been conducted comparing the incidence of tick infestation on bovine hosts from divergent genetic backgrounds. It is well-documented that purebred and crossbred Bos taurus indicus cattle are more resistant to ticks and tick-borne pathogens compared to purebred European Bos taurus taurus cattle. Genetic studies identifying Quantitative Trait Loci markers using microsatellites and SNPs have been inconsistent with very low percentages relating phenotypic variation with tick infestation. Several skin gene expression and immunological studies have been undertaken using different breeds, different samples (peripheral blood, skin with tick feeding, infestation protocols and geographic environments. Susceptible breeds were commonly found to be associated with the increased expression of toll like receptors, MHC Class II, calcium binding proteins, and complement factors with an increased presence of neutrophils in the skin following tick feeding. Resistant breeds had higher levels of T cells present in the skin prior to tick infestation and thus seem to respond to ticks more efficiently. The skin of resistant breeds also
Full Text Available Bipolar soft topological spaces are mathematical expressions to estimate interpretation of data frameworks. Bipolar soft theory considers the core features of data granules. Bipolarity is important to distinguish between positive information which is guaranteed to be possible and negative information which is forbidden or surely false. Connectedness and compactness are the most important fundamental topological properties. These properties highlight the main features of topological spaces and distinguish one topology from another. Taking this into account, we explore the bipolar soft connectedness, bipolar soft disconnectedness and bipolar soft compactness properties for bipolar soft topological spaces. Moreover, we introduce the notion of bipolar soft disjoint sets, bipolar soft separation, and bipolar soft hereditary property and study on bipolar soft connected and disconnected spaces. By giving the detailed picture of bipolar soft connected and disconnected spaces we investigate bipolar soft compact spaces and derive some results related to this concept.
Wang, L; Nurzaman, SG; Iida, Fumiya
There has been a boost of research activities in robotics using soft materials in the past ten years. It is expected that the use and control of soft materials can help realize robotic systems that are safer, cheaper, and more adaptable than the level that the conventional rigid-material robots can achieve. Contrary to a number of existing review and position papers on soft-material robotics, which mostly present case studies and/or discuss trends and challenges, the review focuses on the fun...
Sørensen, Lene; Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui
’s interactive planning principles to be supported by soft approaches in carrying out the principles in action. These six soft approaches are suitable for supporting various steps of the strategy development and planning process. These are the SWOT analysis, the Future Workshop, the Scenario methodology......, Strategic Option Development and Analysis, Strategic Choice Approach and Soft Systems Methodology. Evaluations of each methodology are carried out using a conceptual framework in which the organisation, the result, the process and the technology of the specific approach are taken into consideration. Using...
Sørensen, Lene Tolstrup; Valqui Vidal, René Victor
's interactive planning principles to be supported by soft approaches in carrying out the principles in action. These six soft approaches are suitable forsupporting various steps of the strategy development and planning process. These are the SWOT analysis, the Future Workshop, the Scenario methodology......, Strategic Option Development and Analysis, Strategic Choice Approach and Soft Systems Methodology. Evaluations of each methodology are carried out using a conceptual framework in which the organisation, the result, the process and the technology of the specific approach are taken into consideration. Using...
Sørensen, Lene Tolstrup; Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui
's interactive planning principles to be supported by soft approaches in carrying out the principles in action. These six soft approaches are suitable forsupporting various steps of the strategy development and planning process. These are the SWOT analysis, the Future Workshop, the Scenario methodology......, Strategic Option Development and Analysis, Strategic Choice Approach and Soft Systems Methodology. Evaluations of each methodology are carried out using a conceptual framework in which the organisation, the result, the process and the technology of the specific approach are taken into consideration. Using...
Hönig, Václav; Švec, P.; Halas, Petr; Vavrušková, Zuzana; Tykalová, Hana; Kilian, Patrik; Vetišková, Vendula; Dorňáková, Veronika; Štěrbová, Jarmila; Šimonová, Zuzana; Erhart, Jan; Štěrba, Ján; Golovchenko, Maryna; Rudenko, Natalia; Grubhoffer, Libor
Roč. 6, č. 5 (2015), s. 559-567 ISSN 1877-959X R&D Projects: GA ČR GD206/09/H026; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0032 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 ; RVO:60077344 Keywords : tick * tick-borne encephalitis * ixodes ricinus * environmental factors * lyme borreliosis Subject RIV: FN - Epidemiology, Contagious Diseases ; Clinical Immunology; EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology (BC-A) Impact factor: 2.690, year: 2015 http://ac.els-cdn.com/S1877959X15000783/1-s2.0-S1877959X15000783-main.pdf?_tid=8785a702-8de3-11e5-bd28-00000aacb35f&acdnat=1447844587_a91b4e4d404a70fda98b06e4950edb11
Ticks transmit infectious diseases to humans and other animals. Genetic manipulation of these arthropods would allow the development of alternative disease control strategies. Interestingly, Agrobacterium tumefaciens (At) mediated T-DNA transfer has been recently shown to promote the genetic modific...
Dr. Sarah Hamer, Assistant Professor and Veterinary Ecologist with the College of Veterinary Medicine at Texas A&M University, discusses her investigation of ticks on wild birds in urban Chicago. Created: 12/21/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID). Date Released: 12/27/2012.
Oliveira, Karla A.; Pinter, Adriano; Medina-Sanchez, Aaron; Boppana, Venkata D.; Wikel, Stephen K.; Saito, Tais B.; Shelite, Thomas; Blanton, Lucas; Popov, Vsevolod; Teel, Pete D.; Walker, David H.; Galvao, Marcio A.M.; Mafra, Claudio
Real-time PCR of Amblyomma imitator tick egg masses obtained in Nuevo Leon State, Mexico, identified a Rickettsia species. Sequence analyses of 17-kD common antigen and outer membrane protein A and B gene fragments showed to it to be R. rickettsii, which suggested a potential new vector for this bacterium. PMID:20678325
Full Text Available Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV is transmitted to humans by bite of infected ticks or by direct contact with blood or tissues of viremic patients or animals. It causes to humans a severe disease with fatality up to 30%. The current knowledge about the vector-host-CCHFV interactions is very limited due to the high-level containment required for CCHFV studies. Among ticks, Hyalomma spp. are considered the most competent virus vectors. CCHFV evades the tick immune response, and following its replication in the lining of the tick's midgut, it is disseminated by the hemolymph in the salivary glands and reproductive organs. The introduction of salivary gland secretions into the host cells is the major route via which CCHFV enters the host. Following an initial amplification at the site of inoculation, the virus is spread to the target organs. Apoptosis is induced via both intrinsic and extrinsic pathways. Genetic factors and immune status of the host may affect the release of cytokines which play a major role in disease progression and outcome. It is expected that the use of new technology of metabolomics, transcriptomics and proteomics will lead to improved understanding of CCHFV-host interactions and identify potential targets for blocking the CCHFV transmission.
Schwarz, Alexandra; Valdés, James J.; Kotsyfakis, Michalis
Roč. 3, č. 3 (2012), s. 117-127 ISSN 1877-959X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP502/12/2409 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Cystatin * Cysteine proteases * Tick * Immunomodulators * Blood feeding * Midgut * Physiology Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 2.353, year: 2012
Jeffrey S. Ward; Scott C. Williams; Thomas E. Worthley
Japanese barberry (Berberis thunbergii) is classified as invasive in 20 states and four Canadian provinces. It is also established in another 11 states. In addition to forming dense thickets that can inhibit forest regeneration and native herbaceous plant populations, barberry understories can harbor greatly enhanced levels of blacklegged ticks (
Andersen, Svend Olav; Roepstorff, Peter
The proteins in the distensible alloscutal cuticle of the blood-feeding tick, Ixodes ricinus, have been characterized by electrophoresis and chromatography, two of the proteins were purified and their total amino acid sequence determined. They show sequence similarity to cuticular proteins from t...
Rushton, J. O.; Lecollinet, S.; Hubálek, Zdeněk; Svobodová, Petra; Lussy, H.; Nowotny, N.
Roč. 19, č. 4 (2013), s. 635-637 ISSN 1080-6040 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) * strains Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 7.327, year: 2013
The interaction of ticks with its environment as well as its natural hosts predisposes it to acquiring pathogens that could pose animal and human health risks. Identifying these pathogens could alert dog owners and others to reassess the predisposing factors and ensure control. The aim of the study was to identify the species ...
Conclusions: Although non-of the patients of our study has been diagnosed with Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever we informed all of them for the incubation period and call for observation during the time. Tick borne infections may present with vary of symptoms, the most sever of which is hemorrhagic diathesis and ...
Dual control of ticks and tsetse flies using deltamethrin through community participatory methods. M Ocaido, C P Otim, N M Okuna, C Ssekitto, D Kakaire, J Erume, R Z O Wafula, J Walubengo, G Musisi, Okello Bwangamoi, S Okure, W Ebiaru, G Monrad ...
Matei, Ioana Adriana; Kalmár, Zsuzsa; Magdaş, Cristian; Magdaş, Virginia; Toriay, Hortenzia; Dumitrache, Mirabela Oana; Ionică, Angela Monica; D'Amico, Gianluca; Sándor, Attila D; Mărcuţan, Daniel Ioan; Domşa, Cristian; Gherman, Călin Mircea; Mihalca, Andrei Daniel
Granulocytic anaplasmosis is a common vector-borne disease of humans and animals with natural transmission cycle that involves tick vectors, among which Ixodes ricinus is the most important. The present paper reports the prevalence and geographical distribution of A. phagocytophilum in 10,438 questing Ixodes ricinus ticks collected at 113 locations from 40 counties of Romania. The unfed ticks were examined for the presence of A. phagocytophilum by PCR targeting a portion of ankA gene. The overall prevalence of infection was 3.42%, with local prevalences ranging between 0.29% and 22.45%, with an average prevalence of 5.39% in the infected localities. The infection with A. phagocytophilum was detected in 72 out of 113 localities and in 34 out of 40 counties. The highest prevalence was recorded in females followed by males and nymphs. The results and the distribution model have shown a large distribution of A. phagocytophilum, covering Romania's entire territory. This study is the first large scale survey of the presence of A. phagocytophilum in questing I. ricinus ticks from Romania. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Hall-Mendelin, S; Craig, S B; Hall, R A
Ticks are obligate haematophagous ectoparasites of various animals, including humans, and are abundant in temperate and tropical zones around the world. They are the most important vectors for the pathogens causing disease in livestock and second only to mosquitoes as vectors of pathogens causing...
Dr. Matayo David
... extract for tick control in Small East African and Toggenburg female goat kids in Tanzania ... adoption rate by the local traditional small-scale resource poor farmers, etc.) (de Castro ..... SAS Institute Inc., Cary, North California. Saxena, R.C. ...
Hofmeester, Tim R.
Diseases that are transmitted by arthropod vectors from animal hosts to humans – so called zoonotic vector-borne diseases – have increased in incidence in the last decades. In North America and Europe, tick-borne pathogens cause the majority of vector-borne diseases, including Lyme borreliosis
The strategy developed for managing resistance in ticks with the acaricidal products on the market was based on mode of action of the active ingredients. The strategy requires the rotaional use of the acaricidal products in ways that reduces the selection pressure of active ingredients of same chemistry on the target-site in ...
Tsuji, Naotoshi; Battsetseg, Badgar; Boldbaatar, Damdinsuren; Miyoshi, Takeharu; Xuan, Xuenan; Oliver, James H; Fujisaki, Kozo
Antimicrobial peptides are major components of host innate immunity, a well-conserved, evolutionarily ancient defensive mechanism. Infectious disease-bearing vector ticks are thought to possess specific defense molecules against the transmitted pathogens that have been acquired during their evolution. We found in the tick Haemaphysalis longicornis a novel parasiticidal peptide named longicin that may have evolved from a common ancestral peptide resembling spider and scorpion toxins. H. longicornis is the primary vector for Babesia sp. parasites in Japan. Longicin also displayed bactericidal and fungicidal properties that resemble those of defensin homologues from invertebrates and vertebrates. Longicin showed a remarkable ability to inhibit the proliferation of merozoites, an erythrocyte blood stage of equine Babesia equi, by killing the parasites. Longicin was localized at the surface of the Babesia sp. parasites, as demonstrated by confocal microscopic analysis. In an in vivo experiment, longicin induced significant reduction of parasitemia in animals infected with the zoonotic and murine B. microti. Moreover, RNA interference data demonstrated that endogenous longicin is able to directly kill the canine B. gibsoni, thus indicating that it may play a role in regulating the vectorial capacity in the vector tick H. longicornis. Theoretically, longicin may serve as a model for the development of chemotherapeutic compounds against tick-borne disease organisms.
Nootkatone is a component of grapefruit oil that is toxic to the disease vectoring tick, Ixodes scapularis Say, but unfortunately causes phytotoxicity to treated plants and has a short residual activity due to volatility. We prepared an encapsulated formulation of nootkatone using lignin to compare...
Lyme disease is an infection caused by a bacteria that is transmitted by the bites of infected blacklegged ticks. In this podcast, Dr. Christina Nelson discusses ways to help prevent Lyme disease. Created: 5/14/2015 by MMWR. Date Released: 5/14/2015.
Cabezas Cruz, Alejandro; Estrada-Peňa, A.; Rego, Ryan O. M.; de la Fuente, J.
Roč. 7, 13 March (2017), č. článku 74. ISSN 2235-2988 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : tick-pathogen interactions * transcriptional reprogramming * epigenetics * ecological adaptation * Anaplasma phagocytophilum Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Biochemistry and molecular biology Impact factor: 4.300, year: 2016
Ticks transmit a variety of pathogenic organisms to vertebrates, especially mammals. The fossil record of such associations is extremely rare. An engorged nymphal tick of the genus Ambylomma in Dominican amber was surrounded by erythrocytes from its mammalian host. Some of the exposed erythrocytes contained developmental stages of a hemoprotozoan resembling members of the Order Piroplasmida. The fossil piroplasm is described, its stages compared with those of extant piroplasms, and reasons provided why the mammalian host could have been a primate. The parasites were also found in the gut epithelial cells and body cavity of the fossil tick. Aside from providing the first fossil mammalian red blood cells and the first fossil intraerythrocytic hemoparasites, the present discovery shows that tick-piroplasm associations were already well established in the Tertiary. This discovery provides a timescale that can be used in future studies on the evolution of the Piroplasmida. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com Version of Record, first published online March 20, 2017 with fixed content and layout in compliance with Art. 188.8.131.52 ICZN.
Wang, Hsiao-Hsuan; Grant, W E; Teel, P D; Hamer, S A
Tick vector systems are comprised of complex climate-tick-host-landscape interactions that are difficult to identify and estimate from empirical observations alone. We developed a spatially-explicit, individual-based model, parameterized to represent ecological conditions typical of the south-central United States, to examine effects of shifts in the seasonal occurrence of fluctuations of host densities on tick densities. Simulated shifts in the seasonal occurrence of periods of high and low host densities affected both the magnitude of unfed tick densities and the seasonality of tick development. When shifting the seasonal densities of all size classes of hosts (small, medium, and large) synchronously, densities of nymphs were affected more by smaller shifts away from the baseline host seasonality than were densities of larval and adult life stages. When shifting the seasonal densities of only a single size-class of hosts while holding other size classes at their baseline levels, densities of larval, nymph, and adult life stages responded differently. Shifting seasonal densities of any single host-class earlier resulted in a greater increase in adult tick density than when seasonal densities of all host classes were shifted earlier simultaneously. The mean densities of tick life stages associated with shifts in host densities resulted from system-level interactions of host availability with tick phenology. For example, shifting the seasonality of all hosts ten weeks earlier resulted in an approximately 30% increase in the relative degree of temporal co-occurrence of actively host-seeking ticks and hosts compared to baseline, whereas shifting the seasonality of all hosts ten weeks later resulted in an approximately 70% decrease compared to baseline. Differences among scenarios in the overall presence of active host-seeking ticks in the system were due primarily to the degree of co-occurrence of periods of high densities of unfed ticks and periods of high densities
Sykora, Tomas; The ATLAS collaboration
Recent results of soft QCD measurements performed by the ATLAS collaboration are reported. The measurements include total, elastic and inelastic cross sections, inclusive spectra, underlying event and particle correlations in p-p and p-Pb collisions.
García Sakai, Victoria; Chen, Sow-Hsin
Dynamics of Soft Matter: Neutron Applications provides an overview of neutron scattering techniques that measure temporal and spatial correlations simultaneously, at the microscopic and/or mesoscopic scale. These techniques offer answers to new questions arising at the interface of physics, chemistry, and biology. Knowledge of the dynamics at these levels is crucial to understanding the soft matter field, which includes colloids, polymers, membranes, biological macromolecules, foams, emulsions towards biological & biomimetic systems, and phenomena involving wetting, friction, adhesion, or micr
Eva Buller Viqueira
Full Text Available Introduction Rural primary health centers frequently treat patients with tick bites. This study compares everyday clinical practice at our primary healthcare center to practices recommended by current scientific evidence. Purpose To describe the everyday management of tick bites by different healthcare professionals and to compare this management to evidence-based therapy guidelines. Design Cross-sectional, descriptive observational study. Methods Data was collected through an anonymous self-completed questionnaire. The form was filled out by a consecutive sample of nurses, physicians and pediatricians of the clinical management unit of Medina-Sidonia (Cádiz. Results Most nurses in the sample group use some type of product to facilitate the extraction of the tick (10 of the 11 surveyed nurses, 90.9%. The most frequently used products were chloroethyl and local anesthetic. In addition, nine nurses use gentle traction with tweezers (81.82% to remove the tick. In the physician sample group, 3 out of 12 respondents (25% prescribe antibiotics in all cases and nine stated that they knew which antibiotic should be used as first choice. In both cases, a high number of healthcare providers confirm giving post-extraction advice to patients: 11 in the medical community (91.66% and nine nurses (81.82%. Conclusions We conclude that the performance of the healthcare providers that integrate this study does not closely follow general recommendations for extraction, treatment and follow-up care in patients with tick bites. Therefore, there is a need to improve the level of knowledge to ensure quality care in these instances.
Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Latrofa, Maria Stefania; Weigl, Stefania; Tarallo, Viviana Domenica; Lia, Riccardo Paolo; Otranto, Domenico
Hepatozoon canis is a common protozoan of dogs, being among the most prevalent tick-borne pathogens infecting dogs around the world. It is primarily transmitted by Rhipicephalus sanguineus, the brown dog tick. In this study we tested ticks collected from dogs and from the environment in order to track the origin of an outbreak of H. canis infection detected in October 2009 in a private dog shelter in southern Italy. Ticks from dogs (n = 267) were collected during the spring of 2009, whereas ticks from environment (n = 300) were found on sticky traps placed in the same shelter during the summer of 2009. All ticks were tested by PCR for the detection of a H. canis 18S ribosomal RNA gene fragment. Four (1.5%, one female and three males) ticks collected from dogs were PCR positive. None of the larvae collected from the environment were positive, but a relatively high infection rate (8.0%) was detected in nymphs. These findings point out that dogs became infected during the summer, when ticks were abundant and highly infected by H. canis. Moreover, this study suggests that castor oil sticky traps might be useful to collect engorged immature ticks in highly infested environments (e.g., dog shelters). This might be particularly interesting to evaluate the level of infection by certain pathogens in free-ranging ticks R. sanguineus, as done in the present study.
Sajid, Muhammad Sohail; Iqbal, Zafar; Khan, Muhammad Nisar; Muhammad, Ghulam; Khan, Muhammad Kasib
Bovine tick infestation is still a serious nuisance to livestock and the dairy industry of Pakistan. The current paper reports the prevalence and associated risk factors for bovine tick infestation in the districts Layyah and Muzaffargarh of lower Punjab, Pakistan. A questionnaire-based survey was conducted to identify and to quantify variation in the prevalence of bovine tick infestation with respect to host (age, species, sex, and breed) and environmental (geographical area and climate) determinants. Multiple stage cluster random sampling was used and 3500 cattle and buffaloes from the two districts were selected. Prevalence of bovine tick infestation was significantly higher (OR=1.95; p2025; 47.3%). Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum was the major tick species (33.5%; 1173/3500), followed by Rhipicephalus sanguineus (13%; 456/3500). The highest monthly prevalence in both the districts was found in July. Ticks were not found in Layyah from November to March and in Muzaffargarh from December to March. The average number of ticks was proportional to the prevalence of infestation. Also, tick infestation in a 7cmx7cm dewlap of the animal was proportional to that of the rest of body. Prevalence of tick infestation was associated (p<0.05) with district, host species and breed. In cattle, prevalence of tick infestation was associated (p<0.05) with age and sex of host. The results of this study provide better understanding of disease epidemiology in the study districts, which will help for planning of control strategies.
Vanessa do Nascimento Ramos
Full Text Available In this study, four methods for sampling free-living ticks that are used in ecological and human tick-bite risk studies were evaluated. Cloth dragging, carbon dioxide traps and visual searches and inspection of plant litter on the ground were used in field and forest areas within the Brazilian Pantanal. Among the three tick species collected, Amblyomma sculptum predominated, followed by Amblyomma parvum and Amblyomma ovale. Dragging, a cheap and simple technique, yielded the highest numbers of ticks, particularly nymphs. The visual search detected a high number of adult ticks and provided information on tick questing height. Even though laborious, plant litter examination showed that large numbers of ticks may use this stratum. Carbon dioxide (CO2 traps are expensive and difficult to handle, but they are highly efficient for adult ticks, especially A. parvum. These data indicate that one method alone is incapable of providing a representative sample of the tick fauna in a particular area and that multiple techniques should be used for tick population studies.
Full Text Available Lyme disease is the most common tick-borne disease in North America and Europe, and on-going surveillance is required to monitor the spread of the tick vectors as their populations expand under the influence of climate change. Active surveillance involves teams of researchers collecting ticks from field locations with the potential to be sites of establishing tick populations. This process is labor- and time-intensive, limiting the number of sites monitored and the frequency of monitoring. Citizen science initiatives are ideally suited to address this logistical problem and generate high-density and complex data from sites of community importance. In 2014, the same region was monitored by academic researchers, public health workers, and citizen scientists, allowing a comparison of the strengths and weaknesses of each type of surveillance effort. Four community members persisted with tick collections over several years, collectively recovering several hundred ticks. Although deviations from standard surveillance protocols and the choice of tick surveillance sites makes the incorporation of community-generated data into conventional surveillance analyses more complex, this citizen science data remains useful in providing high-density longitudinal tick surveillance of a small area in which detailed ecological observations can be made. Most importantly, partnership between community members and researchers has proven a powerful tool in educating communities about of the risk of tick-vectored diseases and in encouraging tick bite prevention.
Papa, Anna; Kontana, Anastasia; Tsioka, Katerina; Chaligiannis, Ilias; Sotiraki, Smaragda
Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is transmitted to humans mainly through the bite of infected ticks. In Greece, only one clinical case has been observed, in 2008, but the seroprevalence in humans is relatively high (4.2%). To have a first insight into the circulation of CCHFV in Greece, 2000 ticks collected from livestock during 2012-2014 were tested. CCHFV was detected in 36 of the 1290 (2.8%) tick pools (1-5 ticks per pool). Two genetic lineages were identified: Europe 1 and Europe 2. Most Europe 1 sequences were obtained from Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato ticks, while most Europe 2 sequences were recovered from Rhipicephalus bursa ticks. The number of collected Hyalomma marginatum ticks (the principal vector of CCHFV) was low (0.5% of ticks) and all were CCHFV negative. Since it is not known how efficient ticks of the Rhipicephalus genus are as vectors of the virus, laboratory studies will be required to explore the role of Rhipicephalus spp. ticks in CCHFV maintenance and transmission.
Full Text Available Background: Ixodid ticks (Acari: İxodidae and fleas (Siphonaptera are the major vectors of pathogens threatening animals and human healths. The aim of our study was to detect the infestation rates of East Hedgehogs (Erinaceus concolor with ticks and fleas in Van Province, eastern region of Turkey.Methods: We examined fleas and ticks infestation patterns in 21 hedgehogs, collected from three suburbs with the greater of number gardens. In order to estimate flea and tick infestation of hedgehogs, we immobilized the ectoparasites by treatment the body with a insecticide trichlorphon (Neguvon®-Bayer.Results: On the hedgehogs, 60 ixodid ticks and 125 fleas were detected. All of the ixodid ticks were Rhipicephalus turanicus and all of the fleas were Archaeopsylla erinacei. Infestation rate for ticks and fleas was detected 66.66 % and 100 %, respectively.Conclusion: We detected ticks (R. turanicus and fleas (A. erinacei in hedgehogs at fairly high rates. Since many ticks and fleas species may harbor on hedgehogs and transmit some tick-borne and flea-borne patogens, this results are the important in terms of veterinary and public health.
Yssouf, Amina; Almeras, Lionel; Terras, Jérôme; Socolovschi, Cristina; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe
Background Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has been shown to be an effective tool for the rapid identification of arthropods, including tick vectors of human diseases. Methodology/Principal Findings The objective of the present study was to evaluate the use of MALDI-TOF MS to identify tick species, and to determine the presence of rickettsia pathogens in the infected Ticks. Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Dermacentor marginatus Ticks infected or not by R. conorii conorii or R. slovaca, respectively, were used as experimental models. The MS profiles generated from protein extracts prepared from tick legs exhibited mass peaks that distinguished the infected and uninfected Ticks, and successfully discriminated the Rickettsia spp. A blind test was performed using Ticks that were laboratory-reared, collected in the field or removed from patients and infected or not by Rickettsia spp. A query against our in-lab arthropod MS reference database revealed that the species and infection status of all Ticks were correctly identified at the species and infection status levels. Conclusions/Significance Taken together, the present work demonstrates the utility of MALDI-TOF MS for a dual identification of tick species and intracellular bacteria. Therefore, MALDI-TOF MS is a relevant tool for the accurate detection of Rickettsia spp in Ticks for both field monitoring and entomological diagnosis. The present work offers new perspectives for the monitoring of other vector borne diseases that present public health concerns. PMID:25659152
Liyanaarachchi, D R; Rajakaruna, R S; Dikkumbura, A W; Rajapakse, R P V J
An island-wide collection of tick species infesting humans, domesticated and wild animals and questing ticks in domestic and peridomestic environments was carried out during 2009-2011. A total of 30,461 ticks were collected from 30 different hosts and free living stages from the ground. The collection consisted of 22 tick species from 30 different hosts recording 12 tick species from humans, 19 from domesticated animals and 21 from wild animals, with a total of 97 new host records. The most common tick species on humans were Dermacentor auratus and Amblyomma testudinairum, while Haemaphysalis intermedia, Rhipicephalus microplus and Rhipicephalus sanguineus were common in domesticated and wild animals sharing 20 host species. Among the questing ticks, immature D. auratus was the most abundant. Humans and domesticated animals were mostly infested by the nymphal stages while adult ticks were found on wild animals. High number of new host records could be due to domestic animals picking tick species from wildlife and vise versa at the human/animal interface. Habitat destruction due to forest fragmentation has lead to wild animals roaming in urban and semi-urban neighbourhoods increasing the interactions of wild animals with domesticated animals. Wild animals play a significant role as a reservoir of many tick borne infections which can easily be spread to domesticated animals and then to humans via tick infestations. Data in this paper are useful for those interested in tick infesting wild and domestic animals and humans in describing the zoonotic potential of tick borne infections. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Jeffrey M. Grabowski
Full Text Available Tick-borne flaviviruses (TBFs affect human health globally. Human vaccines provide protection against some TBFs, and antivirals are available, yet TBF-specific control strategies are limited. Advances in genomics offer hope to understand the viral complement transmitted by ticks, and to develop disruptive, data-driven technologies for virus detection, treatment, and control. The genome assemblies of Ixodes scapularis, the North American tick vector of the TBF, Powassan virus, and other tick vectors, are providing insights into tick biology and pathogen transmission and serve as nucleation points for expanded genomic research. Systems biology has yielded insights to the response of tick cells to viral infection at the transcript and protein level, and new protein targets for vaccines to limit virus transmission. Reverse vaccinology approaches have moved candidate tick antigenic epitopes into vaccine development pipelines. Traditional drug and in silico screening have identified candidate antivirals, and target-based approaches have been developed to identify novel acaricides. Yet, additional genomic resources are required to expand TBF research. Priorities include genome assemblies for tick vectors, “omic” studies involving high consequence pathogens and vectors, and emphasizing viral metagenomics, tick-virus metabolomics, and structural genomics of TBF and tick proteins. Also required are resources for forward genetics, including the development of tick strains with quantifiable traits, genetic markers and linkage maps. Here we review the current state of genomic research on ticks and tick-borne viruses with an emphasis on TBFs. We outline an ambitious 10-year roadmap for research in the “omics era,” and explore key milestones needed to accomplish the goal of delivering three new vaccines, antivirals and acaricides for TBF control by 2030.
Sumrandee, Chalao; Baimai, Visut; Trinachartvanit, Wachareeporn; Ahantarig, Arunee
A total of 79 ticks collected from Sambar deer (Cervus unicolor), Barking deer (Muntiacus muntjak) and Wild boar (Sus scrofa) were examined by PCR for the presence of Rickettsia, Anaplasma, Coxiella, and Francisella bacteria. Of the 79 ticks, 13% tested positive for Rickettsia, 15% tested positive for Anaplasma, 4% tested positive for Coxiella, and 3% tested positive for Francisella. Interestingly, triple infection with Anaplasma, Rickettsia and Francisella was determined in a Dermacentor auratus tick. Moreover, another triple infection with Rickettsia, Anaplasma, and Coxiella was found in a Haemaphysalis lagrangei tick. Double infection of Rickettsia with Coxiella was also detected in another H. lagrangei tick. From the phylogenetic analyses, we found a Rickettsia sp. with a close evolutionary relationship to Rickettsia bellii in the H. lagrangei tick. We also found the first evidence of a Rickettsia sp. that is closely related to Rickettsia tamurae in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus ticks from Thailand. H. lagrangei and Haemaphysalis obesa ticks collected from Sambar deer tested positive for Anaplasma species form the same clade with Anaplasma bovis. In contrast, other H. lagrangei ticks collected from Sambar deer and D. auratus ticks collected from Wild boar were also reported for the first time to be infected with an Anaplasma species that is closely related to Anaplasma platys. The phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene of Coxiella bacteria revealed that Coxiella symbionts from H. lagrangei formed a distinctly different lineage from Coxiella burnetii (a human pathogen). Additionally, Francisella bacteria identified in D. auratus ticks were found to be distantly related to a group of pathogenic Francisella species. The identification of these bacteria in several feeding ticks suggests the risk of various emerging tick-borne diseases and endosymbionts in humans, wildlife, and domestic animals in Thailand. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights
Chmelař, J.; Kotál, Jan; Langhansová, Helena; Kotsyfakis, Michalis
Roč. 7, MAY 29 (2017), č. článku 276. ISSN 2235-2988 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : tick-host interaction * immunomodulation * protease inhibitors * serpins * cystatins Subject RIV: EC - Immunology OBOR OECD: Immunology Impact factor: 4.300, year: 2016
Dubská, L.; Literák, I.; Kverek, P.; Roubalová, Eva; Kocianova, E.; Taragelova, V.
Roč. 3, č. 4 (2012), s. 265-268 ISSN 1877-959X Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : tick * Ixodes ricinus * Borrelia garinii * Anaplasma phagocytophilum * Rickettsia helvetica * Babesia sp. EU1 * Common nightingale Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.353, year: 2012 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1877959X12000556
Full Text Available Ticks are distributed worldwide and affect human and animal health by transmitting diverse infectious agents. Effective vaccines against most tick-borne pathogens are not currently available. In this study, we characterized a tick histamine release factor (tHRF from Ixodes scapularis and addressed the vaccine potential of this antigen in the context of tick engorgement and B. burgdorferi transmission. Results from western blotting and quantitative Reverse Transcription-PCR showed that tHRF is secreted in tick saliva, and upregulated in Borrelia burgdorferi-infected ticks. Further, the expression of tHRF was coincident with the rapid feeding phase of the tick, suggesting a role for tHRF in tick engorgement and concomitantly, for efficient B. burgdorferi transmission. Silencing tHRF by RNA interference (RNAi significantly impaired tick feeding and decreased B. burgdorferi burden in mice. Interfering with tHRF by actively immunizing mice with recombinant tHRF, or passively transferring tHRF antiserum, also markedly reduced the efficiency of tick feeding and B. burgdorferi burden in mice. Recombinant tHRF was able to bind to host basophils and stimulate histamine release. Therefore, we speculate that tHRF might function in vivo to modulate vascular permeability and increase blood flow to the tick bite-site, facilitating tick engorgement. These findings suggest that blocking tHRF might offer a viable strategy to complement ongoing efforts to develop vaccines to block tick feeding and transmission of tick-borne pathogens.
Ellis, Maureen; Kisling, Eric; Hackworth, Robbie G.
This study identifies the soft skills community colleges teach in an office technology course and determines whether the skills taught are congruent with the soft skills employers require in today's entry-level office work. A qualitative content analysis of a community college office technology soft skills course was performed using 23 soft skills…
Emerging and re-emerging tick-borne diseases threaten public health and the wellbeing of domestic animals and wildlife globally. The adoption of an evolutionary ecology framework aimed to diminish the impact of tick-borne diseases needs to be part of strategies to protect human and animal population...
Emerging and re-emerging tick-borne diseases threaten public health and the wellbeing of domestic animals and wildlife globally. The use of science-based technology to diminish the impact of tick-borne diseases should be an active research effort aimed to protect human and animal populations. Here, ...
Mihalca, Andrei D; Dumitrache, Mirabela O; Sándor, Attila D; Magdaş, Cristian; Oltean, Miruna; Györke, Adriana; Matei, Ioana A; Ionică, Angela; D'Amico, Gianluca; Cozma, Vasile; Gherman, Călin M
Ticks are among the most important vectors of zoonotic diseases in temperate regions of Europe, with widespread distribution and high densities, posing an important medical risk. Most ticks feed on a variety of progressively larger hosts, with a large number of small mammal species typically harbouring primarily the immature stages. However, there are certain Ixodidae that characteristically attack micromammals also during their adult stage. Rodents are widespread hosts of ticks, important vectors and competent reservoirs of tick-borne pathogens. Micromammal-tick associations have been poorly studied in Romania, and our manuscript shows the results of a large scale study on tick infestation epidemiology in rodents from Romania. Rodents were caught using snap-traps in a variety of habitats in Romania, between May 2010 and November 2011. Ticks were individually collected from these rodents and identified to species and development stage. Frequency, mean intensity, prevalence and its 95% confidence intervals were calculated using the EpiInfo 2000 software. A p value of Romania for the presence of ticks. Each collected tick was identified to species level and the following epidemiological parameters were calculated: prevalence, mean intensity and mean abundance. The total number of ticks collected from rodents was 483, with eight species identified: Ixodes ricinus, I. redikorzevi, I. apronophorus, I. trianguliceps, I. laguri, Dermacentor marginatus, Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Haemaphysalis sulcata. The overall prevalence of tick infestation was 29.55%, with a mean intensity of 3.86 and a mean abundance of 1.14. Only two polyspecific infestations were found: I. ricinus + I. redikorzevi and I. ricinus + D. marginatus. Our study showed a relatively high diversity of ticks parasitizing rodents in Romania. The most common tick in rodents was I. ricinus, followed by I. redikorzevi. Certain rodents seem to host a significantly higher number of tick species than others, the
Berger, Kathryn A.; Ginsberg, Howard S.; Dugas, Katherine D.; Hamel, Lutz H.; Mather, Thomas N.
Background: Lyme borreliosis (LB) is the most commonly reported vector-borne disease in north temperate regions worldwide, affecting an estimated 300,000 people annually in the United States alone. The incidence of LB is correlated with human exposure to its vector, the blacklegged tick (Ixodes scapularis). To date, attempts to model tick encounter risk based on environmental parameters have been equivocal. Previous studies have not considered (1) the differences between relative humidity (RH) in leaf litter and at weather stations, (2) the RH threshold that affects nymphal blacklegged tick survival, and (3) the time required below the threshold to induce mortality. We clarify the association between environmental moisture and tick survival by presenting a significant relationship between the total number of tick adverse moisture events (TAMEs - calculated as microclimatic periods below a RH threshold) and tick abundance each year.Methods: We used a 14-year continuous statewide tick surveillance database and corresponding weather data from Rhode Island (RI), USA, to assess the effects of TAMEs on nymphal populations of I. scapularis. These TAMEs were defined as extended periods of time (>8 h below 82% RH in leaf litter). We fit a sigmoid curve comparing weather station data to those collected by loggers placed in tick habitats to estimate RH experienced by nymphal ticks, and compiled the number of historical TAMEs during the 14-year record.Results: The total number of TAMEs in June of each year was negatively related to total seasonal nymphal tick densities, suggesting that sub-threshold humidity episodes >8 h in duration naturally lowered nymphal blacklegged tick abundance. Furthermore, TAMEs were positively related to the ratio of tick abundance early in the season when compared to late season, suggesting that lower than average tick abundance for a given year resulted from tick mortality and not from other factors.Conclusions: Our results clarify the mechanism
Rubini, A S; Paduan, K S; Martins, T F; Labruna, M B; O'Dwyer, L H
The present study aimed to evaluate under controlled conditions the acquisition of Hepatozoon canis by Amblyomma ovale after feeding on infected dogs, and the subsequent induction of infection in uninfected dogs that ingested the experimentally infected ticks. Two H. canis naturally infected dogs were infested with A. ovale adult ticks derived from an uninfected laboratory tick colony. After feeding, two A. ovale females presented H. canis oocysts in the hemolymph at the first and fourth days after removal of ticks from dogs. The oocysts had an average size of 244.34 microm x 255.46 microm. Three uninfected dogs were fed with ticks previously fed on the infected dogs. Only one dog became infected 32 days after oral inoculation, presenting circulating gametocytes, parasitemia less than 1%, and positive PCR confirmed to be H. canis by DNA sequencing. The results obtained indicated A. ovale ticks as potential vector of H. canis in rural areas of Brazil.
Coleman Glen T
Full Text Available Abstract Background There are few published reports on canine Babesia, Ehrlichia, Anaplasma, Hepatozoon and haemotropic Mycoplasma infections in India and most describe clinical disease in individual dogs, diagnosed by morphological observation of the microorganisms in stained blood smears. This study investigated the occurrence and distribution of canine tick-borne disease (TBD pathogens using a combination of conventional and molecular diagnostic techniques in four cities in India. Results On microscopy examination, only Hepatozoon gamonts were observed in twelve out of 525 (2.3%; 95% CI: 1.2, 4 blood smears. Using polymerase chain reaction (PCR, a total of 261 from 525 dogs (49.7%; 95% CI: 45.4, 54.1 in this study were infected with one or more canine tick-borne pathogen. Hepatozoon canis (30%; 95% CI: 26.0, 34.0 was the most common TBD pathogen found infecting dogs in India followed by Ehrlichia canis (20.6%; 95% CI: 17.2, 24.3, Mycoplasma haemocanis (12.2%; 95% CI: 9.5, 15.3, Anaplasma platys (6.5%; 95% CI: 4.5, 8.9, Babesia vogeli (5.5%, 95% CI: 3.7, 7.8 and Babesia gibsoni (0.2%, 95% CI: 0.01, 1.06. Concurrent infection with more than one TBD pathogen occurred in 39% of cases. Potential tick vectors, Rhipicephalus (most commonly and/or Haemaphysalis ticks were found on 278 (53% of dogs examined. Conclusions At least 6 species of canine tick-borne pathogens are present in India. Hepatozoon canis was the most common pathogen and ticks belonging to the genus Rhipicephalus were encountered most frequently. Polymerase chain reaction was more sensitive in detecting circulating pathogens compared with peripheral blood smear examination. As co-infections with canine TBD pathogens were common, Indian veterinary practitioners should be cognisant that the discovery of one such pathogen raises the potential for multiple infections which may warrant different clinical management strategies.
Azmi, Kifaya; Ereqat, Suheir; Nasereddin, Abedelmajeed; Al-Jawabreh, Amer; Baneth, Gad; Abdeen, Ziad
Ixodid ticks transmit various infectious agents that cause disease in humans and livestock worldwide. A cross-sectional survey on the presence of protozoan pathogens in ticks was carried out to assess the impact of tick-borne protozoa on domestic animals in Palestine. Ticks were collected from herds with sheep, goats and dogs in different geographic districts and their species were determined using morphological keys. The presence of piroplasms and Hepatozoon spp. was determined by PCR amplification of a 460-540bp fragment of the 18S rRNA gene followed by RFLP or DNA sequencing. A PCR-RFLP method based on the 18S rRNA was used in order to detect and to identify Hepatozoon, Babesia and Theileria spp. A total of 516 ticks were collected from animals in six Palestinian localities. Five tick species were found: Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato, Rhipicephalus turanicus, Rhipicephalus bursa, Haemaphysalis parva and Haemaphysalis adleri. PCR-based analyses of the ticks revealed Theileria ovis (5.4%), Hepatozoon canis (4.3%), Babesia ovis (0.6%), and Babesia vogeli (0.4%). Theileria ovis was significantly associated with ticks from sheep and with R. turanicus ticks (p<0.01). H. canis was detected only in R. sanguineus s.l. and was significantly associated with ticks from dogs (p<0.01). To our knowledge, this is the first report describing the presence of these pathogens in ticks collected from Palestine. Communicating these findings with health and veterinary professionals will increase their awareness, and contribute to improved diagnosis and treatment of tick-borne diseases. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier GmbH.
Khoo, Jing-Jing; Chen, Fezshin; Kho, Kai Ling; Ahmad Shanizza, Azzy Iyzati; Lim, Fang-Shiang; Tan, Kim-Kee; Chang, Li-Yen; AbuBakar, Sazaly
Ticks are vectors in the transmission of many important infectious diseases in human and animals. Ticks can be readily found in the semi-forested areas such as the settlements of the indigenous people in Malaysia, the Orang Asli. There is still minimal information available on the bacterial agents associated with ticks found in Malaysia. We performed a survey of the bacterial communities associated with ticks collected from domestic animals found in two Orang Asli villages in Malaysia. We collected 62 ticks, microscopically and molecularly identified as related to Haemaphysalis wellingtoni, Haemaphysalis hystricis and Haemaphysalis bispinosa. Bacterial 16s rRNA hypervariable region (V6) amplicon libraries prepared from the tick samples were sequenced on the Ion Torrent PGM platform. We detected a total of 392 possible bacterial genera after pooling and sequencing 20 samples, indicating a diverse bacterial community profile. Dominant taxa include the potential tick endosymbiont, Coxiella. Other dominant taxa include the tick-associated pathogen, Rickettsia, and environmental bacteria such as Bacillus, Mycobacterium, Sphingomonas and Pseudomonas. Other known tick-associated bacteria were also detected, including Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, Rickettsiella and Wolbachia, albeit at very low abundance. Specific PCR was performed on selected samples to identify Rickettsia and Coxiella. Sequence of Rickettsia felis, which causes spotted fever in human and cats, was identified in one sample. Coxiella endosymbionts were detected in three samples. This study provides the baseline knowledge of the microbiome of ticks in Malaysia, focusing on tick-associated bacteria affecting the Orang Asli communities. The role of the herein found Coxiella and Rickettsia in tick physiology or disease transmission merits further investigation. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.
Van Treuren, Will; Ponnusamy, Loganathan; Brinkerhoff, R Jory; Gonzalez, Antonio; Parobek, Christian M; Juliano, Jonathan J; Andreadis, Theodore G; Falco, Richard C; Ziegler, Lorenza Beati; Hathaway, Nicholas; Keeler, Corinna; Emch, Michael; Bailey, Jeffrey A; Roe, R Michael; Apperson, Charles S; Knight, Rob; Meshnick, Steven R
Ixodes scapularis is the principal vector of Lyme disease on the East Coast and in the upper Midwest regions of the United States, yet the tick is also present in the Southeast, where Lyme disease is absent or rare. A closely related species, I. affinis, also carries the pathogen in the South but does not seem to transmit it to humans. In order to better understand the geographic diversity of the tick, we analyzed the microbiota of 104 adult I. scapularis and 13 adult I. affinis ticks captured in 19 locations in South Carolina, North Carolina, Virginia, Connecticut, and New York. Initially, ticks from 4 sites were analyzed by 454 pyrosequencing. Subsequently, ticks from these sites plus 15 others were analyzed by sequencing with an Illumina MiSeq machine. By both analyses, the microbiomes of female ticks were significantly less diverse than those of male ticks. The dissimilarity between tick microbiomes increased with distance between sites, and the state in which a tick was collected could be inferred from its microbiota. The genus Rickettsia was prominent in all locations. Borrelia was also present in most locations and was present at especially high levels in one site in western Virginia. In contrast, members of the family Enterobacteriaceae were very common in North Carolina I. scapularis ticks but uncommon in I. scapularis ticks from other sites and in North Carolina I. affinis ticks. These data suggest substantial variations in the Ixodes microbiota in association with geography, species, and sex. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.
Ham??kov?, Zuzana; Kazim?rov?, M?ria; Haru?tiakov?, Danka; Mahr?kov?, Lenka; Slov?k, Mirko; Berthov?, Lenka; Kocianov?, Elena; Schnittger, Leonhard
Background Babesiosis is an emerging and potentially zoonotic disease caused by tick-borne piroplasmids of the Babesia genus. New genetic variants of piroplasmids with unknown associations to vectors and hosts are recognized. Data on the occurrence of Babesia spp. in ticks and wildlife widen the knowledge on the geographical distribution and circulation of piroplasmids in natural foci. Questing and rodent-attached ticks, rodents, and birds were screened for the presence of Babesia-specific DN...
Liu, Xiang-Ye; Gong, Xiang-Yao; Zheng, Chen; Song, Qi-Yuan; Chen, Ting; Wang, Jing; Zheng, Jie; Deng, Hong-Kuan; Zheng, Kui-Yang
Ticks are able to transmit various pathogens-viruses, bacteria, and parasites-to their host during feeding. Several molecular epidemiological surveys have been performed to evaluate the risk of tick-borne pathogens in China, but little is known about pathogens circulating in ticks from eastern China. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the presence of bacteria and parasites in ticks collected from Xuzhou, a 11258km 2 region in eastern China. In the present study, ticks were collected from domestic goats and grasses in urban districts of Xuzhou region from June 2015 to July 2016. After tick species identification, the presence of tick-borne bacterial and parasitic pathogens, including Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi, Rickettsia sp., Bartonella sp., Babesia sp., and Theileria sp., was established via conventional or nested polymerase chain reaction assays (PCR) and sequence analysis. Finally, a total of 500 questing adult ticks, identified as Haemaphysalis longicornis, were investigated. Among them, 28/500 tick samples (5.6%) were infected with A. phagocytophilum, and 23/500 (4.6%) with Theileria luwenshuni, whereas co-infection with these pathogens was detected in only 1/51 (2%) of all infected ticks. In conclusion, H. longicornis is the dominant tick species in the Xuzhou region and plays an important role in zoonotic pathogen transmission. Both local residents and animals are at a significant risk of exposure to anaplasmosis and theileriosis, due to the high rates of A. phagocytophilum and T. luwenshuni tick infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Lansdowne, Chatwin; Steele, Glen; Zucha, Joan; Schlesinger, Adam
We describe the benefit of using closed-loop measurements for a radio receiver paired with a counterpart transmitter. We show that real-time analysis of the soft decision output of a receiver can provide rich and relevant insight far beyond the traditional hard-decision bit error rate (BER) test statistic. We describe a Soft Decision Analyzer (SDA) implementation for closed-loop measurements on single- or dual- (orthogonal) channel serial data communication links. The analyzer has been used to identify, quantify, and prioritize contributors to implementation loss in live-time during the development of software defined radios. This test technique gains importance as modern receivers are providing soft decision symbol synchronization as radio links are challenged to push more data and more protocol overhead through noisier channels, and software-defined radios (SDRs) use error-correction codes that approach Shannon's theoretical limit of performance.
of Denmark, and finally the third layer: the leadership used in Danish schools. The use of 'soft governance' is shifting the focus of governance and leadership from decisions towards influence and power and thus shifting the focus of the processes from the decision-making itself towards more focus......The governance and leadership at transnational, national and school level seem to be converging into a number of isomorphic forms as we see a tendency towards substituting 'hard' forms of governance, that are legally binding, with 'soft' forms based on persuasion and advice. This article analyses...... and discusses governance forms at several levels. The first layer is the global: the methods of 'soft governance' that are being utilised by transnational agencies. The second layer is the national and local: the shift in national and local governance seen in many countries, but here demonstrated in the case...
Arthur M. Spickett
Full Text Available Ticks, as vectors of disease and damage agents, impact directly and indirectly on the economy of the livestock industry in southern Africa. This study surveyed the occurrence and distribution of ticks infesting livestock across the North West province, South Africa. During three phases in consecutive years, officers of the provincial Veterinary Department collected specimens monthly from livestock hosts at specified sites across the province. Data analysis constituted the fourth phase of the study. A total of 1090 collections from 265 sites yielded 42 566 tick specimens, comprising 22 different tick species (18 ixodids, 4 argasids. The specimens represent all of the major tick vectors of disease that occur in South Africa. The major tick-borne diseases (i.e. heartwater, both African and Asiatic bovine babesiosis and anaplasmosis were found to be prevalent mainly in the north-eastern region of the province, which also displayed the highest tick species diversity. The central region appears transitory to some of the major vectors. Although some tick species were contained within specific regions, others were widespread across the province. Associated serology data show that most herds sampled in areas endemic for babesiosis and anaplasmosis in the north-eastern region are endemically unstable and at risk to these tick-borne diseases should vector control measures become ineffective.
Full Text Available In a cross sectional survey conducted during the period June 2001 to July 2002, the geographical distribution of ticks on cattle in the Sudan was determined. Seventeen locations were surveyed from Northern, Central, Eastern, Western, Blue Nile and White Nile Provinces. Total body collections of ticks were made from 20 cattle at each location. Four tick genera and 11 species were identified. The tick species collected included Amblyomma lepidum, Amblyomma variegatum, Boophilus decoloratus, Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum, Hyalomma dromedarii, Hyalomma impeltatum, Hyalomma marginatum rufipes, Hyalomma truncatum, Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi, Rhipicephalus sanguineus group and Rhipicephalus simus simus. Major ecological changes have occurred due to extensive animal movement, deforestation, desertification and establishment of large mechanized agricultural schemes. These factors have certainly affected the distribution of ticks and tick-borne diseases in the Sudan. The absence of A. variegatum and A. lepidum in northern Sudan was not surprising, since these tick species are known to survive in humid areas and not in the desert and semi-desert areas of northern Sudan. The absence of B. annulatus in northern and central Sudan is in accordance with the finding that this tick species is restricted to the southern parts of the central Sudan. The presence of H. anatolicum anatolicum in Um Benin in relatively high abundance is an interesting finding. The present finding may indicate that the southern limit of this species has changed and moved southwards to latitude 13o N. It is concluded that major changes in tick distribution have taken place in the Sudan
Kopacek, Petr; Hajdusek, Ondrej; Buresova, Veronika
Ticks are blood feeding parasites transmitting a wide variety of pathogens to their vertebrate hosts. The transmitted pathogens apparently evolved efficient mechanisms enabling them to evade or withstand the cellular or humoral immune responses within the tick vector. Despite its importance, our knowledge of tick innate immunity still lags far beyond other well established invertebrate models, such as drosophila, horseshoe crab or mosquitoes. However, the recent release of the American deer tick, Ixodes scapularis, genome and feasibility of functional analysis based on RNA interference (RNAi) facilitate the development of this organism as a full-value model for deeper studies of vector-pathogen interactions.
Delgado, Juan D; Abreu-Yanes, Estefanía; Abreu-Acosta, Néstor; Flor, Manuel D; Foronda, Pilar
Roads fragment vertebrate populations and affect the dynamics and dispersal patterns of vertebrate parasites. We evaluated how vertebrate ticks distribute near roads and road underpasses in human-caused road-fragmented landscapes in Seville, SW Spain. We sampled 49 stations with 93 individualized sampling points and assessed tick abundance. We explored the relationship between tick presence and abundance and distance to the nearest road and underpass (drainage culverts and other passages used by vertebrates), and landscape features through categorical regression and nonparametric statistics. The presence of the tick-borne pathogens Borrelia sp. and Bartonella sp. was also analyzed by PCR. We found preliminary evidence of high relative tick abundance next to roads and in the vicinity of road underpasses. Plant cover type was related to tick presence in this road context. Implications of road permeability and edge effect in patterns of vertebrate-tick relationships in road fragmentation contexts are discussed. Both Borrelia sp. and Bartonella sp. were detected in the ticks analyzed. This is the first report of these bacteria in ticks from Seville. The results confirm the potential risk of acquiring Lyme disease and bartonellosis in this area.
Full Text Available Ticks are vectors of pathogens affecting human and animal health worldwide. Nevertheless, the ecological and evolutionary interactions between ticks, hosts, and pathogens are largely unknown. Here, we integrated a framework to evaluate the associations of the tick Ixodes ricinus with its hosts and environmental niches that impact pathogen circulation. The analysis of tick-hosts association suggested that mammals and lizards were the ancestral hosts of this tick species, and that a leap to Aves occurred around 120 M years ago. The signature of the environmental variables over the host's phylogeny revealed the existence of two clades of vertebrates diverging along a temperature and vegetation split. This is a robust proof that the tick probably experienced a colonization of new niches by adapting to a large set of new hosts, Aves. Interestingly, the colonization of Aves as hosts did not increase significantly the ecological niche of I. ricinus, but remarkably Aves are super-spreaders of pathogens. The disparate contribution of Aves to the tick-host-pathogen networks revealed that I. ricinus evolved to maximize habitat overlap with some hosts that are super-spreaders of pathogens. These results supported the hypothesis that large host networks are not a requirement of tick survival but pathogen circulation. The biological cost of tick adaptation to non-optimal environmental conditions might be balanced by molecular mechanisms triggered by the pathogens that we have only begun to understand.
Full Text Available Aim: Ticks are obligate blood feeding ectoparasites of vertebrates and induce huge production loss in livestock industry and creating serious public health problems in the world. This study was conducted to explore ethnoveterinary practices that are performed by livestock owners to control tick infestation in some districts of North Gondar, Ethiopia and to identify potential herbal materials used to control tick infestation in livestock. Materials and methods: Three districts of the zone were selected from each agroecological zones. The data were collected using semi-structured questionnaire and field observation. Sixty randomly selected livestock owners were used as the source of information. Results: Tick infestation is prevalent in all districts. Loss of body condition, disease transmission and damage on the skin were most commonly mentioned effects of tick infestation on the animals. The most commonly used tick control methods were use of acaricides and manual removal, however, use of herbs, washing with soap and cutting with sharp materials were also mentioned by respondents. Nine potential medicinal plants were identified that could be used to kill or repel ticks. Conclusion: Tick infestation is the problem in the districts. Livestock owners use different techniques to remove tick from the animals and their effectiveness has to be evaluated. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2013; 2(2.000: 85-90
Full Text Available Rickettsiosis is a potentially fatal tick borne disease. It is caused by the obligate intracellular bacteria Rickettsia, which is transferred to humans through salivary excretions of ticks during the biting process. Globally, the incidence of tick-borne diseases is increasing; as such, there is a need for a greater understanding of tick–host interactions to create more informed risk management strategies. Flinders Island spotted fever rickettsioses has been identified throughout Australia (Tasmania, South Australia, Queensland and Torres Strait Islands with possible identifications in Thailand, Sri Lanka and Italy. Flinders Island spotted fever is thought to be spread through tick bites and the reptile tick Bothriocroton hydrosauri has been implicated as a vector in this transmission. This study used qPCR to assay Bothriocroton hydrosauri ticks collected from Tiliqua rugosa (sleepy lizard hosts on mainland South Australia near where spotted fever cases have been identified. We report that, although we discovered Rickettsia in all tick samples, it was not Rickettsia honei. This study is the first to use PCR to positively identify Rickettsia from South Australian Bothriocroton hydrosauri ticks collected from Tiliqua rugosa (sleepy lizard hosts. These findings suggest that B. hydrosauri may be a vector of multiple Rickettsia spp. Also as all 41 tested B. hydrosauri ticks were positive for Rickettsia this indicates an extremely high prevalence within the studied area in South Australia.
Wood, Heidi; Dillon, Liz; Patel, Samir N; Ralevski, Filip
Relatively little is known about the prevalence of rickettsial species in Dermacentor ticks in eastern Canada. In this study, Dermacentor ticks from the province of Ontario, Canada, were tested for the presence of spotted fever group rickettsial (SFGR) species, Coxiella burnetii and Francisella tularensis. Rickettsia rickettsii was not detected in any ticks tested, but R. montanensis was detected at a prevalence of 2.2% in D. variabilis (17/778). Two other SFGR species, R. parkeri and Candidatus R. andeanae, were detected individually in 2 Amblyomma maculatum ticks. Rickettsia peacockii, a non-pathogenic endosymbiont, was detected in two D. andersonii ticks. Given the highly abundant nature of D. variabilis, surveillance for human pathogens in this species of tick has important public health implications, but the lack of detection of known human pathogens indicates a low risk of infection via this tick species in Ontario. However, the detection of R. parkeri in an adventive A. maculatum tick indicates that health care providers should be aware of the possibility of spotted fever rickettsioses in individuals with a history of travel outside of Ontario and symptoms compatible with a spotted fever rickettsiosis. Coxiella burnetii and Francisella tularensis, human pathogens also potentially transmitted by D. variabilis, were not detected in a subset of the ticks. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Ica, A; Vatansever, Z; Yildirim, A; Duzlu, O; Inci, A
The present study was carried out to detect tick species that infest cattle, and Theileria and Babesia species transmitted by these ticks in Kayseri province (Turkey). A total of 300 cattle were examined for tick infestations. Of the 300 cattle, 117 (39%) were infested with ticks. A total of 1160 ticks belonging to 11 Ixodid genera were collected from the infested animals and their shelters. The most prevalent tick species was Boophilus annulatus 26.37% (306/1160) followed by Hyalomma marginatum marginatum 21.12% (245/1160) and Rhipicephalus turanicus 18.7% (217/1160). The collected ticks were separated into 43 tick pools, according to their species. These pools were examined for bovine Theileria and Babesia species (Theileria sp., Babesia sp., Theileria annulata, T. buffeli/orientalis, Babesia bigemina, B. bovis and B. divergens) by using the reverse line blotting method (RLB). Of the 43 tick pools examined, 6 (14%) were infected with B. bigemina, 4 (9.3%) with T. annulata, and 1 (2.3%) with Babesia sp., whereas 1 (2.3%) displayed mixed infection with T. annulata + B. bigemina. The sequence and phylogenetic analyses of Babesia sp., which could not be identified to the species level by RLB, were performed. In the phylogenetic tree, Babesia sp. (Kayseri 1) grouped with Babesia sp. (Kashi 2), Babesia sp. (Kashi 1), Babesia sp. (Xinjiang) and B. orientalis with 96.8-100% identity.
Movila, A; Deriabina, T; Morozov, A; Sitnicova, N; Toderas, I; Uspenskaia, I; Alekhnovici, A
The Chernobyl nuclear disaster resulted in contamination of vast areas in Europe. To date, there is little knowledge about the effects of radioactive contamination on tick species. We sampled ticks from vegetation and large-sized wild mammals belonging to orders Carnivora and Artiodactyla at sites with 0.76, 1.91, and 4.50 mSv/hr ionizing radiation background values in the Polesky State Radio-Ecological Reserve of the Chernobyl nuclear disaster zone in spring 2010. Altogether, 122 questing ticks were collected from vegetation. Among collected ticks, Dermacentor reticulatus (Fabricius) was, by far, the most abundant species (99.2%), followed by Ixodes ricnus (L.) (0.8%), which was collected only at the 0.76 mSv/hr site. The average sex ratio female∶male was 2.9∶1.0. In parallel with the present study, we examined 3 Sus scrofa (L.), 2 Nyctereutes procyonoides (Gray), and 1 Alces alces (L.) at the 4.50 mSv/hr site; 96 D. reticulatus ticks were found on 2 N. procyonoides specimens. The mean density and the intensity of infestation were 16 ticks per animal and 48 ticks per infested animal, respectively. Future investigations are warranted to further characterize the role of various tick vectors, vertebrate reservoirs, and diversity of tick-borne pathogens in the Chernobyl exclusion zone.
Healy, John A E; Bourke, Patrick
Ongoing work in oak woods in Killarney National Park in southwestern Ireland is focusing on the factors influencing the fine-scale aggregated distribution of Ixodes ricinus L. (Acari: Ixodidae) on the ground. The extent of reuse of stems of vegetation as questing points by adult ticks was determined by paint-marking stems on which ticks were found, counting and removing these ticks, and subsequently reexamining the same stems for ticks on two further occasions. Overall, an estimated 2,967 stems in 123 separate rush plants (Juncus effusus L.) were examined. Statistical analysis of the data demonstrated a highly significant reoccupancy by ticks of stems previously and recently used. Furthermore, it is shown that the extent of stem reuse by ticks is significantly and positively correlated with the numbers of ticks originally observed on those stems. Although other factors may be involved in generating clumping of ticks, the results are compatible with the proposition that aggregation of I. ricinus on the ground is pheromone-mediated. The findings are discussed in relation to what is known about the powers of lateral movement of I. ricinus on the ground and the possible implications for the performance of tick traps.
Maor, Uri; Tel Aviv Univ.
The role of s-channel unitarity screening corrections, calculated in the eikonal approximation, is investigated for soft Pomeron exchange responsible for elastic and diffractive hadron scattering in the high energy limit. We examine the differences between our results and those obtained from the supercritical Pomeron-Regge model with no such corrections. It is shown that screening saturation is attained at different scales for different channels. We then proceed to discuss the new HERA data on hard (PQCD) Pomeron diffractive channels and discuss the relationship between the soft and hard Pomerons and the relevance of our analysis to this problem. (author). 18 refs, 9 figs, 1 tab
This book provides a concise introduction to soft matter modelling. It offers an up-to-date review of continuum mechanical description of soft and biological materials from the basics to the latest scientific materials. It includes multi-physics descriptions, such as chemo-, thermo-, electro- mechanical coupling. It derives from a graduate course at Technion that has been established in recent years. It presents original explanations for some standard materials and features elaborated examples on all topics throughout the text. PowerPoint lecture notes can be provided to instructors. .
Full Text Available Serious systemic diseases such as Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever, Lyme Disease, tularemia, typhus and Q fever can be transmitted by ticks. An 8-year-old boy and a 34-year-old woman were brought to our clinic with ear pains. No symptoms such as fever, headache or lethargy to suggest CCHF were present. The patients both lived in rural areas and were engaged in farming. Full blood count, liver and kidney function tests and serum electrolytes were within normal limits at laboratory tests. Prothrombin time, partial thromboplastin time and INR were normal. The tick was grasped with alligator forceps and removed from the outer ear in one piece with the help of 0-degree rigid otoendoscopy.
Full Text Available In 1995 Smarandache introduced the concept of neutrosophic set which is a mathematical tool for handling problems involving imprecise, indeterminacy and inconsistent data. In 2013 Maji introduced the concept of neutrosophic soft set theory as a general mathematical tool for dealing with uncertainty. In this paper we define the notion of a mapping on classes where the neutrosophic soft classes are collections of neutrosophic soft set. We also define and study the properties of neutrosophic soft images and neutrosophic soft inverse images of neutrosophic soft sets.
Chmelař, Jindřich; Calvo, E.; Pedra, J. H. F.; Francischetti, I.M.B.; Kotsyfakis, Michalis
Roč. 75, č. 13 (2012), s. 3842-3854 ISSN 1874-3919 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP502/12/2409 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Tick * Salivary gland * Hemostasis * Coagulation * Platelet aggregation * Thrombin Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.088, year: 2012 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S187439191200245X
Dilcher, Meik; Faye, Oumar; Faye, Ousmane; Weber, Franziska; Koch, Andrea; Sadegh, Chinikar; Weidmann, Manfred; Sall, Amadou Alpha
Rhabdoviridae infect a wide range of vertebrates, invertebrates and plants. Their transmission can occur via various arthropod vectors. In recent years, a number of novel rhabdoviruses have been identified from various animal species, but so far only few tick-transmitted rhabdoviruses have been described. We isolated a novel rhabdovirus, provisionally named Zahedan rhabdovirus (ZARV), from Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum ticks collected in Iran. The full-length genome was determined using 454 next-generation sequencing and the phylogenetic relationship to other rhabdoviruses was analyzed. Inoculation experiments in mammalian Vero cells and mice were conducted and a specific PCR assay was developed. The complete genome of ZARV has a size of 11,230 nucleotides (nt) with the typical genomic organization of Rhabdoviridae. Phylogenetic analysis confirms that ZARV is closely related to Moussa virus (MOUV) from West Africa and Long Island tick rhabdovirus (LITRV) from the U.S., all forming a new monophyletic clade, provisionally designated Zamolirhabdovirus, within the Dimarhabdovirus supergroup. The glycoprotein (G) contains 12 conserved cysteins which are specific for animal rhabdoviruses infecting fish and mammals. In addition, ZARV is able to infect mammalian Vero cells and is lethal for mice when inoculated intracerebrally or subcutaneously. The developed PCR assay can be used to specifically detect ZARV. The novel tick-transmitted rhabdovirus ZARV is closely related to MOUV and LITRV. All three viruses seem to form a new monophyletic clade. ZARV might be pathogenic for mammals, since it can infect Vero cells, is lethal for mice and its glycoprotein contains 12 conserved cysteins only found in animal rhabdoviruses. The mammalian host of ZARV remains to be identified.
II. Maturation and pherumone activity. 15 J. * V IBID 20: 424-439. Gaber , S.H.A., G.M. Khalil, D.E. Sonenshine, and M.A. Moez. Precocene-2 effects on...the camel tick, Hyalomma dromedarii. I. Adult responses. IBID 20: 534-540. Khalil, G.M., S.H.A. Gaber , D.E. Sonenshine, and S.M. Gad. IBID. 2. Larval
Sojka, Daniel; Pytelková, Jana; Perner, Jan; Horn, Martin; Konvičková, Jitka; Schrenková, Jana; Mareš, Michael; Kopáček, Petr
Roč. 7, č. 4 (2016), s. 604-613 ISSN 1877-959X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-11043S; GA ČR GA14-33693S; GA MŠk LO1302 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 ; RVO:61388963 Keywords : albumin digestion * tick * proteolysis * gut Subject RIV: ED - Physiology; CE - Biochemistry (UOCHB-X) Impact factor: 3.230, year: 2016
Sojka, Daniel; Franta, Zdeněk; Horn, Martin; Caffrey, C. R.; Mareš, Michael; Kopáček, Petr
Roč. 29, č. 6 (2013), s. 276-285 ISSN 1471-4922 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-11043S; GA ČR(CZ) GAP207/10/2183; GA ČR GPP502/11/P682; GA AV ČR IAA600960910 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 ; RVO:61388963 Keywords : tick * Ixodes * hemoglobin * digestion * peptidase * cathepsin Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 6.217, year: 2013
disease agents such as protozoa, viruses, bacteria , rickettsiae and toxins. Ticks may also cause Irritation and discomfnrt directly as a result of their...1959). 64. Bustamante, M.E., and G. Varela. Une nueva rickettslosis en Mexico. Existencia do a& fiebra manchada americana en los estados do Sinaloa...2: 76-81 (1951). 76. Serre, P.A. Insectes piquantes et parasites au Costa Rica. Bull Mus Hist Mat, Paris. 27: 170-172 (1921). * 77. Cerny, V. Nuevas
Ahantarig, A.; Růžek, Daniel; Vancová, Marie; Janowitz, A.; Šťastná, Hana; Tesařová, Martina; Grubhoffer, Libor
Roč. 52, č. 5 (2009), s. 283-290 ISSN 0300-5526 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/06/1479; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06009 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : tick-borne encephalitis * macrophage s * electron microscopy Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.106, year: 2009
Eyer, L.; Valdés, James J.; Gil, V.A.; Nencka, Radim; Hřebabecký, Hubert; Šála, Michal; Salát, J.; Černý, Jiří; Palus, Martin; De Clercq, E.; Růžek, Daniel
Roč. 59, č. 9 (2015), s. 5483-5493 ISSN 0066-4804 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP502/11/2116; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0032 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 ; RVO:61388963 Keywords : tick-borne encephalitis virus * infection * molecular analyses Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology; CC - Organic Chemistry (UOCHB-X) Impact factor: 4.415, year: 2015
Danielle K Offerdahl
Full Text Available The tick-borne flaviviruses (TBFV occur worldwide and the tick-borne encephalitis virus members of the group (TBEV often cause severe, debilitating neurological disease in humans. Although the primary route of infection is through the bite of an infected tick, alimentary infection through the consumption of TBEV-contaminated dairy products is also well-documented and is responsible for some disease in endemic areas. Experimental infection of goats, cattle, and sheep with TBEV shows that virus can be excreted in the milk of infected animals. Additionally, the virus remains infectious after exposure to low pH levels, similar to those found in the stomach. To evaluate survival of virus in milk, we studied the stability of the BSL-2 TBFV, Langat virus, in unpasteurized goat milk over time and after different thermal treatments. Virus was stable in milk maintained under refrigeration conditions; however, there was a marked reduction in virus titer after incubation at room temperature. High temperature, short time pasteurization protocols completely inactivated the virus. Interestingly, simulation of a typical thermal regime utilized for cheese did not completely inactivate the virus in milk. These findings stress the importance of proper milk handling and pasteurization processes in areas endemic for TBEV.
Offerdahl, Danielle K; Clancy, Niall G; Bloom, Marshall E
The tick-borne flaviviruses (TBFV) occur worldwide and the tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) members of the group often cause severe, debilitating neurological disease in humans. Although the primary route of infection is through the bite of an infected tick, alimentary infection through the consumption of TBEV-contaminated dairy products is also well-documented and is responsible for some disease in endemic areas. Experimental infection of goats, cattle, and sheep with TBEV shows that the virus can be excreted in the milk of infected animals. Additionally, the virus remains infectious after exposure to low pH levels, similar to those found in the stomach. To evaluate the survival of virus in milk, we studied the stability of the BSL-2 TBFV, Langat virus, in unpasteurized goat milk over time and after different thermal treatments. Virus was stable in milk maintained under refrigeration conditions; however, there was a marked reduction in virus titer after incubation at room temperature. High temperature, short time pasteurization protocols completely inactivated the virus. Interestingly, simulation of a typical thermal regime utilized for cheese did not completely inactivate the virus in milk. These findings stress the importance of proper milk handling and pasteurization processes in areas endemic for TBEV.
Lv, Jizhou; Fernández de Marco, Maria Del Mar; Goharriz, Hooman; Phipps, L Paul; McElhinney, Lorraine M; Hernández-Triana, Luis M; Wu, Shaoqiang; Lin, Xiangmei; Fooks, Anthony R; Johnson, Nicholas
Ticks host a wide range of zoonotic pathogens and are a significant source of diseases that affect humans and livestock. However, little is known about the pathogens associated with bat ticks. We have collected ectoparasites from bat carcasses over a seven year period. Nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) were extracted from 296 ticks removed from bats and the species designation was confirmed in all ticks as Argas (Carios) vespertilionis. A subset of these samples (n = 120) were tested for the presence of zoonotic pathogens by molecular methods. Babesia species, Rickettsia spp., within the spotted fever group (SFG), and Ehrlichia spp. were detected in ticks removed from 26 bats submitted from 14 counties across England. The prevalence of Rickettsia spp. was found to be highest in Pipistrellus pipistrellus from southern England. This study suggests that the tick species that host B. venatorum may include the genus Argas in addition to the genus Ixodes. As A. vespertilionis has been reported to feed on humans, detection of B. venatorum and SFG Rickettsia spp. could present a risk of disease transmission in England. No evidence for the presence of flaviviruses or Issyk-Kul virus (nairovirus) was found in these tick samples.
Yang, Dian; Whitesides, George M.
A soft buckling linear actuator is described, including: a plurality of substantially parallel bucklable, elastic structural components each having its longest dimension along a first axis; and a plurality of secondary structural components each disposed between and bridging two adjacent bucklable, elastic structural components; wherein every two adjacent bucklable, elastic structural components and the secondary structural components in-between define a layer comprising a plurality of cells each capable of being connected with a fluid inflation or deflation source; the secondary structural components from two adjacent layers are not aligned along a second axis perpendicular to the first axis; and the secondary structural components are configured not to buckle, the bucklable, elastic structural components are configured to buckle along the second axis to generate a linear force, upon the inflation or deflation of the cells. Methods of actuation using the same are also described.
Rika-Heke, Tamara; Kelman, Mark; Ward, Michael P
The aim of this study was to describe the association between climate, weather and the occurrence of canine tick paralysis, feline tick paralysis and canine parvovirus in Australia. The Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) and monthly average rainfall (mm) data were used as indices for climate and weather, respectively. Case data were extracted from a voluntary national companion animal disease surveillance resource. Climate and weather data were obtained from the Australian Government Bureau of Meteorology. During the 4-year study period (January 2010-December 2013), a total of 4742 canine parvovirus cases and 8417 tick paralysis cases were reported. No significant (P ≥ 0.05) correlations were found between the SOI and parvovirus, canine tick paralysis or feline tick paralysis. A significant (P parvovirus occurrence and rainfall in the same month (0.28), and significant negative cross-correlations (-0.26 to -0.36) between parvovirus occurrence and rainfall 4-6 months previously. Significant (P canine tick paralysis occurrence and rainfall 1-3 months previously, and significant positive cross-correlations (0.29-0.47) between canine tick paralysis occurrence and rainfall 7-10 months previously. Significant positive cross-correlations (0.37-0.68) were found between cases of feline tick paralysis and rainfall 6-10 months previously. These findings may offer a useful tool for the management and prevention of tick paralysis and canine parvovirus, by providing an evidence base supporting the recommendations of veterinarians to clients thus reducing the impact of these diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kenney, Joan L; Anishchenko, Michael; Hermance, Meghan; Romo, Hannah; Chen, Ching-I; Thangamani, Saravanan; Brault, Aaron C
The Flavivirus genus comprises a diverse group of viruses that utilize a wide range of vertebrate hosts and arthropod vectors. The genus includes viruses that are transmitted solely by mosquitoes or vertebrate hosts as well as viruses that alternate transmission between mosquitoes or ticks and vertebrates. Nevertheless, the viral genetic determinants that dictate these unique flaviviral host and vector specificities have been poorly characterized. In this report, a cDNA clone of a flavivirus that is transmitted between ticks and vertebrates (Powassan lineage II, deer tick virus [DTV]) was generated and chimeric viruses between the mosquito/vertebrate flavivirus, West Nile virus (WNV), were constructed. These chimeric viruses expressed the prM and E genes of either WNV or DTV in the heterologous nonstructural (NS) backbone. Recombinant chimeric viruses rescued from cDNAs were characterized for their capacity to grow in vertebrate and arthropod (mosquito and tick) cells as well as for in vivo vector competence in mosquitoes and ticks. Results demonstrated that the NS elements were insufficient to impart the complete mosquito or tick growth phenotypes of parental viruses; however, these NS genetic elements did contribute to a 100- and 100,000-fold increase in viral growth in vitro in tick and mosquito cells, respectively. Mosquito competence was observed only with parental WNV, while infection and transmission potential by ticks were observed with both DTV and WNV-prME/DTV chimeric viruses. These data indicate that NS genetic elements play a significant, but not exclusive, role for vector usage of mosquito- and tick-borne flaviviruses.
Fernando Ruiz Santiago
Full Text Available We present the uncommon case of a subcutaneous fascia-based extramedullary plasmacytoma in the leg, which was confirmed by the pathology report and followed up until its remission. We report the differential diagnosis with other more common soft tissue masses. Imaging findings are nonspecific but are important to determine the tumour extension and to plan the biopsy.
Nixon, Mark; Correia, Paulo; Nasrollahi, Kamal
Innovation has formed much of the rich history in biometrics. The field of soft biometrics was originally aimed to augment the recognition process by fusion of metrics that were sufficient to discriminate populations rather than individuals. This was later refined to use measures that could be us...
Progress in basic soft matter research is driven largely by the experimental techniques available. Much of the work is concerned with understanding them at the microscopic level, especially at the nanometer length scales that give soft matter studies a wide overlap with nanotechnology. This 2 volume reference work, split into 4 parts, presents detailed discussions of many of the major techniques commonly used as well as some of those in current development for studying and manipulating soft matter. The articles are intended to be accessible to the interdisciplinary audience (at the graduate student level and above) that is or will be engaged in soft matter studies or those in other disciplines who wish to view some of the research methods in this fascinating field. Part 1 contains articles with a largely (but, in most cases, not exclusively) theoretical content and/or that cover material relevant to more than one of the techniques covered in subsequent volumes. It includes an introductory chapter on some of t...
Jongejan, Frans; Ringenier, Moniek; Putting, Michael; Berger, Laura; Burgers, Stefan; Kortekaas, Reinier; Lenssen, Jesse; van Roessel, Marleen; Wijnveld, Michiel; Madder, Maxime
Autochthonous populations of Dermacentor reticulatus ticks in the Netherlands were discovered after fatal cases of babesiosis occurred in resident dogs in 2004. The presence of D. reticulatus in the Netherlands has also linked with the emergence of piroplasmosis in the resident horse population. The aim of this study was to put together results of continued surveillance of field sites and hosts for this tick in the Netherlands and also in Belgium and determine their infection status for Babesia and Theileria species. Ticks were collected from the vegetation at 11 locations between 2011 and 2013. D. reticulatus ticks were also collected from different hosts between 2007 and 2013. Ticks were screened by PCR and reverse line blot (RLB). A total of 1368 D. reticulatus ticks were collected from 4 previously known field locations and from 5 new locations in the Netherlands and from 2 sites in Belgium (one old and one new location). A total of 855 ticks collected from 8 locations in the Netherlands and 2 locations in Belgium were tested. Fourteen ticks (1,64%) collected at 4 field locations (Dintelse Gorzen, Rozenburg, Slikken van de Heen and St. Philipsland) were positive for Babesia canis, whereas two ticks were positive for Babesia caballi, one tick in the Dintelse Gorzen in the Netherlands and one tick was found positive in De Panne in Belgium. A further 1092 D. reticulatus ticks were collected between 2007 and 2013 from 40 dogs (132 ticks), two ticks from two humans, 51 ticks from 15 horses, two ticks from two cats, one tick from a roe deer, whereas most ticks (904) were collected from cattle (n = 25). Ticks were found throughout the year on dogs in nearly all provinces of the Netherlands. None of the ticks collected from these hosts were infected. D. reticulatus is continuing its spread into novel areas. The finding that some autochthonous ticks are infected with B. canis and B. caballi poses a threat to the resident dog and horse population and justifies year
Lommano, Elena; Bertaiola, Luce; Dupasquier, Christèle
In Europe, Ixodes ricinus is the vector of many pathogens of medical and veterinary relevance, among them Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and tick-borne encephalitis virus, which have been the subject of numerous investigations. Less is known about the occurrence of emerging tick-borne pathogens like Rickettsia spp., Babesia spp., “Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis,” and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in questing ticks. In this study, questing nymph and adult I. ricinus ticks were collected at 11 sites located in Western Switzerland. A total of 1,476 ticks were analyzed individually for the simultaneous presence of B. burgdorferi sensu lato, Rickettsia spp., Babesia spp., “Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis,” and A. phagocytophilum. B. burgdorferi sensu lato, Rickettsia spp., and “Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis” were detected in ticks at all sites with global prevalences of 22.5%, 10.2%, and 6.4%, respectively. Babesia- and A. phagocytophilum-infected ticks showed a more restricted geographic distribution, and their prevalences were lower (1.9% and 1.5%, respectively). Species rarely reported in Switzerland, like Borrelia spielmanii, Borrelia lusitaniae, and Rickettsia monacensis, were identified. Infections with more than one pathogenic species, involving mostly Borrelia spp. and Rickettsia helvetica, were detected in 19.6% of infected ticks. Globally, 34.2% of ticks were infected with at least one pathogen. The diversity of tick-borne pathogens detected in I. ricinus in this study and the frequency of coinfections underline the need to take them seriously into consideration when evaluating the risks of infection following a tick bite. PMID:22522688
Ndeereh, David; Muchemi, Gerald; Thaiyah, Andrew; Otiende, Moses; Angelone-Alasaad, Samer; Jowers, Michael J
Coxiella burnetii is the causative agent of Q fever, a zoonotic disease of public health importance. The role of wildlife and their ticks in the epidemiology of C. burnetii in Kenya is unknown. This study analysed the occurrence and prevalence of the pathogen in wildlife and their ticks at two unique wildlife-livestock interfaces of Laikipia and Maasai Mara National Reserve (MMNR) with the aim to determine the potential risk of transmission to livestock and humans. Blood from 79 and 73 animals in Laikipia and MMNR, respectively, and 756 and 95 ixodid ticks in each of the areas, respectively, was analysed. Ticks were pooled before analyses into 137 and 29 samples in Laikipia and MMNR, respectively, of one to eight non-engorged ticks according to species and animal host. Real-time PCR amplifying the repetitive insertion element IS1111a of the transposase gene was used to detect C. burnetii DNA. Although none of the animals and ticks from MMNR tested positive, ticks from Laikipia had an overall pooled prevalence of 2.92% resulting in a maximum-likelihood estimate of prevalence of 0.54%, 95% CI 0.17-1.24. Ticks positive for C. burnetii DNA belonged to the genus Rhipicephalus at a pooled prevalence of 2.96% (maximum-likelihood estimate of prevalence of 0.54%, 95% CI 0.17-1.26). These ticks were Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, R. pulchellus and R. evertsi at pooled prevalence of 3.77, 3.03 and 2.04%, respectively. The presence of C. burnetii in ticks suggests circulation of the pathogen in Laikipia and demonstrates they may play a potential role in the epidemiology of Q fever in this ecosystem. The findings warrant further studies to understand the presence of C. burnetii in domestic animals and their ticks within both study areas.
Zolnik, Christine P; Makkay, Amanda M; Falco, Richard C; Daniels, Thomas J
Ticks and whole blood were collected from American black bears (Ursus americanus Pallas) between October 2011 and October 2012 across four counties in northwestern New Jersey, an area where blacklegged ticks (Ixodes scapularis Say) and their associated tick-borne pathogens are prevalent. Adult American dog ticks (Dermacentor variabilis Say) were the most frequently collected tick species in late spring, whereas adult and nymphal blacklegged ticks were found in both the late spring and fall months. Additionally, for blacklegged ticks, we determined the quality of bloodmeals that females acquired from black bears compared with bloodmeals from white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus Zimmerman), the most important host for the adult stage of this tick species. Measures of fecundity after feeding on each host species were not significantly different, suggesting that the bloodmeal a female blacklegged tick acquires from a black bear is of similar quality to that obtained from a white-tailed deer. These results establish the American black bear as both a host and quality bloodmeal source to I. scapularis. Thus, black bears may help support blacklegged tick populations in areas where they are both present. In addition, samples of black bear blood were tested for DNA presence of three tick-borne pathogens. Anaplasma phagocytophilum Foggie and Babesia microti Franca were found in 9.2 and 32.3% of blood samples, respectively. All blood samples were quantitative polymerase chain reaction-negative for Borrelia burgdorferi Johnson, Schmid, Hyde, Steigerwalt, & Brenner. Although circulating pathogens were found in blood, the status of black bears as reservoirs for these pathogens remains unknown. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Remil Linggatong Galay
Full Text Available Ticks are obligate hematophagous parasites that have successfully developed counteractive means against their hosts' immune and hemostatic mechanisms, but their ability to cope with potentially toxic molecules in the blood remains unclear. Iron is important in various physiological processes but can be toxic to living cells when in excess. We previously reported that the hard tick Haemaphysalis longicornis has an intracellular (HlFER1 and a secretory (HlFER2 ferritin, and both are crucial in successful blood feeding and reproduction. Ferritin gene silencing by RNA interference caused reduced feeding capacity, low body weight and high mortality after blood meal, decreased fecundity and morphological abnormalities in the midgut cells. Similar findings were also previously reported after silencing of ferritin genes in another hard tick, Ixodes ricinus. Here we demonstrated the role of ferritin in protecting the hard ticks from oxidative stress. Evaluation of oxidative stress in Hlfer-silenced ticks was performed after blood feeding or injection of ferric ammonium citrate (FAC through detection of the lipid peroxidation product, malondialdehyde (MDA and protein oxidation product, protein carbonyl. FAC injection in Hlfer-silenced ticks resulted in high mortality. Higher levels of MDA and protein carbonyl were detected in Hlfer-silenced ticks compared to Luciferase-injected (control ticks both after blood feeding and FAC injection. Ferric iron accumulation demonstrated by increased staining on native HlFER was observed from 72 h after iron injection in both the whole tick and the midgut. Furthermore, weak iron staining was observed after Hlfer knockdown. Taken together, these results show that tick ferritins are crucial antioxidant molecules that protect the hard tick from iron-mediated oxidative stress during blood feeding.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lysine-ketoglutarate reductase/saccharopine dehydrogenase (LKR/SDH is a bifunctional enzyme catalyzing the first two steps of lysine catabolism in plants and mammals. However, to date, the properties of the lysine degradation pathway and biological functions of LKR/SDH have been very little described in arthropods such as ticks. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We isolated and characterized the gene encoding lysine-ketoglutarate reductase (LKR, EC 184.108.40.206 and saccharopine dehydrogenase (SDH, EC 220.127.116.11 from a tick, Haemaphysalis longicornis, cDNA library that encodes a bifunctional polypeptide bearing domains similar to the plant and mammalian LKR/SDH enzymes. Expression of LKR/SDH was detected in all developmental stages, indicating an important role throughout the tick life cycle, including a long period of starvation after detachment from the host. The LKR/SDH mRNA transcripts were more abundant in unfed and starved ticks than in fed and engorged ticks, suggesting that tick LKR/SDH are important for the starved tick. Gene silencing of LKR/SDH by RNAi indicated that the tick LKR/SDH plays an integral role in the osmotic regulation of water balance and development of eggs in ovary of engorged females. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Transcription analysis and gene silencing of LKR/SDH indicated that tick LKR/SDH enzyme plays not only important roles in egg production, reproduction and development of the tick, but also in carbon, nitrogen and water balance, crucial physiological processes for the survival of ticks. This is the first report on the role of LKR/SDH in osmotic regulation in animals including vertebrate and arthropods.
We evaluated the effects of tick control by acaricide self-treatment of white-tailed deer on the infection prevalence and entomologic risk for three I. scapularis-borne bacteria in host-seeking ticks. Ticks were collected from vegetation in areas treated with the ‘4-Poster’ device and from control a...
Danielle K Offerdahl
Full Text Available Tick-borne flaviviruses (TBFV are sustained in nature through cycling between mammalian and tick hosts. In this study, we used African green monkey kidney cells (Vero and Ixodes scapularis tick cells (ISE6 to compare virus-induced changes in mammalian and arthropod cells. Using confocal microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and electron tomography (ET, we examined viral protein distribution and the ultrastructural changes that occur during TBFV infection. Within host cells, flaviviruses cause complex rearrangement of cellular membranes for the purpose of virus replication. Virus infection was accompanied by a marked expansion in endoplasmic reticulum (ER staining and markers for TBFV replication were localized mainly to the ER in both cell lines. TEM of Vero cells showed membrane-bound vesicles enclosed in a network of dilated, anastomosing ER cisternae. Virions were seen within the ER and were sometimes in paracrystalline arrays. Tubular structures or elongated vesicles were occasionally noted. In acutely and persistently infected ISE6 cells, membrane proliferation and vesicles were also noted; however, the extent of membrane expansion and the abundance of vesicles were lower and no viral particles were observed. Tubular profiles were far more prevalent in persistently infected ISE6 cells than in acutely infected cells. By ET, tubular profiles, in persistently infected tick cells, had a cross-sectional diameter of 60-100 nm, reached up to 800 nm in length, were closed at the ends, and were often arranged in fascicle-like bundles, shrouded with ER membrane. Our experiments provide analysis of viral protein localization within the context of both mammalian and arthropod cell lines as well as both acute and persistent arthropod cell infection. Additionally, we show for the first time 3D flavivirus infection in a vector cell line and the first ET of persistent flavivirus infection.
Milton Assis Kanji
This paper discusses several efforts made to study and investigate soft rocks, as well as their physico-mechanical characteristics recognized up to now, the problems in their sampling and testing, and the possibility of its reproduction through artificially made soft rocks. The problems in utilizing current and widespread classification systems to some types of weak rocks are also discussed, as well as other problems related to them. Some examples of engineering works in soft rock or in soft ...
Gonzalez, M. A. G.; Abu Kasim, N. H.; Naimie, Z.
Soft skills and hard skills are essential in the practice of dentistry. While hard skills deal with technical proficiency, soft skills relate to a personal values and interpersonal skills that determine a person's ability to fit in a particular situation. These skills contribute to the success of organisations that deal face-to-face with clients. Effective soft skills benefit the dental practice. However, the teaching of soft skills remains a challenge to dental schools. This paper discusses ...
Garcia, Gustavo Rocha; Maruyama, Sandra Regina; Nelson, Kristina T; Ribeiro, José Marcos Chaves; Gardinassi, Luiz Gustavo; Maia, Antonio Augusto Mendes; Ferreira, Beatriz Rossetti; Kooyman, Frans N J; de Miranda Santos, Isabel K F
BACKGROUND: Males of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus produce salivary immunoglobulin-binding proteins and allotypic variations in IgG are associated with tick loads in bovines. These findings indicate that antibody responses may be essential to control tick infestations. Infestation loads
Cattle fever tick, Rhipicephalus annulatus (CFT), is a hard tick native to the Mediterranean region that is invasive in the southwestern USA. The tick is known to develop on cattle and white tailed deer, and it transmits two lethal diseases, piroplasmosis and babesiosis. Extensive use of acaricides...
Hovius, Joppe W. R.
Lyme disease is caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi and is transmitted through ticks. Inhibition of host skin's innate immune response might be instrumental to both tick feeding and B. burgdorferi transmission. The article by Marchal et al. describes how tick saliva suppresses B.
This year marks the first time anti-tick vaccination will be used in the United States and Puerto Rico to control, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus and R. annulatus. The 110-year-old Cattle Fever Tick Eradication Program has eradicated the southern cattle fever tick from the majority of the Unite...
Full Text Available In this paper, the concept of connectedness and compactness on neutrosophic soft topological space have been introduced along with the investigation of their several characteristics. Some related theorems have been established also. Then, the notion of neutrosophic soft continuous mapping on a neutrosophic soft topological space and it’s properties are developed here.
risk factors among cattle reared on dairy, beef and free-range grazing farms of Haramaya University .... guidelines using gross and stereomicroscopic examination. .... with the risk and differences in the farm management systems, prevalence of ... tick genera combinations infested animals with diversified tick genera in Ha-.
Amitraz is an important product for the control of cattle ticks around the world. In comparison with other products for the control of ticks, it is quite affordable and it has a rapid knock-down effect. It binds with, and activates adrenergic neuro-receptors of animals and it inhibits the action of ...
Chrdle, A.; Chmelík, V.; Růžek, Daniel
Roč. 12, č. 10 (2016), s. 2694-2699 ISSN 2164-5515 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NV16-34238A Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : endemic country * flavivirus * tick-borne encephalitis * tick-borne encephalitis virus * travel medicine * vaccination Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.157, year: 2016
Catherine, B R; Jayathangaraj, M G; Soundararajan, C; Bala Guru, C; Yogaraj, D
Ticks are the important ectoparasites that occur on snakes and transmit rickettsiosis, anaplasmosis and ehrlichiosis. A total of 62 snakes (Reticulated python, Indian Rock Python, Rat snakes and Spectacled cobra) were examined for tick infestation at Chennai Snake Park Trust (Guindy), Arignar Anna Zoological Park (Vandalur) and Rescue centre (Velachery) in Tamil Nadu from September, 2015 to June, 2016. Ticks from infested snakes were collected and were identified as Amblyomma gervaisi (previously known as Aponomma gervaisi ). Overall occurrence of tick infestation on snakes was 66.13%. Highest prevalence of tick infestation was observed more on Reticulated Python ( Python reticulatus , 90.91%) followed by Indian Rock Python ( Python molurus , 88.89%), Spectacled cobra ( Naja naja, 33.33%) and Rat snake ( Ptyas mucosa, 21.05%). Highest prevalence of ticks were observed on snakes reared at Chennai Snake Park Trust, Guindy (83.33%), followed by Arignar Anna Zoological Park, Vandalur (60.00%) and low level prevalence of 37.50% on snakes at Rescue centre, Velachery. Among the system of management, the prevalence of ticks were more on captive snakes (70.37%) than the free ranging snakes (37.5%). The presences of ticks were more on the first quarter when compared to other three quarters and were highly significant ( P ≤ 0.01).
This thesis describes the results of a study to assess the effect of ethnobotanical products on the behaviour of the brown ear tick Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, the main vector of East Coast fever in sub-Saharan Africa. Ethnoknowledge of the Bukusu people in western Kenya on tick control and
Conclusion. Kirov region is an active natural focus of transmissible infections. Quite often tick contains two or three pathogens. It is necessary to continue the monitoring of the natural foci to develop more adequate preventive measures against tick-borne infections.
Full Text Available Lyme disease is a tick borne zoonotic infection, caused by Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. bacteria. For the transmission of the disease, the presence of ticks is a prerequisite. Lyme borreliosis mostly occurs in people and dogs, but it may occur in other animals. Ticks which carry B. burgdorferi s.l. in Serbia are of the Ixodes ricinus specis. In Serbia, Lyme disease was detected for the first time in the late ‘80-es. In dogs, clinical symptoms may occur even months after a tick bite, and include weakness, lymphadenopathy, fever, lameness, arthritis, etc. In our survey, we have observed tick and dog populations in the province of Vojvodina (northern part of Serbia. I. ricinus ticks were collected and examined for the presence of B. burgdorferi s.l. in several chosen locations. In addition, blood samples were collected from house dogs and pets from the same locations, and analyzed for the presence of antibodies specific for B. burgdorferi s.l. The results showed a mean infection of ticks of 22.12 %, and a mean seroprevalence of Lyme disease in dogs of 25.81 %. We conclude that in Vojvodina there is an actual risk of Lyme borreliosis for other animals and humans, because of the persistence of B. burgdorferi s.l. in both tick and dog populations.
Konto, M; Fufa, G I; Zakaria, A; Tukur, S M; Watanabe, M; Ola-Fadunsin, S D; Khan, M S; Shettima, Y M; Babjee, S M A
The red jungle fowl is generally considered as one of the endangered Asian wild Galleopheasants due to man-made encroachment of their habitats, coupled with the effect of disease and disease causing organisms like ticks and tick-borne infections. This study aimed to determine the tick fauna of the red jungle fowl and their predilection sites based on developmental stages. A total of 33 jungle fowls were sampled for this study from Bangi area of Selangor State, Peninsular Malaysian. The birds were captured using a locally made trap made-up of loops and bites. Ticks present on their bodies were detached using fine forceps and identified morphologically under a dissecting microscope. 91% of the jungle fowls were infested with ticks, all of which belongs to the species Haemaphysalis wellingtoni. The ear region appeared to be the most common predilection site (63%) for all the developmental stages in which the larval stages are solely restricted to that region. Nymphal and adult stages were distributed on the comb, wattle, and facial region in addition to the ear region. This study was the first in its kind and showed a high prevalence of tick infestation among jungle fowls. H. wellingtoni was known to be a vector in transmission of many tick-borne pathogens. Therefore, there is the need for further investigation to identify the various pathogens associated with this tick.
Bermudez, S.E.; Castro, A.; Esser, H.J.; Liefting, Y.; Garcia, G.; Miranda, R.J.
From January 2010 to December 2011, a total of 138 cases of ticks feeding on humans were reported from 11 locations in central Panama. Five of these locations were situated in forest environments, three in rural landscapes and three in urban areas. The ticks were submitted to the Gorgas Memorial
Garcia, Marcos Valério; Silva, Dayana Campelo da; Almeida, Robson Ferreira Cavalcante de; Cunha, Rodrigo Casquero; Matias, Jaqueline; Barros, Jacqueline Cavalcante; Andreotti, Renato; Szabó, Matias Pablo Juan
Herein, we report tick species found on wild and domestic animals and in the environment during a one-year sampling period at the Brazilian Farming Research Company beef cattle unit (Embrapa Beef Cattle), which is located within the urban area of Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. From 55 wild hosts including six different species (Nasua nasua, Cebus spp., Cerdocyon thous, Myrmecophaga tridactyla, Tamandua tetradactyla and Dasyprocta aguti), 323 ticks were collected. Amblyomma ovale ticks were found solely on coatis, and Amblyomma nodosum was identified solely on anteaters. No ticks were found on capuchin monkeys. However, Amblyomma cajennense was found on all parasitized host species with the exception of capuchin monkeys. Giant anteaters displayed the highest infestation abundance, with a mean of 53 ticks∕animal. Environmental sampling yielded 166 adult A. cajennense ticks. The tick species found on domestic animals (Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, R. sanguineus, Dermacentor nitens and A. cajennense) were those typically found on these hosts in Brazil. The most prevalent tick species, A. cajennense, was found on both wild and domestic animals and was also prevalent in the environment. Thus, this tick species is the primary vector that allows pathogens to bridge wild and domestic animals in the Cerrado.
The southern cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, is an economically important pest costing animal agriculture billions of dollars worldwide. This research focuses on a comparison of three different tick DNA extraction methods: phenol-chloroform extraction (method 1), a modified version...
Schou, Kirstine Klitgaard; Chriél, Mariann; Isbrand, Anastasia
From a migrating golden jackal (Canis aureus), we retrieved 21 live male Dermacentor reticulatus ticks, a species not previously reported from wildlife in Denmark. We identified Rickettsia raoultii from 18 (86%) of the ticks. This bacterium is associated with scalp eschar and neck lymphadenopathy...
Koka, Hellen; Sang, Rosemary; Kutima, Helen Lydia; Musila, Lillian
In this study, ticks from pastoral communities in Kenya were tested for Rickettsia spp. infections in geographical regions where the presence of tick-borne arboviruses had previously been reported. Rickettsial and arbovirus infections have similar clinical features which makes differential diagnosis challenging when both diseases occur. The tick samples were tested for Rickettsia spp. by conventional PCR using three primer sets targeting the gltA, ompA, and ompB genes followed by amplicon sequencing. Of the tick pools screened, 25% (95/380) were positive for Rickettsia spp. DNA using the gltA primer set. Of the tick-positive pools, 60% were ticks collected from camels. Rickettsia aeschlimannii and R. africae were the main Rickettsia spp. detected in the tick pools sequenced. The findings of this study indicate that multiple Rickettsia species are circulating in ticks from pastoral communities in Kenya and could contribute to the etiology of febrile illness in these areas. Diagnosis and treatment of rickettsial infections should be a public health priority in these regions. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Heylen, Dieter; Fonville, Manoj; Docters van Leeuwen, Arieke; Stroo, Arjan; Duisterwinkel, Martin; van Wieren, Sip; Diuk-Wasser, Maria; de Bruin, Arnout; Sprong, Hein
Birds play a major role in the maintenance of enzootic cycles of pathogens transmitted by ticks. Due to their mobility, they affect the spatial distribution and abundance of both ticks and pathogens. In the present study, we aim to identify members of a pathogen community [Borrelia burgdorferi
Cheng, Cheng; Fu, Weiming; Ju, Wendong; Yang, Liwei; Xu, Ning; Wang, Yan-Mei; Li, Hui; Wang, Yan-Lu; Hu, Man-Xia; Wen, Jing; Jiao, Dan; Geng, Cong; Sun, Yi
In order to investigate the diversity of spotted fever group (SFG) Rickettsia infection in hard ticks, ticks were harvested from the forest areas in Suifenhe city, along the Chinese-Russian border and conventional PCR was carried out using universal SFG Rickettsia primers targeting gltA and ompA genes to screen for their infection with SFG Rickettsia organisms. Results showed that of the 215 ticks belonging to Ixodes persulcatus, Haemaphysalis concinna and Haemaphysalis japonica Warburton, 1908 species, 138 (64.2%) were positive for SFG Rickettsia. Three species of SFG Rickettsia were detected, Rickettsia raoultii, Rickettsia heilongjiangensis and Candidatus Rickettsia tarasevichiae. No co-infection with different species of SFG Rickettsia was found in any individual tick among the three tick species. We detected more than one SFG Rickettsia species in ticks from each of the three tick species with an overlapping distribution and potentially similar transmission cycles of SFG Rickettsia in the areas surveyed. Consequently, different pathogenic rickettsial species may be involved in human cases of rickettsiosis after a bite of the three above-mentioned tick species in that area Rickettsia. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier GmbH.
Yu, Zhi-jun; Yang, Xiao-long; Chen, Jie; Liu, Jing-ze
The current paper introduces the recent research and development on the cryobiology of ticks, based on their overwinter behavior strategy and biochemical and physiological adaptation mechanisms, and provides detail information on the cold hardiness, biochemical and physiological mechanisms, the relationship between cold hardiness and diapause, which will give theoretical clues for subsequent research on the molecular regulation of cold hardiness of ticks.
Lyme borreliosis is caused by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato bacteria, and transmitted through tick bites. The disease most commonly manifests as erythema migrans, a slowly expanding skin lesion at the site of the tick bite. Disseminated Lyme borreliosis can develop when the infection spreads to
Cattle play a significant role in the socio-economic life of the people of Ethiopia. ... Different tick species are widely distributed in Ethiopia and a number of re- ... affect the rate of tick population on the ground, host resistance and natural.
Ravagnan, Silvia; Tomassone, Laura; Montarsi, Fabrizio; Krawczyk, Aleksandra Iwona; Mastrorilli, Eleonora; Sprong, Hein; Milani, Adelaide; Rossi, Luca; Capelli, Gioia
Borrelia miyamotoi is a spirochete transmitted by several ixodid tick species. It causes a relapsing fever in humans and is currently considered as an emerging pathogen. In Europe, B. miyamotoi seems to occur at low prevalence in Ixodes ricinus ticks but has a wide distribution. Here we report the
Full Text Available Ancestral sequence reconstruction has been widely used to test evolution-based hypotheses. The genome of the European tick vector, Ixodes ricinus, encodes for defensin peptides with diverse antimicrobial activities against distantly related pathogens. These pathogens include fungi, Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, i.e., a wide antimicrobial spectrum. Ticks do not transmit these pathogens, suggesting that these defensins may act against a wide range of microbes encountered by ticks during blood feeding or off-host periods. As demonstrated here, these I. ricinus defensins are also effective against the apicomplexan parasite Plasmodium falciparum. To study the general evolution of antimicrobial activity in tick defensins, the ancestral amino acid sequence of chelicerate defensins, which existed approximately 444 million years ago, was reconstructed using publicly available scorpion and tick defensin sequences (named Scorpions-Ticks Defensins Ancestor, STiDA. The activity of STiDA was tested against P. falciparum and the same Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria that were used for the I. ricinus defensins. While some extant tick defensins exhibit a wide antimicrobial spectrum, the ancestral defensin showed moderate activity against one of the tested microbes, P. falciparum. This study suggests that amino acid variability and defensin family expansion increased the antimicrobial spectrum of ancestral tick defensins.
Estrada-Peña, A.; de la Fuente, J.; Cabezas Cruz, Alejandro
Roč. 7, MAY (2017), č. článku 234. ISSN 2235-2988 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 278976 - ANTIGONE Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : communities * networks * tick-borne pathogens * ticks Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Ecology Impact factor: 4.300, year: 2016
Fertner, Mette Ely; Mølbak, Lars; Pihl, Thomas Peter Boye
This is the first reporting of the tick-borne zoonotic bacterium "Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis" in Denmark. A total of 2,625 Ixodes ricinus ticks from 58 locations in Denmark were collected and analysed for "Ca. Neoehrlichia mikurensis". A nested PCR revealed the presence of the bacterium...
Labuda, M; Randolph, S E
Although TBE virus can be transmitted in the laboratory by a wide variety of ixodid tick species to a wide variety of vertebrate host species, nevertheless in nature endemic cycles of TBE virus depend principally on just two tick species, Ixodes ricinus in the western and I. persulcatus in the eastern Palaearctic. A complete transmission cycle, from tick to tick via vertebrates, occurs most efficiently between co-feeding ticks in the absence of a systemic viraemia. This non-systemic route depends on TBE virus replication within particular immunocompetent cells in the skin, and only certain vertebrate species, notably Apodemus mice, are susceptible to this. Amongst the potential tick vectors in Europe, only I. ricinus has the correct host relationships and appropriate natural life cycle to support such non-systemic transmission cycles. Within the wide European distribution of this tick-host relationship, only in certain places do larval and nymphal ticks feed together on the same hosts with sufficient coincidence to ensure TBE virus survival. The environmental factors that determine this seasonal coincidence are being identified with the help of remotely-sensed meteorological satellite imagery to create predictive risk maps of TBE foci.
Full Text Available Bartonella spp. are facultative intracellular vector-borne bacteria associated with several emerging diseases in humans and animals all over the world. The potential for involvement of ticks in transmission of Bartonella spp. has been heartily debated for many years. However, most of the data supporting bartonellae transmission by ticks come from molecular and serological epidemiological surveys in humans and animals providing only indirect evidences without a direct proof of tick vector competence for transmission of bartonellae. We used a murine model to assess the vector competence of Ixodes ricinus for Bartonella birtlesii. Larval and nymphal I. ricinus were fed on a B. birtlesii-infected mouse. The nymphs successfully transmitted B. birtlesii to naïve mice as bacteria were recovered from both the mouse blood and liver at seven and 16 days after tick bites. The female adults successfully emitted the bacteria into uninfected blood after three or more days of tick attachment, when fed via membrane feeding system. Histochemical staining showed the presence of bacteria in salivary glands and muscle tissues of partially engorged adult ticks, which had molted from the infected nymphs. These results confirm the vector competence of I. ricinus for B. birtlesii and represent the first in vivo demonstration of a Bartonella sp. transmission by ticks. Consequently, bartonelloses should be now included in the differential diagnosis for patients exposed to tick bites.
Pac Bio RS II whole genome shotgun sequencing technology was used to sequence the genome of the cattle tick, Rhipicephalus microplus. The DNA was derived from 14 day old eggs from the Deutsch Texas outbreak strain reared at the USDA-ARS Cattle Fever Tick Research Laboratory, Edinburg, TX. Each corre...
Pinedo, H.M.; Verweij, J.
This book is concerned with the clinical management of soft tissue sarcomas. Topics covered include: Radiotherapy; Pathology of soft tissue sarcomas; Surgical treatment of soft tissue sarcomas; and Chemotherapy in advanced soft tissue sarcomas
Al-Quran, Ashraf; Hassan, Nasruddin
We introduce the mapping on complex neutrosophic soft expert sets. Further, we investigated the basic operations and other related properties of complex neutrosophic soft expert image and complex neutrosophic soft expert inverse image of complex neutrosophic soft expert sets.
This collection of contributions made by supporters of the ''soft approach'' is intended to provide an insight into a conceivable future which is quite different from traditional ideas on social and economic developments based on the usual economic thinking and conventional energy sources. The chapter entitled ''The new world view'' shows the way from a machine-like paradigm to a living example in science. In the chapter entitled ''Women are organizing their future'' female perspectives and concepts of solutions are described. In the chapter ''Eco-tecture'' examples of living architecture and of environment formation are presented. In the chapter ''Soft technology'' approaches to an ecology-oriented technology are discussed, and in the chapter ''Network and future workshops'' novel forms of organization and communication are described.
Feinberg, Adam W
In nature, nanometer-scale molecular motors are used to generate force within cells for diverse processes from transcription and transport to muscle contraction. This adaptability and scalability across wide temporal, spatial, and force regimes have spurred the development of biological soft robotic systems that seek to mimic and extend these capabilities. This review describes how molecular motors are hierarchically organized into larger-scale structures in order to provide a basic understanding of how these systems work in nature and the complexity and functionality we hope to replicate in biological soft robotics. These span the subcellular scale to macroscale, and this article focuses on the integration of biological components with synthetic materials, coupled with bioinspired robotic design. Key examples include nanoscale molecular motor-powered actuators, microscale bacteria-controlled devices, and macroscale muscle-powered robots that grasp, walk, and swim. Finally, the current challenges and future opportunities in the field are addressed.
In this contribution I describe the appearance, formation and significance of soft-sediment mullions. I use several examples from synorogenic turbidites of the Alps and the Pyrenees to show their appearance in the field. Soft-sediment mullions are elongate, slightly irregular bulges at the base of coarse-grained clastic beds (sand to conglomerate), separated by narrow, elongate flames of fine-grained material (mud) protruding into the coarse-grained bed. Various processes may lead to the formation of such structures: (1) longitudinal furrows parallel to the sediment transport direction may form by spiral motion in flow rolls during sediment transport (Dzulinski, 1966; Dzulinski & Simpson, 1966). (2) Loading combined with downslope movement can produce elongate structures parallelling the dowslope direction (Anketell et al., 1970). (3) Soft-sediment mullions are oriented perpendicular or oblique to the downslope direction, and show evidence of bedding-parallel shortening. Thus, they resemble cuspate-lobate folds or mullions, which are well-known in ductile structural geology (e.g. Urai et al., 2001). Soft-sediment mullions have been observed in two cases: Either bedding-parallel shortening can be achieved by slump processes, or by active tectonic shortening. Slumping is characterized by an alternation of stretching and shortening (e.g. Ortner, 2007; Alsop & Marco 2014), and therefore mullions do overprint or are overprinted by normal faults. In active depositional systems that are subject to tectonic shortening growth strata will form, but sediments already deposited will be shortened during lithification. In some cases, the formation of soft-sediment mullions predates folding, but the most widespread expression of syn-lithification shortening seems to be soft-sediment mullions, that form in the inner arcs of fold hinges. In the examples documented so far, the size of soft-sediment mullions is dependent on the grain-size of the coarse-grained layer, in which the
Fracture is a phenomenon that is generally associated with solids. A key element in fracture theory is the so-called weakest link idea that fracture initiates from the largest pre-existing material imperfection. However, recent work has demonstrated that fracture can also happen in liquids, where...... surface tension will act to suppress such imperfections. Therefore, the weakest link idea does not seem immediately applicable to fracture in liquids. This presentation will review fracture in liquids and argue that fracture in soft liquids is a material property independent of pre-existing imperfections....... The following questions then emerge: What is the material description needed to predict crack initiation, crack speed and crack shape in soft materials and liquids....
Shannon, Avery B; Rucinsky, Renee; Gaff, Holly D; Brinkerhoff, R Jory
We collected blood and tick samples in eastern Maryland to quantify vector-borne pathogen exposure and infection in healthy cats and to assess occupational disease risk to veterinary professionals and others who regularly interact with household pets. Thirty-six percent of healthy cats parasitized by ticks at time of examination (9/25) were exposed to, and 14% of bloods (7/49) tested PCR-positive for, at least one vector-borne pathogen including several bloods and ticks with Borrelia miyamotoi, a recently recognized tick-borne zoonotic bacterium. There was no indication that high tick burdens were associated with exposure to vector-borne pathogens. Our results underscore the potential importance of cats to human vector-borne disease risk.
Full Text Available Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum nymphs were collected from two localities in the Sudan: Eddamer in Northern Sudan and Wad-Medani in Central Sudan. They were allowed to moult to adult ticks, which were assessed for Theileria infection in their salivary glands using Feulgen stain. At Eddamer, 49.6 % of 123 ticks examined were infected with Theileria and the mean intensity of infection was 1.3 (i.e. the number of infected acini / number of infected ticks. At Wad-Medani, 8.6 % of 162 ticks were infected and the mean intensity of infection was 7.9. The prevalence of infection was higher in female than in male ticks at both localities. When adult H. a. anatolicum were applied onto two susceptible calves, both animals developed the severe form of theileriosis.
Halajian, Ali; Palomar, Ana M; Portillo, Aránzazu; Heyne, Heloise; Luus-Powell, Wilmien J; Oteo, José A
Ticks are involved in the epidemiology of several human pathogens including spotted fever group (SFG) Rickettsia spp., Coxiella burnetii and Bartonella spp. Human diseases caused by these microorganisms have been reported from South Africa. The presence of SFG Rickettsia spp., C. burnetii and Bartonella spp. was investigated in 205 ticks collected from domestic and wild animals from Western Cape and Limpopo provinces (South Africa). Rickettsia massiliae was detected in 10 Amblyomma sylvaticum and 1 Rhipicephalus simus whereas Rickettsia africae was amplified in 7 Amblyomma hebraeum. Neither C. burnetii nor Bartonella spp. was found in the examined ticks. This study demonstrates the presence of the tick borne pathogen R. massiliae in South Africa (Western Cape and Limpopo provinces), and corroborates the presence of the African tick-bite fever agent (R. africae) in this country (Limpopo province). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
El-Latif, Alaa Mohamed Abd
− The notions of fuzzy pre open soft sets and fuzzy pre closed soft sets were introducedby Abd El-latif et al. . In this paper, we continue the study on fuzzy soft topological spaces andinvestigate the properties of fuzzy pre open soft sets, fuzzy pre closed soft sets and study variousproperties and notions related to these structures. In particular, we study the relationship betweenfuzzy pre soft interior fuzzy pre soft closure. Moreover, we study the properties of fuzzy soft pre regulars...
Choudhury, Manash Kumar; Shiferaw, Yoseph; Hussen, Ahmed
The in vitro toxicity of Millettia ferruginea darasana (family: Fabaceae) was tested against the larvae adult male and female of a three-host tick, Amblyomma variegatum Fabricius (family: Ixodidae or hard tick), known as 'tropical bont tick' parasitic mainly to cattle found in Ethiopia and other equatorial Africa. The 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 % concentrations of the seed oil extracted with petroleum ether were found to kill all (100 % mortality) larvae after 12, 9, 6, 3 and 1.5 h respectively. The results summarized in the Table 1 was found to be statistically significant at the probability level of p = 0.05. The 100 % concentration of the oil caused 100 % mortality of adult male, adult female and fully engorged female tick after 5, 7 and 12 h respectively. The root and root bark showed less toxicity. The leaves did not show any toxicity. [Table: see text].
Emissions of soft gluons from energetic particles play an important role in collider processes. While the basic physics of soft emissions is simple, it gives rise to a variety of interesting and intricate phenomena (non-global logs, Glauber phases, super-leading logs, factorization breaking). After an introduction, I will review progress in resummation methods such as Soft-Collinear Effective Theory driven by a better understanding of soft emissions. I will also show some new results for computations of soft-gluon effects in gap-between-jets and isolation-cone cross sections.
Kwak, M L; Reed, J
Within Australia, koala over-abundance has become a serious problem in some areas resulting in significant damage to native forests through defoliation. An over-abundant Victorian koala population was surveyed for ticks in the autumn of 2016. During the survey 1036 ticks were collected from 158 koalas. All ticks collected were identified as Ixodes tasmani. Tick prevalence, infestation intensity and on-host sex ratios were calculated for the population. An overview of the ticks and mites associated with koalas in Australia is also presented.
Butler, Catherine M.; van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, Marianne M. Sloet; Stout, Tom A. E.; Jongejan, Frans; Werners, Arno H.; Houwers, Dirk J.
This study shows which hard tick species (Ixodidae) were found on domestic horses in the Netherlands in 2008–2009, and what potential pathogens these ticks carried. In the period 2008–2009, 130 ticks were collected, classified and screened for the presence of DNA from specific tick-borne pathogens
Di Girolamo, Nicola; Mans, Christoph
The surgical approach to reptiles can be challenging. Reptiles have unique physiologic, anatomic, and pathologic differences. This may result in frustrating surgical experiences. However, recent investigations provided novel, less invasive, surgical techniques. The purpose of this review was to describe the technical aspects behind soft tissue surgical techniques that have been used in reptiles, so as to provide a general guideline for veterinarians working with reptiles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Background A few billion birds migrate annually between their breeding grounds in Europe and their wintering grounds in Africa. Many bird species are tick-infested, and as a result of their innate migratory behavior, they contribute significantly to the geographic distribution of pathogens, including spotted fever rickettsiae. The aim of the present study was to characterize, in samples from two consecutive years, the potential role of migrant birds captured in Europe as disseminators of Rickettsia-infected ticks. Methods Ticks were collected from a total of 14,789 birds during their seasonal migration northwards in spring 2009 and 2010 at bird observatories on two Mediterranean islands: Capri and Antikythira. All ticks were subjected to RNA extraction followed by cDNA synthesis and individually assayed with a real-time PCR targeting the citrate synthase (gltA) gene. For species identification of Rickettsia, multiple genes were sequenced. Results Three hundred and ninety-eight (2.7%) of all captured birds were tick-infested; some birds carried more than one tick. A total number of 734 ticks were analysed of which 353 ± 1 (48%) were Rickettsia-positive; 96% were infected with Rickettsia aeschlimannii and 4% with Rickettsia africae or unidentified Rickettsia species. The predominant tick taxon, Hyalomma marginatum sensu lato constituted 90% (n = 658) of the ticks collected. The remaining ticks were Ixodes frontalis, Amblyomma sp., Haemaphysalis sp., Rhipicephalus sp. and unidentified ixodids. Most ticks were nymphs (66%) followed by larvae (27%) and adult female ticks (0.5%). The majority (65%) of ticks was engorged and nearly all ticks contained visible blood. Conclusions Migratory birds appear to have a great impact on the dissemination of Rickettsia-infected ticks, some of which may originate from distant locations. The potential ecological, medical and veterinary implications of such Rickettsia infections need further examination. PMID:25011617
Full Text Available Abstract Background Ticks of the species Ixodes ricinus are the main vectors of Lyme Borreliosis and Tick-borne Encephalitis – two rapidly emerging diseases in Europe. Repellents provide a practical means of protection against tick bites and can therefore minimize the transmission of tick-borne diseases. We developed and tested seven different dodecanoic acid (DDA-formulations for their efficacy in repelling host-seeking nymphs of I. ricinus by laboratory screening. The ultimately selected formulation was then used for comparative investigations of commercially available tick repellents in humans. Methods Laboratory screening tests were performed using the Moving-object (MO bioassay. All test formulations contained 10% of the naturally occurring active substance DDA and differed only in terms of the quantitative and qualitative composition of inactive ingredients and fragrances. The test procedure used in the human bioassays is a modification of an assay described by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and recommended for regulatory affairs. Repellency was computed using the equation: R = 100 - NR/N × 100, where NR is the number of non-repelled ticks, and N is the respective number of control ticks. All investigations were conducted in a controlled laboratory environment offering standardized test conditions. Results All test formulations strongly repelled nymphs of I. ricinus (100-81% protection as shown by the MO-bioassay. The majority of ticks dropped off the treated surface of the heated rotating drum that served as the attractant (1 mg/cm2 repellent applied. The 10% DDA-based formulation, that produced the best results in laboratory screening, was as effective as the coconut oil-based reference product. The mean protection time of both preparations was generally similar and averaged 8 hours. Repellency investigations in humans showed that the most effective 10% DDA-based formulation (~1.67 mg/cm2 applied strongly avoided the
Omondi, David; Masiga, Daniel K; Fielding, Burtram C; Kariuki, Edward; Ajamma, Yvonne Ukamaka; Mwamuye, Micky M; Ouso, Daniel O; Villinger, Jandouwe
Although diverse tick-borne pathogens (TBPs) are endemic to East Africa, with recognized impact on human and livestock health, their diversity and specific interactions with tick and vertebrate host species remain poorly understood in the region. In particular, the role of reptiles in TBP epidemiology remains unknown, despite having been implicated with TBPs of livestock among exported tortoises and lizards. Understanding TBP ecologies, and the potential role of common reptiles, is critical for the development of targeted transmission control strategies for these neglected tropical disease agents. During the wet months (April-May; October-December) of 2012-2013, we surveyed TBP diversity among 4,126 ticks parasitizing livestock and reptiles at homesteads along the shores and islands of Lake Baringo and Lake Victoria in Kenya, regions endemic to diverse neglected tick-borne diseases. After morphological identification of 13 distinct Rhipicephalus, Amblyomma , and Hyalomma tick species, ticks were pooled (≤8 individuals) by species, host, sampling site, and collection date into 585 tick pools. By supplementing previously established molecular assays for TBP detection with high-resolution melting analysis of PCR products before sequencing, we identified high frequencies of potential disease agents of ehrlichiosis (12.48% Ehrlichia ruminantium , 9.06% Ehrlichia canis ), anaplasmosis (6.32% Anaplasma ovis , 14.36% Anaplasma platys , and 3.08% Anaplasma bovis ,), and rickettsiosis (6.15% Rickettsia africae , 2.22% Rickettsia aeschlimannii , 4.27% Rickettsia rhipicephali , and 4.95% Rickettsia spp.), as well as Paracoccus sp. and apicomplexan hemoparasites (0.51% Theileria sp., 2.56% Hepatozoon fitzsimonsi , and 1.37% Babesia caballi ) among tick pools. Notably, we identified E. ruminantium in both Amblyomma and Rhipicephalus pools of ticks sampled from livestock in both study areas as well as in Amblyomma falsomarmoreum (66.7%) and Amblyomma nuttalli (100%) sampled
Jaber, Omar I; Kirby, Patricia A
Alveolar soft part sarcoma is a rare neoplasm usually arising in the soft tissues of the lower limbs in adults and in the head and neck region in children. It presents primarily as a slowly growing mass or as metastatic disease. It is characterized by a specific chromosomal alteration, der(17)t(X:17)(p11:q25), resulting in fusion of the transcription factor E3 (TFE3) with alveolar soft part sarcoma critical region 1 (ASPSCR1) at 17q25. This translocation is diagnostically useful because the tumor nuclei are positive for TFE3 by immunohistochemistry. Real-time polymerase chain reaction to detect the ASPSCR1-TFE3 fusion transcript on paraffin-embedded tissue blocks has been shown to be more sensitive and specific than detection of TFE3 by immunohistochemical stain. Cathepsin K is a relatively recent immunohistochemical stain that can aid in the diagnosis. The recent discovery of the role of the ASPSCR1-TFE3 fusion protein in the MET proto-oncogene signaling pathway promoting angiogenesis and cell proliferation offers a promising targeted molecular therapy.
Weisheit, S.; Villar, M.; Tykalová, Hana; Popara, M.; Loecherbach, J.; Watson, M.; Růžek, Daniel; Grubhoffer, Libor; de la Fuente, J.; Fazakerley, J.K.; Bell-Sakyi, L.
Roč. 8, NOV 18 2015 (2015), s. 599 ISSN 1756-3305 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-03044S; GA ČR GAP502/11/2116 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 238511 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : tisk * Ixodes * flavivirus * tick-borne encephalitis virus * tick cell line * innate immunity * antiviral response Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.234, year: 2015
Kwak, Mackenzie L
Historically, several tick taxonomists have reported Hyalomma aegyptium within Australia due to misidentifications. This has resulted in confusion relating to the occurrence of the genus Hyalomma within Australia. Based on the recent discovery of museum specimens of Hyalomma dromedarii, misidentified as H. aegyptium, the historical occurrence of H. dromedarii is reported for the first time within Australia, along with its apparent subsequent extinction. The introduction and naturalisation of foreign tick species into Australia is also reviewed.
Leydet, Brian F; Liang, Fang-Ting
There are 4 major human-biting tick species in the northeastern United States, which include: Amblyomma americanum, Amblyomma maculatum, Dermacentor variabilis, and Ixodes scapularis. The black bear is a large mammal that has been shown to be parasitized by all the aforementioned ticks. We investigated the bacterial infections in ticks collected from Louisiana black bears (Ursus americanus subspecies luteolus). Eighty-six ticks were collected from 17 black bears in Louisiana from June 2010 to March 2011. All 4 common human-biting tick species were represented. Each tick was subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting select bacterial pathogens and symbionts. Bacterial DNA was detected in 62% of ticks (n=53). Rickettsia parkeri, the causative agent of an emerging spotted fever group rickettsiosis, was identified in 66% of A. maculatum, 28% of D. variabilis, and 11% of I. scapularis. The Lyme disease bacterium, Borrelia burgdorferi, was detected in 2 I. scapularis, while one A. americanum was positive for Borrelia bissettii, a putative human pathogen. The rickettsial endosymbionts Candidatus Rickettsia andeanae, rickettsial endosymbiont of I. scapularis, and Rickettsia amblyommii were detected in their common tick hosts at 21%, 39%, and 60%, respectively. All ticks were PCR-negative for Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Ehrlichia spp., and Babesia microti. This is the first reported detection of R. parkeri in vector ticks in Louisiana; we also report the novel association of R. parkeri with I. scapularis. Detection of both R. parkeri and B. burgdorferi in their respective vectors in Louisiana demands further investigation to determine potential for human exposure to these pathogens. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Ionita, Mariana; Silaghi, Cornelia; Mitrea, Ioan Liviu; Edouard, Sophie; Parola, Philippe; Pfister, Kurt
The diverse tick fauna as well as the abundance of tick populations in Romania represent potential risks for both human and animal health. Spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiae are recognized as important agents of emerging human tick-borne diseases worldwide. However, the epidemiology of rickettsial diseases has been poorly investigated in Romania. In urban habitats, companion animals which are frequently exposed to tick infestation, play a role in maintenance of tick populations and as reservoirs of tick-borne pathogens. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the occurrence of SFG rickettsiae in ticks infesting dogs in a greater urban area in South-eastern Romania. Adult ixodid ticks (n=205), including Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (n=120), Dermacentor reticulatus (n=76) and Ixodes ricinus (n=9) were collected from naturally infested dogs and were screened for SFG rickettsiae using conventional PCR followed by sequencing. Additionally, ticks were screened for DNA of Babesia spp., Hepatozoon spp., Ehrlichia canis, and Anaplasma platys. Four zoonotic SFG rickettsiae were identified: Rickettsia raoultii (16%) and Rickettsia slovaca (3%) in D. reticulatus, Rickettsia monacensis (11%) in I. ricinus, and Rickettsia conorii (0.8%) in Rh. sanguineus s.l. Moreover, pathogens of veterinary importance, such as B. canis (21%) in D. reticulatus and E. canis (7.5%) in Rh. sanguineus s.l. were identified. The findings expand the knowledge on distribution of SFG rickettsiae as well as canine pathogens in Romania. Additionally, this is the first report describing the molecular detection of R. conorii in ticks from Romania. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Demma, Linda J; Traeger, Marc S; Nicholson, William L; Paddock, Christopher D; Blau, Dianna M; Eremeeva, Marina E; Dasch, Gregory A; Levin, Michael L; Singleton, Joseph; Zaki, Sherif R; Cheek, James E; Swerdlow, David L; McQuiston, Jennifer H
Rocky Mountain spotted fever is a life-threatening, tick-borne disease caused by Rickettsia rickettsii. This disease is rarely reported in Arizona, and the principal vectors, Dermacentor species ticks, are uncommon in the state. From 2002 through 2004, a focus of Rocky Mountain spotted fever was investigated in rural eastern Arizona. We obtained blood and tissue specimens from patients with suspected Rocky Mountain spotted fever and ticks from patients' homesites. Serologic, molecular, immunohistochemical, and culture assays were performed to identify the causative agent. On the basis of specific laboratory criteria, patients were classified as having confirmed or probable Rocky Mountain spotted fever infection. A total of 16 patients with Rocky Mountain spotted fever infection (11 with confirmed and 5 with probable infection) were identified. Of these patients, 13 (81 percent) were children 12 years of age or younger, 15 (94 percent) were hospitalized, and 2 (12 percent) died. Dense populations of Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks were found on dogs and in the yards of patients' homesites. All patients with confirmed Rocky Mountain spotted fever had contact with tick-infested dogs, and four had a reported history of tick bite preceding the illness. R. rickettsii DNA was detected in nonengorged R. sanguineus ticks collected at one home, and R. rickettsii isolates were cultured from these ticks. This investigation documents the presence of Rocky Mountain spotted fever in eastern Arizona, with common brown dog ticks (R. sanguineus) implicated as a vector of R. rickettsii. The broad distribution of this common tick raises concern about its potential to transmit R. rickettsii in other settings. Copyright 2005 Massachusetts Medical Society.
Coxiella burnetii, as an obligata intracellular bacterium, is the etiologic agent of Q-fever. It is widely distributed in nature and is responsible for infection in various animals (cattle, sheep, goat) and humans. C. burnetii has been isolated from milk, ticks and human patients with acute and chronic Q fever. Ticks are the principal vectors and reservoirs of C. burnetii. Since over 40 species of ticks have been found to be infected with C. burnetii, ticks can serve as indicators of infection in nature. In this study, total of 2472 ticks (1446 female, 1021 male and 5 nymphs) were collected from 38 provinces of Turkey. The ticks were gathered into groups of 1 to 7 ticks as to the provinces, species and gender for DNA extraction. Following DNA extraction, the groups were examined for the presence of C. burtii by using the CB1and CB2. The ticks collected from the province of Denizli (56 in total) were gathered into 13 groups according to the species and gender. From these groups, 6 were positive for C. burnetii. The ticks collected from Ankara province, total of 160 ticks, were grouped into 53 as to their species and gender, only one group was found to be positive for C. burnetii. The specificities of PCR products were evaluated by restriction analysis. The positive PCR products were digested with the enzyme Taq1 and for bands in order of 118, 57, 43 and 39 bp's were appeared such as seen in the positive control DNA (C. burnetii Nine Mile RSA493)
Moutailler, Sara; Valiente Moro, Claire; Vaumourin, Elise; Michelet, Lorraine; Tran, Florence Hélène; Devillers, Elodie; Cosson, Jean-François; Gasqui, Patrick; Van, Van Tran; Mavingui, Patrick; Vourc'h, Gwenaël; Vayssier-Taussat, Muriel
Ticks are the most common arthropod vectors of both human and animal diseases in Europe, and the Ixodes ricinus tick species is able to transmit a large number of bacteria, viruses and parasites. Ticks may also be co-infected with several pathogens, with a subsequent high likelihood of co-transmission to humans or animals. However few data exist regarding co-infection prevalences, and these studies only focus on certain well-known pathogens. In addition to pathogens, ticks also carry symbionts that may play important roles in tick biology, and could interfere with pathogen maintenance and transmission. In this study we evaluated the prevalence of 38 pathogens and four symbionts and their co-infection levels as well as possible interactions between pathogens, or between pathogens and symbionts. A total of 267 Ixodes ricinus female specimens were collected in the French Ardennes and analyzed by high-throughput real-time PCR for the presence of 37 pathogens (bacteria and parasites), by rRT-PCR to detect the presence of Tick-Borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) and by nested PCR to detect four symbionts. Possible multipartite interactions between pathogens, or between pathogens and symbionts were statistically evaluated. Among the infected ticks, 45% were co-infected, and carried up to five different pathogens. When adding symbiont prevalences, all ticks were infected by at least one microorganism, and up to eight microorganisms were identified in the same tick. When considering possible interactions between pathogens, the results suggested a strong association between Borrelia garinii and B. afzelii, whereas there were no significant interactions between symbionts and pathogens. Our study reveals high pathogen co-infection rates in ticks, raising questions about possible co-transmission of these agents to humans or animals, and their consequences to human and animal health. We also demonstrated high prevalence rates of symbionts co-existing with pathogens, opening new
Full Text Available Ticks are the most common arthropod vectors of both human and animal diseases in Europe, and the Ixodes ricinus tick species is able to transmit a large number of bacteria, viruses and parasites. Ticks may also be co-infected with several pathogens, with a subsequent high likelihood of co-transmission to humans or animals. However few data exist regarding co-infection prevalences, and these studies only focus on certain well-known pathogens. In addition to pathogens, ticks also carry symbionts that may play important roles in tick biology, and could interfere with pathogen maintenance and transmission. In this study we evaluated the prevalence of 38 pathogens and four symbionts and their co-infection levels as well as possible interactions between pathogens, or between pathogens and symbionts.A total of 267 Ixodes ricinus female specimens were collected in the French Ardennes and analyzed by high-throughput real-time PCR for the presence of 37 pathogens (bacteria and parasites, by rRT-PCR to detect the presence of Tick-Borne encephalitis virus (TBEV and by nested PCR to detect four symbionts. Possible multipartite interactions between pathogens, or between pathogens and symbionts were statistically evaluated. Among the infected ticks, 45% were co-infected, and carried up to five different pathogens. When adding symbiont prevalences, all ticks were infected by at least one microorganism, and up to eight microorganisms were identified in the same tick. When considering possible interactions between pathogens, the results suggested a strong association between Borrelia garinii and B. afzelii, whereas there were no significant interactions between symbionts and pathogens.Our study reveals high pathogen co-infection rates in ticks, raising questions about possible co-transmission of these agents to humans or animals, and their consequences to human and animal health. We also demonstrated high prevalence rates of symbionts co-existing with pathogens
Wang, Chengjun; Sim, Kyoseung; Chen, Jin; Kim, Hojin; Rao, Zhoulyu; Li, Yuhang; Chen, Weiqiu; Song, Jizhou; Verduzco, Rafael; Yu, Cunjiang
Soft robots outperform the conventional hard robots on significantly enhanced safety, adaptability, and complex motions. The development of fully soft robots, especially fully from smart soft materials to mimic soft animals, is still nascent. In addition, to date, existing soft robots cannot adapt themselves to the surrounding environment, i.e., sensing and adaptive motion or response, like animals. Here, compliant ultrathin sensing and actuating electronics innervated fully soft robots that can sense the environment and perform soft bodied crawling adaptively, mimicking an inchworm, are reported. The soft robots are constructed with actuators of open-mesh shaped ultrathin deformable heaters, sensors of single-crystal Si optoelectronic photodetectors, and thermally responsive artificial muscle of carbon-black-doped liquid-crystal elastomer (LCE-CB) nanocomposite. The results demonstrate that adaptive crawling locomotion can be realized through the conjugation of sensing and actuation, where the sensors sense the environment and actuators respond correspondingly to control the locomotion autonomously through regulating the deformation of LCE-CB bimorphs and the locomotion of the robots. The strategy of innervating soft sensing and actuating electronics with artificial muscles paves the way for the development of smart autonomous soft robots. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Kinga M Sulyok
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Coxiella burnetii, the etiologic agent of Q fever, is a highly infectious zoonotic bacterium. Genetic information about the strains of this worldwide distributed agent circulating on the African continent is limited. The aim of the present study was the genetic characterization of C. burnetii DNA samples detected in ticks collected from Ethiopian cattle and their comparison with other genotypes found previously in other parts of the world. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 296 tick samples were screened by real-time PCR targeting the IS1111 region of C. burnetii genome and from the 32 positive samples, 8 cases with sufficient C. burnetii DNA load (Amblyomma cohaerens, n = 6; A. variegatum, n = 2 were characterized by multispacer sequence typing (MST and multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA. One novel sequence type (ST, the proposed ST52, was identified by MST. The MLVA-6 discriminated the proposed ST52 into two newly identified MLVA genotypes: type 24 or AH was detected in both Amblyomma species while type 26 or AI was found only in A. cohaerens. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Both the MST and MLVA genotypes of the present work are closely related to previously described genotypes found primarily in cattle samples from different parts of the globe. This finding is congruent with the source hosts of the analyzed Ethiopian ticks, as these were also collected from cattle. The present study provides genotype information of C. burnetii from this seldom studied East-African region as well as further evidence for the presumed host-specific adaptation of this agent.
Grubhoffer, Libor; Golovchenko, Maryna; Vancová, Marie; Zacharovová, Klára; Rudenko, Natalia; Oliver, J. H., Jr.
Roč. 52, č. 4 (2005), s. 279-294 ISSN 0015-5683 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/03/1326; GA ČR GA206/03/1323 Grant - others:National Institutes of Health(US) R37 AI-24899; Science and Technology Collaboration AVCR-NRC Canada(CZ) Z60220518/58-8500 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Borrelia spirochetes * ticks * lectins * glycoproteins Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.138, year: 2005
Perner, Jan; Sobotka, Roman; Šíma, Radek; Konvičková, Jitka; Sojka, Daniel; de Oliveira, P.L.; Hajdušek, Ondřej; Kopáček, Petr
Roč. 5, Mar 7 (2016), e12318 ISSN 2050-084X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-11043S; GA ČR GP13-12816P; GA ČR GA14-33693S; GA ČR GP13-27630P; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1416 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 ; RVO:61388971 Keywords : biochemistry * haem auxotrophy * haem oxygenase * haematophagy * infectious disease * iron metabolism * microbiology * ticks Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 7.725, year: 2016
Abstract' Background For >100 years cattle production in the southern United States has been threatened by cattle fever. It is caused by an invasive parasite-vector complex that includes the protozoan hemoparasites Babesia bovis and B. bigemina, which are transmitted among domestic cattle via Rhipicephalus tick vectors of the subgenus Boophilus. In 1906 an eradication effort was started and by 1943 Boophilus ticks had been confined to a narrow tick eradication quarantine area (TEQA) along the Texas-Mexico border. However, a dramatic increase in tick infestations in areas outside the TEQA over the last decade suggests these tick vectors may be poised to re-invade the southern United States. We investigated historical and potential future distributions of climatic habitats of cattle fever ticks to assess the potential for a range expansion. Methods We built robust spatial predictions of habitat suitability for the vector species Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus and R. (B.) annulatus across the southern United States for three time periods: 1906, present day (2012), and 2050. We used analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) to identify persistent tick occurrences and analysis of bias in the climate proximate to these occurrences to identify key environmental parameters associated with the ecology of both species. We then used ecological niche modeling algorithms GARP and Maxent to construct models that related known occurrences of ticks in the TEQA during 2001–2011 with geospatial data layers that summarized important climate parameters at all three time periods. Results We identified persistent tick infestations and specific climate parameters that appear to be drivers of ecological niches of the two tick species. Spatial models projected onto climate data representative of climate in 1906 reproduced historical pre-eradication tick distributions. Present-day predictions, although constrained to areas near the TEQA, extrapolated well onto climate projections for
Full Text Available Hepatozoon kisrae n. sp. was found infecting a starred lizard at a site in southeastern Samaria, Palestine. These lizards were also hosts to the ixodid tick Hyolomma cf. aegyptium, which was demonstrated to be the vector of this hemogregarine. Hepatozoon and tick infections occurred in lizards within a very restricted locality; at a second site, nearby, ticks occurred without Hepatozoon infection. Micro- and macromeronts occurred mainly in the lungs, while cyst-like merogonic stages, mainly dizoic, occurred in the liver. Mature intraerythrocytic gametocytes were stout and encapsulated. Development from oocysts to sporocysts took place in the tick hemocoel, and was examined by transmission electron microscopy. Lizards were successfully infected when fed on sporocyst-infected ticks or viscera of infected lizards. Ticks become infected when fed on infected lizards; sporogony was complete when the ticks reached adult stage, over 40 days after initial attachment.
Full Text Available Although diverse tick-borne pathogens (TBPs are endemic to East Africa, with recognized impact on human and livestock health, their diversity and specific interactions with tick and vertebrate host species remain poorly understood in the region. In particular, the role of reptiles in TBP epidemiology remains unknown, despite having been implicated with TBPs of livestock among exported tortoises and lizards. Understanding TBP ecologies, and the potential role of common reptiles, is critical for the development of targeted transmission control strategies for these neglected tropical disease agents. During the wet months (April–May; October–December of 2012–2013, we surveyed TBP diversity among 4,126 ticks parasitizing livestock and reptiles at homesteads along the shores and islands of Lake Baringo and Lake Victoria in Kenya, regions endemic to diverse neglected tick-borne diseases. After morphological identification of 13 distinct Rhipicephalus, Amblyomma, and Hyalomma tick species, ticks were pooled (≤8 individuals by species, host, sampling site, and collection date into 585 tick pools. By supplementing previously established molecular assays for TBP detection with high-resolution melting analysis of PCR products before sequencing, we identified high frequencies of potential disease agents of ehrlichiosis (12.48% Ehrlichia ruminantium, 9.06% Ehrlichia canis, anaplasmosis (6.32% Anaplasma ovis, 14.36% Anaplasma platys, and 3.08% Anaplasma bovis,, and rickettsiosis (6.15% Rickettsia africae, 2.22% Rickettsia aeschlimannii, 4.27% Rickettsia rhipicephali, and 4.95% Rickettsia spp., as well as Paracoccus sp. and apicomplexan hemoparasites (0.51% Theileria sp., 2.56% Hepatozoon fitzsimonsi, and 1.37% Babesia caballi among tick pools. Notably, we identified E. ruminantium in both Amblyomma and Rhipicephalus pools of ticks sampled from livestock in both study areas as well as in Amblyomma falsomarmoreum (66.7% and Amblyomma nuttalli (100
Yu, G V; Chang, T; White, J M
The concept of soft tissue attachment and reattachment has been addressed over the years through a variety of surgical techniques. This includes tendons and ligaments that have been detached both surgically and traumatically from their osseous origins or insertions. This study is designed to provide the reader with a comprehensive overview of current commercially available devices. Detailed descriptions of the various devices are provided along with a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of each. Their application and use in reconstructive foot and ankle surgery are also discussed.
Tomico, Oscar; Wilde, Danielle
relationship with textiles, as they are one of the few products worn much of the time, often in direct contact with the body. When designing wearables a designer must consider a range of requirements that do not typically demand focus when designing products that are not worn, including: sensitivity...... to material detail; an eye for fit and comfort on bodies with diverse shapes and movement capabilities; openness to a diversity of meanings that may be generated; as well as consideration of wearers’ intimate relations with technology. Soft wearables allow for greater scope within these requirements...
Sahil Aggarwal, BS
Full Text Available History of present illness: A 71-year-old woman with a history of metastatic ovarian cancer presented with sudden onset, rapidly progressing painful rash in the genital region and lower abdominal wall. She was febrile to 103°F, heart rate was 114 beats per minute, and respiratory rate was 24 per minute. Her exam was notable for a toxic-appearing female with extensive areas of erythema, tenderness, and induration to her lower abdomen, intertriginous areas, and perineum with intermittent segments of crepitus without hemorrhagic bullae or skin breakdown. Significant findings: Computed tomography (CT of the abdominal and pelvis with intravenous (IV contrast revealed inflammatory changes, including gas and fluid collections within the ventral abdominal wall extending to the vulva, consistent with a necrotizing soft tissue infection. Discussion: Necrotizing fasciitis is a serious infection of the skin and soft tissues that requires an early diagnosis to reduce morbidity and mortality. Classified into several subtypes based on the type of microbial infection, necrotizing fasciitis can rapidly progress to septic shock or death if left untreated.1 Diagnosing necrotizing fasciitis requires a high index of suspicion based on patient risk factors, presentation, and exam findings. Definitive treatment involves prompt surgical exploration and debridement coupled with IV antibiotics.2,3 Clinical characteristics such as swelling, disproportionate pain, erythema, crepitus, and necrotic tissue should be a guide to further diagnostic tests.4 Unfortunately, lab values such as white blood cell count and lactate imaging studies have high sensitivity but low specificity, making the diagnosis of necrotizing fasciitis still largely a clinical one.4,5 CT is a reliable method to exclude the diagnosis of necrotizing soft tissue infections (sensitivity of 100%, but is only moderately reliable in correctly identifying such infections (specificity of 81%.5 Given the emergent
V. I. Trukhachev
Full Text Available Aim. To determine the characteristics of the modern dissemination, distribution and seasonal activity of Hyalomma ixodid ticks in the Stavropol region.Methods. The study of the spread of Ixodes Hyalomma ticks was conducted in all administrative districts of the Stavropol Territory in the period of 2000-2015. Collection of ixodid ticks in natural habitats, home to wild mammals and birds, was carried out according to conventional techniques.Results. Hyalomma marginatum is a two-host tick. In the region, H. marginatum of an adult stage becomes active in early spring (late March - early April; appearance of the larvae is observed in early July; the nymphs in the third decade of July. The peculiarity of biological development of H. scupense is the activation of adult species in the cold season (winter; development is only of one-host cycle. The peak number of ticks of an adult stage in cattle falls on the last days of January and February.Conclusion. Hyalomma ixodid ticks in the Stavropol region are distributed mosaicly, with the dominance of some species depending on climatic and landscape-geographical features of the territories they inhabit. The dominant species are H. marginatum and H. scupense, but H. anatolicum tick species occur sporadically in the east region.
Tim J Schuijt
Full Text Available Repeated exposure of rabbits and other animals to ticks results in acquired resistance or immunity to subsequent tick bites and is partially elicited by antibodies directed against tick antigens. In this study we demonstrate the utility of a yeast surface display approach to identify tick salivary antigens that react with tick-immune serum. We constructed an Ixodes scapularis nymphal salivary gland yeast surface display library and screened the library with nymph-immune rabbit sera and identified five salivary antigens. Four of these proteins, designated P8, P19, P23 and P32, had a predicted signal sequence. We generated recombinant (r P8, P19 and P23 in a Drosophila expression system for functional and immunization studies. rP8 showed anti-complement activity and rP23 demonstrated anti-coagulant activity. Ixodes scapularis feeding was significantly impaired when nymphs were fed on rabbits immunized with a cocktail of rP8, rP19 and rP23, a hall mark of tick-immunity. These studies also suggest that these antigens may serve as potential vaccine candidates to thwart tick feeding.
Full Text Available Aim: The red jungle fowl is generally considered as one of the endangered Asian wild Galleopheasants due to manmade encroachment of their habitats, coupled with the effect of disease and disease causing organisms like ticks and tickborne infections. This study aimed to determine the tick fauna of the red jungle fowl and their predilection sites based on developmental stages. Materials and Methods: A total of 33 jungle fowls were sampled for this study from Bangi area of Selangor State, Peninsular Malaysian. The birds were captured using a locally made trap made-up of loops and bites. Ticks present on their bodies were detached using fine forceps and identified morphologically under a dissecting microscope. Results: 91% of the jungle fowls were infested with ticks, all of which belongs to the species Haemaphysalis wellingtoni. The ear region appeared to be the most common predilection site (63% for all the developmental stages in which the larval stages are solely restricted to that region. Nymphal and adult stages were distributed on the comb, wattle, and facial region in addition to the ear region. Conclusion: This study was the first in its kind and showed a high prevalence of tick infestation among jungle fowls. H. wellingtoni was known to be a vector in transmission of many tick-borne pathogens. Therefore, there is the need for further investigation to identify the various pathogens associated with this tick.
Kiewra, Dorota; Zaleśny, Grzegorz; Czułowska, Aleksandra
Ticks constitute important vectors of human and animal pathogens. Besides the Lyme borreliosis and tick-borne encephalitis, other pathogens such as Babesia spp., Rickettsia spp., and Anaplasma phagocytophilum, are of increasing public health interest. In Poland, as in other European countries, Ixodes ricinus, the most prevalent tick species responsible for the majority of tick bites in humans, is the main vector of A. phagocytophilum. The aim of the study was to estimate the infection level of I. ricinus with A. phagocytophilum in selected districts, not previously surveyed for the presence of this agent. Sampling of questing ticks was performed in 12 forested sites, located in four districts (Legnica, Milicz, Lubań, and Oława) in SW Poland. Altogether, 792 ticks (151 females, 101 males, and 540 nymphs) representing I. ricinus were checked for the presence of A. phagocytophilum. The average infection level was 4.3%, with higher rate reported for adult ticks. The highest percentage of infected adults was observed in Milicz (17.4%) and the lowest in Oława (6.8%). The abundance of questing I. ricinus in all examined sites as well as the infection with A. phagocytophilum indicate for the first time the risk for HGA transmission in SW Poland.
Horak, Ivan G; Heyne, Heloise; Halajian, Ali; Booysen, Shalaine; Smit, Willem J
The aim of the study was to determine the species spectrum of ixodid ticks that infest horses and donkeys in South Africa and to identify those species that act as vectors of disease to domestic livestock. Ticks were collected opportunistically from 391 horses countrywide by their owners or grooms, or by veterinary students and staff at the Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria. Ticks were also collected from 76 donkeys in Limpopo Province, 2 in Gauteng Province and 1 in North West province. All the ticks were identified by means of a stereoscopic microscope. Horses were infested with 17 tick species, 72.1% with Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi, 19.4% with Amblyomma hebraeum and 15.6% with Rhipicephalus decoloratus. Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi was recovered from horses in all nine provinces of South Africa and R. decoloratus in eight provinces. Donkeys were infested with eight tick species, and 81.6% were infested with R. evertsi evertsi, 23.7% with A. hebraeum and 10.5% with R. decoloratus. Several tick species collected from the horses and donkeys are the vectors of economically important diseases of livestock. Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi is the vector of Theileria equi, the causative organism of equine piroplasmosis. It also transmits Anaplasma marginale, the causative organism of anaplasmosis in cattle. Amblyomma hebraeum is the vector of Ehrlichia ruminantium, the causative organism of heartwater in cattle, sheep and goats, whereas R. decoloratus transmits Babesia bigemina, the causative organism of babesiosis in cattle.
Toni G Patton
Full Text Available Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme borreliosis, is transmitted to humans from the bite of Ixodes spp. ticks. During the borrelial tick-to-mammal life cycle, B. burgdorferi must adapt to many environmental changes by regulating several genes, including bba64. Our laboratory recently demonstrated that the bba64 gene product is necessary for mouse infectivity when B. burgdorferi is transmitted by an infected tick bite, but not via needle inoculation. In this study we investigated the phenotypic properties of a bba64 mutant strain, including 1 replication during tick engorgement, 2 migration into the nymphal salivary glands, 3 host transmission, and 4 susceptibility to the MyD88-dependent innate immune response. Results revealed that the bba64 mutant's attenuated infectivity by tick bite was not due to a growth defect inside an actively feeding nymphal tick, or failure to invade the salivary glands. These findings suggested there was either a lack of spirochete transmission to the host dermis or increased susceptibility to the host's innate immune response. Further experiments showed the bba64 mutant was not culturable from mouse skin taken at the nymphal bite site and was unable to establish infection in MyD88-deficient mice via tick infestation. Collectively, the results of this study indicate that BBA64 functions at the salivary gland-to-host delivery interface of vector transmission and is not involved in resistance to MyD88-mediated innate immunity.
Weck, Bárbara; Dall'Agnol, Bruno; Souza, Ugo; Webster, Anelise; Stenzel, Bárbara; Klafke, Guilherme; Martins, João Ricardo; Reck, José
Spotted fever is an acute febrile illness, which is considered severely underreported and misdiagnosed in the Brazilian Pampa, caused by tick-borne Rickettsiae. Here, we report an eco-epidemiological investigation of Rickettsia spp. in ticks from a spotted fever focus in Toropi, southern Brazil. Ticks were collected from capybara carcasses and processed individually to obtain genomic DNA. Rickettsia was investigated using PCR that amplified the rickettsial fragments of the gltA, ompA and htrA genes. DNA from Rickettsia parkeri was found in four of 14 Amblyomma dubitatum ticks collected from capybara carcasses in Toropi and the nearby municipality of Quevedos. We also tested 210A. dubitatum ticks obtained from road-killed capybaras of other localities from the Pampa biome; none of them were positive for Rickettsiae. Thus, in Rio Grande do Sul, two Rickettsia species can be potentially associated to spotted fever: Rickettsia sp. strain Atlantic Rainforest, associated with Amblyomma ovale ticks in the Atlantic Rainforest biome, and R. parkeri, associated both with Amblyomma tigrinum and A. dubitatum ticks in the Pampa biome. Our results reinforce that R. parkeri may be the agent associated with spotted fever in the Brazilian Pampa. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Labruna, Marcelo Bahia; Barbieri, Fábio Silva; Martins, Thiago Fernandes; Brito, Luciana Gatto; Ribeiro, Francisco Dimas Sales
In the present study, we provide new tick records from Vilhena Municipality, in the Southeast of the State of Rondônia, Northern Brazil. Ticks collected from a capybara, Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris (Linnaeus), were identified as Amblyomma romitii Tonelli-Rondelli (1 female), and Amblyomma sp. (1 larva). Ticks collected from a harpy eagle, Harpia harpyja (Linnaeus), were identified as Amblyomma cajennense (Fabricius) (16 nymphs) and Haemaphysalis juxtakochi Cooley (1 nymph). Ticks collected from a yellow-footed tortoise, Chelonoidis denticulada (Linnaeus), were identified as Amblyomma rotundatum Koch (10 females, 2 nymphs), and Amblyomma sp. (2 larvae). The present record of A. romitii is the first in the State of Rondônia, and represents the southernmost record for this tick species, indicating that its distribution area is much larger than currently recognized. Although both A. cajennense and H. juxtakochi have been reported parasitizing various bird species, we provide the first tick records on a harpy eagle. A. rotundatum is widespread in the State of Rondônia, and has been previously reported on the yellow-footed tortoise. The present records increase the tick fauna of Rondônia to 26 species.
Full Text Available Survival of Borrelia burgdorferi in ticks and mammals is facilitated, at least in part, by the selective expression of lipoproteins. Outer surface protein (Osp A participates in spirochete adherence to the tick gut. As ospB is expressed on a bicistronic operon with ospA, we have now investigated the role of OspB by generating an OspB-deficient B. burgdorferi and examining its phenotype throughout the spirochete life cycle. Similar to wild-type isolates, the OspB-deficient B. burgdorferi were able to readily infect and persist in mice. OspB-deficient B. burgdorferi were capable of migrating to the feeding ticks but had an impaired ability to adhere to the tick gut and survive within the vector. Furthermore, the OspB-deficient B. burgdorferi bound poorly to tick gut extracts. The complementation of the OspB-deficient spirochete in trans, with a wild-type copy of ospB gene, restored its ability to bind tick gut. Taken together, these data suggest that OspB has an important role within Ixodes scapularis and that B. burgdorferi relies upon multiple genes to efficiently persist in ticks.
Calisti, M; Picardi, G; Laschi, C
Soft robotics and its related technologies enable robot abilities in several robotics domains including, but not exclusively related to, manipulation, manufacturing, human-robot interaction and locomotion. Although field applications have emerged for soft manipulation and human-robot interaction, mobile soft robots appear to remain in the research stage, involving the somehow conflictual goals of having a deformable body and exerting forces on the environment to achieve locomotion. This paper aims to provide a reference guide for researchers approaching mobile soft robotics, to describe the underlying principles of soft robot locomotion with its pros and cons, and to envisage applications and further developments for mobile soft robotics. © 2017 The Author(s).
Gonzalez, M A G; Abu Kasim, N H; Naimie, Z
Soft skills and hard skills are essential in the practice of dentistry. While hard skills deal with technical proficiency, soft skills relate to a personal values and interpersonal skills that determine a person's ability to fit in a particular situation. These skills contribute to the success of organisations that deal face-to-face with clients. Effective soft skills benefit the dental practice. However, the teaching of soft skills remains a challenge to dental schools. This paper discusses the different soft skills, how they are taught and assessed and the issues that need to be addressed in their teaching and assessment. The use of the module by the Faculty of Dentistry, University of Malaya for development of soft skills for institutions of higher learning introduced by the Ministry of Higher Education, Malaysia. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Skinner, Delaina; Mitcham, Jessica R; Starkey, Lindsay A; Noden, Bruce H; Fairbanks, W Sue; Little, Susan E
American black bears (Ursus americanus) are commonly infested with ticks throughout their range, but there are few surveys for tick-borne disease agents in bears. To characterize tick infestations and determine the prevalence of current infection with Babesia spp. and past or current infection with Ehrlichia spp. in newly re-established populations of black bears in east central and southeastern Oklahoma, US, we identified adult (n=1,048) and immature (n=107) ticks recovered from bears (n=62). We evaluated serum and whole blood samples from a subset (n=49) for antibodies reactive to, and characteristic DNA fragments of, Ehrlichia spp., as well as characteristic DNA fragments of Babesia spp. Amblyomma americanum, the most common tick identified, was found on a majority (56/62; 90%) of bears and accounted for 697/1,048 (66.5%) of all ticks recovered. Other ticks included Dermacentor variabilis (338/1,048; 32.3%) from 36 bears, Amblyomma maculatum (9/1,048; 0.9%) from three bears, and Ixodes scapularis (4/1,048; 0.4%) from three bears. Antibodies reactive to Ehrlichia spp. were detected in every bear tested (49/49; 100%); maximum inverse titers to Ehrlichia chaffeensis ranged from 64-4,096 (geometric mean titer 1,525). However, PCR failed to identify active infection with E. chaffeensis, Ehrlichia ewingii, or an Ehrlichia ruminantium-like agent. Infection with Babesia spp. was detected by PCR in 3/49 (6%) bears. Together these data confirm that tick infestations and infection with tick-borne disease agents are common in bears in the southern US. The significance of these infestations and infections to the health of bears, if any, and the identity of the Ehrlichia spp. responsible for the antibody reactivity seen, warrant further evaluation.
Sumrandee, Chalao; Baimai, Visut; Trinachartvanit, Wachareeporn; Ahantarig, Arunee
We report the detection of Hepatozoon and Theileria in 103 ticks from mammals and snakes in Thailand. By using a genus-specific 18S rRNA PCR, Hepatozoon and Theileria spp. were detected in 8% and 18%, respectively, of ticks (n=79) removed from mammals. Of the ticks removed from snakes (n=24), 96% were infected with Hepatozoon spp., but none were infected with Theileria. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that Hepatozoon spp. detected from Dermacentor astrosignatus and Dermacentor auratus ticks from Wild boar (Sus scrofa) formed a phylogenetic group with many isolates of Hepatozoon felis that were distantly related to a species group containing Hepatozoon canis and Hepatozoon americanum. In contrast, a phylogenetic analysis of the Hepatozoon sequences of snake ticks revealed that Hepatozoon spp. from Amblyomma varanense from King cobra (Ophiophagus hannah) and Amblyomma helvolum ticks from Indochinese rat snake (Ptyas korros), and Asiatic water snake (Xenochrophis piscator) are grouped with Hepatozoon spp. recently isolated from Monocellate cobras, Reticulated pythons and Burmese pythons, all of Thai origin, and with Hepatozoon sp. 774c that has been detected from a tick species obtained from Argus monitors in Australia. A phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that Theileria spp. from Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, Haemaphysalis obesa, and Haemaphysalis lagrangei ticks from Sambar deer (Cervus unicolor) cluster with the Theileria cervi isolates WU11 and 239, and Theileria sp. Iwate 141. We report for the first time a Hepatozoon species that shares genetic similarity with Hepatozoon felis found in Dermacentor astrosignatus and Dermacentor auratus ticks collected from Wild boars in Thailand. In addition, we found the presence of a Theileria cervi-like sp. which suggests the potential role of Haemaphysalis lagrangei as a Theileria vector in Thailand. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The southern cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus, is an economically important parasite of cattle and can transmit several pathogenic microorganisms to its cattle host during the feeding process. Understanding the biology and genomics of R. microplus is critical to developing novel methods for controlling these ticks. Results We present a global comparative genomic analysis of a gene index of R. microplus comprised of 13,643 unique transcripts assembled from 42,512 expressed sequence tags (ESTs, a significant fraction of the complement of R. microplus genes. The source material for these ESTs consisted of polyA RNA from various tissues, lifestages, and strains of R. microplus, including larvae exposed to heat, cold, host odor, and acaricide. Functional annotation using RPS-Blast analysis identified conserved protein domains in the conceptually translated gene index and assigned GO terms to those database transcripts which had informative BlastX hits. Blast Score Ratio and SimiTri analysis compared the conceptual transcriptome of the R. microplus database to other eukaryotic proteomes and EST databases, including those from 3 ticks. The most abundant protein domains in BmiGI were also analyzed by SimiTri methodology. Conclusion These results indicate that a large fraction of BmiGI entries have no homologs in other sequenced genomes. Analysis with the PartiGene annotation pipeline showed 64% of the members of BmiGI could not be assigned GO annotation, thus minimal information is available about a significant fraction of the tick genome. This highlights the important insights in tick biology which are likely to result from a tick genome sequencing project. Global comparative analysis identified some tick genes with unexpected phylogenetic relationships which detailed analysis attributed to gene losses in some members of the animal kingdom. Some tick genes were identified which had close orthologues to mammalian genes
Full Text Available Abstract Background Continuous culture of tick cell lines has proven a valuable asset in isolating and propagating several different vector-borne pathogens, making it possible to study these microorganisms under laboratory conditions and develop serological tests to benefit public health. We describe a method for effective, cost- and labor-efficient isolation and propagation of Rickettsia raoultii using generally available laboratory equipment and Rhipicephalus microplus cells, further demonstrating the usefulness of continuous tick cell lines. R. raoultii is one of the causative agents of tick-borne lymphadenopathy (TIBOLA and is, together with its vector Dermacentor reticulatus, emerging in novel regions of Europe, giving rise to an increased threat to general public health. Methods Dermacentor reticulatus ticks were collected in the Donau-Auen (Lobau national park in Vienna, Austria. The hemolymph of ten collected ticks was screened by PCR-reverse line blot for the presence of rickettsial DNA. A single tick tested positive for R. raoultii DNA and was used to infect Rhipicephalus microplus BME/CTVM2 cells. Results Sixty-five days after infection of the tick-cell line with an extract from a R. raoultii-infected tick, we observed intracellular bacteria in the cultured cells. On the basis of microscopy we suspected that the intracellular bacteria were a species of Rickettsia; this was confirmed by several PCRs targeting different genes. Subsequent sequencing showed 99–100 % identity with R. raoultii. Cryopreservation and resuscitation of R. raoultii was successful. After 28 days identical intracellular bacteria were microscopically observed. Conclusions R. raoultii was successfully isolated and propagated from D. reticulatus ticks using R. microplus BME/CTVM2 cells. The isolated strain shows significant molecular variation compared to currently known sequences. Furthermore we show for the first time the successful cryopreservation and
Estrada-Peña, Agustin; Venzal, José M
A framework to evaluate the impact of ticks on human health under various scenarios of climate change is proposed. The purpose is not to provide a comprehensive plan (e.g. the economic impact of ticks on human society is not included), instead we wish to describe a series of indices that would be helpful by obtaining homogeneous comparisons of impact and vulnerability exerted by ticks in different regions, countries or continents, using normalized sets of population, vegetation, climate and physical attributes of the territory. Three tick species, i.e. Dermacentor marginatus, Rhipicephalus turanicus and Hyalomma marginatum, have been traced over the territory of Spain to further explain the computation of these indices. The discussion is based on tick habitat suitability, used as a measure of the abiotic (climate) fitness of the habitat for the species in question, and the sensitivity of each tick species to the rate of change of habitat suitability with respect to climate change. The impact is the rate of change in habitat suitability weighted with a fuzzy logic function evaluating the total number of people in an area, percent of rural population and accessibility of the geographical divisions (expressed as hexagons with a 10 km radius) used in the study. The different climate scenarios evaluated in relation to ticks show that the north-western part of Spain would suffer the greatest impact in case the mean temperature would increase, while the Mediterranean region would suffer the highest impact if temperatures decreased. Vulnerability, based on the sanitary structure of the territory and on the impact on human activities due to the change in tick distribution and abundance, is proposed as a measure of adaptation of society to these climate scenarios. The cost is evaluated as a function of land use and tick habitat suitability in a buffer zone surrounding each geographic division. All indices proposed have been obtained by search of common and/or publicly
Polsomboon, Suppaluck; Hoel, David F; Murphy, Jittawadee R; Linton, Yvonne-Marie; Motoki, Maysa; Robbins, Richard G; Bautista, Kim; Bricen O, Ireneo; Achee, Nicole L; Grieco, John P; Ching, Wei-Mei; Chao, Chien-Chung
Little is known about tick-borne rickettsial pathogens in Belize, Central America. We tested ixodid ticks for the presence of Rickettsia species in three of the six northern and western Belizean districts. Ticks were collected from domestic animals and tick drags over vegetation in 23 different villages in November 2014, February 2015, and May 2015. A total of 2,506 collected ticks were identified to the following species: Dermacentor nitens Neumann (46.69%), Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille) (19.55%), Rhipicephalus microplus (Canestrini) (19.47%), Amblyomma cajennense complex (9.74%), Amblyomma maculatum Koch (3.47%), Amblyomma ovale Koch (0.68%), Ixodes nr affinis (0.16%), Amblyomma nr maculatum (0.12%), and Amblyomma nr oblongoguttatum (0.12%). Ticks were pooled according to species, life stage (larva, nymph, or adult), and location (n = 509) for DNA extraction and screened for genus Rickettsia by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). All 42 positive pools were found to be positive for spotted fever group (SFG) Rickettsia in pools of A. cajennense complex (n = 33), A. maculatum (n = 4), A. nr maculatum (n = 1), A. ovale (n = 1), R. sanguineus (n = 1), and I. nr affinis (n = 2). Rickettsia amblyommatis was identified from A. cajennense complex and A. nr maculatum. Rickettsia parkeri was found in A. maculatum, and Rickettsia sp. endosymbiont was detected in I. nr affinis. The presence of infected ticks suggests a risk of tick-borne rickettsioses to humans and animals in Belize. This knowledge can contribute to an effective tick management and disease control program benefiting residents and travelers. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2017. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.
Kurlovs, Andre H.; Li, Jinze; Cheng, Du; Zhong, Jianmin
Rickettsia is a genus of intracellular bacteria that causes a variety of diseases in humans and other mammals and associates with a diverse group of arthropods. Although Rickettsia appears to be common in ticks, most Rickettsia-tick relationships remain generally uncharacterized. The most intimate of these associations is Rickettsia species phylotype G021, a maternally and transstadially transmitted endosymbiont that resides in 100% of I. pacificus in California. We investigated the effects of this Rickettsia phylotype on I. pacificus reproductive fitness using selective antibiotic treatment. Ciprofloxacin was 10-fold more effective than tetracycline in eliminating Rickettsia from I. pacificus, and quantitative PCR results showed that eggs from the ciprofloxacin-treated ticks contained an average of 0.02 Rickettsia per egg cell as opposed to the average of 0.2 in the tetracycline-treated ticks. Ampicillin did not significantly affect the number of Rickettsia per tick cell in adults or eggs compared to the water-injected control ticks. We found no relationship between tick embryogenesis and rickettsial density in engorged I. pacificus females. Tetracycline treatment significantly delayed oviposition of I. pacificus ticks, but the antibiotic’s effect was unlikely related to Rickettsia. We also demonstrated that Rickettsia-free eggs could successfully develop into larvae without any significant decrease in hatching compared to eggs containing Rickettsia. No significant differences in the incubation period, egg hatching rate, and the number of larvae were found between any of the antibiotic-treated groups and the water-injected tick control. We concluded that Rickettsia species phylotype G021 does not have an apparent effect on embryogenesis, oviposition, and egg hatching of I. pacificus. PMID:25105893
Wijnveld, Michiel; Schötta, Anna-Margarita; Pintér, Adriano; Stockinger, Hannes; Stanek, Gerold
Continuous culture of tick cell lines has proven a valuable asset in isolating and propagating several different vector-borne pathogens, making it possible to study these microorganisms under laboratory conditions and develop serological tests to benefit public health. We describe a method for effective, cost- and labor-efficient isolation and propagation of Rickettsia raoultii using generally available laboratory equipment and Rhipicephalus microplus cells, further demonstrating the usefulness of continuous tick cell lines. R. raoultii is one of the causative agents of tick-borne lymphadenopathy (TIBOLA) and is, together with its vector Dermacentor reticulatus, emerging in novel regions of Europe, giving rise to an increased threat to general public health. Dermacentor reticulatus ticks were collected in the Donau-Auen (Lobau) national park in Vienna, Austria. The hemolymph of ten collected ticks was screened by PCR-reverse line blot for the presence of rickettsial DNA. A single tick tested positive for R. raoultii DNA and was used to infect Rhipicephalus microplus BME/CTVM2 cells. Sixty-five days after infection of the tick-cell line with an extract from a R. raoultii-infected tick, we observed intracellular bacteria in the cultured cells. On the basis of microscopy we suspected that the intracellular bacteria were a species of Rickettsia; this was confirmed by several PCRs targeting different genes. Subsequent sequencing showed 99-100 % identity with R. raoultii. Cryopreservation and resuscitation of R. raoultii was successful. After 28 days identical intracellular bacteria were microscopically observed. R. raoultii was successfully isolated and propagated from D. reticulatus ticks using R. microplus BME/CTVM2 cells. The isolated strain shows significant molecular variation compared to currently known sequences. Furthermore we show for the first time the successful cryopreservation and resuscitation of R. raoultii.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Ticks are vectors of a wide variety of pathogens causing severe diseases in humans and domestic animals. Intestinal digestion of the host blood is an essential process of tick physiology and also a limiting factor for pathogen transmission since the tick gut represents the primary site for pathogen infection and proliferation. Using the model tick Ixodes ricinus, the European Lyme disease vector, we have previously demonstrated by genetic and biochemical analyses that host blood is degraded in the tick gut by a network of acidic peptidases of the aspartic and cysteine classes. Results This study reveals the digestive machinery of the I. ricinus during the course of blood-feeding on the host. The dynamic profiling of concentrations, activities and mRNA expressions of the major digestive enzymes demonstrates that the de novo synthesis of peptidases triggers the dramatic increase of the hemoglobinolytic activity along the feeding period. Overall hemoglobinolysis, as well as the activity of digestive peptidases are negligible at the early stage of feeding, but increase dramatically towards the end of the slow feeding period, reaching maxima in fully fed ticks. This finding contradicts the established opinion that blood digestion is reduced at the end of engorgement. Furthermore, we show that the digestive proteolysis is localized intracellularly throughout the whole duration of feeding. Conclusions Results suggest that the egressing proteolytic system in the early stage of feeding and digestion is a potential target for efficient impairment, most likely by blocking its components via antibodies present in the host blood. Therefore, digestive enzymes are promising candidates for development of novel 'anti-tick' vaccines capable of tick control and even transmission of tick-borne pathogens.
Manjunatha N. Belaganahalli
Full Text Available The International Committee for Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV recognizes four species of tick-borne orbiviruses (TBOs: Chenuda virus, Chobar Gorge virus, Wad Medani virus and Great Island virus (genus Orbivirus, family Reoviridae. Nucleotide (nt and amino acid (aa sequence comparisons provide a basis for orbivirus detection and classification, however full genome sequence data were only available for the Great Island virus species. We report representative genome-sequences for the three other TBO species (virus isolates: Chenuda virus (CNUV; Chobar Gorge virus (CGV and Wad Medani virus (WMV. Phylogenetic comparisons show that TBOs cluster separately from insect-borne orbiviruses (IBOs. CNUV, CGV, WMV and GIV share low level aa/nt identities with other orbiviruses, in ‘conserved’ Pol, T2 and T13 proteins/genes, identifying them as four distinct virus-species. The TBO genome segment encoding cell attachment, outer capsid protein 1 (OC1, is approximately half the size of the equivalent segment from insect-borne orbiviruses, helping to explain why tick-borne orbiviruses have a ~1 kb smaller genome.
Rathinavelu, Sivaprakash; Broadwater, Anne; de Silva, Aravinda M
The Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, inhabits the gut lumen of the tick vector. At this location the spirochete is exposed to host blood when a tick feeds. We report here on studies that were done with normal and complement-deficient (C3-knockout) mice to determine if the host complement system killed spirochetes within the vector. We found that spirochete numbers within feeding nymphs were not influenced by complement, most likely because host complement was inactivated within the vector. The Lyme disease outer surface protein A (OspA) vaccine is a transmission-blocking vaccine that targets spirochetes in the vector. In experiments with mice hyperimmunized with OspA, complement was not required to kill spirochetes within nymphs and to block transmission from nymphs to the vaccinated host. However, host complement did enhance the ability of OspA antibody to block larvae from acquiring spirochetes. Thus, the effects of OspA antibody on nymphal transmission and larval acquisition appear to be based on different mechanisms.
Calisti, M.; Picardi, G.; Laschi, C.
Soft robotics and its related technologies enable robot abilities in several robotics domains including, but not exclusively related to, manipulation, manufacturing, human���robot interaction and locomotion. Although field applications have emerged for soft manipulation and human���robot interaction, mobile soft robots appear to remain in the research stage, involving the somehow conflictual goals of having a deformable body and exerting forces on the environment to achieve locomotion. This p...
This book provides a comprehensive description of the architetural techniques to tackle the soft error problem. It covers the new methodologies for quantitative analysis of soft errors as well as novel, cost-effective architectural techniques to mitigate them. To provide readers with a better grasp of the broader problem deffinition and solution space, this book also delves into the physics of soft errors and reviews current circuit and software mitigation techniques.
Godfrey, Juleon Taylor
In this thesis a survey on soft robotic actuators is conducted. The actuators are classified into three main categories: Pneumatic Artificial Muscles (PAM), Electronic Electroactive Polymers (Electric EAP), and Ionic Electroactive Polymers (Ionic EAP). Soft robots can have many degrees and are more compliant than hard robots. This makes them suitable for applications that are difficult for hard robots. For each actuator background history, build materials, how they operate, and modeling are presented. Multiple actuators in each class are reviewed highlighting both their use and their mathematical formulation. In addition to the survey the McKibben actuator was chosen for fabrication and in-depth experimental analysis. Four McKibben actuators were fabricated using mesh sleeve, barbed hose fittings, and different elastic bladders. All were actuated using compressed air. Tensile tests were performed for each actuator to measure the tension force as air pressure increased from 20 to 100 psi in 10 psi increments. To account for material relaxation properties eleven trials for each actuator were run for 2-3 days. In conclusion, the smallest outer diameter elastic bladder was capable of producing the highest force due to the larger gap between the bladder and the sleeve.
Full Text Available At present, technical university graduates are expected to acquire a set of not only hard skills but soft ones as well, which are in the first instance communication skills that can be developed through active and interactive methods during in-class learning. The issue related to communicative skills development is being discussed in different countries throughout the world. This problem is faced by university graduates from Europe, the US and Russia, and in the East. The learning process exploits a variety of electronic platforms, which, on the one hand, significantly increase the pool of students, but, on the other hand, hinder the development of communicative skills. This poses the question about blended learning which combines active and interactive teaching methods with e-learning. Consider a good example of these two types of combined student activity obtained using interactive methods in the Moodle course “Professional training in English” designed for the Bachelor's Degree Programs, Tomsk Polytechnic University (Tomsk, Russia. This paper considers the main types of tasks used in the e-course. It is shown that the teacher’s first aim is to be not a scientific knowledge translator, but to foster a creative educational environment by selecting an optimal teaching strategy through modern educational technology; an e-course is a good teaching aid to build hard and soft skills.
Schwartz, B S; Nadelman, R B; Fish, D; Childs, J E; Forseter, G; Wormser, G P
We measured anti-tick saliva antibody (ATSA) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using whole sonicated Ixodes dammini salivary glands as antigen in subjects with 1) a recent and confirmed I. dammini (n = 100) or Dermacentor variabilis bite (n = 3), 2) erythema migrans (n = 15), 3) late-stage Lyme disease (n = 4), and 4) normal controls without a history of tick bites (n = 5). Tick bite subjects had three ATSA determinations over approximately six weeks. On the first ATSA measurement at a mean +/- SD of 18.5 +/- 19.8 hr after removal of the tick, the subjects bitten by I. dammini had a mean ATSA optical density value (95% confidence interval [CI]) of 0.264 (0.223, 0.305); the corresponding value in controls was 0.142 (0.115, 0.169). There was no consistent change in ATSA levels in individuals with time. Multiple linear regression indicated that tick engorgement (P males; P = 0.03) were all independent predictors of ATSA levels. Logistic regression revealed that a bite by I. dammini that became engorged (defined as an engorgement index > or = 3.4) was a risk factor for ATSA seropositivity (odds ratio [95% CI] = 6.2 [1.7, 21.8]). Finally, the ATSA test had a sensitivity of 0.81 and a specificity of 0.56 for a bite by I. dammini that became engorged. Overall, the data are further evidence that ATSA is a biologic marker of tick exposure, in that the engorgement index, a surrogate for tick saliva dose, was the strongest independent predictor of antibody response.
Silaghi, Cornelia; Woll, Dietlinde; Hamel, Dietmar; Pfister, Kurt; Mahling, Monia; Pfeffer, Martin
The aims of this study were to evaluate the host-tick-pathogen interface of Babesia spp. and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in restored areas in both questing and host-attached Ixodes ricinus and Dermacentor reticulatus and their small mammalian hosts. Questing ticks were collected from 5 sites within the city of Leipzig, Germany, in 2009. Small mammals were trapped at 3 of the 5 sites during 2010 and 2011. DNA extracts of questing and host-attached I. ricinus and D. reticulatus and of several tissue types of small mammals (the majority bank voles and yellow-necked mice), were investigated by PCR followed by sequencing for the occurrence of DNA of Babesia spp. and by real-time PCR for A. phagocytophilum. A selected number of samples positive for A. phagocytophilum were further investigated for variants of the partial 16S rRNA gene. Co-infection with Rickettsia spp. in the questing ticks was additionally investigated. 4.1% of questing I. ricinus ticks, but no D. reticulatus, were positive for Babesia sp. and 8.7% of I. ricinus for A. phagocytophilum. Sequencing revealed B. microti, B. capreoli and Babesia spp. EU1 in Leipzig and sequence analysis of the partial 16S RNA gene of A. phagocytophilum revealed variants either rarely reported in human cases or associated with cervid hosts. The statistical analysis revealed significantly less ticks infected with A. phagocytophilum in a city park in Leipzig as compared to the other sampling sites. A. phagocytophilum-DNA was detected in 2 bank voles, DNA of B. microti in 1 striped field-mouse and of Babesia sp. EU1 in the skin tissue of a mole. Co-infections were detected. Our results show the involvement of small mammals in the natural endemic cycles of tick-borne pathogens. A more thorough understanding of the interactions of ticks, pathogens and hosts is the essential basis for effective preventive control measures.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The aims of this study were to evaluate the host-tick-pathogen interface of Babesia spp. and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in restored areas in both questing and host-attached Ixodes ricinus and Dermacentor reticulatus and their small mammalian hosts. Methods Questing ticks were collected from 5 sites within the city of Leipzig, Germany, in 2009. Small mammals were trapped at 3 of the 5 sites during 2010 and 2011. DNA extracts of questing and host-attached I. ricinus and D. reticulatus and of several tissue types of small mammals (the majority bank voles and yellow-necked mice, were investigated by PCR followed by sequencing for the occurrence of DNA of Babesia spp. and by real-time PCR for A. phagocytophilum. A selected number of samples positive for A. phagocytophilum were further investigated for variants of the partial 16S rRNA gene. Co-infection with Rickettsia spp. in the questing ticks was additionally investigated. Results 4.1% of questing I. ricinus ticks, but no D. reticulatus, were positive for Babesia sp. and 8.7% of I. ricinus for A. phagocytophilum. Sequencing revealed B. microti, B. capreoli and Babesia spp. EU1 in Leipzig and sequence analysis of the partial 16S RNA gene of A. phagocytophilum revealed variants either rarely reported in human cases or associated with cervid hosts. The statistical analysis revealed significantly less ticks infected with A. phagocytophilum in a city park in Leipzig as compared to the other sampling sites. A. phagocytophilum-DNA was detected in 2 bank voles, DNA of B. microti in 1 striped field-mouse and of Babesia sp. EU1 in the skin tissue of a mole. Co-infections were detected. Conclusion Our results show the involvement of small mammals in the natural endemic cycles of tick-borne pathogens. A more thorough understanding of the interactions of ticks, pathogens and hosts is the essential basis for effective preventive control measures.
Background The aims of this study were to evaluate the host-tick-pathogen interface of Babesia spp. and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in restored areas in both questing and host-attached Ixodes ricinus and Dermacentor reticulatus and their small mammalian hosts. Methods Questing ticks were collected from 5 sites within the city of Leipzig, Germany, in 2009. Small mammals were trapped at 3 of the 5 sites during 2010 and 2011. DNA extracts of questing and host-attached I. ricinus and D. reticulatus and of several tissue types of small mammals (the majority bank voles and yellow-necked mice), were investigated by PCR followed by sequencing for the occurrence of DNA of Babesia spp. and by real-time PCR for A. phagocytophilum. A selected number of samples positive for A. phagocytophilum were further investigated for variants of the partial 16S rRNA gene. Co-infection with Rickettsia spp. in the questing ticks was additionally investigated. Results 4.1% of questing I. ricinus ticks, but no D. reticulatus, were positive for Babesia sp. and 8.7% of I. ricinus for A. phagocytophilum. Sequencing revealed B. microti, B. capreoli and Babesia spp. EU1 in Leipzig and sequence analysis of the partial 16S RNA gene of A. phagocytophilum revealed variants either rarely reported in human cases or associated with cervid hosts. The statistical analysis revealed significantly less ticks infected with A. phagocytophilum in a city park in Leipzig as compared to the other sampling sites. A. phagocytophilum-DNA was detected in 2 bank voles, DNA of B. microti in 1 striped field-mouse and of Babesia sp. EU1 in the skin tissue of a mole. Co-infections were detected. Conclusion Our results show the involvement of small mammals in the natural endemic cycles of tick-borne pathogens. A more thorough understanding of the interactions of ticks, pathogens and hosts is the essential basis for effective preventive control measures. PMID:22950642
Khasnatinov, Maxim A; Tuplin, Andrew; Gritsun, Dmitri J; Slovak, Mirko; Kazimirova, Maria; Lickova, Martina; Havlikova, Sabina; Klempa, Boris; Labuda, Milan; Gould, Ernest A; Gritsun, Tamara S
Over 50 million humans live in areas of potential exposure to tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV). The disease exhibits an estimated 16,000 cases recorded annually over 30 European and Asian countries. Conventionally, TBEV transmission to Ixodes spp. ticks occurs whilst feeding on viraemic animals. However, an alternative mechanism of non-viraemic transmission (NVT) between infected and uninfected ticks co-feeding on the same transmission-competent host, has also been demonstrated. Here, using laboratory-bred I. ricinus ticks, we demonstrate low and high efficiency NVT for TBEV strains Vasilchenko (Vs) and Hypr, respectively. These virus strains share high sequence similarity but are classified as two TBEV subtypes. The Vs strain is a Siberian subtype, naturally associated with I. persulcatus ticks whilst the Hypr strain is a European subtype, transmitted by I. ricinus ticks. In mammalian cell culture (porcine kidney cell line PS), Vs and Hypr induce low and high cytopathic effects (cpe), respectively. Using reverse genetics, we engineered a range of viable Vs/Hypr chimaeric strains, with substituted genes. No significant differences in replication rate were detected between wild-type and chimaeric viruses in cell culture. However, the chimaeric strain Vs[Hypr str] (Hypr structural and Vs non-structural genomic regions) demonstrated high efficiency NVT in I. ricinus whereas the counterpart Hypr[Vs str] was not transmitted by NVT, indicating that the virion structural proteins largely determine TBEV NVT transmission efficiency between ticks. In contrast, in cell culture, the extent of cpe was largely determined by the non-structural region of the TBEV genome. Chimaeras with Hypr non-structural genes were more cytotoxic for PS cells when compared with Vs genome-based chimaeras.
Maxim A Khasnatinov
Full Text Available Over 50 million humans live in areas of potential exposure to tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV. The disease exhibits an estimated 16,000 cases recorded annually over 30 European and Asian countries. Conventionally, TBEV transmission to Ixodes spp. ticks occurs whilst feeding on viraemic animals. However, an alternative mechanism of non-viraemic transmission (NVT between infected and uninfected ticks co-feeding on the same transmission-competent host, has also been demonstrated. Here, using laboratory-bred I. ricinus ticks, we demonstrate low and high efficiency NVT for TBEV strains Vasilchenko (Vs and Hypr, respectively. These virus strains share high sequence similarity but are classified as two TBEV subtypes. The Vs strain is a Siberian subtype, naturally associated with I. persulcatus ticks whilst the Hypr strain is a European subtype, transmitted by I. ricinus ticks. In mammalian cell culture (porcine kidney cell line PS, Vs and Hypr induce low and high cytopathic effects (cpe, respectively. Using reverse genetics, we engineered a range of viable Vs/Hypr chimaeric strains, with substituted genes. No significant differences in replication rate were detected between wild-type and chimaeric viruses in cell culture. However, the chimaeric strain Vs[Hypr str] (Hypr structural and Vs non-structural genomic regions demonstrated high efficiency NVT in I. ricinus whereas the counterpart Hypr[Vs str] was not transmitted by NVT, indicating that the virion structural proteins largely determine TBEV NVT transmission efficiency between ticks. In contrast, in cell culture, the extent of cpe was largely determined by the non-structural region of the TBEV genome. Chimaeras with Hypr non-structural genes were more cytotoxic for PS cells when compared with Vs genome-based chimaeras.
Shirani, Darush; Rakhshanpoor, Alaleh; Cutler, Sally Jane; Ghazinezhad, Behnaz; Naddaf, Saied Reza
Tick-borne relapsing fever is an endemic disease in Iran, with most cases attributed to infection by Borrelia persica, which is transmitted by Ornithodoros tholozani soft ticks. Here, we report spirochetemia in blood of a puppy residing in Tehran, Iran. The causative species was identified by use of highly discriminative IGS sequencing; the 489 bp IGS sequence obtained in our study showed 99% identity (100% coverage) when compared with B. persica sequences derived from clinical cases or from O. tholozani ticks. Our IGS sequence also showed 99% similarity over 414 bp (85% coverage) with a strain from a domestic dog, and 96% over 328 bp (69% coverage) with a strain from a domestic cat. Pet-keeping in cosmopolitan cities like Tehran has become increasingly popular in recent years. Animals are often transported into the city in cages or cardboard boxes that might also harbor minute tick larvae and/or early stages of the nymphs bringing them into the urban environment. This may pose a threat to household members who buy and keep these puppies and as a result may come into close contact with infected ticks. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available In this work has been made a detection and preliminary characterization of some hydrolases in whole extracts from unfed adult males and females of Hyalomma lusitanicum, one of the vectors for Theileria annulata that causes Mediterranean theileriosis in cattle. We have elected as targets, proteases as enzymes implicated in the nutritional processes of ticks, esterases that are usually implicated in resistance to organophosphates and phosphatises often implicated in protein phosphorilation and control of ticks salivary gland. The biological role and physiological significance are discussed in terms of the possibility of use these enzymes as possible in future anti-tick vaccination or acaricide resistance.
Furlong, Jonh; EMBRAPA - Gado de Leite; Sales, Ronaldo de Oliveira; Universidade Federal do Ceará
In this bibliographical revision the different types of controls used in the eradication of the bovine cattle tick are presented that to develop itself, it needs to pass a phase of its life in the animals. It is important to know that the carrapato of the bovines is different of the cattle tick of the equines. In this text the common cattle tick of the bovines will be argued only (Boophilus microplus), mainly of the milk bovines, whose way of combat is different of that it is made for cut bov...
Konto, M.; Fufa, G. I.; Zakaria, A.; Tukur, S. M.; Watanabe, M.; Ola-Fadunsin, S. D.; Khan, M. S.; Shettima, Y. M.; Babjee, S. M. A.
Aim: The red jungle fowl is generally considered as one of the endangered Asian wild Galleopheasants due to man-made encroachment of their habitats, coupled with the effect of disease and disease causing organisms like ticks and tick-borne infections. This study aimed to determine the tick fauna of the red jungle fowl and their predilection sites based on developmental stages. Materials and Methods: A total of 33 jungle fowls were sampled for this study from Bangi area of Selangor State, Peni...
Soft robotics has in the past decade emerged as a growing subfield of technical robotics research, distinguishable by its bio-inspired design strategies, interest in morphological computation, and interdisciplinary combination of insights from engineering, computer science, biology and material...... science. Recently, soft robotics technology has also started to make its way into art, design, and architecture. This paper attempts to think an aesthetics of softness and the life-like through an artistic tradition deeply imbricated with an interrogation of softness and its physical substrates, namely...... the soft sculpture that started proliferating in the late 1960s. Critical descriptions of these works, interestingly, frequently emphasize their similarities with living organisms and bodies as a central tenet of their aesthetics. The paper seeks to articulate aspects of a contiguity between softness...
Franzin, Alessandra Mara; Maruyama, Sandra Regina; Garcia, Gustavo Rocha; Oliveira, Rosane Pereira; Ribeiro, José Marcos Chaves; Bishop, Richard; Maia, Antônio Augusto Mendes; Moré, Daniela Dantas; Ferreira, Beatriz Rossetti; Santos, Isabel Kinney Ferreira de Miranda
Ticks attach to and penetrate their hosts' skin and inactivate multiple components of host responses in order to acquire a blood meal. Infestation loads with the cattle tick, Rhipicephalus microplus, are heritable: some breeds carry high loads of reproductively successful ticks, whereas in others, few ticks feed and reproduce efficiently. In order to elucidate the mechanisms that result in the different outcomes of infestations with cattle ticks, we examined global gene expression and inflammation induced by tick bites in skins from one resistant and one susceptible breed of cattle that underwent primary infestations with larvae and nymphs of R. microplus. We also examined the expression profiles of genes encoding secreted tick proteins that mediate parasitism in larvae and nymphs feeding on these breeds. Functional analyses of differentially expressed genes in the skin suggest that allergic contact-like dermatitis develops with ensuing production of IL-6, CXCL-8 and CCL-2 and is sustained by HMGB1, ISG15 and PKR, leading to expression of pro-inflammatory chemokines and cytokines that recruit granulocytes and T lymphocytes. Importantly, this response is delayed in susceptible hosts. Histopathological analyses of infested skins showed inflammatory reactions surrounding tick cement cones that enable attachment in both breeds, but in genetically tick-resistant bovines they destabilized the cone. The transcription data provided insights into tick-mediated activation of basophils, which have previously been shown to be a key to host resistance in model systems. Skin from tick-susceptible bovines expressed more transcripts encoding enzymes that detoxify tissues. Interestingly, these enzymes also produce volatile odoriferous compounds and, accordingly, skin rubbings from tick-susceptible bovines attracted significantly more tick larvae than rubbings from resistant hosts. Moreover, transcripts encoding secreted modulatory molecules by the tick were significantly more
Sparagano, Olivier; George, David; Giangaspero, Annunziata; Špitalská, Eva
Geographic spread of parasites and pathogens poses a constant risk to animal health and welfare, particularly given that climate change is expected to potentially expand appropriate ranges for many key species. The spread of deleterious organisms via trade routes and human travelling is relatively closely controlled, though represents only one possible means of parasite/pathogen distribution. The transmission via natural parasite/pathogen movement between geographic locales, is far harder to manage. Though the extent of such movement may be limited by the relative inability of many parasites and pathogens to actively migrate, passive movement over long distances may still occur via migratory hosts. This paper reviews the potential role of migrating birds in the transfer of ectoparasites and pathogens between geographic locales, focusing primarily on ticks. Bird-tick-pathogen relationships are considered, and evidence provided of long-range parasite/pathogen transfer from one location to another during bird migration events. As shown in this paper not only many different arthropod species are carried by migrating birds but consequently these pests carry many different pathogens species which can be transmitted to the migrating birds or to other animal species when those arthropods are dropping during these migrations. Data available from the literature are provided highlighting the need to understand better dissemination paths and disease epidemiology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Nowadays, parasitology is facing a number of crucial challenges, including the urgent request of effective control tools against arthropod vectors of medical and veterinary importance. Ticks transmit at least the same amount or even more pathogen species than any other group of blood-feeding arthropods worldwide affecting humans and animals. Besides the development of vaccines against viruses vectored by ticks, integrated pest management practices aimed at reducing tick interactions with livestock, emerging pheromone-based control tools, and few biological control agents have been also proposed. The extensive employ of acaricides and tick repellents still remains the two most effective and ready-to-use strategies. However, the use of synthetic acaricides is limited by the development of resistance in several tick species as well as by heavy environmental concerns. In this scenario, the exploitation of botanicals as cheap and effective sources of tick repellents may represent a valid alternative, and the preservation of ethnobotanical information on the repellent and acaricidal potential of plants is crucial. On the other hand, novel photodynamic acaricides have been recently described, with a toxicity against ticks which far exceed some of the acaricides currently marketed (e.g. tetramethrin. In this brief review, I provide a focus on some hot news in tick control, with special reference to tick repellents of botanical origin and new photodynamic fluorescent acaricides. To my mind, knowledge on both the mentioned research issues may help researchers to build valuable roadmaps to boost tick control programs worldwide.
Fernández de Mera, Isabel G; Blanda, Valeria; Torina, Alessandra; Dabaja, Mayssaa Fawaz; El Romeh, Ali; Cabezas-Cruz, Alejandro; de la Fuente, José
Tick-borne diseases have become a world health concern, emerging with increasing incidence in recent decades. Spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiae are tick-borne pathogens recognized as important agents of human tick-borne diseases worldwide. In this study, 88 adult ticks from the species Hyalomma anatolicum, Rhipicephalus annulatus, Rh. bursa, Rh. sanguineus sensu lato, and Rh. turanicus, were collected from farm ruminants in Lebanon, and SFG rickettsiae were molecularly identified and characterized in these ticks. The screening showed a prevalence of 68% for Rickettsia spp., including the species R. aeschlimannii, R. africae, R. massiliae and Candidatus R. barbariae, the latter considered an emerging member of the SFG rickettsiae. These findings contribute to a better knowledge of the distribution of these pathogens and demonstrate that SFG rickettsiae with public health relevance are found in ticks collected in Lebanon, where the widespread distribution of tick vectors and possible livestock animal hosts in contact with humans may favor transmission to humans. Few reports exist for some of the tick species identified here as being infected with SFG Rickettsia. Some of these tick species are proven vectors of the hosted rickettsiae, although this information is unknown for other of these species. Therefore, these results suggested further investigation on the vector competence of the tick species with unknown role in transmission of some of the pathogens identified in this study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Introduction and objective. Infectious and parasitic diseases transmitted by ticks, such as Lyme diseases, granulocytic anaplasmosis and piroplasmosis, have been frequently reported in Europe, with increasing attention to them as an emerging zoonotic problem. The presented study was performed to assess the distribution and the density of questing ticks in three regional parks of Emilia-Romagna region of Northern Italy, and to seek molecular evidence of potential human pathogens in tick populations. Materials and Methods. In the period April-October 2010, 8,139 questing ticks were collected: 6,734 larvae, 1,344 nymphs and only a few adults – 28 females and 33 males. The abundance of[i] Ixodes ricinus[/i] questing ticks was compared among different sampling sites and related to microclimate parameters. 1,544 out of 8,139 ticks were examined for the presence of pathogens: PCR was used to detect piroplasms DNA and Real time Taqman PCR for [i]Anaplasma phagocytophilum[/i] and [i]Borrelia burgdorferi[/i] s.l. Results. The predominant species was [i]I. ricinus[/i] (overall abundance 1,075.9/100 m[sup]2[/sup] ; more rarely, [i]Dermacentor marginatus[/i] (n = 37 – 0.45%, [i]Scaphixodes frontalis[/i] (n = 13 – 0.16%, [i]Hyalomma[/i] spp. (n = 6 – 0.07% and [i]Ixodes acuminatus[/i] (n = 3 – 0.04% were also found. 28 out of 324 (8.6% samples of ticks were PCR-positive for piroplasm DNA. 11 amplicons of 18S rRNA gene were identical to each other and had 100% identity with[i] Babesia[/i] EU1 ([i]Babesia venatorum[/i] using BLAST analysis. Real time Taqman PCR gave positive results for [i]A. phagocytophilum[/i] in 23 out of 292 samples (7.9%, and for [i]B. burgdorferi[/i] s.l. in 78 out of 292 samples (26.7%. [i]I. ricinu[/i]s was the only species found positive for pathogens by molecular analysis; 16 tick samples were co-infected with at least 2 pathogens. Discussion. The peak of nymph presence was in May, and the higher prevalence of pathogens
What do colloids, fractals, liquid crystals, and polymers have in common? Nothing at first sight. Yet the distance scales, the energy transfers, the way these objects react to an external field are very similar. For the first time, this book offers an introduction to the physics of these soft materials in one single volume. A variety of experiments and concepts are presented, including the phenomena of capillarity and wetting, fractals, small volumes and large surfaces, colloids, surfactants, giant micelles and fluid membranes, polymers, and liquid crystals. Each chapter is written by experts in the field with the aim of making the book accessible to the widest possible scientific audience: graduate students, lecturers, and research scientists in physics, chemistry, and other disciplines. Nobel Prize winner Pierre-Gilles de Gennes inspired this book and has written a foreword.
This fact sheet is an overview of the systems integration subprogram at the U.S. Department of Energy SunShot Initiative. Soft costs can vary significantly as a result of a fragmented energy marketplace. In the U.S., there are 18,000 jurisdictions and 3,000 utilities with different rules and regulations for how to go solar. The same solar equipment may vary widely in its final installation price due to process and market variations across jurisdictions, creating barriers to rapid industry growth. SunShot supports the development of innovative solutions that enable communities to build their local economies and establish clean energy initiatives that meet their needs, while at the same time creating sustainable solar market conditions.
Checkland, Peter; Poulter, John
Soft systems methodology (SSM) is an approach for tackling problematical, messy situations of all kinds. It is an action-oriented process of inquiry into problematic situations in which users learn their way from finding out about the situation, to taking action to improve it. The learning emerges via an organised process in which the situation is explored using a set of models of purposeful action (each built to encapsulate a single worldview) as intellectual devices, or tools, to inform and structure discussion about a situation and how it might be improved. This paper, written by the original developer Peter Checkland and practitioner John Poulter, gives a clear and concise account of the approach that covers SSM's specific techniques, the learning cycle process of the methodology and the craft skills which practitioners develop. This concise but theoretically robust account nevertheless includes the fundamental concepts, techniques, core tenets described through a wide range of settings.
Ainla, Alar; Verma, Mohit S; Yang, Dian; Whitesides, George M
This article describes a soft pneumatic actuator that generates cyclical motion. The actuator consists of several (three, four, or five) chambers (arranged around the circumference of a circle surrounding a central rod) that can be actuated independently using negative pressure (or partial vacuum). Sequential actuation of the four-chamber device using reduced pressure moves the central rod cyclically in an approximately square path. We characterize the trajectory of the actuator and the force exerted by it, as we vary the material used for fabrication, the number of chambers, and the size of the actuator. We demonstrate two applications of this actuator: to deliver fluid while stirring (by replacing the central rod with a needle) and for locomotion that mimics a reptilian gait (by combining four actuators together).
Park, Ki Soon; Lee, Yul; Chung, Soo Young; Park, Choong Ki; Lee, Kwan Sup [Hallym University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, In Hwan; Suh, Hyoung Sim [Daelin S. Mary' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
Sparganosis is a rare tissue-parasitic infestation caused by a plerocercoid tapeworm larva(sparganum), genus Spirometra. The most common clinical presentation of sparganosis is a palpable subcutaneous mass or masses. Fifteen simple radiographs and 10 ultrasosnograms of 17 patients with operatively verified subcutaneous sparganosis were retrospectively analyzed to find its radiologic characteristics for preoperative diagnosis of sparganosis. The location of the subcutaneous sparganosis were lower extremity, abdominal wall, breast, inguinal region and scrotum in order of frequency. The simple radiographs showed linear or elongated calcification with or without nodular elongated shaped soft tissue mass shadows in 8 patients, soft tissue mass shadow only in 2 patients and lateral abdominal wall thickening in 1 patient. But no specific findings was noted in 4 patients with small abdominal and inguinal masses. We could classify the subcutaneous sparganosis by ultrasound into 2 types: one is long band-like hypoechoic structures, corresponding to the subcutaneous tunnel-like tracks formed by migration of sparganum larva and the order is elongated or ovoid hyperechoic nodules, representing granulomas. Long band-like hypoechoic structures within or associated with mixed echoic granulomatous masses were noted in 6 patients and elongated or ovoid hypoechoic mass or masses were noted in 4 patients. In conclusion, sparganosis should be considered when these radiologic findings-irregular linear calcifications on simple radiograph and long band-like hypoechoic structures on ultrasonography, corresponding to the subcutaneous tunnel-like tracks formed by migration of sparganum larva are noted in the patients who have subcutaneous palpable mass or masses. And radiologic examination especially ultrasonography is very helpful to diagnose sparganosis.
Cohen, Timothy [Institute of Theoretical Science, University of Oregon,Eugene, OR 97403 (United States); Elor, Gilly [Institute of Theoretical Science, University of Oregon,Eugene, OR 97403 (United States); Center for Theoretical Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology,Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Larkoski, Andrew J. [Physics Department, Reed College,Portland, OR 97202 (United States); Center for Fundamental Laws of Nature, Harvard University,Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)
Soft-Collinear Effective Theory (SCET) is a framework for modeling the infrared structure of theories whose long distance behavior is dominated by soft and collinear divergences. This paper demonstrates that SCET can be made compatible with supersymmetry (SUSY). Explicitly, the effective Lagrangian for N=1 SUSY Yang-Mills is constructed and shown to be a complete description for the infrared of this model. For contrast, we also construct the effective Lagrangian for chiral SUSY theories with Yukawa couplings, specifically the single flavor Wess-Zumino model. Only a subset of the infrared divergences are reproduced by the Lagrangian — to account for the complete low energy description requires the inclusion of local operators. SCET is formulated by expanding fields along a light-like direction and then subsequently integrating out degrees-of-freedom that are away from the light-cone. Defining the theory with respect to a specific frame obfuscates Lorentz invariance — given that SUSY is a space-time symmetry, this presents a possible obstruction. The cleanest language with which to expose the congruence between SUSY and SCET requires exploring two novel formalisms: collinear fermions as two-component Weyl spinors, and SCET in light-cone gauge. By expressing SUSY Yang-Mills in “collinear superspace', a slice of superspace derived by integrating out half the fermionic coordinates, the light-cone gauge SUSY SCET theory can be written in terms of superfields. As a byproduct, bootstrapping up to the full theory yields the first algorithmic approach for determining the SUSY Yang-Mills on-shell superspace action. This work paves the way toward discovering the effective theory for the collinear limit of N=4 SUSY Yang-Mills.
Soft robotics technology has been proposed for a number of applications that involve human-robot interaction. In this tabletop demonstration it is possible to interact with two soft robotic platforms that have been used in human-robot interaction experiments (also accepted to HRI'18 as a Late...
Much recent discussion about the skills needed to secure Britain's economic recovery has focused on skills for employability. However, too often, these fundamental skills are understood in narrow functional or vocational terms. So-called "soft skills", what Penelope Tobin, in her 2008 paper "Soft Skills: the hard facts", terms "traits and…
... Health Commission. The program was established to eliminate bovine babesiosis, a severe and often fatal...'') carry protozoan parasites that cause babesiosis. The disease and the cattle fever ticks were officially...
Néstor Julián Pulido Suárez
Full Text Available The efficacy of the natural extract of Verbena officinalisL. and Ruta graveolens L. in vitro monitoring ofadult tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus wasestablished. The extract of each plant was obtained bymaceration. For testing two sizes (small and medium of adult ticks were exposed to extracts of each plant,by immersion technique. At 24, 48, 72 and 96 h ofexposure, mortality was recorded taken as 60% mortality as the effective minimum. Initial tests were conducted with pure extracts, and if efficacy detected, increaseddilutions were made to establish the minimum efficiency. Tests were conducted in cool climates conditions. The extract of R. graveolens (rue, showed effectiveness in small and medium tick only with the pure extract; V. officinalis (common vervain was effective on small and medium-tick in dilution 5:10. V. officinalis showed greater efficacy and found that the best results wereobtained at higher concentrations.
Godfrey, Stephanie S; Gardner, Michael G
Professor C. Michael Bull was a great scientist and mentor, and an Associate Editor of this journal. While his research career spanned the fields of behavioural ecology, conservation biology and herpetology, in this article, we pay tribute to his major contribution to Australian parasitology. Mike authored more than eighty articles on host-parasite ecology, and revealed major insights into the biology and ecology of ticks from his long term study of the parapatric boundary of two tick species ( Amblyomma limbatum and Bothriocroton hydrosauri ) on the sleepy lizard ( Tiliqua rugosa ). In this article, we provide an overview of how this research journey developed to become one of the longest-running studies of lizards and their ticks, totalling 35 years of continuous surveys of ticks on lizards, and the insights and knowledge that he generated along that journey.
Garcia, Marcos Valério; Matias, Jaqueline; Barros, Jacqueline Cavalcante; de Lima, Dênis Pires; Lopes, Rosângela da Silva; Andreotti, Renato
The control of tick species that affect animal production is vital for the economic welfare of the cattle industry. This study focused on testing the acaricidal activity of the essential oil from the leaves and stems of Tagetes minuta against several Brazilian tick species, including Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Amblyomma cajennense and Argas miniatus. The chemical composition of the essential oil was determined by chromatography and spectroscopy analyses, which revealed the presence of monoterpenes. The adult immersion test (AIT) and the larval packet test (LPT) were used to evaluate the efficacy of T. minuta essential oil in tick management at concentrations of 2.5, 5, 10, 20 and 40%. The results demonstrated that the T. minuta essential oil had over 95% efficacy against four species of ticks at a concentration of 20%. These results suggest that the essential oil of T. minuta could be used as an environmentally friendly acaricide.
Full Text Available The Arctic is rapidly warming and host-parasite relationships may be modified by such environmental changes. Here, I showed that the average winter temperature in Svalbard, Arctic Norway, explained almost 90% of the average prevalence of ticks in an Arctic seabird, the Brünnich's guillemot Uria lomvia. An increase of 1°C in the average winter temperature at the nesting colony site was associated with a 5% increase in the number of birds infected by these ectoparasites in the subsequent breeding season. Guillemots were generally infested by only a few ticks (≤5 and I found no direct effect of tick presence on their body condition and breeding success. However, the strong effect of average winter temperature described here clearly indicates that tick-seabird relationships in the Arctic may be strongly affected by ongoing climate warming.
Soundararajan, C; Nagarajan, K; Muthukrishnan, S; Arul Prakash, M
The prevalence of tick infestation and their predilection sites on sheep, goat, horse and wild hare were studied at various places of Tamil Nadu, India. The prevalence of tick infestation in Madras red sheep, Tellicherry goat and horse was 77.11, 78.21 and 13.33%, respectively. Sheep were heavily infested with Haemaphysalis bispinosa followed by Hyalomma isaaci , Rhipicephalus haemaphysaloides and H . anatolicum . The ticks from goats were identified as H . bispinosa , R . haemaphysaloides , H . isaaci and R . sanguineus . Horses were infested with Otobus megnini and R . sanguineus . The ticks on wild hare ( Lepus nigricollis ) were identified as R . haemaphysaloides and H . bispinosa . Wild hare acts as a source of infestation to the sheep and goats since these animals shared the same field.
Marcelo B Labruna
Full Text Available From June 2000 to June 2001, a total of 741 ticks were collected from 51 free-living wild animals captured at the Porto-Primavera Hydroelectric power station area, located alongside an approximately 180 km course of the Paraná river, between the states of São Paulo and Mato Grosso do Sul, comprising 9 species of 3 genera: Ambly-omma (7 species, Boophilus (1 and Anocentor (1. A total of 421 immature Amblyomma ticks were reared in laboratory until the adult stage, allowing identification of the species. A. cajennense was the most frequent tick species (mostly immature stages collected on 9 host species: Myrmecophaga tridactyla, Tamandua tetradactyla,Cerdocyon thous, Puma concolor,Tayassu tajacu, Mazama gouazoubira,Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris,Alouatta caraya, Cebus apella. Other tick species were less common, generally restricted to certain host taxa.
Labruna, Marcelo B; de Paula, Cátia D; Lima, Thiago F; Sana, Dênis A
From June 2000 to June 2001, a total of 741 ticks were collected from 51 free-living wild animals captured at the Porto-Primavera Hydroelectric power station area, located alongside an approximately 180 km course of the Paran river, between the states of S o Paulo and Mato Grosso do Sul, comprising 9 species of 3 genera: Ambly-omma (7 species), Boophilus (1) and Anocentor (1). A total of 421 immature Amblyomma ticks were reared in laboratory until the adult stage, allowing identification of the species. A. cajennense was the most frequent tick species (mostly immature stages) collected on 9 host species: Myrmecophaga tridactyla, Tamandua tetradactyla,Cerdocyon thous, Puma concolor,Tayassu tajacu, Mazama gouazoubira,Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris,Alouatta caraya, Cebus apella. Other tick species were less common, generally restricted to certain host taxa.
We are considering an optimal control problem for a type of hybrid system involving ordinary differential equations and a discrete time feature. One state variable has dynamics in only one season of the year and has a jump condition to obtain the initial condition for that corresponding season in the next year. The other state variable has continuous dynamics. Given a general objective functional, existence, necessary conditions and uniqueness for an optimal control are established. We apply our approach to a tick-transmitted disease model with age structure in which the tick dynamics changes seasonally while hosts have continuous dynamics. The goal is to maximize disease-free ticks and minimize infected ticks through an optimal control strategy of treatment with acaricide. Numerical examples are given to illustrate the results.
Liu, Lijuan; Chen, Qian; Yang, Yu; Wang, Jiancheng; Cao, Xiaomei; Zhang, Sheng; Li, Hong; Hou, Yong; Wang, Fuxiang; Xu, Baoliang
To describe the prevalence of Rickettsia in ticks at the Sino-Russian and Sino-Mongolian borders, a total of 292 ticks were collected and tested by conventional PCR assays. The prevalence of Rickettsia was 53.4%, and phylogenetic analysis showed that they belonged to R. raoultii species after alignment for the ompA, ompB, and gltA genes, respectively. Coxiella burnetii DNA was detected for 14%, and no Ehrlichia, Borrelia burgdorferi, and Babesia species were found. Co-infection of two pathogens was 9.9%, and no co-infection with three or more pathogens was found. This study suggested Rickettsia was the most common pathogen in the ticks and co-infection was found. The findings might be helpful to provide advice on the prevention and control of tick-borne disease potential for tourists and residents.
Novakova, Marketa; Literak, Ivan; Chevez, Luis; Martins, Thiago F; Ogrzewalska, Maria; Labruna, Marcelo B
Ticks were collected from captive reptiles, wild birds, and incidentally from humans at two locations in Honduras and part of these were tested for the presence of Rickettsia using polymerase chain reaction. The following species of ticks were found: Amblyomma dissimile on Iguanidae reptiles, Amblyomma longirostre and Amblyomma nodosum on birds, and Amblyomma mixtum (Amblyomma cajennense complex) on humans. A. dissimile was infected with Rickettsia sp. strain Colombianensi. Both A. longirostre and A. mixtum were infected with Candidatus 'Rickettsia amblyommii'. This study provides the first report of rickettsial infections in ticks from reptiles, birds and humans in Honduras. New host - Amblyomma tick associations are documented. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Ybañez, Adrian Patalinghug; Sato, Fumio; Nambo, Yasuo; Fukui, Takashi; Masuzawa, Toshiyuki; Ohashi, Norio; Matsumoto, Kotaro; Kishimoto, Toshio; Inokuma, Hisashi
A total of 87 Thoroughbred horses and 10 ixodid ticks from a ranch in Hidaka district, Hokkaido were tested for tick-borne diseases. Using the indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) method, 3.4, 92.0 and 97.7% of the horses showed antibody titers of ≥ 80 against Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Rickettsia helvetica, and Borrelia garinii, respectively. This is the first report of infection with the 3 pathogens in horses in Japan. Using PCR, DNAs from the peripheral blood of all horses were found negative with any Anaplasma, Rickettsia and Borrelia spp., while those from Haemaphysalis megaspinosa ticks were found positive for Anaplasma sp. closely related to A. phagocytophilum in Japan, and A. bovis. B. japonica was also detected in an H. flava tick for the first time.
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) held the Promoting Community Integrated Pest Management to Prevent Tick-Borne Diseases Conference on March 30th and 31st, 2011 in Arlington, Virginia. Read the meeting summary.
Full Text Available Tick-borne diseases are increasing all over the word, including Turkey. The aim of this study was to determine the bacterial and protozoan vector-borne pathogens in ticks infesting humans in the Corum province of Turkey.From March to November 2014 a total of 322 ticks were collected from patients who attended the local hospitals with tick bites. Ticks were screened by real time-PCR and PCR, and obtained amplicons were sequenced. The dedected tick was belonging to the genus Hyalomma, Haemaphysalis, Rhipicephalus, Dermacentor and Ixodes. A total of 17 microorganism species were identified in ticks. The most prevalent Rickettsia spp. were: R. aeschlimannii (19.5%, R. slovaca (4.5%, R. raoultii (2.2%, R. hoogstraalii (1.9%, R. sibirica subsp. mongolitimonae (1.2%, R. monacensis (0.31%, and Rickettsia spp. (1.2%. In addition, the following pathogens were identified: Borrelia afzelii (0.31%, Anaplasma spp. (0.31%, Ehrlichia spp. (0.93%, Babesia microti (0.93%, Babesia ovis (0.31%, Babesia occultans (3.4%, Theileria spp. (1.6%, Hepatozoon felis (0.31%, Hepatozoon canis (0.31%, and Hemolivia mauritanica (2.1%. All samples were negative for Francisella tularensis, Coxiella burnetii, Bartonella spp., Toxoplasma gondii and Leishmania spp.Ticks in Corum carry a large variety of human and zoonotic pathogens that were detected not only in known vectors, but showed a wider vector diversity. There is an increase in the prevalence of ticks infected with the spotted fever group and lymphangitis-associated rickettsiosis, while Ehrlichia spp. and Anaplasma spp. were reported for the first time from this region. B. microti was detected for the first time in Hyalomma marginatum infesting humans. The detection of B. occultans, B. ovis, Hepatozoon spp., Theileria spp. and Hemolivia mauritanica indicate the importance of these ticks as vectors of pathogens of veterinary importance, therefore patients with a tick infestation should be followed for a variety of pathogens
Kurilshikov, Alexander; Livanova, Natalya N; Fomenko, Nataliya V; Tupikin, Alexey E; Rar, Vera A; Kabilov, Marsel R; Livanov, Stanislav G; Tikunova, Nina V
Ixodes persulcatus, Ixodes pavlovskyi, and Dermacentor reticulatus ticks inhabiting Western Siberia are responsible for the transmission of a number of etiological agents that cause human and animal tick-borne diseases. Because these ticks are abundant in the suburbs of large cities, agricultural areas, and popular tourist sites and frequently attack people and livestock, data regarding the microbiomes of these organisms are required. Using metagenomic 16S profiling, we evaluate bacterial communities associated with I. persulcatus, I. pavlovskyi, and D. reticulatus ticks collected from the Novosibirsk region of Russia. A total of 1214 ticks were used for this study. DNA extracted from the ticks was pooled according to tick species and sex. Sequencing of the V3-V5 domains of 16S rRNA genes was performed using the Illumina Miseq platform. The following bacterial genera were prevalent in the examined communities: Acinetobacter (all three tick species), Rickettsia (I. persulcatus and D. reticulatus) and Francisella (D. reticulatus). B. burgdorferi sensu lato and B. miyamotoi sequences were detected in I. persulcatus and I. pavlovskyi but not in D. reticulatus ticks. The pooled samples of all tick species studied contained bacteria from the Anaplasmataceae family, although their occurrence was low. DNA from A. phagocytophilum and Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis was first observed in I. pavlovskyi ticks. Significant inter-species differences in the number of bacterial taxa as well as intra-species diversity related to tick sex were observed. The bacterial communities associated with the I. pavlovskyi ticks displayed a higher biodiversity compared with those of the I. persulcatus and D. reticulatus ticks. Bacterial community structure was also diverse across the studied tick species, as shown by permutational analysis of variance using the Bray-Curtis dissimilarity metric (p = 0.002). Between-sex variation was confirmed by PERMANOVA testing in I. persulcatus (p = 0
Full Text Available Ixodes persulcatus, Ixodes pavlovskyi, and Dermacentor reticulatus ticks inhabiting Western Siberia are responsible for the transmission of a number of etiological agents that cause human and animal tick-borne diseases. Because these ticks are abundant in the suburbs of large cities, agricultural areas, and popular tourist sites and frequently attack people and livestock, data regarding the microbiomes of these organisms are required. Using metagenomic 16S profiling, we evaluate bacterial communities associated with I. persulcatus, I. pavlovskyi, and D. reticulatus ticks collected from the Novosibirsk region of Russia. A total of 1214 ticks were used for this study. DNA extracted from the ticks was pooled according to tick species and sex. Sequencing of the V3-V5 domains of 16S rRNA genes was performed using the Illumina Miseq platform. The following bacterial genera were prevalent in the examined communities: Acinetobacter (all three tick species, Rickettsia (I. persulcatus and D. reticulatus and Francisella (D. reticulatus. B. burgdorferi sensu lato and B. miyamotoi sequences were detected in I. persulcatus and I. pavlovskyi but not in D. reticulatus ticks. The pooled samples of all tick species studied contained bacteria from the Anaplasmataceae family, although their occurrence was low. DNA from A. phagocytophilum and Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis was first observed in I. pavlovskyi ticks. Significant inter-species differences in the number of bacterial taxa as well as intra-species diversity related to tick sex were observed. The bacterial communities associated with the I. pavlovskyi ticks displayed a higher biodiversity compared with those of the I. persulcatus and D. reticulatus ticks. Bacterial community structure was also diverse across the studied tick species, as shown by permutational analysis of variance using the Bray-Curtis dissimilarity metric (p = 0.002. Between-sex variation was confirmed by PERMANOVA testing in I
Gerasimova, Maria; Kelman, Mark; Ward, Michael P
In Australia, tick paralysis in dogs (caused by a toxin in the saliva of Ixodes species during feeding) is a serious, distressing condition, and untreated it is often fatal. The aim of this study was to quantify the association between parkland (recreational or natural) in an urban area and the occurrence of canine tick paralysis. Brisbane, as a large urban centre located within the zone of paralysis tick habitat along the east coast of Australia, was selected as the study area. Postcodes selected for inclusion were those defined as being of an urban character (Australian Bureau of Statistics). The number of natural and recreational parkland polygons and total land area per postcode were derived. Tick paralysis case data for the selected postcodes were extracted from a national companion animal disease surveillance database. Between October 2010 and January 2017, 1650 cases of tick paralysis in dogs were reported and included in this study. Significant correlations were found between the number of reported cases per postcode and parklands: natural counts, 0.584 (P edges of the study area - either coastal or on the urban fringe; no clusters were identified within the core urban zone of the study area. Of the disease cases included in this study, strong seasonality was evidence: 68% of all cases were identified in spring. Within urban environments, areas of natural vegetation in particular appear to pose a risk for tick paralysis in dogs. This evidence can be used by veterinarians and dog owners to reduce the impact of tick paralysis by raising awareness of risk areas so as to enhance prevention via chemoprophylaxis and targeted searches of pet dogs for attached ticks. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.