Sample records for soft spin ice

  1. Itinerant spin ice (United States)

    Udagawa, Masafumi


    Spin ice is a prototypical frustrated magnet defined on a pyrochlore lattice. The ground state of spin ice is described by a simple rule called ``ice rule'': out of four spins on a tetrahedron, two spins point inward, while the other two outward. This simple rule is not sufficient to determine the spin configuration uniquely, but it leaves macroscopic degeneracy in the ground state. Despite the macroscopic degeneracy, however, the ground state is not completely disordered, but it exhibits algebraic spatial correlation, which characterizes this state as ``Coulomb phase'' where various exotic properties, such as monopole excitations and unusual magnetic responses are observed. Given the peculiar spatial correlation, it is interesting to ask what happens if itinerant electrons coexist and interact with spin ice. Indeed, this setting is relevant to several metallic Ir pyrochlore oxides, such as Ln2Ir2O7 (Ln=Pr, Nd), where Ir 5d itinerant electrons interact with Ln 4f localized moments. In these compounds, anomalous transport phenomena have been reported, such as non-monotonic magnetic field dependence of Hall conductivity and low-temperature resistivity upturn. To address these issues, we adopt a spin-ice-type Ising Kondo lattice model on a pyrochlore lattice, and solve this model by applying the cluster dynamical mean-field theory and the perturbation expansion in terms of the spin-electron coupling. As a result, we found that (i) the resistivity shows a minimum at a characteristic temperature below which spin ice correlation sets in. Moreover, (ii) the Hall conductivity shows anisotropic and non-monotonic magnetic field dependence due to the scattering from the spatially extended spin scalar chirality incorporated in spin ice manifold. These results give unified understanding to the thermodynamic and transport properties of Ln2Ir2O7 (Ln=Pr, Nd), and give new insights into the role of geometrical frustration in itinerant systems. This work has been done in

  2. Disorder and Quantum Spin Ice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Martin


    Full Text Available We report on diffuse neutron scattering experiments providing evidence for the presence of random strains in the quantum spin-ice candidate Pr_{2}Zr_{2}O_{7}. Since Pr^{3+} is a non-Kramers ion, the strain deeply modifies the picture of Ising magnetic moments governing the low-temperature properties of this material. It is shown that the derived strain distribution accounts for the temperature dependence of the specific heat and of the spin-excitation spectra. Taking advantage of mean-field and spin-dynamics simulations, we argue that the randomness in Pr_{2}Zr_{2}O_{7} promotes a new state of matter, which is disordered yet characterized by short-range antiferroquadrupolar correlations, and from which emerge spin-ice-like excitations. Thus, this study gives an original research route in the field of quantum spin ice.

  3. Disorder and Quantum Spin Ice (United States)

    Martin, N.; Bonville, P.; Lhotel, E.; Guitteny, S.; Wildes, A.; Decorse, C.; Ciomaga Hatnean, M.; Balakrishnan, G.; Mirebeau, I.; Petit, S.


    We report on diffuse neutron scattering experiments providing evidence for the presence of random strains in the quantum spin-ice candidate Pr2Zr2O7 . Since Pr3 + is a non-Kramers ion, the strain deeply modifies the picture of Ising magnetic moments governing the low-temperature properties of this material. It is shown that the derived strain distribution accounts for the temperature dependence of the specific heat and of the spin-excitation spectra. Taking advantage of mean-field and spin-dynamics simulations, we argue that the randomness in Pr2Zr2O7 promotes a new state of matter, which is disordered yet characterized by short-range antiferroquadrupolar correlations, and from which emerge spin-ice-like excitations. Thus, this study gives an original research route in the field of quantum spin ice.

  4. Higher spin black holes with soft hair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grumiller, Daniel [Institute for Theoretical Physics, TU Wien,Wiedner Hauptstrasse 8-10/136, Vienna, A-1040 (Austria); Pérez, Alfredo [Centro de Estudios Científicos (CECs),Av. Arturo Prat 514, Valdivia (Chile); Prohazka, Stefan [Institute for Theoretical Physics, TU Wien,Wiedner Hauptstrasse 8-10/136, Vienna, A-1040 (Austria); Tempo, David; Troncoso, Ricardo [Centro de Estudios Científicos (CECs),Av. Arturo Prat 514, Valdivia (Chile)


    We construct a new set of boundary conditions for higher spin gravity, inspired by a recent “soft Heisenberg hair”-proposal for General Relativity on three-dimensional Anti-de Sitter space. The asymptotic symmetry algebra consists of a set of affine û(1) current algebras. Its associated canonical charges generate higher spin soft hair. We focus first on the spin-3 case and then extend some of our main results to spin-N, many of which resemble the spin-2 results: the generators of the asymptotic W{sub 3} algebra naturally emerge from composite operators of the û(1) charges through a twisted Sugawara construction; our boundary conditions ensure regularity of the Euclidean solutions space independently of the values of the charges; solutions, which we call “higher spin black flowers”, are stationary but not necessarily spherically symmetric. Finally, we derive the entropy of higher spin black flowers, and find that for the branch that is continuously connected to the BTZ black hole, it depends only on the affine purely gravitational zero modes. Using our map to W-algebra currents we recover well-known expressions for higher spin entropy. We also address higher spin black flowers in the metric formalism and achieve full consistency with previous results.

  5. Spin correlations in Ho2Ti2O7: A dipolar spin ice system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bramwell, S.T.; Harris, M.J.; Hertog, B.C. den


    described by a nearest neighbor spin ice model and very accurately described by a dipolar spin ice model. The heat capacity is well accounted for by the sum of a dipolar spin ice contribution and an expected nuclear spin contribution, known to exist in other Ho(3+) salts. These results settle the question......The pyrochlore material Ho(2)Ti(2)O(7) has been suggested to show "spin ice" behavior. We present neutron scattering and specific heat results that establish unambiguously that Ho(2)Ti(2)O(7) exhibits spin ice correlations at low temperature. Diffuse magnetic neutron scattering is quite well...

  6. High spins in gamma-soft nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leander, G.A.; Frauendorf, S.; May, F.R.


    Nuclei which are soft with respect to the ..gamma.. shape degree of freedom are expected to have many different structures coexisting in the near-yrast regime. In particular, the lowest rotational quasi-particle in a high-j shell exerts a strong polarizing effect on ..gamma... The ..gamma.. to which it drives is found to vary smoothly over a 180/sup 0/ range as the position of the Fermi level varies. This simple rule is seen to have a direct connection with the energy staggering of alternate spin states in rotational bands. A diagram is presented which provides a general theoretical reference for experimental tests of the relation between ..gamma.., spin staggering, configuration, and nucleon number. In a quasicontinuum spectrum, the coexistence of different structures are expected to make several unrelated features appear within any one slice of sum energy and multiplicity. However, it is also seen that the in-band moment of inertia may be similar for many bands of different ..gamma...

  7. Competing Spin Liquids and Hidden Spin-Nematic Order in Spin Ice with Frustrated Transverse Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Taillefumier


    Full Text Available Frustration in magnetic interactions can give rise to disordered ground states with subtle and beautiful properties. The spin ices Ho_{2}Ti_{2}O_{7} and Dy_{2}Ti_{2}O_{7} exemplify this phenomenon, displaying a classical spin-liquid state, with fractionalized magnetic-monopole excitations. Recently, there has been great interest in closely related “quantum spin-ice” materials, following the realization that anisotropic exchange interactions could convert spin ice into a massively entangled, quantum spin liquid, where magnetic monopoles become the charges of an emergent quantum electrodynamics. Here we show that even the simplest model of a quantum spin ice, the XXZ model on the pyrochlore lattice, can realize a still-richer scenario. Using a combination of classical Monte Carlo simulation, semiclassical molecular-dynamics simulation, and analytic field theory, we explore the properties of this model for frustrated transverse exchange. We find not one, but three competing forms of spin liquid, as well as a phase with hidden, spin-nematic order. We explore the experimental signatures of each of these different states, making explicit predictions for inelastic neutron scattering. These results show an intriguing similarity to experiments on a range of pyrochlore oxides.

  8. Artificial Spin-Ice and Vertex Models (United States)

    Cugliandolo, Leticia F.


    In classical and quantum frustrated magnets the interactions in combination with the lattice structure impede the spins to order in optimal configurations at zero temperature. The theoretical interest in their classical realisations has been boosted by the artificial manufacture of materials with these properties, that are of flexible design. This note summarises work on the use of vertex models to study bidimensional spin-ices samples, done in collaboration with R. A. Borzi, M. V. Ferreyra, L. Foini, G. Gonnella, S. A. Grigera, P. Guruciaga, D. Levis, A. Pelizzola and M. Tarzia, in recent years. It is an invited contribution to a J. Stat. Mech. special issue dedicated to the memory of Leo P. Kadanoff.

  9. Spin waves in the soft layer of exchange-coupled soft/hard bilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiong, Zheng-min; Ge, Su-qin; Wang, Xi-guang; Li, Zhi-xiong; Xia, Qing-lin; Wang, Dao-wei; Nie, Yao-zhuang; Guo, Guang-hua, E-mail: [School of Physics and Electronics, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Tang, Wei [School of Physics and Electronics, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Suzhou Institute of Nano-tech and Nano-bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou 215123 (China); Zeng, Zhong-ming [Suzhou Institute of Nano-tech and Nano-bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou 215123 (China)


    The magnetic dynamical properties of the soft layer in exchange-coupled soft/hard bilayers have been investigated numerically using a one-dimensional atomic chain model. The frequencies and spatial profiles of spin wave eigenmodes are calculated during the magnetization reversal process of the soft layer. The spin wave modes exhibit a spatially modulated amplitude, which is especially evident for high-order modes. A dynamic pinning effect of surface magnetic moment is observed. The spin wave eigenfrequency decreases linearly with the increase of the magnetic field in the uniformly magnetized state and increases nonlinearly with field when spiral magnetization configuration is formed in the soft layer.

  10. Spin waves in the soft layer of exchange-coupled soft/hard bilayers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng-min Xiong


    Full Text Available The magnetic dynamical properties of the soft layer in exchange-coupled soft/hard bilayers have been investigated numerically using a one-dimensional atomic chain model. The frequencies and spatial profiles of spin wave eigenmodes are calculated during the magnetization reversal process of the soft layer. The spin wave modes exhibit a spatially modulated amplitude, which is especially evident for high-order modes. A dynamic pinning effect of surface magnetic moment is observed. The spin wave eigenfrequency decreases linearly with the increase of the magnetic field in the uniformly magnetized state and increases nonlinearly with field when spiral magnetization configuration is formed in the soft layer.

  11. Spectral periodicity of the spinon continuum in quantum spin ice (United States)

    Chen, Gang


    Motivated by the rapid experimental progress of quantum spin ice materials, we study the dynamical properties of pyrochlore spin ice in the U(1) spin liquid phases. In particular, we focus on the spinon excitations that appear at high energies and show up as an excitation continuum in the dynamic spin structure factor. The keen connection between the crystal symmetry fractionalization of the spinons and the spectral periodicity of the spinon continuum is emphasized and explicitly demonstrated. When the spinon experiences a background π flux and the spinon continuum exhibits an enhanced spectral periodicity with a folded Brillouin zone, this spectral property can then be used to detect the spin quantum number fractionalization and U(1) spin liquid. Our prediction can be immediately examined by inelastic neutron-scattering experiments among quantum spin ice materials with Kramers' doublets. Further application to the non-Kramers' doublets is discussed.

  12. Magnetic interactions and reversal of artificial square spin ices (United States)

    Phatak, C.; Pan, M.; Petford-Long, A. K.; Hong, S.; De Graef, M.


    Artificial spin ices are nanoscale geometrically engineered systems that mimic the behavior of bulk spin ices at room temperature. We describe the nanoscale magnetic interactions in a square spin ice lattice by an experimentally verified model that accounts for the correct shape of the magnetic islands. Magnetic force microscopy measurements on lithographically fabricated lattices are compared to Monte Carlo simulations of the reversal process of two lattices with different lattice spacings. Lattice node statistics and correlations show significant differences in the reversal mechanism for lattices with different spacings. The effect of structural variations is also compared for the two lattice reversals.

  13. Quantum spin ice: a search for gapless quantum spin liquids in pyrochlore magnets. (United States)

    Gingras, M J P; McClarty, P A


    The spin ice materials, including Ho2Ti2O7 and Dy2Ti2O7, are rare-earth pyrochlore magnets which, at low temperatures, enter a constrained paramagnetic state with an emergent gauge freedom. Spin ices provide one of very few experimentally realized examples of fractionalization because their elementary excitations can be regarded as magnetic monopoles and, over some temperature range, spin ice materials are best described as liquids of these emergent charges. In the presence of quantum fluctuations, one can obtain, in principle, a quantum spin liquid descended from the classical spin ice state characterized by emergent photon-like excitations. Whereas in classical spin ices the excitations are akin to electrostatic charges with a mutual Coulomb interaction, in the quantum spin liquid these charges interact through a dynamic and emergent electromagnetic field. In this review, we describe the latest developments in the study of such a quantum spin ice, focusing on the spin liquid phenomenology and the kinds of materials where such a phase might be found.

  14. Soft lithographic patterning of spin crossover nanoparticles. (United States)

    Thibault, Christophe; Molnár, Gábor; Salmon, Lionel; Bousseksou, Azzedine; Vieu, Christophe


    Microtransfer molding has been used to fabricate homogeneous micropatterns and nanopatterns of spin crossover nanoparticles of [Fe(NH(2)trz)](tos)(2) over a large area. We show that the use of an aprotic solvent (n-octane) may lead to successful results. Very well organized micropatterns are obtained, showing spin crossover phenomenon. Dark field optical and AFM images and Raman microspectrometry results are reported.

  15. Electric field control of emergent electrodynamics in quantum spin ice (United States)

    Lantagne-Hurtubise, Étienne; Bhattacharjee, Subhro; Moessner, R.


    We study the coupling between conventional (Maxwell) and emergent electrodynamics in quantum spin ice, a 3+1-dimensional U (1 ) quantum spin liquid. We find that a uniform electric field can be used to tune the properties of both the ground state and excitations of the spin liquid. In particular, it induces emergent birefringence, rendering the speed of the emergent light anisotropic and polarization-dependent. A sufficiently strong electric field triggers a quantum phase transition into new U (1 ) quantum spin liquid phases, which trap emergent electric π fluxes. The flux patterns of these new phases depend on the direction of the electric field. Strikingly, some of the canonical pinch points in the spin structure factor, characteristic of classical spin ice, emerge near the phase transition, while they are absent in the quantum spin liquid phases. Estimating the electric field strength required, we find that this transition is potentially accessible experimentally. Finally, we propose a minimal mechanism by which an oscillating electric field can generate emergent radiation inside a quantum spin ice material with non-Kramers spin doublets.

  16. Fragmentation of magnetism in artificial kagome dipolar spin ice (United States)

    Canals, Benjamin; Chioar, Ioan-Augustin; Nguyen, Van-Dai; Hehn, Michel; Lacour, Daniel; Montaigne, François; Locatelli, Andrea; Menteş, Tevfik Onur; Burgos, Benito Santos; Rougemaille, Nicolas


    Geometrical frustration in magnetic materials often gives rise to exotic, low-temperature states of matter, such as the ones observed in spin ices. Here we report the imaging of the magnetic states of a thermally active artificial magnetic ice that reveal the fingerprints of a spin fragmentation process. This fragmentation corresponds to a splitting of the magnetic degree of freedom into two channels and is evidenced in both real and reciprocal space. Furthermore, the internal organization of both channels is interpreted within the framework of a hybrid spin–charge model that directly emerges from the parent spin model of the kagome dipolar spin ice. Our experimental and theoretical results provide insights into the physics of frustrated magnets and deepen our understanding of emergent fields through the use of tailor-made magnetism. PMID:27173154

  17. A new ice nuclei counter SPIN: characterization and first results (United States)

    Stratmann, F.; Abbatt, J.; Cziczo, D. J.; Gallagher, M. W.; Lachlan-Cope, T.; Garemilla, S.; Ignatius, K.; Kristensen, T. B.; Moreno, L. A.


    Ice nuclei (IN) play an important role in a number of processes related to cloud formation and cloud properties. Despite significant progress within ice nucleation research in the past decades - a lot of questions remain to be answered. In situ measurements with portable IN counters are an important way to gain knowledge in this field. Spectrometer for Ice Nuclei (SPIN, Droplet Measurement Technologies, Inc.) is a new commercially available portable IN counter. SPIN is a continuous flow diffusion chamber with parallel plate geometry following the design of the portable IN counter PINC (Chou et al., Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 11:4725-4738, 2011). The aerosol sample flows through a chamber, where a supersaturation of water vapor with respect to ice is obtained by applying a temperature gradient between two ice covered plates. The aerosol sample is exposed to an evaporation section for evaporation of liquid droplets before detection of particles with an optical particle counter (OPC). Thus the formed ice crystals can be distinguished from other particles by size. With SPIN, it is possible to quantify ice nucleation in both, deposition nucleation and condensation/immersion freezing modes. In the laboratory, with SPIN, the involved groups studied various aerosol particle types, including ammonium sulfate, mineral dusts and biological particles. Results of these studies will be presented and discussed.

  18. A two-dimensional spin liquid in quantum kagome ice. (United States)

    Carrasquilla, Juan; Hao, Zhihao; Melko, Roger G


    Actively sought since the turn of the century, two-dimensional quantum spin liquids (QSLs) are exotic phases of matter where magnetic moments remain disordered even at zero temperature. Despite ongoing searches, QSLs remain elusive, due to a lack of concrete knowledge of the microscopic mechanisms that inhibit magnetic order in materials. Here we study a model for a broad class of frustrated magnetic rare-earth pyrochlore materials called quantum spin ices. When subject to an external magnetic field along the [111] crystallographic direction, the resulting interactions contain a mix of geometric frustration and quantum fluctuations in decoupled two-dimensional kagome planes. Using quantum Monte Carlo simulations, we identify a set of interactions sufficient to promote a groundstate with no magnetic long-range order, and a gap to excitations, consistent with a Z2 spin liquid phase. This suggests an experimental procedure to search for two-dimensional QSLs within a class of pyrochlore quantum spin ice materials.

  19. Dynamic dependence to domain wall propagation through artificial spin ice (United States)

    Burn, D. M.; Chadha, M.; Branford, W. R.


    Domain wall propagation dynamics has been studied in nanostructured artificial kagome spin-ice structures. A stripline circuit has been used to provide localized pulsed magnetic fields within the artificial spin-ice (ASI) structure. This provides control of the system through electrically assisted domain wall nucleation events. Synchronization of the pulsed fields with additional global magnetic fields and the use of a focused magneto-optical Kerr effect magnetometer allows our experiments to probe the domain wall transit through an extended ASI structure. We find that the propagation distance depends on the driving field revealing field-driven properties of domain walls below their intrinsic nucleation field.

  20. Fragmentation in spin ice from magnetic charge injection. (United States)

    Lefrançois, E; Cathelin, V; Lhotel, E; Robert, J; Lejay, P; Colin, C V; Canals, B; Damay, F; Ollivier, J; Fåk, B; Chapon, L C; Ballou, R; Simonet, V


    The complexity embedded in condensed matter fertilizes the discovery of new states of matter, enriched by ingredients like frustration. Illustrating examples in magnetic systems are Kitaev spin liquids, skyrmions phases, or spin ices. These unconventional ground states support exotic excitations, for example the magnetic charges in spin ices, also called monopoles. Here, we propose a mechanism to inject monopoles in a spin ice at equilibrium through a staggered magnetic field. We show theoretically, and demonstrate experimentally in the Ho2Ir2O7 pyrochlore iridate, that it results in the stabilization of a monopole crystal, which exhibits magnetic fragmentation. In this new state of matter, the magnetic moment fragments into an ordered part and a persistently fluctuating one. Compared to conventional spin ices, the different nature of the excitations in this fragmented state opens the way to tunable field-induced and dynamical behaviors.Exploring unconventional magnetism facilities both fundamental understanding of materials and their real applications. Here the authors demonstrate that a magnetic monopole crystal is stabilized by a staggered magnetic field in the pyrochlore iridate Ho2Ir2O7, leading to a fragmented magnetization.

  1. Disordered artificial spin ices: Avalanches and criticality (invited)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichhardt, Cynthia J. Olson, E-mail:; Chern, Gia-Wei; Reichhardt, Charles [Center for Nonlinear Studies and Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Libál, Andras [Faculty of Mathematics and Computer Science, Babes-Bolyai University, RO-400591 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)


    We show that square and kagome artificial spin ices with disconnected islands exhibit disorder-induced nonequilibrium phase transitions. The critical point of the transition is characterized by a diverging length scale and the effective spin reconfiguration avalanche sizes are power-law distributed. For weak disorder, the magnetization reversal is dominated by system-spanning avalanche events characteristic of a supercritical regime, while at strong disorder, the avalanche distributions have subcritical behavior and are cut off above a length scale that decreases with increasing disorder. The different type of geometrical frustration in the two lattices produces distinct forms of critical avalanche behavior. Avalanches in the square ice consist of the propagation of locally stable domain walls separating the two polarized ground states, and we find a scaling collapse consistent with an interface depinning mechanism. In the fully frustrated kagome ice, however, the avalanches branch strongly in a manner reminiscent of directed percolation. We also observe an interesting crossover in the power-law scaling of the kagome ice avalanches at low disorder. Our results show that artificial spin ices are ideal systems in which to study a variety of nonequilibrium critical point phenomena as the microscopic degrees of freedom can be accessed directly in experiments.

  2. Electric dipoles on magnetic monopoles in spin ice. (United States)

    Khomskii, D I


    The close connection of electricity and magnetism is one of the cornerstones of modern physics. This connection has a crucial role from a fundamental point of view and in practical applications, including spintronics and multiferroic materials. A breakthrough was a recent proposal that in magnetic materials called spin ice the elementary excitations have a magnetic charge and behave as magnetic monopoles. I show that, besides magnetic charge, there should be an electric dipole attached to each magnetic monopole. This opens new possibilities to study and control such monopoles using an electric field. Thus, the electric-magnetic analogy goes even further than usually assumed: whereas electrons have electric charge and magnetic dipole (spin), magnetic monopoles in spin ice, while having magnetic charge, also have an electric dipole.

  3. Colloquium: Artificial spin ice: Designing and imaging magnetic frustration (United States)

    Nisoli, Cristiano; Moessner, Roderich; Schiffer, Peter


    Frustration, the presence of competing interactions, is ubiquitous in the physical sciences and is a source of degeneracy and disorder, which in turn gives rise to new and interesting physical phenomena. Perhaps nowhere does it occur more simply than in correlated spin systems, where it has been studied in the most detail. In disordered magnetic materials, frustration leads to spin-glass phenomena, with analogies to the behavior of structural glasses and neural networks. In structurally ordered magnetic materials, it has also been the topic of extensive theoretical and experimental studies over the past two decades. Such geometrical frustration has opened a window to a wide range of fundamentally new exotic behavior. This includes spin liquids in which the spins continue to fluctuate down to the lowest temperatures, and spin ice, which appears to retain macroscopic entropy even in the low-temperature limit where it enters a topological Coulomb phase. In the past seven years a new perspective has opened in the study of frustration through the creation of artificial frustrated magnetic systems. These materials consist of arrays of lithographically fabricated single-domain ferromagnetic nanostructures that behave like giant Ising spins. The nanostructures’ interactions can be controlled through appropriate choices of their geometric properties and arrangement on a (frustrated) lattice. The degrees of freedom of the material can not only be directly tuned, but also individually observed. Experimental studies have unearthed intriguing connections to the out-of-equilibrium physics of disordered systems and nonthermal “granular” materials, while revealing strong analogies to spin ice materials and their fractionalized magnetic monopole excitations, lending the enterprise a distinctly interdisciplinary flavor. The experimental results have also been closely coupled to theoretical and computational analyses, facilitated by connections to classic models of frustrated

  4. Magnetic charge and moment dynamics in artificial kagome spin ice (United States)

    Farhan, A.; Derlet, P. M.; Anghinolfi, L.; Kleibert, A.; Heyderman, L. J.


    Spin ice materials represent an intriguing class of frustrated magnetic systems which, through their geometry, admit an exponential number of approximately degenerate configurations. In this paper, the relaxation properties of a thermally active artificial kagome spin ice system are studied. Through application of an external magnetic field, an out-of-equilibrium vertex charge ordered configuration is selected and relaxed under approximate zero-field conditions. Using x-ray photo-emission electron microscopy, the magnetic moment and vertex charge degrees of freedom are followed in space and time, revealing different dynamics to that seen in past athermal equilibration protocols, and a relaxation which is well described by a point-dipolar model system. Furthermore the charge correlations are found to relax with a time scale several times smaller than that of the moment correlations.

  5. Low energy spin dynamics in the spin ice, Ho2Sn2O7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehlers, Georg [ORNL; Huq, Ashfia [ORNL; Diallo, Souleymane Omar [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Adriano, Cris [ORNL; Rule, K [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin; Cornelius, A. L. [University of Nevada, Las Vegas; Fouquet, Peter [Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL); Pagliuso, P G [Instituto de Fisica Gleb Wataghin, Unicamp, Brazil; Gardner, Jason [Indiana University


    The magnetic properties of Ho{sub 2}Sn{sub 2}O{sub 7} have been investigated and compared to other spin ice compounds. Although the lattice has expanded by 3% relative to the better studied Ho{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7} spin ice, no significant changes were observed in the high temperature properties, T {approx}> 20 K. As the temperature is lowered and correlations develop, Ho{sub 2}Sn{sub 2}O{sub 7} enters its quantum phase at a slightly higher temperature than Ho{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7} and is more antiferromagnetic in character. Below 80 K a weak inelastic mode associated with the holmium nuclear spin system has been measured. The hyperfine field at the holmium nucleus was found to be {approx}700 T.

  6. Fingerprints of quantum spin ice in Raman scattering (United States)

    Fu, Jianlong; Rau, Jeffrey G.; Gingras, Michel J. P.; Perkins, Natalia B.


    We develop a theory of the dynamical response of a minimal model of quantum spin ice (QSI) by means of inelastic light scattering. In particular, we are interested in the Raman response of the fractionalized U(1) spin liquid realized in the XXZ QSI. We show that the low-energy Raman intensity is dominated by spinon and gauge fluctuations. We find that the Raman response in the QSI state of that model appears only in the T2 g polarization channel. We show that the Raman intensity profile displays a broad continuum from the spinons and coupled spinon and gauge fluctuations, and a low-energy peak arising entirely from gauge fluctuations. Both features originate from the exotic interaction between photon and the fractionalized excitations of QSI. Our theoretical results suggest that inelastic Raman scattering can in principle serve as a promising experimental probe of the nature of a U(1) spin liquid in QSI.

  7. Topological superconductivity in metal/quantum-spin-ice heterostructures (United States)

    She, Jian-Huang; Kim, Choong H.; Fennie, Craig J.; Lawler, Michael J.; Kim, Eun-Ah


    We propose a strategy to achieve an unconventional superconductor in a heterostructure: use a quantum paramagnet (QPM) as a substrate for heterostructure growth of metallic films to design exotic superconductors. The proposed setup allows us to "customize" electron-electron interaction imprinted on the metallic layer. The QPM material of our choice is quantum spin ice. Assuming the metallic layer forms a single isotropic Fermi pocket, we predict its coupling to spin fluctuations in quantum spin ice will drive topological odd-parity pairing. We further present guiding principles for materializing the suitable heterostructure using ab initio calculations and describe the band structure we predict for the case of Y2Sn2-xSbxO7 grown on the (111) surface of Pr2Zr2O7. Using this microscopic information, we predict topological odd-parity superconductivity at a few Kelvin in this heterostructure, which is comparable to the Tc of the only other confirmed odd-parity superconductor Sr2RuO4.

  8. Nonstochastic magnetic reversal in artificial quasicrystalline spin ice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, B.; Bhat, V. S.; Woods, J.; Teipel, E.; Smith, N.; De Long, L. E., E-mail: [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40506 (United States); Sklenar, J.; Ketterson, J. B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States); Hastings, J. T. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40506 (United States)


    We have measured the isothermal DC magnetization of Penrose P2 tilings (P2T) composed of wire segments of permalloy thin film. Micromagnetic simulations reproduce the coercive fields and “knee anomalies” observed in experimental data and show magnetic shape anisotropy constrains segments to be single-domain (Ising spins) at low fields, similar to artificial spin ice (ASI). Mirror symmetry controls the initial reversal of individual segments oriented parallel to the applied field, followed by complex switching of multiple adjacent segments (“avalanches”) of various orientations such that closed magnetization loops (“vortices”) are favored. Ferromagnetic P2T differ from previously studied ASI systems due to their aperiodic translational symmetry and numerous inequivalent pattern vertices, which drive nonstochastic switching of segment polarizations.

  9. Quantum Spin-Ice and Dimer Models with Rydberg Atoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. W. Glaetzle


    Full Text Available Quantum spin-ice represents a paradigmatic example of how the physics of frustrated magnets is related to gauge theories. In the present work, we address the problem of approximately realizing quantum spin ice in two dimensions with cold atoms in optical lattices. The relevant interactions are obtained by weakly laser-admixing Rydberg states to the atomic ground-states, exploiting the strong angular dependence of van der Waals interactions between Rydberg p states together with the possibility of designing steplike potentials. This allows us to implement Abelian gauge theories in a series of geometries, which could be demonstrated within state-of-the-art atomic Rydberg experiments. We numerically analyze the family of resulting microscopic Hamiltonians and find that they exhibit both classical and quantum order by disorder, the latter yielding a quantum plaquette valence bond solid. We also present strategies to implement Abelian gauge theories using both s- and p-Rydberg states in exotic geometries, e.g., on a 4–8 lattice.

  10. Quantum Spin-Ice and Dimer Models with Rydberg Atoms (United States)

    Glaetzle, A. W.; Dalmonte, M.; Nath, R.; Rousochatzakis, I.; Moessner, R.; Zoller, P.


    Quantum spin-ice represents a paradigmatic example of how the physics of frustrated magnets is related to gauge theories. In the present work, we address the problem of approximately realizing quantum spin ice in two dimensions with cold atoms in optical lattices. The relevant interactions are obtained by weakly laser-admixing Rydberg states to the atomic ground-states, exploiting the strong angular dependence of van der Waals interactions between Rydberg p states together with the possibility of designing steplike potentials. This allows us to implement Abelian gauge theories in a series of geometries, which could be demonstrated within state-of-the-art atomic Rydberg experiments. We numerically analyze the family of resulting microscopic Hamiltonians and find that they exhibit both classical and quantum order by disorder, the latter yielding a quantum plaquette valence bond solid. We also present strategies to implement Abelian gauge theories using both s - and p -Rydberg states in exotic geometries, e.g., on a 4-8 lattice.

  11. Angular-dependent magnetization reversal processes in artificial spin ice (United States)

    Burn, D. M.; Chadha, M.; Branford, W. R.


    The angular dependence of the magnetization reversal in interconnected kagome artificial spin ice structures has been studied through experimental MOKE measurements and micromagnetic simulations. This reversal is mediated by the propagation of magnetic domain walls along the interconnecting bars, which either nucleate at the vertex or arrive following an interaction in a neighboring vertex. The physical differences in these processes show a distinct angular dependence allowing the different contributions to be identified. The configuration of the initial magnetization state, either locally or on a full sublattice of the system, controls the reversal characteristics of the array within a certain field window. This shows how the available magnetization reversal routes can be manipulated and the system can be trained.

  12. Quantum fluctuations in spin-ice-like Pr2Zr2O7

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kimura, K; Nakatsuji, S; Wen, J-J; Broholm, C; Stone, M B; Nishibori, E; Sawa, H


    ... with residual configurational Pauling entropy and emergent magnetic monopolar quasiparticles. Introducing quantum fluctuations is of great interest as this could melt spin ice and allow coherent propagation of monopoles...

  13. Experimental and theoretical investigation of the magnetization dynamics of an artificial square spin ice cluster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pohlit, Merlin, E-mail:; Porrati, Fabrizio; Huth, Michael; Müller, Jens [Institute of Physics, Goethe-University Frankfurt, Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Stockem, Irina; Schröder, Christian [Bielefeld Institute for Applied Materials Research, FH Bielefeld-University of Applied Sciences, Bielefeld (Germany)


    We study the magnetization dynamics of a spin ice cluster which is a building block of an artificial square spin ice fabricated by focused electron-beam-induced deposition both experimentally and theoretically. The spin ice cluster is composed of twelve interacting Co nanoislands grown directly on top of a high-resolution micro-Hall sensor. By employing micromagnetic simulations and a macrospin model, we calculate the magnetization and the experimentally investigated stray field emanating from a single nanoisland. The parameters determined from a comparison with the experimental hysteresis loop are used to derive an effective single-dipole macrospin model that allows us to investigate the dynamics of the spin ice cluster. Our model reproduces the experimentally observed non-deterministic sequences in the magnetization curves as well as the distinct temperature dependence of the hysteresis loop.

  14. On the Equivalence of Trapped Colloids, Pinned Vortices, and Spin Ice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nisoli, Cristiano [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    We investigate the recently reported analogies between pinned vortices in nano-structured superconductors or colloids in optical traps, and spin ice materials. The frustration of the two models, one describing colloids and vortices, the other describing spin ice, differs essentially. However, their effective energetics is made identical by the contribution of an emergent field associated to a topological charge. This equivalence extends to the local low-energy dynamics of the ice manifold, yet breaks down in lattices of mixed coordination, because of topological charge transfer between sub-latices.

  15. Frozen Spin Ice Ground States in the Pyrochlore Magnet Tb2Ti2O7 (United States)

    Fritsch, Katharina


    The ground state nature of the candidate spin liquid pyrochlore magnet Tb2Ti2O7 has remained a puzzle for over 15 years. Despite theoretical expectations of magnetic order below ~ 1 K based on classical Ising-like Tb 3 + spins, early μSR and neutron scattering experiments showed no long range order down to 50 mK. This motivated two theoretical scenarios to account for the apparently disordered ground state: a quantum spin ice scenario in which the classical spin order is suppressed by virtual crystal field excitations that renormalize the antiferromagnetic exchange, or a scenario arising from a yet to be observed structural distortion creating a non-magnetic singlet ground state. I will discuss our time-of-flight neutron scattering measurements on Tb2Ti2O7 that reveal a glassy spin ice ground state, characterized by frozen antiferromagnetic short range order and the formation of a ~ 0.08 meV energy gap in its spin excitation spectrum at the (1/2,1/2,1/2) quasi-ordering wave vectors. A new H - T phase diagram for Tb2Ti2O7 in [110] magnetic field will be presented. I will further discuss recent experiments on slightly off-stoichiometric Tb2+xTi2-xO7-y samples, which also display the same gapped spin ice correlations at (1/2,1/2,1/2) wave vectors.

  16. Spin-ice behavior of three-dimensional inverse opal-like magnetic structures: Micromagnetic simulations (United States)

    Dubitskiy, I. S.; Syromyatnikov, A. V.; Grigoryeva, N. A.; Mistonov, A. A.; Sapoletova, N. A.; Grigoriev, S. V.


    We perform micromagnetic simulations of the magnetization distribution in inverse opal-like structures (IOLS) made from ferromagnetic materials (nickel and cobalt). It is shown that the unit cell of these complex structures, whose characteristic length is approximately 700 nm, can be divided into a set of structural elements some of which behave like Ising-like objects. A spin-ice behavior of IOLS is observed in a broad range of external magnetic fields. Numerical results describe successfully the experimental hysteresis curves of the magnetization in Ni- and Co-based IOLS. We conclude that ferromagnetic IOLS can be considered as the first realization of three-dimensional artificial spin ice. The problem is discussed of optimal geometrical properties and material characteristics of IOLS for the spin-ice rule fulfillment.

  17. Microwave single-scattering properties of randomly oriented soft-ice hydrometeors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Casella


    Full Text Available Large ice hydrometeors are usually present in intense convective clouds and may significantly affect the upwelling radiances that are measured by satellite-borne microwave radiometers – especially, at millimeter-wavelength frequencies. Thus, interpretation of these measurements (e.g., for precipitation retrieval requires knowledge of the single scattering properties of ice particles. On the other hand, shape and internal structure of these particles (especially, the larger ones is very complex and variable, and therefore it is necessary to resort to simplifying assumptions in order to compute their single-scattering parameters.

    In this study, we use the discrete dipole approximation (DDA to compute the absorption and scattering efficiencies and the asymmetry factor of two kinds of quasi-spherical and non-homogeneous soft-ice particles in the frequency range 50–183 GHz. Particles of the first kind are modeled as quasi-spherical ice particles having randomly distributed spherical air inclusions. Particles of the second kind are modeled as random aggregates of ice spheres having random radii. In both cases, particle densities and dimensions are coherent with the snow hydrometeor category that is utilized by the University of Wisconsin – Non-hydrostatic Modeling System (UW-NMS cloud-mesoscale model. Then, we compare our single-scattering results for randomly-oriented soft-ice hydrometeors with corresponding ones that make use of: a effective-medium equivalent spheres, b solid-ice equivalent spheres, and c randomly-oriented aggregates of ice cylinders. Finally, we extend to our particles the scattering formulas that have been developed by other authors for randomly-oriented aggregates of ice cylinders.

  18. Enteric bacteria of food ice and their survival in alcoholic beverages and soft drinks. (United States)

    Gaglio, Raimondo; Francesca, Nicola; Di Gerlando, Rosalia; Mahony, Jennifer; De Martino, Simone; Stucchi, Carlo; Moschetti, Giancarlo; Settanni, Luca


    This study aimed to evaluate the levels of enteric bacteria in ice cubes produced in different environments (home-made, prepared in bars and pubs with ice machines and produced in industrial plants) and to determine their survival in different alcoholic beverages and soft drinks. Members of the Enterobacteriaceae family were found in almost all samples analysed. All industrial and the majority of home-made samples did not contain coliforms. Enterococci were not identified in domestic samples while they were detected in two industrial and three bar/pub samples. The samples collected from bars and pubs were characterized by the highest levels of enteric bacteria. Fourteen strains representing 11 species of eight bacterial genera were identified, some of which are known agents of human infections. The most numerous groups included Enterococcus and Stenotrophomonas. The survival of Enterococcus faecium ICE41, Pantoea conspicua ICE80 and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia ICE272, that were detected at the highest levels (100-400 CFU/100 mL thawed ice) in the ice cubes, was tested in six drinks and beverages characterized by different levels of alcohol, CO2, pH and the presence of antibacterial ingredients. The results showed a species-specific behaviour and, in general, a reduction of the microbiological risks associated with ice after its transfer to alcoholic or carbonated beverages. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. High-Frequency Dynamics Modulated by Collective Magnetization Reversal in Artificial Spin Ice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jungfleisch, Matthias B.; Sklenar, Joseph; Ding, Junjia; Park, Jungsik; Pearson, John E.; Novosad, Valentine; Schiffer, Peter; Hoffmann, Axel


    Spin-torque ferromagnetic resonance arises in heavy metal-ferromagnet heterostructures when an alternating charge current is passed through the bilayer stack. The methodology to detect the resonance is based on the anisotropic magnetoresistance, which is the change in the electrical resistance due to different orientations of the magnetization. In connected networks of ferromagnetic nanowires, known as artificial spin ice, the magnetoresistance is rather complex owing to the underlying collective behavior of the geometrically frustrated magnetic domain structure. Here, we demonstrate spin-torque ferromagnetic resonance investigations in a square artificial spin-ice system and correlate our observations to magneto-transport measurements. The experimental findings are described using a simulation approach that highlights the importance of the correlated dynamics response of the magnetic system. Our results open the possibility of designing reconfigurable microwave oscillators and magnetoresistive devices based on connected networks of nanomagnets.

  20. Topological-Sector Fluctuations and Curie-Law Crossover in Spin Ice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. D. C. Jaubert


    Full Text Available At low temperatures, a spin ice enters a Coulomb phase—a state with algebraic correlations and topologically constrained spin configurations. We show how analytical and numerical approaches for model spin-ice systems reveal a crossover between two Curie laws. One of these laws characterizes the high-temperature paramagnetic regime, while the other, which we call the “spin-liquid Curie law,” characterizes the low-temperature Coulomb-phase regime, which provides implicit evidence that the topological sector fluctuates. We compare our theory with experiment for Ho_{2}Ti_{2}O_{7}, where this process leads to a nonstandard temperature evolution of the bulk susceptibility and the wave-vector-dependent magnetic susceptibility, as measured by neutron scattering. Theory and experiment agree for bulk quantities and at large scattering wave vectors, but differences at small wave vectors indicate that the classical spin-ice states are not equally populated at low temperatures. More generally, the crossover appears to be a generic property of the emergent gauge field for a classical spin liquid, and it sheds light on the experimental difficulty of measuring a precise Curie-Weiss temperature in frustrated materials. The susceptibility at finite wave vectors is shown to be a local probe of fluctuations among topological sectors on varying length scales.

  1. Spin spring behavior in exchange coupled soft and high-coercivity hard ferromagnets.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shull, R. D.; Shapiro, A. J.; Gornakov, V. S.; Nikitenko, V. I.; Jiang, J. S.; Kaper, H.; Leaf, G.; Bader, S. D.


    The magnetization reversal processes in an epitaxial Fe/Sm{sub 2}Co{sub 7} structure were investigated using the magneto-optical indicator film technique. The dependence of the magnitude and the orientation of the structure average magnetization have been studied on both cycling and rotating the external magnetic field. It was discovered that the magnetization reversal of the soft ferromagnet can proceed by formation of not only one-dimensional, but also two-dimensional, exchange spin springs. Experimental data is compared with a theoretical estimation of the rotational hysteresis loop for a spin system containing a one-dimensional exchange spring.

  2. Rheological characterization and sensory evaluation of a typical soft ice cream made with selected food hydrocolloids. (United States)

    BahramParvar, M; Razavi, S M A; Khodaparast, M H H


    The effect of two novel hydrocolloids known as Balangu seed gum (BSG) and palmate-tuber salep (PTS) with carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) on the rheological characteristics of a typical soft ice cream was studied. The power law model well described the flow behavior of mixes with a high correlation coefficient (r). The flow behavior index was in the range of 0.450-1.154, while the consistency coefficient varied from 0.051 to 6.822 Pa s(n). All mixes showed a pseudoplastic behavior except the mix containing 0.3% PTS, which was found to have a slightly dilatant characteristic. An increase in the concentration was accompanied by an increase in the pseudoplasticity and consistency coefficient. The effect of selected gums on some sensory properties of a soft ice cream such as viscosity, coldness, firmness, degree of smoothness (coarseness), liquefying rate, body and texture and total acceptance has also been investigated in this work. The correlation between the apparent viscosity and sensory attributes has been determined because of the importance of viscosity in the quality evaluation of an ice cream. Taking into account the commercial ice cream properties, a 0.4% BSG gum concentration may be recommended.

  3. Thermal phase transition in artificial spin ice systems induces the formation and migration of monopole-like magnetic excitations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    León, Alejandro


    Artificial spin ice systems exhibit monopole-like magnetic excitations. We develop here a theoretical study of the thermal phase transition of an artificial spin ice system, and we elucidate the role of the monopole excitations in the transition temperature. The dynamics of the spin ice is described by an efficient model based on cellular automata, which considers both thermal effects and dipolar interactions. We have established the critical temperature of the phase transition as function of the magnetic moment and the energy barrier of reversion. In addition, we predict that thermal gradients in the system induce the motion of elementary excitations, which could permit to manipulate monopole-like states.

  4. Nearest neighbor correlations in perpendicular artificial spin ice arrays in the presence of an applied field (United States)

    Kempinger, Susan; Fraleigh, Robert; Lammert, Paul; Crespi, Vincent; Samarth, Nitin; Schiffer, Peter

    By studying the field dependent magnetization switching process in perpendicular artificial spin ice arrays arrays, we hope to gain insight in to the dynamical properties of interacting spin systems. To this end, we have used diffraction-limited Kerr imaging to study lithographically patterned arrays of single domain, nanoscale islands of Co/Pt multilayers. We can tune the interaction strength and introduce geometric frustration in to the patterned systems by changing the lattice spacing and geometry of the arrays. Using MOKE microscopy we are able to optically resolve, spatially isolate, and extract the switching field of each island in an array in the presence of an external field. These switching fields allow us to calculate the magnetization and nearest neighbor spin-spin correlation throughout a hysteresis loop. These quantities help us determine the effect of increased interactions and geometric frustration on the switching process of dipole coupled arrays. Funded by DOE.

  5. Realization of ground state in artificial kagome spin ice via topological defect-driven magnetic writing (United States)

    Gartside, Jack C.; Arroo, Daan M.; Burn, David M.; Bemmer, Victoria L.; Moskalenko, Andy; Cohen, Lesley F.; Branford, Will R.


    Arrays of non-interacting nanomagnets are widespread in data storage and processing. As current technologies approach fundamental limits on size and thermal stability, enhancing functionality through embracing the strong interactions present at high array densities becomes attractive. In this respect, artificial spin ices are geometrically frustrated magnetic metamaterials that offer vast untapped potential due to their unique microstate landscapes, with intriguing prospects in applications from reconfigurable logic to magnonic devices or hardware neural networks. However, progress in such systems is impeded by the inability to access more than a fraction of the total microstate space. Here, we demonstrate that topological defect-driven magnetic writing—a scanning probe technique—provides access to all of the possible microstates in artificial spin ices and related arrays of nanomagnets. We create previously elusive configurations such as the spin-crystal ground state of artificial kagome dipolar spin ices and high-energy, low-entropy `monopole-chain' states that exhibit negative effective temperatures.

  6. Controlling electric and magnetic currents in artificial spin ice (Presentation Recording) (United States)

    Branford, Will R.


    I will discuss the collective properties of arrays of single domain nanomagnets called Artificial Spin Ice.1 The shape of each nanomagnet controls the magnetic anisotropy and the elements are closely spaced so dipolar interactions are important. The honeycomb lattice geometry prevents the satisfaction of all dipole interactions. Here I will show direct magnetic imaging studies of magnetic charge flow.2 The magnetic charge is carried by transverse domain walls and the chirality of the domain wall is found to control the direction of propagation.3,4 Injection of domain walls within the arrays with local fields is also explored.5 References 1 Branford, W. R., Ladak, S., Read, D. E., Zeissler, K. and Cohen, L. F. Emerging Chirality in Artificial Spin Ice. Science 335, 1597-1600, (2012). 2 Ladak, S., Read, D. E., Perkins, G. K., Cohen, L. F. and Branford, W. R. Direct observation of magnetic monopole defects in an artificial spin-ice system. Nature Physics 6, 359-363, (2010). 3 Burn, D. M., Chadha, M., Walton, S. K. and Branford, W. R. Dynamic interaction between domain walls and nanowire vertices. Phys. Rev. B 90, 144414, (2014). 4 Zeissler, K., Walton, S. K., Ladak, S., Read, D. E., Tyliszczak, T., Cohen, L. F. and Branford, W. R. The non-random walk of chiral magnetic charge carriers in artificial spin ice. Sci Rep-Uk 3, 1252, (2013). 5 Pushp, A., Phung, T., Rettner, C., Hughes, B. P., Yang, S. H., Thomas, L. and Parkin, S. S. P. Domain wall trajectory determined by its fractional topological edge defects. Nature Physics 9, 505-511, (2013).

  7. Evidence for the confinement of magnetic monopoles in quantum spin ice (United States)

    Sarte, P. M.; Aczel, A. A.; Ehlers, G.; Stock, C.; Gaulin, B. D.; Mauws, C.; Stone, M. B.; Calder, S.; Nagler, S. E.; Hollett, J. W.; Zhou, H. D.; Gardner, J. S.; Attfield, J. P.; Wiebe, C. R.


    Magnetic monopoles are hypothesised elementary particles connected by Dirac strings that behave like infinitely thin solenoids (Dirac 1931 Proc. R. Soc. A 133 60). Despite decades of searching, free magnetic monopoles and their Dirac strings have eluded experimental detection, although there is substantial evidence for deconfined magnetic monopole quasiparticles in spin ice materials (Castelnovo et al 2008 Nature 326 411). Here we report the detection of a hierarchy of unequally-spaced magnetic excitations via high resolution inelastic neutron spectroscopic measurements on the quantum spin ice candidate Pr2 Sn2 O7 . These excitations are well-described by a simple model of monopole pairs bound by a linear potential (Coldea et al Science 327 177) with an effective tension of 0.642(8) K \\cdot~\\mathringA-1 at 1.65 K. The success of the linear potential model suggests that these low energy magnetic excitations are direct spectroscopic evidence for the confinement of magnetic monopole quasiparticles in the quantum spin ice candidate Pr2 Sn2 O7 .


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciaravella, A.; Cecchi-Pestellini, C.; Jiménez-Escobar, A. [INAF—Osservatorio Astronomico di Palermo, Parlamento 1, I-90134 Palermo (Italy); Chen, Y.-J.; Chuang, K.-J.; Huang, C.-H. [Department of Physics, National Central University, Jhongli City, Taoyuan County 32054, Taiwan (China); Muñoz Caro, G. M., E-mail: [Centro de Astrobiología (INTA-CSIC), Carretera de Ajalvir, km 4, Torrejón de Ardoz, E-28850 Madrid (Spain)


    We irradiated a pure carbon monoxide ice with soft X-rays of energies up to 1.2 keV. The experiments were performed using the spherical grating monochromator beamline at the National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center in Taiwan, exploiting both monochromatic (at 0.3 and 0.55 keV) and broader energy (0.25–1.2 keV) fluxes. The infrared spectra of the irradiated ices showed the formation of a number of products such as polycarbon mono- and dioxides C{sub n}O{sub m}, and chains containing up to 10 carbon atoms. While a gentle increase in the energy absorbed by the ice sample is reflected by an increase in the column densities of newly born species, such correlation breaks down at very high fluxes. In this regime the production yield falls down sharply by about a factor of 100. The refractory residue obtained in the broad energy irradiation is a “compromise” between those obtained with proton irradiation of C{sub 3}O{sub 2} and CO ices in previous experiments. Finally, we discuss the possible implications for space chemistry.

  9. The effect of broadband soft X-rays in SO2-containing ices: Implication on the photochemistry of ices towards young stellar objects


    Pilling, S.; Bergantini, A.


    We investigate the effects produced mainly by broadband soft X-rays up to 2 keV (plus fast (keV) photoelectrons and low-energy (eV) induced secondary electrons) in the ice mixtures containing H2O:CO2:NH3:SO2 (10:1:1:1) at two different temperatures (50 K and 90 K). The experiments are an attempt to simulate the photochemical processes induced by energetic photons in SO2-containing ices present in cold environments in the ices surrounding young stellar objects (YSO) and in molecular clouds in ...

  10. Dirac's "magnetic monopoles" in pyrochlore ice U (1 ) spin liquids: Spectrum and classification (United States)

    Chen, Gang


    We study the U (1 ) quantum spin liquid on the pyrochlore spin ice systems. For the non-Kramers doublets such as Pr3 + and Tb3 +, we point out that the inelastic neutron scattering result not only detects the low-energy gauge photon, but also contains the continuum of the "magnetic monopole" excitations. Unlike spinons, these "magnetic monopoles" are purely of quantum origin and have no classical analog. We further point out that the "magnetic monopole" experiences a background dual "π " flux due to the spin-1/2 nature of the local moment when the "monopole" hops on the dual diamond lattice. We then predict that the "monopole" continuum has an enhanced spectral periodicity with a folded Brillouin zone. This prediction can be examined among the existing data on non-Kramers doublet spin liquid candidate materials like Pr2TM2O7 and Tb2TM2O7 (with TM = transition metal). The application to the Kramers doublet systems and numerical simulation is further discussed. Finally, we present a general classification of distinct symmetry enriched U (1 ) quantum spin liquids based on the translation symmetry fractionalization patterns of "monopoles" and "spinons."

  11. Analytic model for low energy excitation states and phase transitions in spin-ice systems (United States)

    López-Bara, F. I.; López-Aguilar, F.


    Low energy excitation states in magnetic structures of the so-called spin-ices are produced via spin flips among contiguous tetrahedra of their crystal structure. These spin flips generate entities which mimic magnetic dipoles in every two tetrahedra according to the dumbbell model. When the temperature increases, the spin-flip processes are transmitted in the lattice, generating so-called Dirac strings, which constitute structural entities that can present mimetic behavior similar to that of magnetic monopoles. In recent studies of both specific heat and ac magnetic susceptibility, two (even possibly three) phases have been shown to vary the temperature. The first of these phases presents a sharp peak in the specific heat and another phase transition occurs for increasing temperature whose peak is broader than that of the former phase. The sharp peak occurs when there are no free individual magnetic charges and temperature of the second phase transition coincides with the maximum proliferation of free deconfined magnetic charges. In the present paper, we propose a model for analyzing the low energy excitation many-body states of these spin-ice systems. We give analytical formulas for the internal energy, specific heat, entropy and their temperature evolution. We study the description of the possible global states via the nature and structure of their one-body components by means of the thermodynamic functions. Below 0.37 K, the Coulomb-like magnetic charge interaction can generate a phase transition to a condensation of pole-antipole pairs, possibly having Bose-Einstein structure which is responsible for the sharp peak of the first phase transition. When there are sufficient free positive and negative charges, the system tends to behave as a magnetic plasma, which implies the broader peak in the specific heat appearing at higher temperature than the sharper experimental peak.

  12. Analytic model for low energy excitation states and phase transitions in spin-ice systems. (United States)

    López-Bara, F I; López-Aguilar, F


    Low energy excitation states in magnetic structures of the so-called spin-ices are produced via spin flips among contiguous tetrahedra of their crystal structure. These spin flips generate entities which mimic magnetic dipoles in every two tetrahedra according to the dumbbell model. When the temperature increases, the spin-flip processes are transmitted in the lattice, generating so-called Dirac strings, which constitute structural entities that can present mimetic behavior similar to that of magnetic monopoles. In recent studies of both specific heat and ac magnetic susceptibility, two (even possibly three) phases have been shown to vary the temperature. The first of these phases presents a sharp peak in the specific heat and another phase transition occurs for increasing temperature whose peak is broader than that of the former phase. The sharp peak occurs when there are no free individual magnetic charges and temperature of the second phase transition coincides with the maximum proliferation of free deconfined magnetic charges. In the present paper, we propose a model for analyzing the low energy excitation many-body states of these spin-ice systems. We give analytical formulas for the internal energy, specific heat, entropy and their temperature evolution. We study the description of the possible global states via the nature and structure of their one-body components by means of the thermodynamic functions. Below 0.37 K, the Coulomb-like magnetic charge interaction can generate a phase transition to a condensation of pole-antipole pairs, possibly having Bose-Einstein structure which is responsible for the sharp peak of the first phase transition. When there are sufficient free positive and negative charges, the system tends to behave as a magnetic plasma, which implies the broader peak in the specific heat appearing at higher temperature than the sharper experimental peak.

  13. A measure of monopole inertia in the quantum spin ice Yb2Ti2O7 (United States)

    Pan, Lidong; Laurita, N. J.; Ross, Kate A.; Gaulin, Bruce D.; Armitage, N. P.


    An important and continuing theme of modern solid state physics is the realization of exotic excitations in materials, known as quasiparticles, that have no analogy in the actual physical vacuum of free space. Although they are not fundamental, such quasiparticles do constitute the most basic description of the excited states of the `vacuum' in which they reside. In this regard the magnetic textures of the excited states of spin ices, magnetic pyrochlore oxides with dominant Ising interactions, have been proposed to behave as effective magnetic charge monopoles. Inelastic neutron scattering experiments have established the pyrochlore material Yb2Ti2O7 (YbTO) as a quantum spin ice, where, in addition to the Ising interactions, there are substantial transverse terms that may induce quantum dynamics and--in principle--coherent monopole motion. Here we report a combined time-domain terahertz spectroscopy (TDTS) and microwave cavity study of YbTO to probe its complex dynamic magnetic susceptibility. We find that the form of the susceptibility is consistent with that of a monopole gas, and a magnetic monopole conductivity can be defined and measured. Using the phase sensitive capabilities of these techniques, we observe a sign change in the reactive part of the magnetic response. In generic models of magnetic excitations this is possible only by introducing inertial effects, such as a mass-dependent term, to the equations of motion. Analogous to conventional electric charge systems, measurement of the conductivity's spectral weight allows us to derive a value for the magnetic monopole mass. Our results support the idea of magnetic monopoles of quantum spin ice as the true coherently propagating quasiparticles of this system.

  14. Magnetization reversal in kagome artificial spin ice studied by first-order reversal curves (United States)

    Sun, L.; Zhou, C.; Liang, J. H.; Xing, T.; Lei, N.; Murray, P.; Liu, Kai; Won, C.; Wu, Y. Z.


    Magnetization reversal of interconnected kagome artificial spin ice was studied by the first-order reversal curve (FORC) technique based on the magneto-optical Kerr effect and magnetoresistance measurements. The magnetization reversal exhibits a distinct sixfold symmetry with the external field orientation. When the field is parallel to one of the nano-bar branches, the domain nucleation/propagation and annihilation processes sensitively depend on the field cycling history and the maximum field applied. When the field is nearly perpendicular to one of the branches, the FORC measurement reveals the magnetic interaction between the Dirac strings and orthogonal branches during the magnetization reversal process. Our results demonstrate that the FORC approach provides a comprehensive framework for understanding the magnetic interaction in the magnetization reversal processes of spin-frustrated systems.

  15. The Effect of Broadband Soft X-Rays in SO2-Containing Ices: Implications on the Photochemistry of Ices toward Young Stellar Objects (United States)

    Pilling, S.; Bergantini, A.


    We investigate the effects produced mainly by broadband soft X-rays up to 2 keV (plus fast (˜keV) photoelectrons and low-energy (˜eV) induced secondary electrons) in the ice mixtures containing H2O:CO2:NH3:SO2 (10:1:1:1) at two different temperatures (50 and 90 K). The experiments are an attempt to simulate the photochemical processes induced by energetic photons in SO2-containing ices present in cold environments in the ices surrounding young stellar objects (YSO) and in molecular clouds in the vicinity of star-forming regions, which are largely illuminated by soft X-rays. The measurements were performed using a high-vacuum portable chamber from the Laboratório de Astroquímica e Astrobiologia (LASA/UNIVAP) coupled to the spherical grating monochromator beamline at the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Source (LNLS) in Campinas, Brazil. In situ analyses were performed by a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. Sample processing revealed the formation of several organic molecules, including nitriles, acids, and other compounds such as H2O2, H3O+, SO3, CO, and OCN-. The dissociation cross section of parental species was on the order of (2-7) × 10-18 cm2. The ice temperature does not seem to affect the stability of SO2 in the presence of X-rays. Formation cross sections of new species produced were also determined. Molecular half-lives at ices toward YSOs due to the presence of incoming soft X-rays were estimated. The low values obtained employing two different models of the radiation field of YSOs (TW Hydra and typical T-Tauri star) reinforce that soft X-rays are indeed a very efficient source of molecular dissociation in such environments.

  16. Benthic colonization in newly ice-free soft-bottom areas in an Antarctic fjord.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Lagger

    Full Text Available Extended glacier retreat is among the main consequences of the rapid warming of the West Antarctic Peninsula. Particularly, in the inner part of Potter Cove (South Shetland Islands, Antarctica large areas are now exposed to open sea conditions owing to the retreat of Fourcade glacier. During the 2010 austral summer, underwater photographic surveys were undertaken by SCUBA diving up to 30 m in these new ice-free areas 80 m from the glacier front. Our main aim was to investigate colonization and early succession of the benthic assemblages on soft-bottom areas. Here, we reported a total of 1,146 animals belonging to 13 taxa. Filter-feeders comprised the largest trophic group and sessile fauna showed much higher coverages and densities than mobile fauna at all depths. The most abundant groups were ascidians and bryozoans, which together comprised ~90% of all taxa documented. In a region where most of marine-terminating glaciers are in retreat, these results are an important contribution to improve our knowledge on colonization in the newly ice-free areas.

  17. Experimental signature of the attractive Coulomb force between positive and negative magnetic monopoles in spin ice (United States)

    Paulsen, C.; Giblin, S. R.; Lhotel, E.; Prabhakaran, D.; Balakrishnan, G.; Matsuhira, K.; Bramwell, S. T.


    A non-Ohmic current that grows exponentially with the square root of applied electric field is well known from thermionic field emission (the Schottky effect), electrolytes (the second Wien effect) and semiconductors (the Poole-Frenkel effect). It is a universal signature of the attractive Coulomb force between positive and negative electrical charges, which is revealed as the charges are driven in opposite directions by the force of an applied electric field. Here we apply thermal quenches to spin ice to prepare metastable populations of bound pairs of positive and negative emergent magnetic monopoles at millikelvin temperatures. We find that the application of a magnetic field results in a universal exponential-root field growth of magnetic current, thus confirming the microscopic Coulomb force between the magnetic monopole quasiparticles and establishing a magnetic analogue of the Poole-Frenkel effect. At temperatures above 300 mK, gradual restoration of kinetic monopole equilibria causes the non-Ohmic current to smoothly evolve into the high-field Wien effect for magnetic monopoles, as confirmed by comparison to a recent and rigorous theory of the Wien effect in spin ice. Our results extend the universality of the exponential-root field form into magnetism and illustrate the power of emergent particle kinetics to describe far-from-equilibrium response in complex systems.

  18. The effect of temperature and external field on transitions in elements of kagome spin ice (United States)

    Liashko, Sergei Y.; Jónsson, Hannes; Uzdin, Valery M.


    Transitions between magnetic states of one and two ring kagome spin ice elements consisting of 6 and 11 prolate magnetic islands are calculated and the lifetime of the ground states evaluated using harmonic transition state theory and the stationary state approximation. The calculated values are in close agreement with experimental lifetime measurements made by Farhan and co-workers (Farhan et al 2013 Nat. Phys. 9 375) when values of the parameters in the Hamiltonian are chosen to be best estimates for a single island, obtained from measurements and micromagnetic modeling. The effective pre-exponential factor in the Arrhenius rate law for the elementary steps turns out to be quite small, on the order of 109 s‑1, three orders of magnitude smaller than has been assumed in previous analysis of the experimental data, while the effective activation energy is correspondingly lower than the previous estimate. The application of an external magnetic field is found to strongly affect the energy landscape of the system. Even a field of 4 {{mT}} can eliminate states that correspond to ground states in the absence of a field. The theoretical approach presented here and the close agreement found with experimental data demonstrates that the properties of spin ice systems can be calculated using the tools of rate theory and a Hamiltonian parametrized only from the properties of a single island.

  19. Ground state study of the thin ferromagnetic nano-islands for artificial spin ice arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira Júnior, D. S., E-mail: [Departamento Acadêmico de Matemática, Física e Estatística, Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia do Sudeste de Minas Gerais - Câmpus Rio Pomba, Rio Pomba, Minas Gerais 36180-000 (Brazil); Departamento de Física, Laboratório de Simulação Computacional, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais 36036-330 (Brazil); Leonel, S. A., E-mail:; Dias, R. A., E-mail:; Toscano, D., E-mail:; Coura, P. Z., E-mail:; Sato, F., E-mail: [Departamento de Física, Laboratório de Simulação Computacional, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais 36036-330 (Brazil)


    In this work, we used numerical simulations to study the magnetic ground state of the thin elongated (elliptical) ferromagnetic nano-islands made of Permalloy. In these systems, the effects of demagnetization of dipolar source generate a strong magnetic anisotropy due to particle shape, defining two fundamental magnetic ground state configurations—vortex or type C. To describe the system, we considered a model Hamiltonian in which the magnetic moments interact through exchange and dipolar potentials. We studied the competition between the vortex states and aligned states—type C—as a function of the shape of each elliptical nano-islands and constructed a phase diagram vortex—type C state. Our results show that it is possible to obtain the elongated nano-islands in the C-state with aspect ratios less than 2, which is interesting from the technological point of view because it will be possible to use smaller islands in spin ice arrays. Generally, the experimental spin ice arrangements are made with quite elongated particles with aspect ratio approximately 3 to ensure the C-state.

  20. The origin of persistent spin dynamics and residual entropy in the stuffed spin ice Ho{sub 2.3}Ti{sub 1.7}O{sub 7-{delta}}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, H D [National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306-4005 (United States); Wiebe, C R [National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306-4005 (United States); Jo, Y J [National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306-4005 (United States); Balicas, L [National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306-4005 (United States); Qiu, Y [NIST Center for Neutron Research, Gaithersburg, MD 20899-5682 (United States); Copley, J R D [NIST Center for Neutron Research, Gaithersburg, MD 20899-5682 (United States); Ehlers, G [SNS Project, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6475 (United States); Fouquet, P [Institut Laue-Langevin, BoIte Postale 156X, F-38042, Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Gardner, J S [NIST Center for Neutron Research, Gaithersburg, MD 20899-5682 (United States)


    The so-called 'spin ices' form when exchange interactions, crystal fields, and dipolar interactions are in a delicate balance. This gives rise to a ground state which has a considerable amount of residual spin entropy, much like the proton entropy in water ice through the freezing transition. Recently, 'stuffed' spin ices have provided a means to probe how delicate a balance is needed to stabilize the disordered ground state. Surprisingly, it is found that an increase of the density of spins results in very little change in the residual entropy, which leads to the interesting idea that residual entropy states might be more common than once believed for magnetism. In this communication, we detail the crystal growth of stuffed spin ice Ho{sub 2.3}Ti{sub 1.7}O{sub 7-{delta}}, and we complete neutron scattering experiments to observe how the spins order at low temperatures. It is found that even with this large perturbation, the system still has some key signatures of the spin ice state, but the spin dynamics is significantly altered. With this new data, an explanation emerges for the zero-point entropy in the stuffed spin ices. (fast track communication)

  1. Magnetic field-induced splitting of Bragg peaks in resonant magnetic x-ray diffraction from square artificial spin ice (United States)

    Lee, James; Mishra, Shrawan; Bhat, Vinayak; Farmer, Barry; Shi, Xiaowen; de Long, Lance; Kevan, Steven; Roy, Sujoy

    Artificial spin ice (ASI) is a class of periodic magnetic nanostructures that can display magnetic phenomena like that of natural spin ices, including analogs of magnetic monopoles. Based on the ice structure and field history, ASI systems can form a variety of energetically degenerate magnetic structures. When we probed the magnetic structure of a square ASI using spatially coherent Fe L3 ( 707eV) x-rays, we found that ASI Bragg peaks split when exposed to magnetic fields. This field-induced splitting is reversible: Bragg peaks display gaussian profiles in zero-field. We will present a scattering model, analogous to the theory of anti-phase domains in alloys, that reveals the magnetic structure of the square ASI necessary to create split Bragg peaks. Funding provided by US DOE and NSF.

  2. Intrinsic parton motion soft mechanisms and the longitudinal spin asymmetry ALL in high energy pp → πX (United States)

    Anselmino, M.; Boglione, M.; D'Alesio, U.; Leader, E.; Melis, S.; Murgia, F.


    The longitudinal double spin asymmetry ALL in the reaction pp → πX has been measured at RHIC with extremely interesting consequences. If the gluon polarization in a proton were as big as needed to resolve the famous 'spin crisis' then ALL would be large and positive. Latest RHIC results indicate that ALL is small and disfavour large positive values of the gluon polarization. We examine whether the soft mechanisms (Collins, Sivers, Boer-Mulders), essential for generating transverse single spin asymmetries, have any significant influence on ALL, and whether they could alter the conclusion that the gluon polarization is necessarily small. It turns out that the contribution from these effects is essentially negligible.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilling, S.; Bergantini, A., E-mail: [Universidade do Vale do Paraíba (UNIVAP), Laboratório de Astroquímica e Astrobiologia (LASA), São José dos Campos, SP (Brazil)


    We investigate the effects produced mainly by broadband soft X-rays up to 2 keV (plus fast (∼keV) photoelectrons and low-energy (∼eV) induced secondary electrons) in the ice mixtures containing H{sub 2}O:CO{sub 2}:NH{sub 3}:SO{sub 2} (10:1:1:1) at two different temperatures (50 and 90 K). The experiments are an attempt to simulate the photochemical processes induced by energetic photons in SO{sub 2}-containing ices present in cold environments in the ices surrounding young stellar objects (YSO) and in molecular clouds in the vicinity of star-forming regions, which are largely illuminated by soft X-rays. The measurements were performed using a high-vacuum portable chamber from the Laboratório de Astroquímica e Astrobiologia (LASA/UNIVAP) coupled to the spherical grating monochromator beamline at the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Source (LNLS) in Campinas, Brazil. In situ analyses were performed by a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. Sample processing revealed the formation of several organic molecules, including nitriles, acids, and other compounds such as H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, H{sub 3}O{sup +}, SO{sub 3}, CO, and OCN{sup −}. The dissociation cross section of parental species was on the order of (2–7) × 10{sup −18} cm{sup 2}. The ice temperature does not seem to affect the stability of SO{sub 2} in the presence of X-rays. Formation cross sections of new species  produced were also determined. Molecular half-lives at ices toward YSOs due to the presence of incoming soft X-rays were estimated. The low values obtained employing two different models of the radiation field of YSOs (TW Hydra and typical T-Tauri star) reinforce that soft X-rays are indeed a very efficient source of molecular dissociation in such environments.

  4. Temperature and magnetic field dependence of spin-ice correlations in the pyrochlore magnet Tb2Ti2O7 (United States)

    Fritsch, K.; Kermarrec, E.; Ross, K. A.; Qiu, Y.; Copley, J. R. D.; Pomaranski, D.; Kycia, J. B.; Dabkowska, H. A.; Gaulin, B. D.


    We present a parametric study of the diffuse magnetic scattering at (1/2,1/2,1/2) positions in reciprocal space, ascribed to a frozen antiferromagnetic spin ice state in single-crystalline Tb2Ti2O7. Our high-resolution neutron scattering measurements show that the elastic (-0.02 meV state. We construct a refined H-T phase diagram for Tb2Ti2O7 and [11¯0] fields which incorporates this frozen spin ice regime and the antiferromagnetic long-range order previously known to be induced in relatively large fields. Specific heat measurements on the same crystal reveal a sharp anomaly at Tc≈ 450 mK and no indication of a transition near ≈275 mK. We conclude that the higher temperature specific heat peak is not related to the magnetic ordering but is likely a signal of other, nonmagnetic dipole correlations.

  5. Magnetization process and magnetocaloric effect in geometrically frustrated Ising antiferromagnet and spin ice models on a `Star of David' nanocluster


    Žukovič, M.; Semjan, M.


    Magnetic and magnetocaloric properties of geometrically frustrated antiferromagnetic Ising (IA) and ferromagnetic spin ice (SI) models on a nanocluster with a `Star of David' topology, including next-nearest-neighbor (NNN) interactions, are studied by an exact enumeration. In an external field applied in characteristic directions of the respective models, depending on the NNN interaction sign and magnitude, the ground state magnetization of the IA model is found to display up to three interme...

  6. High-spin transition quadrupole moments in neutron-rich Mo and Ru nuclei: Testing γ softness?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snyder, J.B. [Physics Department, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States); Reviol, W., E-mail: [Chemistry Department, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States); Sarantites, D.G. [Chemistry Department, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States); Afanasjev, A.V. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Mississippi State University, Starkville, MS 39762 (United States); Janssens, R.V.F. [Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Abusara, H. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, An-Najah National University, Nablus, Palestine (Country Unknown); Carpenter, M.P. [Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Chen, X. [Chemistry Department, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States); Chiara, C.J. [Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Greene, J.P.; Lauritsen, T. [Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); McCutchan, E.A. [Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); National Nuclear Data Center, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Seweryniak, D.; Zhu, S. [Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)


    The transition quadrupole moments, Q{sub t}, of rotational bands in the neutron-rich, even-mass {sup 102–108}Mo and {sup 108–112}Ru nuclei were measured in the 8–16 ℏ spin range with the Doppler-shift attenuation method. The nuclei were populated as fission fragments from {sup 252}Cf fission. The detector setup consisted of the Gammasphere spectrometer and the HERCULES fast-plastic array. At moderate spin, the Q{sub t} moments are found to be reduced with respect to the values near the ground states. Attempts to describe the observations in mean-field-based models, specifically cranked relativistic Hartree–Bogoliubov theory, illustrate the challenge theory faces and the difficulty to infer information on γ softness and triaxiality from the data.

  7. Quantifying the effects of disorder on switching of perpendicular spin ice arrays (United States)

    Kempinger, Susan; Fraleigh, Robert; Lammert, Paul; Crespi, Vincent; Samarth, Nitin; Zhang, Sheng; Schiffer, Peter

    There is much contemporary interest in probing custom designed, frustrated systems such as artificial spin ice. To that end, we study arrays of lithographically patterned, single-domain Pt/Co multilayer islands. Due to the perpendicular anisotropy of these materials, we are able to use diffraction-limited magneto-optical Kerr effect microscopy to access the magnetic state in situ with an applied field. As we tune the interaction strength by adjusting the lattice spacing, we observe the switching field distribution broadening with increasing dipolar interactions. Using a simple mathematical analysis we extract the intrinsic disorder (the disorder that would be present without interactions) from these switching field distributions. We also characterize the intrinsic disorder by systematically removing neighbor effects from the switching field distribution. Understanding this disorder contribution as well as the interaction strength allows us to more accurately characterize the moment correlation. This project was funded by the US Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Materials Sciences and Engineering Division under Grant No. DE- SC0010778

  8. Methods of dilatometric investigations under extreme conditions and the case of spin-ice compounds (United States)

    Doerr, M.; Granovsky, S.; Rotter, M.; Stöter, T.; Wang, Z.-S.; Zherlitsyn, S.; Wosnitza, J.


    We give an overview on how dilatometric methods have been developed in the last decade. The concept of capacitive dilatometry was successfully adapted to dilution refrigerators with a resolution of 10‑9. Miniaturized dilatometers with an overall diameter of 18 mm or less are optimally suited for measuring longitudinal and transversal components of the striction tensor. Going to another extreme, to the highest (pulsed) fields, optical methods, such as the FBG technology, were developed for investigations up to 100 T. As examples for utilizing dilatometry at low temperatures we show results for the spin-ice materials Dy2Ti2O7 and Ho2Ti2O7. To characterise the magneto-elastic coupling in these materials, we investigated the thermal expansion and magnetostriction between 80 mK and 15 K and in magnetic fields aligned along the [111] direction and found field-induced phases and strong correlations below 500 mK. Our data demonstrate, that the formation of the field-induced phase is strongly influenced by lattice distortions: any change in interatomic distances will result in a variation of the exchange couplings.

  9. Spin state transition in LaCoO3 studied using soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy and magnetic circular dichroism. (United States)

    Haverkort, M W; Hu, Z; Cezar, J C; Burnus, T; Hartmann, H; Reuther, M; Zobel, C; Lorenz, T; Tanaka, A; Brookes, N B; Hsieh, H H; Lin, H-J; Chen, C T; Tjeng, L H


    Using soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy and magnetic circular dichroism at the Co-L(2,3) edge, we reveal that the spin state transition in LaCoO3 can be well described by a low-spin ground state and a triply degenerate high-spin first excited state. From the temperature dependence of the spectral line shapes, we find that LaCoO3 at finite temperatures is an inhomogeneous mixed-spin state system. It is crucial that the magnetic circular dichroism signal in the paramagnetic state carries a large orbital momentum. This directly shows that the currently accepted low- or intermediate-spin picture is at variance. Parameters derived from these spectroscopies fully explain existing magnetic susceptibility, electron spin resonance, and inelastic neutron data.

  10. [A case of anaphylaxis due to rose-flavored soft-serve ice cream with pollen food allergy syndrome]. (United States)

    Kitabayashi, Taeru; Sato, Sayuri; Adachi, Mitsuru


    We experienced a 10-year-old boy who had anaphylaxis after eating rose-flavored soft-serve ice cream. The patient felt a sense of discomfort in his throat when eating apple, peach, loquat, Japanese pear, and kiwi fruit. Therefore, we measured specific IgE antibodies to allergen components by ImmunoCAP ISAC. Consequently, the patient gave positive results for all PR-10 proteins from birch, alder, hazel, apple, peach, peanut, hazelnut, and soybean, so we diagnosed him with Pollen Food Allergy Syndrome (PFAS) induced by cross reactivity with pollens of birch family and fruits of rose family. When we conducted the skin prick test as is for red rose syrup because of the belief that anaphylaxis was caused by the rose ingredient contained in rose-flavored soft-serve ice cream, the patient gave a strong positive result. However, the results were negative for rose essence and Food Red No. 2 contained. Subsequently, it was found that red rose syrup contained apple juice. Therefore, we conducted the prick-prick test for apple, and the patient was confirmed to be strongly positive to apple. We thus identified apple as the cause of anaphylaxis. Since there is no legal obligation of labeling specific raw materials when directly selling manufactured and processed food products to general consumers, it is possible for general consumers to mistakenly take them in without knowing the containment of allergic substances. It is believed that the labeling method should be improved in the future.

  11. Searching for Soft Relativistic Jets in Core-Collapse Supernovae with the IceCube Optical Follow-up Program (United States)

    Abbasi, R.; Abdou, Y.; Abu-Zayyad, T.; Ackermann, M.; Adams, J.; Aguilar, J. A.; Ahlers, M.; Allen, M. M.; Altmann, D.; Andeen, K.; hide


    Context. Transient neutrino sources such as Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) and Supernovae (SNe) are hypothesized to emit bursts of high-energy neutrinos on a time-scale of IceCube observatory has been implemented. Methods. If a neutrino multiplet, i.e. two or more neutrinos from the same direction within 100 s, is found by IceCube a trigger is sent to the Robotic Optical Transient Search Experiment, ROTSE. The 4 ROTSE telescopes immediately start an observation program of the corresponding region of the sky in order to detect an optical counterpart to the neutrino events. Results. No statistically significant excess in the rate of neutrino multiplets has been observed and furthermore no coincidence with an optical counterpart was found. Conclusions. The search allows, for the first time, to set stringent limits on current models predicting a high-energy neutrino flux from soft relativistic hadronic jets in core-collapse SNe. We conclude that a sub-population of SNe with typical Lorentz boost factor and jet energy of 10 and 3 x 10(exp 51) erg, respectively, does not exceed 4:2% at 90% confidence.

  12. Photo-Induced Spin-State Conversion in Solvated Transition Metal Complexes Probed via Time-Resolved Soft X-ray Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huse, Nils; Kim, Tae Kyu; Jamula, Lindsey; McCusker, James K.; de Groot, Frank M. F.; Schoenlein, Robert W.


    Solution-phase photoinduced low-spin to high-spin conversion in the FeII polypyridyl complex [Fe(tren(py)3)]2+ (where tren(py)3 is tris(2-pyridylmethyliminoethyl)amine) has been studied via picosecond soft X-ray spectroscopy. Following 1A1 --> 1MLCT (metal-to-ligand charge transfer) excitation at 560 nm, changes in the iron L2- and L3-edges were observed concomitant with formation of the transient high-spin 5T2 state. Charge-transfer multiplet calculations coupled with data acquired on low-spin and high-spin model complexes revealed a reduction in ligand field splitting of 1 eV in the high-spin state relative to the singlet ground state. A significant reduction in orbital overlap between the central Fe-3d and the ligand N-2p orbitals was directly observed, consistent with the expected ca. 0.2 Angstrom increase in Fe-N bond length upon formation of the high-spin state. The overall occupancy of the Fe-3d orbitals remains constant upon spin crossover, suggesting that the reduction in sigma-donation is compensated by significant attenuation of pi-back-bonding in the metal-ligand interactions. These results demonstrate the feasibility and unique potential of time-resolved soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy to study ultrafast reactions in the liquid phase by directly probing the valence orbitals of first-row metals as well as lighter elements during the course of photochemical transformations.

  13. Softly, Softly (United States)

    Diamond, Abigail


    The term "soft skills" encompasses a cluster of personality traits, language abilities, personal habits and, ultimately, values and attitudes. Soft skills complement "harder", more technical, skills, such as being able to read or type a letter, but they also have a significant impact on the ability of people to do their jobs…

  14. Out-of-equilibrium dynamics and extended textures of topological defects in spin ice (United States)

    Udagawa, M.; Jaubert, L. D. C.; Castelnovo, C.; Moessner, R.


    Memory effects have been observed across a wide range of geometrically frustrated magnetic materials, possibly including Pr2Ir2O7 where a spontaneous Hall effect has been observed. Frustrated magnets are also famous for the emergence of topological defects. Here we explore how the interaction between these defects can be responsible for a rich diversity of out-of-equilibrium dynamics, dominated by topological bottlenecks and multiscale energy barriers. Our model is an extension of the spinice model on the pyrochlore lattice, where farther-neighbor spin interactions give rise to a nearest-neighbor coupling between topological defects. This coupling can be chosen to be "unnatural" or not, i.e., attractive or repulsive between defects carrying the same topological charge. After applying a field quench, our model supports, for example, long-lived magnetization plateaux, and allows for the metastability of a "fragmented" spin liquid, an unconventional phase of matter where long-range order co-exists with a spin liquid. Perhaps most strikingly, the attraction between same-sign charges produces clusters of these defects in equilibrium, whose stability is due to a combination of energy and topological barriers. These clusters may take the form of a "jellyfish" spin texture, centered on a hexagonal ring with branches of arbitrary length. The ring carries a clockwise or counterclockwise circular flow of magnetization. This emergent toroidal degrees of freedom provide a possibility for time-reversal symmetry breaking with potential relevance to the spontaneous Hall effect observed in Pr2Ir2O7 .

  15. Influence of the properties of soft collective spin wave modes on the magnetization reversal in finite arrays of dipolarly coupled magnetic dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stebliy, Maxim; Ognev, Alexey; Samardak, Alexander; Chebotkevich, Ludmila [School of Natural Sciences, Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok 690950 (Russian Federation); Verba, Roman, E-mail: [Institute of Magnetism, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv 03142 (Ukraine); Melkov, Gennadiy [Faculty of Radiophysics, Electronics and Computer Systems, Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, Kyiv 01601 (Ukraine); Tiberkevich, Vasil; Slavin, Andrei [Department of Physics, Oakland University, Rochester, MI 48309 (United States)


    Magnetization reversal in finite chains and square arrays of closely packed cylindrical magnetic dots, having vortex ground state in the absence of the external bias field, has been studied experimentally by measuring static hysteresis loops, and also analyzed theoretically. It has been shown that the field B{sub n} of a vortex nucleation in a dot as a function of the finite number N of dots in the array's side may exhibit a monotonic or an oscillatory behavior depending on the array geometry and the direction of the external bias magnetic field. The oscillations in the dependence B{sub n}(N) are shown to be caused by the quantization of the collective soft spin wave mode, which corresponds to the vortex nucleation in a finite array of dots. These oscillations are directly related to the form and symmetry of the dispersion law of the soft SW mode: the oscillation could appear only if the minimum of the soft mode spectrum is not located at any of the symmetric points inside the first Brillouin zone of the array's lattice. Thus, the purely static measurements of the hysteresis loops in finite arrays of coupled magnetic dots can yield important information about the properties of the collective spin wave excitations in these arrays. - Highlights: • Magnetization reversal in finite arrays of vortex state magnetic dots is studied. • The vortex nucleation field could change nonmonotonically with array size. • This behavior is caused by the quantization of the collective soft spin wave mode.

  16. Engineering of frustration in colloidal artificial ices realized on microfeatured grooved lattices (United States)

    Tierno, Pietro

    Artificial spin-ice systems, namely lattices of interacting single domain ferromagnetic islands, have been used to date as microscopic models of frustration induced by lattice topology, allowing for the direct visualization of spin arrangements and textures. However, the engineering of frustrated ice states in which individual spins can be manipulated in situ and the real-time observation of their collective dynamics remain both challenging tasks. Inspired by recent theoretical advances, we realize a colloidal version of an artificial spin ice system using interacting polarizable particles confined to lattices of bistable gravitational traps. We show quantitatively that ice-selection rules emerge in this frustrated soft matter system by tuning the strength of the pair-interactions between the microscopic units. Via independent control of particle positioning and dipolar coupling, we introduce monopole-like defects and strings and use loops with defined chirality as an elementary unit to store binary information.

  17. Thermodynamics of spin ice in staggered and direct (along the [111] axis) fields in the cluster approximation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zinenko, V. I., E-mail:; Pavlovskii, M. S. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Kirensky Institute of Physics, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation)


    We have analyzed the low-temperature thermodynamic properties of spin ice in the staggered and direct (acting along the [111] axis) fields for rare-earth oxides with the chalcolamprite structure and general formula Re{sub 2}{sup 3+}Me{sub 2}{sup 4+}O{sub 7}{sup 2-}. Calculations have been performed in the cluster approximation. The results have been compared with experimental temperature dependences of heat capacity and entropy for Dy{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7} compound for different values of the external field in the [111] direction. The experimental data and calculated results have also been compared for the Pr{sub 2}Ru{sub 2}O{sub 7} compound with the antiferromagnetic ordering of magnetic moments of ruthenium ions, which gives rise to the staggered field acting on the system of rare-earth ions. The calculated temperature dependences of heat capacity and entropy are in good agreement with experimental data.

  18. Soft, fortified ice-cream for head and neck cancer patients: a useful first step in nutritional and swallowing difficulties associated with multi-modal management. (United States)

    Trinidade, Aaron; Martinelli, Katrina; Andreou, Zenon; Kothari, Prasad


    Patients with head and neck cancer have complex swallowing and nutritional concerns. Most patients are malnourished, and treatment modalities within the aerodigestive tract have profound effects on future swallowing and nutrition. The objective of this study is to investigate whether the introduction of fortified soft ice-cream to post-operative head and neck cancer patients would increase compliance with oral-feeding regimes. Using a questionnaire study, an ice-cream machine that produces fortified soft ice-cream was introduced onto our ward, and 30 patients were asked to fill out questionnaires based on their experience in addition to their oral-feeding regime. Results indicate that overall patient satisfaction and compliance with oral-feeding regimes increased: 77% felt that the taste was excellent and also felt that it was easy to eat; 60% felt that it eased the symptoms associated with their symptoms, in particular its cold temperature. We conclude from the results that the inability of patients undergoing multi-modal treatment for upper aerodigestive tract cancer to enjoy normal foods and its effects on their quality of life is underestimated. Providing a food to that is palatable, familiar and acceptable as it is safe and nutritionally sound can increase compliance with oral-feeding regimes. The ice-cream was safe to use in the early post-operative period, especially soothing in patients undergoing upper aerodigestive radiotherapy and high in protein and calorific content. Our practice may have wider benefits, including patients with oral and oropharyngeal infections, the elderly and patients with neurological dysphagia resulting from stroke.

  19. Direct experimental determination of spiral spin structures via the dichroism extinction effect in resonant elastic soft x-ray scattering (United States)

    Zhang, S. L.; van der Laan, G.; Hesjedal, T.


    Long-wavelength spin spiral structures are ubiquitous in a large variety of magnetic materials. The detailed magnetic structure can take many variations owing to their different physical origins. Therefore, the unambiguous structural determination is crucial for understanding these spin systems, though such a task is experimentally challenging. Here, we show that ordered spin spiral structures can be fully determined in a single measurement by dichroic resonant elastic x-ray scattering using circularly polarized light. It is found that at certain geometrical conditions, the circular dichroism of the diffraction vanishes completely, revealing a one-to-one correspondence with the spin structure. We demonstrate both theoretically and experimentally this experimental principle, which allows for unambiguous structure determination immediately from the measured signal, whereby no modeling-based data refinement is needed. This largely expands the capabilities of conventional magnetic characterization techniques.

  20. Magnetic reversal dynamics of NiFe-based artificial spin ice: Effect of Nb layer in normal and superconducting state (United States)

    Kaur, M.; Gupta, Anurag; Varandani, D.; Verma, Apoorva; Senguttuvan, T. D.; Mehta, B. R.; Budhani, R. C.


    Square arrays of artificial spin ice (ASI) constituting weakly interacting NiFe nano-islands, with length ˜312 nm, width ˜125 nm, thickness ˜20 nm, and lattice constant ˜570 nm, were fabricated on Nb thin film and on thermally grown 300 nm SiO2 on silicon. Detailed investigations of magnetic force microscopy (MFM) at room temperature, and magnetization M(H) loops and relaxation of remanent magnetization (Mr) at various temperatures were carried out in two in-plane field geometries, namely, parallel ("P"-parallel to the square lattice) and diagonal ("D"- 45° to the square lattice). The magnetic response of the ASI samples shows striking difference for insulating (SiO2), metallic (Nb, T > 6.6 K) and superconducting (Nb, T 6.6 K), (1) in "P" geometry the M(H) loops are found to be more "S" shaped in comparison with that for SiO2 base; (2) the ratio of magnetic vertex population of Type II to Type III vertices extracted from MFM studies in "P"("D") geometry is ˜1:1.1(1.2:1) that changed for the SiO2 base to ˜2.1:1 (4: 1). However, the NiFe-ASI on both metallic Nb and SiO2 bases exhibit a highly athermal decay of magnetization, and the % change in Mr in about two hours at T = 10 K (300 K) lies in a range of ˜1.07-1.80 (0.25-0.62). With Nb base in superconducting state (T < 6.6 K), the M(H) loops not only look radically different from those with SiO2 and metallic Nb as bases but also show significant difference in "P" and "D" geometries. These results are discussed in terms of inter-island magnetostatic energy as influenced by field geometry, presence of metallic Nb base and competing vortex pinning energy of superconducting Nb base.

  1. The effect of the size of the system, aspect ratio and impurities concentration on the dynamic of emergent magnetic monopoles in artificial spin ice systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    León, Alejandro, E-mail:


    In this work we study the dynamical properties of a finite array of nanomagnets in artificial kagome spin ice at room temperature. The dynamic response of the array of nanomagnets is studied by implementing a “frustrated celular autómata” (FCA), based in the charge model and dipolar model. The FCA simulations allow us to study in real-time and deterministic way, the dynamic of the system, with minimal computational resource. The update function is defined according to the coordination number of vertices in the system. Our results show that for a set geometric parameters of the array of nanomagnets, the system exhibits high density of Dirac strings and high density emergent magnetic monopoles. A study of the effect of disorder in the arrangement of nanomagnets is incorporated in this work. - Highlights: • The dynamics of magnetic monopoles in spin ice systems strongly dependent on the size of the system. • Number of emerging magnetic monopoles, in the phase of magnetic reversal, depend of the aspect. • Different systems can be created based on this idea, for information technology.

  2. When opposites repel: from metastability to extended chiral spin textures in spin ice with short-range topological-defect interactions


    Udagawa, Masafumi; Jaubert, Ludovic D.C.; Castelnovo, Claudio; Moessner, Roderich


    We study the interplay of topological bottlenecks and energetic barriers to equilibration in a Coulomb spin liquid where a short-range energetic coupling between defects charged under an emergent gauge field supplements their entropic long-range Coulomb interaction. This work is motivated by the prevalence of memory effects observed across a wide range of geometrically frustrated magnetic materials, possibly including the spontaneous Hall effect observed in Pr2Ir2O7. Our model is canonical sp...

  3. Reversible binding of the HPLC6 isoform of type I antifreeze proteins to ice surfaces and the antifreeze mechanism studied by multiple quantum filtering-spin exchange NMR experiment. (United States)

    Ba, Yong; Wongskhaluang, Jeff; Li, Jiabo


    Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) protect organisms from freezing damage by inhibiting the growth of seed-ice crystals. It has long been hypothesized that irreversible binding of AFPs to ice surfaces is responsible for inhibiting the growth of seed-ice crystals as such a mechanism supports the popularly accepted Kelvin effect for the explanation of local freezing-point depression. However, whether the binding is reversible or irreversible is still under debate due to the lack of direct experimental evidence. Here, we report the first direct experimental result, by using the newly developed multiple quantum (MQ) filtering-spin exchange NMR experiment, that shows that the binding of HPLC6 peptides to ice surfaces is reversible. It was found that the reversible process can be explained by the model of monolayer adsorption. These results suggest that the Kelvin effect is not suitable for explaining the antifreeze mechanism, and direct interactions between the peptides and the ice-surface binding sites are the driving forces for the binding of AFPs to ice surfaces. We propose that there exists a concentration gradient of AFP from an ice-binding surface to the solution due to the affinity of ice surfaces to AFPs. This concentration gradient creates a dense layer of AFP in contact with the ice-binding surface, which depresses the local freezing point because of the colligative property, but not the Kelvin effect.

  4. Electron itinerancy, orbital symmetry and itinerant spin fluctuations in Fe-based superconductors as revealed by soft x-ray spectroscopies (United States)

    Mannella, Norman


    The discovery of superconductivity with critical temperature exceeding 55 K in the iron-pnictides (FeSC) compounds has offered the community a new set of materials hosting high temperature superconductivity [1]. In this talk, I will discuss some of our most important results obtained with complementary soft x-ray spectroscopies such as core level and Angle Resolved Photoemission (ARPES) and x-ray absorption (XAS) on different families of FeSC compounds. Results concerning two main aspects particularly important for the physics of the FeSC materials will be discussed, namely 1) the bonding topology/orbital symmetry, and 2) the presence of spin fluctuations. The symmetry of the orbitals and their hybridization play a central role in the interplay between magnetism and superconductivity, and in the nature of the superconducting pairing. I will discuss the symmetry and topology of the occupied and unoccupied orbitals by presenting results of polarization-dependent ARPES and element-specific XAS measurements of the electronic structure in the normal state of BaFe2As2 and BaFe1.8Co0.2As2 single crystals. I will then focus on discussing how the presence of exchange multiplets in the Fe 3s photoemission spectra in different FeSC materials are indicative of the presence of fluctuating spin moments on the Fe sites. Due to extremely fast time scales involved, the detection of magnetic fluctuations by means of magnetic probes has so far remained elusive. Our experiment provides a strong test case for the occurring of itinerant magnetic fluctuations, whose detection has been made possible by the extremely fast time scales proper of the photoemission process. The Fermi surface topology revealed by ARPES experiments in different FeSC compounds and its possible relation to the presence of magnetic fluctuation will also be discussed. [4pt] [1] Y. Kamihara, et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130, 3296 (2008).

  5. Ferromagnetic ordered phase of quantum spin ice system Yb{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7} under [001] magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamachi, Noriaki, E-mail:; Yasui, Yukio [Department of Physics, School of Science and Technology, Meiji University, Kawasaki, 214-8571 (Japan); Araki, Koji [Institute for Solid State Physics, The University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, 277-8581 (Japan); Department of Applied Physics, National Defense Academy, Yokosuka, 239-8686 (Japan); Kittaka, Shunichiro; Sakakibara, Toshiro [Institute for Solid State Physics, The University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, 277-8581 (Japan)


    Measurements of magnetization (M) and specific heat (C) under a [001] magnetic field were carried out on a single crystal of a quantum spin ice system Yb{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7} in order to investigate a feature of the transition occurred at T{sub C} ∼ 0.2 K. As a result of applying the magnetic field μ{sub 0}H < 0.1 T, the C/T − T curve structure and transition temperature barely changed. On the other hand, applying the more than 0.1 T magnetic field, the C/T − T curve structure drastically change from sharp peak structure to broad peak one, and the broad peak temperature of C/T − T curves linearly increases with increasing magnetic field (H). In the magnetic field μ{sub 0}H < 0.1 T, the magnetization drastically increases around T{sub C} ∼ 0.2 K with decreasing T, and a thermal hysteresis loop of the M − T curve is observed. With increasing H, the thermal hysteresis loop of the M − T curves disappears above μ{sub 0}H{sub C} = 0.1 T. We can understand these results, where Yb{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7} exhibits a first-order ferromagnetic transition associated with the latent heat corresponding to the energy of μ{sub 0}H{sub C} = 0.1 T. Basis of the H − T phase diagram along [001] magnetic field, the feature of the transition occurred at T{sub C} ∼ 0.2 K in quantum spin ice system Yb{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7} is discussed.

  6. Double vibronic process in the quantum spin ice candidate Tb2Ti2O7 revealed by terahertz spectroscopy (United States)

    Constable, E.; Ballou, R.; Robert, J.; Decorse, C.; Brubach, J.-B.; Roy, P.; Lhotel, E.; Del-Rey, L.; Simonet, V.; Petit, S.; deBrion, S.


    The origin of quantum fluctuations responsible for the spin liquid state in Tb2Ti2O7 has remained a long-standing problem. By synchrotron-based terahertz measurements, we show evidence of strong coupling between the magnetic and lattice degrees of freedom that provides a path to the quantum melting process. As revealed by hybrid crystal electric field-phonon excitations that appear at 0.67 THz below 200 K, and around 0.42 THz below 50 K, the double vibronic process is unique for Tb3 + in the titanate family due to adequate energy matching and strong quadrupolar moments. The results suggest that lattice motion can indeed be the driving force behind spin flips within the hybridized ground and first excited states, promoting quantum terms in the effective Hamiltonian that describes Tb2Ti2O7 .

  7. Internal dipolar field and soft magnons in periodic nanocomposite magnets (United States)

    Belemuk, A. M.; Chui, S. T.


    We study spin wave excitations in a three-dimensional nanocomposite magnet of exchange coupled hard (SmCo5) and soft (FeCo) phases. The dipolar interaction splits the spin wave energies into the upper and lower branches of the spin wave manifold. When the amount of the soft phase is increased the energy of low-lying spin excitations is considerably softened due to two reasons: (i) the low- lying mode locked into the soft phase region with a spin wave gap at k = 0 which scales approximately proportional to the anisotropy constant of the soft phase and (ii) the internal dipolar field which comes from magnetic charges forming at hard-soft boundaries with normals parallel to the magnetization displaces the spin wave manifold toward the lower energies. With adding more soft phase the spin wave gap closes and the system moves to another ground state characterized by the magnetization mismatch between spins of the hard and soft phases.

  8. Engineering of frustration in colloidal artificial ice (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Ortiz-Ambriz, Antonio; Tierno, Pietro


    Artificial spin-ice systems have been used to date as microscopic models of frustration induced by lattice topology, as they allow for the direct visualization of spin arrangements and textures. However, the engineering of frustrated ice states in which individual spins can be manipulated in situ and the real-time observation of their collective dynamics remain both challenging tasks. Recently, an analogue system has been proposed theoretically, where an optical landscape confined colloidal particles that interacted electrostatically. Here we realize experimentally another version of a colloidal artificial ice system using interacting magnetically polarizable particles confined to lattices of bistable gravitational traps. We show quantitatively that ice-selection rules emerge in this frustrated soft matter system by tuning the strength of the pair-interactions between the microscopic units. By using optical tweezers, we can control particle positioning and dipolar coupling, we introduce monopole-like defects and strings and use loops with defined chirality as an elementary unit to store binary information.

  9. Frustrated spin systems

    CERN Document Server


    This book covers all principal aspects of currently investigated frustrated systems, from exactly solved frustrated models to real experimental frustrated systems, going through renormalization group treatment, Monte Carlo investigation of frustrated classical Ising and vector spin models, low-dimensional systems, spin ice and quantum spin glass. The reader can - within a single book - obtain a global view of the current research development in the field of frustrated systems.This new edition is updated with recent theoretical, numerical and experimental developments in the field of frustrated

  10. Ice as a Construction Material (United States)

    Zuppero, Anthony; Lewis, Joseph


    The use of ice as a construction material is discussed. A model of an ice tire torus space ship, which slowly spins to produce artificial gravity is proposed. The size of the ship, needed to support a given number of people and the required envelope mass is presented.

  11. Special relativity from soft gravitons (United States)

    Hertzberg, Mark P.; Sandora, McCullen


    We study all translationally and rotationally invariant local theories involving massless spin 2 and spin 1 particles that mediate long range forces, allowing for general energy relations and violation of boost invariance. Although gauge invariance is not a priori required to describe non-Lorentz invariant theories, we first establish that locality requires soft gauge invariance. Then by taking the soft graviton limit in scattering amplitudes, we prove that in addition to the usual requirement of universal graviton couplings, the special relativistic energy-momentum relation is also required and must be exact. We contrast this to the case of theories with only spin ≤1 particles, where, although we can still derive charge conservation from locality, special relativity can be easily violated. We provide indications that the entire structure of relativity can be built up from spin 2 in this fashion.

  12. Magnetic soft mode behaviour investigated via multi-spin flip Raman spectroscopy on near surface Cd{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x}Te/Cd{sub 1-y}Mg{sub y}Te quantum wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kehl, Christian


    The main motivation for this thesis was the experimental confirmation of the theoretically predicted magnetic soft mode and the analysis of its dependence on the hole-concentration and external B-field, as well as its disappearance with increasing sample temperature. For that purpose, CdMnTe/CdMgTe QWs (Mn: 0.6%, 1.0%) positioned close to the sample surface (13-19 nm) were investigated in an in-plane applied external magnetic field (up to 4.5 T in Voigt-geometry) via a two-colour experiment i.e. using two light sources. This allows the spin excitation of Mn-ions by simultaneously tuning the hole-concentration towards the ferromagnetic phase transition by photo-generated carriers. Thus, one tuneable laser is responsible for resonant below-barrier excitation as a probe for Multi-SF Raman scattering. The other laser excites photo-generated carriers from above barrier (2.41 eV) for tuning the hole concentration in the QW. Positioning the QW close to the sample surface causes a surface-induced p-doping of the QW (intrinsic hole concentration in the QW) and enables the active tuning of the hole concentration by photo-generated carriers due to different tunnelling behaviour of electrons and holes from the QW to the surface. The Mn-g-factor was decreased by quasi-continuously increasing the above-barrier illumination, while the below-barrier excitation was kept at a constant low power. This results in a Mn-g-factor reduction starting from its atomic value g=2.01 to lowest evaluated Mn-g-factor in this thesis g=1.77. This is a magnetic softening of 12%. Apart from the general magnetic soft mode behaviour at low temperatures, one of the main experimental results in this thesis is the confirmation of the theoretical prediction that the magnetic soft mode behaviour in the external B-field does not only depend on the carrier concentration but also on the B-field strength itself. An additional aspect is the temperature dependence of the magnetic soft mode. The Mn

  13. Ice, Ice, Baby! (United States)

    Hamilton, C.


    The Center for Remote Sensing of Ice Sheets (CReSIS) has developed an outreach program based on hands-on activities called "Ice, Ice, Baby". These lessons are designed to teach the science principles of displacement, forces of motion, density, and states of matter. These properties are easily taught through the interesting topics of glaciers, icebergs, and sea level rise in K-8 classrooms. The activities are fun, engaging, and simple enough to be used at science fairs and family science nights. Students who have participated in "Ice, Ice, Baby" have successfully taught these to adults and students at informal events. The lessons are based on education standards which are available on our website This presentation will provide information on the activities, survey results from teachers who have used the material, and other suggested material that can be used before and after the activities.

  14. Computational dynamics of soft machines (United States)

    Hu, Haiyan; Tian, Qiang; Liu, Cheng


    Soft machine refers to a kind of mechanical system made of soft materials to complete sophisticated missions, such as handling a fragile object and crawling along a narrow tunnel corner, under low cost control and actuation. Hence, soft machines have raised great challenges to computational dynamics. In this review article, recent studies of the authors on the dynamic modeling, numerical simulation, and experimental validation of soft machines are summarized in the framework of multibody system dynamics. The dynamic modeling approaches are presented first for the geometric nonlinearities of coupled overall motions and large deformations of a soft component, the physical nonlinearities of a soft component made of hyperelastic or elastoplastic materials, and the frictional contacts/impacts of soft components, respectively. Then the computation approach is outlined for the dynamic simulation of soft machines governed by a set of differential-algebraic equations of very high dimensions, with an emphasis on the efficient computations of the nonlinear elastic force vector of finite elements. The validations of the proposed approaches are given via three case studies, including the locomotion of a soft quadrupedal robot, the spinning deployment of a solar sail of a spacecraft, and the deployment of a mesh reflector of a satellite antenna, as well as the corresponding experimental studies. Finally, some remarks are made for future studies.

  15. Ice Sheets & Ice Cores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Troels Bøgeholm

    Since the discovery of the Ice Ages it has been evident that Earth’s climate is liable to undergo dramatic changes. The previous climatic period known as the Last Glacial saw large oscillations in the extent of ice sheets covering the Northern hemisphere. Understanding these oscillations known...... as Dansgaard-Oeschger (DO) events would add to our knowledge of the climatic system and – hopefully – enable better forecasts. Likewise, to forecast possible future sea level rise it is crucial to correctly model the large ice sheets on Greenland and Antarctica. This project is divided into two parts...

  16. Soft Pomeron in Holographic QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Ballon-Bayona, Alfonso; Costa, Miguel S; Djurić, Marko


    We study the graviton Regge trajectory in Holographic QCD as a model for high energy scattering processes dominated by soft pomeron exchange. This is done by considering spin J fields from the closed string sector that are dual to glueball states of even spin and parity. In particular, we construct a model that governs the analytic continuation of the spin J field equation to the region of real J < 2, which includes the scattering domain of negative Maldelstam variable t. The model leads to approximately linear Regge trajectories and is compatible with the measured values of 1.08 for the intercept and 0.25 GeV$^{-2}$ for the slope of the soft pomeron. The intercept of the secondary pomeron trajectory is in the same region of the subleading trajectories, made of mesons, proposed by Donnachie and Landshoff, and should therefore be taken into account.

  17. Spin current

    CERN Document Server

    Valenzuela, Sergio O; Saitoh, Eiji; Kimura, Takashi


    In a new branch of physics and technology called spin-electronics or spintronics, the flow of electrical charge (usual current) as well as the flow of electron spin, the so-called 'spin current', are manipulated and controlled together. This book provides an introduction and guide to the new physics and application of spin current.

  18. Rewritable Artificial Magnetic Charge Ice


    Wang, Yong-Lei; Xiao, Zhi-Li; Snezhko, Alexey; Xu, Jing; Ocola, Leonidas E.; Divan, Ralu; Pearson, John E.; Crabtree, George W.; Kwok, Wai-Kwong


    Artificial ices enable the study of geometrical frustration by design and through direct observation. However, it has proven difficult to achieve tailored long-range ordering of their diverse configurations, limiting both fundamental and applied research directions. We designed an artificial spin structure that produces a magnetic charge ice with tunable long-range ordering of eight different configurations. We also developed a technique to precisely manipulate the local magnetic charge state...

  19. Magnetoelastic properties of the quantum-spin-ice candidate Yb{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoeter, T.; Wang, Z.S.; Wosnitza, J. [SFB 1143 (Germany); TUD/IFP, Dresden (Germany); HZDR, Dresden (Germany); Doerr, M.; Granovsky, S. [SFB 1143 (Germany); TUD/IFP, Dresden (Germany); Erfanifam, S.; Green, E. [HZDR, Dresden (Germany); Zherlitsyn, S. [SFB 1143 (Germany); HZDR, Dresden (Germany); Maljuk, A.; Wurmehl, S. [SFB 1143 (Germany); IFW, Dresden (Germany)


    Intriguing phenomena such as the occurrence of magnetic monopoles and a wide variety of ground states are associated to magnetic frustration. In a number of cases, elastic effects, e.g. lattice distortions, may result in the lifting of degeneracies or the appearance of new magnetic states. The rare-earth titanate Yb{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7}, where the magnetic Yb{sup 3+} ions form a pyrochlore spin network, is a prime example of a geometrically frustrated material, with numerous field-induced phases and strong ferromagnetic correlations below 170 mK. In order to characterize the magneto-elastic coupling in this material, we have investigated the thermal expansion, magnetostriction, and sound propagation in different dilution refrigerators between 60 mK and 1.5 K and large applied magnetic fields. At around 170 mK we find distinct anomalies in the expansion coefficient, acoustic properties, as well as the specific heat. Lattice anomalies in field hint to additional low temperature phases.

  20. Rewritable artificial magnetic charge ice (United States)

    Wang, Yong-Lei; Xiao, Zhi-Li; Snezhko, Alexey; Xu, Jing; Ocola, Leonidas E.; Divan, Ralu; Pearson, John E.; Crabtree, George W.; Kwok, Wai-Kwong


    Artificial ices enable the study of geometrical frustration by design and through direct observation. However, it has proven difficult to achieve tailored long-range ordering of their diverse configurations, limiting both fundamental and applied research directions. We designed an artificial spin structure that produces a magnetic charge ice with tunable long-range ordering of eight different configurations. We also developed a technique to precisely manipulate the local magnetic charge states and demonstrate write-read-erase multifunctionality at room temperature. This globally reconfigurable and locally writable magnetic charge ice could provide a setting for designing magnetic monopole defects, tailoring magnonics, and controlling the properties of other two-dimensional materials.

  1. Ice Cores (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Records of past temperature, precipitation, atmospheric trace gases, and other aspects of climate and environment derived from ice cores drilled on glaciers and ice...

  2. Ice cores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Anders


    Ice cores from Antarctica, from Greenland, and from a number of smaller glaciers around the world yield a wealth of information on past climates and environments. Ice cores offer unique records on past temperatures, atmospheric composition (including greenhouse gases), volcanism, solar activity......, dustiness, and biomass burning, among others. In Antarctica, ice cores extend back more than 800,000 years before present (Jouzel et al. 2007), whereas. Greenland ice cores cover the last 130,000 years...

  3. Ice Cream

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, E.


    Ice cream is a popular dessert, which owes its sensorial properties (mouth feel) to its complex microstructure. The microstructure is a result of the combination of the ingredients and the production process. Ice cream is produced by simultaneous freezing and shearing of the ice cream mix, which

  4. Weyl spin liquids. (United States)

    Hermanns, M; O'Brien, K; Trebst, S


    The fractionalization of quantum numbers in interacting quantum many-body systems is a central motif in condensed-matter physics with prominent examples including the fractionalization of the electron in quantum Hall liquids or the emergence of magnetic monopoles in spin-ice materials. Here, we discuss the fractionalization of magnetic moments in three-dimensional Kitaev models into Majorana fermions (and a Z_{2} gauge field) and their emergent collective behavior. We analytically demonstrate that the Majorana fermions form a Weyl superconductor for the Kitaev model on the recently synthesized hyperhoneycomb structure of β-Li_{2}IrO_{3} when applying a magnetic field. We characterize the topologically protected bulk and surface features of this state, which we dub a Weyl spin liquid, including thermodynamic and transport signatures.

  5. Soft Lenses*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Polyhema. Low water content-30 - 40% therefore less well tolerated. Impermeable to gases. Low elasticity and therefore optics not good. Subject to stress and strain especially when drying. Easily infected. A series of cases fitted with Bionite soft lenses is described. Good results were obtained in bullous kera- topathy, dry.

  6. Spin current

    CERN Document Server

    Valenzuela, Sergio O; Saitoh, Eiji; Kimura, Takashi


    Since the discovery of the giant magnetoresistance effect in magnetic multilayers in 1988, a new branch of physics and technology, called spin-electronics or spintronics, has emerged, where the flow of electrical charge as well as the flow of electron spin, the so-called “spin current,” are manipulated and controlled together. The physics of magnetism and the application of spin current have progressed in tandem with the nanofabrication technology of magnets and the engineering of interfaces and thin films. This book aims to provide an introduction and guide to the new physics and applications of spin current, with an emphasis on the interaction between spin and charge currents in magnetic nanostructures.

  7. Spin multiplicities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtright, T.L., E-mail: [Department of Physics, University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL 33124-8046 (United States); Van Kortryk, T.S., E-mail: [Department of Physics, University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL 33124-8046 (United States); High Energy Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439-4815 (United States); Zachos, C.K., E-mail: [Department of Physics, University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL 33124-8046 (United States); High Energy Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439-4815 (United States)


    The number of times spin s appears in the Kronecker product of n spin j representations is computed, and the large n asymptotic behavior of the result is obtained. Applications are briefly sketched. - Highlights: • We give a self-contained derivation of the spin multiplicities that occur in n-fold tensor products of spin-j representations. • We make use of group characters, properties of special functions, and asymptotic analysis of integrals. • We emphasize patterns that arise when comparing different values of j, and asymptotic behavior for large n. • Our methods and results should be useful for various statistical and quantum information theory calculations.

  8. Legal Ice?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandsbjerg, Jeppe

    The idealised land|water dichotomy is most obviously challenged by ice when ‘land practice’ takes place on ice or when ‘maritime practice’ is obstructed by ice. Both instances represent disparity between the legal codification of space and its social practice. Logically, then, both instances call...... for alternative legal thought and practice; in the following I will emphasise the former and reflect upon the relationship between ice, law and politics. Prior to this workshop I had worked more on the relationship between cartography, geography and boundaries than specifically on ice. Listening to all...... the interesting conversations during the workshop, however, made me think that much of the concern with the Polar Regions in general, and the presence of ice in particular, reverberates around the question of how to accommodate various geographical presences and practices within the regulatory framework that we...

  9. Soft Clouding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Morten; Markussen, Thomas; Wetton, Barnabas


    Soft Clouding is a blended concept, which describes the aim of a collaborative and transdisciplinary project. The concept is a metaphor implying a blend of cognitive, embodied interaction and semantic web. Furthermore, it is a metaphor describing our attempt of curating a new semantics of sound...... brought together in one transdisciplinary process of curating a semantics of sound: Technological, Humanistic /Curatorial, and Design / Action-based practice....

  10. Soft Clouding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Morten; Markussen, Thomas; Wetton, Barnabas


    Soft Clouding is a blended concept, which describes the aim of a collaborative and transdisciplinary project. The concept is a metaphor implying a blend of cognitive, embodied interaction and semantic web. Furthermore, it is a metaphor describing our attempt of curating a new semantics of sound a...... brought together in one transdisciplinary process of curating a semantics of sound: Technological, Humanistic /Curatorial, and Design / Action-based practice....

  11. Spin Electronics (United States)


    spin resonance of rare earth and transition metal impurities in chalcopyrite semiconductors. They also have worked in diluted magnetic...past, the ferromagnetic injector had been a ferromagnetic metal or alloy containing 3d transition elements with fractional spin polarization of the...polarized carriers. There have been numerous attempts to inject transition metals or their alloys into semiconductors, either directly (Johnson and

  12. Spin glasses

    CERN Document Server

    Bovier, Anton


    Spin glass theory is going through a stunning period of progress while finding exciting new applications in areas beyond theoretical physics, in particular in combinatorics and computer science. This collection of state-of-the-art review papers written by leading experts in the field covers the topic from a wide variety of angles. The topics covered are mean field spin glasses, including a pedagogical account of Talagrand's proof of the Parisi solution, short range spin glasses, emphasizing the open problem of the relevance of the mean-field theory for lattice models, and the dynamics of spin glasses, in particular the problem of ageing in mean field models. The book will serve as a concise introduction to the state of the art of spin glass theory, usefull to both graduate students and young researchers, as well as to anyone curious to know what is going on in this exciting area of mathematical physics.

  13. Soft Robotics Week

    CERN Document Server

    Rossiter, Jonathan; Iida, Fumiya; Cianchetti, Matteo; Margheri, Laura


    This book offers a comprehensive, timely snapshot of current research, technologies and applications of soft robotics. The different chapters, written by international experts across multiple fields of soft robotics, cover innovative systems and technologies for soft robot legged locomotion, soft robot manipulation, underwater soft robotics, biomimetic soft robotic platforms, plant-inspired soft robots, flying soft robots, soft robotics in surgery, as well as methods for their modeling and control. Based on the results of the second edition of the Soft Robotics Week, held on April 25 – 30, 2016, in Livorno, Italy, the book reports on the major research lines and novel technologies presented and discussed during the event.

  14. Ice Ages

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    argued that when summers are cool and winters are mild the ice sheets in the northern continents grow because of more snowfall in winter and lesser melting of ice in the summer and vice versa. The variation in the earth-sun geometry changes solar radiation incident at the surface. Milankovitch showed that the changes.

  15. Ice Surfaces (United States)

    Shultz, Mary Jane


    Ice is a fundamental solid with important environmental, biological, geological, and extraterrestrial impact. The stable form of ice at atmospheric pressure is hexagonal ice, Ih. Despite its prevalence, Ih remains an enigmatic solid, in part due to challenges in preparing samples for fundamental studies. Surfaces of ice present even greater challenges. Recently developed methods for preparation of large single-crystal samples make it possible to reproducibly prepare any chosen face to address numerous fundamental questions. This review describes preparation methods along with results that firmly establish the connection between the macroscopic structure (observed in snowflakes, microcrystallites, or etch pits) and the molecular-level configuration (detected with X-ray or electron scattering techniques). Selected results of probing interactions at the ice surface, including growth from the melt, surface vibrations, and characterization of the quasi-liquid layer, are discussed.

  16. TOPICAL REVIEW: Spin current, spin accumulation and spin Hall effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saburo Takahashi and Sadamichi Maekawa


    Full Text Available Nonlocal spin transport in nanostructured devices with ferromagnetic injector (F1 and detector (F2 electrodes connected to a normal conductor (N is studied. We reveal how the spin transport depends on interface resistance, electrode resistance, spin polarization and spin diffusion length, and obtain the conditions for efficient spin injection, spin accumulation and spin current in the device. It is demonstrated that the spin Hall effect is caused by spin–orbit scattering in nonmagnetic conductors and gives rise to the conversion between spin and charge currents in a nonlocal device. A method of evaluating spin–orbit coupling in nonmagnetic metals is proposed.

  17. Spin electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Buhrman, Robert; Daughton, James; Molnár, Stephan; Roukes, Michael


    This report is a comparative review of spin electronics ("spintronics") research and development activities in the United States, Japan, and Western Europe conducted by a panel of leading U.S. experts in the field. It covers materials, fabrication and characterization of magnetic nanostructures, magnetism and spin control in magnetic nanostructures, magneto-optical properties of semiconductors, and magnetoelectronics and devices. The panel's conclusions are based on a literature review and a series of site visits to leading spin electronics research centers in Japan and Western Europe. The panel found that Japan is clearly the world leader in new material synthesis and characterization; it is also a leader in magneto-optical properties of semiconductor devices. Europe is strong in theory pertaining to spin electronics, including injection device structures such as tunneling devices, and band structure predictions of materials properties, and in development of magnetic semiconductors and semiconductor heterost...

  18. Multiaspect Soft Sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Hashimah Sulaiman


    Full Text Available We introduce a novel concept of multiaspect soft set which is an extension of the ordinary soft set by Molodtsov. Some basic concepts, operations, and properties of the multiaspect soft sets are studied. We also define a mapping on multiaspect soft classes and investigate several properties related to the images and preimages of multiaspect soft sets.

  19. Ice sheet hydrology from observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansson, Peter (Dept. of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology, Stockholm Univ-, Stockholm (Sweden))


    possible that soft beds through their ability to deform and be eroded can yield quasi-stable patterns of drainage pathways that with either erosion of critical sills or filling of temporary basins may reorganize itself periodically on time scales much shorter than the reorganization of the driving stresses for ice flow. In areas where the surface generated water (melt and rain), the basally generated fluxes dwarf the influx from the surface and hence the drainage system in such areas will be dominated by surface fluxes and variations therein. Since surface fluxes have a strong seasonal variation with no influx during winter, areas experiencing surface influx will also be subject to large seasonal variations in both flux and pressure. In addition, during the melt season, fluxes and also pressures will also vary on diurnal as well as longer time frames in response to variations in air temperature that drives melt and occurrence of precipitation events. The emerging picture of glacier drainage consists of different types of models applicable to different regimes found beneath an ice sheet (with our without surface influx, ice streams, subglacial lakes). It is not, however, clear how these systems are coupled, or even if they are. This makes it inherently difficult to assess what can be expected beneath a given sector of an ice sheet without some detailed understanding of the underlying geology (geothermal fluxes), geomorphology (possible water routing) and ice properties (cold -temperate base and ice thickness)

  20. Rewritable artificial magnetic charge ice. (United States)

    Wang, Yong-Lei; Xiao, Zhi-Li; Snezhko, Alexey; Xu, Jing; Ocola, Leonidas E; Divan, Ralu; Pearson, John E; Crabtree, George W; Kwok, Wai-Kwong


    Artificial ices enable the study of geometrical frustration by design and through direct observation. However, it has proven difficult to achieve tailored long-range ordering of their diverse configurations, limiting both fundamental and applied research directions. We designed an artificial spin structure that produces a magnetic charge ice with tunable long-range ordering of eight different configurations. We also developed a technique to precisely manipulate the local magnetic charge states and demonstrate write-read-erase multifunctionality at room temperature. This globally reconfigurable and locally writable magnetic charge ice could provide a setting for designing magnetic monopole defects, tailoring magnonics, and controlling the properties of other two-dimensional materials. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  1. Fuzzy Soft Sets and Fuzzy Soft Lattices

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shao, Yingchao; Qin, Keyun


    .... In this paper, the notion of fuzzy soft lattice is defined and some related properties are derived, which extends the notion of a fuzzy lattice to include the algebraic structures of soft sets...

  2. Marine ice regulates the future stability of a large Antarctic ice shelf. (United States)

    Kulessa, Bernd; Jansen, Daniela; Luckman, Adrian J; King, Edward C; Sammonds, Peter R


    The collapses of the Larsen A and B ice shelves on the Antarctic Peninsula in 1995 and 2002 confirm the impact of southward-propagating climate warming in this region. Recent mass and dynamic changes of Larsen B's southern neighbour Larsen C, the fourth largest ice shelf in Antarctica, may herald a similar instability. Here, using a validated ice-shelf model run in diagnostic mode, constrained by satellite and in situ geophysical data, we identify the nature of this potential instability. We demonstrate that the present-day spatial distribution and orientation of the principal stresses within Larsen C ice shelf are akin to those within pre-collapse Larsen B. When Larsen B's stabilizing frontal portion was lost in 1995, the unstable remaining shelf accelerated, crumbled and ultimately collapsed. We hypothesize that Larsen C ice shelf may suffer a similar fate if it were not stabilized by warm and mechanically soft marine ice, entrained within narrow suture zones.

  3. Spin ejector (United States)

    Andersen, John A.; Flanigan, John J.; Kindley, Robert J.


    The disclosure relates to an apparatus for spin ejecting a body having a flat plate base containing bosses. The apparatus has a base plate and a main ejection shaft extending perpendicularly from the base plate. A compressible cylindrical spring is disposed about the shaft. Bearings are located between the shaft and the spring. A housing containing a helical aperture releasably engages the base plate and surrounds the shaft bearings and the spring. A piston having an aperture follower disposed in the housing aperture is seated on the spring and is guided by the shaft and the aperture. The spring is compressed and when released causes the piston to spin eject the body.

  4. Soft Translations and Soft Extensions of BCI/BCK-Algebras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazra Sultana


    Full Text Available The concept of soft translations of soft subalgebras and soft ideals over BCI/BCK-algebras is introduced and some related properties are studied. Notions of Soft extensions of soft subalgebras and soft ideals over BCI/BCK-algebras are also initiated. Relationships between soft translations and soft extensions are explored.

  5. Spinning worlds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwarz, H.


    The thesis "Spinning Worlds" is about the characterisation of two types of gas-giant exoplanets: Hot Jupiters, with orbital periods of fewer than five days, and young, wide-orbit gas giants, with orbital periods as long as thousands of years. The thesis is based on near-infrared observations of 1

  6. A spongy icing model for aircraft icing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xin


    Full Text Available Researches have indicated that impinging droplets can be entrapped as liquid in the ice matrix and the temperature of accreting ice surface is below the freezing point. When liquid entrapment by ice matrix happens, this kind of ice is called spongy ice. A new spongy icing model for the ice accretion problem on airfoil or aircraft has been developed to account for entrapped liquid within accreted ice and to improve the determination of the surface temperature when entering clouds with supercooled droplets. Different with conventional icing model, this model identifies icing conditions in four regimes: rime, spongy without water film, spongy with water film and glaze. By using the Eulerian method based on two-phase flow theory, the impinging droplet flow was investigated numerically. The accuracy of the Eulerian method for computing the water collection efficiency was assessed, and icing shapes and surface temperature distributions predicted with this spongy icing model agree with experimental results well.

  7. Spin currents, spin torques, and the concept of spin superfluidity


    Rückriegel, Andreas; Kopietz, Peter


    In magnets with non-collinear spin configuration the expectation value of the conventionally defined spin current operator contains a contribution which renormalizes an external magnetic field and hence affects only the precessional motion of the spin polarization. This term, which has been named angular spin current by Sun and Xie [Phys. Rev B 72, 245305 (2005)], does not describe the translational motion of magnetic moments. We give a prescription how to separate these two types of spin tra...

  8. Fuzzy Soft Topological Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Nazmul


    Full Text Available Notions of Lowen type fuzzy soft topological space are introduced and some of their properties are established in the present paper. Besides this, a combined structure of a fuzzy soft topological space and a fuzzy soft group, which is termed here as fuzzy soft topological group is introduced. Homomorphic images and preimages are also examined. Finally, some definitions and results on fuzzy soft set are studied.

  9. Ice streams of the Late Wisconsin Cordilleran Ice Sheet in western North America (United States)

    Eyles, Nick; Arbelaez Moreno, Lina; Sookhan, Shane


    The Late Wisconsin Cordilleran Ice Sheet (CIS) of western North America is thought to have reached its maximum extent (∼2.5 × 106 km2) as late at c. 14.5 ka. Most (80%) of the ice sheet's bed consists of high mountains but its 'core zone' sited on plateaux of the Intermontane Belt of British Columbia and coterminous parts of the USA, shows broad swaths of subglacially-streamlined rock and sediment. Broad scale mapping from new digital imagery data identifies three subglacial bed types: 1) 'hard beds' of variably streamlined bedrock; 2) drumlinized 'soft beds' of deformation till reworked from antecedent sediment, and 3) 'mixed beds' of variably-streamlined bedrock protruding through drumlinized sediment. Drumlins on soft beds appear to be erosional features cut into till and antecedent sediments, and identify the catchment areas of paleo ice streams expressed downglacier as flow sets of megascale glacial lineations (MSGLs). 'Grooved' and 'cloned' drumlins appear to record the transition from drumlins to MSGLs. The location of paleo ice streams reflects topographic funneling of ice from plateau surfaces through outlet valleys and a soft bed that sustained fast flow; rock-cut MSGLs are also present locally on the floors of outlet valleys. CIS disintegrated in streams along the glacio-isostatically depressed coast; large deep 'fiord lakes' in the ice sheet's interior may have played an analogous role. Mapping of the broad scale distribution of bed types across the Cordilleran Ice Sheet provides key information for paleoglaciological modelling and also for understanding the beds of modern ice masses such as the Greenland Ice Sheet which is of a comparable topographic setting.

  10. Monolayer ice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zangi, R; Mark, AE


    We report results from molecular dynamics simulations of water under confinement and at ambient conditions that predict a first-order freezing transition from a monolayer of liquid water to a monolayer of ice induced by increasing the distance between the confining parallel plates. Since a slab

  11. spin coating

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Intense UV photoluminescence is observed for intrinsic ZnO film. Keywords : thin films, oxidize zinc doped aluminium (ZnO:Al), sol-gel, spin coating, structural analysis, electric and optical properties. 1. Introduction. Depuis ces vingt dernières années les couches minces d'oxyde de zinc ont connu un intérêt croissant dans ...

  12. Spin-Circuit Representation of Spin Pumping (United States)

    Roy, Kuntal


    Circuit theory has been tremendously successful in translating physical equations into circuit elements in an organized form for further analysis and proposing creative designs for applications. With the advent of new materials and phenomena in the field of spintronics and nanomagnetics, it is imperative to construct the spin-circuit representations for different materials and phenomena. Spin pumping is a phenomenon by which a pure spin current can be injected into the adjacent layers. If the adjacent layer is a material with a high spin-orbit coupling, a considerable amount of charge voltage can be generated via the inverse spin Hall effect allowing spin detection. Here we develop the spin-circuit representation of spin pumping. We then combine it with the spin-circuit representation for the materials having spin Hall effect to show that it reproduces the standard results as in the literature. We further show how complex multilayers can be analyzed by simply writing a netlist.

  13. Spin and density longitudinal response of quantum dots in the time-dependent local-spin-density approximation (United States)

    Serra, Ll.; Barranco, M.; Emperador, A.; Pi, M.; Lipparini, E.


    The longitudinal dipole response of a quantum dot has been calculated in the far-infrared regime using local-spin-density-functional theory. We have studied the coupling between the collective spin and density modes as a function of the magnetic field. We have found that the spin dipole mode and single-particle excitations have a sizable overlap, and that the magnetoplasmon modes can be excited by the dipole spin operator if the dot is spin polarized. The frequency of the dipole spin edge mode presents an oscillation which is clearly filling factor (ν) related. We have found that the spin dipole mode is especially soft for even-ν values. Results for selected numbers of electrons and confining potentials are discussed.

  14. Eulerian Method for Ice Crystal Icing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Norde, Ellen; van der Weide, Edwin Theodorus Antonius; Hoeijmakers, Hendrik Willem Marie

    In this study, an ice accretion method aimed at ice crystal icing in turbofan engines is developed and demonstrated for glaciated as well as mixed-phase icing conditions. The particle trajectories are computed by an Eulerian trajectory method. The effects of heat transfer and phase change on the

  15. Spin currents, spin torques, and the concept of spin superfluidity (United States)

    Rückriegel, Andreas; Kopietz, Peter


    In magnets with noncollinear spin configuration the expectation value of the conventionally defined spin current operator contains a contribution which renormalizes an external magnetic field and hence affects only the precessional motion of the spin polarization. This term, which has been named angular spin current by Sun and Xie [Phys. Rev. B 72, 245305 (2005)], 10.1103/PhysRevB.72.245305, does not describe the translational motion of magnetic moments. We give a prescription for how to separate these two types of spin transport and show that the translational movement of the spin is always polarized along the direction of the local magnetization. We also show that at vanishing temperature the classical magnetic order parameter in magnetic insulators cannot carry a translational spin current and elucidate how this affects the interpretation of spin supercurrents.

  16. Time-Reversal Symmetric U(1 Quantum Spin Liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong Wang


    Full Text Available We study possible quantum U(1 spin liquids in three dimensions with time-reversal symmetry. We find a total of seven families of such U(1 spin liquids, distinguished by the properties of their emergent electric or magnetic charges. We show how these spin liquids are related to each other. Two of these classes admit nontrivial protected surface states which we describe. We show how to access all of the seven spin liquids through slave particle (parton constructions. We also provide intuitive loop gas descriptions of their ground-state wave functions. One of these phases is the “topological Mott insulator,” conventionally described as a topological insulator of an emergent fermionic “spinon.” We show that this phase admits a remarkable dual description as a topological insulator of emergent fermionic magnetic monopoles. This results in a new (possibly natural surface phase for the topological Mott insulator and a new slave particle construction. We describe some of the continuous quantum phase transitions between the different U(1 spin liquids. Each of these seven families of states admits a finer distinction in terms of their surface properties, which we determine by combining these spin liquids with symmetry-protected topological phases. We discuss lessons for materials such as pyrochlore quantum spin ices which may harbor a U(1 spin liquid. We suggest the topological Mott insulator as a possible ground state in some range of parameters for the quantum spin ice Hamiltonian.

  17. spin coating

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Dans ce travail nous avons préparé des couches minces de l'oxyde de zinc ZnO dopées à l'aluminium et non dopées par la technique Sol-Gel associée au « spin coating » sur des substrats en verre « pyrex » à partir de l'acétate de zinc dissous dans une solution de l'éthanol. Nous avons ensuite effectué des analyses ...

  18. Theory of quantum kagome ice (United States)

    Huang, Yi-Ping; Hermele, Michael

    Some pyrochlore oxides realize novel dipolar-octupolar (DO) doublets on the sites of the pyrochlore lattice of corner-sharing tetrahedra. With magnetic field along the (111) direction, such systems can approximately be described as decoupled layers of a S =1/2 XYZ model on Kagome planes, with perpendicular magnetic field. A recent quantum Monte Carlo study found a zero temperature disordered phase in this model, dubbed quantum kagome ice, and proposed that it is a type of Z2 quantum spin liquid (J. Carrasquilla, Z. Hao and R. G. Melko, Nat. Comm., 6, 7421). We will describe an effective theory for this putative Z2 spin liquid, and present results on its symmetry fractionalization and resulting properties that may be tested in future numerical simulations. the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences (BES) under Award # DE-SC0014415.

  19. Soft Neutrosophic Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Shabir


    Full Text Available In this paper we extend the neutrosophic group and subgroup to soft neutrosophic group and soft neutrosophic subgroup respectively. Properties and theorems related to them are proved and many examples are given.

  20. Soft Concurrent Constraint Programming


    Bistarelli, S.; Montanari, U.; Rossi, F.


    Soft constraints extend classical constraints to represent multiple consistency levels, and thus provide a way to express preferences, fuzziness, and uncertainty. While there are many soft constraint solving formalisms, even distributed ones, by now there seems to be no concurrent programming framework where soft constraints can be handled. In this paper we show how the classical concurrent constraint (cc) programming framework can work with soft constraints, and we also propose an extension ...

  1. Spin waves cause non-linear friction (United States)

    Magiera, M. P.; Brendel, L.; Wolf, D. E.; Nowak, U.


    Energy dissipation is studied for a hard magnetic tip that scans a soft magnetic substrate. The dynamics of the atomic moments are simulated by solving the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG) equation numerically. The local energy currents are analysed for the case of a Heisenberg spin chain taken as substrate. This leads to an explanation for the velocity dependence of the friction force: The non-linear contribution for high velocities can be attributed to a spin wave front pushed by the tip along the substrate.

  2. Mappings on Fuzzy Soft Classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athar Kharal


    Full Text Available We define the concept of a mapping on classes of fuzzy soft sets and study the properties of fuzzy soft images and fuzzy soft inverse images of fuzzy soft sets, and support them with examples and counterexamples.

  3. Soft Congruence Relations over Rings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolong Xin


    Full Text Available Molodtsov introduced the concept of soft sets, which can be seen as a new mathematical tool for dealing with uncertainty. In this paper, we initiate the study of soft congruence relations by using the soft set theory. The notions of soft quotient rings, generalized soft ideals and generalized soft quotient rings, are introduced, and several related properties are investigated. Also, we obtain a one-to-one correspondence between soft congruence relations and idealistic soft rings and a one-to-one correspondence between soft congruence relations and soft ideals. In particular, the first, second, and third soft isomorphism theorems are established, respectively.

  4. Ice Observatory (United States)

    blugerman, n.


    My project is to make ice observatories to perceive astral movements as well as light phenomena in the shape of cosmic rays and heat, for example.I find the idea of creating an observation point in space, that in time will change shape and eventually disappear, in consonance with the way we humans have been approaching the exploration of the universe since we started doing it. The transformation in the elements we use to understand big and small transformations, within the universe elements.

  5. Great Lakes Ice Charts (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Charts show ice extent and concentration three times weekly during the ice season, for all lakes except Ontario, from the 1973/74 ice season through the 2001/2002...

  6. Soft hair as a soft wig (United States)

    Bousso, Raphael; Porrati, Massimo


    We consider large gauge transformations of gravity and electromagnetism in D=4 asymptotically flat spacetime. Already at the classical level, we identify a canonical transformation that decouples the soft variables from the hard dynamics. We find that only the soft dynamics is constrained by BMS or large U(1) charge conservation. Physically this corresponds to the fact that sufficiently long-wavelength photons or gravitons that are added to the in-state will simply pass through the interaction region; they scatter trivially in their own sector. This implies in particular that the large gauge symmetries bear no relevance to the black hole information paradox. We also present the quantum version of soft decoupling. As a consistency check, we show that the apparent mixing of soft and hard modes in the original variables arises entirely from the long range field of the hard charges, which is fixed by gauge invariance and so contains no additional information.

  7. Dumping topological charges on neighbors: ice manifolds for colloids and vortices (United States)

    Nisoli, Cristiano


    We investigate the recently reported analogies between pinned vortices in nano-structured superconductors or colloids in optical traps, and spin ice materials. It has been found experimentally and numerically that both colloids and vortices exhibit ice or quasi-ice manifolds. However, the frustration of colloids and vortices differs essentially from spin ice at the vertex level. We show that the effective vertex energetics of the colloidal/vortex systems is made identical to that of spin ice materials by the contribution of an emergent field associated to the topological charge of the vertex. The similarity extends to the local low-energy dynamics of the ice manifold, where the effect of geometric hard constraints can be subsumed into the spatial modulation of the emergent field, which mediates an entropic interaction between topological charges. There, as in spin ice materials, genuine ice manifolds enter a Coulomb phase, whereas quasi-ice manifolds posses a well defined screening length, provided by a plasma of embedded topological charges. We also show that such similarities break down in lattices of mixed coordination because of topological charge transfer between sub-latices. This opens interesting perspective for extensions beyond physics, to social and economical networks.

  8. Large Torque Variations in Two Soft Gamma Repeaters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woods, P.M.; Kouveliotou, C.; Göğüş, E.; Finger, M.H.; Swank, J.; Markwardt, C.B.; Hurley, K.; van der Klis, M.


    We have monitored the pulse frequencies of the two soft gamma repeaters SGR 1806-20 and SGR 1900+14 through the beginning of year 2001 using primarily Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer Proportional Counter Array observations. In both sources, we observe large changes in the spin-down torque up to a factor

  9. Magnetic Nanostructures Spin Dynamics and Spin Transport

    CERN Document Server

    Farle, Michael


    Nanomagnetism and spintronics is a rapidly expanding and increasingly important field of research with many applications already on the market and many more to be expected in the near future. This field started in the mid-1980s with the discovery of the GMR effect, recently awarded with the Nobel prize to Albert Fert and Peter Grünberg. The present volume covers the most important and most timely aspects of magnetic heterostructures, including spin torque effects, spin injection, spin transport, spin fluctuations, proximity effects, and electrical control of spin valves. The chapters are written by internationally recognized experts in their respective fields and provide an overview of the latest status.

  10. Leipzig Ice Nucleation chamber Comparison (LINC): intercomparison of four online ice nucleation counters (United States)

    Burkert-Kohn, Monika; Wex, Heike; Welti, André; Hartmann, Susan; Grawe, Sarah; Hellner, Lisa; Herenz, Paul; Atkinson, James D.; Stratmann, Frank; Kanji, Zamin A.


    Ice crystal formation in atmospheric clouds has a strong effect on precipitation, cloud lifetime, cloud radiative properties, and thus the global energy budget. Primary ice formation above 235 K is initiated by nucleation on seed aerosol particles called ice-nucleating particles (INPs). Instruments that measure the ice-nucleating potential of aerosol particles in the atmosphere need to be able to accurately quantify ambient INP concentrations. In the last decade several instruments have been developed to investigate the ice-nucleating properties of aerosol particles and to measure ambient INP concentrations. Therefore, there is a need for intercomparisons to ensure instrument differences are not interpreted as scientific findings.In this study, we intercompare the results from parallel measurements using four online ice nucleation chambers. Seven different aerosol types are tested including untreated and acid-treated mineral dusts (microcline, which is a K-feldspar, and kaolinite), as well as birch pollen washing waters. Experiments exploring heterogeneous ice nucleation above and below water saturation are performed to cover the whole range of atmospherically relevant thermodynamic conditions that can be investigated with the intercompared chambers. The Leipzig Aerosol Cloud Interaction Simulator (LACIS) and the Portable Immersion Mode Cooling chAmber coupled to the Portable Ice Nucleation Chamber (PIMCA-PINC) performed measurements in the immersion freezing mode. Additionally, two continuous-flow diffusion chambers (CFDCs) PINC and the Spectrometer for Ice Nuclei (SPIN) are used to perform measurements below and just above water saturation, nominally presenting deposition nucleation and condensation freezing.The results of LACIS and PIMCA-PINC agree well over the whole range of measured frozen fractions (FFs) and temperature. In general PINC and SPIN compare well and the observed differences are explained by the ice crystal growth and different residence times in

  11. Measuring Quasar Spin via X-ray Continuum Fitting (United States)

    Jenkins, Matthew; Pooley, David; Rappaport, Saul; Steiner, Jack


    We have identified several quasars whose X-ray spectra appear very soft. When fit with power-law models, the best-fit indices are greater than 3. This is very suggestive of thermal disk emission, indicating that the X-ray spectrum is dominated by the disk component. Galactic black hole binaries in such states have been successfully fit with disk-blackbody models to constrain the inner radius, which also constrains the spin of the black hole. We have fit those models to XMM-Newton spectra of several of our identified soft X-ray quasars to place constraints on the spins of the supermassive black holes.

  12. Ice Crystal Icing Research at NASA (United States)

    Flegel, Ashlie B.


    Ice crystals found at high altitude near convective clouds are known to cause jet engine power-loss events. These events occur due to ice crystals entering a propulsion systems core flowpath and accreting ice resulting in events such as uncommanded loss of thrust (rollback), engine stall, surge, and damage due to ice shedding. As part of a community with a growing need to understand the underlying physics of ice crystal icing, NASA has been performing experimental efforts aimed at providing datasets that can be used to generate models to predict the ice accretion inside current and future engine designs. Fundamental icing physics studies on particle impacts, accretion on a single airfoil, and ice accretions observed during a rollback event inside a full-scale engine in the Propulsion Systems Laboratory are summarized. Low fidelity code development using the results from the engine tests which identify key parameters for ice accretion risk and the development of high fidelity codes are described. These activities have been conducted internal to NASA and through collaboration efforts with industry, academia, and other government agencies. The details of the research activities and progress made to date in addressing ice crystal icing research challenges are discussed.

  13. Ice Crystal Icing Research at NASA (United States)

    Flegel, Ashlie B.


    Ice crystals found at high altitude near convective clouds are known to cause jet engine power-loss events. These events occur due to ice crystals entering a propulsion system's core flowpath and accreting ice resulting in events such as uncommanded loss of thrust (rollback), engine stall, surge, and damage due to ice shedding. As part of a community with a growing need to understand the underlying physics of ice crystal icing, NASA has been performing experimental efforts aimed at providing datasets that can be used to generate models to predict the ice accretion inside current and future engine designs. Fundamental icing physics studies on particle impacts, accretion on a single airfoil, and ice accretions observed during a rollback event inside a full-scale engine in the Propulsion Systems Laboratory are summarized. Low fidelity code development using the results from the engine tests which identify key parameters for ice accretion risk and the development of high fidelity codes are described. These activities have been conducted internal to NASA and through collaboration efforts with industry, academia, and other government agencies. The details of the research activities and progress made to date in addressing ice crystal icing research challenges are discussed.

  14. Forecasting Turbine Icing Events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, Neil; Hahmann, Andrea N.; Clausen, Niels-Erik


    In this study, we present a method for forecasting icing events. The method is validated at two European wind farms in with known icing events. The icing model used was developed using current ice accretion methods, and newly developed ablation algorithms. The model is driven by inputs from the WRF...... mesoscale model, allowing for both climatological estimates of icing and short term icing forecasts. The current model was able to detect periods of icing reasonably well at the warmer site. However at the cold climate site, the model was not able to remove ice quickly enough leading to large ice...... accumulations, which have not been seen in observations. In addition to the model evaluation we were able to investigate the potential occurrence of ice induced power loss at two wind parks in Europe using observed data. We found that the potential loss during an icing event is large even when the turbine...

  15. Forecasting Turbine Icing Events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, Neil; Hahmann, Andrea N.; Clausen, Niels-Erik

    In this study, we present a method for forecasting icing events. The method is validated at two European wind farms in with known icing events. The icing model used was developed using current ice accretion methods, and newly developed ablation algorithms. The model is driven by inputs from the WRF...... mesoscale model, allowing for both climatological estimates of icing and short term icing forecasts. The current model was able to detect periods of icing reasonably well at the warmer site. However at the cold climate site, the model was not able to remove ice quickly enough leading to large ice...... accumulations, which have not been seen in observations. In addition to the model evaluation we were able to investigate the potential occurrence of ice induced power loss at two wind parks in Europe using observed data. We found that the potential loss during an icing event is large even when the turbine...

  16. Concave Soft Sets, Critical Soft Points, and Union-Soft Ideals of Ordered Semigroups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Bae Jun


    Full Text Available The notions of union-soft semigroups, union-soft l-ideals, and union-soft r-ideals are introduced, and related properties are investigated. Characterizations of a union-soft semigroup, a union-soft l-ideal, and a union-soft r-ideal are provided. The concepts of union-soft products and union-soft semiprime soft sets are introduced, and their properties related to union-soft l-ideals and union-soft r-ideals are investigated. Using the notions of union-soft l-ideals and union-soft r-ideals, conditions for an ordered semigroup to be regular are considered. The concepts of concave soft sets and critical soft points are introduced, and their properties are discussed.

  17. Love triangles, quantum fluctuations and spin jam (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Hun

    When magnetic moments are interacting with each other in a situation resembling that of complex love triangles, called frustration, a large set of states that are energetically equivalent emerge. This leads to exotic spin states such as spin liquid and spin ice. Recently, we presented evidence for the existence of a topological glassy state, that we call spin jam, induced by quantum fluctuations. The case in point is SrCr9pGa12-9pO19 (SCGO(p)), a highly frustrated magnet, in which the magnetic Cr ions form a quasi-two-dimensional triangular system of bi-pyramids. This system has been an archetype in search for exotic spin states. Understanding the nature of the state has been a great intellectual challenge. Our new experimental data and theoretical spin jam model provide for the first time a coherent understanding of the phenomenon. Furthermore, the findings strongly support the possible existence of purely topological glassy states. Reference:


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BAI,M.; ROSER, T.


    This paper proposes a new design of spin flipper for RHIC to obtain full spin flip with the spin tune staying at half integer. The traditional technique of using an rf dipole or solenoid as spin flipper to achieve full spin flip in the presence of full Siberian snake requires one to change the snake configuration to move the spin tune away from half integer. This is not practical for an operational high energy polarized proton collider like RHIC where beam lifetime is sensitive to small betatron tune change. The design of the new spin flipper as well as numerical simulations are presented.

  19. Operations on Soft Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Akram


    Full Text Available Mathematical modelling, analysis and computing of problems with uncertainty is one of the hottest areas in interdisciplinary research involving applied mathematics, computational intelligence and decision sciences. It is worth noting that uncertainty arises from various domains has very different nature and cannot be captured within a single mathematical framework. Molodtsov’s soft sets provide us a new way of coping with uncertainty from the viewpoint of parameterization. In this paper, we introduce the concepts of soft graphs, vertex-induced soft graphs, edge-induced soft graphs and describe some operations on soft graphs by presenting several examples to demonstrate these new concepts. Finally, we investigate some fundamental properties of soft graphs.

  20. Decoherence dynamics of a single spin versus spin ensemble

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dobrovitski, V.V.; Feiguin, A.E.; Awschalom, D.D.; Hanson, R.


    We study decoherence of central spins by a spin bath, focusing on the difference between measurement of a single central spin and measurement of a large number of central spins (as found in typical spin-resonance experiments). For a dilute spin bath, the single spin demonstrates Gaussian

  1. The PHOCUS Project: Mesospheric Ice Particle Properties (United States)

    Khaplanov, M.; Hedin, J.; Gumbel, J.


    On the morning of July 21, 2011, the PHOCUS sounding rocket was launched from Esrange, Sweden, intostrong noctilucent clouds (NLC) and polar mesosphere summer echoes (PMSE). The aim of the PHOCUS project (Particles, Hydrogen and Oxygen Chemistry in the Upper Summer mesosphere) is to study mesospheric particles (ice and meteoric smoke) and their interaction with their neutral and charged environment. Interactions of interest comprise the charging and nucleation of particles, the relationship between meteoric smoke and ice, and the influence of these particles on gas-phase chemistry. Here we will describe the optical measurements of the ice particlesand present first results including comparison to the other simultaneous measurements.Ice particle properties were probed with a set of three NLC photometers from Stockholm University. NLC photometry is currently the best technique available for determining altitude ranges of NLC in situ. At the same time, UV photometry allows a study of particle properties like size and shape by analysing the spectral dependence (colour ratio), angle dependence (phase function), and polarisation of the scattering. The set of NLC photometer flown on PHOCUS was a unique photometer package that for the first time investigated all three parameters simultaneously. Two forward-viewing photometers measured at different wavelengths (one in the UV at 220 nm and the other in the visible at 440 nm) and were both equipped with fixed linear polarisers. The payload spin was utilised to scan through the polarisation direction, thus providing us with the Stokes vectors I, Q and U at both wavelengths. The third photometer (also measured in the UV at 220 nm)was mounted sideways, viewing the overhead sky at an angle of 40°from the rocket spin axis. Due to the payload spin, the NLC was observed under varying scattering geometries as the payload approached the cloud layer. Thus, this set of NLC photometers provided a complete optical characterization of the

  2. Spin Chirality and Hall-Like Transport Phenomena of Spin Excitations (United States)

    Han, Jung Hoon; Lee, Hyunyong


    Experimental and theoretical aspects of Hall-type transport of spins in magnetic insulators are reviewed. A general formalism for linear response theory of thermal Hall transport in the spin model is developed, which is general enough to be applicable to both the magnon and the paramagnetic, spin-liquid regimes. The expression of the energy current operator in the spin language is shown to be closely related to the spin chirality operator. Recent experiments on magnon-mediated thermal Hall transport in the two-dimensional kagome, and three-dimensional pyrochlore ferromagnetic insulators are reviewed in light of the multi-band magnon theory of Hall transport, and compared to the more mysterious thermal Hall transport found in the putative quantum spin ice material. As realizations of spin-chirality driven magnon transport in the real space, we review the general theory of emergent gauge fields governing the magnon dynamics in the textured magnet, and discuss its application to the magnon-Skyrmion scattering problem. Topological magnon Hall effect driven by the Skyrmion texture is discussed.

  3. Ice sheet margins and ice shelves (United States)

    Thomas, R. H.


    The effect of climate warming on the size of ice sheet margins in polar regions is considered. Particular attention is given to the possibility of a rapid response to warming on the order of tens to hundreds of years. It is found that the early response of the polar regions to climate warming would be an increase in the area of summer melt on the ice sheets and ice shelves. For sufficiently large warming (5-10C) the delayed effects would include the breakup of the ice shelves by an increase in ice drainage rates, particularly from the ice sheets. On the basis of published data for periodic changes in the thickness and melting rates of the marine ice sheets and fjord glaciers in Greenland and Antarctica, it is shown that the rate of retreat (or advance) of an ice sheet is primarily determined by: bedrock topography; the basal conditions of the grounded ice sheet; and the ice shelf condition downstream of the grounding line. A program of satellite and ground measurements to monitor the state of ice sheet equilibrium is recommended.

  4. Soft matter physics

    CERN Document Server

    Doi, Masao


    Soft matter (polymers, colloids, surfactants and liquid crystals) are an important class of materials in modern technology. They also form the basis of many future technologies, for example in medical and environmental applications. Soft matter shows complex behaviour between fluids and solids, and used to be a synonym of complex materials. Due to the developments of the past two decades, soft condensed matter can now be discussed on the same sound physical basis as solid condensedmatter. The purpose of this book is to provide an overview of soft matter for undergraduate and graduate students

  5. Multigait soft robot. (United States)

    Shepherd, Robert F; Ilievski, Filip; Choi, Wonjae; Morin, Stephen A; Stokes, Adam A; Mazzeo, Aaron D; Chen, Xin; Wang, Michael; Whitesides, George M


    This manuscript describes a unique class of locomotive robot: A soft robot, composed exclusively of soft materials (elastomeric polymers), which is inspired by animals (e.g., squid, starfish, worms) that do not have hard internal skeletons. Soft lithography was used to fabricate a pneumatically actuated robot capable of sophisticated locomotion (e.g., fluid movement of limbs and multiple gaits). This robot is quadrupedal; it uses no sensors, only five actuators, and a simple pneumatic valving system that operates at low pressures (robot to navigate a difficult obstacle. This demonstration illustrates an advantage of soft robotics: They are systems in which simple types of actuation produce complex motion.

  6. Spin wave mediated magnetic vortex core reversal (United States)

    Stoll, Hermann


    The magnetic vortex is the simplest, non-trivial ground state configuration of micron and sub-micron sized soft magnetic thin film platelets and therefore an interesting subject for the study of micro magnetism. Essential progress in the understanding of nonlinear vortex dynamics was achieved when low-field core toggling was discovered by excitation of the gyrotropic eigenmode at sub-GHz frequencies. At frequencies more than an order of magnitude higher vortex state structures possess spin wave eigenmodes arising from the magneto-static interaction. We demonstrated, experimentally and by micromagnetic simulations, that the unidirectional vortex core reversal process also occurs when azimuthal spin wave modes are excited in the multi-GHz frequency range. This finding highlights the importance of spin wave - vortex interaction and boosts vortex core reversal to much higher frequencies, which may offer new routes for GHz spintronics applications.

  7. Ice Lithography for Nanodevices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Anpan; Kuan, A.; Wang, J.

    Water vapor is condensed onto a cold sample, coating it with a thin-film of ice. The ice is sensitive to electron beam lithography exposure. 10 nm ice patterns are transferred into metals by “melt-off”. Non-planar samples are coated with ice, and we pattern on cantilevers, AFM tips, and suspended...

  8. On defining soft spaces by weak soft neighborhood systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taha ÖZTÜRK


    Full Text Available In the present paper, we define the concepts of weak soft neighborhood space, soft w^{s}(?,?'-continuous, soft w^{s}-continuous and soft w^{s^{*}}-continuous on weak soft neighborhood spaces. Finally, we introduce their basic properties and some examples.

  9. A Coloured Spin Trap which works as a pH Sensor

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    A Coloured Spin Trap which works as a pH Sensor. Petre Ionita*. Institute of Physical Chemistry, 202 Spl. ... Synthesis; free radical; spin-trapping; pH sensor; nitrone. 1. Introduction. There is a contemporary interest in ... slowly (with cooling in an ice bath) 5 g of nitric acid (70%), and the mixture left overnight; the next day the ...

  10. Coulombic quantum liquids in spin-1/2 pyrochlores. (United States)

    Savary, Lucile; Balents, Leon


    We develop a nonperturbative gauge mean field theory (gMFT) method to study a general effective spin-1/2 model for magnetism in rare earth pyrochlores. gMFT is based on a novel exact slave-particle formulation, and matches both the perturbative regime near the classical spin ice limit and the semiclassical approximation far from it. We show that the full phase diagram contains two exotic phases: a quantum spin liquid and a Coulombic ferromagnet, both of which support deconfined spinon excitations and emergent quantum electrodynamics. Phenomenological properties of these phases are discussed. © 2012 American Physical Society

  11. Hexagonal ice in pure water and biological NMR samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, Thomas; Gath, Julia; Hunkeler, Andreas; Ernst, Matthias, E-mail: [ETH Zurich, Physical Chemistry (Switzerland); Böckmann, Anja, E-mail: [UMR 5086 CNRS, Université de Lyon 1, Institut de Biologie et Chimie des Protéines (France); Meier, Beat H., E-mail: [ETH Zurich, Physical Chemistry (Switzerland)


    Ice, in addition to “liquid” water and protein, is an important component of protein samples for NMR spectroscopy at subfreezing temperatures but it has rarely been observed spectroscopically in this context. We characterize its spectroscopic behavior in the temperature range from 100 to 273 K, and find that it behaves like pure water ice. The interference of magic-angle spinning (MAS) as well as rf multiple-pulse sequences with Bjerrum-defect motion greatly influences the ice spectra.

  12. Melting ice (United States)

    Benedetto, Elmo


    In this brief frontline, we want to describe the well-known fact that, when freshwater ice melts, the freshwater liquid level does not change. In the Italian Ministerial programs, fluid statics is introduced in the three years of middle school (students of 11–13 years) and during the first two years of high school (14–15 years). The Italian textbooks do not clearly explain why the abovementioned phenomenon occurs. The explanations are qualitative and they may lead to misinterpretation. I have noted that the students are very curious about this phenomenon. They sought a demonstration from books and from the web; and when they do not find it they asked me. Moreover, they have allowed me to observe that there are contradictory statements about the melting of icebergs. Some authors claim that they would not raise the sea-level, others say the opposite. Honestly speaking, I had never thought about this phenomenon and in classroom I tried to give them proof, expressing my opinion about the melting of icebergs.

  13. Possibility Fuzzy Soft Set

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawkat Alkhazaleh


    Full Text Available We introduce the concept of possibility fuzzy soft set and its operation and study some of its properties. We give applications of this theory in solving a decision-making problem. We also introduce a similarity measure of two possibility fuzzy soft sets and discuss their application in a medical diagnosis problem.

  14. learning and soft skills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard


    Learning of soft skills are becoming more and more necessary due to the complexe development of modern companies and their environments. However, there seems to be a 'gap' between intentions and reality regarding need of soft skills and the possiblities to be educated in this subject in particular...

  15. Evaluating six soft approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lene Tolstrup; Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui


    's interactive planning principles to be supported by soft approaches in carrying out the principles in action. These six soft approaches are suitable forsupporting various steps of the strategy development and planning process. These are the SWOT analysis, the Future Workshop, the Scenario methodology...

  16. Evaluating six soft approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lene; Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui


    ’s interactive planning principles to be supported by soft approaches in carrying out the principles in action. These six soft approaches are suitable for supporting various steps of the strategy development and planning process. These are the SWOT analysis, the Future Workshop, the Scenario methodology...

  17. Evaluating Six Soft Approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lene Tolstrup; Valqui Vidal, René Victor


    's interactive planning principles to be supported by soft approaches in carrying out the principles in action. These six soft approaches are suitable forsupporting various steps of the strategy development and planning process. These are the SWOT analysis, the Future Workshop, the Scenario methodology...

  18. Spin-Mechatronics (United States)

    Matsuo, Mamoru; Saitoh, Eiji; Maekawa, Sadamichi


    We investigate the interconversion phenomena between spin and mechanical angular momentum in moving objects. In particular, the recent results on spin manipulation and spin-current generation by mechanical motion are examined. In accelerating systems, spin-dependent gauge fields emerge, which enable the conversion from mechanical angular momentum into spins. Such a spin-mechanical effect is predicted by quantum theory in a non-inertial frame. Experiments which confirm the effect, i.e., the resonance frequency shift in nuclear magnetic resonance, the stray field measurement of rotating metals, and electric voltage generation in liquid metals, are discussed.

  19. Soft Pion Processes (United States)

    Nambu, Y.


    My talk is concerned with a review, not necessarily of the latest theoretical developments, but rather of an old idea which has contributed to recent theoretical activities. By soft pion processes I mean processes in which low energy pions are emitted or absorbed or scattered, just as we use the word soft photon in a similar context. Speaking more quantitatively, we may call a pion soft if its energy is small compared to a natural scale in the reaction. This scale is determined by the particular dynamics of pion interaction, and one may roughly say that a pion is soft if its energy is small compared to the energies of the other individual particles that participate in the reaction. It is important to note at this point that pion is by far the lightest member of all the hadrons, and much of the success of the soft pion formulas depends on this fact.

  20. Soft buckling actuators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Dian; Whitesides, George M.


    A soft actuator is described, including: a rotation center having a center of mass; a plurality of bucklable, elastic structural components each comprising a wall defining an axis along its longest dimension, the wall connected to the rotation center in a way that the axis is offset from the center of mass in a predetermined direction; and a plurality of cells each disposed between two adjacent bucklable, elastic structural components and configured for connection with a fluid inflation or deflation source; wherein upon the deflation of the cell, the bucklable, elastic structural components are configured to buckle in the predetermined direction. A soft actuating device including a plurality of the soft actuators and methods of actuation using the soft actuator or soft actuating device disclosed herein are also described.

  1. Evaluating six soft approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lene Sørensen


    Full Text Available The paper introduces and evaluates six soft approaches used in strategy development and planning. We take a planner’s perspective on discussing the concepts of strategy development and planning. This means that we see strategy development and planning as learning processes based on Ackoff’s interactive planning principles to be supported by soft approaches in carrying out the principles in action. These six soft approaches are suitable for supporting various steps of the strategy development and planning process. These are the SWOT analysis, the Future Workshop, the Scenario methodology, Strategic Option Development and Analysis, Strategic Choice Approach and Soft Systems Methodology. Evaluations of each methodology are carried out using a conceptual framework in which the organisation, the result, the process and the technology of the specific approach are taken into consideration. Using such a conceptual framework for evaluations of soft approaches increases the understanding of them, their transparency, and their usability in practice.

  2. Glassy Spin Dynamics in Geometrically Frustrated Buckled Colloidal Crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Zhou


    Full Text Available Geometrical frustration arises when the lattice geometry prevents local interaction energies from minimizing simultaneously. Whether and how geometrically frustrated spins or charges in clean crystals exhibit glassy dynamics remain elusive due to the lack of measurements on microscopic dynamics. Here, we employ buckled monolayer colloidal crystals to mimic frustrated antiferromagnetic Ising spins on triangular lattices and measure single-spin dynamics using video microscopy. Both attractive and repulsive colloidal crystals buckled into zigzag stripes with glassy dynamics at low effective temperatures in experiment and simulation. The simple local spin configurations enable uncovering correlations among structure, dynamics, and soft vibrational modes. Machine learning analysis further reveals facilitated dynamics to be an important mechanism of structural relaxation. Moreover, our simulation reveals a similar structure and dynamics in lattice Coulomb liquids. Hence, spin-lattice coupling and long-range interaction can similarly lift degeneracy, induce a rugged landscape, and, thus, produce glassy dynamics.

  3. Fuzzy soft connected sets in fuzzy soft topological spaces II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kandil


    Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce some different types of fuzzy soft connected components related to the different types of fuzzy soft connectedness and based on an equivalence relation defined on the set of fuzzy soft points of X. We have investigated some very interesting properties for fuzzy soft connected components. We show that the fuzzy soft C5-connected component may be not exists and if it exists, it may not be fuzzy soft closed set. Also, we introduced some very interesting properties for fuzzy soft connected components in discrete fuzzy soft topological spaces which is a departure from the general topology.

  4. Ice rafts not sails: Floating the rocks at Racetrack Playa (United States)

    Lorenz, Ralph D.; Jackson, Brian K.; Barnes, Jason W.; Spitale, Joe; Keller, John M.


    We suggest that the existence of many of the rock-carved trails at Racetrack Playa in Death Valley National Park is predominantly due to the effect of arbitrarily weak winds on rocks that are floated off the soft bed by small rafts of ice, as also occurs in arctic tidal beaches to form boulder barricades. These ice cakes need not have a particularly large surface area if the ice is adequately thick—the ice cakes allow the rocks to move by buoyantly reducing the reaction and friction forces at the bed, not by increasing the wind drag. The parameter space of ice thickness and extent versus rock size for flotation is calculated and found to be reasonable. We demonstrate the effect with a simple experiment.

  5. Ice for air cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voss, J.


    The first ice plant on an industrial scale came into service at Harmony goldmine in November 1985. This surface installation has a refrigeration output of about 5.2 MW, corresponding to 1000 t/d of ice. The ice melting tank is at a depth of 1088m. The planning and construction of this first industrial-scale ice plant were based on the result obtained from a research project which gave particular emphasis to investigating the problems related to the transport of ice in pipelines and to the ice-to-water heat transfer in ice-melting tanks. The particular advantage of ice as a coolant is that the mass circulation needed with ice is five times less than with water. It is claimed that, in the circumstances which are specific to Harmony mine, ice cooling is economically viable at a depth of only 1,100 m or thereabouts; however, calculations for very powerful cooling systems have shown that ice has a cost advantage over water + Pelton turbines only at depths of 3,000 m or more. Cost comparisons apart, this ice plant is useful for the testing of technology and safety in the production, transport and melting of the ice and prepares the way for a powerful ice cooling system which will work at great depths. 6 references.

  6. Top Sounder Ice Penetration (United States)

    Porter, D. L.; Goemmer, S. A.; Sweeney, J. H.


    Ice draft measurements are made as part of normal operations for all US Navy submarines operating in the Arctic Ocean. The submarine ice draft data are unique in providing high resolution measurements over long transects of the ice covered ocean. The data has been used to document a multidecadal drop in ice thickness, and for validating and improving numerical sea-ice models. A submarine upward-looking sonar draft measurement is made by a sonar transducer mounted in the sail or deck of the submarine. An acoustic beam is transmitted upward through the water column, reflecting off the bottom of the sea ice and returning to the transducer. Ice thickness is estimated as the difference between the ship's depth (measured by pressure) and the acoustic range to the bottom of the ice estimated from the travel time of the sonar pulse. Digital recording systems can provide the return off the water-ice interface as well as returns that have penetrated the ice. Typically, only the first return from the ice hull is analyzed. Information regarding ice flow interstitial layers provides ice age information and may possibly be derived with the entire return signal. The approach being investigated is similar to that used in measuring bottom sediment layers and will involve measuring the echo level from the first interface, solving the reflection loss from that transmission, and employing reflection loss versus impedance mismatch to ascertain ice structure information.

  7. Higher spin black holes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gutperle, Michael; Kraus, Per


    .... We find solutions that generalize the BTZ black hole and carry spin-3 charge. The black hole entropy formula yields a result for the asymptotic growth of the partition function at finite spin-3 chemical potential...

  8. Summary: symmetries and spin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haxton, W.C. (Institute for Nuclear Theory, Department of Physcis, FM-15, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (US))


    I discuss a number of the themes of the Symmetries and Spin session of the 8th International Symposium on High Energy Spin Physics: parity non-conservation, CP/T nonconservation, and tests of charge symmetry and charge independence.

  9. Dynamic nuclear spin polarization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuhrmann, H.B. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany)


    Polarized neutron scattering from dynamic polarized targets has been applied to various hydrogenous materials at different laboratories. In situ structures of macromolecular components have been determined by nuclear spin contrast variation with an unprecedented precision. The experiments of selective nuclear spin depolarisation not only opened a new dimension to structural studies but also revealed phenomena related to propagation of nuclear spin polarization and the interplay of nuclear polarisation with the electronic spin system. The observation of electron spin label dependent nuclear spin polarisation domains by NMR and polarized neutron scattering opens a way to generalize the method of nuclear spin contrast variation and most importantly it avoids precontrasting by specific deuteration. It also likely might tell us more about the mechanism of dynamic nuclear spin polarisation. (author) 4 figs., refs.

  10. Quantum Spin Liquids


    Savary, Lucile; Balents, Leon


    Quantum spin liquids may be considered "quantum disordered" ground states of spin systems, in which zero point fluctuations are so strong that they prevent conventional magnetic long range order. More interestingly, quantum spin liquids are prototypical examples of ground states with massive many-body entanglement, of a degree sufficient to render these states distinct phases of matter. Their highly entangled nature imbues quantum spin liquids with unique physical aspects, such as non-local e...

  11. Spinning eggs and ballerinas (United States)

    Cross, Rod


    Measurements are presented on the rise of a spinning egg. It was found that the spin, the angular momentum and the kinetic energy all decrease as the egg rises, unlike the case of a ballerina who can increase her spin and kinetic energy by reducing her moment of inertia. The observed effects can be explained, in part, in terms of rolling friction between the egg and the surface on which it spins.

  12. Bipolar soft connected, bipolar soft disconnected and bipolar soft compact spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Shabir


    Full Text Available Bipolar soft topological spaces are mathematical expressions to estimate interpretation of data frameworks. Bipolar soft theory considers the core features of data granules. Bipolarity is important to distinguish between positive information which is guaranteed to be possible and negative information which is forbidden or surely false. Connectedness and compactness are the most important fundamental topological properties. These properties highlight the main features of topological spaces and distinguish one topology from another. Taking this into account, we explore the bipolar soft connectedness, bipolar soft disconnectedness and bipolar soft compactness properties for bipolar soft topological spaces. Moreover, we introduce the notion of bipolar soft disjoint sets, bipolar soft separation, and bipolar soft hereditary property and study on bipolar soft connected and disconnected spaces. By giving the detailed picture of bipolar soft connected and disconnected spaces we investigate bipolar soft compact spaces and derive some results related to this concept.

  13. Cloud ice caused by atmospheric mineral dust - Part 1: Parameterization of ice nuclei concentration in the NMME-DREAM model (United States)

    Nickovic, Slobodan; Cvetkovic, Bojan; Madonna, Fabio; Rosoldi, Marco; Pejanovic, Goran; Petkovic, Slavko; Nikolic, Jugoslav


    Dust aerosols are very efficient ice nuclei, important for heterogeneous cloud glaciation even in regions distant from desert sources. A new generation of ice nucleation parameterizations, including dust as an ice nucleation agent, opens the way towards a more accurate treatment of cold cloud formation in atmospheric models. Using such parameterizations, we have developed a regional dust-atmospheric modelling system capable of predicting, in real time, dust-induced ice nucleation. We executed the model with the added ice nucleation component over the Mediterranean region, exposed to moderate Saharan dust transport, over two periods lasting 15 and 9 days, respectively. The model results were compared against satellite and ground-based cloud-ice-related measurements, provided by SEVIRI (Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager) and the CNR-IMAA Atmospheric Observatory (CIAO) in Potenza, southern Italy. The predicted ice nuclei concentration showed a reasonable level of agreement when compared against the observed spatial and temporal patterns of cloud ice water. The developed methodology permits the use of ice nuclei as input into the cloud microphysics schemes of atmospheric models, assuming that this approach could improve the predictions of cloud formation and associated precipitation.

  14. Rotting softly and stealthily. (United States)

    Toth, Ian K; Birch, Paul R J


    The soft rot erwiniae, which are plant pathogens on potato and other crops world-wide, synthesize and secrete large quantities of plant cell wall degrading enzymes that are responsible for the soft rot phenotype, earning them the epithet 'brute force' pathogens. They have been distinguished from classic 'stealth' pathogens, such as Pseudomonas syringae, which possesses an extensive battery of Type III secreted effector proteins and phytotoxins to manipulate and suppress host defences. However, recent studies, including whole-genome sequencing, are revealing many components of stealth pathogenesis within the soft rot erwiniae (SRE), suggesting that 'stealth' and 'brute force' should not be regarded as mutually exclusive modes of pathogenesis.

  15. Spin-Caloritronic Batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Xiao-Qin; Zhu, Zhen-Gang; Su, Gang


    The thermoelectric performance of a topological energy converter is analyzed. The H-shaped device is based on a combination of transverse topological effects involving the spin: the inverse spin Hall effect and the spin Nernst effect. The device can convert a temperature drop in one arm into an e...

  16. Frozen spin targets

    CERN Document Server

    Parsons, A S L


    Describes six projects which use the frozen-spin principle: Helium-3 R.M.S. and longitudinally polarized frozen spin targets at Rutherford Laboratory, and the frozen spin targets at KEK, Saclay and the one used by the CERN-Helsinki collaboration. (7 refs).

  17. Concepts in spin electronics

    CERN Document Server


    A new branch of physics and nanotechnology called spin electronics has emerged, which aims at simultaneously exploiting the charge and spin of electrons in the same device. The aim of this book is to present new directions in the development of spin electronics in both the basic physics and the future electronics.

  18. Spinning Eggs and Ballerinas (United States)

    Cross, Rod


    Measurements are presented on the rise of a spinning egg. It was found that the spin, the angular momentum and the kinetic energy all decrease as the egg rises, unlike the case of a ballerina who can increase her spin and kinetic energy by reducing her moment of inertia. The observed effects can be explained, in part, in terms of rolling friction…

  19. Antarctic Ice Velocity Data (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This compilation of recent ice velocity data of the Antarctic ice sheet is intended for use by the polar scientific community. The data are presented in tabular form...


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Søren; Tonboe, Rasmus; Heygster, Georg


    Sensitivity studies show that the radiometer ice concentration estimate can be biased by +10% by anomalous atmospheric emissivity and -20% by anomalous ice surface emissivity. The aim of the sea ice activities in EU 5th FP project IOMASA is to improve sea ice concentration estimates at higher...... spatial resolution. The project is in the process of facilitating an ice concentration observing system through validation and a better understanding of the microwave radiative transfer of the sea ice and overlying snow layers. By use of a novel modelling approach, it is possible to better detect...... and determine the circumstances that may lead to anomalous sea ice concentration retrieval as well as to assess and possibly minimize the sensitivities of the retrieval system. Through an active partnership with the SAF on Ocean and Sea Ice, a prototype system will be implemented as an experimental product...

  1. Current Icing Product (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Current Icing Product (CIP) is an automatically-generated index suitable for depicting areas of potentially hazardous airframe icing. The CIP algorithm combines...

  2. ATLAS soft QCD results

    CERN Document Server

    Sykora, Tomas; The ATLAS collaboration


    Recent results of soft QCD measurements performed by the ATLAS collaboration are reported. The measurements include total, elastic and inelastic cross sections, inclusive spectra, underlying event and particle correlations in p-p and p-Pb collisions.

  3. Crystalline Kitaev spin liquids (United States)

    Yamada, Masahiko G.; Dwivedi, Vatsal; Hermanns, Maria


    Frustrated magnetic systems exhibit many fascinating phases. Prime among them are quantum spin liquids, where the magnetic moments do not order even at zero temperature. A subclass of quantum spin liquids called Kitaev spin liquids are particularly interesting, because they are exactly solvable, can be realized in certain materials, and show a large variety of gapless and gapped phases. Here we show that nonsymmorphic symmetries can enrich spin liquid phases, such that the low-energy spinon degrees of freedom form three-dimensional Dirac cones or nodal chains. In addition, we suggest a realization of such Kitaev spin liquids in metal-organic frameworks.

  4. Spin physics in semiconductors

    CERN Document Server


    This book offers an extensive introduction to the extremely rich and intriguing field of spin-related phenomena in semiconductors. In this second edition, all chapters have been updated to include the latest experimental and theoretical research. Furthermore, it covers the entire field: bulk semiconductors, two-dimensional semiconductor structures, quantum dots, optical and electric effects, spin-related effects, electron-nuclei spin interactions, Spin Hall effect, spin torques, etc. Thanks to its self-contained style, the book is ideally suited for graduate students and researchers new to the field.

  5. Ice electrode electrolytic cell (United States)

    Glenn, D.F.; Suciu, D.F.; Harris, T.L.; Ingram, J.C.


    This invention relates to a method and apparatus for removing heavy metals from waste water, soils, or process streams by electrolytic cell means. The method includes cooling a cell cathode to form an ice layer over the cathode and then applying an electric current to deposit a layer of the heavy metal over the ice. The metal is then easily removed after melting the ice. In a second embodiment, the same ice-covered electrode can be employed to form powdered metals.

  6. Soft Soil Mobility (United States)


    any other provision of law , no person shall be subject to any penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a...TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Test Operations Procedure (TOP) 02-2-619A Soft Soil Mobility 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...TOP supersedes TOP 02-2-619, Soft Soil Vehicle Mobility, dated 21 May 1970. Marginal notations are not used in this revision to identify changes

  7. Dynamics of Soft Matter

    CERN Document Server

    García Sakai, Victoria; Chen, Sow-Hsin


    Dynamics of Soft Matter: Neutron Applications provides an overview of neutron scattering techniques that measure temporal and spatial correlations simultaneously, at the microscopic and/or mesoscopic scale. These techniques offer answers to new questions arising at the interface of physics, chemistry, and biology. Knowledge of the dynamics at these levels is crucial to understanding the soft matter field, which includes colloids, polymers, membranes, biological macromolecules, foams, emulsions towards biological & biomimetic systems, and phenomena involving wetting, friction, adhesion, or micr

  8. Dynamics of the global meridional ice flow of Europa's icy shell (United States)

    Ashkenazy, Yosef; Sayag, Roiy; Tziperman, Eli


    Europa is one of the most probable places in the solar system to find extra-terrestrial life1,2, motivating the study of its deep ( 100 km) ocean3-6 and thick icy shell3,7-11. The chaotic terrain patterns on Europa's surface12-15 have been associated with vertical convective motions within the ice8,10. Horizontal gradients of ice thickness16,17 are expected due to the large equator-to-pole gradient of surface temperature and can drive a global horizontal ice flow, yet such a flow and its observable implications have not been studied. We present a global ice flow model for Europa composed of warm, soft ice flowing beneath a cold brittle rigid ice crust3. The model is coupled to an underlying (diffusive) ocean and includes the effect of tidal heating and convection within the ice. We show that Europa's ice can flow meridionally due to pressure gradients associated with equator-to-pole ice thickness differences, which can be up to a few km and can be reduced both by ice flow and due to ocean heat transport. The ice thickness and meridional flow direction depend on whether the ice convects or not; multiple (convecting and non-convecting) equilibria are found. Measurements of the ice thickness and surface temperature from future Europa missions18,19 can be used with our model to deduce whether Europa's icy shell convects and to constrain the effectiveness of ocean heat transport.

  9. Teaching Soft Skills Employers Need (United States)

    Ellis, Maureen; Kisling, Eric; Hackworth, Robbie G.


    This study identifies the soft skills community colleges teach in an office technology course and determines whether the skills taught are congruent with the soft skills employers require in today's entry-level office work. A qualitative content analysis of a community college office technology soft skills course was performed using 23 soft skills…

  10. On operations of soft sets

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sezgin, Aslıhan; Atagün, Akın Osman


    ... called soft set theory is free from the difficulties affecting existing methods. In soft set theory, the problem of setting the membership function does not arise, which makes the theory easily applied to many different fields. Works on soft set theory has been progressing rapidly since Maji et al.  [8] introduced several operations of soft set...

  11. Reslts on fuzzy soft functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bekir TANAY


    Full Text Available The concept of fuzzy soft function is mentioned by Aygünoğlu et al and Kharal et al in their papers (named Introduction to Fuzzy Soft Groups (2009 and Mappings on Fuzzy Soft Classes (2009, respectively. In this paper, some results on the fuzzy soft image and preimage of set theoretic operations of fuzzy soft sets under a fuzzy soft function are studied. Also the notion of fuzzy soft equality is introduced and some related results are given.

  12. Direct visualization of vortex ice in a nanostructured superconductor (United States)

    Ge, Jun-Yi; Gladilin, Vladimir N.; Tempere, Jacques; Zharinov, Vyacheslav S.; Van de Vondel, Joris; Devreese, Jozef T.; Moshchalkov, Victor V.


    Artificial ice systems have unique physical properties that are promising for potential applications. One of the most challenging issues in this field is to find novel ice systems that allow precise control over the geometries and many-body interactions. Superconducting vortex matter has been proposed as a very suitable candidate to study artificial ice, mainly due to the availability of tunable vortex-vortex interactions and the possibility to fabricate a variety of nanoscale pinning potential geometries. So far, a detailed imaging of the local configurations in a vortex-based artificial ice system is still lacking. Here we present a direct visualization of the vortex-ice state in a nanostructured superconductor. By using scanning Hall probe microscopy, a large area with the vortex-ice ground-state configuration has been detected, which confirms the recent theoretical predictions for this ice system. Besides the defects analogous to artificial spin-ice systems, other types of defects have been visualized and identified. We also demonstrate the possibility to realize different types of defects by varying the magnetic field.

  13. Fuzzy parametrized fuzzy soft topology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serkan Atmaca


    Full Text Available Recently, researches have contributed a lot towards fuzzification of Soft Set Theory. In this paper, we introduce the topological structure of fuzzyfying soft sets called fuzzy parametrized soft sets. We define the notion of quasi-coincidence for fuzzy parametrized soft sets and investigated basic properties of it. We study the closure, interior, base, continuity and compactness in the content of fuzzy parametrized soft topological spaces.

  14. Ice sheet in peril

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidberg, Christine Schøtt


    Earth's large ice sheets in Greenland and Antarctica are major contributors to sea level change. At present, the Greenland Ice Sheet (see the photo) is losing mass in response to climate warming in Greenland (1), but the present changes also include a long-term response to past climate transitions....... On page 590 of this issue, MacGregor et al. (2) estimate the mean rates of snow accumulation and ice flow of the Greenland Ice Sheet over the past 9000 years based on an ice sheet-wide dated radar stratigraphy (3). They show that the present changes of the Greenland Ice Sheet are partly an ongoing...... response to the last deglaciation. The results help to clarify how sensitive the ice sheet is to climate changes....

  15. Ice slurry applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kauffeld, M. [Karlsruhe University of Applied Sciences, Moltkestr. 30, 76133 Karlsruhe (Germany); Wang, M.J.; Goldstein, V. [Sunwell Technologies Inc., 180 Caster Avenue, Woodbridge, L4L 5Y (Canada); Kasza, K.E. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)


    The role of secondary refrigerants is expected to grow as the focus on the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions increases. The effectiveness of secondary refrigerants can be improved when phase changing media are introduced in place of single-phase media. Operating at temperatures below the freezing point of water, ice slurry facilitates several efficiency improvements such as reductions in pumping energy consumption as well as lowering the required temperature difference in heat exchangers due to the beneficial thermo-physical properties of ice slurry. Research has shown that ice slurry can be engineered to have ideal ice particle characteristics so that it can be easily stored in tanks without agglomeration and then be extractable for pumping at very high ice fraction without plugging. In addition ice slurry can be used in many direct contact food and medical protective cooling applications. This paper provides an overview of the latest developments in ice slurry technology. (author)

  16. Icing Operations - De-Icing Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaromír Procházka


    Full Text Available The accumulation of ice, frost and snow on aircraft surfaces can drastically reduce the climb and maneuvering capabilities of an aircraft. The removal of such contamination prior to take off MUST be strictly adhered to in accordance with regulations and standards. The policy with respect to aircraft icing contamination should be “MAKE IT CLEAN AND KEEP IT CLEAN”. All personnel associated with the dispatch and/or operation of aircraft share the responsibility for ensuring that no aircraft is dispatched unless it is clear of ice, snow or frost.

  17. Autonomous Aerial Ice Observation for Ice Defense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joakim Haugen


    Full Text Available One of the tasks in ice defense is to gather information about the surrounding ice environment using various sensor platforms. In this manuscript we identify two monitoring tasks known in literature, namely dynamic coverage and target tracking, and motivate how these tasks are relevant in ice defense using RPAS. An optimization-based path planning concept is outlined for solving these tasks. A path planner for the target tracking problem is elaborated in more detail and a hybrid experiment, which consists of both a real fixed-wing aircraft and simulated objects, is included to show the applicability of the proposed framework.

  18. Empirical magnetic structure solution of frustrated spin systems. (United States)

    Paddison, Joseph A M; Goodwin, Andrew L


    Frustrated magnetism plays a central role in the phenomenology of exotic quantum states. However, since the magnetic structures of frustrated systems are often aperiodic, there has been the problem that they cannot be determined by using traditional crystallographic techniques. Here we show that the magnetic component of powder neutron scattering data is actually sufficiently information-rich to drive magnetic structure solution for frustrated systems, including spin ices, spin liquids, and molecular magnets. Our methodology employs ab initio reverse Monte Carlo refinement, making informed use of an additional constraint that minimizes variance in local spin environments. The atomistic spin configurations obtained in this way not only reflect a magnetic structure "solution" but also reproduce the full three-dimensional magnetic scattering pattern.

  19. Higher Spin Matrix Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Valenzuela


    Full Text Available We propose a hybrid class of theories for higher spin gravity and matrix models, i.e., which handle simultaneously higher spin gravity fields and matrix models. The construction is similar to Vasiliev’s higher spin gravity, but part of the equations of motion are provided by the action principle of a matrix model. In particular, we construct a higher spin (gravity matrix model related to type IIB matrix models/string theory that have a well defined classical limit, and which is compatible with higher spin gravity in A d S space. As it has been suggested that higher spin gravity should be related to string theory in a high energy (tensionless regime, and, therefore to M-Theory, we expect that our construction will be useful to explore concrete connections.

  20. Spin caloritronics in graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Angsula; Frota, H. O. [Department of Physics, Federal University of Amazonas, Av. Rodrigo Octavio 3000-Japiim, 69077-000 Manaus, AM (Brazil)


    Spin caloritronics, the combination of spintronics with thermoelectrics, exploiting both the intrinsic spin of the electron and its associated magnetic moment in addition to its fundamental electronic charge and temperature, is an emerging technology mainly in the development of low-power-consumption technology. In this work, we study the thermoelectric properties of a Rashba dot attached to two single layer/bilayer graphene sheets as leads. The temperature difference on the two graphene leads induces a spin current, which depends on the temperature and chemical potential. We demonstrate that the Rashba dot behaves as a spin filter for selected values of the chemical potential and is able to filter electrons by their spin orientation. The spin thermopower has also been studied where the effects of the chemical potential, temperature, and also the Rashba term have been observed.

  1. Higher spin gauge theories

    CERN Document Server

    Henneaux, Marc; Vasiliev, Mikhail A


    Symmetries play a fundamental role in physics. Non-Abelian gauge symmetries are the symmetries behind theories for massless spin-1 particles, while the reparametrization symmetry is behind Einstein's gravity theory for massless spin-2 particles. In supersymmetric theories these particles can be connected also to massless fermionic particles. Does Nature stop at spin-2 or can there also be massless higher spin theories. In the past strong indications have been given that such theories do not exist. However, in recent times ways to evade those constraints have been found and higher spin gauge theories have been constructed. With the advent of the AdS/CFT duality correspondence even stronger indications have been given that higher spin gauge theories play an important role in fundamental physics. All these issues were discussed at an international workshop in Singapore in November 2015 where the leading scientists in the field participated. This volume presents an up-to-date, detailed overview of the theories i...

  2. On Soft Biometrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nixon, Mark; Correia, Paulo; Nasrollahi, Kamal


    Innovation has formed much of the rich history in biometrics. The field of soft biometrics was originally aimed to augment the recognition process by fusion of metrics that were sufficient to discriminate populations rather than individuals. This was later refined to use measures that could be used...... to discriminate individuals, especially using descriptions that can be perceived using human vision and in surveillance imagery. A further branch of this new field concerns approaches to estimate soft biometrics, either using conventional biometrics approaches or just from images alone. These three strands...... combine to form what is now known as soft biometrics. We survey the achievements that have been made in recognition by and in estimation of these parameters, describing how these approaches can be used and where they might lead to. The approaches lead to a new type of recognition, and one similar...

  3. Soft, Embodied, Situated & Connected

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomico, Oscar; Wilde, Danielle


    Soft wearables include clothing and textile-based accessories that incorporate smart textiles and soft electronic interfaces to enable responsive and interactive experiences. When designed well, soft wearables leverage the cultural, sociological and material qualities of textiles, fashion and dress......; diverse capabilities and meanings of the body; as well as the qualities and capabilities afforded by smart and programmable elements. Textiles behave in particular ways. They are part of culture. No matter a person’s views on fashion, dress, their own or others’ body, they will have an intimate...... relationship with textiles, as they are one of the few products worn much of the time, often in direct contact with the body. When designing wearables a designer must consider a range of requirements that do not typically demand focus when designing products that are not worn, including: sensitivity...

  4. Land Ice: Greenland & Antarctic ice mass anomaly (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Data from NASA's Grace satellites show that the land ice sheets in both Antarctica and Greenland are losing mass. The continent of Antarctica (left chart) has been...

  5. Silicon spin communication


    Dery, Hanan; Song, Yang; Li, Pengke; Zutic, Igor


    Recent experimental breakthroughs have demonstrated that the electron spin in silicon can be reliably injected and detected as well as transferred over distances exceeding 1 mm. We propose an on-chip communication paradigm which is based on modulating spin polarization of a constant current in silicon wires. We provide figures of merit for this scheme by studying spin relaxation and drift-diffusion models in silicon.

  6. Spin coating apparatus (United States)

    Torczynski, John R.


    A spin coating apparatus requires less cleanroom air flow than prior spin coating apparatus to minimize cleanroom contamination. A shaped exhaust duct from the spin coater maintains process quality while requiring reduced cleanroom air flow. The exhaust duct can decrease in cross section as it extends from the wafer, minimizing eddy formation. The exhaust duct can conform to entrainment streamlines to minimize eddy formation and reduce interprocess contamination at minimal cleanroom air flow rates.

  7. How to use PRICE treatment for soft tissue injuries. (United States)

    Norton, Cormac


    Rationale and key points This article assists nurses to use the acronym PRICE (protection, rest, ice, compression and elevation) to guide the treatment of patients with uncomplicated soft tissue injuries to their upper or lower limbs. » Treatment of soft tissue injuries to limbs is important to reduce complications following injury, alleviate pain and ensure normal limb function is restored promptly. » Nurses should have an understanding of the rationale and evidence base supporting PRICE treatment of soft tissue injuries. » Providing accurate information to patients and carers about the management of soft tissue injuries and anticipated recovery time is an important aspect of treatment. » Further research is required to develop best practice in the treatment of soft tissue injuries. Reflective activity 'How to' articles can help you update your practice and ensure it remains evidence based. Apply this article to your practice. Reflect on and write a short account of: 1. How this article might change your practice when managing patients with soft tissue injuries to upper or lower limbs. 2. Positive elements of your current practice and those that could be enhanced. Subscribers can upload their reflective accounts at:

  8. Local Noncollinear Spin Analysis. (United States)

    Abate, Bayileyegn A; Joshi, Rajendra P; Peralta, Juan E


    In this work, we generalize the local spin analysis of Clark and Davidson [J. Chem. Phys. 2001 115 (16), 7382] for the partitioning of the expectation value of the molecular spin square operator, ⟨Ŝ 2 ⟩, into atomic contributions, ⟨Ŝ A ·Ŝ B ⟩, to the noncollinear spin case in the framework of density functional theory (DFT). We derive the working equations, and we show applications to the analysis of the noncollinear spin solutions of typical spin-frustrated systems and to the calculation of magnetic exchange couplings. In the former case, we employ the triangular H 3 He 3 test molecule and a Mn 3 complex to show that the local spin analysis provides additional information that complements the standard one-particle spin population analysis. For the calculation of magnetic exchange couplings, J AB , we employ the local spin partitioning to extract ⟨Ŝ A ·Ŝ B ⟩ as a function of the interatomic spin orientation given by the angle θ. This, combined with the dependence of the electronic energy with θ, provides a methodology to extract J AB from DFT calculations that, in contrast to conventional energy differences based methods, does not require the use of ad hoc S A and S B values.

  9. Spin Waves in Terbium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J.; Houmann, Jens Christian Gylden; Bjerrum Møller, Hans


    The energies of spin waves propagating in the c direction of Tb have been studied by inelastic neutron scattering, as a function of a magnetic field applied along the easy and hard directions in the basal plane, and as a function of temperature. From a general spin Hamiltonian, consistent...... with the symmetry, we deduce the dispersion relation for the spin waves in a basal-plane ferromagnet. This phenomenological spin-wave theory accounts for the observed behavior of the magnon energies in Tb. The two q⃗-dependent Bogoliubov components of the magnon energies are derived from the experimental results...

  10. PREFACE: Spin Electronics (United States)

    Dieny, B.; Sousa, R.; Prejbeanu, L.


    Conventional electronics has in the past ignored the spin on the electron, however things began to change in 1988 with the discovery of giant magnetoresistance in metallic thin film stacks which led to the development of a new research area, so called spin-electronics. In the last 10 years, spin-electronics has achieved a number of breakthroughs from the point of view of both basic science and application. Materials research has led to several major discoveries: very large tunnel magnetoresistance effects in tunnel junctions with crystalline barriers due to a new spin-filtering mechanism associated with the spin-dependent symmetry of the electron wave functions new magnetic tunnelling barriers leading to spin-dependent tunnelling barrier heights and acting as spin-filters magnetic semiconductors with increasingly high ordering temperature. New phenomena have been predicted and observed: the possibility of acting on the magnetization of a magnetic nanostructure with a spin-polarized current. This effect, due to a transfer of angular momentum between the spin polarized conduction electrons and the local magnetization, can be viewed as the reciprocal of giant or tunnel magnetoresistance. It can be used to switch the magnetization of a magnetic nanostructure or to generate steady magnetic excitations in the system. the possibility of generating and manipulating spin current without charge current by creating non-equilibrium local accumulation of spin up or spin down electrons. The range of applications of spin electronics materials and phenomena is expanding: the first devices based on giant magnetoresistance were the magnetoresistive read-heads for computer disk drives. These heads, introduced in 1998 with current-in plane spin-valves, have evolved towards low resistance tunnel magnetoresistice heads in 2005. Besides magnetic recording technology, these very sensitive magnetoresistive sensors are finding applications in other areas, in particular in biology. magnetic

  11. Dynamical corrections to the anomalous holographic soft-wall model: the pomeron and the odderon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capossoli, Eduardo Folco [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Colegio Pedro II, Departamento de Fisica, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Li, Danning [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Science (ITP, CAS), Beijing (China); Boschi-Filho, Henrique [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    In this work we use the holographic soft-wall AdS/QCD model with anomalous dimension contributions coming from two different QCD beta functions to calculate the masses of higher spin glueball states for both even and odd spins and their Regge trajectories, related to the pomeron and the odderon, respectively. We further investigate this model taking into account dynamical corrections due to a dilaton potential consistent with the Einstein equations in five dimensions. The results found in this work for the Regge trajectories within the anomalous soft-wall model with dynamical corrections are consistent with those present in the literature. (orig.)

  12. Mechanics of soft materials

    CERN Document Server

    Volokh, Konstantin


    This book provides a concise introduction to soft matter modelling. It offers an up-to-date review of continuum mechanical description of soft and biological materials from the basics to the latest scientific materials. It includes multi-physics descriptions, such as chemo-, thermo-, electro- mechanical coupling. It derives from a graduate course at Technion that has been established in recent years. It presents original explanations for some standard materials and features elaborated examples on all topics throughout the text. PowerPoint lecture notes can be provided to instructors. .

  13. Mappings on Neutrosophic Soft Classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawkat Alkhazaleh


    Full Text Available In 1995 Smarandache introduced the concept of neutrosophic set which is a mathematical tool for handling problems involving imprecise, indeterminacy and inconsistent data. In 2013 Maji introduced the concept of neutrosophic soft set theory as a general mathematical tool for dealing with uncertainty. In this paper we define the notion of a mapping on classes where the neutrosophic soft classes are collections of neutrosophic soft set. We also define and study the properties of neutrosophic soft images and neutrosophic soft inverse images of neutrosophic soft sets.

  14. Soft n-Ary Subgroups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.R. Prince Williams


    Full Text Available Soft set theory plays a vital role in solving many complicated problems with inherited uncertainty. An n-ary algebraic systems is a generalization of algebraic structures and it is the most natural way for the further development, deeper understanding of their properties. In this paper, we apply soft set theory to an n-ary algebraic systems and introduce the notions of soft n-ary groups and soft n-ary subgroups. Further, some operations on soft sets are extended to the former. Finally, we provide the characterization of soft n-ary subgroups over an n-ary group (G,f and study their related properties.

  15. Percolation Model for Proton Immobility in Ice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikrajuddin Abdullah


    Full Text Available A simple Ising model and a statistical theory of gel formation in a polymer matrix were combined to explain the effect of temperature on the mobility of protons in ice. Cowin et al observed that protons in ice bulk were immobile at temperatures below 190 K, and suddenly become mobile at temperatures above 190 K [Nature 398, 405 (1999]. We proposed here that the transport of protons is controlled by a percolation mechanism. The proton transport is facilitated by the occurrence of easily reoriented water molecules in the ice bulk. The fraction of this molecule depends on temperature and was calculated using a simple Ising model. The formation of network of these molecules which provides pathways for proton transport was calculated using a statistical theory of gel formation in a polymeric system. Our model succeeded to reproduce the variation of potential difference between the ice film surfaces with respect to temperature as observed by Cowin et al based on a soft landing experiment.

  16. Spin Current Noise of the Spin Seebeck Effect and Spin Pumping. (United States)

    Matsuo, M; Ohnuma, Y; Kato, T; Maekawa, S


    We theoretically investigate the fluctuation of a pure spin current induced by the spin Seebeck effect and spin pumping in a normal-metal-(NM-)ferromagnet(FM) bilayer system. Starting with a simple ferromagnet-insulator-(FI-)NM interface model with both spin-conserving and non-spin-conserving processes, we derive general expressions of the spin current and the spin-current noise at the interface within second-order perturbation of the FI-NM coupling strength, and estimate them for a yttrium-iron-garnet-platinum interface. We show that the spin-current noise can be used to determine the effective spin carried by a magnon modified by the non-spin-conserving process at the interface. In addition, we show that it provides information on the effective spin of a magnon, heating at the interface under spin pumping, and spin Hall angle of the NM.

  17. Topology of soft cone metric spaces (United States)

    Altintas, Ismet; Simsek, Dagistan; Taskopru, Kemal


    In Simsek's paper it was introduced a concept of soft cone metric space via soft elements and some fixed point theorems in soft cone metric space were provided. In this work, we examine topological structures such as open ball, soft neighbourhood and soft open set in soft metric spaces and their some properties, and prove that every soft cone metric space under some condition is a soft topological space according to elementary operations on soft sets.

  18. Some Properties of Fuzzy Soft Proximity Spaces (United States)

    Demir, İzzettin; Özbakır, Oya Bedre


    We study the fuzzy soft proximity spaces in Katsaras's sense. First, we show how a fuzzy soft topology is derived from a fuzzy soft proximity. Also, we define the notion of fuzzy soft δ-neighborhood in the fuzzy soft proximity space which offers an alternative approach to the study of fuzzy soft proximity spaces. Later, we obtain the initial fuzzy soft proximity determined by a family of fuzzy soft proximities. Finally, we investigate relationship between fuzzy soft proximities and proximities. PMID:25793224

  19. The Leipzig Ice Nucleation chamber Comparison (LINC): An overview of ice nucleation measurements observed with four on-line ice nucleation devices (United States)

    Kohn, Monika; Wex, Heike; Grawe, Sarah; Hartmann, Susan; Hellner, Lisa; Herenz, Paul; Welti, André; Stratmann, Frank; Lohmann, Ulrike; Kanji, Zamin A.


    Mixed-phase clouds (MPCs) are found to be the most relevant cloud type leading to precipitation in mid-latitudes. The formation of ice crystals in MPCs is not completely understood. To estimate the effect of aerosol particles on the radiative properties of clouds and to describe ice nucleation in models, the specific properties of aerosol particles acting as ice nucleating particles (INPs) still need to be identified. A number of devices are able to measure INPs in the lab and in the field. However, methods can be very different and need to be tested under controlled conditions with respect to aerosol generation and properties in order to standardize measurement and data analysis approaches for subsequent ambient measurements. Here, we present an overview of the LINC campaign hosted at TROPOS in September 2015. We compare four ice nucleation devices: PINC (Portable Ice Nucleation Chamber, Chou et al., 2011) and SPIN (SPectrometer for Ice Nuclei) are operated in deposition nucleation and condensation freezing mode. LACIS (Leipzig Aerosol Cloud Interaction Simulator, Hartmann et al., 2011) and PIMCA (Portable Immersion Mode Cooling chamber) measure in the immersion freezing mode. PIMCA is used as a vertical extension to PINC and allows activation and droplet growth prior to exposure to the investigated ice nucleation temperature. Size-resolved measurements of multiple aerosol types were performed including pure mineral dust (K-feldspar, kaolinite) and biological particles (Birch pollen washing waters) as well as some of them after treatment with sulfuric or nitric acid prior to experiments. LACIS and PIMCA-PINC operated in the immersion freezing mode showed very good agreement in the measured frozen fraction (FF). For the comparison between PINC and SPIN, which were scanning relative humidity from below to above water vapor saturation, an agreement was found for the obtained INP concentration. However, some differences were observed, which may result from ice

  20. Control of Ice Formation. (United States)

    Lo, Ching-Wen; Sahoo, Venkataraman; Lu, Ming-Chang


    Ice formation is a catastrophic problem affecting our daily life in a number of ways. At present, deicing methods are costly, inefficient, and environmentally unfriendly. Recently, the use of superhydrophobic surfaces has been suggested as a potential passive anti-icing method. However, no surface is able to repel frost formation at a very cold temperature. In this work, we demonstrated the abilities of spatial control of ice formation and confinement of the ice-stacking direction. The control and confinement were achieved by manipulating the local free energy barrier for frosting. The V-shaped microgroove patterned surface, which possessed these abilities, exhibited the best anti-icing and deicing performances among the studied surfaces. The insight of this study can be applied to alleviate the impact of icing on our daily life and in many industrial systems.

  1. Producing desired ice faces. (United States)

    Shultz, Mary Jane; Brumberg, Alexandra; Bisson, Patrick J; Shultz, Ryan


    The ability to prepare single-crystal faces has become central to developing and testing models for chemistry at interfaces, spectacularly demonstrated by heterogeneous catalysis and nanoscience. This ability has been hampered for hexagonal ice, Ih--a fundamental hydrogen-bonded surface--due to two characteristics of ice: ice does not readily cleave along a crystal lattice plane and properties of ice grown on a substrate can differ significantly from those of neat ice. This work describes laboratory-based methods both to determine the Ih crystal lattice orientation relative to a surface and to use that orientation to prepare any desired face. The work builds on previous results attaining nearly 100% yield of high-quality, single-crystal boules. With these methods, researchers can prepare authentic, single-crystal ice surfaces for numerous studies including uptake measurements, surface reactivity, and catalytic activity of this ubiquitous, fundamental solid.

  2. Quantum spin liquid states (United States)

    Zhou, Yi; Kanoda, Kazushi; Ng, Tai-Kai


    This is an introductory review of the physics of quantum spin liquid states. Quantum magnetism is a rapidly evolving field, and recent developments reveal that the ground states and low-energy physics of frustrated spin systems may develop many exotic behaviors once we leave the regime of semiclassical approaches. The purpose of this article is to introduce these developments. The article begins by explaining how semiclassical approaches fail once quantum mechanics become important and then describe the alternative approaches for addressing the problem. Mainly spin-1 /2 systems are discussed, and most of the time is spent in this article on one particular set of plausible spin liquid states in which spins are represented by fermions. These states are spin-singlet states and may be viewed as an extension of Fermi liquid states to Mott insulators, and they are usually classified in the category of so-called S U (2 ), U (1 ), or Z2 spin liquid states. A review is given of the basic theory regarding these states and the extensions of these states to include the effect of spin-orbit coupling and to higher spin (S >1 /2 ) systems. Two other important approaches with strong influences on the understanding of spin liquid states are also introduced: (i) matrix product states and projected entangled pair states and (ii) the Kitaev honeycomb model. Experimental progress concerning spin liquid states in realistic materials, including anisotropic triangular-lattice systems [κ -(ET )2Cu2(CN )3 and EtMe3Sb [Pd (dmit )2]2 ], kagome-lattice system [ZnCu3(OH )6Cl2 ], and hyperkagome lattice system (Na4 Ir3 O8 ), is reviewed and compared against the corresponding theories.

  3. Soft actuators and soft actuating devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Dian; Whitesides, George M.


    A soft buckling linear actuator is described, including: a plurality of substantially parallel bucklable, elastic structural components each having its longest dimension along a first axis; and a plurality of secondary structural components each disposed between and bridging two adjacent bucklable, elastic structural components; wherein every two adjacent bucklable, elastic structural components and the secondary structural components in-between define a layer comprising a plurality of cells each capable of being connected with a fluid inflation or deflation source; the secondary structural components from two adjacent layers are not aligned along a second axis perpendicular to the first axis; and the secondary structural components are configured not to buckle, the bucklable, elastic structural components are configured to buckle along the second axis to generate a linear force, upon the inflation or deflation of the cells. Methods of actuation using the same are also described.

  4. Magnetic Hamiltonian and phase diagram of the quantum spin liquid Ca10Cr7O28 (United States)

    Balz, Christian; Lake, Bella; Nazmul Islam, A. T. M.; Singh, Yogesh; Rodriguez-Rivera, Jose A.; Guidi, Tatiana; Wheeler, Elisa M.; Simeoni, Giovanna G.; Ryll, Hanjo


    A spin liquid is a new state of matter with topological order where the spin moments continue to fluctuate coherently down to the lowest temperatures rather than develop static long-range magnetic order as found in conventional magnets. For spin liquid behavior to arise in a material the magnetic Hamiltonian must be "frustrated", where the combination of lattice geometry, interactions, and anisotropies gives rise to competing spin arrangements in the ground state. Theoretical Hamiltonians which produce spin liquids are spin ice, the Kitaev honeycomb model, and the kagome antiferromagnet. Spin liquid behavior, however, in real materials is rare because they can only approximate these Hamiltonians and often have weak higher-order terms that destroy the spin liquid state. Ca10Cr7O28 is a new quantum spin liquid candidate with magnetic Cr5 + ions that possess quantum spin number S =½ . The spins are entirely dynamic in the ground state and the excitation spectrum is broad and diffuse, as is typical of spinons which are the excitations of a spin liquid. In this paper we determine the Hamiltonian of Ca10Cr7O28 using inelastic neutron scattering under high magnetic field to induce a field-polarized paramagnetic ground state and spin-wave excitations that can be fitted to extract the interactions. We further explore the phase diagram by using inelastic neutron scattering and heat capacity measurements and establish the boundaries of the spin liquid phase as a function of magnetic field and temperature. Our results show that Ca10Cr7O28 consists of distorted kagome bilayers with several isotropic ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic interactions where, unexpectedly, the ferromagnetic interactions are stronger than the antiferromagnetic ones. This complex Hamiltonian does not correspond to any known spin liquid model and points to new directions in the search for quantum spin liquid behavior.

  5. Spin-spin correlations in ferromagnetic nanosystems (United States)

    Vedmedenko, E. Y.; Mikuszeit, N.; Stapelfeldt, T.; Wieser, R.; Potthoff, M.; Lichtenstein, A. I.; Wiesendanger, R.


    Using exact diagonalization, Monte-Carlo, and mean-field techniques, characteristic temperature scales for ferromagnetic order are discussed for the Ising and the classical anisotropic Heisenberg model on finite lattices in one and two dimensions. The interplay between nearest-neighbor exchange, anisotropy and the presence of surfaces leads, as a function of temperature, to a complex behavior of the distance-dependent spin-spin correlation function, which is very different from what is commonly expected. A finite experimental observation time is considered in addition, which is simulated within the Monte-Carlo approach by an incomplete statistical average. We find strong surface effects for small nanoparticles, which cannot be explained within a simple Landau or mean-field concept and which give rise to characteristic trends of the spin-correlation function in different temperature regimes. Unambiguous definitions of crossover temperatures for finite systems and an effective method to estimate the critical temperature of corresponding infinite systems are given.

  6. Magnetic imaging with polarized soft x-rays (United States)

    Fischer, Peter


    Properties, behavior, and functionalities of magnetic materials are largely determined by microscopic spin textures, particularly their formation into domains, their coupling mechanisms and their dynamic behavior. Advanced characterization tools are prerequisite to fundamentally understand magnetic materials and control spins for novel magnetic applications. Magnetic microscopies allow us to image directly the static and dynamic features of the relevant microscopic magnetization structures in advanced magnetic materials and thus provide detailed and direct insight into underlying physical phenomena. A large variety of magnetic imaging techniques has become available with particular strengths but also certain limitations. Essential features of magnetic microscopies are a high spatial resolution down into the nanometer regime, as this is the fundamental length scale of magnetic exchange interaction and the ultimate length scale in advanced magnetic technologies; magnetic and elemental sensitivity with quantitative capabilities, as the properties of advanced magnetic materials can be tailored by combining various magnetic elements and their magnetic moments; high temporal resolution from the ns to the fs regime to understand the associated spin dynamic processes and the functionality in magnetic devices; tomographic capabilities with nm resolution as new directions in nanoscience and technologies are moving into 3 dim arrangements of spin structures; and interfacial sensitivity as novel ways to control spins harness either the coupling across interfaces in multilayered structures or utilize non-collinear spin arrangements, which often occur from symmetry breaking at surfaces and interfaces. The unique properties of polarized soft x-rays, their abundancy and specific interaction with magnetic materials in form of dichroism effects have triggered the development of various magnetic x-ray imaging techniques. This review will provide an overview of the current state

  7. Soft Matter Characterization

    CERN Document Server

    Borsali, Redouane


    Progress in basic soft matter research is driven largely by the experimental techniques available. Much of the work is concerned with understanding them at the microscopic level, especially at the nanometer length scales that give soft matter studies a wide overlap with nanotechnology. This 2 volume reference work, split into 4 parts, presents detailed discussions of many of the major techniques commonly used as well as some of those in current development for studying and manipulating soft matter. The articles are intended to be accessible to the interdisciplinary audience (at the graduate student level and above) that is or will be engaged in soft matter studies or those in other disciplines who wish to view some of the research methods in this fascinating field. Part 1 contains articles with a largely (but, in most cases, not exclusively) theoretical content and/or that cover material relevant to more than one of the techniques covered in subsequent volumes. It includes an introductory chapter on some of t...

  8. Soft Tissue Extramedullary Plasmacytoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Ruiz Santiago


    Full Text Available We present the uncommon case of a subcutaneous fascia-based extramedullary plasmacytoma in the leg, which was confirmed by the pathology report and followed up until its remission. We report the differential diagnosis with other more common soft tissue masses. Imaging findings are nonspecific but are important to determine the tumour extension and to plan the biopsy.

  9. Optomechanical soft metamaterials (United States)

    Peng, Xiangjun; He, Wei; Liu, Yifan; Xin, Fengxian; Lu, Tian Jian


    We present a new type of optomechanical soft metamaterials, which is different from conventional mechanical metamaterials, in that they are simple isotropic and homogenous materials without resorting to any complex nano/microstructures. This metamaterial is unique in the sense that its responses to uniaxial forcing can be tailored by programmed laser inputs to manifest different nonlinear constitutive behaviors, such as monotonic, S-shape, plateau, and non-monotonic snapping performance. To demonstrate the novel metamaterial, a thin sheet of soft material impinged by two counterpropagating lasers along its thickness direction and stretched by an in-plane tensile mechanical force is considered. A theoretical model is formulated to characterize the resulting optomechanical behavior of the thin sheet by combining the nonlinear elasticity theory of soft materials and the optical radiation stress theory. The optical radiation stresses predicted by the proposed model are validated by simulations based on the method of finite elements. Programmed optomechanical behaviors are subsequently explored using the validated model under different initial sheet thicknesses and different optical inputs, and the first- and second-order tangential stiffness of the metamaterial are used to plot the phase diagram of its nonlinear constitutive behaviors. The proposed optomechanical soft metamaterial shows great potential in biological medicine, microfluidic manipulation, and other fields.

  10. Soft matter's charismatic pioneer (United States)

    McLeish, Tom


    This summer I took a break from lecturing at a graduate training school in Boulder, Colorado, to attend a talk by the soft-condensed-matter physicist David Weitz. His lecture was about colloids, and in the middle of it, he began to reminisce about the field's early days.

  11. Hard and Soft Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moos, Lejf


    The governance and leadership at transnational, national and school level seem to be converging into a number of isomorphic forms as we see a tendency towards substituting 'hard' forms of governance, that are legally binding, with 'soft' forms based on persuasion and advice. This article analyses...

  12. Marginal Ice Zone Bibliography. (United States)


    on sea ice area.) Akademiia Nauk SSSR. Tikho- okeanskii Institut Geografii. Issledovanie Sistemy ’Lednikii-Okean- Atmosfera ’. Vladivostok, p.23-28. 66...Sistemy ’Lednikii-Okean- Atmosfera ’. Vladivostok, p.23-28. Keen, R.A., 1977: The response of Baffin Bay ice conditions to changes in atmospheric...surface atmosphere on sea ice area.) Akademiia Nauk SSSR. Tikho- okeanskii Institut Geografii. Issledovanie Sistemy ’Lednikii-Okean- Atmosfera

  13. A Experimental Study of the Coherent Under-Ice Reflectivity of Sound in the Greenland Sea Marginal Ice Zone. (United States)

    Gruber, Patricia L.


    The coherent component of acoustic under-ice reflectivity was investigated as a function of frequency and grazing angle in the Marginal Ice Zone (MIZ). Measured reflectivity was compared with predictions by scattering theories to test the hypothesis of ridge scattering dominance in the MIZ. Explosive source acoustic signals were received on a vertical array, during the Marginal Ice Zone Experiment (MIZEX 84), and deconvolved to separate the direct and surface-reflected arrivals. Data was available from multiple days and ranges, resulting in an ensemble of ice-scattered measurements. The surface arrivals were aligned in time and coherently averaged over grazing angle for frequency bins from 64 to 256 Hz. Coherent reflectivity decreased with grazing angle from 12^circ to 35^circ and with frequency from 64 to 256 Hz. Remote sensing data, taken during the experiment, showed that the ice cover was primarily composed of small floes (ice-surface height measurements were analyzed to infer a pressure ridge sail height distribution or surface rms roughness for input to corresponding scattering theories. The measured reflectivity was compared with reflectivity from smooth elastic plate theory, perturbation theory for a rough pressure release surface, perturbation theory for a rough elastic surface, and Burke-Twersky theory for hard and soft, infinite, semi-elliptical cylinders on a soft plane. Perturbation theories were limited to the low frequencies (sail ratio of 6.5 was assumed. The data-theory comparison suggested that under-ice scattering in the MIZ, at angles less than 30 ^circ, and frequencies less than 256 Hz, is dominated by ridge-like scattering which depends on the geometric rather than the physical properties of the ice.

  14. Spin Switching via Quantum Dot Spin Valves (United States)

    Gergs, N. M.; Bender, S. A.; Duine, R. A.; Schuricht, D.


    We develop a theory for spin transport and magnetization dynamics in a quantum dot spin valve, i.e., two magnetic reservoirs coupled to a quantum dot. Our theory is able to take into account effects of strong correlations. We demonstrate that, as a result of these strong correlations, the dot gate voltage enables control over the current-induced torques on the magnets and, in particular, enables voltage-controlled magnetic switching. The electrical resistance of the structure can be used to read out the magnetic state. Our model may be realized by a number of experimental systems, including magnetic scanning-tunneling microscope tips and artificial quantum dot systems.

  15. Antiferromagnetic spin Seebeck effect.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Stephen M.; Zhang, Wei; KC, Amit; Borisov, Pavel; Pearson, John E.; Jiang, J. Samuel; Lederman, David; Hoffmann, Axel; Bhattacharya, Anand


    We report on the observation of the spin Seebeck effect in antiferromagnetic MnF2. A device scale on-chip heater is deposited on a bilayer of MnF2 (110) (30nm)/Pt (4 nm) grown by molecular beam epitaxy on a MgF2(110) substrate. Using Pt as a spin detector layer, it is possible to measure the thermally generated spin current from MnF2 through the inverse spin Hall effect. The low temperature (2–80 K) and high magnetic field (up to 140 kOe) regime is explored. A clear spin-flop transition corresponding to the sudden rotation of antiferromagnetic spins out of the easy axis is observed in the spin Seebeck signal when large magnetic fields (>9T) are applied parallel to the easy axis of the MnF2 thin film. When the magnetic field is applied perpendicular to the easy axis, the spin-flop transition is absent, as expected.

  16. Spin, mass, and symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peskin, M.E. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)


    When the strong interactions were a mystery, spin seemed to be just a complication on top of an already puzzling set of phenomena. But now that particle physicists have understood the strong, weak, and electromagnetic interactions, to be gauge theories, with matter built of quarks and leptons, it is recognized that the special properties of spin 1/2 and spin 1 particles have taken central role in the understanding of Nature. The lectures in this summer school will be devoted to the use of spin in unravelling detailed questions about the fundamental interactions. Thus, why not begin by posing a deeper question: Why is there spin? More precisely, why do the basic pointlike constituents of Nature carry intrinsic nonzero quanta of angular momentum? Though the authos has found no definite answer to this question, the pursuit of an answer has led through a wonderful tangle of speculations on the deep structure of Nature. Is spin constructed or is it fundamental? Is it the requirement of symmetry? In the furthest flights taken, it seems that space-time itself is too restrictive a notion, and that this must be generalized in order to gain a full appreciation of spin. In any case, there is no doubt that spin must play a central role in unlocking the mysteries of fundamental physics.

  17. Spin coating of electrolytes (United States)

    Stetter, Joseph R.; Maclay, G. Jordan


    Methods for spin coating electrolytic materials onto substrates are disclosed. More particularly, methods for depositing solid coatings of ion-conducting material onto planar substrates and onto electrodes are disclosed. These spin coating methods are employed to fabricate electrochemical sensors for use in measuring, detecting and quantifying gases and liquids.

  18. Antiferromagnetic Spin Seebeck Effect. (United States)

    Wu, Stephen M; Zhang, Wei; Kc, Amit; Borisov, Pavel; Pearson, John E; Jiang, J Samuel; Lederman, David; Hoffmann, Axel; Bhattacharya, Anand


    We report on the observation of the spin Seebeck effect in antiferromagnetic MnF_{2}. A device scale on-chip heater is deposited on a bilayer of MnF_{2} (110) (30  nm)/Pt (4 nm) grown by molecular beam epitaxy on a MgF_{2} (110) substrate. Using Pt as a spin detector layer, it is possible to measure the thermally generated spin current from MnF_{2} through the inverse spin Hall effect. The low temperature (2-80 K) and high magnetic field (up to 140 kOe) regime is explored. A clear spin-flop transition corresponding to the sudden rotation of antiferromagnetic spins out of the easy axis is observed in the spin Seebeck signal when large magnetic fields (>9  T) are applied parallel to the easy axis of the MnF_{2} thin film. When the magnetic field is applied perpendicular to the easy axis, the spin-flop transition is absent, as expected.

  19. Physics lab in spin

    CERN Multimedia

    Hawkes, N


    RAL is fostering commerical exploitation of its research and facilities in two main ways : spin-out companies exploit work done at the lab, spin-in companies work on site taking advantage of the facilities and the expertise available (1/2 page).

  20. pMSSM Dark Matter Searches on Ice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotta, R.C.; /SLAC; Howe, K.T.K.; /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Hewett, J.L.; Rizzo, T.G.; /SLAC


    We explore the capability of the IceCube/Deepcore array to discover signal neutrinos resulting from the annihilations of Supersymmetric WIMPS that may be captured in the solar core. In this analysis, we use a previously generated set of {approx} 70k model points in the 19-dimensional parameter space of the pMSSM which satisfy existing experimental and theoretical constraints. Our calculations employ a realistic estimate of the IceCube/DeepCore effective area that has been modeled by the IceCube collaboration. We find that a large fraction of the pMSSM models are shown to have significant signal rates in the anticipated IceCube/DeepCore 1825 day dataset, including some prospects for an early discovery. Many models where the LSP only constitutes a small fraction of the total dark matter relic density are found to have observable rates. We investigate in detail the dependence of the signal neutrino fluxes on the LSP mass, weak eigenstate composition, annihilation products and thermal relic density, as well as on the spin-independent and spin-dependent scattering cross sections. Lastly, We compare the model coverage of IceCube/DeepCore to that obtainable in near-future direct detection experiments and to pMSSM searches at the 7 TeV LHC.

  1. Bipolar Neutrosophic Soft Expert Sets


    Şahin, Mehmet; Deli, İrfan; Uluçay, Vakkas


    In this paper, we introduce concept of bipolar neutrosophic soft expert set and its some operations. Also, we propose score, certainty and accuracy functions to compare the bipolar neutrosophic soft expert sets. We give examples for these concepts. 

  2. Spin Hall and spin swapping torques in diffusive ferromagnets

    KAUST Repository

    Pauyac, C. O.


    A complete set of the generalized drift-diffusion equations for a coupled charge and spin dynamics in ferromagnets in the presence of extrinsic spin-orbit coupling is derived from the quantum kinetic approach, covering major transport phenomena, such as the spin and anomalous Hall effects, spin swapping, spin precession and relaxation processes. We argue that the spin swapping effect in ferromagnets is enhanced due to spin polarization, while the overall spin texture induced by the interplay of spin-orbital and spin precessional effects displays a complex spatial dependence that can be exploited to generate torques and nucleate/propagate domain walls in centrosymmetric geometries without use of external polarizers, as opposed to the conventional understanding of spin-orbit mediated torques.

  3. Ice and ocean velocity in the Arctic marginal ice zone: Ice roughness and momentum transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia T. Cole


    Full Text Available The interplay between sea ice concentration, sea ice roughness, ocean stratification, and momentum transfer to the ice and ocean is subject to seasonal and decadal variations that are crucial to understanding the present and future air-ice-ocean system in the Arctic. In this study, continuous observations in the Canada Basin from March through December 2014 were used to investigate spatial differences and temporal changes in under-ice roughness and momentum transfer as the ice cover evolved seasonally. Observations of wind, ice, and ocean properties from four clusters of drifting instrument systems were complemented by direct drill-hole measurements and instrumented overhead flights by NASA operation IceBridge in March, as well as satellite remote sensing imagery about the instrument clusters. Spatially, directly estimated ice-ocean drag coefficients varied by a factor of three with rougher ice associated with smaller multi-year ice floe sizes embedded within the first-year-ice/multi-year-ice conglomerate. Temporal differences in the ice-ocean drag coefficient of 20–30% were observed prior to the mixed layer shoaling in summer and were associated with ice concentrations falling below 100%. The ice-ocean drag coefficient parameterization was found to be invalid in September with low ice concentrations and small ice floe sizes. Maximum momentum transfer to the ice occurred for moderate ice concentrations, and transfer to the ocean for the lowest ice concentrations and shallowest stratification. Wind work and ocean work on the ice were the dominant terms in the kinetic energy budget of the ice throughout the melt season, consistent with free drift conditions. Overall, ice topography, ice concentration, and the shallow summer mixed layer all influenced mixed layer currents and the transfer of momentum within the air-ice-ocean system. The observed changes in momentum transfer show that care must be taken to determine appropriate parameterizations

  4. Soft skills and dental education


    Gonzalez, M. A. G.; Abu Kasim, N.H.; Naimie, Z.


    Soft skills and hard skills are essential in the practice of dentistry. While hard skills deal with technical proficiency, soft skills relate to a personal values and interpersonal skills that determine a person's ability to fit in a particular situation. These skills contribute to the success of organisations that deal face-to-face with clients. Effective soft skills benefit the dental practice. However, the teaching of soft skills remains a challenge to dental schools. This paper discus...

  5. Hesitant intuitionistic fuzzy soft sets (United States)

    Nazra, Admi; Syafruddin; Lestari, Riri; Catur Wicaksono, Gandung


    This paper aims to extend the hesitant fuzzy soft sets to hesitant intuitionistic fuzzy soft sets by merging the concept of hesitant intuitionistic fuzzy sets and soft sets. The authors define some operations on hesitant intuitionistic fuzzy sets, such as complement, union and intersection, and obtain related properties. The similar operations are defined on hesitant intuitionistic fuzzy soft sets, and also some properties such as assosiative and De Morgan’s laws are obtained.

  6. Possibility Intuitionistic Fuzzy Soft Set

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maruah Bashir


    Full Text Available Possibility intuitionistic fuzzy soft set and its operations are introduced, and a few of their properties are studied. An application of possibility intuitionistic fuzzy soft sets in decision making is investigated. A similarity measure of two possibility intuitionistic fuzzy soft sets has been discussed. An application of this similarity measure in medical diagnosis has been shown.

  7. CT-Based Assessment of Relative Soft-Tissue Alteration in Different Types of Ancient Mummies. (United States)

    Sydler, Christina; Öhrström, Lena; Rosendahl, Wilfried; Woitek, Ulrich; Rühli, Frank


    Mummification leads to alteration of soft-tissue morphology. No research has focused specifically on differences in soft-tissue shrinkage depending on mummification type. This study evaluated whether soft-tissue alteration is dependent on type of mummification. A total of 17 human mummies have been investigated by computed tomography (CT). Samples included artificially embalmed ancient Egyptian mummies, naturally mummified South American corpses, ice mummies (including the Iceman, South Tyrol Museum of Archeology, Bolzano, Italy, ca. 3,300 BC), bog bodies and a desiccated mummy of possibly Asian provenance. The acquired data were compared to four contemporary bodies. The extent of soft-tissue shrinkage was evaluated using CT data. Shrinkage was defined as soft-tissue relative to area of bone (in number of voxels). Measurements were taken at 13 anatomically defined locations. Ice mummies show the highest degree of preservation. This finding is most likely explained due to frozen water within tissues. All other types of mummies show significantly (at P Mummification type strongly affects the degree of soft-tissue alteration, surprisingly mostly independent of overall historical age. These results highlight the unique morphological impact of taphonomy on soft-tissue preservation and are of particular interest in tissue research as well as in forensics. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Academic Airframe Icing Perspective (United States)

    Bragg, Mike; Rothmayer, Alric; Thompson, David


    2-D ice accretion and aerodynamics reasonably well understood for engineering applications To significantly improve our current capabilities we need to understand 3-D: a) Important ice accretion physics and modeling not well understood in 3-D; and b) Aerodynamics unsteady and 3-D especially near stall. Larger systems issues important and require multidisciplinary team approach

  9. Meth (Crank, Ice) Facts (United States)

    ... That People Abuse » Meth (Crank, Ice) Facts Meth (Crank, Ice) Facts Listen Methamphetamine—meth for short—is a white, bitter powder. Sometimes ... clear or white shiny rock (called a crystal). Meth powder can be eaten or snorted up the ...

  10. Sputtering of water ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baragiola, R.A.; Vidal, R.A.; Svendsen, W.


    We present results of a range of experiments of sputtering of water ice together with a guide to the literature. We studied how sputtering depends on the projectile energy and fluence, ice growth temperature, irradiation temperature and external electric fields. We observed luminescence from...

  11. Biological Soft Robotics. (United States)

    Feinberg, Adam W


    In nature, nanometer-scale molecular motors are used to generate force within cells for diverse processes from transcription and transport to muscle contraction. This adaptability and scalability across wide temporal, spatial, and force regimes have spurred the development of biological soft robotic systems that seek to mimic and extend these capabilities. This review describes how molecular motors are hierarchically organized into larger-scale structures in order to provide a basic understanding of how these systems work in nature and the complexity and functionality we hope to replicate in biological soft robotics. These span the subcellular scale to macroscale, and this article focuses on the integration of biological components with synthetic materials, coupled with bioinspired robotic design. Key examples include nanoscale molecular motor-powered actuators, microscale bacteria-controlled devices, and macroscale muscle-powered robots that grasp, walk, and swim. Finally, the current challenges and future opportunities in the field are addressed.

  12. Fracture in Soft Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassager, Ole

    Fracture is a phenomenon that is generally associated with solids. A key element in fracture theory is the so-called weakest link idea that fracture initiates from the largest pre-existing material imperfection. However, recent work has demonstrated that fracture can also happen in liquids, where...... surface tension will act to suppress such imperfections. Therefore, the weakest link idea does not seem immediately applicable to fracture in liquids. This presentation will review fracture in liquids and argue that fracture in soft liquids is a material property independent of pre-existing imperfections....... The following questions then emerge: What is the material description needed to predict crack initiation, crack speed and crack shape in soft materials and liquids....

  13. Soft Expert Sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawkat Alkhazaleh


    Full Text Available In 1999, Molodtsov introduced the concept of soft set theory as a general mathematical tool for dealing with uncertainty. Many researchers have studied this theory, and they created some models to solve problems in decision making and medical diagnosis, but most of these models deal only with one expert. This causes a problem with the user, especially with those who use questionnaires in their work and studies. In our model, the user can know the opinion of all experts in one model. So, in this paper, we introduce the concept of a soft expert set, which will more effective and useful. We also define its basic operations, namely, complement, union intersection AND, and OR. Finally, we show an application of this concept in decision-making problem.

  14. Islands in the ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Tina; Kjær, Kurt H.; Haile, James Seymour


    nunataks on the northern hemisphere - some 30 km from the nearest biological source. They constitute around 2 km(2) of ice-free land that was established in the early Holocene. We have investigated the changes in plant composition at these nunataks using both the results of surveys of the flora over......Nunataks are isolated bedrocks protruding through ice sheets. They vary in age, but represent island environments in 'oceans' of ice through which organism dispersals and replacements can be studied over time. The J.A.D. Jensen's Nunataks at the southern Greenland ice sheet are the most isolated...... where the botanical survey was exhaustive. As no animals and humans are found on the nunataks, this change in diversity over a period of just 42 years must relate to environmental changes probably being climate-driven. This suggests that even the flora of fairly small and isolated ice-free areas reacts...

  15. Holiday fun with soft gluons

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva


    Emissions of soft gluons from energetic particles play an important role in collider processes. While the basic physics of soft emissions is simple, it gives rise to a variety of interesting and intricate phenomena (non-global logs, Glauber phases, super-leading logs, factorization breaking). After an introduction, I will review progress in resummation methods such as Soft-Collinear Effective Theory driven by a better understanding of soft emissions. I will also show some new results for computations of soft-gluon effects in gap-between-jets and isolation-cone cross sections.

  16. Higher spins and holography (United States)

    Kraus, Per; Ross, Simon F.


    The principles of quantum mechanics and relativity impose rigid constraints on theories of massless particles with nonzero spin. Indeed, Yang-Mills theory and General Relativity are the unique solution in the case of spin-1 and spin-2. In asymptotically flat spacetime, there are fundamental obstacles to formulating fully consistent interacting theories of particles of spin greater than 2. However, indications are that such theories are just barely possible in asymptotically anti-de Sitter or de Sitter spacetimes, where the non-existence of an S-matrix provides an escape from the theorems restricting theories in Minkowski spacetime. These higher spin gravity theories are therefore of great intrinsic interest, since they, along with supergravity, provide the only known field theories generalizing the local invariance principles of Yang-Mills theory and General Relativity. While work on higher spin gravity goes back several decades, the subject has gained broader appeal in recent years due to its appearance in the AdS/CFT correspondence. In three and four spacetime dimensions, there exist duality proposals linking higher spin gravity theories to specific conformal field theories living in two and three dimensions respectively. The enlarged symmetry algebra of the conformal field theories renders them exactly soluble, which makes them excellent laboratories for understanding in detail the holographic mechanism behind AdS/CFT duality. Steady progress is also being made on better understanding the space of possible higher spin gravity theories and their physical content. This work includes classifying the possible field multiplets and their interactions, constructing exact solutions of the nonlinear field equations, and relating higher spin theories to string theory. A full understanding of these theories will involve coming to grips with the novel symmetry principles that enlarge those of General Relativity and Yang-Mills theory, and one can hope that this will provide

  17. Reptile Soft Tissue Surgery. (United States)

    Di Girolamo, Nicola; Mans, Christoph


    The surgical approach to reptiles can be challenging. Reptiles have unique physiologic, anatomic, and pathologic differences. This may result in frustrating surgical experiences. However, recent investigations provided novel, less invasive, surgical techniques. The purpose of this review was to describe the technical aspects behind soft tissue surgical techniques that have been used in reptiles, so as to provide a general guideline for veterinarians working with reptiles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Magnetization dynamics of imprinted non-collinear spin textures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Streubel, Robert, E-mail:; Kopte, Martin; Makarov, Denys, E-mail: [Institute for Integrative Nanosciences, IFW Dresden, 01069 Dresden (Germany); Fischer, Peter [Center for X-Ray Optics, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Physics Department, UC Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, California 95064 (United States); Schmidt, Oliver G. [Institute for Integrative Nanosciences, IFW Dresden, 01069 Dresden (Germany); Material Systems for Nanoelectronics, Chemnitz University of Technology, 09107 Chemnitz (Germany)


    We study the magnetization dynamics of non-collinear spin textures realized via imprint of the magnetic vortex state in soft permalloy into magnetically hard out-of-plane magnetized Co/Pd nanopatterned heterostructures. Tuning the interlayer exchange coupling between soft- and hard-magnetic subsystems provides means to tailor the magnetic state in the Co/Pd stack from being vortex- to donut-like with different core sizes. While the imprinted vortex spin texture leads to the dynamics similar to the one observed for vortices in permalloy disks, the donut-like state causes the appearance of two gyrofrequencies characteristic of the early and later stages of the magnetization dynamics. The dynamics are described using the Thiele equation supported by the full scale micromagnetic simulations by taking into account an enlarged core size of the donut states compared to magnetic vortices.

  19. Spin transfer torque with spin diffusion in magnetic tunnel junctions

    KAUST Repository

    Manchon, Aurelien


    Spin transport in magnetic tunnel junctions in the presence of spin diffusion is considered theoretically. Combining ballistic tunneling across the barrier and diffusive transport in the electrodes, we solve the spin dynamics equation in the metallic layers. We show that spin diffusion mixes the transverse spin current components and dramatically modifies the bias dependence of the effective spin transfer torque. This leads to a significant linear bias dependence of the out-of-plane torque, as well as a nonconventional thickness dependence of both spin torque components.

  20. Spin transverse force on spin current in an electric field. (United States)

    Shen, Shun-Qing


    As a relativistic quantum mechanical effect, it is shown that the electron field exerts a transverse force on an electron spin 1/2 only if the electron is moving. The spin force, analogue to the Lorentz for an electron charge in a magnetic field, is perpendicular to the electric field and the spin current whose spin polarization is projected along the electric field. This spin-dependent force can be used to understand the Zitterbewegung of the electron wave packet with spin-orbit coupling and is relevant to the generation of the charge Hall effect driven by the spin current in semiconductors.

  1. Spins in chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    McWeeny, Roy


    Originally delivered as a series of lectures, this volume systematically traces the evolution of the ""spin"" concept from its role in quantum mechanics to its assimilation into the field of chemistry. Author Roy McWeeny presents an in-depth illustration of the deductive methods of quantum theory and their application to spins in chemistry, following the path from the earliest concepts to the sophisticated physical methods employed in the investigation of molecular structure and properties. Starting with the origin and development of the spin concept, the text advances to an examination of sp

  2. Quantum Spin Hall Effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernevig, B.Andrei; Zhang, Shou-Cheng; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.


    The quantum Hall liquid is a novel state of matter with profound emergent properties such as fractional charge and statistics. Existence of the quantum Hall effect requires breaking of the time reversal symmetry caused by an external magnetic field. In this work, we predict a quantized spin Hall effect in the absence of any magnetic field, where the intrinsic spin Hall conductance is quantized in units of 2 e/4{pi}. The degenerate quantum Landau levels are created by the spin-orbit coupling in conventional semiconductors in the presence of a strain gradient. This new state of matter has many profound correlated properties described by a topological field theory.

  3. Quantum spin liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mila, Frederic [Institut de Physique Theorique, Universite de Lausanne, BSP, Lausanne (Switzerland)


    This paper presents an overview of the properties of magnetic insulators, with emphasis on quantum effects. In particular, the consequences of strong quantum fluctuations on the low-energy properties of a number of systems are reviewed: the occurrence of a spin gap in spin-1 chains and other low-dimensional magnets; the presence of low-lying singlet excitations in several frustrated magnets; the interplay of orbital and spin fluctuations in orbitally degenerate Mott insulators. This review is intended as a pedagogical introduction to the field, and the formalism has been kept at a minimal level. (author)

  4. Sunlight, Sea Ice, and the Ice Albedo Feedback in a Changing Arctic Sea Ice Cover (United States)


    Figure 1). When the ice is snow covered there is little difference in albedo and partitioning between first year and multiyear ice. Once the snow melts...1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Sunlight, Sea Ice, and the Ice Albedo Feedback in a...and iv) onset dates of melt and freeze up. 4. Assess the magnitude of the contribution from ice- albedo feedback to the observed decrease of sea ice

  5. Sunlight, Sea Ice, and the Ice Albedo Feedback in a Changing Artic Sea Ice Cover (United States)


    When the ice is snow covered there is little difference in albedo and partitioning between first year and multiyear ice. Once the snow melts there is...reflection to the atmosphere, absorption in the snow and sea ice, and transmission to the ocean. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Arctic sea ice, sunlight, albedo ...1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. SUNLIGHT, SEA ICE, AND THE ICE ALBEDO FEEDBACK IN A

  6. Method for estimating spin-spin interactions from magnetization curves (United States)

    Tamura, Ryo; Hukushima, Koji


    We develop a method to estimate the spin-spin interactions in the Hamiltonian from the observed magnetization curve by machine learning based on Bayesian inference. In our method, plausible spin-spin interactions are determined by maximizing the posterior distribution, which is the conditional probability of the spin-spin interactions in the Hamiltonian for a given magnetization curve with observation noise. The conditional probability is obtained with the Markov chain Monte Carlo simulations combined with an exchange Monte Carlo method. The efficiency of our method is tested using synthetic magnetization curve data, and the results show that spin-spin interactions are estimated with a high accuracy. In particular, the relevant terms of the spin-spin interactions are successfully selected from the redundant interaction candidates by the l1 regularization in the prior distribution.

  7. Categorical Properties of Soft Sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Zhou


    Full Text Available The present study investigates some novel categorical properties of soft sets. By combining categorical theory with soft set theory, a categorical framework of soft set theory is established. It is proved that the category SFun of soft sets and soft functions has equalizers, finite products, pullbacks, and exponential properties. It is worth mentioning that we find that SFun is both a topological construct and Cartesian closed. The category SRel of soft sets and Z-soft set relations is also characterized, which shows the existence of the zero objects, biproducts, additive identities, injective objects, projective objects, injective hulls, and projective covers. Finally, by constructing proper adjoint situations, some intrinsic connections between SFun and SRel are established.

  8. The treatment of acute soft tissue trauma in Danish emergency rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannsen, F; Langberg, Henning


    Rest, ice, compression, elevation (RICE) is the most recommended treatment for acute traumatic soft tissue injuries. A questionnaire was given to all Danish emergency rooms (n = 5) regarding their routines for acute treatment of ankle sprains and muscle contusions. Complete answers were received ...

  9. GLERL Radiation Transfer Through Freshwater Ice (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Radiation transmittance (ratio of transmitted to incident radiation) through clear ice, refrozen slush ice and brash ice, from ice surface to ice-water interface in...

  10. Radiation reaction for spinning bodies in effective field theory. II. Spin-spin effects (United States)

    Maia, Natália T.; Galley, Chad R.; Leibovich, Adam K.; Porto, Rafael A.


    We compute the leading post-Newtonian (PN) contributions at quadratic order in the spins to the radiation-reaction acceleration and spin evolution for binary systems, entering at four-and-a-half PN order. Our calculation includes the backreaction from finite-size spin effects, which is presented for the first time. The computation is carried out, from first principles, using the effective field theory framework for spinning extended objects. At this order, nonconservative effects in the spin-spin sector are independent of the spin supplementary conditions. A nontrivial consistency check is performed by showing that the energy loss induced by the resulting radiation-reaction force is equivalent to the total emitted power in the far zone. We find that, in contrast to the spin-orbit contributions (reported in a companion paper), the radiation reaction affects the evolution of the spin vectors once spin-spin effects are incorporated.

  11. Soft Ultrathin Electronics Innervated Adaptive Fully Soft Robots. (United States)

    Wang, Chengjun; Sim, Kyoseung; Chen, Jin; Kim, Hojin; Rao, Zhoulyu; Li, Yuhang; Chen, Weiqiu; Song, Jizhou; Verduzco, Rafael; Yu, Cunjiang


    Soft robots outperform the conventional hard robots on significantly enhanced safety, adaptability, and complex motions. The development of fully soft robots, especially fully from smart soft materials to mimic soft animals, is still nascent. In addition, to date, existing soft robots cannot adapt themselves to the surrounding environment, i.e., sensing and adaptive motion or response, like animals. Here, compliant ultrathin sensing and actuating electronics innervated fully soft robots that can sense the environment and perform soft bodied crawling adaptively, mimicking an inchworm, are reported. The soft robots are constructed with actuators of open-mesh shaped ultrathin deformable heaters, sensors of single-crystal Si optoelectronic photodetectors, and thermally responsive artificial muscle of carbon-black-doped liquid-crystal elastomer (LCE-CB) nanocomposite. The results demonstrate that adaptive crawling locomotion can be realized through the conjugation of sensing and actuation, where the sensors sense the environment and actuators respond correspondingly to control the locomotion autonomously through regulating the deformation of LCE-CB bimorphs and the locomotion of the robots. The strategy of innervating soft sensing and actuating electronics with artificial muscles paves the way for the development of smart autonomous soft robots. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Estimating the spin diffusion length and the spin Hall angle from spin pumping induced inverse spin Hall voltages (United States)

    Roy, Kuntal


    There exists considerable confusion in estimating the spin diffusion length of materials with high spin-orbit coupling from spin pumping experiments. For designing functional devices, it is important to determine the spin diffusion length with sufficient accuracy from experimental results. An inaccurate estimation of spin diffusion length also affects the estimation of other parameters (e.g., spin mixing conductance, spin Hall angle) concomitantly. The spin diffusion length for platinum (Pt) has been reported in the literature in a wide range of 0.5-14 nm, and in particular it is a constant value independent of Pt's thickness. Here, the key reasonings behind such a wide range of reported values of spin diffusion length have been identified comprehensively. In particular, it is shown here that a thickness-dependent conductivity and spin diffusion length is necessary to simultaneously match the experimental results of effective spin mixing conductance and inverse spin Hall voltage due to spin pumping. Such a thickness-dependent spin diffusion length is tantamount to the Elliott-Yafet spin relaxation mechanism, which bodes well for transitional metals. This conclusion is not altered even when there is significant interfacial spin memory loss. Furthermore, the variations in the estimated parameters are also studied, which is important for technological applications.

  13. Vacuum spin squeezing (United States)

    Hu, Jiazhong; Chen, Wenlan; Vendeiro, Zachary; Urvoy, Alban; Braverman, Boris; Vuletić, Vladan


    We investigate the generation of entanglement (spin squeezing) in an optical-transition atomic clock through the coupling to an optical cavity in its vacuum state. We show that if each atom is prepared in a superposition of the ground state and a long-lived electronic excited state, and viewed as a spin-1/2 system, then the collective vacuum light shift entangles the atoms, resulting in a squeezed distribution of the ensemble collective spin, without any light applied. This scheme reveals that even an electromagnetic vacuum can constitute a useful resource for entanglement and quantum manipulation. By rotating the spin direction while coupling to the vacuum, the scheme can be extended to implement two-axis twisting resulting in stronger squeezing.

  14. Silicon takes a spin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, R.

    An efficient way to transport electron spins from a ferromagnet into silicon essentially makes silicon magnetic, and provides an exciting step towards integration of magnetism and mainstream semiconductor electronics.

  15. Compact photonic spin filters (United States)

    Ke, Yougang; Liu, Zhenxing; Liu, Yachao; Zhou, Junxiao; Shu, Weixing; Luo, Hailu; Wen, Shuangchun


    In this letter, we propose and experimentally demonstrate a compact photonic spin filter formed by integrating a Pancharatnam-Berry phase lens (focal length of ±f ) into a conventional plano-concave lens (focal length of -f). By choosing the input port of the filter, photons with a desired spin state, such as the right-handed component or the left-handed one, propagate alone its original propagation direction, while the unwanted spin component is quickly diverged after passing through the filter. One application of the filter, sorting the spin-dependent components of vector vortex beams on higher-order Poincaré sphere, is also demonstrated. Our scheme provides a simple method to manipulate light, and thereby enables potential applications for photonic devices.

  16. Spin Physics at COMPASS

    CERN Document Server

    Schill, C


    The COMPASS experiment is a fixed target experiment at the CERN SPS using muon and hadron beams for the investigation of the spin structure of the nucleon and hadron spectroscopy. The main objective of the muon physics program is the study of the spin of the nucleon in terms of its constituents, quarks and gluons. COMPASS has accumulated data during 6 years scattering polarized muons off a longitudinally or a transversely polarized deuteron (6LiD) or proton (NH3) target. Results for the gluon polarization are obtained from longitudinal double spin cross section asymmetries using two different channels, open charm production and high transverse momentum hadron pairs, both proceeding through the photon-gluon fusion process. Also, the longitudinal spin structure functions of the proton and the deuteron were measured in parallel as well as the helicity distributions for the three lightest quark flavors. With a transversely polarized target, results were obtained with proton and deuteron targets for the Collins an...

  17. Picosecond Spin Seebeck Effect. (United States)

    Kimling, Johannes; Choi, Gyung-Min; Brangham, Jack T; Matalla-Wagner, Tristan; Huebner, Torsten; Kuschel, Timo; Yang, Fengyuan; Cahill, David G


    We report time-resolved magneto-optic Kerr effect measurements of the longitudinal spin Seebeck effect in normal metal/Y_{3}Fe_{5}O_{12} bilayers driven by an interfacial temperature difference between electrons and magnons. The measured time evolution of spin accumulation induced by laser excitation indicates transfer of angular momentum across normal metal/Y_{3}Fe_{5}O_{12} interfaces on a picosecond time scale, too short for contributions from a bulk temperature gradient in an yttrium iron garnet. The product of spin-mixing conductance and the interfacial spin Seebeck coefficient determined is of the order of 10^{8}  A m^{-2} K^{-1}.

  18. High Speed Ice Friction (United States)

    Seymour-Pierce, Alexandra; Sammonds, Peter; Lishman, Ben


    Many different tribological experiments have been run to determine the frictional behaviour of ice at high speeds, ostensibly with the intention of applying results to everyday fields such as winter tyres and sports. However, experiments have only been conducted up to linear speeds of several metres a second, with few additional subject specific studies reaching speeds comparable to these applications. Experiments were conducted in the cold rooms of the Rock and Ice Physics Laboratory, UCL, on a custom built rotational tribometer based on previous literature designs. Preliminary results from experiments run at 2m/s for ice temperatures of 271 and 263K indicate that colder ice has a higher coefficient of friction, in accordance with the literature. These results will be presented, along with data from further experiments conducted at temperatures between 259-273K (in order to cover a wide range of the temperature dependent behaviour of ice) and speeds of 2-15m/s to produce a temperature-velocity-friction map for ice. The effect of temperature, speed and slider geometry on the deformation of ice will also be investigated. These speeds are approaching those exhibited by sports such as the luge (where athletes slide downhill on an icy track), placing the tribological work in context.

  19. Higher Spins & Strings

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva


    The conjectured relation between higher spin theories on anti de-Sitter (AdS) spaces and weakly coupled conformal field theories is reviewed. I shall then outline the evidence in favour of a concrete duality of this kind, relating a specific higher spin theory on AdS3 to a family of 2d minimal model CFTs. Finally, I shall explain how this relation fits into the framework of the familiar stringy AdS/CFT correspondence.

  20. Quantum Spin Gyroscope (United States)


    Progress Report (ONR Award No. N00014-14-1-0804) Quantum Spin Gyroscope August 2014-July 2015 Report Type: Annual Report Primary Contact E-mail...Quantum Spin Gyroscope Grant/Contract Number: N00014-14-1-0804 Principal Investigator Name: Paola Cappellaro Program Manager: Richard Tommy Willis...Abstract Gyroscopes find wide application in everyday life, from navigation to rotation sensors in hand-held devices and automobiles. In addition, they can

  1. Massive spin-2 theories

    CERN Document Server

    Folkerts, Sarah; Wintergerst, Nico


    We give an introduction to massive spin-2 theories (including massive gravity) and the problem of their non-linear completion. We review the Boulware-Deser ghost problem and two ways to circumvent classic no-go theorems. In turn, massive spin-2 theories are not uniquely defined. In the case of truncated theories, we show that the Boulware-Deser ghost may only be avoided if the derivative structure of the theory is not tuned to be Einsteinian.

  2. From Soft Sculpture to Soft Robotics: Retracing a Physical Aesthetics of Bio-Morphic Softness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jonas


    Soft robotics has in the past decade emerged as a growing subfield of technical robotics research, distinguishable by its bio-inspired design strategies, interest in morphological computation, and interdisciplinary combination of insights from engineering, computer science, biology and material...... science. Recently, soft robotics technology has also started to make its way into art, design, and architecture. This paper attempts to think an aesthetics of softness and the life-like through an artistic tradition deeply imbricated with an interrogation of softness and its physical substrates, namely...... and the life-like in these works through readings that draw on concepts from technical soft robotics research and the description of life in physics (via entropy). It is argued, that fractions of soft sculpture anticipate central interests and notions present in contemporary technical soft robotics research....

  3. Ice data management systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terry, B.F. (Compusult Ltd. (Canada)); Lapp, D.J.; Balko, C.L. (Norland Science and Engineering Ltd. (Canada)); Hancock, K.E.; Lapp, P.A. (Lapp-Hancock Associates Ltd. (Canada))


    Oil and gas companies engaged in exploration and production drilling off the coast of Newfoundland and Labrador must cope with the seasonal presence of pack ice and icebergs. This task is assisted through ice data management systems. In late 1983, the 3 oil companies planning drilling programs in winter 1984 responded to a set of regulatory guidelines/directives regarding winter drilling on the Grand Banks by establishing a cooperative arrangement known as the Grand Banks Operators' Joint Ice Management Plan. In 1984 and 1985, the plan called for the establishment and operation of a central land-based ice data management system. This study analysed the 1985 system and future ice data management requirements. The downturn in exploration drilling offshore Newfoundland and Labrador which began in 1986 led to the implementation by active drilling companies of a decentralized joint ice data management system. In view of the forecast of a continued low level of drilling activity, it is concluded that the decentralized system is better suited to industry and regulatory requirements. The conceptual design of such a system includes standardization by industry of the specifications each company provides to the contractors who provide data communications services and ice data management system components. It is recommended that a working group be established, to include representatives of the oil industry, industry regulators, ice management contractors and other interested parties, to develop a detailed specification whereby the subsystems in a decentralized system can most efficiently and effectively meet the data management requirements of the Joint Ice Management Plan. 15 figs., 20 tabs.

  4. Synchronizing ice cores from the Renland and Agassiz ice caps to the Greenland Ice Core Chronology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Bo Møllesøe; Clausen, Henrik Brink; Fischer, D. A.


    Four ice cores from the Agassiz ice cap in the Canadian high arctic and one ice core from the Renland ice cap in eastern Greenland have been synchronized to the Greenland Ice Core Chronology 2005 (GICC05) which is based on annual layer counts in the DYE-3, GRIP and NGRIP ice cores. Volcanic....... Annual layer thicknesses in the Agassiz ice cores point to a well-developed Raymond bump in the Agassiz ice cap....... reference horizons, seen in electrical conductivity measurements (ECM) have been used to carry out the synchronization throughout the Holocene. The Agassiz ice cores have been matched to the NGRIP ice core ECM signal, while the Renland core has been matched to the GRIP ice core ECM signal, thus tying...

  5. Ice nucleation terminology (United States)

    Vali, G.; DeMott, P.; Möhler, O.; Whale, T. F.


    Progress in the understanding of ice nucleation is being hampered by the lack of uniformity in how some terms are used in the literature. This even extends to some ambiguity of meanings attached to some terms. Suggestions are put forward here for common use of terms. Some are already well established and clear of ambiguities. Others are less engrained and will need a conscious effort in adoption. Evolution in the range of systems where ice nucleation is being studied enhances the need for a clear nomenclature. The ultimate limit in the clarity of definitions is, of course, the limited degree to which ice nucleation processes are understood.

  6. Proceedings of ICED'09

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The 17th International Conference on Engineering Design, ICED'09, was held August 24-27 2009 at Stanford University, California, USA. The Conference is the flagship event of the Design Society, a society dedicated to contributing to a broad and established understanding of development and design....... The ICED series of conferences has a long tradition, which started in 1981 with the first ICED in Rome. A total of 379 papers were presented at ICED’09, each double-blind reviewed by multiple reviewers. The papers included research papers and case studies on a variety of topics concerned with design...

  7. Initial Cooling Experiment (ICE)

    CERN Multimedia

    Photographic Service; CERN PhotoLab


    In 1977, in a record-time of 9 months, the magnets of the g-2 experiment were modified and used to build a proton/antiproton storage ring: the "Initial Cooling Experiment" (ICE). It served for the verification of the cooling methods to be used for the "Antiproton Project". Stochastic cooling was proven the same year, electron cooling followed later. Also, with ICE the experimental lower limit for the antiproton lifetime was raised by 9 orders of magnitude: from 2 microseconds to 32 hours. For its previous life as g-2 storage ring, see 7405430. More on ICE: 7711282, 7809081, 7908242.

  8. The seeding of ice algal blooms in Arctic pack ice: The multiyear ice seed repository hypothesis (United States)

    Olsen, Lasse M.; Laney, Samuel R.; Duarte, Pedro; Kauko, Hanna M.; Fernández-Méndez, Mar; Mundy, Christopher J.; Rösel, Anja; Meyer, Amelie; Itkin, Polona; Cohen, Lana; Peeken, Ilka; Tatarek, Agnieszka; Róźańska-Pluta, Magdalena; Wiktor, Józef; Taskjelle, Torbjørn; Pavlov, Alexey K.; Hudson, Stephen R.; Granskog, Mats A.; Hop, Haakon; Assmy, Philipp


    During the Norwegian young sea ICE expedition (N-ICE2015) from January to June 2015 the pack ice in the Arctic Ocean north of Svalbard was studied during four drifts between 83° and 80°N. This pack ice consisted of a mix of second year, first year, and young ice. The physical properties and ice algal community composition was investigated in the three different ice types during the winter-spring-summer transition. Our results indicate that algae remaining in sea ice that survived the summer melt season are subsequently trapped in the upper layers of the ice column during winter and may function as an algal seed repository. Once the connectivity in the entire ice column is established, as a result of temperature-driven increase in ice porosity during spring, algae in the upper parts of the ice are able to migrate toward the bottom and initiate the ice algal spring bloom. Furthermore, this algal repository might seed the bloom in younger ice formed in adjacent leads. This mechanism was studied in detail for the dominant ice diatom Nitzschia frigida. The proposed seeding mechanism may be compromised due to the disappearance of older ice in the anticipated regime shift toward a seasonally ice-free Arctic Ocean.

  9. Wave-ice Interaction and the Marginal Ice Zone (United States)


    single buoys that were moved from place to place. These new data, obtained within the comprehensive set of ocean, ice and atmosphere sensors and remote...1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Wave- ice interaction and the Marginal Ice Zone Prof...between ocean waves and a sea ice cover, in terms, of scattering, attenuation, and mechanical effect of the waves on the ice . OBJECTIVES The

  10. Topological Structure of Vague Soft Sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Wang


    Full Text Available We introduce vague soft topological spaces which are defined over an initial universe with a fixed set of parameters. The notions of vague soft open sets, vague soft closed sets, vague soft interior, vague soft closure, and vague soft boundary are introduced and their basic properties and relations are investigated. Furthermore, with the help of examples they established that some properties of topological spaces and soft topological spaces do not hold in vague soft topological spaces. Vague soft connectedness and vague soft compactness are also studied.

  11. On Soft β-Open Sets and Soft β-Continuous Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metin Akdag


    Full Text Available We introduce the concepts soft β-interior and soft β-closure of a soft set in soft topological spaces. We also study soft β-continuous functions and discuss their relations with soft continuous and other weaker forms of soft continuous functions.

  12. Soft Condensed Matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Richard A L


    The author states in the preface of the book that the aim is ' give a unified overview of the various aspects of the physics of soft condensed matter'. The book succeeds in fulfilling this aim in many respects. The style is fluent and concise and gives the necessary explanations to make its content understandable to people with some knowledge of the basic principles of physics. The content of the book is complete enough to give a panoramic view of the landscape of soft condensed matter. The first two chapters give, respectively, a short introduction and a presentation of forces, energies and timescales, giving a general overview and pointing out the particular importance of different aspects such as timescales, which are much more important in soft condensed matter than in traditional or 'hard' condensed matter. The next chapter, devoted to phase transition, recalls that the equilibrium between two phases is controlled by free energy considerations. Spinodal decomposition is presented as a counterpart of nucleation and growth. Again, characteristic length scales are considered and applied to a phase separation mixture of polymers in a common solvent. The following three chapters are devoted respectively to specific topics: colloidal dispersion, polymers and gelation. The stability and phase behaviour of colloids are related to the interaction between colloidal particles. Properties of colloidal crystals as well as colloidal dispersion are depicted in terms of stabilization of crystalline colloids. The flow properties of colloidal dispersion are presented in terms of free energy minimization and the structure of the dispersion. After a brief introduction to polymer chemistry and architecture, the coil-globule transition is discussed. Viscoelasticity of polymers is described and discussed by introducing the notion of entanglement. This leads to the introduction of the tube model and the theory of reptation. The sol-gel transition is presented

  13. Vortex ice in nanostructured superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichhardt, Charles [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Reichhardt, Cynthia J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Libal, Andras J [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    We demonstrate using numerical simulations of nanostructured superconductors that it is possible to realize vortex ice states that are analogous to square and kagome ice. The system can be brought into a state that obeys either global or local ice rules by applying an external current according to an annealing protocol. We explore the breakdown of the ice rules due to disorder in the nanostructure array and show that in square ice, topological defects appear along grain boundaries, while in kagome ice, individual defects appear. We argue that the vortex system offers significant advantages over other artificial ice systems.

  14. Embodying Soft Wearables Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomico, Oscar; Wilde, Danielle


    The value of engaging sensory motor skills in the design and use of smart systems is increasingly recognized. Yet robust and reliable methods for development, reporting and transfer are not fully understood. This workshop investigates the role of embodied design research techniques in the context...... of soft wearables. Throughout, we will experiment with how embodied design research techniques might be shared, developed, and used as direct and unmediated vehicles for their own reporting. Rather than engage in oral presentations, participants will lead each other through a proven embodied method...

  15. Spin-Current and Spin-Splitting in Helicoidal Molecules Due to Spin-Orbit Coupling (United States)

    Caetano, R. A.


    The use of organic materials in spintronic devices has been seriously considered after recent experimental works have shown unexpected spin-dependent electrical properties. The basis for the confection of any spintronic device is ability of selecting the appropriated spin polarization. In this direction, DNA has been pointed out as a potential candidate for spin selection due to the spin-orbit coupling originating from the electric field generated by accumulated electrical charges along the helix. Here, we demonstrate that spin-orbit coupling is the minimum ingredient necessary to promote a spatial spin separation and the generation of spin-current. We show that the up and down spin components have different velocities that give rise to a spin-current. By using a simple situation where spin-orbit coupling is present, we provide qualitative justifications to our results that clearly point to helicoidal molecules as serious candidates to integrate spintronic devices.

  16. Spin Torques in Systems with Spin Filtering and Spin Orbit Interaction

    KAUST Repository

    Ortiz Pauyac, Christian


    In the present thesis we introduce the reader to the field of spintronics and explore new phenomena, such as spin transfer torques, spin filtering, and three types of spin-orbit torques, Rashba, spin Hall, and spin swapping, which have emerged very recently and are promising candidates for a new generation of memory devices in computer technology. A general overview of these phenomena is presented in Chap. 1. In Chap. 2 we study spin transfer torques in tunnel junctions in the presence of spin filtering. In Chap. 3 we discuss the Rashba torque in ferromagnetic films, and in Chap. 4 we study spin Hall effect and spin swapping in ferromagnetic films, exploring the nature of spin-orbit torques based on these mechanisms. Conclusions and perspectives are summarized in Chap. 5.

  17. Soft skills and dental education. (United States)

    Gonzalez, M A G; Abu Kasim, N H; Naimie, Z


    Soft skills and hard skills are essential in the practice of dentistry. While hard skills deal with technical proficiency, soft skills relate to a personal values and interpersonal skills that determine a person's ability to fit in a particular situation. These skills contribute to the success of organisations that deal face-to-face with clients. Effective soft skills benefit the dental practice. However, the teaching of soft skills remains a challenge to dental schools. This paper discusses the different soft skills, how they are taught and assessed and the issues that need to be addressed in their teaching and assessment. The use of the module by the Faculty of Dentistry, University of Malaya for development of soft skills for institutions of higher learning introduced by the Ministry of Higher Education, Malaysia. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Fundamentals of soft robot locomotion. (United States)

    Calisti, M; Picardi, G; Laschi, C


    Soft robotics and its related technologies enable robot abilities in several robotics domains including, but not exclusively related to, manipulation, manufacturing, human-robot interaction and locomotion. Although field applications have emerged for soft manipulation and human-robot interaction, mobile soft robots appear to remain in the research stage, involving the somehow conflictual goals of having a deformable body and exerting forces on the environment to achieve locomotion. This paper aims to provide a reference guide for researchers approaching mobile soft robotics, to describe the underlying principles of soft robot locomotion with its pros and cons, and to envisage applications and further developments for mobile soft robotics. © 2017 The Author(s).

  19. Ice age terminations. (United States)

    Cheng, Hai; Edwards, R Lawrence; Broecker, Wallace S; Denton, George H; Kong, Xinggong; Wang, Yongjin; Zhang, Rong; Wang, Xianfeng


    230Th-dated oxygen isotope records of stalagmites from Sanbao Cave, China, characterize Asian Monsoon (AM) precipitation through the ends of the third- and fourthmost recent ice ages. As a result, AM records for the past four glacial terminations can now be precisely correlated with those from ice cores and marine sediments, establishing the timing and sequence of major events. In all four cases, observations are consistent with a classic Northern Hemisphere summer insolation intensity trigger for an initial retreat of northern ice sheets. Meltwater and icebergs entering the North Atlantic alter oceanic and atmospheric circulation and associated fluxes of heat and carbon, causing increases in atmospheric CO2 and Antarctic temperatures that drive the termination in the Southern Hemisphere. Increasing CO2 and summer insolation drive recession of northern ice sheets, with probable positive feedbacks between sea level and CO2.

  20. Melting ice, growing trade?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sami Bensassi; Julienne C. Stroeve; Inmaculada Martínez-Zarzoso; Andrew P. Barrett


    Abstract Large reductions in Arctic sea ice, most notably in summer, coupled with growing interest in Arctic shipping and resource exploitation have renewed interest in the economic potential of the Northern Sea Route (NSR...

  1. Ice Engineering Research Area (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Refrigerated Physical Modeling of Waterways in a Controlled EnvironmentThe Research Area in the Ice Engineering Facility at the Cold Regions Research and Engineering...

  2. Ice Cream Stick Math. (United States)

    Paddock, Cynthia


    Described is a teaching technique which uses the collection of ice cream sticks as a means of increasing awareness of quantity in a self-contained elementary special class for students with learning disabilities and mild mental retardation. (DB)

  3. Dead-ice environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krüger, Johannes; Kjær, Kurt H.; Schomacker, Anders


    Kötlujökull transports considerable amounts of supraglacial debris at its snout because of frontal oscillations with frequent ice advances followed by ice-margin stagnation. Kötlujökull provides suitable conditions of studying dead-ice melting and landscape formation in a debris-charged lowland...... under humid, sub-polar conditions? Does this rate differ from rates reported from polar environments of dry continental nature? How will the sedimentary architecture appear in the geological record? How will the final landsystem appear? These key questions are answered in a review of research...... and conclusions on dead-ice melting and landscape formation from Kötlujökull. Processes and landform-sediment associations are linked to the current climate and glacier–volcano interaction....

  4. Fundamentals of soft robot locomotion


    Calisti, M.; Picardi, G.; Laschi, C.


    Soft robotics and its related technologies enable robot abilities in several robotics domains including, but not exclusively related to, manipulation, manufacturing, human���robot interaction and locomotion. Although field applications have emerged for soft manipulation and human���robot interaction, mobile soft robots appear to remain in the research stage, involving the somehow conflictual goals of having a deformable body and exerting forces on the environment to achieve locomotion. This p...

  5. Electrical Properties of Ice (United States)


    carriers in ice. T U] P2 P3 PU4 (00C (m2 V s) (m21V S) (M21V s) (m2/V s) Method used Reference -13 to -36 (1.1±O..1)xl0𔄁 Analysis of Kunst and...Chapter 18. In Ice, 2nd ed., vol. 2. Amsterdam: North Holland Publishing Co., p. 783-7 99 . Kunst , M. and J. Warnan (1983) Nanosecond time-resolved

  6. Measurements of nuclear spin dynamics by spin-noise spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryzhov, I. I.; Poltavtsev, S. V.; Kozlov, G. G.; Zapasskii, V. S. [Spin Optics Laboratory, St. Petersburg State University, 1 Ul' anovskaya, Peterhof, St. Petersburg 198504 (Russian Federation); Kavokin, K. V.; Glazov, M. M. [Spin Optics Laboratory, St. Petersburg State University, 1 Ul' anovskaya, Peterhof, St. Petersburg 198504 (Russian Federation); Ioffe Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, 26 Polytechnicheskaya, St.-Petersburg 194021 (Russian Federation); Vladimirova, M.; Scalbert, D.; Cronenberger, S. [Laboratoire Charles Coulomb UMR 5221 CNRS/Université de Montpellier, Place Eugene Bataillon, 34095 Montpellier Cedex 05 (France); Kavokin, A. V. [Spin Optics Laboratory, St. Petersburg State University, 1 Ul' anovskaya, Peterhof, St. Petersburg 198504 (Russian Federation); School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, SO17 1NJ Southampton (United Kingdom); Lemaître, A.; Bloch, J. [Laboratoire de Photonique et de Nanostructures, UPR CNRS, Route de Nozay, 91460 Marcoussis (France)


    We exploit the potential of the spin noise spectroscopy (SNS) for studies of nuclear spin dynamics in n-GaAs. The SNS experiments were performed on bulk n-type GaAs layers embedded into a high-finesse microcavity at negative detuning. In our experiments, nuclear spin polarisation initially prepared by optical pumping is monitored in real time via a shift of the peak position in the electron spin noise spectrum. We demonstrate that this shift is a direct measure of the Overhauser field acting on the electron spin. The dynamics of nuclear spin is shown to be strongly dependent on the electron concentration.

  7. Aircraft icing and thermo-mechanical expulsion de-icing technology




    The topic of this thesis is Aircraft Icing and Aircraft Icing and Thermo-Mechanical Expulsion De-icing Technology. The main objectives are to investigate aircraft icing meteorology and effects on aircraft, ice protection systems and thermo-mechanical expulsion de-icing technology. Initially, the research project focuses on aircraft icing meteorology, ice accumulation and icing effects on flight safety. A basic understanding of aircraft icing is explained, including icing conditions and par...

  8. Modeling Soft Matter (United States)

    Kremer, Kurt

    Soft matter science or soft materials science is a relatively new term for the science of a huge class of rather different materials such as colloids, polymers (of synthetic or biological origin), membranes, complex molecular assemblies, complex fluids, etc. and combinations thereof. While many of these systems are contained in or are even the essential part of everyday products ("simple" plastics such as yoghurt cups, plastic bags, CDs, many car parts; gels and networks such as rubber, many low fat foods, "gummi" bears; colloidal systems such as milk, mayonnaise, paints, almost all cosmetics or body care products, the border lines between the different applications and systems are of course not sharp) or as biological molecules or assemblies (DNA, proteins, membranes and cytoskeleton, etc.) are central to our existence, others are basic ingredients of current and future high tech products (polymers with specific optical or electronic properties, conducting macromolecules, functional materials). Though the motivation is different in life science rather than in materials science biomolecular simulations, the basic structure of the problems faced in the two fields is very similar.

  9. Soft Robotic Actuators (United States)

    Godfrey, Juleon Taylor

    In this thesis a survey on soft robotic actuators is conducted. The actuators are classified into three main categories: Pneumatic Artificial Muscles (PAM), Electronic Electroactive Polymers (Electric EAP), and Ionic Electroactive Polymers (Ionic EAP). Soft robots can have many degrees and are more compliant than hard robots. This makes them suitable for applications that are difficult for hard robots. For each actuator background history, build materials, how they operate, and modeling are presented. Multiple actuators in each class are reviewed highlighting both their use and their mathematical formulation. In addition to the survey the McKibben actuator was chosen for fabrication and in-depth experimental analysis. Four McKibben actuators were fabricated using mesh sleeve, barbed hose fittings, and different elastic bladders. All were actuated using compressed air. Tensile tests were performed for each actuator to measure the tension force as air pressure increased from 20 to 100 psi in 10 psi increments. To account for material relaxation properties eleven trials for each actuator were run for 2-3 days. In conclusion, the smallest outer diameter elastic bladder was capable of producing the highest force due to the larger gap between the bladder and the sleeve.

  10. Modelling sea ice dynamics (United States)

    Murawski, Jens; Kleine, Eckhard


    Sea ice remains one of the frontiers of ocean modelling and is of vital importance for the correct forecasts of the northern oceans. At large scale, it is commonly considered a continuous medium whose dynamics is modelled in terms of continuum mechanics. Its specifics are a matter of constitutive behaviour which may be characterised as rigid-plastic. The new developed sea ice dynamic module bases on general principles and follows a systematic approach to the problem. Both drift field and stress field are modelled by a variational property. Rigidity is treated by Lagrangian relaxation. Thus one is led to a sensible numerical method. Modelling fast ice remains to be a challenge. It is understood that ridging and the formation of grounded ice keels plays a role in the process. The ice dynamic model includes a parameterisation of the stress associated with grounded ice keels. Shear against the grounded bottom contact might lead to plastic deformation and the loss of integrity. The numerical scheme involves a potentially large system of linear equations which is solved by pre-conditioned iteration. The entire algorithm consists of several components which result from decomposing the problem. The algorithm has been implemented and tested in practice.

  11. Large-amplitude spin dynamics driven by a THz pulse in resonance with an electromagnon. (United States)

    Kubacka, T; Johnson, J A; Hoffmann, M C; Vicario, C; de Jong, S; Beaud, P; Grübel, S; Huang, S-W; Huber, L; Patthey, L; Chuang, Y-D; Turner, J J; Dakovski, G L; Lee, W-S; Minitti, M P; Schlotter, W; Moore, R G; Hauri, C P; Koohpayeh, S M; Scagnoli, V; Ingold, G; Johnson, S L; Staub, U


    Multiferroics have attracted strong interest for potential applications where electric fields control magnetic order. The ultimate speed of control via magnetoelectric coupling, however, remains largely unexplored. Here, we report an experiment in which we drove spin dynamics in multiferroic TbMnO3 with an intense few-cycle terahertz (THz) light pulse tuned to resonance with an electromagnon, an electric-dipole active spin excitation. We observed the resulting spin motion using time-resolved resonant soft x-ray diffraction. Our results show that it is possible to directly manipulate atomic-scale magnetic structures with the electric field of light on a sub-picosecond time scale.

  12. Leading twist generalized parton distributions and spin densities in a proton (United States)

    Maji, Tanmay; Mondal, Chandan; Chakrabarti, Dipankar


    We evaluate both chirally even and odd generalized parton distributions (GPDs) in the leading twist in a recently proposed quark-diquark model for the proton where the light front wave functions are constructed from the soft-wall AdS/QCD prediction. The GPDs in transverse impact parameter space give the spin densities for different quark and proton polarizations. For longitudinally polarized proton only chiral even GPDs contribute but for transversely polarized proton both chiral even and chiral odd GPDs contribute to the spin densities. We present a detail study of the spin densities in this model.

  13. Ice recrystallization inhibition in ice cream by propylene glycol monostearate. (United States)

    Aleong, J M; Frochot, S; Goff, H D


    The effectiveness of propylene glycol monostearate (PGMS) to inhibit ice recrystallization was evaluated in ice cream and frozen sucrose solutions. PGMS (0.3%) dramatically reduced ice crystal sizes in ice cream and in sucrose solutions frozen in a scraped-surface freezer before and after heat shock, but had no effect in quiescently frozen solutions. PGMS showed limited emulsifier properties by promoting smaller fat globule size distributions and enhanced partial coalescence in the mix and ice cream, respectively, but at a much lower level compared to conventional ice cream emulsifier. Low temperature scanning electron microscopy revealed highly irregular crystal morphology in both ice cream and sucrose solutions frozen in a scraped-surface freezer. There was strong evidence to suggest that PGMS directly interacts with ice crystals and interferes with normal surface propagation. Shear during freezing may be required for its distribution around the ice and sufficient surface coverage.

  14. Annual Arctic sea ice less reflective than old ice (United States)

    Schultz, Colin


    In the Arctic Ocean the blanket of permanent sea ice is being progressively replaced by a transient winter cover. In recent years the extent of the northern ocean's ice cover has declined. The summer melt season is starting earlier, the winter freeze is happening later, the areal extent of the ice has decreased, and more ice is failing to last through the summer. A key uncertainty in this ongoing climate transformation is how seasonal sea ice affects and responds to climate dynamics as compared to the traditional multiyear sea ice. Tackling an important branch of this issue, Perovich and Polashenski analyze how the albedo of seasonal sea ice changes throughout the summer melt season. The ice's albedo affects how much sunlight enters the system and hence influences biological productivity, ice extent, and future rates of warming.

  15. Giant Spin Accumulation in Silicon Nonlocal Spin-Transport Devices (United States)

    Spiesser, A.; Saito, H.; Fujita, Y.; Yamada, S.; Hamaya, K.; Yuasa, S.; Jansen, R.


    Although the electrical injection, transport, and detection of spins in silicon have been achieved, the induced spin accumulation is much smaller than expected and desired, limiting the potential impact of Si-based spintronic devices. Here, using nonlocal spin-transport devices with an n -type Si channel and Fe /MgO magnetic tunnel contacts, we demonstrate that it is possible to create a giant spin accumulation in Si, with the spin splitting reaching 13 meV at 10 K and 3.5 meV at room temperature. The nonlocal spin signals are in good agreement with a numerical evaluation of spin injection and diffusion that explicitly takes the size of the injector contact into account. The giant spin accumulation originates from the large tunnel spin polarization of the Fe /MgO contacts (53% at 10 K and 18% at 300 K) and from the spin-density enhancement that is achieved by using a spin injector with a size comparable to the spin-diffusion length of the Si. The ability to induce a giant spin accumulation enables the development of Si spintronic devices with a large magnetic response.

  16. Wave-Ice and Air-Ice-Ocean Interaction During the Chukchi Sea Ice Edge Advance (United States)


    ice . The ROV and all sensors were tested extensively at WHOI. This platform will complement the AUV by performing rapid, short under ice ...Bruncin, 3) two WHOI-built IMBs also equipped with acoustic snow depth sensors and CTDs, and 4) one CRREL Seasonal Sea Ice Zone IMB. In addition, an...1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Wave- Ice and Air- Ice -Ocean Interaction During the

  17. Spin Structures in Magnetic Nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørup, Steen; Brok, Erik; Frandsen, Cathrine


    Spin structures in nanoparticles of ferrimagnetic materials may deviate locally in a nontrivial way from ideal collinear spin structures. For instance, magnetic frustration due to the reduced numbers of magnetic neighbors at the particle surface or around defects in the interior can lead to spin...... canting and hence a reduced magnetization. Moreover, relaxation between almost degenerate canted spin states can lead to anomalous temperature dependences of the magnetization at low temperatures. In ensembles of nanoparticles, interparticle exchange interactions can also result in spin reorientation....... Here, we give a short review of anomalous spin structures in nanoparticles....

  18. Spinning Them Off: Entrepreneuring practices in Corporate Spin-Offs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hydle, Katja Maria; Meland, Kjersti Vikse; Haus-Reve, Silje


    .... We uncover the enacted aspects of knowledge, called knowing, through theories from seven cases of incumbent-backed spin-offs and find that the management of the parent firms are highly involved in the spin-offs...

  19. Quantum spin transistor with a Heisenberg spin chain (United States)

    Marchukov, O. V.; Volosniev, A. G.; Valiente, M.; Petrosyan, D.; Zinner, N. T.


    Spin chains are paradigmatic systems for the studies of quantum phases and phase transitions, and for quantum information applications, including quantum computation and short-distance quantum communication. Here we propose and analyse a scheme for conditional state transfer in a Heisenberg XXZ spin chain which realizes a quantum spin transistor. In our scheme, the absence or presence of a control spin excitation in the central gate part of the spin chain results in either perfect transfer of an arbitrary state of a target spin between the weakly coupled input and output ports, or its complete blockade at the input port. We also discuss a possible proof-of-concept realization of the corresponding spin chain with a one-dimensional ensemble of cold atoms with strong contact interactions. Our scheme is generally applicable to various implementations of tunable spin chains, and it paves the way for the realization of integrated quantum logic elements. PMID:27721438

  20. Mechanisms of Spin-Dependent Heat Generation in Spin Valves (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Xue; Zhu, Yao-Hui; He, Pei-Song; Li, Bao-He


    The extra heat generation in spin transport is usually interpreted in terms of the spin relaxation. By reformulating the heat generation rate, we found alternative current-force pairs without cross effects, which enable us to interpret the product of each pair as a distinct mechanism of heat generation. The results show that the spin-dependent part of the heat generation includes two terms. One of them is proportional to the square of the spin accumulation and arises from the spin relaxation. However, the other is proportional to the square of the spin-accumulation gradient and should be attributed to another mechanism, the spin diffusion. We illustrated the characteristics of the two mechanisms in a typical spin valve with a finite nonmagnetic spacer layer.

  1. Demonstration of the spin solar cell and spin photodiode effect (United States)

    Endres, B.; Ciorga, M.; Schmid, M.; Utz, M.; Bougeard, D.; Weiss, D.; Bayreuther, G.; Back, C.H.


    Spin injection and extraction are at the core of semiconductor spintronics. Electrical injection is one method of choice for the creation of a sizeable spin polarization in a semiconductor, requiring especially tailored tunnel or Schottky barriers. Alternatively, optical orientation can be used to generate spins in semiconductors with significant spin-orbit interaction, if optical selection rules are obeyed, typically by using circularly polarized light at a well-defined wavelength. Here we introduce a novel concept for spin injection/extraction that combines the principle of a solar cell with the creation of spin accumulation. We demonstrate that efficient optical spin injection can be achieved with unpolarized light by illuminating a p-n junction where the p-type region consists of a ferromagnet. The discovered mechanism opens the window for the optical generation of a sizeable spin accumulation also in semiconductors without direct band gap such as Si or Ge. PMID:23820766

  2. Chiral higher spin gravity (United States)

    Krishnan, Chethan; Raju, Avinash


    We construct a candidate for the most general chiral higher spin theory with AdS3 boundary conditions. In the Chern-Simons language, on the left it has the Drinfeld-Sokolov reduced form, but on the right all charges and chemical potentials are turned on. Altogether (for the spin-3 case) these are 19 functions. Despite this, we show that the resulting metric has the form of the "most general" AdS3 boundary conditions discussed by Grumiller and Riegler. The asymptotic symmetry algebra is a product of a W3 algebra on the left and an affine s l (3 )k current algebra on the right, as desired. The metric and higher spin fields depend on all the 19 functions. We compare our work with previous results in the literature.

  3. Spinning fluids reactor (United States)

    Miller, Jan D; Hupka, Jan; Aranowski, Robert


    A spinning fluids reactor, includes a reactor body (24) having a circular cross-section and a fluid contactor screen (26) within the reactor body (24). The fluid contactor screen (26) having a plurality of apertures and a circular cross-section concentric with the reactor body (24) for a length thus forming an inner volume (28) bound by the fluid contactor screen (26) and an outer volume (30) bound by the reactor body (24) and the fluid contactor screen (26). A primary inlet (20) can be operatively connected to the reactor body (24) and can be configured to produce flow-through first spinning flow of a first fluid within the inner volume (28). A secondary inlet (22) can similarly be operatively connected to the reactor body (24) and can be configured to produce a second flow of a second fluid within the outer volume (30) which is optionally spinning.

  4. SPIN-selling

    CERN Document Server

    Rackham, Neil


    True or false? In selling high-value products or services: "closing" increases your chance of success; it is essential to describe the benefits of your product or service to the customer; objection handling is an important skill; and open questions are more effective than closed questions. All false, says Neil Rackham. He and his team studied more than 35,000 sales calls made by 10,000 sales people in 23 countries over 12 years. Their findings revealed that many of the methods developed for selling low-value goods just don't work for major sales. Rackham went on to introduce his SPIN-selling method, where SPIN describes the whole selling process - Situation questions, Problem questions, Implication questions, Need-payoff questions. SPIN-selling provides you with a set of simple and practical techniques which have been tried in many of today's leading companies with dramatic improvements to their sales performance.

  5. Perspectives on spin glasses

    CERN Document Server

    Contucci, Pierluigi


    Presenting and developing the theory of spin glasses as a prototype for complex systems, this book is a rigorous and up-to-date introduction to their properties. The book combines a mathematical description with a physical insight of spin glass models. Topics covered include the physical origins of those models and their treatment with replica theory; mathematical properties like correlation inequalities and their use in the thermodynamic limit theory; main exact solutions of the mean field models and their probabilistic structures; and the theory of the structural properties of the spin glass phase such as stochastic stability and the overlap identities. Finally, a detailed account is given of the recent numerical simulation results and properties, including overlap equivalence, ultrametricity and decay of correlations. The book is ideal for mathematical physicists and probabilists working in disordered systems.

  6. Interval-Valued Neutrosophic Soft Rough Sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said Broumi


    Full Text Available We first defined interval-valued neutrosophic soft rough sets (IVN-soft rough sets for short which combine interval-valued neutrosophic soft set and rough sets and studied some of its basic properties. This concept is an extension of interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy soft rough sets (IVIF-soft rough sets.

  7. Modeled and reconstructed ice thickness of the Rhine Glacier during the Last Glacial Maximum (United States)

    Imhof, Michael; Jouvet, Guillaume; Seguinot, Julien; Funk, Martin


    Despite available geological evidence, only a few ice flow modeling studies have been done on the European Alpine ice cap during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). These studies show a good agreement with maximum glacier tongue extent reconstructed from moraines. However, the ice flow models systematically overestimate the ice thickness by up to 50% when compared to reconstructions based on trimlines, unless extremely low LGM precipitation is assumed. This discrepancy between model results and geological reconstructions is calling for a more detailed exploration of model sensitivity to uncertain ice physical parameters. In this study, we investigate the effect of model parameters related to basal sliding and ice rheology of the Parallel Ice Sheet Model (PISM) at the Rhine Glacier. We evaluate whether a set of realistic parameters can reproduce the thickness of the Rhine glacier at the LGM reconstructed from trimlines, without involving extremely low precipitation rates. PISM is a state-of-the-art ice sheet model, which computes the extent and thickness of ice and its thermal and dynamic state, for given initial basal topography and climate forcing. Since PISM is based on simplified ice mechanics (combining shallow ice approximation and shallow shelf approximation), it is computationally fairly cheap and therefore allows to perform a large amount of simulations of the Rhine Glacier during the last 45,000 years. An agreement between model results and geologic reconstructions is only reached for model parameters characterising unusually soft ice or very slippery basal conditions. We suggest that trimlines mapped in the Rhine valley may instead depict a transition zone between temperate and cold ice, or characterise another period than the LGM.

  8. Soft isostasy in geomorphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Pourkhosravani


    Full Text Available Earth subsidence has been one of the important issues jeopardizing environment and there are many studies, which blame shortage of underground water resources for having uplift and subsidence. However, many argue such conclusion and believe that earth subsidence has been studied in the past without considering the changes in the hill over a long period. In this study, we use SAR interferometry study to investigate earth subsidence in dessert areas of Esfahan, Yazd and Ardakan, located in central part of Iran. The results indicate that there are more important issues affecting subsidence such as the uplift in the hills located the desert area. The results of the survey based on SAR interferometry reveals that subsidence occurs with the uplift in the adjacent hills, simultaneously. In other words, tectonic movements and soft isostasy play important role on earth subsidence.

  9. Soft matter physics

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Claudine


    What do colloids, fractals, liquid crystals, and polymers have in common? Nothing at first sight. Yet the distance scales, the energy transfers, the way these objects react to an external field are very similar. For the first time, this book offers an introduction to the physics of these soft materials in one single volume. A variety of experiments and concepts are presented, including the phenomena of capillarity and wetting, fractals, small volumes and large surfaces, colloids, surfactants, giant micelles and fluid membranes, polymers, and liquid crystals. Each chapter is written by experts in the field with the aim of making the book accessible to the widest possible scientific audience: graduate students, lecturers, and research scientists in physics, chemistry, and other disciplines. Nobel Prize winner Pierre-Gilles de Gennes inspired this book and has written a foreword.

  10. Soft Costs Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This fact sheet is an overview of the systems integration subprogram at the U.S. Department of Energy SunShot Initiative. Soft costs can vary significantly as a result of a fragmented energy marketplace. In the U.S., there are 18,000 jurisdictions and 3,000 utilities with different rules and regulations for how to go solar. The same solar equipment may vary widely in its final installation price due to process and market variations across jurisdictions, creating barriers to rapid industry growth. SunShot supports the development of innovative solutions that enable communities to build their local economies and establish clean energy initiatives that meet their needs, while at the same time creating sustainable solar market conditions.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaenuri Jaenuri


    Full Text Available Soft skill is a skill of person that build relationships with others and self-organizing skills. Teachers as a determinant of the potential development of students is not enough can only teach (transfer of knowledge. Moreover, the teacher as a model for the student must have a good personality and social. So teachers are required to develop continuously the ability of personality (intra personal skills and social skills (inter personal skills. The development of intra personal skills includes: developing the power of consciousness, goals, beliefs, love, concentration, and decisions. The development of interpersonal skills includes: many smiles, appreciative, active listener, active cooperate, mediator, communication ability, humor, empathy, and not easy to complain.

  12. Paramagnetic spin seebeck effect. (United States)

    Wu, Stephen M; Pearson, John E; Bhattacharya, Anand


    We report the observation of the longitudinal spin Seebeck effect in paramagnetic insulators. By using a microscale on-chip local heater, we generate a large thermal gradient confined to the chip surface without a large increase in the total sample temperature. Using this technique at low temperatures (Seebeck effect in the insulating paramagnets Gd3Ga5O12 (gadolinium gallium garnet) and DyScO3 (DSO), using either W or Pt as the spin detector layer. By taking advantage of the strong magnetocrystalline anisotropy of DSO, we eliminate contributions from the Nernst effect in W or Pt, which produces a phenomenologically similar signal.

  13. Soft-collinear supersymmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, Timothy [Institute of Theoretical Science, University of Oregon,Eugene, OR 97403 (United States); Elor, Gilly [Institute of Theoretical Science, University of Oregon,Eugene, OR 97403 (United States); Center for Theoretical Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology,Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Larkoski, Andrew J. [Physics Department, Reed College,Portland, OR 97202 (United States); Center for Fundamental Laws of Nature, Harvard University,Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)


    Soft-Collinear Effective Theory (SCET) is a framework for modeling the infrared structure of theories whose long distance behavior is dominated by soft and collinear divergences. This paper demonstrates that SCET can be made compatible with supersymmetry (SUSY). Explicitly, the effective Lagrangian for N=1 SUSY Yang-Mills is constructed and shown to be a complete description for the infrared of this model. For contrast, we also construct the effective Lagrangian for chiral SUSY theories with Yukawa couplings, specifically the single flavor Wess-Zumino model. Only a subset of the infrared divergences are reproduced by the Lagrangian — to account for the complete low energy description requires the inclusion of local operators. SCET is formulated by expanding fields along a light-like direction and then subsequently integrating out degrees-of-freedom that are away from the light-cone. Defining the theory with respect to a specific frame obfuscates Lorentz invariance — given that SUSY is a space-time symmetry, this presents a possible obstruction. The cleanest language with which to expose the congruence between SUSY and SCET requires exploring two novel formalisms: collinear fermions as two-component Weyl spinors, and SCET in light-cone gauge. By expressing SUSY Yang-Mills in “collinear superspace', a slice of superspace derived by integrating out half the fermionic coordinates, the light-cone gauge SUSY SCET theory can be written in terms of superfields. As a byproduct, bootstrapping up to the full theory yields the first algorithmic approach for determining the SUSY Yang-Mills on-shell superspace action. This work paves the way toward discovering the effective theory for the collinear limit of N=4 SUSY Yang-Mills.

  14. Soft tissue sparganosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Ki Soon; Lee, Yul; Chung, Soo Young; Park, Choong Ki; Lee, Kwan Sup [Hallym University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, In Hwan; Suh, Hyoung Sim [Daelin S. Mary' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    Sparganosis is a rare tissue-parasitic infestation caused by a plerocercoid tapeworm larva(sparganum), genus Spirometra. The most common clinical presentation of sparganosis is a palpable subcutaneous mass or masses. Fifteen simple radiographs and 10 ultrasosnograms of 17 patients with operatively verified subcutaneous sparganosis were retrospectively analyzed to find its radiologic characteristics for preoperative diagnosis of sparganosis. The location of the subcutaneous sparganosis were lower extremity, abdominal wall, breast, inguinal region and scrotum in order of frequency. The simple radiographs showed linear or elongated calcification with or without nodular elongated shaped soft tissue mass shadows in 8 patients, soft tissue mass shadow only in 2 patients and lateral abdominal wall thickening in 1 patient. But no specific findings was noted in 4 patients with small abdominal and inguinal masses. We could classify the subcutaneous sparganosis by ultrasound into 2 types: one is long band-like hypoechoic structures, corresponding to the subcutaneous tunnel-like tracks formed by migration of sparganum larva and the order is elongated or ovoid hyperechoic nodules, representing granulomas. Long band-like hypoechoic structures within or associated with mixed echoic granulomatous masses were noted in 6 patients and elongated or ovoid hypoechoic mass or masses were noted in 4 patients. In conclusion, sparganosis should be considered when these radiologic findings-irregular linear calcifications on simple radiograph and long band-like hypoechoic structures on ultrasonography, corresponding to the subcutaneous tunnel-like tracks formed by migration of sparganum larva are noted in the patients who have subcutaneous palpable mass or masses. And radiologic examination especially ultrasonography is very helpful to diagnose sparganosis.

  15. Soft-collinear supersymmetry (United States)

    Cohen, Timothy; Elor, Gilly; Larkoski, Andrew J.


    Soft-Collinear Effective Theory (SCET) is a framework for modeling the infrared structure of theories whose long distance behavior is dominated by soft and collinear divergences. This paper demonstrates that SCET can be made compatible with super-symmetry (SUSY). Explicitly, the effective Lagrangian for N=1 SUSY Yang-Mills is cconstructed and shown to be a complete description for the infrared of this model. For contrast, we also construct the effective Lagrangian for chiral SUSY theories with Yukawa couplings, specifically the single flavor Wess-Zumino model. Only a subset of the infrared divergences are reproduced by the Lagrangian — to account for the complete low energy description requires the inclusion of local operators. SCET is formulated by expanding fields along a light-like direction and then subsequently integrating out degrees-of-freedom that are away from the light-cone. Defining the theory with respect to a specific frame obfuscates Lorentz invariance — given that SUSY is a space-time symmetry, this presents a possible obstruction. The cleanest language with which to expose the congruence be-tween SUSY and SCET requires exploring two novel formalisms: collinear fermions as two-component Weyl spinors, and SCET in light-cone gauge. By expressing SUSY Yang-Mills in "collinear superspace", a slice of superspace derived by integrating out half the fermionic coordinates, the light-cone gauge SUSY SCET theory can be written in terms of superfields. As a byproduct, bootstrapping up to the full theory yields the first algorithmic approach for determining the SUSY Yang-Mills on-shell superspace action. This work paves the way toward discovering the effective theory for the collinear limit of N=4 SUSY Yang-Mills.

  16. Ice flow Modelling of the Greenland Ice Sheet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lisbeth Tangaa

    Models of ice flow have a range of application in glaciology, including investigating the large-scale response of ice sheets to changes in climate, assimilating data to estimate unknown conditions beneath the ice sheet, and in interpreting proxy records obtained from ice cores, among others. In t...... a steady state with respect to the reference climate at the end of the simulation and that the mass balance of the ice sheet at this time was more sensitive to recent climate fluctuations than the temperature forcing in the early or mid-Holocene.......Models of ice flow have a range of application in glaciology, including investigating the large-scale response of ice sheets to changes in climate, assimilating data to estimate unknown conditions beneath the ice sheet, and in interpreting proxy records obtained from ice cores, among others....... In this PhD project, the use of ice flow models for the interpretation of the age-structure of the Greenland ice sheet, i.e. the depth within the ice, at which ice deposited at given times are found at present day. Two different observational data sets of this archive were investigated. Further, paleo...

  17. Not-so-Soft Skills (United States)

    Curran, Mary


    Much recent discussion about the skills needed to secure Britain's economic recovery has focused on skills for employability. However, too often, these fundamental skills are understood in narrow functional or vocational terms. So-called "soft skills", what Penelope Tobin, in her 2008 paper "Soft Skills: the hard facts", terms "traits and…

  18. Modeling Commercial Turbofan Engine Icing Risk With Ice Crystal Ingestion (United States)

    Jorgenson, Philip C. E.; Veres, Joseph P.


    The occurrence of ice accretion within commercial high bypass aircraft turbine engines has been reported under certain atmospheric conditions. Engine anomalies have taken place at high altitudes that have been attributed to ice crystal ingestion, partially melting, and ice accretion on the compression system components. The result was degraded engine performance, and one or more of the following: loss of thrust control (roll back), compressor surge or stall, and flameout of the combustor. As ice crystals are ingested into the fan and low pressure compression system, the increase in air temperature causes a portion of the ice crystals to melt. It is hypothesized that this allows the ice-water mixture to cover the metal surfaces of the compressor stationary components which leads to ice accretion through evaporative cooling. Ice accretion causes a blockage which subsequently results in the deterioration in performance of the compressor and engine. The focus of this research is to apply an engine icing computational tool to simulate the flow through a turbofan engine and assess the risk of ice accretion. The tool is comprised of an engine system thermodynamic cycle code, a compressor flow analysis code, and an ice particle melt code that has the capability of determining the rate of sublimation, melting, and evaporation through the compressor flow path, without modeling the actual ice accretion. A commercial turbofan engine which has previously experienced icing events during operation in a high altitude ice crystal environment has been tested in the Propulsion Systems Laboratory (PSL) altitude test facility at NASA Glenn Research Center. The PSL has the capability to produce a continuous ice cloud which are ingested by the engine during operation over a range of altitude conditions. The PSL test results confirmed that there was ice accretion in the engine due to ice crystal ingestion, at the same simulated altitude operating conditions as experienced previously in

  19. Spin injection and perpendicular spin transport in graphite nanostructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banerjee, T.; van der Wiel, Wilfred Gerard; Jansen, R.


    Organic- and carbon-based materials are attractive for spintronics because their small spin-orbit coupling and low hyperfine interaction is expected to give rise to large spin-relaxation times. However, the corresponding spin-relaxation length is not necessarily large when transport is via weakly

  20. Evaluation of vacuum bonded GaAs/Si spin-valve transistors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dessein, K.; Boeve, H.; Anil Kumar, P.S.; de Boeck, J.; Lodder, J.C.; Delaey, L.; Borghs, G.


    In this article a new type of spin-valve transistor, a hybrid GaAs/Si device, is presented. In this device the Si emitter is replaced by a GaAs emitter launcher structure. The integration of the GaAs with the Si was done by means of a room temperature vacuum bonding technique. By using a soft


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    We present soft-x-ray absorption spectra (XAS) of LaCoO3 taken at different temperatures (80-630 K). The shape of the multiplets in the Co 2p XAS spectra conveys information on the symmetry and spin of the ground state. The 0 Is XAS spectra are related to unoccupied metal bands through covalent

  2. Nonlinear dynamics of soft fermion excitations in hot QCD plasma I: soft-quark - soft-gluon scattering


    Markov, Yu. A.; Markova, M. A.


    Within the framework of the hard thermal loop effective theory we derive a system of Boltzmann-like kinetic equations taking into account the simplest processes of nonlinear interaction of soft fermionic and bosonic QCD plasma excitations: elastic scattering of soft-(anti)quark excitations off soft-gluon and soft-quark excitations, pair production of soft quark-antiquark excitations, annihilation into two soft-gluon excitations. The matrix elements of these processes to leading order in the c...

  3. Data archaeology at ICES (United States)

    Dooley, Harry D.


    This paper provides a brief overview of the function of the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES), both past and present, in particular in the context of its interest in compiling oceanographic data sets. Details are provided of the procedures it adopted to ensure adequate internationally collaborative marine investigations during the first part of the century, such as how it provided a forum for action by its member states, how it coordinated and published the results of scientific programs, and how it provided a foundation, through scientists employed in the ICES Office, for the establishment of the original oceanographic marine databases and associated products, and the scientific interpretation of the results. The growth and expansion of this area of ICES activity is then traced, taking into account the changing conditions for oceanographic data management resulting from the establishment of the National Data Centres, as well as the World Data Centres for Oceanography, which were created to meet the needs of the International Geophysical Year (IGY). Finally, there is a discussion of the way in which the very existence of ICES has proved to be a valuable source of old data, some of which have not yet been digitized, but which can be readily retrieved because they have been very carefully documented throughout the years. Lessons from this activity are noted, and suggestions are made on how the past experiences of ICES can be utilized to ensure the availability of marine data to present and future generations of scientists.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Lori Chalmers


    Full Text Available Ideologically Challenging Entertainment (ICE is entertainment that challenges ‘us vs. them’ ideologies associated with radicalization, violent conflict and terrorism. ICE presents multiple perspectives on a conflict through mainstream entertainment. This article introduces the theoretical underpinnings of ICE, the first ICE production and the audience responses to it. The first ICE production was Two Merchants: The Merchant of Venice adapted to challenge ideologies of the Arab-Israeli Conflict. A mixed-methods study of audience responses explored whether this production inspired audiences to shift their ideological views. Each performance included two versions of the adaptation: a Jewish dominated society with an Arab Muslim minority, contrasted with an Arab Muslim dominated society and a Jewish minority. A mixed-methods study of audience responses explored whether this production inspired audiences to shift their ideological views to become more tolerant of differences away from ideological radicalization. Of audience members who did not initially agree with the premise of the production, 40% reconsidered their ideological views, indicating increased tolerance, greater awareness of and desire to change their own prejudices. In addition, 86% of the audience expressed their intention to discuss the production with others, thereby encouraging critical engagement with, and broader dissemination of the message. These outcomes suggest that high quality entertainment – as defined by audience responses to it - can become a powerful tool in the struggle against radicalised ideologies.

  5. Mysteries at Ice Interfaces (United States)

    Fain, Samuel C., Jr.


    Michael Faraday noted that ``two pieces of thawing ice, if put together, adhere and become one...the effect will take place in air, or in water, or in vacuo." Why? He proposed that ``a particle of water, which could retain the liquid state whilst touching ice only on one side, could not retain the liquid state if it were touched by ice on both sides."footnote M. Faraday, Proc. Roy. Soc. London 10, 440 (1860) The existence of special properties at interfaces of ice is generally agreed and has important environmental consequences.(J. G. Dash, H. Fu, and J. S. Wettlaufer, Rep. Prog. Phys. 58), 115 (1995) Why do different experiments infer different properties for this layer? Impurities and electric fields at the interfaces may be responsible for some of the variations in experimental results.footnote V. F. Petrenko, U. S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory Report 94-22 (1994) Some background on the physical properties of ice will be discussed, including recent force microscopy measurements done at the University of Washington.footnote C.R. Slaughterbeck, E.W. Kukes, B. Pittenger, D.J. Cook, P.C. Williams, V.L. Eden, S.C. Fain, Jr., J. Vac. Sci. Technol. (in press) Supported by NSF Grant DMR-91-19701.

  6. Aspects of spin polarised transport

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, W D


    Spin electronics is the emerging discipline which seeks to exploit the spin of the electron in the pursuit of new areas of physics and of novel devices and applications. It can be broadly defined as the technology which differentially manipulates the two families of electronic carriers, the up and down spins. The technical basis for Spin Electronics resides in the transport properties of metallic ferromagnets which are central to the discipline and are used as sources and analysers of spin-polarised currents. We have developed a totally new model for domain wall resistance in the framework of the two spin channel model which invokes spin mixing which derives from the deviation of spin direction from the local magnetisation direction in passage through the wall

  7. Spin-flipping polarized electrons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Morozov


    Full Text Available We recently used a prototype rf dipole magnet to study the spin flipping of a 669 MeV horizontally polarized electron beam stored in the presence of a nearly full Siberian snake in the new MIT-Bates storage ring. We flipped the spin by ramping the rf dipole's frequency through an rf-induced depolarizing resonance. After optimizing the frequency ramp parameters, we used multiple spin flipping to measure a spin-flip efficiency of 94.5±2.5%. The spin-flip efficiency was apparently limited by the field strength in the air-core prototype rf dipole magnet. This unexpectedly high efficiency indicates that very efficient spin flipping of the ring's stored polarized electron beam should be possible using the much stronger ferrite spin flipper, which is now being built by the University of Michigan's Spin Physics Center.

  8. Ice Cores of the National Ice Core Laboratory (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. National Ice Core Laboratory (NICL) is a facility for storing, curating, and studying ice cores recovered from the polar regions of the world. It provides...

  9. IceBridge PARIS L2 Ice Thickness V001 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains contains Greenland ice thickness measurements acquired using the Pathfinder Advanced Radar Ice Sounder (PARIS).The data were collected as part...

  10. Soft α-Open Sets and Soft α-Continuous Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metin Akdag


    Full Text Available We introduce soft α-sets on soft topological spaces and study some of their properties. We also investigate the concepts of soft α-continuous and soft α-open functions and discuss their relationships with soft continuous and other weaker forms of soft continuous functions. Also counterexamples are given to show the noncoincidence of these functions.

  11. Bidirectional resonant tunneling spin pump


    Ting, David Z. -Y.; Cartoixà Soler, Xavier


    We propose a mechanism for achieving bidirectional spin pumping in conventional nonmagnetic semiconductorresonant tunnelingheterostructures under zero magnetic field. The device is designed specifically to take advantage of the special spin configuration described by the Rashba effect in asymmetric quantum wells. It induces the simultaneous flow of oppositely spin-polarized current components in opposite directions through spin-dependent resonant tunneling, and can thus generate significant l...

  12. On the Ice Nucleation Spectrum (United States)

    Barahona, D.


    This work presents a novel formulation of the ice nucleation spectrum, i.e. the function relating the ice crystal concentration to cloud formation conditions and aerosol properties. The new formulation is physically-based and explicitly accounts for the dependency of the ice crystal concentration on temperature, supersaturation, cooling rate, and particle size, surface area and composition. This is achieved by introducing the concepts of ice nucleation coefficient (the number of ice germs present in a particle) and nucleation probability dispersion function (the distribution of ice nucleation coefficients within the aerosol population). The new formulation is used to generate ice nucleation parameterizations for the homogeneous freezing of cloud droplets and the heterogeneous deposition ice nucleation on dust and soot ice nuclei. For homogeneous freezing, it was found that by increasing the dispersion in the droplet volume distribution the fraction of supercooled droplets in the population increases. For heterogeneous ice nucleation the new formulation consistently describes singular and stochastic behavior within a single framework. Using a fundamentally stochastic approach, both cooling rate independence and constancy of the ice nucleation fraction over time, features typically associated with singular behavior, were reproduced. Analysis of the temporal dependency of the ice nucleation spectrum suggested that experimental methods that measure the ice nucleation fraction over few seconds would tend to underestimate the ice nuclei concentration. It is shown that inferring the aerosol heterogeneous ice nucleation properties from measurements of the onset supersaturation and temperature may carry significant error as the variability in ice nucleation properties within the aerosol population is not accounted for. This work provides a simple and rigorous ice nucleation framework where theoretical predictions, laboratory measurements and field campaign data can be

  13. On the ice nucleation spectrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Barahona


    Full Text Available This work presents a novel formulation of the ice nucleation spectrum, i.e. the function relating the ice crystal concentration to cloud formation conditions and aerosol properties. The new formulation is physically-based and explicitly accounts for the dependency of the ice crystal concentration on temperature, supersaturation, cooling rate, and particle size, surface area and composition. This is achieved by introducing the concepts of ice nucleation coefficient (the number of ice germs present in a particle and nucleation probability dispersion function (the distribution of ice nucleation coefficients within the aerosol population. The new formulation is used to generate ice nucleation parameterizations for the homogeneous freezing of cloud droplets and the heterogeneous deposition ice nucleation on dust and soot ice nuclei. For homogeneous freezing, it was found that by increasing the dispersion in the droplet volume distribution the fraction of supercooled droplets in the population increases. For heterogeneous ice nucleation the new formulation consistently describes singular and stochastic behavior within a single framework. Using a fundamentally stochastic approach, both cooling rate independence and constancy of the ice nucleation fraction over time, features typically associated with singular behavior, were reproduced. Analysis of the temporal dependency of the ice nucleation spectrum suggested that experimental methods that measure the ice nucleation fraction over few seconds would tend to underestimate the ice nuclei concentration. It is shown that inferring the aerosol heterogeneous ice nucleation properties from measurements of the onset supersaturation and temperature may carry significant error as the variability in ice nucleation properties within the aerosol population is not accounted for. This work provides a simple and rigorous ice nucleation framework where theoretical predictions, laboratory measurements and field campaign

  14. Sub-subleading soft graviton theorem in generic theories of quantum gravity (United States)

    Laddha, Alok; Sen, Ashoke


    We analyze scattering amplitudes with one soft external graviton and arbitrary number of other finite energy external states carrying arbitrary mass and spin to sub-subleading order in the momentum of the soft graviton. Our result can be expressed as the sum of a universal part that depends only on the amplitude without the soft graviton and not the other details of the theory and a non-universal part that depends on the amplitude without the soft graviton, and the two and three point functions of the theory. For tree amplitudes our results are valid in all space-time dimensions while for loop amplitudes, infrared divergences force us to restrict our analysis to space time dimensions five or more. With this restriction the results are valid to all orders in perturbation theory. Our results agree with known results in quantum field theories and string theory.

  15. Influence of temperature fluctuations on equilibrium ice sheet volume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. B. Mikkelsen


    Full Text Available Forecasting the future sea level relies on accurate modeling of the response of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets to changing temperatures. The surface mass balance (SMB of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS has a nonlinear response to warming. Cold and warm anomalies of equal size do not cancel out and it is therefore important to consider the effect of interannual fluctuations in temperature. We find that the steady-state volume of an ice sheet is biased toward larger size if interannual temperature fluctuations are not taken into account in numerical modeling of the ice sheet. We illustrate this in a simple ice sheet model and find that the equilibrium ice volume is approximately 1 m SLE (meters sea level equivalent smaller when the simple model is forced with fluctuating temperatures as opposed to a stable climate. It is therefore important to consider the effect of interannual temperature fluctuations when designing long experiments such as paleo-spin-ups. We show how the magnitude of the potential bias can be quantified statistically. For recent simulations of the Greenland Ice Sheet, we estimate the bias to be 30 Gt yr−1 (24–59 Gt yr−1, 95 % credibility for a warming of 3 °C above preindustrial values, or 13 % (10–25, 95 % credibility of the present-day rate of ice loss. Models of the Greenland Ice Sheet show a collapse threshold beyond which the ice sheet becomes unsustainable. The proximity of the threshold will be underestimated if temperature fluctuations are not taken into account. We estimate the bias to be 0.12 °C (0.10–0.18 °C, 95 % credibility for a recent estimate of the threshold. In light of our findings it is important to gauge the extent to which this increased variability will influence the mass balance of the ice sheets.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The theoretical aspects of two leading twist transversity single spin asymmetries, one arising from the Collins effect and one from the interference fragmentation functions, are reviewed. Issues of factorization, evolution and Sudakov factors for the relevant observables are discussed. These theoretical considerations pinpoint the most realistic scenarios towards measurements of transversity.

  17. Spin physics in semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Dyakonov, Mikhail I


    This book describes beautiful optical and transport phenomena related to the electron and nuclear spins in semiconductors with emphasis on a clear presentation of the physics involved. Recent results on quantum wells and quantum dots are reviewed. The book is intended for students and researchers in the fields of semiconductor physics and nanoelectronics.

  18. Antiferromagnetic spin-orbitronics

    KAUST Repository

    Manchon, Aurelien


    Antiferromagnets have long remained an intriguing and exotic state of matter, whose application has been restricted to enabling interfacial exchange bias in metallic and tunneling spin-valves [1]. Their role in the expanding field of applied spintronics has been mostly passive and the in-depth investigation of their basic properties mostly considered from a fundamental perspective.

  19. Rheology of planetary ices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durham, W.B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Kirby, S.H.; Stern, L.A. [Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (United States)


    The brittle and ductile rheology of ices of water, ammonia, methane, and other volatiles, in combination with rock particles and each other, have a primary influence of the evolution and ongoing tectonics of icy moons of the outer solar system. Laboratory experiments help constrain the rheology of solar system ices. Standard experimental techniques can be used because the physical conditions under which most solar system ices exist are within reach of conventional rock mechanics testing machines, adapted to the low subsolidus temperatures of the materials in question. The purpose of this review is to summarize the results of a decade-long experimental deformation program and to provide some background in deformation physics in order to lend some appreciation to the application of these measurements to the planetary setting.

  20. High spin states in Cu

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    up of high-spin configurations outlined above, a detailed and careful study of the medium spin, near yrast states in this nucleus is important for reliable assignments of spins and parities to states in superdeformed bands [1,6] in mass region 60. Also, the observation of direct proton decay from excited states in Cu nuclei [14] ...

  1. Spin Injection in Indium Arsenide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark eJohnson


    Full Text Available In a two dimensional electron system (2DES, coherent spin precession of a ballistic spin polarized current, controlled by the Rashba spin orbit interaction, is a remarkable phenomenon that’s been observed only recently. Datta and Das predicted this precession would manifest as an oscillation in the source-drain conductance of the channel in a spin-injected field effect transistor (Spin FET. The indium arsenide single quantum well materials system has proven to be ideal for experimental confirmation. The 2DES carriers have high mobility, low sheet resistance, and high spin orbit interaction. Techniques for electrical injection and detection of spin polarized carriers were developed over the last two decades. Adapting the proposed Spin FET to the Johnson-Silsbee nonlocal geometry was a key to the first experimental demonstration of gate voltage controlled coherent spin precession. More recently, a new technique measured the oscillation as a function of channel length. This article gives an overview of the experimental phenomenology of the spin injection technique. We then review details of the application of the technique to InAs single quantum well (SQW devices. The effective magnetic field associated with Rashba spin-orbit coupling is described, and a heuristic model of coherent spin precession is presented. The two successful empirical demonstrations of the Datta Das conductance oscillation are then described and discussed.

  2. Spin diffusion in Fermi gases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Georg


    We examine spin diffusion in a two-component homogeneous Fermi gas in the normal phase. Using a variational approach, analytical results are presented for the spin diffusion coefficient and the related spin relaxation time as a function of temperature and interaction strength. For low temperatures...

  3. Mechanical generation of spin current

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamoru eMatsuo


    Full Text Available We focus the recent results on spin-current generation from mechanical motion such as rigid rotation and elastic deformations. Spin transport theory in accelerating frames is constructed by using the low energy expansion of the generally covariant Dirac equation. Related issues on spin-manipulation by mechanical rotation are also discussed.

  4. Spin dynamics in general relativity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saravanan, S.


    Since all astrophysical objects spin, it is important to study the dynamics of spinning objects in curved space-time. The dynamics of spinning particles are described with a covariant Hamiltonian formalism. In this formalism, the closed set of equations of motion are obtained from Poisson-Dirac

  5. Spinning Them Off: Entrepreneuring Practices in Corporate Spin-Offs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Maria Hydle


    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the practices between parent and child firms in corporate spinoffs. We uncover the enacted aspects of knowledge, called knowing, through theories from seven cases of incumbent-backed spin-offs and find that the management of the parent firms are highly involved in the spin-offs. The practices associated with spinning off are solving problems, involving multidisciplinary expertise and entrepreneuring management at the parent firm. We contribute to the spin-off literature by discussing the knowledge required for successfully spinning off child firms and to practice theory by empirically uncovering the practical understanding involved in the origin and perpetuation of an organization.

  6. Microwave generation by spin Hall nanooscillators with nanopatterned spin injector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zholud, A., E-mail:; Urazhdin, S. [Department of Physics, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia 30322 (United States)


    We experimentally study spin Hall nano-oscillators based on Pt/ferromagnet bilayers with nanopatterned Pt spin injection layer. We demonstrate that both the spectral characteristics and the electrical current requirements can be simultaneously improved by reducing the spin injection area. Moreover, devices with nanopatterned Pt spin injector exhibit microwave generation over a wide temperature range that extends to room temperature. Studies of devices with additional Pt spacers under the device electrodes show that the oscillation characteristics are affected not only by the spin injection geometry but also by the effects of Pt/ferromagnet interface on the dynamical properties of the ferromagnet.

  7. EASE-Grid Sea Ice Age (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides weekly estimates of sea ice age for the Arctic Ocean from remotely sensed sea ice motion and sea ice extent. The ice age data are derived from...

  8. Topology on Soft Continuous Function Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taha Yasin Öztürk


    Full Text Available The concept of soft sets was initiated by Molodtsov. Then, some operations on soft sets were defined by Maji et al. Later on, the concept of soft topological space was introduced. In this paper, we introduce the concept of the pointwise topology of soft topological spaces. Finally, we investigate the properties of soft mapping spaces and the relationships between some soft mapping spaces.

  9. Submesoscale Sea Ice-Ocean Interactions in Marginal Ice Zones (United States)

    Manucharyan, Georgy E.; Thompson, Andrew F.


    Signatures of ocean eddies, fronts, and filaments are commonly observed within marginal ice zones (MIZs) from satellite images of sea ice concentration, and in situ observations via ice-tethered profilers or underice gliders. However, localized and intermittent sea ice heating and advection by ocean eddies are currently not accounted for in climate models and may contribute to their biases and errors in sea ice forecasts. Here, we explore mechanical sea ice interactions with underlying submesoscale ocean turbulence. We demonstrate that the release of potential energy stored in meltwater fronts can lead to energetic submesoscale motions along MIZs with spatial scales O(10 km) and Rossby numbers O(1). In low-wind conditions, cyclonic eddies and filaments efficiently trap the sea ice and advect it over warmer surface ocean waters where it can effectively melt. The horizontal eddy diffusivity of sea ice mass and heat across the MIZ can reach O(200 m2 s-1). Submesoscale ocean variability also induces large vertical velocities (order 10 m d-1) that can bring relatively warm subsurface waters into the mixed layer. The ocean-sea ice heat fluxes are localized over cyclonic eddies and filaments reaching about 100 W m-2. We speculate that these submesoscale-driven intermittent fluxes of heat and sea ice can contribute to the seasonal evolution of MIZs. With the continuing global warming and sea ice thickness reduction in the Arctic Ocean, submesoscale sea ice-ocean processes are expected to become increasingly prominent.

  10. Vacancy Concentration in Ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, O. E.; Eldrup, Morten Mostgaard


    Based on the diffusion constant for self-diffusion in ice, which is believed to take place by a vacancy mechanism, we estimate the relative vacancy concentration near the melting point to be at least ∼ 10−6, i.e. much higher than previous estimates of about 10−10.......Based on the diffusion constant for self-diffusion in ice, which is believed to take place by a vacancy mechanism, we estimate the relative vacancy concentration near the melting point to be at least ∼ 10−6, i.e. much higher than previous estimates of about 10−10....

  11. Soft Decision Analyzer (United States)

    Steele, Glen; Lansdowne, Chatwin; Zucha, Joan; Schlensinger, Adam


    The Soft Decision Analyzer (SDA) is an instrument that combines hardware, firmware, and software to perform realtime closed-loop end-to-end statistical analysis of single- or dual- channel serial digital RF communications systems operating in very low signal-to-noise conditions. As an innovation, the unique SDA capabilities allow it to perform analysis of situations where the receiving communication system slips bits due to low signal-to-noise conditions or experiences constellation rotations resulting in channel polarity in versions or channel assignment swaps. SDA s closed-loop detection allows it to instrument a live system and correlate observations with frame, codeword, and packet losses, as well as Quality of Service (QoS) and Quality of Experience (QoE) events. The SDA s abilities are not confined to performing analysis in low signal-to-noise conditions. Its analysis provides in-depth insight of a communication system s receiver performance in a variety of operating conditions. The SDA incorporates two techniques for identifying slips. The first is an examination of content of the received data stream s relation to the transmitted data content and the second is a direct examination of the receiver s recovered clock signals relative to a reference. Both techniques provide benefits in different ways and allow the communication engineer evaluating test results increased confidence and understanding of receiver performance. Direct examination of data contents is performed by two different data techniques, power correlation or a modified Massey correlation, and can be applied to soft decision data widths 1 to 12 bits wide over a correlation depth ranging from 16 to 512 samples. The SDA detects receiver bit slips within a 4 bits window and can handle systems with up to four quadrants (QPSK, SQPSK, and BPSK systems). The SDA continuously monitors correlation results to characterize slips and quadrant change and is capable of performing analysis even when the

  12. Isotropic 3-D T2-weighted spin-echo for abdominal and pelvic MRI in children. (United States)

    Dias, Sílvia Costa; Ølsen, Oystein E


    MRI has a fundamental role in paediatric imaging. The T2-weighted fast/turbo spin-echo sequence is important because it has high signal-to-noise ratio compared to gradient-echo sequences. It is usually acquired as 2-D sections in one or more planes. Volumetric spin-echo has until recently only been possible with very long echo times due to blurring of the soft-tissue contrast with long echo trains. A new 3-D spin-echo sequence uses variable flip angles to overcome this problem. It may reproduce useful soft-tissue contrast, with improved spatial resolution. Its isotropic capability allows subsequent reconstruction in standard, curved or arbitrary planes. It may be particularly useful for visualisation of small lesions, or if large lesions distort the usual anatomical relations. We present clinical examples, describe the technical parameters and discuss some potential artefacts and optimisation of image quality.

  13. Spin-optical metamaterial route to spin-controlled photonics. (United States)

    Shitrit, Nir; Yulevich, Igor; Maguid, Elhanan; Ozeri, Dror; Veksler, Dekel; Kleiner, Vladimir; Hasman, Erez


    Spin optics provides a route to control light, whereby the photon helicity (spin angular momentum) degeneracy is removed due to a geometric gradient onto a metasurface. The alliance of spin optics and metamaterials offers the dispersion engineering of a structured matter in a polarization helicity-dependent manner. We show that polarization-controlled optical modes of metamaterials arise where the spatial inversion symmetry is violated. The emerged spin-split dispersion of spontaneous emission originates from the spin-orbit interaction of light, generating a selection rule based on symmetry restrictions in a spin-optical metamaterial. The inversion asymmetric metasurface is obtained via anisotropic optical antenna patterns. This type of metamaterial provides a route for spin-controlled nanophotonic applications based on the design of the metasurface symmetry properties.

  14. Spin-wave-induced spin torque in Rashba ferromagnets (United States)

    Umetsu, Nobuyuki; Miura, Daisuke; Sakuma, Akimasa


    We study the effects of Rashba spin-orbit coupling on the spin torque induced by spin waves, which are the plane-wave dynamics of magnetization. The spin torque is derived from linear-response theory, and we calculate the dynamic spin torque by considering the impurity-ladder-sum vertex corrections. This dynamic spin torque is divided into three terms: a damping term, a distortion term, and a correction term for the equation of motion. The distorting torque describes a phenomenon unique to the Rashba spin-orbit coupling system, where the distorted motion of magnetization precession is subjected to the anisotropic force from the Rashba coupling. The oscillation mode of the precession exhibits an elliptical trajectory, and the ellipticity depends on the strength of the nesting effects, which could be reduced by decreasing the electron lifetime.

  15. ICE Online Detainee Locator System (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Online Detainee Locator datasets provide the location of a detainee who is currently in ICE custody, or who was release from ICE custody for any reason with the...

  16. Advances in Soft Matter Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Shaofan


    "Advances in Soft Matter Mechanics" is a compilation and selection of recent works in soft matter mechanics by a group of active researchers in the field. The main objectives of this book are first to disseminate the latest developments in soft matter mechanics in the field of applied and computational mechanics, and second to introduce soft matter mechanics as a sub-discipline of soft matter physics. As an important branch of soft matter physics, soft matter mechanics has developed rapidly in recent years. A number of the novel approaches discussed in this book are unique, such as the coarse grained finite element method for modeling colloidal adhesion, entropic elasticity, meshfree simulations of liquid crystal elastomers, simulations of DNA, etc. The book is intended for researchers and graduate students in the field of mechanics, condensed matter physics and biomaterials. Dr. Shaofan Li is a professor of the University of California-Berkeley, U.S.A; Dr. Bohua Sun is a professor of Cape Peninsula Universit...

  17. Experimental soft-matter science (United States)

    Nagel, Sidney R.


    Soft materials consist of basic units that are significantly larger than an atom but much smaller than the overall dimensions of the sample. The label "soft condensed matter" emphasizes that the large basic building blocks of these materials produce low elastic moduli that govern a material's ability to withstand deformations. Aside from softness, there are many other properties that are also caused by the large size of the constituent building blocks. Soft matter is dissipative, disordered, far from equilibrium, nonlinear, thermal and entropic, slow, observable, gravity affected, patterned, nonlocal, interfacially elastic, memory forming, and active. This is only a partial list of how matter created from large component particles is distinct from "hard matter" composed of constituents at an atomic scale. Issues inherent in soft matter raise problems that are broadly important in diverse areas of science and require multiple modes of attack. For example, far-from-equilibrium behavior is confronted in biology, chemistry, geophysics, astrophysics, and nuclear physics. Similarly, issues dealing with disorder appear broadly throughout many branches of inquiry wherever rugged landscapes are invoked. This article reviews the discussions that occurred during a workshop held on 30-31 January 2016 in which opportunities in soft-matter experiment were surveyed. Soft matter has had an exciting history of discovery and continues to be a fertile ground for future research.

  18. Growing and evolving soft robots. (United States)

    Rieffel, John; Knox, Davis; Smith, Schuyler; Trimmer, Barry


    Completely soft and flexible robots offer to revolutionize fields ranging from search and rescue to endoscopic surgery. One of the outstanding challenges in this burgeoning field is the chicken-and-egg problem of body-brain design: Development of locomotion requires the preexistence of a locomotion-capable body, and development of a location-capable body requires the preexistence of a locomotive gait. This problem is compounded by the high degree of coupling between the material properties of a soft body (such as stiffness or damping coefficients) and the effectiveness of a gait. This article synthesizes four years of research into soft robotics, in particular describing three approaches to the co-discovery of soft robot morphology and control. In the first, muscle placement and firing patterns are coevolved for a fixed body shape with fixed material properties. In the second, the material properties of a simulated soft body coevolve alongside locomotive gaits, with body shape and muscle placement fixed. In the third, a developmental encoding is used to scalably grow elaborate soft body shapes from a small seed structure. Considerations of the simulation time and the challenges of physically implementing soft robots in the real world are discussed.

  19. Soft Hair on Black Holes. (United States)

    Hawking, Stephen W; Perry, Malcolm J; Strominger, Andrew


    It has recently been shown that Bondi-van der Burg-Metzner-Sachs supertranslation symmetries imply an infinite number of conservation laws for all gravitational theories in asymptotically Minkowskian spacetimes. These laws require black holes to carry a large amount of soft (i.e., zero-energy) supertranslation hair. The presence of a Maxwell field similarly implies soft electric hair. This Letter gives an explicit description of soft hair in terms of soft gravitons or photons on the black hole horizon, and shows that complete information about their quantum state is stored on a holographic plate at the future boundary of the horizon. Charge conservation is used to give an infinite number of exact relations between the evaporation products of black holes which have different soft hair but are otherwise identical. It is further argued that soft hair which is spatially localized to much less than a Planck length cannot be excited in a physically realizable process, giving an effective number of soft degrees of freedom proportional to the horizon area in Planck units.

  20. Soft Neutrosophic Loops and Their Generalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mumtaz Ali


    Full Text Available Soft set theory is a general mathematical tool for dealing with uncertain, fuzzy, not clearly defined objects. In this paper we introduced soft neutrosophic loop,soft neutosophic biloop, soft neutrosophic N -loop with the discuission of some of their characteristics. We also introduced a new type of soft neutrophic loop, the so called soft strong neutrosophic loop which is of pure neutrosophic character. This notion also found in all the other corresponding notions of soft neutrosophic thoery. We also given some of their properties of this newly born soft structure related to the strong part of neutrosophic theory.

  1. Bipolar-value fuzzy soft lie subalgebras (United States)

    Zhang, Xiong-wei


    In this paper, the notions of bipolar-value fuzzy soft Lie subalgebras are given, some of their properties are studied. Furthermore, we shall define the definition of bipolar-value fuzzy soft homomorphism of bipolar-value fuzzy soft Lie subalgebras and show that the theorem of bipolar-value fuzzy soft homomorphic pre-image of bipolar-value fuzzy soft Lie subalgebra, we shall give a counterexample which the image of a bipolar-value fuzzy soft Lie subalgebra under bipolar-value fuzzy soft homomorphism needs not be bipolar-value fuzzy soft Lie subalgebra.

  2. Ice recrystallization inhibition in ice cream as affected by ice structuring proteins from winter wheat grass. (United States)

    Regand, A; Goff, H D


    Ice recrystallization in quiescently frozen sucrose solutions that contained some of the ingredients commonly found in ice cream and in ice cream manufactured under commercial conditions, with or without ice structuring proteins (ISP) from cold-acclimated winter wheat grass extract (AWWE), was assessed by bright field microscopy. In sucrose solutions, critical differences in moisture content, viscosity, ionic strength, and other properties derived from the presence of other ingredients (skim milk powder, corn syrup solids, locust bean gum) caused a reduction in ice crystal growth. Significant ISP activity in retarding ice crystal growth was observed in all solutions (44% for the most complex mix) containing 0.13% total protein from AWWE. In heat-shocked ice cream, ice recrystallization rates were significantly reduced 40 and 46% with the addition of 0.0025 and 0.0037% total protein from AWWE. The ISP activity in ice cream was not hindered by its inclusion in mix prior to pasteurization. A synergistic effect between ISP and stabilizer was observed, as ISP activity was reduced in the absence of stabilizer in ice cream formulations. A remarkably smoother texture for ice creams containing ISP after heat-shock storage was evident by sensory evaluation. The efficiency of ISP from AWWE in controlling ice crystal growth in ice cream has been demonstrated.

  3. Thin ice and storms: Sea ice deformation from buoy arrays deployed during N-ICE2015 (United States)

    Itkin, Polona; Spreen, Gunnar; Cheng, Bin; Doble, Martin; Girard-Ardhuin, Fanny; Haapala, Jari; Hughes, Nick; Kaleschke, Lars; Nicolaus, Marcel; Wilkinson, Jeremy


    Arctic sea ice has displayed significant thinning as well as an increase in drift speed in recent years. Taken together this suggests an associated rise in sea ice deformation rate. A winter and spring expedition to the sea ice covered region north of Svalbard-the Norwegian young sea ICE2015 expedition (N-ICE2015)—gave an opportunity to deploy extensive buoy arrays and to monitor the deformation of the first-year and second-year ice now common in the majority of the Arctic Basin. During the 5 month long expedition, the ice cover underwent several strong deformation events, including a powerful storm in early February that damaged the ice cover irreversibly. The values of total deformation measured during N-ICE2015 exceed previously measured values in the Arctic Basin at similar scales: At 100 km scale, N-ICE2015 values averaged above 0.1 d-1, compared to rates of 0.08 d-1 or less for previous buoy arrays. The exponent of the power law between the deformation length scale and total deformation developed over the season from 0.37 to 0.54 with an abrupt increase immediately after the early February storm, indicating a weakened ice cover with more free drift of the sea ice floes. Our results point to a general increase in deformation associated with the younger and thinner Arctic sea ice and to a potentially destructive role of winter storms.

  4. Ice sails of the Karakoram (United States)

    Mayer, Christoph; Evatt, Geoffrey W.; Mallinson, Amy; Abrahams, I. David; Heil, Matthias; Nicholson Nicholson, Lindsey; Fowler, Andrew; Lambrecht, Astrid


    Ice sails are clean ice features that protrude from the surface of debris covered glaciers, and can grow to more than 25 m in elevation. Observations of these features date back to the first exploration of the glaciers and mountains in the Karakoram (in 1864), where they seem to occur preferentially. Even though melt rates beneath supraglacial debris and of clean ice should be rather different, ice sails can exist in equilibrium for decades. However, no detailed scientific analysis of ice sails has been carried out until now. The apparent restriction of ice sail existence to high elevation, dry atmosphere and long and flat debris covered glaciers, suggests that they require low debris thickness and a high evaporative heat flux for survival. We postulate that ice sails can develop from one of two mechanisms, both of which require clean ice to be surrounded by debris covered ice, where the debris layer is shallow enough for the ice beneath it to melt faster than the clean ice, i.e. typical debris thicknesses of less than 5-10 cm. Our image analysis confirms that ice sails can persist for decades. Debris layer thickening eventually causes a reversal in the relative melt rates and the ice sails submerge back into the glacier. During their stable phase, the slope of the ice sail faces constantly adjusts to the available melt energy, so that a steady state with the surrounding ice melt can be reached. This can be demonstrated by application of an energy balance model and use of the well-known Östrem-curve for sub-debris ice melt.

  5. Hard evidence on soft skills. (United States)

    Heckman, James J; Kautz, Tim


    This paper summarizes recent evidence on what achievement tests measure; how achievement tests relate to other measures of "cognitive ability" like IQ and grades; the important skills that achievement tests miss or mismeasure, and how much these skills matter in life. Achievement tests miss, or perhaps more accurately, do not adequately capture, soft skills-personality traits, goals, motivations, and preferences that are valued in the labor market, in school, and in many other domains. The larger message of this paper is that soft skills predict success in life, that they causally produce that success, and that programs that enhance soft skills have an important place in an effective portfolio of public policies.

  6. RHIC spin flipper commissioning results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai M.; Roser, T.; Dawson, C.; Kewisch, J.; Makdisi, Y.; Oddo, P.; Pai, C.; Pile, P.


    The five AC dipole RHIC spin flipper design in the RHIC Blue ring was first tested during the RHIC 2012 polarized proton operation. The advantage of this design is to eliminate the vertical coherent betatron oscillations outside the spin flipper. The closure of each ac dipole vertical bump was measured with orbital response as well as spin. The effect of the rotating field on the spin motion by the spin flipper was also confirmed by measuring the suppressed resonance at Q{sub s} = 1 - Q{sub osc}.

  7. Analysis on ice resistance and ice response of ships sailing in brash ice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Chao


    Full Text Available [Objectives] In order to explore the interaction between a hull and crushed ice, [Methods] a discrete element model is combined with Euler multiphase flow. The force of a hull under different speeds and different ice levels is calculated, and the motion response of ice during ship-ice interaction discussed. The reasons for ice resistance and movement change are explained intuitively. [Results] The ice resistance of the hull is obtained, mainly due to the friction and collision of the crushed ice and hull surface, which increases with the increase of the speed, but when the speed increases to a certain value, the crushing resistance no longer increases and even reduces the trend. [Conclusions] This provides a reference for the optimization of ship type for ice zones, as well as propeller design.

  8. Polar Stereographic Valid Ice Masks Derived from National Ice Center Monthly Sea Ice Climatologies, Version 1 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — These valid ice masks provide a way to remove spurious ice caused by residual weather effects and land spillover in passive microwave data. They are derived from the...

  9. IceCube SWIRP (United States)

    Wu, Dongliang L.


    Clouds, ice clouds in particular, are a major source of uncertainty in climate models. Submm-wave sensors fill the sensitivity gap between MW and IR.Cloud microphysical properties (particle size and shape) account for large (200 and 40) measurement uncertainty.

  10. IceCube

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlers, Markus Tobias; Halzen, F.


    We review the status of the IceCube observations of cosmic neutrinos. We investigate model-independent constraints on the properties of the sources where they originate. Specifically, we evaluate the multimessenger relations connecting neutrino, gamma ray, and cosmic ray observations and conclude...

  11. Ice Hockey Injuries. (United States)

    Sim, Franklin H.; Simonet, William T.


    The article describes the mechanisms, management, and prevention of each type of injury to which hockey players are prone. It surveys the injuries sustained by ice hockey players and discusses treatment of specific injuries, including those injuries to the head, eye, shoulder, hand, thigh, scalp, and face. (JL)

  12. The little ice age

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grove, J.M.


    The Little Ice Age, a period of glacier expansion in alpine regions that began sometime between the twelfth and sixteenth centuries and lasted until late in the nineteenth century, was recorded not only in glacial features dated by geologic techniques but also in historical documents such as field sketches, land values, and weather records, especially in the Alps. Indirect evidence of its impact in other parts of the world includes the records of sea-ice extent near Iceland and Greenland, the fate of the Viking settlements in Greenland, and many other suggestions that the climate was colder in the recent past than it is today. Jean Grove's book is an authoritative, superbly documented, and excellently written summary of the abundant evidence of climatic change during the last few centuries in the context of broader climatic variations of the last 10,000 years. This summary provides a much-needed perspective for considering the magnitude and frequency of natural climatic variations in the past, given predictions for the future. In the final chapter, Grove notes that natural climatic variations, including another minor ice age, might be expected in the future but at the end of the Little Ice Age coincided with the increased burning of fossil fuels during the industralization of Europe and North America. This coincidence does indeed suggest that modern scientists already have had a significant impact on the global climate.

  13. Ecology under lake ice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hampton, Stephanie E.; Galloway, Aaron W. E.; Powers, Stephen M.; Ozersky, Ted; Woo, Kara H.; Batt, Ryan D.; Labou, Stephanie G.; O'Reilly, Catherine M.; Sharma, Sapna; Lottig, Noah R.; Stanley, Emily H.; North, Rebecca L.; Stockwell, Jason D.; Adrian, Rita; Weyhenmeyer, Gesa A.; Arvola, Lauri; Baulch, Helen M.; Bertani, Isabella; Bowman, Larry L., Jr.; Carey, Cayelan C.; Catalan, Jordi; Colom-Montero, William; Domine, Leah M.; Felip, Marisol; Granados, Ignacio; Gries, Corinna; Grossart, Hans-Peter; Haberman, Juta; Haldna, Marina; Hayden, Brian; Higgins, Scott N.; Jolley, Jeff C.; Kahilainen, Kimmo K.; Kaup, Enn; Kehoe, Michael J.; MacIntyre, Sally; Mackay, Anson W.; Mariash, Heather L.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/41327697X; Mckay, Robert M.; Nixdorf, Brigitte; Noges, Peeter; Noges, Tiina; Palmer, Michelle; Pierson, Don C.; Post, David M.; Pruett, Matthew J.; Rautio, Milla; Read, Jordan S.; Roberts, Sarah L.; Ruecker, Jacqueline; Sadro, Steven; Silow, Eugene A.; Smith, Derek E.; Sterner, Robert W.; Swann, George E. A.; Timofeyev, Maxim A.; Toro, Manuel; Twiss, Michael R.; Vogt, Richard J.; Watson, Susan B.; Whiteford, Erika J.; Xenopoulos, Marguerite A.

    Winter conditions are rapidly changing in temperate ecosystems, particularly for those that experi-ence periods of snow and ice cover. Relatively little is known of winter ecology in these systems,due to a historical research focus on summer ‘growing seasons’. We executed the first global

  14. Ice shelf fracture parameterization in an ice sheet model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sun


    Full Text Available Floating ice shelves exert a stabilizing force onto the inland ice sheet. However, this buttressing effect is diminished by the fracture process, which on large scales effectively softens the ice, accelerating its flow, increasing calving, and potentially leading to ice shelf breakup. We add a continuum damage model (CDM to the BISICLES ice sheet model, which is intended to model the localized opening of crevasses under stress, the transport of those crevasses through the ice sheet, and the coupling between crevasse depth and the ice flow field and to carry out idealized numerical experiments examining the broad impact on large-scale ice sheet and shelf dynamics. In each case we see a complex pattern of damage evolve over time, with an eventual loss of buttressing approximately equivalent to halving the thickness of the ice shelf. We find that it is possible to achieve a similar ice flow pattern using a simple rule of thumb: introducing an enhancement factor ∼ 10 everywhere in the model domain. However, spatially varying damage (or equivalently, enhancement factor fields set at the start of prognostic calculations to match velocity observations, as is widely done in ice sheet simulations, ought to evolve in time, or grounding line retreat can be slowed by an order of magnitude.

  15. Ice Roughness in Short Duration SLD Icing Events (United States)

    McClain, Stephen T.; Reed, Dana; Vargas, Mario; Kreeger, Richard E.; Tsao, Jen-Ching


    Ice accretion codes depend on models of roughness parameters to account for the enhanced heat transfer during the ice accretion process. While mitigating supercooled large droplet (SLD or Appendix O) icing is a significant concern for manufacturers seeking future vehicle certification due to the pending regulation, historical ice roughness studies have been performed using Appendix C icing clouds which exhibit mean volumetric diameters (MVD) much smaller than SLD clouds. Further, the historical studies of roughness focused on extracting parametric representations of ice roughness using multiple images of roughness elements. In this study, the ice roughness developed on a 21-in. NACA 0012 at 0deg angle of attack exposed to short duration SLD icing events was measured in the Icing Research Tunnel at the NASA Glenn Research Center. The MVD's used in the study ranged from 100 micrometer to 200 micrometers, in a 67 m/s flow, with liquid water contents of either 0.6 gm/cubic meters or 0.75 gm/cubic meters. The ice surfaces were measured using a Romer Absolute Arm laser scanning system. The roughness associated with each surface point cloud was measured using the two-dimensional self-organizing map approach developed by McClain and Kreeger (2013) resulting in statistical descriptions of the ice roughness.

  16. Ice shelf fracture parameterization in an ice sheet model (United States)

    Sun, Sainan; Cornford, Stephen L.; Moore, John C.; Gladstone, Rupert; Zhao, Liyun


    Floating ice shelves exert a stabilizing force onto the inland ice sheet. However, this buttressing effect is diminished by the fracture process, which on large scales effectively softens the ice, accelerating its flow, increasing calving, and potentially leading to ice shelf breakup. We add a continuum damage model (CDM) to the BISICLES ice sheet model, which is intended to model the localized opening of crevasses under stress, the transport of those crevasses through the ice sheet, and the coupling between crevasse depth and the ice flow field and to carry out idealized numerical experiments examining the broad impact on large-scale ice sheet and shelf dynamics. In each case we see a complex pattern of damage evolve over time, with an eventual loss of buttressing approximately equivalent to halving the thickness of the ice shelf. We find that it is possible to achieve a similar ice flow pattern using a simple rule of thumb: introducing an enhancement factor ˜ 10 everywhere in the model domain. However, spatially varying damage (or equivalently, enhancement factor) fields set at the start of prognostic calculations to match velocity observations, as is widely done in ice sheet simulations, ought to evolve in time, or grounding line retreat can be slowed by an order of magnitude.

  17. Improved ice loss estimate of the northwestern Greenland ice sheet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Kristian Kjellerup; Khan, Shfaqat Abbas; Wahr, J.


    We estimate ice volume change rates in the northwest Greenland drainage basin during 2003–2009 using Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) laser altimeter data. Elevation changes are often reported to be largest near the frontal portion of outlet glaciers. To improve the volume change...... estimate, we supplement the ICESat data with altimeter surveys from NASA's Airborne Topographic Mapper from 2002 to 2010 and NASA's Land, Vegetation and Ice Sensor from 2010. The Airborne data are mainly concentrated along the ice margin and thus have a significant impact on the estimate of the volume...... change. Our results show that adding Airborne Topographic Mapper and Land, Vegetation and Ice Sensor data to the ICESat data increases the catchment-wide estimate of ice volume loss by 11%, mainly due to an improved volume loss estimate along the ice sheet margin. Furthermore, our results show...

  18. Ice particle collisions (United States)

    Sampara, Naresh; Turnbull, Barbara; Hill, Richard; Swift, Michael


    Granular interactions of ice occur in a range of geophysical, astrophysical and industrial applications. For example, Saturn's Rings are composed of icy particles from micrometers to kilometres in size - inertial and yet too small to interact gravitationally. In clouds, ice crystals are smashed to pieces before they re-aggregate to for snow floccules in a process that is very much open to interpretation. In a granular flow of ice particles, the energy spent in collisions can lead to localized surface changes and wetting, which in turn can promote aggregation. To understand the induced wetting and its effects, we present two novel experimental methods which provide snippets of insight into the collisional behaviour of macroscopic ice particles. Experiment 1: Microgravity experiments provide minute details of the contact between the ice particles during the collision. A diamagnetic levitation technique, as alternative to the parabolic flight or falling tower experiments, was used to understand the collisional behaviour of individual macroscopic icy bodies. A refrigerated cylinder, that can control ambient conditions, was inserted into the bore of an 18 Tesla superconducting magnet and cooled to -10°C. Initial binary collisions were created, where one 4 mm ice particle was levitated in the magnet bore whilst another particle was dropped vertically from the top of the bore. The trajectories of both particles were captured by high speed video to provide the three-dimensional particle velocities and track the collision outcome. Introducing complexity, multiple particles were levitated in the bore and an azimuthal turbulent air flow introduced, allowing the particles to collide with other particles within a coherent fluid structure (mimicking Saturn's rings, or an eddy in a cloud). In these experiments, a sequence of collisions occur, each one different to the previous one due to the changes in surface characteristics created by the collisions themselves. Aggregation

  19. Icing Research Tunnel (United States)

    Chennault, Jonathan


    The Icing Research Tunnel in Building 11 at the NASA Glenn Research Center is committed to researching the effects of in flight icing on aircraft and testing ways to stop the formation of hazardous icing conditions on planes. During this summer, I worked here with Richard DelRosa, the lead engineer for this area. address one of the major concerns of aviation: icing conditions. During the war, many planes crashed (especially supply planes going over the.Himalayas) because ice built up in their wings and clogged the engines. To this day, it remains the largest ice tunnel in the world, with a test section that measures 6 feet high, 9 feet long, and 20 feet wide. It can simulate airspeeds from 50 to 300 miles per hour at temperatures as low as -50 Fahrenheit. Using these capabilities, IRT can simulate actual conditions at high altitudes. The first thing I did was creating a cross reference in Microsoft Excel. It lists commands for the DPU units that control the pressure and temperature variations in the tunnel, as well as the type of command (keyboard, multiplier, divide, etc). The cross reference also contains the algorithm for every command, and which page it is listed in on the control sheet (visual Auto-CAD graphs, which I helped to make). I actually spent most of the time on the computer using Auto-CAD. I drew a diagram of the entire icing tunnel and then drew diagrams of its various parts. Between my mentor and me, we have drawings of every part of it, from the spray bars to the thermocouples, power cabinets, input-output connectors for power systems, and layouts of various other machines. I was also responsible for drawing schematics for the Escort system (which controls the spray bars), the power system, DPUs, and other electrical systems. In my spare time, I am attempting to build and program the "toddler". Toddler is a walking robot that I have to program in PBASIC language. When complete, it should be able to walk on level terrain while avoiding obstacles in

  20. A high-temperature quantum spin liquid with polaron spins (United States)

    Klanjšek, Martin; Zorko, Andrej; Žitko, Rok; Mravlje, Jernej; Jagličić, Zvonko; Biswas, Pabitra Kumar; Prelovšek, Peter; Mihailovic, Dragan; Arčon, Denis


    The existence of a quantum spin liquid (QSL) in which quantum fluctuations of spins are sufficiently strong to preclude spin ordering down to zero temperature was originally proposed theoretically more than 40 years ago, but its experimental realization turned out to be very elusive. Here we report on an almost ideal spin liquid state that appears to be realized by atomic-cluster spins on the triangular lattice of a charge-density wave state of 1T-TaS2. In this system, the charge excitations have a well-defined gap of ~0.3 eV, while nuclear quadrupole resonance and muon-spin-relaxation experiments reveal that the spins show gapless QSL dynamics and no long-range magnetic order at least down to 70 mK. Canonical T2 power-law temperature dependence of the spin relaxation dynamics characteristic of a QSL is observed from 200 K to Tf = 55 K. Below this temperature, we observe a new gapless state with reduced density of spin excitations and high degree of local disorder signifying new quantum spin order emerging from the QSL.

  1. Spin Funneling for Enhanced Spin Injection into Ferromagnets (United States)

    Sayed, Shehrin; Diep, Vinh Q.; Camsari, Kerem Yunus; Datta, Supriyo


    It is well-established that high spin-orbit coupling (SOC) materials convert a charge current density into a spin current density which can be used to switch a magnet efficiently and there is increasing interest in identifying materials with large spin Hall angle for lower switching current. Using experimentally benchmarked models, we show that composite structures can be designed using existing spin Hall materials such that the effective spin Hall angle is larger by an order of magnitude. The basic idea is to funnel spins from a large area of spin Hall material into a small area of ferromagnet using a normal metal with large spin diffusion length and low resistivity like Cu or Al. We show that this approach is increasingly effective as magnets get smaller. We avoid unwanted charge current shunting by the low resistive NM layer utilizing the newly discovered phenomenon of pure spin conduction in ferromagnetic insulators via magnon diffusion. We provide a spin circuit model for magnon diffusion in FMI that is benchmarked against recent experiments and theory.

  2. Oceans, Ice Shells, and Life on Europa (United States)

    Schenk, Paul


    The four large satellites of Jupiter are famous for their planet-like diversity and complexity, but none more so than ice-covered Europa. Since the provocative Voyager images of Europa in 1979, evidence has been mounting that a vast liquid water ocean may lurk beneath the moon's icy surface. Europa has since been the target of increasing and sometimes reckless speculation regarding the possibility that giant squid and other creatures may be swimming its purported cold, dark ocean. No wonder Europa tops everyone's list for future exploration in the outer solar system (after the very first reconnaissance of Pluto and the Kuiper belt, of course). Europa may be the smallest of the Galilean moons (so-called because they were discovered by Galileo Galilei in the early 17th century) but more than makes up for its diminutive size with a crazed, alien landscape. The surface is covered with ridges hundreds of meters high, domes tens of kilometers across, and large areas of broken and disrupted crust called chaos. Some of the geologic features seen on Europa resemble ice rafts floating in polar seas here on Earth-reinforcing the idea that an ice shell is floating over an ocean on this Moon-size satellite. However, such features do not prove that an ocean exists or ever did. Warm ice is unusually soft and will flow under its own weight. If the ice shell is thick enough, the warm bottom of the shell will flow, as do terrestrial glaciers. This could produce all the observed surface features on Europa through a variety of processes, the most important of which is convection. (Convection is the vertical overturn of a layer due to heating or density differences-think of porridge or sauce boiling on the stove.) Rising blobs from the base of the crust would then create the oval domes dotting Europa's surface. The strongest evidence for a hidden ocean beneath Europa's surface comes from the Galileo spacecraft's onboard magnetometer, which detected fluctuations in Jupiter's magnetic

  3. Engineering applications of soft computing

    CERN Document Server

    Díaz-Cortés, Margarita-Arimatea; Rojas, Raúl


    This book bridges the gap between Soft Computing techniques and their applications to complex engineering problems. In each chapter we endeavor to explain the basic ideas behind the proposed applications in an accessible format for readers who may not possess a background in some of the fields. Therefore, engineers or practitioners who are not familiar with Soft Computing methods will appreciate that the techniques discussed go beyond simple theoretical tools, since they have been adapted to solve significant problems that commonly arise in such areas. At the same time, the book will show members of the Soft Computing community how engineering problems are now being solved and handled with the help of intelligent approaches. Highlighting new applications and implementations of Soft Computing approaches in various engineering contexts, the book is divided into 12 chapters. Further, it has been structured so that each chapter can be read independently of the others.

  4. Spin diffusion length of Permalloy using spin absorption in lateral spin valves (United States)

    Sagasta, Edurne; Omori, Yasutomo; Isasa, Miren; Otani, YoshiChika; Hueso, Luis E.; Casanova, Fèlix


    We employ the spin absorption technique in lateral spin valves to extract the spin diffusion length of Permalloy (Py) as a function of temperature and resistivity. A linear dependence of the spin diffusion length with the conductivity of Py is observed, evidencing that the Elliott-Yafet mechanism is the dominant spin relaxation mechanism in Permalloy. Completing the dataset with additional data found in the literature, we obtain λPy = (0.91 ± 0.04) (fΩm2)/ρPy.

  5. Large Torque Variations in Two Soft Gamma Repeaters (United States)

    Woods, Peter M.; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Gogus, Ersin; Finger, Mark H.; Swank, Jean; Markwardt, Craig B.; Hurley, Kevin; vanderKlis, Michiel


    We have monitored the pulse frequencies of the two soft gamma repeaters SGR 1806-20 and SGR 1900+14 through the beginning of year 2001 using primarily Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer Proportional Counter Array observations. In both sources, we observe large changes in the spin-down torque up to a factor of approximately 4, which persist for several months. Using long-baseline phase-connected timing solutions as well as the overall frequency histories, we construct torque noise power spectra for each SGR (Soft Gamma Repeater). The power spectrum of each source is very red (power-law slope is approximately -3.5). The torque noise power levels are consistent with some accreting systems on timescales of approximately 1 yr, yet the full power spectrum is much steeper in frequency than any known accreting source. To the best of our knowledge, torque noise power spectra with a comparably steep frequency dependence have been seen only in young, glitching radio pulsars (e.g., Vela). The observed changes in spin-down rate do not correlate with burst activity; therefore, the physical mechanisms behind each phenomenon are also likely unrelated. Within the context of the magnetar model, seismic activity can not account for both the bursts and the long-term torque changes unless the seismically active regions are decoupled from one another.

  6. Ice Caps and Ice Belts: The Effects of Obliquity on Ice-Albedo Feedback (United States)

    Rose, Brian E. J.; Cronin, Timothy W.; Bitz, Cecilia M.


    Planetary obliquity determines the meridional distribution of the annual mean insolation. For obliquity exceeding 55°, the weakest insolation occurs at the equator. Stable partial snow and ice cover on such a planet would be in the form of a belt about the equator rather than polar caps. An analytical model of planetary climate is used to investigate the stability of ice caps and ice belts over the widest possible range of parameters. The model is a non-dimensional diffusive Energy Balance Model, representing insolation, heat transport, and ice-albedo feedback on a spherical planet. A complete analytical solution for any obliquity is given and validated against numerical solutions of a seasonal model in the “deep-water” regime of weak seasonal ice line migration. Multiple equilibria and unstable transitions between climate states (ice-free, Snowball, or ice cap/belt) are found over wide swaths of parameter space, including a “Large Ice-Belt Instability” and “Small Ice-Belt Instability” at high obliquity. The Snowball catastrophe is avoided at weak radiative forcing in two different scenarios: weak albedo feedback and inefficient heat transport (favoring stable partial ice cover), or efficient transport at high obliquity (favoring ice-free conditions). From speculative assumptions about distributions of planetary parameters, three-fourths to four-fifths of all planets with stable partial ice cover should be in the form of Earth-like polar caps.

  7. Studying Nanoscale Magnetism and its Dynamics with Soft X-ray Microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mccall, Monnikue M; Fischer, Peter


    Magnetic soft X-ray microscopy allows for imaging magnetic structures at a spatial resolution down to 15nm and a time resolution in the sub-100ps regime. Inherent elemental specificity can be used to image the magnetic response of individual components such as layers in multilayered systems. This review highlights current achievements and discusses the future potential of magnetic soft X-ray microscopy at fsec X-ray sources where snapshot images of ultrafast spin dynamics with a spatial resolution below 10nm will become feasible.

  8. The IceProd Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aartsen, M.G.; Abbasi, R.; Ackermann, M.


    IceCube is a one-gigaton instrument located at the geographic South Pole, designed to detect cosmic neutrinos, iden- tify the particle nature of dark matter, and study high-energy neutrinos themselves. Simulation of the IceCube detector and processing of data require a significant amount...... of computational resources. IceProd is a distributed management system based on Python, XML-RPC and GridFTP. It is driven by a central database in order to coordinate and admin- ister production of simulations and processing of data produced by the IceCube detector. IceProd runs as a separate layer on top of other...

  9. Ice accretion simulations on airfoils (United States)

    Özgen, S.; Uğur, N.; Görgülü, I.; Tatar, V.


    Ice shape predictions for a NACA0012 airfoil and collection efficiency predictions for the Twin Otter airfoil are obtained and presented. The results are validated with reference numerical and experimental data. Ice accretion modeling mainly consists of four steps: flow field solution; droplet trajectory calculations; thermodynamic analyses; and ice accretion simulation with the Extended Messinger Model. The models are implemented in a FORTRAN code to perform icing analyses for twodimensional (2D) geometries. The results are in good agreement with experimental and numerical reference data. It is deduced that increasing computational layers in calculations improves the ice shape predictions. The results indicate that collection efficiencies and impingement zone increase with increasing droplet diameter.

  10. Spin Glass Patch Planting (United States)

    Wang, Wenlong; Mandra, Salvatore; Katzgraber, Helmut G.


    In this paper, we propose a patch planting method for creating arbitrarily large spin glass instances with known ground states. The scaling of the computational complexity of these instances with various block numbers and sizes is investigated and compared with random instances using population annealing Monte Carlo and the quantum annealing DW2X machine. The method can be useful for benchmarking tests for future generation quantum annealing machines, classical and quantum mechanical optimization algorithms.

  11. Spin and gravitation (United States)

    Ray, J. R.


    The fundamental variational principle for a perfect fluid in general relativity is extended so that it applies to the metric-torsion Einstein-Cartan theory. Field equations for a perfect fluid in the Einstein-Cartan theory are deduced. In addition, the equations of motion for a fluid with intrinsic spin in general relativity are deduced from a special relativistic variational principle. The theory is a direct extension of the theory of nonspinning fluids in special relativity.

  12. Spinning out a star. (United States)

    Lord, Michael D; Mandel, Stanley W; Wager, Jeffrey D


    Spinouts rarely take off; most, in fact, fall into one or more of four traps that doom them from the start. Some companies spin out ventures that are too close to the core of their businesses, in effect selling off their crown jewels. Sometimes, a parent company uses the spinout primarily to pawn off debt or expenses or to quickly raise external capital for itself. Other times, a company may try to spin out an area of its business that lacks one or more of the critical legs of a successful company--a coherent business model, say, or a solid financial base. And in many cases, parent companies can't bring themselves to sever their ownership ties and give up control of their spinouts. R.J. Reynolds, the tobacco giant, managed to avoid these traps when it successfully spun out a most unlikely venture, the pharmaceutical company Targacept. As the story illustrates, the problem with spinouts is similar to the problem of rich children. Their parents have the wherewithal to spoil them or shelter them or cling to them, but what they need is tough love and discipline--much the same discipline that characterizes successful start-ups. R.J. Reynolds recognized that it didn't know that much about the pharmaceutical business and couldn't merely try to spin out a small clone of itself. It had to treat the venture as if it were essentially starting from scratch, with a passionate entrepreneurial leader, a solid business plan, help from outside partners in the industry, and ultimately substantial venture backing. That these lessons are less obvious to executives contemplating spinning out ventures closer to their core businesses may be why so many spinouts fail.

  13. Performance and durability tests of smart icephobic coatings to reduce ice adhesion (United States)

    Janjua, Zaid A.; Turnbull, Barbara; Choy, Kwang-Leong; Pandis, Christos; Liu, Junpeng; Hou, Xianghui; Choi, Kwing-So


    The accretion of ice can cause damage in applications ranging from power lines and shipping decks, to wind turbines and rail infrastructure. In particular on aircraft, it can change aerodynamic characteristics, greatly affecting the flight safety. Commercial aircraft are therefore required to be equipped with de-icing devices, such as heating mats over the wings. The application of icephobic coatings near the leading edge of a wing can in theory reduce the high power requirements of heating mats, which melt ice that forms there. Such coatings are effective in preventing the accretion of runback ice, formed from airborne supercooled droplets, or the water that the heating mats generate as it is sheared back over the wing's upper surface. However, the durability and the practicality of applying them over a large wing surface have been prohibitive factors in deploying this technology so far. Here, we evaluated the ice adhesion strength of four non-conductive coatings and seven thermally conductive coatings by shearing ice samples from coated plates by spinning them in a centrifuge device. The durability of the coating performance was also assessed by repeating the tests, each time regrowing ice samples on the previously-used coatings. Contact angle parameters of each coating were tested for each test to determine influence on ice adhesion strength. The results indicate that contact angle hysteresis is a crucial parameter in determining icephobicity of a coating and hydrophobicity is not necessarily linked to icephobicity.

  14. The Influence of Platelet Ice and Snow on Antarctic Land-fast Sea Ice


    Hoppmann, Mario; Nicolaus, Marcel


    Sea ice fastened to coasts, icebergs and ice shelves is of crucial importance for climate- and ecosystems. Near Antarctic ice shelves, this land-fast sea ice exhibits two unique characteristics that distinguish it from most other sea ice: 1) Ice platelets form and grow in super-cooled water, which originates from ice shelf cavities. The crystals accumulate beneath the solid sea-ice cover and are incorporated into the sea-ice fabric, contributing between 10 and 60% to the mas...

  15. [Soft tissue rheumatism in erderly]. (United States)

    Szczepański, Leszek


    Disorders of soft, peri-articular tissues are a common cause of musculoskeletal pain in elderly patients. Nevertheless, most physicians underestimate the role of soft tissue rheumatism in the pathomechanism of the pain. The impairments of soft tissue can not be diagnosed by X-rays examinations, whereas degenerative lesions of joints are easy diagnosed using this method even despite of their uncertain role in producing the symptoms. The incidence of pain syndromes originated from soft tissues differ regarding to the age of patients. In young subjects the incidence of all of them is generally low. Syndromes provoked by overloading during work: repetitive strain syndrome, canal tunnel syndrome, tennis elbow, golfers elbow, shoulder tendon coin disorders and myofascial pain syndrome are common in middle-aged patients. The morbidity of fibromialgia syndrome is also lower in old people probably as the result of diminished numbers and degenerative changes in nociceptive fibers. The syndromes prevailing in elderly patients include trochanteric syndrome and the pain syndromes provoked by muscle spasm depended on posture abnormalities. In the soft tissue pain syndrome prevention adapted to old age kinesitherapy and avoiding muscle overloading are recommended. Soft tissue pain syndromes are usually treated with non steroidal anti inflammatory drugs. In local pain syndromes better results can be obtained by local treatment. Local injections of glikocorticosteroids are usually very effective and safe.

  16. Data assimilation and prognostic whole ice sheet modelling with the variationally derived, higher order, open source, and fully parallel ice sheet model VarGlaS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. J. Brinkerhoff


    Full Text Available We introduce a novel, higher order, finite element ice sheet model called VarGlaS (Variational Glacier Simulator, which is built on the finite element framework FEniCS. Contrary to standard procedure in ice sheet modelling, VarGlaS formulates ice sheet motion as the minimization of an energy functional, conferring advantages such as a consistent platform for making numerical approximations, a coherent relationship between motion and heat generation, and implicit boundary treatment. VarGlaS also solves the equations of enthalpy rather than temperature, avoiding the solution of a contact problem. Rather than include a lengthy model spin-up procedure, VarGlaS possesses an automated framework for model inversion. These capabilities are brought to bear on several benchmark problems in ice sheet modelling, as well as a 500 yr simulation of the Greenland ice sheet at high resolution. VarGlaS performs well in benchmarking experiments and, given a constant climate and a 100 yr relaxation period, predicts a mass evolution of the Greenland ice sheet that matches present-day observations of mass loss. VarGlaS predicts a thinning in the interior and thickening of the margins of the ice sheet.

  17. Yeasts and moulds contaminants of food ice cubes and their survival in different drinks. (United States)

    Francesca, N; Gaglio, R; Stucchi, C; De Martino, S; Moschetti, G; Settanni, L


    To evaluate the levels of unicellular and filamentous fungi in ice cubes produced at different levels and to determine their survival in alcoholic beverages and soft drinks. Sixty samples of ice cubes collected from home level (HL) productions, bars and pubs (BP) and industrial manufacturing plants (MP) were investigated for the presence and cell density of yeasts and moulds. Moulds were detected in almost all samples, while yeasts developed from the majority of HL and MP samples. Representative colonies of microfungi were subjected to phenotypic and genotypic characterization. The identification was carried out by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the region spanning the internal transcribed spacers (ITS1 and ITS2) and the 5·8S rRNA gene. The process of yeast identification was concluded by sequencing the D1/D2 region of the 26S rRNA gene. The fungal biodiversity associated with food ice was represented by nine yeast and nine mould species. Strains belonging to Candida parapsilosis and Cryptococcus curvatus, both opportunistic human pathogens, and Penicillium glabrum, an ubiquitous mould in the ice samples analysed, were selected to evaluate the effectiveness of the ice cubes to transfer pathogenic microfungi to consumers, after addition to alcoholic beverages and soft drinks. All strains retained their viability. The survival test indicated that the most common mode of consumption of ice cubes, through its direct addition to drinks and beverages, did not reduce the viability of microfungi. This study evidenced the presence of microfungi in food ice and ascertained their survival in soft drinks and alcoholic beverages. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  18. Spinning particle approach to higher spin field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corradini, Olindo, E-mail: [Centro de Estudios en Fisica y Matematicas Basicas y Aplicadas Universidad Autonoma de Chiapas, Tuxtla Gutierrez, Chiapas (Mexico); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Bologna via Irnerio 46, I-40126 Bologna (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Bologna via Irnerio 46, I-40126 Bologna (Italy)


    We shortly review on the connection between higher-spin gauge field theories and supersymmetric spinning particle models. In such approach the higher spin equations of motion are linked to the first-class constraint algebra associated with the quantization of particle models. Here we consider a class of spinning particle models characterized by local O(N)-extended supersymmetry since these models are known to provide an alternative approach to the geometric formulation of higher spin field theory. We describe the canonical quantization of the models in curved target space and discuss the obstructions that appear in presence of an arbitrarily curved background. We then point out the special role that conformally flat spaces appear to have in such models and present a derivation of the higher-spin curvatures for maximally symmetric spaces.

  19. Unsweetened ice popsicles impart a positive feeling and reduce self-mutilation after paediatric dental treatment with local anaesthesia. (United States)

    Ram, Diana; Berson, Tamar; Moskovitz, Moti; Efrat, Jacob


    The purpose of the current study was to assess whether an unsweetened ice-popsicle imparts a positive feeling to children after dental treatment in which local anaesthesia is administered, and whether it reduces the tendency of children to self-mutilate (bite the lip, cheek or tongue) after the administration of local anaesthesia. Crossover study of 31 children aged 4-11 years old who needed similar dental treatments on both sides of the mandible or maxilla under local anaesthesia. At the end of each appointment the child received a toy or an ice-popsicle especially made for this study. Patients and parents answered a questionnaire regarding the children's behaviour and feeling immediately after the treatment, and 10 and 30 min after receiving the ice-popsicle or toy. Children who received ice-popsicles after dental treatment under local anaesthesia felt less discomfort and suffered less soft tissue trauma than they did when they received a toy. Reduction in soft tissue trauma was evident 10 min after receiving the ice-popsicles. Licking of an ice-popsicle after dental treatment with local anaesthesia reduces the feeling of discomfort and the biting of soft tissue and self- mutilation.

  20. Quantum annealing with manufactured spins. (United States)

    Johnson, M W; Amin, M H S; Gildert, S; Lanting, T; Hamze, F; Dickson, N; Harris, R; Berkley, A J; Johansson, J; Bunyk, P; Chapple, E M; Enderud, C; Hilton, J P; Karimi, K; Ladizinsky, E; Ladizinsky, N; Oh, T; Perminov, I; Rich, C; Thom, M C; Tolkacheva, E; Truncik, C J S; Uchaikin, S; Wang, J; Wilson, B; Rose, G


    Many interesting but practically intractable problems can be reduced to that of finding the ground state of a system of interacting spins; however, finding such a ground state remains computationally difficult. It is believed that the ground state of some naturally occurring spin systems can be effectively attained through a process called quantum annealing. If it could be harnessed, quantum annealing might improve on known methods for solving certain types of problem. However, physical investigation of quantum annealing has been largely confined to microscopic spins in condensed-matter systems. Here we use quantum annealing to find the ground state of an artificial Ising spin system comprising an array of eight superconducting flux quantum bits with programmable spin-spin couplings. We observe a clear signature of quantum annealing, distinguishable from classical thermal annealing through the temperature dependence of the time at which the system dynamics freezes. Our implementation can be configured in situ to realize a wide variety of different spin networks, each of which can be monitored as it moves towards a low-energy configuration. This programmable artificial spin network bridges the gap between the theoretical study of ideal isolated spin networks and the experimental investigation of bulk magnetic samples. Moreover, with an increased number of spins, such a system may provide a practical physical means to implement a quantum algorithm, possibly allowing more-effective approaches to solving certain classes of hard combinatorial optimization problems.

  1. Control of the Antarctic ice sheet by ocean ice interaction (United States)

    Bye, John; May, Joel; Simmonds, Ian


    The Antarctic ice cap is the largest ice sheet of modern times. It is of considerable importance to predict the sea level variability due to the associated changes in ice volume. We present the results of a simple grounded ice sheet model, developed from Oerlemans [Oerlemans, J., 2002. Global dynamics of the Antarctic Ice Sheet, Climate Dynamics 19, 85-93.], in which the net oceanic evaporation influences the ice cap volume in two ways, through changes in: (i) the accumulation rate, and (ii) the mean sea level. The net evaporation changes are driven by the sea surface temperature (SST) anomaly time series of Howard [Howard, W.R., 1997. A warm future in the past, Nature, 388, 418-419.] for the subantarctic Southern Ocean over the period 220 kyr to the present. The effect of the waxing and waning of the northern hemisphere ice sheets is integrated into the model using an independent model, in which ice melting depends on the SST anomaly and ice calving depends on the sea level anomaly. A series of analytical expressions are derived for the related properties of the coupled ocean-ice system applicable over time scales of 100 kyr, which show, in particular, that the Antarctic ice cap volume changes are due mainly to the effects of the northern hemisphere ice sheets on sea level (which influences ice calving), rather than directly to changes in SST, and hence the ice cap volume is greatest during interglacial periods. This conclusion, which is independent of the specification of the ice melting regime for the northern hemisphere ice sheets, strongly suggests that the changes in accumulation flux estimated from the Vostok proxy temperature data and used in other studies of the Antarctic mass balance have been overestimated. A simple expression is also presented for the lag of ice cap volume to SST, and it is found that the predictions for the mean sea level variability are similar to observations for a melting flux of the northern hemisphere ice sheets about twice their

  2. Low Cost Soft Magnets for Giant Magnetoimpedance-based Sensors (United States)

    Kurniawan, Michael

    Over several decades, soft magnets have been studied for various applications ranging from memory devices, sensing devices, power transformers, inductors, etc. The types of soft magnets studied include amorphous, crystalline, and also nanocomposites. Both metals and oxides (ferrites) are prevalent among soft magnetic materials. Various soft magnets with wide range of properties have been developed using different synthesis techniques such as melt spinning, in-water rotating wheel, and planar flow casting. Progress has also been made on processing and post-synthesis treatments (e.g. field annealing, strain annealing, etc.) to tailor soft magnetic properties for different applications. In particular, the ability to induce significant transverse magnetic anisotropy in ribbons contributes to forcing switching of the magnetization by rotational processes. The elimination of switching by domain wall motion leads to the reduction of anomalous eddy current losses at high frequencies. In Chapter 2, background theories and research motivation relevant to this work are discussed. This chapter explains the synthesis, post-synthesis treatment, and properties of soft magnets. This chapter also details further the Giant Magnetoimpedance (GMI) effect and its applications. Emphasis is placed on GMI-based sensing technologies for oil/gas exploration and other types of deep drilling. Following this, Chapter 3 explicitly states the primary goals of this research work. The next chapter of the thesis discusses about the first theme of this work; GMI effect in soft magnets. GMI-based sensors are attractive due to their high sensitivity and simple operation. Previous work has shown how structures and properties (e.g. permeability, anisotropy, etc) influence the GMI ratio in soft magnets. However, one area that has not been thoroughly explored is the GMI measurement at high temperature and its influence on the performance of high temperature magnetic sensors. This work explores this

  3. Entanglement in a Spin-$s$ Antiferromagnetic Heisenberg Chain


    Hao, Xiang; Zhu, Shiqun


    The entanglement in a general Heisenberg antiferromagnetic chain of arbitrary spin-$s$ is investigated. The entanglement is witnessed by the thermal energy which equals to the minimum energy of any separable state. There is a characteristic temperature below that an entangled thermal state exists. The characteristic temperature for thermal entanglement is increased with spin $s$. When the total number of lattice is increased, the characteristic temperature decreases and then approaches a cons...

  4. Diffusion equation and spin drag in spin-polarized transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flensberg, Karsten; Jensen, Thomas Stibius; Mortensen, Asger


    We study the role of electron-electron interactions for spin-polarized transport using the Boltzmann equation, and derive a set of coupled transport equations. For spin-polarized transport the electron-electron interactions are important, because they tend to equilibrate the momentum of the two......: it equilibrates the spin density imbalance and, provided it has a non-s-wave component, also a current imbalance....

  5. Spin injection and spin transport in paramagnetic insulators


    Okamoto, Satoshi


    We investigate the spin injection and the spin transport in paramagnetic insulators described by simple Heisenberg interactions using auxiliary particle methods. Some of these methods allow access to both paramagnetic states above magnetic transition temperatures and magnetic states at low temperatures. It is predicted that the spin injection at an interface with a normal metal is rather insensitive to temperatures above the magnetic transition temperature. On the other hand below the transit...

  6. Spin sensitive bleaching and monopolar spin orientation in quantum wells


    Ganichev, Sergey; Danilov, Sergey; Belkov, Vassilij; Ivchenko, Eougenious; Bichler, Max; Wegscheider, Werner; Weiss, Dieter; Prettl, Wilhelm


    Spin sensitive bleaching of the absorption of far-infrared radiation has been observed in $p$-type GaAs/AlGaAs quantum well structures. The absorption of circularly polarized radiation saturates at lower intensities than that of linearly polarized light due to monopolar spin orientation in the first heavy hole subband. Spin relaxation times of holes in $p$-type material in the range of tens of ps were derived from the intensity dependence of the absorption.

  7. Soft Mobility and Urban Transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Anna La Rocca


    Full Text Available This paper examines some European cases referred to promotion of soft mobility as a new lifestyle aimed to improve benefits on environment and urban liveability. Soft mobility includes any non-motorized transport (human powered mobility. According to this, soft mobility refers to pedestrian, bicycle, roller skate and skateboard transfers. It could be indented as “zeroimpact” mobility too. As a matter of fact, the words to define this way of moving have not been codified yet, therefore mobilitè douce, soft mobility, slow traffic are synonymous in referring mainly to pedestrians and cyclists to indicate alternative to car use. Soft mobility, indeed, can be defined as a special form of sustainable mobility able to optimize urban liveability, by keeping the individual right to move. At present, cities are engaged in defining policies, procedures and interventions to further “slow traffic”, both to relieve the traffic congestion, and to work for regeneration and environmental improvements. This asks for an in-depth cooperation between different political and administrative levels to achieve common objectives of development more attentive to environmental concerns. Despite this increasing attention, the idea of a “network” for soft mobility has not been yet achieved and the supply of integrated facilities and services as an alternative to the car use seems to be still difficult of accomplishment. High disparity characterizes European countries in promoting soft mobility: despite a prolific production of laws and roles referred to emergency of adopting alternative ways of moving to minimize negatives impacts (especially air and noise pollution as very threat to health due to car dependence for urban short distance too. And yet, soft mobility could represent a real occasion of urban and territorial regeneration aimed to rehabilitate some disused paths and routes (greenways. Some successful European cases show how it is possible to

  8. Generalised Interval-Valued Fuzzy Soft Set

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawkat Alkhazaleh


    Full Text Available We introduce the concept of generalised interval-valued fuzzy soft set and its operations and study some of their properties. We give applications of this theory in solving a decision making problem. We also introduce a similarity measure of two generalised interval-valued fuzzy soft sets and discuss its application in a medical diagnosis problem: fuzzy set; soft set; fuzzy soft set; generalised fuzzy soft set; generalised interval-valued fuzzy soft set; interval-valued fuzzy set; interval-valued fuzzy soft set.

  9. Some Properties of Intuitionistic Fuzzy Soft Rings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. A. Ersoy


    Full Text Available Maji et al. introduced the concept of intuitionistic fuzzy soft sets, which is an extension of soft sets and intuitionistic fuzzy sets. In this paper, we apply the concept of intuitionistic fuzzy soft sets to rings. The concept of intuitionistic fuzzy soft rings is introduced and some basic properties of intuitionistic fuzzy soft rings are given. Intersection, union, AND, and OR operations of intuitionistic fuzzy soft rings are defined. Then, the deffinitions of intuitionistic fuzzy soft ideals are proposed and some related results are considered.

  10. Bipolar soft connected, bipolar soft disconnected and bipolar soft compact spaces


    Muhammad Shabir; Ayreena Bakhtawar


    Bipolar soft topological spaces are mathematical expressions to estimate interpretation of data frameworks. Bipolar soft theory considers the core features of data granules. Bipolarity is important to distinguish between positive information which is guaranteed to be possible and negative information which is forbidden or surely false. Connectedness and compactness are the most important fundamental topological properties. These properties highlight the main features of topological s...

  11. High-field spin dynamics of antiferromagnetic quantum spin chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enderle, M.; Regnault, L.P.; Broholm, C.


    The characteristic internal order of macroscopic quantum ground states in one-dimensional spin systems is usually not directly accessible, but reflected in the spin dynamics and the field dependence of the magnetic excitations. In high magnetic fields quantum phase transitions are expected. We...... present recent work on the high-field spin dynamics of the S = I antiferromagnetic Heisenberg chains NENP (Haldane ground state) and CsNiCl3 (quasi-1D HAF close to the quantum critical point), the uniform S = 1/2 chain CTS, and the spin-Peierls system CuGeO3. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B,V. All rights...

  12. Spin-seebeck effect: a phonon driven spin distribution. (United States)

    Jaworski, C M; Yang, J; Mack, S; Awschalom, D D; Myers, R C; Heremans, J P


    Here we report on measurements of the spin-Seebeck effect in GaMnAs over an extended temperature range alongside the thermal conductivity, specific heat, magnetization, and thermoelectric power. The amplitude of the spin-Seebeck effect in GaMnAs scales with the thermal conductivity of the GaAs substrate and the phonon-drag contribution to the thermoelectric power of the GaMnAs, demonstrating that phonons drive the spin redistribution. A phenomenological model involving phonon-magnon drag explains the spatial and temperature dependence of the measured spin distribution.

  13. Spin-orbit mediated control of spin qubits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flindt, Christian; Sørensen, A.S; Flensberg, Karsten


    We propose to use the spin-orbit interaction as a means to control electron spins in quantum dots, enabling both single-qubit and two-qubit operations. Very fast single-qubit operations may be achieved by temporarily displacing the electrons. For two-qubit operations the coupling mechanism is based...... on a combination of the spin-orbit coupling and the mutual long-ranged Coulomb interaction. Compared to existing schemes using the exchange coupling, the spin-orbit induced coupling is less sensitive to random electrical fluctuations in the electrodes defining the quantum dots....

  14. A review on late Paleozoic ice-related erosional landforms in the Paraná Basin: origin and paleogeographical implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Luiz Menozzo da Rosa

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The Late Paleozoic Ice Age is recorded in the Paraná Basin as glacial deposits, deformational features and ice-related erosional landforms of the Itararé Group. Erosional landforms are often employed to build paleogeographic models that depict the location of ice masses and paleo ice-flow directions. This paper provides a review of the literature and new data on micro- to meso-scale ice-related, erosional landforms of the Paraná Basin. Examined landforms can be placed into four broad categories based on their mode of origin. Subglacial landforms on rigid substrates occur on the Precambrian basement or on older units in the Paraná Basin. They include streamlined landforms and striated pavements formed by abrasion and/or plucking beneath advancing glaciers. Subglacial landforms on soft beds are intraformational surfaces generated by erosion and deformation of unconsolidated deposits when overridden by glaciers. Ice-keel scour marks are soft-sediment striated/grooved landforms developed by the scouring of free-floating ice masses on underlying sediments. Striated clast pavements are horizons containing aligned clasts that are abraded subglacially due to the advance of glaciers on unconsolidated deposits. Only those erosional landforms formed subglacially can be used as reliable paleo ice-flow indicators. Based on these data, the paleogeography of the Paraná Basin during the Late Paleozoic Ice Age fits into a model of several glacial lobes derived from topographically-controlled ice spreading centers located around the basin instead of a single continental ice sheet.

  15. Experimental provocation of 'ice-cream headache' by ice cubes and ice water. (United States)

    Mages, Stephan; Hensel, Ole; Zierz, Antonia Maria; Kraya, Torsten; Zierz, Stephan


    Background There are various studies on experimentally provoked 'ice-cream headache' or 'headache attributed to ingestion or inhalation of a cold stimulus' (HICS) using different provocation protocols. The aim of this study was to compare two provocation protocols. Methods Ice cubes pressed to the palate and fast ingestion of ice water were used to provoke HICS and clinical features were compared. Results The ice-water stimulus provoked HICS significantly more often than the ice-cube stimulus (9/77 vs. 39/77). Ice-water-provoked HICS had a significantly shorter latency (median 15 s, range 4-97 s vs. median 68 s, range 27-96 s). There was no difference in pain localisation. Character after ice-cube stimulation was predominantly described as pressing and after ice-water stimulation as stabbing. A second HICS followed in 10/39 (26%) of the headaches provoked by ice water. Lacrimation occurred significantly more often in volunteers with than in those without HICS. Discussion HICS provoked by ice water was more frequent, had a shorter latency, different pain character and higher pain intensity than HICS provoked by ice cubes. The finding of two subsequent HICS attacks in the same volunteers supports the notion that two types of HICS exist. Lacrimation during HICS indicates involvement of the trigeminal-autonomic reflex.

  16. GPR capabilities for ice thickness sampling of low salinity ice and for detecting oil in ice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lalumiere, Louis [Sensors by Design Ltd. (Canada)


    This report discusses the performance and capabilities test of two airborne ground-penetrating radar (GPR) systems of the Bedford Institute of Oceanography (BIO), Noggin 1000 and Noggin 500, for monitoring low salinity snow and ice properties which was used to measure the thickness of brackish ice on Lake Melville in Labrador and on a tidal river in Prince Edward Island. The work of other researchers is documented and the measurement techniques proposed are compared to the actual GPR approach. Different plots of GPR data taken over snow and freshwater ice and over ice with changing salinity are discussed. An interpretation of brackish ice GPR plots done by the Noggin 1000 and Noggin 500 systems is given based on resolution criterion. Additionally, the capability of the BIO helicopter-borne GPR to detect oil-in-ice has been also investigated, and an opinion on the likelihood of the success of GPR as an oil-in-ice detector is given.

  17. Neutrosophic Parameterized Soft Relations and Their Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irfan Deli


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to introduce the concept of relation on neutrosophic parameterized soft set (NP- soft sets theory. We have studied some related properties and also put forward some propositions on neutrosophic parameterized soft relation with proofs and examples. Finally the notions of symmetric, transitive, reflexive, and equivalence neutrosophic parameterized soft set relations have been established in our work. Finally a decision making method on NP-soft sets is presented.

  18. Soft Manipulators and Grippers: A Review


    Josie Hughes; Utku Culha; Fabio Giardina; Fabian Günther; Andre Rosendo; Fumiya Iida


    Soft robotics is a growing area of research which utilises the compliance and adaptability of soft structures to develop highly adaptive robotics for soft interactions. One area in which soft robotics has the ability to make significant impact is in the development of soft grippers and manipulators. With an increased requirement for automation, robotics systems are required to perform task in unstructured and not well defined environments; conditions which conventional rigid robotics are no...

  19. Soft Manipulators and Grippers: A Review


    Hughes, Josie; Culha, Utku; Giardina, Fabio; Guenther, Fabian; Rosendo, Andre; Iida, Fumiya


    Soft robotics is a growing area of research which utilizes the compliance and adaptability of soft structures to develop highly adaptive robotics for soft interactions. One area in which soft robotics has the ability to make significant impact is in the development of soft grippers and manipulators. With an increased requirement for automation, robotics systems are required to perform task in unstructured and not well defined environments; conditions which conventional rigid robotics are not ...

  20. Spin Polarization Oscillations without Spin Precession: Spin-Orbit Entangled Resonances in Quasi-One-Dimensional Spin Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. H. Berman


    Full Text Available Resonant behavior involving spin-orbit entangled states occurs for spin transport along a narrow channel defined in a two-dimensional electron gas, including an apparent rapid relaxation of the spin polarization for special values of the channel width and applied magnetic field (so-called ballistic spin resonance. A fully quantum-mechanical theory for transport using multiple subbands of the one-dimensional system provides the dependence of the spin density on the applied magnetic field and channel width and position along the channel. We show how the spatially nonoscillating part of the spin density vanishes when the Zeeman energy matches the subband energy splittings. The resonance phenomenon persists in the presence of disorder.

  1. Multiferroics with spiral spin orders. (United States)

    Tokura, Yoshinori; Seki, Shinichiro


    Cross correlation between magnetism and electricity in a solid can host magnetoelectric effects, such as magnetic (electric) induction of polarization (magnetization). A key to attain the gigantic magnetoelectric response is to find the efficient magnetism-electricity coupling mechanisms. Among those, recently the emergence of spontaneous (ferroelectric) polarization in the insulating helimagnet or spiral-spin structure was unraveled, as mediated by the spin-exchange and spin-orbit interactions. The sign of the polarization depends on the helicity (spin rotation sense), while the polarization direction itself depends on further details of the mechanism and the underlying lattice symmetry. Here, we describe some prototypical examples of the spiral-spin multiferroics, which enable some unconventional magnetoelectric control such as the magnetic-field-induced change of the polarization direction and magnitude as well as the electric-field-induced change of the spin helicity and magnetic domain.

  2. Vaporization of Kitaev spin liquids. (United States)

    Nasu, Joji; Udagawa, Masafumi; Motome, Yukitoshi


    The quantum spin liquid is an exotic quantum state of matter in magnets. This state is a spin analog of liquid helium that does not solidify down to the lowest temperature due to strong quantum fluctuations. In conventional fluids, the liquid and gas possess the same symmetry and adiabatically connect to each other by bypassing the critical end point. We find that the situation is qualitatively different in quantum spin liquids realized in a three-dimensional Kitaev model; both gapless and gapped quantum spin liquid phases at low temperatures are always distinguished from the high-temperature paramagnet (spin gas) by a phase transition. The results challenge the common belief that the absence of thermodynamic singularity down to the lowest temperature is a symptom of a quantum spin liquid.

  3. Spin liquids in frustrated magnets. (United States)

    Balents, Leon


    Frustrated magnets are materials in which localized magnetic moments, or spins, interact through competing exchange interactions that cannot be simultaneously satisfied, giving rise to a large degeneracy of the system ground state. Under certain conditions, this can lead to the formation of fluid-like states of matter, so-called spin liquids, in which the constituent spins are highly correlated but still fluctuate strongly down to a temperature of absolute zero. The fluctuations of the spins in a spin liquid can be classical or quantum and show remarkable collective phenomena such as emergent gauge fields and fractional particle excitations. This exotic behaviour is now being uncovered in the laboratory, providing insight into the properties of spin liquids and challenges to the theoretical description of these materials.

  4. Novel Ice Mitigation Methods (United States)


    After the loss of Columbia, there was great concern in the Space Shuttle program for the impact of debris against the leading edges of the Orbiter wings. It was quickly recognized that, in addition to impacts by foam, ice that formed on the liquid-oxygen bellows running down the outside of the External Tank could break free during launch and hit this sensitive area. A Center Director s Discretionary Fund (CDDF) project would concentrate on novel ideas that were potentially applicable. The most successful of the new concepts for ice mitigation involved shape memory alloy materials. These materials can be bent into a given shape and, when heated, will return to their original shape.

  5. Animals and ICE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Hemmen, J Leo; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Carr, Catherine E


    experimental and mathematical foundation, it is known that there is a low-frequency regime where the internal time difference (iTD) as perceived by the animal may well be 2-5 times higher than the external ITD, the interaural time difference, and that there is a frequency plateau over which the fraction i......TD/ITD is constant. There is also a high-frequency regime where the internal level (amplitude) difference iLD as perceived by the animal is much higher than the interaural level difference ILD measured externally between the two ears. The fundamental tympanic frequency segregates the two regimes. The present special...... issue devoted to "internally coupled ears" provides an overview of many aspects of ICE, be they acoustic, anatomical, auditory, mathematical, or neurobiological. A focus is on the hotly debated topic of what aspects of ICE animals actually exploit neuronally to localize a sound source....

  6. Skating on slippery ice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. J. van Leeuwen


    Full Text Available The friction of a stationary moving skate on smooth ice is investigated, in particular in relation to the formation of a thin layer of water between skate and ice. It is found that the combination of ploughing and sliding gives a friction force that is rather insensitive for parameters such as velocity and temperature. The weak dependence originates from the pressure adjustment inside the water layer. For instance, high velocities, which would give rise to high friction, also lead to large pressures, which, in turn, decrease the contact zone and so lower the friction. The theory is a combination and completion of two existing but conflicting theories on the formation of the water layer.

  7. Image Content Engine (ICE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brase, J M


    The Image Content Engine (ICE) is being developed to provide cueing assistance to human image analysts faced with increasingly large and intractable amounts of image data. The ICE architecture includes user configurable feature extraction pipelines which produce intermediate feature vector and match surface files which can then be accessed by interactive relational queries. Application of the feature extraction algorithms to large collections of images may be extremely time consuming and is launched as a batch job on a Linux cluster. The query interface accesses only the intermediate files and returns candidate hits nearly instantaneously. Queries may be posed for individual objects or collections. The query interface prompts the user for feedback, and applies relevance feedback algorithms to revise the feature vector weighting and focus on relevant search results. Examples of feature extraction and both model-based and search-by-example queries are presented.

  8. Concussion in ice hockey. (United States)

    Bonfield, Christopher M; Wecht, Daniel A; Lunsford, L Dade


    Ice hockey is an aggressive and fast-paced sport which has a high risk of injury, concussions in particular. Although serious head injury has been recognized for nearly 50 years, an increase in mainstream media attention in recent years has led to unprecedented public awareness. As a result, the National Hockey League (NHL) and other professional leagues around the world have initiated concussion protocols in order to better prevent, recognize, and treat concussions. With over 1,000,000 youth hockey participants in Canada and the USA combined, concussion is an issue that reaches beyond the professional level. In this report we review the incidence, evaluation, treatment, return-to-play protocol, and prevention efforts related to concussion in ice hockey. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Ice Sheet Retention Structures, (United States)


    CHART NATIONAL BUREAU OF STANDARDS- 1963-A L % . - .& .4% I% REPORT83n30US Army Corps* RE RT 3-30of Engineers Cold Regions Research & Engingering ...Journal of the Technical Councils of ASCI, search Report 206. AD666205. Proceedings of the American Society of’Civil Engi- Ekizian, H., Jr. (1976...and G.D. Ashton (1978) Entrainment search Council, Ottawa. of ice floes into a submerged outlet. Proceedings of Uzuner, M.S. and J.F. Kennedy (1972

  10. Observation of the spin Nernst effect (United States)

    Meyer, S.; Chen, Y.-T.; Wimmer, S.; Althammer, M.; Wimmer, T.; Schlitz, R.; Geprägs, S.; Huebl, H.; Ködderitzsch, D.; Ebert, H.; Bauer, G. E. W.; Gross, R.; Goennenwein, S. T. B.


    The observation of the spin Hall effect triggered intense research on pure spin current transport. With the spin Hall effect, the spin Seebeck effect and the spin Peltier effect already observed, our picture of pure spin current transport is almost complete. The only missing piece is the spin Nernst (-Ettingshausen) effect, which so far has been discussed only on theoretical grounds. Here, we report the observation of the spin Nernst effect. By applying a longitudinal temperature gradient, we generate a pure transverse spin current in a Pt thin film. For readout, we exploit the magnetization-orientation-dependent spin transfer to an adjacent yttrium iron garnet layer, converting the spin Nernst current in Pt into a controlled change of the longitudinal and transverse thermopower voltage. Our experiments show that the spin Nernst and the spin Hall effect in Pt are of comparable magnitude, but differ in sign, as corroborated by first-principles calculations.

  11. Spin currents in metallic nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czeschka, Franz Dominik


    A pure spin current, i.e., a flow of angular momentum without accompanying net charge current, is a key ingredient in the field of spintronics. In this thesis, we experimentally investigated two different concepts for pure spin current sources suggested by theory. The first is based on a time-dependent magnetization precession which ''pumps'' a pure spin current into an adjacent non-magnetic conductor. Our experiments quantitatively corroborated important predictions expected theoretically for this approach, including the dependence of the spin current on the sample geometry and the microwave power. Even more important, we could show for the first time that the spin pumping concept is viable in a large variety of ferromagnetic materials and that it only depends on the magnetization damping. Therefore, our experiments established spin pumping as generic phenomenon and demonstrated that it is a powerful way to generate pure spin currents. The second theoretical concept is based on the conversion of charge currents into spin currents in non-magnetic nanostructures via the spin Hall effect. We experimentally investigated this approach in H-shaped, metallic nanodevices, and found that the predictions are linked to requirements not realizable with the present experimental techniques, neither in sample fabrication nor in measurement technique. Indeed, our experimental data could be consistently understood by a spin-independent transport model describing the transition from diffusive to ballistic transport. In addition, the implementation of advanced fabrication and measurement techniques allowed to discover a new non-local phenomenon, the non-local anisotropic magnetoresistance. Finally, we also studied spin-polarized supercurrents carried by spin-triplet Cooper pairs. We found that low resistance interfaces are a key requirement for further experiments in this direction. (orig.)

  12. Spin-photon entangling diode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flindt, Christian; Sørensen, A. S.; Lukin, M. D.


    We propose a semiconductor device that can electrically generate entangled electron spin-photon states, providing a building block for entanglement of distant spins. The device consists of a p-i-n diode structure that incorporates a coupled double quantum dot. We show that electronic control...... of the diode bias and local gating allow for the generation of single photons that are entangled with a robust quantum memory based on the electron spins. Practical performance of this approach to controlled spin-photon entanglement is analyzed....

  13. Towards spin injection into silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dash, S.P.


    Si has been studied for the purpose of spin injection extensively in this thesis. Three different concepts for spin injection into Si have been addressed: (1) spin injection through a ferromagnet-Si Schottky contact, (2) spin injection using MgO tunnel barriers in between the ferromagnet and Si, and (3) spin injection from Mn-doped Si (DMS) as spin aligner. (1) FM-Si Schottky contact for spin injection: To be able to improve the interface qualities one needs to understand the atomic processes involved in the formation of silicide phases. In order to obtain more detailed insight into the formation of such phases the initial stages of growth of Co and Fe were studied in situ by HRBS with monolayer depth resolution.(2) MgO tunnel barrier for spin injection into Si: The fabrication and characterization of ultra-thin crystalline MgO tunnel barriers on Si (100) was presented. (3) Mn doped Si for spin injection: Si-based diluted magnetic semiconductor samples were prepared by doping Si with Mn by two different methods i) by Mn ion implantation and ii) by in-diffusion of Mn atoms (solid state growth). (orig.)

  14. Spin superconductor in ferromagnetic graphene


    Sun, Qing-feng; Jiang, Zhao-tan; Yu, Yue; Xie, X. C.


    We show a spin superconductor (SSC) in ferromagnetic graphene as the counterpart to the charge superconductor, in which a spin-polarized electron-hole pair plays the role of the spin $2 (\\hbar/2)$ `Cooper pair' with a neutral charge. We present a BCS-type theory for the SSC. With the `London-type equations' of the super-spin-current density, we show the existence of an electric `Meissner effect' against a spatial varying electric field. We further study a SSC/normal conductor/SSC junction and...

  15. Spinning particles coupled to gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Hojman, Sergio A


    Recent experimental work has determined that free falling $^{87}$Rb atoms on Earth, with vertically aligned spins, follow geodesics, thus apparently ruling out spin--gravitation interactions. It is showed that while some spinning matter models coupled to gravitation referenced to in that work seem to be ruled out by the experiment, those same experimental results confirm theoretical results derived from a Lagrangian description of spinning particles coupled to gravity constructed over forty years ago. A proposal to carry out (similar but) different experiments which will help to test the validity of the Universality of Free Fall as opposed to the correctness of the aforementioned Lagrangian theory, is presented.

  16. Trabectedin in Soft Tissue Sarcomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley J. Petek


    Full Text Available Soft tissue sarcomas are a group of rare tumors derived from mesenchymal tissue, accounting for about 1% of adult cancers. There are over 60 different histological subtypes, each with their own unique biological behavior and response to systemic therapy. The outcome for patients with metastatic soft tissue sarcoma is poor with few available systemic treatment options. For decades, the mainstay of management has consisted of doxorubicin with or without ifosfamide. Trabectedin is a synthetic agent derived from the Caribbean tunicate, Ecteinascidia turbinata. This drug has a number of potential mechanisms of action, including binding the DNA minor groove, interfering with DNA repair pathways and the cell cycle, as well as interacting with transcription factors. Several phase II trials have shown that trabectedin has activity in anthracycline and alkylating agent-resistant soft tissue sarcoma and suggest use in the second- and third-line setting. More recently, trabectedin has shown similar progression-free survival to doxorubicin in the first-line setting and significant activity in liposarcoma and leiomyosarcoma subtypes. Trabectedin has shown a favorable toxicity profile and has been approved in over 70 countries for the treatment of metastatic soft tissue sarcoma. This manuscript will review the development of trabectedin in soft tissue sarcomas.

  17. Common Ice Hockey Injuries and Treatment: A Current Concepts Review. (United States)

    Mosenthal, William; Kim, Michael; Holzshu, Robert; Hanypsiak, Bryan; Athiviraham, Aravind

    Injuries are common in ice hockey, a contact sport where players skate at high speeds on a sheet of ice and shoot a vulcanized rubber puck in excess of one hundred miles per hour. This article reviews the diagnoses and treatment of concussions, injuries to the cervical spine, and lower and upper extremities as they pertain to hockey players. Soft tissue injury of the shoulder, acromioclavicular joint separation, glenohumeral joint dislocation, clavicle fractures, metacarpal fractures, and olecranon bursitis are discussed in the upper-extremity section of the article. Lower-extremity injuries reviewed in this article include adductor strain, athletic pubalgia, femoroacetabular impingement, sports hernia, medial collateral and anterior cruciate ligament tears, skate bite, and ankle sprains. This review is intended to aid the sports medicine physician in providing optimal sports-specific care to allow their athlete to return to their preinjury level of performance.

  18. Elements of spin motion (United States)

    Fukushima, Toshio; Ishizaki, Hideharu


    For use in numerical studies of rotational motion, a set of elements is introduced for the torque-free rotational motion of a rigid body around its barycenter. The elements are defined as the initial values of a modification of the Andoyer canonical variables. A computational procedure is obtained for determining these elements from the combination of the spin angular momentum vector and a triad defining the orientation of the rigid body. A numerical experiment shows that the errors of transformation between the elements and variables are sufficiently small. The errors increase linearly with time for some elements and quadratically for some others.

  19. GenIce: Hydrogen-Disordered Ice Generator. (United States)

    Matsumoto, Masakazu; Yagasaki, Takuma; Tanaka, Hideki


    GenIce is an efficient and user-friendly tool to generate hydrogen-disordered ice structures. It makes ice and clathrate hydrate structures in various file formats. More than 100 kinds of structures are preset. Users can install their own crystal structures, guest molecules, and file formats as plugins. The algorithm certifies that the generated structures are completely randomized hydrogen-disordered networks obeying the ice rule with zero net polarization. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Computational Chemistry Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Computational Chemistry Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Floating ice-algal aggregates below melting arctic sea ice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Assmy

    Full Text Available During two consecutive cruises to the Eastern Central Arctic in late summer 2012, we observed floating algal aggregates in the melt-water layer below and between melting ice floes of first-year pack ice. The macroscopic (1-15 cm in diameter aggregates had a mucous consistency and were dominated by typical ice-associated pennate diatoms embedded within the mucous matrix. Aggregates maintained buoyancy and accumulated just above a strong pycnocline that separated meltwater and seawater layers. We were able, for the first time, to obtain quantitative abundance and biomass estimates of these aggregates. Although their biomass and production on a square metre basis was small compared to ice-algal blooms, the floating ice-algal aggregates supported high levels of biological activity on the scale of the individual aggregate. In addition they constituted a food source for the ice-associated fauna as revealed by pigments indicative of zooplankton grazing, high abundance of naked ciliates, and ice amphipods associated with them. During the Arctic melt season, these floating aggregates likely play an important ecological role in an otherwise impoverished near-surface sea ice environment. Our findings provide important observations and measurements of a unique aggregate-based habitat during the 2012 record sea ice minimum year.

  1. Ice slurry cooling research: Storage tank ice agglomeration and extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasza, K. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Hayashi, Kanetoshi [NKK Corp., Kawasaki (Japan)


    A new facility has been built to conduct research and development on important issues related to implementing ice slurry cooling technology. Ongoing studies are generating important information on the factors that influence ice particle agglomeration in ice slurry storage tanks. The studies are also addressing the development of methods to minimize and monitor agglomeration and improve the efficiency and controllability of tank extraction of slurry for distribution to cooling loads. These engineering issues impede the utilization of the ice slurry cooling concept that has been under development by various groups.

  2. Theory of quantum kagome ice and vison zero modes (United States)

    Huang, Yi-Ping; Hermele, Michael


    We derive an effective Z2 gauge theory to describe the quantum kagome ice (QKI) state that has been observed by Carrasquilla et al. [Nat. Commun. 6, 7421 (2015), 10.1038/ncomms8421] in Monte Carlo studies of the S =1/2 kagome XYZ model in a Zeeman field. The numerical results on QKI are consistent with, but do not confirm or rule out, the hypothesis that it is a Z2 spin liquid. Our effective theory allows us to explore this hypothesis and make a striking prediction for future numerical studies, namely, that symmetry-protected vison zero modes arise at lattice disclination defects, leading to a Curie defect term in the spin susceptibility, and a characteristic (Ndis-1 )ln2 contribution to the entropy, where Ndis is the number of disclinations. Only the Z2 Ising symmetry is required to protect the vison zero modes. This is remarkable because a unitary Z2 symmetry cannot be responsible for symmetry-protected degeneracies of local degrees of freedom. We also discuss other signatures of symmetry fractionalization in the Z2 spin liquid, and phase transitions out of the Z2 spin liquid to nearby ordered phases.

  3. The Parameter Reduction of Fuzzy Soft Sets Based on Soft Fuzzy Rough Sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiming Zhang


    Full Text Available Fuzzy set theory, rough set theory, and soft set theory are three effective mathematical tools for dealing with uncertainties and have many wide applications both in theory and practise. Meng et al. (2011 introduced the notion of soft fuzzy rough sets by combining fuzzy sets, rough sets, and soft sets all together. The aim of this paper is to study the parameter reduction of fuzzy soft sets based on soft fuzzy rough approximation operators. We propose some concepts and conditions for two fuzzy soft sets to generate the same lower soft fuzzy rough approximation operators and the same upper soft fuzzy rough approximation operators. The concept of reduct of a fuzzy soft set is introduced and the procedure to find a reduct for a fuzzy soft set is given. Furthermore, the concept of exclusion of a fuzzy soft set is introduced and the procedure to find an exclusion for a fuzzy soft set is given.

  4. Angular dependence of spin-orbit spin-transfer torques

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Ki-Seung


    In ferromagnet/heavy-metal bilayers, an in-plane current gives rise to spin-orbit spin-transfer torque, which is usually decomposed into fieldlike and dampinglike torques. For two-dimensional free-electron and tight-binding models with Rashba spin-orbit coupling, the fieldlike torque acquires nontrivial dependence on the magnetization direction when the Rashba spin-orbit coupling becomes comparable to the exchange interaction. This nontrivial angular dependence of the fieldlike torque is related to the Fermi surface distortion, determined by the ratio of the Rashba spin-orbit coupling to the exchange interaction. On the other hand, the dampinglike torque acquires nontrivial angular dependence when the Rashba spin-orbit coupling is comparable to or stronger than the exchange interaction. It is related to the combined effects of the Fermi surface distortion and the Fermi sea contribution. The angular dependence is consistent with experimental observations and can be important to understand magnetization dynamics induced by spin-orbit spin-transfer torques.

  5. Designing Electron Spin Textures and Spin Interferometers by Shape Deformations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ying, Zu-Jian; Gentile, Paola; Ortix, Carmine; Cuoco, Mario


    We demonstrate that the spin orientation of an electron propagating in a one-dimensional nanostructure with Rashba spin-orbit (SO) coupling can be manipulated on demand by changing the geometry of the nanosystem. Shape deformations that result in a non-uniform curvature give rise to complex

  6. Robust spin current generated by the spin Seebeck effect (United States)

    Chang, Feng-Jen; Lin, Jauyn Grace; Huang, Ssu-Yen


    Spin pumping (SP) and the spin Seebeck effect (SSE), two of the most common methods for generating a pure spin current from ferromagnetic insulators, are considered to share similar physical mechanisms. However, a systematic study of the fundamental difference of their working principle is missing. In this Rapid Communication, we present experimental evidence of the contrast in a pure spin current generated by SP and SSE, based on results from yttrium iron garnet (YIG) with various crystalline properties. It is shown that while the SP-induced spin current could be two-orders-of-magnitude different between the polycrystalline and epitaxial films, the SSE-excited spin current is surprisingly insensitive to the different crystal structures. Our results clearly distinguish the coherent mechanism of SP from the noncoherent mechanism of the SSE. Consequently, the robust SSE voltage against poor crystallinity proves that the SSE is a powerful tool to explore pure spin current physics, and suggests that polycrystalline YIG films are a promising candidate for spin caloritronic applications.

  7. Bias-dependent spin relaxation in a Spin-LED

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosco, C.A. C. [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)]. E-mail:; Snouck, D. [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Van Dorpe, P. [IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Van Roy, W. [IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Koopmans, B. [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)


    We have investigated the bias-dependent spin relaxation in Cu-CoFe-AlO{sub x}-GaAs/AlGaAs-type of Spin-LEDs using microscopic time-resolved magnetization modulation spectroscopy (TIMMS). We observed a significant dependence of the electron spin relaxation time (effects as large as 40%) as a function of applied bias. The additional spin relaxation at non-zero bias is found to scale almost linearly with the injection current, and thereby with the current-induced hole density in the active region. This observation is indicative for a dominant contribution by Bir-Aronov-Pikus (BAP) electron-hole spin-flip scattering. In agreement with this observation, a similar BAP-enhanced spin relaxation shows up at increased laser fluence. From spatio-temporal imaging of spin relaxation, scanning pump and probe beams across the {approx}50{mu} m outside of optical window, we found a significant position dependence (lateral effects) of the spin dynamics.

  8. Modelling the Antarctic Ice Sheet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jens Olaf Pepke; Holm, A.


    The Antarctic ice sheet is a major player in the Earth’s climate system and is by far the largest depository of fresh water on the planet. Ice stored in the Antarctic ice sheet (AIS) contains enough water to raise sea level by about 58 m, and ice loss from Antarctica contributed significantly...... to sea level high stands during past interglacial periods. A number of AIS models have been developed and applied to try to understand the workings of the AIS and to form a robust basis for future projections of the AIS contribution to sea level change. The recent DCESS (Danish Center for Earth System...... Science) Antarctic Ice Sheet (DAIS) model (Shaffer 2014) is forced by reconstructed time series of Antarctic temperature, global sea level and ocean subsurface temperature over the last two glacial cycles. In this talk a modelling work of the Antarctic ice sheet over most of the Cenozoic era using...

  9. Spin-spin correlation functions of the q-VBS state of an integer spin model


    Arita, Chikashi; Motegi, Kohei


    We consider the valence-bond-solid ground state of the q-deformed higher-spin AKLT model (q-VBS state). We investigate the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of a matrix (G matrix), which is constructed from the matrix product representation of the q-VBS state. We compute the longitudinal and transverse spin-spin correlation functions, and determine the correlation amplitudes and correlation lengths for real q.

  10. Hard evidence on soft skills✩ (United States)

    Heckman, James J.; Kautz, Tim


    This paper summarizes recent evidence on what achievement tests measure; how achievement tests relate to other measures of “cognitive ability” like IQ and grades; the important skills that achievement tests miss or mismeasure, and how much these skills matter in life. Achievement tests miss, or perhaps more accurately, do not adequately capture, soft skills—personality traits, goals, motivations, and preferences that are valued in the labor market, in school, and in many other domains. The larger message of this paper is that soft skills predict success in life, that they causally produce that success, and that programs that enhance soft skills have an important place in an effective portfolio of public policies. PMID:23559694

  11. High performance soft magnetic materials

    CERN Document Server


    This book provides comprehensive coverage of the current state-of-the-art in soft magnetic materials and related applications, with particular focus on amorphous and nanocrystalline magnetic wires and ribbons and sensor applications. Expert chapters cover preparation, processing, tuning of magnetic properties, modeling, and applications. Cost-effective soft magnetic materials are required in a range of industrial sectors, such as magnetic sensors and actuators, microelectronics, cell phones, security, automobiles, medicine, health monitoring, aerospace, informatics, and electrical engineering. This book presents both fundamentals and applications to enable academic and industry researchers to pursue further developments of these key materials. This highly interdisciplinary volume represents essential reading for researchers in materials science, magnetism, electrodynamics, and modeling who are interested in working with soft magnets. Covers magnetic microwires, sensor applications, amorphous and nanocrystalli...

  12. Optimization of fat-reduced ice cream formulation employing inulin as fat replacer via response surface methodology. (United States)

    Pintor, Aurora; Severiano-Pérez, Patricia; Totosaus, Alfonso


    The use of new ingredients like inulin for fat replacement is of wide application in the food industry. The aim of the present work was to reduce the fat content on ice cream formulations. It was possible to reduce up to 25% of butyric and vegetable fats with 3% of inulin, with good textural and sensory characteristics of the final product. The substitution of fat with inulin increased the ice cream mix viscosity, improved air incorporation, and produced ice cream with soft and homogeneous textures. Color characteristics were not affected by the replacement. Hedonic sensory analysis showed that optimized fat-reduced inulin ice cream was not perceived different to commercial vanilla ice cream. © The Author(s) 2013 Reprints and permissions:

  13. Standard Neutrosophic Soft Theory: Some First Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bui Cong Cuong


    Full Text Available The traditional soft set is a mapping from a parameter set to family of all crisp subsets of a universe. Molodtsov introduced the soft set as a generalized tool for modelling complex systems involving uncertain or not clearly defined objects. In this paper, the notion of neutrosophic soft set is reanalysed. The novel theory is a combination of neutrosophic set theory and soft set theory. The complement, “and”, “or”, intersection and union operations are defined on the neutrosophic soft sets. The neutrosophic soft relations accompanied with their compositions are also defined. The basic properties of the neutrosophic soft sets, neutrosophic soft relations and neutrosophic soft compositions are also discussed.

  14. Soft Pneumatic Actuators for Rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Belforte


    Full Text Available Pneumatic artificial muscles are pneumatic devices with practical and various applications as common actuators. They, as human muscles, work in agonistic-antagonistic way, giving a traction force only when supplied by compressed air. The state of the art of soft pneumatic actuators is here analyzed: different models of pneumatic muscles are considered and evolution lines are presented. Then, the use of Pneumatic Muscles (PAM in rehabilitation apparatus is described and the general characteristics required in different applications are considered, analyzing the use of proper soft actuators with various technical properties. Therefore, research activity carried out in the Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering in the field of soft and textile actuators is presented here. In particular, pneumatic textile muscles useful for active suits design are described. These components are made of a tubular structure, with an inner layer of latex coated with a deformable outer fabric sewn along the edge. In order to increase pneumatic muscles forces and contractions Braided Pneumatic Muscles are studied. In this paper, new prototypes are presented, based on a fabric construction and various kinds of geometry. Pressure-force-deformation tests results are carried out and analyzed. These actuators are useful for rehabilitation applications. In order to reproduce the whole upper limb movements, new kind of soft actuators are studied, based on the same principle of planar membranes deformation. As an example, the bellows muscle model and worm muscle model are developed and described. In both cases, wide deformations are expected. Another issue for soft actuators is the pressure therapy. Some textile sleeve prototypes developed for massage therapy on patients suffering of lymph edema are analyzed. Different types of fabric and assembly techniques have been tested. In general, these Pressure Soft Actuators are useful for upper/lower limbs treatments

  15. Entirely soft dielectric elastomer robots (United States)

    Henke, E.-F. Markus; Wilson, Katherine E.; Anderson, Iain A.


    Multifunctional Dielectric Elastomer (DE) devices are well established as actuators, sensors and energy har- vesters. Since the invention of the Dielectric Elastomer Switch (DES), a piezoresistive electrode that can directly switch charge on and off, it has become possible to expand the wide functionality of DE structures even more. We show the application of fully soft DE subcomponents in biomimetic robotic structures. It is now possible to couple arrays of actuator/switch units together so that they switch charge between them- selves on and off. One can then build DE devices that operate as self-controlled oscillators. With an oscillator one can produce a periodic signal that controls a soft DE robot - a DE device with its own DE nervous system. DESs were fabricated using a special electrode mixture, and imprinting technology at an exact pre-strain. We have demonstrated six orders of magnitude change in conductivity within the DES over 50% strain. The control signal can either be a mechanical deformation from another DE or an electrical input to a connected dielectric elastomer actuator (DEA). We have demonstrated a variety of fully soft multifunctional subcomponents that enable the design of autonomous soft robots without conventional electronics. The combination of digital logic structures for basic signal processing, data storage in dielectric elastomer flip-flops and digital and analogue clocks with adjustable frequencies, made of dielectric elastomer oscillators (DEOs), enables fully soft, self-controlled and electronics-free robotic structures. DE robotic structures to date include stiff frames to maintain necessary pre-strains enabling sufficient actuation of DEAs. Here we present a design and production technology for a first robotic structure consisting only of soft silicones and carbon black.

  16. Spin caloritronics, origin and outlook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Haiming, E-mail: [Fert Beijing Institute, School of Electronic and Information Engineering, BDBC, Beihang University (China); Brechet, Sylvain D. [Institute of Physics, station 3, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, 1015 Lausanne-EPFL (Switzerland); Ansermet, Jean-Philippe, E-mail: [Institute of Physics, station 3, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, 1015 Lausanne-EPFL (Switzerland)


    Spin caloritronics refers to research efforts in spintronics when a heat current plays a role. In this review, we start out by reviewing the predictions that can be drawn from the thermodynamics of irreversible processes. This serves as a conceptual framework in which to analyze the interplay of charge, spin and heat transport. This formalism predicts tensorial relations between vectorial quantities such as currents and gradients of chemical potentials or of temperature. Transverse effects such as the Nernst or Hall effects are predicted on the basis that these tensors can include an anti-symmetric contribution, which can be written with a vectorial cross-product. The local symmetry of the system may determine the direction of the vector defining such transverse effects, such as the surface of an isotropic medium. By including magnetization as state field in the thermodynamic description, spin currents appear naturally from the continuity equation for the magnetization, and dissipative spin torques are derived, which are charge-driven or heat-driven. Thermodynamics does not give the strength of these effects, but may provide relationships between them. Based on this framework, the review proceeds by showing how these effects have been observed in various systems. Spintronics has become a vast field of research, and the experiments highlighted in this review pertain only to heat effects on transport and magnetization dynamics, such as magneto-thermoelectric power, or the spin-dependence of the Seebeck effect, the spin-dependence of the Peltier effect, the spin Seebeck effect, the magnetic Seebeck effect, or the Nernst effect. The review concludes by pointing out predicted effects that are yet to be verified experimentally, and in what novel materials the standard thermal spin effects could be investigated. - Highlights: • Thermodynamic description of transport: three-current model. • Magneto-thermoelectric power and spin-dependent Peltier effects. • Thermal

  17. Spin independent magnetoresistance effects in vertical graphene spin valves (United States)

    Bodepudi, Srikrishna; Pratap Singh, Abhay; Pramanik, Sandipan


    Vertical spin valve device configuration with multilayer graphene (MLG) as spacer has drawn significant attention in recent years because of its potential to produce large magnetoresistance (MR) effect due to perfect spin filtering. However, demonstration of this effect has remained elusive so far. Here we consider MLG vertical spin valve structures and show that they exhibit spin independent MR effects, which are orders of magnitude stronger than the spin dependent effects reported to date. These effects manifest within a moderate field range of 10 kG and depend on various factors such as hybridization near the top graphene surface, doping, defects and interlayer coupling. These effects highlight the rich spectrum of physical phenomena that manifest in such systems, which could be exploited in low to moderate magnetic field sensing applications.


    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab


    ICE was built during 1977, in a record time of 9 months, using the modified bending magnets of the g-2 muon storage ring (see 7405430). ICE was a proton and antiproton storage ring, built to verify the validity of stochastic and electron cooling for the antiproton project to be launched in 1978. More on the ICE experimental programme with 7802099. See also 7809081, 7908242.

  19. PSL Icing Facility Upgrade Overview (United States)

    Griffin, Thomas A.; Dicki, Dennis J.; Lizanich, Paul J.


    The NASA Glenn Research Center Propulsion Systems Lab (PSL) was recently upgraded to perform engine inlet ice crystal testing in an altitude environment. The system installed 10 spray bars in the inlet plenum for ice crystal generation using 222 spray nozzles. As an altitude test chamber, the PSL is capable of simulating icing events at altitude in a groundtest facility. The system was designed to operate at altitudes from 4,000 to 40,000 ft at Mach numbers up to 0.8M and inlet total temperatures from -60 to +15 degF. This paper and presentation will be part of a series of presentations on PSL Icing and will cover the development of the icing capability through design, developmental testing, installation, initial calibration, and validation engine testing. Information will be presented on the design criteria and process, spray bar developmental testing at Cox and Co., system capabilities, and initial calibration and engine validation test. The PSL icing system was designed to provide NASA and the icing community with a facility that could be used for research studies of engine icing by duplicating in-flight events in a controlled ground-test facility. With the system and the altitude chamber we can produce flight conditions and cloud environments to simulate those encountered in flight. The icing system can be controlled to set various cloud uniformities, droplet median volumetric diameter (MVD), and icing water content (IWC) through a wide variety of conditions. The PSL chamber can set altitudes, Mach numbers, and temperatures of interest to the icing community and also has the instrumentation capability of measuring engine performance during icing testing. PSL last year completed the calibration and initial engine validation of the facility utilizing a Honeywell ALF502-R5 engine and has duplicated in-flight roll back conditions experienced during flight testing. This paper will summarize the modifications and buildup of the facility to accomplish these tests.

  20. 2006 Program of Study: Ice (United States)


    Schlosser Columbia University Christian Schoof University of British Columbia Tiffany Shaw University of Toronto Edward Spiegel Columbia University... Thorndike [31] with additions to allow for partial ice cover, an ocean mixed layer which is always active, a simple paranieterization of ice dynaiics...It is an extension of the model of Thorndike ([31], hereafter T92), which is a single-column model with representations of vertical sea ice