WorldWideScience

Sample records for soft solution processes

  1. Impact of soft annealing on the performance of solution-processed amorphous zinc tin oxide thin-film transistors

    KAUST Repository

    Nayak, Pradipta K.; Hedhili, Mohamed N.; Cha, Dong Kyu; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2013-01-01

    It is demonstrated that soft annealing duration strongly affects the performance of solution-processed amorphous zinc tin oxide thin-film transistors. Prolonged soft annealing times are found to induce two important changes in the device: (i) a

  2. Impact of soft annealing on the performance of solution-processed amorphous zinc tin oxide thin-film transistors

    KAUST Repository

    Nayak, Pradipta K.

    2013-05-08

    It is demonstrated that soft annealing duration strongly affects the performance of solution-processed amorphous zinc tin oxide thin-film transistors. Prolonged soft annealing times are found to induce two important changes in the device: (i) a decrease in zinc tin oxide film thickness, and (ii) an increase in oxygen vacancy concentration. The devices prepared without soft annealing exhibited inferior transistor performances, in comparison to devices in which the active channel layer (zinc tin oxide) was subjected to soft annealing. The highest saturation field-effect mobility - 5.6 cm2 V-1 s-1 with a drain-to-source on-off current ratio (Ion/Ioff) of 2 × 108 - was achieved in the case of devices with 10-min soft-annealed zinc tin oxide thin films as the channel layer. The findings of this work identify soft annealing as a critical parameter for the processing of chemically derived thin-film transistors, and it correlates device performance to the changes in material structure induced by soft annealing. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  3. 4+D TechnologyTM for nuclear systems soft solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, Kune Y.

    2010-10-01

    The signature in the proposal lies with the NSSS (Nuclear Systems Soft Solutions). NSSS proposed in the 3-dimensional space and time plus cost coordinates, i.e. 4 + dimensional technology, is the backbone of digital engineering in the nuclear system design and management. The NSSS is empowered by Janus (Junctional Analysis Neo dynamic Unit Soft Power), NOTUS (Neo systemic Optimization Technical Unit Soft Power), Venus (Virtual Engineering Neo cybernetic Unit Soft Power), EURUS (Engineering Utilities Research Unit Soft Power) and INUUS (Informative Neo graphic Utilities Unit Soft Power). Janus extracts the geometric data directly from the computer-aided design CAD files to import to multidimensional computational fluid and structural dynamics codes. Janus uses the joint-CAD analysis methods to eliminate the necessity of any pre- and post- processors. Starting from the 3-dimensional CAD, NOTUS contributes to reducing the construction cost of the nuclear power plants by optimizing the component manufacturing procedure and the plant construction process. Planning and scheduling construction projects can thus benefit greatly by integrating traditional management techniques with digital process simulation visualization. The 3-dimensional visualization of construction processes and resulting products intrinsically afford most of the advantages realized by the 4 + D technology. Problems with equipment positioning and manpower congestion in certain areas can readily be visualized prior to the actual operation, thus preventing accidents and safety problems such as collision between two machines and losses in productivity. Venus applied the virtual reality technology in nuclear industry. Virtual reality provides an interactive real time motion with sound and tactile and other forms of feedback. The management and workers can thus comprehend the work process crystal clear by visualizing precisely how activities relate to one another, whereby reducing conflicting

  4. Solution mining process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Showalter, W.E.

    1984-01-01

    A solution mining process which may be used for uranium, thorium, vanadium, copper, nickel, molybdenum, rhenium, and selenium is claimed. During a first injection-and-production phase of between 6 months and 5 years, a leaching solution is injected through at least one well into the formation to solubilize the mineral values and form a pregnant liquor. This liquor is recovered through another well. The leaching solution contains sulfuric acid, nitric acid, hydrochloric acid, carbonic acid, an alkali metal carbonate, an alkali metal bicarbonate, ammonium carbonate or ammonium bicarbonate. Subsequently during a first production-only phase of between about 2 weeks and one year, injection of the leaching solution is suspended but pregnant liquor is still recovered. This stage is followed by a second injection-and-production phase of between 6 months and 5 years and a second production-only phase. The mineral values are separated from the pregnant liquor to form a barren liquor. The leaching agent is introduced into this liquor, and the solution is recycled. In a second claim for the solution mining of uranium, dilute carbonic acid is used as the leaching solution. The solution has a pH less than 7 and a bicarbonate ion concentration between about 380 ppm and 1000 ppm. The injection-and-production phase lasts between one and two years and the production only phase takes between one and four months. Carbon dioxide is introduced into the barren liquor to form a dilute carbonic acid solution and the solution is recycled

  5. Soft gluon contributions to hard processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciafaloni, M.

    1981-10-01

    The main concern of this paper is in trying to elucidate the origin of large QCD perturbative corrections and explain how to deal with them to all orders. They come essentially from the phase space regions close to the kinematical boundary of a hard process, in which one or many gluons become soft

  6. Soft solution synthesis and intense visible photoluminescence of lamellar zinc oxide hybrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sağlam, Özge

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: -- In this study, we demonstrate the synthesis of layered zinc oxide films intercalated with dodecyl sulphate ions by a simple soft solution process. The presence of potassium (K + ) and lithium (Li + ) ions in the precursor solution of layered zinc hydroxide resulted in lamellar hybrid zinc oxide films instead of layered zinc hydroxides. On the other hand, the addition of nickel phthalocyanine induces zinc hydroxide host layers which exhibit an intense blue emission. This is also promoted by K + and Li + ions

  7. Space structure of hadrons and soft processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyiri, J.

    1980-12-01

    A semi-phenomenological description of soft hadronic processes is given based on the picture of spatially separated quarks and on the spectator mechanism. It is pointed out that the data on the production of secondary mesons support the assumption of quark combinatorics. It is shown that the baryon production can be described roughly by the hypothesis of the dominance of the lowest SU(6)baryon multiplet. Two ways of explaining the slight discrepancy between the experimental data and the theoretical predictions on the increase of baryon multiplicities with the increase of energy are given. (P.L.)

  8. Supercrystallization of KCl from solution irradiated by soft X-rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janavičius, A. J.; Rinkūnas, R.; Purlys, R.

    2016-10-01

    The X-rays influence on KCl crystallization in a saturated water solution has been investigated for the aim of comparing it with previously considered NaCl crystallization. The rate of crystallization has been measured in the drying drop in the solution activated by the irradiation. We have measured the influence of the irradiation time of the solution on the rates of KCl crystallization as well as the beginning of the crystallization processes on drying drops. For a longer irradiation time of the solution early crystallization in the drops occurs. A saturated water solution of KCl was irradiated with the diffractometer DRON-3M (Russian device) and this had a great influence on the two-step processes of crystallization. The ionization of the solution by soft X-rays can produce ions, metastable radicals in water, excited crystals' seeds and vacancies in growing crystals by Auger's effect. The X-rays generate a very fast crystallization in the drying drop.

  9. Scalable manufacturing processes with soft materials

    OpenAIRE

    White, Edward; Case, Jennifer; Kramer, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    The emerging field of soft robotics will benefit greatly from new scalable manufacturing techniques for responsive materials. Currently, most of soft robotic examples are fabricated one-at-a-time, using techniques borrowed from lithography and 3D printing to fabricate molds. This limits both the maximum and minimum size of robots that can be fabricated, and hinders batch production, which is critical to gain wider acceptance for soft robotic systems. We have identified electrical structures, ...

  10. Soft Systems Methodology Embedded in Organizational Knowledge-Creating Process

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshida, Taketoshi

    2005-01-01

    We clarify the role of tacit knowing in the soft systems methodology. For the purpose we investigate the basic structure of its seven-stage model, while embedding the soft systems methodology in organizational knowledge-creating process. This leads to the introduction of concept creation to the methodology. This changes the basic shape of the soft systems methodology from learning cycle to organizational knowledge-creating spiral where concept creation is the key point.

  11. Feedwater flow measurements: challenges, current solutions, and 'soft' developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruan, D.; Roverso, D.; Fantoni, P.F.; Sanabrias, J.I.; Carrasco, J.A.; Fernandez, L.

    2002-07-01

    This report presents an early progress of a feasibility study of a computational intelligence approach to the enhancement of the accuracy of feedwater flow measurements in the framework of an ongoing cooperation between Tecnatom s.a. in Madrid and the OECD Halden Reactor Project (HRP) in Halden. The aim of this research project is to contribute to the development and validation of a flow sensor in a nuclear power plant (NPP). The basic idea is to combine the use of applied computational intelligence approaches (noise analysis, neural networks, fuzzy systems, wavelets etc.) with existing traditional flow measurements, and in particular with cross correlation flow meter concepts. In this report, Section 2 outlines relevant aspects of thermal power calculations on electrical power plants. Section 3 reviews from the available literature possible approaches and solutions for feedwater flow measurement, including ultrasonic flow meters, cross-correlation flow meters, and 'Virtural' flow meters with artificial neural networks. Section 4 reports typical experimental measurements at the Tecnatom's facility. Section 5 presents an integration approach and preliminary experimental tests. Section 6 discusses the role of soft computing techniques in the context of feedwater flow measurements related nuclear fields, and Section 7 highlights the future research direction. (Author)

  12. A QCD motivated model for soft processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kormilitzin, A.; Levin, E.

    2009-01-01

    In this talk we give a brief description of a QCD motivated model for both hard and soft interactions at high energies. In this model the long distance behaviour of the scattering amplitude is determined by the dipole scattering amplitude in the saturation domain.

  13. Generalized dynamics of soft-matter quasicrystals mathematical models and solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Fan, Tian-You

    2017-01-01

    The book systematically introduces the mathematical models and solutions of generalized hydrodynamics of soft-matter quasicrystals (SMQ). It provides methods for solving the initial-boundary value problems in these systems. The solutions obtained demonstrate the distribution, deformation and motion of the soft-matter quasicrystals, and determine the stress, velocity and displacement fields. The interactions between phonons, phasons and fluid phonons are discussed in some fundamental materials samples. Mathematical solutions for solid and soft-matter quasicrystals are compared, to help readers to better understand the featured properties of SMQ.

  14. Hard paths, soft paths or no paths? Cross-cultural perceptions of water solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wutich, A.; White, A. C.; White, D. D.; Larson, K. L.; Brewis, A.; Roberts, C.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we examine how development status and water scarcity shape people's perceptions of "hard path" and "soft path" water solutions. Based on ethnographic research conducted in four semi-rural/peri-urban sites (in Bolivia, Fiji, New Zealand, and the US), we use content analysis to conduct statistical and thematic comparisons of interview data. Our results indicate clear differences associated with development status and, to a lesser extent, water scarcity. People in the two less developed sites were more likely to suggest hard path solutions, less likely to suggest soft path solutions, and more likely to see no path to solutions than people in the more developed sites. Thematically, people in the two less developed sites envisioned solutions that involve small-scale water infrastructure and decentralized, community-based solutions, while people in the more developed sites envisioned solutions that involve large-scale infrastructure and centralized, regulatory water solutions. People in the two water-scarce sites were less likely to suggest soft path solutions and more likely to see no path to solutions (but no more likely to suggest hard path solutions) than people in the water-rich sites. Thematically, people in the two water-rich sites seemed to perceive a wider array of unrealized potential soft path solutions than those in the water-scarce sites. On balance, our findings are encouraging in that they indicate that people are receptive to soft path solutions in a range of sites, even those with limited financial or water resources. Our research points to the need for more studies that investigate the social feasibility of soft path water solutions, particularly in sites with significant financial and natural resource constraints.

  15. Implications of QCD for soft hadronic and nuclear processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwa, R.C.

    1981-01-01

    Physical implications of QCD for strong forces in soft processes are discussed. Topics include long-range force, Van der Waals force, nuclear force, hadron and quark structures. In the absence of a reliable calculational scheme, phenomenological models have been built that incorporate QCD ideas as far as possible. In the framework of those models calculations have been made that provide an understanding of the soft processes in terms of quarks and gluons. We review recent work on nuclear potential, form factors at low Q 2 , pion decay constant, inclusive distribution of low p/sub T/, and radiation length of fast quark in nuclear matter

  16. Soft computing in big data processing

    CERN Document Server

    Park, Seung-Jong; Lee, Jee-Hyong

    2014-01-01

    Big data is an essential key to build a smart world as a meaning of the streaming, continuous integration of large volume and high velocity data covering from all sources to final destinations. The big data range from data mining, data analysis and decision making, by drawing statistical rules and mathematical patterns through systematical or automatically reasoning. The big data helps serve our life better, clarify our future and deliver greater value. We can discover how to capture and analyze data. Readers will be guided to processing system integrity and implementing intelligent systems. With intelligent systems, we deal with the fundamental data management and visualization challenges in effective management of dynamic and large-scale data, and efficient processing of real-time and spatio-temporal data. Advanced intelligent systems have led to managing the data monitoring, data processing and decision-making in realistic and effective way. Considering a big size of data, variety of data and frequent chan...

  17. Hard and soft acids and bases: structure and process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, James L

    2012-07-05

    Under investigation is the structure and process that gives rise to hard-soft behavior in simple anionic atomic bases. That for simple atomic bases the chemical hardness is expected to be the only extrinsic component of acid-base strength, has been substantiated in the current study. A thermochemically based operational scale of chemical hardness was used to identify the structure within anionic atomic bases that is responsible for chemical hardness. The base's responding electrons have been identified as the structure, and the relaxation that occurs during charge transfer has been identified as the process giving rise to hard-soft behavior. This is in contrast the commonly accepted explanations that attribute hard-soft behavior to varying degrees of electrostatic and covalent contributions to the acid-base interaction. The ability of the atomic ion's responding electrons to cause hard-soft behavior has been assessed by examining the correlation of the estimated relaxation energies of the responding electrons with the operational chemical hardness. It has been demonstrated that the responding electrons are able to give rise to hard-soft behavior in simple anionic bases.

  18. Control of Neutralization Process Using Soft Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Balasubramanian

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available A novel model-based nonlinear control strategy is proposed using an experimental pH neutralization process. The control strategy involves a non linear neural network (NN model, in the context of internal model control (IMC. When integrated into the internal model control scheme, the resulting controller is shown to have favorable practical implications as well as superior performance. The designed model based online IMC controller was implemented to a laboratory scaled pH process in real time using dSPACE 1104 interface card. The responses of pH and acid flow rate shows good tracking for both the set point and load chances over the entire nonlinear region.

  19. Soft-robotic arm inspired by the octopus: II. From artificial requirements to innovative technological solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzolai, B; Margheri, L; Cianchetti, M; Dario, P; Laschi, C

    2012-01-01

    Soft robotics is a current focus in robotics research because of the expected capability of soft robots to better interact with real-world environments. As a point of inspiration in the development of innovative technologies in soft robotics, octopuses are particularly interesting ‘animal models’. Octopus arms have unique biomechanical capabilities that combine significant pliability with the ability to exert a great deal of force, because they lack rigid structures but can change and control their degree of stiffness. The octopus arm motor capability is a result of the peculiar arrangement of its muscles and the properties of its tissues. These special abilities have been investigated by the authors in a specific study dedicated to identifying the key principles underlying these biological functions and deriving engineering requirements for robotics solutions. This paper, which is the second in a two-part series, presents how the identified requirements can be used to create innovative technological solutions, such as soft materials, mechanisms and actuators. Experiments indicate the ability of these proposed solutions to ensure the same performance as in the biological model in terms of compliance, elongation and force. These results represent useful and relevant components of innovative soft-robotic systems and suggest their potential use to create a new generation of highly dexterous, soft-bodied robots. (paper)

  20. Soft-solution route to ZnO nanowall array with low threshold power density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Eue-Soon; Chen, Xiaoyuan; Won, Jung-Hee; Chung, Jae-Hun; Jang, Du-Jeon; Kim, Young-Woon; Choy, Jin-Ho

    2010-07-01

    ZnO nanowall array (ZNWA) has been directionally grown on the buffer layer of ZnO nanoparticles dip-coated on Si-wafer under a soft solution process. Nanowalls on substrate are in most suitable shape and orientation not only as an optical trap but also as an optical waveguide due to their unique growth habit, V[011¯0]≫V[0001]≈V[0001¯]. Consequently, the stimulated emission at 384 nm through nanowalls is generated by the threshold power density of only 25 kW/cm2. Such UV lasing properties are superior to those of previously reported ZnO nanorod arrays. Moreover, there is no green (defect) emission due to the mild procedure to synthesize ZNWA.

  1. Applications of Friction Stir Processing during Engraving of Soft Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Kočović

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Friction stir processing has extensive application in many technological operations. Application area of friction stir processing can be extended to the processing of non-metallic materials, such as wood. The paper examines the friction stir processing contact between a specially designed hard and temperature-resistant rotating tool and workpiece which is made of wood. Interval of speed slip and temperature level under which the combustion occurs and carbonization layer of soft material was determined. The results of the research can be applied in technological process of wood engraving operations which may have significant technological and aesthetic effects.

  2. Soft X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy of Liquids and Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jacob W; Saykally, Richard J

    2017-12-13

    X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) is an electronic absorption technique for which the initial state is a deeply buried core level. The photon energies corresponding to such transitions are governed primarily by the binding energies of the initial state. Because the binding energies of core electrons vary significantly among atomic species, this makes XAS an element-selective spectroscopy. Proper interpretation of XA spectra can provide detailed information on the local chemical and geometric environment of the target atom. The introduction of liquid microjet and flow cell technologies into XAS experiments has enabled the general study of liquid samples. Liquids studied to date include water, alcohols, and solutions with relevance to biology and energy technology. This Review summarizes the experimental techniques employed in XAS studies of liquid samples and computational methods used for interpretation of the resulting spectra and summarizes salient experiments and results obtained in the XAS investigations of liquids.

  3. Fuzzy logic as support for security and safety solution in soft targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ďuricová Lucia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Security and safety situations in objects, which are categorized as soft targets, is difficult. The current solving is based on several different type of solving. Soft targets are specific objects, and it requires special software solution. The proposal is based on fuzzy logic. Fuzzy logic could apply more expert’s knowledges and it could help owners and managers with adequate responses in critical situation, and also definition of adequate preventive actions. System solving could help effectivity of proposed measures. The decision making is based on this fuzzy logic support and aim is explained in paper.

  4. An octopus-bioinspired solution to movement and manipulation for soft robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calisti, M; Giorelli, M; Levy, G; Mazzolai, B; Hochner, B; Laschi, C; Dario, P

    2011-09-01

    Soft robotics is a challenging and promising branch of robotics. It can drive significant improvements across various fields of traditional robotics, and contribute solutions to basic problems such as locomotion and manipulation in unstructured environments. A challenging task for soft robotics is to build and control soft robots able to exert effective forces. In recent years, biology has inspired several solutions to such complex problems. This study aims at investigating the smart solution that the Octopus vulgaris adopts to perform a crawling movement, with the same limbs used for grasping and manipulation. An ad hoc robot was designed and built taking as a reference a biological hypothesis on crawling. A silicone arm with cables embedded to replicate the functionality of the arm muscles of the octopus was built. This novel arm is capable of pushing-based locomotion and object grasping, mimicking the movements that octopuses adopt when crawling. The results support the biological observations and clearly show a suitable way to build a more complex soft robot that, with minimum control, can perform diverse tasks.

  5. An octopus-bioinspired solution to movement and manipulation for soft robots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calisti, M; Giorelli, M; Laschi, C; Dario, P [BioRobotics Institute, Scuola Superiore Sant' Anna, Pisa (Italy); Levy, G; Hochner, B [Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem (Israel); Mazzolai, B, E-mail: marcello.calisti@sssup.it, E-mail: michele.giorelli@sssup.it, E-mail: guy.levy@mail.huji.ac.il, E-mail: barbara.mazzolai@iit.it, E-mail: Binyamin.Hochner@huji.ac.il, E-mail: cecilia.laschi@sssup.it, E-mail: paolo.dario@sssup.it [Centre for Micro-BioRobotics-SSSA, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Pontedera (Italy)

    2011-09-15

    Soft robotics is a challenging and promising branch of robotics. It can drive significant improvements across various fields of traditional robotics, and contribute solutions to basic problems such as locomotion and manipulation in unstructured environments. A challenging task for soft robotics is to build and control soft robots able to exert effective forces. In recent years, biology has inspired several solutions to such complex problems. This study aims at investigating the smart solution that the Octopus vulgaris adopts to perform a crawling movement, with the same limbs used for grasping and manipulation. An ad hoc robot was designed and built taking as a reference a biological hypothesis on crawling. A silicone arm with cables embedded to replicate the functionality of the arm muscles of the octopus was built. This novel arm is capable of pushing-based locomotion and object grasping, mimicking the movements that octopuses adopt when crawling. The results support the biological observations and clearly show a suitable way to build a more complex soft robot that, with minimum control, can perform diverse tasks.

  6. An octopus-bioinspired solution to movement and manipulation for soft robots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calisti, M; Giorelli, M; Laschi, C; Dario, P; Levy, G; Hochner, B; Mazzolai, B

    2011-01-01

    Soft robotics is a challenging and promising branch of robotics. It can drive significant improvements across various fields of traditional robotics, and contribute solutions to basic problems such as locomotion and manipulation in unstructured environments. A challenging task for soft robotics is to build and control soft robots able to exert effective forces. In recent years, biology has inspired several solutions to such complex problems. This study aims at investigating the smart solution that the Octopus vulgaris adopts to perform a crawling movement, with the same limbs used for grasping and manipulation. An ad hoc robot was designed and built taking as a reference a biological hypothesis on crawling. A silicone arm with cables embedded to replicate the functionality of the arm muscles of the octopus was built. This novel arm is capable of pushing-based locomotion and object grasping, mimicking the movements that octopuses adopt when crawling. The results support the biological observations and clearly show a suitable way to build a more complex soft robot that, with minimum control, can perform diverse tasks.

  7. Solutions for the food processing industry; Shokuhin seizogyo solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toda, T; Iwami, N [Fuji Electric Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-09-10

    To improve quality control and maintain stable operation, the food processing industry requires problem solutions in total, including not only processing and operation control divisions but also quality control, design and production technology, and maintenance divisions. This paper describes solutions for HACCP (hazard analysis critical control point) support, quality control, and maintenance, in order to improve the quality level, ensure traceability and realize stable processing operations. (author)

  8. Plasma processing of soft materials for development of flexible devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Setsuhara, Yuichi; Cho, Ken; Takenaka, Kosuke; Shiratani, Masaharu; Sekine, Makoto; Hori, Masaru

    2011-01-01

    Plasma-polymer interactions have been studied as a basis for development of next-generation processing of flexible devices with soft materials by means of low-damage plasma technologies (soft materials processing technologies). In the present article, interactions between argon plasmas and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) films have been examined for investigations of physical damages induced by plasma exposures to the organic material via chemical bonding-structure analyses using hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HXPES) together with conventional X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The PET film has been selected as a test material for investigations in the present study not merely because of its specific applications, such as a substrate material, but because PET is one of the well defined organic materials containing major components in a variety of functional soft materials; C-C main chain, CH bond, oxygen functionalities (O=C-O bond and C-O bond) and phenyl group. Especially, variations of the phenyl group due to argon plasma exposures have been investigated in the present article in order to examine plasma interactions with π-conjugated system, which is in charge of electronic functions in many of the π-conjugated electronic organic materials to be utilized as functional layer for advanced flexible device formations. The PET films have been exposed to argon plasmas sustained via inductive coupling of RF power with low-inductance antenna modules. The HXPES analyses exhibited that the degradations of the oxygen functionalities and the phenyl group in the deeper regions up to 50 nm from the surface of the samples were insignificant indicating that the bond scission and/or the degradations of the chemical bonding structures due to photoirradiation from the plasma and/or surface heating via plasma exposure were relatively insignificant as compared with damages in the vicinity of the surface layers.

  9. Formation of soft magnetic high entropy amorphous alloys composites containing in situ solid solution phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Ran; Sun, Huan; Chen, Chen; Tao, Juan; Li, Fushan

    2018-03-01

    Fe-Co-Ni-Si-B high entropy amorphous alloys composites (HEAACs), which containing high entropy solid solution phase in amorphous matrix, show good soft magnetic properties and bending ductility even in optimal annealed state, were successfully developed by melt spinning method. The crystallization phase of the HEAACs is solid solution phase with body centered cubic (BCC) structure instead of brittle intermetallic phase. In addition, the BCC phase can transformed into face centered cubic (FCC) phase with temperature rise. Accordingly, Fe-Co-Ni-Si-B high entropy alloys (HEAs) with FCC structure and a small amount of BCC phase was prepared by copper mold casting method. The HEAs exhibit high yield strength (about 1200 MPa) and good plastic strain (about 18%). Meanwhile, soft magnetic characteristics of the HEAs are largely reserved from HEAACs. This work provides a new strategy to overcome the annealing induced brittleness of amorphous alloys and design new advanced materials with excellent comprehensive properties.

  10. Synergy of modeling processes in the area of soft and hard modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sika Robert

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available High complexity of production processes results in more frequent use of computer systems for their modeling and simulation. Process modeling helps to find optimal solution, verify some assumptions before implementation and eliminate errors. In practice, modeling of production processes concerns two areas: hard modeling (based on differential equations of mathematical physics and soft (based on existing data. In the paper the possibility of synergistic connection of these two approaches was indicated: it means hard modeling support based on the tools used in soft modeling. It aims at significant reducing the time in order to obtain final results with the use of hard modeling. Some test were carried out in the Calibrate module of NovaFlow&Solid (NF&S simulation system in the frame of thermal analysis (ATAS-cup. The authors tested output values forecasting in NF&S system (solidification time on the basis of variable parameters of the thermal model (heat conduction, specific heat, density. Collected data was used as an input to prepare soft model with the use of MLP (Multi-Layer Perceptron neural network regression model. The approach described above enable to reduce the time of production process modeling with use of hard modeling and should encourage production companies to use it.

  11. Processing Solutions for Big Data in Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillatre, L.; Lepiller, D.

    2016-09-01

    This paper gives a simple introduction to processing solutions applied to massive amounts of data. It proposes a general presentation of the Big Data paradigm. The Hadoop framework, which is considered as the pioneering processing solution for Big Data, is described together with YARN, the integrated Hadoop tool for resource allocation. This paper also presents the main tools for the management of both the storage (NoSQL solutions) and computing capacities (MapReduce parallel processing schema) of a cluster of machines. Finally, more recent processing solutions like Spark are discussed. Big Data frameworks are now able to run complex applications while keeping the programming simple and greatly improving the computing speed.

  12. Selective Etching via Soft Lithography of Conductive Multilayered Gold Films with Analysis of Electrolyte Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Ralph W.; Oliver-Hoyo, Maria T.

    2008-01-01

    This experiment is designed to expose undergraduate students to the process of selective etching by using soft lithography and the resulting electrical properties of multilayered films fabricated via self-assembly of gold nanoparticles. Students fabricate a conductive film of gold on glass, apply a patterned resist using a polydimethylsiloxane…

  13. Test Automation Process Improvement A case study of BroadSoft

    OpenAIRE

    Gummadi, Jalendar

    2016-01-01

    This master thesis research is about improvement of test automation process at BroadSoft Finland as a case study. Test automation project recently started at BroadSoft but the project is not properly integrated in to existing process. Project is about converting manual test cases to automation test cases. The aim of this thesis is about studying existing BroadSoft test process and studying different test automation frameworks. In this thesis different test automation process are studied ...

  14. The administration of L-thyroxine as soft gel capsule or liquid solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vita, Roberto; Fallahi, Poupak; Antonelli, Alessandro; Benvenga, Salvatore

    2014-07-01

    Levothyroxine (l-T4) is the mainstay of treating hypothyroidism. The tablet is the traditional formulation of l-T4. Tablet l-T4 malabsorption results from either hindered gastric dissolution of the tablet or binding of l-T4 by sequestrants in the intestinal lumen. This review provides an overview of the pharmacokinetics of l-T4 formulations available in the market: the tablet, the soft gel capsule and the oral solution. We review literature on the new formulations and anticipate the areas of future research. Failure of l-T4 treatment to reach target serum thyroid-stimulating hormone levels generally prompts the physicians to increase l-T4 daily dose. In vitro studies have shown that the soft gel capsule releases the active ingredient more consistently at varying pH than the tablet. In addition, in vivo studies have confirmed the in vitro data and have demonstrated that both the soft gel capsule and the liquid formulation are capable to solve tablet l-T4 malabsorption caused by certain drugs, bariatric surgery or coffee. These new formulations may be attractive also for patients who cannot/do not want to change their (improper) habits of l-T4 ingestion. Finally, the oral solution l-T4 could be suitable for patients who cannot swallow the solid formulations.

  15. Location-Dependent Query Processing Under Soft Real-Time Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoubir Mammeri

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, mobile devices and applications achieved an increasing development. In database field, this development required methods to consider new query types like location-dependent queries (i.e. the query results depend on the query issuer location. Although several researches addressed problems related to location-dependent query processing, a few works considered timing requirements that may be associated with queries (i.e., the query results must be delivered to mobile clients on time. The main objective of this paper is to propose a solution for location-dependent query processing under soft real-time constraints. Hence, we propose methods to take into account client location-dependency and to maximize the percentage of queries respecting their deadlines. We validate our proposal by implementing a prototype based on Oracle DBMS. Performance evaluation results show that the proposed solution optimizes the percentage of queries meeting their deadlines and the communication cost.

  16. Exact solution of the hidden Markov processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saakian, David B.

    2017-11-01

    We write a master equation for the distributions related to hidden Markov processes (HMPs) and solve it using a functional equation. Thus the solution of HMPs is mapped exactly to the solution of the functional equation. For a general case the latter can be solved only numerically. We derive an exact expression for the entropy of HMPs. Our expression for the entropy is an alternative to the ones given before by the solution of integral equations. The exact solution is possible because actually the model can be considered as a generalized random walk on a one-dimensional strip. While we give the solution for the two second-order matrices, our solution can be easily generalized for the L values of the Markov process and M values of observables: We should be able to solve a system of L functional equations in the space of dimension M -1 .

  17. A soft-core processor architecture optimised for radar signal processing applications

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Broich, R

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available -performance soft-core processing architecture is proposed. To develop such a processing architecture, data and signal-flow characteristics of common radar signal processing algorithms are analysed. Each algorithm is broken down into signal processing...

  18. Assessment of Process Capability: the case of Soft Drinks Processing Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sri Yogi, Kottala

    2018-03-01

    The process capability studies have significant impact in investigating process variation which is important in achieving product quality characteristics. Its indices are to measure the inherent variability of a process and thus to improve the process performance radically. The main objective of this paper is to understand capability of the process being produced within specification of the soft drinks processing unit, a premier brands being marketed in India. A few selected critical parameters in soft drinks processing: concentration of gas volume, concentration of brix, torque of crock has been considered for this study. Assessed some relevant statistical parameters: short term capability, long term capability as a process capability indices perspective. For assessment we have used real time data of soft drinks bottling company which is located in state of Chhattisgarh, India. As our research output suggested reasons for variations in the process which is validated using ANOVA and also predicted Taguchi cost function, assessed also predicted waste monetarily this shall be used by organization for improving process parameters. This research work has substantially benefitted the organization in understanding the various variations of selected critical parameters for achieving zero rejection.

  19. SOFT: smooth OPC fixing technique for ECO process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongbo; Shi, Zheng

    2007-03-01

    SOFT (Smooth OPC Fixing Technique) is a new OPC flow developed from the basic OPC framework. It provides a new method to reduce the computation cost and complexities of ECO-OPC (Engineering Change Order - Optical Proximity Correction). In this paper, we introduce polygon comparison to extract the necessary but possibly lost fragmentation and offset information of previous post-OPC layout. By reusing these data, we can start the modification on each segment from a more accurate initial offset. In addition, the fragmentation method in the boundary of the patch in the previous OPC process is therefore available for engineers to stitch the regional ECO-OPC result back to the whole post-OPC layout seamlessly. For the ripple effect in the OPC, by comparing each segment's movement in each loop, we much free the fixing speed from the limitation of patch size. We handle layout remodification, especially in three basic kinds of ECO-OPC processes, while maintaining other design closure. Our experimental results show that, by utilizing the previous post-OPC layout, full-chip ECO-OPC can realize an over 5X acceleration and the regional ECO-OPC result can also be stitched back into the whole layout seamlessly with the ripple effect of the lithography interaction.

  20. Effect of soft underlayer magnetic anisotropy on perpendicular recording process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, C.K.; Kim, E.S.; Yoon, S.Y.; Kong, S.H.; Lee, H.S.; Oh, H.S.; Kim, Y.S.

    2007-01-01

    The presence of the soft magnetic underlayer (SUL) in perpendicular magnetic recording (PMR) media is essential for the application. It is commonly understood that the SUL provides the return flux path and enhances the writing field by enhancing the recording field from the write pole. However, SUL increases the magnetic noise during the read back process due to magnetic domain walls in the SUL. Hence, it is common to grow SUL with large uniaxial or unidirectional magnetic anisotropy field (H k ) to reduce domain wall noise. In this paper, we explore the effect of increasing SUL H k on the recording process. We studied this effect by using the finite element micromagnetic simulation. Our simulation results show that the contribution of SUL to the writing field amplitude is reduced with increasing H k . This reduction in magnetic field from high H k SUL actually improves the recording performance due to the better field gradient at SUL. The simulation results are qualitatively consistent with the actual experimental data obtained from the Guzik measurement

  1. Soft gluon resummation formulae for hard proton processes in QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craigie, N.S.; Jones, H.F.

    1980-01-01

    We briefly review the treatment of leading logarithmic behaviour of the parton distributions in QCD within the Bethe-Salpeter framework by analysing directly parton hadron Green functions in the limit of parton four-momentum k 2 → - infinitely in a special light-like gauge involving a spectator vector. This technique allows us to derive the factorization of parton probabilities in leading logarithmic order in QCD in the various inclusive processes involving a single short-distance scale. The proof requires us to show that the use of planar gauges eta = psub(A) + psub(B) + ..., where psub(A), psub(B)... are the observed hadron momenta, reduces to choosing the appropriate light-like gauge for each hadron-parton BS channel, after demonstrating a Bloch-Nordsieck cancellation of the real and virtual soft left-over gluons. In the case where two large momentum scales appear, by restricting the transverse phase space into which the gluons are radiated, we derive the double logarithmic eikonal renormalization of the hard scattering formula of the type proposed recently by Parisi and Petronzio. (orig.)

  2. Soft restructuring process in metallurgical enterprises in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Gajdzik

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the range and outcomes of soft restructuring in metallurgical enterprises in Poland. The term ‘soft restructuring’ applies to changes in metallurgical enterprises’ employment policy during the period of political transformation in Poland. Steelworks performance under the market economy conditions demanded introducing changes in staff resources. Changes referred both to the staff structure as well as employees’ skills and gradual engaging of the staff in building the steelworks’ competitive advantage.

  3. From Cellulosic Based Liquid Crystalline Sheared Solutions to 1D and 2D Soft Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Helena Godinho

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Liquid crystalline cellulosic-based solutions described by distinctive properties are at the origin of different kinds of multifunctional materials with unique characteristics. These solutions can form chiral nematic phases at rest, with tuneable photonic behavior, and exhibit a complex behavior associated with the onset of a network of director field defects under shear. Techniques, such as Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR, Rheology coupled with NMR (Rheo-NMR, rheology, optical methods, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI, Wide Angle X-rays Scattering (WAXS, were extensively used to enlighten the liquid crystalline characteristics of these cellulosic solutions. Cellulosic films produced by shear casting and fibers by electrospinning, from these liquid crystalline solutions, have regained wider attention due to recognition of their innovative properties associated to their biocompatibility. Electrospun membranes composed by helical and spiral shape fibers allow the achievement of large surface areas, leading to the improvement of the performance of this kind of systems. The moisture response, light modulated, wettability and the capability of orienting protein and cellulose crystals, opened a wide range of new applications to the shear casted films. Characterization by NMR, X-rays, tensile tests, AFM, and optical methods allowed detailed characterization of those soft cellulosic materials. In this work, special attention will be given to recent developments, including, among others, a moisture driven cellulosic motor and electro-optical devices.

  4. Bayesian soft X-ray tomography using non-stationary Gaussian Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Dong; Svensson, J.; Thomsen, H.; Werner, A.; Wolf, R.; Medina, F.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, a Bayesian based non-stationary Gaussian Process (GP) method for the inference of soft X-ray emissivity distribution along with its associated uncertainties has been developed. For the investigation of equilibrium condition and fast magnetohydrodynamic behaviors in nuclear fusion plasmas, it is of importance to infer, especially in the plasma center, spatially resolved soft X-ray profiles from a limited number of noisy line integral measurements. For this ill-posed inversion problem, Bayesian probability theory can provide a posterior probability distribution over all possible solutions under given model assumptions. Specifically, the use of a non-stationary GP to model the emission allows the model to adapt to the varying length scales of the underlying diffusion process. In contrast to other conventional methods, the prior regularization is realized in a probability form which enhances the capability of uncertainty analysis, in consequence, scientists who concern the reliability of their results will benefit from it. Under the assumption of normally distributed noise, the posterior distribution evaluated at a discrete number of points becomes a multivariate normal distribution whose mean and covariance are analytically available, making inversions and calculation of uncertainty fast. Additionally, the hyper-parameters embedded in the model assumption can be optimized through a Bayesian Occam's Razor formalism and thereby automatically adjust the model complexity. This method is shown to produce convincing reconstructions and good agreements with independently calculated results from the Maximum Entropy and Equilibrium-Based Iterative Tomography Algorithm methods

  5. Bayesian soft X-ray tomography using non-stationary Gaussian Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dong; Svensson, J.; Thomsen, H.; Medina, F.; Werner, A.; Wolf, R.

    2013-08-01

    In this study, a Bayesian based non-stationary Gaussian Process (GP) method for the inference of soft X-ray emissivity distribution along with its associated uncertainties has been developed. For the investigation of equilibrium condition and fast magnetohydrodynamic behaviors in nuclear fusion plasmas, it is of importance to infer, especially in the plasma center, spatially resolved soft X-ray profiles from a limited number of noisy line integral measurements. For this ill-posed inversion problem, Bayesian probability theory can provide a posterior probability distribution over all possible solutions under given model assumptions. Specifically, the use of a non-stationary GP to model the emission allows the model to adapt to the varying length scales of the underlying diffusion process. In contrast to other conventional methods, the prior regularization is realized in a probability form which enhances the capability of uncertainty analysis, in consequence, scientists who concern the reliability of their results will benefit from it. Under the assumption of normally distributed noise, the posterior distribution evaluated at a discrete number of points becomes a multivariate normal distribution whose mean and covariance are analytically available, making inversions and calculation of uncertainty fast. Additionally, the hyper-parameters embedded in the model assumption can be optimized through a Bayesian Occam's Razor formalism and thereby automatically adjust the model complexity. This method is shown to produce convincing reconstructions and good agreements with independently calculated results from the Maximum Entropy and Equilibrium-Based Iterative Tomography Algorithm methods.

  6. Method of processing plutonium and uranium solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otsuka, Katsuyuki; Kondo, Isao; Suzuki, Toru.

    1989-01-01

    Solutions of plutonium nitrate solutions and uranyl nitrate recovered in the solvent extraction step in reprocessing plants and nuclear fuel production plants are applied with low temperature treatment by means of freeze-drying under vacuum into residues containing nitrates, which are denitrated under heating and calcined under reduction into powders. That is, since complicate processes of heating, concentration and dinitration conducted so far for the plutonium solution and uranyl solution are replaced with one step of freeze-drying under vacuum, the process can be simplified significantly. In addition, since the treatment is applied at low temperature, occurrence of corrosion for the material of evaporation, etc. can be prevented. Further, the number of operators can be saved by dividing the operations into recovery of solidification products, supply and sintering of the solutions and vacuum sublimation. Further, since nitrates processed at a low temperature are powderized by heating dinitration, the powderization step can be simplified. The specific surface area and the grain size distribution of the powder is made appropriate and it is possible to obtain oxide powders of physical property easily to be prepared into pellets. (N.H.)

  7. Scalable solution-phase epitaxial growth of symmetry-mismatched heterostructures on two-dimensional crystal soft template.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhaoyang; Yin, Anxiang; Mao, Jun; Xia, Yi; Kempf, Nicholas; He, Qiyuan; Wang, Yiliu; Chen, Chih-Yen; Zhang, Yanliang; Ozolins, Vidvuds; Ren, Zhifeng; Huang, Yu; Duan, Xiangfeng

    2016-10-01

    Epitaxial heterostructures with precisely controlled composition and electronic modulation are of central importance for electronics, optoelectronics, thermoelectrics, and catalysis. In general, epitaxial material growth requires identical or nearly identical crystal structures with small misfit in lattice symmetry and parameters and is typically achieved by vapor-phase depositions in vacuum. We report a scalable solution-phase growth of symmetry-mismatched PbSe/Bi 2 Se 3 epitaxial heterostructures by using two-dimensional (2D) Bi 2 Se 3 nanoplates as soft templates. The dangling bond-free surface of 2D Bi 2 Se 3 nanoplates guides the growth of PbSe crystal without requiring a one-to-one match in the atomic structure, which exerts minimal restriction on the epitaxial layer. With a layered structure and weak van der Waals interlayer interaction, the interface layer in the 2D Bi 2 Se 3 nanoplates can deform to accommodate incoming layer, thus functioning as a soft template for symmetry-mismatched epitaxial growth of cubic PbSe crystal on rhombohedral Bi 2 Se 3 nanoplates. We show that a solution chemistry approach can be readily used for the synthesis of gram-scale PbSe/Bi 2 Se 3 epitaxial heterostructures, in which the square PbSe (001) layer forms on the trigonal/hexagonal (0001) plane of Bi 2 Se 3 nanoplates. We further show that the resulted PbSe/Bi 2 Se 3 heterostructures can be readily processed into bulk pellet with considerably suppressed thermal conductivity (0.30 W/m·K at room temperature) while retaining respectable electrical conductivity, together delivering a thermoelectric figure of merit ZT three times higher than that of the pristine Bi 2 Se 3 nanoplates at 575 K. Our study demonstrates a unique epitaxy mode enabled by the 2D nanocrystal soft template via an affordable and scalable solution chemistry approach. It opens up new opportunities for the creation of diverse epitaxial heterostructures with highly disparate structures and functions.

  8. Evaluation of fracturing process of soft rocks at great depth by AE measurement and DEM simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Kenji; Mito, Yoshitada; Kurokawa, Susumu; Matsui, Hiroya; Niunoya, Sumio; Minami, Masayuki

    2007-01-01

    The authors developed the stress-based evaluation system of EDZ by AE monitoring and Distinct Element Method (DEM) simulation. In order to apply this system to the soft rock site, the authors try to grasp the relationship between AE parameters, stress change and rock fracturing process by performing the high stiffness tri-axial compression tests including AE measurements on the soft rock samples, and its simulations by DEM using bonded particle model. As the result, it is found that change in predominant AE frequency is effective to evaluate fracturing process in sedimentary soft rocks, and the relationship between stress change and fracturing process is also clarified. (author)

  9. Process instrument monitoring for SNM solution surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armatys, C.M.; Johnson, C.E.; Wagner, E.P.

    1983-02-01

    A process monitoring computer system at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) is being used to evaluate nuclear fuel reprocessing plant data for Safeguards surveillance capabilities. The computer system was installed to collect data from the existing plant instruments and to evaluate what safeguards assurances can be provided to complement conventional accountability and physical protection measures. Movements of solutions containing special nuclear material (SNM) can be observed, activities associated with accountancy measurements (mixing, sampling, and bulk measurement) can be confirmed, and long-term storage of SNM solutions can be monitored to ensure containment. Special precautions must be taken, both in system design and operation to ensure adequate coverage of essential measured parameters and interpretation of process data, which can be comprised by instrument malfunctions or failures, unreliable data collection, or process activities that deviate from readily identified procedures. Experience at ICPP and prior evaluations at the Tokai reprocessing plant show that the use of process data can provide assurances that accountability measurement procedures are followed and SNM solutions are properly contained and can help confirm that SNM controls are in effect within a facility

  10. Study on algorithm of process neural network for soft sensing in sewage disposal system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zaiwen; Xue, Hong; Wang, Xiaoyi; Yang, Bin; Lu, Siying

    2006-11-01

    A new method of soft sensing based on process neural network (PNN) for sewage disposal system is represented in the paper. PNN is an extension of traditional neural network, in which the inputs and outputs are time-variation. An aggregation operator is introduced to process neuron, and it makes the neuron network has the ability to deal with the information of space-time two dimensions at the same time, so the data processing enginery of biological neuron is imitated better than traditional neuron. Process neural network with the structure of three layers in which hidden layer is process neuron and input and output are common neurons for soft sensing is discussed. The intelligent soft sensing based on PNN may be used to fulfill measurement of the effluent BOD (Biochemical Oxygen Demand) from sewage disposal system, and a good training result of soft sensing was obtained by the method.

  11. Waste processing of chemical cleaning solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, G.A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on chemical cleaning solutions containing high concentrations of organic chelating wastes that are difficult to reduce in volume using existing technology. Current methods for evaporating low-level radiative waste solutions often use high maintenance evaporators that can be costly and inefficient. The heat transfer surfaces of these evaporators are easily fouled, and their maintenance requires a significant labor investment. To address the volume reduction of spent, low-level radioactive, chelating-based chemical cleaning solutions, ECOSAFE Liquid Volume Reduction System (LVRS) has been developed. The LVRS is based on submerged combustion evaporator technology that was modified for treatment of low-level radiative liquid wastes. This system was developed in 1988 and was used to process 180,000 gallons of waste at Oconee Nuclear Station

  12. Using soft constraints to guide users in flexible business process management systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefansen, Christian; Borch, Signe Ellegård

    2008-01-01

    Current Business Process Management Systems (BPMS) allow designers to specify processes in highly expressive languages supporting numerous control flow constructs, exceptions, complex predicates, etc., but process specifications are expressed in terms of hard constraints, and this leads...... to an unfortunate trade off: information about preferred practices must either be abandoned or promoted to hard constraints. If abandoned, the BPMS cannot guide its users; if promoted to hard constraints, it becomes a hindrance when unanticipated deviations occur. Soft constraints can make this trade-off less...... painful. Soft constraints specify what rules can be violated and by how much. With soft constraints, the BPMS knows what deviations it can permit, and it can guide the user through the process. The BPMS should allow designers to easily specify soft goals and allow its users to immediately see...

  13. Soft-core dataflow processor architecture optimised for radar signal processing: Article

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Broich, R

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Current radar signal processors lack either performance or flexibility. Custom soft-core processors exhibit potential in high-performance signal processing applications, yet remain relatively unexplored in research literature. In this paper, we use...

  14. Processing of waste solutions from electrochemical decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlot, L.A.; Allen, R.P.; Arrowsmith, H.W.; Hooper, J.L.

    1979-09-01

    The use of electropolishing as a decontamination technique will be effective only if we can minimize the amount of secondary waste requiring disposal and economically recycle part of the decontamination electrolyte. Consequently, a solution purification method is needed to remove the dissolved contamination and metal in the electrolyte. This report describes the selection of a purification method for a phosphoric acid electrolyte from the following possible acid reclamation processes: ion exchange, solvent extraction, precipitation, distillation, electrolysis, and membrane separation

  15. Analysis of Americium in Transplutonium Process Solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, R.B.

    2001-01-01

    One of the more difficult analyses in the transplutonium field is the determination of americium at trace levels in a complex matrix such as a process dissolver solution. Because of these conditions a highly selective separation must precede the measurement of americium. The separation technique should be mechanically simple to permit remote operation with master-slave manipulators. For subsequent americium measurement by the mass spectroscopic isotopic-dilution technique, plutonium and curium interferences must also have been removed

  16. Evaluating the Effectivenes of Antiseptic Solution Decasan in Treatment of Necrotic Soft Tisue Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuss, Julia; Palii, Victor; Voloboyeva, Anna

    2016-10-01

    Sepsis is a severe generalised infection caused usually by pathogenic bacteria. It is often the cause of hospitalization and death in patients treated in intensive care and other hospital wards. Latest research brought to better understanding of patomechanisms, took place significant development of therapy heading to improvement of general patients condition treated as a basis and additionally supported by local therapy. The aim of the study was to evaluate the possibility of using the solution Decasan in the comprehensive treatment of patients necrosis of soft tissues. The study included 192 patients (W/M 103/89; average -aged 53.35 ± 5.36 years). According to the classification of septic states (Chicago, 1991), patients were divided into three groups: first - patients to the local form of the infection, the second - with Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS), which lasted up to 72 hours and the third - patients with various forms of sepsis, SIRS in which lasted 72 hours. As a result of our studies carried out in patients where the wound was made decontamination solution Decasanu, received: pain reduction, decrease tissue swelling, early debridement of the wound and the appearance in the wound granulation, to reduce delays wound healing. Proposed algorithms treatment of various forms of sepsis, pointed out the essential elements, ie.: a comprehensive approach to the treatment of infection by early surgical intervention, intensive supportive therapy (fluid resuscitation), antibiotic therapy directed to microorganisms that cause infections and topical antiseptics therapy (solution Decasanu). The preparation antiseptic Decasan can be safely used for disinfection of skin, mucous membranes and wounds in the foci of infections caused by bacteria, fungi and protozoa.

  17. Thermodynamics of ionic processes in solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krestov, G.A.

    1984-01-01

    The present nitions about the mechanism of solvation of atomic-molecular particles and the structure of electrolyte and non electrolyte solutions are given. From common positions a wide range of interrelated problems (general and thermodynamic characteristic of ions, thermodynamic characteristic of ion solvation and various ionic reactions in solutions, structural changes of the solvent in the above processes etc...) is considered. The latest scientific data including those on the effect on the thermodynamio properties of low temperatures, various impurities (air, water), large ions, peculiarities of the structure of solvent molecules reflected. Considerable attention is given to new conceptions definitions, structural notions as well as theoretical and experimental methods of obtaining quantitative characteristics of ion solvation

  18. Determination of hydroxylamine in purex process solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ertel, D.; Weindel, P.

    1984-05-01

    In PUREX process solutions hydroxylamine or HAN (hydrolammonium nitrate) respectively, can be oxidized specifically to give nitrous acid, HNO 2 , which by sybsequent GRIESS reaction forms the well-known reddish azo-dye. Its absorbance is spectrophotometrically measured at 520 nm and results in linear calibration graphs covering the analytical range of 10 -5 to 10 -6 M NH 2 OH. The influence of other reductants (N 2 H 4 , Pu-III) as well as of further PUREX main constituents like U-VI, HNO 3 etc. was checked-up and determined quantitatively. There are no analytical limitations in case of HAN concentrations > 10 -2 M. (orig.) [de

  19. Solution-processed flexible NiO resistive random access memory device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soo-Jung; Lee, Heon; Hong, Sung-Hoon

    2018-04-01

    Non-volatile memories (NVMs) using nanocrystals (NCs) as active materials can be applied to soft electronic devices requiring a low-temperature process because NCs do not require a heat treatment process for crystallization. In addition, memory devices can be implemented simply by using a patterning technique using a solution process. In this study, a flexible NiO ReRAM device was fabricated using a simple NC patterning method that controls the capillary force and dewetting of a NiO NC solution at low temperature. The switching behavior of a NiO NC based memory was clearly observed by conductive atomic force microscopy (c-AFM).

  20. Vector meson dominance and pointlike coupling of the photon in soft and hard processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, E.

    1990-05-01

    Recent experimental results on photoproduction of hadrons probe the nature of the interacting photon over a wide kinematical range from soft to hard processes. Single inclusive spectra and energy flows of the final state charged particles are well described by assuming that photon production data are built up by an incoherent superposition of a soft Vector-Meson-Dominance component and a hard pointlike photon component. (orig.)

  1. Solution Processed PEDOT Analogues in Electrochemical Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Österholm, Anna M; Ponder, James F; Kerszulis, Justin A; Reynolds, John R

    2016-06-01

    We have designed fully soluble ProDOTx-EDOTy copolymers that are electrochemically equivalent to electropolymerized PEDOT without using any surfactants or dispersants. We show that these copolymers can be incorporated as active layers in solution processed thin film supercapacitors to demonstrate capacitance, stability, and voltage similar to the values of those that use electrodeposited PEDOT as the active material with the added advantage of the possibility for large scale, high-throughput processing. These Type I supercapacitors provide exceptional cell voltages (up to 1.6 V), highly symmetrical charge/discharge behavior, promising long-term stability exceeding 50 000 charge/discharge cycles, as well as energy (4-18 Wh/kg) and power densities (0.8-3.3 kW/kg) that are comparable to those of electrochemically synthesized analogues.

  2. A stochastic model of multiple scattering of charged particles: process, transport equation and solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papiez, L.; Moskvin, V.; Tulovsky, V.

    2001-01-01

    The process of angular-spatial evolution of multiple scattering of charged particles can be described by a special case of Boltzmann integro-differential equation called Lewis equation. The underlying stochastic process for this evolution is the compound Poisson process on the surface of the unit sphere. The significant portion of events that constitute compound Poisson process that describes multiple scattering have diffusional character. This property allows to analyze the process of angular-spatial evolution of multiple scattering of charged particles as combination of soft and hard collision processes and compute appropriately its transition densities. These computations provide a method of the approximate solution to the Lewis equation. (orig.)

  3. Efficient Buffer Capacity and Scheduler Setting Computation for Soft Real-Time Stream Processing Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekooij, Marco; Bekooij, Marco Jan Gerrit; Wiggers, M.H.; van Meerbergen, Jef

    2007-01-01

    Soft real-time applications that process data streams can often be intuitively described as dataflow process networks. In this paper we present a novel analysis technique to compute conservative estimates of the required buffer capacities in such process networks. With the same analysis technique

  4. Soft tissue freezing process. Identification of the dual-phase lag model parameters using the evolutionary algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochnacki, Bohdan; Majchrzak, Ewa; Paruch, Marek

    2018-01-01

    In the paper the soft tissue freezing process is considered. The tissue sub-domain is subjected to the action of cylindrical cryoprobe. Thermal processes proceeding in the domain considered are described using the dual-phase lag equation (DPLE) supplemented by the appropriate boundary and initial conditions. DPLE results from the generalization of the Fourier law in which two lag times are introduced (relaxation and thermalization times). The aim of research is the identification of these parameters on the basis of measured cooling curves at the set of points selected from the tissue domain. To solve the problem the evolutionary algorithms are used. The paper contains the mathematical model of the tissue freezing process, the very short information concerning the numerical solution of the basic problem, the description of the inverse problem solution and the results of computations.

  5. The effect of nano-hydroxyappatite solution on the permanent tooth remineralization following exposure to soft beer (in situ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haghgoo Roza

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available   Background and Aims: The main cause of erosion is acid exposure . Side effects of erosion necessitate therapeutic agents’ uses. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of nano- hydroxy apatite in tooth remineralization following exposure to soft beer.   Materials and Methods: This in vitro experimental study was conducted on 18 human impacted third molars that had been surgically extracted. The microhardness of specimens was measured. Then teeth were exposed to soft beer and their secondary microhardness was measured. The teeth were divided into 2 groups (water and nano-hydroxy apatite solution and were placed on 9 orthodontics appliances and delivered to 9 volunteers. These volunteers placed the tooth on one side in water for 5 minutes and the tooth in opposite side in nano-hydroxyapatite solution. This application was repeated 6 times a day for 10 days. The microhardness of teeth was measured again. Data were analyzed using Paired T-test.   Results: The tooth enamel microhardness reduced after exposure to soft beer significantly (P=0.04. The microhardness of 9 teeth after being in water showed significant changes (P=0.012. The microhardness of 9 teeth significantly changed after exposure to nano -hydroxyapatite solution (P=0.001 .   Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, 10% solution of nano- hydroxy appatite could restore the erosive lesions .

  6. Soft sensor development for Mooney viscosity prediction in rubber mixing process based on GMMDJITGPR algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kai; Chen, Xiangguang; Wang, Li; Jin, Huaiping

    2017-01-01

    In rubber mixing process, the key parameter (Mooney viscosity), which is used to evaluate the property of the product, can only be obtained with 4-6h delay offline. It is quite helpful for the industry, if the parameter can be estimate on line. Various data driven soft sensors have been used to prediction in the rubber mixing. However, it always not functions well due to the phase and nonlinear property in the process. The purpose of this paper is to develop an efficient soft sensing algorithm to solve the problem. Based on the proposed GMMD local sample selecting criterion, the phase information is extracted in the local modeling. Using the Gaussian local modeling method within Just-in-time (JIT) learning framework, nonlinearity of the process is well handled. Efficiency of the new method is verified by comparing the performance with various mainstream soft sensors, using the samples from real industrial rubber mixing process.

  7. Contact ion pair formation between hard acids and soft bases in aqueous solutions observed with 2DIR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zheng; Zhang, Wenkai; Ji, Minbiao; Hartsock, Robert; Gaffney, Kelly J

    2013-12-12

    The interaction of charged species in aqueous solution has important implications for chemical, biological, and environmental processes. We have used 2DIR spectroscopy to study the equilibrium dynamics of thiocyanate chemical exchange between free ion (NCS(-)) and contact ion pair configurations (MNCS(+)), where M(2+) = Mg(2+) or Ca(2+). Detailed studies of the influence of anion concentration and anion speciation show that the chemical exchange observed with the 2DIR measurements results from NCS(-) exchanging with other anion species in the first solvation shell surrounding Mg(2+) or Ca(2+). The presence of chemical exchange in the 2DIR spectra provides an indirect, but robust, determinant of contact ion pair formation. We observe preferential contact ion pair formation between soft Lewis base anions and hard Lewis acid cations. This observation cannot be easily reconciled with Pearson's acid-base concept or Collins' Law of Matching Water Affinities. The anions that form contact ion pairs also correspond to the ions with an affinity for water and protein surfaces, so similar physical and chemical properties may control these distinct phenomena.

  8. Dual constituent-exchange dynamics in soft and hard hadronic processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akkelin, S.V.; Kobylinskij, N.A.; Martynov, E.S.; Shelest, V.P.

    1987-01-01

    A possibility to match the dual theory of soft hadronic processes to the dimensional counting rules for hard processes has been studied. This aim is shown to be attained within the framework of the dual analytical model under certain conditions on the shape and parameters of the Regge trajectories

  9. Dual dynamics of constituent interchange in soft and hard hadronic processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akkelin, S.V.; Kobylinskii, N.A.; Martynov, E.S.; Shelest, V.P.

    1987-01-01

    The possibility of combining the dual theory of soft hadronic processes with the rules of dimensional counting for hard processes is investigated. It is shown that this is achieved in the framework of a dual analytic model with certain conditions on the form and parameters of the Regge trajectories

  10. Soft sensor design by multivariate fusion of image features and process measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Bao; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a multivariate data fusion procedure for design of dynamic soft sensors where suitably selected image features are combined with traditional process measurements to enhance the performance of data-driven soft sensors. A key issue of fusing multiple sensor data, i.e. to determine...... with a multivariate analysis technique from RGB pictures. The color information is also transformed to hue, saturation and intensity components. Both sets of image features are combined with traditional process measurements to obtain an inferential model by partial least squares (PLS) regression. A dynamic PLS model...... oxides (NOx) emission of cement kilns. On-site tests demonstrate improved performance over soft sensors based on conventional process measurements only....

  11. Electrochemical processing of nitrate waste solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genders, D.; Weinberg, N.; Hartsough, D.

    1992-01-01

    The second phase of research performed at The Electrosynthesis Co., Inc. has demonstrated the successful removal of nitrite and nitrate from a synthetic effluent stream via a direct electrochemical reduction at a cathode. It was shown that direct reduction occurs at good current efficiencies in 1,000 hour studies. The membrane separation process is not readily achievable for the removal of nitrites and nitrates due to poor current efficiencies and membrane stability problems. A direct reduction process was studied at various cathode materials in a flow cell using the complete synthetic mix. Lead was found to be the cathode material of choice, displaying good current efficiencies and stability in short and long term tests under conditions of high temperature and high current density. Several anode materials were studied in both undivided and divided cell configurations. A divided cell configuration was preferable because it would prevent re-oxidation of nitrite by the anode. The technical objective of eliminating electrode fouling and solids formation was achieved although anode materials which had demonstrated good stability in short term divided cell tests corroded in 1,000 hour experiments. The cause for corrosion is thought to be F - ions from the synthetic mix migrating across the cation exchange membrane and forming HF in the acid anolyte. Other possibilities for anode materials were explored. A membrane separation process was investigated which employs an anion and cation exchange membrane to remove nitrite and nitrate, recovering caustic and nitric acid. Present research has shown poor current efficiencies for nitrite and nitrate transport across the anion exchange membrane due to co-migration of hydroxide anions. Precipitates form within the anion exchange membranes which would eventually result in the failure of the membranes. Electrochemical processing offers a highly promising and viable method for the treatment of nitrate waste solutions

  12. Solution-Processed Light Sensors and Photovoltaics

    KAUST Repository

    Barkhouse, D. Aaron R.

    2010-04-01

    Solution processed solar cells and photodetectors have been investigated extensively due to their potential for low-cost, high throughput fabrication. Colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) and conjugated polymers are two of the most promising materials systems for these applications, due to their processibility and their tunability, the latter achieved by varying their size or molecular structure. Several breakthroughs in the past year highlight the rapid progress that continues to be made in understanding these materials and engineering devices to realize their full potential. CQD photodiodes, which had already shown greater detectivity than commercially available photodetectors, have now reached MHz bandwidths. Polymer solar cells with near-perfect internal quantum efficiencies have been realized, and improved 3-D imaging of these systems has allowed theorists to link structure and function quantitatively. Organic photodetectors with sensitivities at wavelengths longer than 1 μm have been achieved, and multiexciton generation has been unambiguously observed in a functioning CQD device, indicating its viability in further improving detector sensitivity. © 2010 IEEE.

  13. Semianalytical Solution for the Deformation of an Elastic Layer under an Axisymmetrically Distributed Power-Form Load: Application to Fluid-Jet-Induced Indentation of Biological Soft Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Minhua; Huang, Shuai; Yang, Xianglong; Yang, Lei; Mao, Rui

    2017-01-01

    Fluid-jet-based indentation is used as a noncontact excitation technique by systems measuring the mechanical properties of soft tissues. However, the application of these devices has been hindered by the lack of theoretical solutions. This study developed a mathematical model for testing the indentation induced by a fluid jet and determined a semianalytical solution. The soft tissue was modeled as an elastic layer bonded to a rigid base. The pressure of the fluid jet impinging on the soft tissue was assumed to have a power-form function. The semianalytical solution was verified in detail using finite-element modeling, with excellent agreement being achieved. The effects of several parameters on the solution behaviors are reported, and a method for applying the solution to determine the mechanical properties of soft tissues is suggested.

  14. Triggering photochemical processes in frozen extraterrestrial worlds by soft X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilling, Sergio; Bergantini, Alexandre; Vasconcelos, Fredson A; Rocha, Will R M

    2015-01-01

    We presents and experimental investigation on the effects produced by broad band soft X-rays (combined with a small fraction of vacuum ultra violet photons and possibly secondary elec-trons) on the surface of three moons of giant planets: Europa, Titan and Enceladus. Such environ-ments are constantly exposed to space ionizing agents (UV and soft X-rays photons, electrons and ions) allowing photodissociation processes, surface photochemistry and prebiotic chemistry. The processing of such spatial ices have promoted an enhancement in the chemical complexity, similar what may have happened in the early earth triggering the arising of life. (paper)

  15. On relation between distribution functions in hard and soft processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kisselev, A.V.; Petrov, V.A.

    1992-10-01

    It is shown that in the particle-exchange model the hadron-hadron scattering amplitude admits parton-like representation with the distribution functions coinciding with those extracted from deep inelastic processes. (author). 13 refs

  16. Device for isolation of seed crystals during processing of solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, K.E.; Zaitseva, N.P.; Deyoreo, J.J.; Vital, R.L.

    1999-05-18

    A device is described for isolation of seed crystals during processing of solutions. The device enables a seed crystal to be introduced into the solution without exposing the solution to contaminants or to sources of drying and cooling. The device constitutes a seed protector which allows the seed to be present in the growth solution during filtration and overheating operations while at the same time preventing the seed from being dissolved by the under saturated solution. When the solution processing has been completed and the solution cooled to near the saturation point, the seed protector is opened, exposing the seed to the solution and allowing growth to begin. 3 figs.

  17. Soft sensor for monitoring biomass subpopulations in mammalian cell culture processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroll, Paul; Stelzer, Ines V; Herwig, Christoph

    2017-11-01

    Biomass subpopulations in mammalian cell culture processes cause impurities and influence productivity, which requires this critical process parameter to be monitored in real-time. For this reason, a novel soft sensor concept for estimating viable, dead and lysed cell concentration was developed, based on the robust and cheap in situ measurements of permittivity and turbidity in combination with a simple model. It could be shown that the turbidity measurements contain information about all investigated biomass subpopulations. The novelty of the developed soft sensor is the real-time estimation of lysed cell concentration, which is directly correlated to process-related impurities such as DNA and host cell protein in the supernatant. Based on data generated by two fed-batch processes the developed soft sensor is described and discussed. The presented soft sensor concept provides a tool for viable, dead and lysed cell concentration estimation in real-time with adequate accuracy and enables further applications with respect to process optimization and control.

  18. Ambipolar solution-processed hybrid perovskite phototransistors

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Feng

    2015-09-08

    Organolead halide perovskites have attracted substantial attention because of their excellent physical properties, which enable them to serve as the active material in emerging hybrid solid-state solar cells. Here we investigate the phototransistors based on hybrid perovskite films and provide direct evidence for their superior carrier transport property with ambipolar characteristics. The field-effect mobilities for triiodide perovskites at room temperature are measured as 0.18 (0.17) cm2 V−1 s−1 for holes (electrons), which increase to 1.24 (1.01) cm2 V−1 s−1 for mixed-halide perovskites. The photoresponsivity of our hybrid perovskite devices reaches 320 A W−1, which is among the largest values reported for phototransistors. Importantly, the phototransistors exhibit an ultrafast photoresponse speed of less than 10 μs. The solution-based process and excellent device performance strongly underscore hybrid perovskites as promising material candidates for photoelectronic applications.

  19. PROCESS OF ELIMINATING HYDROGEN PEROXIDE IN SOLUTIONS CONTAINING PLUTONIUM VALUES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrick, J.G.; Fries, B.A.

    1960-09-27

    A procedure is given for peroxide precipitation processes for separating and recovering plutonium values contained in an aqueous solution. When plutonium peroxide is precipitated from an aqueous solution, the supernatant contains appreciable quantities of plutonium and peroxide. It is desirable to process this solution further to recover plutonium contained therein, but the presence of the peroxide introduces difficulties; residual hydrogen peroxide contained in the supernatant solution is eliminated by adding a nitrite or a sulfite to this solution.

  20. A Brokering Solution for Business Process Execution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, M.; Bigagli, L.; Roncella, R.; Mazzetti, P.; Nativi, S.

    2012-12-01

    Predicting the climate change impact on biodiversity and ecosystems, advancing our knowledge of environmental phenomena interconnection, assessing the validity of simulations and other key challenges of Earth Sciences require intensive use of environmental modeling. The complexity of Earth system requires the use of more than one model (often from different disciplines) to represent complex processes. The identification of appropriate mechanisms for reuse, chaining and composition of environmental models is considered a key enabler for an effective uptake of a global Earth Observation infrastructure, currently pursued by the international geospatial research community. The Group on Earth Observation (GEO) Model Web initiative aims to increase present accessibility and interoperability of environmental models, allowing their flexible composition into complex Business Processes (BPs). A few, basic principles are at the base of the Model Web concept (Nativi, et al.): 1. Open access 2. Minimal entry-barriers 3. Service-driven approach 4. Scalability In this work we propose an architectural solution aiming to contribute to the Model Web vision. This solution applies the Brokering approach for facilitiating complex multidisciplinary interoperability. The Brokering approach is currently adopted in the new GEOSS Common Infrastructure (GCI) as was presented at the last GEO Plenary meeting in Istanbul, November 2011. According to the Brokering principles, the designed system is flexible enough to support the use of multiple BP design (visual) tools, heterogeneous Web interfaces for model execution (e.g. OGC WPS, WSDL, etc.), and different Workflow engines. We designed and prototyped a component called BP Broker that is able to: (i) read an abstract BP, (ii) "compile" the abstract BP into an executable one (eBP) - in this phase the BP Broker might also provide recommendations for incomplete BPs and parameter mismatch resolution - and (iii) finally execute the eBP using a

  1. Modeling rainfall-runoff process using soft computing techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisi, Ozgur; Shiri, Jalal; Tombul, Mustafa

    2013-02-01

    Rainfall-runoff process was modeled for a small catchment in Turkey, using 4 years (1987-1991) of measurements of independent variables of rainfall and runoff values. The models used in the study were Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs), Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) and Gene Expression Programming (GEP) which are Artificial Intelligence (AI) approaches. The applied models were trained and tested using various combinations of the independent variables. The goodness of fit for the model was evaluated in terms of the coefficient of determination (R2), root mean square error (RMSE), mean absolute error (MAE), coefficient of efficiency (CE) and scatter index (SI). A comparison was also made between these models and traditional Multi Linear Regression (MLR) model. The study provides evidence that GEP (with RMSE=17.82 l/s, MAE=6.61 l/s, CE=0.72 and R2=0.978) is capable of modeling rainfall-runoff process and is a viable alternative to other applied artificial intelligence and MLR time-series methods.

  2. Soft X-ray magnetic scattering study of rotational magnetisation processes in cobalt/copper multilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hase, T.P.A.; Fulthorpe, B.D.; Wilkins, S.B.; Tanner, B.K.; Marrows, C.H.; Hickey, B.J.

    2001-01-01

    We report the observation of magnetic viscosity in the intensity of resonant magnetic soft X-ray scattering during rotational magnetisation processes in antiferromagnetically coupled Co/Cu multilayers. The hysteretic time-dependent component of the signal can be fitted to a single-exponential function that varies as a function of magnetising field

  3. SoftWAXS: a computational tool for modeling wide-angle X-ray solution scattering from biomolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardhan, Jaydeep; Park, Sanghyun; Makowski, Lee

    2009-10-01

    This paper describes a computational approach to estimating wide-angle X-ray solution scattering (WAXS) from proteins, which has been implemented in a computer program called SoftWAXS. The accuracy and efficiency of SoftWAXS are analyzed for analytically solvable model problems as well as for proteins. Key features of the approach include a numerical procedure for performing the required spherical averaging and explicit representation of the solute-solvent boundary and the surface of the hydration layer. These features allow the Fourier transform of the excluded volume and hydration layer to be computed directly and with high accuracy. This approach will allow future investigation of different treatments of the electron density in the hydration shell. Numerical results illustrate the differences between this approach to modeling the excluded volume and a widely used model that treats the excluded-volume function as a sum of Gaussians representing the individual atomic excluded volumes. Comparison of the results obtained here with those from explicit-solvent molecular dynamics clarifies shortcomings inherent to the representation of solvent as a time-averaged electron-density profile. In addition, an assessment is made of how the calculated scattering patterns depend on input parameters such as the solute-atom radii, the width of the hydration shell and the hydration-layer contrast. These results suggest that obtaining predictive calculations of high-resolution WAXS patterns may require sophisticated treatments of solvent.

  4. Increased resistance of contact lens related bacterial biofilms to antimicrobial activity of soft contact lens care solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczotka-Flynn, Loretta B.; Imamura, Yoshifumi; Chandra, Jyotsna; Yu, Changping; Mukherjee, Pranab K.; Pearlman, Eric; Ghannoum, Mahmoud A.

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE To determine if clinical and reference strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Serratia marcescens, and Staphylococcus aureus form biofilms on silicone hydrogel contact lenses, and ascertain antimicrobial activities of contact lens care solutions. METHODS Clinical and American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) reference strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Serratia marcescens, and Staphylococcus aureus were incubated with lotrafilcon A lenses under conditions that facilitate biofilm formation. Biofilms were quantified by quantitative culturing (colony forming units, CFUs), and gross morphology and architecture were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and confocal microscopy. Susceptibilities of the planktonic and biofilm growth phases of the bacteria to five common multipurpose contact lens care solutions and one hydrogen peroxide care solution were assessed. RESULTS P. aeruginosa, S. marcescens, and S. aureus reference and clinical strains formed biofilms on lotrafilcon A silicone hydrogel contact lenses, as dense networks of cells arranged in multiple layers with visible extracellular matrix. The biofilms were resistant to commonly used biguanide preserved multipurpose care solutions. P. aeruginosa and S. aureus biofilms were susceptible to a hydrogen peroxide and a polyquaternium preserved care solution, whereas S. marcescens biofilm was resistant to a polyquaternium preserved care solution but susceptible to hydrogen peroxide disinfection. In contrast, the planktonic forms were always susceptible. CONCLUSIONS P. aeruginosa, S. marcescens, and S. aureus form biofilms on lotrafilcon A contact lenses, which in contrast to planktonic cells, are resistant to the antimicrobial activity of several soft contact lens care products. PMID:19654521

  5. A New Screening Methodology for Improved Oil Recovery Processes Using Soft-Computing Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parada, Claudia; Ertekin, Turgay

    2010-05-01

    The first stage of production of any oil reservoir involves oil displacement by natural drive mechanisms such as solution gas drive, gas cap drive and gravity drainage. Typically, improved oil recovery (IOR) methods are applied to oil reservoirs that have been depleted naturally. In more recent years, IOR techniques are applied to reservoirs even before their natural energy drive is exhausted by primary depletion. Descriptive screening criteria for IOR methods are used to select the appropriate recovery technique according to the fluid and rock properties. This methodology helps in assessing the most suitable recovery process for field deployment of a candidate reservoir. However, the already published screening guidelines neither provide information about the expected reservoir performance nor suggest a set of project design parameters, which can be used towards the optimization of the process. In this study, artificial neural networks (ANN) are used to build a high-performance neuro-simulation tool for screening different improved oil recovery techniques: miscible injection (CO2 and N2), waterflooding and steam injection processes. The simulation tool consists of proxy models that implement a multilayer cascade feedforward back propagation network algorithm. The tool is intended to narrow the ranges of possible scenarios to be modeled using conventional simulation, reducing the extensive time and energy spent in dynamic reservoir modeling. A commercial reservoir simulator is used to generate the data to train and validate the artificial neural networks. The proxy models are built considering four different well patterns with different well operating conditions as the field design parameters. Different expert systems are developed for each well pattern. The screening networks predict oil production rate and cumulative oil production profiles for a given set of rock and fluid properties, and design parameters. The results of this study show that the networks are

  6. Soft sensors with white- and black-box approaches for a wastewater treatment process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Zyngier

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The increasing degradation of water resources makes it necessary to monitor and control process variables that may disturb the environment, but which may be very difficult to measure directly, either because there are no physical sensors available, or because these are too expensive. In this work, two soft sensors are proposed for monitoring concentrations of nitrate (NO and ammonium (NH ions, and of carbonaceous matter (CM during nitrification of wastewater. One of them is based on reintegration of a process model to estimate NO and NH and on a feedforward neural network to estimate CM. The other estimator is based on Stacked Neural Networks (SNN, an approach that provides the predictor with robustness. After simulation, both soft sensors were implemented in an experimental unit using FIX MMI (Intellution, Inc automation software as an interface between the process and MATLAB 5.1 (The Mathworks Inc. software.

  7. Soft Sensor Modeling Based on Multiple Gaussian Process Regression and Fuzzy C-mean Clustering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianglin ZHU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to overcome the difficulties of online measurement of some crucial biochemical variables in fermentation processes, a new soft sensor modeling method is presented based on the Gaussian process regression and fuzzy C-mean clustering. With the consideration that the typical fermentation process can be distributed into 4 phases including lag phase, exponential growth phase, stable phase and dead phase, the training samples are classified into 4 subcategories by using fuzzy C- mean clustering algorithm. For each sub-category, the samples are trained using the Gaussian process regression and the corresponding soft-sensing sub-model is established respectively. For a new sample, the membership between this sample and sub-models are computed based on the Euclidean distance, and then the prediction output of soft sensor is obtained using the weighting sum. Taking the Lysine fermentation as example, the simulation and experiment are carried out and the corresponding results show that the presented method achieves better fitting and generalization ability than radial basis function neutral network and single Gaussian process regression model.

  8. Solute coupled diffusion in osmotically driven membrane processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Nathan T; Cath, Tzahi Y

    2009-09-01

    Forward osmosis (FO) is an emerging water treatment technology with potential applications in desalination and wastewater reclamation. In FO, water is extracted from a feed solution using the high osmotic pressure of a hypertonic solution that flows on the opposite side of a semipermeable membrane; however, solutes diffuse simultaneously through the membrane in both directions and may jeopardize the process. In this study, we have comprehensively explored the effects of different operating conditions on the forward diffusion of solutes commonly found in brackish water and seawater, and reverse diffusion of common draw solution solutes. Results show that reverse transport of solutes through commercially available FO membranes range between 80 mg to nearly 3,000 mg per liter of water produced. Divalent feed solutes have low permeation rates (less than 1 mmol/m2-hr) while monovalent ions and uncharged solutes exhibit higher permeation. Findings have significant implications on the performance and sustainability of the FO process.

  9. Vitrification processes for fission product solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonniaud, R.; Jouan, A.; Moncouyoux, J.P.; Sombret, C.

    1982-10-01

    The different processes for fission product vitrification in the world are reviewed. Continuous or discontinuous processes, induction or arc heating, in can melting or casting, tests with radioactive or simulated wastes and industrial realizations are described [fr

  10. Control of three different continuous pharmaceutical manufacturing processes: Use of soft sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehrl, Jakob; Karttunen, Anssi-Pekka; Nicolaï, Niels; Hörmann, Theresa; Horn, Martin; Korhonen, Ossi; Nopens, Ingmar; De Beer, Thomas; Khinast, Johannes G

    2018-05-30

    One major advantage of continuous pharmaceutical manufacturing over traditional batch manufacturing is the possibility of enhanced in-process control, reducing out-of-specification and waste material by appropriate discharge strategies. The decision on material discharge can be based on the measurement of active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) concentration at specific locations in the production line via process analytic technology (PAT), e.g. near-infrared (NIR) spectrometers. The implementation of the PAT instruments is associated with monetary investment and the long term operation requires techniques avoiding sensor drifts. Therefore, our paper proposes a soft sensor approach for predicting the API concentration from the feeder data. In addition, this information can be used to detect sensor drift, or serve as a replacement/supplement of specific PAT equipment. The paper presents the experimental determination of the residence time distribution of selected unit operations in three different continuous processing lines (hot melt extrusion, direct compaction, wet granulation). The mathematical models describing the soft sensor are developed and parameterized. Finally, the suggested soft sensor approach is validated on the three mentioned, different continuous processing lines, demonstrating its versatility. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Optimization of chemical composition in the manufacturing process of flotation balls based on intelligent soft sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dučić Nedeljko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an application of computational intelligence in modeling and optimization of parameters of two related production processes - ore flotation and production of balls for ore flotation. It is proposed that desired chemical composition of flotation balls (Mn=0.69%; Cr=2.247%; C=3.79%; Si=0.5%, which ensures minimum wear rate (0.47 g/kg during copper milling is determined by combining artificial neural network (ANN and genetic algorithm (GA. Based on the results provided by neuro-genetic combination, a second neural network was derived as an ‘intelligent soft sensor’ in the process of white cast iron production. The proposed ANN 12-16-12-4 model demonstrated favourable prediction capacity, and can be recommended as a ‘intelligent soft sensor’ in the alloying process intended for obtaining favourable chemical composition of white cast iron for production of flotation balls. In the development of intelligent soft sensor data from the two real production processes was used. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR35037 i br. TR35015

  12. Exploration of polyelectrolytes as draw solutes in forward osmosis processes

    KAUST Repository

    Ge, Qingchun

    2012-03-01

    The development of the forward osmosis (FO) process has been constrained by the slow development of appropriate draw solutions. Two significant concerns related to draw solutions are the draw solute leakage and intensiveenergy requirement in recycling draw solutes after the FO process. FO would be much attractive if there is no draw solute leakage and the recycle of draw solutes is easy and economic. In this study, polyelectrolytes of a series of polyacrylic acid sodium salts (PAA-Na), were explored as draw solutes in the FO process. The characteristics of high solubility in water and flexibility in structural configuration ensure the suitability of PAA-Na as draw solutes and their relative ease in recycle through pressure-driven membrane processes. The high water flux with insignificant salt leakage in the FO process and the high salt rejection in recycle processes reveal the superiority of PAA-Na to conventional ionic salts, such as NaCl, when comparing their FO performance via the same membranes. The repeatable performance of PAA-Na after recycle indicates the absence of any aggregation problems. The overall performance demonstrates that polyelectrolytes of PAA-Na series are promising as draw solutes, and the new concept of using polyelectrolytes as draw solutes in FO processes is applicable. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

  13. BiomaSoft: data processing system for monitoring and evaluating food and energy production. Part I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quevedo, J. R.; Suárez, J.

    2015-01-01

    The integrated food and energy production in Cuba demands to process diverse and voluminous information to make local, sectoral and national decisions, in order to have incidence on public policies, for which the support of automated systems that facilitate the monitoring and evaluation (M&E) of the integrated food and energy production in Cuban municipalities is necessary. The objective of this research was to identify the tools for the design of the data processing system BiomaSoft and to contextualize its application environment. The software development methodology was RUP (Rational Unified Process), with UML (Unified Modeling Language) as modeling language and PHP (Hypertext Pre-Processor) as programming language. The environment was conceptualized through a dominion model and the functional and non-functional requisites that should be fulfilled, as well as the Use Case Diagram of the system, with the description of actors, were specified. For the display of BiomaSoft a configuration based on two types of physical nodes (a web server and client computers) was conceived, in the municipalities that participate in the project «Biomass as renewable energy source for Cuban rural areas» (BIOMAS-CUBA). It is concluded that the monitoring and evaluation of integrated food and energy production under Cuban conditions can be made through the automated system BiomaSoft, and the identification of tools for its design and the contextualization of its application environment contribute to this purpose. (author)

  14. Performance Evaluation of Absorbent Solution for Draw Solute Recovery in Forward Osmosis Desalination Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young; Lee, Jong Hoon; Lee, Kong Hoon; Kim, Yu-Chang; Oh, Dong Wook; Lee, Jungho

    2013-01-01

    Although forward osmosis desalination technology has drawn substantial attention as a next-generation desalination method, the energy efficiency of its draw solution treatment process should be improved for its commercialization. When ammonium bicarbonate is used as the draw solute, the system consists of forward-osmosis membrane modules, draw solution separation and recovery processes. Mixed gases of ammonia and carbon dioxide generated during the draws solution separation, need to be recovered to re-concentrate ammonium bicarbonate solution, for continuous operation as well as for the economic feasibility. The diluted ammonium bicarbonate solution has been proposed as the absorbent for the draw solution regeneration. In this study, experiments are conducted to investigate performance and features of the absorption corresponding to absorbent concentration. It is concluded that ammonium bicarbonate solution can be used to recover the generated ammonia and carbon dioxide. The results will be applied to design and operation of pilot-scale forward-osmosis desalination system

  15. Performance Evaluation of Absorbent Solution for Draw Solute Recovery in Forward Osmosis Desalination Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young; Lee, Jong Hoon; Lee, Kong Hoon; Kim, Yu-Chang; Oh, Dong Wook; Lee, Jungho [Korea Institute of Machinery Materials, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-04-15

    Although forward osmosis desalination technology has drawn substantial attention as a next-generation desalination method, the energy efficiency of its draw solution treatment process should be improved for its commercialization. When ammonium bicarbonate is used as the draw solute, the system consists of forward-osmosis membrane modules, draw solution separation and recovery processes. Mixed gases of ammonia and carbon dioxide generated during the draws solution separation, need to be recovered to re-concentrate ammonium bicarbonate solution, for continuous operation as well as for the economic feasibility. The diluted ammonium bicarbonate solution has been proposed as the absorbent for the draw solution regeneration. In this study, experiments are conducted to investigate performance and features of the absorption corresponding to absorbent concentration. It is concluded that ammonium bicarbonate solution can be used to recover the generated ammonia and carbon dioxide. The results will be applied to design and operation of pilot-scale forward-osmosis desalination system.

  16. Solution-Processed Light Sensors and Photovoltaics

    KAUST Repository

    Barkhouse, D. Aaron R.; Sargent, Edward H.

    2010-01-01

    systems for these applications, due to their processibility and their tunability, the latter achieved by varying their size or molecular structure. Several breakthroughs in the past year highlight the rapid progress that continues to be made

  17. Solution processed organic light-emitting diodes using the plasma cross-linking technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Kongduo [Department of Light Sources and Illuminating Engineering, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Liu, Yang [Department of Light Sources and Illuminating Engineering, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Engineering Research Center of Advanced Lighting Technology, Ministry of Education, Shanghai 200433 (China); Gong, Junyi; Zeng, Pan; Kong, Xun; Yang, Xilu; Yang, Cheng; Yu, Yan [Department of Light Sources and Illuminating Engineering, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Liang, Rongqing [Department of Light Sources and Illuminating Engineering, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Engineering Research Center of Advanced Lighting Technology, Ministry of Education, Shanghai 200433 (China); Ou, Qiongrong, E-mail: qrou@fudan.edu.cn [Department of Light Sources and Illuminating Engineering, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Engineering Research Center of Advanced Lighting Technology, Ministry of Education, Shanghai 200433 (China)

    2016-09-30

    Highlights: • Mixed acetylene and Ar plasma treatment makes the organic film surface cross-linked. • The plasma treatment for 30 s does not affect the performance of OLEDs. • Cross-linking surface can resist rinsing and corrosion of organic solvent. • The surface morphology is nearly unchanged after plasma treatment. • The plasma cross-linking method can realize solution processed multilayer OLEDs. - Abstract: Solution processed multilayer organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) present challenges, especially regarding dissolution of the first layer during deposition of a second layer. In this work, we first demonstrated a plasma cross-linking technology to produce a solution processed OLED. The surfaces of organic films can be cross-linked after mixed acetylene and Ar plasma treatment for several tens of seconds and resist corrosion of organic solvent. The film thickness and surface morphology of emissive layers (EMLs) with plasma treatment and subsequently spin-rinsed with chlorobenzene are nearly unchanged. The solution processed triple-layer OLED is successfully fabricated and the current efficiency increases 50% than that of the double-layer OLED. Fluorescent characteristics of EMLs are also observed to investigate factors influencing the efficiency of the triple-layer OLED. Plasma cross-linking technology may open up a new pathway towards fabrication of all-solution processed multilayer OLEDs and other soft electronic devices.

  18. Zirconium behaviour in purex process solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu, J.

    1982-01-01

    The extraction behaviour of zirconium, as fission product, in TBP/diluent- HNO 3 -H 2 O systems, simulating Purex solutions, is studied. The main purpose is to attain an increasing in the zirconium decontamination factor by adjusting the extraction parameters. Equilibrium diagram, TBP concentration, aqueous:organic ratio, salting-out effects and, uranium loading in the organic phase were the main factors studied. All these experiments had been made with zirconium in the 10 - 2 - 10 - 3 concentration range. The extractant degradation products influence uppon the zirconium behaviour was also verified. With the obtained data it was possible to introduce some modification in the standard Purex flow-sheet in order to obtain the uranium product with higher zirconium decontamination. (Author) [pt

  19. Financing the energy renovation of residential buildings through soft loans and third-party investment schemes. Infinite Solutions Guidebook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schilken, Peter; Cicmanova, Jana; Turner, Ian; Van Liefland, Stijn; Kaiser, Maaike; Ethuin, Perrine; Bernair, Corinne; Bertolotti, Enzo; Mordacci, Marco; Fraval, Jacques; Beaupetit, Helene; Safiulins, Timurs; Latisevs, Jevgenijs; Wenzel, Philipp; Dehghan, Bahram; Rask Nielsen, Poul

    2017-02-01

    Financing the energy retrofitting of buildings is a great challenge. With investments ranging from euros 200 to euros 1,200 /m 2 (CITYnvest study, 2015), access to attractive and long-term financing is perceived as the primary barrier to carrying out ambitious energy retrofits, in particular those aiming at achieving 50-75% energy savings. In this guidebook, Energy Cities' members share their experience and guide you through the process of setting up a soft loan financing scheme. The Stuttgart's 'care-free energy renovation package' and third party investment scheme are described in detail in a dedicated case study. The guidebook is intended for local and regional authorities, energy agencies and their associations, national energy agencies, ministries and fund managers, organisations providing training to cities and regions, banks and financing institutions. In short, all organisations and actors who could be interested in replicating these financing schemes or who could support cities and regions in doing so. The guidebook consists of four chapters: Chapter 1: an introduction to soft loan schemes. Chapter 2: step-by-step guidance on how to build a soft loan financing scheme, including an overview of three already tested alternative business models. Chapter 3: summary and recommendations. Chapter 4: case studies, including Stuttgart's third party investment scheme

  20. Optical metrology for advanced process control: full module metrology solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozdog, Cornel; Turovets, Igor

    2016-03-01

    Optical metrology is the workhorse metrology in manufacturing and key enabler to patterning process control. Recent advances in device architecture are gradually shifting the need for process control from the lithography module to other patterning processes (etch, trim, clean, LER/LWR treatments, etc..). Complex multi-patterning integration solutions, where the final pattern is the result of multiple process steps require a step-by-step holistic process control and a uniformly accurate holistic metrology solution for pattern transfer for the entire module. For effective process control, more process "knobs" are needed, and a tighter integration of metrology with process architecture.

  1. Hard and soft processes in small p/sub T/ inclusive reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanki, T [Osaka Univ., Toyonaka (Japan). Coll. of General Education; Okamoto, Y; Ryang, S

    1977-12-01

    Small p/sub T/ inclusive single-hadron spectra in high-energy hadron-hadron collisions are discussed in view of the two-component structure; each component corresponds to the contribution from the incoherent hard process or the coherent soft process among the partons. The clustered parton model, where each constituent quark is considered a cluster of the partons, gives the theoretical basis and certain regularities for both components. The various experimental spectra are shown to be well described by the two-component formula with these regularities. It is also argued that the CIM approach to small p sub(T) shows some disagreement with the data.

  2. Process for removing mercury from aqueous solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Googin, John M.; Napier, John M.; Makarewicz, Mark A.; Meredith, Paul F.

    1986-01-01

    A process for removing mercury from water to a level not greater than two parts per billion wherein an anion exchange material that is insoluble in water is contacted first with a sulfide containing compound and second with a compound containing a bivalent metal ion forming an insoluble metal sulfide. To this treated exchange material is contacted water containing mercury. The water containing not more than two parts per billion of mercury is separated from the exchange material.

  3. Problem solving using soft systems methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land, L

    This article outlines a method of problem solving which considers holistic solutions to complex problems. Soft systems methodology allows people involved in the problem situation to have control over the decision-making process.

  4. Electrochemical processing of nitrate waste solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genders, D.; Weinberg, N.; Hartsough, D. (Electrosynthesis Co., Inc., Cheektowaga, NY (United States))

    1992-10-07

    The second phase of research performed at The Electrosynthesis Co., Inc. has demonstrated the successful removal of nitrite and nitrate from a synthetic effluent stream via a direct electrochemical reduction at a cathode. It was shown that direct reduction occurs at good current efficiencies in 1,000 hour studies. The membrane separation process is not readily achievable for the removal of nitrites and nitrates due to poor current efficiencies and membrane stability problems. A direct reduction process was studied at various cathode materials in a flow cell using the complete synthetic mix. Lead was found to be the cathode material of choice, displaying good current efficiencies and stability in short and long term tests under conditions of high temperature and high current density. Several anode materials were studied in both undivided and divided cell configurations. A divided cell configuration was preferable because it would prevent re-oxidation of nitrite by the anode. The technical objective of eliminating electrode fouling and solids formation was achieved although anode materials which had demonstrated good stability in short term divided cell tests corroded in 1,000 hour experiments. The cause for corrosion is thought to be F[sup [minus

  5. A Soft Tooling process chain employing Additive Manufacturing for injection molding of a 3D component with micro pillars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yang; Pedersen, David Bue; Segebrecht Gøtje, Asger

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the research presented in this paper is to investigate the capability of a soft tooling process chain employing Additive Manufacturing (AM) for preproduction of an insert with micro features by injection molding. The Soft Tooling insert was manufactured in a high temperature...... photopolymer by Digital Light Processing (vat photopolymerization). The mold cavity was formed by two insert halves, by design; both inserts have four angled tines, with micro holes (Ø200 μm, 200 μm deep) on the surface. Injection molding with polyethylene was used with the soft tool inserts to manufacture...

  6. PROCESSING OF SOFT MAGNETIC MATERIALS BY POWDER METALLURGY AND ANALYSIS OF THEIR PERFORMANCE IN ELECTRICAL MACHINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. H. D. Luna

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the use of finite elements to analyze the yield of electric machines based on the use of different soft magnetic materials for the rotor and the stator, in order to verify the performance in electric machine using powder metallurgy. Traditionally, the cores of electric machines are built from rolled steel plates, thus the cores developed in this work are obtained from an alternative process known as powder metallurgy, where powders of soft magnetic materials are compacted and sintered. The properties of interest were analyzed (magnetic, electric and mechanical properties and they were introduced into the software database. The topology of the rotor used was 400 W three-phase synchronous motor manufactured by WEG Motors. The results show the feasibility to replace the metal sheets of the electric machines by solid blocks obtained by powder metallurgy process with only 0.37% yield losses. In addition, the powder metallurgical process reduces the use of raw materials and energy consumption per kg of raw material processed.

  7. An Analytical Solution for Probabilistic Guarantees of Reservation Based Soft Real--Time Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Palopoli, Luigi; Fontanelli, Daniele; Abeni, Luca; Villalba Frias, Bernardo

    2015-01-01

    We show a methodology for the computation of the probability of deadline miss for a periodic real-time task scheduled by a resource reservation algorithm. We propose a modelling technique for the system that reduces the computation of such a probability to that of the steady state probability of an infinite state Discrete Time Markov Chain with a periodic structure. This structure is exploited to develop an efficient numeric solution where different accuracy/computation time trade-offs can be...

  8. The quark-recombination model and correlations between hard and soft hadronic processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranft, J.

    1978-07-01

    Proceeding from the fact that quark and gluon recombination models make definite predictions for correlations between hard and soft processes, the following experiments are briefly discussed: (i) correlations between deep inelastic antineutrino-proton scattering and particle production in the proton fragmentation region, (ii) correlations between massive lepton pairs and particles produced in the fragmentation regions, and (iii) correlations between large transverse momentum particles and leading protons. In order to present the large transverse momentum - leading proton correlation, a divided correlation function similar to that used for studying short-range correlations of low transverse momentum particles is defined

  9. Application of magnetic resonance to the diagnosis of tumorous processes in soft tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreuzberg, B.

    1998-01-01

    The methodology and results of MR examination of 22 patients with soft tissue tumors (STT) are summarized, and the findings of nine histologically confirmed results are demonstrated. Discussion of the results concentrates on the reliability of the specific diagnosis (which is relatively low) and reliability of discrimination between non-malignant and malignant processes (which is relatively high). The reliability of the examination is enhanced by the intravenous administration of the paramagnetic contrast substance. It is concluded that the examination is of great value for the surgeon and his decision making, in particular with respect to staging. MR completes the set of imaging methods in the diagnosis of STT

  10. Calculation of period processing solution syrup in vacuum apparatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Slavyanskii

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Important and crucial element in the management of the technological flow of production of sugar product standards is the period of time the enrichment of massecuite, since its neutralization in the process of crystal formation in vacuum apparatus, excess sugar solution. Although currently proposed and implemented in the industry, including as a front-end accompany the process, a number of ways in the real world sugar production in many cases have to resort to the services of an experienced operator. It is obvious that in any case it is necessary to have a surround-dependent glucose solution data on time for the excess sugar solution into the vacuum apparatus. With regard to the period of the enrichment of depleted sucrose solution are entered into this substance excess sucrose solution, it should be noted that this problem is theoretically still insufficiently developed. It is obvious that for practical purposes it is desirable to have a simple and convenient for engineering calculation of sugar processing time dependencies of the specified volume of water from the operating parameters of the process (the required concentration of sucrose, temperature of the solution stirring. The problem is the quantitative analysis of sucrose crystallization in vacuum apparatus, including the timing of enrichment solution to the excess syrup, period of time processing massecuite total this apparatus has been investigated in many works. However, due to its importance to the task of obtaining commercial sugar high standards this issue required further in-depth examination. In the article to support the enrichment process solution sucrose due to neutralize this solvent system in vacuum apparatus, from the standpoint of diffusion theory provides a more reasonable compared to known so far, quantitative analysis of this process. Where as sucrose crystals team are considering a system of balls, uniformly distributed in vacuum apparatus. On the basis of the solution

  11. DMSO-Water Clustering in Solution Observed in Soft X-ray Spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Nicholas; Atak, Kaan; Lange, Kathrin M; Gotz, Malte; Soldatov, Mikhail; Golnak, Ronny; Suljoti, Edlira; Rubensson, Jan-Erik; Aziz, Emad F

    2012-12-20

    The significant deviation from the ideality of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)/water mixtures can be addressed based on the change of the local molecular orbitals of each solvent upon mixing. Oxygen K-edge absorption and emission spectra of DMSO/water solutions were measured using the liquid microjet technique. The spectra demonstrate that the hydrogen bond network in liquid water is already influenced at small DMSO concentrations, and at the molar fraction xDMSO = 0.43 we find strong evidence of DMSO-water clustering reflected by the influence on the occupied molecular orbitals.

  12. Preparation of soft-agglomerated nano-sized ceramic powders by sol-gel combustion process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Q.; Ma, X.H.; Yan, Q.Z.; Ge, C.C.

    2009-01-01

    The soft-agglomerated Gd 2 BaCuO 5 (Gd211) nano-powders were synthesized by sol-gel combustion process with binary ligand and the special pretreatment on gel. The mechanism of the formation of weakly agglomerated structure was studied in detail. The results showed that network structure in gelation process was found to be a decisive factor for preventing agglomeration of colloidal particles. The removal of free water, coordinated water, and most of hydroxyl groups during pretreatment further inhibited the formation of hydrogen bonds between adjacent particles. The soft-agglomeration of the particles was confirmed by isolated particles in calcined Gd211 powders and in green compact, a narrow monomodal pore size distribution of the green compact and the low agglomeration coefficient of the calcined Gd211 powder. Extension this process to synthesis of BaCeO 3 , BaTiO 3 and Ce 0.8 Sm 0.2 O 1.9 powders, also led to weakly agglomerated nano-powders. It suggests that this method represents a powerful and facile method for the creation of doped and multi-component nano-sized ceramic powders.

  13. Colloidal quantum dot solids for solution-processed solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Yuan, Mingjian; Liu, Mengxia; Sargent, Edward H.

    2016-01-01

    Solution-processed photovoltaic technologies represent a promising way to reduce the cost and increase the efficiency of solar energy harvesting. Among these, colloidal semiconductor quantum dot photovoltaics have the advantage of a spectrally

  14. Study on Product Innovative Design Process Driven by Ideal Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fuying; Lu, Ximei; Wang, Ping; Liu, Hui

    Product innovative design in companies today relies heavily on individual members’ experience and creative ideation as well as their skills of integrating creativity and innovation tools with design methods agilely. Creative ideation and inventive ideas generation are two crucial stages in product innovative design process. Ideal solution is the desire final ideas for given problem, and the striving reaching target for product design. In this paper, a product innovative design process driven by ideal solution is proposed. This design process encourages designers to overcome their psychological inertia, to foster creativity in a systematic way for acquiring breakthrough creative and innovative solutions in a reducing sphere of solution-seeking, and results in effective product innovative design rapidly. A case study example is also presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed design process.

  15. Optimization of process and solution parameters in electrospinning polyethylene oxide

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jacobs, V

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the optimization of electrospinning process and solution parameters using factorial design approach to obtain uniform polyethylene oxide (PEO) nanofibers. The parameters studied were distance between nozzle and collector screen...

  16. A study of densitometry comparison among three radiographic processing solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Changizi, V.; Jazayeri, E.; Talaeepour, A.

    2006-01-01

    The radiographic image accuracy depends on the X-ray film information visibility. Good visibility is found by good contrast. Radiation exposure parameters (kVp, mAs) and film processing conditions have impact on contrast. In dentistry radiography machines, exposure time and processing procedure are set by radiographer. No optimized exposure time and processing conditions may lead to incorrect diagnosis and re-exposure of the patient. Therefore, we studied the performance of the three different available processing solutions with dental X-ray film. Materials and Methods: Dental intraoral E-speed films, size 2 (Kodak company, USA) were used in this study. These films were developed in a manual processor using three different brands of processing solution: 1) Taifsaz (Iran), 2) Darutasvir (Iran) and 3) Agfa (Germany) for temperatures of 25 d ig C , 28 d ig C and 30 d ig C at the three different exposure times, 0.2 s, 0.25 s and 0.35 s. Performance was evaluated with respect to base plus fog, relative contrast and relative speed. Results: Darutasvir processing solution as the cheapest one showed higher base plus fog density at 25 d ig C and 30 d ig C than that of Taifsaz and Agfa solutions. Also, Darutasvir solution was found to have better relative contrast than that of the others, except for 30 d ig C at 0.25 s. Relative speed was higher in Darutsavir solution than Agfa for 25 d ig C at three exposure times used in this study, for 28 d ig C at 0.2 s and for 30 d ig C at 0.35 s. Taifsaz Processing solution was in the second order with respect to tested conditions. Conclusion: Comparison among available X-ray film processing solutions for different temperatures at different exposure times can help to maintain image quality while patient exposure and film cost are kept considerably low

  17. Transition from reversible to irreversible magnetic exchange-spring processes in antiferromagnetically exchange-coupled hard/soft/hard trilayer structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiguang; Guo Guanghua; Zhang Guangfu

    2011-01-01

    The demagnetization processes of antiferromagnetically exchange-coupled hard/soft/hard trilayer structures have been studied based on the discrete one-dimensional atomic chain model and the linear partial domain-wall model. It is found that, when the magnetic anisotropy of soft layer is taken into account, the changes of the soft layer thickness and the interfacial exchange coupling strength may lead a transition of demagnetization process in soft layer from the reversible to the irreversible magnetic exchange-spring process. For the trilayer structures with very thin soft layer, the demagnetization process exhibits typical reversible exchange-spring behavior. However, as the thickness of soft layer is increased, there is a crossover point t c , after which the process becomes irreversible. Similarly, there is also a critical interfacial exchange coupling constant A sh c , above which the exchange-spring process is reversible. When A sh sh c , the irreversible exchange-spring process is achieved. The phase diagram of reversible and irreversible exchange-spring processes is mapped in the plane of the interfacial exchange coupling A sh and soft layer thickness N s . - Research highlights: → A differing magnetic exchange-spring process is found in antiferromagnetically exchange-coupled hard/soft/hard trilayers if the magnetic anisotropy of the soft layers is taken into account. → The change of the soft layer thickness may lead to a transition of demagnetization process in soft layer from the reversible to the irreversible exchange-spring process. → The change of the soft-hard interfacial exchange coupling strength may lead a transition of demagnetization process in soft layer from the reversible to the irreversible exchange-spring process. → The phase diagram of reversible and irreversible exchange-spring processes is mapped in the plane of the interfacial exchange coupling and soft layer thickness.

  18. PROCESS FOR RECOVERY OF URANIUM VALUES FROM IMPURE SOLUTIONS THEREOF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilner, S.B.

    1959-11-01

    A process is presented for the recovery of uraninm values from impure solutions which are obtained, for example, by washing residual uranium salt or uranium metal deposits from stainless steel surfaces using an aqueous or certain acidic aqueous solutions. The solutions include uranyl and oxidized iron, chromium, nickel, and copper ions and may contain manganese, zinc, and silver ions. In accordance with one procedure. the uranyl ions are reduced to the uranous state, and the impurity ions are complexed with cyanide under acidic conditions. The solution is then treated with ammonium hydroxide or alkali metal hydroxide to precipitate uranous hydroxide away from the complexed impurity ions in the solution. Alternatively, an excess of alkali metal cyanide is added to the reduced solution until the solution becomes sufficiently alkaline for the uranons hydroxide to precipitate. An essential feature in operating the process is in maintaining the pH of the solution sufficiently acid during the complexing operation to prevent the precipitation of the impurity metal hydroxides.

  19. High throughput soft embossing process for micro-patterning of PEDOT thin films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fanzio, Paola; Cagliani, Alberto; Peterffy, Kristof G.

    2017-01-01

    The patterning of conductive polymers is a major challenge in the implementation of these materials in several research and industrial applications, spanning from photovoltaics to biosensors. Within this context, we have developed a reliable technique to pattern a thin layer of the conductive...... polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) by means of a low cost and high throughput soft embossing process. We were able to reproduce a functional conductive pattern with a minimum dimension of 1 μm and to fabricate electrically decoupled electrodes. Moreover, the conductivity of the PEDOT films...... has been characterized, finding that a post-processing treatment with Ethylene Glycol allows an increase in conductivity and a decrease in water solubility of the PEDOT film. Finally, cyclic voltammetry demonstrates that the post-treatment also ensures the electrochemical activity of the film. Our...

  20. Transparent megahertz circuits from solution-processed composite thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xingqiang; Wan, Da; Wu, Yun; Xiao, Xiangheng; Guo, Shishang; Jiang, Changzhong; Li, Jinchai; Chen, Tangsheng; Duan, Xiangfeng; Fan, Zhiyong; Liao, Lei

    2016-04-21

    Solution-processed amorphous oxide semiconductors have attracted considerable interest in large-area transparent electronics. However, due to its relative low carrier mobility (∼10 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1)), the demonstrated circuit performance has been limited to 800 kHz or less. Herein, we report solution-processed high-speed thin-film transistors (TFTs) and integrated circuits with an operation frequency beyond the megahertz region on 4 inch glass. The TFTs can be fabricated from an amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide/single-walled carbon nanotube (a-IGZO/SWNT) composite thin film with high yield and high carrier mobility of >70 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1). On-chip microwave measurements demonstrate that these TFTs can deliver an unprecedented operation frequency in solution-processed semiconductors, including an extrinsic cut-off frequency (f(T) = 102 MHz) and a maximum oscillation frequency (f(max) = 122 MHz). Ring oscillators further demonstrated an oscillation frequency of 4.13 MHz, for the first time, realizing megahertz circuit operation from solution-processed semiconductors. Our studies represent an important step toward high-speed solution-processed thin film electronics.

  1. Solution processed pentacene thin films and their structural properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao Chunlan; Zhang Xuhui; Zhang Fujia; Liu Yiyang; Zhang Haoli

    2007-01-01

    The paper reported the solution process of pentacene thin films from organic solvent O-dichlorobenzene. The pentacene thin films obtained from different conditions were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and UV-vis spectroscopy. The result shows that the pentacene solution was successfully obtained at a minimum temperature of 40 deg. C. The optimum temperature of forming pentacene thin films was 100 deg. C

  2. Origin of poor doping efficiency in solution processed organic semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Ajay; Duan, Hong-Guang; Tiwari, Vandana; Thorwart, Michael; Miller, R J Dwayne

    2018-05-21

    Doping is an extremely important process where intentional insertion of impurities in semiconductors controls their electronic properties. In organic semiconductors, one of the convenient, but inefficient, ways of doping is the spin casting of a precursor mixture of components in solution, followed by solvent evaporation. Active control over this process holds the key to significant improvements over current poor doping efficiencies. Yet, an optimized control can only come from a detailed understanding of electronic interactions responsible for the low doping efficiencies. Here, we use two-dimensional nonlinear optical spectroscopy to examine these interactions in the course of the doping process by probing the solution mixture of doped organic semiconductors. A dopant accepts an electron from the semiconductor and the two ions form a duplex of interacting charges known as ion-pair complexes. Well-resolved off-diagonal peaks in the two-dimensional spectra clearly demonstrate the electronic connectivity among the ions in solution. This electronic interaction represents a well resolved electrostatically bound state, as opposed to a random distribution of ions. We developed a theoretical model to recover the experimental data, which reveals an unexpectedly strong electronic coupling of ∼250 cm -1 with an intermolecular distance of ∼4.5 Å between ions in solution, which is approximately the expected distance in processed films. The fact that this relationship persists from solution to the processed film gives direct evidence that Coulomb interactions are retained from the precursor solution to the processed films. This memory effect renders the charge carriers equally bound also in the film and, hence, results in poor doping efficiencies. This new insight will help pave the way towards rational tailoring of the electronic interactions to improve doping efficiencies in processed organic semiconductor thin films.

  3. Process for disposal of aqueous solutions containing radioactive isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Peter; Neilson, Jr., Robert M.; Becker, Walter W.

    1979-01-01

    A process for disposing of radioactive aqueous waste solutions whereby the waste solution is utilized as the water of hydration to hydrate densified powdered portland cement in a leakproof container; said waste solution being dispersed without mechanical inter-mixing in situ in said bulk cement, thereafter the hydrated cement body is impregnated with a mixture of a monomer and polymerization catalyst to form polymer throughout the cement body. The entire process being carried out while maintaining the temperature of the components during the process at a temperature below 99.degree. C. The container containing the solid polymer-impregnated body is thereafter stored at a radioactive waste storage dump such as an underground storage dump.

  4. Actinide solution processing at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA), DOE/EA-1039, for radioactive solution removal and processing at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, Golden, Colorado. The proposal for solution removal and processing is in response to independent safety assessments and an agreement with the State of Colorado to remove mixed residues at Rocky Flats and reduce the risk of future accidents. Monthly public meetings were held during the scoping and preparation of the EA. The scope of the EA included evaluations of alternative methods and locations of solution processing. A comment period from February 20, 1995 through March 21, 1995 was provided to the public and the State of Colorado to offer written comment on the EA. Comments were received from the State of Colorado and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. A response to the agency comments is included in the Final EA

  5. Process for disposal of aqueous solutions containing radioactive isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colombo, P.; Neilson, R.M. Jr.; Becker, W.W.

    1979-01-01

    A process for disposing of radioactive aqueous waste solutions whereby the waste solution is utilized as the water of hydration to hydrate densified powdered portland cement in a leakproof container; said waste solution being dispersed without mechanical inter-mixing in situ in said bulk cement, thereafter the hydrated cement body is impregnated with a mixture of a monomer and polymerization catalyst to form polymer throughout the cement body. The entire process being carried out while maintaining the temperature of the components during the process at a temperature below 99 0 C. The container containing the solid polymer-impregnated body is thereafter stored at a radioactive waste storage dump such as an underground storage dump

  6. High mobility solution-processed hybrid light emitting transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, Bright; Kim, Jin Young; Ullah, Mujeeb; Burn, Paul L.; Namdas, Ebinazar B.; Chae, Gil Jo; Cho, Shinuk; Seo, Jung Hwa

    2014-01-01

    We report the design, fabrication, and characterization of high-performance, solution-processed hybrid (inorganic-organic) light emitting transistors (HLETs). The devices employ a high-mobility, solution-processed cadmium sulfide layer as the switching and transport layer, with a conjugated polymer Super Yellow as an emissive material in non-planar source/drain transistor geometry. We demonstrate HLETs with electron mobilities of up to 19.5 cm 2 /V s, current on/off ratios of >10 7 , and external quantum efficiency of 10 −2 % at 2100 cd/m 2 . These combined optical and electrical performance exceed those reported to date for HLETs. Furthermore, we provide full analysis of charge injection, charge transport, and recombination mechanism of the HLETs. The high brightness coupled with a high on/off ratio and low-cost solution processing makes this type of hybrid device attractive from a manufacturing perspective

  7. Soft-sensing Modeling Based on MLS-SVM Inversion for L-lysine Fermentation Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Wang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A modeling approach 63 based on multiple output variables least squares support vector machine (MLS-SVM inversion is presented by a combination of inverse system and support vector machine theory. Firstly, a dynamic system model is developed based on material balance relation of a fed-batch fermentation process, with which it is analyzed whether an inverse system exists or not, and into which characteristic information of a fermentation process is introduced to set up an extended inversion model. Secondly, an initial extended inversion model is developed off-line by the use of the fitting capacity of MLS-SVM; on-line correction is made by the use of a differential evolution (DE algorithm on the basis of deviation information. Finally, a combined pseudo-linear system is formed by means of a serial connection of a corrected extended inversion model behind the L-lysine fermentation processes; thereby crucial biochemical parameters of a fermentation process could be predicted on-line. The simulation experiment shows that this soft-sensing modeling method features very high prediction precision and can predict crucial biochemical parameters of L-lysine fermentation process very well.

  8. Image Analysis Based on Soft Computing and Applied on Space Shuttle During the Liftoff Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominquez, Jesus A.; Klinko, Steve J.

    2007-01-01

    Imaging techniques based on Soft Computing (SC) and developed at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) have been implemented on a variety of prototype applications related to the safety operation of the Space Shuttle during the liftoff process. These SC-based prototype applications include detection and tracking of moving Foreign Objects Debris (FOD) during the Space Shuttle liftoff, visual anomaly detection on slidewires used in the emergency egress system for the Space Shuttle at the laJlIlch pad, and visual detection of distant birds approaching the Space Shuttle launch pad. This SC-based image analysis capability developed at KSC was also used to analyze images acquired during the accident of the Space Shuttle Columbia and estimate the trajectory and velocity of the foam that caused the accident.

  9. All-solution-processed flexible thin film piezoelectric nanogenerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Sung Yun; Kim, Sunyoung; Kim, Kyongjun [Program in Nano Science and Technology, Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ju-Hyuck; Kim, Sang-Woo [SKKU Advanced Institute of Nanotechnology, School of Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University (SKKU), Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Chong-Yun; Yoon, Seok-Jin [Electronic Materials Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Youn Sang [Program in Nano Science and Technology, Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Advanced Institutes of Convergence Technology, 864-1 Iui-dong, Yeongtong-gu, Suwon-si, Gyeonggi-do 443-270 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-11-27

    An all-solution-processed flexible thin film piezoelectric nanogenerator is demonstrated using reactive zinc hydroxo-condensation and a screen-printing method. The highly elastic thin film allows the piezoelectric energy to be generated through the mechanical rolling and muscle stretching of the piezoelectric unit. This flexible all solution-processed nanogenerator is promising for use in future energy harvesters such as wearable human patches and mobile electronics. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  10. Use of soft hydrothermal processing to improve and recycle bedding for laboratory animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, T; Li, Z; Kibushi, T; Yamasaki, N; Kasai, N

    2008-10-01

    Cage bedding for laboratory rodents can influence animal wellbeing and thus the experimental data. In addition, a large amount of used bedding containing excrement is discharged as medical waste from life science institutes and breeding companies. We developed a ground-breaking system to improve fresh bedding and recycle used bedding by applying a soft hydrothermal process with high-temperature and high-pressure dry steam. The system removes both harmful organic components and aromatic hydrocarbons that can affect animals' metabolism. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the chemical and physical properties of the improved fresh bedding and the recycled used bedding treated by the system. The results showed that 68-99% of the predominant aromatic hydrocarbons were removed from fresh bedding treated at 0.35 MPa and 140 degrees C for 120 min ('improved bedding'). In addition, 59.4-99.0% of predominant harmful organic compounds derived from excrement were removed from used bedding treated at 0.45 MPa and 150 degrees C for 60 min ('recycled bedding'). The soft hydrothermal treatment increased the number of acidic functional groups on the bedding surface and gave it the high adsorptive efficiency of ammonia gas. Harmful substances such as microorganisms, heavy metals and pesticides decreased below the detection limit. The results clearly showed that the improved and recycled bedding is safer for laboratory rodents and has the potential to ameliorate conditions in primary and secondary enclosures (e.g. cages and animal rooms) used for maintaining laboratory animals. This process may be one of the most advanced techniques in providing an alternative to softwood and other bedding, economizing through the recycling of used bedding and reducing bedding waste from animal facilities.

  11. Ligands Exchange Process on Gold Nanoparticles in Acetone Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, C. L.; Mu, Y. Y.; Bian, Z. C.; Luo, Z. H.; Luo, K.; Huang, A. Z.

    2018-05-01

    The ligands exchange process on gold nanoparticles (GNPs) was proceeded by using hydrophobic group (PPh3) and hydrophilic group (THPO) in acetone solution. The FTIR and XPS results demonstrated that part of THPO was replaced by PPh3 which was dissolved in polar solution (acetone); the results were in accordance with the electrochemical analysis where the differential capacity decreased with increasing exchange time. After 12 h, the exchange process terminated and the final ratio of PPh3 and THPO was about 1.4: 1. This ratio remained unchanged although the PPh3 and THPO modified GNPs re-dispersed in the PPh3 acetone solution demonstrating the stable adsorption of both ligands after exchanging for 12 h. The TEM images showed that the gold nanoparticles were self-assembled from scattered to arranged morphology due to the existence of hydrophilic and hydrophobic ligands and led to Janus gold nanoparticles.

  12. Selective Separation of Trivalent Actinides from Lanthanides by Aqueous Processing with Introduction of Soft Donor Atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nash, Kenneth L.

    2009-01-01

    Implementation of a closed loop nuclear fuel cycle requires the utilization of Pu-containing MOX fuels with the important side effect of increased production of the transplutonium actinides, most importantly isotopes of Am and Cm. Because the presence of these isotopes significantly impacts the long-term radiotoxicity of high level waste, it is important that effective methods for their isolation and/or transmutation be developed. Furthermore, since transmutation is most efficiently done in the absence of lanthanide fission products (high yield species with large thermal neutron absorption cross sections) it is important to have efficient procedures for the mutual separation of Am and Cm from the lanthanides. The chemistries of these elements are nearly identical, differing only in the slightly stronger strength of interaction of trivalent actinides with ligand donor atoms softer than O (N, Cl-, S). Research being conducted around the world has led to the development of new reagents and processes with considerable potential for this task. However, pilot scale testing of these reagents and processes has demonstrated the susceptibility of the new classes of reagents to radiolytic and hydrolytic degradation. In this project, separations of trivalent actinides from fission product lanthanides have been investigated in studies of (1) the extraction and chemical stability properties of a class of soft-donor extractants that are adapted from water-soluble analogs, (2) the application of water soluble soft-donor complexing agents in tandem with conventional extractant molecules emphasizing fundamental studies of the TALSPEAK Process. This research was conducted principally in radiochemistry laboratories at Washington State University. Collaborators at the Radiological Processing Laboratory (RPL) at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) have contributed their unique facilities and capabilities, and have supported student internships at PNNL to broaden their

  13. Materials interface engineering for solution-processed photovoltaics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grätzel, M.; Janssen, R.A.J.; Mitzi, D.B.; Sargent, E.H.

    2012-01-01

    Advances in solar photovoltaics are urgently needed to increase the performance and reduce the cost of harvesting solar power. Solution-processed photovoltaics are cost-effective to manufacture and offer the potential for physical flexibility. Rapid progress in their development has increased their

  14. A portable concentrator for processing plutonium containing solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamberlain, D.B.; Conner, C.; Chen, L.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes a horizontal, compact agitated-film concentrator called a Rototherm, manufactured by Artisan Industries, Inc. which can be used to process aqueous solutions of radioactive wastes containing plutonium. The unit is designed to concentrate liquid streams to a high-solid content slurry

  15. All-solution processed organic solar cells with top illumination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patil, B.R.; Shanmugam, S.; Teunissen, J.P.; Galagan, Y.

    2015-01-01

    All-solution processed organic solar cells with inverted device architecture were demonstrated. Devices contain opaque bottom electrodes and semitransparent top electrodes, resulting in top illuminated devices. Nanoparticles-based Ag ink was used for inkjet printing both top and bottom electrodes.

  16. All-solution-processed organic solar cells with conventional architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franeker, J.J. van; Voorthuijzen, W.P.; Gorter, H.; Hendriks, K.H.; Janssen, R.A.J.; Hadipour, A.; Andriessen, H.A.J.M.; Galagan, Y.O.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract All-solution processed organic solar cells with a conventional device structure were demonstrated. The evaporated low work function LiF/Al electrode was replaced by a printed high work function silver electrode combined with an additional electron transport layer (ETL). Two electron

  17. All-solution-processed organic solar cells with conventional architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franeker, van J.J.; Voorthuijzen, W.P.; Gorter, H.; Hendriks, K.H.; Janssen, R.A.J.; Hadipour, A.; Andriessen, R.; Galagan, Y.

    2013-01-01

    All-solution processed organic solar cells with a conventional device structure were demonstrated. The evaporated low work function LiF/Al electrode was replaced by a printed high work function silver electrode combined with an additional electron transport layer (ETL). Two electron transport layers

  18. Application of soft- and hard-modelling approaches to resolution of kinetics of electron donor-acceptor complex formation of 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyano-1,4-benzoquinone with imipramine in different solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasani, Masoumeh; Shariati-Rad, Masoud; Abdollahi, Hamid

    2009-01-01

    Kinetics of electron donor-acceptor (EDA) complex formation of imipramine and 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyano-1,4-benzoquinone (DDQ) was investigated spectrophotometrically in acetonitrile, 1,2-dichloroethane, and chloroform solutions using soft- and hard-modelling approaches. From the results of exploratory analysis of kinetic data and the spectral changes by soft-modelling approaches, evolving factor analysis (EFA) and orthogonal projection approach (OPA), a consecutive two-steps reaction with two intermediates was proposed for the process in acetonitrile and 1,2-dichloroethane media and one with a single intermediate in chloroform solution. Secondly, by applying, multivariate nonlinear least squares hard-modelling approach on the collected experimental kinetic data matrix, the nonlinear parameters (rate constants) as well as the linear parameters (spectral profiles) were obtained by fitting the collected experimental kinetic data matrix to the proposed model. Small values of standard deviation in the resulting parameters and sum of squares of the residuals (ssq) obtained showed the proper selection of the model. Furthermore, the values of lack of fit and percent of explained variance confirmed the correct identified models. Identification of the model with the aid of soft-modelling approaches followed by application of the hard-modelling approaches decreases significantly the rotational ambiguity associated with the obtained concentration and spectral profiles. Variations in the kinetic constants were in complete agreement with the model proposed and the solvent polarities

  19. Application of soft- and hard-modelling approaches to resolution of kinetics of electron donor-acceptor complex formation of 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyano-1,4-benzoquinone with imipramine in different solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasani, Masoumeh [Faculty of Chemistry, Bu-Ali Sina University, Mahdieh, Hamedan, 65174 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: hasani@basu.ac.ir; Shariati-Rad, Masoud [Faculty of Chemistry, Bu-Ali Sina University, Mahdieh, Hamedan, 65174 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Abdollahi, Hamid [Department of Chemistry, Institute for Advanced Studies in Basic Sciences, Zanjan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2009-03-23

    Kinetics of electron donor-acceptor (EDA) complex formation of imipramine and 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyano-1,4-benzoquinone (DDQ) was investigated spectrophotometrically in acetonitrile, 1,2-dichloroethane, and chloroform solutions using soft- and hard-modelling approaches. From the results of exploratory analysis of kinetic data and the spectral changes by soft-modelling approaches, evolving factor analysis (EFA) and orthogonal projection approach (OPA), a consecutive two-steps reaction with two intermediates was proposed for the process in acetonitrile and 1,2-dichloroethane media and one with a single intermediate in chloroform solution. Secondly, by applying, multivariate nonlinear least squares hard-modelling approach on the collected experimental kinetic data matrix, the nonlinear parameters (rate constants) as well as the linear parameters (spectral profiles) were obtained by fitting the collected experimental kinetic data matrix to the proposed model. Small values of standard deviation in the resulting parameters and sum of squares of the residuals (ssq) obtained showed the proper selection of the model. Furthermore, the values of lack of fit and percent of explained variance confirmed the correct identified models. Identification of the model with the aid of soft-modelling approaches followed by application of the hard-modelling approaches decreases significantly the rotational ambiguity associated with the obtained concentration and spectral profiles. Variations in the kinetic constants were in complete agreement with the model proposed and the solvent polarities.

  20. Electrochemical processing of low-level waste solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobbs, D.T.; Ebra, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    The feasibility of treating low-level Savannah River Plant (SRP) waste solutions by an electrolytic process has been demonstrated. Although the economics of the process are marginal at the current densities investigated at the laboratory scale, there are a number of positive environmental benefits. These benefits include: (1) reduction in the levels of nitrate and nitrite in the waste, (2) further decontamination of 99 Tc and 106 Ru, and (3) reduction in the volume of waste

  1. Novelty of Dynamic Process in the Synthesis of Biocompatible Silica Nanotubes by Biomimetic Glycyldodecylamide as a Soft Template.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyejung; Kim, Joong-Jo; Mo, Yong-Hwan; Reddy, Benjaram M; Park, Sang-Eon

    2017-10-10

    A dynamic process in the synthesis of silica nanotubes (SNTs) by utilizing glycyldodecylamide (GDA) as a soft template was thoroughly investigated. The morphological evolution from GDA to SNTs was deeply explored to elucidate the formation mechanism for optimizing the synthesis procedure. Various analytical tools, namely, XRD, FTIR, SEM, TEM, Z-potential, and N 2 adsorption/desorption isotherms, were employed during the synthesis procedure. The interactive structure of GDA was also investigated using TEM-EDX as a function of aging time. These studies revealed the stepwise morphology of nanograin, nanofiber, curved plate, and nanotube in the ethanol/water solution when aged at room temperature. The supramolecular GDA molded the vesicle type nanostructure which was surrounded by silica and facilitated the formation of uniform SNTs. The stimulus for GDA to be curved into a vesicle was the intermolecular hydrogen bonding between adjacent amide groups of the template molecules. This was illustrated by FTIR spectra of GDA-silica intermediate by detecting the transition of amide I peak from 1678 to 1635 cm -1 . The effect of hydrogen bonding became stronger when the sample was aged.

  2. Combination of monthly gravity field solutions from different processing centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean, Yoomin; Meyer, Ulrich; Jäggi, Adrian

    2015-04-01

    Currently, the official GRACE Science Data System (SDS) monthly gravity field solutions are generated independently by the Centre for Space Research (CSR) and the German Research Centre for Geosciences (GFZ). Additional GRACE SDS monthly fields are provided by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) for validation and outside the SDS by a number of other institutions worldwide. Although the adopted background models and processing standards have been harmonized more and more by the various processing centers during the past years, notable differences still exist and the users are more or less left alone with a decision which model to choose for their individual applications. Combinations are well-established in the area of other space geodetic techniques, such as the Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS), Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR), and Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI), where regular comparisons and combinations of space-geodetic products have tremendously increased the usefulness of the products in a wide range of disciplines and scientific applications. In the frame of the recently started Horizon 2020 project European Gravity Service for Improved Emergency Management (EGSIEM), a scientific combination service shall therefore be established to deliver the best gravity products for applications in Earth and environmental science research based on the unified knowledge of the European GRACE community. In a first step the large variety of available monthly GRACE gravity field solutions shall be mutually compared spatially and spectrally. We assess the noise of the raw as well as filtered solutions and compare the secular and seasonal periodic variations fitted to the monthly solutions. In a second step we will explore ways to generate combined solutions, e.g., based on a weighted average of the individual solutions using empirical weights derived from pair-wise comparisons. We will also assess the quality of such a combined solution and discuss the

  3. A flexible architecture for advanced process control solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faron, Kamyar; Iourovitski, Ilia

    2005-05-01

    Advanced Process Control (APC) is now mainstream practice in the semiconductor manufacturing industry. Over the past decade and a half APC has evolved from a "good idea", and "wouldn"t it be great" concept to mandatory manufacturing practice. APC developments have primarily dealt with two major thrusts, algorithms and infrastructure, and often the line between them has been blurred. The algorithms have evolved from very simple single variable solutions to sophisticated and cutting edge adaptive multivariable (input and output) solutions. Spending patterns in recent times have demanded that the economics of a comprehensive APC infrastructure be completely justified for any and all cost conscious manufacturers. There are studies suggesting integration costs as high as 60% of the total APC solution costs. Such cost prohibitive figures clearly diminish the return on APC investments. This has limited the acceptance and development of pure APC infrastructure solutions for many fabs. Modern APC solution architectures must satisfy the wide array of requirements from very manual R&D environments to very advanced and automated "lights out" manufacturing facilities. A majority of commercially available control solutions and most in house developed solutions lack important attributes of scalability, flexibility, and adaptability and hence require significant resources for integration, deployment, and maintenance. Many APC improvement efforts have been abandoned and delayed due to legacy systems and inadequate architectural design. Recent advancements (Service Oriented Architectures) in the software industry have delivered ideal technologies for delivering scalable, flexible, and reliable solutions that can seamlessly integrate into any fabs" existing system and business practices. In this publication we shall evaluate the various attributes of the architectures required by fabs and illustrate the benefits of a Service Oriented Architecture to satisfy these requirements. Blue

  4. A solution process for inverted tandem solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen-Olsen, Thue Trofod; Bundgaard, Eva; Sylvester-Hvid, Kristian O.

    2011-01-01

    Tandem solar cells with normal and inverted device geometries were prepared by a solution process. Both device types were based on the use of zinc(II)oxide as the electron transporting layer (ETL). The hole transporting layer (HTL) was either PEDOT:PSS for normal geometry tandem solar cells...... or vanadium(V)oxide in the case of inverted tandem cells. It was found that the inverted tandem solar cells performed comparable or better than the normal geometry devices, showing that the connection structure of vanadium(V)oxide, Ag nanoparticles and zinc(II)oxide functions both as a good recombination...... layer, ensuring serial connection, and as a solvent barrier, protecting the first photoactive layer from processing of the second layer. This successfully demonstrates a tandem solar cell fabrication process fully compatible with state-of-the-art solution based automated production procedures....

  5. Colloidal quantum dot solids for solution-processed solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Yuan, Mingjian

    2016-02-29

    Solution-processed photovoltaic technologies represent a promising way to reduce the cost and increase the efficiency of solar energy harvesting. Among these, colloidal semiconductor quantum dot photovoltaics have the advantage of a spectrally tuneable infrared bandgap, which enables use in multi-junction cells, as well as the benefit of generating and harvesting multiple charge carrier pairs per absorbed photon. Here we review recent progress in colloidal quantum dot photovoltaics, focusing on three fronts. First, we examine strategies to manage the abundant surfaces of quantum dots, strategies that have led to progress in the removal of electronic trap states. Second, we consider new device architectures that have improved device performance to certified efficiencies of 10.6%. Third, we focus on progress in solution-phase chemical processing, such as spray-coating and centrifugal casting, which has led to the demonstration of manufacturing-ready process technologies.

  6. Solidification method for organic solution and processing method of aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamoshida, Mamoru; Fukazawa, Tetsuo; Yazawa, Noriko; Hasegawa, Toshihiko

    1998-01-01

    The relative dielectric constant of an organic solution containing polar ingredients is controlled to 13 or less to enable its solidification. The polarity of the organic solution can be evaluated quantitatively by using the relative dielectric constant. If the relative dielectric constant is high, it can be controlled by dilution using a non-polar organic solvent of low relative dielectric constant. With such procedures, solidification can be conducted by using an economical 12-hydroxy stearic acid, process of liquid wastes can be facilitated and the safety can be ensured. (T.M.)

  7. Adaptive Channel Estimation based on Soft Information Processing in Broadband Spatial Multiplexing Receivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Beinschob

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a novel approach in Multiple-Input Multiple Output (MIMO Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM channel estimation technique based on a Decision Directed Recursive Least Squares (RLS algorithm in which no pilot symbols need to be integrated in the data after a short initial preamble. The novelty and key concept of the proposed technique is the block-wise causal and anti-causal RLS processing that yields two independent processings of RLS along with the associated decisions. Due to the usage of low density parity check (LDPC channel code, the receiver operates with soft information, which enables us to introduce a new modification of the Turbo principle as well as a simple information combining approach based on approximated aposteriori log-likelihood ratios (LLRs. Although the computational complexity is increased by both of our approaches, the latter is relatively less complex than the former. Simulation results show that these implementations outperform the simple RLS-DDCE algorithm and yield lower bit error rates (BER and more accurate channel estimates.

  8. Interplay of hard and soft physics in small x deep inelastic processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramowicz, H.

    1995-01-01

    Coherence phenomena, the increase with energy of coherence length and the nonuniversality of parton structure of the effective pomeron are explained. New hard phenomena directly calculable in QCD such as diffractive electroproduction of states with M 2 2 and the color transparency phenomenon as well as new options to measure the light-cone wave functions of various hadrons are considered. An analogue of Bjorken scaling is predicted for the diffractive electroproduction of ρ mesons at large momentum transfers and for the production of large rapidity gap events, as observed at HERA. A phenomenological QCD evolution equation is suggested to calculate the basic characteristics of the large rapidity gap events. The increase of parton densities at small x as well as new means to disentangle experimentally soft and hard physics are considered. We discuss constraints on the increase of deep inelastic amplitudes with Q 2 derived from the inconsistency of QCD predictions for inclusive and exclusive processes and from unitarity of the S matrix for collisions of wave packets. New ways to probe QCD physics of hard processes at large longitudinal distances and to answer the long standing problems on the origin of the pomeron are suggested. Unresolved problems and perspectives of small x physics are also outlined. (orig.)

  9. Evaluation of noise limits to improve image processing in soft X-ray projection microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamsranjav, Erdenetogtokh; Kuge, Kenichi; Ito, Atsushi; Kinjo, Yasuhito; Shiina, Tatsuo

    2017-03-03

    Soft X-ray microscopy has been developed for high resolution imaging of hydrated biological specimens due to the availability of water window region. In particular, a projection type microscopy has advantages in wide viewing area, easy zooming function and easy extensibility to computed tomography (CT). The blur of projection image due to the Fresnel diffraction of X-rays, which eventually reduces spatial resolution, could be corrected by an iteration procedure, i.e., repetition of Fresnel and inverse Fresnel transformations. However, it was found that the correction is not enough to be effective for all images, especially for images with low contrast. In order to improve the effectiveness of image correction by computer processing, we in this study evaluated the influence of background noise in the iteration procedure through a simulation study. In the study, images of model specimen with known morphology were used as a substitute for the chromosome images, one of the targets of our microscope. Under the condition that artificial noise was distributed on the images randomly, we introduced two different parameters to evaluate noise effects according to each situation where the iteration procedure was not successful, and proposed an upper limit of the noise within which the effective iteration procedure for the chromosome images was possible. The study indicated that applying the new simulation and noise evaluation method was useful for image processing where background noises cannot be ignored compared with specimen images.

  10. Gaussian process tomography for soft x-ray spectroscopy at WEST without equilibrium information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, T.; Mazon, D.; Svensson, J.; Li, D.; Jardin, A.; Verdoolaege, G.

    2018-06-01

    Gaussian process tomography (GPT) is a recently developed tomography method based on the Bayesian probability theory [J. Svensson, JET Internal Report EFDA-JET-PR(11)24, 2011 and Li et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84, 083506 (2013)]. By modeling the soft X-ray (SXR) emissivity field in a poloidal cross section as a Gaussian process, the Bayesian SXR tomography can be carried out in a robust and extremely fast way. Owing to the short execution time of the algorithm, GPT is an important candidate for providing real-time reconstructions with a view to impurity transport and fast magnetohydrodynamic control. In addition, the Bayesian formalism allows quantifying uncertainty on the inferred parameters. In this paper, the GPT technique is validated using a synthetic data set expected from the WEST tokamak, and the results are shown of its application to the reconstruction of SXR emissivity profiles measured on Tore Supra. The method is compared with the standard algorithm based on minimization of the Fisher information.

  11. Using soft-X-ray energy spectrum to measure electronic temperature Te and primary research with computer data processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jingyao; Zhang Guangyang

    1993-01-01

    The authors reported the application of SCORPIO--2000 Computer detecting system on a nuclear fusion equipment, to measure the energy spectrum of soft X-ray from which the plasma electronic temperature was calculated. The authors processed systematically the data of the energy area of 1-4 Kev soft X-ray. The program edited was mostly made in FORTRAN, but only one SUBSB was made in assembly language. The program worked normally with convincing operation and easy correction of the data. The result obtained from calculation is the same as what was expected and the diagram obtained is the same as the expected one

  12. Inverse opal photonic crystal of chalcogenide glass by solution processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohoutek, Tomas; Orava, Jiri; Sawada, Tsutomu; Fudouzi, Hiroshi

    2011-01-15

    Chalcogenide opal and inverse opal photonic crystals were successfully fabricated by low-cost and low-temperature solution-based process, which is well developed in polymer films processing. Highly ordered silica colloidal crystal films were successfully infilled with nano-colloidal solution of the high refractive index As(30)S(70) chalcogenide glass by using spin-coating method. The silica/As-S opal film was etched in HF acid to dissolve the silica opal template and fabricate the inverse opal As-S photonic crystal. Both, the infilled silica/As-S opal film (Δn ~ 0.84 near λ=770 nm) and the inverse opal As-S photonic structure (Δn ~ 1.26 near λ=660 nm) had significantly enhanced reflectivity values and wider photonic bandgaps in comparison with the silica opal film template (Δn ~ 0.434 near λ=600 nm). The key aspects of opal film preparation by spin-coating of nano-colloidal chalcogenide glass solution are discussed. The solution fabricated "inorganic polymer" opal and the inverse opal structures exceed photonic properties of silica or any organic polymer opal film. The fabricated photonic structures are proposed for designing novel flexible colloidal crystal laser devices, photonic waveguides and chemical sensors. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Materials interface engineering for solution-processed photovoltaics

    KAUST Repository

    Graetzel, Michael; Janssen, René A. J.; Mitzi, David B.; Sargent, Edward H.

    2012-01-01

    Advances in solar photovoltaics are urgently needed to increase the performance and reduce the cost of harvesting solar power. Solution-processed photovoltaics are cost-effective to manufacture and offer the potential for physical flexibility. Rapid progress in their development has increased their solar-power conversion efficiencies. The nanometre (electron) and micrometre (photon) scale interfaces between the crystalline domains that make up solution-processed solar cells are crucial for efficient charge transport. These interfaces include large surface area junctions between photoelectron donors and acceptors, the intralayer grain boundaries within the absorber, and the interfaces between photoactive layers and the top and bottom contacts. Controlling the collection and minimizing the trapping of charge carriers at these boundaries is crucial to efficiency. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  14. Materials interface engineering for solution-processed photovoltaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graetzel, Michael; Janssen, René A J; Mitzi, David B; Sargent, Edward H

    2012-08-16

    Advances in solar photovoltaics are urgently needed to increase the performance and reduce the cost of harvesting solar power. Solution-processed photovoltaics are cost-effective to manufacture and offer the potential for physical flexibility. Rapid progress in their development has increased their solar-power conversion efficiencies. The nanometre (electron) and micrometre (photon) scale interfaces between the crystalline domains that make up solution-processed solar cells are crucial for efficient charge transport. These interfaces include large surface area junctions between photoelectron donors and acceptors, the intralayer grain boundaries within the absorber, and the interfaces between photoactive layers and the top and bottom contacts. Controlling the collection and minimizing the trapping of charge carriers at these boundaries is crucial to efficiency.

  15. Materials interface engineering for solution-processed photovoltaics

    KAUST Repository

    Graetzel, Michael

    2012-08-15

    Advances in solar photovoltaics are urgently needed to increase the performance and reduce the cost of harvesting solar power. Solution-processed photovoltaics are cost-effective to manufacture and offer the potential for physical flexibility. Rapid progress in their development has increased their solar-power conversion efficiencies. The nanometre (electron) and micrometre (photon) scale interfaces between the crystalline domains that make up solution-processed solar cells are crucial for efficient charge transport. These interfaces include large surface area junctions between photoelectron donors and acceptors, the intralayer grain boundaries within the absorber, and the interfaces between photoactive layers and the top and bottom contacts. Controlling the collection and minimizing the trapping of charge carriers at these boundaries is crucial to efficiency. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  16. Solution-Processed Nanocrystal Quantum Dot Tandem Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Joshua J.; Wenger, Whitney N.; Hoffman, Rachel S.; Lim, Yee-Fun; Luria, Justin; Jasieniak, Jacek; Marohn, John A.; Hanrath, Tobias

    2011-01-01

    Solution-processed tandem solar cells created from nanocrystal quantum dots with size-tuned energy levels are demonstrated. Prototype devices featuring interconnected quantum dot layers of cascaded energy gaps exhibit IR sensitivity and an open circuit voltage, V oc, approaching 1 V. The tandem solar cell performance depends critically on the optical and electrical properties of the interlayer. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Distillation as a pretreatment process of waste scintillation solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dellamano, J.C.

    1988-05-01

    A process to pretreat scintillation solutions composed basically of PPO, POPOP, TOLUENE and ANTAROX, utilized by radioimmunoassay laboratories, is described. The technique employed is distillation which permits a waste reduction to about 40% of the initial volume with the recovery of the solvent (toluene). The recovered toluene can be resued for the same purpose, since it is free of radioactive material as assured by quality control procedures. (author) [pt

  18. Solution-Processed Nanocrystal Quantum Dot Tandem Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Joshua J.

    2011-06-03

    Solution-processed tandem solar cells created from nanocrystal quantum dots with size-tuned energy levels are demonstrated. Prototype devices featuring interconnected quantum dot layers of cascaded energy gaps exhibit IR sensitivity and an open circuit voltage, V oc, approaching 1 V. The tandem solar cell performance depends critically on the optical and electrical properties of the interlayer. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Solution-Processed Carbon Nanotube True Random Number Generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaviria Rojas, William A; McMorrow, Julian J; Geier, Michael L; Tang, Qianying; Kim, Chris H; Marks, Tobin J; Hersam, Mark C

    2017-08-09

    With the growing adoption of interconnected electronic devices in consumer and industrial applications, there is an increasing demand for robust security protocols when transmitting and receiving sensitive data. Toward this end, hardware true random number generators (TRNGs), commonly used to create encryption keys, offer significant advantages over software pseudorandom number generators. However, the vast network of devices and sensors envisioned for the "Internet of Things" will require small, low-cost, and mechanically flexible TRNGs with low computational complexity. These rigorous constraints position solution-processed semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) as leading candidates for next-generation security devices. Here, we demonstrate the first TRNG using static random access memory (SRAM) cells based on solution-processed SWCNTs that digitize thermal noise to generate random bits. This bit generation strategy can be readily implemented in hardware with minimal transistor and computational overhead, resulting in an output stream that passes standardized statistical tests for randomness. By using solution-processed semiconducting SWCNTs in a low-power, complementary architecture to achieve TRNG, we demonstrate a promising approach for improving the security of printable and flexible electronics.

  20. Fisson product control by gamma spectrometry in Purex process solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves, Maria A.; Matsuda, H.T.

    1982-01-01

    A radiometric method for fission product analysis by gamma spectrometry, to be applied for fission product control at an irradiated material processing facility, is described. Counting geometry was defined taking into account the activities of process solutions to be analysed, the remotely operated aliquotation device of the analytical cell and the available detection system. Natural and 19,91% enriched uranium samples were irradiated in order to simulate the composition of Purex process solutions. After a short decay time the samples were dissolved with HNO 3 and then conditioned in standard flasks with defined geometry. The spectra were obtained by a Ge(Li) semiconductor detector and analysed by the GELIGAM software system, using a floppy-disk connected to a PDP-11/05 computer. Libraries were prepared and calibrations were made with standard sources to fit the analysis of fission products in irradiated uranium solutions. It was possible to choose the best program to be used in routine analysis with the obtained data. (Author) [pt

  1. Development of Functional Inorganic Materials by Soft Chemical Process Using Ion-Exchange Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Qi

    Our study on soft chemical process using the metal oxide and metal hydroxide nanosheets obtained by exfoliation their layered compounds were reviewed. Ni(OH)2⁄MnO2 sandwich layered nanostructure can be prepared by layer by-layer stacking of exfoliated manganese oxide nanosheets and nickel hydroxide layers. Manganese oxide nanotubes can be obtained by curling the manganese oxide nanosheets using the cationic surfactants as the template. The layered titanate oriented thin film can be prepared by restacking the titanate nanosheets on a polycrystalline substrate, and transformed to the oriented BaTiO3 and TiO2 thin films by the topotactic structural transformation reactions, respectively. The titanate nanosheets can be transformed anatase-type TiO2 nanocrystals under hydrothermal conditions. The TiO2 nanocrystals are formed by a topotactic structural transformation reaction. The TiO2 nanocrystals prepared by this method expose specific crystal plane on their surfaces, and show high photocatalytic activity and high dye adsorption capacity for high performance dye-sensitized solar cell. A series of layered basic metal salt (LBMS) compounds were prepared by hydrothermal reactions of transition metal hydroxides and organic acids. We succeeded in the exfoliation of these LBMS compounds in alcohol solvents, and obtained the transition metal hydroxide nanosheets for the first time.

  2. TBP determination in nitric acid solutions from solvent extraction process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuada, T.A.; Carvalho, E.I. de; Araujo, I. da C.; Cohen, V.H.

    1988-07-01

    Heavy organic phases have been observed on some occasions during TBP extraction process. These products, described as red oils, were considered as the main cause for process failures, specially in evaporators and concentrators. In view of safety aspects it is necessary to control organic concentration in product and waste solutions. The proposed method involves the organic removal by chloroform as a first step, followed by purification onto a silica gel column. The results are given from analysing TBP and its degradation product (DBP) by gas chromatography. (author) [pt

  3. Determination of TBP in nitric solutions of process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuada, T.A.; Carvalho, E.I. de; Araujo, I. da C. de; Cohen, V.H.

    1988-01-01

    Heavy organic phases have been observed on some occasions during TBP extraction process. These products, described as red oils, were considered as the main cause for process failures, specially in evaporators and concentrators. In view of safety aspects it is necessary to control organic concentration in product and waste solutions. The proposed method involves the organic removal by chloroform as a first step, followed by purification onto a silica gel column. The results are given from analysing TBP and its degradation product (DBP) by gas chromatography. (author) [pt

  4. Passivation process of X80 pipeline steel in bicarbonate solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jian-Long; Li, Xiao-Gang; Du, Cui-Wei; Pan, Ying; Li, Tao; Liu, Qian

    2011-04-01

    The passivation process of X80 pipeline steel in bicarbonate solutions was investigated using potentiodynamic, dynamic electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (DEIS), and Mott-Schottky measurements. The results show that the shape of polarization curves changes with HCO{3/-} concentration. The critical `passive' concentration is 0.009 mol/L HCO{3/-} for X80 pipeline steel in bicarbonate solutions. No anodic current peak exists in HCO3/- solutions when the concentration is lower than 0.009 mol/L, whereas there are one and two anodic current peaks when the HCO3/- concentration ranges from 0.009 to 0.05 mol/L and is higher than 0.1 mol/L, respectively. DEIS measurements show that there exist active dissolution range, transition range, pre-passive range, passive layer formation range, passive range, and trans-passive range for X80 pipeline steel in the 0.1 mol/L HCO{3/-} solutions. The results of DEIS measurements are in complete agreement with the potentiodynamic diagram. An equivalent circuit containing three sub-layers is used to explain the Nyquist plots in the passive range. Analyses are well made for explaining the corresponding fitted capacitance and impedance. The Mott-Schottky plots show that the passive film of X80 pipeline steel is an n-type semiconductor, and capacitance measurements are in good accordance with the results of DEIS experiment.

  5. Removal of ammonia solutions used in catalytic wet oxidation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Chang Mao; Lou, Jie Chung; Lin, Chia Hua

    2003-08-01

    Ammonia (NH(3)) is an important product used in the chemical industry, and is common place in industrial wastewater. Industrial wastewater containing ammonia is generally either toxic or has concentrations or temperatures such that direct biological treatment is unfeasible. This investigation used aqueous solutions containing more of ammonia for catalytic liquid-phase oxidation in a trickle-bed reactor (TBR) based on Cu/La/Ce composite catalysts, prepared by co-precipitation of Cu(NO(3))(2), La(NO(3))(2), and Ce(NO(3))(3) at 7:2:1 molar concentrations. The experimental results indicated that the ammonia conversion of the wet oxidation in the presence of the Cu/La/Ce composite catalysts was determined by the Cu/La/Ce catalyst. Minimal ammonia was removed from the solution by the wet oxidation in the absence of any catalyst, while approximately 91% ammonia removal was achieved by wet oxidation over the Cu/La/Ce catalyst at 230 degrees C with oxygen partial pressure of 2.0 MPa. Furthermore, the effluent streams were conducted at a liquid hourly space velocity of under 9 h(-1) in the wet catalytic processes, and a reaction pathway was found linking the oxidizing ammonia to nitric oxide, nitrogen and water. The solution contained by-products, including nitrates and nitrites. Nitrite selectivity was minimized and ammonia removal maximized when the feed ammonia solution had a pH of around 12.0.

  6. Solution processed organic bulk heterojunction tandem solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albrecht, Steve; Neher, Dieter [Soft Matter Physics, University of Potsdam, D-14476 Potsdam (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    One of the critical issues regarding the preparation of organic tandem solar cells from solution is the central recombination contact. This contact should be highly transparent and conductive to provide high recombination currents. Moreover it should protect the 1st subcell from the solution processing of the 2nd subcell. Here, we present a systematic study of various recombination contacts in organic bulk heterojunction tandem solar cells made from blends of different polymers with PCBM. We compare solution processed recombination contacts fabricated from metal-oxides (TiO{sub 2} and ZnO) and PEDOT:PSS with evaporated recombination contacts made from thin metal layers and molybdenum-oxide. The solar cell characteristics as well as the morphology of the contacts measured by AFM and SEM are illustrated. To compare the electrical properties of the varying contacts we show measurements on single carrier devices for different contact-structures. Alongside we present the results of optical modeling of the subcells and the complete tandem device and relate these results to experimental absorption and reflection spectra of the same structures. Based on these studies, layer thicknesses were adjusted for optimum current matching and device performance.

  7. Perovskite/polymer solar cells prepared using solution process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa, E. S.; Shobih; Nursam, N. M.; Saputri, D. G.

    2016-01-01

    We report a simple solution-based process to fabricate a perovskite/polymer tandem solar cell using inorganic CH 3 NH 3 PM 3 as an absorber and organic PCBM (6,6 phenyl C61- butyric acid methyl ester) as an electron transport layer. The absorber solution was prepared by mixing the CH 3 NH 3 I (methyl ammonium iodide) with PbI 2 (lead iodide) in DMF (N,N- dimethyl formamide) solvent. The absorber and electron transport layer were deposited by spin coating method. The electrical characteristics generated from the cell under 50 mW/cm 2 at 25 °C comprised of an open circuit voltage of 0. 3 1 V, a short circuit current density of 2.53 mA/cm 2 , and a power conversion efficiency of 0.42%. (paper)

  8. Model-based dispersive wave processing: A recursive Bayesian solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Candy, J.V.; Chambers, D.H.

    1999-01-01

    Wave propagation through dispersive media represents a significant problem in many acoustic applications, especially in ocean acoustics, seismology, and nondestructive evaluation. In this paper we propose a propagation model that can easily represent many classes of dispersive waves and proceed to develop the model-based solution to the wave processing problem. It is shown that the underlying wave system is nonlinear and time-variable requiring a recursive processor. Thus the general solution to the model-based dispersive wave enhancement problem is developed using a Bayesian maximum a posteriori (MAP) approach and shown to lead to the recursive, nonlinear extended Kalman filter (EKF) processor. The problem of internal wave estimation is cast within this framework. The specific processor is developed and applied to data synthesized by a sophisticated simulator demonstrating the feasibility of this approach. copyright 1999 Acoustical Society of America.

  9. Business Process Reengineering, a Crisis Solution or a Necessity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela GHEORGHE

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This case study shows that the company decided to implement Business Process Reengineering (BPR not only because external environment had changed, but also due to its obsolete business processes and organizational structure. The article will highlight the importance of the organizations' focusing on sub-goals, in order to finally reach the desired result in the organization's main goals. When rapid evolution has become the fundamental contemporary coordinate, reengineering is a form of company innovative reaction in terms of intensifying competition and globalization. Remodeling the Company in phases of crisis, when time pressure reduces the type and number of solutions that can be adopted, without effective leadership, can lead in most cases to failure. The effect of redesigning the business processes depends on how well it is implemented, coordinated and monitored.

  10. Business Process Reengineering, a Crises Solution or a Necessity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela GHEORGHE

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This case study shows that the company decided to implement Business Process Reengineering (BPR not only because external environment had changed, but also due to its obsolete business processes and organizational structure. The article will highlight the importance of the organizations' focusing on sub-goals, in order to finally reach the desired result in the organization's main goals. When rapid evolution has become the fundamental contemporary coordinate, reengineering is a form of company innovative reaction in terms of intensifying competition and globalization. Remodelling the Company in phases of crisis, when time pressure reduces the type and number of solutions that can be adopted, without effective leadership can lead in most cases to failure. The effect of redesigning the business processes depends on how well it is implemented, coordinated and monitored.

  11. Image processing can cause some malignant soft-tissue lesions to be missed in digital mammography images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, L M; Halling-Brown, M D; Looney, P T; Dance, D R; Wallis, M G; Given-Wilson, R M; Wilkinson, L; McAvinchey, R; Young, K C

    2017-09-01

    To investigate the effect of image processing on cancer detection in mammography. An observer study was performed using 349 digital mammography images of women with normal breasts, calcification clusters, or soft-tissue lesions including 191 subtle cancers. Images underwent two types of processing: FlavourA (standard) and FlavourB (added enhancement). Six observers located features in the breast they suspected to be cancerous (4,188 observations). Data were analysed using jackknife alternative free-response receiver operating characteristic (JAFROC) analysis. Characteristics of the cancers detected with each image processing type were investigated. For calcifications, the JAFROC figure of merit (FOM) was equal to 0.86 for both types of image processing. For soft-tissue lesions, the JAFROC FOM were better for FlavourA (0.81) than FlavourB (0.78); this difference was significant (p=0.001). Using FlavourA a greater number of cancers of all grades and sizes were detected than with FlavourB. FlavourA improved soft-tissue lesion detection in denser breasts (p=0.04 when volumetric density was over 7.5%) CONCLUSIONS: The detection of malignant soft-tissue lesions (which were primarily invasive) was significantly better with FlavourA than FlavourB image processing. This is despite FlavourB having a higher contrast appearance often preferred by radiologists. It is important that clinical choice of image processing is based on objective measures. Copyright © 2017 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Fission products control by gamma spectrometry in purex process solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves, Maria Augusta

    1982-01-01

    This paper deals with a radiometric method for fission products analysisby gamma spectrometry. This method will be applied for fission productscontrol at the irradiated material processing facility, under construction inthe Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, SP, Brazil. Countinggeometry was defined taking into account the activities of process solutionsto be analysed, the remotely operated aliquotation device of analytical celland the available detection system. Natural and 19,91% enriched uraniumsamples were irradiated at IEAR-1 reactor in order to simulate thecomposition of Purex process solutions. After a short decay time, the sampleswere dissolved with HNO 3 and then, conditioned in standard flasks withdefined geometry. The spectra were obtained by a Ge(Li) semiconductordetector and analysed by the GELIGAM software system, losing a floppy-diskconnected to a PDP-11/05 computer. Libraries were prepared and calibrationswere made with standard sources to fit the programs to the analysis offission products in irradiated uranium solutions. It was possible to choosethe best program to be used in routine analysis with the obtained data.(author)

  13. Quantifying solute transport processes: are chemically "conservative" tracers electrically conservative?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singha, Kamini; Li, Li; Day-Lewis, Frederick D.; Regberg, Aaron B.

    2012-01-01

    The concept of a nonreactive or conservative tracer, commonly invoked in investigations of solute transport, requires additional study in the context of electrical geophysical monitoring. Tracers that are commonly considered conservative may undergo reactive processes, such as ion exchange, thus changing the aqueous composition of the system. As a result, the measured electrical conductivity may reflect not only solute transport but also reactive processes. We have evaluated the impacts of ion exchange reactions, rate-limited mass transfer, and surface conduction on quantifying tracer mass, mean arrival time, and temporal variance in laboratory-scale column experiments. Numerical examples showed that (1) ion exchange can lead to resistivity-estimated tracer mass, velocity, and dispersivity that may be inaccurate; (2) mass transfer leads to an overestimate in the mobile tracer mass and an underestimate in velocity when using electrical methods; and (3) surface conductance does not notably affect estimated moments when high-concentration tracers are used, although this phenomenon may be important at low concentrations or in sediments with high and/or spatially variable cation-exchange capacity. In all cases, colocated groundwater concentration measurements are of high importance for interpreting geophysical data with respect to the controlling transport processes of interest.

  14. NUMERICAL EVALUATION OF THE EFFECTS OF SOFT-MELTING PROPERTIES ON THE KINETIC OF (CAFE2 O4 -CA2 FE2 O5 FORMATION IN THE IRON ORE SINTERING PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Adilson de Castro

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a mathematical model able to predict the influence of soft-melting properties of the blend of raw materials used in the iron ore sintering process in the kinetic formation of calcium ferrite and di-calcium ferrite constituents. The model is based on the simultaneous solution of transport equations of Momentum, energy and chemical species in multiphase multicomponent systems coupled with the chemical reactions kinetics and phase transformations that occur within the sinter bed. The numerical solution is obtained using the finite volume method and the model is validated using monitoring data from an industrial scale sintering plant. After validation, the model was used to predict processing conditions using raw materials with different soft-melting properties. Results indicate that the temperatures of starting soft-melting, shrinkage and melting range are the main parameters to be controlled in order to attain liquid phases formation responsible to confer good mechanical and reducibility properties for the sinter product. In this study was found that raw materials with high soft-melting temperature and wilder temperature of mushy zone could decrease up to 30% the calcium ferrites formation and hence deteriorates the metallurgical properties of the sinter.

  15. Interplay of domain walls and magnetization rotation on dynamic magnetization process in iron/polymer–matrix soft magnetic composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobák, Samuel, E-mail: samuel.dobak@student.upjs.sk [Institute of Physics, Faculty of Science, Pavol Jozef Šafárik University, Park Angelinum 9, 041 54 Košice (Slovakia); Füzer, Ján; Kollár, Peter [Institute of Physics, Faculty of Science, Pavol Jozef Šafárik University, Park Angelinum 9, 041 54 Košice (Slovakia); Fáberová, Mária; Bureš, Radovan [Institute of Materials Research, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Watsonova 47, 043 53 Košice (Slovakia)

    2017-03-15

    This study sheds light on the dynamic magnetization process in iron/resin soft magnetic composites from the viewpoint of quantitative decomposition of their complex permeability spectra into the viscous domain wall motion and magnetization rotation. We present a comprehensive view on this phenomenon over the broad family of samples with different average particles dimension and dielectric matrix content. The results reveal the pure relaxation nature of magnetization processes without observation of spin resonance. The smaller particles and higher amount of insulating resin result in the prevalence of rotations over domain wall movement. The findings are elucidated in terms of demagnetizing effects rising from the heterogeneity of composite materials. - Highlights: • A first decomposition of complex permeability into domain wall and rotation parts in soft magnetic composites. • A pure relaxation nature of dynamic magnetization processes. • A complete loss separation in soft magnetic composites. • The domain walls activity is considerably suppressed in composites with smaller iron particles and higher matrix content. • The demagnetizing field acts as a significant factor at the dynamic magnetization process.

  16. Uranium removal from organic solutions of PUREX process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dell'Occhio, L.A.; Dupetit, G.A.; Pascale, A.A.; Vicens, H.E.

    1987-01-01

    During the uranium extraction process with tributyl phosphate (TBP) in nitric medium, a bi solvated, non hydrated complex is formed, of formula UO2(NO3)2TBP, which is soluble in the diluent, a paraffin hydrocarbon. As it is known that some uranium salts, for instance the nitrate, when dissolved in organic solvents, like isopropanol, can be discharged as complex molecules at the cathode of an electrodeposition cell, it was decided to apply this technique to uranium loaded TBP solutions. From preliminary experiments resulted a practical possibility for the analytical control through the alpha measurement of electro deposits. This technique could be applied as well to the treatment of depleted organic streams carrying undesirable alpha activity, because the so treated solutions become deprived of uranium. This work presents the curves obtained working at constant voltage with uranium-loaded TBP solutions, the determination of the optimal operation voltage in these conditions, the electrodeposition yield for electro polished copper and stainless steel cathodes and the tests of reproducibility of deposits. A summary of the results obtained operating the high voltage supply at constant power is also presented. (Author)

  17. Spectrophotometric determination of nitrite in simulated Purex Process solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, I.daC. de; Matsuda, H T; Araujo, B.F. de; Araujo, J.A. de

    1984-01-01

    A spectrophotometric method for nitrite determination in simulated Purex Process solutions is presented, utilizing the Griess reagent for the formation of the coloured azocompound with an absorption maximum at 525 nm. Molar absortivity was 36,262 and the sensitivity of the method 10/sup -6/M for nitrite. The calibration curve is linear in the range of 2 to 30..mu..g NO/sup -//sub 2//25 ml in cells of 1 cm optical path. The method can be used in the presence of uranium up to limits of an U/NO/sup -//sub 2/ ratio of 150. Test solutions were prepared to simulate composition and concentrations as obtained by irradiating standard fuel with a neutro flux of 3.2 x 10/sup 13/ n.s/sup -1/.cm/sup -2/, with a burn-up value of 33,000 Mwd/T and cooling time of two years. Nitrite determinations in these solutions were accurate within limits of 5%.

  18. Soft computing techniques in engineering applications

    CERN Document Server

    Zhong, Baojiang

    2014-01-01

    The Soft Computing techniques, which are based on the information processing of biological systems are now massively used in the area of pattern recognition, making prediction & planning, as well as acting on the environment. Ideally speaking, soft computing is not a subject of homogeneous concepts and techniques; rather, it is an amalgamation of distinct methods that confirms to its guiding principle. At present, the main aim of soft computing is to exploit the tolerance for imprecision and uncertainty to achieve tractability, robustness and low solutions cost. The principal constituents of soft computing techniques are probabilistic reasoning, fuzzy logic, neuro-computing, genetic algorithms, belief networks, chaotic systems, as well as learning theory. This book covers contributions from various authors to demonstrate the use of soft computing techniques in various applications of engineering.  

  19. Synthesis of Diopside by Solution Combustion Process Using Glycine Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherikar, Baburao N.; Umarji, A. M.

    Nano ceramic Diopside (CaMgSi2O6) powders are synthesized by Solution Combustion Process(SCS) using Calcium nitrate, Magnesium nitrate as oxidizer and glycine as fuel, fumed silica as silica source. Ammonium nitrate (AN) is used as extra oxidizer. Effect of AN on Diopside phase formation is investigated. The adiabatic flame temperatures are calculated theoretically for varying amount of AN according to thermodynamic concept and correlated with the observed flame temperatures. A “Multi channel thermocouple setup connected to computer interfaced Keithley multi voltmeter 2700” is used to monitor the thermal events during the process. An interpretation based on maximum combustion temperature and the amount of gases produced during reaction for various AN compositions has been proposed for the nature of combustion and its correlation with the characteristics of as synthesized powder. These powders are characterized by XRD, SEM showing that the powders are composed of polycrystalline oxides with crystallite size of 58nm to 74nm.

  20. Low-Temperature Solution Processable Electrodes for Piezoelectric Sensors Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuukkanen, Sampo; Julin, Tuomas; Rantanen, Ville; Zakrzewski, Mari; Moilanen, Pasi; Lupo, Donald

    2013-05-01

    Piezoelectric thin-film sensors are suitable for a wide range of applications from physiological measurements to industrial monitoring systems. The use of flexible materials in combination with high-throughput printing technologies enables cost-effective manufacturing of custom-designed, highly integratable piezoelectric sensors. This type of sensor can, for instance, improve industrial process control or enable the embedding of ubiquitous sensors in our living environment to improve quality of life. Here, we discuss the benefits, challenges and potential applications of piezoelectric thin-film sensors. The piezoelectric sensor elements are fabricated by printing electrodes on both sides of unmetallized poly(vinylidene fluoride) film. We show that materials which are solution processable in low temperatures, biocompatible and environmental friendly are suitable for use as electrode materials in piezoelectric sensors.

  1. Sequentially solution-processed, nanostructured polymer photovoltaics using selective solvents

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Do Hwan; Mei, Jianguo; Ayzner, Alexander L.; Schmidt, Kristin; Giri, Gaurav; Appleton, Anthony L.; Toney, Michael F.; Bao, Zhenan

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate high-performance sequentially solution-processed organic photovoltaics (OPVs) with a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 5% for blend films using a donor polymer based on the isoindigo-bithiophene repeat unit (PII2T-C10C8) and a fullerene derivative [6,6]-phenyl-C[71]-butyric acid methyl ester (PC71BM). This has been accomplished by systematically controlling the swelling and intermixing processes of the layer with various processing solvents during deposition of the fullerene. We find that among the solvents used for fullerene deposition that primarily swell but do not re-dissolve the polymer underlayer, there were significant microstructural differences between chloro and o-dichlorobenzene solvents (CB and ODCB, respectively). Specifically, we show that the polymer crystallite orientation distribution in films where ODCB was used to cast the fullerene is broad. This indicates that out-of-plane charge transport through a tortuous transport network is relatively efficient due to a large density of inter-grain connections. In contrast, using CB results in primarily edge-on oriented polymer crystallites, which leads to diminished out-of-plane charge transport. We correlate these microstructural differences with photocurrent measurements, which clearly show that casting the fullerene out of ODCB leads to significantly enhanced power conversion efficiencies. Thus, we believe that tuning the processing solvents used to cast the electron acceptor in sequentially-processed devices is a viable way to controllably tune the blend film microstructure. © 2014 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  2. Soft electronics for soft robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Rebecca K.

    2015-05-01

    As advanced as modern machines are, the building blocks have changed little since the industrial revolution, leading to rigid, bulky, and complex devices. Future machines will include electromechanical systems that are soft and elastically deformable, lending them to applications such as soft robotics, wearable/implantable devices, sensory skins, and energy storage and transport systems. One key step toward the realization of soft systems is the development of stretchable electronics that remain functional even when subject to high strains. Liquid-metal traces embedded in elastic polymers present a unique opportunity to retain the function of rigid metal conductors while leveraging the deformable properties of liquid-elastomer composites. However, in order to achieve the potential benefits of liquid-metal, scalable processing and manufacturing methods must be identified.

  3. Interplay of soft and hard processes and hadron $p_{T}$ spectra in p A and AA collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Enke, Wang; 10.1103/PhysRevC.64.034901

    2001-01-01

    Motivated by a schematic model of multiple parton scattering within the Glauber formalism, the transverse momentum spectra in pA and AA collisions are analyzed in terms of a nuclear modification factor with respect to pp collisions. The existing data at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron energies are shown to be consistent with the picture of Glauber multiple scattering in which the interplay between soft and hard processes and the effect of absorptive processes lead to nontrivial nuclear modification of the particle spectra. Relative to the additive model of incoherent hard scattering, the spectra are enhanced at large p/sub T/ (hard) by multiple scattering while suppressed at low p/sub T/ (soft) by absorptive correction with the transition occurring at around a scale p/sub 0/~1-2 GeV/c that separates soft and hard processes. Around the same scale, the p/sub T / spectra in pp collisions also change from an exponential form at low p/sub T/ to a power-law behavior at high p/sub T/. At very large p/sub T/>>p/sub...

  4. The water erosion processes in the retreat erosive of cliff on soft rocks in the province of Cadiz (Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rendon Aragon, J. J.; Gracia Prieto, F. J.; Rio Rodriguez, L. del

    2009-01-01

    The littoral cliffs on soft materials of the Atlantic Cadiz coast show an important activity of the fresh water erosion processes, sometimes even more significant than the marine erosion processes. The connection of the lower cliffs with sandy beaches favours aeolian sand invasion, which fills previous rills and reduces the water erosion intensity by increasing infiltration. Cliff retreat and rill erosion measurement by using erosion sticks has shown very variables values, most of them higher than the estimated error of the employed methods. This indicates the existence of other factors influencing the distribution of water erosion processes along these cliffs, which have to be studied through different techniques. (Author) 5 refs.

  5. A Soft OR Approach to Fostering Systems Thinking: SODA Maps plus Joint Analytical Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shouhong; Wang, Hai

    2016-01-01

    Higher order thinking skills are important for managers. Systems thinking is an important type of higher order thinking in business education. This article investigates a soft Operations Research approach to teaching and learning systems thinking. It outlines the integrative use of Strategic Options Development and Analysis maps for visualizing…

  6. Improving Students Soft Skills Using Thinking Process Profile Based on Personality Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunarto, M. J. Dewiyani

    2015-01-01

    The challenge in education field these days rises as the cause of society's expectation for higher education. This increasingly complex expectation demands that higher education prepares the students to gain integrity. Higher education provides not only hard skills for the student, but also soft skills. By observing the hard skills side, in the…

  7. Humic acid removal from aqueous solutions by peroxielectrocoagulation process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Reza Yazdanbakhsh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Natural organic matter is the cause of many problems associated with water treatment such as the presence of disinfection by-products (DBPs and membrane fouling during water filtration. In this study, the performance of the peroxi-electrocoagulation process (PEP was investigated for the removal of humic acids (HAs from aqueous solutions. Methods: PEP was carried out for the removal of HA using a plexiglas reactor with a volume of 2 L and fitted with iron electrodes and a direct current supply (DC. Samples were taken at various amounts of pH (2-4, current density (1 and 2A/cm2, hydrogen peroxide (50-150 mg/L and reaction time (5-20 minutes and then filtered to remove sludge formed during reaction. Finally, the HA concentration was measured by UV absorbance at 254 nm (UV254. Results: Results indicated that increasing the concentration of H2O2 from 50 to 150 mg/L increased HA removal efficiency from 83% to 94.5%. The highest removal efficiency was observed at pH 3.0; by increasing the pH to the alkaline range, the efficiency of the process was reduced. It was found that HA removal efficiency was high in current density 1A/cm2. Increasing current density up to 1 A cm-2 caused a decrease in removal efficiency. Results of this study showed that under the optimum operating range for the process ([current density] = 1A/cm2, [hydrogen peroxide concentration] = 150 mg/L, [reaction time]= 20 minutes and [pH]= 3.0, HA removal efficiency reached 98%. Conclusion: It can be concluded that PEP has the potential to be utilized for cost-effective removal of HA from aqueous solutions.

  8. Soft x-ray scattering facility at the Advanced Light Source with real-time data processing and analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gann, E; Young, A T; Collins, B A; Yan, H; Nasiatka, J; Padmore, H A; Ade, H; Hexemer, A; Wang, C

    2012-04-01

    We present the development and characterization of a dedicated resonant soft x-ray scattering facility. Capable of operation over a wide energy range, the beamline and endstation are primarily used for scattering from soft matter systems around the carbon K-edge (∼285 eV). We describe the specialized design of the instrument and characteristics of the beamline. Operational characteristics of immediate interest to users such as polarization control, degree of higher harmonic spectral contamination, and detector noise are delineated. Of special interest is the development of a higher harmonic rejection system that improves the spectral purity of the x-ray beam. Special software and a user-friendly interface have been implemented to allow real-time data processing and preliminary data analysis simultaneous with data acquisition. © 2012 American Institute of Physics

  9. Soft x-ray scattering facility at the Advanced Light Source with real-time data processing and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gann, E.; Young, A. T.; Collins, B. A.; Yan, H.; Nasiatka, J.; Padmore, H. A.; Ade, H.; Hexemer, A.; Wang, C.

    2012-04-01

    We present the development and characterization of a dedicated resonant soft x-ray scattering facility. Capable of operation over a wide energy range, the beamline and endstation are primarily used for scattering from soft matter systems around the carbon K-edge (˜285 eV). We describe the specialized design of the instrument and characteristics of the beamline. Operational characteristics of immediate interest to users such as polarization control, degree of higher harmonic spectral contamination, and detector noise are delineated. Of special interest is the development of a higher harmonic rejection system that improves the spectral purity of the x-ray beam. Special software and a user-friendly interface have been implemented to allow real-time data processing and preliminary data analysis simultaneous with data acquisition.

  10. Soft x-ray scattering facility at the Advanced Light Source with real-time data processing and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gann, E.; Collins, B. A.; Ade, H.; Young, A. T.; Nasiatka, J.; Padmore, H. A.; Hexemer, A.; Wang, C.; Yan, H.

    2012-01-01

    We present the development and characterization of a dedicated resonant soft x-ray scattering facility. Capable of operation over a wide energy range, the beamline and endstation are primarily used for scattering from soft matter systems around the carbon K-edge (∼285 eV). We describe the specialized design of the instrument and characteristics of the beamline. Operational characteristics of immediate interest to users such as polarization control, degree of higher harmonic spectral contamination, and detector noise are delineated. Of special interest is the development of a higher harmonic rejection system that improves the spectral purity of the x-ray beam. Special software and a user-friendly interface have been implemented to allow real-time data processing and preliminary data analysis simultaneous with data acquisition.

  11. Processes for working-up an aqueous fluosilicic acid solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alpha O. Toure

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Aqueous fluosilicic acid solutions were once considered to be only adverse by-products of phosphoric acid production, which required treatment to prevent ecosystem destruction when discharged into the sea. However, a range of chemicals can be generated by the transformation of this industrial waste product. Through experiments undertaken in the laboratory, we have shown the possibility of caustic soda production. Volumetric analysis showed caustic soda to be present as a 6%– 7%solution with yields of about 70% – 80%by weight. Two processes were investigated for the caustification of sodium fluoride, using different precipitates: sodium chloride and ethanol and are described by modelling caustification curves. The activation energies of precipitation determined by semi-empirical correlations showed that precipitation by ethanol (EA = 933.536 J/mol was more successful than precipitation by sodium chloride (EA = 7452.405 J/mol. Analyses performed on the precipitates highlighted compositions that are essential and useful constituents in the cement industry.

  12. Microstructural characterization of gold nanoparticles synthesized by solution plasma processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Sung-Pyo; Bratescu, Maria Antoaneta; Takai, Osamu; Saito, Nagahiro

    2011-01-01

    Microstructural characteristics of gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) fabricated by solution plasma processing (SPP) in reverse micelle solutions have been studied by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The synthesized Au NPs, with an average size of 6.3 ± 1.4 nm, have different crystal characteristics; fcc single-crystalline particles, multiply twinned particles (MTPs), and incomplete MTPs (single-nanotwinned fcc configuration). The crystal structure characteristics of the Au NPs synthesized by the SPP method were analyzed and compared with similar-size Au NPs obtained by the conventional chemical reduction synthesis (CRS) method. The TEM analysis results show that the Au NPs synthesized by the CRS method have shapes and crystal structures similar to those nanoparticles obtained by the SPP method. However, from the detailed HRTEM analysis, the relative number of the Au MTPs and incomplete MTPs to the total number of the Au NPs synthesized by the SPP method was observed to be around 94%, whereas the relative number of these kinds of crystal structures fabricated by the CRS method was about 63%. It is most likely that the enhanced formation of the Au MTPs is due to the fact that the SPP method generates highly reaction-activated species under low environmental temperature conditions.

  13. Analysis of benzoquinone decomposition in solution plasma process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bratescu, M.A.; Saito, N.

    2016-01-01

    The decomposition of p-benzoquinone (p-BQ) in Solution Plasma Processing (SPP) was analyzed by Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopy (CARS) by monitoring the change of the anti-Stokes signal intensity of the vibrational transitions of the molecule, during and after SPP. Just in the beginning of the SPP treatment, the CARS signal intensities of the ring vibrational molecular transitions increased under the influence of the electric field of plasma. The results show that plasma influences the p-BQ molecules in two ways: (i) plasma produces a polarization and an orientation of the molecules in the local electric field of plasma and (ii) the gas phase plasma supplies, in the liquid phase, hydrogen and hydroxyl radicals, which reduce or oxidize the molecules, respectively, generating different carboxylic acids. The decomposition of p-BQ after SPP was confirmed by UV-visible absorption spectroscopy and liquid chromatography

  14. Solution processable organic/inorganic hybrid ultraviolet photovoltaic detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaopeng Guo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Ultraviolet (UV photodetector is a kind of important optoelectronic device which can be widely used in scientific and engineering fields including astronomical research, environmental monitoring, forest-fire prevention, medical analysis, and missile approach warning etc. The development of UV detector is hindered by the acquirement of stable p-type materials, which makes it difficult to realize large array, low-power consumption UV focal plane array (FPA detector. Here, we provide a novel structure (Al/Poly(9,9-di-n-octylfuorenyl-2,7-diyl(PFO/ZnO/ITO to demonstrate the UV photovoltaic (PV response. A rather smooth surface (RMS roughness: 0.28 nm may be reached by solution process, which sheds light on the development of large-array, light-weight and low-cost UV FPA detectors.

  15. Degradation of malachite green in aqueous solution by Fenton process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hameed, B H; Lee, T W

    2009-05-30

    In this study, advanced oxidation process utilizing Fenton's reagent was investigated for degradation of malachite green (MG). The effects of different reaction parameters such as the initial MG concentration, initial pH, the initial hydrogen peroxide concentration, the initial ferrous concentration and the reaction temperature on the oxidative degradation of MG have been investigated. The optimal reacting conditions were experimentally found to be pH 3.40, initial hydrogen peroxide concentration=0.50mM and initial ferrous concentration=0.10mM for initial MG concentration of 20mg/L at 30 degrees C. Under optimal conditions, 99.25% degradation efficiency of dye in aqueous solution was achieved after 60 min of reaction.

  16. Engineering charge transport by heterostructuring solution-processed semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voznyy, Oleksandr; Sutherland, Brandon R.; Ip, Alexander H.; Zhitomirsky, David; Sargent, Edward H.

    2017-06-01

    Solution-processed semiconductor devices are increasingly exploiting heterostructuring — an approach in which two or more materials with different energy landscapes are integrated into a composite system. Heterostructured materials offer an additional degree of freedom to control charge transport and recombination for more efficient optoelectronic devices. By exploiting energetic asymmetry, rationally engineered heterostructured materials can overcome weaknesses, augment strengths and introduce emergent physical phenomena that are otherwise inaccessible to single-material systems. These systems see benefit and application in two distinct branches of charge-carrier manipulation. First, they influence the balance between excitons and free charges to enhance electron extraction in solar cells and photodetectors. Second, they promote radiative recombination by spatially confining electrons and holes, which increases the quantum efficiency of light-emitting diodes. In this Review, we discuss advances in the design and composition of heterostructured materials, consider their implementation in semiconductor devices and examine unexplored paths for future advancement in the field.

  17. Analysis of benzoquinone decomposition in solution plasma process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratescu, M. A.; Saito, N.

    2016-01-01

    The decomposition of p-benzoquinone (p-BQ) in Solution Plasma Processing (SPP) was analyzed by Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopy (CARS) by monitoring the change of the anti-Stokes signal intensity of the vibrational transitions of the molecule, during and after SPP. Just in the beginning of the SPP treatment, the CARS signal intensities of the ring vibrational molecular transitions increased under the influence of the electric field of plasma. The results show that plasma influences the p-BQ molecules in two ways: (i) plasma produces a polarization and an orientation of the molecules in the local electric field of plasma and (ii) the gas phase plasma supplies, in the liquid phase, hydrogen and hydroxyl radicals, which reduce or oxidize the molecules, respectively, generating different carboxylic acids. The decomposition of p-BQ after SPP was confirmed by UV-visible absorption spectroscopy and liquid chromatography.

  18. High performance photovoltaic applications using solution-processed small molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yongsheng; Wan, Xiangjian; Long, Guankui

    2013-11-19

    Energy remains a critical issue for the survival and prosperity of humancivilization. Many experts believe that the eventual solution for sustainable energy is the use of direct solar energy as the main energy source. Among the options for renewable energy, photovoltaic technologies that harness solar energy offer a way to harness an unlimited resource and minimum environment impact in contrast with other alternatives such as water, nuclear, and wind energy. Currently, almost all commercial photovoltaic technologies use Si-based technology, which has a number of disadvantages including high cost, lack of flexibility, and the serious environmental impact of the Si industry. Other technologies, such as organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells, can overcome some of these issues. Today, polymer-based OPV (P-OPV) devices have achieved power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) that exceed 9%. Compared with P-OPV, small molecules based OPV (SM-OPV) offers further advantages, including a defined structure for more reproducible performance, higher mobility and open circuit voltage, and easier synthetic control that leads to more diversified structures. Therefore, while largely undeveloped, SM-OPV is an important emerging technology with performance comparable to P-OPV. In this Account, we summarize our recent results on solution-processed SM-OPV. We believe that solution processing is essential for taking full advantage of OPV technologies. Our work started with the synthesis of oligothiophene derivatives with an acceptor-donor-acceptor (A-D-A) structure. Both the backbone conjugation length and electron withdrawing terminal groups play an important role in the light absorption, energy levels and performance of the devices. Among those molecules, devices using a 7-thiophene-unit backbone and a 3-ethylrhodanine (RD) terminal unit produced a 6.1% PCE. With the optimized conjugation length and terminal unit, we borrowed from the results with P-OPV devices to optimize the backbone. Thus we

  19. Solution-Processed Smart Window Platforms Based on Plasmonic Electrochromics

    KAUST Repository

    Abbas, Sara

    2018-04-30

    Electrochromic smart windows offer a viable route to reducing the consumption of buildings energy, which represents about 30% of the worldwide energy consumption. Smart windows are far more compelling than current static windows in that they can dynamically modulate the solar spectrum depending on climate and lighting conditions or simply to meet personal preferences. The latest generation of smart windows relies on nominally transparent metal oxide nanocrystal materials whose chromism can be electrochemically controlled using the plasmonic effect. Plasmonic electrochromic materials selectively control the near infrared (NIR) region of the solar spectrum, responsible for solar heat, without affecting the visible transparency. This is in contrast to conventional electrochromic materials which block both the visible and NIR and thus enables electrochromic devices to reduce the energy consumption of a building or a greenhouse in warm climate regions due to enhancements of both visible lighting and heat blocking. Despite this edge, this technology can benefit from important developments, including low-cost solution-based manufacturing on flexible substrates while maintaining durability and coloration efficiency, demonstration of independent control in the NIR and visible spectra, and demonstration of self-powering capabilities. This thesis is focused on developing low-temperature and all-solution processed plasmonic electrochromic devices and dual-band electrochromic devices. We demonstrate new device fabrication approaches in terms of materials and processes which enhance electrochromic performance all the while maintaining low processing temperatures. Scalable fabrication methods are used to highlight compatibility with high throughput, continuous roll-to-roll fabrication on flexible substrates. In addition, a dualband plasmonic electrochromic device was developed by combining the plasmonic layer with a conventional electrochromic ion storage layer. This enables

  20. Electrochemical processing of nitrate waste solutions. Phase 2, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genders, D.; Weinberg, N.; Hartsough, D. [Electrosynthesis Co., Inc., Cheektowaga, NY (US)

    1992-10-07

    The second phase of research performed at The Electrosynthesis Co., Inc. has demonstrated the successful removal of nitrite and nitrate from a synthetic effluent stream via a direct electrochemical reduction at a cathode. It was shown that direct reduction occurs at good current efficiencies in 1,000 hour studies. The membrane separation process is not readily achievable for the removal of nitrites and nitrates due to poor current efficiencies and membrane stability problems. A direct reduction process was studied at various cathode materials in a flow cell using the complete synthetic mix. Lead was found to be the cathode material of choice, displaying good current efficiencies and stability in short and long term tests under conditions of high temperature and high current density. Several anode materials were studied in both undivided and divided cell configurations. A divided cell configuration was preferable because it would prevent re-oxidation of nitrite by the anode. The technical objective of eliminating electrode fouling and solids formation was achieved although anode materials which had demonstrated good stability in short term divided cell tests corroded in 1,000 hour experiments. The cause for corrosion is thought to be F{sup {minus}} ions from the synthetic mix migrating across the cation exchange membrane and forming HF in the acid anolyte. Other possibilities for anode materials were explored. A membrane separation process was investigated which employs an anion and cation exchange membrane to remove nitrite and nitrate, recovering caustic and nitric acid. Present research has shown poor current efficiencies for nitrite and nitrate transport across the anion exchange membrane due to co-migration of hydroxide anions. Precipitates form within the anion exchange membranes which would eventually result in the failure of the membranes. Electrochemical processing offers a highly promising and viable method for the treatment of nitrate waste solutions.

  1. Covalent Bonding of Thermoplastics to Rubbers for Printable, Reel-to-Reel Processing in Soft Robotics and Microfluidics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jay M; Perez-Toralla, Karla; Aispuro, Ruby; Morin, Stephen A

    2018-02-01

    The lamination of mechanically stiff structures to elastic materials is prevalent in biological systems and popular in many emerging synthetic systems, such as soft robotics, microfluidics, stretchable electronics, and pop-up assemblies. The disparate mechanical and chemical properties of these materials have made it challenging to develop universal synthetic procedures capable of reliably adhering to these classes of materials together. Herein, a simple and scalable procedure is described that is capable of covalently laminating a variety of commodity ("off-the-shelf") thermoplastic sheets to silicone rubber films. When combined with laser printing, the nonbonding sites can be "printed" onto the thermoplastic sheets, enabling the direct fabrication of microfluidic systems for actuation and liquid handling applications. The versatility of this approach in generating thin, multifunctional laminates is demonstrated through the fabrication of milliscale soft actuators and grippers with hinged articulation and microfluidic channels with built-in optical filtering and pressure-dependent geometries. This method of fabrication offers several advantages, including technical simplicity, process scalability, design versatility, and material diversity. The concepts and strategies presented herein are broadly applicable to the soft robotics, microfluidics, and advanced and additive manufacturing communities where hybrid rubber/plastic structures are prevalent. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Failure processes in soft and quasi-brittle materials with nonhomogeneous microstructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spring, Daniel W.

    Material failure pervades the fields of materials science and engineering; it occurs at various scales and in various contexts. Understanding the mechanisms by which a material fails can lead to advancements in the way we design and build the world around us. For example, in structural engineering, understanding the fracture of concrete and steel can lead to improved structural systems and safer designs; in geological engineering, understanding the fracture of rock can lead to increased efficiency in oil and gas extraction; and in biological engineering, understanding the fracture of bone can lead to improvements in the design of bio-composites and medical implants. In this thesis, we numerically investigate a wide spectrum of failure behavior; in soft and quasi-brittle materials with nonhomogeneous microstructures considering a statistical distribution of material properties. The first topic we investigate considers the influence of interfacial interactions on the macroscopic constitutive response of particle reinforced elastomers. When a particle is embedded into an elastomer, the polymer chains in the elastomer tend to adsorb (or anchor) onto the surface of the particle; creating a region in the vicinity of each particle (often referred to as an interphase) with distinct properties from those in the bulk elastomer. This interphasial region has been known to exist for many decades, but is primarily omitted in computational investigations of such composites. In this thesis, we present an investigation into the influence of interphases on the macroscopic constitutive response of particle filled elastomers undergoing large deformations. In addition, at large deformations, a localized region of failure tends to accumulate around inclusions. To capture this localized region of failure (often referred to as interfacial debonding), we use cohesive zone elements which follow the Park-Paulino-Roesler traction-separation relation. To account for friction, we present a new

  3. Degradation of di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate in aqueous solution by advanced oxidation process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Zarean

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: It could be found that the UV/O3 process is a method for DEHP degradation in aqueous solution and may be recommended as a supplement with other processes for treatment of solutions containing low DEHP concentrations.

  4. A software solution to estimate the SEU-induced soft error rate for systems implemented on SRAM-based FPGAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhongming; Lu Min; Yao Zhibin; Guo Hongxia

    2011-01-01

    SRAM-based FPGAs are very susceptible to radiation-induced Single-Event Upsets (SEUs) in space applications. The failure mechanism in FPGA's configuration memory differs from those in traditional memory device. As a result, there is a growing demand for methodologies which could quantitatively evaluate the impact of this effect. Fault injection appears to meet such requirement. In this paper, we propose a new methodology to analyze the soft errors in SRAM-based FPGAs. This method is based on in depth understanding of the device architecture and failure mechanisms induced by configuration upsets. The developed programs read in the placed and routed netlist, search for critical logic nodes and paths that may destroy the circuit topological structure, and then query a database storing the decoded relationship of the configurable resources and corresponding control bit to get the sensitive bits. Accelerator irradiation test and fault injection experiments were carried out to validate this approach. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  5. Dense CO2 as a Solute, Co-Solute or Co-Solvent in Particle Formation Processes: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana V. M. Nunes

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The application of dense gases in particle formation processes has attracted great attention due to documented advantages over conventional technologies. In particular, the use of dense CO2 in the process has been subject of many works and explored in a variety of different techniques. This article presents a review of the current available techniques in use in particle formation processes, focusing exclusively on those employing dense CO2 as a solute, co-solute or co-solvent during the process, such as PGSS (Particles from gas-saturated solutions®, CPF (Concentrated Powder Form®, CPCSP (Continuous Powder Coating Spraying Process, CAN-BD (Carbon dioxide Assisted Nebulization with a Bubble Dryer®, SEA (Supercritical Enhanced Atomization, SAA (Supercritical Fluid-Assisted Atomization, PGSS-Drying and DELOS (Depressurization of an Expanded Liquid Organic Solution. Special emphasis is given to modifications introduced in the different techniques, as well as the limitations that have been overcome.

  6. Synthesis of neodymium hydroxide nanotubes and nanorods by soft chemical process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Weidong; Yu, Jiangbo; Wang, Haishui; Yang, Jianhui; Zhang, Hongjie

    2006-08-01

    A facile soft chemical approach using cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) as template is successfully designed for synthesis of neodymium hydroxide nanotubes. These nanotubes have an average outer diameter around 20 nm, inner diameter around 2 nm, and length ranging from 100 to 120 nm, high BET surface area of 495.71 m(2) g(-1). We also find that neodymium hydroxide nanorods would be obtained when CTAB absented in reaction system. The Nd(OH)3 nanorods might act as precursors that are converted into Nd2O3 nanorods through dehydration at 550 degrees C. The nanorods could exhibit upconversion emission characteristic under excitation of 591 nm at room temperature.

  7. Protocol Processing for 100 Gbit/s and Beyond - A Soft Real-Time Approach in Hardware and Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büchner, Steffen; Lopacinski, Lukasz; Kraemer, Rolf; Nolte, Jörg

    2017-09-01

    100 Gbit/s wireless communication protocol processing stresses all parts of a communication system until the outermost. The efficient use of upcoming 100 Gbit/s and beyond transmission technology requires the rethinking of the way protocols are processed by the communication endpoints. This paper summarizes the achievements of the project End2End100. We will present a comprehensive soft real-time stream processing approach that allows the protocol designer to develop, analyze, and plan scalable protocols for ultra high data rates of 100 Gbit/s and beyond. Furthermore, we will present an ultra-low power, adaptable, and massively parallelized FEC (Forward Error Correction) scheme that detects and corrects bit errors at line rate with an energy consumption between 1 pJ/bit and 13 pJ/bit. The evaluation results discussed in this publication show that our comprehensive approach allows end-to-end communication with a very low protocol processing overhead.

  8. Solution processed metal oxide thin film hole transport layers for high performance organic solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steirer, K. Xerxes; Berry, Joseph J.; Chesin, Jordan P.; Lloyd, Matthew T.; Widjonarko, Nicodemus Edwin; Miedaner, Alexander; Curtis, Calvin J.; Ginley, David S.; Olson, Dana C.

    2017-01-10

    A method for the application of solution processed metal oxide hole transport layers in organic photovoltaic devices and related organic electronics devices is disclosed. The metal oxide may be derived from a metal-organic precursor enabling solution processing of an amorphous, p-type metal oxide. An organic photovoltaic device having solution processed, metal oxide, thin-film hole transport layer.

  9. Pointo - a Low Cost Solution to Point Cloud Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houshiar, H.; Winkler, S.

    2017-11-01

    With advance in technology access to data especially 3D point cloud data becomes more and more an everyday task. 3D point clouds are usually captured with very expensive tools such as 3D laser scanners or very time consuming methods such as photogrammetry. Most of the available softwares for 3D point cloud processing are designed for experts and specialists in this field and are usually very large software packages containing variety of methods and tools. This results in softwares that are usually very expensive to acquire and also very difficult to use. Difficulty of use is caused by complicated user interfaces that is required to accommodate a large list of features. The aim of these complex softwares is to provide a powerful tool for a specific group of specialist. However they are not necessary required by the majority of the up coming average users of point clouds. In addition to complexity and high costs of these softwares they generally rely on expensive and modern hardware and only compatible with one specific operating system. Many point cloud customers are not point cloud processing experts or willing to spend the high acquisition costs of these expensive softwares and hardwares. In this paper we introduce a solution for low cost point cloud processing. Our approach is designed to accommodate the needs of the average point cloud user. To reduce the cost and complexity of software our approach focuses on one functionality at a time in contrast with most available softwares and tools that aim to solve as many problems as possible at the same time. Our simple and user oriented design improve the user experience and empower us to optimize our methods for creation of an efficient software. In this paper we introduce Pointo family as a series of connected softwares to provide easy to use tools with simple design for different point cloud processing requirements. PointoVIEWER and PointoCAD are introduced as the first components of the Pointo family to provide a

  10. Soft X-ray absorption spectra of aqueous salt solutions with highly charged cations in liquid microjets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, Craig P.; Uejio, Janel S.; Duffin, Andrew M.; Drisdell, Walter S.; Smith, Jared D.; Saykally, Richard J.

    2010-03-11

    X-ray absorption spectra of 1M aqueous solutions of indium (III) chloride, yttrium (III) bromide, lanthanum (III) chloride, tin (IV) chloride and chromium (III) chloride have been measured at the oxygen K-edge. Relatively minor changes are observed in the spectra compared to that of pure water. SnCl{sub 4} and CrCl{sub 3} exhibit a new onset feature which is attributed to formation of hydroxide or other complex molecules in the solution. At higher energy, only relatively minor, but salt-specific changes in the spectra occur. The small magnitude of the observed spectral changes is ascribed to offsetting perturbations by the cations and anions.

  11. Process for iron separation from an organic solution containing uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Textoris, A.; Lyaudet, G.; Bathelier, A.

    1987-01-01

    Iron is separated from an organic solution of U and Fe in a phosphine oxide and an acid organic phosphorus compound by reaction on oxalic acid or a mixture of sulfuric and phosphoric acid or phosphoric acid. Uranium stays in the initial organic solution and iron is transferred to the aqueous phase [fr

  12. Molecular insights into shellac film coats from different aqueous shellac salt solutions and effect on disintegration of enteric-coated soft gelatin capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Gousous, J; Penning, M; Langguth, P

    2015-04-30

    The purpose of this investigation was to study the effect of using different salts of shellac on the disintegration properties of shellac-based enteric coatings. In the last two decades, shellac has been increasingly used as an aqueous solution for enteric coating purposes, with the ammonium salt being the form typically used. Little investigation has been performed on using other salts, and therefore, this was the focus of our work. Enteric coatings, based on different shellac salts (ammonium, sodium, potassium and composite ammonium-sodium), were applied onto soft gelatin capsules. Disintegration testing of the coated soft gelatin capsules showed that alkali metal salts promote faster disintegration than ammonium salts. In order to determine the causes behind these differences, the solubility, thermal and spectroscopic properties of films cast from the different salts were investigated. The results show that films cast from ammonium-based salts of shellac are, unlike those cast from alkali metal-based salts, water-insoluble. Spectroscopic evidence suggests that this might be due to partial salt dissociation resulting in loss of ammonium as ammonia and reduced degree of shellac ionization during drying. In addition, oxidation of shellac aldehyde groups of the ammonium-based shellac salts could also play a role. And possible higher extent of shellac hydrolysis during the preparation of alkali metal salts might also be a factor. Therefore, the nature of the shellac salt used in the preparation of shellac-based aqueous coating solutions is a significant formulation factor affecting product performance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Synchrotron-based in situ soft X-ray microscopy of Ag corrosion in aqueous chloride solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozzini, B; D'Urzo, L; Gianoncelli, A; Kaulich, B; Kiskinova, M; Prasciolu, M; Tadjeddine, A

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we report an in situ X-ray microscopy study of a model metal electrochemistry system, incorporating faradaic reactivity: the anodic corrosion and cathodic electrodeposition of Ag in aqueous systems. The information at sub-μm scale about morpho-chemical evolution of the electrified interface, provided by this novel electroanalytical approach fosters fundamental understanding of important issues concerning material fabrication and stability, which are crucial in developing the next generation electrochemical technologies, such as fuel cells and biosensors. The key methodology challenge faced in this pilot electrochemical experiments is combining a three-electrode configuration and wet environment, which required metal electrodes suitable for transmitting soft X-rays and a sealed cell allowing working in high vacuum. This has been solved via lithographic fabrication route fabricating 75 nm thick Ag electrodes and using Si 3 N 4 membranes as X-ray windows and electrode support. Imaging in the STXM mode with phase contrast allowed us to monitor the corrosion morphologies and metal outgrowth features. Localised thickness variation and the build-up of reaction products of electron density different from that of the starting material have been detected with high sensitivity.

  14. Sensitivity testing practice on pre-processing parameters in hard and soft coupled modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Ignaszak

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper pays attention to the problem of practical applicability of coupled modeling with the use of hard and soft models types and necessity of adapted to that models data base possession. The data base tests results for cylindrical 30 mm diameter casting made of AlSi7Mg alloy were presented. In simulation tests that were applied the Calcosoft system with CAFE (Cellular Automaton Finite Element module. This module which belongs to „multiphysics” models enables structure prediction of complete casting with division of columnar and equiaxed crystals zones of -phase. Sensitivity tests of coupled model on the particular values parameters changing were made. On these basis it was determined the relations of CET (columnar-to-equaiaxed transition zone position influence. The example of virtual structure validation based on real structure with CET zone location and grain size was shown.

  15. The cation inversion and magnetization in nanopowder zinc ferrite obtained by soft mechanochemical processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milutinović, A.; Lazarević, Z.; Jovalekić, Č.; Kuryliszyn-Kudelska, I.; Romčević, M.; Kostić, S.; Romčević, N.

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Nano powder of ZnFe 2 O 4 prepared by a soft mechanochemical route after 18 h milling. • Phase formation controlled by XRD, Raman spectroscopy and magnetic measurements. • Size, strain and cation inversion degree determined by Rietveld refinement. • We were able to estimate the degree of inversion at most 0.348 and 0.4. • Obtained extremely high values of saturation magnetizations at T = 4.5 K. - Abstract: Two zinc ferrite nanoparticle materials were prepared by the same method – soft mechanochemical synthesis, but starting from different powder mixtures: (1) Zn(OH) 2 /α-Fe 2 O 3 and (2) Zn(OH) 2 /Fe(OH) 3 . In both cases a single phase system was obtained after 18 h of milling. The progress of the synthesis was controlled by X-ray diffractometry (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, TEM and magnetic measurements. Analysis of the XRD patterns by Rietveld refinement allowed determination of the cation inversion degree for both obtained single phase ZnFe 2 O 4 samples. The sample obtained from mixture (1) has the cation inversion degree 0.3482 and the sample obtained from mixture (2) 0.400. Magnetization measurements were confirmed that the degrees of the inversion were well estimated. Comparison with published data shows that used method of synthesis gives nano powder samples with extremely high values of saturation magnetizations: sample (1) 78.3 emu g −1 and sample (2) 91.5 emu g −1 at T = 4.5 K

  16. Solution-Processed Smart Window Platforms Based on Plasmonic Electrochromics

    KAUST Repository

    Abbas, Sara

    2018-01-01

    blocking. Despite this edge, this technology can benefit from important developments, including low-cost solution-based manufacturing on flexible substrates while maintaining durability and coloration efficiency, demonstration of independent control

  17. Synthesis of fibrous TiO2 from layered protonic tetratitanate by a hydrothermal soft chemical process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jing Xuezhen; Li Yongxiang; Yang Qunbao; Yin Qingrui

    2004-01-01

    Fibrous TiO 2 (anatase) was prepared by a hydrothermal soft chemical process using H 2 Ti 4 O 9 ·0.25H 2 O as a template precursor. The influence of reaction time, temperature and precursor concentration on the phase formation, morphology and crystal-axis orientation were studied. The results have shown that fibrous anatase can be obtained at 220 deg. C for 24 h with the precursor concentrations in the range of 0.025-0.100 M, and that particles had diameters of 0.2-1 μm and lengths of 2-20 μm. The fibrous TiO 2 anatase prepared by this method showed a high orientation along a-axis direction. X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and SEM analyses have indicated that in situ transformation mechanism dominated the entire hydrothermal process but dissolution-recrystallization also occurred on the surface of the particles

  18. Soft Sensing of Key State Variables in Fermentation Process Based on Relevance Vector Machine with Hybrid Kernel Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianglin ZHU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available To resolve the online detection difficulty of some important state variables in fermentation process with traditional instruments, a soft sensing modeling method based on relevance vector machine (RVM with a hybrid kernel function is presented. Based on the characteristic analysis of two commonly-used kernel functions, that is, local Gaussian kernel function and global polynomial kernel function, a hybrid kernel function combing merits of Gaussian kernel function and polynomial kernel function is constructed. To design optimal parameters of this kernel function, the particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm is applied. The proposed modeling method is used to predict the value of cell concentration in the Lysine fermentation process. Simulation results show that the presented hybrid-kernel RVM model has a better accuracy and performance than the single kernel RVM model.

  19. Formulation, process development and evaluation of artemether and lumefantrine soft gelatin capsule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Patel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Artemether and Lumefantrine capsules are indicated for the treatment of P. falciparum malaria cases resistant to both chloroquine and sulphadoxine, pyrimethamine combination. Both artemether and lumefantrine act as blood schizontocides. Artemether is a sesquiterpene lactone derived from artemisinin. Artemisinin is a compound derived from the sweet wormwood plant and has been used for centuries in traditional Chinese medicine to treat fever. Lumefantrine is a synthetic aryl-amino alcohol antimalarial (quinine, mefloquine and halofantrine are members of the same group. Artemether is absorbed fairly rapidly with peak plasma concentrations reached about 2 hours after dosing. Absorption of lumefantrine, a highly lipophilic compound, starts after a lag period of up to 2 hours, with peak plasma concentration about 6-8 hours after dosing. In order to overcome this problem, we have observed that when the drug is given in the soft gelatin dosage form, the bioavailability of the drug is increased. Thus, increasing the absorption of the drug and peak plasma concentration is reached earlier then the conventional dosage form.

  20. On the fragmentation of process information : challenges, solutions, and outlook

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aa, van der J.H.; Leopold, H.; Mannhardt, F.; Reijers, H.A.; Gaaloul, K.; Schmidt, R.; Nurcan, S.; Guerreiro, S.; Ma, Q.

    2015-01-01

    An organization’s knowledge on its business processes represents valuable corporate knowledge because it can be used to enhance the performance of these processes. In many organizations, documentation of process knowledge is scattered around various process information sources. Such information

  1. Mixing of Process Heels, Process Solutions and Recycle Streams: Small-Scale Simulant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, D.I.

    2001-01-01

    The overall objective of this small-scale simulant mixing study was to identify the processes within the Hanford Site River Protection Project - Waste Treatment Plant (RPP-WTP) that may generate precipitates and to identify the types of precipitates formed. This information can be used to identify where mixtures of various solutions will cause precipitation of solids, potentially causing operational problems such as fouling equipment or increasing the amount of High Level Waste glass produced. Having this information will help guide protocols for flushing or draining tanks, mixing internal recycle streams, and mixing waste tank supernates. This report contains the discussion and thermodynamic chemical speciation modeling of the raw data

  2. Process for extracting uranium from phosphoric acid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The description is given of a method for extracting uranium from phosphoric acid solutions whereby the previously oxided acid is treated with an organic solvent constituted by a mixture of dialkylphosphoric acid and trialkylphosphine oxide in solution in a non-reactive inert solvent so as to obtain de-uraniated phosphoric acid and an organic extract constituted by the solvent containing most of the uranium. The uranium is then separated from the extract as uranyl ammonium tricarbonate by reaction with ammonia and ammonium carbonate and the extract de-uraniated at the extraction stage is recycled. The extract is treated in a re-extraction apparatus comprising not less than two stages. The extract to be treated is injected at the top of the first stage. At the bottom of the first stage, ammonia is introduced counter current as gas or as an aqueous solution whilst controlling the pH of the first stage so as to keep it to 8.0 or 8.5 and at the bottom of the last stage an ammonium carbonate aqueous solution is injected in a quantity representing 50 to 80% of the stoichiometric quantity required to neutralize the dialkylphosphoric acid contained in the solvent and transform the uranium into uranyl ammonium tricarbonate [fr

  3. Scaling and predicting solute transport processes in streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. González-Pinzón; R. Haggerty; M. Dentz

    2013-01-01

    We investigated scaling of conservative solute transport using temporal moment analysis of 98 tracer experiments (384 breakthrough curves) conducted in 44 streams located on five continents. The experiments span 7 orders of magnitude in discharge (10-3 to 103 m3/s), span 5 orders of magnitude in...

  4. Solution processing of back electrodes for organic solar cells with inverted architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galagan, Y.; Shanmugam, S.; Teunissen, J.P.; Eggenhuisen, T.M.; Biezemans, A.F.K.V.; Van Gijseghem, T.; Groen, W.A.; Andriessen, R.

    2014-01-01

    Solution processing of the electrodes is a big challenge towards scaling up and R2R processing of organic solar cells. Inkjet printing is a non-contact printing method, it can be realized by solution processing at ambient condition and provides freedom of shape in the electrode pattern. The inkjet

  5. Mesoporous C/CrN and C/VN Nanocomposites Obtained by One-Pot Soft-Templating Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Kiener

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Nanocomposites of ordered mesoporous carbon associated with chromium nitride (CrN or vanadium nitride (VN nanoparticles were obtained by a simple one-pot synthesis based on the solvent evaporation induced self-assembly (EISA process using Pluronic triblock surfactant as soft-template and a phenol-based resin (resol as carbon precursor. These nanocomposites were characterized by X-ray diffraction, nitrogen physisorption and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM techniques. Electron tomography (or 3D-TEM technique was particularly useful for providing direct insight on the internal architecture of C/CrN nanocomposite. Nanocomposites showed a very well organized hexagonal mesoporous carbon structure and a relatively high concentration of nanoparticles well distributed in the porous network. The chromium and vanadium nitrides/mesoporous carbon nanocomposites could have many potential applications in catalysis, Li-ion batteries, and supercapacitors.

  6. Study of soft magnetic iron cobalt based alloys processed by powder injection molding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Aline; Lozano, Jaime A.; Machado, Ricardo; Escobar, Jairo A.; Wendhausen, Paulo A.P.

    2008-01-01

    As a near net shape process, powder injection molding (PIM) opens new possibilities to process Fe-Co alloys for magnetic applications. Due to the fact that PIM does not involve plastic deformation of the material during processing, we envisioned the possibility of eliminating vanadium (V), which is generally added to Fe-Co alloys to improve the ductility in order to enable its further shaping by conventional processes such as forging and cold rolling. In our investigation we have found out two main futures related to the elimination of V, which lead to a cost-benefit gain in manufacturing small magnetic components where high-saturation induction is needed at low frequencies. Firstly, the elimination of V enables the achievement of much better magnetic properties when alloys are processed by PIM. Secondly, a lower sintering temperature can be used when the alloy is processed starting with elemental Fe and Co powders without the addition of V

  7. Fuzzy logic, neural networks, and soft computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadeh, Lofti A.

    1994-01-01

    The past few years have witnessed a rapid growth of interest in a cluster of modes of modeling and computation which may be described collectively as soft computing. The distinguishing characteristic of soft computing is that its primary aims are to achieve tractability, robustness, low cost, and high MIQ (machine intelligence quotient) through an exploitation of the tolerance for imprecision and uncertainty. Thus, in soft computing what is usually sought is an approximate solution to a precisely formulated problem or, more typically, an approximate solution to an imprecisely formulated problem. A simple case in point is the problem of parking a car. Generally, humans can park a car rather easily because the final position of the car is not specified exactly. If it were specified to within, say, a few millimeters and a fraction of a degree, it would take hours or days of maneuvering and precise measurements of distance and angular position to solve the problem. What this simple example points to is the fact that, in general, high precision carries a high cost. The challenge, then, is to exploit the tolerance for imprecision by devising methods of computation which lead to an acceptable solution at low cost. By its nature, soft computing is much closer to human reasoning than the traditional modes of computation. At this juncture, the major components of soft computing are fuzzy logic (FL), neural network theory (NN), and probabilistic reasoning techniques (PR), including genetic algorithms, chaos theory, and part of learning theory. Increasingly, these techniques are used in combination to achieve significant improvement in performance and adaptability. Among the important application areas for soft computing are control systems, expert systems, data compression techniques, image processing, and decision support systems. It may be argued that it is soft computing, rather than the traditional hard computing, that should be viewed as the foundation for artificial

  8. Development of a freeze-drying process of waste-solution, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Isao; Kawasaki, Takeshi

    1988-01-01

    The waste solution treatment process in Plutonium Conversion Development Facility (PCDF) consists of Evaporation-Condensation and Neutrazation-Agglometation-Precipitation process, which produces the distillate as recovered acid at first step and separates Pu-U element from condenced solution at second step. This process needs many stages to get high decontamination efficiency and then the Evaporator is in very corrosive state because the nitric acid solution is heated over 100 degrees C to be evaporated. So, in PCDF, it was started the development of Freeze-Drying process to waste solution treatment. This process is suitable for a little quantity of the solution including nitric acid as produced in the Microwave Heating method. Moreover the process has high decontamination efficiency and has good performance of equipment. The result of the cold test of Freeze-Drying process with nitric acid is discribed in this paper. (author)

  9. Process for final storage of high level radioactive fission product solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, J.R.B.; Fries, B.A.

    1984-01-01

    In this process for the storage of an aqueous solution of radioactive nuclides, the solution is diluted with system water, which is obtained from a reservoir below the bottom of the sea in a porous geological stratum. After dilution, the diluted solution is injected into the same geological stratum under the bottom of the sea. (orig.) [de

  10. Corrosion processes of alloyed steels in salt solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kienzler, Bernhard [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany). Institut fuer Nukleare Entsorgung

    2018-02-15

    A summary is given of the corrosion experiments with alloyed Cr-Ni steels in salt solutions performed at Research Centre Karlsruhe (today KIT), Institute for Nuclear Waste Disposal (INE) in the period between 1980 and 2004. Alloyed steels show significantly lower general corrosion in comparison to carbon steels. However, especially in salt brines the protective Cr oxide layers on the surfaces of these steels are disturbed and localized corrosion takes place. Data on general corrosion rates, and findings of pitting, crevice and stress corrosion cracking are presented.

  11. Soft Costs Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-05-01

    This fact sheet is an overview of the systems integration subprogram at the U.S. Department of Energy SunShot Initiative. Soft costs can vary significantly as a result of a fragmented energy marketplace. In the U.S., there are 18,000 jurisdictions and 3,000 utilities with different rules and regulations for how to go solar. The same solar equipment may vary widely in its final installation price due to process and market variations across jurisdictions, creating barriers to rapid industry growth. SunShot supports the development of innovative solutions that enable communities to build their local economies and establish clean energy initiatives that meet their needs, while at the same time creating sustainable solar market conditions.

  12. Solution Processed Silver Nanoparticles in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Berginc

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A plasmonic effect of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs is studied. The solutions of silver nitrate in isopropanol, ethylene glycol, or in TiO2 sol were examined as possible precursors for Ag NPs formation. The solutions were dip-coated on the top of the porous TiO2 layer. The results of optical measurements confirmed the formation of Ag NPs throughout the porous TiO2 layer after the heat treatment of the layers above 100°C. Heat treatment at 220°C was found to be optimal regarding the formation of the Ag NPs. The porous TiO2 layers with Ag NPs have been evaluated also in DSSC by measuring current-voltage characteristics and the external quantum efficiency of the cells. In addition, the amount of adsorbed dye has been determined to prove the plasmonic effect in the cells. The I-V characterization of the DSSCs revealed an increase of the short circuit current in the presence of Ag NPs although the amount of the attached dye molecules decreased. These results confirm that the performance enhancement is related to the plasmonic effect. However, neither a thin sol-gel TiO2 layer nor poly(4-vinylpyridine shells provide effective protection for the long term stability of the Ag NPs against the corrosion of I3-/I- based electrolyte.

  13. Genetic networks and soft computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Sushmita; Das, Ranajit; Hayashi, Yoichi

    2011-01-01

    The analysis of gene regulatory networks provides enormous information on various fundamental cellular processes involving growth, development, hormone secretion, and cellular communication. Their extraction from available gene expression profiles is a challenging problem. Such reverse engineering of genetic networks offers insight into cellular activity toward prediction of adverse effects of new drugs or possible identification of new drug targets. Tasks such as classification, clustering, and feature selection enable efficient mining of knowledge about gene interactions in the form of networks. It is known that biological data is prone to different kinds of noise and ambiguity. Soft computing tools, such as fuzzy sets, evolutionary strategies, and neurocomputing, have been found to be helpful in providing low-cost, acceptable solutions in the presence of various types of uncertainties. In this paper, we survey the role of these soft methodologies and their hybridizations, for the purpose of generating genetic networks.

  14. Evaluation of laser cutting process with auxiliary gas pressure by soft computing approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazov, Lyubomir; Nikolić, Vlastimir; Jovic, Srdjan; Milovančević, Miloš; Deneva, Heristina; Teirumenieka, Erika; Arsic, Nebojsa

    2018-06-01

    Evaluation of the optimal laser cutting parameters is very important for the high cut quality. This is highly nonlinear process with different parameters which is the main challenge in the optimization process. Data mining methodology is one of most versatile method which can be used laser cutting process optimization. Support vector regression (SVR) procedure is implemented since it is a versatile and robust technique for very nonlinear data regression. The goal in this study was to determine the optimal laser cutting parameters to ensure robust condition for minimization of average surface roughness. Three cutting parameters, the cutting speed, the laser power, and the assist gas pressure, were used in the investigation. As a laser type TruLaser 1030 technological system was used. Nitrogen as an assisted gas was used in the laser cutting process. As the data mining method, support vector regression procedure was used. Data mining prediction accuracy was very high according the coefficient (R2) of determination and root mean square error (RMSE): R2 = 0.9975 and RMSE = 0.0337. Therefore the data mining approach could be used effectively for determination of the optimal conditions of the laser cutting process.

  15. Feed-Forward Neural Network Soft-Sensor Modeling of Flotation Process Based on Particle Swarm Optimization and Gravitational Search Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie-Sheng Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For predicting the key technology indicators (concentrate grade and tailings recovery rate of flotation process, a feed-forward neural network (FNN based soft-sensor model optimized by the hybrid algorithm combining particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm and gravitational search algorithm (GSA is proposed. Although GSA has better optimization capability, it has slow convergence velocity and is easy to fall into local optimum. So in this paper, the velocity vector and position vector of GSA are adjusted by PSO algorithm in order to improve its convergence speed and prediction accuracy. Finally, the proposed hybrid algorithm is adopted to optimize the parameters of FNN soft-sensor model. Simulation results show that the model has better generalization and prediction accuracy for the concentrate grade and tailings recovery rate to meet the online soft-sensor requirements of the real-time control in the flotation process.

  16. Business Process Management Integration Solution in Financial Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available It is vital for financial services companies to ensure the rapid implementation of new processes to meet speed-to-market, service quality and compliance requirements. This has to be done against a background of increased complexity. An integrated approach to business processes allows products, processes, systems, data and the applications that underpin them to evolve quickly. Whether it’s providing a loan, setting up an insurance policy, or executing an investment instruction, optimizing the sale-to-fulfillment process will always win new business, cement customer loyalty, and reduce costs. Lack of integration across lending, payments and trading, on the other hand, simply presents competitors who are more efficient with a huge profit opportunity.

  17. Effects of Two Different Anesthetic Solutions on Injection Pain, Efficacy, and Duration of Soft-Tissue Anesthesia with Inferior Alveolar Nerve Block for Primary Molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbay, Ülkü Şermet; Elbay, Mesut; Kaya, Emine; Yıldırım, Sinem

    The purpose of the study was to compare the efficacy, injection pain, duration of soft tissue anesthesia, and postoperative complications of two different anesthetics (2% lidocaine with 1:80,000 epinephrine and 3% plain mepivacaine) in pediatric patients in inferior alveolar nerve block (IANB) administered by a computer-controlled delivery system (CCDS). The study was conducted as a randomized, controlled-crossover, double-blind clinical trial with 60 children requiring bilateral pulpotomy or extraction of primary mandibular molars. A CCDS was used to deliver 3% mepivacaine to 1 primary tooth and 2% lidocaine to the contralateral tooth with an IANB technique. Severity of pain and efficacy of anesthesia were evaluated using the Face, Legs, Activity, Cry, Consolability Scale, and comfort and side effects were assessed using a questionnaire. Data were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U, Wilcoxon t, and Fisher exact tests. Patients receiving 2% lidocaine experienced significantly less pain during injection than those receiving 3% mepivacaine, and no significant differences were found in the pain scores during treatments or in postoperative complications between the two anesthetics. The mean durations of anesthesia for 3% mepivacaine and 2% lidocaine were 139.68 minutes and 149.10 minutes, respectively. Plain mepivacaine and 2% lidocaine were similarly effective in pulpotomy and the extraction of primary mandibular molars. Although the use of 3% mepivacaine provided a shorter duration of anesthesia than 2% lidocaine, both solutions showed similar results in terms of postoperative complications.

  18. The definition of necessary axial force for extension of initial borehole for soft soil compaction process design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ter-Martirosyan Zaven

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article provides an analytical solution of the soil pile and surrounding soil cylinder interaction problem, with the possibility of extension of the pile shaft in its construction. Presents a closed solution for determination of radial and tangential stresses in the process of expansion of the pile shaft, as well as the minimum vertical force sufficient for the crushing of the pile material and move it in radial direction to the specified value. The problem is most actual for compacted soil bases with use of piles-drains of sand and sand-gravel mixture.

  19. Draw solutions for forward osmosis processes: Developments, challenges, and prospects for the future

    KAUST Repository

    Ge, Qingchun

    2013-09-01

    Forward osmosis (FO) has emerged as one of potential technologies to mitigate clean water and energy shortage. Not only can it produce clean water but also energy by employing draw solutes to induce osmotic gradients across semipermeable membranes as the driving force for water production and power generation. Ideally, the semipermeable membrane performs as a barrier that allows only water to pass through but rejects all others. However, in reality, depending on draw solute\\'s chemistry property and physical structure, the reverse flux of draw solutes may take place across FO membranes which not only results in a lower effective osmotic driving force but also facilitates fouling. In addition, the asymmetric structure of FO membranes and the transport resistance of draw solutes within the FO membranes cause concentration polarization and lower the water flux. Furthermore, the regeneration of draw solutes from diluted draw solutions and the production of clean water might be energy-intensive if inappropriate draw solutes and recycle processes are utilized. Therefore, in this work we aim to give a comprehensive review on the progress of draw solution for FO processes. An assessment on the advantages and limitations of the existing draw solutes are made. Various FO integrated processes for water production and draw solute regeneration are exemplified. We also highlight the challenges and future research directions for the molecular design of better draw solutes. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  20. Using Software Zelio Soft in Educational Process to Simulation Control Programs for Intelligent Relays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalik, Peter; Mital, Dusan; Zajac, Jozef; Brezikova, Katarina; Duplak, Jan; Hatala, Michal; Radchenko, Svetlana

    2016-10-01

    Article deals with point to using intelligent relay and PLC systems in practice, to their architecture and principles of programming and simulations for education process on all types of school from secondary to universities. Aim of the article is proposal of simple examples of applications, where is demonstrated methodology of programming on real simple practice examples and shown using of chosen instructions. In practical part is described process of creating schemas and describing of function blocks, where are described methodologies of creating program and simulations of output reactions on changeable inputs for intelligent relays.

  1. Performance improvement for solution-processed high-mobility ZnO thin-film transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Chensha; Loutfy, Rafik O [Department of Chemical Engineering, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4L7 (Canada); Li Yuning; Wu Yiliang; Ong, Beng S [Materials Design and Integration Laboratory, Xerox Research Centre of Canada, 2660 Speakman Drive, Mississauga, Ontario L5K 2L1 (Canada)], E-mail: lichnsa@163.com

    2008-06-21

    The fabrication technology of stable, non-toxic, transparent, high performance zinc oxide (ZnO) thin-film semiconductors via the solution process was investigated. Two methods, which were, respectively, annealing a spin-coated precursor solution and annealing a drop-coated precursor solution, were compared. The prepared ZnO thin-film semiconductor transistors have well-controlled, preferential crystal orientation and exhibit superior field-effect performance characteristics. But the ZnO thin-film transistor (TFT) fabricated by annealing a drop-coated precursor solution has a distinctly elevated linear mobility, which further approaches the saturated mobility, compared with that fabricated by annealing a spin-coated precursor solution. The performance of the solution-processed ZnO TFT was further improved when substituting the spin-coating process by the drop-coating process.

  2. Performance improvement for solution-processed high-mobility ZnO thin-film transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Chensha; Loutfy, Rafik O; Li Yuning; Wu Yiliang; Ong, Beng S

    2008-01-01

    The fabrication technology of stable, non-toxic, transparent, high performance zinc oxide (ZnO) thin-film semiconductors via the solution process was investigated. Two methods, which were, respectively, annealing a spin-coated precursor solution and annealing a drop-coated precursor solution, were compared. The prepared ZnO thin-film semiconductor transistors have well-controlled, preferential crystal orientation and exhibit superior field-effect performance characteristics. But the ZnO thin-film transistor (TFT) fabricated by annealing a drop-coated precursor solution has a distinctly elevated linear mobility, which further approaches the saturated mobility, compared with that fabricated by annealing a spin-coated precursor solution. The performance of the solution-processed ZnO TFT was further improved when substituting the spin-coating process by the drop-coating process

  3. The influence of surface roughness and solution concentration on pool boiling process in Diethanolamine aqueous solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoshechin, Mohsen; Salimi, Farhad; Jahangiri, Alireza

    2018-04-01

    In this research, the effect of surface roughness and concentration of solution on bubble departing frequency and nucleation site density for pool boiling of water/diethanolamine (DEA) binary solution were investigated experimentally. In this investigation, boiling heat transfer coefficient, bubble departing frequency and nucleation site density have been experimentally investigated in various concentrations and heat fluxes. Microstructured surfaces with a wide range of well-defined surface roughness were fabricated, and a heat flux between 1.5-86 kW/m2 was achieved under atmospheric conditions. The Results indicated that surface roughness and concentration of solution increase the bubble departing frequency and nucleation site density with increasing heat flux. The boiling heat transfer coefficient in mixtures of water/DEA increases with increasing concentration of DEA in water. The experimental results were compared with predictions of several used correlations in the literatures. Results showed that the boiling heat transfer coefficients of this case study are much higher than the predicted values by major existing correlations and models. The excellent agreement for bubble departing frequency found between the models of Jackob and Fritz (1966) and experimental data and also the nucleation site density were in close agreement with the model of Paul (1983) data. f bubble departure frequency, 1/s or Hz N Number of nucleation sites per area per time R c Minimum cavity size, m D c critical diameter, m g gravitational acceleration, m/s2 ρ density, kg/m3 T temperature, °c ΔT temperature difference, °c d d vapor bubble diameter, m h fg enthalpy of vaporization, J/kg R Roughness, μm Ja Jakob number cp specific heat, J/kg °c Pr Prandtl number Ar Archimedes number h Heat transfer coefficient, J/(m2 °c) tg time it takes to grow a bubble, s q/A heat flux (kW/m2) tw time required to heat the layer, s gc Correction coefficient of incompatible units R a Surface

  4. Due Process in the Internet Jurisdiction: Landing Softly on the Other Side of the Looking Glass

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kolb, Natalie A

    2001-01-01

    .... However, even if a U.S. state court exercises improper jurisdiction over a non-resident defendant in an Internet case, due process protection can be revived at the choice-of-law and enforcement stages of the judicial proceeding...

  5. The LOMOsup(R) process: a solution for residual monomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derbyshire, R.L.

    1979-01-01

    Regulatory activity over the last several years has addressed the potential problems associated with the migration of residual monomers from a number of commodity food packages. Regardless of the outcome of current debates, it will always be desirable to reduce monomer levels to as low a level as economically practicable so that they do not become indirect additives. The LOMO process is a body of technology inclusive of an ionizing radiation treatment which can result in sharp reduction of residual monomer levels in commodity plastic resins. The process may be applicable to factory intermediates, raw resins, or finished articles. Depending upon the individual system and its monomers, LOMO treatment can result in reductions to levels which press today's analytical test capability. Industrial radiation processing is normally accomplished with electron beam accelerators. Electron beam processing continues to gain in understanding and acceptance as one of the very few basic methods by which energy can be imparted to an industrial process system. Typically, whole factories are constructed around one accelerator. (author)

  6. Soft-tissues Image Processing: Comparison of Traditional Segmentation Methods with 2D active Contour Methods

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikulka, J.; Gescheidtová, E.; Bartušek, Karel

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 4 (2012), s. 153-161 ISSN 1335-8871 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP102/11/0318; GA ČR GAP102/12/1104; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : Medical image processing * image segmentation * liver tumor * temporomandibular joint disc * watershed method Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 1.233, year: 2012

  7. The software-defined fast post-processing for GEM soft x-ray diagnostics in the Tungsten Environment in Steady-state Tokamak thermal fusion reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczyk, Rafał Dominik; Czarski, Tomasz; Linczuk, Paweł; Wojeński, Andrzej; Kolasiński, Piotr; GÄ ska, Michał; Chernyshova, Maryna; Mazon, Didier; Jardin, Axel; Malard, Philippe; Poźniak, Krzysztof; Kasprowicz, Grzegorz; Zabołotny, Wojciech; Kowalska-Strzeciwilk, Ewa; Malinowski, Karol

    2018-06-01

    This article presents a novel software-defined server-based solutions that were introduced in the fast, real-time computation systems for soft X-ray diagnostics for the WEST (Tungsten Environment in Steady-state Tokamak) reactor in Cadarache, France. The objective of the research was to provide a fast processing of data at high throughput and with low latencies for investigating the interplay between the particle transport and magnetohydrodynamic activity. The long-term objective is to implement in the future a fast feedback signal in the reactor control mechanisms to sustain the fusion reaction. The implemented electronic measurement device is anticipated to be deployed in the WEST. A standalone software-defined computation engine was designed to handle data collected at high rates in the server back-end of the system. Signals are obtained from the front-end field-programmable gate array mezzanine cards that acquire and perform a selection from the gas electron multiplier detector. A fast, authorial library for plasma diagnostics was written in C++. It originated from reference offline MATLAB implementations. They were redesigned for runtime analysis during the experiment in the novel online modes of operation. The implementation allowed the benchmarking, evaluation, and optimization of plasma processing algorithms with the possibility to check the consistency with reference computations written in MATLAB. The back-end software and hardware architecture are presented with data evaluation mechanisms. The online modes of operation for the WEST are discussed. The results concerning the performance of the processing and the introduced functionality are presented.

  8. Exploring control parameters of two photon processes in solutions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Here, we present the effect of several control parameters on the TPA process that are independent of .... as the typical selection rules and pathways of mole- cular transitions for ..... Inset in the graph shows the 780 beam spec- tra at two ...

  9. Solutions to major world problems found in gamma processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouwerkerk, T [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Ottawa, Ontario. Commercial Products

    1984-01-01

    Food irradiation is well researched, but work has still to be done on process improvement and validation. Great potential is seen for disinfestation, salmonella control, and for controlling the quality of spices. Other promising applications of radiation are disinfection of airport and seaport wastes, of laboratory wastes, and of municipal sewage sludge.

  10. Prevention of short circuits in solution-processed OLED devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jolt Oostra, A.; Blom, P.W.M.; Michels, J.J.

    2014-01-01

    Pinholes in the emitting layer of an organic light emitting diode (OLED), e.g. induced by particle contamination or processing flaws, lead to direct contact between the hole-injection layer (HIL) and the cathode. The resulting short circuits give rise to catastrophic device failure. We demonstrate

  11. Soft-X-Ray Projection Lithography Using a High-Repetition-Rate Laser-Induced X-Ray Source for Sub-100 Nanometer Lithography Processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Louis,; F. Bijkerk,; Shmaenok, L.; Voorma, H. J.; van der Wiel, M. J.; Schlatmann, R.; Verhoeven, J.; van der Drift, E. W. J. M.; Romijn, J.; Rousseeuw, B. A. C.; Voss, F.; Desor, R.; Nikolaus, B.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper we present the status of a joint development programme on soft x-ray projection lithography (SXPL) integrating work on high brightness laser plasma sources. fabrication of multilayer x-ray mirrors. and patterning of reflection masks. We are in the process of optimization of a

  12. Evaluating six soft approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lene; Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui

    2006-01-01

    ’s interactive planning principles to be supported by soft approaches in carrying out the principles in action. These six soft approaches are suitable for supporting various steps of the strategy development and planning process. These are the SWOT analysis, the Future Workshop, the Scenario methodology......, Strategic Option Development and Analysis, Strategic Choice Approach and Soft Systems Methodology. Evaluations of each methodology are carried out using a conceptual framework in which the organisation, the result, the process and the technology of the specific approach are taken into consideration. Using...

  13. Evaluating Six Soft Approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lene Tolstrup; Valqui Vidal, René Victor

    2008-01-01

    's interactive planning principles to be supported by soft approaches in carrying out the principles in action. These six soft approaches are suitable forsupporting various steps of the strategy development and planning process. These are the SWOT analysis, the Future Workshop, the Scenario methodology......, Strategic Option Development and Analysis, Strategic Choice Approach and Soft Systems Methodology. Evaluations of each methodology are carried out using a conceptual framework in which the organisation, the result, the process and the technology of the specific approach are taken into consideration. Using...

  14. Evaluating six soft approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lene Tolstrup; Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui

    2008-01-01

    's interactive planning principles to be supported by soft approaches in carrying out the principles in action. These six soft approaches are suitable forsupporting various steps of the strategy development and planning process. These are the SWOT analysis, the Future Workshop, the Scenario methodology......, Strategic Option Development and Analysis, Strategic Choice Approach and Soft Systems Methodology. Evaluations of each methodology are carried out using a conceptual framework in which the organisation, the result, the process and the technology of the specific approach are taken into consideration. Using...

  15. Process for recovering tungsten from alkaline leaching solution of tungsten ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onozaki, S.; Nemoto, S.; Hazeyama, T.

    1976-01-01

    This invention relates to a process for recovering tungsten from an alkaline leaching solution of tungsten ores. This invention comprises adjusting the pH of an alkaline leaching solution which is obtained by lixiviating ore containing tungsten with an alkaline solution to 7--8 with acid to oxidize molybdic acid ions in the solution, adding a sulfide donor, then precipitating molybdenum sulfide compounds by adjusting the pH value of the solution to 2--3. Tungstic acid ions are recovered as calcium tungstate by the addition of a calcium ion donor after the molybdenum sulfide compounds are separated

  16. Solution-processed copper-nickel nanowire anodes for organic solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Ian E.; Rathmell, Aaron R.; Yan, Liang; Ye, Shengrong; Flowers, Patrick F.; You, Wei; Wiley, Benjamin J.

    2014-05-01

    This work describes a process to make anodes for organic solar cells from copper-nickel nanowires with solution-phase processing. Copper nanowire films were coated from solution onto glass and made conductive by dipping them in acetic acid. Acetic acid removes the passivating oxide from the surface of copper nanowires, thereby reducing the contact resistance between nanowires to nearly the same extent as hydrogen annealing. Films of copper nanowires were made as oxidation resistant as silver nanowires under dry and humid conditions by dipping them in an electroless nickel plating solution. Organic solar cells utilizing these completely solution-processed copper-nickel nanowire films exhibited efficiencies of 4.9%.This work describes a process to make anodes for organic solar cells from copper-nickel nanowires with solution-phase processing. Copper nanowire films were coated from solution onto glass and made conductive by dipping them in acetic acid. Acetic acid removes the passivating oxide from the surface of copper nanowires, thereby reducing the contact resistance between nanowires to nearly the same extent as hydrogen annealing. Films of copper nanowires were made as oxidation resistant as silver nanowires under dry and humid conditions by dipping them in an electroless nickel plating solution. Organic solar cells utilizing these completely solution-processed copper-nickel nanowire films exhibited efficiencies of 4.9%. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr01024h

  17. Survey of business process management: challenges and solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alotaibi, Youseef; Liu, Fei

    2017-09-01

    The current literature shows that creating a good framework on business process model (PM) is not an easy task. A successful business PM should have the ability to ensure accurate alignment between business processes (BPs) and information technology (IT) designs, provide security protection, manage the rapidly changing business environment and BPs, manage customer power, be flexible for reengineering and ensure that IT goals can be easily derived from business goals and hence an information system (IS) can be easily implemented. This article presents an overview of research in the business PM domain. We have presented a review of the challenges facing business PMs, such as misalignment between business and IT, difficulty of deriving IT goals from business goals, creating secured business PM, reengineering BPs, managing the rapidly changing BP and business environment and managing customer power. Also, it presents the limitations of existing business PM frameworks. Finally, we outline several guidelines to create good business PM and the possible further research directions in the business PM domain.

  18. Process for the removal of radium from acidic solutions containing same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheitlin, F.M.

    The invention is a process for the removal of radium from acidic aqueous solutions. In one aspect, the invention is a process for removing radium from an inorganic-acid solution. The process comprises contacting the solution with coal fly ash to effect adsorption of the radium on the ash. The radium-containing ash then is separated from the solution. The process is simple, comparatively inexpensive, and efficient. High radium-distribution coefficients are obtained even at room temperature. Coal fly ash is an inexpensive, acid-resistant, high-surface-area material which is available in large quantities throughout the United States. The invention is applicable, for example, to the recovery of /sup 226/Ra from nitric acid solutions which have been used to leach radium from uranium-mill tailings.

  19. Progress in high-efficient solution process organic photovoltaic devices fundamentals, materials, devices and fabrication

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Gang

    2015-01-01

    This book presents an important technique to process organic photovoltaic devices. The basics, materials aspects and manufacturing of photovoltaic devices with solution processing are explained. Solution processable organic solar cells - polymer or solution processable small molecules - have the potential to significantly reduce the costs for solar electricity and energy payback time due to the low material costs for the cells, low cost and fast fabrication processes (ambient, roll-to-roll), high material utilization etc. In addition, organic photovoltaics (OPV) also provides attractive properties like flexibility, colorful displays and transparency which could open new market opportunities. The material and device innovations lead to improved efficiency by 8% for organic photovoltaic solar cells, compared to 4% in 2005. Both academic and industry research have significant interest in the development of this technology. This book gives an overview of the booming technology, focusing on the solution process fo...

  20. Architecture design for soft errors

    CERN Document Server

    Mukherjee, Shubu

    2008-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive description of the architetural techniques to tackle the soft error problem. It covers the new methodologies for quantitative analysis of soft errors as well as novel, cost-effective architectural techniques to mitigate them. To provide readers with a better grasp of the broader problem deffinition and solution space, this book also delves into the physics of soft errors and reviews current circuit and software mitigation techniques.

  1. Plasma ash processing solutions for advanced interconnect technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, N.C.M.; Worsley, M.A.; Tai, L.; Bent, S.; Labelle, C.; Arnold, J.; Dalton, T.

    2008-01-01

    A mechanism for the modification of porous ultra low-k (ULK) and extreme ultra low-k (EULK) SiCOH-based materials is proposed. This is achieved by correlating film damage on a patterned structure measured by angular resolved x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (ARXPS) with corresponding changes in reactive species radical density and ion current in the plasma measured by optical emission spectroscopy (OES), rare gas actinometry, and modeling. Line-to-line electrical leakage and capacitance data of nested line structures exposed to downstream ash plasmas suggest that other etching steps during back-end-of-the-line (BEOL) dual damascene processing are also critical for the overall modification induced to these materials

  2. Soft leptogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Ambrosio, Giancarlo; Giudice, Gian F.; Raidal, Martti

    2003-01-01

    We study 'soft leptogenesis', a new mechanism of leptogenesis which does not require flavour mixing among the right-handed neutrinos. Supersymmetry soft-breaking terms give a small mass splitting between the CP-even and CP-odd right-handed sneutrino states of a single generation and provide a CP-violating phase sufficient to generate a lepton asymmetry. The mechanism is successful if the lepton-violating soft bilinear coupling is unconventionally (but not unnaturally) small. The values of the right-handed neutrino masses predicted by soft leptogenesis can be low enough to evade the cosmological gravitino problem

  3. Trade and investment liberalization, food systems change and highly processed food consumption: a natural experiment contrasting the soft-drink markets of Peru and Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Phillip; Friel, Sharon; Schram, Ashley; Labonte, Ron

    2016-06-02

    Free trade agreements (FTAs) can affect food environments and non-communicable disease risks through altering the availability of highly-processed foods. Few studies have quantified such effects. Using a natural experiment this paper quantifies changes in Peru's soft-drink market before/after entry into the US-Peru FTA, compared with Bolivia, a county with no such agreement. Difference-in-difference models were used to test for between country differences in the rate of per capita foreign direct investment (FDI) inflows, soft-drink imports, the volumes of various soft-drinks sold, and the volumes of sugar from soft-drinks before/after FTA ratification (2006) and enforcement (2009). In Peru average per capita FDI-inflows rose from US$103.11 in the pre-ratification period to US$269.79 post-ratification, with little change in Bolivia. This corresponded with a 122 % increase in Peruvian soft-drink production. There was a significant between-country difference in FDI-inflows pre-/post-ratification (DID:1.07, 95 % CI:0.19-1.96; p = 0.01). Despite little difference in total per capita soft-drink sales volumes there was a significant between-country difference in per capita sugar from soft-drinks pre-/post enforcement (DID:-0.99, 95 % CI: -1.91-0.06; p = 0.03) with stagnated growth in Peru and continued growth in Bolivia. This resulted from stagnated sugar sweetened carbonates growth and increased bottled water, juice and sports & energy drinks growth in Peru, with continued carbonates growth in Bolivia. There was a significant between-country difference in per capita carbonates (DID: -1.44, 95 % CI: -2.52-0.36, p = 0.01) and bottled water (DID:0.63; 95 % CI: -0.01-1.26; p = 0.04) sales volumes. The FTA may have resulted in increased FDI-inflows and soft-drink production and also contributed to the diversification of soft drinks produced and sold in Peru with some positive (stagnated carbonates and increased bottled water) and some negative (increased

  4. A Membrane Process for Recycling Die Lube from Wastewater Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric S. Peterson; Jessica Trudeau; Bill Cleary; Michael Hackett; William A. Greene

    2003-04-01

    An active-surface membrane technology was used to separate a die lube manufacturing wastewater stream consisting of various oils, hydrocarbons, heavy metals, and silicones. The ultrafiltration membranes reduced organics from initial oil and grease contents by 20–25X, carbon oxygen demand (COD) by 1.5 to 2X, and total organic carbon (TOC) by 0.6, while the biological oxygen demand (BOD) remained constant. The active-surface membranes were not fouled as badly as non-active-surface systems and the active-surface membrane flux levels were consistently higher and more stable than those of the non-active-surface membranes tested. Field testing demonstrated that the rotary microfilter can concentrate the die lube, i.e. remove the glycerin component, and produce a die lube suitable for recycling. The recycling system operated for six weeks with only seven cleaning cycles and no mechanical or electrical failures. Test data and quality records indicate that the die casting scrap was reduced from 8.4 to 7.8%. There is no doubt that this test yielded tremendous results. This separation process presents significant opportunities that can be evaluated further.

  5. A Membrane Process for Recycling Die Lube from Wastewater Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, E. S. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Trudeau, J. [Metaldyne, Inc., Twinsburg, OH (United States); Cleary, B. [Metaldyne, Inc., Twinsburg, OH (United States); Hackett, M. [Metaldyne, Inc., Twinsburg, OH (United States); Greene, W. A. [SpinTek FIltrations, LLC, Los Alamitos, CA (United States)

    2003-04-30

    An active-surface membrane technology was used to separate a die lube manufacturing wastewater stream consisting of various oils, hydrocarbons, heavy metals, and silicones. The ultrafiltration membranes reduced organics from initial oil and grease contents by 20-25X, carbon oxygen demand (COD) by 1.5 to 2X, and total organic carbon (TOC) by 0.6, while the biological oxygen demand (BOD) remained constant. The active-surface membranes were not fouled as badly as non-active-surface systems and the active-surface membrane flux levels were consistently higher and more stable than those of the non-active-surface membranes tested. Field testing demonstrated that the rotary microfilter can concentrate the die lube, i.e. remove the glycerin component, and produce a die lube suitable for recycling. The recycling system operated for six weeks with only seven cleaning cycles and no mechanical or electrical failures. Test data and quality records indicate that the die casting scrap was reduced from 8.4 to 7.8%. There is no doubt that this test yielded tremendous results. This separation process presents significant opportunities that can be evaluated further.

  6. Process for the recovery of alkali metal salts from aqueous solutions thereof

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitner, J.

    1984-01-01

    In an integrated process for the recovery of alkakli metal phenates and carboxylates from aqueous solutions thereof, the aqueous solution is spray dried and the drying gas stream is contacted with an aqueous alkali metal salt solution which dissolves the particles of the alkali metal salt that were entrained in the drying gas stream. The salt-free inert gas stream is then dried, heated, and returned to the spray dryer

  7. Acid in perchloroethylene scrubber solutions used in HTGR fuel preparation processes. Analytical chemistry studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D.A.

    1979-02-01

    Acids and corrosion products in used perchloroethylene scrubber solutions collected from HTGR fuel preparation processes have been analyzed by several analytical methods to determine the source and possible remedy of the corrosion caused by these solutions. Hydrochloric acid was found to be concentrated on the carbon particles suspended in perchloroethylene. Filtration of carbon from the scrubber solutions removed the acid corrosion source in the process equipment. Corrosion products chemisorbed on the carbon particles were identified. Filtered perchloroethylene from used scrubber solutions contained practically no acid. It is recommended that carbon particles be separated from the scrubber solutions immediately after the scrubbing process to remove the source of acid and that an inhibitor be used to prevent the hydrolysis of perchloroethylene and the formation of acids

  8. Energy transfer and quenching processes of excited uranyl ion and lanthanide ions in solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamura, Tomoo; Tomiyasu, Hiroshi

    1995-01-01

    Deactivation processes of photoexcited uranyl ion by various lanthanide ions in aqueous solution were studied. Each lanthanide ions show different interaction with excited uranyl ion depending on its lowest excited energy level, the number of 4f electrons and the acid concentration of the solution. (author)

  9. On the solution of Stein's equation and Fisher information matrix of an ARMAX process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein, A.; Spreij, P.

    2004-01-01

    The main goal of this paper consists in expressing the solution of a Stein equation in terms of the Fisher information matrix (FIM) of a scalar ARMAX process. A condition for expressing the FIM in terms of a solution to a Stein equation is also set forth. Such interconnections can be derived when a

  10. The Influence of the Osmotic Dehydration Process on Physicochemical Properties of Osmotic Solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lech, Krzysztof; Michalska, Anna; Wojdyło, Aneta; Nowicka, Paulina; Figiel, Adam

    2017-12-16

    The osmotic dehydration (OD) process consists of the removal of water from a material during which the solids from the osmotic solution are transported to the material by osmosis. This process is commonly performed in sucrose and salt solutions. Taking into account that a relatively high consumption of those substances might have a negative effect on human health, attempts have been made to search for alternatives that can be used for osmotic dehydration. One of these is an application of chokeberry juice with proven beneficial properties to human health. This study aimed to evaluate the physicochemical properties of the OD solution (chokeberry juice concentrate) before and after the osmotic dehydration of carrot and zucchini. The total polyphenolics content, antioxidant capacity (ABTS, FRAP), dynamic viscosity, density, and water activity were examined in relation to the juice concentration used for the osmotic solution before and after the OD process. During the osmotic dehydration process, the concentration of the chokeberry juice decreased. Compounds with lower molecular weight and lower antioxidant capacity present in concentrated chokeberry juice had a stronger influence on the exchange of compounds during the OD process in carrot and zucchini. The water activity of the osmotic solution increased after the osmotic dehydration process. It was concluded that the osmotic solution after the OD process might be successfully re-used as a product with high quality for i.e. juice production.

  11. Evaluation of neutralization treatment processes and their use for uranium tailings solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherwood, D.R.; Opitz, B.E.; Serne, R.J.

    1985-01-01

    The potential for groundwater contamination from the typically acidic mill wastes that are disposed of in tailings impoundments is of primary concern at uranium mill sites in the US. Solution-treatment processes provide a system for limiting the environmental impact from acidic seepage. Treatment of uranium tailings solutions from evaporation ponds, underdrains, and surface seeps could aid in decommissioning active sites or be used as an emergency measure to avert possible uncontrolled discharges. At present, neutralization processes appear to be best suited for treating uranium mill tailings solution because they can, at a reasonable cost, limit the solution concentration of many contaminants and thus reduce the potential for groundwater contamination. However, the effectiveness of the neutralization process depends on the reagent used as well as the chemistry of the waste stream. This article provides a description of neutralization processes, an assessment of their performance on acidic uranium tailings leachates, and recommendations for their use at US uranium mill sites

  12. Fully solution-processed organic solar cells on metal foil substrates

    KAUST Repository

    Gaynor, Whitney; Lee, Jung-Yong; Peumans, Peter

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate fully solution-processed organic photovoltaic cells on metal foil substrates with power conversion efficiencies similar to those obtained in devices on transparent substrates. The cells are based on the regioregular poly- (3

  13. Mixing of process heels, process solutions, and recycle streams: Results of the small-scale radioactive tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lumetta, G.J.; Bramson, J.P.; Farmer III, O.T.; Greenwood, L.R.; Hoopes, F.V.; Mann, M.A.; Steele, M.J.; Steele, R.T.; Swoboda, R.G.; Urie, M.W.

    2000-01-01

    Various recycle streams will be combined with the low-activity waste (LAW) or the high-level waste (HLW) feed solutions during the processing of the Hanford tank wastes by BNFL, Inc. In addition, the LAW and HLW feed solutions will also be mixed with heels present in the processing equipment. This report describes the results of a test conducted by Battelle to assess the effects of mixing specific process streams. Observations were made regarding adverse reactions (mainly precipitation) and effects on the Tc oxidation state (as indicated by K d measurements with SuperLigreg s ign 639). The work was conducted according to test plan BNFL-TP-29953-023, Rev. 0, Small Scale Mixing of Process Heels, Solutions, and Recycle Streams. The test went according to plan, with only minor deviations from the test plan. The deviations from the test plan are discussed in the experimental section

  14. Formation of solid solution during mutual diffusion of tungsten and molybdenum in the process of sintering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timofeeva, A.A.; Bulat, I.B.; Voronin, Yu.V.; Fedoseev, G.K.; Karasev, V.M.

    1984-01-01

    A process of a solid solution homogenization during sintering of W-15Mo and W-5Mo alloys is studied by the methods of density measurements, analysis of the X-ray lines physical broadening and determination of crystalline lattice constant. Study of the process of solid solution formation under conditions of powder composite sintering is shown to be conducted with account of peculiarities of tungsten and molybdenum mutual diffusion in the investigated temperature range of concentrations

  15. Thermally Activated Delayed Fluorescence in Polymers: A New Route toward Highly Efficient Solution Processable OLEDs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaenko, Andrey E; Cass, Michael; Bourcet, Florence; Mohamad, David; Roberts, Matthew

    2015-11-25

    Efficient intermonomer thermally activated delayed fluorescence is demonstrated for the first time, opening a new route to achieving high-efficiency solution processable polymer light-emitting device materials. External quantum efficiency (EQE) of up to 10% is achieved in a simple fully solution-processed device structure, and routes for further EQE improvement identified. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Synthesis of side-chain polystyrenes for all organic solution processed OLEDs

    OpenAIRE

    Lorente Sánchez, Alejandro Jose (Dr.)

    2017-01-01

    In the present work side-chain polystyrenes were synthesized and characterized, in order to be applied in multilayer OLEDs fabricated by solution process techniques. Manufacture of optoelectronic devices by solution process techniques is meant to decrease significantly fabrication cost and allow large scale production of such devices. This dissertation focusses in three series, enveloped in two material classes. The two classes differ to each other in the type of charge transport exhibited...

  17. Holiday fun with soft gluons

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    Emissions of soft gluons from energetic particles play an important role in collider processes. While the basic physics of soft emissions is simple, it gives rise to a variety of interesting and intricate phenomena (non-global logs, Glauber phases, super-leading logs, factorization breaking). After an introduction, I will review progress in resummation methods such as Soft-Collinear Effective Theory driven by a better understanding of soft emissions. I will also show some new results for computations of soft-gluon effects in gap-between-jets and isolation-cone cross sections.

  18. Process for the removal of radium from acidic solutions containing same

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheitlin, F.M.

    1984-01-01

    Radium is removed from an inorganic-acid solution contacting the solution with coal fly ash to effect adsorption of the radium on the ash. The radium-containing ash then is separated from the solution. The process is simple and efficient. High radium-distribution coefficients are obtained even at room temperature. Coal fly ash is an inexpensive, acid-resistant, high-surface-area material which is available in large quantities. The invention is applicable, for example, to the recovery of 226 Ra from nitric acid solutions which have been used to leach radium from uranium-mill tailings, and thus contain thorium and uranium. The contaminated fly ash may be incorporated in a suitable matrix and stored, and the residual solutions processed to separate uranium and thorium. (author)

  19. Process for recovering uranium using an alkyl pyrophosphoric acid and alkaline stripping solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worthington, R.E.; Magdics, A.

    1987-01-01

    A process is described for stripping uranium for a pregnant organic extractant comprising an alkyl pyrophosphoric acid dissolved in a substantially water-immiscible organic diluent. The organic extractant contains tetravalent uranium and an alcohol or phenol modifier in a quantity sufficient to retain substantially all the unhydrolyzed alkyl pyrophosphoric acid in solution in the diluent during stripping. The process comprises adding an oxidizing agent to the organic extractant and thereby oxidizing the tetravalent uranium to the +6 state in the organic extractant, and contacting the organic extractant containing the uranium in the +6 state with a stripping solution comprising an aqueous solution of an alkali metal or ammonium carbonate or hydroxide thereby stripping uranium from the organic extractant into the stripping solution. The resulting barren organic extractant containing substantially all of the unhydrolyzed alkyl pyrophosphoric acid dissolved in the diluent is separated from the stripping solution containing the stripped uranium, the barren extractant being suitable for recycle

  20. Evaluation of the radiographic process using a experimental monobath solution compared with normal (Kodak) and rapid (RAY) developer solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baratieri, N.M.M.

    1985-01-01

    A comparative evaluation of the radiographic image quality of two dental X-ray films (Kodak's EP-21 and Agfa-Gevaert DOS-1) when processed in a normal (Kodak) a rapid (Ray) and a experimental monobath solutions, is presented. These films, processed in those solutions had their time of development, temperature and agitation performances checked by sensitometry; pH and color by routine methods and hipo rests by spectrophotometry. The radiographies were also analysed by able professionals regarding the best development time. The data so obtained allowed the conclusions that the best development time for the monobath was 3 minutes at 20 0 C but 25 or 30 0 C give also acceptable results at shorter times. The agitation of 10 seconds every minute is an important factor concerning image quality. pH and color do alter rapidally but with little influence in the final result. We found a certain amount of residual chemical compounds which were not identified but that are not hipo components, and being important to note that they seem not act upon the emulsion at least during one year after processing. (author) [pt

  1. Application of Laser Plasma Sources of Soft X-rays and Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) in Imaging, Processing Materials and Photoionization Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedorowicz, H.; Bartnik, A.; Wachulak, P. W.; Jarocki, R.; Kostecki, J.; Szczurek, M.; Ahad, I. U.; Fok, T.; Szczurek, A.; Wȩgrzyński, Ł.

    In the paper we present new applications of laser plasma sources of soft X-rays and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) in various areas of plasma physics, nanotechnology and biomedical engineering. The sources are based on a gas puff target irradiated with nanosecond laser pulses from commercial Nd: YAG lasers, generating pulses with time duration from 1 to 10 ns and energies from 0.5 to 10 J at a 10 Hz repetition rate. The targets are produced with the use of a double valve system equipped with a special nozzle to form a double-stream gas puff target which allows for high conversion efficiency of laser energy into soft X-rays and EUV without degradation of the nozzle. The sources are equipped with various optical systems to collect soft X-ray and EUV radiation and form the radiation beam. New applications of these sources in imaging, including EUV tomography and soft X-ray microscopy, processing of materials and photoionization studies are presented.

  2. Development of Three-Layer Simulation Model for Freezing Process of Food Solution Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminishi, Koji; Araki, Tetsuya; Shirakashi, Ryo; Ueno, Shigeaki; Sagara, Yasuyuki

    A numerical model has been developed for simulating freezing phenomena of food solution systems. The cell model was simplified to apply to food solution systems, incorporating with the existence of 3 parts such as unfrozen, frozen and moving boundary layers. Moreover, the moving rate of freezing front model was also introduced and calculated by using the variable space network method proposed by Murray and Landis (1957). To demonstrate the validity of the model, it was applied to the freezing processes of coffee solutions. Since the model required the phase diagram of the material to be frozen, the initial freezing temperatures of 1-55 % coffee solutions were measured by the DSC method. The effective thermal conductivity for coffee solutions was determined as a function of temperature and solute concentration by using the Maxwell - Eucken model. One-dimensional freezing process of 10 % coffee solution was simulated based on its phase diagram and thermo-physical properties. The results were good agreement with the experimental data and then showed that the model could accurately describe the change in the location of the freezing front and the distributions of temperature as well as ice fraction during a freezing process.

  3. Pitting attack occurrences of score on aluminum alloy 5182 can-container in a carbonated soft-drink solution; Tansan inryosuichu ni okeru kan`yo aruminiumu gokin 5182 sukoa bu no koshoku hassei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seri, O. [Muroran Inst. of Technology, Hokkaido (Japan); Kanazawa, T. [Muroran Inst. of Technology, Hokkaido (Japan). Graduate School

    1997-03-15

    The blowout accident of a carbonated soft-drink can stored in a warehouse during summer was reported. It was a cause due to the stress corrosion cracking of aluminium alloy 5182. Though this case occurred in America, it is necessary to grasp the cause and measures supposing the various corrosion occurring conditions, including the case of America, in Japan where it is required high quality control moreover hot and humid climate. When the refreshing drinking can, EOE, on the market immersed in a carbonated soft-drink solution, corrosion occurred from the score. Corrosion form was a pitting corrosion and 20 cans among the 30 cans blew out due to pitting within a week. In this study, in order to clarify the cause of blowouts of score on aluminium alloy 5182 EOE in a carbonated soft-drink solution at 38{plus_minus}2{degree}C, polarization measurements and metallurgical observation were carried out. As a result, it was found that the blowouts are caused by pitting of groove of the score. 3 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Has Phytodetritus Processing by an Abyssal Soft-Sediment Community Recovered 26 Years after an Experimental Disturbance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Stratmann

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The potential harvest of polymetallic nodules will heavily impact the abyssal, soft sediment ecosystem by removing sediment, hard substrate, and associated fauna inside mined areas. It is therefore important to know whether the ecosystem can recover from this disturbance and if so at which rate. The first objective of this study was to measure recovery of phytodetritus processing by the benthic food web from a sediment disturbance experiment in 1989. The second objective was to determine the role of holothurians in the uptake of fresh phytodetritus by the benthic food web. To meet both objectives, large benthic incubation chambers (CUBEs; 50 × 50 × 50 cm were deployed inside plow tracks (with and without holothurian presence and at a reference site (holothurian presence, only at 4100 m water depth. Shortly after deployment, 13C- and 15N-labeled phytodetritus was injected in the incubation chambers and during the subsequent 3-day incubation period, water samples were taken five times to measure the production of 13C-dissolved inorganic carbon over time. At the end of the incubation, holothurians and sediment samples were taken to determine biomass, densities and incorporation of 13C and 15N into bacteria, nematodes, macrofauna, and holothurians. For the first objective, the results showed that biomass of bacteria, nematodes and macrofauna did not differ between reference sites and plow track sites when holothurians were present. Additionally, meiofauna and macrofauna taxonomic composition was not significantly different between the sites. In contrast, total 13C uptake by bacteria, nematodes and holothurians was significantly lower at plow track sites compared to reference sites, though the number of replicates was low. This result suggests that important ecosystem functions such as organic matter processing have not fully recovered from the disturbance that occurred 26 years prior to our study. For the second objective, the analysis indicated

  5. All-Solution-Processed, Ambient Method for ITO-Free, Roll-Coated Tandem Polymer Solar Cells using Solution- Processed Metal Films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angmo, Dechan; Dam, Henrik Friis; Andersen, Thomas Rieks

    2014-01-01

    A solution-processed silver film is employed in the processing of top-illuminated indium-tin-oxide (ITO)-free polymer solar cells in single- and double-junction (tandem) structures. The nontransparent silver film fully covers the substrate and serves as the bottom electrode whereas a PEDOT...... in terms of surface morphological and topographical properties and to ITO in terms of flexibility. The slot–die coated Ag film demonstrates extremely low roughness (a root-meansquare roughness of 3 nm was measured over 240_320 mm2 area), is highly conductive (

  6. Soft Robotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitesides, George M

    2018-04-09

    This description of "soft robotics" is not intended to be a conventional review, in the sense of a comprehensive technical summary of a developing field. Rather, its objective is to describe soft robotics as a new field-one that offers opportunities to chemists and materials scientists who like to make "things" and to work with macroscopic objects that move and exert force. It will give one (personal) view of what soft actuators and robots are, and how this class of soft devices fits into the more highly developed field of conventional "hard" robotics. It will also suggest how and why soft robotics is more than simply a minor technical "tweak" on hard robotics and propose a unique role for chemistry, and materials science, in this field. Soft robotics is, at its core, intellectually and technologically different from hard robotics, both because it has different objectives and uses and because it relies on the properties of materials to assume many of the roles played by sensors, actuators, and controllers in hard robotics. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Soft lubrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skotheim, Jan; Mahadevan, Laksminarayanan

    2004-11-01

    We study the lubrication of fluid-immersed soft interfaces and show that elastic deformation couples tangential and normal forces and thus generates lift. We consider materials that deform easily, due to either geometry (e.g a shell) or constitutive properties (e.g. a gel or a rubber), so that the effects of pressure and temperature on the fluid properties may be neglected. Four different system geometries are considered: a rigid cylinder moving tangentially to a soft layer coating a rigid substrate; a soft cylinder moving tangentially to a rigid substrate; a cylindrical shell moving tangentially to a rigid substrate; and finally a journal bearing coated with a thin soft layer, which being a conforming contact allows us to gauge the influence of contact geometry. In addition, for the particular case of a soft layer coating a rigid substrate we consider both elastic and poroelastic material responses. Finally, we consider the role of contact geometry in the context of the journal bearing, a conforming contact. For all these cases we find the same generic behavior: there is an optimal combination of geometric and material parameters that maximizes the dimensionless normal force as a function of the softness.

  8. Recent Advances of Solution-Processed Metal Oxide Thin-Film Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wangying; Li, Hao; Xu, Jian-Bin; Wang, Lei

    2018-03-06

    Solution-processed metal oxide thin-film transistors (TFTs) are considered as one of the most promising transistor technologies for future large-area flexible electronics. This review surveys the recent advances in solution-based oxide TFTs, including n-type oxide semiconductors, oxide dielectrics and p-type oxide semiconductors. Firstly, we provide an introduction on oxide TFTs and the TFT configurations and operating principles. Secondly, we present the recent progress in solution-processed n-type transistors, with a special focus on low-temperature and large-area solution processed approaches as well as novel non-display applications. Thirdly, we give a detailed analysis of the state-of-the-art solution-processed oxide dielectrics for low-voltage electronics. Fourthly, we discuss the recent progress in solution-based p-type oxide semiconductors, which will enable the highly desirable future low-cost large-area complementary circuits. Finally, we draw the conclusions and outline the perspectives over the research field.

  9. Introduction of soft drinks and processed juice in the diet of infants attending public day care centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo-Silva, Giovana; Toloni, Maysa Helena de Aguiar; de Menezes, Risia Cristina Egito; Asakura, Leiko; Oliveira, Maria Alice Araújo; Taddei, José Augusto de Aguiar Carrazedo

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Identifying at what age infants enrolled in public day care centers are introduced to soft drinks and industrialized juice, as well as comparing the nutritional composition of these goods with natural fruit juice. METHODS: A cross-sectional study with the mothers of 636 children (aged 0 to 36 months) from nurseries of day care centers, who were asked questions about the age of feeding introduction. This study evaluated the proximate composition of soft drinks and artificial juice, comparing them with those of natural fruit juice regarding energy, sugar, fiber, vitamin C, and sodium values. The chemical composition of fruit juice was obtained by consulting the Table of Food Composition and, for industrialized drinks, the average nutritional information on the labels of the five most consumed product brands. RESULTS: The artificial drinks were consumed before the first year of life by more than half of the children studied, however, approximately 10% consumed them before the age of 6 months. With regard to the comparison among the drinks, artificial fruit juice beverages and soft drinks proved to contain from nine to 13 times higher amounts of sodium, and 15 times less vitamin C than natural juices. CONCLUSIONS: The introduction of soft drinks and industrialized juice in the diet of infants was inopportune and premature.. When compared to natural fruit juice, these have inferior nutritional composition, which suggests the urgent need for measures based on strategies for food and nutrition education in order to promote awareness and the maintenance of healthy eating habits. PMID:25662561

  10. Introduction of soft drinks and processed juice in the diet of infants attending public day care centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovana Longo-Silva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Identifying at what age infants enrolled in public day care centers are introduced to soft drinks and industrialized juice, as well as comparing the nutritional composition of these goods with natural fruit juice. METHODS: A cross-sectional study with the mothers of 636 children (aged 0 to 36 months from nurseries of day care centers, who were asked questions about the age of feeding introduction. This study evaluated the proximate composition of soft drinks and artificial juice, comparing them with those of natural fruit juice regarding energy, sugar, fiber, vitamin C, and sodium values. The chemical composition of fruit juice was obtained by consulting the Table of Food Composition and, for industrialized drinks, the average nutritional information on the labels of the five most consumed product brands. RESULTS: The artificial drinks were consumed before the first year of life by more than half of the children studied, however, approximately 10% consumed them before the age of 6 months. With regard to the comparison among the drinks, artificial fruit juice beverages and soft drinks proved to contain from nine to 13 times higher amounts of sodium, and 15 times less vitamin C than natural juices. CONCLUSIONS: The introduction of soft drinks and industrialized juice in the diet of infants was inopportune and premature.. When compared to natural fruit juice, these have inferior nutritional composition, which suggests the urgent need for measures based on strategies for food and nutrition education in order to promote awareness and the maintenance of healthy eating habits.

  11. Has phytodetritus processing by an abyssal soft-sediment community recovered 26 years after an experimental disturbance?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stratmann, T.; Mevenkamp, L.; Sweetman, A.K.; Vanreusel, A.; van Oevelen, D.

    2018-01-01

    The potential harvest of polymetallic nodules will heavily impact the abyssal, soft sediment ecosystem by removing sediment, hard substrate, and associated fauna inside mined areas. It is therefore important to know whether the ecosystem can recover from this disturbance and if so at which rate. The

  12. Considerable improvement in the stability of solution processed small molecule OLED by annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mao Guilin [Key Laboratory of Photonics Technology for Information, Key Laboratory for Physical Electronics and Devices of the Ministry of Education, School of Electronic and Information Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, 710049 (China); Wu Zhaoxin, E-mail: zhaoxinwu@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Photonics Technology for Information, Key Laboratory for Physical Electronics and Devices of the Ministry of Education, School of Electronic and Information Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, 710049 (China); He Qiang [Key Laboratory of Photonics Technology for Information, Key Laboratory for Physical Electronics and Devices of the Ministry of Education, School of Electronic and Information Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, 710049 (China); Department of UAV, Wuhan Ordnance Noncommissioned Officers Academy, Wuhan, 430075 (China); Jiao Bo; Xu Guojin; Hou Xun [Key Laboratory of Photonics Technology for Information, Key Laboratory for Physical Electronics and Devices of the Ministry of Education, School of Electronic and Information Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, 710049 (China); Chen Zhijian; Gong Qihuang [State Key Laboratory for Mesoscopic Physics and Department of Physics, Peking University, Beijing, 100871 (China)

    2011-06-15

    We investigated the annealing effect on solution processed small organic molecule organic films, which were annealed with various conditions. It was found that the densities of the spin-coated (SC) films increased and the surface roughness decreased as the annealing temperature rose. We fabricated corresponding organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) by spin coating on the same annealing conditions. The solution processed OLEDs show the considerable efficiency and stability, which were prior or equivalent to the vacuum-deposited (VD) counterparts. Our research shows that annealing process plays a key role in prolonging the lifetime of solution processed small molecule OLEDs, and the mechanism for the improvement of the device performance upon annealing was also discussed.

  13. Optimization Solutions for Improving the Performance of the Parallel Reduction Algorithm Using Graphics Processing Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion LUNGU

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we research, analyze and develop optimization solutions for the parallel reduction function using graphics processing units (GPUs that implement the Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA, a modern and novel approach for improving the software performance of data processing applications and algorithms. Many of these applications and algorithms make use of the reduction function in their computational steps. After having designed the function and its algorithmic steps in CUDA, we have progressively developed and implemented optimization solutions for the reduction function. In order to confirm, test and evaluate the solutions' efficiency, we have developed a custom tailored benchmark suite. We have analyzed the obtained experimental results regarding: the comparison of the execution time and bandwidth when using graphic processing units covering the main CUDA architectures (Tesla GT200, Fermi GF100, Kepler GK104 and a central processing unit; the data type influence; the binary operator's influence.

  14. Line printing solution-processable small molecules with uniform surface profile via ink-jet printer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huimin; Xu, Wei; Tan, Wanyi; Zhu, Xuhui; Wang, Jian; Peng, Junbiao; Cao, Yong

    2016-03-01

    Line printing offers a feasible approach to remove the pixel well structure which is widely used to confine the ink-jet printed solution. In the study, a uniform line is printed by an ink-jet printer. To achieve a uniform surface profile of the printed line, 10vol% low-volatile solvent DMA (3,4-Dimethylanisole) is mixed with high-volatile solvent Pxy (p-xylene) as the solvent. After a solution-processable small molecule is dissolved, the surface tension of DMA solution becomes lower than that of Pxy solution, which creates an inward Marangoni flow during the solvent evaporation. The inward Marangoni flow balances out the outward capillary flow, thereby forming a flat film surface. The line width of the printed line depends on the contact angle of the solution on the hole injection layer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Soft Interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strzalkowski, Ireneusz

    1997-01-01

    This book presents an extended form of the 1994 Dirac Memorial Lecture delivered by Pierre Gilles de Gennes at Cambridge University. The main task of the presentation is to show the beauty and richness of structural forms and phenomena which are observed at soft interfaces between two media. They are much more complex than forms and phenomena existing in each phase separately. Problems are discussed including both traditional, classical techniques, such as the contact angle in static and dynamic partial wetting, as well as the latest research methodology, like 'environmental' scanning electron microscopes. The book is not a systematic lecture on phenomena but it can be considered as a compact set of essays on topics which particularly fascinate the author. The continuum theory widely used in the book is based on a deep molecular approach. The author is particularly interested in a broad-minded rheology of liquid systems at interfaces with specific emphasis on polymer melts. To study this, the author has developed a special methodology called anemometry near walls. The second main topic presented in the book is the problem of adhesion. Molecular processes, energy transformations and electrostatic interaction are included in an interesting discussion of the many aspects of the principles of adhesion. The third topic concerns welding between two polymer surfaces, such as A/A and A/B interfaces. Of great worth is the presentation of various unsolved, open problems. The kind of topics and brevity of description indicate that this book is intended for a well prepared reader. However, for any reader it will present an interesting picture of how many mysterious processes are acting in the surrounding world and how these phenomena are perceived by a Nobel Laureate, who won that prize mainly for his investigations in this field. (book review)

  16. Morphology Development in Solution-Processed Functional Organic Blend Films: An In Situ Viewpoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Lee J; DeLongchamp, Dean M; Amassian, Aram

    2017-05-10

    Solution-processed organic films are a facile route to high-speed, low cost, large-area deposition of electrically functional components (transistors, solar cells, emitters, etc.) that can enable a diversity of emerging technologies, from Industry 4.0, to the Internet of things, to point-of-use heath care and elder care. The extreme sensitivity of the functional performance of organic films to structure and the general nonequilibrium nature of solution drying result in extreme processing-performance correlations. In this Review, we highlight insights into the fundamentals of solution-based film deposition afforded by recent state-of-the-art in situ measurements of functional film drying. Emphasis is placed on multimodal studies that combine surface-sensitive X-ray scattering (GIWAXS or GISAXS) with optical characterization to clearly define the evolution of solute structure (aggregation, crystallinity, and morphology) with film thickness.

  17. Morphology Development in Solution-Processed Functional Organic Blend Films: An In Situ Viewpoint

    KAUST Repository

    Richter, Lee J.

    2017-04-17

    Solution-processed organic films are a facile route to high-speed, low cost, large-area deposition of electrically functional components (transistors, solar cells, emitters, etc.) that can enable a diversity of emerging technologies, from Industry 4.0, to the Internet of things, to point-of-use heath care and elder care. The extreme sensitivity of the functional performance of organic films to structure and the general nonequilibrium nature of solution drying result in extreme processing-performance correlations. In this Review, we highlight insights into the fundamentals of solution-based film deposition afforded by recent state-of-the-art in situ measurements of functional film drying. Emphasis is placed on multimodal studies that combine surface-sensitive X-ray scattering (GIWAXS or GISAXS) with optical characterization to clearly define the evolution of solute structure (aggregation, crystallinity, and morphology) with film thickness.

  18. Giant asymmetry of separation and homogenization processes in solid 3He-4He solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigor'ev, V.N.; Majdanov, V.A.; Penzev, A.A.; Polev, A.V.; Rubets, S.P.; Rudavskij, Eh.Ya.; Rybalko, A.S.; Syrnikov, E.V.

    2005-01-01

    The kinetics of the processes of separation and homogenization of solid 3 He- 4 He solutions is compared by using the precision barometry. The experiments were made with the initial specimens of three types: weak 3 He- 4 He and 4 He- 3 He solutions and concentrated 3 He- 4 He ones. It is found that the homogenization rate at the initial stage may be more than 500 times higher that the rate of separation. This is the case for all types of the solutions studied. The appreciable rate of phase separation in the concentrated solutions where, according to the modern concepts, impurity atoms in quantum crystals should be localized, suggests that in such conditions there is a new unknown mechanism of mass-transfer, while the fast homogenization points to a nondiffusion nature of the process

  19. Optimization of the recycling process of precipitation barren solution in a uranium mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long Qing; Yu Suqin; Zhao Wucheng; Han Wei; Zhang Hui; Chen Shuangxi

    2014-01-01

    Alkaline leaching process was adopted to recover uranium from ores in a uranium mine, and high concentration uranium solution, which would be later used in precipitation, was obtained after ion-exchange and elution steps. The eluting agent consisted of NaCl and NaHCO 3 . Though precipitation barren solution contained as high as 80 g/L Na 2 CO 3 , it still can not be recycled due to presence of high Cl - concentration So, both elution and precipitation processes were optimized in order to control the Cl - concentration in the precipitation barren solution to the recyclable concentration range. Because the precipitation barren solution can be recycled by optimization, the agent consumption was lowered and the discharge of waste water was reduced. (authors)

  20. Investigation of processes of interaction relativistic electrons with the solutions of organic dyes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buki, A.Yu.; Gokov, S.P.; Kazarinov, Yu.G.; Kalenik, S.A.; Kasilov, V.I.; Kochetov, S.S.; Makhnenko, P.L.; Mel'nitskiy, I.V.; Tverdohvalov, A.V.; Tsyatsko, V.V.; Shopen, O.A.

    2014-01-01

    Investigation of the processes of interaction of ionizing radiation with complex organic objects can solve a number of fundamental and applied problems in radiation physics, chemistry and biology. In this work we investigated the dose dependence (dose range 1...5MRad) optical density relative concentrations of water, alcohol and glycerine solution following organic dyes: methylene blue - C 16 H 18 N 3 SCl and methyl orange - C 14 H 14 N 3 O 3 SNa, irradiated with an electron beam with an energy of 16MeV. In the analysis of absorption spectra, it was found that water solutions of dyes have less resistance to radiation as compared with the alcohol and glycerol. Also, all solutions of methyl orange less radiation resistant than the methylene blue solution. Analysis of the spectra showed that these relationships are close to linear in the range of doses. To understand the physical and chemical processes occurring in the interaction of relativistic electrons with the studied organic objects were performed the computer simulations of the energy spectra of ions formed due to breaking the chemical bonds of molecules of dye solutions using the program SRIM-2010. The analysis showed that radiation - stimulated chemical processes play a major role in the destruction of the source of organic dye molecules. The remaining processes (interaction of electrons and nuclei, the cascade processes) accounts for about 10% of all molecular breaks.

  1. Solution-processed white organic light-emitting devices based on small-molecule materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Dongdong; Wu Zhaoxin; Zhang Xinwen; Wang Dawei; Hou Xun

    2010-01-01

    We investigated solution-processed films of 4,4'-bis(2,2-diphenylvinyl)-1,1'-bibenyl (DPVBi) and its blends with N,N'-bis(3-methylphenyl)-(1,1'-biphenyl)-4,4'-diamine (TPD) by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The AFM result shows that the solution-processed films are pin-free and their morphology is smooth enough to be used in OLEDs. We have developed a solution-processed white organic light-emitting device (WOLEDs) based on small-molecules, in which the light-emitting layer (EML) was formed by spin-coating the solution of small-molecules on top of the solution-processed hole-transporting layer. This WOLEDs, in which the EML consists of co-host (DPVBi and TPD), the blue dopant (4,4'-bis[2-(4-(N,N-diphenylamino)phenyl)vinyl]biphenyl) and the yellow dye (5,6,11,12-tetraphenylnaphtacene), has a current efficiency of 6.0 cd/A at a practical luminance of 1000 cd/m 2 , a maximum luminance of 22500 cd/m 2 , and its color coordinates are quite stable. Our research shows a possible approach to achieve efficient and low-cost small-molecule-based WOLEDs, which avoids the complexities of the co-evaporation process of multiple dopants and host materials in vacuum depositions.

  2. Database Security for an Integrated Solution to Automate Sales Processes in Banking

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandra Maria Ioana FLOREA

    2013-01-01

    In order to maintain a competitive edge in a very active banking market the implementation of a web-based solution to standardize, optimize and manage the flow of sales / pre-sales and generating new leads is requested by a company. This article presents the realization of a development framework for software interoperability in the banking financial institutions and an integrated solution for achieving sales process automation in banking. The paper focuses on presenting the requirements for ...

  3. Thorium determination by X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry in simulated thorex process solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaura, M.; Matsuda, H.T.

    1989-01-01

    The X-ray fluorescence method for thorium determination in aqueous and organic (TBP-n-dodecane) solutions is described. The thin film-technique for sample preparation and a suitable internal standard have been used. Some parameters as analytical line, internal standard, filter paper, paper geometry, sample volume and measurement conditions were studied. Uranium, fission products, corrosion products and thorex reagent components were studied as interfering elements in the thorium analysis, as well as the matrix effect by using the thorex process simulated solutions the method to thorium determination in irradiated thorium solutions was applied. (M.J.C.) [pt

  4. Solution Synthesis and Processing of PZT Materials for Neutron Generator Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, M.A.; Ewsuk, K.G.; Montoya, T.V.; Moore, R.H.; Sipola, D.L.; Tuttle, B.A.; Voigt, J.A.

    1998-12-01

    A new solution synthesis route has been developed for the preparation of lead-based ferroelectric materials (patent filed). The process produces controlled stoichiometry precursor powders by non-aqueous precipitation. For a given ferroelectric material to be prepared, a metal acetate/alkoxide solution containing constituent metal species in the appropriate ratio is mixed with an oxalic acid/n-propanol precipitant solution. An oxalate coprecipitate is instantly fonned upon mixing that quantitatively removes the metals from solution. Most of the process development was focused on the synthesis and processing of niobium-substituted lead zirconate titanate with a Zr-to-Ti ratio of 95:5 (PNZT 95/5) that has an application in neutron generator power supplies. The process was scaled to produce 1.6 kg of the PNZT 95/5 powder using either a sen-ii-batch or a continuous precipitation scheme. Several of the PNZT 95/5 powder lots were processed into ceramic slug form. The slugs in turn were processed into components and characterized. The physical properties and electrical performance (including explosive functional testing of the components met the requirements set for the neutron generator application. Also, it has been demonstrated that the process is highly reproducible with respect to the properties of the powders it produces and the properties of the ceramics prepared from its powders. The work described in this report was funded by Sandia's Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program.

  5. Iron-borosilicate soft magnetic composites: The correlation between processing parameters and magnetic properties for high frequency applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gheiratmand, T., E-mail: t.gheiratmand@yahoo.com; Madaah Hosseini, H.R., E-mail: Madaah@sharif.edu; Seyed Reihani, S.M.

    2017-05-01

    Iron-borosilicate soft magnetic composites are suitable magnetic materials for high temperature and high frequency applications. In this research two different techniques have been applied to fabricate these composites: uniaxial pressing following by sintering and spark plasma sintering. Different processing parameters including the content of borosilicate, the amount of compaction pressure and the size of iron particles have been evaluated through the study of microstructure and magnetic properties. The microstructural observations showed that the borosilicate is distributed on the iron grain boundaries enhancing the resistivity and causing the loss of eddy currents. Increasing the compaction pressure was led to the decrease of electrical resistivity. By increasing the frequency both real and imaginary parts of permeability decreased. The use of higher content of borosilicate resulted in the lower decreasing slop of permeability. Best combination of density, permeability and electrical resistivity was obtained in the sample with 2 wt% of borosilicate. In addition, the densification of powders with fine particles was more difficult than coarse particles due to the inter particles friction and bridging effects. Furthermore, as the particles size increases the size of open porosities before sintering where the borosilicate could aggregate enhances. This could yields to the increase in the electrical resistivity. The high ratio of surface to the volume in the powders with fine particles results in the developing the demagnetizing fields and subsequently, decreasing the permeability. The highest relative density (99.99% of theoretical density) with best distribution of borosilicate was achieved in the composites produced by spark plasma sintering (SPS). The relaxation frequency, obtained from imaginary part of permeability, was found as 340 Hz in the composites made by SPS. - Highlights: • Iron-borosilicate SMC was produced for high temperature and frequency

  6. 含银抗菌液处理义齿软衬表面的初步研究%A Preliminary Study of Application of the Antibacterial Solution Containing Silver Ion to the Surface of Soft Lining Material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周密; 杜莉; 杨准; 廖运茂

    2011-01-01

    We tried to find the effects of the application of the antibacterial solution containing silver ions on the surface of the denture soft lining material. We selected the right concentraiion of the silver-containing solution and coated a soft limng material with the solution so that the soft lining material could be antibacterial. The antibacterial solution containing silver ions was prepared by sol-gel method. MIC of C. a and S. a were tested by broth dilution test.The surface property and thickness were tested after coated. The in vitro antibacterial ratio against C. a and S. a were demonstrated by the method of plate-counting. A film was formed after coating, while the adequacy was not changed. Antibacterial ratio of 0. 64 mg/ml group against C. a was 90. 82 % , and that against S. a was 94. 96% in 24 hours, respectively. It was found that the antibacterial property of the soft lining material can be acquired by coating this antibacterial solution with silver ion, without changing the adequacy.%本文采用溶胶凝胶法制备含银抗菌液,用液体稀释法测定其对白色念珠菌(C.a)和金黄色葡萄球菌(S.a)的最低抑菌浓度(MIC),将抗菌液涂层到软衬材料表面后观察膜层厚度及表面形貌;用贴膜法测定其抑菌率.结果含银抗菌液能在义齿软衬材料表面成膜,不影响义齿的适合性.0.64 mg/ml浓度的抗菌液24 h涂层的抑菌率,C.a为90.82%,S.a为94.96%,能达到较好的抑菌效果.本文制备了含银抗菌液,选择合适的浓度在义齿软衬材料表面形成抗菌涂层,含银抗菌液能赋予义齿软衬材料表面良好的抗菌性,且不影响原软衬的适合性,具有一定临床应用价值.

  7. Multi-solution processes of small molecule for flexible white organic light-emitting diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, Yu-Sheng, E-mail: ystsai@nfu.edu.tw [Institute of Electro-optical and Materials Science, National Formosa University, Yunlin 63201, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chittawanij, Apisit; Hong, Lin-Ann; Guo, Siou-Wei [Institute of Electro-optical and Materials Science, National Formosa University, Yunlin 63201, Taiwan, ROC (China); Wang, Ching-Chiun [Department of Solid State Lighting Technology, Mechanical and Systems Research Laboratories, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Hsinchu 31040, Taiwan, ROC (China); Juang, Fuh-Shyang [Institute of Electro-optical and Materials Science, National Formosa University, Yunlin 63201, Taiwan, ROC (China); Lai, Shih-Hsiang [Department of Solid State Lighting Technology, Mechanical and Systems Research Laboratories, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Hsinchu 31040, Taiwan, ROC (China); Lin, Yang-Ching [Institute of Electro-optical and Materials Science, National Formosa University, Yunlin 63201, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2016-04-01

    Most small molecule organic light emitting diode (SM-OLED) device structures are made in one layer using solution-based processing because the solution is usually a high dissolvent material that easily attacks the layer below it. We demonstrate a simple and reliable stamping technique for fabricating multi-solution process flexible white SM-OLEDs. The structure is anode/spin-hole injection layer/spin-emitting layer/stamping-electron transport layer/cathode. Poly(di-methyl silane) (PDMS) stamp is used for transferring electron transport layer. An intermediate ultraviolet-ozone surface treatment is introduced to temporarily modify the PDMS stamp surface. Then, the solution-based electron transport layer film can therefore be uniformly formed on top of the PDMS surface. After that the electron transport layer film on the PDMS stamp is transfer-printed onto the emitting layer with suitable heating and pressing. A solution-based processing is successfully established to efficiently fabricate flexible white SM-OLEDs. The SM-OLEDs were obtained at the current density of 20 mA/cm{sup 2}, luminance of 1062 cd/m{sup 2}, current efficiency of 5.57 cd/A, and Commission internationale de l'éclairage coordinate of (0.32, 0.35). - Highlights: • All solution-processed small molecule materials (emitting layer, electron transport layer). • Poly(di-methylsilane) (PDMS) stamp is subsequently used for stamping transfer. • The flexible white SM-OLEDs are based on solution-processes with a low-cost method.

  8. Multi-solution processes of small molecule for flexible white organic light-emitting diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, Yu-Sheng; Chittawanij, Apisit; Hong, Lin-Ann; Guo, Siou-Wei; Wang, Ching-Chiun; Juang, Fuh-Shyang; Lai, Shih-Hsiang; Lin, Yang-Ching

    2016-01-01

    Most small molecule organic light emitting diode (SM-OLED) device structures are made in one layer using solution-based processing because the solution is usually a high dissolvent material that easily attacks the layer below it. We demonstrate a simple and reliable stamping technique for fabricating multi-solution process flexible white SM-OLEDs. The structure is anode/spin-hole injection layer/spin-emitting layer/stamping-electron transport layer/cathode. Poly(di-methyl silane) (PDMS) stamp is used for transferring electron transport layer. An intermediate ultraviolet-ozone surface treatment is introduced to temporarily modify the PDMS stamp surface. Then, the solution-based electron transport layer film can therefore be uniformly formed on top of the PDMS surface. After that the electron transport layer film on the PDMS stamp is transfer-printed onto the emitting layer with suitable heating and pressing. A solution-based processing is successfully established to efficiently fabricate flexible white SM-OLEDs. The SM-OLEDs were obtained at the current density of 20 mA/cm"2, luminance of 1062 cd/m"2, current efficiency of 5.57 cd/A, and Commission internationale de l'éclairage coordinate of (0.32, 0.35). - Highlights: • All solution-processed small molecule materials (emitting layer, electron transport layer). • Poly(di-methylsilane) (PDMS) stamp is subsequently used for stamping transfer. • The flexible white SM-OLEDs are based on solution-processes with a low-cost method.

  9. Implementation factors of soft EU legislation in the field of gender equality. An example of the balanced representation of women and men in decision-making processes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Topolinjak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines various implementation factors of the European Union’s soft policy in the field of gender equality in Slovenia. We focus on implementation of the principle of the balanced representation of women and men in decision-making processes in the fields of politics, science and the economy, where the proportion of women in top positions remains low. Based on an analysis of EU and Slovenian legislation and interviews with relevant governmental and non-governmental actors at the EU and national levels, it was found that because of the adopted soft law in this area it is the national government, which can select public policy instruments and adapt them to its own aspirations, that is the most important player when it comes to implementation. Pressure from the EU was stronger in the accession negotiations when Slovenia was joining the EU and also when interest groups work together.

  10. Soft Skills for Hard Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigorov, Ivo; Davidson, Joy; Knoth, Petr; Kuchma, Iryna; Schmidt, Birgit; Rettberg, Najla; Rogrigues, Eloy

    2015-04-01

    Marine and Earth Science graduates will be under increasing pressure in future to delve into research questions of relevance to societal challenges. Even fundamental research focused on basic processes of the environment and universe will in the coming decade need to justify their societal impact. As the Research Excellence Frameworks (REF) for research evaluation shift more and more away from the classical Impact Factor and number of peer-reviewed publications to "societal impact", the question remains whether the current graduates, and future researchers, are sufficiently prepared to deal with this reality. The essential compliment of skills beyond research excellence, rigor and method are traditionally described as "soft skills". This includes how to formulate an argument, how to construct a scientific publication, how to communicate such publications to non-experts, place them in context of societal challenges and relevant policies, how to write a competitive proposal and "market" one's research idea to build a research group around an interesting research topic. Such "soft skills" can produce very measurable and concrete impact for career development, but are rarely provided systematically and coherently by graduate schools in general. The presentation will focus on Open Science as a set of "soft skills", and demonstrate why graduate schools should train Open Science competencies alongside research excellence by default. Open Science is about removing all barriers to research process and outputs, both published and unpublished, and directly supports transparency and reproducibility of the research process. Open Science as a set of news competencies can also foster unexpected collaborations, engage citizen scientists into co-creation of solutions to societal challenges, as well as use concepts of Open Science to transfer new knowledge to the knowledge-based private sector, and help them with formulating more competitive research proposals in future.

  11. Air-stable, solution-processed oxide p-n heterojunction ultraviolet photodetector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Do Young; Ryu, Jiho; Manders, Jesse; Lee, Jaewoong; So, Franky

    2014-02-12

    Air-stable solution processed all-inorganic p-n heterojunction ultraviolet photodetector is fabricated with a high gain (EQE, 25 300%). Solution-processed NiO and ZnO films are used as p-type and n-type ultraviolet sensitizing materials, respectively. The high gain in the detector is due to the interfacial trap-induced charge injection that occurs at the ITO/NiO interface by photogenerated holes trapped in the NiO film. The gain of the detector is controlled by the post-annealing temperature of the solution-processed NiO films, which are studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS).

  12. High performance solution processed zirconium oxide gate dielectric appropriate for low temperature device application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasan, Musarrat; Nguyen, Manh-Cuong; Kim, Hyojin; You, Seung-Won; Jeon, Yoon-Seok; Tong, Duc-Tai; Lee, Dong-Hwi; Jeong, Jae Kyeong; Choi, Rino, E-mail: rino.choi@inha.ac.kr

    2015-08-31

    This paper reports a solution processed electrical device with zirconium oxide gate dielectric that was fabricated at a low enough temperature appropriate for flexible electronics. Both inorganic dielectric and channel materials were synthesized in the same organic solvent. The dielectric constant achieved was 13 at 250 °C with a reasonably low leakage current. The bottom gate transistor devices showed the highest mobility of 75 cm{sup 2}/V s. The device is operated at low voltage with high-k dielectric with excellent transconductance and low threshold voltage. Overall, the results highlight the potential of low temperature solution based deposition in fabricating more complicated circuits for a range of applications. - Highlights: • We develop a low temperature inorganic dielectric deposition process. • We fabricate oxide semiconductor channel devices using all-solution processes. • Same solvent is used for dielectric and oxide semiconductor deposition.

  13. [Introduction of soft drinks and processed juice in the diet of infants attending public day care centers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo-Silva, Giovana; Toloni, Maysa Helena de Aguiar; de Menezes, Risia Cristina Egito; Asakura, Leiko; Oliveira, Maria Alice Araújo; Taddei, José Augusto de Aguiar Carrazedo

    2015-01-01

    Identifying at what age infants enrolled in public day care centers are introduced to soft drinks and industrialized juice, as well as comparing the nutritional composition of these goods with natural fruit juice. A cross-sectional study with the mothers of 636 children (aged 0 to 36 months) from nurseries of day care centers, who were asked questions about the age of feeding introduction. This study evaluated the proximate composition of soft drinks and artificial juice, comparing them with those of natural fruit juice regarding energy, sugar, fiber, vitamin C, and sodium values. The chemical composition of fruit juice was obtained by consulting the Table of Food Composition and, for industrialized drinks, the average nutritional information on the labels of the five most consumed product brands. The artificial drinks were consumed before the first year of life by more than half of the children studied, however, approximately 10% consumed them before the age of 6 months. With regard to the comparison among the drinks, artificial fruit juice beverages and soft drinks proved to contain from nine to 13 times higher amounts of sodium, and 15 times less vitamin C than natural juices. The introduction of soft drinks and industrialized juice in the diet of infants was inopportune and premature. When compared to natural fruit juice, these have inferior nutritional composition, which suggests the urgent need for measures based on strategies for food and nutrition education in order to promote awareness and the maintenance of healthy eating habits. Copyright © 2014 Associação de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  14. Numerical evaluation of path-integral solutions to Fokker-Planck equations. II. Restricted stochastic processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wehner, M.F.

    1983-01-01

    A path-integral solution is derived for processes described by nonlinear Fokker-Plank equations together with externally imposed boundary conditions. This path-integral solution is written in the form of a path sum for small time steps and contains, in addition to the conventional volume integral, a surface integral which incorporates the boundary conditions. A previously developed numerical method, based on a histogram representation of the probability distribution, is extended to a trapezoidal representation. This improved numerical approach is combined with the present path-integral formalism for restricted processes and is show t give accurate results. 35 refs., 5 figs

  15. Nucleation during gibbsites precipitation with seeds from sodium aluminate solution processed under ultrasound

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈国辉; 陈启元; 尹周澜; 张斌

    2004-01-01

    The secondary nucleation during gibbsite precipitation with seeds from sodium aluminate solution processed by ultrasound was examined by particle size distribution(PSD) analyses. Experiments indicate that at low temperature(<65 ℃ ) and with low frequency ultrasound, the precipitation efficiency and also the secondary nucleation can be improved. Solution processed by low frequency ultrasound has more nuclei than common liquor does at low temperature. At 55 ℃, precipitation efficiency can he improved by 5.31 %, and the effect promoted by low frequency ultrasound decreases with the increase of temperature.

  16. Evaluation of the Magnesium Hydroxide Treatment Process for Stabilizing PFP Plutonium/Nitric Acid Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, Mark A.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Silvers, Kurt L.; Baker, Aaron B.; Gano, Susan R.; Thornton, Brenda M.

    2000-09-28

    This document summarizes an evaluation of the magnesium hydroxide [Mg(OH)2] process to be used at the Hanford Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) for stabilizing plutonium/nitric acid solutions to meet the goal of stabilizing the plutonium in an oxide form suitable for storage under DOE-STD-3013-99. During the treatment process, nitric acid solutions bearing plutonium nitrate are neutralized with Mg(OH)2 in an air sparge reactor. The resulting slurry, containing plutonium hydroxide, is filtered and calcined. The process evaluation included a literature review and extensive laboratory- and bench-scale testing. The testing was conducted using cerium as a surrogate for plutonium to identify and quantify the effects of key processing variables on processing time (primarily neutralization and filtration time) and calcined product properties.

  17. Soft Clouding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Morten; Markussen, Thomas; Wetton, Barnabas

    2012-01-01

    Soft Clouding is a blended concept, which describes the aim of a collaborative and transdisciplinary project. The concept is a metaphor implying a blend of cognitive, embodied interaction and semantic web. Furthermore, it is a metaphor describing our attempt of curating a new semantics of sound...... archiving. The Soft Clouding Project is part of LARM - a major infrastructure combining research in and access to sound and radio archives in Denmark. In 2012 the LARM infrastructure will consist of more than 1 million hours of radio, combined with metadata who describes the content. The idea is to analyse...... the concept of ‘infrastructure’ and ‘interface’ on a creative play with the fundamentals of LARM (and any sound archive situation combining many kinds and layers of data and sources). This paper will present and discuss the Soft clouding project from the perspective of the three practices and competencies...

  18. Mass transfer processes and field-scale transport of organic solutes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brusseau, M.L.

    1990-01-01

    The influence of mass transfer processes, such as sorption/desorption and mass transfer between immiscible liquids and water, on the transport of organic solutes is discussed. Rate-limited sorption of organic solutes caused by a diffusion-constrained mechanism is shown to be significant under laboratory conditions. The significance of the impact of nonequilibrium sorption on field-scale transport is scale dependent. The impact of organic liquids on mass transfer and transport of organic solutes depends upon the nature of the solute and the nature and form of the organic liquid. For example, while retardation of nonionic solutes is decreased in mixed-solvent systems, (i.e. systems comprised of water and a miscible organic liquid or an immiscible liquid present in concentrations below phase separation), the retardation of organic acids may, in some cases, increase with addition of a cosolvent. While the presence of an immiscible liquid existing as a mobile phase will reduce retention of organic solutes, the presence of residual saturation of an immiscible liquid can significantly increase retention. A model is presented that incorporates the effects of retention resulting from residual saturation, as well as nonequilibrium sorption, on the transport of organic solutes. (Author) (70 refs., 3 figs.)

  19. Process solutions for reducing PR residue over non-planar wafer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, C. H.; Huang, C. H.; Yang, Elvis; Yang, T. H.; Chen, K. C.; Lu, Chih-Yuan

    2011-03-01

    SAS (Self-Aligned Source) process has been widely adopted on manufacturing NOR Flash devices. To form the SAS structure, the compromise between small space patterning and sufficiently removing photo resist residue in topographical substrate has been a critical challenge as the device scaling down. In this study, photo simulation, layout optimization, resist processing and tri-layer materials were evaluated to form defect-free and highly extendible SAS structure for NOR Flash devices. Photo simulation suggested more coherent light source allowed the incident light to reach the trench bottom that facilitates the removal of photo resist. Mask bias also benefited the process latitude extension for residue-free SAS printing. In the photo resist processing, both lowering the SB (Soft Bake) and raising PEB (Post-Exposure Bake) temperature of photo resist were helpful to broaden the process window but the final pattern profile was not good enough. Thermal flow for pos-exposure pattern shrinkage achieved small CD (Critical Dimension) patterning with residue-free, however the materials loading effect is another issue to be addressed at memory array boundary. Tri-layer scheme demonstrated good results in terms of free from residue, better substrate reflectivity control, enabling smaller space printing to loosen overlay specification and minimizing the poly gate clipping defect. It was finally proposed to combine with etch effort to from the SAS structure. Besides it is also promising to extend to even smaller technology nodes.

  20. ELECTRODIALYSIS IN THE CONVERSION STEP OF THE CONCENTRATED SALT SOLUTIONS IN THE PROCESS OF BATTERY SCRAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. I. Niftaliev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. The concentrated sodium sulfate solution is formed during the processing of waste battery scrap. A promising way to further treatment of the concentrated salt solution could be the conversion of these salts into acid and bases by electrodialysis, that can be reused in the same technical process cycle. For carrying out the process of conversion of salts into the corresponding acid and base several cells schemes with different combinations of cation, anion and bipolar membranes are used. At this article a comparative analysis of these cells is carried out. In the cells there were used the membranes МC-40, МА-41 and МB-2I. Acid and base solutions with higher concentration may be obtained during the process of electrodialysis in the circulation mode, when a predetermined amount of salt in the closed loop is run through a set of membranes to obtain the desired concentration of the product. The disadvantages of this method are the high cost of buffer tanks and the need to work with small volumes of treated solutions. In industrial applications it is advisable to use continuous electrodialysis with bipolar membranes, since this configuration allows to increase the number of repeating sections, which is necessary to reduce the energy costs. The increase of the removal rate of salts can be achieved by increasing the process steps, and to produce a more concentrated products after the conversion step can be applied electrodialysis-concentrator or evaporator.

  1. Potentiometric determination of uranium in simulated Purex Process solutions by acidiometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, V.H.; Matsuda, H.T.; Araujo, B.F. de; Araujo, J.A. de

    1983-01-01

    A potentiometric methods for sequential free acidity and uranium determination in simulated Purex Process solutions is described. An oxalate solution or a mixture of fluoride-oxalate pellets were used as complexing agent for free titration. Following this first equivalent point, uranium is determined-by indirect titration of H + liberated in the peruanate reaction. Some elements present in the standard fuel elements with a burn-up of 33.000 Mwd/t, neutron flux of 3,2 x 10 13 n.cm -2 .s -1 and cooling time of two years were considered as interfering elements in uranium analyses. As a substitute of Pu-IV, Th(NO 3 ) 4 solution was used. The method can be applied to aqueous and organic (TBP/diluent) solutions with 2% precision and 2% accuracy. (Autor) [pt

  2. Potentiometric determination of uranium in simulated Purex Process solutions by acidiometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, V H; Matsuda, H T; Araujo, B.F. de; Araujo, J.A. de

    1984-01-01

    A potentiometric methods for sequential free acidity and uranium determination in simulated Purex Process solutions is described. An oxalate solution or a mixture of fluoride-oxalate pellets were used as complexing agent for free titration. Following this first equivalent point, uranium is determined-by indirect titration of H/sup +/ liberated in the peruanate reaction. Some elements present in the standard fuel elements with a burn-up of 33.000 Mwd/t, neutron flux of 3,2 x 10/sup 13/n.cm/sup -2/.s/sup -1/ and cooling time of two years were considered as interfering elements in uranium analyses. As a substitute of Pu-IV, Th(NO/sub 3/)/sub 4/ solution was used. The method can be applied to aqueous and organic (TBP/diluent) solutions with 2% precision and 2% accuracy. (Autor).

  3. Rapid processing method for solution deposited YBa2Cu3O7-δ thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawley, J.T.; Clem, P.G.; Boyle, T.J.; Ottley, L.M.; Overmyer, D.L.; Siegal, M.P.

    2004-01-01

    YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ (YBCO) films, deposited on buffered metal substrates, are the primary candidate for second-generation superconducting (SC) wires, with applications including expanded power grid transmission capability, compact motors, and enhanced sensitivity magnetic resonance imaging. Feasibility of manufacturing such superconducting wires is dependent on high processing speed, often a limitation of vapor and solution-based YBCO deposition processes. In this work, YBCO films were fabricated via a new diethanolamine-modified trifluoroacetic film solution deposition method. Modifying the copper chemistry of the YBCO precursor solution with diethanolamine enables a hundredfold decrease in the organic pyrolysis time required for MA/cm 2 current density (J c ) YBCO films, from multiple hours to ∼20 s in atmospheric pressure air. High quality, ∼0.2 μm thick YBCO films with J c (77 K) values ≥2 MA/cm 2 at 77 K are routinely crystallized from these rapidly pyrolyzed films deposited on LaAlO 3 . This process has also enabled J c (77 K)=1.1 MA/cm 2 YBCO films via 90 m/h dip-coating on Oak Ridge National Laboratory RABiTS textured metal tape substrates. This new YBCO solution deposition method suggests a route toward inexpensive and commercializable ∼$10/kA m solution deposited YBCO coated conductor wires

  4. The use of physiological solutions or media in calcium phosphate synthesis and processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tas, A Cuneyt

    2014-05-01

    This review examined the literature to spot uses, if any, of physiological solutions/media for the in situ synthesis of calcium phosphates (CaP) under processing conditions (i.e. temperature, pH, concentration of inorganic ions present in media) mimicking those prevalent in the human hard tissue environments. There happens to be a variety of aqueous solutions or media developed for different purposes; sometimes they have been named as physiological saline, isotonic solution, cell culture solution, metastable CaP solution, supersaturated calcification solution, simulated body fluid or even dialysate solution (for dialysis patients). Most of the time such solutions were not used as the aqueous medium to perform the biomimetic synthesis of calcium phosphates, and their use was usually limited to the in vitro testing of synthetic biomaterials. This review illustrates that only a limited number of research studies used physiological solutions or media such as Earle's balanced salt solution, Bachra et al. solutions or Tris-buffered simulated body fluid solution containing 27mM HCO3(-) for synthesizing CaP, and these studies have consistently reported the formation of X-ray-amorphous CaP nanopowders instead of Ap-CaP or stoichiometric hydroxyapatite (HA, Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2) at 37°C and pH 7.4. By relying on the published articles, this review highlights the significance of the use of aqueous solutions containing 0.8-1.5 mMMg(2+), 22-27mM HCO3(-), 142-145mM Na(+), 5-5.8mM K(+), 103-133mM Cl(-), 1.8-3.75mM Ca(2+), and 0.8-1.67mM HPO4(2-), which essentially mimic the composition and the overall ionic strength of the human extracellular fluid (ECF), in forming the nanospheres of X-ray-amorphous CaP. Copyright © 2013 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Soft lithography of ceramic patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Göbel, Ole; Nedelcu, M.; Steiner, U.

    2007-01-01

    Polymer-based precursor solutions are patterned using a soft-lithographic patterning technique to yield sub-micrometer-sized ceramic patterns. By using a polymer-metal-nitrate solution as a lithographic resist, we demonstrate a micromolding procedure using a simple rubber stamp that yields a

  6. Fully solution-processed organic solar cells on metal foil substrates

    KAUST Repository

    Gaynor, Whitney

    2009-08-19

    We demonstrate fully solution-processed organic photovoltaic cells on metal foil substrates with power conversion efficiencies similar to those obtained in devices on transparent substrates. The cells are based on the regioregular poly- (3-hexylthiophene) and C61 butyric acid methyl ester bulk heterojunction system. The bottom electrode is a silver film whose workfunction is lowered by Cs2CO3 using spin-coating to serve as a cathode. The transparent top anode consists of a conductive polymer in combination with a solution-processed silver nanowire mesh that is laminated onto the devices. Each layer of the device, including the transparent electrode, is fabricated from solution, giving rise to the possibility of completely printed solar cells on low-cost substrates.

  7. [Enhancement effect of double-beam laser processed aqueous solution on ICP emission spectrum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jin-zhong; Xu, Li-jing; Su, Hong-xin; Li, Xu; Wang, Shu-fang

    2015-01-01

    In order to change the physical properties of aqueous solution and improve the radiation intensity of the ICP emission spectrum, the effects of different laser power density and irradiation time on the surface tension and viscosity of aqueous solution were investigated by using near infrared laser at 976 nm and CO2 laser at 10. 6 µm to irradiate aqueous solution orthogonally, then the enhancement of ICP spectral intensity with processed solution was discussed. The results showed that the surface tension and viscosity of aqueous solution reduced by 42. 13% and 14. 03% compared with the untreated, and the atomization efficiency increased by 51.26% at the laser power density 0. 265 7 W . cm-2 of 976 nm and 0. 206 9 W . cm-2 of CO2 laser with 40 min irradiation time. With the optimized aqueous solution introduced into the ICP source, the spectral line intensity of sample elements As, Cd, Cr, Hg and Pb was enhanced by 46.29%, 94. 65%, 30. 76%, 33.07% and 94. 58% compared to the untreated aqueous solution, while the signal-to-background ratio increased by 43. 84%, 85. 35%, 28. 71%, 34. 37% and 90. 91%, respectively. Plasma temperature and electron density also increased by 5. 94% and 1. 18% respectively. It is obvious that the method of double-beam laser orthogonal irradiation on solution can reduce the surface tension and viscosity of aqueous solution significantly, and raise the radiationintensity of ICP source, and will provide a better condition for detecting the trace heavy metal elements in water samples.

  8. Manufacturing polymer light emitting diode with high luminance efficiency by solution process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Miyoung; Jo, SongJin; Yang, Ho Chang; Yoon, Dang Mo; Kwon, Jae-Taek; Lee, Seung-Hyun; Choi, Ju Hwan; Lee, Bum-Joo; Shin, Jin-Koog

    2012-06-01

    While investigating polymer light emitting diodes (polymer-LEDs) fabricated by solution process, surface roughness influences electro-optical (E-O) characteristics. We expect that E-O characteristics such as luminance and power efficiency related to surface roughness and layer thickness of emitting layer with poly-9-Vinylcarbazole. In this study, we fabricated polymer organic light emitting diodes by solution process which guarantees easy, eco-friendly and low cost manufacturing for flexible display applications. In order to obtain high luminescence efficiency, E-O characteristics of these devices by varying parameters for printing process have been investigated. Therefore, we optimized process condition for polymer-LEDs by adjusting annealing temperatures of emission, thickness of emission layer showing efficiency (10.8 cd/A) at 10 mA/cm2. We also checked wavelength dependent electroluminescence spectrum in order to find the correlation between the variation of efficiency and the thickness of the layer.

  9. Formation of metal and dielectric liners using a solution process for deep trench capacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Yong-Hyun; Kim, Dong-Pyo; Baek, Kyu-Ha; Park, Kun-Sik; Kim, Moonkeun; Kwon, Kwang-Ho; Shin, Hong-Sik; Lee, Kijun; Do, Lee-Mi

    2012-07-01

    We demonstrated the feasibility of metal and dielectric liners using a solution process for deep trench capacitor application. The deep Si trench via with size of 10.3 microm and depth of 71 microm were fabricated by Bosch process in deep reactive ion etch (DRIE) system. The aspect ratio was about 7. Then, nano-Ag ink and poly(4-vinylphenol) (PVPh) were used to form metal and dielectric liners, respectively. The thicknesses of the Ag and PVPh liners were about 144 and 830 nm, respectively. When the curing temperature of Ag film increased from 120 to 150 degrees C, the sheet resistance decreased rapidly from 2.47 to 0.72 Omega/sq and then slightly decreased to 0.6 Omega/sq with further increasing the curing temperature beyond 150 degrees C. The proposed liner formation method using solution process is a simple and cost effective process for the high capacity of deep trench capacitor.

  10. All solution processing of ITO-free organic solar cell modules directly on barrier foil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angmo, Dechan; Hösel, Markus; Krebs, Frederik C

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we demonstrate fully solution processed semi-transparent silver electrodes on flexible substrates having a sheet resistance as low as 5Ω/□ and transmittance of ∼30% at 550nm. We demonstrate the use of this electrode as a substitute for ITO in an inverted organic solar cell (OSC...

  11. Failure analysis in ITO-free all-solution processed organic solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galagan, Y.; Eggenhuisen, T.M.; Coenen, M.J.J.; Biezemans, A.F.K.V.; Verhees, W.J.H.; Veenstra, S.C.; Groen, W.A.; Andriessen, R.; Janssen, R.A.J.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we discuss a problem-solving methodology and present guidance for troubleshooting defects in ITO-free all-solution processed organic solar cells with an inverted cell architecture. A systematic approach for identifying the main causes of failures in devices is presented. Comprehensive

  12. All-solution processed polymer light-emitting diodes with air stable metal-oxide electrodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruyn, P. de; Moet, D.J.D.; Blom, P.W.M.

    2012-01-01

    We present an all-solution processed polymer light-emitting diode (PLED) using spincoated zinc oxide (ZnO) and vanadium pentoxide (V2O5) as electron and hole injecting contact, respectively. We compare the performance of these devices to the standard PLED design using PEDOT:PSS as anode and Ba/Al as

  13. Purification process for aqueous solutions of rare earths by liquid-liquid extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rollat, A.; Sabot, J.L.; Burgard, M.; Delloye, T.

    1986-01-01

    Alkaline earth metals are removed by liquid-liquid extraction between on aqueous nitric phase of impure rare earth compounds and an organic phase of polyether (crown ether). This process is particularly suited to removal of Ca, Ba and Ra contained in nitric solutions of rare earths [fr

  14. A cyano-terminated dithienyldiketopyrrolopyrrole dimer as a solution processable ambipolar semiconductor under ambient conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Zhang, Xiaojie; Tian, Hongkun; Lu, Yunfeng; Geng, Yanhou; Wang, Fosong

    2013-12-14

    A cyano-terminated dimer of dithienyldiketopyrrolopyrrole (TDPP), DPP2-CN, is a solution processable ambipolar semiconductor with field-effect hole and electron mobilities of 0.066 and 0.033 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1), respectively, under ambient conditions.

  15. All-Solution-Processed Metal-Oxide-Free Flexible Organic Solar Cells with Over 10% Efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wei; Fan, Xi; Xu, Bingang; Yan, Feng; Cui, Huiqin; Wei, Qiang; Peng, Ruixiang; Hong, Ling; Huang, Jiaming; Ge, Ziyi

    2018-05-16

    All-solution-processing at low temperatures is important and desirable for making printed photovoltaic devices and also offers the possibility of a safe and cost-effective fabrication environment for the devices. Herein, an all-solution-processed flexible organic solar cell (OSC) using poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly-(styrenesulfonate) electrodes is reported. The all-solution-processed flexible devices yield the highest power conversion efficiency of 10.12% with high fill factor of over 70%, which is the highest value for metal-oxide-free flexible OSCs reported so far. The enhanced performance is attributed to the newly developed gentle acid treatment at room temperature that enables a high-performance PEDOT:PSS/plastic underlying substrate with a matched work function (≈4.91 eV), and the interface engineering that endows the devices with better interface contacts and improved hole mobility. Furthermore, the flexible devices exhibit an excellent mechanical flexibility, as indicated by a high retention (≈94%) of the initial efficiency after 1000 bending cycles. This work provides a simple route to fabricate high-performance all-solution-processed flexible OSCs, which is important for the development of printing, blading, and roll-to-roll technologies. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. A triphenylamine substituted quinacridone derivative for solution processed organic light emitting diodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pilz da Cunha, M.; Do, T.T.; Yambem, S.D.; Pham, H.D.; Chang, S.; Manzhos, S.; Katoh, R.; Sonar, P.

    2018-01-01

    We report on a novel quinacridone derivative design, namely, 2,9-bis(4-(bis(4-methoxyphenyl)amino)phenyl)-5,12-bis(2-ethylhexyl)-5,12-dihydroquinolino[2,3-b]acridine-7,14-dione (TPA-QA-TPA) for possible use as a solution processable emissive layer in organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs). TPA-QA-TPA

  17. Photoexcitation dynamics in solution-processed formamidinium lead iodide perovskite thin films for solar cell applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fang, Hong-Hua; Wang, Feng; Adjokatse, Sampson; Zhao, Ni; Even, Jacky; Loi, Maria Antonietta

    Formamidinium lead iodide (FAPbI(3)) is a newly developed hybrid perovskite that potentially can be used in high-efficiency solution-processed solar cells. Here, the temperature-dependent dynamic optical properties of three types of FAPbI(3) perovskite films (fabricated using three different

  18. Process to decontaminate a superficial soil layer contaminated with radioactive particles and decontaminating solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jouve, A.; Mary, N.

    1993-01-01

    The process consists to dissolve a micronised powder of anionic and crosslinked polyacrilamide, to spray the obtained decontamination solution on the floor to be traited allowing to dry to form a dry polyacrilamide film, to rehydrate the film by spraying with water and to recover the film bonded to the floor particles and the polluting particles by cleaning means. 1 fig

  19. Functional porous composites by blending with solution-processable molecular pores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, S; Chen, L; Briggs, M E; Hasell, T; Cooper, A I

    2016-05-25

    We present a simple method for rendering non-porous materials porous by solution co-processing with organic cage molecules. This method can be used both for small functional molecules and for polymers, thus creating porous composites by molecular blending, rather than the more traditional approach of supporting functional molecules on pre-frabricated porous supports.

  20. Solution-processed organic tandem solar cells with embedded optical spacers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadipour, Afshin; de Boer, Bert; Blom, Paul W. M.

    2007-01-01

    We demonstrate a solution-processed polymer tandem solar cell in which the two photoactive single cells are separated by an optical spacer. The use of an optical spacer allows for an independent optimization of both the electronic and optical properties of the tandem cell. The optical transmission

  1. Efficient electron injection from solution-processed cesium stearate interlayers in organic light-emitting diodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wetzelaer, G. A. H.; Najafi, A.; Kist, R. J. P.; Kuik, M.; Blom, P. W. M.

    2013-01-01

    The electron-injection capability of solution-processed cesium stearate films in organic light-emitting diodes is investigated. Cesium stearate, which is expected to exhibit good solubility and film formation due to its long hydrocarbon chain, is synthesized using a straightforward procedure.

  2. Continuously tunable solution-processed organic semiconductor DFB lasers pumped by laser diode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinkhammer, Sönke; Liu, Xin; Huska, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    The fabrication and characterization of continuously tunable, solution-processed distributed feedback (DFB) lasers in the visible regime is reported. Continuous thin film thickness gradients were achieved by means of horizontal dipping of several conjugated polymer and blended small molecule solu...

  3. Solution processed bismuth sulfide nanowire array core/silver shuffle shell solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cao, Y.; Bernechea, M.; Maclachlan, A.; Zardetto, V.; Creatore, M.; Haque, S.A.; Konstantatos, G.

    2015-01-01

    Low bandgap inorganic semiconductor nanowires have served as building blocks in solution processed solar cells to improve their power conversion capacity and reduce fabrication cost. In this work, we first reported bismuth sulfide nanowire arrays grown from colloidal seeds on a transparent

  4. Morphology Development in Solution-Processed Functional Organic Blend Films: An In Situ Viewpoint

    KAUST Repository

    Richter, Lee J.; DeLongchamp, Dean M.; Amassian, Aram

    2017-01-01

    .0, to the Internet of things, to point-of-use heath care and elder care. The extreme sensitivity of the functional performance of organic films to structure and the general nonequilibrium nature of solution drying result in extreme processing-performance correlations

  5. Analysing student written solutions to investigate if problem-solving processes are evident throughout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Regina; McLoughlin, Eilish; Finlayson, Odilla E.

    2016-07-01

    An interdisciplinary science course has been implemented at a university with the intention of providing students the opportunity to develop a range of key skills in relation to: real-world connections of science, problem-solving, information and communications technology use and team while linking subject knowledge in each of the science disciplines. One of the problems used in this interdisciplinary course has been selected to evaluate if it affords students the opportunity to explicitly display problem-solving processes. While the benefits of implementing problem-based learning have been well reported, far less research has been devoted to methods of assessing student problem-solving solutions. A problem-solving theoretical framework was used as a tool to assess student written solutions to indicate if problem-solving processes were present. In two academic years, student problem-solving processes were satisfactory for exploring and understanding, representing and formulating, and planning and executing, indicating that student collaboration on problems is a good initiator of developing these processes. In both academic years, students displayed poor monitoring and reflecting (MR) processes at the intermediate level. A key impact of evaluating student work in this way is that it facilitated meaningful feedback about the students' problem-solving process rather than solely assessing the correctness of problem solutions.

  6. Solution processing of chalcogenide materials using thiol-amine "alkahest" solvent systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Carrie L; Brutchey, Richard L

    2017-05-02

    Macroelectronics is a major focus in electronics research and is driven by large area applications such as flat panel displays and thin film solar cells. Innovations for these technologies, such as flexible substrates and mass production, will require efficient and affordable semiconductor processing. Low-temperature solution processing offers mild deposition methods, inexpensive processing equipment, and the possibility of high-throughput processing. In recent years, the discovery that binary "alkahest" mixtures of ethylenediamine and short chain thiols possess the ability to dissolve bulk inorganic materials to yield molecular inks has lead to the wide study of such systems and the straightforward recovery of phase pure crystalline chalcogenide thin films upon solution processing and mild annealing of the inks. In this review, we recount the work that has been done toward elucidating the scope of this method for the solution processing of inorganic materials for use in applications such as photovoltaic devices, electrocatalysts, photodetectors, thermoelectrics, and nanocrystal ligand exchange. We also take stock of the wide range of bulk materials that can be used as soluble precursors, and discuss the work that has been done to reveal the nature of the dissolved species. This method has provided a vast toolbox of over 65 bulk precursors, which can be utilized to develop new routes to functional chalcogenide materials. Future studies in this area should work toward a better understanding of the mechanisms involved in the dissolution and recovery of bulk materials, as well as broadening the scope of soluble precursors and recoverable functional materials for innovative applications.

  7. Monitoring of Deep Foundation Pit Support and Construction Process in Soft Soil Area of Pearl River Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiyi, Xie; Pengcheng

    2018-03-01

    The deep foundation pit supporting technology in the soft soil area of the Pearl River Delta is more complicated, and many factors influence and restrict it. In this project as an example, according to the geological conditions and the surrounding circumstances, the main foundation using bored piles and pre-stressed anchor cable supporting structure + five axis cement mixing pile curtain supporting form; partial use of double row piles supporting structure + five axis cement mixing pile curtain support type. Through the monitoring results of construction show that the foundation pit, the indicators of environmental changes are in the design range, the supporting scheme of deep foundation pit technology is feasible and reliable.

  8. Towards efficient next generation light sources: combined solution processed and evaporated layers for OLEDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, D.; Sarfert, W.; Meier, S.; Bolink, H.; García Santamaría, S.; Wecker, J.

    2010-05-01

    Typically high efficient OLED device structures are based on a multitude of stacked thin organic layers prepared by thermal evaporation. For lighting applications these efficient device stacks have to be up-scaled to large areas which is clearly challenging in terms of high through-put processing at low-cost. One promising approach to meet cost-efficiency, high through-put and high light output is the combination of solution and evaporation processing. Moreover, the objective is to substitute as many thermally evaporated layers as possible by solution processing without sacrificing the device performance. Hence, starting from the anode side, evaporated layers of an efficient white light emitting OLED stack are stepwise replaced by solution processable polymer and small molecule layers. In doing so different solutionprocessable hole injection layers (= polymer HILs) are integrated into small molecule devices and evaluated with regard to their electro-optical performance as well as to their planarizing properties, meaning the ability to cover ITO spikes, defects and dust particles. Thereby two approaches are followed whereas in case of the "single HIL" approach only one polymer HIL is coated and in case of the "combined HIL" concept the coated polymer HIL is combined with a thin evaporated HIL. These HIL architectures are studied in unipolar as well as bipolar devices. As a result the combined HIL approach facilitates a better control over the hole current, an improved device stability as well as an improved current and power efficiency compared to a single HIL as well as pure small molecule based OLED stacks. Furthermore, emitting layers based on guest/host small molecules are fabricated from solution and integrated into a white hybrid stack (WHS). Up to three evaporated layers were successfully replaced by solution-processing showing comparable white light emission spectra like an evaporated small molecule reference stack and lifetime values of several 100 h.

  9. Thorium determination by x-ray fluorescence spectrometry in simulated thorex process solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaura, M.; Matsuda, H.T.

    1991-11-01

    The X-ray fluorescence method for thorium determination in aqueous and organic (TBP/n-dodecane) solutions is described. The thin film technique for sample preparation and a suitable internal standard had been used. The best conditions for Thorium determination had been established studying some parameters as analytical line, internal standard, filter paper, paper geometry, sample volume and measurement conditions. With the established conditions, thorium was concentration range of to 200 g Th/L and in organic solutions (2-63g Th/L) with 1,5% of precision. The accuracy of the proposed method was 3% in aqueous and organic phases. The detection limit was 1,2μg thorium for aqueous solutions and 1,4μg for organic solutions. Uranium, fission products, corrosion products and Thorex reagent components were studied as interfering elements in the thorium analysis. The matrix effect was also studied using the Thorex process simulated solutions. Finally, the method was applied to thorium determination in irradiated thorium solutions with satisfactory results. (author)

  10. Prevalence of pale, soft, and exudative (PSE) condition in chicken meat used for commercial meat processing and its effect on roasted chicken breast

    OpenAIRE

    Karunanayaka, Deshani S.; Jayasena, Dinesh D.; Jo, Cheorun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Studies on prevalence of pale, soft, exudative (PSE) condition in Sri Lankan poultry industry is minimal. Hence, the objective of present study was to determine the incidence of PSE chicken meat in a commercial meat processing plant and to find out its consequences on meat quality traits of roasted chicken breast. Method A total of 60 breast fillets were randomly selected, evaluated based on color L* value, and placed into 1 of 2 categories; PSE (L* > 58) or normal meat (L...

  11. Database Security for an Integrated Solution to Automate Sales Processes in Banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Maria Ioana FLOREA

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to maintain a competitive edge in a very active banking market the implementation of a web-based solution to standardize, optimize and manage the flow of sales / pre-sales and generating new leads is requested by a company. This article presents the realization of a development framework for software interoperability in the banking financial institutions and an integrated solution for achieving sales process automation in banking. The paper focuses on presenting the requirements for security and confidentiality of stored data and also on presenting the identified techniques and procedures to implement these requirements.

  12. 3,3′-Bicarbazole-Based Host Molecules for Solution-Processed Phosphorescent OLEDs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungwoon Kim

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Solution-processed organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs are attractive due to their low-cost, large area displays, and lighting features. Small molecules as well as polymers can be used as host materials within the solution-processed emitting layer. Herein, we report two 3,3′-bicarbazole-based host small molecules, which possess a structural isomer relationship. 9,9′-Di-4-n-butylphenyl-9H,9′H-3,3′-bicarbazole (BCz-nBuPh and 9,9′-di-4-t-butylphenyl-9H,9′H-3,3′-bicarbazole (BCz-tBuPh exhibited similar optical properties within solutions but different photoluminescence within films. A solution-processed green phosphorescent OLED with the BCz-tBuPh host exhibited a high maximum current efficiency and power efficiency of 43.1 cd/A and 40.0 lm/W, respectively, compared to the device with the BCz-nBuPh host.

  13. On Soft Biometrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nixon, Mark; Correia, Paulo; Nasrollahi, Kamal

    2015-01-01

    Innovation has formed much of the rich history in biometrics. The field of soft biometrics was originally aimed to augment the recognition process by fusion of metrics that were sufficient to discriminate populations rather than individuals. This was later refined to use measures that could be us...

  14. Viability analysis of heat recovery solution for industrial process of roasting coffee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kljajić Miroslav V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Every industrial heat recovery solution is specific engineering challenge but not because predicted energy rationalization or achieved energy savings but potential unavoidable technological deviations and consequences on related processes and for sure, high investment because of delicate design and construction. Often, the energy savings in a particular segment of the industrial process is a main goal. However, in the food industry, especially roasting coffee, additional criteria has to be strictly observed and fulfilled. Such criteria may include prescribed and uniform product quality, compliance with food safety standards, stability of the processes etc., and all in the presence of key process parameters variability, inconsistency of raw material composition and quality, complexity of measurement and analytical methods etc. The paper respects all circumstances and checks viability of proposed recovery solution. The paper analyzes the possibility of using waste heat from the roasting process to ensure shortening of roasting cycle, reduction of fuel consumption and increasing capacity of roasting lines on daily basis. Analysis concludes that effects are valuable and substantial, although the complete solution is on the threshold of economic sustainability with numerous opportunities to improve of both technical and economic indicators. The analysis combines measuring and analytical methods with standard cost-benefit analysis. Conclusions are derived from measurements and calculations of key parameters in the operating conditions and checked by experimental methods. Test results deviate from 10 to 15%, in relation with parameters in main production line.

  15. The numerical solution of thawing process in phase change slab using variable space grid technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serttikul, C.

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the numerical analysis of melting process in phase change material which considers the moving boundary as the main parameter. In this study, pure ice slab and saturated porous packed bed are considered as the phase change material. The formulation of partial differential equations is performed consisting heat conduction equations in each phase and moving boundary equation (Stefan equation. The variable space grid method is then applied to these equations. The transient heat conduction equations and the Stefan condition are solved by using the finite difference method. A one-dimensional melting model is then validated against the available analytical solution. The effect of constant temperature heat source on melting rate and location of melting front at various times is studied in detail.It is found that the nonlinearity of melting rate occurs for a short time. The successful comparison with numerical solution and analytical solution should give confidence in the proposed mathematical treatment, and encourage the acceptance of this method as useful tool for exploring practical problems such as forming materials process, ice melting process, food preservation process and tissue preservation process.

  16. Fully Solution-Processed Inverted Polymer Solar Cells with Laminated Nanowire Electrodes

    KAUST Repository

    Gaynor, Whitney

    2010-01-26

    We demonstrate organic photovoltaic cells in which every layer is deposited by solution processing on opaque metal substrates, with efficiencies similar to those obtained in conventional device structures on transparent substrates. The device architecture is enabled by solution-processed, laminated silver nanowire films serving as the top transparent anode. The cells are based on the regioregular poly(3- hexylthiophene) and C 61 butyric acid methyl ester bulk heterojunction and reach an efficiency of 2.5% under 100 mW/cm 2 of AM 1.5G illumination. The metal substrates are adequate barriers to moisture and oxygen, in contrast to transparent plastics that have previously been used, giving rise to the possibility of roll-to-roll solutionprocessed solar cells that are packaged by lamination to glass substrates, combining the cost advantage of roll-toroll processing with the barrier properties of glass and metal foil. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  17. Fully Solution-Processed Inverted Polymer Solar Cells with Laminated Nanowire Electrodes

    KAUST Repository

    Gaynor, Whitney; Lee, Jung-Yong; Peumans, Peter

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate organic photovoltaic cells in which every layer is deposited by solution processing on opaque metal substrates, with efficiencies similar to those obtained in conventional device structures on transparent substrates. The device architecture is enabled by solution-processed, laminated silver nanowire films serving as the top transparent anode. The cells are based on the regioregular poly(3- hexylthiophene) and C 61 butyric acid methyl ester bulk heterojunction and reach an efficiency of 2.5% under 100 mW/cm 2 of AM 1.5G illumination. The metal substrates are adequate barriers to moisture and oxygen, in contrast to transparent plastics that have previously been used, giving rise to the possibility of roll-to-roll solutionprocessed solar cells that are packaged by lamination to glass substrates, combining the cost advantage of roll-toroll processing with the barrier properties of glass and metal foil. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  18. All solution processed tandem polymer solar cells based on thermocleavable materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagemann, Ole; Bjerring, Morten; Nielsen, Niels Chr.

    2008-01-01

    efficiently solved. Devices comprised a transparent front cathode based on solution processed zinc oxide nanoparticles, a large band gap active layer based on a bulk heterojunction between zinc oxide and poly(3-carboxydithiophene) (P3CT) followed by a layer of PEDOT:PSS processed from water. The second cell...... in the stack employed a zinc oxide front cathode processed on top of the PEDOT:PSS layer from an organic solvent, a low band gap active layer based on a bulk heterojunction between zinc oxide and the novel poly(carboxyterthiophene-co-diphenylthienopyrazine) (P3CTTP) followed by a layer of PEDOT:PSS again...

  19. All solution processed organic thin film transistor-backplane with printing technology for electrophoretic display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Myung W.; Song, C.K.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, solution processes were developed for backplane using an organic thin film transistor (OTFT) as a driving device for an electrophoretic display (EPD) panel. The processes covered not only the key device of OTFTs but also interlayer and pixel electrodes. The various materials and printing processes were adopted to achieve the requirements of devices and functioning layers. The performance of OTFT of the backplane was sufficient to drive EPD sheet by producing a mobility of 0.12 cm2/v x sec and on/off current ratio of 10(5).

  20. Processing of radioactive waste solutions in a vacuum evaporator-crystallizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrie, J.C.; Donovan, R.I.; Van der Cook, R.E.; Christensen, W.R.

    1975-01-01

    Results of the first 18 months' operation of Hanford's vacuum evaporator-crystallizer are reported. This process reduces the volume of radioactive waste solutions and simultaneously converts the waste to a less mobile salt cake. The evaporator-crystallizer is operating at better than design production rates and has reduced the volume of radioactive wastes by more than 15 million gallons. A process description, plant performance data, mechanical difficulties, and future operating plans are discussed. Also discussed is a computer model of the evaporator-crystallizer process

  1. Hard and Soft Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moos, Lejf

    2009-01-01

    of Denmark, and finally the third layer: the leadership used in Danish schools. The use of 'soft governance' is shifting the focus of governance and leadership from decisions towards influence and power and thus shifting the focus of the processes from the decision-making itself towards more focus......The governance and leadership at transnational, national and school level seem to be converging into a number of isomorphic forms as we see a tendency towards substituting 'hard' forms of governance, that are legally binding, with 'soft' forms based on persuasion and advice. This article analyses...... and discusses governance forms at several levels. The first layer is the global: the methods of 'soft governance' that are being utilised by transnational agencies. The second layer is the national and local: the shift in national and local governance seen in many countries, but here demonstrated in the case...

  2. Solution-Processed Organic and Halide Perovskite Transistors on Hydrophobic Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Jeremy W; Smith, Hannah L; Zeidell, Andrew; Diemer, Peter J; Baker, Stephen R; Lee, Hyunsu; Payne, Marcia M; Anthony, John E; Guthold, Martin; Jurchescu, Oana D

    2017-05-31

    Solution-processable electronic devices are highly desirable due to their low cost and compatibility with flexible substrates. However, they are often challenging to fabricate due to the hydrophobic nature of the surfaces of the constituent layers. Here, we use a protein solution to modify the surface properties and to improve the wettability of the fluoropolymer dielectric Cytop. The engineered hydrophilic surface is successfully incorporated in bottom-gate solution-deposited organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) and hybrid organic-inorganic trihalide perovskite field-effect transistors (HTP-FETs) fabricated on flexible substrates. Our analysis of the density of trapping states at the semiconductor-dielectric interface suggests that the increase in the trap density as a result of the chemical treatment is minimal. As a result, the devices exhibit good charge carrier mobilities, near-zero threshold voltages, and low electrical hysteresis.

  3. Solution-processed single-wall carbon nanotube transistor arrays for wearable display backplanes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byeong-Cheol Kang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we demonstrate solution-processed single-wall carbon nanotube thin-film transistor (SWCNT-TFT arrays with polymeric gate dielectrics on the polymeric substrates for wearable display backplanes, which can be directly attached to the human body. The optimized SWCNT-TFTs without any buffer layer on flexible substrates exhibit a linear field-effect mobility of 1.5cm2/V-s and a threshold voltage of around 0V. The statistical plot of the key device metrics extracted from 35 SWCNT-TFTs which were fabricated in different batches at different times conclusively support that we successfully demonstrated high-performance solution-processed SWCNT-TFT arrays which demand excellent uniformity in the device performance. We also investigate the operational stability of wearable SWCNT-TFT arrays against an applied strain of up to 40%, which is the essential for a harsh degree of strain on human body. We believe that the demonstration of flexible SWCNT-TFT arrays which were fabricated by all solution-process except the deposition of metal electrodes at process temperature below 130oC can open up new routes for wearable display backplanes.

  4. In-line ATR-UV and Raman Spectroscopy for Monitoring API Dissolution Process During Liquid-Filled Soft-Gelatin Capsule Manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Boyong; Zordan, Christopher A; Lu, Xujin; McGeorge, Gary

    2016-10-01

    Complete dissolution of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) is critical in the manufacturing of liquid-filled soft-gelatin capsules (SGC). Attenuated total reflectance UV spectroscopy (ATR-UV) and Raman spectroscopy have been investigated for in-line monitoring of API dissolution during manufacturing of an SGC product. Calibration models have been developed with both techniques for in-line determination of API potency. Performance of both techniques was evaluated and compared. The ATR-UV methodology was found to be able to monitor the dissolution process and determine the endpoint, but was sensitive to temperature variations. The Raman technique was also capable of effectively monitoring the process and was more robust to the temperature variation and process perturbations by using an excipient peak for internal correction. Different data preprocessing methodologies were explored in an attempt to improve method performance.

  5. Heterogeneous nucleation promotes carrier transport in solution-processed organic field-effect transistors

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Ruipeng

    2012-09-04

    A new way to investigate and control the growth of solution-cast thin films is presented. The combination of in situ quartz crystal microbalance measurements with dissipation capabilities (QCM-D) and in situ grazing-incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering (GIWAXS) in an environmental chamber provides unique quantitative insights into the time-evolution of the concentration of the solution, the onset of nucleation, and the mode of growth of the organic semiconductor under varied drying conditions. It is demonstrated that careful control over the kinetics of solution drying enhances carrier transport significantly by promoting phase transformation predominantly via heterogeneous nucleation and sustained surface growth of a highly lamellar structure at the solid-liquid interface at the expense of homogeneous nucleation. A new way to investigate and control the growth of drop-cast thin films is presented. The solution-processing of small-molecule thin films of TIPS-pentacene is investigated using time-resolved techniques to reveal the mechanisms of nucleation and growth leading to solid film formation. By tuning the drying speed of the solution, the balance between surface and bulk growth modes is altered, thereby controlling the lamellar formation and tuning the carrier mobility in organic field-effect transistors Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Solution-Based Processing and Applications of Two-Dimensional Heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hersam, Mark

    Two-dimensional materials have emerged as promising candidates for next-generation electronics and optoelectronics, but advances in scalable nanomanufacturing are required to exploit this potential in real-world technology. This talk will explore methods for improving the uniformity of solution-processed two-dimensional materials with an eye toward realizing dispersions and inks that can be deposited into large-area thin-films. In particular, density gradient ultracentrifugation allows the solution-based isolation of graphene, boron nitride, montmorillonite, and transition metal dichalcogenides (e.g., MoS2, WS2, ReS2, MoSe2, WSe2) with homogeneous thickness down to the atomically thin limit. Similarly, two-dimensional black phosphorus is isolated in organic solvents or deoxygenated aqueous surfactant solutions with the resulting phosphorene nanosheets showing field-effect transistor mobilities and on/off ratios that are comparable to micromechanically exfoliated flakes. By adding cellulosic polymer stabilizers to these dispersions, the rheological properties can be tuned by orders of magnitude, thereby enabling two-dimensional material inks that are compatible with a range of additive manufacturing methods including inkjet, gravure, screen, and 3D printing. The resulting solution-processed two-dimensional heterostructures show promise in several device applications including photodiodes, anti-ambipolar transistors, gate-tunable memristors, and heterojunction photovoltaics.

  7. Filtering with the Centered Moving Median to Effectively Monitor Solution Processes for Safeguard Purposes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richir, Patrice; Dzbikowicz, Zdzislaw [Institute for Transuranium Elements (ITU), Joint Research Centre (JRC), European Commission, Ispra, Varese (Italy)

    2012-06-15

    Reprocessing plants require continuous and integrated safeguards activities by inspectors of the IAEA and Euratom because of their proliferation-sensitivity as complex facilities handling large quantities of direct use nuclear material. In support of both organizations, the JRC has developed a solution monitoring software package (DAI, Data Analysis and Interpretation) which has been implemented in the main commercial European reprocessing plants and which allows enhanced monitoring of nuclear materials in the processed solutions. This tool treats data acquired from different sensor types (e.g. from pressure transducers monitoring the solution levels in tanks). Collected signals are often noisy because of the instrumentation itself and/or because of ambient and operational conditions (e.g. pumps, ventilation systems or electromagnetic interferences) and therefore require filtering. Filtering means reduction of information and has to be applied correctly to avoid misinterpretation of the process steps. This paper describes the study of some filters one of which is the centered moving median which has been revealed as a powerful tool for solution monitoring.

  8. Investigation of Processes Controlling Elution of Solutes from Nonaqueous Phase Liquid (NAPL) Pools into Groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyedabbasi, M.; Pirestani, K.; Holland, S. B.; Imhoff, P. T.

    2005-12-01

    Two major processes influencing the elution of solutes from porous media contaminated with nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) are external mass transfer between the NAPL and groundwater and internal diffusion through NAPL ganglia and pools. There is a relatively large body of literature on the dissolution of single-species NAPLs. Less is known about the rates of elution of compounds dissolving from multicomponent NAPLs. We examined the mass transfer of one solute, 2,3-dimethyl-2-butanol (DMB) - a partitioning tracer, between groundwater and a dense NAPL - trichloroethylene (TCE). Diffusion cell experiments were used to measure the molecular diffusion coefficient of DMB in pure TCE and in porous media contaminated with a TCE pool. Measured diffusion coefficients were compared with empirical correlations (pure TCE) and a parallel resistance model (TCE pool). Based on the results from these analyses, a dimensionless Biot number was derived to express the ratio of the external rate of mass transfer from a NAPL pool to the internal rate of diffusion within the pool, which varies with NAPL saturation and NAPL-water partition coefficient. Biot numbers were then estimated for several laboratory scale experiments involving DMB transport between NAPL pools and groundwater. The estimated Biot numbers were in good agreement with experimental results. The expression for the Biot number developed here may be used to assess the processes controlling the elution of solutes from NAPL pools, which has implications on long-term predictions of solute dissolution from NAPLs in the field.

  9. Titrimetric determination of thiocyanate in solutions of the hafnium-zirconium separation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazquez, Cristina; Botbol, Moises; Hernandez, M.H.

    1980-01-01

    The control of the thiocyanate concentration is necessary during the process of separating hafnium from zirconium by the hexone-thiocyanate method. Said control is carried out by titrimetric determination of thiocyanate in aqueous and organic solutions containing hydrochloric acid and ammonium thiocyanate in presence or absence of zirconium and/or hafnium. The method consists in a redox volumetric analysis using a cerium (IV) salt as titrating agent, and ferroine as the final point indicator. Owing to the instability of thiocyanate in an acid medium it is necessary to know previously if the decomposition of solutions with different concentration of ammonium thiocyanate and hydrochloric acid may have an influence upon the analytic results or may even invalidate them. In order to obtain reliable results, it must be taken into account that the stability of the solutions depends on the thiocyanate concentration, the acidity and the time elapsed from the moment the sample is taken until the test is performed. The decomposition process can be slowed down by cooling the solutions. This method allows to control the plant and does not require any special equipment. (M.E.L) [es

  10. Resistive switching characteristics of solution-processed organic-inorganic blended films for flexible memory applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Il-Jin; Cho, Won-Ju

    2018-02-01

    We developed a hybrid organic-inorganic resistive random access memory (ReRAM) device that uses a solution-process to overcome the disadvantages of organic and inorganic materials for flexible memory applications. The drawbacks of organic and inorganic materials are a poor electrical characteristics and a lack of flexibility, respectively. We fabricated a hybrid organic-inorganic switching layer of ReRAM by blending HfOx or AlOx solution with PMMA solution and investigated the resistive switching behaviour in Ti/PMMA/Pt, Ti/PMMA-HfOx/Pt and Ti/PMMA-AlOx/Pt structures. It is found that PMMA-HfOx or PMMA-AlOx hybrid switching layer has a larger memory window, more stable durability and retention characteristics, and a better set/reset voltage distribution than PMMA layer. Further, it is confirmed that the flexibility of the PMMA-HfOx and PMMA-AlOx blended films was almost similar to that of the organic PMMA film. Thus, the solution-processed organic-inorganic blended films are considered a promising material for a non-volatile memory device on a flexible or wearable electronic system.

  11. EFFECT OF CURRENT, TIME, FEED AND CATHODE TYPE ON ELECTROPLATING PROCESS OF URANIUM SOLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigit Sigit

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT   EFFECT OF CURRENT, TIME, FEED AND CATHODE TYPE ON ELECTROPLATING PROCESS OF URANIUM SOLUTION. Electroplating process of uranyl nitrate and effluent process has been carried out in order to collect uranium contained therein using electrode Pt / Pt and Pt / SS at various currents and times. Material used for electrode were Pt (platinum and SS (Stainlees Steel. Feed solution of 250 mL was entered into a beaker glass equipped with Pt anode - Pt cathode or Pt anode - SS cathode, then fogged direct current from DC power supply with specific current and time so that precipitation of uranium sticking to the cathode. After the processes completed, the cathode was removed and weighed to determine weight of precipitates, while the solution was analyzed to determine the uranium concentration decreasing after and before electroplating process. The experiments showed that a relatively good time to acquire uranium deposits at the cathode was 1 hour by current 7 ampere, uranyl nitrate as feed, and Pt (platinum as cathode. In these conditions, uranium deposits attached to the cathode amounted to 74.96% of the original weight of uranium oxide in the feed or 206.5 mg weight. The use of Pt cathode for  uranyl nitrate, SS and Pt cathode for effluent process feed gave uranium specific weight at the cathode of 12.99 mg/cm2, 2.4 mg/cm2 and 5.37 mg/cm2 respectively for current 7 ampere and electroplating time 1 hour. Keywords: Electroplating, uranyl nitrate, effluent process, Pt/Pt electrode, Pt/SS electrode

  12. Highly efficient electroluminescence from a solution-processable thermally activated delayed fluorescence emitter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wada, Yoshimasa; Kubo, Shosei; Suzuki, Katsuaki; Kaji, Hironori, E-mail: kaji@scl.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Shizu, Katsuyuki [Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Center for Organic Photonics and Electronics Research (OPERA), Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Tanaka, Hiroyuki [Center for Organic Photonics and Electronics Research (OPERA), Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Adachi, Chihaya [Center for Organic Photonics and Electronics Research (OPERA), Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), ERATO, Adachi Molecular Exciton Engineering Project, 744 Motooka, Nishi, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan)

    2015-11-02

    We developed a thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) emitter, 2,4,6-tris(4-(9,9-dimethylacridan-10-yl)phenyl)-1,3,5-triazine (3ACR-TRZ), suitable for use in solution-processed organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). When doped into 4,4′-bis(carbazol-9-yl)biphenyl (CBP) host at 16 wt. %, 3ACR-TRZ showed a high photoluminescence quantum yield of 98%. Transient photoluminescence decay measurements of the 16 wt. % 3ACR-TRZ:CBP film confirmed that 3ACR-TRZ exhibits efficient TADF with a triplet-to-light conversion efficiency of 96%. This high conversion efficiency makes 3ACR-TRZ attractive as an emitting dopant in OLEDs. Using 3ACR-TRZ as an emitter, we fabricated a solution-processed OLED exhibiting a maximum external quantum efficiency of 18.6%.

  13. Pseudomacrocyclic effect in extraction processes of metal salts by polyethers from nitric acid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yakshin, V.V.; Vilkova, O.M.; Kotlyar, S.A.; Kamalov, G.L.

    1997-01-01

    Comparison of macrocyclic (ME) and pseudmacrocyclic effects (PME), originating by conduct of the metal salt extraction processes (Cs, Sr, In, Zr, Cd, etc) from nitric acid solutions through linear and cyclic polyethers, containing 5 or 6 atoms of ether oxygen and having close molecular masses (290-360), is carried out. It is shown that ordinary ethers practically do not extract the studied metals from nitric acid solutions. By transfer from linear polyethers to their macrocyclic analogs the ME impact is expressed clearly enough: the separation coefficient value grows by tens and hundred times. At the some time the PME role in the extraction processes of metal nitrates through crown-ethers with alkyl and groups is expressed less clearly

  14. Color removal from acid and reactive dye solutions by electrocoagulation and electrocoagulation/adsorption processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellebia, S; Kacha, S; Bouberka, Z; Bouyakoub, A Z; Derriche, Z

    2009-04-01

    In this study, electrocoagulation of Marine Blue Erionyl MR (acid dye) and electrocoagulation followed by adsorption of Brilliant Blue Levafix E-BRA (reactive dye) from aqueous solutions were investigated, using aluminum electrodes and granular activated carbon (GAC). In the electrocoagulation and adsorption of dyestuff solutions, the effects of current density, loading charge, pH, conductivity, stirring velocity, contact time, and GAC concentration were examined. The optimum conditions for the electrocoagulation process were identified as loading charges 7.46 and 1.49 F/m3, for a maximum abatement of 200 mg/L reactive and acid dye, respectively. The residual reactive dye concentration was completely removed with 700 mg/L GAC. The results of this investigation provide important data for the development of a combined process to remove significant concentrations of recalcitrant dyes from water, using moderate activated carbon energy and aluminum consumption, and thereby lowering the cost of treatment.

  15. Interactions of hydrazine, ferrous sulfamate, sodium nitrite, and nitric acid in nuclear fuel processing solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, L.W.

    1977-03-01

    Hydrazine and ferrous sulfamate are used as reductants in a variety of nuclear fuel processing solutions. An oxidant, normally sodium nitrite, must frequently be added to these nitric acid solutions before additional processing can proceed. The interactions of these four chemicals have been studied under a wide variety of conditions using a 2/sup p/ factorial experimental design to determine relative reaction rates for desired reactions and side reactions. Evidence for a hydrazine-stabilized, sulfamic acid--nitrous acid intermediate was obtained; this intermediate can hydrolyze to ammonia or decompose to nitrogen. The oxidation of Fe 2+ by NO 2 - was shown to proceed at about the same rate as the scavenging of NO 2 - by sulfamic acid. Various side reactions are discussed

  16. Small molecule solution-processed bulk heterojunction solar cells with inverted structure using porphyrin donor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Takaki; Hatano, Junichi; Nakagawa, Takafumi; Yamaguchi, Shigeru; Matsuo, Yutaka

    2013-01-01

    Utilizing tetraethynyl porphyrin derivative (TE-Por) as a small molecule donor material, we fabricated a small molecule solution-processed bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cell with inverted structure, which exhibited 1.6% power conversion efficiency (JSC (short-circuit current) = 4.6 mA/cm2, VOC (open-circuit voltage) = 0.90 V, and FF (fill factor) = 0.39) in the device configuration indium tin oxide/TiOx (titanium sub-oxide)/[6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester:TE-Por (5:1)/MoOx (molybdenum sub-oxide)/Au under AM1.5 G illumination at 100 mW/cm2. Without encapsulation, the small molecule solution-processed inverted BHJ solar cell also showed remarkable durability to air, where it kept over 73% of its initial power conversion efficiency after storage for 28 days under ambient atmosphere in the dark.

  17. Morphological Control for High Performance, Solution-Processed Planar Heterojunction Perovskite Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Eperon, Giles E.

    2013-09-09

    Organometal trihalide perovskite based solar cells have exhibited the highest efficiencies to-date when incorporated into mesostructured composites. However, thin solid films of a perovskite absorber should be capable of operating at the highest efficiency in a simple planar heterojunction configuration. Here, it is shown that film morphology is a critical issue in planar heterojunction CH3NH3PbI3-xCl x solar cells. The morphology is carefully controlled by varying processing conditions, and it is demonstrated that the highest photocurrents are attainable only with the highest perovskite surface coverages. With optimized solution based film formation, power conversion efficiencies of up to 11.4% are achieved, the first report of efficiencies above 10% in fully thin-film solution processed perovskite solar cells with no mesoporous layer. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Thermo-tunable hybrid photonic crystal fiber based on solution-processed chalcogenide glass nanolayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markos, Christos

    2016-01-01

    the air-capillaries of the fiber based on a solution-processed glass approach. The deposited high-index layers revealed antiresonant transmission windows from similar to 500 nm up to similar to 1300 nm. We experimentally demonstrate for the first time the possibility to thermally-tune the revealed....../degrees C at 1300 nm. The proposed fiber device could potentially constitute an efficient route towards realization of monolithic tunable fiber filters or sensing elements....

  19. The research of technology and equipment for a microwave denitration process of the uranyl nitrate solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao Weimin; Wang Xuejun; Ma Xuquan; Shi Miaoyi; Zhang Zhicheng; Bao Zhu Tian.

    1991-01-01

    In order to improve the present process of converting the plutonium nitrate into oxide powder in the nuclear fuel cycle, a new conversion process for the direct denitration using microwave heating has been developed. Microwave denitration is based on intramolecular polarization of a material in electric field and has no need of a process of heat transfer during microwave heating, so that the whole material can be heated quickly and uniformly. The thermal decomposition reactions of Pu, U, Th and RE nitrate have been analyzed and compared. The uranyl nitrate solution was chosen as imitative plutonium nitrate solution. The performance parameters ε r tanδ of U, Th and RE nitrate and oxide in microwave field were measured. The data obtained show that all of them could absorb microwave energy well and cause heating decomposition reactions. The microwave denitration test unit was designed and made. Denitration tests for rare-earths nitrate and uranyl nitrate solutions were performed. It could be completed in one step that the uranyl nitrate solution was evaporated, dryed and denitrated in a vessel. The denitrated products are a porous lump and easy to scrape off from the denitration vessel. The main forms of the products UO 3 ·0.8H 2 O and U 3 O 8 which have excellent powder properties. The capacity of the denitration unit is 1.3 kg UO 3 /h. According to the experimental results the simplicity, feasibility and good repeatability of the process have been fully proved. The unit operates easily and is adaptable to conversion of nitrate in nuclear fuel cycle. (author)

  20. Rapid determination of fluoride in uranyl nitrate solution obtained in conversion process of uranium tetrafluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, R.; Feldman, R.; Sahar, E.

    1976-01-01

    In uranium production the conversion of impure uranium tetrafluoride by sodium hydroxide was chosen as a current process. A rapid method for determination of fluoride in uranyl-nitrate solution was developed. The method includes precipitation of uranium as diuranate, separation by centrifugation, and subsequent determination of fluoride in supernate by titration with thorium nitrate. Fluoride can be measured over the range 0.15-2.5 gr/gr U, with accuracy of +-5%, within 15 minutes. (author)

  1. Editorial Management serials online: construction process, publication and administration with free software solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Andrés Vuotto; María Carolina Rojas; Gladys Vanesa Fernández

    2013-01-01

    Initially raised the main points to consider and develop the planning and construction of an online publication of a scientific nature, emphasizing the process and editorial functions, document preservation, access management, indexing and visibility. In the second part of the paper presents a proposed solution to every aspect previously described, highlighting the work of the information professional and optimizing time, cost and results offered free software, from a concrete experience with...

  2. Solution processed, white emitting tandem organic light-emitting diodes with inverted device architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höfle, Stefan; Schienle, Alexander; Bernhard, Christoph; Bruns, Michael; Lemmer, Uli; Colsmann, Alexander

    2014-08-13

    Fully solution processed monochromatic and white-light emitting tandem or multi-photon polymer OLEDs with an inverted device architecture have been realized by employing WO3 /PEDOT:PSS/ZnO/PEI charge carrier generation layers. The luminance of the sub-OLEDs adds up in the stacked device indicating multi-photon emission. The white OLEDs exhibit a CRI of 75. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Hyperspectral imaging in medicine: image pre-processing problems and solutions in Matlab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koprowski, Robert

    2015-11-01

    The paper presents problems and solutions related to hyperspectral image pre-processing. New methods of preliminary image analysis are proposed. The paper shows problems occurring in Matlab when trying to analyse this type of images. Moreover, new methods are discussed which provide the source code in Matlab that can be used in practice without any licensing restrictions. The proposed application and sample result of hyperspectral image analysis. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Soft options. Sanfte Alternativen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lutz, R

    1981-01-01

    This collection of contributions made by supporters of the ''soft approach'' is intended to provide an insight into a conceivable future which is quite different from traditional ideas on social and economic developments based on the usual economic thinking and conventional energy sources. The chapter entitled ''The new world view'' shows the way from a machine-like paradigm to a living example in science. In the chapter entitled ''Women are organizing their future'' female perspectives and concepts of solutions are described. In the chapter ''Eco-tecture'' examples of living architecture and of environment formation are presented. In the chapter ''Soft technology'' approaches to an ecology-oriented technology are discussed, and in the chapter ''Network and future workshops'' novel forms of organization and communication are described.

  5. Windchill-201 - Custom Soft-Type Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Corey; LaPha, Steven

    2013-01-01

    This presentation will explain Windchill soft-types-what they are, how they work, and how to construct custom ones, configured specifically for your system. The process and particulars of creating and implementing a WTDocument soft-type will be discussed, and the interaction between soft-types and Windchill objects will be shown.

  6. Improved performance of organic solar cells with solution processed hole transport layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargav, Ranoo; Gairola, S. P.; Patra, Asit; Naqvi, Samya; Dhawan, S. K.

    2018-06-01

    This work is based on Cobalt Oxide as solution processed, inexpensive and effective hole transport layer (HTL) for efficient organic photovoltaic applications (OPVs). In Organic solar cell (OSC) devices ITO coated glass substrate used as a transparent anode electrode for light incident, HTL material Co3O4 dissolve in DMF solvent deposited on anode electrode, after that active layer material (donor/acceptor) deposited on to HTL and finally Al were deposited by thermal evaporation used as cathode electrode. These devices were fabricated with PCDTBT well known low band gap donor material in OSCs and blended with PC71BM as an acceptor material using simplest device structure ITO/Co3O4/active layer/Al at ambient conditions. The power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) based on Co3O4 and PEDOT:PSS have been achieved to up to 3.21% and 1.47% with PCDTBT respectively. In this study we reported that the devices fabricated with Co3O4 showed better performance as compare to the devices fabricated with well known and most studied solution processed HTL material PEDOT:PSS under identical environmental conditions. The surface morphology of the HTL film was characterized by (AFM). Lastly, we have provided Co3O4 as an efficient hole transport material HTL for solution processed organic photovoltaic applications.

  7. Continuous desalting of refolded protein solution improves capturing in ion exchange chromatography: A seamless process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walch, Nicole; Jungbauer, Alois

    2017-06-01

    Truly continuous biomanufacturing processes enable an uninterrupted feed stream throughout the whole production without the need for holding tanks. We have utilized microporous anion and cation exchangers into which only salts, but not proteins, can penetrate into the pores for desalting of protein solutions, while diafiltration or dilution is usually employed for feed adjustments. Anion exchange and cation exchange chromatography columns were connected in series to remove both anions and cations. To increase operation performance, a continuous process was developed comprised of four columns. Continuous mode was achieved by staggered cycle operation, where one set of columns, consisting of one anion exchange and one cation exchange column, was loaded during the regeneration of the second set. Refolding, desalting and subsequent ion exchange capturing with a scFv as the model protein was demonstrated. The refolding solution was successfully desalted resulting in a consistent conductivity below 0.5 mS/cm from initial values of 10 to 11 mS/cm. With continuous operation process time could be reduced by 39% while productivity was increased to 163% compared to batch operation. Desalting of the protein solution resulted in up to 7-fold higher binding capacities in the subsequent ion exchange capture step with conventional protein binding resins. © 2017 The Authors. Biotechnology Journal published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Efficient green phosphorescent tandem organic light emitting diodes with solution processable mixed hosts charge generating layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talik, N.A.; Yeoh, K.H.; Ng, C.Y.B [Low Dimensional Research Center, Department of Physics, University Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); ItraMAS Corporation. Sdn. Bhd., 542A-B Mukim 1, Lorong Perusahaan Baru 2, Kawasan Perindustrian, Perai 13600, Penang (Malaysia); Yap, B.K. [Center of Microelectronic and Nanotechnology Engineering (CeMNE), College of Engineering, Universiti Tenaga Nasional, Jln. Uniten-Ikram, 4300 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Woon, K.L., E-mail: ph7klw76@um.edu.my [Low Dimensional Research Center, Department of Physics, University Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2014-10-15

    A novel solution processable charge generating layer (CGL) that consists of 1,4,5,8,9,11-hexaazatriphenylene hexacarbonitrile (HATCN{sub 6})/Poly(N-vinylcarbazole) (PVK): 1,1-bis-(4-bis(4-tolyl)-aminophenyl) cyclohexene (TAPC) for a tandem green phosphorescent organic light emitting diode (PHOLED) is demonstrated. The use of orthogonal solvent to dissolve HATCN{sub 6} and PVK:TAPC is the key to overcome the interface erosion problem for the solution processed CGL. The current efficiency of the 2 wt% TAPC mixed with PVK is the highest at 24.2 cd/A, which is more than three-folds higher than that of the single device at 1000 cd/m{sup 2}. - Highlights: • A solution processable tandem OLED is built using a novel charge generating layer. • HATCN{sub 6} and PVK:TAPC are shown to be effective charge generating layers. • The turn on voltages for tandem devices are almost similar to single unit. • 2 wt% TAPC blended with PVK exhibits three-folds increase in efficiency.

  9. Low-Temperature Solution-Processed Gate Dielectrics for High-Performance Organic Thin Film Transistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaekyun Kim

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A low-temperature solution-processed high-k gate dielectric layer for use in a high-performance solution-processed semiconducting polymer organic thin-film transistor (OTFT was demonstrated. Photochemical activation of sol-gel-derived AlOx films under 150 °C permitted the formation of a dense film with low leakage and relatively high dielectric-permittivity characteristics, which are almost comparable to the results yielded by the conventionally used vacuum deposition and high temperature annealing method. Octadecylphosphonic acid (ODPA self-assembled monolayer (SAM treatment of the AlOx was employed in order to realize high-performance (>0.4 cm2/Vs saturation mobility and low-operation-voltage (<5 V diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP-based OTFTs on an ultra-thin polyimide film (3-μm thick. Thus, low-temperature photochemically-annealed solution-processed AlOx film with SAM layer is an attractive candidate as a dielectric-layer for use in high-performance organic TFTs operated at low voltages.

  10. Solution-Processed Dielectrics Based on Thickness-Sorted Two-Dimensional Hexagonal Boron Nitride Nanosheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Jian; Kang, Joohoon; Kang, Junmo; Jariwala, Deep; Wood, Joshua D.; Seo, Jung-Woo T.; Chen, Kan-Sheng; Marks, Tobin J.; Hersam, Mark C.

    2015-10-14

    Gate dielectrics directly affect the mobility, hysteresis, power consumption, and other critical device metrics in high-performance nanoelectronics. With atomically flat and dangling bond-free surfaces, hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) has emerged as an ideal dielectric for graphene and related two-dimensional semiconductors. While high-quality, atomically thin h-BN has been realized via micromechanical cleavage and chemical vapor deposition, existing liquid exfoliation methods lack sufficient control over h-BN thickness and large-area film quality, thus limiting its use in solution-processed electronics. Here, we employ isopycnic density gradient ultracentrifugation for the preparation of monodisperse, thickness-sorted h-BN inks, which are subsequently layer-by-layer assembled into ultrathin dielectrics with low leakage currents of 3 × 10–9 A/cm2 at 2 MV/cm and high capacitances of 245 nF/cm2. The resulting solution-processed h-BN dielectric films enable the fabrication of graphene field-effect transistors with negligible hysteresis and high mobilities up to 7100 cm2 V–1 s–1 at room temperature. These h-BN inks can also be used as coatings on conventional dielectrics to minimize the effects of underlying traps, resulting in improvements in overall device performance. Overall, this approach for producing and assembling h-BN dielectric inks holds significant promise for translating the superlative performance of two-dimensional heterostructure devices to large-area, solution-processed nanoelectronics.

  11. Solution processable organic polymers and small molecules for bulk-heterojunction solar cells: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, G. D.

    2011-01-01

    Solution processed bulk heterojunction (BHJ) organic solar cells (OSCs) have gained wide interest in past few years and are established as one of the leading next generation photovoltaic technologies for low cost power production. Power conversion efficiencies up to 6% and 6.5% have been reported in the literature for single layer and tandem solar cells, respectively using conjugated polymers. A recent record efficiency about 8.13% with active area of 1.13 cm 2 has been reported. However Solution processable small molecules have been widely applied for photovoltaic (PV) devices in recent years because they show strong absorption properties, and they can be easily purified and deposited onto flexible substrates at low cost. Introducing different donor and acceptor groups to construct donor--acceptor (D--A) structure small molecules has proved to be an efficient way to improve the properties of organic solar cells (OSCs). The power conversion efficiency about 4.4 % has been reported for OSCs based on the small molecules. This review deals with the recent progress of solution processable D--A structure small molecules and discusses the key factors affecting the properties of OSCs based on D--A structure small molecules: sunlight absorption, charge transport and the energy level of the molecules.

  12. Effects of processing method and solute interactions on pepsin digestibility of cooked proso millet flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulati, Paridhi; Sabillón, Luis; Rose, Devin J

    2018-07-01

    Previous studies have reported a substantial decline in in vitro digestibility of proso millet protein upon cooking. In this study, several processing techniques and cooking solutions were tested with the objective of preventing the loss in pepsin digestibility. Proso millet flour was subjected to the following processing techniques: high pressure processing (200 and 600 MPa for 5 and 20 min); germination (96 h); fermentation (48 h); roasting (dry heating); autoclaving (121 °C, 3 h), and treatment with transglutaminase (160 mg/g protein, 37 °C, 2 h). To study the interaction of millet proteins with solutes, millet flour was heated with sucrose (3-7 M); NaCl (2-6 M); and CaCl 2 (0.5-3 M). All processing treatments failed to prevent the loss in pepsin digestibility except germination and treatment with transglutaminase, which resulted in 23 and 39% increases in digestibility upon cooking, respectively, when compared with unprocessed cooked flours. Heating in concentrated solutions of sucrose and NaCl were effective in preventing the loss in pepsin digestibility, an effect that was attributed to a reduction in water activity (a w ). CaCl 2 was also successful in preventing the loss in digestibility but its action was similar to chaotrops like urea. Thus, a combination of enzymatic modification and cooking of millet flour with either naturally low a w substances or edible sources of chaotropic ions may be useful in processing of proso millet for development of novel foods without loss in digestibility. However, more research is required to determine optimum processing conditions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Soft Robotics Week

    CERN Document Server

    Rossiter, Jonathan; Iida, Fumiya; Cianchetti, Matteo; Margheri, Laura

    2017-01-01

    This book offers a comprehensive, timely snapshot of current research, technologies and applications of soft robotics. The different chapters, written by international experts across multiple fields of soft robotics, cover innovative systems and technologies for soft robot legged locomotion, soft robot manipulation, underwater soft robotics, biomimetic soft robotic platforms, plant-inspired soft robots, flying soft robots, soft robotics in surgery, as well as methods for their modeling and control. Based on the results of the second edition of the Soft Robotics Week, held on April 25 – 30, 2016, in Livorno, Italy, the book reports on the major research lines and novel technologies presented and discussed during the event.

  14. The soft x-ray transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klukowska, Joanna; Herman, Gabor T; Otón, Joaquin; Marabini, Roberto; Carazo, José-María

    2014-01-01

    Several new forward models are introduced as mathematical formalizations of the processes that take place during image formation in transmission soft x-ray microscopy, which has the unique capability of imaging whole cells in their native environment with high resolution. Mathematical solutions of some of the associated inverse problems are provided by deriving closed-form formulas specifying the inverse transforms. Numerical experimental results are presented to demonstrate how the inverse transforms can be used to improve the reconstructions computed from data acquired according to the forward models. (paper)

  15. Application of Distributed Temperature Sensing for coupled mapping of sedimentation processes and spatio-temporal variability of groundwater discharge in soft-bedded streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sebok, Eva; Duque, C; Engesgaard, Peter

    2015-01-01

    , maximum and mean streambed temperatures as well as the daily amplitude and standard deviation of temperatures. The identified potential high-discharge areas were mostly located near the channel banks, also showing temporal variability because of the scouring and redistribution of streambed sediments......The delineation of groundwater discharge areas based on Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS) data of the streambed can be difficult in soft-bedded streams where sedimentation and scouring processes constantly change the position of the fibre optic cable relative to the streambed. Deposition...... variability in streambed temperatures between October 2011 and January 2012. Detailed monthly streambed elevation surveys were carried out to monitor the position of the fibre optic cable relative to the streambed and to quantify the effect of sedimentation processes on streambed temperatures. Based...

  16. The Colloidal Stabilization of Quantum Dots: Towards Manufacturable, Efficient Solution-Processed Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollny, Lisa

    Understanding colloidal stabilization can influence the design of optoelectronic devices and enable improvements to their performance and stability. For photovoltaics, important characteristics of the active layer material are high conductivity along with a minimum of recombination centers. In order to capitalize on the benefits of solution-processed materials, it is important to minimize the number of processing steps: ideally, to achieve a low-cost solution, materials would be deposited using a single process step compatible with roll-to-roll manufacturing. Prior to this work, the highest-performing colloidal quantum dots (CQD) solar cells have relied on several deposition steps that are repeated in a layer-by-layer (LBL) fashion. The purpose of these process steps has been to remove the long insulating ligands used in synthesis and replace them with short ligands that allow electrical conduction. The large number of steps combined, typically implemented via spin coating, leads to inefficient materials utilization and fails to show a path to a manufacturable solution. In this work, the first CQD solar cells were designed, built, and characterized combining state-of-art performance with scalable manufacture. Firstly, I report the first automated CQD synthesis to result in CQDs that form high-performance CQD solar cells. I analyze the CQD synthesis and by separating it into two phases---nucleation and growth phase---my insights are used to create higher-quality CQDs exhibiting enhanced monodispersity. I then proceed to develop a CQD ink: a CQD solution ready for direct deposition to form a semiconducting film exhibiting low trap state density. In early trials the CQD ink showed only limited power conversion efficiencies of 2%. I designed a new ink strategy, which I term cleavable hemiketal ligands. This novel two-component ligand strategy enables the combination of colloidal stabilization (via this longer two-component ligand) and cleavability (enabling excellent

  17. Simple solution-processed CuOX as anode buffer layer for efficient organic solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Wenfei; Yang, Chunpeng; Bao, Xichang; Sun, Liang; Wang, Ning; Tang, Jianguo; Chen, Weichao; Yang, Renqiang

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Simple solution-processed CuO X hole transport layer for efficient organic solar cell. • Good photovoltaic performances as hole transport layer in OSCs with P3HT and PBDTTT-C as donor materials. • The device with CuO X as hole transport layer shows great improved stability compared with that of device with PEDOT:PSS as hole transport layer. - Abstract: A simple, solution-processed ultrathin CuO X anode buffer layer was fabricated for high performance organic solar cells (OSCs). XPS measurement demonstrated that the CuO X was the composite of CuO and Cu 2 O. The CuO X modified ITO glass exhibit a better surface contact with the active layer. The photovoltaic performance of the devices with CuO X layer was optimized by varying the thickness of CuO X films through changing solution concentration. With P3HT:PC 61 BM as the active layer, we demonstrated an enhanced PCE of 4.14% with CuO X anode buffer layer, compared with that of PEDOT:PSS layer. The CuO X layer also exhibits efficient photovoltaic performance in devices with PBDTTT-C:PC 71 BM as the active layer. The long-term stability of CuO X device is better than that of PEDOT:PSS device. The results indicate that the easy solution-processed CuO X film can act as an efficient anode buffer layer for high-efficiency OSCs

  18. Accessible high performance computing solutions for near real-time image processing for time critical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielski, Conrad; Lemoine, Guido; Syryczynski, Jacek

    2009-09-01

    High Performance Computing (HPC) hardware solutions such as grid computing and General Processing on a Graphics Processing Unit (GPGPU) are now accessible to users with general computing needs. Grid computing infrastructures in the form of computing clusters or blades are becoming common place and GPGPU solutions that leverage the processing power of the video card are quickly being integrated into personal workstations. Our interest in these HPC technologies stems from the need to produce near real-time maps from a combination of pre- and post-event satellite imagery in support of post-disaster management. Faster processing provides a twofold gain in this situation: 1. critical information can be provided faster and 2. more elaborate automated processing can be performed prior to providing the critical information. In our particular case, we test the use of the PANTEX index which is based on analysis of image textural measures extracted using anisotropic, rotation-invariant GLCM statistics. The use of this index, applied in a moving window, has been shown to successfully identify built-up areas in remotely sensed imagery. Built-up index image masks are important input to the structuring of damage assessment interpretation because they help optimise the workload. The performance of computing the PANTEX workflow is compared on two different HPC hardware architectures: (1) a blade server with 4 blades, each having dual quad-core CPUs and (2) a CUDA enabled GPU workstation. The reference platform is a dual CPU-quad core workstation and the PANTEX workflow total computing time is measured. Furthermore, as part of a qualitative evaluation, the differences in setting up and configuring various hardware solutions and the related software coding effort is presented.

  19. Process for making 90 degree K. superconductors by impregnating cellulosic article with precursor solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolt, J.D.; Subramanian, M.A.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes an improved process for preparing a shaped article of a superconducting composition having the formula MBa 2 Cu 3 O x wherein; M is selected from the group consisting of Y, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb and Lu; x is from about 6.5 to about 7.0; the composition having a superconducting transition temperature of about 90 K. It comprises: forming in acetic acid a mixture of M(C 2 H 3 O 2 ) 3 , barium acetate and copper acetate in an atomic ratio of M:Ba:Cu of about 1:2:3; heating the resulting mixture to boiling, and adding sufficient formic acid to dissolve any undissolved starting material while continuing to boil the solution; contacting an article of cellulose material with the solution thereby impregnating the article with the solution, the article having the shape desired; removing excess solution from the resulting impregnated article of cellulose material and drying the impregnated article; heating the impregnated article of cellulose material to a temperature from about 850 degree C to about 925 degree C in an oxygen-containing atmosphere for a time sufficient to form MBa 2 Cu 3 O y , where y is from about 6.0 to about 6.5, the heating effecting carbonization of the cellulose material and oxidization of carbon without ignition; and maintaining the resulting article in an oxygen-containing atmosphere while cooling for a time sufficient to obtained the desired product

  20. Predictive modeling of nanoscale domain morphology in solution-processed organic thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaaf, Cyrus; Jenkins, Michael; Morehouse, Robell; Stanfield, Dane; McDowall, Stephen; Johnson, Brad L.; Patrick, David L.

    2017-09-01

    The electronic and optoelectronic properties of molecular semiconductor thin films are directly linked to their extrinsic nanoscale structural characteristics such as domain size and spatial distributions. In films prepared by common solution-phase deposition techniques such as spin casting and solvent-based printing, morphology is governed by a complex interrelated set of thermodynamic and kinetic factors that classical models fail to adequately capture, leaving them unable to provide much insight, let alone predictive design guidance for tailoring films with specific nanostructural characteristics. Here we introduce a comprehensive treatment of solution-based film formation enabling quantitative prediction of domain formation rates, coverage, and spacing statistics based on a small number of experimentally measureable parameters. The model combines a mean-field rate equation treatment of monomer aggregation kinetics with classical nucleation theory and a supersaturation-dependent critical nucleus size to solve for the quasi-two-dimensional temporally and spatially varying monomer concentration, nucleation rate, and other properties. Excellent agreement is observed with measured nucleation densities and interdomain radial distribution functions in polycrystalline tetracene films. Numerical solutions lead to a set of general design rules enabling predictive morphological control in solution-processed molecular crystalline films.

  1. Study of the removal of metronidazole from aqueous solutions using Electro/ Fenton process and graphite and iron electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahram Kamarehie

    2018-04-01

    Conclusion: The Electro-Fenton process can effectively remove metronidazole from aquatic solutions in environmentally convenient conditions. This process can be used as an efficient method for removing other persistent pollutants from the environment.

  2. Antimicrobial Effectiveness of Cellulose based Fabrics treated with Silver Nitrate Solution using Plasma Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Peran

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to obtain antibacterial properties, the possibility of deposition of silver particles from silver nitrate (AgNO3 solutions by plasma deposition process using argon as a carrier gas (PDP-Ar was explored. Hexamethyldisiloxane and acrylic acid were used as precursors and were deposited by plasma enhanced-chemical vapor deposition (PE-CVD. The processes were carried out on lyocell and modal fbrics and antimicrobial efficacy was determined on E. coli and S. aureus using time kill assay method. The results of minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC show that higher antimicrobial efficacy on E. coli is exhibited by the solution of (AgNO3 in ethylene-glycol (0.066 μg/ml rather than in absolute ethanol (0.265 μg/ml. For S. aureus, minimal inhibitory concentrations of AgNO3 solutions in both absolute ethanol and ethylene-glycol as solvents are obtained at the same value (0.132 μg/ml. Overall, the best antibacterial eff ect for both modal and lyocell samples has been achieved against E. coli using treatments with precursors (AAC and HMDSO and Ag-NO3 in ethylene-glycol as solvent, with prolonged incubation time.

  3. Effect of solution processed and thermally evaporated interlayers on the performance of backgrated polymer solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayawardena, K.D.G.I.; Amarasinghe, K.M.P.; Nismy, N.A. [Advanced Technology Institute, Department of Electronic Engineering, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Mills, C.A. [Advanced Technology Institute, Department of Electronic Engineering, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Advanced Coatings Group, Surface Engineering Department, Tata Steel Research Development and Technology, Swinden Technology Centre, Rotherham, S60 3AR (United Kingdom); Silva, S.R.P., E-mail: s.silva@surrey.ac.uk [Advanced Technology Institute, Department of Electronic Engineering, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

    2015-09-30

    Polymer solar cells are fast gaining momentum as a potential solution towards low cost sustainable energy generation. However, the performance of architectures is known to be limited by the thin film nature of the active layer which, although required due to low charge carrier mobilities, limits the optical coupling to the active layer. The formation of periodic backgratings has been proposed as a solution to this problem. Here, we investigate the effect of solution processed and thermally evaporated interlayers on the performance of backgrated polymer solar cells. Analysis of device performance under standard conditions indicates higher power conversion efficiencies with the incorporation of the evaporated interlayer (5.7%) over a sol–gel processed interlayer (4.9%). This is driven by a more conformal coating as evidenced through two orders of magnitude higher electron mobilities (10{sup −5} versus 10{sup −7} cm{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1}) as well as the balanced electron and hole transport observed for the former architecture. It is believed that these results will catalyse further development of such device engineering concepts for improved optical coupling in thin film photovoltaics. - Highlights: • Effect of interlayers on backgrated photovoltaic devices is tested. • Evaporated interlayers lead to better device performance. • Better charge extraction is observed for evaporated interlayers.

  4. Study of the sintering process and the formation of a (Th, U) O2 solid solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomasi, Roberto

    1979-01-01

    The effect of some variables in the (Th, U) O 2 sintering process and solid solution formation was studied. ThO 2 , U 3 O 8 and UO 2 powder were prepared. The ThO 2 powders were obtained by calcination of thorium at 500 and 750 deg C; the U 3 O 8 powders were derived from the calcination of ADU at 660 and 750 deg C; the UO 2 powder were prepared from ADU and from ATCU. The different characteristics of these materials were determined by measurements of surface area, by scanning electron microscopy, tap density tests, X-ray diffractometry and by measurements of the O/U ratios. The oxide mixtures were chosen in order to produce a final composition with 10 w/o of UO 2 . A mixture of thorium oxalate and ADU was also prepared by calcining these salts in air at 700 deg C, in order to obtain certain amount of solid solution prior to sintering. The sintering operations were developed in an argon atmosphere at temperatures between 1400 and 1700 deg C, during interval varying from 1 to 4 hours. The effect of the mixture characteristics on the sintering process and solid solution formation were studied considering the results of densification, microstructure development and X-ray diffractometry. The ThO 2 powder characteristics have a main effect on the mixtures compactability and sinterability, the higher calcining temperatures increasing the green density, but decreasing the final density of the sintered pellets. In the sintering of mixtures containing U 3 O 3 , this oxide is reduced to UO 2 and it is possible to obtain pellets with density and microstructures similar to those produced from mixtures containing UO 2 . But if oxygen in excess is present during sintering, the process is affected, occurring exaggerated grain growth. The densification results were related to the Coble's kinetics equation for second stage of sintering, valid for bulk diffusion, grain boundary acting as vacancy sinks. The sintering activation energy is independent from the powder starting

  5. A NEW PROCESS DEVELOPED FOR SEPARATION OF LIGNIN FROM AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE PRETREATMENT SOLUTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherman, S.; Gorensek, M.; Milliken, C.

    2010-12-14

    A method is described for separating lignin from liquid solutions resulting from the pretreatment of lignocellulosic materials such as switchgrass with ammonium hydroxide. The method involves a sequence of steps including acidification, evaporation, and precipitation or centrifugation that are performed under defined conditions, and results in a relatively pure, solid lignin product. The method is tested on ammonium hydroxide solutions containing lignin extracted from switchgrass. Experimental results show that the method is capable of recovering between 66-95% of dissolved lignin as a precipitated solid. Cost estimates of pilot-scale and industrial-scale expressions of the process indicate that breakeven lignin prices of $2.36/kg and $0.78/kg, respectively, may be obtainable with this recovery method.

  6. Solution-processed parallel tandem polymer solar cells using silver nanowires as intermediate electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Fei; Kubis, Peter; Li, Ning; Przybilla, Thomas; Matt, Gebhard; Stubhan, Tobias; Ameri, Tayebeh; Butz, Benjamin; Spiecker, Erdmann; Forberich, Karen; Brabec, Christoph J

    2014-12-23

    Tandem architecture is the most relevant concept to overcome the efficiency limit of single-junction photovoltaic solar cells. Series-connected tandem polymer solar cells (PSCs) have advanced rapidly during the past decade. In contrast, the development of parallel-connected tandem cells is lagging far behind due to the big challenge in establishing an efficient interlayer with high transparency and high in-plane conductivity. Here, we report all-solution fabrication of parallel tandem PSCs using silver nanowires as intermediate charge collecting electrode. Through a rational interface design, a robust interlayer is established, enabling the efficient extraction and transport of electrons from subcells. The resulting parallel tandem cells exhibit high fill factors of ∼60% and enhanced current densities which are identical to the sum of the current densities of the subcells. These results suggest that solution-processed parallel tandem configuration provides an alternative avenue toward high performance photovoltaic devices.

  7. Removal of Lead Hydroxides Complexes from Solutions Formed in Silver/Gold: Cyanidation Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parga, José R.; Martinez, Raul Flores; Moreno, Hector; Gomes, Andrew Jewel; Cocke, David L.

    2014-04-01

    The presence of lead hydroxides in "pregnant cyanide solution" decreases the quality of the Dore obtained in the recovery processes of gold and silver, so it is convenient to remove them. The adsorbent capacity of the low cost cow bone powder was investigated for the removal of lead ions from a solution of lead hydroxide complexes at different initial metal ion concentrations (10 to 50 mg/L), and reaction time. Experiments were carried out in batches. The maximum sorption capacity of lead determined by the Langmuir model was found to be 126.58 mg/g, and the separation factor R L was between 0 and 1, indicating a significant affinity of bone for lead. Experimental data follow pseudo-second order kinetics suggesting chemisorption. It is concluded that cow bone powder can be successfully used for the removal of lead ions, and improves the quality of the silver-gold cyanides precipitate.

  8. Fabrication of superhydrophobic wood surfaces via a solution-immersion process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Changyu; Wang, Shuliang; Shi, Junyou; Wang, Chengyu

    2011-11-01

    Superhydrophobic wood surfaces were fabricated from potassium methyl siliconate (PMS) through a convenient solution-immersion method. The reaction involves a hydrogen bond assembly and a polycondensation process. The silanol was formed by reacting PMS aqueous solution with CO2, which was assembled on the wood surface via hydrogen bonds with the wood surface -OH groups. The polymethylsilsesquioxane coating was obtained through the polycondensation reaction of the hydroxyl between wood and silanol. The morphology of products were characterized using a scanning electron microscope (SEM), the surface chemical composition was determined using energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDXA), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermogravimetry (TGA) and contact angle measurement. Analytical results revealed that rough protuberances uniformly covered the wood surface, thus transforming the wood surface from hydrophilic to superhydrophobic. The water contact angle of the superhydrophobic wood surface was about 153° and a sliding angle was 4.6°.

  9. Processing of indium (III solutions via ion exchange with Lewatit K-2621 resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López Díaz-Pavón, Adrián

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The processing of indium(III-hydrochloric acid solutions by the cationic ion exchange Lewatit K-2621 resin has been investigated. The influence of several variables such as the hydrochloric acid and metal concentrations in the aqueous solution and the variation of the amount of resin added has been studied. Moreover, a kinetic study performed in the uptake of indium(III by Lewatit K-2621, shows that either the film-diffusion and the particle-diffusion models fit the ion exchange process onto the resin, depending upon the initial metal concentration in the aqueous solution. The loaded resin could be eluted by HCl solutions at 20 °C.Se ha investigado el tratamiento de disoluciones de ácido clorhídrico conteniendo indio(III mediante la resina de cambio catiónico Lewatit K-2621. Las variables ensayadas han sido las concentraciones de ácido y de metal en la disolución acuosa y la cantidad de resina empleada en el tratamiento de dichas disoluciones. Asimismo, se ha llevado a cabo un estudio cinético del proceso de intercambio catiónico entre el indio(III y la resina Lewatit K-2621. Este estudio muestra que el proceso de intercambio responde a un mecanismo de difusión en la disolución o en la partícula de resina dependiendo de la concentración inicial del metal en el medio acuoso. El metal cargado en la resina puede ser eluido con disoluciones de ácido clorhídrico a 20 °C.

  10. Solution-Processed Graphene/MnO 2 Nanostructured Textiles for High-Performance Electrochemical Capacitors

    KAUST Repository

    Yu, Guihua

    2011-07-13

    Large scale energy storage system with low cost, high power, and long cycle life is crucial for addressing the energy problem when connected with renewable energy production. To realize grid-scale applications of the energy storage devices, there remain several key issues including the development of low-cost, high-performance materials that are environmentally friendly and compatible with low-temperature and large-scale processing. In this report, we demonstrate that solution-exfoliated graphene nanosheets (∼5 nm thickness) can be conformably coated from solution on three-dimensional, porous textiles support structures for high loading of active electrode materials and to facilitate the access of electrolytes to those materials. With further controlled electrodeposition of pseudocapacitive MnO2 nanomaterials, the hybrid graphene/MnO2-based textile yields high-capacitance performance with specific capacitance up to 315 F/g achieved. Moreover, we have successfully fabricated asymmetric electrochemical capacitors with graphene/MnO 2-textile as the positive electrode and single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs)-textile as the negative electrode in an aqueous Na 2SO4 electrolyte solution. These devices exhibit promising characteristics with a maximum power density of 110 kW/kg, an energy density of 12.5 Wh/kg, and excellent cycling performance of ∼95% capacitance retention over 5000 cycles. Such low-cost, high-performance energy textiles based on solution-processed graphene/MnO2 hierarchical nanostructures offer great promise in large-scale energy storage device applications. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  11. Modeling of geochemical processes in the submarine discharge zone of hydrothermal solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    С. М. Судариков

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviews the main methods and analyzes modeling results for geochemical processes in the submarine discharge zone of hydrothermal solutions of mid-ocean ridges. Initial data for modeling have been obtained during several marine expeditions, including Russian-French expedition SERPENTINE on the research vessel «Pourquoi Рas?» (2007. Results of field observations, laboratory experiments and theoretical developments are supported by the analysis of regression model of mixing between hydrothermal solutions and sea water. Verification of the model has been carried out and the quality of chemical analysis has been assessed; degree and character of participation of solution components in the hydrothermal process have been defined; the content of end members has been calculated basing on reverse forecasting of element concentration, depending on regression character; data for thermodynamic modeling have been prepared. Regression model of acid-base properties and chloridity of mineralizing thermal springs confirms adequacy of the model of double-diffusive convection for forming the composition of hydrothermal solutions.  Differentiation of solutions according to concentrations of chloride-ion, depending on temperature and pH indicator within this model, is associated with phase conversions and mixing of fluids from two convection cells, one of which is a zone of brine circulation. In order to carry out computer thermodynamic modeling, hydro-geochemical and physicochemical models of hydrothermal discharge zone have been created. Verification of the model has been carried out basing on changes of Mn concentration in the hydrothermal plume. Prevailing forms of Mn migration in the plume are Mn2+, MnCl+, MnCl2. Two zones have been identified in the geochemical structure of the plume: 1 high-temperature zone (350-100 °С with prevalence of chloride complexes – ascending plume; 2 low-temperature zone (100-2 °С, where predominant form of

  12. Study on the behavior of sulfur in hydrolysis process of titanyl sulfate solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Fanbo; Luo, Dongmei, E-mail: dmluo@scu.edu.cn; Zhang, Zhao; Liang, Bin; Yuan, Xizhi; Fu, Li

    2016-06-15

    The existing forms of sulfur in hydrolysis process of titanyl sulfate solution were studied. Also the effects of sulfur on crystal structure, crystallite size and crystal phase transition of the hydrated titanium dioxide(TiO{sub 2}·H{sub 2}O) and titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) were conducted. The analysis and methods of thermogravimetric-differential scanning calorimet (TG-DSC), energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV–Vis diffuse reflectance spectra and Raman spectroscopy were employed to characterize. The results indicated that the sulfur was present in the form of SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} ions in the hydrolysate of titanyl sulfate solution, and a portion of SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} ions were combined on the surface of hydrated titanium dioxide by chemical adsorption in the forms of inorganic chelating bidentate coordination and covalent sulfate coordination, the residual SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} ions were adsorbed on the surface of hydrated titanium dioxide by physical adsorption. The chemical adsorption of SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} ions were conducive to the formation and stabilization of anatase, which changed the crystal structure, and hindered the transformation of the anatase into rutile. The results of Raman spectroscopy showed that the sulfur was dissociated in the forms of SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} and HSO{sub 4}{sup −} ions during the hydrolysis of titanyl sulfate solution. The characteristic peak at 1004 cm{sup −1} corresponding to a new complex has been observed, which was composed of SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} and hydrated titanium complex ions through the bonding on the surface. In basis of the above experimental results, the hydrolysis process of titanyl sulfate solution was illustrated from the microstructure with 3D atlas. - Highlights: • The SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} ions exist in TiO{sub 2}·H{sub 2}O by chemical and physical adsorption. • The SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} ions are conducive to the formation and

  13. Efficient and stable solution-processed planar perovskite solar cells via contact passivation

    KAUST Repository

    Tan, Hairen; Jain, Ankit; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Lan, Xinzheng; Garcí a de Arquer, F. Pelayo; Fan, James Z.; Quintero-Bermudez, Rafael; Yuan, Mingjian; Zhang, Bo; Zhao, Yicheng; Fan, Fengjia; Li, Peicheng; Quan, Li Na; Zhao, Yongbiao; Lu, Zheng-Hong; Yang, Zhenyu; Hoogland, Sjoerd; Sargent, Edward H.

    2017-01-01

    Planar perovskite solar cells (PSCs) made entirely via solution processing at low temperatures (<150°C) offer promise for simple manufacturing, compatibility with flexible substrates, and perovskite-based tandem devices. However, these PSCs require an electron-selective layer that performs well with similar processing. We report a contact-passivation strategy using chlorine-capped TiO2 colloidal nanocrystal film that mitigates interfacial recombination and improves interface binding in low-temperature planar solar cells. We fabricated solar cells with certified efficiencies of 20.1 and 19.5% for active areas of 0.049 and 1.1 square centimeters, respectively, achieved via low-temperature solution processing. Solar cells with efficiency greater than 20% retained 90% (97% after dark recovery) of their initial performance after 500 hours of continuous room-temperature operation at their maximum power point under 1-sun illumination (where 1 sun is defined as the standard illumination at AM1.5, or 1 kilowatt/square meter).

  14. Thermally Cross-Linkable Hole Transport Materials for Solution Processed Phosphorescent OLEDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Beom Seok; Kim, Ohyoung; Chin, Byung Doo; Lee, Chil Won

    2018-04-01

    Materials for unique fabrication of a solution-processed, multi-layered organic light-emitting diode (OLED) were developed. Preparation of a hole transport layer with a thermally cross-linkable chemical structure, which can be processed to form a thin film and then transformed into an insoluble film by using an amine-alcohol condensation reaction with heat treatment, was investigated. Functional groups, such as triplenylamine linked with phenylcarbazole or biphenyl, were employed in the chemical structure of the hole transport layer in order to maintain high triplet energy properties. When phenylcarbazole or biphenyl compounds continuously react with triphenylamine under acid catalysis, a chemically stable thin film material with desirable energy-level properties for a blue OLED could be obtained. The prepared hole transport materials showed excellent surface roughness and thermal stability in comparison with the commercial reference material. On the solution-processed model hole transport layer, we fabricated a device with a blue phosphorescent OLED by using sequential vacuum deposition. The maximum external quantum, 19.3%, was improved by more than 40% over devices with the commercial reference material (11.4%).

  15. Study of Research and Development Processes through Fuzzy Super FRM Model and Optimization Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavius Aurelian Sârbu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to measure resources for R&D (research and development at the regional level in Romania and also obtain primary data that will be important in making the right decisions to increase competitiveness and development based on an economic knowledge. As our motivation, we would like to emphasize that by the use of Super Fuzzy FRM model we want to determine the state of R&D processes at regional level using a mean different from the statistical survey, while by the two optimization methods we mean to provide optimization solutions for the R&D actions of the enterprises. Therefore to fulfill the above mentioned aim in this application-oriented paper we decided to use a questionnaire and for the interpretation of the results the Super Fuzzy FRM model, representing the main novelty of our paper, as this theory provides a formalism based on matrix calculus, which allows processing of large volumes of information and also delivers results difficult or impossible to see, through statistical processing. Furthermore another novelty of the paper represents the optimization solutions submitted in this work, given for the situation when the sales price is variable, and the quantity sold is constant in time and for the reverse situation.

  16. High Dielectric Performance of Solution-Processed Aluminum Oxide-Boron Nitride Composite Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Byoung-Soo; Ha, Tae-Jun

    2018-04-01

    The material compositions of oxide films have been extensively investigated in an effort to improve the electrical characteristics of dielectrics which have been utilized in various electronic devices such as field-effect transistors, and storage capacitors. Significantly, solution-based compositions have attracted considerable attention as a highly effective and practical technique to replace vacuum-based process in large-area. Here, we demonstrate solution-processed composite films consisting of aluminum oxide (Al2O3) and boron nitride (BN), which exhibit remarkable dielectric properties through the optimization process. The leakage current of the optimized Al2O3-BN thin films was decreased by a factor of 100 at 3V, compared to pristine Al2O3 thin film without a loss of the dielectric constant or degradation of the morphological roughness. The characterization by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements revealed that the incorporation of BN with an optimized concentration into the Al2O3 dielectric film reduced the density of oxygen vacancies which act as defect states, thereby improving the dielectric characteristics.

  17. Efficient and stable solution-processed planar perovskite solar cells via contact passivation

    KAUST Repository

    Tan, Hairen

    2017-02-03

    Planar perovskite solar cells (PSCs) made entirely via solution processing at low temperatures (<150°C) offer promise for simple manufacturing, compatibility with flexible substrates, and perovskite-based tandem devices. However, these PSCs require an electron-selective layer that performs well with similar processing. We report a contact-passivation strategy using chlorine-capped TiO2 colloidal nanocrystal film that mitigates interfacial recombination and improves interface binding in low-temperature planar solar cells. We fabricated solar cells with certified efficiencies of 20.1 and 19.5% for active areas of 0.049 and 1.1 square centimeters, respectively, achieved via low-temperature solution processing. Solar cells with efficiency greater than 20% retained 90% (97% after dark recovery) of their initial performance after 500 hours of continuous room-temperature operation at their maximum power point under 1-sun illumination (where 1 sun is defined as the standard illumination at AM1.5, or 1 kilowatt/square meter).

  18. Solution-processed organic thermoelectric materials exhibiting doping-concentration-dependent polarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Sunbin; Potscavage, William J; Yang, Yu Seok; Park, In Seob; Matsushima, Toshinori; Adachi, Chihaya

    2016-10-26

    Recent progress in conducting polymer-based organic thermoelectric generators (OTEGs) has resulted in high performance due to high Seebeck coefficient, high electrical conductivity (σ), and low thermal conductivity obtained by chemically controlling the materials's redox levels. In addition to improving the properties of individual OTEGs to obtain high performance, the development of solution processes for the fabrication of OTEG modules is necessary to realize large thermoelectric voltage and low-cost mass production. However, the scarcity of good candidates for soluble organic n-type materials limits the use of π-leg module structures consisting of complementary elements of p- and n-type materials because of unbalanced transport coefficients that lead to power losses. In particular, the extremely low σ of n-type materials compared with that of p-type materials is a serious challenge. In this study, poly(pyridinium phenylene) (P(PymPh)) was tested as an n-type semiconductor in solution-processed OTEGs, and the carrier density was controlled by a solution-based chemical doping process using the dopant sodium naphthalenide, a well-known reductant. The electronic structures and doping mechanism of P(PymPh) were explored based on the changes in UV-Vis-IR absorption, ultraviolet photoelectron, and X-ray photoelectron spectra. By controlling the dopant concentration, we demonstrate a maximum n-type power factor of 0.81 μW m -1 K -2 with high σ, and at higher doping concentrations, a switch from n-type to p-type TE operation. This is one of the first cases of a switch in polarity just by increasing the concentration of the reductant and may open a new route for simplified fabrication of complementary organic layers.

  19. All-solution-processed PbS quantum dot solar modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Jihoon; Shim, Hyung Cheoul; Ju, Yeonkyeong; Song, Jung Hoon; An, Hyejin; Yu, Jong-Su; Kwak, Sun-Woo; Lee, Taik-Min; Kim, Inyoung; Jeong, Sohee

    2015-05-01

    A rapid increase in power conversion efficiencies in colloidal quantum dot (QD) solar cells has been achieved recently with lead sulphide (PbS) QDs by adapting a heterojunction architecture, which consists of small-area devices associated with a vacuum-deposited buffer layer with metal electrodes. The preparation of QD solar modules by low-cost solution processes is required to further increase the power-to-cost ratio. Herein we demonstrate all-solution-processed flexible PbS QD solar modules with a layer-by-layer architecture comprising polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate/indium tin oxide (ITO)/titanium oxide (TiO2)/PbS QD/poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT)/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) : poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT : PSS)/Ag, with an active area of up to 30 cm2, exhibiting a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 1.3% under AM 1.5 conditions (PCE of 2.2% for a 1 cm2 unit cell). Our approach affords trade-offs between power and the active area of the photovoltaic devices, which results in a low-cost power source, and which is scalable to larger areas.A rapid increase in power conversion efficiencies in colloidal quantum dot (QD) solar cells has been achieved recently with lead sulphide (PbS) QDs by adapting a heterojunction architecture, which consists of small-area devices associated with a vacuum-deposited buffer layer with metal electrodes. The preparation of QD solar modules by low-cost solution processes is required to further increase the power-to-cost ratio. Herein we demonstrate all-solution-processed flexible PbS QD solar modules with a layer-by-layer architecture comprising polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate/indium tin oxide (ITO)/titanium oxide (TiO2)/PbS QD/poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT)/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) : poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT : PSS)/Ag, with an active area of up to 30 cm2, exhibiting a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 1.3% under AM 1.5 conditions (PCE of 2.2% for a 1 cm2 unit cell). Our approach affords trade

  20. Development of a Population Balance Model of a pharmaceutical drying process and testing of solution methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortier, Séverine Thérèse F.C.; Gernaey, Krist; De Beer, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Drying is frequently used in the production of pharmaceutical tablets. Simulation-based control strategy development for such a drying process requires a detailed model. First, the drying of wet granules is modelled using a Population Balance Model. A growth term based on a reduced model was used......, which describes the decrease of the moisture content, to follow the moisture content distribution for a batch of granules. Secondly, different solution methods for solving the PBM are compared. The effect of grid size (discretization methods) is analyzed in terms of accuracy and calculation time. All...

  1. Fast and Sensitive Solution-Processed Visible-Blind Perovskite UV Photodetectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adinolfi, Valerio; Ouellette, Olivier; Saidaminov, Makhsud I; Walters, Grant; Abdelhady, Ahmed L; Bakr, Osman M; Sargent, Edward H

    2016-09-01

    The first visible-blind UV photodetector based on MAPbCl3 integrated on a substrate exhibits excellent performance, with responsivities reaching 18 A W(-1) below 400 nm and imaging-compatible response times of 1 ms. This is achieved by using substrate-integrated single crystals, thus overcoming the severe limitations affecting thin films and offering a new application of efficient, solution-processed, visible-transparent perovskite optoelectronics. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. The analysis of anode sludges, and their process solutions and beneficiation products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, K.; Russell, G.M.; Wall, G.J.; Eddy, B.T.; Mallett, R.C.; Royal, S.J.

    1979-01-01

    As previous methods for the analysis of anode slimes have required lengthy separations, instrumental procedures were developed that require no preparation of the sample or only simple procedures such as acid digestion and fusion. Comparative values for various techniques are given. Methods for the analysis of process solutions and beneficiation products are examined and the procedures that have been adopted together with their relative merits and applicability are discussed. Methods of analysis include: atomic-absorption spectrophotometry, x-ray-fluorescence spectrophotometry, x-ray-fluorescence spectrometry, instrumental neutron-activation analysis and optical emission spectrometry

  3. Transparent heaters based on solution-processed indium tin oxide nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Im, Kiju [Department of Electrical Engineering and Institute for Nano Science, Korea University, 5-1, Anam-dong, Sungbuk-gu, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Research Institute of TNB Nanoelec Co. Ltd., Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Kyoungah [Department of Electrical Engineering and Institute for Nano Science, Korea University, 5-1, Anam-dong, Sungbuk-gu, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jonghyun [Research Institute of TNB Nanoelec Co. Ltd., Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sangsig, E-mail: sangsig@korea.ac.k [Department of Electrical Engineering and Institute for Nano Science, Korea University, 5-1, Anam-dong, Sungbuk-gu, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-05-03

    We demonstrate transparent heaters constructed on glass substrates using solution-processed indium tin oxide (ITO) nanoparticles (NPs) and their heating capability. The heat-generating characteristics of the heaters depended significantly on the sintering temperature at which the ITO NPs deposited on a glass substrate by spin-coating were transformed thermally into a solid film. The steady-state temperature of the ITO NP film sintered at 400 {sup o}C was 163 {sup o}C at a bias voltage of 20 V, and the defrosting capability of the film was confirmed by using dry-ice.

  4. Editorial Management serials online: construction process, publication and administration with free software solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Vuotto

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Initially raised the main points to consider and develop the planning and construction of an online publication of a scientific nature, emphasizing the process and editorial functions, document preservation, access management, indexing and visibility. In the second part of the paper presents a proposed solution to every aspect previously described, highlighting the work of the information professional and optimizing time, cost and results offered free software, from a concrete experience with the system Open Journal System under the journal portal of the Faculty of Humanities at the Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata.

  5. Efficient electroluminescence from a perylenediimide fluorophore obtained from a simple solution processed OLED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cespedes-Guirao, F J; Fernandez-Lazaro, F; Sastre-Santos, A; Garcia-Santamaria, S; Bolink, H J

    2009-01-01

    Simple solution processed organic light emitting diodes are used to screen the performance of two types of highly efficient, narrow band red emitting fluorescent perylenediimides (PDIs). PDIs substituted at the diimide positions seem to form aggregates in the thin film architecture as evidenced by the shifted electroluminescent spectrum. When substituted on the bay position and when used both as the emitting and the electron transporting specie, bright electroluminescence with a narrow width around 610 nm reaching 500 cd m -2 at moderate voltages was observed, demonstrating the usefulness of these fluorophores for OLED applications.

  6. Solution of relativistic quantum optics problems using clusters of graphical processing units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, D.F., E-mail: daviel.gordon@nrl.navy.mil; Hafizi, B.; Helle, M.H.

    2014-06-15

    Numerical solution of relativistic quantum optics problems requires high performance computing due to the rapid oscillations in a relativistic wavefunction. Clusters of graphical processing units are used to accelerate the computation of a time dependent relativistic wavefunction in an arbitrary external potential. The stationary states in a Coulomb potential and uniform magnetic field are determined analytically and numerically, so that they can used as initial conditions in fully time dependent calculations. Relativistic energy levels in extreme magnetic fields are recovered as a means of validation. The relativistic ionization rate is computed for an ion illuminated by a laser field near the usual barrier suppression threshold, and the ionizing wavefunction is displayed.

  7. Production Supervision Incorporated With Network Technology-A Solution For Controlling In-Process Inventory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suraj Yadav

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In context to the manufacturing management in medium scale production floor, work-in-process (WIP management or the inprocess inventory and control as the inevitable result of the production process has become a vital link of production plan. Due to the growing production requirements and the potential economic benefits of manufacturing process flow, enterprises have been pushed to integrate work-in-process management with their manufacturing process and the larger the company the larger the list of in-process inventory and this all are typically hard to manage so for the same respect the author in this paper has lighted on the integration of sophisticated electronics and networking technologies with the W.I.P with an native and low cost solution for managing the same, specially for the medium scaled company dealing with large number of product or with the customized product with reference to study of present scenario of a multinational company’s plant engineering department.

  8. Investigation of Cyanide Removal from Aqueous Solution Using Precipitation Process (FeCl3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Jonidi Jafari

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Cyanide is a toxic pollutant that is can be discharged from different industries such as iron and steel industry, coal mining and metal plating. Presence of this toxin in water and wastewater is a serious hazard and lead to undesirable effects on both the environment and human. Thus, its concentration control is essential for human health. The aim of this study was investigation of Cyanide Removal from aqueous solution using precipitation process (FeCl3. Material and Methods: This study is an experimental study in lab scale that was carried out in a batch system by jartest. Variations of this study including pH, FeCl3 concentration, reaction time and desired concentration of cyanide were investigated. Data were analyzed using Excel (version 2007 software. Results: The results of this research were showed that Cyanide with initial concentration of 10 mg/l in precipitation process was removed by 40% (conditions pH=90, FeCl3=0.4 g/l and the time 60 minutes. Also, the precipitation process efficiency to cyanide removal decreased of 40 to 23%, by increasing of the initial cyanide concentration of 10 to 15 mg/l. Conclusion: Precipitation process can be considered as a suitable alternative for recovery of cyanide to be re-used. Although, this process has limitations for treat total cyanide to environmental standards level. So, it is better be used in combination with other processes of these contaminants removal.

  9. An efficient solution of real-time data processing for multi-GNSS network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Xiaopeng; Gu, Shengfeng; Lou, Yidong; Zheng, Fu; Ge, Maorong; Liu, Jingnan

    2017-12-01

    Global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) are acting as an indispensable tool for geodetic research and global monitoring of the Earth, and they have been rapidly developed over the past few years with abundant GNSS networks, modern constellations, and significant improvement in mathematic models of data processing. However, due to the increasing number of satellites and stations, the computational efficiency becomes a key issue and it could hamper the further development of GNSS applications. In this contribution, this problem is overcome from the aspects of both dense linear algebra algorithms and GNSS processing strategy. First, in order to fully explore the power of modern microprocessors, the square root information filter solution based on the blocked QR factorization employing as many matrix-matrix operations as possible is introduced. In addition, the algorithm complexity of GNSS data processing is further decreased by centralizing the carrier-phase observations and ambiguity parameters, as well as performing the real-time ambiguity resolution and elimination. Based on the QR factorization of the simulated matrix, we can conclude that compared to unblocked QR factorization, the blocked QR factorization can greatly improve processing efficiency with a magnitude of nearly two orders on a personal computer with four 3.30 GHz cores. Then, with 82 globally distributed stations, the processing efficiency is further validated in multi-GNSS (GPS/BDS/Galileo) satellite clock estimation. The results suggest that it will take about 31.38 s per epoch for the unblocked method. While, without any loss of accuracy, it only takes 0.50 and 0.31 s for our new algorithm per epoch for float and fixed clock solutions, respectively.

  10. Discharge time dependence of a solution plasma process for colloidal copper nanoparticle synthesis and particle characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pootawang, Panuphong; Saito, Nagahiro; Lee, Sang Yul

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we investigate a new synthetic route, termed the solution plasma process, for the synthesis of colloidal copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) in the presence of an amide and acid capping agent. Gelatin and ascorbic acid were selected as the capping agents to protect the particles against coalescence and oxidation side reaction. Using a high voltage power supply, CuNPs were rapidly formed by 1 min after the discharge. The size and shape of the CuNPs were dependent on the discharge time and were clearly influenced by the effect of the capping agents under two characteristics of the discharge medium (pH and temperature). With a long discharge time, the CuNP size tended to decrease with the formation of anisotropic particle morphologies: spherical, cubic, hexagonal, triangular and rod-like shapes. The decrease in CuNP size as a function of discharge time could be explained by the dissolution of CuNPs in a lower pH solution. After 5 min discharge the capping agent evidently allowed the protection of the synthesized CuNPs against oxidation with the presence of anisotropic CuNP shapes. It is demonstrated that the CuNP shape could be tuned from spherical to anisotropic shapes without the undesirable oxidation by adjusting the discharge time of the solution plasma. These advantages are valuable for material engineering to design the properties of Cu-based nanoparticles for the desired applications. (paper)

  11. Rirang uranium ore processing: continuous solvent extraction of uranium from Rirang ore acid digestion solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riza, F.; Nuri, H. L.; Waluya, S.; Subijanto, A.; Sarono, B.

    1998-01-01

    Separation of uranium from Rirang ore acid digestion solution by means of continuous solvent extraction using mixer-settlers has been studied and a mixture of 0.3 M D2EHPA and 0.075 M TOPO extracting agent and kerosene diluent is employed to recover and separate uranium from Th, RE, phosphate containing solution. The experiments have been conducted batch-wise and several parameters have been studied including the aqueous to organic phase ratio, A/O, the extraction and the stripping times, and the operation temperature. The optimum conditions for extraction have been found to be A/O = 2 ratio, five minute extraction time per stage at room temperature. The uranium recovery of 99.07% has been achieved at those conditions whilst U can be stripped from the organic phase by 85% H 3 PO 4 solution with an O/A = 1 for 5 minutes stripping time per stage, and in a there stage operation at room temperature yielding a 100% uranium recovery from the stripping process

  12. Topical 5% potassium permanganate solution accelerates the healing process in chronic diabetic foot ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Enciso, Iván; Madrigal-Perez, Violeta M; Lara-Esqueda, Agustin; Diaz-Sanchez, Martha G; Guzman-Esquivel, Jose; Rosas-Vizcaino, Luis E; Virgen-Jimenez, Oscar O; Kleiman-Trujillo, Juleny; Lagarda-Canales, Maria R; Ceja-Espiritu, Gabriel; Rangel-Salgado, Viridiana; Lopez-Lemus, Uriel A; Delgado-Enciso, Josuel; Lara-Basulto, Agustin D; Soriano Hernández, Alejandro D

    2018-02-01

    Potassium permanganate has been reported to be an effective treatment for certain types of wounds. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the use of potassium permanganate in the treatment of diabetic foot ulcers. A single-blind, randomized, controlled clinical trial was conducted on patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus that presented with a foot ulcer persisting for >3 months. The control group (n=10) was treated with the current standard treatment, which comprises of measures for reducing pressure in the ulcerated area, daily cleansing of the ulcer with potable water and antiseptic wash solution, and the application of a disinfectant solution on the entire surface area of the ulcer; while the intervention group (n=15) received the standard treatment plus 5% topical potassium permanganate solution applied once a day for 21 days. In the intervention group, 1 patient did not tolerate the treatment and was eliminated from the study on the first day. The remaining patients tolerated the interventions well. At the end of the treatment period, ulcers in the control group had decreased by 38% whereas those in the intervention group decreased by 73% (Ppermanganate is well tolerated and significantly accelerates the healing process of diabetic foot ulcers.

  13. Synthesis and characteristics of Ag/Pt bimetallic nanocomposites by arc-discharge solution plasma processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pootawang, Panuphong; Saito, Nagahiro; Takai, Osamu; Lee, Sang-Yul

    2012-10-05

    Arc discharge in solution, generated by applying a high voltage of unipolar pulsed dc to electrodes of Ag and Pt, was used as a method to form Ag/Pt bimetallic nanocomposites via electrode erosion by the effects of the electric arc at the cathode (Ag rod) and the sputtering at the anode (Pt rod). Ag/Pt bimetallic nanocomposites were formed as colloidal particles dispersed in solution via the reduction of hydrogen radicals generated during discharge without the addition of chemical precursor or reducing agent. At a discharge time of 30 s, the fine bimetallic nanoparticles with a mean particle size of approximately 5 nm were observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). With increasing discharge time, the bimetallic nanoparticle size tended to increase by forming an agglomeration. The presence of the relatively small amount of Pt dispersed in the Ag matrix could be observed by the analytical mapping mode of energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and high-resolution TEM. This demonstrated that the synthesized particle was in the form of a nanocomposite. No contamination of other chemical substances was detected by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Hence, solution plasma could be a clean and simple process to effectively synthesize Ag/Pt bimetallic nanocomposites and it is expected to be widely applicable in the preparation of several types of nanoparticle.

  14. Soft Tissue Sarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... muscles, tendons, fat, and blood vessels. Soft tissue sarcoma is a cancer of these soft tissues. There ... have certain genetic diseases. Doctors diagnose soft tissue sarcomas with a biopsy. Treatments include surgery to remove ...

  15. Solution-Processed Molecular Organic Solar cell: Relationship between Morphology and Device Performance

    KAUST Repository

    Babics, Maxime

    2018-05-09

    In the last decade, organic photovoltaics (OPV) have gained considerable attention with a rapid improvement of power conversion efficiency (PCE) from 5% to more than 13%. At the origin of the gradual efficiency improvements are (i) the rationalization of material design and (ii) systematic optimization of film processing condition. OPV can have a key role in markets such as building-integrated photovoltaics (BIPV). The main advantages of organic solar cells are semitransparency, low weight, good performance at low light intensity, flexibility and potential low-cost module manufacture through solution processed-based technologies. In solution processed OPV, the active layer that converts photons into electric charges is a composite of two organic compounds, a donor (D) and an acceptor (A) where the best morphology is achieved via the so-called bulk heterojunction (BHJ): an interpenetrating phase-separated D-A network. Historically, research has been focused on polymer donors and guidelines about morphology and film processing have been established. However recent studies have shown that small-molecule (SM) donors can rival their polymer counterparts in performance. The advantages of SM are a defined molecular weight, the ease of purification and a good batch-to-batch reproducibility. Using this class of material the existing guidelines have to be adjusted and refined. In this dissertation, using new SM synthesized in our laboratory, solution-processed organic solar cells are fabricated in which the morphology of the active layer is controlled by thermal annealing, the use of additive or solvent vapor annealing. In-depth analyses of the morphology are correlated to charge generation, recombination and extraction inferred from device physics. In the first part of the dissertation, using a small amount of 1,8-Diiodooctane additive that acts as a plasticizer, it is found that the D-A domains do not necessarily need to be pure and that mixed domains can also result in

  16. Intelligent monitoring and fault diagnosis for ATLAS TDAQ: a complex event processing solution

    CERN Document Server

    Magnoni, Luca; Luppi, Eleonora

    Effective monitoring and analysis tools are fundamental in modern IT infrastructures to get insights on the overall system behavior and to deal promptly and effectively with failures. In recent years, Complex Event Processing (CEP) technologies have emerged as effective solutions for information processing from the most disparate fields: from wireless sensor networks to financial analysis. This thesis proposes an innovative approach to monitor and operate complex and distributed computing systems, in particular referring to the ATLAS Trigger and Data Acquisition (TDAQ) system currently in use at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN). The result of this research, the AAL project, is currently used to provide ATLAS data acquisition operators with automated error detection and intelligent system analysis. The thesis begins by describing the TDAQ system and the controlling architecture, with a focus on the monitoring infrastructure and the expert system used for error detection and automated reco...

  17. Highly conductive p-type amorphous oxides from low-temperature solution processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jinwang; Tokumitsu, Eisuke; Koyano, Mikio; Mitani, Tadaoki; Shimoda, Tatsuya

    2012-01-01

    We report solution-processed, highly conductive (resistivity 1.3-3.8 mΩ cm), p-type amorphous A-B-O (A = Bi, Pb; B = Ru, Ir), processable at temperatures (down to 240 °C) that are compatible with plastic substrates. The film surfaces are smooth on the atomic scale. Bi-Ru-O was analyzed in detail. A small optical bandgap (0.2 eV) with a valence band maximum (VBM) below but very close to the Fermi level (binding energy E VBM = 0.04 eV) explains the high conductivity and suggests that they are degenerated semiconductors. The conductivity changes from three-dimensional to two-dimensional with decreasing temperature across 25 K.

  18. Preparation of functional composite materials based on chemically derived graphene using solution process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, M; Hyun, W J; Mun, S C; Park, O O

    2015-01-01

    Chemically derived graphenes were assembled into functional composite materials using solution process from stable solvent dispersion. We have developed foldable electronic circuits on paper substrates using vacuum filtration of graphene nanoplates dispersion and a selective transfer process without need for special equipment. The electronic circuits on paper substrates revealed only a small change in conductance under various folding angles and maintained an electronic path after repetitive folding and unfolding. We also prepared flexible. binder-free graphene paper-like materials by addition of graphene oxide as a film stabilizer. This graphene papers showed outstanding electrical conductivity up to 26,000 S/m and high charge capacity as an anode in lithium-ion battery without any post-treatments. For last case, multi-functional thin film structures of graphene nanoplates were fabricated by using layer-by-layer assembly technique, showing optical transparency, electrical conductivity and enhanced gas barrier property. (paper)

  19. Thinning of CIGS solar cells: Part I: Chemical processing in acidic bromine solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouttemy, M.; Tran-Van, P. [Institut Lavoisier de Versailles (ILV-UMR 8180 CNRS/UVSQ), 45 av. des Etats Unis, 78035 Versailles (France); Gerard, I., E-mail: gerard@chimie.uvsq.fr [Institut Lavoisier de Versailles (ILV-UMR 8180 CNRS/UVSQ), 45 av. des Etats Unis, 78035 Versailles (France); Hildebrandt, T.; Causier, A. [Institut Lavoisier de Versailles (ILV-UMR 8180 CNRS/UVSQ), 45 av. des Etats Unis, 78035 Versailles (France); Pelouard, J.L.; Dagher, G. [Laboratoire de Photonique et de Nanostructures (LPN-CNRS), route de Nozay 91460 Marcoussis (France); Jehl, Z.; Naghavi, N. [Institut de Recherche et Developpement sur l' Energie Photovoltaique (IRDEP -UMR 7174 CNRS/EDF/Chimie-ParisTech), 6 quai Watier, 78401 Chatou (France); Voorwinden, G.; Dimmler, B. [Wuerth Elektronik Research GmbH, Industriestr. 4, 70565 Stuttgart (Germany); Powalla, M. [Zentrum fuer Sonnenenergie- und Wasserstoff-Forschung (ZSW), Industriestr. 6, 70565 Stuttgart (Germany); Guillemoles, J.F. [Institut de Recherche et Developpement sur l' Energie Photovoltaique (IRDEP -UMR 7174 CNRS/EDF/Chimie-ParisTech), 6 quai Watier, 78401 Chatou (France); Lincot, D. [Laboratoire de Photonique et de Nanostructures (LPN-CNRS), route de Nozay 91460 Marcoussis (France); Etcheberry, A. [Institut Lavoisier de Versailles (ILV-UMR 8180 CNRS/UVSQ), 45 av. des Etats Unis, 78035 Versailles (France)

    2011-08-31

    CIGSe absorber was etched in HBr/Br{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O to prepare defined thicknesses of CIGSe between 2.7 and 0.5 {mu}m. We established a reproducible method of reducing the absorber thickness via chemical etching. We determine the dissolution kinetics rate of CIGSe using trace analysis by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry of Ga and Cu. The roughness of the etching surface decreases during the first 500 nm of the etching to a steady state value of the root-mean-square roughness near 50 nm. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses demonstrate an etching process occurring with a constant chemical composition of the treated surface acidic bromine solutions provide a controlled chemical thinning process resulting in an almost flat surface and a very low superficial Se{sup 0} enrichment.

  20. High-speed logic integrated circuits with solution-processed self-assembled carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shu-Jen; Tang, Jianshi; Kumar, Bharat; Falk, Abram; Farmer, Damon; Tulevski, George; Jenkins, Keith; Afzali, Ali; Oida, Satoshi; Ott, John; Hannon, James; Haensch, Wilfried

    2017-09-01

    As conventional monolithic silicon technology struggles to meet the requirements for the 7-nm technology node, there has been tremendous progress in demonstrating the scalability of carbon nanotube field-effect transistors down to the size that satisfies the 3-nm node and beyond. However, to date, circuits built with carbon nanotubes have overlooked key aspects of a practical logic technology and have stalled at simple functionality demonstrations. Here, we report high-performance complementary carbon nanotube ring oscillators using fully manufacturable processes, with a stage switching frequency of 2.82 GHz. The circuit was built on solution-processed, self-assembled carbon nanotube arrays with over 99.9% semiconducting purity, and the complementary feature was achieved by employing two different work function electrodes.

  1. Applications of disorder-induced melting concept to critical-solute-accumulation processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam, N.Q.; Okamoto, P.R.; Heuer, J.K.

    2001-01-01

    A generalized version of the Lindemann melting criterion has recently been used to develop a unified thermodynamic description of disorder-induced amorphization and heat-induced melting. This concept of amorphization as a melting process is based on the fact that the melting temperature of a defective crystal driven far from equilibrium will decrease relative to that of its defect-free equilibrium state. The broader view of melting provides a new perspective of damage-accumulation processes such as radiation damage, ion implantation, ion beam mixing, plastic deformation, and fracture. For example, within this conceptual framework, disorder-induced amorphization is simply polymorphous melting of a critically disordered crystal at temperatures below the glass transition temperature. In the present communication, we discuss the application of the concept to two specific cases: amorphous phase formation during ion implantation and solute segregation-induced intergranular fracture

  2. High-speed logic integrated circuits with solution-processed self-assembled carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shu-Jen; Tang, Jianshi; Kumar, Bharat; Falk, Abram; Farmer, Damon; Tulevski, George; Jenkins, Keith; Afzali, Ali; Oida, Satoshi; Ott, John; Hannon, James; Haensch, Wilfried

    2017-09-01

    As conventional monolithic silicon technology struggles to meet the requirements for the 7-nm technology node, there has been tremendous progress in demonstrating the scalability of carbon nanotube field-effect transistors down to the size that satisfies the 3-nm node and beyond. However, to date, circuits built with carbon nanotubes have overlooked key aspects of a practical logic technology and have stalled at simple functionality demonstrations. Here, we report high-performance complementary carbon nanotube ring oscillators using fully manufacturable processes, with a stage switching frequency of 2.82 GHz. The circuit was built on solution-processed, self-assembled carbon nanotube arrays with over 99.9% semiconducting purity, and the complementary feature was achieved by employing two different work function electrodes.

  3. Concurrent engineering solution for the design of ship and offshore bracket parts and fabrication process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Won Kim

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Brackets in ships and offshore structures are added structures that can endure stress concentrations. In this study, a concurrent engineering solution was proposed, and a high strength low carbon cast steel alloy applicable to offshore structures was designed and developed. The yield strength and ultimate tensile strength of the designed steel were 480 and 600 MPa, respectively. The carbon equivalent of the steel was 0.446 with a weld crack susceptibility index of 0.219. The optimal structural design of the brackets for offshore structures was evaluated using ANSYS commercial software. The possibility of replacing an assembly of conventional built-up brackets with a single casting bulb bracket was verified. The casting process was simulated using MAGMAsoft commercial software, and a casting fabrication process was designed. For the proposed bulb bracket, it was possible to reduce the size and weight by approximately 30% and 50%, respectively, compared to the conventional type of bracket.

  4. Fabrication and characterization of solution processed vertically aligned ZnO microrods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gadallah, A.-S., E-mail: agadallah@niles.edu.eg [Laboratoire de Nanotechnologie et d’Instrumentation Optique, Institut Charles Delaunay, CNRS UMR 6279, Université de Technologie de Troyes, 12 rue Marie Curie, BP 2060, 10010 Troyes Cedex (France); Department of Laser Sciences and Interactions, National Institute of Laser Enhanced Sciences, Cairo University, 12613 Giza (Egypt)

    2014-08-30

    Simple and effective cost high quality vertically aligned densely packed ZnO microrods have been prepared using solution processed two-step deposition process, specifically sol–gel spin coating combined with chemical bath deposition. X-ray diffraction pattern and scanning electron microscope show that there has been preferential crystal orientation along c-axis and the growth of the microrods has occurred normal to the glass substrate and the facets of the these microrods are hexagons. Photoluminescence measurements showed an emission band in the UV region and another weak band in the visible region with the emission intensity of UV band grows superlinearly with the excitation intensity. The film shows an electrical resistivity of 136 Ω cm as evaluated from four-point probe method. The fabricated film has been used as UV detector through Au/SiO{sub 2}/ZnO structure on glass substrate as the structure shows higher current under illumination compared to without illumination.

  5. Investigation of Phenol Removal from Aqueous Solutions by Electrofenton and Electropersulfate Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Rahmani

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Phenol, or benzene hydroxyl is a toxic aromatic hydrocarbon discharged into the environment through certian industrial effluents which, thereby, pollute water resources. This study examines phenol removal from aqueous solutions through electro-Fenton and electro/persulfate processes using iron electrodes. For this purpose, a laboratory-scale electrochemical batch reactor was used that was equipped with four electrodes and a direct DC power supply. In the tests carried out, the effects of operational parameters such as initial pH; current density; and initial concentrations of phenol, hydrogen peroxide, and persulfate on the removal of phenol were investigated. The results showed that EPS and EF processes achieved phenol removal efficiencies of 95.18% and 93.99%, respectively, at operating conditions of pH = 3, initial phenol concentration of 100 mg/l, hydrogen peroxide and persulfate concentration of 0. 4 mM, and a current density 0.07A/dm2 over 45 min. Increasing persulfate and hydrogen peroxide concentration from 0.4 to 0.8 mM reduced phenol removal efficiencies from 95.18% and 93.99% to 43% and 85%, respectively. Generally speaking, EPS and EF processes exhibited almost identical phenol removal efficiencies. Finally, the integrated electrochemical and persulphate process was found to be more productive in producing electrical iron and persulphate activation than using each single process in isolation.

  6. Synthesis of Copper-Antimony-Sulfide Nanocrystals for Solution-Processed Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suehiro, Satoshi; Horita, Keisuke; Yuasa, Masayoshi; Tanaka, Tooru; Fujita, Katsuhiko; Ishiwata, Yoichi; Shimanoe, Kengo; Kida, Tetsuya

    2015-08-17

    The p-type nanocrystals (NCs) of copper-based chalcogenides, such as CuInSe2 and Cu2ZnSnS4, have attracted increasing attention in photovoltaic applications due to their potential to produce cheap solution-processed solar cells. Herein, we report the synthesis of copper-antimony-sulfide (CAS) NCs with different crystal phases including CuSbS2, Cu3SbS4, and Cu12Sb4S13. In addition, their morphology, crystal phase, and optical properties were characterized using transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometry, UV-vis-near-IR spectroscopy, and photoemission yield spectroscopy. The morphology, crystal phase, and electronic structure were significantly dependent on the chemical composition in the CAS system. Devices were fabricated using particulate films consisting of CAS NCs prepared by spin coating without a high-temperature treatment. The CAS NC-based devices exhibited a diode-like current-voltage characteristic when coupled with an n-type CdS layer. In particular, the CuSbS2 NC devices exhibited photovoltaic responses under simulated sunlight, demonstrating its applicability for use in solution-processed solar cells.

  7. Lanthanide tetrakis-β-diketonate dimers for solution-processed OLEDs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, J.P. [CEMDRX, Physics Department, Universidade de Coimbra, Rua Larga, P-3004-516 Coimbra (Portugal); Serviço de Medicina Nuclear, SESARAM E.P.E., Av. Luís de Camões 57, P-9004-514 Funchal, Madeira (Portugal); Martín-Ramos, P. [Higher Technical School of Telecommunications Engineering, Universidad de Valladolid, Campus Miguel Delibes, Paseo Belén 15, 47011 Valladolid (Spain); Coya, C.; Álvarez, A.L. [Escuela Superior de Ciencias Experimentales y Tecnología (ESCET), Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, 28933 Madrid (Spain); Pereira, L.C. [Solid State Group, UCQR, IST/CTN, Instituto Superior Técnico, UTL, Estrada Nacional 10, km 139.7, 2695-066 Bobadela LRS (Portugal); Díaz, R. [Electrochemical Processes Unit, IMDEA Energy Institute, Avda. Ramón de la Sagra 3, 28935 Móstoles Madrid (Spain); Martín-Gil, J. [Advanced Materials Laboratory, ETSIIAA, Universidad de Valladolid, Avenida de Madrid 44, 34004 Palencia (Spain); Ramos Silva, M., E-mail: manuela@pollux.fis.uc.pt [CEMDRX, Physics Department, Universidade de Coimbra, Rua Larga, P-3004-516 Coimbra (Portugal)

    2014-10-15

    Two Eu{sup 3+} and Tb{sup 3+} homodinuclear complexes with 1,3-diphenyl-1,3- propanedione have been synthesized and characterized by single crystal X-ray crystallography, vibrational analysis, calorimetric, magnetic and optical studies. The two isostructural complexes consist of two tetrakis units bridged by two potassium ions, thus affording a neutral charge. The photoluminescence measurements reveal that efficient energy transfer from the β-diketonate ligand to the central Ln{sup 3+} ion by antenna effect is achieved for Eu{sup 3+}, leading to intense red emission with an intrinsic quantum yield of 48%. The Eu{sup 3+}-based material has been assessed as the active layer in a solution-processed OLED with glass/ITO/PEDOT:PSS/PVK:Eu-dimer/TiO{sub 2}/Al structure and its electroluminescent properties have been inspected, showing a threshold voltage of 6 V. - Highlights: • Europium and terbium homodinuclear complexes were synthesized and characterized. • Efficient energy transfer from ligands to Eu{sup 3+} is achieved by antenna effect. • Intense red emission with an intrinsic quantum yield of 48% is attained. • Eu{sup 3+} complex has been integrated in a solution-processed OLED as the emissive layer.

  8. Growing three-dimensional biomorphic graphene powders using naturally abundant diatomite templates towards high solution processability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ke; Li, Cong; Shi, Liurong; Gao, Teng; Song, Xiuju; Bachmatiuk, Alicja; Zou, Zhiyu; Deng, Bing; Ji, Qingqing; Ma, Donglin; Peng, Hailin; Du, Zuliang; Rümmeli, Mark Hermann; Zhang, Yanfeng; Liu, Zhongfan

    2016-11-07

    Mass production of high-quality graphene with low cost is the footstone for its widespread practical applications. We present herein a self-limited growth approach for producing graphene powders by a small-methane-flow chemical vapour deposition process on naturally abundant and industrially widely used diatomite (biosilica) substrates. Distinct from the chemically exfoliated graphene, thus-produced biomorphic graphene is highly crystallized with atomic layer-thickness controllability, structural designability and less noncarbon impurities. In particular, the individual graphene microarchitectures preserve a three-dimensional naturally curved surface morphology of original diatom frustules, effectively overcoming the interlayer stacking and hence giving excellent dispersion performance in fabricating solution-processible electrodes. The graphene films derived from as-made graphene powders, compatible with either rod-coating, or inkjet and roll-to-roll printing techniques, exhibit much higher electrical conductivity (∼110,700 S m -1 at 80% transmittance) than previously reported solution-based counterparts. This work thus puts forward a practical route for low-cost mass production of various powdery two-dimensional materials.

  9. Bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells sandwiched by solution processed molybdenum oxide and titania nanosheet layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Eiji; Goto, Yoshinori; Fukuda, Katsutoshi

    2014-02-01

    The contributions of ultrathin titania nanosheet (TN) crystallites were studied in both an inverted bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) cell in an indium-tin oxide (ITO)/titania nanosheet (TN)/poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT):phenyl-C61-butyric acid methylester (PCBM) active layer/MoOx/Ag multilayered photovoltaic device and a conventional BHJ cell in ITO/MoOx/P3HT:PCBM active layer/TN/Al multilayered photovoltaic device. The insertion of only one or two layers of poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) and TN multilayered film prepared by the layer-by-layer deposition technique effectively decreased the leakage current and increased the open circuit voltage (VOC), fill factor (FF), and power conversion efficiency (η). The conventional cell sandwiched between a solution-processed, partially crystallized molybdenum oxide hole-extracting buffer layer and a TN electron extracting buffer layer showed comparable cell performance to a device sandwiched between vacuum-deposited molybdenum oxide and TN layers, whereas the inverted cell with solution-processed molybdenum oxide showed a poorer performance probably owing to the increment in the leakage current across the film. The abnormal S-shaped curves observed in the inverted BHJ cell above VOC disappeared with the use of a polyfluorene-based cationic semiconducting polymer as a substitute for an insulating PDDA film, resulting in the improved cell performance.

  10. Bioremediation of zirconium from aqueous solution by coriolus versicolor: process optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amin, M.; Bhatti, H. N.; Sadaf, S.

    2013-01-01

    In the present study the potential of live mycelia of Coriolus versicolor was explored for the removal of zirconium from simulated aqueous solution. Optimum experimental parameters for the bioremediation of zirconium using C. versicolor biomass have been investigated by studying the effect of mycelia dose, concentration of zirconium, contact time and temperature. The isothermal studies indicated that the ongoing bioremediation process was exothermic in nature and obeyed Langmuir adsorption isotherm model. The Gibbs free energy (ΔG), entropy (ΔS) and enthalpy (ΔH) of bioremediation were also determined. The result showed that bioremediation of zirconium by live C. versicolor was feasible and spontaneous at room temperature. The equilibrium data verified the involvement of chemisorption during the bioremediation. The kinetic data indicated the operation of pseudo-second order process during the biosorption of zirconium from aqueous solution. Maximum bioremediation capacity (110.75 mg/g) of C. versicolor was observed under optimum operational conditions: pH 4.5, biomass dose 0.05 mg/100 mL, contact time 6 h and temperature 30 degree C. The results showed that C. versicolor could be used for bioremediation of heavy metal ions from aqueous systems. (author)

  11. Growing three-dimensional biomorphic graphene powders using naturally abundant diatomite templates towards high solution processability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ke; Li, Cong; Shi, Liurong; Gao, Teng; Song, Xiuju; Bachmatiuk, Alicja; Zou, Zhiyu; Deng, Bing; Ji, Qingqing; Ma, Donglin; Peng, Hailin; Du, Zuliang; Rümmeli, Mark Hermann; Zhang, Yanfeng; Liu, Zhongfan

    2016-11-01

    Mass production of high-quality graphene with low cost is the footstone for its widespread practical applications. We present herein a self-limited growth approach for producing graphene powders by a small-methane-flow chemical vapour deposition process on naturally abundant and industrially widely used diatomite (biosilica) substrates. Distinct from the chemically exfoliated graphene, thus-produced biomorphic graphene is highly crystallized with atomic layer-thickness controllability, structural designability and less noncarbon impurities. In particular, the individual graphene microarchitectures preserve a three-dimensional naturally curved surface morphology of original diatom frustules, effectively overcoming the interlayer stacking and hence giving excellent dispersion performance in fabricating solution-processible electrodes. The graphene films derived from as-made graphene powders, compatible with either rod-coating, or inkjet and roll-to-roll printing techniques, exhibit much higher electrical conductivity (~110,700 S m-1 at 80% transmittance) than previously reported solution-based counterparts. This work thus puts forward a practical route for low-cost mass production of various powdery two-dimensional materials.

  12. Microencapsulation of Bioactive Principles with an Airless Spray-Gun Suitable for Processing High Viscous Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreno Cocchietto

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to design, assemble and test a prototype of a novel production plant, suitable for producing microparticles (MPs by processing highly viscous feed solutions (FSs. Methods: the prototype has been built using a commercial air compressor, a piston pump, an airless spray-gun, a customized air-treatment section, a timer, a rotating base, and a filtration section. Preliminary prototype parameter setting was carried out to individuate the best performing nozzle’s dimension, the nebulization timing, and the CaCl2 concentration in the gelation fluid. In addition, prototype throughput (1 L to 5 L and the range of practicable feed solution (FS viscosities were assayed. A set of four batches was prepared in order to characterize the MPs, in terms of mean particle size and distribution, flow properties, swelling, encapsulation efficiency and release. Results: according to a qualitative scoring, the large nozzle was suitable to nebulize FSs at a higher alginate concentration. Conversely, the small nozzle performed better in the processing of FSs with an alginate concentration up to 2% w/v. Only at the highest degree of viscosity, corresponding to 5% w/v of alginate, the FS processing was not technically possible. Among the CaCl2 concentrations considered, 15% w/v was recognized as the most versatile. The prototype appears to be convenient and suitable to grant a high yield starting from 2 L of FS. The flow behavior of the FSs assayed can be satisfactorily described with the Carreau-Yasuda equation and the throughput begins to slightly decrease for FSs at alginate concentrations exceeding 3% w/v. MP morphology was irregular with crumpled shape. The angle of repose indicates a good flowability and the release studies showed gastro-resistance and potential prolonged release applications. Conclusions: the novel prototype of production plant is suitable to process large amounts (2 L or more of FSs, characterized by a high viscosity, to produce MPs

  13. Microencapsulation of bioactive principles with an airless spray-gun suitable for processing high viscous solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocchietto, Moreno; Blasi, Paolo; Lapasin, Romano; Moro, Chiara; Gallo, Davide; Sava, Gianni

    2013-11-19

    to design, assemble and test a prototype of a novel production plant, suitable for producing microparticles (MPs) by processing highly viscous feed solutions (FSs). the prototype has been built using a commercial air compressor, a piston pump, an airless spray-gun, a customized air-treatment section, a timer, a rotating base, and a filtration section. Preliminary prototype parameter setting was carried out to individuate the best performing nozzle's dimension, the nebulization timing, and the CaCl2 concentration in the gelation fluid. In addition, prototype throughput (1 L to 5 L) and the range of practicable feed solution (FS) viscosities were assayed. A set of four batches was prepared in order to characterize the MPs, in terms of mean particle size and distribution, flow properties, swelling, encapsulation efficiency and release. according to a qualitative scoring, the large nozzle was suitable to nebulize FSs at a higher alginate concentration. Conversely, the small nozzle performed better in the processing of FSs with an alginate concentration up to 2% w/v. Only at the highest degree of viscosity, corresponding to 5% w/v of alginate, the FS processing was not technically possible. Among the CaCl2 concentrations considered, 15% w/v was recognized as the most versatile. The prototype appears to be convenient and suitable to grant a high yield starting from 2 L of FS. The flow behavior of the FSs assayed can be satisfactorily described with the Carreau-Yasuda equation and the throughput begins to slightly decrease for FSs at alginate concentrations exceeding 3% w/v. MP morphology was irregular with crumpled shape. The angle of repose indicates a good flowability and the release studies showed gastro-resistance and potential prolonged release applications. the novel prototype of production plant is suitable to process large amounts (2 L or more) of FSs, characterized by a high viscosity, to produce MPs suitable for bioactive principle delivery.

  14. Solution-Processing of Organic Solar Cells: From In Situ Investigation to Scalable Manufacturing

    KAUST Repository

    Abdelsamie, Maged

    2016-12-05

    Photovoltaics provide a feasible route to fulfilling the substantial increase in demand for energy worldwide. Solution processable organic photovoltaics (OPVs) have attracted attention in the last decade because of the promise of low-cost manufacturing of sufficiently efficient devices at high throughput on large-area rigid or flexible substrates with potentially low energy and carbon footprints. In OPVs, the photoactive layer is made of a bulk heterojunction (BHJ) layer and is typically composed of a blend of an electron-donating (D) and an electron-accepting (A) materials which phase separate at the nanoscale and form a heterojunction at the D-A interface that plays a crucial role in the generation of charges. Despite the tremendous progress that has been made in increasing the efficiency of organic photovoltaics over the last few years, with power conversion efficiency increasing from 8% to 13% over the duration of this PhD dissertation, there have been numerous debates on the mechanisms of formation of the crucial BHJ layer and few clues about how to successfully transfer these lessons to scalable processes. This stems in large part from a lack of understanding of how BHJ layers form from solution. This lack of understanding makes it challenging to design BHJs and to control their formation in laboratory-based processes, such as spin-coating, let alone their successful transfer to scalable processes required for the manufacturing of organic solar cells. Consequently, the OPV community has in recent years sought out to better understand the key characteristics of state of the art lab-based organic solar cells and made efforts to shed light on how the BHJ forms in laboratory-based processes as well as in scalable processes. We take the view that understanding the formation of the solution-processed bulk heterojunction (BHJ) photoactive layer, where crucial photovoltaic processes take place, is the one of the most crucial steps to developing strategies towards the

  15. State-dependent electron delocalization dynamics at the solute-solvent interface: soft-x-ray absorption spectroscopy and ab initio calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokarev, Sergey I; Dantz, Marcus; Suljoti, Edlira; Kühn, Oliver; Aziz, Emad F

    2013-08-23

    Nonradiative decay channels in the L-edge fluorescence yield spectra from transition-metal-aqueous solutions give rise to spectral distortions with respect to x-ray transmission spectra. Their origin is unraveled here using partial and inverse partial fluorescence yields on the microjet combined with multireference ab initio electronic structure calculations. Comparing Fe2+, Fe3+, and Co2+ systems we demonstrate and quantify unequivocally the state-dependent electron delocalization within the manifold of d orbitals as one origin of this observation.

  16. Studies of solution-processed organic light-emitting diodes and their materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellerich, Emily [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2013-01-01

    A hitherto unexplored approach is presented in which a small molecule is used as a host to polymer guests in solution-processed OLEDs. We find that the small molecule host results in much more efficient devices than the often-used alternative polymer host when used for the guests presented. It is likely that nano- and microstructural differences between the hosts contribute to the improvements, which highlights some interesting characteristics that can help to better understand the nature of these mixtures. A number of the guests used in this study were newly synthesized benzobisoxazole-based copolymers. New organic copolymers are presented that are based on the chemical structure of benzobisoxazoles, which have been shown in the past to have good electron transporting properties. The novel concept in this publication pertains to a change in the direction of polymerization, also known as the conjugation pathway, which we show increases the emission efficiency. This work highlights a unique and useful property of organic semiconducting materials in that they can be synthesized to create the desired characteristics. Earlier work is described that kick-started in our research group the use of small molecules in solution-processed OLEDs. Originally these devices were to be used in magnetoresistance studies, but the project took a different path when the devices were more efficient than expected. The efficient use of small molecules in solution-processed OLEDs is highlighted, which at the time was not often the case. Also, the important observation of the effect of solvent choice on the resultant film is emphasized, with discussion of the likely cause of these effects. Microcavity OLEDs are introduced in which the transparent anode ITO is replaced with semi-transparent thin silver, which creates an optical cavity within the devices. The goal was to expand a previous work that created an on-chip spectrometer covering wavelengths 493 to 639 nm. In this case, a spin

  17. Inter-Governmental E-Government Processes:Comparison of Different Solution Approaches- Based on Examples from Switzerland / Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Zimmermann

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this article is to describe different solution approaches for e-Government processes across different institutions at different levels of public administrations: a phased approach for specific e-Government solutions and a platform approach for cross-organisational public services. We discuss selection criteria for the different approaches considering several examples and indicate a relationship between the expected return-on-investment and the complexity of the solution.

  18. Soft Hair on Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawking, Stephen W.; Perry, Malcolm J.; Strominger, Andrew

    2016-06-01

    It has recently been shown that Bondi-van der Burg-Metzner-Sachs supertranslation symmetries imply an infinite number of conservation laws for all gravitational theories in asymptotically Minkowskian spacetimes. These laws require black holes to carry a large amount of soft (i.e., zero-energy) supertranslation hair. The presence of a Maxwell field similarly implies soft electric hair. This Letter gives an explicit description of soft hair in terms of soft gravitons or photons on the black hole horizon, and shows that complete information about their quantum state is stored on a holographic plate at the future boundary of the horizon. Charge conservation is used to give an infinite number of exact relations between the evaporation products of black holes which have different soft hair but are otherwise identical. It is further argued that soft hair which is spatially localized to much less than a Planck length cannot be excited in a physically realizable process, giving an effective number of soft degrees of freedom proportional to the horizon area in Planck units.

  19. Soft Hair on Black Holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawking, Stephen W; Perry, Malcolm J; Strominger, Andrew

    2016-06-10

    It has recently been shown that Bondi-van der Burg-Metzner-Sachs supertranslation symmetries imply an infinite number of conservation laws for all gravitational theories in asymptotically Minkowskian spacetimes. These laws require black holes to carry a large amount of soft (i.e., zero-energy) supertranslation hair. The presence of a Maxwell field similarly implies soft electric hair. This Letter gives an explicit description of soft hair in terms of soft gravitons or photons on the black hole horizon, and shows that complete information about their quantum state is stored on a holographic plate at the future boundary of the horizon. Charge conservation is used to give an infinite number of exact relations between the evaporation products of black holes which have different soft hair but are otherwise identical. It is further argued that soft hair which is spatially localized to much less than a Planck length cannot be excited in a physically realizable process, giving an effective number of soft degrees of freedom proportional to the horizon area in Planck units.

  20. Simple solution-processed titanium oxide electron transport layer for efficient inverted polymer solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Liang [CAS Key Laboratory of Bio-based Materials, Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266101 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Shen, Wenfei [CAS Key Laboratory of Bio-based Materials, Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266101 (China); Institute of Hybrid Materials, Laboratory of New Fiber Materials and Modern Textile—The Growing Base for State Key Laboratory, Qingdao University, Qingdao 266071 (China); Chen, Weichao [CAS Key Laboratory of Bio-based Materials, Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266101 (China); Bao, Xichang, E-mail: baoxc@qibebt.ac.cn [CAS Key Laboratory of Bio-based Materials, Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266101 (China); Wang, Ning; Dou, Xiaowei; Han, Liangliang; Wen, Shuguang [CAS Key Laboratory of Bio-based Materials, Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266101 (China)

    2014-12-31

    Titanium oxide (TiO{sub X}) is an effective electron transport layer (ETL) in polymer solar cells (PSCs). We report efficient inverted PSCs with a simple solution-processed amorphous TiO{sub X} (s-TiO{sub X}) film as an ETL. The s-TiO{sub X} film with high light transmittance was prepared by spin-coating titanium (IV) isopropoxide isopropanol solution on indium tin oxide coated glass in inert and then placed in air under room temperature for 60 min. The introduction of s-TiO{sub X} ETL greatly improved the short circuit current density of the devices. PSCs based on poly(3-hexylthiophene):[6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester and poly(4,8-bis-alkyloxy-benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b′]dithiophene-alt-alkylcarbonyl -thieno[3,4-b]thiophene):[6,6]-phenyl- C71-butyric acid methyl ester using s-TiO{sub X} film as ETL shows high power conversion efficiency of 4.29% and 6.7% under the illumination of AM 1.5G, 100 mW/cm{sup 2}, which shows enhancements compared to the conventional PSCs with poly(styrenesulfonate)-doped poly(ethylenedioxythiophene) as anode buffer layer. In addition, the device exhibits good stability in a humid ambient atmosphere without capsulation. The results indicate that the annealing-free, simple solution processed s-TiO{sub X} film is an efficient ETL for high-performance PSCs. - Highlights: • High quality s-TiO{sub X} films were prepared by a simple, solution method without thermal treatment. • The s-TiO{sub X} films with high transmittance are very smooth. • The organic photovoltaic performance with s-TiO{sub X} film improved greatly and exhibited good stability. • The annealing-free, simple prepared s-TiO{sub X} film will be much compatible with flexible substrates.

  1. Soft energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovins, A.B.

    1978-01-01

    A compact energy concept opposes the existing development course of energy supply. This concept does without projects for opening-up oil and gas occurrences in the Arctic and in offshore seas, and also without a further extension of nuclear energy. Energy consumption is to be stabilized in the long-run on today's level by a utilization of energy which is to be substantially improved in a technical and economic respect. Oil and gas are to be replaced by 'soft', regenerative, mainly decentralized energy sources, in the course of about 30 years time. Solar energy is to be used for heating and service water, biogas as motor fuel being generated primarily from reference which will come from agriculture and forestry. Wind and hydroelectric power are to be used for generating electricity. In the first part, concepts for the present and future energy policy are discussed, in the second part, a lot of figures are given, supporting the respective arguments. In the third part the relationships between social and energy-economic developments are pointed out. (UA) [de

  2. Biological Soft Robotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, Adam W

    2015-01-01

    In nature, nanometer-scale molecular motors are used to generate force within cells for diverse processes from transcription and transport to muscle contraction. This adaptability and scalability across wide temporal, spatial, and force regimes have spurred the development of biological soft robotic systems that seek to mimic and extend these capabilities. This review describes how molecular motors are hierarchically organized into larger-scale structures in order to provide a basic understanding of how these systems work in nature and the complexity and functionality we hope to replicate in biological soft robotics. These span the subcellular scale to macroscale, and this article focuses on the integration of biological components with synthetic materials, coupled with bioinspired robotic design. Key examples include nanoscale molecular motor-powered actuators, microscale bacteria-controlled devices, and macroscale muscle-powered robots that grasp, walk, and swim. Finally, the current challenges and future opportunities in the field are addressed.

  3. Plasma nitrocarburizing process - a solution to improve wear and corrosion resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joseph, Alphonsa J.; Ghanshyam, J.; Mukherjee, S.

    2015-01-01

    To prevent wear and corrosion problems in steam turbines, coatings have proved to have an advantage of isolating the component substrate from the corrosive environment with minimal changes in turbine material and design. Diffusion based coatings like plasma nitriding and plasma nitrocarburizing have been used for improving the wear and corrosion resistance of components undergoing wear during their operation. In this study plasma nitrocarburizing process was carried out on ferritic alloys like ASTM A182 Grade F22 and ATM A105 alloy steels and austenitic stainless steels like AISI 304 and AISI 316 which are used to make trim parts of control valves used for high pressure and high temperature steam lines to enhance their wear and corrosion resistance properties. The corrosion rate was measured by a potentiodynamic set up and salt spray unit in two different environments viz., tap water and 5% NaCl solutions. The Tafel plots of ferritic alloys and austenitic stainless steels show that plasma nitrocarburizing process show better corrosion resistance compared to that of the untreated steel. It was found that after plasma nitrocarburizing process the hardness of the alloy steels increased by a factor of two. The corrosion resistance of all the steels mentioned above improved in comparison to the untreated steels. This improvement can be attributed to the nitrogen and carbon incorporation in the surface of the material. This process can be also applied to components used in nuclear industries to cater to the wear and corrosion problems. (author)

  4. Prevalence of pale, soft, and exudative (PSE condition in chicken meat used for commercial meat processing and its effect on roasted chicken breast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deshani S. Karunanayaka

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies on prevalence of pale, soft, exudative (PSE condition in Sri Lankan poultry industry is minimal. Hence, the objective of present study was to determine the incidence of PSE chicken meat in a commercial meat processing plant and to find out its consequences on meat quality traits of roasted chicken breast. Method A total of 60 breast fillets were randomly selected, evaluated based on color L* value, and placed into 1 of 2 categories; PSE (L* > 58 or normal meat (L* ≤ 58. A total of 20 breast fillets (10 PSE and 10 normal were then analyzed for color, pH, and water holding capacity (WHC. After processing those into roasted chicken breast, cooking loss, color, pH, WHC, and texture values were evaluated. A sensory evaluation was conducted using 30 untrained panelists. Results The incidence of PSE meat was 70 % in the present experiment. PSE fillets were significantly lighter and had lower pH values compared with normal fillets. Correlation between the lightness and pH was negative (P  0.05, an approximately 3 % higher cooking loss was observed in PSE group compared to its counterpart (P  0.05. Conclusions These results indicated that an economical loss can be expected due to the significantly higher cooking loss observed in roasted breast processed from PSE meat.

  5. Prevalence of pale, soft, and exudative (PSE) condition in chicken meat used for commercial meat processing and its effect on roasted chicken breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunanayaka, Deshani S; Jayasena, Dinesh D; Jo, Cheorun

    2016-01-01

    Studies on prevalence of pale, soft, exudative (PSE) condition in Sri Lankan poultry industry is minimal. Hence, the objective of present study was to determine the incidence of PSE chicken meat in a commercial meat processing plant and to find out its consequences on meat quality traits of roasted chicken breast. A total of 60 breast fillets were randomly selected, evaluated based on color L* value, and placed into 1 of 2 categories; PSE (L* > 58) or normal meat (L* ≤ 58). A total of 20 breast fillets (10 PSE and 10 normal) were then analyzed for color, pH, and water holding capacity (WHC). After processing those into roasted chicken breast, cooking loss, color, pH, WHC, and texture values were evaluated. A sensory evaluation was conducted using 30 untrained panelists. The incidence of PSE meat was 70 % in the present experiment. PSE fillets were significantly lighter and had lower pH values compared with normal fillets. Correlation between the lightness and pH was negative (P roasted chicken breast (P > 0.05), an approximately 3 % higher cooking loss was observed in PSE group compared to its counterpart (P  0.05). These results indicated that an economical loss can be expected due to the significantly higher cooking loss observed in roasted breast processed from PSE meat.

  6. Soft sensor development and optimization of the commercial petrochemical plant integrating support vector regression and genetic algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.K. Lahiri

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Soft sensors have been widely used in the industrial process control to improve the quality of the product and assure safety in the production. The core of a soft sensor is to construct a soft sensing model. This paper introduces support vector regression (SVR, a new powerful machine learning methodbased on a statistical learning theory (SLT into soft sensor modeling and proposes a new soft sensing modeling method based on SVR. This paper presents an artificial intelligence based hybrid soft sensormodeling and optimization strategies, namely support vector regression – genetic algorithm (SVR-GA for modeling and optimization of mono ethylene glycol (MEG quality variable in a commercial glycol plant. In the SVR-GA approach, a support vector regression model is constructed for correlating the process data comprising values of operating and performance variables. Next, model inputs describing the process operating variables are optimized using genetic algorithm with a view to maximize the process performance. The SVR-GA is a new strategy for soft sensor modeling and optimization. The major advantage of the strategies is that modeling and optimization can be conducted exclusively from the historic process data wherein the detailed knowledge of process phenomenology (reaction mechanism, kinetics etc. is not required. Using SVR-GA strategy, a number of sets of optimized operating conditions were found. The optimized solutions, when verified in an actual plant, resulted in a significant improvement in the quality.

  7. Toward High-Efficiency Solution-Processed Planar Heterojunction Sb2S3 Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Eugen; Pfadler, Thomas; Kalb, Julian; Dorman, James A; Sommer, Daniel; Hahn, Giso; Weickert, Jonas; Schmidt-Mende, Lukas

    2015-05-01

    Low-cost hybrid solar cells have made tremendous steps forward during the past decade owing to the implementation of extremely thin inorganic coatings as absorber layers, typically in combination with organic hole transporters. Using only extremely thin films of these absorbers reduces the requirement of single crystalline high-quality materials and paves the way for low-cost solution processing compatible with roll-to-roll fabrication processes. To date, the most efficient absorber material, except for the recently introduced organic-inorganic lead halide perovskites, has been Sb 2 S 3 , which can be implemented in hybrid photovoltaics using a simple chemical bath deposition. Current high-efficiency Sb 2 S 3 devices utilize absorber coatings on nanostructured TiO 2 electrodes in combination with polymeric hole transporters. This geometry has so far been the state of the art, even though flat junction devices would be conceptually simpler with the additional potential of higher open circuit voltages due to reduced charge carrier recombination. Besides, the role of the hole transporter is not completely clarified yet. In particular, additional photocurrent contribution from the polymers has not been directly shown, which points toward detrimental parasitic light absorption in the polymers. This study presents a fine-tuned chemical bath deposition method that allows fabricating solution-processed low-cost flat junction Sb 2 S 3 solar cells with the highest open circuit voltage reported so far for chemical bath devices and efficiencies exceeding 4%. Characterization of back-illuminated solar cells in combination with transfer matrix-based simulations further allows to address the issue of absorption losses in the hole transport material and outline a pathway toward more efficient future devices.

  8. High-Pressure-High-Temperature Processing Reduces Maillard Reaction and Viscosity in Whey Protein-Sugar Solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avila Ruiz, Geraldine; Xi, Bingyan; Minor, Marcel; Sala, Guido; Boekel, van Tiny; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Stieger, Markus

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the influence of pressure in high-pressure-high-temperature (HPHT) processing on Maillard reactions and protein aggregation of whey protein-sugar solutions. Solutions of whey protein isolate containing either glucose or trehalose at pH 6, 7, and 9 were

  9. Decreasing Soft Costs for Solar Photovoltaics by Improving the Interconnection Process. A Case Study of Pacific Gas and Electric

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ardani, Kristen [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-09-01

    As of the end of 2014, Pacific Gas and Electric (PG&E) had connected over 130,000 DG PV systems in its service territory, more than any other utility in the U.S. In this case study, we examine how PG&E achieved a faster, more efficient interconnection approval process despite rising application volumes.

  10. Decreasing Soft Costs for Solar Photovoltaics by Improving the Interconnection Process. A Case Study of Pacific Gas and Electric

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ardani, Kristen [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-09-01

    In this case study, we examine how PG&E achieved a faster, more efficient interconnection approval process despite rising application volumes. Our goal is to draw insights from PG&E's experience that can help to inform decision making at other utilities across the U.S. that may face similar trajectories for DG PV market growth.

  11. Energy efficiency solutions for driers used in the glass manufacturing and processing industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pătrașcu Roxana

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Energy conservation is relevant to increasing efficiency in energy projects, by saving energy, by its’ rational use or by switching to other forms of energy. The goal is to secure energy supply on short and long term, while increasing efficiency. These are enforced by evaluating the companies’ energy status, by monitoring and adjusting energy consumption and organising a coherent energy management. The manufacturing process is described, starting from the state and properties of the raw material and ending with the glass drying technological processes involved. Raw materials are selected considering technological and economic criteria. Manufacturing is treated as a two-stage process, consisting of the logistic, preparation aspect of unloading, transporting, storing materials and the manufacturing process itself, by which the glass is sifted, shredded, deferrized and dried. The interest of analyzing the latter is justified by the fact that it has a big impact on the final energy consumption values, hence, in order to improve the general performance, the driers’ energy losses are to be reduced. Technological, energy and management solutions are stated to meet this problem. In the present paper, the emphasis is on the energy perspective of enhancing the overall efficiency. The case study stresses the effects of heat recovery over the efficiency of a glass drier. Audits are conducted, both before and after its’ implementation, to punctually observe the balance between the entering and exiting heat in the drying process. The reduction in fuel consumption and the increase in thermal performance and fuel usage performances reveal the importance of using all available exiting heat from processes. Technical faults, either in exploitation or in management, lead to additional expenses. Improving them is in congruence with the energy conservation concept and is in accordance with the Energy Efficiency Improvement Program for industrial facilities.

  12. Children Designing a Soft Toy. An LCE model as an application of the experiential learning during the holistic craft process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marja-Leena Rönkkö

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In a holistic craft process, the same person designs a visual and technical appearance, produces the design with craft materials and technologies, make necessary changes to the design during its production and finally assesses the process and the finished product. Similarly, in the educational context, students should make craft products starting with the design process. These kinds of designing and hands-on activities nurture students’ creativity and problem-solving skills and offer them an opportunity to test their ideas and see them realised. Testing and further developing pedagogical approaches to holistic craft is important from the perspective of the renewal of the national core curriculum (2016 in Finland, which emphasises holistic approaches and the integration of different content areas. This study presents an experiential learning model of combining literature education, ethic-moral education and craft. Kolb’s model of experiential learning gives a solid and systematic theoretical base for this LCE model (one combining literature, craft and ethic-moral education. The teaching experiment is implemented as a craft process supported with children’s literature and activities based on a story. It seems that children can derive benefit from literature and activities during a craft making process. In addition, referencing literature enables the teacher to combine the craft process with multiple learning targets, fostering both ethical and content skills. We present the LCE model both in the light of an experiential learning model and the pragmatic implementations it gives rise to. According to our experiments, experiential learning can be meaningfully applied to the holistic craft process and craft education. Furthermore, the LCE model helps students to commit to holistic craft by nurturing a personal attachment. Normal 0 21 false false false FI X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso

  13. Soft computing in green and renewable energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gopalakrishnan, Kasthurirangan [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States). Iowa Bioeconomy Inst.; US Department of Energy, Ames, IA (United States). Ames Lab; Kalogirou, Soteris [Cyprus Univ. of Technology, Limassol (Cyprus). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Sciences and Engineering; Khaitan, Siddhartha Kumar (eds.) [Iowa State Univ. of Science and Technology, Ames, IA (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Computer Engineering

    2011-07-01

    Soft Computing in Green and Renewable Energy Systems provides a practical introduction to the application of soft computing techniques and hybrid intelligent systems for designing, modeling, characterizing, optimizing, forecasting, and performance prediction of green and renewable energy systems. Research is proceeding at jet speed on renewable energy (energy derived from natural resources such as sunlight, wind, tides, rain, geothermal heat, biomass, hydrogen, etc.) as policy makers, researchers, economists, and world agencies have joined forces in finding alternative sustainable energy solutions to current critical environmental, economic, and social issues. The innovative models, environmentally benign processes, data analytics, etc. employed in renewable energy systems are computationally-intensive, non-linear and complex as well as involve a high degree of uncertainty. Soft computing technologies, such as fuzzy sets and systems, neural science and systems, evolutionary algorithms and genetic programming, and machine learning, are ideal in handling the noise, imprecision, and uncertainty in the data, and yet achieve robust, low-cost solutions. As a result, intelligent and soft computing paradigms are finding increasing applications in the study of renewable energy systems. Researchers, practitioners, undergraduate and graduate students engaged in the study of renewable energy systems will find this book very useful. (orig.)

  14. Deposition of Coating to Protect Waste Water Reservoir in Acidic Solution by Arc Thermal Spray Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han-Seung Lee

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The corrosion characteristics of 304 stainless steel (SS and titanium (Ti coatings deposited by the arc thermal spray process in pH 4 solution were assessed. The Ti-sprayed coating exhibits uniform, less porous, and adherent coating morphology compared to the SS-sprayed coating. The electrochemical study, that is, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS, revealed that as exposure periods to solution were increased, the polarization resistance (Rp decreased and the charge transfer resistance (Rct increased owing to corrosion of the metallic surface and simultaneously at the same time the deposition of oxide films/corrosion on the SS-sprayed surface, while Ti coating transformed unstable oxides into the stable phase. Potentiodynamic studies confirmed that both sprayed coatings exhibited passive tendency attributed due to the deposition of corrosion products on SS samples, whereas the Ti-sprayed sample formed passive oxide films. The Ti coating reduced the corrosion rate by more than six times compared to the SS coating after 312 h of exposure to sulfuric acid- (H2SO4- contaminated water solution, that is, pH 4. Scanning electron microscope (SEM results confirmed the uniform and globular morphology of the passive film on the Ti coating resulting in reduced corrosion. On the other hand, the corrosion products formed on SS-sprayed coating exhibit micropores with a net-like microstructure. X-ray diffraction (XRD revealed the presence of the composite oxide film on Ti-sprayed samples and lepidocrocite (γ-FeOOH on the SS-coated surface. The transformation of TiO and Ti3O into TiO2 (rutile and anatase and Ti3O5 after 312 h of exposure to H2SO4 acid reveals the improved corrosion resistance properties of Ti-sprayed coating.

  15. Solution-processable MoOx nanocrystals enable highly efficient reflective and semitransparent polymer solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Jagadamma, Lethy Krishnan

    2016-09-09

    Solution-manufacturing of organic solar cells with best-in-class power conversion efficiency (PCE) will require all layers to be solution-coated without compromising solar cell performance. To date, the hole transporting layer (HTL) deposited on top of the organic bulk heterojunction layer in the inverted architecture is most commonly an ultrathin (<10 nm) metal oxide layer prepared by vacuum-deposition. Here, we show that an alcohol-based nanocrystalline MoOx suspension with carefully controlled nanocrystal (NC) size can yield state of the art reflective and semitransparent solar cells. Using NCs smaller than the target HTL thickness (∼10 nm) can yield compact, pinhole-free films which result in highly efficient polymer:fullerene bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells with PCE=9.5%. The solution processed HTL is shown to achieve performance parity with vacuum-evaporated HTLs for several polymer:fullerene combinations and is even shown to work as hole injection layer in polymer light emitting diodes (PLED). We also demonstrate that larger MoOx NCs (30–50 nm) successfully composite MoOx with Ag nanowires (NW) to form a highly conducting, transparent top anode with exceptional contact properties. This yields state-of-the-art semitransparent polymer: fullerene solar cells with PCE of 6.5% and overall transmission >30%. The remarkable performance of reflective and semitransparent OPVs is due to the uncommonly high fill factors achieved using a carefully designed strategy for implementation of MoOx nanocrystals as HTL materials. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

  16. The determination of cyanide in hydrometallurgical process solutions and effluents by ion chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pohlandt, C.

    1984-01-01

    Three methods are described for the determination of cyanide species in hydrometallurgical process solutions and in effluents. The determination of excess cyanide in the presence of weak metal cyanide complexes was achieved by the use of a flow-injection system with 0,05mM sodium chloride as the carrier stream. The procedure was found to be fast, precise (S(sub r)0,0142), and reasonably accurate. Free cyanide and cyanide derived from weak metal cyanide complexes were determined by ion chromatography. This method is free from interferences and precise (s(sub r)0,0112), and has a limit of determination of 10μg0l. The 'total' cyanide content of solutions was determined by ion chromatography after the strong metal cyanide complexes had been dissociated in hypophosphorous acid by ultraviolet irradiation. The procedure (of 10 minutes duration) is faster than conventional distillation methods, and is accurate and precise (S(sub r)0,027)

  17. Nonvolatile rewritable memory device based on solution-processable graphene/poly(3-hexylthiophene) nanocomposite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Li, E-mail: lizhang9@zzu.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450052 (China); Li, Ye; Shi, Jun [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450052 (China); Shi, Gaoquan [Department of Chemistry, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Cao, Shaokui, E-mail: Caoshaokui@zzu.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450052 (China)

    2013-11-01

    An electrically bistable device utilizing a nanocomposite of hexadecylamine-functionalized graphene oxide (HDAGO) with poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) is demonstrated. The device has an ITO/P3HT-HDAGO/Al sandwich structure, in which the composite film of P3HT-HDAGO was prepared by simple solution phase mixing of the exfoliated HDAGO monolayers with P3HT matrix and a spin-coating method. The memory device exhibits typical bistable electrical switching behavior and a nonvolatile rewritable memory effect, with a turn-on voltage of about 1.5 V and an ON/OFF-state current ratio of 10{sup 5}. Under ambient conditions, both the ON and OFF states are stable under a constant voltage stress or a continuous pulse voltage stress at a read voltage of 1 V. The conduction mechanism is deduced from the modeling of the nature of currents in both states, and the electrical switching behavior can be attributed to the electric-field-induced charge transfer between P3HT and HDAGO nanosheets. - Highlights: • Nonvolatile rewritable memory effect in P3HT–graphene composite is demonstrated. • The memory device was fabricated through a simple solution processing technique. • The device shows a remarkable electrical bistable behavior and excellent stability. • Memory mechanism is deduced from the modeling of the currents in both states.

  18. Fully solution-processing route toward highly transparent polymer solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Fei; Kubis, Peter; Stubhan, Tobias; Li, Ning; Baran, Derya; Przybilla, Thomas; Spiecker, Erdmann; Forberich, Karen; Brabec, Christoph J

    2014-10-22

    We report highly transparent polymer solar cells using metallic silver nanowires (AgNWs) as both the electron- and hole-collecting electrodes. The entire stack of the devices is processed from solution using a doctor blading technique. A thin layer of zinc oxide nanoparticles is introduced between photoactive layer and top AgNW electrode which plays decisive roles in device functionality: it serves as a mechanical foundation which allows the solution-deposition of top AgNWs, and more importantly it facilitates charge carriers extraction due to the better energy level alignment and the formation of ohmic contacts between the active layer/ZnO and ZnO/AgNWs. The resulting semitransparent polymer:fullerene solar cells showed a power conversion efficiency of 2.9%, which is 72% of the efficiency of an opaque reference device. Moreover, an average transmittance of 41% in the wavelength range of 400-800 nm is achieved, which is of particular interest for applications in transparent architectures.

  19. Solution-processed core-shell nanowires for efficient photovoltaic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jinyao; Huo, Ziyang; Brittman, Sarah; Gao, Hanwei; Yang, Peidong

    2011-08-21

    Semiconductor nanowires are promising for photovoltaic applications, but, so far, nanowire-based solar cells have had lower efficiencies than planar cells made from the same materials, even allowing for the generally lower light absorption of nanowires. It is not clear, therefore, if the benefits of the nanowire structure, including better charge collection and transport and the possibility of enhanced absorption through light trapping, can outweigh the reductions in performance caused by recombination at the surface of the nanowires and at p-n junctions. Here, we fabricate core-shell nanowire solar cells with open-circuit voltage and fill factor values superior to those reported for equivalent planar cells, and an energy conversion efficiency of ∼5.4%, which is comparable to that of equivalent planar cells despite low light absorption levels. The device is made using a low-temperature solution-based cation exchange reaction that creates a heteroepitaxial junction between a single-crystalline CdS core and single-crystalline Cu2S shell. We integrate multiple cells on single nanowires in both series and parallel configurations for high output voltages and currents, respectively. The ability to produce efficient nanowire-based solar cells with a solution-based process and Earth-abundant elements could significantly reduce fabrication costs relative to existing high-temperature bulk material approaches.

  20. Ambipolar Small-Molecule:Polymer Blend Semiconductors for Solution-Processable Organic Field-Effect Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Minji; Hwang, Hansu; Park, Won-Tae; Khim, Dongyoon; Yeo, Jun-Seok; Kim, Yunseul; Kim, Yeon-Ju; Noh, Yong-Young; Kim, Dong-Yu

    2017-01-25

    We report on the fabrication of an organic thin-film semiconductor formed using a blend solution of soluble ambipolar small molecules and an insulating polymer binder that exhibits vertical phase separation and uniform film formation. The semiconductor thin films are produced in a single step from a mixture containing a small molecular semiconductor, namely, quinoidal biselenophene (QBS), and a binder polymer, namely, poly(2-vinylnaphthalene) (PVN). Organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) based on QBS/PVN blend semiconductor are then assembled using top-gate/bottom-contact device configuration, which achieve almost four times higher mobility than the neat QBS semiconductor. Depth profile via secondary ion mass spectrometry and atomic force microscopy images indicate that the QBS domains in the films made from the blend are evenly distributed with a smooth morphology at the bottom of the PVN layer. Bias stress test and variable-temperature measurements on QBS-based OFETs reveal that the QBS/PVN blend semiconductor remarkably reduces the number of trap sites at the gate dielectric/semiconductor interface and the activation energy in the transistor channel. This work provides a one-step solution processing technique, which makes use of soluble ambipolar small molecules to form a thin-film semiconductor for application in high-performance OFETs.

  1. Nonvolatile rewritable memory device based on solution-processable graphene/poly(3-hexylthiophene) nanocomposite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Li; Li, Ye; Shi, Jun; Shi, Gaoquan; Cao, Shaokui

    2013-01-01

    An electrically bistable device utilizing a nanocomposite of hexadecylamine-functionalized graphene oxide (HDAGO) with poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) is demonstrated. The device has an ITO/P3HT-HDAGO/Al sandwich structure, in which the composite film of P3HT-HDAGO was prepared by simple solution phase mixing of the exfoliated HDAGO monolayers with P3HT matrix and a spin-coating method. The memory device exhibits typical bistable electrical switching behavior and a nonvolatile rewritable memory effect, with a turn-on voltage of about 1.5 V and an ON/OFF-state current ratio of 10 5 . Under ambient conditions, both the ON and OFF states are stable under a constant voltage stress or a continuous pulse voltage stress at a read voltage of 1 V. The conduction mechanism is deduced from the modeling of the nature of currents in both states, and the electrical switching behavior can be attributed to the electric-field-induced charge transfer between P3HT and HDAGO nanosheets. - Highlights: • Nonvolatile rewritable memory effect in P3HT–graphene composite is demonstrated. • The memory device was fabricated through a simple solution processing technique. • The device shows a remarkable electrical bistable behavior and excellent stability. • Memory mechanism is deduced from the modeling of the currents in both states

  2. The Relationship between Environmental Turbulence, Management Support, Organizational Collaboration, Information Technology Solution Realization, and Process Performance, in Healthcare Provider Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muglia, Victor O.

    2010-01-01

    The Problem: The purpose of this study was to investigate relationships between environmental turbulence, management support, organizational collaboration, information technology solution realization, and process performance in healthcare provider organizations. Method: A descriptive/correlational study of Hospital medical services process…

  3. Fertilizer drawn forward osmosis process for sustainable water reuse to grow hydroponic lettuce using commercial nutrient solution

    KAUST Repository

    Chekli, Laura; Eun Kim, Jung; El Saliby, Ibrahim; Kim, Youngjin; Phuntsho, Sherub; Li, Sheng; Ghaffour, NorEddine; Leiknes, TorOve; Kyong Shon, Ho

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the sustainable reuse of wastewater using fertilizer drawn forward osmosis (FDFO) process through osmotic dilution of commercial nutrient solution for hydroponics, a widely used technique for growing plants without soil

  4. Optimisation of the solution heat treatment of Rheo-processed Al-Cu-Mg-(Ag) Alloys A206 and A201

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Masuku, EP

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The traditional solution treatment cycles that are currently applied to rheo-processed A201 are mostly those that are used for conventional castings. These solution treatments are not necessarily the optimum solution treatments for rheo...

  5. Transport and structural characterization of solution-processable doped ZnO nanowires

    KAUST Repository

    Noriega, Rodrigo

    2009-08-18

    The use of ZnO nanowires has become a widespread topic of interest in optoelectronics. In order to correctly assess the quality, functionality, and possible applications of such nanostructures it is important to accurately understand their electrical and optical properties. Aluminum- and gallium-doped crystalline ZnO nanowires were synthesized using a low-temperature solution-based process, achieving dopant densities of the order of 1020 cm-3. A non-contact optical technique, photothermal deflection spectroscopy, is used to characterize ensembles of ZnO nanowires. By modeling the free charge carrier absorption as a Drude metal, we are able to calculate the free carrier density and mobility. Determining the location of the dopant atoms in the ZnO lattice is important to determine the doping mechanisms of the ZnO nanowires. Solid-state NMR is used to distinguish between coordination environments of the dopant atoms.

  6. Organic Light-Emitting Diodes on Solution-Processed Graphene Transparent Electrodes

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Junbo

    2010-01-26

    Theoretical estimates indicate that graphene thin films can be used as transparent electrodes for thin-film devices such as solar cells and organic light-emitting diodes, with an unmatched combination of sheet resistance and transparency. We demonstrate organic light-emitting diodes with solution-processed graphene thin film transparent conductive anodes. The graphene electrodes were deposited on quartz substrates by spincoating of an aqueous dispersion of functionalized graphene, followed by a vacuum anneal step to reduce the sheet resistance. Small molecular weight organic materials and a metal cathode were directly deposited on the graphene anodes, resulting in devices with a performance comparable to control devices on indium-tin-oxide transparent anodes. The outcoupling efficiency of devices on graphene and indium-tin-oxide is nearly identical, in agreement with model predictions. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  7. Uranium Rirang ore processing: extraction of uranium from Rirang ore digestion solution with tributyl phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arief, E. R.; Zahardi; Susilaningtyas

    1998-01-01

    Uranium is extracted from Rirang ore acid digestion solution containing rare earths. A mixture of tributyl phosphate solvent and kerosene diluent is employed. Several parameters of solvent extraction have been studied included aqueous to organic phase ratio, H 2 O 2 reductor concentration and Tbp concentration in the solvent mixture, as well as the aqueous to organic phase ratio in the stripping process. The optimum conditions for the extraction step include the use of 25% H 2 O 2 (v/v), one to one aqueous to organic ratio, and 40% Tbp in kerosene. The extraction recovery for U, RE, Th, and PO 4 3 - are 99%, 4%, 70%, and 30%, respectively. The stripping step optimum conditions include the use of one to five organic to aqueous phase ratio 0.24 N HNO 3 . and the stripping recovery for U, RE, Th, and PO 4 3 - are 84%, 80%, 72%, and 83%, respectively

  8. A fluorescent stilbenoid dendrimer for solution-processed blue light emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coya, C.; Álvarez, A. L.; Ramos, M.; de Andrés, A.; Zaldo, C.; Gómez, R.; Segura, J. L.; Seoane, C.

    2008-04-01

    We report a solution processed blue stilbenoid dendrimer based on a 1, 3, 5 - benzene core and endowed with a periphery of electron donating and solubilizing alkoxy chains. Raman analysis it is revealed as a helpful tool to investigate changes from the pristine material to the material in the OLED structure, explaining the differences between the dendrimer single layer thin film photoluminescence (PL) and the electroluminescence (EL) dendrimer active layer emission in the device. We report a blue EL emission (439 nm) and a very promising effective mobility value of 2.55 × 10 -5 cm2/(V•s) suggesting good transport properties for non doped blue OLEDs that use air stable Al as the cathode.

  9. Patterning solution-processed organic single-crystal transistors with high device performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Li

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available We report on the patterning of organic single-crystal transistors with high device performance fabricated via a solution process under ambient conditions. The semiconductor was patterned on substrates via surface selective deposition. Subsequently, solvent-vapor annealing was performed to reorganize the semiconductor into single crystals. The transistors exhibited field-effect mobility (μFET of up to 3.5 cm2/V s. Good reliability under bias-stress conditions indicates low density of intrinsic defects in crystals and low density of traps at the active interfaces. Furthermore, the Y function method clearly suggests that the variation of μFET of organic crystal transistors was caused by contact resistance. Further improvement of the device with higher μFET with smaller variation can be expected when lower and more uniform contact resistance is achieved.

  10. Low-Voltage Solution-Processed Hybrid Light-Emitting Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhry, Mujeeb Ullah; Tetzner, Kornelius; Lin, Yen-Hung; Nam, Sungho; Pearson, Christopher; Groves, Chris; Petty, Michael C; Anthopoulos, Thomas D; Bradley, Donal D C

    2018-05-21

    We report the development of low operating voltages in inorganic-organic hybrid light-emitting transistors (HLETs) based on a solution-processed ZrO x gate dielectric and a hybrid multilayer channel consisting of the heterojunction In 2 O 3 /ZnO and the organic polymer "Super Yellow" acting as n- and p-channel/emissive layers, respectively. Resulting HLETs operate at the lowest voltages reported to-date (<10 V) and combine high electron mobility (22 cm 2 /(V s)) with appreciable current on/off ratios (≈10 3 ) and an external quantum efficiency of 2 × 10 -2 % at 700 cd/m 2 . The charge injection, transport, and recombination mechanisms within this HLET architecture are discussed, and prospects for further performance enhancement are considered.

  11. A solution-processed binary cathode interfacial layer facilitates electron extraction for inverted polymer solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinyuan; Li, Zhiqi; Liu, Chunyu; Guo, Jiaxin; Shen, Liang; Guo, Wenbin

    2018-03-15

    The charge transfer and separation are significantly affected by the electron properties of the interface between the electron-donor layer and the carrier-transporting layer in polymer solar cells (PSCs). In this study, we investigate the electron extraction mechanism of PSCs with a low temperature solution-processed ZnO/PEI as electron transport layer. The incorporation of PEI layer can decrease the work function of ZnO and reduce interfacial barrier, which facilitates electron extraction and suppresses bimolecular recombination, leading to a significant performance enhancement. Furthermore, PEI layer can induce phase separation and passivite inorganic surface trap states as well as shift the interfacial energy offset between metal oxide and organic materials. This work offers a simple and effective way to improve the charge transporting property of organic photovoltaic devices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. All-solution processed semi-transparent perovskite solar cells with silver nanowires electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Kaiyu; Li, Fushan; Zhang, Jianhua; Veeramalai, Chandrasekar Perumal; Guo, Tailiang

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we report an all-solution route to produce semi-transparent high efficiency perovskite solar cells (PSCs). Instead of an energy-consuming vacuum process with metal deposition, the top electrode is simply deposited by spray-coating silver nanowires (AgNWs) under room temperature using fabrication conditions and solvents that do not damage or dissolve the underlying PSC. The as-fabricated semi-transparent perovskite solar cell shows a photovoltaic output with dual side illuminations due to the transparency of the AgNWs. With a back cover electrode, the open circuit voltage increases significantly from 1.01 to 1.16 V, yielding high power conversion efficiency from 7.98 to 10.64%. (paper)

  13. A safeguards verification technique for solution homogeneity and volume measurements in process tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suda, S.; Franssen, F.

    1987-01-01

    A safeguards verification technique is being developed for determining whether process-liquid homogeneity has been achieved in process tanks and for authenticating volume-measurement algorithms involving temperature corrections. It is proposed that, in new designs for bulk-handling plants employing automated process lines, bubbler probes and thermocouples be installed at several heights in key accountability tanks. High-accuracy measurements of density using an electromanometer can now be made which match or even exceed analytical-laboratory accuracies. Together with regional determination of tank temperatures, these measurements provide density, liquid-column weight and temperature gradients over the fill range of the tank that can be used to ascertain when the tank solution has reached equilibrium. Temperature-correction algorithms can be authenticated by comparing the volumes obtained from the several bubbler-probe liquid-height measurements, each based on different amounts of liquid above and below the probe. The verification technique is based on the automated electromanometer system developed by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The IAEA has recently approved the purchase of a stainless-steel tank equipped with multiple bubbler and thermocouple probes for installation in its Bulk Calibration Laboratory at IAEA Headquarters, Vienna. The verification technique is scheduled for preliminary trials in late 1987

  14. Application of Electrocoagulation Process for Reactive Red 198 Dye Removal from the Aqueous Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansooreh Dehghani

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and purpose:The main objectives of this research were to evaluating the application of electrocoagulation process for 198 dye from the aqueous phase and determining the optimum operating conditions to the dye removal using aluminum and iron electrodes. Materials and Methods:The present study was conducted in bench-scale. The spectrophotometer DR 5000 was used to determine the dye concentration. The effects of pH, retention time, voltage, dye concentration on the efficiency of electrocoagulation process were investigated. Data were analyzed in SPSS for Windows 16.0 using Pearson’scorrelation coefficient to analyze the relationship between these parameters. Results:The results showed that the optimal conditions for reactive red 198 (RR-198 dye removal from the aqueous solution are pH of 11, the voltage of 32 V, the initial dye concentration of 10 ppm, and the reaction time of 40 min. Pearson correlation analysis showed that there is a significant relationship between voltage and the reaction time with the removal efficiencies (P< 0.01. Conclusion:It was revealed that the removal efficiency of dye was directly proportional to the voltage and reaction time, but inversely proportional to the initial dye concentration. In conclusion, electrocoagulation process using two-fold iron and aluminum electrodes is an appropriate method for reducing the RR-198 dye in the aqueous phase.

  15. Solution-processable ambipolar diketopyrrolopyrrole-selenophene polymer with unprecedentedly high hole and electron mobilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Junghoon; Han, A-Reum; Kim, Jonggi; Kim, Yiho; Oh, Joon Hak; Yang, Changduk

    2012-12-26

    There is a fast-growing demand for polymer-based ambipolar thin-film transistors (TFTs), in which both n-type and p-type transistor operations are realized in a single layer, while maintaining simplicity in processing. Research progress toward this end is essentially fueled by molecular engineering of the conjugated backbones of the polymers and the development of process architectures for device fabrication, which has recently led to hole and electron mobilities of more than 1.0 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1). However, ambipolar polymers with even higher performance are still required. By taking into account both the conjugated backbone and side chains of the polymer component, we have developed a dithienyl-diketopyrrolopyrrole (TDPP) and selenophene containing polymer with hybrid siloxane-solubilizing groups (PTDPPSe-Si). A synergistic combination of rational polymer backbone design, side-chain dynamics, and solution processing affords an enormous boost in ambipolar TFT performance, resulting in unprecedentedly high hole and electron mobilities of 3.97 and 2.20 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1), respectively.

  16. Investigation of Phenol Removal by Proxy-Electrocoagulation Process with Iron Electrodes from Aqueous Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Assadi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Phenol as an aromatic hydroxyl compound are considered as a priority pollutant. Because of their stability, solubility in water and high toxicity had health important. Methods: In the present experimental study, electrocoagulation reactor by iron electrodes are used in the presence of hydrogen peroxide to phenol removing from aqueous solutions. Effects of variables including H2O2 dosage, reaction time, pH, current density and initial phenol concentration were evaluated to estimate the efficiency of the process. Results: The results showed that pH and H2O2 have the most important role in the removal of phenol. Increasing of H2O2 concentrations from 0.0125 to 0.025 M increased removal efficiency from 74% to 100%. Maximum removal was achieved at pH=3. However, increasing the pH to 9 lead to reducing removal efficiency to 9.8%. Also, by increasing of current density removal efficiency was increased. But with increasing initial concentration of phenol removal efficiency was reduced. Conclusion: Proxy-electrocoagulation process as an effective and robust process can be used for handling of phenol containing wastewater.

  17. 320-nm Flexible Solution-Processed 2,7-dioctyl[1] benzothieno[3,2-b]benzothiophene Transistors

    OpenAIRE

    Ren, Hang; Tang, Qingxin; Tong, Yanhong; Liu, Yichun

    2017-01-01

    Flexible organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs) have received extensive attention due to their outstanding advantages such as light weight, low cost, flexibility, large-area fabrication, and compatibility with solution-processed techniques. However, compared with a rigid substrate, it still remains a challenge to obtain good device performance by directly depositing solution-processed organic semiconductors onto an ultrathin plastic substrate. In this work, ultrathin flexible OTFTs are success...

  18. Highly efficient red phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes based on solution processed emissive layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Baiquan; Xu, Miao; Tao, Hong; Ying, Lei; Zou, Jianhua; Wu, Hongbin; Peng, Junbiao

    2013-01-01

    Highly efficient red phosphorescent organic polymer light-emitting diodes (PhOLEDs) were fabricated based on a solution-processed small-molecule host 4,4′-bis(N-carbazolyl)-1,1′-biphenyl (CBP) by doping an iridium complex, tris(1-(2,6-dimethylphenoxy)-4-(4-chlorophenyl)phthalazine)iridium (III) (Ir(MPCPPZ) 3 ). A hole blocking layer 1,3,5-tri(1-phenyl-1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)phenyl (TPBI) with a function of electron transport was thermally deposited onto the top of CBP layer. The diode with the structure of ITO/PEDOT:PSS (50 nm)/CBP:Ir(MPCPPZ) 3 (55 nm)/TPBI (30 nm)/Ba (4 nm)/Al (120 nm) showed an external quantum efficiency (QE ext ) of 19.3% and luminous efficiency (LE) of 18.3 cd/A at a current density of 0.16 mA/cm 2 , and Commission International de I'Eclairage (CIE) coordinates of (0.607, 0.375). It was suggested that the diodes using TPBI layer exhibited nearly 100% internal quantum efficiency and one order magnitude enhanced LE or QE ext efficiencies. -- Highlights: • Efficient red PhOLEDs based on a solution-processed small-molecule host were fabricated. • By altering volume ratio of chloroform/chlorobenzene solvent, we got best film quality of CBP. • EQE of the diode was 19.3%, indicating nearly 100% internal quantum yield was achieved

  19. Solution processed deposition of electron transport layers on perovskite crystal surface—A modeling based study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mortuza, S.M.; Taufique, M.F.N.; Banerjee, Soumik, E-mail: soumik.banerjee@wsu.edu

    2017-02-01

    Highlights: • The model determined the surface coverage of solution-processed film on perovskite. • Calculated surface density map provides insight into morphology of the monolayer. • Carbonyl oxygen atom of PCBM strongly attaches to the (110) surface of perovskite. • Uniform distribution of clusters on perovskite surface at lower PCBM concentration. • Deposition rate of PCBM on the surface is very high at initial stage of film growth. - Abstract: The power conversion efficiency (PCE) of planar perovskite solar cells (PSCs) has reached up to ∼20%. However, structural and chemicals defects that lead to hysteresis in the perovskite based thin film pose challenges. Recent work has shown that thin films of [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) deposited on the photo absorption layer, using solution processing techniques, minimize surface pin holes and defects thereby increasing the PCE. We developed and employed a multiscale model based on molecular dynamics (MD) and kinetic Monte Carlo (kMC) to establish a relationship between deposition rate and surface coverage on perovskite surface. The MD simulations of PCBMs dispersed in chlorobenzene, sandwiched between (110) perovskite substrates, indicate that PCBMs are deposited through anchoring of the oxygen atom of carbonyl group to the exposed lead (Pb) atom of (110) perovskite surface. Based on rates of distinct deposition events calculated from MD, kMC simulations were run to determine surface coverage at much larger time and length scales than accessible by MD alone. Based on the model, a generic relationship is established between deposition rate of PCBMs and surface coverage on perovskite crystal. The study also provides detailed insights into the morphology of the deposited film.

  20. All-solution processed composite hole transport layer for quantum dot light emitting diode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xiaoli [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Low Dimensional Materials Physics and Preparing Technology, School of Science, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Synergetic Innovation Center of Chemical Science and Engineering, Tianjin (China); Dai, Haitao, E-mail: htdai@tju.edu.cn [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Low Dimensional Materials Physics and Preparing Technology, School of Science, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Zhao, Junliang; Wang, Shuguo [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Low Dimensional Materials Physics and Preparing Technology, School of Science, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Sun, Xiaowei [Department of Electrical & Electronic Engineering, South University of Science and Technology of China, Tangchang Road 1088, Shenzhen, Guangdong 518055 (China)

    2016-03-31

    In the present work, poly-TPD and TCTA composite hole transport layer (HTL) was employed in solution processed CdSe/ZnS quantum dot light emitting diodes (QLEDs). As the doping level of TCTA can determine the carriers transport efficiency of HTL, the proper mixing ratio of TCTA and poly-TPD should be found to optimize the performance of composite HTL for QLEDs. The doping of poly-TPD by low TCTA content can make its HOMO level lower and then reduce the energy barrier height from HTL to quantum dots (QDs), whereas the doping of poly-TPD by the concentrated TCTA results in the degraded performance of QLEDs due to its decreased hole transport mobility. By using the optimized composition with poly-TPD:TCTA (3:1) as the hole transport layer, the luminescence of the device exhibits about double enhancement compared with that of poly-TPD based device. The improvement of luminescence is mainly attributed to the lower energy barrier of hole injection. The Förster resonant energy transfer (FRET) mechanism in the devices was investigated through theoretical and experimental analysis and the results indicate that the TCTA doping makes no difference on FRET. Therefore, the charge injection mechanism dominates the improved performance of the devices. - Highlights: • Quantum dot light emitting diodes (QLEDs) were fabricated by all solution method. • The performance of QLEDs was optimized by varying the composite hole transport layer. • The blend HTL could promote hole injection by optimizing HOMO levels. • The energy transfer mechanism was analyzed by studying Förster resonant energy transfer process.