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Sample records for soft drinks consumption

  1. [Epidemiological evaluation of soft drinks consumption--students surveys].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chłapowska, Joanna; Pawlaczyk-Kamieńska, Tamara

    2012-01-01

    Non carious lesions, including erosion changes, are becoming increasingly apparent. There are multiple factors involved in the etiology of dental erosion i.a. acids in commercially available drinks. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of soft drink consumption that promote dental erosion among young adults. The 266 subjects were asked to fill in a questionnaire. The questionnaire inquired questions about consumption of drinks favouring tooth erosion. The students declared frequent drinking of isotonic drinks, energetic drinks, fizzy drinks and coca-cola type drinks. On the basis of a survey of Poznań University of Medical Sciences students it can be determined, that they have relatively high risk of dental erosion. To minimize the risk of dental erosion occurrence in young population there is a need to disseminate knowledge about the etiology.

  2. Meal pattern and soft drink consumption among in-school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Meal pattern and soft drink consumption among in-school adolescents in Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria. Healthy meal pattern is very important in the maintenance of the highest level of physical, mental and social well-being of an individual, more so during the adolescence period which is characterized by dramatic physical ...

  3. Correlates of University Students’ Soft and Energy Drink Consumption According to Gender and Residency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Deliens

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed personal and environmental correlates of Belgian university students’ soft and energy drink consumption and investigated whether these associations were moderated by gender or residency. Four hundred twenty-five university students completed a self-reported on-line questionnaire assessing socio-demographics, health status, soft and energy drink consumption, as well as personal and environmental factors related to soft and energy drink consumption. Multiple linear regression analyses were conducted. Students believing soft drink intake should be minimized (individual subjective norm, finding it less difficult to avoid soft drinks (perceived behavioral control, being convinced they could avoid soft drinks in different situations (self-efficacy, having family and friends who rarely consume soft drinks (modelling, and having stricter family rules about soft drink intake were less likely to consume soft drinks. Students showing stronger behavioral control, having stricter family rules about energy drink intake, and reporting lower energy drink availability were less likely to consume energy drinks. Gender and residency moderated several associations between psychosocial constructs and consumption. Future research should investigate whether interventions focusing on the above personal and environmental correlates can indeed improve university students’ beverage choices.

  4. Correlates of University Students’ Soft and Energy Drink Consumption According to Gender and Residency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deliens, Tom; Clarys, Peter; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Deforche, Benedicte

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed personal and environmental correlates of Belgian university students’ soft and energy drink consumption and investigated whether these associations were moderated by gender or residency. Four hundred twenty-five university students completed a self-reported on-line questionnaire assessing socio-demographics, health status, soft and energy drink consumption, as well as personal and environmental factors related to soft and energy drink consumption. Multiple linear regression analyses were conducted. Students believing soft drink intake should be minimized (individual subjective norm), finding it less difficult to avoid soft drinks (perceived behavioral control), being convinced they could avoid soft drinks in different situations (self-efficacy), having family and friends who rarely consume soft drinks (modelling), and having stricter family rules about soft drink intake were less likely to consume soft drinks. Students showing stronger behavioral control, having stricter family rules about energy drink intake, and reporting lower energy drink availability were less likely to consume energy drinks. Gender and residency moderated several associations between psychosocial constructs and consumption. Future research should investigate whether interventions focusing on the above personal and environmental correlates can indeed improve university students’ beverage choices. PMID:26258790

  5. The school food environment associations with adolescent soft drink and snack consumption

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    van der Horst, Klazine; Timperio, Anna; Crawford, David; Roberts, Rebecca; Brug, Johannes; Oenema, Anke

    2008-01-01

    Because students may purchase food and drinks in and around their schools, the school food environment may be important for obesity-related eating behaviors such as soft drink and snack consumption...

  6. Factors associated with high consumption of soft drinks among Australian secondary-school students.

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    Scully, Maree; Morley, Belinda; Niven, Philippa; Crawford, David; Pratt, Iain S; Wakefield, Melanie

    2017-09-01

    To examine demographic and behavioural correlates of high consumption of soft drinks (non-alcoholic sugar-sweetened carbonated drinks excluding energy drinks) among Australian adolescents and to explore the associations between high consumption and soft drink perceptions and accessibility. Cross-sectional self-completion survey and height and weight measurements. Australian secondary schools. Students aged 12-17 years participating in the 2012-13 National Secondary Students' Diet and Activity (NaSSDA) survey (n 7835). Overall, 14 % of students reported consuming four or more cups (≥1 litres) of soft drinks each week ('high soft drink consumers'). Demographic factors associated with high soft drink consumption were being male and having at least $AU 40 in weekly spending money. Behavioural factors associated with high soft drink consumption were low fruit intake, consuming energy drinks on a weekly basis, eating fast foods at least once weekly, eating snack foods ≥14 times/week, watching television for >2 h/d and sleeping for Students who perceived soft drinks to be usually available in their home, convenient to buy and good value for money were more likely to be high soft drink consumers, as were students who reported usually buying these drinks when making a beverage purchase from the school canteen/vending machine. High soft drink consumption clusters with other unhealthy lifestyle behaviours among Australian secondary-school students. Interventions focused on reducing the availability of soft drinks (e.g. increased taxes, restricting their sale in schools) as well as improved education on their harms are needed to lower adolescents' soft drink intake.

  7. Soft drinks consumption and child behaviour problems: the role of food insecurity and sleep patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Christian

    2017-02-01

    To examine whether the association between soft drinks consumption and child behaviour problems differs by food security status and sleep patterns in young children. Cross-sectional observational data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (FFCWS), which collected information on food insecurity, soft drinks consumption, sleep patterns and child behaviour problems. Bivariate and multivariate ordinary least-squares regression analyses predicting child behaviour problems and accounting for socio-economic factors and household characteristics were performed. Twenty urban cities in the USA with a population of 200 000 or more. Parental interviews of 2829 children who were about 5 years old. Soft drinks consumption was associated with aggressive behaviours, withdrawn and attention problems for children aged 5 years. However, the association differed by food security status. The association was mostly statistically insignificant among food-secure children after accounting for socio-economic and demographic characteristics. On the other hand, soft drinks consumption was associated with behaviour problems for food-insecure children even after accounting for these factors. However, after accounting for child sleep patterns, the association between soft drinks consumption and child behaviour problems became statistically insignificant for food-insecure children. The negative association between soft drinks consumption and child behaviour problems could be explained by sleep problems for food-insecure children. Since about 21 % of households with children are food insecure, targeted efforts to reduce food insecurity would help improve dietary (reduce soft drinks consumption) and health behaviours (improve sleep) and reduce child behaviour problems.

  8. The school food environment associations with adolescent soft drink and snack consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Horst, Klazine; Timperio, Anna; Crawford, David; Roberts, Rebecca; Brug, Johannes; Oenema, Anke

    2008-09-01

    Because students may purchase food and drinks in and around their schools, the school food environment may be important for obesity-related eating behaviors such as soft drink and snack consumption. However, research exploring the associations between school environments and specific eating behaviors is sparse. Associations of the availability of canteen food and drinks, the presence of food stores around schools, and individual cognitions (attitudes, norms, modeling, perceived behavioral control, and intentions) with soft drink and snack consumption were examined in a cross-sectional study (2005-2006) among 1,293 adolescents aged 12-15 years. Soft drink and snack consumption and related cognitions were assessed with self-administered questionnaires. The presence of food stores and the distance to the nearest food store were calculated within a 500-meter buffer around each school. Data on the availability of soft drinks and snacks in school canteens were gathered by observation. In 2007, multilevel regression models were run to analyze associations and mediation pathways between cognitions, environmental factors, and behaviors. Adolescents' attitudes, subjective norms, parental and peer modeling, and intentions were positively associated with soft drink and snack consumption. There was an inverse association between the distance to the nearest store and the number of small food stores with soft drink consumption. These effects were mediated partly by cognitions. This study provided little evidence for associations of environmental factors in the school environment with soft drink and snack consumption. Individual cognitions appeared to be stronger correlates of intake than physical school-environmental factors. Longitudinal research is needed to confirm these findings.

  9. Effects of Soft Drink Consumption on Nutrition and Health: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartanian, Lenny R.; Schwartz, Marlene B.; Brownell, Kelly D.

    2007-01-01

    In a meta-analysis of 88 studies, we examined the association between soft drink consumption and nutrition and health outcomes. We found clear associations of soft drink intake with increased energy intake and body weight. Soft drink intake also was associated with lower intakes of milk, calcium, and other nutrients and with an increased risk of several medical problems (e.g., diabetes). Study design significantly influenced results: larger effect sizes were observed in studies with stronger methods (longitudinal and experimental vs cross-sectional studies). Several other factors also moderated effect sizes (e.g., gender, age, beverage type). Finally, studies funded by the food industry reported significantly smaller effects than did non–industry-funded studies. Recommendations to reduce population soft drink consumption are strongly supported by the available science. PMID:17329656

  10. Association between soft drink consumption, oral health and some lifestyle factors in Swedish adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasselkvist, Agneta; Johansson, Anders; Johansson, Ann-Katrin

    2014-11-01

    The aim was to investigate the relationship between soft drink consumption, oral health and some lifestyle factors in Swedish adolescents. A clinical dental examination and a questionnaire concerning lifestyle factors, including drinking habits, oral hygiene, dietary consumption, physical activity and screen-viewing habits were completed. Three hundred and ninety-two individuals completed the study (13-14 years, n = 195; 18-19 years, n = 197). The material was divided into high and low carbonated soft drink consumption groups, corresponding to approximately the highest and the lowest one-third of subjects in each age group. Differences between the groups were tested by the Mann-Whitney U-test and logistic regression. Intake of certain dietary items, tooth brushing, sports activities, meal patterns, screen-viewing behaviors, BMI and parents born outside Sweden differed significantly between high and low consumers in one or both of the two age groups. Dental erosion (both age groups) and DMFT/DMFS (18-19 years group) were significantly higher in the high consumption groups. Logistic regression showed predictive variables for high consumption of carbonated soft drinks to be mainly gender (male), unhealthy dietary habits, lesser physical activity, higher BMI and longer time spent in front of TV/computer. High soft drink consumption was related to poorer oral health and an unhealthier lifestyle.

  11. Water Consumption in European Children: Associations with Intake of Fruit Juices, Soft Drinks and Related Parenting Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantziki, Krystallia; Renders, Carry M; Seidell, Jaap C

    2017-05-31

    Background : High intake of fruit juices and soft drinks contributes to excessive weight gain and obesity in children. Furthermore, parenting practices play an important role in the development of children's dietary habits. The way parents play this role in the development of their children's choices of beverages is still unclear. Objectives : To study the associations: (1) of both fruit juices and soft drinks consumption with water consumption of children and (2) The associations between parenting practices towards fruit juices and soft drinks and water consumption of children. Design : Cross-sectional data from 6 to 8 year old children from seven European communities ( n = 1187) were collected. Associations among fruit juices, soft drinks, the respective parenting practices and the child's water consumption were assessed by parental questionnaires. Results : The consumption of water was inversely associated with that of soft drinks but not with the consumption of fruit juices. The child's water intake was favorably influenced when stricter parenting practices towards soft drinks were adopted (e.g., less parental allowance, low home availability and high parental self-efficacy in managing intake). There was less influence observed of parenting practices towards fruit juices. Fruit juices were consumed more often than soft drinks. Conclusions : Low consumption of soft drinks-and not of fruit juices-was associated with high water consumption in children in the current study. Moreover, parenting practices towards both fruit juices and soft drinks were associated with the water intake of the children, irrespective of their socio-economic status.

  12. [Daily consumption of soft drinks, sweets and fried foods among adolescents in the northeast of Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanini, Roberta de Vargas; Muniz, Ludmila Correa; Schneider, Bruna Celestino; Tassitano, Rafael Miranda; Feitosa, Wallacy Milton do Nascimento; González-Chica, David Alejandro

    2013-12-01

    A school-based cross-sectional study in 2007 evaluated the prevalence and associated factors of daily consumption of soft drinks, sweets and fried foods among adolescents (15 to 20 years of age) in public schools in Caruaru in the state of Pernambuco. To evaluate the factors associated with the daily consumption of the above foods, a multivariate and hierarchical analysis was conducted using Poisson regression, with social and demographic variables at the first hierarchical level, behavioral variables at the second level and dietary standards at the third level. Consumption of soft drinks, sweets and fried foods at least once a week was declared by 90.9%, 95.4% and 89.6% of the adolescents, respectively. The corresponding prevalence of the daily consumption of these items was 30.2%, 42% and 28.3%. The daily consumption of sweets was 21% higher among girls and 25% higher among adolescents who ate rice and beans daily. With respect to fried foods, girls mentioned 37% greater consumption than boys. Adolescents who consumed meat every day admitted a 43% higher daily consumption of fried foods. The consumption of soft drinks, sweets and fried foods among the adolescents from Caruaru was high and showed a homogeneous consumption standard for most variables analyzed.

  13. Associations of social-environmental and individual-level factors with adolescent soft drink consumption: Results from the SMILE study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.J. de Bruijn; S.P.J. Kremers (Stef); H. de Vries (Hein); W. van Mechelen (Willem); J. Brug (Hans)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractAdolescent obesity is positively associated with soft drink consumption. We investigated the association of social-environmental and individual-level factors with soft drink consumption in a Dutch adolescent sample. Data were gathered in a longitudinal Dutch adolescent sample (n = 208,

  14. Soft Drinks Consumption and the Risk of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqi, Zeba; Karoli, Ritu; Fatima, Jalees; Khanduri, Sachin; Varshneya, Shishir; Ahmad, Sara Sabina

    2017-05-01

    The increased consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) has been implicated in the increased incidence of obesity and metabolic syndrome Little of the research on sugar-sweetened beverage intake has examined the consumption patterns of sugared beverages by college students, despite the vulnerabilities of this population to weight gain. The current study sought to characterize sugar-sweetened beverage intake of undergraduate students who belong to high socio-economic strata and to study its correlation with presence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. In a cross sectional, a self reported questionnaire based study about soft drink consumption (≥2/day, 1/day, drink consumption had positive correlation with presence of NAFLD. Substantial consumption of soft drinks is leading to increased obesity and cardio-metabolic risk factors in young adults. Artificially sweetened diet soft drinks have been posed as a healthier alternative due to their lack of calories but they do not guarantee protection against non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

  15. Effects of carbonated soft drink consumption on orthodontic tooth movements in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Agha Aghili

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this animal study was to evaluate the possible effects of Carbonated Soft Drink consumption on the rate of orthodontic tooth movement in rats.Thirty-six adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two experimental groups and one control group. In the experimental groups (A&B, the water in the dietary regimen was replaced with soft drinks (Fanta® in group A and Cola® in group B two weeks before placement of orthodontic appliances. Then 5-mm nickel-titanium closed-coil springs were placed between the maxillary right first molars and first incisors under general anesthesia. This regimen continued for two weeks more and animals drank soft drink ad libitum. At the end of the experimental period, the rats were sacrificed, and interproximal tooth movements were measured.The mean amounts of tooth movement were 0.19mm in group A, 0.22mm in group B and 0.37mm in group C. Statistical analysis with analysis of variance (ANOVA test showed significant differences between all groups. The least movement occurred in group A that had received Fanta® drink.CSDs consumption decreases the rate of orthodontic tooth movement. The role of soft drinks in decreasing tooth movement might be related to its effects on bone metabolism.

  16. Soft drink consumption is associated with depressive symptoms among adults in China.

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    Yu, Bin; He, Haiyan; Zhang, Qing; Wu, Hongmei; Du, Huanmin; Liu, Li; Wang, Chongjin; Shi, Hongbin; Xia, Yang; Guo, Xiaoyan; Liu, Xing; Li, Chunlei; Bao, Xue; Su, Qian; Meng, Ge; Chu, Jiaqi; Mei, Yan; Sun, Shaomei; Wang, Xing; Zhou, Ming; Jia, Qiyu; Zhao, Honglin; Song, Kun; Niu, Kaijun

    2015-02-01

    Research evidence supports a positive link between soft drinks and depressive symptoms. However, data thus far are only from Caucasian populations. We investigated whether high levels of consumption of soft drinks were associated with the depressive symptoms among adults in China. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 3667 adults in Tianjin, China. Dietary intake was assessed using a valid self-administered food frequency questionnaire, and depressive symptoms were assessed with the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS), cut-off point of 40, 45 or 50 indicating elevated depressive symptoms. The prevalence of elevated depressive symptoms was 7.6% (SDS ≥50). After adjustments for potentially confounding factors, the odds ratios (95% confidence interval) of having elevated depressive symptoms by increasing levels of soft drink consumption were 1.00, 1.43 (1.01, 2.01) and 2.00 (1.15, 3.37) (p for trend consumption of soft drinks was significantly related to a higher prevalence of depressive symptoms among adults in China. This is the first large cross-sectional study addressing this topic in an Asia population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Determinants and patterns of soft drink consumption in young adults: a qualitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattersley, Libby; Irwin, Melissa; King, Lesley; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret

    2009-10-01

    To explore knowledge, attitudes and behaviours regarding caloric soft drinks in a group of young adults attending university and to identify opportunities for a health promotion intervention aimed at reducing consumption. In-depth, semi-structured focus groups segmented by gender. Sydney, Australia. Undergraduate University of Sydney students aged 18-30 years (n 35). Social and environmental cues, intrinsic qualities of beverages and personal health beliefs were identified as important influences on consumption. Social cues included settings in which alcohol is usually consumed, socialising with friends, and family influences. Environmental cues included purchasing of fast foods, and ready availability, preferential pricing and promotion of caloric beverages. Reinforcing intrinsic qualities of caloric soft drinks included taste, sugar and caffeine content, and their association with treats and rewards. Major gender differences as well as variations in individual readiness for behaviour change were observed. Raising awareness of the sugar content of various beverages and the potential health impacts associated with their consumption was considered important. The findings provide new insights with important implications for policy and practice, and suggest that there is considerable scope for promoting awareness in this group. Carefully designed social marketing campaigns highlighting the health issues and addressing social and environmental cues relating to caloric soft drink consumption are required. There is a need for gender-differentiated intervention programmes which are both informational and appealing to young adults. Further research is warranted, particularly to investigate beverage consumption relating to fast-food meal deals and young adults' consumption patterns in more depth.

  18. The effects of different types of taxes on soft-drink consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sheikhbihi Adam, Abdulfatah; Smed, Sinne

    Monthly data from GfK Consumerscan Scandinavia for the years 2006 – 2009 are used to estimate the effects of different tax scenarios on the consumption of sugar sweetened beverages (SSB’s). Most studies fail to consider demand interrelationships between different types of soft-drinks when...... as well as between different container sizes. Especially the large sizes and discount brands provide considerable value for money to the consumer. Three different type of taxes is considered; a tax based on the content of added sugar in various SSB’s, a flat tax on soft-drinks alone and a size...... differentiated tax on soft-drinks that remove the value for money obtained by purchasing large container sizes. The scenarios are scaled equally in terms of obtained public revenue. Largest effect in terms of reduced intake of calories and sugar are obtained by applying the tax on sugar in all beverages, even...

  19. Soft drink consumption and gestational diabetes risk in the SUN project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donazar-Ezcurra, Mikel; Lopez-Del Burgo, Cristina; Martinez-Gonzalez, Miguel A; Basterra-Gortari, Francisco J; de Irala, Jokin; Bes-Rastrollo, Maira

    2017-02-20

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) prevalence is increasing worldwide. To the best of our knowledge the specific evaluation of soft drink consumption as a risk factor for developing GDM has only been conducted in the Nurses' Health Study II. To investigate the incidence of GDM according to soft drink consumption in the SUN project. The "Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra" (SUN) project is a prospective and dynamic cohort which included data of 3396 women who notified at least one pregnancy between December 1999 and March 2012. A validated 136-item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire was used to assess soft drink consumption. Four categories of sugar-sweetened soft drink (SSSD) and diet soft drink (DSD) consumption (servings) were established: rarely or never (3/month and ≤1/week) and high (≥2/week). Potential confounders were adjusted through non-conditional logistic regression models. During the follow-up, we identified 172 incident cases of GDM. After adjusting for age, baseline body mass index, family history of diabetes, smoking, total energy intake, physical activity, parity, fast-food consumption, adherence to Mediterranean dietary pattern, alcohol intake, multiple pregnancy, cardiovascular disease/hypertension at baseline, fiber intake, following special diet and snacking, SSSD consumption was significantly associated with an increased risk of incident GDM, with multivariable adjusted odds ratios (OR) of 2.03 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.25-3.31) and 1.67 (95% CI: 1.01-2.77) for the highest and intermediate categories, respectively, versus the lowest category (p for linear trend: 0.006). Conversely, DSD consumption was not associated with GDM incidence (adjusted OR: 0.82; 95% CI: 0.52-1.31) for the highest versus the lowest category (p for linear trend: 0.258). Additional sensitivity analyses did not change the results. Higher consumption of SSSDs before pregnancy was an independent risk factor for GDM, however, no association was

  20. The Association between Soft Drink Consumption and Body Fat in Females Age 16 to 24.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Megan M; Heelan, Kate A; Mowry, Deborah A; Abbey, Bryce

    American soft drink consumption (SDC) has increased since the 1960's surpassing all other kinds of beverage consumption. In recent years, the scientific literature has suggested that SDC has been linked to the rising epidemic of obesity in children and adolescents. However, there is lack of information in scientific literature on the effects of SDC on body fat (BF%) in young females. The purpose of this study was to determine the association between SDC and BF% in young women, ages 16-24 years. Sixty-six females were asked to complete a 3-day food record, food frequency questionnaire, and an assessment BF% by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Overall, participants consumed 29.44 ± 44.68 fl oz/day of soft drinks. There were significant positive associations between SDC and BF% (r = 0.24, p SDC, secondary analysis compared moderate SDC (MSDC: SDC (HSDC: ≥ 32 fl oz/day). Results suggested HSCD had significantly greater BF% than MSDC. Therefore, limiting the consumption of soft drinks is suggested in order to maintain a healthy BF%.

  1. Water Consumption in European Children: Associations with Intake of Fruit Juices, Soft Drinks and Related Parenting Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystallia Mantziki

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: High intake of fruit juices and soft drinks contributes to excessive weight gain and obesity in children. Furthermore, parenting practices play an important role in the development of children’s dietary habits. The way parents play this role in the development of their children’s choices of beverages is still unclear. Objectives: To study the associations: (1 of both fruit juices and soft drinks consumption with water consumption of children and (2 The associations between parenting practices towards fruit juices and soft drinks and water consumption of children. Design: Cross-sectional data from 6 to 8 year old children from seven European communities (n = 1187 were collected. Associations among fruit juices, soft drinks, the respective parenting practices and the child’s water consumption were assessed by parental questionnaires. Results: The consumption of water was inversely associated with that of soft drinks but not with the consumption of fruit juices. The child’s water intake was favorably influenced when stricter parenting practices towards soft drinks were adopted (e.g., less parental allowance, low home availability and high parental self-efficacy in managing intake. There was less influence observed of parenting practices towards fruit juices. Fruit juices were consumed more often than soft drinks. Conclusions: Low consumption of soft drinks—and not of fruit juices—was associated with high water consumption in children in the current study. Moreover, parenting practices towards both fruit juices and soft drinks were associated with the water intake of the children, irrespective of their socio-economic status.

  2. Relationship of soft drink consumption to global overweight, obesity, and diabetes: a cross-national analysis of 75 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Sanjay; McKee, Martin; Galea, Gauden; Stuckler, David

    2013-11-01

    We estimated the relationship between soft drink consumption and obesity and diabetes worldwide. We used multivariate linear regression to estimate the association between soft drink consumption and overweight, obesity, and diabetes prevalence in 75 countries, controlling for other foods (cereals, meats, fruits and vegetables, oils, and total calories), income, urbanization, and aging. Data were obtained from the Euromonitor Global Market Information Database, the World Health Organization, and the International Diabetes Federation. Bottled water consumption, which increased with per-capita income in parallel to soft drink consumption, served as a natural control group. Soft drink consumption increased globally from 9.5 gallons per person per year in 1997 to 11.4 gallons in 2010. A 1% rise in soft drink consumption was associated with an additional 4.8 overweight adults per 100 (adjusted B; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.1, 6.5), 2.3 obese adults per 100 (95% CI = 1.1, 3.5), and 0.3 adults with diabetes per 100 (95% CI = 0.1, 0.8). These findings remained robust in low- and middle-income countries. Soft drink consumption is significantly linked to overweight, obesity, and diabetes worldwide, including in low- and middle-income countries.

  3. Consumption of sugar-sweetened and artificially sweetened soft drinks and risk of obesity-related cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, Allison M; Bassett, Julie K; Milne, Roger L; English, Dallas R; Giles, Graham G

    2018-02-21

    To test the hypothesis that more frequent consumption of sugar-sweetened soft drinks would be associated with increased risk of obesity-related cancers. Associations for artificially sweetened soft drinks were assessed for comparison. Prospective cohort study with cancers identified by linkage to cancer registries. At baseline, participants completed a 121-item FFQ including separate questions about the number of times in the past year they had consumed sugar-sweetened or artificially sweetened soft drinks. Anthropometric measurements, including waist circumference, were taken and questions about smoking, leisure-time physical activity and intake of alcoholic beverages were completed. The Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study (MCCS) is a prospective cohort study which recruited 41 514 men and women aged 40-69 years between 1990 and 1994. A second wave of data collection occurred in 2003-2007. Data for 35 593 participants who developed 3283 incident obesity-related cancers were included in the main analysis. Increasing frequency of consumption of both sugar-sweetened and artificially sweetened soft drinks was associated with greater waist circumference at baseline. For sugar-sweetened soft drinks, the hazard ratio (HR) for obesity-related cancers increased as frequency of consumption increased (HR for consumption >1/d v. 1/d v. drinks.

  4. Relationship between Soft Drink Consumption and Obesity in 9–11 Years Old Children in a Multi-National Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter T. Katzmarzyk

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the association between regular (sugar containing and diet (artificially sweetened soft drink consumption and obesity in children from 12 countries ranging in levels of economic and human development. The sample included 6162 children aged 9–11 years. Information on soft drink consumption was obtained using a food frequency questionnaire. Percentage body fat (%BF was estimated by bio-electrical impedance analysis, body mass index (BMI z-scores were computed using World Health Organization reference data, and obesity was defined as a BMI > +2 standard deviations (SD. Multi-level models were used to investigate trends in BMI z-scores, %BF and obesity across categories of soft drink consumption. Age, sex, study site, parental education and physical activity were included as covariates. There was a significant linear trend in BMI z-scores across categories of consumption of regular soft drinks in boys (p = 0.049, but not in girls; there were no significant trends in %BF or obesity observed in either boys or girls. There was no significant linear trend across categories of diet soft drink consumption in boys, but there was a graded, positive association in girls for BMI z-score (p = 0.0002 and %BF (p = 0.0001. Further research is required to explore these associations using longitudinal research designs.

  5. Exposure to food advertising on television: associations with children's fast food and soft drink consumption and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreyeva, Tatiana; Kelly, Inas Rashad; Harris, Jennifer L

    2011-07-01

    There is insufficient research on the direct effects of food advertising on children's diet and diet-related health, particularly in non-experimental settings. We employ a nationally-representative sample from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey-Kindergarten Cohort (ECLS-K) and the Nielsen Company data on spot television advertising of cereals, fast food restaurants and soft drinks to children across the top 55 designated-market areas to estimate the relation between exposure to food advertising on television and children's food consumption and body weight. Our results suggest that soft drink and fast food television advertising is associated with increased consumption of soft drinks and fast food among elementary school children (Grade 5). Exposure to 100 incremental TV ads for sugar-sweetened carbonated soft drinks during 2002-2004 was associated with a 9.4% rise in children's consumption of soft drinks in 2004. The same increase in exposure to fast food advertising was associated with a 1.1% rise in children's consumption of fast food. There was no detectable link between advertising exposure and average body weight, but fast food advertising was significantly associated with body mass index for overweight and obese children (≥85th BMI percentile), revealing detectable effects for a vulnerable group of children. Exposure to advertising for calorie-dense nutrient-poor foods may increase overall consumption of unhealthy food categories. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Chronic consumption of fructose rich soft drinks alters tissue lipids of rats

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    Botezelli Jose D

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fructose-based diets are apparently related to the occurrence of several metabolic dysfunctions, but the effects of the consumption of high amounts of fructose on body tissues have not been well described. The aim of this study was to analyze the general characteristics and the lipid content of different tissues of rats after chronic ingestion of a fructose rich soft drink. Methods Forty-five Wistar rats were used. The rats were divided into three groups (n = 15 and allowed to consume water (C, light Coca Cola ® (L or regular Coca Cola® (R as the sole source of liquids for eight weeks. Results The R group presented significantly higher daily liquid intake and significantly lower food intake than the C and L groups. Moreover, relative to the C and L groups, the R group showed higher triglyceride concentrations in the serum and liver. However, the L group animals presented lower values of serum triglycerides and cholesterol than controls. Conclusions Based on the results, it can be concluded that daily ingestion of a large amount of fructose- rich soft drink resulted in unfavorable alterations to the lipid profile of the rats.

  7. The mediating effect of daily nervousness and irritability on the relationship between soft drink consumption and aggressive behaviour among adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holubcikova, Jana; Kolarcik, Peter; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; van Dijk, Jitse P.

    This study investigated whether soft drink consumption is related to fighting and bullying behaviour among school-aged children and whether nervousness and irritation mediated this relationship. The data on 7583 adolescents aged 11-15 years from the Slovak part of the Health Behaviour in School-Aged

  8. Alcoholic beverages and carbonated soft drinks: consumption and gastrointestinal cancer risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuomo, Rosario; Andreozzi, Paolo; Zito, Francesco Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Alcoholic beverages (ABs) and carbonated soft drinks (CSDs) are widely consumed worldwide. Given the high consumption of these beverages, the scientific community has increased its focus on their health impact. There is epidemiological evidence of a causal association between AB intake and digestive cancer, but the role of alcohol in determining cancer is not fully defined. Experimental studies have so far identified multiple mechanisms involved in carcinogenesis; ethanol itself is not carcinogenic but available data suggest that acetaldehyde (AA) and reactive oxygen species-both products of ethanol metabolism-have a genotoxic effect promoting carcinogenesis. Other carcinogenetic mechanisms include nutritional deficits, changes in DNA methylation, and impaired immune surveillance. As CSDs are often suspected to cause certain gastrointestinal disorders, consequently, some researchers have hypothesized their involvement in gastrointestinal cancers. Of all the ingredients, carbon dioxide is prevalently involved in the alteration of gastrointestinal physiology by a direct mucosal effect and indirect effects mediated by the mechanical pressure determined by gas. The role of sugar or artificial sweeteners is also debated as factors involved in the carcinogenic processes. However, several surveys have failed to show any associations between CSDs and esophageal, gastric, or colon cancers. On the other hand, a slight correlation between risk of pancreatic cancer and CSD consumption has been found.

  9. Is consumption of sugar-sweetened soft drinks during pregnancy associated with birth weight?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundt, Jacob H; Eide, Geir Egil; Brantsaeter, Anne-Lise; Haugen, Margaretha; Markestad, Trond

    2017-10-01

    In Norway, there were parallel increases and subsequent decreases in birth weight (BW) and consumption of sugar-sweetened carbonated soft drinks (SSC) during the period 1990-2010, and by an ecological approach, we have suggested that the relationship was causal. The objective of this study was to examine if such a relationship was present in a prospectively followed cohort of pregnant women. The study population included 62,494 term singleton mother-infant dyads in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa), a national prospective cohort study in Norway from 1999 to 2008. The association between SSC consumption and BW was assessed using multiple regression analyses with adjustment for potential confounders. Each 100 ml intake of SSC was associated with a 7.8 g (95% confidence interval [CI]: -10.3 to -5.3) decrease in BW, a decreased risk of BW > 4,500 g (odds ratio [OR]: 0.94, 95% CI: 0.90 to 0.97) and a near significantly increased risk of BW  4,500 g (OR: 1.18, 95% CI: 1.00 to 1.39) and a trend towards significant increase in mean BW (25.1 g, 95% CI: -2.0 to 52.2) per 100 ml SSC. Our findings suggest that increasing consumption of rapidly absorbed sugar from SSC had opposite associations with BW in normal pregnancies and pregnancies complicated by gestational diabetes mellitus. © 2016 The Authors Maternal & Child Nutrition Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Evaluation of effectiveness of class-based nutrition intervention on changes in soft drink and milk consumption among young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holloman Christopher

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During last few decades, soft drink consumption has steadily increased while milk intake has decreased. Excess consumption of soft drinks and low milk intake may pose risks of several diseases such as dental caries, obesity, and osteoporosis. Although beverage consumption habits form during young adulthood, which has a strong impact on beverage choices in later life, nutrition education programs on beverages are scarce in this population. The purpose of this investigation was 1 to assess soft drink and milk consumption and 2 to evaluate the effectiveness of 15-week class-based nutrition intervention in changing beverage choices among college students. Methods A total of 80 college students aged 18 to 24 years who were enrolled in basic nutrition class participated in the study. Three-day dietary records were collected, verified, and analyzed before and after the intervention. Class lectures focused on healthful dietary choices related to prevention of chronic diseases and were combined with interactive hands on activities and dietary feedback. Results Class-based nutrition intervention combining traditional lecture and interactive activities was successful in decreasing soft drink consumption. Total milk consumption, specifically fat free milk, increased in females and male students changed milk choice favoring skim milk over low fat milk. (1% and 2%. Conclusion Class-based nutrition education focusing on prevention of chronic diseases can be an effective strategy in improving both male and female college students' beverage choices. Using this type of intervention in a general nutrition course may be an effective approach to motivate changes in eating behaviors in a college setting.

  11. Evaluation of effectiveness of class-based nutrition intervention on changes in soft drink and milk consumption among young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Eun-Jeong; Caine-Bish, Natalie; Holloman, Christopher; Lowry-Gordon, Karen

    2009-10-26

    During last few decades, soft drink consumption has steadily increased while milk intake has decreased. Excess consumption of soft drinks and low milk intake may pose risks of several diseases such as dental caries, obesity, and osteoporosis. Although beverage consumption habits form during young adulthood, which has a strong impact on beverage choices in later life, nutrition education programs on beverages are scarce in this population. The purpose of this investigation was 1) to assess soft drink and milk consumption and 2) to evaluate the effectiveness of 15-week class-based nutrition intervention in changing beverage choices among college students. A total of 80 college students aged 18 to 24 years who were enrolled in basic nutrition class participated in the study. Three-day dietary records were collected, verified, and analyzed before and after the intervention. Class lectures focused on healthful dietary choices related to prevention of chronic diseases and were combined with interactive hands on activities and dietary feedback. Class-based nutrition intervention combining traditional lecture and interactive activities was successful in decreasing soft drink consumption. Total milk consumption, specifically fat free milk, increased in females and male students changed milk choice favoring skim milk over low fat milk. (1% and 2%). Class-based nutrition education focusing on prevention of chronic diseases can be an effective strategy in improving both male and female college students' beverage choices. Using this type of intervention in a general nutrition course may be an effective approach to motivate changes in eating behaviors in a college setting.

  12. Portion Size Labeling and Intended Soft Drink Consumption: The Impact of Labeling Format and Size Portfolio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeer, Willemijn M.; Steenhuis, Ingrid H. M.; Leeuwis, Franca H.; Bos, Arjan E. R.; de Boer, Michiel; Seidell, Jacob C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To assess what portion size labeling "format" is most promising in helping consumers selecting appropriate soft drink sizes, and whether labeling impact depends on the size portfolio. Methods: An experimental study was conducted in fast-food restaurants in which 2 labeling formats (ie, reference portion size and small/medium/large…

  13. Consumption of artificially-sweetened soft drinks in pregnancy and risk of child asthma and allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslova, Ekaterina; Strøm, Marin; Olsen, Sjurdur F; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I

    2013-01-01

    Past evidence has suggested a role of artificial sweeteners in allergic disease; yet, the evidence has been inconsistent and unclear. To examine relation of intake of artificially-sweetened beverages during pregnancy with child asthma and allergic rhinitis at 18 months and 7 years. We analyzed data from 60,466 women enrolled during pregnancy in the prospective longitudinal Danish National Birth Cohort between 1996 and 2003. At the 25th week of gestation we administered a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire which asked in detail about intake of artificially-sweetened soft drinks. At 18 months, we evaluated child asthma using interview data. We also assessed asthma and allergic rhinitis through a questionnaire at age 7 and by using national registries. Current asthma was defined as self-reported asthma diagnosis and wheeze in the past 12 months. We examined the relation between intake of artificially-sweetened soft drinks and child allergic disease outcomes and present here odds ratios with 95% CI comparing daily vs. no intake. At 18 months, we found that mothers who consumed more artificially-sweetened non-carbonated soft drinks were 1.23 (95% CI: 1.13, 1.33) times more likely to report a child asthma diagnosis compared to non-consumers. Similar results were found for child wheeze. Consumers of artificially-sweetened carbonated drinks were more likely to have a child asthma diagnosis in the patient (1.30, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.66) and medication (1.13, 95% CI: 0.98, 1.29) registry, as well as self-reported allergic rhinitis (1.31, 95% CI: 0.98, 1.74) during the first 7 years of follow-up. We found no associations for sugar-sweetened soft drinks. Carbonated artificially-sweetened soft drinks were associated with registry-based asthma and self-reported allergic rhinitis, while early childhood outcomes were related to non-carbonated soft drinks. These results suggest that consumption of artificially-sweetened soft drinks during pregnancy may play a role in offspring

  14. Consumption of artificially-sweetened soft drinks in pregnancy and risk of child asthma and allergic rhinitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Maslova

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Past evidence has suggested a role of artificial sweeteners in allergic disease; yet, the evidence has been inconsistent and unclear. OBJECTIVE: To examine relation of intake of artificially-sweetened beverages during pregnancy with child asthma and allergic rhinitis at 18 months and 7 years. METHODS: We analyzed data from 60,466 women enrolled during pregnancy in the prospective longitudinal Danish National Birth Cohort between 1996 and 2003. At the 25th week of gestation we administered a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire which asked in detail about intake of artificially-sweetened soft drinks. At 18 months, we evaluated child asthma using interview data. We also assessed asthma and allergic rhinitis through a questionnaire at age 7 and by using national registries. Current asthma was defined as self-reported asthma diagnosis and wheeze in the past 12 months. We examined the relation between intake of artificially-sweetened soft drinks and child allergic disease outcomes and present here odds ratios with 95% CI comparing daily vs. no intake. RESULTS: At 18 months, we found that mothers who consumed more artificially-sweetened non-carbonated soft drinks were 1.23 (95% CI: 1.13, 1.33 times more likely to report a child asthma diagnosis compared to non-consumers. Similar results were found for child wheeze. Consumers of artificially-sweetened carbonated drinks were more likely to have a child asthma diagnosis in the patient (1.30, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.66 and medication (1.13, 95% CI: 0.98, 1.29 registry, as well as self-reported allergic rhinitis (1.31, 95% CI: 0.98, 1.74 during the first 7 years of follow-up. We found no associations for sugar-sweetened soft drinks. CONCLUSION: Carbonated artificially-sweetened soft drinks were associated with registry-based asthma and self-reported allergic rhinitis, while early childhood outcomes were related to non-carbonated soft drinks. These results suggest that consumption of artificially

  15. Associations between Parental Limits, School Vending Machine Purchases, and Soft Drink Consumption among Kentucky Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickelson, Jen; Roseman, Mary G.; Forthofer, Melinda S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To examine associations between parental limits on soft drinks and purchasing soft drinks from school vending machines and consuming soft drinks among middle school students. Design: Secondary analysis of cross-sectional data from the middle school Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Setting: Eight public middle schools in central Kentucky.…

  16. Sweetened Soft Drinks Consumption Is Associated with Metabolic Syndrome: Cross-sectional Analysis from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasquez-Melendez, Gustavo; Molina, Maria Del Carmen B; Benseñor, Isabela M; Cardoso, Leticia O; Fonseca, Maria de Jesus M; Moreira, Alexandra D; Pereira, Taísa Sabrina S; Barreto, Sandhi M

    2017-02-01

    To estimate the association between regular consumption of sweetened soft drinks, natural fruit juice, and coconut water with metabolic syndrome (MetS). This was a cross-sectional study including men and women aged 35-74 years from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) Study, excluding patients with type 2 diabetes. The main explanatory variables were beverage consumption and the outcome variable was metabolic syndrome (Adult Treatment Panel III). After adjustments, a daily intake of 250 ml of soft drink increased the chance of metabolic syndrome (odds ratio [OR] = 1.95; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.60-2.38). There was no association between coconut water and MetS. Moderate consumption of fruit juices has low odds of MetS compared to no consumption. Our results add evidence to potential negative effects of sweetened soft drinks on cluster metabolic abnormalities in middle-income countries.

  17. Association between long-term consumption of soft drinks and variables of bone modeling and remodeling in a sample of healthy German children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libuda, Lars; Alexy, Ute; Remer, Thomas; Stehle, Peter; Schoenau, Eckhard; Kersting, Mathilde

    2008-12-01

    Soft drinks are thought to displace milk in diets of children and adolescents and therefore might affect variables of bone modeling and remodeling. We assessed the association between long-term consumption of several types of soft drinks and bone variables in children and adolescents. Long-term dietary data from 3-d weighed dietary records collected by 228 healthy children and adolescents enrolled in the DONALD Study in 4 y of study participation were used for data analysis. Variables of bone modeling and remodeling of the radius were assessed by using peripheral quantitative computed tomography. After adjustment for age, sex, total energy intake, muscle area, BMI SD scores, and growth velocity, long-term consumption of all soft drinks and uncaffeinated soft drinks was negatively associated with bone mineral content (P drinks was negatively associated with polar strength strain index (P drinks was negatively associated with total protein and milk intake, but was not associated with potential renal acid load. Long-term consumption of caffeinated and uncaffeinated soft drinks appears to have bone catabolic effects in boys and girls. This effect is mainly mediated by the negative association with total protein intake and is not primarily based on milk displacement.

  18. Soft drinks and 'desire to drink' in preschoolers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cooke Lucy

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Interest in soft drink consumption has increased following a dramatic rise in intake over recent years. Research to date has focused primarily on general trends in consumption or on understanding the mechanism by which soft drink consumption may be linked to weight gain. It is clear however that there is considerable individual variability in the extent to which soft drinks are consumed and factors potentially influencing intake have received little attention. This study examines how the Child Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ construct 'Desire to Drink' (DD relates to drink consumption, preferences and BMI-SDS. Three hundred and forty six same-sex twin children (mean age 11.2 years; s.d. 0.54; 56% female; 53% dizygotic were weighed, measured and reported their liking for milk, water, fruit juice, fruit squash and sweetened soft drinks. Mothers reported on their child's drink consumption and completed the CEBQ. Scores on the CEBQ DD subscale were not significantly related to child BMI-SDS in this sample. Children scoring higher on DD had higher preferences for sugar-sweetened soft drinks (p = 0.016, fruit squash (p = 0.042 and milk (p = 0.020 than children scoring lower on the scale. DD was also positively related to more frequent consumption of sugar-sweetened soft drinks (p = 0.017 and low calorie soft drinks (p = 0.003. No relationship was observed between DD scores and liking for or intake of water or 100% fruit juice. These findings suggest that the construct desire to drink in children is related to a liking for consuming sweetened drinks, and does not appear to simply denote greater thirst or hunger. This may have important implications for the ongoing development of dietary patterns and weight status in the longer term through an increased preference for sweet things in the mouth and a failure to compensate for calories provided by drinks.

  19. Predictors and mediators of differences in soft drinks consumption according to gender and plans of further education among Norwegian secondary-school children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilsen, M.; te Velde, S.J.; Bere, E.; Brug, J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore mediators of gender and educational differences in sugar-sweetened soft drinks consumption (SDC) and whether gender and level of future education moderate the associations of accessibility, modelling, attitudes and preferences with SDC. Design A cross-sectional school-based

  20. Synergic effects of sugar and caffeine on insulin-mediated metabolomic alterations after an acute consumption of soft drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Domínguez, Raúl; Mateos, Rosa María; Lechuga-Sancho, Alfonso María; González-Cortés, José Joaquín; Corrales-Cuevas, Manuel; Rojas-Cots, Juan Alberto; Segundo, Carmen; Schwarz, Mónica

    2017-09-01

    High sugar consumption elicits numerous deleterious effects on health by inducing insulin resistance, which is closely associated with the development of metabolic disorders such as obesity or type-2 diabetes. Furthermore, there is also growing evidence that caffeine may play an important role in the regulation of insulin release and the appearance of related metabolic impairments. Thus, the aim of this work was to investigate the impact of acute sugar and caffeine intake on the metabolic health status by using a metabolomic multi-platform based on the combination of flow injection mass spectrometry and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. To this end, we performed a randomized, crossover and double-blind intervention study with different soft drinks from the same brand. Numerous metabolomic changes were detected in serum samples over time after the intake of sugar-sweetened beverages, including energy-related metabolites, amino acids and lipids, thus demonstrating the intense effects provoked by acute sugar consumption on the organism during 3 h of follow-up. However, the most significant findings were observed after the co-ingestion of caffeine, which could be indicative of a synergic effect of this psychostimulant on insulin-mediated perturbations. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. THE SODIUM PREVALENCE IN CARBONATED SOFT DRINKS SOLD IN BRAZIL

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra Fernanda Nunes; Sonia Maria Freire; Maria Margarida Castel-Branco; Isabel Vitória Figueiredo

    2012-01-01

    The carbonated soft drinks intake has changed the children eating habits. This factor may be directly associated with arterial hypertension due the high consumption of sodium present in foods and drinks industrialized. This study was to compare sodium levels between two different types of carbonated soft drinks, carbonated sugar drinks and diet drinks to define what type of drink has the lowest sodium content and alerting healthcare professionals about the presence of sodium in industrialized...

  2. Water Consumption in European Children : Associations with Intake of Fruit Juices, Soft Drinks and Related Parenting Practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mantziki, Krystallia; Renders, Carry M; Seidell, Jaap C

    2017-01-01

    Background: High intake of fruit juices and soft drinks contributes to excessive weight gain and obesity in children. Furthermore, parenting practices play an important role in the development of children's dietary habits. The way parents play this role in the development of their children's choices

  3. Consumption of soft drinks and juices and risk of liver and biliary tract cancers in a European cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stepien, Magdalena; Duarte-Salles, Talita; Fedirko, Veronika; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Bamia, Christina; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Hansen, Louise; Boutron-Ruault, Marie Christine; Fagherazzi, Guy; Severi, Gianluca; Kühn, Tilman; Kaaks, Rudolf; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Boeing, Heiner; Klinaki, Eleni; Palli, Domenico; Grioni, Sara; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Naccarati, Alessio; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Peeters, Petra H.; Skeie, Guri; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Parr, Christine L.; Quirós, José Ramón; Buckland, Genevieve; Molina-Montes, Esther; Amiano, Pilar; Chirlaque, Maria Dolores; Ardanaz, Eva; Sonestedt, Emily; Ericson, Ulrika; Wennberg, Maria; Nilsson, Lena Maria; Khaw, Kay Tee; Wareham, Nick; Bradbury, Kathryn E.; Ward, Heather A.; Romieu, Isabelle; Jenab, Mazda

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the study was to assess associations between intake of combined soft drinks (sugar sweetened and artificially sweetened) and fruit and vegetable juices and the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), intrahepatic bile duct (IHBC) and biliary tract cancers (GBTC) using data from

  4. Exposure to Food Advertising On Television: Associations With Children's Fast Food and Soft Drink Consumption and Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Tatiana Andreyeva; Inas Rashad Kelly; Jennifer L. Harris

    2011-01-01

    There is insufficient research on the direct effects of food advertising on children's diet and diet-related health, particularly in non-experimental settings. We employ a nationally-representative sample from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey-Kindergarten Cohort (ECLS-K) and the Nielsen Company data on spot television advertising of cereals, fast food restaurants and soft drinks to children across the top 55 designated-market areas to estimate the relation between exposure to food adve...

  5. Consumption pattern, Attitudes and Nutrition Knowledge on Soft ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yet to our understanding it is not well established what are Belgian adults' nutrition knowledge and attitude towards soft drink consumption. This study aimed at assessing Belgian consumers' attitude, consumption pattern and nutrition knowledge on soft drinks. A cross-sectional online survey was carried out among Belgian ...

  6. Consumption of sucrose-sweetened soft drinks increases plasma levels of uric acid in overweight and obese subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, J M; Maersk, M; Belza, A

    2015-01-01

    insulin resistance and low-grade inflammation, suggesting that UA may have a causal role in the development of metabolic complications. The objective of this study is to investigate the long-term effects of consuming SSSDs on circulating levels of UA in overweight and obese subjects. SUBJECTS...... milk, diet cola and water. Thus, a high daily intake of SSSDs in overweight and obese subjects without overt diabetes may increase the risk of developing metabolic complications through the elevation of UA. This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov as NCT00777647.European Journal of Clinical......BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Sucrose-sweetened soft drinks (SSSDs) are associated with the development of metabolic disorders. Fructose is a major component of SSSDs and is demonstrated to induce uric acid (UA) production and stimulate fat accumulation independent of excess caloric intake. UA induce...

  7. Reducing GHG emissions while improving diet quality: exploring the potential of reduced meat, cheese and alcoholic and soft drinks consumption at specific moments during the day

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjam E. van de Kamp

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The typical Western diet is associated with high levels of greenhouse gas (GHG emissions and with obesity and other diet-related diseases. This study aims to determine the impact of adjustments to the current diet at specific moments of food consumption, to lower GHG emissions and improve diet quality. Methods Food consumption in the Netherlands was assessed by two non-consecutive 24-h recalls for adults aged 19–69 years (n = 2102. GHG emission of food consumption was evaluated with the use of life cycle assessments. The population was stratified by gender and according to tertiles of dietary GHG emission. Scenarios were developed to lower GHG emissions of people in the highest tertile of dietary GHG emission; 1 reducing red and processed meat consumed during dinner by 50% and 75%, 2 replacing 50% and 100% of alcoholic and soft drinks (including fruit and vegetable juice and mineral water by tap water, 3 replacing cheese consumed in between meals by plant-based alternatives and 4 two combinations of these scenarios. Effects on GHG emission as well as nutrient content of the diet were assessed. Results The mean habitual daily dietary GHG emission in the highest tertile of dietary GHG emission was 6.7 kg CO2-equivalents for men and 5.1 kg CO2-equivalents for women. The scenarios with reduced meat consumption and/or replacement of all alcoholic and soft drinks were most successful in reducing dietary GHG emissions (ranging from − 15% to − 34% and also reduced saturated fatty acid intake and/or sugar intake. Both types of scenarios lead to reduced energy and iron intakes. Protein intake remained adequate. Conclusions Reducing the consumption of red and processed meat during dinner and of soft and alcoholic drinks throughout the day leads to significantly lower dietary GHG emissions of people in the Netherlands in the highest tertile of dietary GHG emissions, while also having health benefits. For subgroups of the

  8. Reducing GHG emissions while improving diet quality: exploring the potential of reduced meat, cheese and alcoholic and soft drinks consumption at specific moments during the day.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Kamp, Mirjam E; Seves, S Marije; Temme, Elisabeth H M

    2018-02-20

    The typical Western diet is associated with high levels of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and with obesity and other diet-related diseases. This study aims to determine the impact of adjustments to the current diet at specific moments of food consumption, to lower GHG emissions and improve diet quality. Food consumption in the Netherlands was assessed by two non-consecutive 24-h recalls for adults aged 19-69 years (n = 2102). GHG emission of food consumption was evaluated with the use of life cycle assessments. The population was stratified by gender and according to tertiles of dietary GHG emission. Scenarios were developed to lower GHG emissions of people in the highest tertile of dietary GHG emission; 1) reducing red and processed meat consumed during dinner by 50% and 75%, 2) replacing 50% and 100% of alcoholic and soft drinks (including fruit and vegetable juice and mineral water) by tap water, 3) replacing cheese consumed in between meals by plant-based alternatives and 4) two combinations of these scenarios. Effects on GHG emission as well as nutrient content of the diet were assessed. The mean habitual daily dietary GHG emission in the highest tertile of dietary GHG emission was 6.7 kg CO 2 -equivalents for men and 5.1 kg CO 2 -equivalents for women. The scenarios with reduced meat consumption and/or replacement of all alcoholic and soft drinks were most successful in reducing dietary GHG emissions (ranging from - 15% to - 34%) and also reduced saturated fatty acid intake and/or sugar intake. Both types of scenarios lead to reduced energy and iron intakes. Protein intake remained adequate. Reducing the consumption of red and processed meat during dinner and of soft and alcoholic drinks throughout the day leads to significantly lower dietary GHG emissions of people in the Netherlands in the highest tertile of dietary GHG emissions, while also having health benefits. For subgroups of the population not meeting energy or iron requirements as a

  9. THE SODIUM PREVALENCE IN CARBONATED SOFT DRINKS SOLD IN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Fernanda Nunes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The carbonated soft drinks intake has changed the children eating habits. This factor may be directly associated with arterial hypertension due the high consumption of sodium present in foods and drinks industrialized. This study was to compare sodium levels between two different types of carbonated soft drinks, carbonated sugar drinks and diet drinks to define what type of drink has the lowest sodium content and alerting healthcare professionals about the presence of sodium in industrialized beverages. The study included labels of carbonated soft drinks n = 33 – sugar drinks (n = 21 or diet drinks (n = 12 – of five different flavors.All carbonated soft drinks evaluated have sodium in its composition. However, the sodium presence in carbonated sugar drinks was significantly lower when compared with carbonated diet drinks (69.05 ± 16.55 vs. 145.30 ± 47.36mg Na/l, respectively.Studies to identify children's eating habits related with increased consumption of foods and drinks manufactured are needed to identify, reduce and prevent high blood pressure.

  10. Knowledge, Attitude, Frequency and Level of Consumption Regarding Non-alcoholic Carbonated Soft Drinks among Students from Two High Schools in Hanoi, Vietnam in 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Thanh Ha

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This article aims to describe the knowledge, attitude, frequency and level of consumption regarding non-alcoholic carbonated soft drinks (NCSD among students from two high schools in Hanoi. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey including a semi-quantitative food frequency were conducted with 620 students from two high schools, one in the urban area and the other in the rural area of Hanoi city. Results: Data on knowledge of health risk associated with the consumption of NCSD showed neagtive results (only 11.9% of the students were able to identify all the contents of NCSD correctly, and 2.7% knew all eight health risks due to consumption of NCSD. Besides, 31.4% of all students did not have the intention to quit NCSD despite being aware of health risks associated with the consumption of NCSD. Students who reported consuming NCSD within one month prior to the study constituted 83.1%, and those who consumed NCSD 1–2 times/week accounted for the highest proportion, being 21.3%. On average, each student consumed 2,094 ml NCSD within one month prior to the study. Suburban students and male students consumed more than urban and female ones, respectively (p < 0.01. Recommendations: Students should be equipped with information about NCSD related health risks and encouraged to consume less NCSD.

  11. Trade and investment liberalization, food systems change and highly processed food consumption: a natural experiment contrasting the soft-drink markets of Peru and Bolivia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Baker, Phillip; Friel, Sharon; Schram, Ashley; Labonte, Ron

    2016-01-01

    .... Few studies have quantified such effects. Using a natural experiment this paper quantifies changes in Peru's soft-drink market before/after entry into the US-Peru FTA, compared with Bolivia, a county with no such...

  12. Trade and investment liberalization, food systems change and highly processed food consumption: a natural experiment contrasting the soft-drink markets of Peru and Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Phillip; Friel, Sharon; Schram, Ashley; Labonte, Ron

    2016-06-02

    Free trade agreements (FTAs) can affect food environments and non-communicable disease risks through altering the availability of highly-processed foods. Few studies have quantified such effects. Using a natural experiment this paper quantifies changes in Peru's soft-drink market before/after entry into the US-Peru FTA, compared with Bolivia, a county with no such agreement. Difference-in-difference models were used to test for between country differences in the rate of per capita foreign direct investment (FDI) inflows, soft-drink imports, the volumes of various soft-drinks sold, and the volumes of sugar from soft-drinks before/after FTA ratification (2006) and enforcement (2009). In Peru average per capita FDI-inflows rose from US$103.11 in the pre-ratification period to US$269.79 post-ratification, with little change in Bolivia. This corresponded with a 122 % increase in Peruvian soft-drink production. There was a significant between-country difference in FDI-inflows pre-/post-ratification (DID:1.07, 95 % CI:0.19-1.96; p = 0.01). Despite little difference in total per capita soft-drink sales volumes there was a significant between-country difference in per capita sugar from soft-drinks pre-/post enforcement (DID:-0.99, 95 % CI: -1.91-0.06; p = 0.03) with stagnated growth in Peru and continued growth in Bolivia. This resulted from stagnated sugar sweetened carbonates growth and increased bottled water, juice and sports & energy drinks growth in Peru, with continued carbonates growth in Bolivia. There was a significant between-country difference in per capita carbonates (DID: -1.44, 95 % CI: -2.52-0.36, p = 0.01) and bottled water (DID:0.63; 95 % CI: -0.01-1.26; p = 0.04) sales volumes. The FTA may have resulted in increased FDI-inflows and soft-drink production and also contributed to the diversification of soft drinks produced and sold in Peru with some positive (stagnated carbonates and increased bottled water) and some negative (increased

  13. Energy drinks, soft drinks, and substance use among US secondary school students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry-McElrath, Yvonne M.; O’Malley, Patrick M.; Johnston, Lloyd D.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Examine energy drink/shot and regular and diet soft drink use among US secondary school students in 2010–2011, and associations between such use and substance use. Methods We used self-reported data from cross-sectional surveys of nationally representative samples of 8th, 10th, and 12th grade students and conducted multivariate analyses examining associations between beverage and substance use controlling for individual and school characteristics. Results Approximately 30% of students reported consuming energy drinks or shots; more than 40% reported daily regular soft drink use, and about 20% reported daily diet soft drink use. Beverage consumption was strongly and positively associated with past 30-day alcohol, cigarette, and illicit drug use. The observed associations between energy drinks and substance use were significantly stronger than those between regular or diet soft drinks and substance use. Conclusions This correlational study indicates that adolescent consumption of energy drinks/shots is wide-spread, and that energy drink users report heightened risk for substance use. This study does not establish causation between the behaviors. Education for parents and prevention efforts among adolescents should include education on the masking effects of caffeine in energy drinks on alcohol- and other substance-related impairments, and recognition that some groups (such as high sensation-seeking youth) may be particularly likely to consume energy drinks and to be substance users. PMID:24481080

  14. Energy drinks, soft drinks, and substance use among United States secondary school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry-McElrath, Yvonne M; OʼMalley, Patrick M; Johnston, Lloyd D

    2014-01-01

    Examine energy drink/shot and regular and diet soft drink use among United States secondary school students in 2010-2011, and associations between such use and substance use. We used self-reported data from cross-sectional surveys of nationally representative samples of 8th-, 10th-, and 12th-grade students and conducted multivariate analyses examining associations between beverage and substance use, controlling for individual and school characteristics. Approximately 30% of students reported consuming energy drinks or shots; more than 40% reported daily regular soft drink use, and about 20% reported daily diet soft drink use. Beverage consumption was strongly and positively associated with past 30-day alcohol, cigarette, and illicit drug use. The observed associations between energy drinks and substance use were significantly stronger than those between regular or diet soft drinks and substance use. This correlational study indicates that adolescent consumption of energy drinks/shots is widespread and that energy drink users report heightened risk for substance use. This study does not establish causation between the behaviors. Education for parents and prevention efforts among adolescents should include education on the masking effects of caffeine in energy drinks on alcohol- and other substance-related impairments, and recognition that some groups (such as high sensation-seeking youth) may be particularly likely to consume energy drinks and to be substance users.

  15. Health Safety of Soft Drinks: Contents, Containers, and Microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Kregiel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Soft drinks consumption is still a controversial issue for public health and public policy. Over the years, numerous studies have been conducted into the possible links between soft drink intake and medical problems, the results of which, however, remain highly contested. Nevertheless, as a result, increasing emphasis is being placed on the health properties of soft drinks, by both the industry and the consumers, for example, in the expanding area of functional drinks. Extensive legislation has been put in place to ensure that soft drinks manufacturers conform to established national and international standards. Consumers trust that the soft drinks they buy are safe and their quality is guaranteed. They also expect to be provided with information that can help them to make informed decisions about the purchase of products and that the information on product labels is not false or misleading. This paper provides a broad overview of available scientific knowledge and cites numerous studies on various aspects of soft drinks and their implications for health safety. Particular attention is given to ingredients, including artificial flavorings, colorings, and preservatives and to the lesser known risks of microbiological and chemical contamination during processing and storage.

  16. Hypercoagulability after energy drink consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pommerening, Matthew J; Cardenas, Jessica C; Radwan, Zayde A; Wade, Charles E; Holcomb, John B; Cotton, Bryan A

    2015-12-01

    Energy drink consumption in the United States has more than doubled over the last decade and has been implicated in cardiac arrhythmias, myocardial infarction, and even sudden cardiac death. We hypothesized that energy drink consumption may increase the risk of adverse cardiovascular events by increasing platelet aggregation, thereby resulting in a relatively hypercoagulable state and increased risk of thrombosis. Thirty-two healthy volunteers aged 18-40 y were given 16 oz of bottled water or a standardized, sugar-free energy drink on two separate occasions, 1-wk apart. Beverages were consumed after an overnight fast over a 30-min period. Coagulation parameters and platelet function were measured before and 60 min after consumption using thrombelastography and impedance aggregometry. No statistically significant differences in coagulation were detected using kaolin or rapid thrombelastography. In addition, no differences in platelet aggregation were detected using ristocetin, collagen, thrombin receptor-activating peptide, or adenosine diphosphate-induced multiple impedance aggregometry. However, compared to water controls, energy drink consumption resulted in a significant increase in platelet aggregation via arachidonic acid-induced activation (area under the aggregation curve, 72.4 U versus 66.3 U; P = 0.018). Energy drinks are associated with increased platelet activity via arachidonic acid-induced platelet aggregation within 1 h of consumption. Although larger clinical studies are needed to further address the safety and health concerns of these drinks, the increased platelet response may provide a mechanism by which energy drinks increase the risk of adverse cardiovascular events. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Heavy consumption and drink driving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fynbo, Lars

    2010-01-01

    This paper is part of an ongoing mixed methods project about untreated heavy alcohol consumption amongst adult Danes. It is based upon 21 in-depth qualitative interviews with convicted drink drivers. All interviewees were contacted while attending mandatory courses in “Alcohol and Traffic safety...... with a more comprehensive approach towards drinking. In this paper focus is on the younger edgeworkers and post-edgeworkers, to which alcohol seems to play lesser role and is often mixed with other drugs as part of a wider scope of seeking excitement from risky behaviour....

  18. Soft Drink Vending Machines in Schools: A Clear and Present Danger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, James; Murnan, Judy; Moore, Bradene

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the availability of soft drinks in schools ("pouring rights contracts") and its effects on the growing nutritional problems of American youth. Of special concern is the prevalence of overweight youth, which has been increasing at alarming rates. There has been a direct relationship found between soft drink consumption and…

  19. Soft drink "pouring rights": marketing empty calories to children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestle, M

    2000-01-01

    Healthy People 2010 objectives call for meals and snacks served in schools to contribute to overall diets that meet federal dietary guidelines. Sales in schools of foods and drinks high in calories and low in nutrients undermine this health objective, as well as participation in the more nutritious, federally sponsored, school lunch programs. Competitive foods also undermine nutrition information taught in the classroom. Lucrative contracts between school districts and soft drink companies for exclusive rights to sell one brand are the latest development in the increasing commercialization of school food. These contracts, intended to elicit brand loyalty among young children who have a lifetime of purchases ahead of them, are especially questionable because they place schools in the position of "pushing" soft drink consumption. "Pouring rights" contracts deserve attention from public health professionals concerned about the nutritional quality of children's diets.

  20. Taxing soft drinks and restricting access to vending machines to curb child obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Jason M; Frisvold, David; Tefft, Nathan

    2010-05-01

    One of the largest drivers of the current obesity epidemic is thought to be excessive consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages. Some have proposed vending machine restrictions and taxing soft drinks to curb children's consumption of soft drinks; to a large extent, these policies have not been evaluated empirically. We examine these policies using two nationally representative data sets and find no evidence that, as currently practiced, either is effective at reducing children's weight. We conclude by outlining changes that may increase their effectiveness, such as implementing comprehensive restrictions on access to soft drinks in schools and imposing higher tax rates than are currently in place in many jurisdictions.

  1. Sweetness flavour interactions in soft drinks.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nahon, D.F.; Roozen, J.P.; Graaf, de C.

    1996-01-01

    Sucrose can be substituted by intense sweeteners to lower the calorie content of soft drinks. Although the sweetness is kept at the same level as much as possible, the flavour of the product often changes. This change could be due to both the mechanism of sensory perception and interactive effects

  2. Sugar-sweetened and artificially sweetened soft drinks in association to restrained, external and emotional eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfhag, K; Tynelius, P; Rasmussen, F

    2007-06-08

    We studied sugar-sweetened soft drinks and light soft drinks in their associations to psychological constructs of eating behavior and demographic data for adults and children. Soft drink intakes were assessed by consumption of soft drinks in number of days the last week, and eating behavior was measured by the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (DEBQ). The sample included 3265 men and women, and their 12-year old children, originating from Swedish national databases. Associations to younger age and lower education in adults were in particular apparent for sugar-sweetened soft drinks. Consumption of sugar-sweetened soft drinks was further associated to less restrained and more external eating in adults. In contrast, light soft drinks were associated with higher BMI, more restrained eating and also more emotional eating in adults. For the children these associations were generally weaker. Sugar-sweetened soft drinks are consumed by persons with a lower education, who furthermore are less prone to attempt to restrict their calorie intake, and by some of those who are sensitive to external stimuli of foods. Light soft drinks are rather chosen by the more heavy persons who try to restrict their energy intake perhaps in order to control the body weight, and more unexpectedly, by adults who eat for comfort. Being more sensitive to an external stimulus of food such as taste seems to imply proneness to consume sugar-sweetened soft drinks instead of the light versions. Light soft drinks may be perceived as an adequate substitute in the use of foods for comfort, meaning the sweet taste may be sufficient for this purpose.

  3. Fluoride content in bottled drinking waters, carbonated soft drinks and fruit juices in Davangere city, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thippeswamy H

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The regular ingestion of fluoride lowers the prevalence of dental caries. The total daily intake of fluoride for optimal dental health should be 0.05-0.07 mg fluoride/kg body weight and to avoid the risk of dental fluorosis, the daily intake should not exceed a daily level of 0.10 mg fluoride/kg body weight. The main source of fluoride is from drinking water and other beverages. As in other countries, consumption of bottled water, juices and carbonated beverages has increased in our country. Objective: To analyze the fluoride content in bottled water, juices and carbonated soft drinks that were commonly available in Davangere city. Materials and Methods: Three samples of 10 commercially available brands of bottled drinking water, 12 fruit juices and 12 carbonated soft drinks were purchased. Bottled water and carbonated soft drinks were stored at a cold place until fluoride analysis was performed and a clear juice was prepared using different fruits without the addition of water. Then, the fluoride analysis was performed. Results: The mean and standard deviation of fluoride content of bottled water, fruit juices and carbonated soft drinks were measured, which were found to be 0.20 mg (±0.19 F/L, 0.29 mg (±0.06 F/L and 0.22 mg (±0.05 F/L, respectively. Conclusion: In viewing the results of the present study, it can be concluded that regulation of the optimal range of fluoride in bottled drinking water, carbonated soft drinks and fruit juices should be drawn for the Indian scenario.

  4. Price elasticity of the demand for sugar sweetened beverages and soft drinks in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colchero, M A; Salgado, J C; Unar-Munguía, M; Hernández-Ávila, M; Rivera-Dommarco, J A

    2015-12-01

    A large and growing body of scientific evidence demonstrates that sugar drinks are harmful to health. Intake of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) is a risk factor for obesity and type 2 diabetes. Mexico has one of the largest per capita consumption of soft drinks worldwide and high rates of obesity and diabetes. Fiscal approaches such as taxation have been recommended as a public health policy to reduce SSB consumption. We estimated an almost ideal demand system with linear approximation for beverages and high-energy food by simultaneous equations and derived the own and cross price elasticities for soft drinks and for all SSB (soft drinks, fruit juices, fruit drinks, flavored water and energy drinks). Models were stratified by income quintile and marginality index at the municipality level. Price elasticity for soft drinks was -1.06 and -1.16 for SSB, i.e., a 10% price increase was associated with a decrease in quantity consumed of soft drinks by 10.6% and 11.6% for SSB. A price increase in soft drinks is associated with larger quantity consumed of water, milk, snacks and sugar and a decrease in the consumption of other SSB, candies and traditional snacks. The same was found for SSB except that an increase in price of SSB was associated with a decrease in snacks. Higher elasticities were found among households living in rural areas (for soft drinks), in more marginalized areas and with lower income. Implementation of a tax to soft drinks or to SSB could decrease consumption particularly among the poor. Substitutions and complementarities with other food and beverages should be evaluated to assess the potential impact on total calories consumed. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Energy drink consumption and impact on caffeine risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Barbara M; Campbell, Donald M; Cressey, Peter; Egan, Ursula; Horn, Beverley

    2014-01-01

    The impact of caffeine from energy drinks occurs against a background exposure from naturally occurring caffeine (coffee, tea, cocoa and foods containing these ingredients) and caffeinated beverages (kola-type soft drinks). Background caffeine exposure, excluding energy drinks, was assessed for six New Zealand population groups aged 15 years and over (n = 4503) by combining concentration data for 53 caffeine-containing foods with consumption information from the 2008/09 New Zealand Adult Nutrition Survey (ANS). Caffeine exposure for those who consumed energy drinks (n = 138) was similarly assessed, with inclusion of energy drinks. Forty-seven energy drink products were identified on the New Zealand market in 2010. Product volumes ranged from 30 to 600 ml per unit, resulting in exposures of 10-300 mg caffeine per retail unit consumed. A small percentage, 3.1%, of New Zealanders reported consuming energy drinks, with most energy drink consumers (110/138) drinking one serving per 24 h. The maximum number of energy drinks consumed per 24 h was 14 (total caffeine of 390 mg). A high degree of brand loyalty was evident. Since only a minor proportion of New Zealanders reported consuming energy drinks, a greater number of New Zealanders exceeded a potentially adverse effect level (AEL) of 3 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1) for caffeine from caffeine-containing foods than from energy drinks. Energy drink consumption is not a risk at a population level because of the low prevalence of consumption. At an individual level, however, teenagers, adults (20-64 years) and females (16-44 years) were more likely to exceed the AEL by consuming energy drinks in combination with caffeine-containing foods.

  6. Assessment of pattern for consumption and awareness regarding energy drinks among medical students

    OpenAIRE

    Aslam, Hafiz Muhammad; Mughal, Anum; Edhi, Muhammad Muzzammil; Saleem, Shafaq; Rao, Masood Hussain; Aftab, Anum; Hanif, Maliha; Ahmed, Alina; Khan, Agha Muhammad Hammad

    2013-01-01

    Background Energy drink is a type of beverage which contains stimulant drugs chiefly caffeine and marketed as mental and physical stimulator. Coffee, tea, soft drinks and other caffeinated beverages are not considered as energy drinks. Purpose of our study was to evaluate the awareness of medical students regarding energy drinks and their pattern and reason of energy drinks consumption. Methods This was a cross sectional and observational study conducted during the period of January – Decembe...

  7. Cytotoxicity and mutagenicity of cola and grape flavored soft drinks in bone marrow cells of rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisângela Düsman

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to the large consumption of soft drinks in Brazil and worldwide in recent years and considering that some of the components present in their composition pose potential risks to human health, the aim of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxic and mutagenic potential of specific cola and grape-flavored soft drink brands. Bone marrow cells of Wistar rats were initially treated by gavage with one single dose of Cola or Grape soft drink, which was next offered ad libitum (instead of water for 24 hours. A negative control treatment was performed by administering one single dose of water and a positive control administering cyclophosphamide intraperitoneally. Statistical analysis showed that the Cola and Grape soft drinks studied were not cytotoxic. However, the Cola soft drink proved mutagenic in this experiment treatment time. Therefore, this study serves as a warning about the consumption of Cola-flavored soft drink and for the need for further subchronic and chronic studies on soft drinks in order to evaluate the long term mutagenic and cytotoxic effects of these substances.

  8. Babies, soft drinks and snacks: a concern in low- and middle-income countries?

    OpenAIRE

    Huffman, Sandra L.; Piwoz, Ellen G; Vosti, Stephen A.; Dewey, Kathryn G.

    2014-01-01

    Undernutrition in infants and young children is a global health priority while overweight is an emerging issue. Small-scale studies in low- and middle-income countries have demonstrated consumption of sugary and savoury snack foods and soft drinks by young children. We assessed the proportion of children 6?23 months of age consuming sugary snack foods in 18 countries in Asia and Africa using data from selected Demographic and Health Surveys and household expenditures on soft drinks and biscui...

  9. Soft drinks and in vitro dental erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravelle, Brent L; Hagen Ii, Ted W; Mayhew, Susan L; Crumpton, Brooks; Sanders, Tyler; Horne, Victoria

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine to what extent the in vitro exposure of healthy teeth to various commonly consumed carbonated soft drinks may precipitate dental erosion. Forty-two healthy, extracted, previously unerupted human molars were weighed prior to, during, and after suspension in various sugared and diet or zero-calorie carbonated beverages for 20 days; the specimens were stored at room temperature while being stirred at 275 rpm. The percentage decrease in tooth weight from before to after exposure represented the weight loss due to enamel erosion; values in the experimental groups varied from 3.22% to 44.52% after 20 days' exposure. Data were subjected to analysis of variance and post hoc Scheffe testing at a level of α = 0.05. Nonsugared drinks (diet and zero-calorie) as a whole were more erosive than sugared beverages. A significant positive correlation was found between the amount of titratable acid and percentage of tooth erosion, while a significant negative correlation was revealed between the beverage pH and percentage of tooth erosion. No significant correlations were found between calcium or phosphate ion concentrations and the amount of erosion. It appears that enamel erosion is dependent on not only the beverage flow rate, pH, and amount of titratable acid, but also whether the soft drink is of the diet or zero-calorie variety, which reflects the type of artificial sweetener present.

  10. Portrayals of branded soft drinks in popular American movies: a content analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bell Robert A

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study examines the portrayals of soft drinks in popular American movies as a potential vehicle for global marketing and an indicator of covert product placement. Methods We conducted a content analysis of America's top-ten grossing films from 1991 through 2000 that included portrayals of beverages (95 movies total. Coding reliabilities were assessed with Cohen's kappa, and exceeded 0.80. If there was at least one instance of branding for a beverage, the film was considered having branded beverages. Fisher's exact test was used to determine if soft drink portrayals were related to audience rating or genre. Data on the amount of time soft drinks appeared onscreen was log transformed to satisfy the assumption of normality, and analyzed using a repeated measures ANOVA model. McNemar's test of agreement was used to test whether branded soft drinks are as likely to appear or to be actor-endorsed compared to other branded beverages. Results Rating was not associated with portrayals of branded soft drinks, but comedies were most likely to include a branded soft drink (p = 0.0136. Branded soft drinks appeared more commonly than other branded non-alcoholic beverages (p = 0.0001, branded beer (p = 0.0004, and other branded alcoholic beverages (p = 0.0006. Actors consumed branded soft drinks in five times the number of movies compared to their consumption of other branded non-alcoholic beverages (p = 0.0126. About half the revenue from the films with portrayals of branded soft drinks come from film sales outside the U.S. Conclusion The frequent appearance of branded soft drinks provides indirect evidence that product placement is a common practice for American-produced films shown in the U.S. and other countries.

  11. Portrayals of branded soft drinks in popular American movies: a content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassady, Diana; Townsend, Marilyn; Bell, Robert A; Watnik, Mitchell

    2006-03-09

    This study examines the portrayals of soft drinks in popular American movies as a potential vehicle for global marketing and an indicator of covert product placement. We conducted a content analysis of America's top-ten grossing films from 1991 through 2000 that included portrayals of beverages (95 movies total). Coding reliabilities were assessed with Cohen's kappa, and exceeded 0.80. If there was at least one instance of branding for a beverage, the film was considered having branded beverages. Fisher's exact test was used to determine if soft drink portrayals were related to audience rating or genre. Data on the amount of time soft drinks appeared onscreen was log transformed to satisfy the assumption of normality, and analyzed using a repeated measures ANOVA model. McNemar's test of agreement was used to test whether branded soft drinks are as likely to appear or to be actor-endorsed compared to other branded beverages. Rating was not associated with portrayals of branded soft drinks, but comedies were most likely to include a branded soft drink (p = 0.0136). Branded soft drinks appeared more commonly than other branded non-alcoholic beverages (p = 0.0001), branded beer (p = 0.0004), and other branded alcoholic beverages (p = 0.0006). Actors consumed branded soft drinks in five times the number of movies compared to their consumption of other branded non-alcoholic beverages (p = 0.0126). About half the revenue from the films with portrayals of branded soft drinks come from film sales outside the U.S. The frequent appearance of branded soft drinks provides indirect evidence that product placement is a common practice for American-produced films shown in the U.S. and other countries.

  12. Parental attitudes towards soft drink vending machines in high schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendel-Paterson, Maia; French, Simone A; Story, Mary

    2004-10-01

    Soft drink vending machines are available in 98% of US high schools. However, few data are available about parents' opinions regarding the availability of soft drink vending machines in schools. Six focus groups with 33 parents at three suburban high schools were conducted to describe the perspectives of parents regarding soft drink vending machines in their children's high school. Parents viewed the issue of soft drink vending machines as a matter of their children's personal choice more than as an issue of a healthful school environment. However, parents were unaware of many important details about the soft drink vending machines in their children's school, such as the number and location of machines, hours of operation, types of beverages available, or whether the school had contracts with soft drink companies. Parents need more information about the number of soft drink vending machines at their children's school, the beverages available, the revenue generated by soft drink vending machine sales, and the terms of any contracts between the school and soft drink companies.

  13. A Dissociation between Recognition and Hedonic Value in Caloric and Non-caloric Carbonated Soft Drinks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco eDelogu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs is considered to be a contributor to diabetes and the epidemic of obesity in many countries. The popularity of non-caloric carbonated soft drinks as an alternative to SSBs may be a factor in reducing the health risks associated with SSBs consumption. This study focuses on the perceptual discrimination of SSBs from artificially sweetened beverages (ASBs. 55 college students rated 14 commercially available carbonated soft drinks in terms of sweetness and likeability. They were also asked to recognize if the drinks contained sugar or a non-caloric artificial sweetener. Overall, participants showed poor accuracy in discriminating drinks’ sweeteners, with significantly lower accuracy for SSBs than ASBs. Interestingly, we found a dissociation between sweetener recognition and drink pleasantness. In fact, in spite of a chance-level discrimination accuracy of SSBs, their taste was systematically preferred to the taste of non-caloric beverages. Our findings support the idea that hedonic value of carbonated soft drinks is dissociable from its identification and that the activation of the pleasure system seems not to require explicit recognition of the sweetener contained in the soft drink. We hypothesize that preference for carbonated soft drinks containing sugar over non-caloric alternatives might be modulated by metabolic factors that are independent from conscious and rational consumers’ choices.

  14. Consumption of fruit, vegetables, sweets and soft drinks are associated with psychological dimensions of eating behaviour in parents and their 12-year-old children

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Elfhag, Kristina; Tholin, Sanna; Rasmussen, Finn

    2008-01-01

    .... The role of the parent’s characteristics for their children’s food intake was also explored. Design: Food intake patterns were assessed by self-reported consumption of the respective foods. E...

  15. Consumo de bebidas e refrigerantes por adolescentes de uma escola pública Consumo de bebidas y refrescos en adolescentes de una escuela pública Beverage and soft drink consumption by adolescents from a public school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Chermont P. Estima

    2011-03-01

    escuela (22,1%. El principal factor señalado para el consumo de refrescos fue el sabor (75,4%. CONCLUSIONES: El consumo de bebidas con azúcar, especialmente los refrescos, fue frecuente entre adolescentes. Esas bebidas son disponibles y consumidas tanto en casa como en la escuela y son consideradas sabrosas. Los programas de educación nutricional deben pensar en cómo priorizar el consumo de otras bebidas, además de controlar la comercialización de esos productos en las escuelas, con el objetivo de estimular el consumo de bebidas más sanas para esa franja de edad.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the consumption of beverage and soft drinks by adolescents of a public school in São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: 71 adolescents (aged between 14 to 17 years old from both genders, attending a technical school in the metropolitan area of São Paulo, answered the following questions: the kind of beverage taken during meals, the places where soft drinks were consumed and the main reason related to this intake. RESULTS: The most frequent consumed beverage was the industrialized fruit juice (38.1%, followed by regular soft drinks (28.6% and natural fruit juices (22.2%. The main place where soft drinks were consumed was home (38.2%, followed by school (22.1%. The main reason associated with soft drink intake was the flavor (75.4%. CONCLUSIONS: Sweet beverage intake was frequent among adolescents, specially soft drinks. These beverages are available and consumed at home and at school, and they were considered tasteful. Nutritional education programs should discuss how to prioritize the intake of other beverages and how to control the sale of these products at schools, aiming to stimulate the intake of more healthy beverages by adolescents.

  16. Modification of a Soft Drink by Adding Calcium Carbonate Nanoparticles to Prevent Tooth Erosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmaeili Khoozani N

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: One of the factors in dental erosion is consumption of acidic soft drinks. Although the effects of various additives to acidic soft drinks for the prevention of tooth erosion have been assessed, little data have been published on the possibility of preventing the erosion through soft drinks containing calciumcarbonate nanoparticles. Objectives: To examine the erosive factors of 7up soft drink and to determine the possibilities of decreasing or preventing the erosion phenomenon of the soft drink containing calcium-carbonate nanoparticles. Materials and Methods: 7up soft drink was assigned as control and a set of solutions containing 0.04, 0.05, and 0.06 vol % of the nano-particles were assigned as the experimental solutions. The pH, titratable acidity (TA, calcium and phosphorus concentrations and degree of saturation with respect to enamel hydroxyapatite (DSEn were calculated. These parameters refer to assessment of erosive potential of the soft drinks. The erosion potential was evaluated based on the micro-hardness and the structural changes of the tooth surface using scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Data were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis H test,andBonferroni-adjusted Mann- Whitney U test. Results: An increase in the nano-additive content of the solutions increased pH and DSEn; however, it decreased the TA (P < 0.05. There was a significant difference between the micro hardness in the control and experimental groups (p<0.001. SEM imagesrevealed less surface erosion of the specimens stored in the higher nanoadditive concentrations. The modified drink containing 0.06% nano-additive revealed the highest hardness with no evidenceof tooth erosion. Conclusions: Adding calcium carbonate nanoparticles to soft drinks can be considered as a novel method to reduce or prevent tooth erosion

  17. A survey of energy drink consumption patterns among college students

    OpenAIRE

    Carpenter-Aeby Tracy; Overton Reginald F; Aeby Victor G; Malinauskas Brenda M; Barber-Heidal Kimberly

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Energy drink consumption has continued to gain in popularity since the 1997 debut of Red Bull, the current leader in the energy drink market. Although energy drinks are targeted to young adult consumers, there has been little research regarding energy drink consumption patterns among college students in the United States. The purpose of this study was to determine energy drink consumption patterns among college students, prevalence and frequency of energy drink use for six...

  18. Reducing GHG emissions while improving diet quality: exploring the potential of reduced meat, cheese and alcoholic and soft drinks consumption at specific moments during the day.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Kamp, Mirjam E; Seves, S Marije; Temme, Elisabeth H M

    2018-01-01

    The typical Western diet is associated with high levels of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and with obesity and other diet-related diseases. This study aims to determine the impact of adjustments to the current diet at specific moments of food consumption, to lower GHG emissions and improve diet

  19. Caffeinated drinks, alcohol consumption and hangover severity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Penning, R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/375804277; de Haan, L.; Verster, J.C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/241442702

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between consumption of caffeinated beverages and alcohol, and effects on next day hangover severity. In 2010, a survey funded by Utrecht University was conducted among N=549 Dutch students. Beverages consumed on their latest drinking session that produced a

  20. Consumption pattern, Attitudes and Nutrition Knowledge on Soft ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross-sectional online survey was carried out among Belgian adults through an existing consumer panel for ... about soft drinks will be useful in raising awareness, changing attitudes and increasing nutrition knowledge of adult's soft drink ... product or brand based on his/her assessment of specific characteristics of the ...

  1. The 'Twinkie Defense': the relationship between carbonated non-diet soft drinks and violence perpetration among Boston high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solnick, Sara J; Hemenway, David

    2012-08-01

    To investigate the association of carbonated non-diet soft drink consumption and violence perpetration in a sample of Boston adolescents. In a survey of Boston public high schools, respondents were asked how often they drank non-diet soft drinks and whether they had carried a weapon or engaged in physical violence with a peer. Regression analysis was used to determine the role of soft drink consumption in these behaviours. Adolescents who drank more than five cans of soft drinks per week (nearly 30% of the sample) were significantly more likely to have carried a weapon and to have been violent with peers, family members and dates (pactions, even after controlling for gender, age, race, body mass index, typical sleep patterns, tobacco use, alcohol use and having family dinners. There was a significant and strong association between soft drinks and violence. There may be a direct cause-and-effect relationship, perhaps due to the sugar or caffeine content of soft drinks, or there may be other factors, unaccounted for in our analyses, that cause both high soft drink consumption and aggression.

  2. Ritual Black Drink consumption at Cahokia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crown, Patricia L.; Emerson, Thomas E.; Gu, Jiyan; Hurst, W. Jeffrey; Pauketat, Timothy R.; Ward, Timothy

    2012-01-01

    Chemical analyses of organic residues in fragments of pottery from the large site of Cahokia and surrounding smaller sites in Illinois reveal theobromine, caffeine, and ursolic acid, biomarkers for species of Ilex (holly) used to prepare the ritually important Black Drink. As recorded during the historic period, men consumed Black Drink in portions of the American Southeast for ritual purification. This first demonstrated discovery of biomarkers for Ilex occurs in beaker vessels dating between A.D. 1050 and 1250 from Cahokia, located far north of the known range of the holly species used to prepare Black Drink during historic times. The association of Ilex and beaker vessels indicates a sustained ritual consumption of a caffeine-laced drink made from the leaves of plants grown in the southern United States. PMID:22869743

  3. Study to Assess the Prevalence of Soft Drinking and its Determinants among the School going Children of Gwalior city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeraj Gour

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Over the time there has been spectrum of changes in the universe. It may be at physical, chemical and cultural level. People have adopted newer life styles like their working style, clothing’s, food habits and so on. One of the pertinent example of this newer food habits is rising consumption of soft drinks rather than traditional home made drinks. This study was aimed to find out various determinants responsible for this rising trend of soft drinking so that effective intervention can be undertaken to overcome this creeping problem. Objectives: To find out the prevalence of soft drinking consumption among the students and to assess the determinants of soft drink consumption among the students. Materials and methods: It was a cross sectional study. A sample of 200 students was selected from the both govt. and private schools by stratified random sampling. Then they all were interviewed by using pre tested, semi structured proforma. Later on data was analyzed manually and by using suitable statistical software. Results: Frequent drinking of soft drinks was found more among the students of private schools than govt. (p < 0.05. A significant association was found between pocket money, TV watching and frequency of soft drinking (p< 0.05.Other reasons which were found to be responsible by far for frequent soft drinking like lack of awareness regarding hazards, frequent TV watching, desire of new taste, lack of health education from the parents side etc. Conclusion: Soft drinking consumption is creeping day by day amongst the children with out knowing their hazards. And they are the future of any country so there should be effective intervention from both sides govt. as well as parents to get rid of it at earliest.

  4. Correlates of fruit, vegetable, soft drink, and snack intake among adolescents: the ESSENS study

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    Mekdes K. Gebremariam

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Identifying modifiable correlates of dietary behaviors is of utmost importance for the promotion of healthy dietary behaviors. Objective: This study explores individual, home, and school/neighborhood environmental correlates of dietary behaviors (intake of fruits, vegetables, soft drinks, and unhealthy snacks among adolescents. Methods: In total, 742 adolescents with a mean age of 13.6 (SD=0.3 were included in this cross-sectional study conducted in 11 secondary schools located in the eastern part of Norway. A web-based questionnaire was used to collect data. Univariable and multivariable linear regression analyses were used to explore factors associated with the dietary behaviors included. Results: A higher frequency of food/drink purchase in the school canteen was related to a higher consumption of soft drinks and snacks. A higher frequency of food/drink purchase in shops around schools during break or recess was related to a higher consumption of snacks. A higher frequency of food/drink purchase in shops around the neighborhood on the way to and from school was related to a higher consumption of soft drinks. Perceived parental modeling and perceived accessibility at home were found to be positively associated with all dietary behaviors. Perceived parental rules were inversely associated with soft drink and snack consumption; self-efficacy related to healthy eating was positively associated with fruit and vegetable consumption. Other included school and neighborhood environmental correlates were not associated with the dietary behaviors. Conclusions: There is a need to address the food purchasing behavior of the adolescents using different approaches. The findings also highlight the important role of parents and the home environment for healthy and unhealthy dietary behaviors of adolescents.

  5. Energy drink consumption and marketing in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacey, Nicholas; van Walbeek, Corné; Maboshe, Mashekwa; Tugendhaft, Aviva; Hofman, Karen

    2017-12-01

    Energy drinks are a fast-growing class of beverage containing high levels of caffeine and sugar. Advertising and marketing have been key to their growth in South Africa. This paper documents trends in energy drink consumption and energy drink advertising, and examines the relationship between exposure to energy drink advertising and consumption. Logistic regressions were estimated of categories of energy drink consumption on individual characteristics, as well as exposure to energy drink advertising. Exposure to advertising is measured by reported viewing of channels high in energy drink advertising. Energy drink consumption in South Africa is higher among younger, wealthier males. Spending on energy drink advertising is mostly focused on television. Targeted channels include youth, sports and general interest channels. Viewers of channels targeted by energy drink advertisers have higher odds of any and moderate levels of energy drinks consumption. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. State sales tax rates for soft drinks and snacks sold through grocery stores and vending machines, 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chriqui, Jamie F; Eidson, Shelby S; Bates, Hannalori; Kowalczyk, Shelly; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2008-07-01

    Junk food consumption is associated with rising obesity rates in the United States. While a "junk food" specific tax is a potential public health intervention, a majority of states already impose sales taxes on certain junk food and soft drinks. This study reviews the state sales tax variance for soft drinks and selected snack products sold through grocery stores and vending machines as of January 2007. Sales taxes vary by state, intended retail location (grocery store vs. vending machine), and product. Vended snacks and soft drinks are taxed at a higher rate than grocery items and other food products, generally, indicative of a "disfavored" tax status attributed to vended items. Soft drinks, candy, and gum are taxed at higher rates than are other items examined. Similar tax schemes in other countries and the potential implications of these findings relative to the relationship between price and consumption are discussed.

  7. Socio-Demographic Differences in Energy Drink Consumption and Reasons for Consumption among US College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulos, Natalie S.; Pasch, Keryn E.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Energy drink consumption has become increasingly prevalent among US college students, yet little is known about current rates of consumption and reasons for consumption among current energy drink users, particularly differences related to gender and race/ethnicity. Objectives: To better understand energy drink consumption alone and…

  8. A Case of Acute Psychosis Following Energy Drink Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Görgülü, Yasemin; Taşdelen, Öznur; Sönmez, Mehmet Bülent; Köse Çinar, Rugül

    2014-03-01

    Interest in energy drinks is increasing every day. Energy drink consumption is increasing proportionally. Users often utilize these drinks in order to enjoy, have fun and to increase performance and attention. However, consumption of the energy drinks sometimes may also cause adverse physical and psychological consequences. Unwanted physical results are in the more foreground, noticeable and visible but the data about psychological problems caused by energy drinks is accumulated over the years in the literature. In this case report, we describe the case of a young man with no psychiatric history who was hospitalized for psychotic symptoms following excessive consumption of energy drinks.

  9. CHROMATOGRAPHIC DETERMINATION OF CAFFEINE CONTENTS IN SOFT AND ENERGY DRINKS AVAILABLE ON THE ROMANIAN MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mira Elena Ionică

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Caffeine is a stimulant that is commonly found in many foods and drinks that we consume. Concerns exist about the potential adverse health effects of high consumption of dietary caffeine, especially in children and pregnant women. Recommended caffeine intakes corresponding to no adverse health effects have been suggested recently for healthy adults (400 – 450 mg/day, for women contemplating pregnancy (300 mg/day, and for young children age 4 – 6 years (45 mg/day. Different brands of soft and energy carbonated beverages available on the Romanian market were analysed for caffeine by HPLC with a diode array UV-VIS detector at 217 nm. The column was a reverse phase C18 and the mobile phase consisted of potassium dihydrogen orthophosphate buffer (0.02 mol/L, pH 4.3 and acetonitrile (88:12, v/v. The caffeine contents in energy drink samples ranged from 16.82 mg/100 mL to 39.48 mg/100 mL while the carbonated soft drink group showed caffeine content in the range of 9.79 – 14.38 mg/100 mL. In addition, the concentrations of caffeine have been converted into the daily intake doses based on beverages consumption. The mean values of caffeine daily intakes were 124 mg and 49 mg through the ingestion of energy drinks and soft drinks, respectively.

  10. Konsumsi fast food dan soft drink sebagai faktor risiko obesitas pada remaja

    OpenAIRE

    Ayu Rafiony; Martalena Br Purba; I Dewa Putu Pramantara

    2015-01-01

    Background: Recently, obesity has become health problem which was frequently associated with an increased occurrence of non-communicable diseases. The prevalence of obesity has been increasing in both developed and developing countries. The increasing prevalence of obesity was marked by a shift in eating pattern composition containing high fat, cholesterol, but low in fiber such as consumption of fast food and soft drinks. The imbalance of nutrient intake was one of the risk factors for the e...

  11. Consumption patterns of sweet drinks in a population of Australian children and adolescents (2003-2008)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, B. W.; Nichols, M.; Allender, S.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Intake of sweet drinks has previously been associated with the development of overweight and obesity among children and adolescents. The present study aimed to assess the consumption pattern of sweet drinks in a population of children and adolescents in Victoria, Australia. Methods......: Data on 1,604 children and adolescents (4-18 years) from the comparison groups of two quasi-experimental intervention studies from Victoria, Australia were analysed. Sweet drink consumption (soft drink and fruit juice/cordial) was assessed as one day's intake and typical intake over the last week...... or month at two time points between 2003 and 2008 (mean time between measurement: 2.2 years). Results: Assessed using dietary recalls, more than 70% of the children and adolescents consumed sweet drinks, with no difference between age groups (p = 0.28). The median intake among consumers was 500 ml...

  12. Soft Drink Influence on Margin Integrity in Composite Resin Restorations

    OpenAIRE

    Lafuente DDS, MS, Jose; Abad DDS, Karol

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect that certain previously selected soda drinks could have on the integrity of the margins of composite restorations made on 25 human teeth, where the margins were placed both on enamel and dentin. Specimens were divided in different groups (n=5) to be exposed to soft drinks 30 minutes a day for 30 days. Selected drinks were: Coca Cola, Coca Cola Zero, Squirt, Gladiator and water. SEM pictures were taken at the beginning and at the 30 day mark...

  13. Microbial quality of soft drinks sold in Abuja, Nigeria | Okpalugo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Isolates were identified using growth on nutrient agar and broth, Gram's reaction, colony morphology, biochemical tests results and criteria for disregarding negative cultures. Resistance of isolates from soft drinks was determined using the antibiotic sensitivity test (zones of inhibition). Twenty six bacterial isolates belonging ...

  14. Yeast Contamination Potential in a Carbonated Soft Drink Industry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL

    species of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Thrall, 2004). Yeasts are useful in bakery and breweries but undesirable in carbonated soft drink industries due to ... characteristics compared to yeast colonies described in Cheesebrough (1985). RESULTS AND DISCUSSION. The yeasts isolated had some budding cells. The.

  15. Knowledge of sugar content of sports drinks is not associated with sports drink consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zytnick, Deena; Park, Sohyun; Onufrak, Stephen J; Kingsley, Beverly S; Sherry, Bettylou

    2015-01-01

    To examine U.S. adult knowledge of the sugar content of sports drinks and whether this knowledge and other characteristics are associated with their sports drink consumption. Nonexperimental. Nationally representative 2011 Summer ConsumerStyles survey data. 3929 U.S. adults. The outcome variable was sports drink consumption in the past 7 days. The main exposure variable was knowledge about sports drinks containing sugar. The covariates were sociodemographic characteristics, physical activity, and weight status. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for adults consuming sports drinks ≥1 times/wk after controlling for other characteristics. Approximately 22% of adults reported consuming sports drinks ≥1 times/wk. Most adults (71%) agreed that sports drinks contain sugar; however, this agreement was not significantly associated with adults' sports drink consumption. The odds of drinking sports drinks ≥1 times/wk were significantly higher among younger adults aged 18 to 64 years (OR range: 5.46-2.71), males (OR = 2.09), high-school graduates (OR = 1.52), and highly active adults (OR = 2.09). There were disparities in sports drink consumption by sociodemographic characteristics and physical activity level; however, knowledge of sports drinks' sugar content was not associated with consumption. Understanding why some population groups are higher consumers may assist in the development of education, providing those groups with a better understanding of sports drinks' nutritional value and health consequences of excessive sugar consumption in any form.

  16. [Moulds and yeasts in bottled water and soft drinks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancasi, E G; Carrillo, L; Benítez Ahrendts, M R

    2006-01-01

    Some damaged cartons of soft drinks and carbonated water were analyzed to detect the microorganisms that caused the damage. The contaminants of sugar used in the production of one of the drinks were also studied. The methods of Déak & Beuchat and Pitt & Hocking were used for the identification of yeasts and moulds, respectively. The agents of the spoilage of soft drinks were Debaryomyces hansenii, Debaryomyces polymorphus, Galactomyces geotrichum, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Mucor circinelloides, Pichia anomala, Pichia jadinii, Pichia subpelliculosa, Rhodotorula glutinis and Zygosaccharomyces bailii. The microorganisms found in sugar were Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus penicilloides, Aspergillus versicolor, Cladosporium sphaerospermum, Mucor racemosus, P. anomala and Rhizopus stolonifer. Paecilomyces fulvus and Penicillium glabrum were observed in carbonated water.

  17. Energy drinks consumption in male construction workers, Chonburi province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichainarong, Natchaporn; Chaveepojnkamjorn, Wisit; Khobjit, Pattama; Veerachai, Viroj; Sujirarat, Dusit

    2004-12-01

    This unmatched case-control study aimed to determine the relationship among caffeine drinks consumption known as "energy drinks consumption", drug dependence and related factors in male construction workers in Chonburi Province. It was conducted during December 15, 2001 and February 15, 2002. Data were collected using interview questionnaires. The logistic regression was used to control possible confounding factors. The subjects consisted of 186 cases who had consumed energy drinks for more than 3 months and 186 controls who had given up for more than 3 months. They were frequency/group matched by age group. There was statistically significant association among energy drinks consumption and overtime work, motivation from advertisements, positive attitude of energy drinks consumption, alcohol drinks, smoking and ex-taking Kratom behavior. Multivariate analyses revealed that only 5 factors were related to energy drinks consumption: marital status (OR = 1.88, 95%CI: 1.14, 3.11), overtime work (OR = 2.84, 95%CI: 1.73, 4.64), motivation from advertisements (OR = 2.72, 95%CI: 1.67, 4.42), positive attitude of energy drinks consumption (OR = 4.06, 95%CI: 1.65, 10.01) and ex-taking Kratom behavior (OR = 2.77, 95%CI: 1.19, 6.44). As a result, construction workers should be provided with the knowledge of energy drinks consumption, the effect of drug dependence behavior, and the advantages of safe and healthy food that is cheap, readily available, and rich in nutrients.

  18. Extreme Consumption Drinking Gaming and Prepartying among High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaso, Cara C.; Zamboanga, Byron L.; Haas, Amie L.; Kenney, Shannon R.; Ham, Lindsay S.; Borsari, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Drinking games and prepartying (i.e., drinking before going to a social gathering/event) have emerged as high-risk drinking behaviors in high school students. The present study examines the current prepartying behaviors of high school students who report current participation in extreme-consumption games (e.g., chugging) with those who do not.…

  19. Pregnant women's alcohol consumption: the predictive utility of intention to drink and prepregnancy drinking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zammit, Sonia L; Skouteris, Helen; Wertheim, Eleanor H; Paxton, Susan J; Milgrom, Jeannette

    2008-11-01

    This study had two aims: (1) to examine pregnant women's alcohol consumption across time from prepregnancy until childbirth and (2) to explore whether prepregnancy drinking and intention to drink predict prenatal alcohol consumption while controlling for relevant demographic variables. At 17-21 weeks, 248 pregnant women completed questions about demographics, intention to drink alcohol during the subsequent pregnancy, and retrospective measures of prepregnancy and early pregnancy consumption. After this time, calendars were sent fortnightly assessing daily alcohol consumption until birth. For women who drank both prepregnancy and postpregnancy confirmation, average fortnight alcohol consumption in the first weeks of pregnancy was lower than during prepregnancy, and consumption continued to decrease between gestational weeks 1 and 8, particularly following pregnancy confirmation, after which it remained relatively stable. When predicting whether women drank in late pregnancy, intention accounted for unique variance after controlling for income and prepregnancy drinking. For women who drank after pregnancy confirmation, prepregnancy drinking quantity significantly predicted intention to drink, which in turn predicted fortnight alcohol consumption in later pregnancy, after controlling for prepregnancy drinking and income. Findings highlight the need to measure alcohol consumption at multiple time points across pregnancy, the need for educating and supporting women to reduce consumption when planning pregnancies, and the usefulness of intention to drink as a predictor of drinking during pregnancy.

  20. Price elasticity of the demand for soft drinks, other sugar-sweetened beverages and energy dense food in Chile

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    Carlos M. Guerrero-López

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chile is the second world’s largest per capita consumer of caloric beverages. Caloric beverages are associated with overweight, obesity and other chronic diseases. The objective of this study is to estimate the price elasticity of demand for soft drinks, other sugar-sweetened beverages and high-energy dense foods in urban areas in Chile in order to evaluate the potential response of households’ consumption to changes in prices. Methods We used microdata from the VII Family Budget Survey 2012–2013, which collects information on expenditures made by Chilean urban households on items such as beverages and foods. We estimated a Linear Approximation of an Almost Ideal Demand System Model to derive own and cross price elasticities of milk, coffee, tea and other infusions, plain water, soft drinks, other flavored beverages, sweet snacks, sugar and honey, and desserts. We considered the censored nature of the data and included the Inverse Mills Ratio in each equation of the demand system. We estimated a Quadratic Almost Ideal Demand System and a two-part model as sensitivity analysis. Results We found an own price-elasticity of −1.37 for soft drinks. This implies that a price increase of 10% is associated with a reduction in consumption of 13.7%. We found that the rest of food and beverages included in the demand system behave as substitutes for soft drinks. For instance, plain water showed a cross-price elasticity of 0.63: a 10% increase in price of soft drinks could lead to an increase of 6.3% of plain water. Own and cross price elasticities were similar between models. Conclusions The demand of soft drinks is price sensitive among Chilean households. An incentive system such as subsidies to non-sweetened beverages and tax to soft drinks could lead to increases in the substitutions for other healthier beverages.

  1. Price elasticity of the demand for soft drinks, other sugar-sweetened beverages and energy dense food in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero-López, Carlos M; Unar-Munguía, Mishel; Colchero, M Arantxa

    2017-02-10

    Chile is the second world's largest per capita consumer of caloric beverages. Caloric beverages are associated with overweight, obesity and other chronic diseases. The objective of this study is to estimate the price elasticity of demand for soft drinks, other sugar-sweetened beverages and high-energy dense foods in urban areas in Chile in order to evaluate the potential response of households' consumption to changes in prices. We used microdata from the VII Family Budget Survey 2012-2013, which collects information on expenditures made by Chilean urban households on items such as beverages and foods. We estimated a Linear Approximation of an Almost Ideal Demand System Model to derive own and cross price elasticities of milk, coffee, tea and other infusions, plain water, soft drinks, other flavored beverages, sweet snacks, sugar and honey, and desserts. We considered the censored nature of the data and included the Inverse Mills Ratio in each equation of the demand system. We estimated a Quadratic Almost Ideal Demand System and a two-part model as sensitivity analysis. We found an own price-elasticity of -1.37 for soft drinks. This implies that a price increase of 10% is associated with a reduction in consumption of 13.7%. We found that the rest of food and beverages included in the demand system behave as substitutes for soft drinks. For instance, plain water showed a cross-price elasticity of 0.63: a 10% increase in price of soft drinks could lead to an increase of 6.3% of plain water. Own and cross price elasticities were similar between models. The demand of soft drinks is price sensitive among Chilean households. An incentive system such as subsidies to non-sweetened beverages and tax to soft drinks could lead to increases in the substitutions for other healthier beverages.

  2. Babies, soft drinks and snacks: a concern in low- and middle-income countries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, Sandra L; Piwoz, Ellen G; Vosti, Stephen A; Dewey, Kathryn G

    2014-10-01

    Undernutrition in infants and young children is a global health priority while overweight is an emerging issue. Small-scale studies in low- and middle-income countries have demonstrated consumption of sugary and savoury snack foods and soft drinks by young children. We assessed the proportion of children 6-23 months of age consuming sugary snack foods in 18 countries in Asia and Africa using data from selected Demographic and Health Surveys and household expenditures on soft drinks and biscuits using data from four Living Standards Measurement Studies (LSMS). Consumption of sugary snack foods increased with the child's age and household wealth, and was generally higher in urban vs. rural areas. In one-third of countries, >20% of infants 6-8 months consumed sugary snacks. Up to 75% of Asian children and 46% of African children consumed these foods in the second year of life. The proportion of children consuming sugary snack foods was generally higher than the proportion consuming fortified infant cereals, eggs or fruit. Household per capita daily expenditures on soft drinks ranged from $0.03 to $0.11 in three countries for which LSMS data were available, and from $0.01 to $0.04 on biscuits in two LSMS. Future surveys should include quantitative data on the purchase and consumption of snack foods by infants and young children, using consistent definitions and methods for identifying and categorising snack foods across surveys. Researchers should assess associations between snack food consumption and stunting and overweight, and characterise household, maternal and child characteristics associated with snack food consumption. © 2014 The Authors. Maternal & Child Nutrition published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Soft drink effects on sensorimotor rhythm brain computer interface performance and resting-state spectral power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundahl, John; Jianjun Meng; He, Jeffrey; Bin He

    2016-08-01

    Brain-computer interface (BCI) systems allow users to directly control computers and other machines by modulating their brain waves. In the present study, we investigated the effect of soft drinks on resting state (RS) EEG signals and BCI control. Eight healthy human volunteers each participated in three sessions of BCI cursor tasks and resting state EEG. During each session, the subjects drank an unlabeled soft drink with either sugar, caffeine, or neither ingredient. A comparison of resting state spectral power shows a substantial decrease in alpha and beta power after caffeine consumption relative to control. Despite attenuation of the frequency range used for the control signal, caffeine average BCI performance was the same as control. Our work provides a useful characterization of caffeine, the world's most popular stimulant, on brain signal frequencies and their effect on BCI performance.

  4. Extreme Consumption Drinking Gaming and Prepartying Among High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaso, Cara C; Zamboanga, Byron L; Haas, Amie L; Kenney, Shannon R; Ham, Lindsay S; Borsari, Brian

    Drinking games and prepartying (i.e., drinking before going to a social gathering/event) have emerged as high-risk drinking behaviors in high school students. The present study examines the current prepartying behaviors of high school students who report current participation in extreme consumption games (e.g., Chugging) with those who do not. High school students (N=182) reporting current drinking games participation completed anonymous surveys. Gamers who prepartied frequently (vs. those who did not) were approximately 1.5 times more likely to play extreme consumption games, even after controlling for demographics, typical consumption, and participation in other types of drinking games. Practitioners should target adolescents who participate in extreme consumption games, particularly those who participate in this high-risk activity as a form of prepartying.

  5. A survey of energy drink consumption patterns among college students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carpenter-Aeby Tracy

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Energy drink consumption has continued to gain in popularity since the 1997 debut of Red Bull, the current leader in the energy drink market. Although energy drinks are targeted to young adult consumers, there has been little research regarding energy drink consumption patterns among college students in the United States. The purpose of this study was to determine energy drink consumption patterns among college students, prevalence and frequency of energy drink use for six situations, namely for insufficient sleep, to increase energy (in general, while studying, driving long periods of time, drinking with alcohol while partying, and to treat a hangover, and prevalence of adverse side effects and energy drink use dose effects among college energy drink users. Methods Based on the responses from a 32 member college student focus group and a field test, a 19 item survey was used to assess energy drink consumption patterns of 496 randomly surveyed college students attending a state university in the Central Atlantic region of the United States. Results Fifty one percent of participants (n = 253 reported consuming greater than one energy drink each month in an average month for the current semester (defined as energy drink user. The majority of users consumed energy drinks for insufficient sleep (67%, to increase energy (65%, and to drink with alcohol while partying (54%. The majority of users consumed one energy drink to treat most situations although using three or more was a common practice to drink with alcohol while partying (49%. Weekly jolt and crash episodes were experienced by 29% of users, 22% reported ever having headaches, and 19% heart palpitations from consuming energy drinks. There was a significant dose effect only for jolt and crash episodes. Conclusion Using energy drinks is a popular practice among college students for a variety of situations. Although for the majority of situations assessed, users consumed one

  6. A survey of energy drink consumption patterns among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinauskas, Brenda M; Aeby, Victor G; Overton, Reginald F; Carpenter-Aeby, Tracy; Barber-Heidal, Kimberly

    2007-10-31

    Energy drink consumption has continued to gain in popularity since the 1997 debut of Red Bull, the current leader in the energy drink market. Although energy drinks are targeted to young adult consumers, there has been little research regarding energy drink consumption patterns among college students in the United States. The purpose of this study was to determine energy drink consumption patterns among college students, prevalence and frequency of energy drink use for six situations, namely for insufficient sleep, to increase energy (in general), while studying, driving long periods of time, drinking with alcohol while partying, and to treat a hangover, and prevalence of adverse side effects and energy drink use dose effects among college energy drink users. Based on the responses from a 32 member college student focus group and a field test, a 19 item survey was used to assess energy drink consumption patterns of 496 randomly surveyed college students attending a state university in the Central Atlantic region of the United States. Fifty one percent of participants (n = 253) reported consuming greater than one energy drink each month in an average month for the current semester (defined as energy drink user). The majority of users consumed energy drinks for insufficient sleep (67%), to increase energy (65%), and to drink with alcohol while partying (54%). The majority of users consumed one energy drink to treat most situations although using three or more was a common practice to drink with alcohol while partying (49%). Weekly jolt and crash episodes were experienced by 29% of users, 22% reported ever having headaches, and 19% heart palpitations from consuming energy drinks. There was a significant dose effect only for jolt and crash episodes. Using energy drinks is a popular practice among college students for a variety of situations. Although for the majority of situations assessed, users consumed one energy drink with a reported frequency of 1 - 4 days per

  7. Energy-drink consumption in college students and associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attila, Sema; Çakir, Banu

    2011-03-01

    To investigate the frequency of energy-drink consumption and associated factors in a group of college students. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Hacettepe University (Ankara, Turkey) and included 439 students pursuing a career in medicine, sports, and arts. Only fourth-year students were approached. Data were collected using a self-administered standard questionnaire. In bivariate analyses, frequency of energy-drink consumption was higher in students of arts and sports and in those who did not have breakfast on a regular basis, ever smoked cigarettes, drank alcoholic beverages, and regularly engaged in sports compared with their counterparts. Many students who had "ever" tried an energy drink did so the first time because they wondered about its taste. Of regular users of energy drinks, reasons for using such drinks varied across the three selected groups of students and included obtaining getting energy, staying awake, boosting performance while doing sports, or mixing with alcoholic beverages. About 40% of all current users of energy drinks reported that they mixed those with alcoholic beverages. In multivariate analyses, statistically significant predictors of energy-drink consumption were faculty type, presence of any health insurance, use of alcoholic beverages, and monthly income, controlling for gender. Most students could not correctly define the ingredients of energy drinks or their potential hazardous health effects, and they could not distinguish energy and sports drinks when they were requested to select them from a list of commercial names of various drinks. Consumption of energy drinks, despite the variation in the reason for choosing such drinks, is quite common in college students. Awareness of university students of the ingredients and potential health hazards of energy drinks, in particular in mixing with alcoholic beverages, should be increased. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Perceived rules and accessibility: measurement and mediating role in the association between parental education and vegetable and soft drink intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebremariam, Mekdes K; Lien, Nanna; Torheim, Liv Elin; Andersen, Lene F; Melbye, Elisabeth L; Glavin, Kari; Hausken, Solveig E S; Sleddens, Ester F C; Bjelland, Mona

    2016-08-17

    The existence of socioeconomic differences in dietary behaviors is well documented. However, studies exploring the mechanisms behind these differences among adolescents using comprehensive and reliable measures of mediators are lacking. The aims of this study were (a) to assess the psychometric properties of new scales assessing the perceived rules and accessibility related to the consumption of vegetables and soft drinks and (b) to explore their mediating role in the association between parental education and the corresponding dietary behaviors. A cross-sectional survey including 440 adolescents from three counties in Norway (mean age 14.3 years (SD = 0.6)) was conducted using a web-based questionnaire. Principal component analysis, test-retest and internal reliability analysis were conducted. The mediating role of perceived accessibility and perceived rules in the association between parental education and the dietary behaviors was explored using linear regression analyses. Factor analyses confirmed two separate subscales, named "accessibility" and "rules", both for vegetables and soft drinks (factor loadings >0.60). The scales had good internal consistency reliability (0.70-0.87). The test-retest reliability of the scales was moderate to good (0.44-0.62). Parental education was inversely related to the consumption of soft drinks and positively related to the consumption of vegetables. Perceived accessibility and perceived rules related to soft drink consumption were found to mediate the association between parental education and soft drink consumption (47.5 and 8.5 % of total effect mediated). Accessibility of vegetables was found to mediate the association between parental education and the consumption of vegetables (51 % of total effect mediated). The new scales developed in this study are comprehensive and have adequate validity and reliability; they are therefore considered appropriate for use among 13-15 year-olds. Parents, in particular those with a

  9. Associação entre consumo de refrigerantes, sucos e leite, com o índice de massa corporal em escolares da rede pública de Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Association between consumption of soft drinks, fruit juice, and milk and body mass index among public school students in Niterói, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda de Albuquerque Melo Nogueira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a associação entre o consumo de refrigerantes, sucos e leite, com o índice de massa corporal (IMC em 1.423 estudantes, entre 9 e 16 anos, de escolas públicas de Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. O consumo de bebidas foi avaliado por meio do recordatório alimentar de 24 horas e questionário de freqüência de consumo alimentar. Peso e estatura foram coletados para o cálculo do IMC. As análises de regressão linear foram estratificadas por sexo e ajustadas por atividade física, idade e efeito do conglomerado (classes. Verificou-se associação positiva entre freqüência de consumo de refrigerante e idade (p = 0,05 e negativa entre consumo de leite e idade (p = 0,004. Apenas para as meninas, o IMC associou-se positivamente com o consumo de sucos (β = 0,02; p = 0,03. Para as outras bebidas não foram encontradas associações entre IMC e freqüência usual de consumo. O consumo de refrigerantes e sucos representou cerca de 20% do total de energia média consumida diariamente. Os resultados indicam que esforços para reduzir a ingestão de energia por meio de bebidas devem enfatizar também os sucos.The association between consumption of soft drinks, fruit juice, and milk and body mass index (BMI was evaluated in 1,423 students 9 to 16 years of age from public schools in Niterói, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Beverage intake was measured using 24-hour recall and a food frequency questionnaire. Weight and height were measured to calculate BMI. Regression analyses took into account the cluster (classes effect. Analyses were stratified by gender and adjusted for physical activity and age. The results showed a positive association between soft drink intake and age (p = 0.05 and a negative association between milk and age (p = 0.004. For girls only, there was a significant association between frequent fruit juice intake and BMI (β = 0.02; p = 0.03. For the other beverages, there were no significant associations between BMI and

  10. Konsumsi fast food dan soft drink sebagai faktor risiko obesitas pada remaja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayu Rafiony

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recently, obesity has become health problem which was frequently associated with an increased occurrence of non-communicable diseases. The prevalence of obesity has been increasing in both developed and developing countries. The increasing prevalence of obesity was marked by a shift in eating pattern composition containing high fat, cholesterol, but low in fiber such as consumption of fast food and soft drinks. The imbalance of nutrient intake was one of the risk factors for the emergence of obesity in adolescents. Obesity in adolescents at risk of becoming obese in adulthood and potentially can lead to cardiovascular and metabolic diseases Objective: This study aimed to find out the prevalence of obesity and to investigate risk factors for energy intake and frequency of consumption of fast food and soft drinks on the incidence of obesity in high school students in Pontianak. Method: This research was an observational study which involves case-control design. The samples in this study are 160 students consisting of 80 obese high school teenagers and 80 non-obese high school teenagers. The choice for a subject of research used proportional stratified random sampling. Measurement of obesity status subject was taken by the measurement of weight and height based on the reference standard WHO / NCHS. It also involves data intake of fast food and soft drinks based on interviews with SQFFQ. Data were analyzed by chi-square test, t-test, and logistic regression. Results: The prevalence of obesity in high school teenagers in Pontianak was 9.29%. The bivariate test result showed no association  between total  energy intake of fast food and obesity (p0.05. There was a relationship between the frequency of total  fast food and of the local fast food consumption with obesity (p0.05. Multivariable analysis showed that the total energy intake was the most dominant factor to the onset of obesity (p<0.05; OR=5.27; 95% CI: 1.64-16.97. Conclusion

  11. Energy Drink Consumption Practices of Young People in Bahrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam M. Nassaif

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: Energy drink consumption is a popular socialization activity among adolescents of Bahrain. The potential health risks necessitates the need for novel health promotion strategies and advocacy efforts for healthy hydration practices.

  12. A survey of energy-drink consumption among medical students

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hidiroglu, Seyhan; Tanriover, Ozlem; Unaldi, Sule; Sulun, Serdar; Karavus, Melda

    2013-01-01

    To determine the frequency and pattern of energy drink consumption among medical school students, their knowledge of its effects and side effects and to see its relation with alcohol and cigarette usage...

  13. Beer Drinking Nations. The Determinants of Global Beer Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Swinnen, Jo; Colen, Liesbeth

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we analyze the evolution of beer consumption between countries and over time. Historically, there have been major changes in beer consumption in the world. In recent times, per capita consumption has decreased in traditional ' beer drinking nations' while it increased strongly in emerging economies. Recently, China has overtaken the US as the largest beer economy. A quantitative empirical analysis shows the relationship between income and beer consumption has an inverse U-shape....

  14. Consumption of energy drinks among physical education students

    OpenAIRE

    Ballistreri,Martha Carmen; Corradi-Webster,Clarissa Mendonça

    2008-01-01

    This descriptive and cross-sectional study aimed to characterize the pattern of energy drinks consumption in a sample of physical education students through a self-applied questionnaire (socio-demographic data and characterization of consumption). Variables associated with consumption: gender, marital status, attending gym classes, athletic swim practice, and study in the morning. Consumption pattern (n=137): 2.2% once in their lives, 9.5% at least once in the last 12 months, 38% at least onc...

  15. Energy Drink Consumption: Beneficial and Adverse Health Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Alsunni, Ahmed Abdulrahman

    2015-01-01

    Consumption of energy drinks has been increasing dramatically in the last two decades, particularly amongst adolescents and young adults. Energy drinks are aggressively marketed with the claim that these products give an energy boost to improve physical and cognitive performance. However, studies supporting these claims are limited. In fact, several adverse health effects have been related to energy drink; this has raised the question of whether these beverages are safe. This review was carri...

  16. A survey of energy drink and alcohol mixed with energy drink consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnezi, Racheli; Bergman, Lisa Carroll; Grinvald-Fogel, Haya; Cohen, Herman Avner

    2015-01-01

    Energy drink consumption among youth is increasing despite recommendations by the American Academy of Pediatrics to eliminate consumption by youth. This study provides information on consumption of energy drinks and alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmED) in a sample of Israeli youth and how consumer knowledge about the risks affects consumption rates. The study was conducted in three Tel Aviv public schools, with a total enrollment of 1,253 students in grades 8 through 12. Among them, 802 students completed a 49-item questionnaire about energy drink and AmED consumption, for a 64 % response rate Non-responders included 451 students who were absent or refused to participate. All students in the same school were administered the questionnaire on the same day. Energy drinks are popular among youth (84.2 % have ever drunk). More tenth through twelfth grade students consumed energy drinks than eighth and ninth grade students. Students who began drinking in elementary school (36.8 %) are at elevated risk for current energy drink (P drinking ED at a young age is important. Boys and those who start drinking early have a greater risk of both ED and AmED consumption. The characteristics of early drinkers can help increase awareness of potential at-risk youth, such as junior and senior high school students with less educated or single parents. Risks posed by early use on later energy drink and AmED consumption are concerning. We suggest that parents should limit accessibility. Increased knowledge about acceptable and actual amounts of caffeine in a single product might decrease consumption.

  17. Taxing soft drinks in the Pacific: implementation lessons for improving health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thow, Anne Marie; Quested, Christine; Juventin, Lisa; Kun, Russ; Khan, A Nisha; Swinburn, Boyd

    2011-03-01

    A tax on soft drinks is often proposed as a health promotion strategy for reducing their consumption and improving health outcomes. However, little is known about the processes and politics of implementing such taxes. We analysed four different soft drink taxes in Pacific countries and documented the lessons learnt regarding the process of policy agenda-setting and implementation. While local social and political context is critically important in determining policy uptake, these case studies suggest strategies for health promotion practitioners that can help to improve policy uptake and implementation. The case studies reveal interaction between the Ministries of Health, Finance and Revenue at every stage of the policy making process. In regard to agenda-setting, relevance to government fiscal priorities was important in gaining support for soft drink taxes. The active involvement of health policy makers was also important in initiating the policies, and the use of existing taxation mechanisms enabled successful policy implementation. While the earmarking of taxes for health has been widely recommended, the revenue may be redirected as government priorities change. Health promotion practitioners must strategically plan for agenda-setting, development and implementation of intersectoral health-promoting policies by engaging with stakeholders in finance at an early stage to identify priorities and synergies, developing cross-sectoral advocacy coalitions, and basing proposals on existing legislative mechanisms where possible.

  18. Probing young drinking water biofilms with hard and soft particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Tony; Skali-Lami, Salaheddine; Block, Jean-Claude

    2009-01-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate, through the use of soft (Escherichia coli) and hard (polystyrene microspheres) particles, the distribution and persistence of allochthonous particles inoculated in drinking water flow chambers. Biofilms were allowed to grow for 7-10 months in tap water from Nancy's drinking water network and were composed of bacterial aggregates and filamentous fungi. Both model particles adhered almost exclusively on the biofilms (i.e. on the bacterial aggregates and on the filamentous structures) and not directly on the uncolonized walls (glass or Plexiglas). Biofilm age (i.e. bacterial density and biofilm properties) and convective-diffusion were found to govern particle accumulation: older biofilms and higher wall shear rates both increased the velocity and the amount of particle deposition on the biofilm. Persistence of the polystyrene particles was measured over a two-month period after inoculation. Accumulation amounts were found to be very different between hard and soft particles as only 0.03 per thousand of the soft particles inoculated accumulated in the biofilm against 0.3-0.8% for hard particles.

  19. The Feasibility of Noise Control in a Soft Drink Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fouladi Dehaghi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background “Noise” can be defined as any unwanted sound. Soft drink plants, which produce the raw materials used in most carbonated beverage factories, are sources of noise. Objectives This study investigated the noise pollution present in a soft drink CO2 gas injection plant, in order to present noise control measures. Materials and Methods The instructions specified by the canadian center for occupational health and safety (CCOHS were followed during the noise study, and a sound level meter, CEL.450 calibrated with CEL-110.2 based on ISO-9612 methods, was used to record the sound pressure level (SPL at each grid point. SPL was determined in weighting scales A and C. and a noise survey map of equivalent SPLs was drawn for each part. Each part of the floor area of the soft drink factory where SPL exceeded 85 dBA was identified from the noise survey map to determine the causes of high levels of noise. In order to reduce noise level in each part, the absorption coefficient, transmission loss, and noise reduction rate were calculated in the proposed control area. Results According to the study results, noise levels in a CO2 plant’s house and control room ranged from 88 to 102 dB and 79 to 82 dB (A, respectively. In order to reduce the amount of emitted noise in the CO2 plant house and control room, a noise control plan was implemented in each part of the facility; it was met with effective results. Conclusions The findings of this investigation have clearly revealed that plant workers are at risk of developing noise-induced hearing loss. However, after the implementation of a noise control plan in each part of the facility, the noise dose received by workers has significantly decreased. The need to implement a noise conservation program was established.

  20. A survey of sports drinks consumption among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broughton, D; Fairchild, R M; Morgan, M Z

    2016-06-24

    Background Sports drinks intended to improve performance and hydrate athletes taking part in endurance sport are being marketed to children, for whom these products are not intended. Popularity among children has grown exponentially. Worryingly they consume them socially, as well as during physical activity. Sports drinks are high in sugar and are acidic. Product marketing ignores the potential harmful effects of dental caries and erosion.Objective To investigate the use of sports drinks by children.Method One hundred and eighty-three self-complete questionnaires were distributed to four schools in South Wales. Children in high school years 8 and 9 (aged 12-14) were recruited to take part. Questions focused on use of sports drinks, type consumed, frequency of and reason for consumption and where drinks were purchased.Results One hundred and sixty children responded (87% response rate): 89.4% (143) claimed to drink sports drinks, half drinking them at least twice a week. Lucozade Sport(™) was the most popular brand. The main reason for consuming the drinks was attributed to the 'nice taste' (90%, 129/143). Most respondents purchased the drinks from local shops (80.4%, 115) or supermarkets (54.5%, 78). More boys claimed to drink sports drinks during physical activity (77.9% versus 48.6% girls, P drink them socially (51.4% versus 48.5% boys, NS).Conclusion A high proportion of children consumed sports drinks regularly and outside of sporting activity. Dental health professionals should be aware of the popularity of sports drinks with children when giving health education advice or designing health promotion initiatives.

  1. Erosive potential of soft drinks on human enamel: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin-Lin Wang

    2014-11-01

    Conclusion: All tested soft drinks were found to be erosive. Soft drinks with high calcium contents have significantly lower erosive potential. Low pH value and high citrate content may cause more surface enamel loss. As the erosive time increased, the titratable acidity to pH 7 may be a predictor of the erosive potential for acidic soft drinks. The erosive potential of the soft drinks may be predicted based on the types of acid content, pH value, titratable acidity, and ion concentration.

  2. Energy Drink Consumption: Beneficial and Adverse Health Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsunni, Ahmed Abdulrahman

    2015-10-01

    Consumption of energy drinks has been increasing dramatically in the last two decades, particularly amongst adolescents and young adults. Energy drinks are aggressively marketed with the claim that these products give an energy boost to improve physical and cognitive performance. However, studies supporting these claims are limited. In fact, several adverse health effects have been related to energy drink; this has raised the question of whether these beverages are safe. This review was carried out to identify and discuss the published articles that examined the beneficial and adverse health effects related to energy drink. It is concluded that although energy drink may have beneficial effects on physical performance, these products also have possible detrimental health consequences. Marketing of energy drinks should be limited or forbidden until independent research confirms their safety, particularly among adolescents.

  3. THE ILL EFFECTS IN THE ORAL HEALTH AMONG THE ADULTS DUE TO THE CONSUMPTION OF AERATED DRINKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhirami Kannan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Excessive consumption of carbonated soft drink is detrimental to oral and general health and the popularity of the aerated drinks among adults has grown exponentially. This study aims at determining the prevalence of aerated drinks among students in PSG Institute of management. The focus of the study is mainly on the aerated drinks consumption pattern, frequency of consumption, reason and the following symptoms. MATERIALS AND METHODS The study was conducted using questionnaire. About 200 students in PSG Institute of Management were taken for the study and the answer to the questions were analysed. RESULTS The results showed that out of the total participants 93% reported consuming aerated drinks out of which 84% of participants were seen to consume aerated drink for a period of more than 3 years. About 55% of participants were found to have symptoms like sensitivity. About 41% of them were found to have anterior tooth discoloration and 47% of them were found to have bleeding gums. About 52% of them were found to have mouth dryness consuming aerated drinks. Hence, the participants who took larger quantity of aerated drinks for a longer period of time were found to have more than three symptoms of the study conducted (sensitivity, anterior tooth discoloration, bleeding gums and mouth dryness. CONCLUSION The above study clearly shows that there is an increase in proportion of consumption of aerated drinks among young adult, thus resulting in increased ill effect in the oral health.

  4. A survey of energy-drink consumption among medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidiroglu, Seyhan; Tanriover, Ozlem; Unaldi, Sule; Sulun, Serdar; Karavus, Melda

    2013-07-01

    To determine the frequency and pattern of energy drink consumption among medical school students, their knowledge of its effects and side effects and to see its relation with alcohol and cigarette usage. The descriptive analytical study was conducted at Marmara University Medical School, Istanbul, Turkey from October 2011 and January 2012. A semi-structured questionnaire was filled by students who were asked about their socio-demographic status and their energy drink consumption. SPSS 12 was used for statistical analysis. The mean age of the 390 students in the study was 20.98+/-1.96 years (range:16-27). Of them, 204 (52.3%) were females and 186 (47.7%) were males. Overall 52(13.3%) were smoking regularly at least one cigarette per day; 122(31.3%) were consuming alcohol; 127 (32.6%) had consumed energy drinks at least once and 73(18.8%)more than once. In terms of perception, 110(28.2%) students said energy drinks were similar to sports drinks, while only 121(41.1%) named the brands correctly; 96 (24.6%) students did not answer this particular question. Although consumption of energy drinks was common among medical students, the knowledge of ingredients and knowledge of health risks of energy drinks among them was unsatisfactory.

  5. Energy drink consumption and increased risk for alcohol dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arria, Amelia M.; Caldeira, Kimberly M.; Kasperski, Sarah J.; Vincent, Kathryn B.; Griffiths, Roland R.; O'Grady, Kevin E.

    2010-01-01

    Background Energy drinks are highly caffeinated beverages that are increasingly consumed by young adults. Prior research has established associations between energy drink use and heavier drinking and alcohol-related problems among college students. This study investigated the extent to which energy drink use might pose additional risk for alcohol dependence over and above that from known risk factors. Methods Data were collected via personal interview from 1,097 fourth-year college students sampled from one large public university as part of an ongoing longitudinal study. Alcohol dependence was measured with DSM-IV criteria. Results After adjustment for the sampling design, 51.3%wt of students were classified as “low-frequency” energy drink users (1 to 51 days in the past year) and 10.1%wt as “high-frequency” users (≥52 days). Typical caffeine consumption varied widely depending on the brand consumed. Compared to the low-frequency group, high-frequency users drank alcohol more frequently (141.6 vs. 103.1 days) and in higher quantities (6.15 vs. 4.64 drinks/typical drinking day). High-frequency users were at significantly greater risk for alcohol dependence relative to both non-users (AOR=2.40, 95% CI=1.27-4.56, p=.007) and low-frequency users (AOR=1.86, 95% CI=1.10, 3.14, p=.020), even after holding constant demographics, typical alcohol consumption, fraternity/sorority involvement, depressive symptoms, parental history of alcohol/drug problems, and childhood conduct problems. Low-frequency energy drink users did not differ from non-users on their risk for alcohol dependence. Conclusions Weekly or daily energy drink consumption is strongly associated with alcohol dependence. Further research is warranted to understand the possible mechanisms underlying this association. College students who frequently consume energy drinks represent an important target population for alcohol prevention. PMID:21073486

  6. Energy drink consumption and increased risk for alcohol dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arria, Amelia M; Caldeira, Kimberly M; Kasperski, Sarah J; Vincent, Kathryn B; Griffiths, Roland R; O'Grady, Kevin E

    2011-02-01

    Energy drinks are highly caffeinated beverages that are increasingly consumed by young adults. Prior research has established associations between energy drink use and heavier drinking and alcohol-related problems among college students. This study investigated the extent to which energy drink use might pose additional risk for alcohol dependence over and above that from known risk factors. Data were collected via personal interview from 1,097 fourth-year college students sampled from 1 large public university as part of an ongoing longitudinal study. Alcohol dependence was assessed according to DSM-IV criteria. After adjustment for the sampling design, 51.3%(wt) of students were classified as "low-frequency" energy drink users (1 to 51 days in the past year) and 10.1%(wt) as "high-frequency" users (≥52 days). Typical caffeine consumption varied widely depending on the brand consumed. Compared to the low-frequency group, high-frequency users drank alcohol more frequently (141.6 vs. 103.1 days) and in higher quantities (6.15 vs. 4.64 drinks/typical drinking day). High-frequency users were at significantly greater risk for alcohol dependence relative to both nonusers (AOR = 2.40, 95% CI = 1.27 to 4.56, p = 0.007) and low-frequency users (AOR = 1.86, 95% CI = 1.10, 3.14, p = 0.020), even after holding constant demographics, typical alcohol consumption, fraternity/sorority involvement, depressive symptoms, parental history of alcohol/drug problems, and childhood conduct problems. Low-frequency energy drink users did not differ from nonusers on their risk for alcohol dependence. Weekly or daily energy drink consumption is strongly associated with alcohol dependence. Further research is warranted to understand the possible mechanisms underlying this association. College students who frequently consume energy drinks represent an important target population for alcohol prevention. Copyright © 2010 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  7. Microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography for analysis of phthalates in soft drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Sung-Yu; Wang, Chun-Chi; Wu, Shou-Mei

    2013-12-15

    Microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography (MEEKC) is proposed for analysis of di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) and di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in soft drinks. However, the instability of microemulsion is a critical issue. In this research, a novel material, Pluronic® F-127, which has the properties of polymer and surfactant, was added for stabilizing the microemulsion in the MEEKC system. Our data demonstrate that the presence of Pluronic® F-127 (0.05-0.30%) also helps enhance resolution of highly hydrophobic compounds, DBP and DEHP. The electrokinetic injection of sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) including sample (-10 kV, 20 s) was introduced in this MEEKC system and this yielded about 25-fold sensitivity enhancement compared with hydrodynamic injection (1 psi, 10 s). During method validation, calibration curves were linear (r≥0.99), within a range of 75-500 ng/mL for DBP and 150-1000 ng/mL for DEHP. As the precision and accuracy assays, absolute values of relative standard deviation (RSD) and relative error (RE) in intraday (n=3) and interday (n=5) observations were less than 4.93%. This method was further applied for analyzing six commercial soft drinks and one was found containing 453.67 ng/mL of DEHP. This method is considered feasible for serving as a tool for analysis of highly hydrophobic molecules. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Soft drink intake and the risk of metabolic syndrome: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narain, Aditya; Kwok, Chun Shing; Mamas, Mamas A

    2017-02-01

    It is unclear whether consumption of sugar- or artificially sweetened beverages is independently associated with the development of metabolic syndrome. A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed to evaluate whether soft drink consumption is associated with the development of metabolic syndrome. Medline and EMBASE were searched in November 2015 for studies which considered soft drink (sugar-sweetened beverage [SSB] and artificially sweetened beverage [ASB]) intake and risk of metabolic syndrome. Pooled risk ratios for adverse outcomes were calculated using inverse variance with a random effects model, and heterogeneity was assessed using the I(2) statistic. A total of 12 studies (eight cross-sectional, four prospective cohort studies) with 56 244 participants (age range 6-98 years) were included in the review. Our pooled analysis found that soft drink intake is associated with metabolic syndrome. This relationship is shown in cross-sectional studies of SSB consumption (RR 1.46, 95% CI 1.18-1.91) and both cross-sectional and prospective studies of ASB consumption (RR 2.45; 95% CI 1.15-5.14; RR 1.32, 95% CI 1.21-1.44, respectively). However, pooled results of prospective cohort studies of SSB consumption found no association between intake and risk of developing metabolic syndrome. Sugar-sweetened beverage and ASB intake are both associated with metabolic syndrome. This association may be driven by the fact that soft drink intake serves as a surrogate for an unhealthy lifestyle, or an adverse cardiovascular risk factor profile. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Milk consumption during adolescence decreases alcohol drinking in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pian, Jerry P; Criado, Jose R; Walker, Brendan M; Ehlers, Cindy L

    2009-11-01

    Early onset of alcohol consumption increases the risk for the development of dependence. Whether adolescent consumption of other highly palatable solutions may also affect alcohol drinking in adulthood is not known. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of adolescent consumption of four solutions: water, sucrose, sucrose-milk and milk on ethanol drinking in adult rats. Rats had limited access to one of the four solutions from day PND 29 to PND 51 and were subsequently trained to consume ethanol (E) using a sucrose (S) fade-out procedure. Adolescent consumption of sucrose and sucrose-milk solutions increased intake of 2.5% E when it was combined with 10% S but it had no effect on the drinking of 10% E alone. Adolescent consumption of milk and sucrose-milk significantly decreased the intake of 10% E when it was combined with 10% S, and milk significantly reduced 10% E consumption alone and when it was combined with 5% S. Adolescent exposure to the sucrose-milk and sucrose solutions was also found to increase sucrose and sucrose-milk consumption. Our findings suggest adolescent exposure to sucrose increases, whereas, exposure to milk reduces ethanol consumption in adult rats. Our results may provide a new theoretical approach to the early prevention of alcoholism.

  10. Does the provision of cooled filtered water in secondary school cafeterias increase water drinking and decrease the purchase of soft drinks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loughridge, J L; Barratt, J

    2005-08-01

    Secondary school students often do not drink sufficient quantities of water during the school day to prevent dehydration, promote learning and good health. The study aimed to measure the effect of health promotion and the free provision of cooled filtered water on the consumption of water and soft drinks. It also aimed to explore students' views of drinking water provision. A study was conducted with three secondary schools in North Tyneside. Over a 3 month period one school was given cooled filtered water and active promotion (W + P), another had water only (W). The control school (C) took part in post-intervention focus group work. The average volume of water drunk by students, in school 'W + P' was greater (P = 0.05) than that drunk in school 'W' and control school 'C'. The volume of soft drinks purchased by students in all three schools before and during the intervention remained static. Focus group data revealed that students viewed their existing water provision as poor and wanted sufficient supplies of cooled filtered water in school. This pilot study indicates that active promotion of water drinking increased consumption of water by secondary school students. Further developments of the project are suggested.

  11. Legitimacy of concerns about caffeine and energy drink consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesensten, Nancy J

    2014-10-01

    Whether caffeine and energy drink consumption presents a critical emerging health problem is not currently known. Available evidence suggests that energy drink consumption represents a change in the ways in which individuals in the United States consume caffeine but that the amount of caffeine consumed daily has not appreciably increased. In the present review, the question of whether Americans are sleep deprived (a potential reason for using caffeine) is briefly explored. Reported rates of daily caffeine consumption (based on beverage formulation) and data obtained from both civilian and military populations in the United States are examined, the efficacy of ingredients other than caffeine in energy drinks is discussed, and the safety and side effects of caffeine are addressed, including whether evidence supports the contention that excessive caffeine/energy drink consumption induces risky behavior. The available evidence suggests that the main legitimate concern regarding caffeine and energy drink use is the potential negative impact on sleep but that, otherwise, there is no cause for concern regarding caffeine use in the general population. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  12. Satiety scores and satiety hormone response after sucrose-sweetened soft drink compared with isocaloric semi-skimmed milk and with non-caloric soft drink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Maria Mærsk; Belza, A; Holst, J J

    2012-01-01

    Observational studies indicate that sugar-sweetened soft drinks (SSSD) may promote obesity, among other factors, owing to low-satiating effects. The effect of energy in drinks on appetite is still unclear. We examined the effect of two isocaloric, but macronutrient, different beverages (SSSD vers...... semi-skimmed milk) and two non-energy-containing beverages (aspartame-sweetened soft drink (ASSD) and water) on appetite, appetite-regulating hormones and energy intake (EI).......Observational studies indicate that sugar-sweetened soft drinks (SSSD) may promote obesity, among other factors, owing to low-satiating effects. The effect of energy in drinks on appetite is still unclear. We examined the effect of two isocaloric, but macronutrient, different beverages (SSSD versus...

  13. Preliminary studies on the use of kolanuts (cola nitida) for soft drink ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The fresh nuts (seeds) of kola (Cola nitida) were used in the preparation of kola soft drink. Proximate analysis of the nut was carried out to determine its moisture, ash, protein, carbohydrate, fat and caffeine contents. The pH, total solids, specific gravity, caffeine and sensory attributes of the developed kola soft drink were ...

  14. Determination of synthetic food dyes in commercial soft drinks by TLC and ion-pair HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Andrade, Francisca Ivani; Florindo Guedes, Maria Izabel; Pinto Vieira, Ícaro Gusmão; Pereira Mendes, Francisca Noélia; Salmito Rodrigues, Paula Alves; Costa Maia, Carla Soraya; Marques Ávila, Maria Marlene; de Matos Ribeiro, Luzara

    2014-08-15

    Synthetic food colourings were analyzed on commercial carbonated orange and grape soft drinks produced in Ceará State, Brazil. Tartrazine (E102), Amaranth (E123), Sunset Yellow (E110) and Brilliant Blue (E133) were extracted from soft drinks using C18 SPE and identified by thin layer chromatography (TLC), this method was used to confirm the composition of food colouring in soft drinks stated on label. The concentration of food colouring in soft drink was determined by ion-pair high performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection. The results obtained with the samples confirm that the identification and quantification methods are recommended for quality control of the synthetic colours in soft drinks, as well as to determine whether the levels and lables complies with the recommendations of food dyes legislation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Analysis of Wastewater Treatment Efficiency in a Soft Drinks Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boguniewicz-Zabłocka Joanna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available During manufacturing processes, most industrial plants generate wastewater which could become harmful to the environment. Discharge of untreated or improperly treated industrial wastewaters into surface water could, in fact, lead to deterioration of the receiving water body's quality. This paper concerns wastewater treatment solutions used in the soft drink production industry: wastewater treatment plant effectiveness analysis was determined in terms of basic pollution indicators, such as BOD, COD, TSS and variable pH. Initially, the performance of mechanic-biological systems for the treatment of wastewater from a specific beverages production process was studied in different periods, due to wastewater flow fluctuation. The study then showed the positive effects on treatment of wastewater augmentation by methanol, nitrogen and phosphorus salts dosed into it during the treatment process. Results confirm that after implemented modification (methanol, nitrogen and phosphorus additions pollution removal occurs mostly with higher efficiency.

  16. Analysis of Wastewater Treatment Efficiency in a Soft Drinks Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boguniewicz-Zabłocka, Joanna; Capodaglio, Andrea G.; Vogel, Daniel

    2017-10-01

    During manufacturing processes, most industrial plants generate wastewater which could become harmful to the environment. Discharge of untreated or improperly treated industrial wastewaters into surface water could, in fact, lead to deterioration of the receiving water body's quality. This paper concerns wastewater treatment solutions used in the soft drink production industry: wastewater treatment plant effectiveness analysis was determined in terms of basic pollution indicators, such as BOD, COD, TSS and variable pH. Initially, the performance of mechanic-biological systems for the treatment of wastewater from a specific beverages production process was studied in different periods, due to wastewater flow fluctuation. The study then showed the positive effects on treatment of wastewater augmentation by methanol, nitrogen and phosphorus salts dosed into it during the treatment process. Results confirm that after implemented modification (methanol, nitrogen and phosphorus additions) pollution removal occurs mostly with higher efficiency.

  17. Haloacetic acids content of fruit juices and soft drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardador, María José; Gallego, Mercedes

    2015-04-15

    Water used in a food factory is frequently disinfected with chlorine, which originates disinfection by-products: haloacetic acids (HAAs) make up the second most prevalent class of these products. In this paper we propose the first static HS-GC-MS method developed for direct HAA determination in beverages; the method has higher sensitivity, simplicity and reliability than the only alternative available in the literature. From 150 beverages analysed, it is possible to conclude that at least 2 HAAs (dichloro- and trichloroacetic acids, DCAA and TCAA) are always present in beverages prepared with treated water, which remains constant for 2 or 3 months in the beverages. Moreover, beverages of 100% fruit juices and soft drinks prepared with mineral water (free of HAAs) do not contain any HAA at significant values. Therefore, DCAA and TCAA may indicate of the presence of treated water in beverages. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Volume of alcohol consumption, patterns of drinking and burden of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to provide an overview of the volume of alcohol consumption, type of beverage, patterns of drinking and alcohol-attributable burden of disease among adults in sub- Saharan Africa (SSA) for the year 2002. Exposure data were taken from surveys, the World Health Organization (WHO) Global Status ...

  19. ON THE EVALUATION OF THE CONSEQUENCIES OF ACID DRINKS CONSUMPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smaranda NAZARIE

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Even if, in the manifestation of dental erosion, intrinsic factors are often mentioned, in the contemporary society, extrinsic factors, such as consumption of sweet carbonated drinks and acid fruit juices, are more and more frequently viewed as responsible for this affection. The scope of the present study is to evaluate the alimentary habits related to the consumption of acid drinks and to its effects on a group of patients who had addressed the Odontology-Endodontics Clinic of the "Apollonia" University of Iași between Octomber 1, 2011 – April 1, 2014. The group of patients included in the study was formed of 167 men and women, previously examined both clinically and radiographically, on the basis of an original questionnaire, for the identification and establishment of the positive and differential diagnosis of erosive lesions, as well as of the degree of interdependence with the etiological factors. Loss of dental structure at erosion level was quantified by means of the TWI index described by Smith and Knight. Consumption of acid drinks causes erosive phenomena of acid etiology, and multiplies caries and abrasive-type lesions. Specific measures should be taken by the patients for reducing the acid attack, such as avoiding to brush the teeth immediately after the consumption of acid aliments, drinks, citrics and fruit juices, rinsings with fluorurated solutions and utilization of sugar-free chewing gums, as they may stimulate remineralization

  20. Use of non-carbonated soft drinks to provide safe drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracey, M; Burke, V; Robinson, J

    1985-03-01

    Non-carbonated, low-calorie soft drink concentrates (cordials), when diluted according to manufacturers' instructions, had significant antibacterial effects in vitro. Bacteria affected include Vibrio cholerae, Aeromonas hydrophila, Shigella sonnei, Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli. With vibrios, bacterial counts were reduced from 10(6)/ml to undetectable numbers in less than 10 min. Escherichia coli in an initial concentration of 10(6)/ml became undetectable after incubation for 1 h with one brand of cordial. Naturally contaminated water can be rendered potable by incubation with cordials at room temperature for 1 h. This may be a way to reduce the risk of water-borne diarrhoea, particularly where the cleanliness of drinking waters cannot be otherwise assured, for example when making up oral rehydration fluids and for travellers in high-risk areas.

  1. Perceived stress, energy drink consumption, and academic performance among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettit, Michele L; DeBarr, Kathy A

    2011-01-01

    This study explored relationships regarding perceived stress, energy drink consumption, and academic performance among college students. Participants included 136 undergraduates attending a large southern plains university. Participants completed surveys including items from the Perceived Stress Scale(1) and items to describe energy drink consumption, academic performance, and demographics. Positive correlations existed between participants' perceived stress and energy drink consumption. Participants' energy drink consumption and academic performance were negatively correlated. Freshmen (M = 0.330) and sophomores (M = 0.408) consumed a lower number of energy drinks yesterday than juniors (M = 1.000). Males reported higher means than females for selected energy drink consumption items. Statistically significant interactions existed between gender and year in school for selected energy drink consumption items. Results confirm gender differences in energy drink consumption and illuminate a need for education regarding use of energy drinks in response to perceived stress.

  2. Consumo de doces, refrigerantes e bebidas com adição de açúcar entre adolescentes da rede pública de ensino de Piracicaba, São Paulo Consumption of sweets, soft drinks and sugar-added beverages among adolescents from public schools in Piracicaba, Sao Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Bueno do Carmo

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever as práticas alimentares de adolescentes quanto à ingestão energética, distribuição de macronutrientes na dieta e porções consumidas de doces, refrigerantes e bebidas com adição de açúcar. METODOLOGIA: Foi avaliada uma amostra de adolescentes matriculados em escolas da rede pública de ensino de Piracicaba, São Paulo. O consumo alimentar foi avaliado por um Questionário de Freqüência Alimentar. Para a comparação do consumo com a recomendação de ingestão de energia e de macronutrientes, utilizaram-se as Dietary Reference Intakes. A análise do consumo de doces baseou-se nas recomendações do guia alimentar norte-americano. Dados de consumo de refrigerantes e bebidas com adição de açúcar foram avaliados em comparação com outros estudos. RESULTADOS: O estudo incluiu 390 adolescentes. Apenas 6,2% destes apresentaram consumo energético em conformidade com o intervalo preconizado e 83,8% revelaram ingestão energética acima dos valores propostos. Expressiva parcela apresentou consumo de carboidratos e proteínas de acordo com o recomendado, mas foi verificado consumo alto de lipídios em 36,7% da amostra. Comprovou-se um consumo médio de 3,8 porções diárias de doces, sendo que 78,2% dos entrevistados ultrapassaram a recomendação máxima. O consumo médio diário alcançou aproximadamente 230ml e 550ml de refrigerante e bebidas com adição de açúcar, respectivamente. CONCLUSÃO: Devido à alarmante inadequação das práticas alimentares observadas entre os adolescentes, devem ser adotadas estratégias educativas que enfatizem a redução do consumo de açúcares e os benefícios da adoção de uma dieta equilibrada.OBJECTIVE: To describe the dietary patterns of adolescents in relation to energy intake, distribution of macronutrients in diet and consumption of portions of sweets, soft drinks and sugar-added beverages. METHODOLOGY: A sample of adolescents enrolled in public schools in Piracicaba

  3. Dental fluorosis: concentration of fluoride in drinking water and consumption of bottled beverages in school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Pérez, N; Torres-Mendoza, N; Borges-Yáñez, A; Irigoyen-Camacho, M E

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to identify dental fluorosis prevalence and to analyze its association with tap water fluoride concentration and beverage consumption in school children from the city of Oaxaca, who were receiving fluoridated salt. A cross-sectional study was performed on elementary public school children. Dean's Index was applied to assess dental fluorosis. The parents of the children who were studied completed a questionnaire about socio-demographic characteristics and type of beverages consumed by their children. A total of 917 school children participated in this study. Dental fluorosis prevalence was 80.8%. The most frequent fluorosis category was very mild (41.0%), and 16.4% of the children were in the mild category. The mean water fluoride concentration was 0.43 ppm (±0.12). No association was detected between tap water fluoride concentration and fluorosis severity. The multinomial regression model showed an association among the mild fluorosis category and age (OR = 1.25, [95% CI 1.04, 1.50]) and better socio-economic status (OR = 1.78, [95% CI 1.21, 2.60]), controlling for fluoride concentration in water. Moderate and severe fluorosis were associated with soft drink consumption (OR = 2.26, [95% IC 1.01, 5.09]), controlling for age, socio-economic status, and water fluoride concentration. The prevalence of fluorosis was high. Mild fluorosis was associated with higher socio-economic status, while higher fluorosis severity was associated with soft drink consumption.

  4. Energy drinks: what is all the hype? The dangers of energy drink consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rath, Mandy

    2012-02-01

    To describe the adverse effects associated with energy drink consumption among adolescents and young adults. Review of literature utilizing Medscape, the Internet, MD Consult, and CINAHL. The following search terms were used: Energy drinks, caffeine, guarana, taurine, ginseng, sugar, and caffeine toxicity. Search was limited to English language sources from 2005 to 2010. The popularity of energy drinks and the rapid growth of their excessive consumption among adolescents and young adults have brought about great concern in regards to overall health and well-being. Caffeine, which is readily available to minors, is the most commonly used psychoactive substance in the world and imposes a potentially harmful influence on health, academic performance, and personal adjustments. Teens and young adults account for nearly $2.3 billion of energy drink sales. Adolescents and young adults are often unaware that various products, such as energy drinks, herbal medications, and various other medications that promote alertness, contain caffeine. When these products are taken together, caffeine toxicity and severe adverse effects can occur. Practitioners need to be aware of the consequences of energy drink consumption and be prepared to provide appropriate patient education. ©2012 The Author(s) Journal compilation ©2012 American Academy of Nurse Practitioners.

  5. Consumption of energy drinks, alcohol, and alcohol-mixed energy drinks among Italian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flotta, Domenico; Micò, Rocco; Nobile, Carmelo G A; Pileggi, Claudia; Bianco, Aida; Pavia, Maria

    2014-06-01

    It has been argued that the excessive consumption of energy drinks (EDs) may have serious health consequences, and that may serve as an indicator for substance use and other risky behaviors. The present paper offers a perspective on this topic that remains underexplored on the population of adolescents. Data were collected via self-administered anonymous questionnaires from 870 adolescents aged 15 to 19 years who were recruited from a random sample of public secondary schools in the geographic area of the Calabria Region, in the South of Italy. A total of 616 participants completed the survey for a response rate of 70.8%. Nearly 68% of respondents had drunk at least a whole can of ED during their life, and about 55% reported consuming EDs during the 30 days before the survey. Only 13% of interviewed adolescents were aware that drinking EDs is the same as drinking coffee, whereas a sizable percentage believed that drinking EDs is the same as drinking carbonated beverages or rehydrating sport drinks. Forty-six percent of adolescents had drunk alcohol-mixed energy drinks (AmEDs) during their life, and 63% of lifetime users admitted drinking AmEDs during the 30 days before the survey. Overall, 210 (63.3%) had drunk alcohol alone not mixed with EDs during their life, and more than half (56.3%) reported having consumed it at least once during the 30 days before the survey. Multivariate analysis showed that the factors independently associated with the consumption of AmEDs were the increasing number of sexual partners, being a current smoker, being male, riding with a driver who had been drinking alcohol, and having used marijuana. Comprehensive educational programs among youths focusing on potential health effects of EDs, alcohol, and the combination of the two, designed to empower the ability to manage these drinking habits, are strongly advisable. Copyright © 2014 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  6. Beneficial Effect of Moderate Exercise in Kidney of Rat after Chronic Consumption of Cola Drinks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Cao

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of moderate intensity exercise on kidney in an animal model of high consumption of cola soft drinks.Forty-eight Wistar Kyoto rats (age: 16 weeks; weight: 350-400 g were assigned to the following groups: WR (water runners drank water and submitted to aerobic exercise; CR (cola runners drank cola and submitted to aerobic exercise; WS (water sedentary and CS (cola sedentary, not exercised groups. The aerobic exercise was performed for 5 days per week throughout the study (24 weeks and the exercise intensity was gradually increased during the first 8 weeks until it reached 20 meters / minute for 30 minutes. Body weight, lipid profile, glycemia, plasma creatinine levels, atherogenic index of plasma (AIP and systolic blood pressure (SBP were determined. After 6 months all rats were sacrificed. A kidney histopathological score was obtained using a semiquantitative scale. Glomerular size and glomerulosclerosis were estimated by point-counting. The oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory status were explored by immunohistochemistry. A one way analysis of variance (ANOVA with Tukey-Kramer post-hoc test or the Kruskal-Wallis test with Dunn's post-hoc test was used for statistics. A value of p < 0.05 was considered significant.At 6 months, an increased consumption of cola soft drink was shown in CS and CR compared with water consumers (p<0.0001. Chronic cola consumption was associated with increased plasma triglycerides, AIP, heart rate, histopathological score, glomerulosclerosis, oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory status. On the other hand, moderate exercise prevented these findings. No difference was observed in the body weight, SBP, glycemia, cholesterol and plasma creatinine levels across experimental groups.This study warns about the consequences of chronic consumption of cola drinks on lipid metabolism, especially regarding renal health. Additionally, these findings emphasize the protective

  7. Alcohol consumption in Mozambique: regular consumption, weekly pattern and binge drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padrão, Patrícia; Damasceno, Albertino; Silva-Matos, Carla; Laszczyńska, Olga; Prista, António; Gouveia, Lídia; Lunet, Nuno

    2011-05-01

    This study aimed to describe alcohol consumption in Mozambique, discriminating binge drinking behaviour and the weekday variation in drinking patterns, and to quantify the association between socio-demographic characteristics and alcohol intake. A representative sample of 3265 Mozambicans aged 25-64 years was evaluated in 2005 following the World Health Organization Stepwise approach to Chronic Disease Risk Factor Surveillance (STEPS). The consumption of any type of alcoholic beverage, during life and in the previous year, was recorded. Current drinkers were also asked about the number of standard drinks consumed in each day of the previous week. The overall prevalence of current drinking was 28.9% [95% confidence interval (95% CI): 22.6-35.2] in women and 57.7% (95% CI: 49.8-65.7) in men. Forty percent of the current drinkers reported to have had at least one binge drinking occasion in the previous week. The prevalence of current drinking increased with age and education among women and with income among men. No consistent pattern was observed in binge drinking by education in both genders and by annual income among men, but it was significantly less frequent among the more affluent women. Both drinking and binge drinking peaked at the weekend. Knowing the drinking patterns in Mozambique enables the planning of interventions according to the local needs. Future surveys should also include non-adult populations as risk factors for chronic diseases occurs as early as childhood and adolescence, and are associated with increased risk of disease later in life. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. [Drink consumption for a healthy life: recommendations for the general population in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Juan A; Muñoz-Hernández, Onofre; Rosas-Peralta, Martín; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A; Popkin, Barry M; Willett, Walter C

    2008-01-01

    The Expert Committee in charge of developing the Beverage Consumption Recommendations for the Mexican Population was convened by the Ministry of Health with the aim of drafting evidence-based guidelines for consumers, health professionals, and government officials. The prevalence of overweight, obesity and diabetes have dramatically increased in Mexico; beverages contribute a fifth of all calories consumed by Mexicans. Extensive research has documented that caloric beverages increase the risk of obesity. Taking into consideration multiple factors, including health benefits, risks, and nutritional implications associated with beverage consumption, as well as consumption patterns in Mexico, the committee classified beverages in six categories. Classifications were made based on caloric content, nutritional value, and health risks associated with the consumption of each type of beverage. Ranges included healthier (level 1) to least healthy (level 6) options as follows: Level 1: water; Level 2: skim or low fat (1%) milk and sugar free soy beverages; Level 3: coffee and tea without sugar; Level 4: non-caloric beverages with artificial sweeteners; Level 5: beverages with high caloric content and limited health benefits (fruit juices, whole milk, and fruit smoothies with sugar or honey; alcoholic and sports drinks), and Level 6: beverages high in sugar and with low nutritional value (soft drinks and other beverages with significant amounts of added sugar like juices, flavored waters, coffee and tea). The committee recommends the consumption of water as a first choice, followed by no or low-calorie drinks, and skim milk. These beverages should be favored over beverages with high caloric value or sweetened beverages, including those containing artificial sweeteners. Portion size recommendations are included for each beverage category together with healthy consumption patterns for men and women.

  9. Drink Less or Drink Slower: The Effects of Instruction on Alcohol Consumption and Drinking Control Strategy Use

    OpenAIRE

    Sugarman, Dawn E.; Carey, Kate B.

    2009-01-01

    Brief alcohol interventions often involve recommendations to use drinking control strategies. However, little is known about the functional effect of these strategies on alcohol use. This prospective study employed an experimental design to evaluate the relationship between strategy use and alcohol consumption. The differential effects of instructions to increase the use of strategies or to reduce alcohol consumption were compared to self-monitoring (SM) only. Undergraduate drinkers were rand...

  10. Drinking water consumption patterns in Canadian communities (2001-2007).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, S M; Jones, A Q; Majowicz, S E; McEwen, S A; Pintar, K D M

    2012-03-01

    A pooled analysis of seven cross-sectional studies from Newfoundland and Labrador, Waterloo and Hamilton Regions, Ontario and Vancouver, East Kootenay and Northern Interior Regions, British Columbia (2001 to 2007) was performed to investigate the drinking water consumption patterns of Canadians and to identify factors associated with the volume of tap water consumed. The mean volume of tap water consumed was 1.2 L/day, with a large range (0.03 to 9.0 L/day). In-home water treatment and interactions between age and gender and age and bottled water use were significantly associated with the volume of tap water consumed in multivariable analyses. Approximately 25% (2,221/8,916) of participants were classified as bottled water users, meaning that 75% or more of their total daily drinking water intake was bottled. Approximately 48.6% (4,307/8,799) of participants used an in-home treatment method to treat their tap water for drinking purposes. This study provides a broader geographic perspective and more current estimates of Canadian water consumption patterns than previous studies. The identified factors associated with daily water consumption could be beneficial for risk assessors to identify individuals who may be at greater risk of waterborne illness.

  11. Intake of Sweets, Snacks and Soft Drinks Predicts Weight Gain in Obese Pregnant Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Renault, Kristina M; Carlsen, Emma M; Nørgaard, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    significantly lowered their intakes of added sugars and saturated fat and increased their protein intake by ~1% of total energy compared to controls. Of these dietary variables only intakes of added sugar appeared to be related to GWG, while no association was observed for saturated fat or protein. Further...... analyses revealed that foods that contributed to intake of added sugars, including sweets, snacks, cakes, and soft drinks were strongly associated with weight gain, with women consuming sweets ≥2/day having 5.4 kg (95% CI 2.1-8.7) greater weight gain than those with a low (... for soft drinks were more conflicting, as women with high weight gain tended to favour artificially sweetened soft drinks. CONCLUSION: In our sample of obese pregnant women, craving for sweets, snacks, and soft drinks strongly predicts GWG. Emphasis on reducing intakes of these foods may be more relevant...

  12. Ethnic differences in BMI among Dutch adolescents: what is the role of screen-viewing, active commuting to school, and consumption of soft drinks and high-caloric snacks?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Visscher Tommy LS

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The threats posed by the rising prevalence of overweight and obesity on public health have been widely acknowledged. Several population groups, which deserve special attention because of their higher prevalence rates, have been identified. These include adolescents and ethnic sub-groups. The aim of the present study was twofold: (1 to assess ethnic differences in body mass index (BMI and in behaviours that are related to both energy intake and energy expenditure, and (2 to examine whether these behaviours explain the relationship between ethnicity and BMI. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional data analysis among 957 Dutch adolescents (mean age = 12.7 years. Body height and weight were measured using a standardized protocol. Adolescents completed a questionnaire on screen-viewing behaviour, physical activity, consumption of sugar-containing beverages, and consumption of high-caloric snacks. Results In our study sample 121 adolescents (= 13% were of Non-Western origin. BMI was significantly higher in Non-Western adolescents (boys: 19.9 kg/m2, SD = 3.0, girls: 20.9 kg/m2, SD = 3.8 compared to Dutch adolescents (boys: 18.4 kg/m2, SD = 2.8, girls: 19.0 kg/m2, SD = 3.0. Our results show that time spent on television viewing, active commuting to school, and consumption of fruit juices partially mediated the association between BMI and ethnicity. Conclusion Behaviours related to both energy expenditure and energy intake may contribute to the ethnic differences in BMI in adolescents and should be considered when tailoring overweight prevention programs to ethnic subpopulations. Trial registration International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number ISRCTN87127361

  13. Neural responsivity during soft drink intake, anticipation, and advertisement exposure in habitually consuming youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Kyle S; Stice, Eric

    2014-02-01

    Although soft drinks are heavily advertised, widely consumed, and have been associated with obesity, little is understood regarding neural responsivity to soft drink intake, anticipated intake, and advertisements. Functional MRI was used to assess examine neural response to carbonated soft drink intake, anticipated intake and advertisement exposure as well as milkshake intake in 27 adolescents that varied on soft drink consumer status. Intake and anticipated intake of carbonated Coke® activated regions implicated in gustatory, oral somatosensory, and reward processing, yet high-fat/sugar milkshake intake elicited greater activation in these regions vs. Coke intake. Advertisements highlighting the Coke product vs. nonfood control advertisements, but not the Coke logo, activated gustatory and visual brain regions. Habitual Coke consumers vs. nonconsumers showed greater posterior cingulate responsivity to Coke logo ads, suggesting that the logo is a conditioned cue. Coke consumers exhibited less ventrolateral prefrontal cortex responsivity during anticipated Coke intake relative to nonconsumers. Results indicate that soft drinks activate reward and gustatory regions, but are less potent in activating these regions than high-fat/sugar beverages, and imply that habitual soft drink intake promotes hyper-responsivity of regions encoding salience/attention toward brand specific cues and hypo-responsivity of inhibitory regions while anticipating intake. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  14. Soft drink logos on baby bottles: do they influence what is fed to children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siener, K; Rothman, D; Farrar, J

    1997-01-01

    Baby bottle with popular soda pop and soft drink logos are on marked shelves. A descriptive study was conducted to determine their prevalence among families and to determine whether the logos could be influencing what families put in baby bottles. A convenience sample of 314 mothers (and grandmothers if they were primary caregivers) with children using baby bottles was interviewed in three California counties. The results were analyzed for significance, using the chi-square test for independence. The ethnicities and educational levels of the sample population matched the distribution of the State. Overall, 31 percent of the children drank either soda pop or Kool-Aid from baby bottles. Forty-six percent of the respondents owned a baby bottle with a soda pop logo and 17 percent owned a bottle with a Kool-Aid logo. Families who owned bottles with popular beverage logos were four times more likely to give children the respective beverage in bottles than families with "logo bottles." Populations most likely to drink these beverages were those in the black and Hispanic ethnic groups, in the youngest age-group (15-20 years of age), and those without a high school diploma. Health professionals are concerned that the logos could cause an increase in children's consumption of sweetened beverages in baby bottles and consequently an increase in Baby Bottle Tooth Decay and nutritional problems.

  15. Assessment of pattern for consumption and awareness regarding energy drinks among medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, Hafiz Muhammad; Mughal, Anum; Edhi, Muhammad Muzzammil; Saleem, Shafaq; Rao, Masood Hussain; Aftab, Anum; Hanif, Maliha; Ahmed, Alina; Khan, Agha Muhammad Hammad

    2013-01-01

    Energy drink is a type of beverage which contains stimulant drugs chiefly caffeine and marketed as mental and physical stimulator. Coffee, tea, soft drinks and other caffeinated beverages are not considered as energy drinks. Purpose of our study was to evaluate the awareness of medical students regarding energy drinks and their pattern and reason of energy drinks consumption. This was a cross sectional and observational study conducted during the period of January - December 2012 at four Medical Colleges (Dow Medical College, Sindh Medical College, Jinnah Medical College and Liaquat National Medical College) of Karachi, Pakistan. Over all 900 M.B.B.S students were invited to participate after taking written consent but viable questionnaire was submitted by 866 students, estimated response rate of 96%. All data was entered and analyzed through SPSS version 19. Out of 866 participants, majority were females 614 (70.9%) and only 252 (28.5%) were males, with a mean age of 21.43 ± 1.51 years. Energy drinks users were 350 (42.89%) and non users were 516 (59.58%). Only 102 (29.3%) users and 159 (30.7%) non users know the correct definition of Energy drinks. Regarding awareness, mostly user and non users thought that usage of energy drinks had been on rise due to its usefulness in reducing sleep hours [users193 (43.9%), nonusers 247 (56.1%) (p energy drinks by non-users were "awareness from its side effects" 247 (47.8%) and "have no specific reason" 265 (51.3%). Most common side effects reported by users were fatigue 111 (31.7%) and weight gain 102 (29.4%). In sum, the fact that despite serious side effects of weight gaining and fatigue, practice of consuming energy drinks is highly prevalent among medical students, particularly because they are ever ready to boost their energy level and reduce sleep hours due to stress of exams and projects. This warrants the creation of continued public health awareness about the appropriate use of caffeinated beverages, their

  16. Examining the unique influence of interpersonal and intrapersonal drinking perceptions on alcohol consumption among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallett, Kimberly A; Bachrach, Rachel L; Turrisi, Rob

    2009-03-01

    Interventions for college student drinking often incorporate interpersonal factors such as descriptive and/or injunctive norms to correct misperceptions about campus drinking (e.g., BASICS [Brief Alcohol Screening and Intervention for College Students] and social-norms campaigns). Some interventions also focus on intra-personal factors of alcohol consumption, which can be considered as one's own perception of drinking, one's attitude toward drinking, and one's intended outcome related to drinking. The current study sought to extend previous work by examining relationships between both inter- and intrapersonal perceptions of drinking and reported drinking behavior. College students (N=303) completed questionnaires assessing drinking behaviors, perceptions of other students' attitudes toward drinking (i.e., injunctive norms), their perception of the quantity and frequency of student/friend drinking (i.e., descriptive norms), and their attitudes and perceptions toward their own alcohol consumption (i.e., intrapersonal factors). Multiple regressions were used to analyze the unique influence between inter- and intrapersonal drinking perceptions and drinking behavior. Among the interpersonal perceptions of drinking, only closest friend's drinking significantly predicted alcohol consumption, whereas all three intrapersonal factors significantly predicted alcohol consumption. Suggestions for enhancing college student drinking interventions are discussed.

  17. View the label before you view the movie: a field experiment into the impact of portion size and Guideline Daily Amounts labelling on soft drinks in cinemas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeer, Willemijn M; Steenhuis, Ingrid H M; Leeuwis, Franca H; Bos, Arjan E R; de Boer, Michiel; Seidell, Jacob C

    2011-06-06

    Large soft drink sizes increase consumption, and thereby contribute to obesity. Portion size labelling may help consumers to select more appropriate food portions. This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of portion size and caloric Guidelines for Daily Amounts (GDA) labelling on consumers' portion size choices and consumption of regular soft drinks. A field experiment that took place on two subsequent evenings in a Dutch cinema. Participants (n = 101) were asked to select one of five different portion sizes of a soft drink. Consumers were provided with either portion size and caloric GDA labelling (experimental condition) or with millilitre information (control condition). Labelling neither stimulated participants to choose small portion sizes (OR = .75, p = .61, CI: .25 - 2.25), nor did labelling dissuade participants to choose large portion sizes (OR = .51, p = .36, CI: .12 - 2.15). Portion size and caloric GDA labelling were found to have no effect on soft drink intake. Further research among a larger group of participants combined with pricing strategies is required. The results of this study are relevant for the current public health debate on food labelling.

  18. View the label before you view the movie: A field experiment into the impact of Portion size and Guideline Daily Amounts labelling on soft drinks in cinemas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Large soft drink sizes increase consumption, and thereby contribute to obesity. Portion size labelling may help consumers to select more appropriate food portions. This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of portion size and caloric Guidelines for Daily Amounts (GDA) labelling on consumers' portion size choices and consumption of regular soft drinks. Methods A field experiment that took place on two subsequent evenings in a Dutch cinema. Participants (n = 101) were asked to select one of five different portion sizes of a soft drink. Consumers were provided with either portion size and caloric GDA labelling (experimental condition) or with millilitre information (control condition). Results Labelling neither stimulated participants to choose small portion sizes (OR = .75, p = .61, CI: .25 - 2.25), nor did labelling dissuade participants to choose large portion sizes (OR = .51, p = .36, CI: .12 - 2.15). Conclusions Portion size and caloric GDA labelling were found to have no effect on soft drink intake. Further research among a larger group of participants combined with pricing strategies is required. The results of this study are relevant for the current public health debate on food labelling. PMID:21645373

  19. View the label before you view the movie: A field experiment into the impact of Portion size and Guideline Daily Amounts labelling on soft drinks in cinemas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Boer Michiel

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Large soft drink sizes increase consumption, and thereby contribute to obesity. Portion size labelling may help consumers to select more appropriate food portions. This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of portion size and caloric Guidelines for Daily Amounts (GDA labelling on consumers' portion size choices and consumption of regular soft drinks. Methods A field experiment that took place on two subsequent evenings in a Dutch cinema. Participants (n = 101 were asked to select one of five different portion sizes of a soft drink. Consumers were provided with either portion size and caloric GDA labelling (experimental condition or with millilitre information (control condition. Results Labelling neither stimulated participants to choose small portion sizes (OR = .75, p = .61, CI: .25 - 2.25, nor did labelling dissuade participants to choose large portion sizes (OR = .51, p = .36, CI: .12 - 2.15. Conclusions Portion size and caloric GDA labelling were found to have no effect on soft drink intake. Further research among a larger group of participants combined with pricing strategies is required. The results of this study are relevant for the current public health debate on food labelling.

  20. Consumption of Energy Drinks Among Lebanese Youth: A Pilot Study on the Prevalence and Side Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Itany, Manal; Diab, Batoul; Rachidi, Samar; Awada, Sanaa; Al Hajje, Amal; Bawab, Wafaa; Salameh, Pascale

    2014-01-01

    Background: The new millennium has been together with a variety of synthetic and caffeinated high-energy drinks targeting the youth market. Energy drinks raise the level of energy and their consumption has been increased significantly worldwide. Objectives: This research aimed to determine patterns of energy drink consumption and to assess the prevalence of adverse side effects among energy drink users. Patients and Methods: A pilot cross-sectional study survey was undertaken on students aged...

  1. Analysis of Trihalomethanes in Soft Drinks: An Instrumental Analysis Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Richard C.; Robertson, John K.

    1988-01-01

    Describes an experimental procedure for determining trihalomethanes (THMs) in liquids by gas chromatography. Provides recommendations for reactants and supplies to obtain acceptable results. Discusses the analysis of water from various sources: pools, lakes, and drinking water; compares these to three cola drinks. (ML)

  2. Classification of stevia sweeteners in soft drinks using liquid chromatography and time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakigi, Y; Suzuki, T; Icho, T; Uyama, A; Mochizuki, N

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a comprehensive analytical method for the characterisation of stevia sweeteners in soft drinks. By using LC and time-of-flight MS, we detected 30 steviol glycosides from nine stevia sweeteners. The mass spectral data of these compounds were applied to the analysis to determine steviol glycosides in nine soft drinks. On the basis of chromatographic data and principal-component analysis, these soft drinks were classified into three groups, and the soft drinks of each group, respectively, contained high-rebaudioside A extract, normal stevia extract or alfa-glucosyltransferase-treated stevia extract.

  3. Estimation of fluoride levels in various commercially available carbonated soft drinks in Chandigarh city, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohit Bansal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fluoride has a preventive action on dental caries. However, Excessive ingestion of fluoride from different sources can lead to the development of dental fluorosis. Aim: To estimate fluoride levels in various commercially available carbonated soft drinks available in Chandigarh city. Materials and Methods: Twelve different brands of commercially available soft drinks were purchased from three different places and divided into three groups. Fluoride levels were estimated using fluoride test strips Quantofix 37211 Fluka; Sigma-Aldrich. Results: Fluoride levels ranged from 0.12 to 0.42 mg/dl F with the maximum level in Thumbs up and least in Diet Pepsi. Conclusion: The levels of fluoride varied in various carbonated soft drinks analyzed. This could contribute significantly to the total fluoride intake from all sources and thus be an important risk factor for the development of dental fluorosis.

  4. Alcohol drinking, consumption patterns and breast cancer among Danish nurses: a cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørch, Lina S; Johansen, Ditte; Thygesen, Lau C

    2007-01-01

    alcohol consumers, weekly alcohol intake increased the risk of breast cancer with 2% for each additional drink consumed. Weekend consumption increased the risk with 4% for each additional drink consumed friday through sunday. Binge drinking of 4-5 drinks the latest weekday increased risk with 55......%, compared with consumption of one drink. A possible threshold in risk estimates was found for consumption above 27 drinks per week. CONCLUSIONS: For alcohol consumption above the intake most frequently reported, the risk of breast cancer is increased. The risk is minor for moderate levels but increases......BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to analyse the impact of alcohol intake and drinking pattern on the risk of breast cancer. METHODS: A total of 17 647 nurses were followed from 1993 until the end of 2001. At baseline participants completed a questionnaire on alcohol intake and other lifestyle...

  5. Color stability of visible light cured composite resin after soft drink immersion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alizatul Khairani Hasan

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Composite resin is a tooth-colored filling material containing Bis-GMA which exhibits water sorption properties. People tend to consume soft drink with various colors. Water sorption properties can alter the color stability of composite resin purpose. Purpose: This study was to determine the influence of immersion durations of composite resin in soft drink on color stability. Methods: The visible-light cured hybrid composite resin and soft drink were used. Ten disk specimens (2.5 mm thickness and 15 mm diameter of composite resin were prepared and light cured for 20 seconds, then stored in distilled water for 24 hours at 37° C. The initial color of specimens were measured by Chromameter. After that, each specimen was immersed in 30 ml of soft drink up to 48, 72, and 96 hours at 37° C. The specimens’ color were measured again after each immersion. The color changes were calculated by CIE L*a*b* system formula. The data was analyzed by One-Way ANOVA and LSD (α = 0.05. Result: The ANOVA showed that the immersion durations of composite resin in soft drinks had significant influence on the color stability (p < 0.05. The LSD0.05 tests showed significant differences among all groups. The least color change was detected from the group of 48 hours immersion, while the greatest color change was from the group of 96 hours immersion. Conclusions: The immersion of composite resin in soft drinks influenced the color stability (began after 48 hours immersion.

  6. Is the Consumption of Energy Drinks Associated With Academic Achievement Among College Students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champlin, Sara E; Pasch, Keryn E; Perry, Cheryl L

    2016-08-01

    Despite widely reported side effects, use of energy drinks has increased among college students, who report that they consume energy drinks to help them complete schoolwork. However, little is known about the association between energy drink use and academic performance. We explored the relationship between energy drink consumption and current academic grade point average (GPA) among first-year undergraduate students. Participants included 844 first-year undergraduates (58.1 % female; 50.7 % White). Students reported their health behaviors via an online survey. We measured energy drink consumption with two measures: past month consumption by number of drinks usually consumed in 1 month and number consumed during the last occasion of consumption. We used multiple linear regression modeling with energy drink consumption and current GPA, controlling for gender, race, weekend and weekday sleep duration, perceived stress, perceived stress management, media use, and past month alcohol use. We found that past month energy drink consumption quantity by frequency (p energy drinks consumed during the last occasion (p Energy drinks consumed during the last occasion of consumption (p = 0.01) remained significantly associated with a lower GPA when controlling for alcohol use. While students report using energy drinks for school-related reasons, our findings suggest that greater energy drink consumption is associated with a lower GPA, even after controlling for potential confounding variables. Longitudinal research is needed that addresses whether GPA declines after continued use of energy drinks or if students struggling academically turn to energy drinks to manage their schoolwork.

  7. Associations between energy drink consumption and alcohol use behaviors among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velazquez, Cayley E; Poulos, Natalie S; Latimer, Lara A; Pasch, Keryn E

    2012-06-01

    To explore associations between energy drink consumption and alcohol use among college students. Participants included 585 students (m age=18.7; 47.0% White, 21% Hispanic, 25% Asian, 7% other race/ethnicity; 56.0% female). Energy drink behaviors included past month and past week consumption. Alcohol use behaviors included past month and past two week consumption, as well as heavy drinking and quantity of alcohol consumed. Consumption of energy drinks mixed with alcohol was also measured. Linear and logistic regression analyses between energy drink consumption and alcohol use were run controlling for gender, age, and race/ethnicity. For each one unit increase in past month (i.e., additional day used) energy drink use, the likelihood of past month alcohol use increased by 80%, heavy drinking by 80% and past month energy drinks mixed with alcohol use by 90%. Similar results were found for past week energy drink use. A positive relationship between energy drink use and quantity of alcohol consumed during a single episode of drinking was also found (pconsumption and alcohol use as well as quantity of alcohol consumed were found, with relationships stronger among males than females. There were no significant interactions by race/ethnicity. Energy drinks are readily available to students and pose potential health risks. Students who report greater energy drink consumption also consume more alcohol, are more likely to mix energy drinks and alcohol, and experience heavy episodes of drinking, which is problematic given the potential negative consequences of these drinks. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. In vitro evaluation of the erosive potential of viscosity-modified soft acidic drinks on enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aykut-Yetkiner, Arzu; Wiegand, Annette; Ronay, Valerie; Attin, Rengin; Becker, Klaus; Attin, Thomas

    2014-04-01

    The objective of this in vitro study was to investigate the effect of viscosity-modified soft acidic drinks on enamel erosion. A total of 108 bovine enamel samples (∅ = 3 mm) were embedded in acrylic resin and allocated into six groups (n = 18). Soft acidic drinks (orange juice, Coca-Cola, Sprite) were used both in their regular forms and at a kinetic viscositiy of 5 mm(2)/s, which was adjusted by adding hydroxypropyl cellulose. All solutions were pumped over the enamel surface from a reservoir with a drop rate of 3 ml/min. Each specimen was eroded for 10 min at 20 °C. Erosion of enamel surfaces was measured using profilometry. Data were analyzed using independent t tests and one-way ANOVAs (p viscosity-modified drinks (Coca-Cola, 4.90 ± 0.34 μm; Sprite, 4.46 ± 0.39 μm; orange juice, 1.10 ± 0.22 μm). For both regular and viscosity-modified forms, Coca-Cola and Sprite caused higher enamel loss than orange juice. Increasing the viscosity of acidic soft drinks to 5 mm(2)/s reduced enamel erosion by 12.6-18.7 %. The erosive potential of soft acidic drinks is not only dependent on various chemical properties but also on the viscosity of the acidic solution and can be reduced by viscosity modification.

  9. Regular energy drink consumption is associated with the risk of health and behavioural problems in adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holubcikova, Jana; Kolarcik, Peter; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; van Dijk, Jitse P.

    Consumption of energy drinks has become popular and frequent among adolescents across Europe. Previous research showed that regular consumption of these drinks was associated with several health and behavioural problems. The aim of the present study was to determine the socio-demographic groups at

  10. Alcohol consumption, drinking pattern, and self-reported visual impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Amy Z; Li, Yan; Zhang, Xinzhi; Klein, Ronald; Mokdad, Ali H; Saaddine, Jinan B; Balluz, Lina

    2012-02-01

    To examine whether alcohol drinking status and drinking pattern are associated with self-reported visual impairment. We used data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, a state-based telephone health survey conducted by random-digit dialing among non-institutionalized US adults. The Visual Impairment and Access to Eye Care module was implemented among 42, 713 adults aged 50 years and older in 2005 and 2006. Visual impairment was defined as any degree of difficulty experienced in recognizing a friend across the street or reading print in newspaper, magazine, recipe, menu, or numbers on the telephone with usual correction. Drinking patterns included drinking quantity (drinks per drinking day), frequency (drinking days in the past month), and binge drinking. After adjustment for age, sex, race/ethnicity, educational attainment, smoking status, Body Mass Index, history of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and eye diseases, current drinking status was not associated with distance and/or near vision impairment. However, drinking more than 1 drink per drinking day (odds ratio [OR], 1.21; 95% confidence intervals [CI], 1.09-1.35) and binge drinking (OR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.14-1.53) were associated with visual impairment among current drinkers. Among current drinkers, drinking patterns were significantly associated with near and distance vision impairment. Longitudinal studies are needed to confirm whether drinkers who drink beyond drinking guidelines, especially binge drinkers, are at higher risk of visual impairment than those who drink at lower levels.

  11. Are “extreme consumption games” drinking games? Sometimes it's a matter of perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamboanga, Byron L.; Pearce, Marc W.; Kenney, Shannon R.; Ham, Lindsay S.; Woods, Olivia E.; Borsari, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Drinking games are widespread on college campuses and pose health risks to their players. Although there has been considerable research progress in the college drinking games literature, there does not appear to be a standard definition of the term “drinking games.” Researchers, however, have attempted to classify and categorize drinking games in a systematic manner. For example, one category of drinking games (e.g., chugging, keg stands) is often referred to as consumption or extreme consumption games. Questions remain as to whether or how these types of games align with researchers' definitions of drinking games or the categorization systems advanced by researchers in the field. Potential challenges regarding the definition and categorization of drinking games, particularly with respect to extreme consumption types of games, are discussed. PMID:23968169

  12. Drinking less but greater harm: could polarized drinking habits explain the divergence between alcohol consumption and harms among youth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallgren, Mats; Leifman, Håkan; Andréasson, Sven

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes changes in alcohol consumption among Swedish youth over the past decade with the aim of exploring the polarization hypothesis, which asserts that while a majority of young drinkers have reduced their alcohol consumption, a subgroup have increased their drinking substantially, resulting in greater harm. We analysed repeated cross-sectional self-report data from 45,841 15-16-year olds and 40,889 18-19-year-old high-school students living in the Stockholm municipality between 2000 and 2010. The questionnaire assessed alcohol and drug use, and risk factors for alcohol misuse. Changes over time at different levels of consumption are presented by age and gender. We find evidence of a polarization effect in youth drinking, with consumption reducing significantly over the past 10 years among all young people, except the heaviest drinkers, where consumption and binge drinking tended to increase. The dispersion in per capita consumption also increased over time, indicating more heavy drinkers. The total number of risk factors for alcohol misuse decreased among most survey participants from 2000 to 2010, but with variability between years. Polarized drinking habits are a likely explanation for the recent divergence between per capita alcohol consumption, which has decreased, and alcohol-related hospitalizations, which have increased sharply among Swedish youth in recent years. We suggest that ongoing social changes could be affecting young people in the form of greater disparities, which are associated with a higher incidence of social problems generally, including heavy drinking.

  13. Killing the Buzz: Reducing Youth Consumption of Energy Drinks in British Columbia

    OpenAIRE

    Mirski, Pawel Lukasz

    2014-01-01

    Recent medical studies and international prevalence data on energy drink consumption indicate that children, adolescents and teenagers are at risk of serious short and long term negative health effects due to the high amounts of caffeine in energy drinks. Current research demonstrates that energy drink consumption may cause exacerbated mood and behavioural disorders, seizures, and serious cardiovascular problems. Research into the long term health effects is nascent but warrants further resea...

  14. Energy drink consumption is associated with unhealthy dietary behaviours among college youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulos, Natalie S; Pasch, Keryn E

    2015-11-01

    Energy drink consumption has been associated with a variety of health risk behaviours, yet little research has explored the relationship between energy drinks and dietary behaviours of emerging adults. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between energy drink consumption and dietary behaviours among energy drink users and non-users within a sample of college youth. College freshmen (n = 585, m age = 18.7 years; 47% non-Hispanic White, 20.9% Hispanic, 25.5% Asian, 2.7% non-Hispanic Black and 4.4% other; 56% female), at a large, southwest university self-reported their energy drink consumption in the past week and a variety of dietary behaviours, including past week soda, diet soda, pre-packaged salty snacks, pre-packaged sweet snacks, fast food, restaurant food, frozen food, fruits, vegetables, milk and breakfast consumption. Linear regression analyses were run to determine associations between energy drink consumption and dietary behaviour among users and non-users of energy drinks. Analyses controlled for gender, race/ethnicity and body mass index (BMI). Overall, 17.5% of students had consumed energy drinks in the past week. Energy drink users were more likely to be male, White and have a greater BMI. Students also reported low past week intake of fruits, vegetables, milk and breakfast. Past week energy drink consumption was associated with increased soda and frozen meal consumption. Given a rapidly expanding energy drink market, future dietary interventions among college youth may want to consider the implications of energy drinks, as results of this study suggest consumption of these beverages is associated with unhealthy dietary behaviours and a greater BMI. © Royal Society for Public Health 2015.

  15. Health impact assessment of the UK soft drinks industry levy: a comparative risk assessment modelling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Adam D M; Mytton, Oliver T; Kehlbacher, Ariane; Tiffin, Richard; Elhussein, Ahmed; Rayner, Mike; Jebb, Susan A; Blakely, Tony; Scarborough, Peter

    2017-01-01

    In March, 2016, the UK Government proposed a tiered levy on sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs; high tax for drinks with >8 g of sugar per 100 mL, moderate tax for 5-8 g, and no tax for estimate the effect of possible industry responses to the levy on obesity, diabetes, and dental caries. We modelled three possible industry responses: reformulation to reduce sugar concentration, an increase of product price, and a change of the market share of high-sugar, mid-sugar, and low-sugar drinks. For each response, we defined a better-case and worse-case health scenario. We developed a comparative risk assessment model to estimate the UK health impact of each scenario on prevalence of obesity and incidence of dental caries and type 2 diabetes. The model combined data for sales and consumption of SSBs, disease incidence and prevalence, price elasticity estimates, and estimates of the association between SSB consumption and disease outcomes. We drew the disease association parameters from a meta-analysis of experimental studies (SSBs and weight change), a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies (type 2 diabetes), and a prospective cohort study (dental caries). The best modelled scenario for health is SSB reformulation, resulting in a reduction of 144 383 (95% uncertainty interval 5102-306 743; 0·9%) of 15 470 813 adults and children with obesity in the UK, 19 094 (6920-32 678; incidence reduction of 31·1 per 100 000 person-years) fewer incident cases of type 2 diabetes per year, and 269 375 (82 211-470 928; incidence reduction of 4·4 per 1000 person-years) fewer decayed, missing, or filled teeth annually. An increase in the price of SSBs in the better-case scenario would result in 81 594 (3588-182 669; 0·5%) fewer adults and children with obesity, 10 861 (3899-18 964; 17·7) fewer incident cases of diabetes per year, and 149 378 (45 231-262 013; 2·4) fewer decayed, missing, or filled teeth annually. Changes to market share to increase

  16. Quantification of Sugars in Soft Drinks and Fruit Juices by Density ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The amount of sugar in soft drinks and fruit juices has been quantified by density, refractometric and infrared spectroscopic methods. Density and refractometric methods can be used to obtain only the total amount of sugar. However, infrared spectros- copy distinguishes itself as a fast and reliable method for quantitative ...

  17. Mechanical behaviour of fibre reinforced concrete using softdrink can

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilya, J.; Cheow Chea, C.

    2017-11-01

    This research was carried out to study the behaviour of concrete, specifically compressive and flexural strength, by incorporating recycled soft drink aluminium can as fibre reinforcement in the concrete. Another aim of the research is to determine the maximum proportion of fibres to be added in the concrete. By following standard mix design, Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) concrete was made to have a target mean strength of 30 N/mm2 with not more than 30 mm of slump. Having the same workability, OPC concrete with 0%, 1% and 2% of soft drink can aluminium fibre was prepared based on weight of cement. The specimens were tested for compressive strength and flexural strength. Laboratory test results based on short term investigation reveals that the compressive strength and flexural strength of concrete containing fibre are higher than of normal OPC concrete. Among two volume fractions, concrete with 1% of soft drink can fibre have performed better result in compressive strength and flexural strength compared with 2% amount of soft drink can fibre. The optimum proportion of aluminium fibre to be added in the concrete as fibre reinforcement is 1% fibre content by weight of cement which gave all the positive response from all the tests conducted.

  18. Quantification of Sugars in Soft Drinks and Fruit Juices by Density ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The amount of sugar in soft drinks and fruit juices has been quantified by density, refractometric and infrared spectroscopic methods. Density and refractometric methods can be used to obtain only the total amount of sugar. However, infrared spectroscopy distinguishes itself as a fast and reliable method for quantitative ...

  19. Alcohol consumption, heavy drinking, and mortality: rethinking the j-shaped curve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plunk, Andrew D; Syed-Mohammed, Husham; Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia; Bierut, Laura J; Grucza, Richard A

    2014-02-01

    High average daily consumption of alcohol has been associated with elevated mortality risk, but more moderate consumption, relative to abstinence, has been associated with reduced mortality risk. However, average daily consumption can be complicated to assess, limiting its usefulness in both research and clinical practice. There are also concerns that average consumption fails to capture the risk associated with certain drinking patterns, such as heavy episodic drinking. This study assessed mortality associated with drinking pattern, operationalized as the frequency of both heavy and nonheavy drinking occasions. Data from the 1997 to 2001 administrations of the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS; n = 111,511) were paired with the current release of the NHIS Linked Mortality Files, which provided mortality follow-up data through the end of 2006. We estimated the impact of drinking pattern on all-cause mortality, operationalized as the frequency of heavy (5+ drinks) and nonheavy (drinks) drinking occasions. Other covariates in the model included survey wave, sex, age, race/ethnicity, ratio of family income to poverty threshold, educational attainment, body mass index, and smoking status. Over a third of past-year drinkers reported heavy drinking. Mortality risk increased steadily as heavy drinking frequency increased; daily heavy drinkers exhibited an almost 2-fold risk of death compared with abstainers (p drinking was associated with decreased mortality, similar to the "J-shaped curve" highlighted in past research on alcohol mortality; this potential protective effect peaked around 2 nonheavy occasions per week. Any heavy drinking likely elevates mortality risk, and substantial health benefits could be realized by reducing heavy drinking occasions or limiting overall drinking. Heavy and nonheavy drinking frequencies are valid targets for clinical screening and could be helpful in assessing risk and promoting less harmful drinking behavior. Copyright © 2013

  20. The Role of Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption in Adolescent Obesity: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Susan

    2008-01-01

    Soft drink consumption has increased by 300% in the past 20 years, and 56-85% of children in school consume at least one soft drink daily. The odds ratio of becoming obese among children increases 1.6 times for each additional can or glass of sugar-sweetened drink consumed beyond their usual daily intake of the beverage. Soft drinks currently…

  1. Erosive Effect of Different Soft Drinks on Enamel Surface in vitro: Application of Stylus Profilometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barac, Radomir; Gasic, Jovanka; Trutic, Natasa; Sunaric, Slavica; Popovic, Jelena; Djekic, Petar; Radenkovic, Goran; Mitic, Aleksandar

    2015-01-01

    To assess the erosive potential of various soft drinks by measuring initial pH and titratable acidity (TA) and to evaluate enamel surface roughness using different exposure times. The initial pH of the soft drinks (group 1: Coca-Cola; group 2: orange juice; group 3: Cedevita; group 4: Guarana, and group 5: strawberry yoghurt) was measured using a pH meter, and TA was measured by titration with NaOH. Enamel samples (n = 96), cut from unerupted human third molars, were randomly assigned to 6 groups: experimental (groups 1-5) and control (filtered saliva). The samples were exposed to 50 ml of soft drinks for 15, 30 and 60 min, 3 times daily, during 10 days. Between immersions, the samples were kept in filtered saliva. Enamel surface roughness was measured by diamond stylus profilometer using the following roughness parameters: Ra, Rq, Rz, and Ry. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA, Tukey's post hoc and Student-Newman-Keuls post hoc tests. The pH values of the soft drinks ranged from 2.52 (Guarana) to 4.21 (strawberry yoghurt). Orange juice had the highest TA, requiring 5.70 ml of NaOH to reach pH 7.0, whereas Coca-Cola required only 1.87 ml. Roughness parameters indicated that Coca-Cola had the strongest erosion potential during the 15 min of exposure, while Coca-Cola and orange juice were similar during 30- and 60-min exposures. There were no significant differences related to all exposure times between Guarana and Cedevita. Strawberry yoghurt did not erode the enamel surface regardless of the exposure time. All of the tested soft drinks except yoghurt were erosive. Erosion of the enamel surfaces exposed to Coca-Cola, orange juice, Cedevita, and Guarana was directly proportional to the exposure time. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. The structure of the soft drinks supply at the market of Yekaterinburg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. Solov'eva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays research of the regional markets and consumers’ preferences in the soft drinks segment are actual. This is associated with the saturation of the market and increasing competition within the segment. The research of the market is the base for the assessments of the prospects for the certain enterprise and for the sector development. Analysis of the assortment of the made and sold at the Yekaterin-burg soft drinks was realized. The article shows the position of the good relative to the all-marketing positions in the region. It has been established that assortment of the soft drinks is characterized by the diversity of the types and drinks on the basis of the aromatic staff prevail (41,6%, juice and juice-contained beverages (28,2%, mineral and drinkable bottled water (21,4% with different trademarks prevail. Leaders of the market are two big foreign companies. “Coca-Cola Company” with trademarks “Coca-cola”, “Fanta”, “Sprite”, “Nestea”, “Dobriy”, “Bon Aqua” and the company “Pepsi Co Russia” representing trademarks “Pepsi” “Mirinda”, “7up”, “Tonus”, “Russkiy Dar”. According to strength saturation with carbon dioxide medium carbonated drinks (40,4% and strong carbonated drinks (39,1% prevail. The light carbonated drinks are much smaller and account 13,5%, and non-carbonated drinks are the smallest part of the market (6,96%. The reason of that structure that the carbon dioxide is actively used by the soft drinks producers as a preservative, regulator of the acidity and antioxidant. The research of the package show that the producers use polymeric materials, metal, glass and combined pack. The main trends of the market are increasing consumer requirements to the quality and information about the proposed drinks, the growth of the number of consumers that attend to the ingredients and the impact of “the healthy food choice” on the market.

  3. Consumption of Energy Drinks among Undergraduate Students in Taiwan: Related Factors and Associations with Substance Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yen-Jung; Peng, Ching-Yi; Lan, Yu-Ching

    2017-08-24

    Background : This study aimed to investigate the consumption of energy drinks and associated factors among undergraduate students in Taiwan. Methods : Data came from a cross-sectional survey conducted in 2015. Eligible participants completed a self-administered questionnaire assessing use and perceptions of energy drinks, tobacco, alcohol, and betel nut. Results : Among 606 surveyed undergraduate students, 24.8% reported consuming energy drinks in the past 30 days. The major reasons for use included keeping alert at work (48.7%), being curious about the products (32.0%), enjoying the flavor (31.3%), or preparing for school exams (26.7%). Among energy drink users, half have never read the nutrition label, and 15.3% reported that they had ever mixed energy drinks with alcohol. Most participants showed negative attitudes toward using tobacco, alcohol, or betel nut, while 54.1% reported positive attitudes toward consuming energy drinks. Being male, living away from parents' home, tobacco use, alcohol use, and positive perceptions of energy drink's effects significantly predicted energy drink consumption. Conclusions : In addition to exploring motivations of energy drink consumption in undergraduate students in Taiwan, the study findings indicated that energy drink consumption might relate to the use of tobacco and alcohol, which should be taken into account in substance use prevention programs.

  4. Tax policy, adult binge drinking, and youth alcohol consumption in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuan, Ziming; Nelson, Toben F; Heeren, Timothy; Blanchette, Jason; Nelson, David E; Gruenewald, Paul; Naimi, Timothy S

    2013-10-01

    Prior research attributed youth alcohol consumption to the attitudes and drinking patterns among adults. Yet at a population level, few have examined the relationship between state-level adult binge drinking prevalence and youth drinking behaviors, or whether tax policy plays a role in this relationship. We analyzed 6 biennial surveys (1999 to 2009) of individual-level youth alcohol use and related behaviors from state-based Youth Risk Behavior Surveys and corresponding years of state-level adult binge drinking prevalence from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. We employed logistic regression with generalized estimating equations method to assess the extent to which state adult binge drinking predicted individual-level youth drinking outcomes and examined the role of alcohol taxes in that relationship. Population-aggregate analyses based on 194 state-year strata showed a positive correlation between state adult binge drinking and youth binge drinking (Pearson r = 0.40, p drinking outcomes, a 5 percentage point increase in binge drinking prevalence among adults was associated with a 12% relative increase in the odds of alcohol use (adjusted OR = 1.12, 95% CI: 1.08, 1.16). Taxes were strongly inversely related with adult and youth drinking measures, and the effect of tax on youth drinking was attenuated after controlling for adult binge drinking. Both tax and adult binge drinking are strong predictors of youth drinking. Tax may affect youth drinking through its effect on adult alcohol consumption. Implementing effective alcohol policies to reduce excessive drinking in the general population is an important strategy to reduce youth drinking. Copyright © 2013 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  5. Sports/energy drinks consumption among young athletes in Kano ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Athletes who had 'ever' tried a sport drink were significantly higher (p<0.05) than those who had 'never' tasted the drink. Main reasons for using such drinks for regular users varied across the selected groups of athletes and included obtaining energy and boosting performance while doing sport. Most athletes claimed to be ...

  6. Interactions Between Energy Drink Consumption and Sleep Problems: Associations with Alcohol Use Among Young Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmorstein, Naomi R

    2017-09-01

    Background: Energy drink consumption and sleep problems are both associated with alcohol use among adolescents. In addition, caffeine consumption (including energy drinks) is associated with sleep problems. However, information about how these three constructs may interact is limited. The goal of this study was to examine potential interactions between energy drink consumption and sleep problems in the concurrent prediction of alcohol use among young adolescents. Coffee and soda consumption were also examined for comparison. Methods: Participants from the Camden Youth Development Study were included (n = 127; mean age = 13.1; 68% Hispanic, 29% African American) and questionnaire measures of frequency of caffeinated beverage consumption (energy drinks, coffee, and soda), sleep (initial insomnia, sleep disturbances, daytime fatigue, and sleep duration), and alcohol consumption were used. Regression analyses were conducted to examine interactions between caffeinated beverage consumption and sleep in the concurrent prediction of alcohol use. Results: Energy drink consumption interacted with initial insomnia and daytime fatigue to concurrently predict particularly frequent alcohol use among those with either of these sleep-related problems and energy drink consumption. The pattern of results for coffee consumption was similar for insomnia but reached only a trend level of significance. Results of analyses examining soda consumption were nonsignificant. Conclusions: Young adolescents who both consume energy drinks and experience initial insomnia and/or daytime fatigue are at particularly high risk for alcohol use. Coffee consumption appears to be associated with similar patterns. Longitudinal research is needed to explain the developmental pathways by which these associations emerge, as well as mediators and moderators of these associations.

  7. Rehydration with soft drink-like beverages exacerbates dehydration and worsens dehydration-associated renal injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Arroyo, Fernando E; Cristóbal, Magdalena; Arellano-Buendía, Abraham S; Osorio, Horacio; Tapia, Edilia; Soto, Virgilia; Madero, Magdalena; Lanaspa, Miguel A; Roncal-Jiménez, Carlos; Bankir, Lise; Johnson, Richard J; Sánchez-Lozada, Laura-Gabriela

    2016-07-01

    Recurrent dehydration, such as commonly occurs with manual labor in tropical environments, has been recently shown to result in chronic kidney injury, likely through the effects of hyperosmolarity to activate both vasopressin and aldose reductase-fructokinase pathways. The observation that the latter pathway can be directly engaged by simple sugars (glucose and fructose) leads to the hypothesis that soft drinks (which contain these sugars) might worsen rather than benefit dehydration associated kidney disease. Recurrent dehydration was induced in rats by exposure to heat (36°C) for 1 h/24 h followed by access for 2 h to plain water (W), a 11% fructose-glucose solution (FG, same composition as typical soft drinks), or water sweetened with noncaloric stevia (ST). After 4 wk plasma and urine samples were collected, and kidneys were examined for oxidative stress, inflammation, and injury. Recurrent heat-induced dehydration with ad libitum water repletion resulted in plasma and urinary hyperosmolarity with stimulation of the vasopressin (copeptin) levels and resulted in mild tubular injury and renal oxidative stress. Rehydration with 11% FG solution, despite larger total fluid intake, resulted in greater dehydration (higher osmolarity and copeptin levels) and worse renal injury, with activation of aldose reductase and fructokinase, whereas rehydration with stevia water had opposite effects. In animals that are dehydrated, rehydration acutely with soft drinks worsens dehydration and exacerbates dehydration associated renal damage. These studies emphasize the danger of drinking soft drink-like beverages as an attempt to rehydrate following dehydration. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  8. Young people's alcohol consumption in public drinking places: reasoned behaviour or related to the situation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knibbe, R A; Oostveen, T; van de Goor, I

    1991-11-01

    Two contrasting perspectives are used to study correlates of young people's (16-25 years) alcohol consumption in public drinking places. One perspective is the theory of reasoned behaviour, or the Fishbein-Ajzen model, extended with self-efficacy. The other perspective assumes that exposure to drinking situations and aspects of the actual drinking situation (size of drinking group and group pressure) determine young people's alcohol consumption. Multiple regression analysis shows that variables indicating situational influences are correlated with the alcohol consumption of young men and women, even when controlling for the Fishbein-Ajzen variables. Among young men frequency of visiting public drinking places contributes more to the explained variance than the four Fishbein-Ajzen variables together. Young people's alcohol consumption in public drinking places appears to be less fully controlled by alcohol-specific beliefs, norms and perceived skills than the Fishbein-Ajzen model assumes. The Fishbein-Ajzen variables are only weakly correlated with the variables indicating situational influences. It is concluded that, from the individual's perspective, the influence of situational factors means that part of his consumption is determined by more or less accidental circumstances like the opportunities to drink, the size of the drinking group and group pressure.

  9. Consumption of Energy Drinks among Undergraduate Students in Taiwan: Related Factors and Associations with Substance Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Jung Chang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study aimed to investigate the consumption of energy drinks and associated factors among undergraduate students in Taiwan. Methods: Data came from a cross-sectional survey conducted in 2015. Eligible participants completed a self-administered questionnaire assessing use and perceptions of energy drinks, tobacco, alcohol, and betel nut. Results: Among 606 surveyed undergraduate students, 24.8% reported consuming energy drinks in the past 30 days. The major reasons for use included keeping alert at work (48.7%, being curious about the products (32.0%, enjoying the flavor (31.3%, or preparing for school exams (26.7%. Among energy drink users, half have never read the nutrition label, and 15.3% reported that they had ever mixed energy drinks with alcohol. Most participants showed negative attitudes toward using tobacco, alcohol, or betel nut, while 54.1% reported positive attitudes toward consuming energy drinks. Being male, living away from parents’ home, tobacco use, alcohol use, and positive perceptions of energy drink’s effects significantly predicted energy drink consumption. Conclusions: In addition to exploring motivations of energy drink consumption in undergraduate students in Taiwan, the study findings indicated that energy drink consumption might relate to the use of tobacco and alcohol, which should be taken into account in substance use prevention programs.

  10. Increased calorie intake at a specific mid-morning meal and increased intake of soft drinks are strongly associated with obesity in Mexican rural women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caamaño, María C; Gutierrez, Jessica; García, Olga P; Ronquillo, Dolores; Martinez, Guadalupe; Rosado, Jorge L

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated the dietary habits and foods that are associated with obesity in women from a rural area in Mexico. Anthropometry and body fat were measured in 580 women. Participants answered a socioeconomic and a food-frequency questionnaire; a subsample (n = 80) also answered three 24-hour-recall questionnaires. Results showed that obese women consumed more soft drinks and fat than did overweight and normal-weight women. Women who consumed more energy during a mid-morning meal had higher BMI. A strategy to decrease the prevalence of obesity in rural areas could be to encourage limiting the consumption of soft drinks and eliminating or reducing caloric intake at a mid-morning meal.

  11. Survey on Consumption Behaviour of Energy Drink Among University Students: Example of Afyon Kocatepe University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levent Şen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study is to investigate the consumption behaviour and consumption awareness of energy drink among university students. Data were collected from 750 students in Afyon Kocatepe University by questionnaire which is improved by writers of this article. Tests were done with SPSS end of the research. Chi-square tests were done in %95 confidence interval to determine the relation of consumption and awareness of energy drink among the university students with gender, age range, school which is graduated, monthly expense, smoking and use of alcohol, the most consumed beverage types, and degree of licence. According to search results, it was found that energy drink consumption behaviour did not change with regard to the different age. On the other hand, male college graduates compared to other types of high school, it was determined that 701 TL per month and over spenders in relation to the lower income groups consumed more energy drinks . In addition, it was found that the groups that use alcohol, smokers, coffee drinkers and undergraduate students were consumed much more energy drinks than the others. When the answers measured the energy drink consumption behaviour of the students participated in the survey were considered, it was concluded that the awareness of the energy drink consumption was not high enough.

  12. Sugary drink consumption and dental caries in New South Wales teenagers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, J; Byun, R; Blinkhorn, A; Johnson, G

    2015-06-01

    The consumption of water, milk and various sugary drinks and their relationship with the caries experience of a random sample of teenagers aged 14 to 15 years living in New South Wales, Australia was investigated. Data were obtained from both clinical and questionnaire components of the NSW Teen Dental Survey, 2010. The analyses allowed for various demographic and behavioural risk factors using caries experience (DMFT >0) and mean DMFT as the key outcome variables. Males were more likely than females to consume large volumes of sugary drinks. Consuming two or more glasses of sugary drinks per day led to significantly increased caries experience amongst this sample of 14 and 15 year olds. Factors found to be associated with elevated sugary drink consumption included family income, gender, and mother's education level. There is a strong correlation between increased caries experience of NSW teenagers and high levels of consumption of sugary drinks. © 2015 Australian Dental Association.

  13. PREPARATION OF THE CORE OF WALNUT FOR USE IN THE COMPOSITION OF SOFT DRINKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Dyakonova

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In work it is considered conditions of preparation of a core of the Walnut for the following use as a prescription component of soft drinks of improvement. It is provided the analysis of patent and literary source in which are explained the existing productions technology of soft drinks on the basis of nut raw materials. It is considered influence on fatty acids compound of nucleus of Walnut by high temperatures, frying at 200 °C, damp-thermal treatment, by soaking in water and boiling during 60 seconds. It is scientifically argues  that the most optimum method of preparation of a core of the Walnut which allows to inactivate an undesirable microflora and to raise physical and chemical indicators of nut is the method of damp-thermal processing of raw materials. It is designated influence of the long-lived soaking on durability of a core of nut and content of the free phosphorus in its structure which characterizes amount of phytin substances in raw materials. It is proved that the long-lived soaking destroys complexes of phytin acid with phosphorus release. After 10 clocks of soaking, the amount of the free phosphorus in the studied exemplars of the Walnut increases to 55 %. It is established technological parameters of preparation of nut extract by selection of its optimum hydro module. It is developed nut drink with the balanced composition of fatty acids. It was investigated chemical composition of nut drink which is characterized by content of 40 % of fats, 18 % ‒ proteins and near 37 % of carbohydrates. It is analyzed possible influence of nut drink on the needs of a human body for biologically valuable substances, and established that the developed drink satisfies the need of an organism for essence of fatty acids more than for 30 %. It is carried out the production approbation of the developed product that confirms practicality of the designed technology and high organoleptic rates of nut drink.

  14. Preliminary study on aluminum-air battery applying disposable soft drink cans and Arabic gum polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alva, S.; Sundari, R.; Wijaya, H. F.; Majlan, E. H.; Sudaryanto; Arwati, I. G. A.; Sebayang, D.

    2017-09-01

    This study is in relation to preliminary investigation of aluminium-air battery using disposable soft drink cans as aluminium source for anode. The cathode uses commercial porous carbon sheet to trap oxygen from air. This work applies a commercial cashing to place carbon cathode, electrolyte, Arabic gum polymer, and aluminium anode in a sandwich-like arrangement to form the aluminium-air battery. The Arabic gum as electrolyte polymer membrane protects anode surface from corrosion due to aluminium oxide formation. The study result shows that the battery discharge test using constant current loading of 0.25 mA yields battery capacity of 0.437 mAh with over 100 minute battery life times at 4M NaOH electrolyte and 20 % Arabic gum polymer as the best performance in this investigation. This study gives significant advantage in association with beneficiation of disposable soft drink cans from municipal solid waste as aluminium source for battery anode.

  15. Consumption of energy drinks among lebanese youth: a pilot study on the prevalence and side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itany, Manal; Diab, Batoul; Rachidi, Samar; Awada, Sanaa; Al Hajje, Amal; Bawab, Wafaa; Salameh, Pascale

    2014-09-01

    The new millennium has been together with a variety of synthetic and caffeinated high-energy drinks targeting the youth market. Energy drinks raise the level of energy and their consumption has been increased significantly worldwide. This research aimed to determine patterns of energy drink consumption and to assess the prevalence of adverse side effects among energy drink users. A pilot cross-sectional study survey was undertaken on students aged between 13 and 30 years in private and public schools and universities in Lebanon over 5 months. A self-administered questionnaire was used inquiring about sociodemographic characteristics, consumption patterns, attitudes and beliefs about energy drinks. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted. Data was analyzed using SPSS 17. We studied 1500 students (mean age: 18.92 ± 1.85; 51.3% were males). The overall prevalence of energy drinks consumption was 63.6% (60.5% were males), among which 50.5% used alcoholic energy drinks. Respondents indicated that most consumed energy drinks were "Red Bull" and "Boom Boom" (70.9% and 51.5% respectively). In total, 64.5% of participants believed the effect of these drinks in energizing the body, and 72.7% believed that they can stimulate intellectual capacities. In addition, 29.6% of consumers experienced at least one adverse effect, where tachycardia was reported in 21.1% of cases. On the other hand, desired effects felt after consumption were mostly pleasure (33.8%). Males had a 3-time more risk of consuming such drinks compared to females (OR: 0.381, P energy drinks consumption and regions outside Beirut (OR: 1.401, P: 0.006; 95% CI: 1.103-1.781), medical field of work (OR: 0.376, P: 0.010; 95% CI: 0.179-0.790) and higher personal income (OR: 1.317, P energy drinks consumption among youth. The current results highlight the importance of education to prevent the consumption of energy drinks in excessive quantities and modifying some wrong perceptions regarding the benefits

  16. Assessment methods for alcohol consumption, prevalence of high risk drinking and harm: a sensitivity analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rehm, J; Greenfield, T K; Walsh, G; Xie, X; Robson, L; Single, E

    1999-01-01

    .... The main objective of the present study was to compare three widely used methods for assessing alcohol consumption with respect to resulting prevalence estimates for high risk drinking and harm...

  17. The Impact of Social Media on Consumer Demand: The Case of Carbonated Soft Drink Market

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yizao; Lopez, Rigoberto A.

    2013-01-01

    This article estimates the impact of social media exposure on consumer valuation of product characteristics. We apply the Berry, Levinsohn and Pakes (1995) model of market equilibrium to sales data for 18 carbonated soft drink brands sold in 12 cities over 17 months (June 2011 to October 2012) and social media conversations on Facebook, Twitter and YouTube. Empirical results show that social media exposure is a significant driver of consumer behavior through altering evaluation of product cha...

  18. Detrimental effects of energy drink consumption on platelet and endothelial function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthley, Matthew I; Prabhu, Anisha; De Sciscio, Paolo; Schultz, Carlee; Sanders, Prashanthan; Willoughby, Scott R

    2010-02-01

    Energy drink consumption has been anecdotally linked with sudden cardiac death and, more recently, myocardial infarction. As myocardial infarction is strongly associated with both platelet and endothelial dysfunction, we tested the hypothesis that energy drink consumption alters platelet and endothelial function. Fifty healthy volunteers (34 male, aged 22+/-2 years) participated in the study. Platelet aggregation and endothelial function were tested before, and 1 hour after, the consumption of 250 mL (1 can) of a sugar-free energy drink. Platelet function was assessed by adenosine diphosphate-induced (1 micromol/L) optical aggregometry in platelet-rich plasma. Endothelial function was assessed via changes in peripheral arterial tonometry and expressed as the reactive hyperemia index (RHI). Compared with baseline values, there was a significant increase in platelet aggregation following energy drink consumption, while no change was observed with control (13.7+/-3.7% vs 0.3+/-0.8% aggregation, respectively, P consumption (-0.33+/-0.13 vs 0.07+/-0.12 RHI [control], P consumption, compared with control (P consumption. Energy drink consumption acutely increases platelet aggregation and decreases endothelial function in healthy young adults. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Healthy nutrition and health-washing corporate discourses across three organizations in the fast food and soft drinks industry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mara Stan

    2017-01-01

    The study inquires about the means by which corporate discourse formulates, invokes and challenges scientific research by examining three case studies of organizations in the fast food and soft drinks industry...

  20. Decline in age of drinking onset in Ireland, gender and per capita alcohol consumption.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Smyth, Bobby P

    2011-01-01

    We sought to examine the fall in age of first drinking in Ireland and to determine whether there were gender differences. We also aimed to determine whether there was a relationship between the per capita alcohol consumption evident when people entered later adolescence and their age of drinking onset.

  1. Morphological effects of long-term consumption of energy drinks on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Morphological effects of long-term consumption of energy drinks on the intracranial visual relay centres namely superior colliculus and lateral geniculate body of adult ... The rats in the treated group received energy drinks and distilled water alternatively on a daily basis for 10hrs and 14hrs liberally in thirty days, while the ...

  2. Surface roughness and translucency of resin composites after immersion in coffee and soft drink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gouvea, Cresus V Depes; Bedran, Luciane M; de Faria, Márcia Aguiar; Cunha-Ferreira, Neli

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro changes in color and surface roughness of different composite resins when subjected to cycles of immersion in three coloring solutions: coffee, soft drink, and coffee plus soft drink. Sixty test specimens were made of each material, all in shade A3. Translucency and initial roughness measurements were taken by spectrophotometer and roughness meter. Then the samples were submitted to three cycles per day of exposure to potentially coloring solutions for a period of 15 days. Final roughness and translucency measurements were taken, the mean and standard deviation calculated for each resin and each variable. Data were initially analyzed by the one away ANOVA test, which showed significant differences between groups (p<0.05). Subsequently the post hoc and Tukey tests were performed with level of significance of 0.05. The results showed that the coloring substances altered translucency and surface roughness. DURAFILL resin immersed in the soft drink (M3) was the least pigmented, while CONCEPT resin immersed in the coffee (M2) showed the the least loss of surface smoothness. The Spearman and Pearson coefficients were 0.38 and 0.04 respectively, signifying that there is no correlation between roughness and translucency.

  3. Energy drink consumption is associated with anxiety in Australian young adult males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trapp, Georgina S A; Allen, Karina; O'Sullivan, Therese A; Robinson, Monique; Jacoby, Peter; Oddy, Wendy H

    2014-05-01

    Energy drinks are predominantly targeted to young adult consumers; however, there has been limited research into their effects on psychological functioning in this demographic group. This study examined cross-sectional associations between energy drink consumption and mental health in a population-based sample of young adults participating in the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study. We used self-report questionnaires to assess energy drink consumption and mental health (Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21; DASS-21) at the 20-year cohort follow-up. In the regression analyses, we considered associations between energy drink consumption (mL/day) and continuous DASS-21 scores, adjusting for sociodemographic variables, alcohol and drug use, physical activity, body mass index (BMI), and dietary intake. Our sample included 502 males and 567 females (mean age 20 ± 3 years). After adjusting for potential confounding factors and controlling for coexisting mental health problems, energy drink consumption (per 100 mL/day) was significantly associated with anxiety (but not depression or stress), and this relationship was found only in males (β = 0.32; 95% CI = 0.05, 0.58). Our study found that energy drink consumption was associated with increased anxiety in young adult males. Further research into the possible contribution of energy drink use to the development of mental health problems in young adults is needed. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. [Preliminary Study on Cognitive Determinants Influencing Argentine Youngsters towards Intensive Alcohol Consumption or Binge Drinking].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Raúl Ángel; Luque, Leticia Elizabeth; Tomas, María Teresa Cortés; Tort, Begoña Espejo; Giménez, José Antonio

    2012-06-01

    The current alcohol consumption pattern among youngsters and adolescents, characterized by heavy drinking during a few hours, several days a week, or binge drinking (binge drinking, concentrated drinking or long-gulp drinking) is a reality in many countries, including Spain and Argentina. To describe cognitive determinants in the behavior regarding excessive alcohol consumption (binge drinking) in 16-25 year subjects in Argentina. An ad hoc survey was conducted to assess cognitive determinants influencing heavy alcohol consumption, according to I. Ajzen's guidelines. There are significant statistic differences between the group of heavy drinkers and the group that does not reach such level of consumption in relation to behavioral beliefs, and control beliefs. Both groups recognized consumption is noxious and not safe; no differences were observed concerning normative beliefs. There is a complex interaction mong attitudinal factors, motivational and behavior control factors. Instruments require greater sensitivity and further in-depth analysis is required regardomg short, middle and long consequences generated by binge drinking and its role as a positive or negative reinforment. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  5. Temporal changes in sugar-sweetened soft drink intake and variation across municipalities in the Capital Region of Denmark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamille Almer Bernsdorf, MSc

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to examine the changes in sugar-sweetened soft drink intake across the Capital Region of Denmark from 2007 to 2013 and to examine the association between intake and neighbourhood socioeconomic status. The study included data from three health surveys in 2007 (n = 30,426, 2010 (n = 42,218 and 2013 (n = 34,330 in the Capital Region of Denmark. Frequency of soft drink intake was derived from questionnaires among residents aged 25–79 years and linked with information from central registers. Municipality social groups (MSG 1–4 of decreasing affluence were defined as a composite measure. Logistic regression analyses were conducted for individuals with an appropriate soft drink intake (soft drink intake (≥3 times/week. The proportion of individuals reporting an appropriate soft drink intake increased by 71% during 2007–2013 (p < 0.0001. A corresponding decrease was found in the proportion of individuals reporting a frequent soft drink intake. Compared to MSG 1, odds of an appropriate soft drink intake were significantly lower in MSG 3–4: OR = 0.87 (95%CI 0.83–0.91 and OR = 0.89 (95%CI 0.85–0.92, respectively. Compared to MSG 1, odds of a frequent soft drink intake were significantly higher in MSG 3–4: OR = 1.24 (95%CI 1.63–1.31 and 1.17 (95%CI 1.10–1.25, respectively. A significant interaction between MSG and educational level was found among individuals reporting a frequent soft drink intake (p = 0.02. The results show an encouraging reduction in frequency of soft drink intake among capital residents in the period of 2007–2013. A social gradient was observed in soft drink intake across MSG.

  6. Temporal changes in sugar-sweetened soft drink intake and variation across municipalities in the Capital Region of Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernsdorf, Kamille Almer; Lau, Cathrine Juel; Robinson, Kirstine; Toft, Ulla; Andreasen, Anne Helms; Glümer, Charlotte

    2016-12-01

    We aimed to examine the changes in sugar-sweetened soft drink intake across the Capital Region of Denmark from 2007 to 2013 and to examine the association between intake and neighbourhood socioeconomic status. The study included data from three health surveys in 2007 (n = 30,426), 2010 (n = 42,218) and 2013 (n = 34,330) in the Capital Region of Denmark. Frequency of soft drink intake was derived from questionnaires among residents aged 25-79 years and linked with information from central registers. Municipality social groups (MSG) 1-4 of decreasing affluence were defined as a composite measure. Logistic regression analyses were conducted for individuals with an appropriate soft drink intake (< once/week) and for individuals with a frequent soft drink intake (≥ 3 times/week). The proportion of individuals reporting an appropriate soft drink intake increased by 71% during 2007-2013 (p < 0.0001). A corresponding decrease was found in the proportion of individuals reporting a frequent soft drink intake. Compared to MSG 1, odds of an appropriate soft drink intake were significantly lower in MSG 3-4: OR = 0.87 (95%CI 0.83-0.91) and OR = 0.89 (95%CI 0.85-0.92), respectively. Compared to MSG 1, odds of a frequent soft drink intake were significantly higher in MSG 3-4: OR = 1.24 (95%CI 1.63-1.31) and 1.17 (95%CI 1.10-1.25), respectively. A significant interaction between MSG and educational level was found among individuals reporting a frequent soft drink intake (p = 0.02). The results show an encouraging reduction in frequency of soft drink intake among capital residents in the period of 2007-2013. A social gradient was observed in soft drink intake across MSG.

  7. Average Weekly Alcohol Consumption: Drinking Percentiles for American College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meilman, Philip W.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Reports a study that examined the average number of alcoholic drinks that college students (N=44,433) consumed per week. Surveys indicated that most students drank little or no alcohol on an average weekly basis. Only about 10% of the students reported consuming an average of 15 drinks or more per week. (SM)

  8. [Methodological issues in the measurement of alcohol consumption: the importance of drinking patterns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia Martín, José L; González, M José; Galán, Iñaki

    2014-08-01

    Measurement of alcohol consumption is essential for proper investigation of its effects on health. However, its estimation is extremely complex, because of the diversity of forms of alcohol consumption and their highly heterogeneous classification. Moreover, each form may have different effects on health; therefore, not considering the most important drinking patterns when estimating alcohol intake could mask the important role of consumption patterns in these effects. All these issues make it very difficult to compare the results of different studies and to establish consistent associations for understanding the true effects of alcohol consumption, both overall and specific to each drinking pattern. This article reviews the main methods and sources of information available in Spain for estimating the most important aspects of alcohol consumption, as well as the most frequent methodological problems encountered in the measurement and classification of drinking patterns.

  9. Self-Control and Implicit Drinking Identity as Predictors of Alcohol Consumption, Problems, and Cravings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgren, Kristen P; Neighbors, Clayton; Westgate, Erin; Salemink, Elske

    2014-01-01

    Objective: We investigated trait and alcohol-specific self-control as unique predictors and moderators of the relation between implicit drinking identity associations and drinking. Method: Three hundred undergraduates completed a drinking identity Implicit Association Test (IAT), trait and alcohol self-control questionnaires, and alcohol consumption, problems, and cravings inventories. Results: Regression analyses tested for unique effects of predictors and for Self-Control × IAT interactions. Each predictor accounted for unique variance in consumption, but there was no evidence of moderation effects. Both types of self-control, but not IAT scores, accounted for unique variance in problems. A Trait Self-Control × Implicit Drinking interaction accounted for excess zeros in problems, with a greater likelihood of not having alcohol problems among individuals with low implicit identity who had higher versus lower trait self-control. Each predictor accounted for unique variance in cravings. A Trait Self-Control × IAT interaction was also found, indicating that implicit drinking identity was a stronger predictor of cravings among those with lower versus higher trait self-control. Conclusions: Results are partially consistent with previous research: Both types of self-control and drinking identity associations predicted unique variance in drinking, and moderation effects were observed for trait self-control and drinking identity associations and two of the three drinking variables. Findings suggest that trait and alcohol-specific self-control and implicit drinking identity could be useful intervention targets. PMID:24650823

  10. Association between energy drink intake, sleep, stress, and suicidality in Korean adolescents: energy drink use in isolation or in combination with junk food consumption

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Park, Subin; Lee, Yeeun; Lee, Junghyun H

    2016-01-01

    .... This study aimed to investigate the associations between energy drink intake and mental health problems, in isolation or in combination with junk food consumption, in a nationally representative...

  11. Increased alcohol consumption, nonmedical prescription drug use, and illicit drug use are associated with energy drink consumption among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arria, Amelia M; Caldeira, Kimberly M; Kasperski, Sarah J; O'Grady, Kevin E; Vincent, Kathryn B; Griffiths, Roland R; Wish, Eric D

    2010-06-01

    This longitudinal study examined the prevalence and correlates of energy drink use among college students, and investigated its possible prospective associations with subsequent drug use, including nonmedical prescription drug use. Participants were 1,060 undergraduates from a large, public university who completed three annual interviews, beginning in their first year of college. Use of energy drinks, other caffeinated products, tobacco, alcohol, and other illicit and prescription drugs were assessed, as well as demographic and personality characteristics. Annual weighted prevalence of energy drink use was 22.6%(wt) and 36.5%(wt) in the second and third year of college, respectively. Compared to energy drink non-users, energy drink users had heavier alcohol consumption patterns, and were more likely to have used other drugs, both concurrently and in the preceding assessment. Regression analyses revealed that Year 2 energy drink use was significantly associated with Year 3 nonmedical use of prescription stimulants and prescription analgesics, but not with other Year 3 drug use, holding constant demographics, prior drug use, and other factors. A substantial and rapidly-growing proportion of college students use energy drinks. Energy drink users tend to have greater involvement in alcohol and other drug use and higher levels of sensation-seeking, relative to non-users of energy drinks. Prospectively, energy drink use has a unique relationship with nonmedical use of prescription stimulants and analgesics. More research is needed regarding the health risks associated with energy drink use in young adults, including their possible role in the development of substance use problems.

  12. Caffeinated cocktails: energy drink consumption, high-risk drinking, and alcohol-related consequences among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Mary Claire; McCoy, Thomas P; Rhodes, Scott D; Wagoner, Ashley; Wolfson, Mark

    2008-05-01

    The consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmED) is popular on college campuses in the United States. Limited research suggests that energy drink consumption lessens subjective intoxication in persons who also have consumed alcohol. This study examines the relationship between energy drink use, high-risk drinking behavior, and alcohol-related consequences. In Fall 2006, a Web-based survey was conducted in a stratified random sample of 4,271 college students from 10 universities in North Carolina. A total of 697 students (24% of past 30-day drinkers) reported consuming AmED in the past 30 days. Students who were male, white, intramural athletes, fraternity or sorority members or pledges, and younger were significantly more likely to consume AmED. In multivariable analyses, consumption of AmED was associated with increased heavy episodic drinking (6.4 days vs. 3.4 days on average; p Students who reported consuming AmED had significantly higher prevalence of alcohol-related consequences, including being taken advantage of sexually, taking advantage of another sexually, riding with an intoxicated driver, being physically hurt or injured, and requiring medical treatment (p student's reported typical alcohol consumption (interaction p = 0.027). Almost one-quarter of college student current drinkers reported mixing alcohol with energy drinks. These students are at increased risk for alcohol-related consequences, even after adjusting for the amount of alcohol consumed. Further research is necessary to understand this association and to develop targeted interventions to reduce risk.

  13. Truth About Energy Drinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... drinks?Energy drinks differ from soft drinks and sports drinks. Soft drinks have a lower amount of caffeine. They also contain sugar or fake sweeteners. Sports drinks can have vitamins, carbs, and sugar. You should ...

  14. Energy drinks consumption practices among medical students of a Private sector University of Karachi, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usman, Asma; Bhombal, Swaleha Tariq; Jawaid, Ambreen; Zaki, Samar

    2015-09-01

    Consumption of energy drinks has become popular among students and athletes over the past few years. To explore the phenomenon, a cross-sectional survey was conducted through a self-administered pilot-tested questionnaire. Frequency of energy drinks consumption was found to be 121(52%) in a sample of 233 medical students. Red bull was the most common brand consumed 101(43%). The major reasons reported for its usage were to gain/replenish energy by 36(15.4%), and studying for examination by 34(14.6%). Television was reported as the major source of information 153(66%) followed by friends 113(48%). There was a high frequency of energy drinks' consumption among medical students of a private university. There is a strong need to create awareness regarding these drinks, especially among adolescents and teenagers.

  15. Drinking Places: Young People and Cultures of Alcohol Consumption in Rural Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, Gill; Holloway, Sarah; Knell, Charlotte; Jayne, Mark

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on the contemporary British moral panic about young people and the consumption of alcohol in public space. Most of this public debate has focused on binge drinking in urban areas as a social problem. Here, we consider instead the role of alcohol in rural communities, and in particular alcohol consumption in domestic and informal…

  16. A survey of sports drinks consumption amongst adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Morgan, Maria Zeta; Fairchild, R.; Broughton, David James

    2016-01-01

    Background Sports drinks intended to improve performance and hydrate athletes taking part in endurance sport are being marketed to children, for whom these products are not intended. Popularity among children has grown exponentially. Worryingly they consume them socially, as well as during physical activity. Sports drinks are high in sugar and are acidic. Product marketing ignores the potential harmful effects of dental caries and erosion.\\ud \\ud Objective To investigate the use of sports dri...

  17. Soft drink, software and softening of teeth: a case report of tooth wear in the mixed dentition due to a combination of dental erosion and attrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gambon, D.L.; Brand, H.S.; Nieuw Amerongen, A.V.

    2010-01-01

    This case report describes a 9-year-old boy with severe tooth wear as a result of drinking a single glass of soft drink per day. This soft drink was consumed over a period of one to two hours, while he was gaming intensively on his computer. As a result, a deep bite, enamel cupping, sensitivity of

  18. Sports and energy drink consumption are linked to health-risk behaviours among young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Nicole; Laska, Melissa N; Story, Mary; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2015-10-01

    National data for the USA show increases in sports and energy drink consumption over the past decade with the largest increases among young adults aged 20-34 years. The present study aimed to identify sociodemographic factors and health-risk behaviours associated with sports and energy drink consumption among young adults. Cross-sectional analysis of survey data from the third wave of a cohort study (Project EAT-III: Eating and Activity in Teens and Young Adults). Regression models stratified on gender and adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics were used to examine associations of sports and energy drink consumption with eating behaviours, physical activity, media use, weight-control behaviours, sleep patterns and substance use. Participants completed baseline surveys in 1998-1999 as students at public secondary schools in Minneapolis/St. Paul, Minnesota, USA and the EAT-III surveys online or by mail in 2008-2009. The sample consisted of 2287 participants (55% female, mean age 25·3 years). Results showed 31·0% of young adults consumed sports drinks and 18·8% consumed energy drinks at least weekly. Among men and women, sports drink consumption was associated with higher sugar-sweetened soda and fruit juice intake, video game use and use of muscle-enhancing substances like creatine (P≤0·01). Energy drink consumption was associated with lower breakfast frequency and higher sugar-sweetened soda intake, video game use, use of unhealthy weight-control behaviours, trouble sleeping and substance use among men and women (Psports and energy drink consumption with other unhealthy behaviours in the design of programmes and services for young adults.

  19. College student employment and drinking: a daily study of work stressors, alcohol expectancies, and alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Adam B; Dodge, Kama D; Faurote, Eric J

    2010-07-01

    We examined the within-person relationships between daily work stressors and alcohol consumption over 14 consecutive days in a sample of 106 employed college students. Using a tension reduction theoretical framework, we predicted that exposure to work stressors would increase alcohol consumption by employed college students, particularly for men and those with stronger daily expectancies about the tension reducing properties of alcohol. After controlling for day of the week, we found that hours worked were positively related to number of drinks consumed. Workload was unrelated to alcohol consumption, and work-school conflict was negatively related to consumption, particularly when students expressed strong beliefs in the tension reducing properties of alcohol. There was no evidence that the effects of work stressors were moderated by sex. The results illustrate that employment during the academic year plays a significant role in college student drinking and suggest that the employment context may be an appropriate intervention site to address the problem of student drinking.

  20. Impact of substituting added sugar in carbonated soft drinks by intense sweeteners in young adults in the Netherlands: example of a benefit-risk approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriksen, Marieke A; Tijhuis, Mariken J; Fransen, Heidi P; Verhagen, Hans; Hoekstra, Jeljer

    2011-02-01

    Substituting added sugar in carbonated soft drinks with intense sweeteners may have potential beneficial, but also adverse health effects. This study assessed the benefits and risks associated with substituting added sugar in carbonated soft drinks with intense sweeteners in young adults in the Netherlands. A tiered approach was used analogous to the risk assessment paradigm, consisting of benefit and hazard identification, exposure assessment and finally benefit and risk characterization and comparison. Two extreme scenarios were compared in which all carbonated soft drinks were sweetened with either intense sweeteners or added sugar. National food consumption survey data were used, and intake of added sugar and intense sweeteners was calculated using the food composition table or analytical data for sweetener content. Reduction in dental caries and body weight were identified as benefits of substituting sugar. The mean difference in total energy intake between the scenarios was 542 kJ per day in men and 357 kJ per day in women, under the assumption that no compensation takes place. In the 100% sweetener scenario, the average BMI decreased 1.7 kg/m(2) in men and 1.3 kg/m(2) in women when compared to the 100% sugar scenario. Risks are negligible, as the intake of intense sweeteners remains below the ADI in the substitution scenario. Substitution of added sugar by intense sweeteners in carbonated soft drinks has beneficial effects on BMI and the reduction in dental caries, and does not seem to have adverse health effects in young adults, given the available knowledge and assumptions made.

  1. Introduction of soft drinks and processed juice in the diet of infants attending public day care centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovana Longo-Silva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Identifying at what age infants enrolled in public day care centers are introduced to soft drinks and industrialized juice, as well as comparing the nutritional composition of these goods with natural fruit juice. METHODS: A cross-sectional study with the mothers of 636 children (aged 0 to 36 months from nurseries of day care centers, who were asked questions about the age of feeding introduction. This study evaluated the proximate composition of soft drinks and artificial juice, comparing them with those of natural fruit juice regarding energy, sugar, fiber, vitamin C, and sodium values. The chemical composition of fruit juice was obtained by consulting the Table of Food Composition and, for industrialized drinks, the average nutritional information on the labels of the five most consumed product brands. RESULTS: The artificial drinks were consumed before the first year of life by more than half of the children studied, however, approximately 10% consumed them before the age of 6 months. With regard to the comparison among the drinks, artificial fruit juice beverages and soft drinks proved to contain from nine to 13 times higher amounts of sodium, and 15 times less vitamin C than natural juices. CONCLUSIONS: The introduction of soft drinks and industrialized juice in the diet of infants was inopportune and premature.. When compared to natural fruit juice, these have inferior nutritional composition, which suggests the urgent need for measures based on strategies for food and nutrition education in order to promote awareness and the maintenance of healthy eating habits.

  2. Introduction of soft drinks and processed juice in the diet of infants attending public day care centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo-Silva, Giovana; Toloni, Maysa Helena de Aguiar; de Menezes, Risia Cristina Egito; Asakura, Leiko; Oliveira, Maria Alice Araújo; Taddei, José Augusto de Aguiar Carrazedo

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Identifying at what age infants enrolled in public day care centers are introduced to soft drinks and industrialized juice, as well as comparing the nutritional composition of these goods with natural fruit juice. METHODS: A cross-sectional study with the mothers of 636 children (aged 0 to 36 months) from nurseries of day care centers, who were asked questions about the age of feeding introduction. This study evaluated the proximate composition of soft drinks and artificial juice, comparing them with those of natural fruit juice regarding energy, sugar, fiber, vitamin C, and sodium values. The chemical composition of fruit juice was obtained by consulting the Table of Food Composition and, for industrialized drinks, the average nutritional information on the labels of the five most consumed product brands. RESULTS: The artificial drinks were consumed before the first year of life by more than half of the children studied, however, approximately 10% consumed them before the age of 6 months. With regard to the comparison among the drinks, artificial fruit juice beverages and soft drinks proved to contain from nine to 13 times higher amounts of sodium, and 15 times less vitamin C than natural juices. CONCLUSIONS: The introduction of soft drinks and industrialized juice in the diet of infants was inopportune and premature.. When compared to natural fruit juice, these have inferior nutritional composition, which suggests the urgent need for measures based on strategies for food and nutrition education in order to promote awareness and the maintenance of healthy eating habits. PMID:25662561

  3. Interactions between genetic variants associated with adiposity traits and soft drinks in relation to longitudinal changes in body weight and waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nanna J; Ängquist, Lars; Larsen, Sofus C

    2016-01-01

    Background: Intake of sugar-sweetened beverages is associated with obesity, and this association may be modified by a genetic predisposition to obesity. Objective: We examined the interactions between a molecular genetic predisposition to various aspects of obesity and the consumption of soft...... drinks, which are a major part of sugar-sweetened beverages, in relation to changes in adiposity measures. Design: A total of 4765 individuals were included in the study. On the basis of 50 obesity- Associated single nucleotide polymorphisms that are associated with body mass index (BMI), waist...

  4. Cerebral effects of binge drinking: respective influences of global alcohol intake and consumption pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurage, P; Joassin, F; Speth, A; Modave, J; Philippot, P; Campanella, S

    2012-05-01

    Binge drinking is a major health concern, but its cerebral correlates are still largely unexplored. We aimed at exploring (1) the cognitive step at which these deficits appear and (2) the respective influence of global alcohol intake and specific binge-drinking consumption pattern on this deficit. On the basis of a screening phase (593 students), 80 participants were selected and distributed in four groups (control non-drinkers, daily drinkers, low and high binge drinkers). Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded while performing a simple visual oddball task. Binge drinking was associated with massive ERP impairments, starting at the perceptive level (P100/N100 and N170/P2) and spreading through the attentional (N2b/P3a) and decisional (P3b) ones. Moreover, these deficits were linked with global alcohol intake and also with the specific binge-drinking consumption pattern. Binge drinkers presented early and global ERP deficits, affecting basic and high-level cognitive stages. Moreover, we showed that binge drinking is deleterious for the brain because of alcohol consumption per se, and also because of its specific consumption pattern. The present results show that binge-drinking habits lead to striking brain consequences, particularly because of the repeated alternation between intense intoxications and withdrawal episodes. Copyright © 2011 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Portrayal of alcohol consumption in movies and drinking initiation in low-risk adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanewinkel, Reiner; Sargent, James D; Hunt, Kate; Sweeting, Helen; Engels, Rutger C M E; Scholte, Ron H J; Mathis, Federica; Florek, Ewa; Morgenstern, Matthis

    2014-06-01

    To investigate the hypothesis that exposure to alcohol consumption in movies affects the likelihood that low-risk adolescents will start to drink alcohol. Longitudinal study of 2346 adolescent never drinkers who also reported at baseline intent to not to do so in the next 12 months (mean age 12.9 years, SD = 1.08). Recruitment was carried out in 2009 and 2010 in 112 state-funded schools in Germany, Iceland, Italy, Netherlands, Poland, and Scotland. Exposure to movie alcohol consumption was estimated from 250 top-grossing movies in each country in the years 2004 to 2009. Multilevel mixed-effects Poisson regressions assessed the relationship between baseline exposure to movie alcohol consumption and initiation of trying alcohol, and binge drinking (≥ 5 consecutive drinks) at follow-up. Overall, 40% of the sample initiated alcohol use and 6% initiated binge drinking by follow-up. Estimated mean exposure to movie alcohol consumption was 3653 (SD = 2448) occurrences. After age, gender, family affluence, school performance, TV screen time, personality characteristics, and drinking behavior of peers, parents, and siblings were controlled for, exposure to each additional 1000 movie alcohol occurrences was significantly associated with increased relative risk for trying alcohol, incidence rate ratio = 1.05 (95% confidence interval, 1.02-1.08; P = .003), and for binge drinking, incidence rate ratio = 1.13 (95% confidence interval, 1.06-1.20; P movies is an independent predictor of drinking initiation, particularly for more risky patterns of drinking. This result was shown in a heterogeneous sample of European youths who had a low affinity for drinking alcohol at the time of exposure. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  6. Portrayal of Alcohol Consumption in Movies and Drinking Initiation in Low-Risk Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, James D.; Hunt, Kate; Sweeting, Helen; Engels, Rutger C.M.E.; Scholte, Ron H.J.; Mathis, Federica; Florek, Ewa; Morgenstern, Matthis

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the hypothesis that exposure to alcohol consumption in movies affects the likelihood that low-risk adolescents will start to drink alcohol. METHODS: Longitudinal study of 2346 adolescent never drinkers who also reported at baseline intent to not to do so in the next 12 months (mean age 12.9 years, SD = 1.08). Recruitment was carried out in 2009 and 2010 in 112 state-funded schools in Germany, Iceland, Italy, Netherlands, Poland, and Scotland. Exposure to movie alcohol consumption was estimated from 250 top-grossing movies in each country in the years 2004 to 2009. Multilevel mixed-effects Poisson regressions assessed the relationship between baseline exposure to movie alcohol consumption and initiation of trying alcohol, and binge drinking (≥ 5 consecutive drinks) at follow-up. RESULTS: Overall, 40% of the sample initiated alcohol use and 6% initiated binge drinking by follow-up. Estimated mean exposure to movie alcohol consumption was 3653 (SD = 2448) occurrences. After age, gender, family affluence, school performance, TV screen time, personality characteristics, and drinking behavior of peers, parents, and siblings were controlled for, exposure to each additional 1000 movie alcohol occurrences was significantly associated with increased relative risk for trying alcohol, incidence rate ratio = 1.05 (95% confidence interval, 1.02–1.08; P = .003), and for binge drinking, incidence rate ratio = 1.13 (95% confidence interval, 1.06–1.20; P movies is an independent predictor of drinking initiation, particularly for more risky patterns of drinking. This result was shown in a heterogeneous sample of European youths who had a low affinity for drinking alcohol at the time of exposure. PMID:24799536

  7. Sports and energy drink consumption among a population-based sample of young adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Nicole; Laska, Melissa N.; Story, Mary; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2017-01-01

    Objective National data for the U.S. show increases in sports and energy drink consumption over the past decade with the largest increases among young adults ages 20–34. This study aimed to identify sociodemographic factors and health risk behaviors associated with sports and energy drink consumption among young adults. Design Cross-sectional analysis of survey data from the third wave of a cohort study (Project EAT-III: Eating and Activity in Teens and Young Adults). Regression models stratified on gender and adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics were used to examine associations of sports and energy drink consumption with eating behaviors, physical activity, media use, weight-control behaviors, sleep patterns, and substance use. Setting Participants completed baseline surveys in 1998–1999 as students at public secondary schools in Minneapolis/St. Paul, Minnesota and the EAT-III surveys online or by mail in 2008–2009. Subjects The sample consisted of 2,287 participants (55% female, mean age=25.3). Results Results showed 31.0% of young adults consumed sports drinks and 18.8% consumed energy drinks at least weekly. Among men and women, sports drink consumption was associated with higher sugar-sweetened soda and fruit juice intake, video game use, and use of muscle-enhancing substances like creatine (pdrink consumption was associated with lower breakfast frequency and higher sugar-sweetened soda intake, video game use, use of unhealthy weight-control behaviors, trouble sleeping, and substance use among men and women (psports and energy drink consumption with other unhealthy behaviors in the design of programs and services for young adults. PMID:25683863

  8. Consumption of Caffeinated Energy Drinks Among Youth and Young Adults in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L. Reid, MSc

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The growing market for caffeinated energy drinks (CEDs has caused concern about excessive caffeine intake and potential adverse effects, particularly among young people. The current study examined patterns of CED consumption among youth and young adults in Canada, using data from a national online survey conducted in October 2014. Data from a non-probability sample of 2040 respondents aged 12–24 from a consumer panel was weighted to national proportions; measures of CED consumption were estimated, including prevalence, excessive daily consumption, and context for use (locations and reasons. Separate logistic regression models for two outcomes, past-week consumption and “ever” exceeding two energy drinks in a day (as per common guidance, were conducted to examine associations with demographic variables (sex, age, geographic region, race/ethnicity, and language. Overall, 73.6% of respondents reported “ever” consuming energy drinks; 15.6% had done so in the past week. Any consumption of energy drinks in the past week was more prevalent among males, Aboriginal respondents (vs. white only or mixed/other, and residents of British Columbia. Among “ever-consumers,” 16.0% reported ever consuming more than two energy drinks in a day. Exceeding two in a day was more prevalent among older respondents (young adults aged 18–24, aboriginal respondents (vs. white only, and British Columbia residents. While the majority of youth and young adults had consumed energy drinks, about half were “experimental” consumers (i.e., consumed ≤5 drinks in their lifetime. Approximately one in six consumers had exceeded the usual guidance for maximum daily consumption, potentially increasing their risk of experiencing adverse effects.

  9. Consumption of Caffeinated Energy Drinks Among Youth and Young Adults in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Jessica L; McCrory, Cassondra; White, Christine M; Martineau, Chantal; Vanderkooy, Pat; Fenton, Nancy; Hammond, David

    2017-03-01

    The growing market for caffeinated energy drinks (CEDs) has caused concern about excessive caffeine intake and potential adverse effects, particularly among young people. The current study examined patterns of CED consumption among youth and young adults in Canada, using data from a national online survey conducted in October 2014. Data from a non-probability sample of 2040 respondents aged 12-24 from a consumer panel was weighted to national proportions; measures of CED consumption were estimated, including prevalence, excessive daily consumption, and context for use (locations and reasons). Separate logistic regression models for two outcomes, past-week consumption and "ever" exceeding two energy drinks in a day (as per common guidance), were conducted to examine associations with demographic variables (sex, age, geographic region, race/ethnicity, and language). Overall, 73.6% of respondents reported "ever" consuming energy drinks; 15.6% had done so in the past week. Any consumption of energy drinks in the past week was more prevalent among males, Aboriginal respondents (vs. white only or mixed/other), and residents of British Columbia. Among "ever-consumers," 16.0% reported ever consuming more than two energy drinks in a day. Exceeding two in a day was more prevalent among older respondents (young adults aged 18-24), aboriginal respondents (vs. white only), and British Columbia residents. While the majority of youth and young adults had consumed energy drinks, about half were "experimental" consumers (i.e., consumed ≤ 5 drinks in their lifetime). Approximately one in six consumers had exceeded the usual guidance for maximum daily consumption, potentially increasing their risk of experiencing adverse effects.

  10. Divergent drinking patterns and factors affecting homemade alcohol consumption (the case of Russia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radaev, Vadim

    2016-08-01

    Unrecorded homemade alcohol consumption has been less examined in the literature. Previous studies of homemade alcohol in Russia have almost entirely focused upon the use of samogon (moonshine) attributed to the northern style of drinking. No systematic analysis is available regarding the production and consumption of homemade wine. This paper explores the drinking patterns demonstrated by consumers of samogon and homemade wine in Russia. The main factors affecting the consumption of these beverages are investigated. Data were collected from a 2014 nationwide survey of 14,986 respondents aged 15+ years. Beverage preferences, volume of consumed alcohol, drinking habits, and alcohol availability were the main measures reported. Demographic, socio-economic, spatial, and policy-related factors affecting homemade alcohol consumption are examined using logistic regression. The percentages of samogon and homemade wine consumers were similar, although a greater volume of samogon in pure alcohol was consumed compared to homemade wine. The groups of samogon and homemade wine consumers showed very little overlap. Unlike homemade wine consumers, samogon drinkers consumed larger amounts of alcohol and were more engaged in frequent and excessive drinking, drinking without meals and drinking in marginal public settings. Gender, education, regional affiliation, and type of residence showed opposite associations with regard to the consumption of samogon and homemade wine. Availability of homemade alcohol in the neighbourhood was the most influential predictor due to respondents' own production, presence of homemade alcohol in friendship networks and at illegal market. The prices of manufactured alcohol and the consumption of homemade alcohol did not show significant relationships. Consumers of samogon and homemade wine demonstrate contrasting drinking patterns that are largely driven by different factors. Samogon is consumed in a more hazardous manner, whereas homemade wine is

  11. Moderate alcohol consumption during adult life, drinking patterns, and breast cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wendy Y; Rosner, Bernard; Hankinson, Susan E; Colditz, Graham A; Willett, Walter C

    2011-11-02

    Multiple studies have linked alcohol consumption to breast cancer risk, but the risk of lower levels of consumption has not been well quantified. In addition, the role of drinking patterns (ie, frequency of drinking and "binge" drinking) and consumption at different times of adult life are not well understood. To evaluate the association of breast cancer with alcohol consumption during adult life, including quantity, frequency, and age at consumption. Prospective observational study of 105,986 women enrolled in the Nurses' Health Study followed up from 1980 until 2008 with an early adult alcohol assessment and 8 updated alcohol assessments. Relative risks of developing invasive breast cancer. During 2.4 million person-years of follow-up, 7690 cases of invasive breast cancer were diagnosed. Increasing alcohol consumption was associated with increased breast cancer risk that was statistically significant at levels as low as 5.0 to 9.9 g per day, equivalent to 3 to 6 drinks per week (relative risk, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.06-1.24; 333 cases/100,000 person-years). Binge drinking, but not frequency of drinking, was associated with breast cancer risk after controlling for cumulative alcohol intake. Alcohol intake both earlier and later in adult life was independently associated with risk. Low levels of alcohol consumption were associated with a small increase in breast cancer risk, with the most consistent measure being cumulative alcohol intake throughout adult life. Alcohol intake both earlier and later in adult life was independently associated with risk.

  12. Energy drink consumption among New Zealand adolescents: Associations with mental health, health risk behaviours and body size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utter, Jennifer; Denny, Simon; Teevale, Tasileta; Sheridan, Janie

    2017-09-14

    With the increase in popularity of energy drinks come multiple concerns about the associated health indicators of young people. The current study aims to describe the frequency of consumption of energy drinks in a nationally representative sample of adolescents and to explore the relationship between energy drink consumption and health risk behaviours, body size and mental health. Data were collected as part of Youth'12, a nationally representative survey of high school students in New Zealand (2012). In total, 8500 students answered a comprehensive questionnaire about their health and well-being, including multiple measures of mental well-being, and were weighed and measured for height. More than one-third (35%) of young people consumed energy drinks in the past week, and 12% consumed energy drinks four or more times in the past week. Energy drink consumption was significantly associated with greater depressive symptoms, greater emotional difficulties and lower general subjective well-being. Frequent energy drink consumption was also associated with binge drinking, smoking, engagement in unsafe sex, violent behaviours, risky motor vehicle use and disordered eating behaviours. There was no association between consumption of energy drinks and student body size. Consumption of energy drinks is associated with a range of health risk behaviours for young people. Strategies to limit consumption of energy drinks by young people are warranted. © 2017 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  13. Drinking in transition: trends in alcohol consumption in Russia 1994-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlman, Francesca J A

    2010-11-11

    Heavy alcohol consumption is widespread in Russia, but studying changes in drinking during the transition from Communism has been hampered previously by the lack of frequent data. This paper uses 1-2 yearly panel data, comparing consumption trends with the rapid concurrent changes in economic variables (notably around the "Rouble crisis", shortly preceding the 1998 survey round), and mortality. Data were from 9 rounds (1994-2004) of the 38-centre Russia Longitudinal Monitoring Survey. Respondents aged over 18 were included (>7,000 per round). Trends were measured in alcohol frequency, quantity per occasion (by beverage type) and 2 measures of potentially hazardous consumption: (i) frequent, heavy spirit drinking (≥80 g per occasion of vodka or samogon and >weekly) (ii) consuming samogon (cheap home-distilled spirit). Trends in consumption, mean household income and national mortality rates (in the same and subsequent 2 years) were compared. Finally, in a subsample of individual male respondents present in both the 1996 and 1998 rounds (before and after the financial crash), determinants of changes in harmful consumption were studied using logistic regression. Frequent, heavy spirit drinking (>80 g each time, ≥weekly) was widespread amongst men (12-17%) throughout, especially in the middle aged and less educated; with the exception of a significant, temporary drop to 10% in 1998. From 1996-2000, samogon drinking more than doubled, from 6% to 16% of males; despite a decline, levels were significantly higher in 2004 than 1996 in both sexes. Amongst women, frequent heavy spirit drinking rose non-significantly to more than 1% during the study. Heavy frequent male drinking and mortality in the same year were correlated in lower educated males, but not in women. Individual logistic regression in a male subsample showed that between 1996 and1998, those who lost their employment were more likely to cease frequent, heavy drinking; however, men who commenced drinking

  14. Effect of Soft Drinks and Fresh Fruit Juice on Surface Roughness of Commonly used Restorative Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maganur, Prabhadevi; Satish, V; Prabhakar, A R; Namineni, Srinivas

    2015-01-01

    In this in vitro study, the effects of a Cola drink, and fresh fruit juice (citrus) on the surface roughness on flowable composite and resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC) each was evaluated and compared. Using a brass mold 70 pellets each of flowable composite (Filtek™ Flow) and RMGIC tricure restorative material were prepared according to the manufacturer's instructions. Two groups (groups I and II) were formed containing 30 pellets of each material. Remaining 10 pellets of each restorative material did form the control group [water (group III)]. Experimental group pellets were again divided into three subgroups (mild, moderate and severe) containing 10 pellets each and were kept in plastic containers with 30 ml Cola drink (group I) and fresh fruit juice (group II) respectively. Immersion regime was followed according to M aupome G et al. Baseline and final surface roughness (Ra) value for each pellet was evaluated using a profilometer. Statistical analysis was done with Wilcoxon's signed rank test and analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Mann-Whitney test. Results showed that the erosive effect of both Cola drink and fresh fruit juice caused significant surface roughness on both flowable composite and RMGIC restorative materials in the mild, moderate and severe immersion regimes. How to cite this article: Maganur P, Satish V, Prabhakar AR, Namineni S. Effect of Soft Drinks and Fresh Fruit Juice on Surface Roughness of Commonly used Restorative Materials. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015;8(1):1-5.

  15. Business Strategy of CV Jaya Sampurna in Facing Soft Drink Distributor Competition in Bekasi

    OpenAIRE

    Nurmala, Seri; Hartiwi, Hartiwi

    2015-01-01

    CV Jaya Sampurna is a soft drink distributor in Bekasi. Distributor company has a low profit margin, moreover the product sold is Fast Moving Consumers Goods with a very low profit margin (3.5%–5%). Therefore the company depends on a high volume of sales. Besides, there are many competitors in this industry, thus the business strategy is needed to improve the competitive advantage of the company. Given the conditions,this research was to identify the internal and the external factors, to iden...

  16. Analysis of the Consumption of Caffeinated Energy Drinks among Polish Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Dariusz Nowak; Artur Jasionowski

    2015-01-01

    Background: Energy drinks (EDs) are extremely popular among adults and adolescents. Regular intake of EDs may lead to an overdose of caffeine, loss of bone mass, overweight, hypertension and, in older age, osteoporosis and cardiovascular diseases. Some people mix EDs with alcohol, which adversely affects their health. The objective of this study was to analyze the consumption of EDs by adolescents. Methods: The study consisted of a questionnaire surveying amounts of drinks, preferences and pr...

  17. Alcohol dependence, consumption of alcoholic energy drinks and associated work characteristics in the Taiwan working population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Wan-Ju; Cheng, Yawen; Huang, Ming-Chyi; Chen, Chiou-Jong

    2012-01-01

    To examine the association between work characteristics and the risk of alcohol dependence across different employment types and occupations, including the pattern of alcohol consumption in the form of energy drinks and its association with alcohol dependence. A total of 13,501 men and 8584 women participated in a national survey in Taiwan. Alcohol dependence was defined as ≥2 points in the CAGE questionnaire. A self-administered questionnaire recorded drinking behaviors, consumption of alcoholic energy drinks, employment type, occupation and a number of psychosocial work stressors, namely job demands, job control, employment security and workplace justice. Of the total, 9.4% of men and 0.8% of women were CAGE-positive, and 6.0% of men and 0.7% of women regularly consumed alcoholic energy drinks. In male and female regular consumers of alcoholic energy drinks, 38.7 and 23.3%, respectively, were alcohol-dependent. Multivariate regression analyses showed that male employees in manual skilled occupations, with lower workplace justice, having weekly working hours alcohol dependence. Certain occupational groups and workers with adverse psychosocial work characteristics should be targets for prevention of alcohol dependence. Alcoholic energy drink consumption should be taken into consideration while studying alcohol dependence in the work population in Taiwan.

  18. Relationship Between Energy Drink Consumption and Nutrition Knowledge in Student-Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Richard; Kliemann, Nathalie; Evansen, Taylor; Brand, Jefferson

    2017-01-01

    To identify the relationships between energy drink consumption, nutrition knowledge, and socio-demographic characteristics in a convenience sample of student-athletes. Cross-sectional. Online survey. A total of 194 student-athletes (112 female and 82 male). Socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge of human nutrition, energy drink consumption habits. Chi-square tests of independence, independent t tests, and hierarchical regression analyses were applied. Most student-athletes in the sample (85.5%) did not consume energy drinks, but those who did tended to be male (P = .004), had lower overall knowledge of nutrition (P = .02), and had a lower grade point average (P Student-athletes tend to refrain from energy drink use but those who use it have a tendency to have lower nutrition knowledge than do nonusers. Therefore, nutrition education targeted toward student-athletes should encompass the consumption of energy drinks because limited evidence shows the benefits of collegiate athletes consuming energy drinks. Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Alcohol Consumption in Vietnam, and the Use of 'Standard Drinks' to Measure Alcohol Intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Bui, Tan; Blizzard, C Leigh; Luong, Khue Ngoc; Van Truong, Ngoc Le; Tran, Bao Quoc; Otahal, Petr; Srikanth, Velandai; Nelson, Mark R; Au, Thuy Bich; Ha, Son Thai; Phung, Hai Ngoc; Tran, Mai Hoang; Callisaya, Michele; Gall, Seana

    2016-03-01

    To provide nationally representative data on alcohol consumption in Vietnam and to assess whether reported numbers of 'standard drinks' consumed have evidence of validity (particularly in rural areas where home-made alcohol is consumed from cups of varying size). A nationally representative population-based survey of 14,706 participants (46.5% males, response proportion 64.1%) aged 25-64 years in Vietnam. Measurements were made in accordance with WHO STEPS protocols. Data were analysed using complex survey methods. Among men, 80% reported drinking alcohol during the last year, and 40% were hazardous/harmful drinkers. Approximately 60% of men and alcohol during the last week, with one-in-four of the men reporting having consumed at least five standard drinks on at least one occasion. Numbers of standard drinks reported by men were associated with blood pressure/hypertension, particularly in rural areas (P alcohol consumption was provided by binary responses to questions on whether or not alcohol had been consumed during the reference period. Alcohol use and harmful consumption were common among Vietnamese men but less pronounced than in Western nations. Self-reports of quantity of alcohol consumed in terms of standard drinks had predictive validity for blood pressure and hypertension even in rural areas. However, using detailed measures of consumption resulted in only minor improvements in prediction compared to simple measures. © The Author 2015. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  20. UV-MALDI mass spectrometric quantitation of uracil based pesticides in fruit soft drinks along with matrix effects evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Bojidarka; Spiteller, Michael

    2014-02-01

    This study focused on the development of the accurate and precise quantitative method for the determination of pesticides bromacil (1), terbacil (2), lenacil (3), butafenacil (4) and flupropacil (5) in fruit based soft drinks. Three different types of drinks are bought from market; huddled orange fruit drink (100%) (I), red-oranges (II) and multivitamin drink containing strawberry, orange, banana and maracuja (III). Samples were analyzed "with" and "without" pulp utilizing LC-ESI (or APCI) MS/MS, HPLC-ESI-(or APCI)-MS/MS and UV-MALDI-Orbitrap-MS methods. The effect of high complexity of the food matrix on the analysis was discussed. Study focuses on the advantages of the UV-MALDI-Orbitrap-MS method compared to the traditionally involved GC alone or hybrid methods such as GC-MS and LC-MS/MS for quantification of pesticides in water and soft drinks. The developed method included the techniques performed for validation, calibration and standardization. The target pesticides are widely used for the treatment of citrus fruits and pineapples, but for soft drink products, there are still no clear regulations on pesticide residues limits. The matrix effects in the analysis of fruit drinks required implementation of the exact standard reference material corresponds to the variety of food matrices. This paper contributed to the broad analytical implementation of the UV-MALDI-Orbitrap-MS method in the quality control and assessment programs for monitoring of pesticide contamination in fruit based sodas. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The relationship between musculoskeletal disorders and general health among employees of a soft drinks industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    parisa moshashaei

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background : regards body and mental mutually influence to each other, and the health of these two categories include integrity and human health, This study aimed to investigate the relationship between musculoskeletal disorders and general health among employees of a soft drinks industry. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 80 workers from a soft drinks factory were selected on the basis of census which has more than a year working experience. Measuring devices containing demographic data collection questionnaire, GHQ-28 questionnaire and body map chart to record musculoskeletal disorders in different areas of the body. Data were analyzed using SPSS16 software. Results: The results showed that the highest prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms was found in the neck (27.56% and lower back region (25.5% during the past 12 months. Age, BMI, years of experience, daily working hours, and shift work are a risk factor for body's organs musculoskeletal disorders, especially the lower back. Most employees surveyed were in a dubious status in public health (4.47 ± 25.89. People were not desirable in terms of physical health, anxiety and social dysfunction. Also, there was a significant relationship between anxiety symptoms with foot pain and depressive symptoms and back pain. Conclusion: The results of this study show that there is a significant relationship between general health with musculoskeletal disorders in the lower back and legs.

  2. Bisphenol A in soft drinks and canned foods and data evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzatzarakis, Manolis N; Karzi, Vasiliki; Vakonaki, Elena; Goumenou, Marina; Kavvalakis, Matthaios; Stivaktakis, Polychronis; Tsitsimpikou, Christina; Tsakiris, Ioannis; Rizos, Apostolos K; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M

    2017-06-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is one of the most common industrial chemicals and known to exert endocrine disruption activity. The aim of this study was the quantification of BPA in food stuffs on the Greek market. The applied liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method was validated for linearity, limit of quantification, accuracy, precision and recovery. About 41.7% of the canned solid phase samples, 25.0% of the canned liquid phase samples and 43.8% of the soft drinks were positive. Mean BPA concentrations (range) were 33.4 ± 4.4 ng/g (4.90 ± 0.64-66.0 ± 8.6 ng/g) in canned solid phase, 2.70 ± 0.08 ng/ml (1.90 ± 0.06-3.50 ± 0.11 ng/ml) in canned liquid phase and 2.30 ± 0.18 ng/ml (0.40 ± 0.03-10.2 ± 0.8 ng/ml) in soft drinks. The results of this study are comparable with those reported in the literature according to which higher concentrations of BPA were detected in the solid fraction of canned food compared to their liquid fraction.

  3. A simple and rapid resonance Rayleigh scattering method for detection of indigo carmine in soft drink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qin; Yang, Jidong; Tan, Xuanping; Zhang, Zhan; Hu, Xiaomei; Yang, Menghuan

    2016-08-01

    A novel method that uses acridine orange (AO) to detect indigo carmine (IC) in soft drinks was developed. The method is highly sensitive and is based on a resonance Rayleigh scattering (RRS) technique. In Britton-Robinson (BR) buffer solution, pH 4.3, the weak RRS intensity of AO was greatly enhanced by the addition of IC, with the maximum peak located at 332 nm. Under optimum conditions, it was found that the enhanced RRS intensity was proportional to the concentration of IC over a range of 2-32 × 10(-6)  mol/L. A low detection limit of 2.4 × 10(-8)  mol/L was achieved. The sensitivity and selectivity of the method are high enough to permit the determination of trace amounts of IC without any significant interference from high levels of other components such as common anions and other amino acids. Finally, the concentration of IC in three different soft drinks was determined with satisfactory results. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Determination of rhodamine B in soft drink, waste water and lipstick samples after solid phase extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soylak, Mustafa; Unsal, Yunus Emre; Yilmaz, Erkan; Tuzen, Mustafa

    2011-08-01

    A new solid phase extraction method is described for sensitive and selective determination of trace levels of rhodamine B in soft drink, food and industrial waste water samples. The method is based on the adsorption of rhodamine B on the Sepabeads SP 70 resin and its elution with 5 mL of acetonitrile in a mini chromatographic column. Rhodamine B was determined by using UV visible spectrophotometry at 556 nm. The effects of different parameters such as pH, amount of rhodamine B, flow rates of sample and eluent solutions, resin amount, and sample volume were investigated. The influences of some alkali, alkali earth and transition metals on the recoveries of rhodamine B were investigated. The preconcentration factor was found 40. The detection limit based on three times the standard deviation of the reagent blank for rhodamine B was 3.14 μg L⁻¹. The relative standard deviations of the procedure were found as 5% in 1×10⁻⁵ mol L⁻¹ rhodamine B. The presented procedure was successfully applied to real samples including soft drink, food and industrial waste water and lipstick samples. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The association between frequent alcohol drinking and opioid consumption after abdominal surgery: A retrospective analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Chin Kao

    Full Text Available It is perceived that patients with a history of frequent alcohol consumption require more opioids for postoperative pain control and experience less postoperative nausea and vomiting than patients without such a history. However, there is scarce evidence supporting this notion. The aim of this study was to assess association between frequent alcohol consumption and opioid requirement for postoperative pain control and occurrence of postoperative nausea and vomiting.The medical records for 4143 patients using intravenous patient-control analgesia with opioids after abdominal surgery between January 2010 and September 2013 were obtained, and associations were sought between the cumulative opioid consumption (in intravenous morphine equivalence per body weight (mg/kg in the first 2 days after abdominal operation and several demographic and clinical variables by multiple regression analysis. The association between the occurrence of postoperative nausea and vomiting and several demographic and clinical variables was also sought by multiple logistic regression analysis.Frequent alcohol drinking, among other previously reported factors, was associated with increased opioid consumption for postoperative pain control (p < 0.001. The estimate effect of frequent alcohol drinking was 0.117 mg/kg. Frequent alcohol drinking was also associated with decreased risks of postoperative nausea (odds ratio = 0.59, p = 0.003 and vomiting (odds ratio = 0.49, p = 0.026.Frequent alcohol drinking was associated with increased opioid consumption for postoperative pain control and decreased risks of postoperative nausea and vomiting after abdominal surgery.

  6. Young Children's Screen Activities, Sweet Drink Consumption and Anthropometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olafsdottir, Steingerdur; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Siani, Alfonso

    2014-01-01

    (SSB) and increased BMI, BMI z-score and waist to height ratio (WHtR) two years later. A second hypothesis was that SSB consumption mediates the association between the screen activities and changes in the anthropometric measures. Subjects/Methods: The study is a part of the prospective cohort study......Background/Objectives: This longitudinal study describes the relationship between young children’s screen time, dietary habits and anthropometric measures. The hypothesis was that television viewing and other screen activities at baseline result in increased consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages...... watching television. The odds ratio of having increased SSB consumption was 1.19 (95% CI: 1.09–1.29) for each hour per day watching TV. The associations for total screen time were slightly weaker. Conclusions: The results indicate substantial effects of TV viewing and other screen activities for young...

  7. Differential hypothalamic leptin sensitivity in obese rat offspring exposed to maternal and postnatal intake of chocolate and soft drink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerstenberg, Marina Kjærgaard; Nilsson, C; Secher, A

    2017-01-01

    Background/objective: Intake of high-energy foods and maternal nutrient overload increases the risk of metabolic diseases in the progeny such as obesity and diabetes. We hypothesized that maternal and postnatal intake of chocolate and soft drink will affect leptin sensitivity and hypothalamic...... astrocyte morphology in adult rat offspring. Methods: Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were fed ad libitum chow diet only (C) or with chocolate and high sucrose soft drink supplement (S). At birth, litter size was adjusted into 10 male offspring per mother. After weaning, offspring from both dietary groups were...... than energy expenditure, suggesting differential programming of leptin sensitivity in ARC in SS offspring. Effects of the maternal S diet were normalized when offspring were fed a chow diet after weaning. Conclusions: Maternal intake of chocolate and soft drink had long-term consequences...

  8. Potential and requirements for a standardized pan-European food consumption survey using the EPIC-Soft software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocké, M C; Slimani, N; Brants, H; Buurma-Rethans, E; Casagrande, C; Nicolas, G; Dofkova, M; le Donne, C; Freisling, H; Geelen, A; Huybrechts, I; De Keyzer, W; van der Laan, J D; Lafay, L; Lillegaard, I T; Niekerk, E M; de Vries, J H; Wilson-van den Hooven, E C; de Boer, E J

    2011-07-01

    To describe the strengths, limitations and requirements of using EPIC-Soft software (the software developed to conduct 24-h dietary recalls in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Study) in pan-European food consumption surveys, and to discuss potentials and barriers for a harmonized pan-European food consumption survey. The paper is based on the experiences in the 'European Food Consumption and Validation' Project, which included updating six existing and preparing one new country-specific EPIC-Soft version, applying EPIC-Soft in validation and feasibility studies, and estimating the intake of nutrients and flavoring substances. The experiences were discussed in the September 2009 workshop 'Pan-European Food Consumption Surveys--for Standardized and Comparable Transnational Data Collection'. EPIC-Soft is suitable for detailed and standardized food consumption data collection in pan-European food consumption surveys. A thorough preparation of all aspects of the food consumption survey is important for the quality and efficiency during data collection and processing. The preparation and data-handling phase of working with EPIC-Soft is labor intensive and requires trained, motivated and qualified personnel. Given the suitability of EPIC-Soft as standardized dietary assessment tool in European dietary monitoring, the proposed strategy toward a pan-European food consumption survey is to prepare well, to allow flexibility in national extensions and to start with a limited number of countries that are interested.

  9. Analysis of Consumption of Energy Drinks by a Group of Adolescent Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Dariusz Nowak; Artur Jasionowski

    2016-01-01

    Background: Energy drinks (EDs) have become widely popular among young adults and, even more so, among adolescents. Increasingly, they are consumed by athletes, particularly those who have just begun their sporting career. Uncontrolled and high consumption of EDs, in addition to other sources of caffeine, may pose a threat to the health of young people. Hence, our objective was to analyze the consumption of EDs among teenagers engaged in sports, including quantity consumed, identification of ...

  10. Drinking Refusal Self-Efficacy and Intended Alcohol Consumption During a Mass-Attended Youth Event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongenelis, Michelle I; Pettigrew, Simone; Biagioni, Nicole

    2017-10-20

    Mass-attended youth events represent a substantial public health challenge due to high levels of alcohol consumption and corresponding high rates of alcohol-related harm. Although previous research has documented the protective effect of high drinking refusal self-efficacy (DRSE) on alcohol consumption in general, there is a lack of research examining the role of DRSE in reducing consumption during mass-attended youth events and the factors associated with DRSE in these contexts. This study aimed to identify potentially modifiable factors that influence DRSE and drinking intentions to inform interventions designed to reduce alcohol-related harm during mass-attended events. Australian secondary school students (n = 586; 70% female) in their final two years of high school completed an online survey assessing their alcohol consumption intentions for Schoolies, their perceived degree of DRSE, and other individual and environmental factors. Path analysis was used to assess a mediational model examining factors associated with DRSE and alcohol consumption intentions. DRSE was found to be significantly associated with intended alcohol consumption during Schoolies. Specifically, leavers who believed they would not be able to refuse others' offers of alcoholic drinks reported significantly greater alcohol consumption intentions. Results also revealed that DRSE was enhanced in those respondents who believed there would be a variety of non-drinking activities and non-alcoholic beverages available to them during Schoolies. Results suggest the need to increase leavers' confidence in their ability to refuse unwanted alcoholic beverages and highlight the importance of providing celebration options that do not involve alcohol consumption.

  11. Maternal alcohol consumption producing fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD): quantity, frequency, and timing of drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Philip A; Blankenship, Jason; Marais, Anna-Susan; Gossage, J Phillip; Kalberg, Wendy O; Joubert, Belinda; Cloete, Marise; Barnard, Ronel; De Vries, Marlene; Hasken, Julie; Robinson, Luther K; Adnams, Colleen M; Buckley, David; Manning, Melanie; Parry, Charles D H; Hoyme, H Eugene; Tabachnick, Barbara; Seedat, Soraya

    2013-12-01

    Concise, accurate measures of maternal prenatal alcohol use are needed to better understand fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Measures of drinking by mothers of children with specific FASD diagnoses and mothers of randomly-selected controls are compared and also correlated with physical and cognitive/behavioral outcomes. Measures of maternal alcohol use can differentiate maternal drinking associated with FASD from that of controls and some from mothers of alcohol-exposed normals. Six variables that combine quantity and frequency concepts distinguish mothers of FASD children from normal controls. Alcohol use variables, when applied to each trimester and three months prior to pregnancy, provide insight on critical timing of exposure as well. Measures of drinking, especially bingeing, correlate significantly with increased child dysmorphology and negative cognitive/behavioral outcomes in children, especially low non-verbal IQ, poor attention, and behavioral problems. Logistic regression links (pFASD, elevating FASD likelihood 12 times; first and second trimester drinking increases FASD outcomes 61 times; and drinking in all trimesters 65 times. Conversely, a similar regression (p=.008) indicates that drinking only in the first trimester makes the birth of a child with an FASD 5 times less likely than drinking in all trimesters. There is significant variation in alcohol consumption both within and between diagnostic groupings of mothers bearing children diagnosed within the FASD continuum. Drinking measures are empirically identified and correlated with specific child outcomes. Alcohol use, especially heavy use, should be avoided throughout pregnancy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Maternal chocolate and sucrose soft drink intake induces hepatic steatosis in rat offspring associated with altered lipid gene expression profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Maj; Nilsson, C.; Rosendal, A.

    2014-01-01

    of overfeeding during different developmental periods. Methods: Sprague-Dawley rats were offered chow or high-fat/high-sucrose diet (chow plus chocolate and soft drink) during gestation and lactation. At birth, offspring were randomly cross-fostered within each dietary group into small and normal litter sizes...... weight gain and adiposity in offspring born to chow-fed dams. Conclusion: Our results suggest that supplementation of chocolate and soft drink during gestation and lactation contributes to early onset of hepatic steatosis associated with changes in hepatic gene expression and lipid handling....

  13. Alcohol consumption and risky drinking patterns in Malaysia: findings from NHMS 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutalip, Mohd Hatta B Abdul; Kamarudin, Rozanim Bt; Manickam, Mala; Abd Hamid, Hamizatul Akmal Bt; Saari, Riyanti Bt

    2014-01-01

    To identify the characteristics of current drinker and risky alcohol-drinking pattern by profiles in Malaysia. We analyzed data from the National Health and Morbidity Survey 2011. It was a cross-sectional population-based with two stages stratified random sampling design. A validated Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test Malay questionnaire was used to assess the alcohol consumption and its alcohol related harms. Analysis of complex survey data using Stata Version 12 was done for descriptive analysis on alcohol use and risky drinking by socio-demography profiles. Logistic regression analysis was used to measure the association of risky drinking status with the socio-demography characteristics. The prevalence of current alcohol use was 11.6% [95% confidence interval (CI): 10.5, 12.7], among them 23.6% (95% CI: 21.0, 26.4) practiced risky drinking. The onset for alcohol drinking was 21 years old (standard deviation 7.44) and majority preferred Beer. Males significantly consumed more alcohol and practiced risky drinking. Current alcohol use was more prevalent among urbanites, Chinese, those with high household income, and high education. Conversely, risky drinking was more prevalent among rural drinkers, Bumiputera Sabah and Sarawak, low education and low household income. The estimated odds of risky drinking increased by a factor of 3.5 among Males while a factor of 2.7 among Bumiputera Sabah and Sarawak. Education status and household income was not a significant predictor to risky drinking. There was an inverse drinking pattern between current drinker and risky drinking by the socio-demography profiles. Initiating early screening and focused intervention might avert further alcohol related harms and dependence among the risky drinkers. © The Author 2014. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  14. The consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks: prevalence and key correlates among Canadian high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azagba, Sunday; Langille, Don; Asbridge, Mark

    2013-01-01

    An emerging body of research has reported high consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks among young adults, particularly college students. However, little is known about adolescents' consumption of these drinks. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks and to examine its correlates among Canadian high school students. We used a nationally representative sample of 36 155 Canadian students in grades 7 to 12 who participated in the 2010/2011 Youth Smoking Survey. About 20% of Canadian high school students reported consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks in the last year, with considerable variation across provinces. Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that the odds of consumption of these drinks were higher among students in lower grades (grades 7 and 8) and among students who identified their ethnicity as black or "other." Consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks was positively associated with substance use (current smoking [adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.52, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.19-1.95], past-year heavy drinking [adjusted OR 3.41, 95% CI 2.84-4.09] and marijuana use [adjusted OR 2.29, 95% CI 1.90-2.76]), absence from school, participation in school team sports and having more weekly spending money. Students who felt more connected to school and had an academic average of 70% or higher were less likely to consume alcohol mixed with energy drinks. The consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks is an emerging public health concern. Consumption of these drinks is substantial among Canadian high school students and can lead to many potential harms, both acute (e.g., injury) and long term (e.g., increased alcohol dependence). Our findings highlight the need for further research into the long-term effects of consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks among young people, as well as the development of interventions aimed at reducing consumption of these drinks.

  15. The Consumption of Energy Drinks Among a Sample of College Students and College Student Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallucci, Andrew R; Martin, Ryan J; Morgan, Grant B

    2016-02-01

    To assess energy drink (ED) consumption, potential ED correlates, and ED-related motivations among a sample of college students to determine differences based on athlete status (student athlete vs. non-athlete). Six hundred and ninety-two college students completed surveys at a large private university in the United States. Participants completed a paper based questionnaire assessing ED and ED-related variables. Over thirty-six percent (197 non-athletes, 58 student athletes) of participants reported ED consumption in the preceding 30 days. Multivariately, there was no difference in ED consumption based on athlete status. Heavy episodic drinking and prescription stimulant misuse were both correlated with increased ED consumption. ED motivations differed based on the frequency of ED consumption. ED use was common among student athletes and non-athletes in our sample. It is important to be aware of the correlation between heavy episodic drinking, prescription stimulant misuse, and ED consumption among college student populations because of the adverse consequences associated with these behaviors.

  16. The Influence of a Web-Based Course on Alcohol Consumption and Binge Drinking Behavior among First Year Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Lillian D.

    2011-01-01

    Underage drinking and risky alcohol consumption are issues that have garnered a great deal of national and local attention and subsequently many prevention efforts. The consumption of alcohol and binge drinking by minors jeopardizes not only their quality of life and academic success, but also places the individual and others at an increased risk…

  17. Motives for mixing alcohol with energy drinks and other nonalcoholic beverages, and consequences for overall alcohol consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verster, Joris C; Benson, Sarah; Scholey, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The aim of this survey was to assess the motives for energy drink consumption, both alone and mixed with alcohol, and to determine whether negative or neutral motives for consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AMED) have a differential effect on overall alcohol consumption.

  18. Alcohol drinking during adolescence increases consumptive responses to alcohol in adulthood in Wistar rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amodeo, Leslie R.; Kneiber, Diana; Wills, Derek N.; Ehlers, Cindy L.

    2017-01-01

    Binge drinking and the onset of alcohol use disorders usually peak during the transition between late adolescence and early adulthood, and early adolescent onset of alcohol consumption has been demonstrated to increase the risk for alcohol dependence in adulthood. In the present study we describe an animal model of early adolescent alcohol consumption where animals drink unsweetened and unflavored ethanol in high concentrations (20%). Using this model we investigated the influence of drinking on alcohol-related appetitive behavior and alcohol consumption levels in early adulthood. Further, we also sought to investigate whether differences in alcohol-related drinking behaviors were specific to exposure in adolescence versus exposure in adulthood. Male Wistar rats were given a 2-bottle choice between 20% ethanol and water in one group and between two water bottles in another group during their adolescence (Postnatal Day (PD) PD26-59) to model voluntary drinking in adolescent humans. As young adults (PD85), rats were trained in a paradigm that provided free access to 20% alcohol for 25 min after completing up to a fixed ratio (FR) 16-lever press response. A set of young adult male Wistar rats was exposed to the same paradigm using the same time course beginning at PD92. The results indicate that adolescent exposure to alcohol increased consumption of alcohol in adulthood. Furthermore, when investigating differences between adolescent high and low adolescent drinkers in adulthood, high consumers continued to drink more alcohol, had fewer FR failures, and had faster completion of FR schedules in adulthood whereas the low consumers were no different than controls. Rats exposed to ethanol in young adulthood also increased future intake but there were no differences in any other components of drinking behavior. Both adolescent- and adult-exposed rats did not exhibit an increase in lever pressing during the appetitive challenge session. These data indicate that adolescent

  19. Alcohol drinking during adolescence increases consumptive responses to alcohol in adulthood in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amodeo, Leslie R; Kneiber, Diana; Wills, Derek N; Ehlers, Cindy L

    2017-03-01

    Binge drinking and the onset of alcohol-use disorders usually peak during the transition between late adolescence and early adulthood, and early adolescent onset of alcohol consumption has been demonstrated to increase the risk for alcohol dependence in adulthood. In the present study, we describe an animal model of early adolescent alcohol consumption where animals drink unsweetened and unflavored ethanol in high concentrations (20%). Using this model, we investigated the influence of drinking on alcohol-related appetitive behavior and alcohol consumption levels in early adulthood. Further, we also sought to investigate whether differences in alcohol-related drinking behaviors were specific to exposure in adolescence versus exposure in adulthood. Male Wistar rats were given a 2-bottle choice between 20% ethanol and water in one group and between two water bottles in another group during their adolescence (Postnatal Day [PD] 26-59) to model voluntary drinking in adolescent humans. As young adults (PD85), rats were trained in a paradigm that provided free access to 20% alcohol for 25 min after completing up to a fixed-ratio (FR) 16 lever press response. A set of young adult male Wistar rats was exposed to the same paradigm using the same time course, beginning at PD92. The results indicate that adolescent exposure to alcohol increased consumption of alcohol in adulthood. Furthermore, when investigating differences between adolescent high and low drinkers in adulthood, high consumers continued to drink more alcohol, had fewer FR failures, and faster completion of FR schedules in adulthood, whereas the low consumers were no different from controls. Rats exposed to ethanol in young adulthood also increased future intake, but there were no differences in any other components of drinking behavior. Both adolescent- and adult-exposed rats did not exhibit an increase in lever pressing during the appetitive challenge session. These data indicate that adolescent and early

  20. UK Student Alcohol Consumption: A Cluster Analysis of Drinking Behaviour Typologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craigs, Cheryl L.; Bewick, Bridgette M.; Gill, Jan; O'May, Fiona; Radley, Duncan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the extent to which university students are following UK Government advice regarding appropriate consumption of alcohol, and to investigate if students can be placed into distinct clusters based on their drinking behaviour. Design: A descriptive questionnaire study. Setting: One hundred and nineteen undergraduate students from…

  1. Effects of Beverage-Specific Alcohol Consumption on Drinking Behaviors among Urban Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M.; Reingle, Jennifer M.; Tobler, Amy L.; Komro, Kelli A.

    2010-01-01

    Alcoholic beverage consumption among high school students has shifted from beer to liquor. The current longitudinal study examined the effects of beverage-specific alcohol use on drinking behaviors among urban youth. Data included 731 adolescents who participated in Project Northland Chicago and reported consuming alcohol in 7th grade. Logistic…

  2. Perceived Stress, Energy Drink Consumption, and Academic Performance among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettit, Michele L.; DeBarr, Kathy A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study explored relationships regarding perceived stress, energy drink consumption, and academic performance among college students. Participants: Participants included 136 undergraduates attending a large southern plains university. Methods: Participants completed surveys including items from the Perceived Stress Scale and items to…

  3. Portrayal of Alcohol Consumption in Movies and Drinking Initiation in Low-Risk Adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanewinkel, R.; Sargent, J.D.; Hunt, K.; Sweeting, H.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Scholte, R.H.J.; Mathis, F.; Florek, E.; Morgenstern, M.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the hypothesis that exposure to alcohol consumption in movies affects the likelihood that low-risk adolescents will start to drink alcohol. METHODS: Longitudinal study of 2346 adolescent never drinkers who also reported at baseline intent to not to do so in the next 12

  4. Measuring College Students' Alcohol Consumption in Natural Drinking Environments: Field Methodologies for Bars and Parties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clapp, John D.; Holmes, Megan R.; Reed, Mark B.; Shillington, Audrey M.; Freisthler, Bridget; Lange, James E.

    2007-01-01

    In recent years researchers have paid substantial attention to the issue of college students' alcohol use. One limitation to the current literature is an over reliance on retrospective, self-report survey data. This article presents field methodologies for measuring college students' alcohol consumption in natural drinking environments.…

  5. Alcohol Consumption, Dating Relationships, and Preliminary Sexual Outcomes in Collegiate Natural Drinking Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devos-Comby, Loraine; Daniel, Jason; Lange, James E

    2013-12-01

    This study tested the effects of committed relationships and presence of dates on alcohol consumption and preliminary sexual outcomes in natural drinking groups (NDGs). Undergraduate drinkers (N = 302) answered an online questionnaire on their most recent participation in a NDG. The interaction between relationship commitment and presence of a date on alcohol consumption was significant. Among students not in committed relationships, those dating within their NDG reported heavier drinking than those not dating. Students in committed relationships drank less than those who were not committed only when their partners were present. The positive correlation between drinking and sexual contact was significant only for those who were not in committed relationships. Implications for future research and interventions are discussed.

  6. Cola soft drinks for evaluating the bioaccessibility of uranium in contaminated mine soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lottermoser, Bernd G., E-mail: Bernd.Lottermoser@utas.edu.au [School of Earth Sciences, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 79, Hobart, Tasmania 7001 (Australia); Schnug, Ewald; Haneklaus, Silvia [Institute for Crop and Soil Science, Federal Institute for Cultivated Plants, Julius Kuehn-Institute (JKI), Bundesallee 50, D-38116 Braunschweig (Germany)

    2011-08-15

    There is a rising need for scientifically sound and quantitative as well as simple, rapid, cheap and readily available soil testing procedures. The purpose of this study was to explore selected soft drinks (Coca-Cola Classic (registered) , Diet Coke (registered) , Coke Zero (registered) ) as indicators of bioaccessible uranium and other trace elements (As, Ce, Cu, La, Mn, Ni, Pb, Th, Y, Zn) in contaminated soils of the Mary Kathleen uranium mine site, Australia. Data of single extraction tests using Coca-Cola Classic (registered) , Diet Coke (registered) and Coke Zero (registered) demonstrate that extractable arsenic, copper, lanthanum, manganese, nickel, yttrium and zinc concentrations correlate significantly with DTPA- and CaCl{sub 2}-extractable metals. Moreover, the correlation between DTPA-extractable uranium and that extracted using Coca-Cola Classic (registered) is close to unity (+ 0.98), with reduced correlations for Diet Coke (registered) (+ 0.66) and Coke Zero (registered) (+ 0.55). Also, Coca-Cola Classic (registered) extracts uranium concentrations near identical to DTPA, whereas distinctly higher uranium fractions were extracted using Diet Coke (registered) and Coke Zero (registered) . Results of this study demonstrate that the use of Coca-Cola Classic (registered) in single extraction tests provided an excellent indication of bioaccessible uranium in the analysed soils and of uranium uptake into leaves and stems of the Sodom apple (Calotropis procera). Moreover, the unconventional reagent is superior in terms of availability, costs, preparation and disposal compared to traditional chemicals. Contaminated site assessments and rehabilitation of uranium mine sites require a solid understanding of the chemical speciation of environmentally significant elements for estimating their translocation in soils and plant uptake. Therefore, Cola soft drinks have potential applications in single extraction tests of uranium contaminated soils and may be used for

  7. Divergent associations of drinking frequency and binge consumption of alcohol with mortality within the same cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff-Iversen, Sidsel; Jansen, Mona Dverdal; Hoff, Dominic Anthony; Høiseth, Gudrun; Knudsen, Gun Peggy; Magnus, Per; Mørland, Jørg; Normann, Per Trygve; Næss, Oyvind Erik; Tambs, Kristian

    2013-04-01

    Observational studies show beneficial effects of moderate alcohol drinking on all-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality, while binge drinking has been linked with increased mortality. The aim of this study was to assess the associations of alcohol use with mortality in a population with a hybrid of drinking patterns. Participants in a population based cardiovascular health survey in Finnmark county in 1987-1988, aged 20-62 years, constituted the study cohort. Alcohol use was self-reported by use of questions on frequency of beer, wine and liquor intake, and one question on intake of around five drinks or more per occasion (binge drinking). Information on education, income and use of alcohol in an earlier and in a later survey was linked to the file. Mortality was assessed throughout 2009 by Cox regression, with adjustment for potential confounding factors. In the analysis of mortality by frequency of any alcohol use, we adjusted for binge consumption and vice versa. Two opposite trends appeared: a higher all-cause mortality in both sexes, and higher CVD mortality in men, with increasing frequency of binge drinking, compared with non-bingers. Second, in both sexes low-frequent use of any alcohol was associated with lower all-cause and CVD mortality, compared with abstention. The combination of any use of alcohol at least weekly and binge consumption at least monthly was common, particularly in men. Questions on drinking frequency and a specific question on binge drinking capture different effects of alcohol use on all-cause and CVD mortality.

  8. An emerging adolescent health risk: caffeinated energy drink consumption patterns among high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azagba, Sunday; Langille, Donald; Asbridge, Mark

    2014-05-01

    To examine the prevalence, patterns, and correlates of energy drink use among adolescents, and determine whether more frequent use of energy drinks is associated with poorer health and behavioral outcomes. Data were from a 2012 cross-sectional survey of 8210 students in grades 7, 9, 10 and 12 attending public schools in Atlantic Canada. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to examine correlates of energy drink use patterns, including substance use, sensation seeking, risk of depression, and socioeconomic status. Nearly two-thirds of survey respondents (62%) reported consuming energy drinks at least once in the previous year, with about 20% reporting use once or more per month. Sensation seeking, depression, and substance use were all higher among energy drink users relative to non-users, and in higher frequency users relative to lower frequency users. The prevalence of energy drink consumption among high school students was high. The association of energy drinks with other potential negative health and behavioral outcomes suggests that use of these products may represent a marker for other activities that may negatively affect adolescent development, health and well-being. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Soft drink, software and softening of teeth - a case report of tooth wear in the mixed dentition due to a combination of dental erosion and attrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambon, D L; Brand, H S; Nieuw Amerongen, A V

    2010-10-21

    This case report describes a 9-year-old boy with severe tooth wear as a result of drinking a single glass of soft drink per day. This soft drink was consumed over a period of one to two hours, while he was gaming intensively on his computer. As a result, a deep bite, enamel cupping, sensitivity of primary teeth and loss of fillings occurred. Therefore, dentists should be aware that in patients who are gaming intensively, the erosive potential of soft drinks can be potentiated by mechanical forces leading to excessive tooth wear.

  10. Cytotoxicity and mutagenicity of cola and grape flavored soft drinks in bone marrow cells of rodents Citotoxicidade e mutagenicidade de refrigerantes sabor cola e uva, em células de medula óssea de roedor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisângela Düsman

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to the large consumption of soft drinks in Brazil and worldwide in recent years and considering that some of the components present in their composition pose potential risks to human health, the aim of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxic and mutagenic potential of specific cola and grape-flavored soft drink brands. Bone marrow cells of Wistar rats were initially treated by gavage with one single dose of Cola or Grape soft drink, which was next offered ad libitum (instead of water for 24 hours. A negative control treatment was performed by administering one single dose of water and a positive control administering cyclophosphamide intraperitoneally. Statistical analysis showed that the Cola and Grape soft drinks studied were not cytotoxic. However, the Cola soft drink proved mutagenic in this experiment treatment time. Therefore, this study serves as a warning about the consumption of Cola-flavored soft drink and for the need for further subchronic and chronic studies on soft drinks in order to evaluate the long term mutagenic and cytotoxic effects of these substances.Devido ao grande consumo de refrigerantes no Brasil e no mundo nos últimos anos, e tendo em vista que alguns dos componentes presentes na composição destes possuem potenciais danosos para os organismos, em especial o humano, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o potencial citotóxico e mutagênico de uma marca de refrigerante sabor Cola e uma de sabor Uva. Foram utilizadas como sistema-teste as células de medula óssea de ratos Wistar, tratados via gavagem com dose única do refrigerante sabor Cola ou Uva e, em seguida, fornecidos ad libitum (no lugar da água, por 24 horas. Foi feito um controle negativo, administrando água, em dose única, e um controle positivo administrando ciclofosfamida, via intraperitoneal. A análise estatística mostrou que os refrigerantes sabor Cola e Uva não foram citotóxicos. Entretanto, o refrigerante sabor Cola foi mutagênico neste

  11. [Introduction of soft drinks and processed juice in the diet of infants attending public day care centers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo-Silva, Giovana; Toloni, Maysa Helena de Aguiar; de Menezes, Risia Cristina Egito; Asakura, Leiko; Oliveira, Maria Alice Araújo; Taddei, José Augusto de Aguiar Carrazedo

    2015-01-01

    Identifying at what age infants enrolled in public day care centers are introduced to soft drinks and industrialized juice, as well as comparing the nutritional composition of these goods with natural fruit juice. A cross-sectional study with the mothers of 636 children (aged 0 to 36 months) from nurseries of day care centers, who were asked questions about the age of feeding introduction. This study evaluated the proximate composition of soft drinks and artificial juice, comparing them with those of natural fruit juice regarding energy, sugar, fiber, vitamin C, and sodium values. The chemical composition of fruit juice was obtained by consulting the Table of Food Composition and, for industrialized drinks, the average nutritional information on the labels of the five most consumed product brands. The artificial drinks were consumed before the first year of life by more than half of the children studied, however, approximately 10% consumed them before the age of 6 months. With regard to the comparison among the drinks, artificial fruit juice beverages and soft drinks proved to contain from nine to 13 times higher amounts of sodium, and 15 times less vitamin C than natural juices. The introduction of soft drinks and industrialized juice in the diet of infants was inopportune and premature. When compared to natural fruit juice, these have inferior nutritional composition, which suggests the urgent need for measures based on strategies for food and nutrition education in order to promote awareness and the maintenance of healthy eating habits. Copyright © 2014 Associação de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  12. The Effect of Two Soft Drinks on Bracket Bond Strength and on Intact and Sealed Enamel: An In Vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasha, Azam; Sindhu, D; Nayak, Rabindra S; Mamatha, J; Chaitra, K R; Vishwakarma, Swati

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of two soft drinks, Coca-Cola and Mirinda orange on bracket bond strength, on adhesive remnant on teeth after debonding the bracket, and to observe by means of scanning electron microscope (SEM) the effect of these drinks on intact and sealed enamel. 120 non-carious maxillary premolar teeth already extracted for Orthodontic purposes were taken and divided into three groups, i.e., Coca-Cola drink, Mirinda orange, and control (artificial saliva) group. Brackets were bonded using conventional methods. Teeth were kept in soft drinks for 15 days, for 15 min, 3 times a day, separated by intervals of 2 h. At other times, they were kept in artificial saliva. The samples, thus obtained were evaluated for shear bond strength using the universal testing machine and subsequently subjected for adhesive remnant index (ARI) scores. SEM study on all the three groups was done for evaluating enamel surface of the intact and sealed enamel. The lowest mean resistance to shearing forces was shown by Mirinda orange group (5.30 ± 2.74 Mpa) followed by Coca-Cola group (6.24 ± 1.59 Mpa) and highest resistance to shearing forces by control group (7.33 ± 1.72 Mpa). The ARI scores revealed a cohesive failure in control samples and an adhesive failure in Mirinda and cola samples. SEM results showed areas of defect due to erosion caused by acidic soft drinks on intact and sealed enamel surface. Mirinda group showed the lowest resistance to shearing forces, followed by Coca-Cola group and with the highest resistance to shearing forces by the control group. There were significant differences between the control group and the study groups. Areas of defects, which were caused by erosion related to acidic soft drinks on the enamel surface around the adhesive, were seen. Areas of defects caused by Coca-Cola were more extensive when compared to Mirinda orange drink.

  13. A Study of Different Subsequence Elimination Strategies for the Soft Drink Production Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Maldonado

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The production of soft drinks involves two main stages: syrup preparation and bottling. To obtain the lots sequence in the bottling stage, three approaches are studied. They are based on the sub-tour elimination constraints used in mathematical models for the Asymmetric Traveling Salesman Problem. Two of the mathematical models are from the literature and use classical constraints. The third model includes multi-commodity flow constraints to eliminate disconnected subsequences. The computational behavior of the three models is studied using instances generated with data from the literature. The numerical results show that there are considerable differences among the three models and indicates that the multi-commodity formulation provides good results but it requires far more computational effort when the instances are solved by a commercial software.

  14. Global Brands and Consumer Ethnocentrism of Youth Soft Drink Consumers in Greater Jakarta, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hammam Haris Tasurru

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia is a large market for consumer products targeting youth consumers, with populations of more than 70 million young inhabitants and market size of USD 155 billion. The large size of this potential market attracts foreign products with globallyrecognized brands to enter the Indonesian market. The objective of this study is to explain the purchase intention of youth consumers toward a particular brand of soft drink with global penetration by their perceptions and ethnocentrism. This study obtained response from 156 youths in Greater Jakarta, Indonesia. The resulting data was analyzed using structural equation modeling with LISREL software package. The study found that consumer ethnocentrism decreases purchase intention, both directly and indirectly through brand image. Contrary to the hypothesis, consumer ethnocentrism does not influence corporate image of the global firm, which significantly influences brand image but only slightly impacts purchase intentions directly.

  15. Proper Consumption of Sugary Drinks and its Association with Adolescent Girls’ Knowledge and Skill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ramezankhani

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Changes in the nutritional behaviors from consumption of traditional nutriments to intakes of high energy, concerned in powering the increasing problem in adolescents and children's obesity. The current study intended to evaluate Proper consumption of sugary drinks and its association with adolescent girls’ knowledge and skill in Shahr-e-kord city, Iran.Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study carried out on girl's students in Shahr-e-kord city. Using random sampling method and based on sampling size formula, a total of 308 of the girls students were randomly selected from the schools and were registered into the study. Then they received a research-made questionnaire containing questions about the knowledge, skill and Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS version 18.0 by ANOVA, and Pearson correlation coefficient.Results: The mean age of the participating adolescent girls was 13.86 ± 1.3 years old. The mean score for knowledge was 36.53 ± 21.87 and the mean score for the skill of preparing and consumption of sugar free drinks was 35.77 ± 24.67. The average amount of daily consumption of sugary drinks among studied adolescent girls was 2.95 glasses.There was a direct significant association between students’ knowledge and skill (P = 0.002, r = 0.182, There was also a significant reverse association between adolescents’ skill(P = 0. 006 r = -0.228 and knowledge (P = 0. 05 r = -0.322 with consumption of sugary drinks.Conclusion: According to the findings of this study, to increase the consumption of valuable foods and improving adolescents’ nutritional habits, more attention should be paid to the health education and promotion and by using effective relevant patterns and theories.

  16. Cola soft drinks for evaluating the bioaccessibility of uranium in contaminated mine soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lottermoser, Bernd G; Schnug, Ewald; Haneklaus, Silvia

    2011-08-15

    There is a rising need for scientifically sound and quantitative as well as simple, rapid, cheap and readily available soil testing procedures. The purpose of this study was to explore selected soft drinks (Coca-Cola Classic®, Diet Coke®, Coke Zero®) as indicators of bioaccessible uranium and other trace elements (As, Ce, Cu, La, Mn, Ni, Pb, Th, Y, Zn) in contaminated soils of the Mary Kathleen uranium mine site, Australia. Data of single extraction tests using Coca-Cola Classic®, Diet Coke® and Coke Zero® demonstrate that extractable arsenic, copper, lanthanum, manganese, nickel, yttrium and zinc concentrations correlate significantly with DTPA- and CaCl₂-extractable metals. Moreover, the correlation between DTPA-extractable uranium and that extracted using Coca-Cola Classic® is close to unity (+0.98), with reduced correlations for Diet Coke® (+0.66) and Coke Zero® (+0.55). Also, Coca-Cola Classic® extracts uranium concentrations near identical to DTPA, whereas distinctly higher uranium fractions were extracted using Diet Coke® and Coke Zero®. Results of this study demonstrate that the use of Coca-Cola Classic® in single extraction tests provided an excellent indication of bioaccessible uranium in the analysed soils and of uranium uptake into leaves and stems of the Sodom apple (Calotropis procera). Moreover, the unconventional reagent is superior in terms of availability, costs, preparation and disposal compared to traditional chemicals. Contaminated site assessments and rehabilitation of uranium mine sites require a solid understanding of the chemical speciation of environmentally significant elements for estimating their translocation in soils and plant uptake. Therefore, Cola soft drinks have potential applications in single extraction tests of uranium contaminated soils and may be used for environmental impact assessments of uranium mine sites, nuclear fuel processing plants and waste storage and disposal facilities. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier

  17. Intake of Caffeinated Soft Drinks before and during Pregnancy, but Not Total Caffeine Intake, Is Associated with Increased Cerebral Palsy Risk in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tollånes, Mette C; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine; Eichelberger, Kacey Y; Moster, Dag; Lie, Rolv Terje; Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Stoltenberg, Camilla; Wilcox, Allen J

    2016-09-01

    Postnatal administration of caffeine may reduce the risk of cerebral palsy (CP) in vulnerable low-birth-weight neonates. The effect of antenatal caffeine exposure remains unknown. We investigated the association of intake of caffeine by pregnant women and risk of CP in their children. The study was based on The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study, comprising >100,000 live-born children, of whom 222 were subsequently diagnosed with CP. Mothers reported their caffeine consumption in questionnaires completed around pregnancy week 17 (102,986 mother-child pairs), week 22 (87,987 mother-child pairs), and week 30 (94,372 mother-child pairs). At week 17, participants were asked about present and prepregnancy consumption. We used Cox regression models to estimate associations between exposure [daily servings (1 serving = 125 mL) of caffeinated coffee, tea, and soft drinks and total caffeine consumption] and CP in children, with nonconsumers as the reference group. Models included adjustment for maternal age and education, medically assisted reproduction, and smoking, and for each source of caffeine, adjustments were made for the other sources. Total daily caffeine intake before and during pregnancy was not associated with CP risk. High consumption (≥6 servings/d) of caffeinated soft drinks before pregnancy was associated with an increased CP risk (HR: 1.9; 95% CI: 1.2, 3.1), and children of women consuming 3-5 daily servings of caffeinated soft drinks during pregnancy weeks 13-30 also had an increased CP risk (HR: 1.7; 95% CI: 1.1, 2.8). A mean daily consumption of 51-100 mg caffeine from soft drinks during the first half of pregnancy was associated with a 1.9-fold increased risk of CP in children (HR: 1.9; 95% CI: 1.1, 3.6). Maternal total daily caffeine consumption before and during pregnancy was not associated with CP risk in children. The observed increased risk with caffeinated soft drinks warrants further investigation. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  18. Consumption of Sports and Energy Drinks by High School Athletes in the United States: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah K. Fields

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Sports and energy (S/E drinks are commonly used by high school (HS athletes, yet little is known about this population’s consumption patterns or the drinks’ side-effects. The objectives of this pilot study were to survey HS athletes about their use of S/E drinks and assess potential side-effects. One hundred American HS athletes (72 were female; 27 were male; one did not identify gender were part of a cross-sectional internet-based survey. The mean age of the athletes was 16.0 ± 1.1 years. The athletes self-reported S/E consumption patterns, motivations for consumption, and drink side-effects. Nearly two-thirds (59.5% of athletes surveyed were at least occasional users of sports drinks, and more than one-third (37.3% were at least occasional users of energy drinks. Of the athletes who had ever drunk an S/E drink, 49.5% drank their first sport drink at ≤ 8 years and 41.3% consumed their first energy drink ≤ 11–12 years of age. The most common motivation for consumption of sports drinks was to rehydrate (84.1% and of energy drinks was to gain energy (61.8%. Side effects of S/E drinks were frequently reported; 25.3% of energy drink users reporting being nervous/jittery after consumption. Thus HS athletes should be cautioned about consumption of S/E drinks until more is understood about their short- and long-term side-effects.

  19. Motives for mixing alcohol with energy drinks and other nonalcoholic beverages, and consequences for overall alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verster, Joris C; Benson, Sarah; Scholey, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this survey was to assess the motives for energy drink consumption, both alone and mixed with alcohol, and to determine whether negative or neutral motives for consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AMED) have a differential effect on overall alcohol consumption. Demographics, alcohol and energy drink consumption-related questions, and motives for the consumption of energy drinks (alone or mixed with alcohol) were assessed. The motives to mix alcohol with energy drinks were compared with those for mixing alcohol with other nonalcoholic beverages. A total of 2,329 students who completed the study consumed energy drinks. The motives for consuming energy drinks (without alcohol) included "I like the taste" (58.6%), "To keep me awake" (54.3%), "It gives me energy" (44.3%), "It helps concentrating when studying" (33.9%), "It increases alertness" (28.8%), "It helps me concentrate better" (20.6%), and "It makes me less sleepy when driving" (14.2%). A total of 1,239 students reported occasionally consuming AMED (AMED group). The most frequent motives included "I like the taste" (81.1%), "I wanted to drink something else" (35.3%), and "To celebrate a special occasion" (14.6%). No relevant differences in motives were observed for using an energy drink or another nonalcoholic beverage as a mixer. A minority of students (21.6%) reported at least one negative motive to consume AMED. Despite these negative motives, students reported consuming significantly less alcohol on occasions when they consumed AMED compared to alcohol-only occasions. The majority of students who consume energy drinks (without alcohol) do so because they like the taste, or they consume these drinks to keep them awake and give them energy. AMED consumption is more frequently motivated by neutral as opposed to negative motives. No relevant differences in drinking motives and overall alcohol consumption were observed between the occasions when energy drinks or other nonalcoholic beverages were

  20. Temporal changes in sugar-sweetened soft drink intake and variation across municipalities in the Capital Region of Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernsdorf, Kamille Almer; Lau, Cathrine Juel; Robinson, Kirstine Magtengaard

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to examine the changes in sugar-sweetened soft drink intake across the Capital Region of Denmark from 2007 to 2013 and to examine the association between intake and neighbourhood socioeconomic status. The study included data from three health surveys in 2007 (n = 30,426), 2010 (n = 42,21...

  1. Consumption of Diet Drinks in the United States, 2009‒2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... calorie versions of sodas, fruit drinks, energy drinks, sports drinks, and carbonated water, consistent with definitions reported by ... Sugar drinks : Include sodas, fruit drinks, energy drinks, sports drinks, and sweetened bottled waters, consistent with definitions reported ...

  2. Learning to drink: How Chinese adolescents make decisions about the consumption (or not) of alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Sungwon; Lam, Wendy W T; Sham, Judy T L; Lam, Tai-Hing

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the study was to provide in-depth understanding of how Chinese adolescents learn to drink and how they make decisions about the consumption (or not) of alcohol. This study explored the ways in which social and cultural factors shape the drinking trajectories of Chinese underage young people. The study used a qualitative design to collect and analyse the data. We recruited adolescents aged between 14 and 17 from a range of secondary schools in Hong Kong. Focus group interviews were undertaken with 22 groups encompassing 111 participants. A thematic analysis based upon grounded theory was performed using NVivo 10. The traditional Chinese drinking culture, characterised by the coming together of friends and relatives for celebrations, signifies the Chinese adolescents' first alcohol experiment. The adolescents' motivations for drinking essentially reflect the value placed upon alcohol within the Chinese culture - promoting conviviality, sociability and camaraderie. Whereas a sense of commonality encouraged alcohol use among them, there was little indication that drinkers and non-drinkers separately clustered around friendship networks. A high degree of self-regulation was exercised when drinking and this emerged as an acceptable social norm amongst young drinkers within social and cultural contexts. Most respondents saw underage drinking as an entirely normal and accepted part of social lives provided that it is kept under control. This study sheds light on the Chinese adolescents' own understandings and interpretations of their drinking. Our findings suggest that interventions aimed to curtail underage drinking need to reflect social and cultural contexts within which alcohol comes into play and importantly, consider social environments that are conducive to underage drinking. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Enteric bacteria of food ice and their survival in alcoholic beverages and soft drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaglio, Raimondo; Francesca, Nicola; Di Gerlando, Rosalia; Mahony, Jennifer; De Martino, Simone; Stucchi, Carlo; Moschetti, Giancarlo; Settanni, Luca

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the levels of enteric bacteria in ice cubes produced in different environments (home-made, prepared in bars and pubs with ice machines and produced in industrial plants) and to determine their survival in different alcoholic beverages and soft drinks. Members of the Enterobacteriaceae family were found in almost all samples analysed. All industrial and the majority of home-made samples did not contain coliforms. Enterococci were not identified in domestic samples while they were detected in two industrial and three bar/pub samples. The samples collected from bars and pubs were characterized by the highest levels of enteric bacteria. Fourteen strains representing 11 species of eight bacterial genera were identified, some of which are known agents of human infections. The most numerous groups included Enterococcus and Stenotrophomonas. The survival of Enterococcus faecium ICE41, Pantoea conspicua ICE80 and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia ICE272, that were detected at the highest levels (100-400 CFU/100 mL thawed ice) in the ice cubes, was tested in six drinks and beverages characterized by different levels of alcohol, CO2, pH and the presence of antibacterial ingredients. The results showed a species-specific behaviour and, in general, a reduction of the microbiological risks associated with ice after its transfer to alcoholic or carbonated beverages. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Sports drink consumption and diet of children involved in organized sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlin, Dona L; Clarke, Shannon K; Day, Meghan; McKay, Heather A; Naylor, Patti-Jean

    2013-08-19

    Organized sport provides one option for children to be physically active. However, there is a paucity of information about the relationship between children's participation in organized sport and their diet, and specifically their sports drink consumption. Therefore, the relationship between sports participation in children and the consumption of sports drinks, sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) and other components of diet was examined. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted using baseline data from the Action Schools! BC Dissemination study cohort (n = 1421; 9.90 (0.58) y; 736 girls, 685 boys). The differences between the dietary behaviours of children participating in organized sport (sport) versus those that did not participate (non-sport) was examined. A modified Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C) was used to measure physical activity levels and participation in organized sport. A Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) and 24-hour dietary recall were used to assess eating behaviour and macronutrient intake (including protein, fat, and carbohydrate as well as sugar, fibre and total calories). Fruit, vegetable and beverage quantities were hand-tallied from the dietary recall. Fruit, vegetable and beverage frequency was assessed using the FFQ. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to analyse differences between groups and a chi-square test of association was use to determine if participation in sport was significantly associated with the proportion of children consuming sports drinks and SSBs, and with gender. Children involved in sport had a lower body mass index (BMI) and were more physically active than children in the non-sport group (p sports drinks and no difference in consumption of sports drink between sport and non-sport participants (p > .05) was observed. However, children involved in organized sport consumed more total calories, fat, fibre, fruit, vegetables and non-flavoured milk (p sport children. Children

  5. Drinking in transition: trends in alcohol consumption in Russia 1994-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Heavy alcohol consumption is widespread in Russia, but studying changes in drinking during the transition from Communism has been hampered previously by the lack of frequent data. This paper uses 1-2 yearly panel data, comparing consumption trends with the rapid concurrent changes in economic variables (notably around the "Rouble crisis", shortly preceding the 1998 survey round), and mortality. Methods Data were from 9 rounds (1994-2004) of the 38-centre Russia Longitudinal Monitoring Survey. Respondents aged over 18 were included (>7,000 per round). Trends were measured in alcohol frequency, quantity per occasion (by beverage type) and 2 measures of potentially hazardous consumption: (i) frequent, heavy spirit drinking (≥80 g per occasion of vodka or samogon and >weekly) (ii) consuming samogon (cheap home-distilled spirit). Trends in consumption, mean household income and national mortality rates (in the same and subsequent 2 years) were compared. Finally, in a subsample of individual male respondents present in both the 1996 and 1998 rounds (before and after the financial crash), determinants of changes in harmful consumption were studied using logistic regression. Results Frequent, heavy spirit drinking (>80 g each time, ≥weekly) was widespread amongst men (12-17%) throughout, especially in the middle aged and less educated; with the exception of a significant, temporary drop to 10% in 1998. From 1996-2000, samogon drinking more than doubled, from 6% to 16% of males; despite a decline, levels were significantly higher in 2004 than 1996 in both sexes. Amongst women, frequent heavy spirit drinking rose non-significantly to more than 1% during the study. Heavy frequent male drinking and mortality in the same year were correlated in lower educated males, but not in women. Individual logistic regression in a male subsample showed that between 1996 and1998, those who lost their employment were more likely to cease frequent, heavy drinking; however, men

  6. Drinking in transition: trends in alcohol consumption in Russia 1994-2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perlman Francesca JA

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Heavy alcohol consumption is widespread in Russia, but studying changes in drinking during the transition from Communism has been hampered previously by the lack of frequent data. This paper uses 1-2 yearly panel data, comparing consumption trends with the rapid concurrent changes in economic variables (notably around the "Rouble crisis", shortly preceding the 1998 survey round, and mortality. Methods Data were from 9 rounds (1994-2004 of the 38-centre Russia Longitudinal Monitoring Survey. Respondents aged over 18 were included (>7,000 per round. Trends were measured in alcohol frequency, quantity per occasion (by beverage type and 2 measures of potentially hazardous consumption: (i frequent, heavy spirit drinking (≥80 g per occasion of vodka or samogon and >weekly (ii consuming samogon (cheap home-distilled spirit. Trends in consumption, mean household income and national mortality rates (in the same and subsequent 2 years were compared. Finally, in a subsample of individual male respondents present in both the 1996 and 1998 rounds (before and after the financial crash, determinants of changes in harmful consumption were studied using logistic regression. Results Frequent, heavy spirit drinking (>80 g each time, ≥weekly was widespread amongst men (12-17% throughout, especially in the middle aged and less educated; with the exception of a significant, temporary drop to 10% in 1998. From 1996-2000, samogon drinking more than doubled, from 6% to 16% of males; despite a decline, levels were significantly higher in 2004 than 1996 in both sexes. Amongst women, frequent heavy spirit drinking rose non-significantly to more than 1% during the study. Heavy frequent male drinking and mortality in the same year were correlated in lower educated males, but not in women. Individual logistic regression in a male subsample showed that between 1996 and1998, those who lost their employment were more likely to cease frequent, heavy

  7. Energy Drink Consumption in Europe: A Review of the Risks, Adverse Health Effects, and Policy Options to Respond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breda, João Joaquim; Whiting, Stephen Hugh; Encarnação, Ricardo; Norberg, Stina; Jones, Rebecca; Reinap, Marge; Jewell, Jo

    2014-01-01

    With the worldwide consumption of energy drinks increasing in recent years, concerns have been raised both in the scientific community and among the general public about the health effects of these products. Recent studies provide data on consumption patterns in Europe; however, more research is needed to determine the potential for adverse health effects related to the increasing consumption of energy drinks, particularly among young people. A review of the literature was conducted to identify published articles that examined the health risks, consequences, and policies related to energy drink consumption. The health risks associated with energy drink consumption are primarily related to their caffeine content, but more research is needed that evaluates the long-term effects of consuming common energy drink ingredients. The evidence indicating adverse health effects due to the consumption of energy drinks with alcohol is growing. The risks of heavy consumption of energy drinks among young people have largely gone unaddressed and are poised to become a significant public health problem in the future. PMID:25360435

  8. Energy drink consumption in Europe: A review of the risks, adverse health effects and policy options to respond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Joaquim Breda

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available With the worldwide consumption of energy drinks increasing in recent years, concerns have been raised both in the scientific community and among the general public about the health effects of these products. Recent studies provide data on consumption patterns in Europe however more research is needed to determine the potential for adverse health effects related to the increasing consumption of energy drinks, particularly among young people. A review of the literature was conducted to identify published articles that examined the health risks, consequences and policies related to energy drink consumption. The health risks associated with energy drink consumption are primarily related to their caffeine content, but more research is needed that evaluates the long term effects of consuming common energy drink ingredients. The evidence indicating adverse health effects due to the consumption of energy drinks with alcohol is growing. The risks of heavy consumption of energy drinks among young people have largely gone unaddressed and are poised to become a significant public health problem in the future.

  9. A survey of energy drinks consumption practices among student -athletes in Ghana: lessons for developing health education intervention programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxton, Christiana; Hagan, John E

    2012-03-24

    Globally, young adults and college athletes are primary targets of the marketing campaigns of energy drink companies. Consequently, it is reported that young adults and college athletes consume energy drinks frequently. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of energy drink consumption among student-athletes selected from seven public universities in Ghana. The study assessed the energy drink consumption patterns, types usually consumed, frequency of consumption and reasons why athletes consumed energy drinks. A total number of 180 student-athletes gave their consent to participate in the study and completed a questionnaire which was administered during an inter-university sports competition. Most of the participants (62.2%) reported consuming at least one can of energy drink in a week. A high proportion (53.6%) of the respondents who drink energy drinks indicated that they did so to replenish lost energy after training or a competition. Other reasons given as to why energy drinks were consumed by the study participants included to provide energy and fluids to the body (25.9%), to improve performance (9.8%) and to reduce fatigue (5.4%). These results suggest the need to plan health education programmes to particularly correct some wrong perceptions that athletes have regarding the benefits of energy drinks and also create awareness among student-athletes about the side effects of excessive intake of energy drinks.

  10. A survey of energy drinks consumption practices among student -athletes in Ghana: lessons for developing health education intervention programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Globally, young adults and college athletes are primary targets of the marketing campaigns of energy drink companies. Consequently, it is reported that young adults and college athletes consume energy drinks frequently. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of energy drink consumption among student-athletes selected from seven public universities in Ghana. The study assessed the energy drink consumption patterns, types usually consumed, frequency of consumption and reasons why athletes consumed energy drinks. Methods A total number of 180 student-athletes gave their consent to participate in the study and completed a questionnaire which was administered during an inter-university sports competition. Results Most of the participants (62.2%) reported consuming at least one can of energy drink in a week. A high proportion (53.6%) of the respondents who drink energy drinks indicated that they did so to replenish lost energy after training or a competition. Other reasons given as to why energy drinks were consumed by the study participants included to provide energy and fluids to the body (25.9%), to improve performance (9.8%) and to reduce fatigue (5.4%). Conclusion These results suggest the need to plan health education programmes to particularly correct some wrong perceptions that athletes have regarding the benefits of energy drinks and also create awareness among student-athletes about the side effects of excessive intake of energy drinks. PMID:22444601

  11. A survey of energy drinks consumption practices among student -athletes in Ghana: lessons for developing health education intervention programmes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buxton Christiana

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Globally, young adults and college athletes are primary targets of the marketing campaigns of energy drink companies. Consequently, it is reported that young adults and college athletes consume energy drinks frequently. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of energy drink consumption among student-athletes selected from seven public universities in Ghana. The study assessed the energy drink consumption patterns, types usually consumed, frequency of consumption and reasons why athletes consumed energy drinks. Methods A total number of 180 student-athletes gave their consent to participate in the study and completed a questionnaire which was administered during an inter-university sports competition. Results Most of the participants (62.2% reported consuming at least one can of energy drink in a week. A high proportion (53.6% of the respondents who drink energy drinks indicated that they did so to replenish lost energy after training or a competition. Other reasons given as to why energy drinks were consumed by the study participants included to provide energy and fluids to the body (25.9%, to improve performance (9.8% and to reduce fatigue (5.4%. Conclusion These results suggest the need to plan health education programmes to particularly correct some wrong perceptions that athletes have regarding the benefits of energy drinks and also create awareness among student-athletes about the side effects of excessive intake of energy drinks.

  12. Energy Drink and Coffee Consumption and Psychopathology Symptoms Among Early Adolescents: Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmorstein, Naomi R

    2016-06-01

    Background: Little is known about possible links between energy drink use and psychopathology among youth. This study examined cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between energy drink consumption and psychopathology among early adolescents. In addition, associations between psychopathology and coffee consumption were examined to assess whether findings were specific to energy drinks or also applied to another commonly used caffeinated beverage. Methods: One hundred forty-four youth who participated in the Camden Youth Development Study (72 males; mean age 11.9 at wave 1; 65% Hispanic, 30% African American) were assessed using self-report measures of frequency of energy drink and coffee consumption and depression, anxiety, conduct disorder (CD) symptoms, and teacher reports of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Youth (92%) were reassessed 16 months later. Results: Concurrently, energy drink and coffee consumption were associated with similar psychopathology symptoms; when the other beverage was adjusted for, energy drinks remained associated with CD and coffee remained associated with panic anxiety. Initial energy drink consumption predicted increasing ADHD and CD over time, though the association with CD dropped to a trend level of significance when coffee was adjusted for. Initial levels of hyperactive ADHD predicted increasing coffee consumption over time; this association remained when energy drinks were controlled. Social anxiety was associated with less increase in energy drink consumption over time, controlling for coffee. Conclusion: Energy drink and coffee consumption among early adolescents are concurrently associated with similar psychopathology symptoms. Longitudinally, the associations between these beverages and psychopathology differ, indicating that these substances have differing implications for development over time.

  13. Visual Attention to Alcohol Cues and Responsible Drinking Statements Within Alcohol Advertisements and Public Health Campaigns: Relationships With Drinking Intentions and Alcohol Consumption in the Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Both alcohol advertising and public health campaigns increase alcohol consumption in the short term, and this may be attributable to attentional capture by alcohol-related cues in both types of media. The present studies investigated the association between (a) visual attention to alcohol cues and responsible drinking statements in alcohol advertising and public health campaigns, and (b) next-week drinking intentions (Study 1) and drinking behavior in the lab (Study 2). In Study 1, 90 male participants viewed 1 of 3 TV alcohol adverts (conventional advert; advert that emphasized responsible drinking; or public health campaign; between-subjects manipulation) while their visual attention to alcohol cues and responsible drinking statements was recorded, before reporting their drinking intentions. Study 2 used a within-subjects design in which 62 participants (27% male) viewed alcohol and soda advertisements while their attention to alcohol/soda cues and responsible drinking statements was recorded, before completing a bogus taste test with different alcoholic and nonalcoholic drinks. In both studies, alcohol cues attracted more attention than responsible drinking statements, except when viewing a public health TV campaign. Attention to responsible drinking statements was not associated with intentions to drink alcohol over the next week (Study 1) or alcohol consumption in the lab (Study 2). However, attention to alcohol portrayal cues within alcohol advertisements was associated with ad lib alcohol consumption in Study 2, although attention to other types of alcohol cues (brand logos, glassware, and packaging) was not associated. Future studies should investigate how responsible drinking statements might be improved to attract more attention. PMID:28493753

  14. Analysis of Consumption of Energy Drinks by a Group of Adolescent Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz Nowak

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Energy drinks (EDs have become widely popular among young adults and, even more so, among adolescents. Increasingly, they are consumed by athletes, particularly those who have just begun their sporting career. Uncontrolled and high consumption of EDs, in addition to other sources of caffeine, may pose a threat to the health of young people. Hence, our objective was to analyze the consumption of EDs among teenagers engaged in sports, including quantity consumed, identification of factors influencing consumption, and risks associated with EDs and EDs mixed with alcohol (AmEDs. Methods: The study involved a specially designed questionnaire, which was completed by 707 students, 14.3 years of age on average, attending secondary sports schools. Results: EDs were consumed by 69% of the young athletes, 17% of whom drank EDs quite often: every day or 1–3 times a week. Most respondents felt no effects after drinking EDs, but some reported symptoms, including insomnia, anxiety, tachycardia, nervousness and irritability. The major determinant of the choice of EDs was taste (47%, followed by price (21%. One in ten respondents admitted to consumption of AmEDs. Among the consequences reported were: abdominal pains, nausea, vomiting, amnesia, headache, and hangover. Conclusions: EDs consumption among adolescent athletes was relatively high. Considering the habit of AmEDs and literature data, it is worth emphasizing that it may lead to health problems in the near future, alcohol- or drug-dependence, as well as other types of risk behaviour.

  15. Analysis of Consumption of Energy Drinks by a Group of Adolescent Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Dariusz; Jasionowski, Artur

    2016-07-29

    Energy drinks (EDs) have become widely popular among young adults and, even more so, among adolescents. Increasingly, they are consumed by athletes, particularly those who have just begun their sporting career. Uncontrolled and high consumption of EDs, in addition to other sources of caffeine, may pose a threat to the health of young people. Hence, our objective was to analyze the consumption of EDs among teenagers engaged in sports, including quantity consumed, identification of factors influencing consumption, and risks associated with EDs and EDs mixed with alcohol (AmEDs). The study involved a specially designed questionnaire, which was completed by 707 students, 14.3 years of age on average, attending secondary sports schools. EDs were consumed by 69% of the young athletes, 17% of whom drank EDs quite often: every day or 1-3 times a week. Most respondents felt no effects after drinking EDs, but some reported symptoms, including insomnia, anxiety, tachycardia, nervousness and irritability. The major determinant of the choice of EDs was taste (47%), followed by price (21%). One in ten respondents admitted to consumption of AmEDs. Among the consequences reported were: abdominal pains, nausea, vomiting, amnesia, headache, and hangover. EDs consumption among adolescent athletes was relatively high. Considering the habit of AmEDs and literature data, it is worth emphasizing that it may lead to health problems in the near future, alcohol- or drug-dependence, as well as other types of risk behaviour.

  16. Drinking Water in Transition: A Multilevel Cross-sectional Analysis of Sachet Water Consumption in Accra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoler, Justin; Weeks, John R; Appiah Otoo, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Rapid population growth in developing cities often outpaces improvements to drinking water supplies, and sub-Saharan Africa as a region has the highest percentage of urban population without piped water access, a figure that continues to grow. Accra, Ghana, implements a rationing system to distribute limited piped water resources within the city, and privately-vended sachet water-sealed single-use plastic sleeves-has filled an important gap in urban drinking water security. This study utilizes household survey data from 2,814 Ghanaian women to analyze the sociodemographic characteristics of those who resort to sachet water as their primary drinking water source. In multilevel analysis, sachet use is statistically significantly associated with lower overall self-reported health, younger age, and living in a lower-class enumeration area. Sachet use is marginally associated with more days of neighborhood water rationing, and significantly associated with the proportion of vegetated land cover. Cross-level interactions between rationing and proxies for poverty are not associated with sachet consumption after adjusting for individual-level sociodemographic, socioeconomic, health, and environmental factors. These findings are generally consistent with two other recent analyses of sachet water in Accra and may indicate a recent transition of sachet consumption from higher to lower socioeconomic classes. Overall, the allure of sachet water displays substantial heterogeneity in Accra and will be an important consideration in planning for future drinking water demand throughout West Africa.

  17. A single dose of kudzu extract reduces alcohol consumption in a binge drinking paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penetar, David M; Toto, Lindsay H; Lee, David Y-W; Lukas, Scott E

    2015-08-01

    Overconsumption of alcohol has significant negative effects on an individual's health and contributes to an enormous economic impact on society as a whole. Pharmacotherapies to curb excessive drinking are important for treating alcohol use disorders. Twenty (20) men participated in a placebo-controlled, double-blind, between subjects design experiment (n=10/group) that tested the effects of kudzu extract (Alkontrol-Herbal™) for its ability to alter alcohol consumption in a natural settings laboratory. A single dose of kudzu extract (2g total with an active isoflavone content of 520mg) or placebo was administered 2.5h before the onset of a 90min afternoon drinking session during which participants had the opportunity to drink up to 6 beers ad libitum; water and juice were always available as alternative beverages. During the baseline session, the placebo-randomized group consumed 2.7±0.78 beers before treatment and increased consumption to 3.4±1.1 beers after treatment. The kudzu group significantly reduced consumption from 3.0±1.7 at baseline to 1.9±1.3 beers after treatment. The placebo-treated group opened 33 beers during baseline conditions and 38 following treatment whereas the kudzu-treated group opened 32 beers during baseline conditions and only 21 following treatment. Additionally, kudzu-treated participants drank slower. This is the first demonstration that a single dose of kudzu extract quickly reduces alcohol consumption in a binge drinking paradigm. These data add to the mounting clinical evidence that kudzu extract may be a safe and effective adjunctive pharmacotherapy for alcohol abuse and dependence. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The unique contribution of attitudes toward non-alcoholic drinks to the prediction of adolescents' and young adults' alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roek, Marion A E; Spijkerman, Renske; Poelen, Evelien A P; Lemmers, Lex; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2010-06-01

    Attitudes toward alternative behaviors, such as drinking soda instead of alcohol, might contribute to the prediction of young people's drinking behavior. The current study explored the associations between late adolescents' and young adults' attitudes toward alcoholic and non-alcoholic drinks and their alcohol consumption, and whether these associations were moderated by participants' sex, age and education level. Cross-sectional data were collected among 1012 15 to 25-year-olds. Participants completed an online questionnaire on attitudes toward alcoholic and non-alcoholic drinks, binge drinking and monthly alcohol consumption. Data were analyzed by employing structural equation modeling in Mplus. After controlling for the shared variance in both attitudes, attitudes toward alcoholic drinks were positively related and attitudes toward non-alcoholic drinks were negatively related to participants' monthly alcohol use and binge drinking. Relations between attitudes towards alcoholic drinks and monthly alcohol consumption were stronger for boys than for girls and stronger for participants with intermediate education background. Relations between both attitudes and binge drinking were strongest for high educated participants. According to our data, non-alcohol attitudes provide a unique contribution to the prediction of alcohol use. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Analysis of the Consumption of Caffeinated Energy Drinks among Polish Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Dariusz; Jasionowski, Artur

    2015-07-10

    Energy drinks (EDs) are extremely popular among adults and adolescents. Regular intake of EDs may lead to an overdose of caffeine, loss of bone mass, overweight, hypertension and, in older age, osteoporosis and cardiovascular diseases. Some people mix EDs with alcohol, which adversely affects their health. The objective of this study was to analyze the consumption of EDs by adolescents. The study consisted of a questionnaire surveying amounts of drinks, preferences and product awareness among younger consumers. The study was carried out in junior and senior high schools in Poland (n = 2629). EDs were consumed by 67% of students (quite frequently by 16%). Students who practiced sports were more willing to drink EDs. Also, boys drank them more often than girls. When selecting a particular ED, young people looked at the taste, price and effect. Most respondents consumed one ED (250 mL) daily, although there were individuals consuming two or more drinks daily. Most respondents knew the ingredients of EDs, and 24% admitted to mixing EDs with alcohol. EDs are extremely popular among adolescents. Young people drinking EDs every day are potentially at risk of taking an overdose of caffeine.

  20. Analysis of the Consumption of Caffeinated Energy Drinks among Polish Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz Nowak

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Energy drinks (EDs are extremely popular among adults and adolescents. Regular intake of EDs may lead to an overdose of caffeine, loss of bone mass, overweight, hypertension and, in older age, osteoporosis and cardiovascular diseases. Some people mix EDs with alcohol, which adversely affects their health. The objective of this study was to analyze the consumption of EDs by adolescents. Methods: The study consisted of a questionnaire surveying amounts of drinks, preferences and product awareness among younger consumers. The study was carried out in junior and senior high schools in Poland (n = 2629. Results: EDs were consumed by 67% of students (quite frequently by 16%. Students who practiced sports were more willing to drink EDs. Also, boys drank them more often than girls. When selecting a particular ED, young people looked at the taste, price and effect. Most respondents consumed one ED (250 mL daily, although there were individuals consuming two or more drinks daily. Most respondents knew the ingredients of EDs, and 24% admitted to mixing EDs with alcohol. Conclusions: EDs are extremely popular among adolescents. Young people drinking EDs every day are potentially at risk of taking an overdose of caffeine.

  1. Analysis of the Consumption of Caffeinated Energy Drinks among Polish Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Dariusz; Jasionowski, Artur

    2015-01-01

    Background: Energy drinks (EDs) are extremely popular among adults and adolescents. Regular intake of EDs may lead to an overdose of caffeine, loss of bone mass, overweight, hypertension and, in older age, osteoporosis and cardiovascular diseases. Some people mix EDs with alcohol, which adversely affects their health. The objective of this study was to analyze the consumption of EDs by adolescents. Methods: The study consisted of a questionnaire surveying amounts of drinks, preferences and product awareness among younger consumers. The study was carried out in junior and senior high schools in Poland (n = 2629). Results: EDs were consumed by 67% of students (quite frequently by 16%). Students who practiced sports were more willing to drink EDs. Also, boys drank them more often than girls. When selecting a particular ED, young people looked at the taste, price and effect. Most respondents consumed one ED (250 mL) daily, although there were individuals consuming two or more drinks daily. Most respondents knew the ingredients of EDs, and 24% admitted to mixing EDs with alcohol. Conclusions: EDs are extremely popular among adolescents. Young people drinking EDs every day are potentially at risk of taking an overdose of caffeine. PMID:26184263

  2. Does cheese intake blunt the association between soft drink intake and risk of the metabolic syndrome? Results from the cross-sectional Oslo Health Study

    OpenAIRE

    H?stmark, Arne Torbj?rn; Haug, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Objectives A high soft drink intake may promote, whereas intake of cheese may reduce risk of the metabolic syndrome (MetS), but will cheese intake blunt the soft drink versus MetS association? Design Cross-sectional study. Setting The Oslo Health Study. Participants Among the 18?770 participants of the Oslo Health Study there were 5344 men and 6150 women having data on cheese and soft drink intake and on risk factors for MetS, except for fasting glucose. The MetSRisk index=the weighted sum of...

  3. Away-from-home drinking water consumption practices and the microbiological quality of water consumed in rural western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onyango-Ouma, W; Gerba, Charles P

    2011-12-01

    A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted to examine away-from-home drinking water consumption practices and the microbiological quality of water consumed in rural western Kenya. The study involved adults and schoolchildren. Data were collected using focus group discussions, questionnaire survey, observations, diaries and interviews. The findings suggest that away-from-home drinking water consumption is a common practice in the study area; however, the microbiological quality of the water consumed is poor. While some respondents perceive the water to be safe for drinking mainly because of the clear colour of the water, others are forced by circumstances to drink the water as it is owing to a lack of alternative safe sources. It is concluded that there is a need for new innovative approaches to address away-from-home drinking water consumption in resource-poor settings in order to complement and maximize the benefits of point-of-use water treatment at the household level.

  4. Sex differences in alcohol drinking patterns during forced and voluntary consumption in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juárez, J; Barrios de Tomasi, E

    1999-08-01

    Wistar rats were studied during forced and voluntary alcohol consumption, and continuous or periodic access to ethanol (6%) v/v with different availability of fluids. Absolute volume of alcohol consumption was not different between sexes in any condition; however, females consumed significantly more alcohol than males on a g/kg basis in all conditions. These differences were significantly more extensive during continuous free-choice to alcohol and water than during forced alcohol consumption. Females showed greater alcohol preference than males only during continuous free-choice to alcohol and water. During periodic free-choice to alcohol and water condition, alcohol consumption was distributed during more hours throughout the day in females than males. During periodic free-choice to alcohol and to an isocaloric sweetened solution (ISS), intakes of ISS were very high compared to regular intakes of daily water; nevertheless, alcohol consumption was maintained to similar levels observed in continuous free-choice to alcohol and water and represented almost 50% of regular daily consumes of water in males and females. Free-choice for alcohol and ISS modified the usual pattern of alcohol consumption during the daily light-dark cycle in males and females and reduced the time devoted to drinking alcohol compared to other conditions, in which similar intakes were observed. Results show that the extent of the higher alcohol consumption in females than males and the changes in patterns of alcohol intake were dependent on the nature of the ingestion schedule.

  5. Energy drinks consumption in Italian adolescents: preliminary data of social, psychological and behavioral features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cofini, Vincenza; Cecilia, Maria R; DI Giacomo, Dina; Binkin, Nancy; DI Orio, Ferdinando

    2016-06-08

    To investigate the prevalence of energy drink (ED) consumption and the associations with social, psychological and behavioral features among an Italian adolescent sample. A cross-sectional prevalence study of 450 Italian adolescents attending middle school was conducted. The Italian versions of the European Food Safety Authority's adolescent Energy Drinks Questionnaire and of the Depression and Anxiety in Youth Scale (DAYS) were administered to evaluate ED use and its psychological correlates. Odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using a logistic model to estimate the associations between ED consumption and socio-demographic characteristics, psychological factors and risky behaviors. The prevalence of ED consumers was 57%, of whom 49% used alcohol mixed with ED. A total of 9% exhibited high chronic consumption, 31% average chronic consumption and 8% high acute consumption. Males were significantly more likely to use ED (OR:2.7, 95%CI: 1.8-4.0, p=0.00) and to engage in high acute consumption (OR:4.0, 95%CI: 1.1-13.8, p=0.03). Regular smoking was associated with ED use (OR:3.4, 95%CI: 1.2-9.1, p=0.02). No relationship was observed between ED use and depression (OR:1.6, 95%CI: 0.9-3.0, p=0.10) and anxiety (OR:0.8, 95%CI: 0.5-1.4, p=0.44), although those who were depressed with a suggestive but not statistically significant increased risk of acute ED use (OR: 2.7, 95%CI: 1.0-7.4, p=0.06). The prevalence of ED consumption among middle school Italian students was high and it was associated with another risky behavior, smoking, but not with anxiety or depression. About half of ED consumers used alcohol mixed with ED.

  6. Risk of pancreatic cancer by alcohol dose, duration, and pattern of consumption, including binge drinking: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Samir; Wang, Furong; Holly, Elizabeth A; Bracci, Paige M

    2010-07-01

    Alcohol consumption is postulated to be a risk factor for pancreatic cancer (PCA), but clarification of degree of risk related to consumption characteristics is lacking. We examined the association between alcohol consumption and PCA in a population-based case-control study (532 cases, 1,701 controls) in the San Francisco Bay Area. Population-based controls were frequency-matched by sex, age within 5-year categories and county of residence to cases identified by the cancer registry's rapid case ascertainment. Detailed alcohol consumption data, including binge drinking (>or=5 drinks/day), were collected during in-person interviews. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were computed using adjusted unconditional logistic regression. Depending on dose, duration, and pattern of drinking, ORs were increased 1.5- to 6-fold among men but not women. In men, ORs increased with increasing overall alcohol consumption (22-35 drinks/week OR = 2.2, 95% CI = 1.1-4.0; >or=35 drinks/week OR = 2.6, 95% CI = 1.3-5.1, p-trend = 0.04). Most notable were effects with a history of binge drinking (OR = 3.5, 95% CI = 1.6-7.5) including increased number of drinks per day (p-trend = 0.002), and increased years of binge drinking (p-trend = 0.0006). In fully adjusted models that included smoking and other confounders, ORs for binge drinking in men were somewhat higher than in age-adjusted models. Results from our detailed analyses provide support for heavy alcohol consumption (including binge drinking) as a risk factor for PCA in men.

  7. Are energy drinks unique mixers in terms of their effects on alcohol consumption and negative alcohol-related consequences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sean J; Alford, Chris; Stewart, Karina; Verster, Joris C

    2018-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AMED) increases overall alcohol consumption. However, there is limited research examining whether energy drinks are unique in their effects when mixed with alcohol, when compared with alcohol mixed with other caffeinated mixers (AOCM). Therefore, the aim of this survey was to investigate alcohol consumption on AMED occasions, to that on other occasions when the same individuals consumed AOCM or alcohol only (AO). A UK-wide online student survey collected data on the frequency of alcohol consumption and quantity consumed, as well as the number of negative alcohol-related consequences reported on AO, AMED and AOCM occasions (N=250). Within-subjects analysis revealed that there were no significant differences in the number of alcoholic drinks consumed on a standard and a heavy drinking session between AMED and AOCM drinking occasions. However, the number of standard mixers typically consumed was significantly lower on AMED occasions compared with AOCM occasions. In addition, when consuming AMED, students reported significantly fewer days consuming 5 or more alcohol drinks, fewer days mixing drinks, and fewer days being drunk, compared with when consuming AOCM. There were no significant differences in the number of reported negative alcohol-related consequences on AMED occasions to AOCM occasions. Of importance, alcohol consumption and negative alcohol-related consequences were significantly less on both AMED and AOCM occasions compared with AO occasions. The findings that heavy alcohol consumption occurs significantly less often on AMED occasions compared with AOCM occasions is in opposition to some earlier claims implying that greatest alcohol consumption occurs with AMED. The overall greatest alcohol consumption and associated negative consequences were clearly associated with AO occasions. Negative consequences for AMED and AOCM drinking occasions were similar, suggesting that energy

  8. Tackling student binge drinking: Pairing incongruent messages and measures reduces alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutter, Russell R C; Lawton, Rebecca; Pals, Elisah; O'Connor, Daryl B; McEachan, Rosemary R C

    2015-09-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption is a persistent problem in Northern European cultures. Across a 2-week period, we tested the effect of varying message frames, message types, and response measures, in reducing alcohol consumption. Three hundred and twenty-three respondents were allocated to a 2 (message frame: gain vs. loss) × 2 (message type: health vs. social) × 2 (response type: engaging vs. refraining) mixed design. Binge drinking and units consumed were measured at Time 1 and Time 2 (2 weeks later). Participants read (following Time 1) a gain- or loss-framed message on binging emphasizing either social or health consequences and answered engaging in or refraining from drinking attitude measures. No main effects were identified. The key finding was that gain-framed messages, when used in conjunction with engage response measures (an incongruous pairing), were highly effective in reducing alcohol consumption 2 weeks later compared with the other message frame/response measure combinations. We suggest that for prevention behaviours, gain-framed messages, when paired with engage response measures, initiate an inconsistency resolution process. Together, our findings emphasize the importance of message frame and response type when seeking to reduce alcohol consumption using persuasive health messages. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  9. Red Bull® energy drink increases consumption of higher concentrations of alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roldán, Marta; Echeverry-Alzate, Victor; Bühler, Kora-Mareen; Sánchez-Diez, Israel J; Calleja-Conde, Javier; Olmos, Pedro; Boehm, Stephen L; Maldonado, Rafael; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando; Santiago, Catalina; Gómez-Gallego, Felix; Giné, Elena; López-Moreno, Jose Antonio

    2017-09-22

    Mixing alcohol with caffeinated energy drinks is a common practice, especially among young people. In humans, the research on this issue has mainly focused on the use of the mass-marketed energy drinks themselves, whereas in animal models, it has focused on the individual effects of their active ingredients (i.e. caffeine). Here, we have characterized how Red Bull®, one of the most consumed caffeinated energy drink worldwide, modulates operant alcohol self-administration in Wistar rats. We found that animals readily and steadily responded for Red Bull (mean: 90 responses, 30 minutes and fixed-ratio 1), which was accompanied by locomotor stimulating effects (26 percent increase). The higher the concentration of alcohol (3-20 percent), the higher the consumption of alcohol (g/kg) and associated blood alcohol levels (91.76 percent) in the mixed Red Bull-alcohol group (60 percent increase). Blood caffeine levels in the Red Bull group were 4.69 μg/ml and 1.31 μg/ml in the Red Bull-alcohol group after the 30-minute session. Because Red Bull also contains 11 percent sucrose, we examined the time course of blood glucose as well as insulin and corticosterone. The correlation between intake of Red Bull and blood glucose levels was higher at 90 minutes than 5 minutes after its consumption, and there was no relationship with blood insulin or blood corticosterone levels. Red Bull did not alter extinction and reacquisition of responding for alcohol nor did it affect relapse-like drinking. Overall, our results suggest that Red Bull might be a vulnerability factor to develop alcoholism given that it intensifies the consumption of higher concentrations of alcohol. © 2017 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  10. Alcohol mixed with energy drinks are robustly associated with patterns of problematic alcohol consumption among young adult college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snipes, Daniel J; Jeffers, Amy J; Green, Brooke A; Benotsch, Eric G

    2015-02-01

    Young adults are a population at great risk for problematic health behaviors. Alcohol mixed with energy drink (AmED) consumption is a relatively popular health risk behavior among young adults. AmED consumption continues to illustrate negative outcomes in the research literature, having been linked with other substance use, high-risk sexual behavior, and sexual victimization. Limited research to date has examined associations between AmED consumption and patterns of alcohol dependence. Undergraduate college students (n=757) filled out an online survey which assessed their drinking habits in the past week and month, including their consumption of AmED beverages, personality characteristics, substance use, and problematic alcohol consumption via the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). A minority of participants reported AmED consumption in both the past month (11.6%) and past week (9.7%). Compared to their alcohol-only drinking counterparts, AmED consumers scored significantly higher on measures of impulsivity, and lower on anxiety sensitivity when compared to their alcohol-only drinking counterparts. In multivariate analyses, AmED consumption was robustly associated with patterns of alcohol dependence (AUDIT score≥8) among young adult college students, while controlling for energy drink use, alcohol use, personality factors, substance use, and demographic variables. AmED consumption in the past month is robustly associated with problematic alcohol consumption. The present study describes harmful outcomes associated with AmED consumption, and extends the literature on the combined effects of alcohol and energy drinks on young adult risk behaviors. Further research needs to address causal mechanisms for the AmED and problematic alcohol consumption relation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Motives for mixing alcohol with energy drinks and other nonalcoholic beverages, and consequences for overall alcohol consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verster JC

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Joris C Verster,1,2 Sarah Benson,2 Andrew Scholey21Utrecht Institute for Pharmaceutical Sciences, Division of Pharmacology, Utrecht University, Utrecht, the Netherlands; 2Centre for Human Psychopharmacology, Swinburne University, Melbourne, VIC, AustraliaIntroduction: The aim of this survey was to assess the motives for energy drink consumption, both alone and mixed with alcohol, and to determine whether negative or neutral motives for consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AMED have a differential effect on overall alcohol consumption.Methods: Demographics, alcohol and energy drink consumption-related questions, and motives for the consumption of energy drinks (alone or mixed with alcohol were assessed. The motives to mix alcohol with energy drinks were compared with those for mixing alcohol with other nonalcoholic beverages.Results: A total of 2,329 students who completed the study consumed energy drinks. The motives for consuming energy drinks (without alcohol included "I like the taste" (58.6%, “To keep me awake” (54.3%, “It gives me energy” (44.3%, "It helps concentrating when studying" (33.9%, "It increases alertness" (28.8%, “It helps me concentrate better” (20.6%, and “It makes me less sleepy when driving” (14.2%. A total of 1,239 students reported occasionally consuming AMED (AMED group. The most frequent motives included “I like the taste” (81.1%, “I wanted to drink something else” (35.3%, and “To celebrate a special occasion” (14.6%. No relevant differences in motives were observed for using an energy drink or another nonalcoholic beverage as a mixer. A minority of students (21.6% reported at least one negative motive to consume AMED. Despite these negative motives, students reported consuming significantly less alcohol on occasions when they consumed AMED compared to alcohol-only occasions.Conclusion: The majority of students who consume energy drinks (without alcohol do so because they like the taste

  12. Determination of preservatives in soft drinks by capillary electrophoresis with ionic liquids as the electrolyte additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Bingbing; Qi, Li; Wang, Minglin

    2014-08-01

    A capillary electrophoresis method for separating preservatives with various ionic liquids as the electrolyte additives has been developed. The performances for separation of the preservatives using five ionic liquids with different anions and different substituted group numbers on imidazole ring were studied. After investigating the influence of the key parameters on the separation (the concentration of ionic liquids, pH, and the concentration of borax), it has been found that the separation efficiency could be improved obviously using the ionic liquids as the electrolyte additives and tested preservatives were baseline separated. The proposed capillary electrophoresis method exhibited favorable quantitative analysis property of the preservatives with good linearity (r(2) = 0.998), repeatability (relative standard deviations ≤ 3.3%) and high recovery (79.4-117.5%). Furthermore, this feasible and efficient capillary electrophoresis method was applied in detecting the preservatives in soft drinks, introducing a new way for assaying the preservatives in food products. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Distribution of filamentous fungi in a manufacturing factory for plastic caps for soft drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Jun

    2010-09-01

    The distribution of filamentous fungi was studied in a production line for plastic caps for soft drinks. Of 52 samples from both the swab and air sampling tests, a total of 47 filamentous fungi were isolated. Of those 47 fungi, 32 (68.0%) were found in the swab test samples. As for the swab test results, the area where most of the filamentous fungi were isolated was the printing/inspection room followed by the resin storage room. The breakdown of the filamentous fungi showed Cladosporium: 14.9%; Penicillium: 10.6%; Acremonium: 8.5%; Trichoderma: 8.5%; Arthrinium: 6.4%; and Aureobasidium: 6.4%. The fungal count of raw material (MPN/100g) was zero for the base resin, 0.36 for the master batch and 4.3 for the liner material, respectively. Those fungal counts seemed to be very low and it was concluded that the hygienic conditions of the plastic cap production line were very good.

  14. Simultaneous determination of Sunset yellow and Tartrazine in soft drinks using gold nanoparticles carbon paste electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoreishi, Sayed Mehdi; Behpour, Mohsen; Golestaneh, Mahshid

    2012-05-01

    The monitoring of synthetic dyes in foods is very important due to their potential harmfulness to human beings. Herein, a carbon-paste electrode (CPE) that is chemically modified with gold nanoparticles (nAu) was fabricated and used for the determination of Sunset yellow (SY) and Tartrazine (Tz). Cyclic and differential pulse voltammetry (CV and DPV) results revealed two well-resolved anodic peaks for SY and Tz with remarkably increase in oxidation signals of these colourants. Based on this, a novel electrochemical method was developed for the simultaneous determination of SY and Tz. High sensitivity and selectivity, sub-micromolar detection limit, high reproducibility and regeneration of the electrode surface by simple polishing make the nAu-CPE electrode very suitable for the determination of SY and Tz in commercially available soft drinks. The detection limits was 3.0×10(-8) and 2.0×10(-9)moll(-1) for SY and Tz, respectively, which are remarkably lower than those reported previously for SY and Tz using other modified electrodes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Sleep duration and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and energy drinks among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampasa-Kanyinga, Hugues; Hamilton, Hayley A; Chaput, Jean-Philippe

    2017-12-11

    To examine the relationship between sleep duration and consumption of sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs) and energy drinks (EDs) among adolescents. Data on 9,473 adolescents aged 11-20 years were obtained from the 2015 cycle of the Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey, a province-wide and cross-sectional school based survey of students in middle and high school. Respondents self-reported their sleep duration and consumption of SSBs and EDs. Those who did not meet the age-appropriate sleep duration recommendation were considered short sleepers. Overall, 81.4% and 12.0% of respondents reported that they had at least one SSBs and EDs in the past week, respectively. Males were more likely than females to consume SSBs and EDs. High school students were more likely than those in middle school to report drinking EDs. After adjusting for multiple covariates, results from logistic regression analyses indicated that short sleep duration was associated with greater odds of SSB consumption in middle school students (odd ratio (OR) = 1.64, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.18-2.11), but not those in high school (OR = 1.06, 95% CI = 0.86-1.31). Short sleep duration was associated with greater odds of ED consumption in both middle (OR = 1.60, 95% CI = 1.10-2.34) and high school (OR = 1.78, 95% CI = 1.38-2.30) students. Short sleep duration was associated with consumption of EDs in middle and high school students and with SSBs in middle school students only. Future studies are needed to establish causality and to determine whether improving sleep patterns can reduce the consumption of SSBs and EDs among adolescents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Risk assessments of aspartame, acesulfame K, sucralose and benzoic acid from soft drinks, "saft", nectar and flavoured water

    OpenAIRE

    Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food Safety

    2014-01-01

    The Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food Safety (VKM) has at the request of the Norwegian Food Safety Authority conducted a risk assessment of the intense sweeteners aspartame, acesulfame K and sucralose and the preservative benzoic acid from soft drinks, “saft”, nectar and flavoured water. VKM concludes that for all age groups in all scenarios the intake of sweeteners is well below the established ADI values, thus, there is no concern related to the intake of the sweeteners aspartame, ace...

  17. Remineralizing effect of a zinc-hydroxyapatite toothpaste on enamel erosion caused by soft drinks : ultrastructural analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Colombo, Marco; Mirando, Maria; Rattalino, Davide; Beltrami, Riccardo; Chiesa, Marco; Poggio,Claudio

    2017-01-01

    Background The aim of the present in vitro study was to evaluate the protective effects of a zinc-hydroxyapatite toothpaste on repairing enamel erosion produced by a soft drink (Coca-Cola) compared to toothpastes with and without fluoride using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Material and Methods Fifty specimens were assigned to 5 groups of 10 specimens each. (Group 1: no erosive challenge, no toothpaste treatment, group 2: erosive challenge, no toothpaste treatment, 3: erosive challenge,...

  18. Differential hypothalamic leptin sensitivity in obese rat offspring exposed to maternal and postnatal intake of chocolate and soft drink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjaergaard, M; Nilsson, C; Secher, A; Kildegaard, J; Skovgaard, T; Nielsen, M O; Grove, K; Raun, K

    2017-01-16

    Intake of high-energy foods and maternal nutrient overload increases the risk of metabolic diseases in the progeny such as obesity and diabetes. We hypothesized that maternal and postnatal intake of chocolate and soft drink will affect leptin sensitivity and hypothalamic astrocyte morphology in adult rat offspring. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were fed ad libitum chow diet only (C) or with chocolate and high sucrose soft drink supplement (S). At birth, litter size was adjusted into 10 male offspring per mother. After weaning, offspring from both dietary groups were assigned to either S or C diet, giving four groups until the end of the experiment at 26 weeks of age. As expected, adult offspring fed the S diet post weaning became obese (body weight: Pchocolate and soft drink had long-term consequences for the metabolic phenotype in the offspring if they continued on the S diet in postnatal life. These offspring displayed obesity despite lowered energy intake associated with alterations in hypothalamic leptin signalling.

  19. The effect for Japanese workers of a self-help computerized cognitive behaviour therapy program with a supplement soft drink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirotsuki, Kentaro; Nonaka, Yuji; Abe, Keiichi; Adachi, So-Ichiro; Adachi, Shohei; Kuboki, Tomifusa; Nakao, Mutsuhiro

    2017-01-01

    Computerized cognitive behaviour therapy (CCBT) programs can provide a useful self-help approach to the treatment of psychological problems. Previous studies have shown that CCBT has moderate effects on depression, insomnia, and anxiety. The present study investigated whether a supplement drink that includes L-carnosine enhances the effect of CCBT on psychological well-being. Eighty-seven participants were randomly allocated to a control group, CCBT, or CCBT with supplement drink. The CCBT and CCBT with supplement drink groups received six weekly self-help CCBT program instalments, which consisted of psycho-education about stress management and coping, behaviour activation, and cognitive restructuring. The CCBT group consumed a bottle of the supplement soft drink every morning through the 6 weeks. This program was delivered by an e-learning system on demand and also included a self-help guidebook. Seventy-two participants completed the program or were assess at the end of the study. ANOVA revealed that there were significant interactions (times × groups) for POMS tension-anxiety and fatigue. The CCBT group showed significantly improved tension-anxiety scores, whereas the CCBT with drink group showed significant improvements on fatigue. The self-help CCBT program reduced the subjective experience of tension-anxiety in this group of workers. The addition of a supplement drink enhanced the effect of CCBT on fatigue, providing one possible approach to enhancement of such programs. This study was registered on September 2, 2016 at UMIN. The registration number is UMIN000023903.

  20. Heavy episodic drinking and alcohol consumption in French colleges: the role of perceived social norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    França, Lionel Riou; Dautzenberg, Bertrand; Reynaud, Michel

    2010-01-01

    The effect of normative perceptions (social norms) on heavy episodic drinking (HED) behavior is well known in the U.S. college setting, but little work is available in other cultural contexts. The objective of this study is therefore to assess whether social norms of alcohol use are related to HED in France, taking account of other influential predictors. A cross-sectional survey was carried out among 731 second-year university students in the Paris region to explore the role of 29 potential alcohol use risk factors. The probability of heavy episodic drinking and the frequency of HED among heavy episodic drinkers were modeled independently. Monthly alcohol consumption was also assessed. Of the students, 56% overestimate peer student prevalence of HED (37% for alcohol drinking prevalence). HED frequency rises with perceived peer student prevalence of HED. Other social norms associated with HED are perceived friends' approval of HED (increasing both HED probability and HED frequency) and perceived friend prevalence of alcohol drinking (increasing HED probability only). Cannabis and tobacco use, academic discipline, gender, and the number of friends are also identified as being associated with HED. Overestimation of peer student prevalence is not uncommon among French university students. Furthermore, perceived peer student prevalence of HED is linked to HED frequency, even after adjusting for other correlates. Interventions correcting misperceived prevalences of HED among peer students have therefore the potential to reduce the frequency of HED in this population.

  1. Association between energy drink intake, sleep, stress, and suicidality in Korean adolescents: energy drink use in isolation or in combination with junk food consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Subin; Lee, Yeeun; Lee, Junghyun H.

    2016-01-01

    Background A considerable amount of research suggests that the frequent use of caffeinated energy drinks may be associated with undesirable effects, particularly so in children and adolescents. This study aimed to investigate the associations between energy drink intake and mental health problems, in isolation or in combination with junk food consumption, in a nationally representative sample of Korean adolescents. Methods Data from the 2015 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Web-Based Survey, collec...

  2. Determination of pesticide residues (> 0.5 microg/L) in soft drinks and sports drinks by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry: collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kathleen D; Milne, Paul

    2008-01-01

    A collaborative study was conducted on a method for the measurement of 19 low-level pesticide residues in soft drinks and sports drinks by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The pesticide residues determined were 2,4'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (2,4'-DDE); 2,4'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (2,4'-DDD); 4,4'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (4,4'-DDE); 2,4'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (2,4'-DDT); 4,4'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (4,4'-DDT); 4,4'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (4,4'-DDD); alpha-endosulfan; endosulfan-sulfate; dieldrin; aldrin; ethion; chlorpyrifos; beta-endosulfan; malathion; methyl-parathion; alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane (alpha-HCH); beta-HCH; delta-HCH; and gamma-HCH. Blind fortification solutions containing 4 different levels of pesticide residues (0, 0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 microg/L) were provided to 8 collaborating laboratories who used them to create test samples in 6 matrixes (also provided): 2 colas, a diet cola, a clear lemon-lime soft drink, an orange soft drink, and a sports drink. Reproducibility (RSDR) for all 19 pesticide residues in all matrixes ranged from 7 to 151% at the 0.1 microg/L level, 11 to 121% at 0.5 microg/L, and 14 to 67% at 1.0 microg/L. Repeatability (RSDr), applicable to the diet cola and the sports drink, ranged from 1 to 76% for the 19 pesticide residues at the 0.1 microg/L level, 9 to 38% at 0.5 microg/L, and 9 to 38% at 1.0 microg/L. Recoveries for the 19 pesticide residues in all matrixes ranged from 77 to 645% at the 0.1 microg/L level, 60 to 231% at 0.5 microg/L, and 61 to 146% at 1.0 microg/L. It is recommended that the method be accepted by AOAC as Official First Action with a limit of quantification (LOQ) equal to 0.5 microg/L for 4,4'-DDT; 2,4'-DDT; 2,4'-DDD; 4,4'-DDE; 4,4'-DDD; 2,4'-DDE; aldrin; dieldrin; alpha-endosulfan; endosulfan-sulfate; chlorpyrifos; and ethion, and an LOQ equal to 1.0 microg/L for beta-endosulfan; alpha-HCH; beta-HCH; delta-HCH; gamma-HCH; methyl-parathion; and

  3. Determination of low-level pesticide residues in soft drinks and sports drinks by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry: collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kathleen D; Milne, Paul

    2008-01-01

    A collaborative study was conducted on a method for the measurement of 11 low-level pesticide residues in soft drinks and sports drinks by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. The pesticide residues determined in this study were alachlor, atrazine, butachlor, isoproturon, malaoxon, monocrotophos, methyl paraoxon, phorate, phorate sulfone, phorate sulfoxide, and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). Blind fortification solutions containing 3 different levels of pesticide residues were provided to 9 collaborating laboratories to create test samples at concentrations of 0, 0.1, and 0.5 microg/L with a 10-fold concentration for phorate in a total of 6 matrixes (2 colas, 1 diet cola, 1 clear lemon-lime soft drink, 1 orange soft drink, and 1 sports drink). Good qualitative performance of the method was demonstrated for all pesticide residues. Reproducibility relative standard deviation (RSDR) ranged from 7 to 151% for alachlor, atrazine, butachlor, isoproturon, malaoxon, monocrotophos, methyl paraoxon, phorate, phorate sulfone, phorate sulfoxide, and 2,4-D at the 0.1 microg/L level (1.0 microg/L for phorate). At 0.5 microg/L (5.0 microg/L for phorate), RSDR ranged from 9 to 57% for alachlor, atrazine, butachlor isoproturon, malaoxon, monocrotophos, methyl paraoxon, phorate, phorate sulfone, phorate sulfoxide, and 2,4-D in all matrixes. Repeatability relative standard deviation (RSDr), applicable to the diet cola and sports drink, ranged from 0 to 124% for the 11 pesticide residues at the 0.1 microg/L level (1.0 microg/L for phorate). At 0.5 microg/L (5.0 microg/L for phorate), RSDr ranged from 4 to 26%. Recoveries for the 11 pesticide residues in all matrixes ranged from 84 to 300% at the 0.1 microg/L level (1.0 microg/L for phorate) and from 66 to 127% at the 0.5 microg/L (5.0 microg/L for phorate) level. Coefficients of determination (r2) of the matrix-matched calibration curves were > or = 0.95. It is recommended that the method be accepted by AOAC

  4. Effect of alcohol references in music on alcohol consumption in public drinking places.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engels, Rutger C M E; Slettenhaar, Gert; ter Bogt, Tom; Scholte, Ron H J

    2011-01-01

    People are exposed to many references to alcohol, which might influence their consumption of alcohol directly. In a field experiment, we tested whether textual references to alcohol in music played in bars lead to higher revenues of alcoholic beverages. We created two databases: one contained songs referring to alcohol, the parallel database contained songs with matching artists, tempo, and energetic content, but no references to alcohol. Customers of three bars were exposed to either music textually referring to alcohol or to the control condition, resulting in 23 evenings in both conditions. Bartenders were instructed to play songs with references to alcohol (or not) during a period of 2 hours each of the evenings of interest. They were not blind to the experimental condition. The results showed that customers who were exposed to music with textual references to alcohol spent significantly more on alcoholic drinks compared to customers in the control condition. This pilot study provides preliminary evidence that alcohol-related lyrics directly affect alcohol consumption in public drinking places. Since our study is one of the first testing direct effects of music lyrics on consumption, our small-scale, preliminary study needs replication before firm conclusions can be drawn. Copyright © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  5. Recent drinking consequences, motivation to change, and changes in alcohol consumption over a three month period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blume, Arthur W; Schmaling, Karen B; Marlatt, G Alan

    2006-02-01

    Little is known about what type of drinking related consequences may enhance motivation to change or may hinder behavior change over time. In order to examine this research question, 120 adult participants abusing alcohol were administered the Drinker Inventory of Consequences-Recent (DrInC-R), the Brief Readiness to Change Questionnaire (BRTC), and the Steady Pattern Chart (SP). Subscale scores from the DrInC-R and the BRTC; and alcohol consumption as assessed by the SP at baseline and three month follow-up were retained for data analyses. Greater intrapersonal DrInC-R consequences scores significantly predicted greater contemplation stage scores (R2=.37, pdrinking related consequences may motivate change, whereas numbers of impulse control and interpersonal consequences may predict changes in drinking behavior over the short-term.

  6. Proposed actions for the US Food and Drug Administration to implement to minimize adverse effects associated with energy drink consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorlton, Janet; Colby, David A; Devine, Paige

    2014-07-01

    Energy drink sales are expected to reach $52 billion by 2016. These products, often sold as dietary supplements, typically contain stimulants. The Dietary Supplement Protection Act claims an exemplary public health safety record. However, in 2011 the number of emergency department visits related to consumption of energy drinks exceeded 20,000. Nearly half of these visits involved adverse effects occurring from product misuse. Political, social, economic, practical, and legal factors shape the landscape surrounding this issue. In this policy analysis, we examine 3 options: capping energy drink caffeine levels, creating a public education campaign, and increasing regulatory scrutiny regarding the manufacture and labeling of energy drinks. Increased regulatory scrutiny may be in order, especially in light of wrongful death lawsuits related to caffeine toxicity resulting from energy drink consumption.

  7. Celiac trunk and branches dissection due to energy drink consumption and heavy resistance exercise: case report and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Wilma; Altieri, Pablo I; Alvarado, Enrique; Banchs, Héctor L; Colón, Edgar; Escobales, Nelson; Crespo, María

    2015-01-01

    Higher doses and consumption of energy drinks leads to cardiovascular effects and potential consequences. Principal components found in energy drinks such as caffeine, guarana and taurine has been related to dilatation, aneurysm formation, dissection and ruptures. There is no evidence showing an integration of these components and its effects in endothelium and aortic walls due to higher levels of pressure during exercises. We report a case of a 44 years male with celiac trunk and branches dissection due to long-term consumption of energy drinks and intense exercise routine. Our proposition relates cell and vessel walls alterations including elasticity in endothelial wall due to higher blood pressure, resistance by intense exercise routine and long-term consumption of energy drinks.

  8. Mixing alcohol with energy drink (AMED) and total alcohol consumption : a systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verster, Joris C; Benson, Sarah; Johnson, Sean J; Scholey, Andrew; Alford, Chris

    It has been suggested that consuming alcohol mixed with energy drink (AMED) may increase total alcohol consumption. Aims of this systematic review and meta-analysis were (i) to compare alcohol consumption of AMED consumers with alcohol only (AO) consumers (between-group comparisons), and (ii) to

  9. A Survey of Energy Drink Consumption Patterns Among College Students at a Mostly Hispanic University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabezas-Bou, Ernesto; De León-Arbucias, Jeidiel; Matos-Vergara, Nikol; Álvarez-Bagnarol, Yocasta; Ortega-Guzmán, Jesús; Narváez-Pérez, Karla; Cruz-Bermúdez, Nelson D; Díaz-Ríos, Manuel

    2016-12-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to determine energy drink (ED) consumption patterns among Hispanic college students. We measured the prevalence and frequency of ED consumption according to gender, degree programs, and specific university-related and social situations. In addition, we assessed the frequency of consumption of EDs mixed with alcoholic beverages. Methods: A total of 508 college students from the University of Puerto Rico, the largest Hispanic institution of higher education statewide, completed an online questionnaire. Results: Twenty-one percent of participants reported consuming EDs with the majority consuming EDs either occasionally (every 2-3 months) or at least once or twice a month. Men were found to be more likely to consume EDs than women. Undergraduate students were found less likely to consume EDs than graduate students. Most students consumed EDs while studying and during social activities. More than one-third of participants that consume EDs admitted mixing them with an alcoholic beverage. Graduate students were found to consume EDs mixed with alcohol more often. Conclusions: The majority of students consumed EDs occasionally and while studying. Most side effects reported after consuming EDs were similar to previous findings. The higher consumption of EDs and of EDs mixed with alcohol by students in graduate programs could be explained by a higher and more complex study load requiring longer periods of wakefulness and concentration. Future studies looking at the consumption patterns of EDs in more competitive graduate programs such as medical and/or dentistry school should be considered.

  10. Alcohol mixed with energy drinks: consumption patterns and motivations for use in U.S. college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marczinski, Cecile A

    2011-08-01

    Binge drinking in college students is widespread and known to cause significant harms and health hazards for the drinker. One factor that may be exacerbating hazardous drinking in young people is the new popular trend of consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmED). However, rates of AmED use and motivations for AmED consumption in college students have not been well established. In this study, 706 undergraduate college students from a university in the United States participated in a web-based survey that queried self-reported alcohol, energy drink, and AmED use. In addition, motivations for using AmEDs were assessed. The results indicated that for all participants, 81% reported that they have tried at least one energy drink in the past and 36% reported consumption of at least one energy drink in the past 2 weeks. Alcohol consumption patterns were similar to findings from U.S. national surveys of college drinking, as 37% of respondents were classified as binge drinkers and 23% abstained from drinking. In the whole sample (including the alcohol abstainers), 44% reported trying AmED at least once and 9% reported AmED consumption at least once in the past 2 weeks. 78% of respondents agreed with the statement that AmEDs appeal to underage drinkers. When AmED users were asked about various motivations for consuming AmEDs, users reported that they consumed these beverages to get drunk and reduce sedation compared to alcohol alone. In conclusion, the consumption of AmEDs is common in U.S. college students. Motivations for using AmEDs include the reduction of the sedative effects of alcohol, an important interoceptive cue that one should stop drinking.

  11. Alcohol Mixed with Energy Drinks: Consumption Patterns and Motivations for Use in U.S. College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marczinski, Cecile A.

    2011-01-01

    Binge drinking in college students is widespread and known to cause significant harms and health hazards for the drinker. One factor that may be exacerbating hazardous drinking in young people is the new popular trend of consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmED). However, rates of AmED use and motivations for AmED consumption in college students have not been well established. In this study, 706 undergraduate college students from a university in the United States participated in a web-based survey that queried self-reported alcohol, energy drink, and AmED use. In addition, motivations for using AmEDs were assessed. The results indicated that for all participants, 81% reported that they have tried at least one energy drink in the past and 36% reported consumption of at least one energy drink in the past 2 weeks. Alcohol consumption patterns were similar to findings from U.S. national surveys of college drinking, as 37% of respondents were classified as binge drinkers and 23% abstained from drinking. In the whole sample (including the alcohol abstainers), 44% reported trying AmED at least once and 9% reported AmED consumption at least once in the past 2 weeks. 78% of respondents agreed with the statement that AmEDs appeal to underage drinkers. When AmED users were asked about various motivations for consuming AmEDs, users reported that they consumed these beverages to get drunk and reduce sedation compared to alcohol alone. In conclusion, the consumption of AmEDs is common in U.S. college students. Motivations for using AmEDs include the reduction of the sedative effects of alcohol, an important interoceptive cue that one should stop drinking. PMID:21909303

  12. Alcohol Mixed with Energy Drinks: Consumption Patterns and Motivations for Use in U.S. College Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecile A. Marczinski

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Binge drinking in college students is widespread and known to cause significant harms and health hazards for the drinker. One factor that may be exacerbating hazardous drinking in young people is the new popular trend of consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmED. However, rates of AmED use and motivations for AmED consumption in college students have not been well established. In this study, 706 undergraduate college students from a university in the United States participated in a web-based survey that queried self-reported alcohol, energy drink, and AmED use. In addition, motivations for using AmEDs were assessed. The results indicated that for all participants, 81% reported that they have tried at least one energy drink in the past and 36% reported consumption of at least one energy drink in the past 2 weeks. Alcohol consumption patterns were similar to findings from U.S. national surveys of college drinking, as 37% of respondents were classified as binge drinkers and 23% abstained from drinking. In the whole sample (including the alcohol abstainers, 44% reported trying AmED at least once and 9% reported AmED consumption at least once in the past 2 weeks. 78% of respondents agreed with the statement that AmEDs appeal to underage drinkers. When AmED users were asked about various motivations for consuming AmEDs, users reported that they consumed these beverages to get drunk and reduce sedation compared to alcohol alone. In conclusion, the consumption of AmEDs is common in U.S. college students. Motivations for using AmEDs include the reduction of the sedative effects of alcohol, an important interoceptive cue that one should stop drinking.

  13. Consumption of sweet beverages and type 2 diabetes incidence in European adults : Results from EPIC-InterAct

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romaguera, D.; Norat, T.; Wark, P. A.; Vergnaud, A. C.; Schulze, M. B.; van Woudenbergh, G. J.; Drogan, D.; Amiano, P.; Molina-Montes, E.; Sanchez, M.J.; Balkau, B.; Barricarte, A.; Beulens, J. W. J.; Clavel-Chapelon, F.; Crispim, S. P.; Fagherazzi, G.; Franks, P. W.; Grote, V. A.; Huybrechts, I.; Kaaks, R.; Key, T. J.; Khaw, K. T.; Nilsson, P.; Overvad, K.; Palli, D.; Panico, S.; Quiros, J. R.; Rolandsson, O.; Sacerdote, C.; Sieri, S.; Slimani, N.; Spijkerman, A.M.W.; Tjonneland, A.; Tormo, M. J.; Tumino, R.; van den Berg, S. W.; Wermeling, P. R.; Zamora-Ros, R.; Feskens, E. J. M.; Langenberg, C.; Sharp, S. J.; Forouhi, N. G.; Riboli, E.; Wareham, N. J.

    Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages has been shown, largely in American populations, to increase type 2 diabetes incidence. We aimed to evaluate the association of consumption of sweet beverages (juices and nectars, sugar-sweetened soft drinks and artificially sweetened soft drinks) with type 2

  14. Motives for mixing alcohol with energy drinks and other nonalcoholic beverages, and consequences for overall alcohol consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verster, Joris C; Benson, Sarah; Scholey, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this survey was to assess the motives for energy drink consumption, both alone and mixed with alcohol, and to determine whether negative or neutral motives for consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AMED) have a differential effect on overall alcohol consumption. Methods Demographics, alcohol and energy drink consumption-related questions, and motives for the consumption of energy drinks (alone or mixed with alcohol) were assessed. The motives to mix alcohol with energy drinks were compared with those for mixing alcohol with other nonalcoholic beverages. Results A total of 2,329 students who completed the study consumed energy drinks. The motives for consuming energy drinks (without alcohol) included “I like the taste” (58.6%), “To keep me awake” (54.3%), “It gives me energy” (44.3%), “It helps concentrating when studying” (33.9%), “It increases alertness” (28.8%), “It helps me concentrate better” (20.6%), and “It makes me less sleepy when driving” (14.2%). A total of 1,239 students reported occasionally consuming AMED (AMED group). The most frequent motives included “I like the taste” (81.1%), “I wanted to drink something else” (35.3%), and “To celebrate a special occasion” (14.6%). No relevant differences in motives were observed for using an energy drink or another nonalcoholic beverage as a mixer. A minority of students (21.6%) reported at least one negative motive to consume AMED. Despite these negative motives, students reported consuming significantly less alcohol on occasions when they consumed AMED compared to alcohol-only occasions. Conclusion The majority of students who consume energy drinks (without alcohol) do so because they like the taste, or they consume these drinks to keep them awake and give them energy. AMED consumption is more frequently motivated by neutral as opposed to negative motives. No relevant differences in drinking motives and overall alcohol consumption were

  15. Alcohol and energy drinks: a pilot study exploring patterns of consumption, social contexts, benefits and harms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennay, Amy; Lubman, Dan I

    2012-07-23

    Young people around the world are increasingly combining alcohol with energy drinks (AEDs). However, as yet, limited research has been conducted examining this issue, particularly in terms of exploring patterns of consumption, social practices and the cultural contexts of AED consumption. We sought to understand how AEDs are used and socially constructed among young people. We conducted 25 hours of observation in a variety of pubs, bars and nightclubs, as well as in-depth interviews with ten young people who regularly consumed AEDs during a session of alcohol use. In this pilot study, participants were highly organised in their AED consumption practices and reported rarely altering this routine. Some young people consumed upwards of eight AEDs on a typical night, and others limited their use to between three and five AEDs to avoid unpleasant consequences, such as sleep disturbances, severe hangovers, heart palpitations and agitation. Wakefulness and increased energy were identified as the primary benefits of AEDs, with taste, reduced and increased intoxication, and sociability reported as additional benefits. Young AED users were brand sensitive and responded strongly to Red Bull imagery, as well as discounted AEDs. Finally, some young people reported substituting illicit stimulants with energy drinks. Combining energy drinks with alcohol is now a normalised phenomenon and an integral and ingrained feature of the night-time economy. Despite this, many young people are unaware of recommended daily limits or related harms. While some young people consume AEDs to feel less drunk (consistent with motivations for combining alcohol with illicit stimulants), others report using AEDs to facilitate intoxication. While preliminary, our findings have relevance for potential policy and regulatory approaches, as well as directions for future research.

  16. Alcohol and energy drinks: a pilot study exploring patterns of consumption, social contexts, benefits and harms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Young people around the world are increasingly combining alcohol with energy drinks (AEDs). However, as yet, limited research has been conducted examining this issue, particularly in terms of exploring patterns of consumption, social practices and the cultural contexts of AED consumption. We sought to understand how AEDs are used and socially constructed among young people. Methods We conducted 25 hours of observation in a variety of pubs, bars and nightclubs, as well as in-depth interviews with ten young people who regularly consumed AEDs during a session of alcohol use. Results In this pilot study, participants were highly organised in their AED consumption practices and reported rarely altering this routine. Some young people consumed upwards of eight AEDs on a typical night, and others limited their use to between three and five AEDs to avoid unpleasant consequences, such as sleep disturbances, severe hangovers, heart palpitations and agitation. Wakefulness and increased energy were identified as the primary benefits of AEDs, with taste, reduced and increased intoxication, and sociability reported as additional benefits. Young AED users were brand sensitive and responded strongly to Red Bull imagery, as well as discounted AEDs. Finally, some young people reported substituting illicit stimulants with energy drinks. Conclusions Combining energy drinks with alcohol is now a normalised phenomenon and an integral and ingrained feature of the night-time economy. Despite this, many young people are unaware of recommended daily limits or related harms. While some young people consume AEDs to feel less drunk (consistent with motivations for combining alcohol with illicit stimulants), others report using AEDs to facilitate intoxication. While preliminary, our findings have relevance for potential policy and regulatory approaches, as well as directions for future research. PMID:22824297

  17. Alcohol and energy drinks: a pilot study exploring patterns of consumption, social contexts, benefits and harms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pennay Amy

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Young people around the world are increasingly combining alcohol with energy drinks (AEDs. However, as yet, limited research has been conducted examining this issue, particularly in terms of exploring patterns of consumption, social practices and the cultural contexts of AED consumption. We sought to understand how AEDs are used and socially constructed among young people. Methods We conducted 25 hours of observation in a variety of pubs, bars and nightclubs, as well as in-depth interviews with ten young people who regularly consumed AEDs during a session of alcohol use. Results In this pilot study, participants were highly organised in their AED consumption practices and reported rarely altering this routine. Some young people consumed upwards of eight AEDs on a typical night, and others limited their use to between three and five AEDs to avoid unpleasant consequences, such as sleep disturbances, severe hangovers, heart palpitations and agitation. Wakefulness and increased energy were identified as the primary benefits of AEDs, with taste, reduced and increased intoxication, and sociability reported as additional benefits. Young AED users were brand sensitive and responded strongly to Red Bull imagery, as well as discounted AEDs. Finally, some young people reported substituting illicit stimulants with energy drinks. Conclusions Combining energy drinks with alcohol is now a normalised phenomenon and an integral and ingrained feature of the night-time economy. Despite this, many young people are unaware of recommended daily limits or related harms. While some young people consume AEDs to feel less drunk (consistent with motivations for combining alcohol with illicit stimulants, others report using AEDs to facilitate intoxication. While preliminary, our findings have relevance for potential policy and regulatory approaches, as well as directions for future research.

  18. Prevalence and Side Effects of Energy Drink Consumption among Medical Students at Umm Al-Qura University, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naif A. Bawazeer

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Energy drinks are freely available at markets and shops on the university campus without regulation or proper education regarding its side effects. The caffeine amount within energy drinks is high and could become an addictive substance or cause intoxication. Therefore, this study aims to assess the prevalence of energy drink consumption and its reported side effects among medical students. Methods:A total number of 257 medical students from Umm Al-Qura University completed a questionnaire about energy drinks that was administrated electronically from September through November, 2012. Results:Out of the 257 participants, 27.2% (n=70 reported consuming at least one energy drink per month, with 61.5% (n=48 being males. Males consume significantly more energy drinks than females (p=0.0001. The students consumed energy drinks to get energy in general (32.8% and while studying for exams or finishing a project (31.4%. Other reasons given include, lack of sleep (12.8%, just to be like friends (11.4%, or driving (8.5%. Heart palpitations are the most common side effect in our sample (20%, followed by insomnia (10%, headache and tremors (5.7%, nausea and vomiting (4.2% and nervousness (2.8%. Conclusion: Energy drinks consumption is common practice among medical students and the main reason cited for consumption is the need for energy during general activities. Approximately one-third of the consumers manifested some side effect after consumption. We recommend the need to create public awareness about energy drinks. Further studies are recommended to assess the educational level of students consuming energy drinks, about the dangerous side effects.

  19. They Drink How Much and Where? Normative Perceptions by Drinking Contexts and Their Association to College Students'Alcohol Consumption*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Melissa A.; Litt, Dana M.; Blayney, Jessica A.; Lostutter, Ty W.; Granato, Hollie; Kilmer, Jason R.; Lee, Christine M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Prior research has shown that normative perceptions of others’ drinking behavior strongly relates to one's own drinking behavior. Most research examining the perceived drinking of others has generally focused on specificity of the normative referent (i.e., gender, ethnicity). The present study expands the research literature on social norms by examining normative perceptions by various drinking contexts. Specifically, this research aimed to determine if college students overestimate peer drinking by several drinking contexts (i.e., bar, fraternity/sorority party, non-fraternity/sorority party, sporting event) and to examine whether normative perceptions for drinking by contexts relate to one's own drinking behavior specific to these contexts. Method: Students (N= 1,468; 56.4% female) participated in a web-based survey by completing measures assessing drinking behavior and perceived descriptive drinking norms for various contexts. Results: Findings demonstrated that students consistently overestimated the drinking behavior for the typical same-sex student in various drinking contexts, with the most prominent being fraternity/sorority parties. In addition, results indicated that same-sex normative perceptions for drinking by contexts were associated with personal drinking behavior within these contexts. Conclusions: Results stress the importance of specificity of social norms beyond those related to the normative referent. Clinical implications are discussed in terms of preventions and intervention efforts as well as risks associated with drinking in a novel context. PMID:21906511

  20. They drink how much and where? Normative perceptions by drinking contexts and their association to college students' alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Melissa A; Litt, Dana M; Blayney, Jessica A; Lostutter, Ty W; Granato, Hollie; Kilmer, Jason R; Lee, Christine M

    2011-09-01

    Prior research has shown that normative perceptions of others' drinking behavior strongly relates to one's own drinking behavior. Most research examining the perceived drinking of others has generally focused on specificity of the normative referent (i.e., gender, ethnicity). The present study expands the research literature on social norms by examining normative perceptions by various drinking contexts. Specifically, this research aimed to determine if college students overestimate peer drinking by several drinking contexts (i.e., bar, fraternity/sorority party, non-fraternity/sorority party, sporting event) and to examine whether normative perceptions for drinking by contexts relate to one's own drinking behavior specific to these contexts. Students (N = 1,468; 56.4% female) participated in a web-based survey by completing measures assessing drinking behavior and perceived descriptive drinking norms for various contexts. Findings demonstrated that students consistently overestimated the drinking behavior for the typical same-sex student in various drinking contexts, with the most prominent being fraternity/sorority parties. In addition, results indicated that same-sex normative perceptions for drinking by contexts were associated with personal drinking behavior within these contexts. Results stress the importance of specificity of social norms beyond those related to the normative referent. Clinical implications are discussed in terms of preventions and intervention efforts as well as risks associated with drinking in a novel context.

  1. A single alcohol drinking session is sufficient to enable subsequent aversion-resistant consumption in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Kelly; Wegner, Scott A; Yu, Ji-Hwan; Simms, Jeffrey A; Hopf, F Woodward

    2016-09-01

    Addiction is mediated in large part by pathological motivation for rewarding, addictive substances, and alcohol-use disorders (AUDs) continue to extract a very high physical and economic toll on society. Compulsive alcohol drinking, where intake continues despite negative consequences, is considered a particular obstacle during treatment of AUDs. Aversion-resistant drives for alcohol have been modeled in rodents, where animals continue to consume even when alcohol is adulterated with the bitter tastant quinine, or is paired with another aversive consequence. Here, we describe a two-bottle choice paradigm where C57BL/6 mice first had 24-h access to 15% alcohol or water. Afterward, they drank quinine-free alcohol (alcohol-only) or alcohol with quinine (100 μM), in a limited daily access (LDA) two-bottle-choice paradigm (2 h/day, 5 days/week, starting 3 h into the dark cycle), and achieved nearly binge-level blood alcohol concentrations. Interestingly, a single, initial 24-h experience with alcohol-only enhanced subsequent quinine-resistant drinking. In contrast, mice that drank alcohol-quinine in the 24-h session showed significantly reduced alcohol-quinine intake and preference during the subsequent LDA sessions, relative to mice that drank alcohol-only in the initial 24-h session and alcohol-quinine in LDA sessions. Thus, mice could find the concentration of quinine we used aversive, but were able to disregard the quinine after a single alcohol-only drinking session. Finally, mice had low intake and preference for quinine in water, both before and after weeks of alcohol-drinking sessions, suggesting that quinine resistance was not a consequence of increased quinine preference after weeks of drinking of alcohol-quinine. Together, we demonstrate that a single alcohol-only session was sufficient to enable subsequent aversion-resistant consumption in C57BL/6 mice, which did not reflect changes in quinine taste palatability. Given the rapid development of quinine

  2. Mixing alcohol with energy drink (AMED) and total alcohol consumption: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verster, Joris C; Benson, Sarah; Johnson, Sean J; Scholey, Andrew; Alford, Chris

    2016-01-01

    It has been suggested that consuming alcohol mixed with energy drink (AMED) may increase total alcohol consumption. Aims of this systematic review and meta-analysis were (i) to compare alcohol consumption of AMED consumers with alcohol only (AO) consumers (between-group comparisons), and (ii) to examine if alcohol consumption of AMED consumers differs on AMED and AO occasions (within-subject comparisons). A literature search identified fourteen studies. Meta-analyses of between-group comparisons of N = 5212 AMED consumers and N = 12,568 AO consumers revealed that on a typical single drinking episode AMED consumers drink significantly more alcohol than AO consumers (p = 0.0001, ES = 0.536, 95%CI: 0.349 to 0.724). Meta-analyses of within-subject comparisons among N = 2871 AMED consumers revealed no significant difference in overall alcohol consumption on a typical drinking episode between AMED and AO occasions (p = 0.465, ES = -0.052, 95%CI: -0.192 to 0.088). In conclusion, between-group comparisons suggest that heavy alcohol consumption is one of the several phenotypical differences between AMED and AO consumers. Within-subject comparisons revealed, however, that AMED consumption does not increase the total amount of alcohol consumed on a single drinking episode. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Alcohol consumption, drinking patterns, and cognitive function in older Eastern European adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvat, Pia; Richards, Marcus; Kubinova, Ruzena; Pajak, Andrzej; Malyutina, Sofia; Shishkin, Sergey; Pikhart, Hynek; Peasey, Anne; Marmot, M G; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Bobak, Martin

    2015-01-20

    To investigate associations of frequency, quantity, binge, and problem drinking with cognitive function in older Eastern European adults. The investigation included 14,575 participants, aged 47 to 78 years at cognitive assessment in 2006-2008 from Novosibirsk (Russia), Krakow (Poland), and 6 Czech towns participating in the HAPIEE (Health, Alcohol, and Psychosocial Factors in Eastern Europe) prospective cohort study. Average response rates were 59% at baseline (2002-2005) and 63% in 2006-2008. Alcohol consumption was assessed at baseline and in 2006-2008. Cognitive tests included immediate and delayed word recall, semantic fluency (animal naming), and letter cancellation. Associations between alcohol indices and cognitive scores were analyzed cross-sectionally (all measures from 2006 to 2008) and prospectively (alcohol and covariates from 2002 to 2005 and cognition from 2006 to 2008). In cross-sectional analyses, nondrinkers had lower cognitive scores and female moderate drinkers had better cognitive performance than light drinkers. Heavy, binge, and problem drinking were not consistently associated with cognitive function. Few associations were replicated in prospective analyses. Participants who stopped drinking during follow-up had worse cognition than stable drinkers; in men, regression coefficients (95% confidence interval) ranged from -0.26 (-0.36, -0.16) for immediate recall to -0.14 (-0.24, -0.04) for fluency. Regular and episodic heavy drinking were not consistently associated with cognitive function. Worse cognition in participants who stopped drinking during follow-up suggests that inclusion of less healthy ex-drinkers may partly explain poorer cognition in nondrinkers. © 2014 American Academy of Neurology.

  4. Analysis of water-soluble azo dyes in soft drinks by high resolution UPLC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X; Yang, J L; Li, J H; Li, X L; Li, J; Lu, X Y; Shen, J Z; Wang, Y W; Zhang, Z H

    2011-10-01

    An UPLC-Orbitrap MS system was exploited to develop and validate a method for the simultaneous determination of 11 water-soluble azo dyes (Acid Yellow 17, Acid Red 14, Acid Red 26, Acid Red 73, Acid Orange 52, Acid Orange 7, Acid Orange 12, Acid Yellow 36, Acid Orange 5, Acid Red 88 and Acid Red 9) in soft drinks. Three pairs of isomers and four disulphonated azo dyes were among a total of 11 water-soluble azo dyes obtained and purified using an SPE cartridge. They were well separated using optimized UPLC conditions with a RP18 column and a MS detector with a compatible mobile phase system. All these dyes were detected by the Orbitrap XL mass spectrometer in negative ion mode. HCD tandem MS fragment ions are first reported in this paper, and these fragment ions can be used for identification of isomers of azo dyes. According to SANCO/10684/2009, one quasi-molecular ion in full scan mode as quantification ion and one or two HCD tandem MS fragment ions as identification ions are required for compound confirmation. Matrix-matched calibration was employed for quantification. The linear matrix-matched calibration for the 11 dyes was in the range 5-200 ng g(-1) with correlation coefficients (r) of 0.9939-0.9988. Recoveries were 68.9-110.8% with coefficients of variation of 0.9-12.0%. Depending on the dye and matrix involved, the LODs were between 1.0 and 3.2 ng g(-1) and LOQs were between 5.2 and 9.8 ng g(-1).

  5. Consumption of energy drinks among Québec college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picard-Masson, Marianne; Loslier, Julie; Paquin, Pierre; Bertrand, Karine

    2017-03-01

    Consumption of energy drinks (ED) raises concerns because of adverse health effects possibly linked with high levels of caffeine and sugar intake. The study looks at the scope of ED consumption as well as some of the associated characteristics. Thirty-six public colleges in the Canadian province of Québec agreed to participate in a descriptive cross-sectional study (n = 36). In February 2013, participating colleges invited their students to answer an online questionnaire on consumption of ED, alcoholic ED (AED), and ED in combination with other psychotropic drugs. A descriptive and correlational analysis was carried out. Logistic regressions explored associations between ED consumption and associated characteristics. Of the students who successfully completed the questionnaire and participated in the study (n = 10,283), a low proportion consumed ED (9.1%; n = 935) and/or AED (1.1%; n = 109) at least once a week in the previous month. Although low in proportion, a number of participants reported having used ED with other stimulant psychoactive substances (n = 247) and ≥3 ED/day (n = 193) or ≥3 AED/occasion (n = 167), which can pose a risk for serious adverse effects. Weekly ED consumption was associated with consumption of ≥20 cups of coffee/week, smoking, excessive use of alcohol and past use of cannabis, glues or solvents and amphetamines. A majority of respondents are not heavy users of ED, AED, or ED with drugs. Yet, the profiles of ED consumption potentially harmful to health that characterize some participants indicate that the potential health consequences of such behaviour are of concern.

  6. Mixing alcohol with energy drink (AMED) and total alcohol consumption: a systematic review and meta?analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Verster, J. C.; S. Benson; Johnson, S.J.; Scholey, A.; Alford, C.

    2016-01-01

    It has been suggested that consuming alcohol mixed with energy drink (AMED) may increase total alcohol consumption. Aims of this systematic review and meta?analysis were (i) to compare alcohol consumption of AMED consumers with alcohol only (AO) consumers (between?group comparisons), and (ii) to examine if alcohol consumption of AMED consumers differs on AMED and AO occasions (within?subject comparisons). A literature search identified fourteen studies. Meta?analyses of between?group comparis...

  7. Testing the Efficacy of Alcohol Labels with Standard Drink Information and National Drinking Guidelines on Consumers' Ability to Estimate Alcohol Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobin, Erin; Vallance, Kate; Zuo, Fei; Stockwell, Tim; Rosella, Laura; Simniceanu, Alice; White, Christine; Hammond, David

    2017-08-09

    Despite the introduction of national drinking guidelines in Canada, there is limited public knowledge of them and low understanding of 'standard drinks (SDs)' which limits the likelihood of guidelines affecting drinking behaviour. This study tests the efficacy of alcohol labels with SD information and Canada's Low-Risk Drinking Guidelines (LRDGs) as compared to %ABV labels on consumers' ability to estimate alcohol intake. It also examines the label size and format that best supports adults' ability to make informed drinking choices. This research consisted of a between-groups experiment (n = 2016) in which participants each viewed one of six labels. Using an online survey, participants viewed an alcohol label and were asked to estimate: (a) the amount in a SD; (b) the number of SDs in an alcohol container and (c) the number of SDs to consume to reach the recommended daily limit in Canada's LRDG. Results indicated that labels with SD and LRDG information facilitated more accurate estimates of alcohol consumption and awareness of safer drinking limits across different beverage types (12.6% to 58.9% increase in accuracy), and labels were strongly supported among the majority (66.2%) of participants. Labels with SD and LRDG information constitute a more efficacious means of supporting accurate estimates of alcohol consumption than %ABV labels, and provide evidence to inform potential changes to alcohol labelling regulations. Further research testing labels in real-world settings is needed. Results indicate that the introduction of enhanced alcohol labels combining standard drink information and national drinking guidelines may be an effective way to improve drinkers' ability to accurately assess alcohol consumption and monitor intake relative to guidelines. Overall support for enhanced labels suggests probable acceptability of introduction at a population level.

  8. Potential and requirements for a standarized pan-European food consumption survey using the EPIC-Soft software

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ocke, M.C.; Slimani, N.; Brants, H.A.M.; Buurma-Rethans, E.; Casagrande, C.; Nicolas, G.; Dofkova, M.; Donne, le C.; Freisling, H.; Geelen, A.; Huybrechts, I.; Keyzer, de W.; Laan, van der J.D.; Lafay, L.; Lillegaard, I.T.L.; Niekerk, E.M.; Vries, de J.H.M.; Wilson-van den Hooven, E.C.; Boer, de E.J.

    2011-01-01

    Background/Objectives: To describe the strengths, limitations and requirements of using EPIC-Soft software (the software developed to conduct 24-h dietary recalls in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Study) in pan-European food consumption surveys, and to

  9. Are energy drinks unique mixers in terms of their effects on alcohol consumption and negative alcohol-related consequences?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson SJ

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Sean J Johnson,1 Chris Alford,1 Karina Stewart,2 Joris C Verster3–5 1Department of Health and Social Sciences, Psychological Sciences Research Group, University of the West of England, 2Department of Applied Sciences, Biomedical and Analytical Sciences, University of the West of England, Bristol, UK; 3Division of Pharmacology, Utrecht University, Utrecht 4Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands; 5Center for Human Psychopharmacology, Swinburne University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia Introduction: Previous research has suggested that consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AMED increases overall alcohol consumption. However, there is limited research examining whether energy drinks are unique in their effects when mixed with alcohol, when compared with alcohol mixed with other caffeinated mixers (AOCM. Therefore, the aim of this survey was to investigate alcohol consumption on AMED occasions, to that on other occasions when the same individuals consumed AOCM or alcohol only (AO. Methods: A UK-wide online student survey collected data on the frequency of alcohol consumption and quantity consumed, as well as the number of negative alcohol-related consequences reported on AO, AMED and AOCM occasions (N=250. Results: Within-subjects analysis revealed that there were no significant differences in the number of alcoholic drinks consumed on a standard and a heavy drinking session between AMED and AOCM drinking occasions. However, the number of standard mixers typically consumed was significantly lower on AMED occasions compared with AOCM occasions. In addition, when consuming AMED, students reported significantly fewer days consuming 5 or more alcohol drinks, fewer days mixing drinks, and fewer days being drunk, compared with when consuming AOCM. There were no significant differences in the number of reported negative alcohol-related consequences on AMED occasions to AOCM occasions. Of importance, alcohol

  10. Dutch adolescent private drinking places: prevalence, alcohol consumption, and other risk behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hoof, Joris J; Mulder, Joost; Korte, Jojanneke; Postel, Marloes G; Pieterse, Marcel E

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this research was to explore the increasingly popular Dutch health phenomenon of 'gathering in private peer group settings (barracks)', with a focus on the prevalence and characteristics of barracks, alcohol consumption, and other (risk) behaviors of their visitors. Three studies were conducted. The first consisted of field research in which 51 barracks were visited and group-interviews were held. The second was an Internet study in which 442 barracks' websites were analyzed using content analysis. The third consisted of a questionnaire completed by 1457 adolescents, aged 15-17, in order to explore differences in behavior between barracks visitors and non-visitors. There was wide variation in barracks' characteristics and culture. Barracks' members and visitors also organize diverse activities that are publicly shown on the websites. Barracks are associated with various legal issues, such as alcohol sales to minors, lack of parental supervision, and illicit drug use. Barracks' visitors drink alcohol more frequently, drink more alcohol per occasion (up to fifteen bottles of beer a night), and have been drunk more frequently than non-visitors. Policymakers must be aware of the barracks phenomenon and use their powers in adjacent political and legal areas (such as in binge drinking, illicit drug use, and public safety) to intervene and create solid, responsible, and tailor-made policies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Energy drink consumption and the relation to socio-demographic factors and health behaviour among young adults in Denmark. A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friis, Karina; Lyng, Jeppe I; Lasgaard, Mathias; Larsen, Finn B

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this study is to estimate the prevalence of energy drink consumption and examine the associations of socio-demographic factors and health behaviour with energy drink consumption among young adults in Denmark. The study is based on a public health survey from 2010 (n = 3923). Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to analyse the association between weekly consumption of energy drink and the potential explanatory factors of interest. In total, 15.8 % of the young adults drink energy drinks on a weekly basis. Men have higher odds of weekly energy drink consumption than women. The study also shows that young age, being employed and having a low educational level are associated with weekly energy drink consumption. According to health behaviour, daily smoking, high amounts of alcohol consumption, alcoholic binge drinking and being overweight are associated with weekly energy drink consumption. Compared with other European countries the prevalence of energy drink consumption is relatively low in Denmark. In Denmark energy drink consumption is typically a male phenomenon and there is a clear social gradient in the prevalence of energy drink consumption where the intake is far more common among people with low levels of education than among people with higher levels of education. This study also shows that there is some kind of 'add on' effect of energy drinks, meaning that people who also use other stimulants-such as alcohol and cigarettes-are more inclined to consume energy drinks. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  12. Heavy alcohol consumption among marginalised African refugee young people in Melbourne, Australia: motivations for drinking, experiences of alcohol-related problems and strategies for managing drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horyniak, Danielle; Higgs, Peter; Cogger, Shelley; Dietze, Paul; Bofu, Tapuwa

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about substance use among resettled refugee populations. This study aimed to describe motivations for drinking, experiences of alcohol-related problems and strategies for managing drinking among marginalised African refugee young people in Melbourne, Australia. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 16 self-identified African refugees recruited from street-based settings in 2012-2013. Interview transcripts were analysed inductively to identify key themes. Participants gathered in public spaces to consume alcohol on a daily or near-daily basis. Three key motivations for heavy alcohol consumption were identified: drinking to cope with trauma, drinking to cope with boredom and frustration and drinking as a social experience. Participants reported experiencing a range of health and social consequences of their alcohol consumption, including breakdown of family relationships, homelessness, interpersonal violence, contact with the justice system and poor health. Strategies for managing drinking included attending counselling or residential detoxification programmes, self-imposed physical isolation and intentionally committing crime in order to be incarcerated. These findings highlight the urgent need for targeted harm reduction education for African young people who consume alcohol. Given the importance of social relationships within this community, use of peer-based strategies are likely to be particularly effective. Development and implementation of programmes that address the underlying health and psychosocial causes and consequences of heavy alcohol use are also needed.

  13. Randomized Controlled Trial of High-Volume Energy Drink Versus Caffeine Consumption on ECG and Hemodynamic Parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Emily A; Lacey, Carolyn S; Aaron, Melenie; Kolasa, Mark; Occiano, Andrew; Shah, Sachin A

    2017-04-26

    Caffeine in doses energy drinks. We evaluated the ECG and blood pressure (BP) effects of high-volume energy drink consumption compared with caffeine alone. This was a randomized, double-blind, controlled, crossover study in 18 young, healthy volunteers. Participants consumed either 946 mL (32 ounces) of energy drink or caffeinated control drink, both of which contained 320 mg of caffeine, separated by a 6-day washout period. ECG, peripheral BP, and central BP measurements were obtained at baseline and 1, 2, 4, 6, and 24 hours post study drink consumption. The time-matched, baseline-adjusted changes were compared. The change in corrected QT interval from baseline in the energy drink arm was significantly higher than the caffeine arm at 2 hours (0.44±18.4 ms versus -10.4±14.8 ms, respectively; P=0.02). The QTc changes were not different at other time points. While both the energy drink and caffeine arms raised systolic BP in a similar fashion initially, the systolic BP was significantly higher at 6 hours when compared with the caffeine arm (4.72±4.67 mm Hg versus 0.83±6.09 mm Hg, respectively; P=0.01). Heart rate, diastolic BP, central systolic BP, and central diastolic BP showed no evidence of a difference between groups at any time point. Post energy drink, augmentation index was lower at 6 hours. The corrected QT interval and systolic BP were significantly higher post high-volume energy drink consumption when compared with caffeine alone. Larger clinical trials validating these findings and evaluation of noncaffeine ingredients within energy drinks are warranted. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT02023723. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  14. Differential modulation of human intestinal bifidobacterium populations after consumption of a wild blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium) drink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guglielmetti, Simone; Fracassetti, Daniela; Taverniti, Valentina; Del Bo', Cristian; Vendrame, Stefano; Klimis-Zacas, Dorothy; Arioli, Stefania; Riso, Patrizia; Porrini, Marisa

    2013-08-28

    Bifidobacteria are gaining increasing interest as health-promoting bacteria. Nonetheless, the genus comprises several species, which can exert different effects on human host. Previous studies showed that wild blueberry drink consumption could selectively increase intestinal bifidobacteria, suggesting an important role for the polyphenols and fiber present in wild blueberries. This study evaluated the modulation of the most common and abundant bifidobacterial taxonomic groups inhabiting the human gut in the same fecal samples. The analyses carried out showed that B. adolescentis, B. breve, B. catenulatum/pseudocatelulatum, and B. longum subsp. longum were always present in the group of subjects enrolled, whereas B. bifidum and B. longum subsp. infantis were not. Furthermore, it was found that the most predominant bifidobacterial species were B. longum subsp. longum and B. adolescentis. The results obtained revealed a high interindividual variability; however, a significant increase of B. longum subsp. infantis cell concentration was observed in the feces of volunteers after the wild blueberry drink treatment. This bifidobacterial group was shown to possess immunomodulatory abilities and to relieve symptoms and promote the regression of several gastrointestinal disorders. Thus, an increased cell concentration of B. longum subsp. infantis in the human gut could be considered of potential health benefit. In conclusion, wild blueberry consumption resulted in a specific bifidogenic effect that could positively affect certain populations of bifidobacteria with demonstrated health-promoting properties.

  15. The development of alcohol consumption and problem drinking in Rotterdam 1980-1994: more problem drinking amongst the young and the middle aged

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.F.L. Garretsen (Henk); I.M.B. Bongers (Inge); J.A. van Oers (Johannes Anna Maria); L.A. van de Goor

    1999-01-01

    textabstractIn 1980/1981 and in 1994, two surveys on problem drinking were conducted in the city of Rotterdam. This article presents data on changes in alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems between 1981 and 1994. Special attention has been paid to possible

  16. Characteristics of US Health Care Providers Who Counsel Adolescents on Sports and Energy Drink Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Xiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To examine the proportion of health care providers who counsel adolescent patients on sports and energy drink (SED consumption and the association with provider characteristics. Methods. This is a cross-sectional analysis of a survey of providers who see patients ≤17 years old. The proportion providing regular counseling on sports drinks (SDs, energy drinks (EDs, or both was assessed. Chi-square analyses examined differences in counseling based on provider characteristics. Multivariate logistic regression calculated adjusted odds ratios (aOR for characteristics independently associated with SED counseling. Results. Overall, 34% of health care providers regularly counseled on both SEDs, with 41% regularly counseling on SDs and 55% regularly counseling on EDs. On adjusted modeling regular SED counseling was associated with the female sex (aOR: 1.44 [95% CI: 1.07–1.93], high fruit/vegetable intake (aOR: 2.05 [95% CI: 1.54–2.73], family/general practitioners (aOR: 0.58 [95% CI: 0.41–0.82] and internists (aOR: 0.37 [95% CI: 0.20–0.70] versus pediatricians, and group versus individual practices (aOR: 0.59 [95% CI: 0.42–0.84]. Modeling for SD- and ED-specific counseling found similar associations with provider characteristics. Conclusion. The prevalence of regular SED counseling is low overall and varies. Provider education on the significance of SED counseling and consumption is important.

  17. The combination of short rest and energy drink consumption as fatigue countermeasures during a prolonged drive of professional truck drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronen, Adi; Oron-Gilad, Tal; Gershon, Pnina

    2014-06-01

    One of the major concerns for professional drivers is fatigue. Many studies evaluated specific fatigue countermeasures, in many cases comparing the efficiency of each method separately. The present study evaluated the effectiveness of rest areas combined with consumption of energy drinks on professional truck drivers during a prolonged simulated drive. Fifteen professional truck drivers participated in three experimental sessions: control-drivers were asked to drink 500 ml of a placebo drink prior to the beginning of the drive. Energy drink-drivers were asked to drink 500 ml of an energy drink containing 160 mg of caffeine prior to the beginning of the drive, and an Energy drink+Rest session--where the drivers were asked to drink 500 ml of an energy drink prior to driving, and rest for 10 min at a designated rest area zone 100 min into the drive. For all sessions, driving duration was approximately 150 min and consisted of driving on a monotonous, two-way rural road. In addition to driving performance measures, subjective measures, and heart rate variability were obtained. Results indicated that consumption of an energy drink (in both sessions) facilitated lower lane position deviations and reduced steering wheel deviations during the first 80-100 min of the drive relative to the control sessions. Resting after 100 min of driving, in addition to the energy drink that was consumed before the drive, enabled the drivers to maintain these abilities throughout the remainder of the driving session. Practical applications: Practical applications arising from the results of this research may give indication on the possible added value of combining fatigue counter measures methods during a prolonged drive and the importance of the timing of the use for each method. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. ANALISIS TOTAL PRODUCTIVE MAINTENANCE PADA LINE 8/CARBONATED SOFT DRINK PT COCA-COLA BOTTLING INDONESIA CENTRAL JAVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darminto Pujotomo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available PT. Coca-Cola Bottling Indonesia (CCBI Central Java merupakan salah satu perusahaan produsen minuman ringan yang terkemuka di Indonesia, dengan dua jenis kelompok produk yang dihasilkan yaitu minuman karbonasi/Carbonated Soft Drink (Coca-Cola, Sprite, dan Fanta dan non-karbonasi (Frestea dan Ades. Dalam usaha untuk mempertahankan mutu dan meningkatkan produktifitas, salah satu faktor yang harus diperhatikan adalah masalah perawatan fasilitas/mesin produksi.  Makalah ini membahas mengenai penyebab dan akibat yang ditimbulkan oleh breakdown mesin terjadi pada Line 8/Carbonated Soft Drink, khususnya pada conveyor, filler machine, dan bottle washer machine. Untuk mendapatkan mesin yang dapat terjaga keterandalannya dibutuhkan suatu konsep yang baik. Total Productive Maintenance (TPM merupakan sebuah konsep yang baik untuk merealisasikan hal tersebut. Konsep ini, selain melibatkan semua personil dalam perusahaan, juga bertujuan untuk merawat semua fasilitas produksi yang dimiliki perusahaan.Data yang digunakan merupakan data breakdown conveyor, filler machine, dan bottle washer machine dari ME Monthly Report PT.CCBI selama bulan Januari-Desember 2005 khususnya line 8. Selain itu makalah ini juga membahas performance maintenance PT. Coca-Cola Bottling Indonesia-Central Java, dengan memperhitungkan nilai Mean Time Beetwen Failure (MTBF, Mean Time To Repair (MTTR, serta Availability mesin, dengan menggunakan data record Line 8 selama bulan Mei 2006 sampai bulan Juli 2006. Sehingga nantinya akan diketahui informasi keadaan aktual dari perusahaan tentang sistem perawatannya, khususnya pada Line 8/Carbonated Soft Drink apakah baik atau buruk. Kata kunci : Total Production Maintenance, Conveyor, Filler Machine, Bottle Washer Machine, Performance Maintenance   PT. Coca-Cola Bottling Indonesia (CCBI-Central Java represent one of notable light beverage producer company in Indonesia, with two product group type yielded is carbonated beverage/Carbonated Soft

  19. Examining the associations among severity of injunctive drinking norms, alcohol consumption, and alcohol-related negative consequences: the moderating roles of alcohol consumption and identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Melissa A; Neighbors, Clayton; Geisner, Irene Markman; Lee, Christine M; Kilmer, Jason R; Atkins, David C

    2010-06-01

    This study examined a range of injunctive norms for alcohol use and related consequences from less severe behaviors (e.g., drinking with friends) to more severe behaviors (e.g., drinking enough alcohol to pass out), and their relationship with alcohol consumption and alcohol-related negative consequences among college students. In addition, this research aimed to determine whether these relationships between injunctive norms and consequences were moderated by alcohol consumption and level of identification with the typical same-gender college student. A random sample (N = 1,002) of undergraduates (56.9% women) completed a Web-based survey that was comprised of measures of drinking behavior, perceived approval of drinking behaviors that ranged in severity (i.e., injunctive norms), and level of identification with the typical same-gender college student. Results suggest that the association between negative consequences and injunctive drinking norms depend on one's own drinking behavior, identification with other students, and the severity of the alcohol use and related consequences for which injunctive norms are assessed. Findings are discussed in terms of false consensus and false uniqueness effects, and deviance regulation perspectives. Implications for preventive interventions are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. The relationship between hours of sleep, screen time and frequency of food and drink consumption in Spain in the 2011 and 2013 ALADINO: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Farinós, Napoleón; Villar-Villalba, Carmen; López Sobaler, Ana María; Dal Re Saavedra, María Ángeles; Aparicio, Aránzazu; Santos Sanz, Sara; Robledo de Dios, Teresa; Castrodeza-Sanz, José Javier; Ortega Anta, Rosa María

    2017-01-06

    The frequency of intake of food and beverages depends on a number of ill-defined behaviour patterns. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of screen time and sleep duration on food consumption frequency, and to describe frequencies and types of food consumption according to BMI category and parents' level of education. We studied 6287 and 2806 children drawn from the 2011 and 2013 cross-sectional ALADINO studies respectively. Data were collected on number of hours of sleep, screen time, and weekly frequency of consumption of 17 food groups. Weight status was measured, and information was also collected on parents' educational level. Average food consumption frequencies were calculated by reference to hours of sleep and hours of screen time, and were defined as ≥4 times or times per week (once per week for soft drinks and diet soft drinks). Differences in frequency were evaluated for screen times of more and less than 2 h per day, and for sleep durations longer or shorter than the daily average. We fitted logistic regression models to evaluate the independent association between screen exposure and hours of sleep on the one hand, and food consumption frequency on the other. Consumption of fruit and vegetables was lower among children who had parents with no formal or only primary school education. High levels of screen time were associated with a greater frequency of consumption of energy-dense, micronutrient-poor products and a lower frequency of consumption of fruit and vegetables. Sleeping a sufficient number of hours was associated with a higher consumption of fruit and vegetables. The results for 2011 were concordant with those for 2013. If efforts to ensure healthier eating habits among children are to be at all successful, they should focus on promoting a sufficient amount of sleep for children, limiting the time they spend watching television and/or playing with computers or video games, and educating parents accordingly.

  1. Motives for mixing alcohol with energy drinks and other nonalcoholic beverages, and consequences for overall alcohol consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Verster JC; Benson S; Scholey A

    2014-01-01

    Joris C Verster,1,2 Sarah Benson,2 Andrew Scholey21Utrecht Institute for Pharmaceutical Sciences, Division of Pharmacology, Utrecht University, Utrecht, the Netherlands; 2Centre for Human Psychopharmacology, Swinburne University, Melbourne, VIC, AustraliaIntroduction: The aim of this survey was to assess the motives for energy drink consumption, both alone and mixed with alcohol, and to determine whether negative or neutral motives for consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AMED) have a ...

  2. Consumption of energy drinks by children and young people: a rapid review examining evidence of physical effects and consumer attitudes

    OpenAIRE

    Visram, Shelina; Cheetham, Mandy; Riby , Deborah, M.; Crossley, Stephen; Lake, Amelia; UKCRC Centre for Translational Research in Public Health (FUSE)

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine patterns of energy drink consumption by children and young people, attitudes towards these drinks, and any associations with health or other outcomes. Design Rapid evidence assessment and narrative synthesis. Data sources 9 electronic bibliographic databases, reference lists of relevant studies and searches of the internet. Results A total of 410 studies were located, with 46 meeting the inclusion criteria. The majority employed a cross-sectional design, invol...

  3. Trajectories of energy drink consumption and subsequent drug use during young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arria, Amelia M; Caldeira, Kimberly M; Bugbee, Brittany A; Vincent, Kathryn B; O'Grady, Kevin E

    2017-10-01

    Highly caffeinated energy drinks (EDs) are popular with adolescents and young adults, but longitudinal consumption patterns are poorly understood especially in relation to other substance use. ED and other substance use were assessed annually (modal ages 21-25) among a sample (n=1099) who were originally recruited as first-year college students (modal age 18). Trajectory groups were derived based on probability of past-year use during ages 21-24, and compared for possible differences in substance use outcomes at age 25, holding constant demographics, sensation-seeking, other caffeine consumption, and age 21 substance use. From age 21-25, ED consumption declined in both annual prevalence [62.5%wt to 49.1%wt (wt=weighted)] and frequency of use among consumers (35.2-26.3 days/year). Yet individuals exhibiting a Persistent trajectory (51.4%) of consumption outnumbered those with Non-Use (20.6%), Intermediate (17.4%), or Desisting (10.6%) trajectories. Age 25 cocaine use, nonmedical use of prescription stimulants (NPS), and alcohol use disorder (AUD) risk were significantly associated with trajectory group membership, with Persistent and Intermediate groups exhibiting the highest risk for such outcomes, even accounting for prior substance use and other risk factors. Neither marijuana nor tobacco use were associated with group membership. The typical pattern of ED consumption among this sample was sustained use throughout young adulthood. Such individuals appear to be at high risk for adverse substance use outcomes, and results suggest possible specificity regarding cocaine use and NPS, and AUD risk. More research is needed to understand the mechanisms underlying the connection between ED and substance use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Risk assessments of aspartame, acesulfame K, sucralose and benzoic acid from soft drinks, "saft", nectar and flavoured water

    OpenAIRE

    Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food Safety

    2013-01-01

    KM concludes that for all age groups in all scenarios the intake of sweeteners is well below the established ADI values, thus, there is no concern related to the intake of the sweeteners aspartame, acesulfame K or sucralose. VKM further concludes that the benzoic acid intake in 2-year-old-children (in scenarios 3 and 4) is of concern for high concumers since their intake have increased compared to 2007 and now reach the ADI for high consumers of soft drinks and “saft”, although the A...

  5. Alcohol consumption and binge drinking in adolescents: comparison of different migration backgrounds and rural vs. urban residence - a representative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bleich Stefan

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Binge drinking is a constant problem behavior in adolescents across Europe. Epidemiological investigations have been reported. However, epidemiological data on alcohol consumption of adolescents with different migration backgrounds are rare. Furthermore representative data on rural-urban comparison concerning alcohol consumption and binge drinking are lacking. The aims of the study are the investigation of alcohol consumption patterns with respect to a urban-rural differences and b differences according to migration background. Methods In the years 2007/2008, a representative written survey of N = 44,610 students in the 9th. grade of different school types in Germany was carried out (net sample. The return rate of questionnaires was 88% regarding all students whose teachers respectively school directors had agreed to participate in the study. Weighting factors were specified and used to make up for regional and school-type specific differences in return rates. 27.4% of the adolescents surveyed have a migration background, whereby the Turkish culture is the largest group followed by adolescents who emigrated from former Soviet Union states. The sample includes seven large cities (over 500,000 inhabitants (12.2%, independent smaller cities ("urban districts" (19.0% and rural areas ("rural districts" (68.8%. Results Life-time prevalence for alcohol consumption differs significantly between rural (93.7% and urban areas (86.6% large cities; 89.1% smaller cities with a higher prevalence in rural areas. The same accounts for 12-month prevalence for alcohol consumption. 57.3% of the rural, re-spectively 45.9% of the urban adolescents engaged in binge drinking in the 4 weeks prior to the survey. Students with migration background of the former Soviet Union showed mainly drinking behavior similar to that of German adolescents. Adolescents with Turkish roots had engaged in binge drinking in the last four weeks less frequently than

  6. Alcohol consumption and binge drinking in adolescents: comparison of different migration backgrounds and rural vs. urban residence - a representative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Binge drinking is a constant problem behavior in adolescents across Europe. Epidemiological investigations have been reported. However, epidemiological data on alcohol consumption of adolescents with different migration backgrounds are rare. Furthermore representative data on rural-urban comparison concerning alcohol consumption and binge drinking are lacking. The aims of the study are the investigation of alcohol consumption patterns with respect to a) urban-rural differences and b) differences according to migration background. Methods In the years 2007/2008, a representative written survey of N = 44,610 students in the 9th. grade of different school types in Germany was carried out (net sample). The return rate of questionnaires was 88% regarding all students whose teachers respectively school directors had agreed to participate in the study. Weighting factors were specified and used to make up for regional and school-type specific differences in return rates. 27.4% of the adolescents surveyed have a migration background, whereby the Turkish culture is the largest group followed by adolescents who emigrated from former Soviet Union states. The sample includes seven large cities (over 500,000 inhabitants) (12.2%), independent smaller cities ("urban districts") (19.0%) and rural areas ("rural districts") (68.8%). Results Life-time prevalence for alcohol consumption differs significantly between rural (93.7%) and urban areas (86.6% large cities; 89.1% smaller cities) with a higher prevalence in rural areas. The same accounts for 12-month prevalence for alcohol consumption. 57.3% of the rural, re-spectively 45.9% of the urban adolescents engaged in binge drinking in the 4 weeks prior to the survey. Students with migration background of the former Soviet Union showed mainly drinking behavior similar to that of German adolescents. Adolescents with Turkish roots had engaged in binge drinking in the last four weeks less frequently than adolescents of German

  7. The Relationship between Parental Behaviors and Children's Sugary Drink Consumption Is Moderated by a Television in the Child's Bedroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Marlene B; Gilstad-Hayden, Kathryn; Henderson, Kathryn E; Luedicke, Joerg; Carroll-Scott, Amy; Peters, Susan M; McCaslin, Catherine; Ickovics, Jeannette R

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this longitudinal study was to examine the link between perceived authoritative parenting behaviors and sugary drink consumption among children from low-income families who do or do not have televisions (TVs) in their bedrooms. Middle school students (N = 480) completed a baseline survey in sixth grade and a follow-up survey in seventh grade. The students were recruited from 12 schools in a low-income, predominantly black (33%) and Latino (48%), urban school district. The survey assessed the children's perception of their parents' controlling and nurturing behaviors, the presence of a TV in their bedrooms, and their level of sugary drink consumption on the previous school day. Children's report of specific controlling and nurturing parental behaviors were used to create an "authoritative parenting" score. Regression analyses were used to test the main and interactive effects of authoritative parenting behaviors and having a TV in the bedroom with sugary drink consumption in seventh grade, controlling for age, race/ethnicity, gender, BMI, and sugary drink consumption in sixth grade. A significant interaction emerged: The authoritative parenting score predicted lower levels of sugary drink consumption in seventh grade, but this relationship was moderated by whether or not there was a TV in the child's bedroom. A TV in the child's bedroom may weaken the positive influence of authoritative parenting behaviors on limiting sugary drink consumption among middle school children from low-income families. Stronger initiatives are recommended to educate parents and help them refrain from placing TVs in their children's bedrooms.

  8. Does cheese intake blunt the association between soft drink intake and risk of the metabolic syndrome? Results from the cross-sectional Oslo Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høstmark, Arne Torbjørn; Haug, Anna

    2012-01-01

    A high soft drink intake may promote, whereas intake of cheese may reduce risk of the metabolic syndrome (MetS), but will cheese intake blunt the soft drink versus MetS association? Cross-sectional study. The Oslo Health Study. Among the 18 770 participants of the Oslo Health Study there were 5344 men and 6150 women having data on cheese and soft drink intake and on risk factors for MetS, except for fasting glucose. The MetSRisk index=the weighted sum of triglycerides (TG), systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, waist circumference and body mass index (BMI) divided by high-density lipoprotein (HDL) were used as a combined risk estimate to examine the cheese/soft drink versus MetS interaction, and the SumRisk index was used to assess whether increasing intake of soft drinks/cheese would include an increasing number of MetS factors being above the cut-off values. We analysed the data using non-parametric correlation and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). In all three groups of soft drink intake (seldom/rarely, 1-6 glasses/week, ≥1 glass/day), there was a negative cheese versus MetSRisk correlation (p≤0.003), but in the highest intake group the influence of cheese seemed to level off, suggesting interaction. However, there was no interaction between cheese and soft drinks within the fully adjusted models. Conversely, at all four levels of cheese intake, MetSRisk increased with an increasing intake of soft drinks (p≤0.001 at all cheese levels). Similar associations were found with the SumRisk index. When controlling for a large number of covariates (eg, sex, age group, smoking, education, physical activity, intake of fruits/berries and vegetables), the above associations prevailed. Cheese intake blunted the association between soft drink intake and MetS, an influence possibly related to fatty acid desaturation, or to undetected covariates.

  9. Not the same old thing: Establishing the unique contribution of drinking identity as a predictor of alcohol consumption and problems over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgren, Kristen P; Ramirez, Jason J; Olin, Cecilia C; Neighbors, Clayton

    2016-09-01

    Drinking identity-how much individuals view themselves as drinkers-is a promising cognitive factor that predicts problem drinking. Implicit and explicit measures of drinking identity have been developed (the former assesses more reflexive/automatic cognitive processes; the latter more reflective/controlled cognitive processes): each predicts unique variance in alcohol consumption and problems. However, implicit and explicit identity's utility and uniqueness as predictors relative to cognitive factors important for problem drinking screening and intervention has not been evaluated. Thus, the current study evaluated implicit and explicit drinking identity as predictors of consumption and problems over time. Baseline measures of drinking identity, social norms, alcohol expectancies, and drinking motives were evaluated as predictors of consumption and problems (evaluated every 3 months over 2 academic years) in a sample of 506 students (57% female) in their first or second year of college. Results found that baseline identity measures predicted unique variance in consumption and problems over time. Further, when compared to each set of cognitive factors, the identity measures predicted unique variance in consumption and problems over time. Findings were more robust for explicit versus implicit identity and in models that did not control for baseline drinking. Drinking identity appears to be a unique predictor of problem drinking relative to social norms, alcohol expectancies, and drinking motives. Intervention and theory could benefit from including and considering drinking identity. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Not the Same Old Thing: Establishing the Unique Contribution of Drinking Identity as a Predictor of Alcohol Consumption and Problems Over Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgren, Kristen P.; Ramirez, Jason J.; Olin, Cecilia C.; Neighbors, Clayton

    2016-01-01

    Drinking identity – how much individuals view themselves as drinkers– is a promising cognitive factor that predicts problem drinking. Implicit and explicit measures of drinking identity have been developed (the former assesses more reflexive/automatic cognitive processes; the latter more reflective/controlled cognitive processes): each predicts unique variance in alcohol consumption and problems. However, implicit and explicit identity’s utility and uniqueness as a predictor relative to cognitive factors important for problem drinking screening and intervention has not been evaluated. Thus, the current study evaluated implicit and explicit drinking identity as predictors of consumption and problems over time. Baseline measures of drinking identity, social norms, alcohol expectancies, and drinking motives were evaluated as predictors of consumption and problems (evaluated every three months over two academic years) in a sample of 506 students (57% female) in their first or second year of college. Results found that baseline identity measures predicted unique variance in consumption and problems over time. Further, when compared to each set of cognitive factors, the identity measures predicted unique variance in consumption and problems over time. Findings were more robust for explicit, versus, implicit identity and in models that did not control for baseline drinking. Drinking identity appears to be a unique predictor of problem drinking relative to social norms, alcohol expectancies, and drinking motives. Intervention and theory could benefit from including and considering drinking identity. PMID:27428756

  11. Mode of daily caffeine consumption among adolescents and the practice of mixing alcohol with energy drinks: relationships to drunkenness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristjansson, Alfgeir L; Mann, Michael J; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora; James, Jack E

    2015-05-01

    Adolescent use of alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmED) has recently received increased attention. Previous studies have established a strong link between AmED and drunkenness and suggest the importance of understanding associations with AmED use. In this study, we operationalized caffeine as daily consumption of coffee, tea, cola drinks, and energy drinks, and examined whether daily caffeine consumption relates to AmED use and drunkenness. We used multilevel structural equation modeling (SEM) with data from the 2013 Youth in Iceland cross-sectional survey among students, ages 16-17 years, who attended all of Iceland's 31 junior colleges (N = 5,784; 75% response rate; 51% girls). Our primary model fit the data very well with a comparative fit index of .994 and root mean square error of approximation of .042. Of the four daily caffeine consumption variables, coffee had the strongest relationship with AmED for both girls and boys, followed by energy drink consumption. The direct relationship between the daily caffeine consumption variables and drunkenness was generally weak for both genders, but the majority of the total relationship between all daily caffeine consumption variables and drunkenness was attributable to mediation through AmED. In our primary model, AmED consumption was also very strongly related to drunkenness (standardized βs = .74-.79). Caffeine use among adolescents ages 16-17 years is strongly related to increased consumption of AmED, irrespective of mode of caffeine consumption. AmED is strongly and positively associated with drunkenness on both individual and school levels.

  12. A UK student survey investigating the effects of consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks on overall alcohol consumption and alcohol-related negative consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johnson, Sean J; Alford, Chris; Stewart, Karina; Verster, Joris C

    2016-01-01

    Previous research reported positive associations between alcohol mixed with energy drink (AMED) consumption and overall alcohol consumption. However, results were largely based on between-subjects comparisons comparing AMED consumers with alcohol-only (AO) consumers, and therefore cannot

  13. Alcohol consumption and binge drinking among U.S.-Mexico border and non-border Mexican Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caetano, Raul; Mills, Britain; Vaeth, Patrice A C

    2012-04-01

    This paper examines differences in drinking and binge drinking between Mexican Americans living along the U.S.-Mexico border and those living in 2 metropolitan areas away from the border (Houston, Texas and Los Angeles, California). Respondents in the non-border area (Houston and Los Angeles) constitute a multistage probability sample (N = 1,288), who were interviewed as part of the 2006 Hispanic Americans Baseline Alcohol Survey (HABLAS). Respondents in the border area (N = 1,307) constitute a household probability sample of Mexican Americans living on the U.S.-Mexico border. In both surveys, data were collected during computer-assisted interviews conducted in respondents' homes. The HABLAS and the border sample response rates were 76 and 67%, respectively. There were no differences between border and non-border Mexican American men in the proportion of drinkers, the proportion who binge drink at least once a year, and volume of alcohol consumption. However, within each location, there were significant differences in drinking by age, indicating that younger men drank more than men who were older. Border women showed significant differences across age-groups in the proportion of drinkers, in binge drinking, and volume of alcohol consumption, which were not seen among non-border women. Women's drinking seems to be more affected than men's by their residence on or off the U.S.-Mexico border. This is seen most clearly among young women 18 to 29 years old, and it is associated with an increased proportion of drinkers, a higher volume of drinking, and an increased proportion of women who report binge drinking. Increased drinking in this group of younger women seems to be associated with drinking in Mexico. Copyright © 2011 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  14. Consumption of sweetened beverages among school- going ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sweetened beverages (SBs), such as carbonated soft drinks and flavoured juice drinks, has been linked to the rise in obesity and abdominal obesity among children5-7. High consumption of SBs also reduces micronutrient intake owing to a dilution ...

  15. Comparing the detection of transdermal and breath alcohol concentrations during periods of alcohol consumption ranging from moderate drinking to binge drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Donald M; Charles, Nora E; Acheson, Ashley; John, Samantha; Furr, R Michael; Hill-Kapturczak, Nathalie

    2012-10-01

    Binge drinking is a public health concern due to its association with negative health outcomes as well as increased legal and social consequences. Previous studies have frequently used self-reported alcohol consumption to classify binge drinking episodes; however, these measures are often limited in both detail and accuracy. Some researchers have begun using additional measures such as blood (BAC) and breath (BrAC) alcohol concentrations to supplement self-report data. Transdermal alcohol testing, or the detection of alcohol expiration through the skin, offers advantages over BAC and BrAC measures by allowing for continuous and noninvasive monitoring of an individual's drinking behavior in real time. Despite these advantages, this technology has not been widely used or studied outside of forensic applications. The present research compares transdermal alcohol concentration (TAC) and BrAC readings during the consumption of alcohol ranging from moderate drinking to binge drinking in 22 adult regular drinkers in order to investigate the sensitivity and specificity of the TAC monitors. We observed that BrAC and TAC measures were broadly consistent. Additionally, we were able to develop an equation that could predict BrAC results using TAC data, indicating TAC data would be an appropriate substitute in research and clinical contexts where BrAC readings are typically used. Finally, we were able to determine a cutoff point for peak TAC data that could reliably predict whether a participant had engaged in moderate or more-than-moderate drinking, suggesting TAC monitors could be used in settings where moderate or reduced drinking is the goal.

  16. Predictors of Drinking Water Boiling and Bottled Water Consumption in Rural China: A Hierarchical Modeling Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Alasdair; Zhang, Qi; Luo, Qing; Tao, Yong; Colford, John M; Ray, Isha

    2017-06-20

    Approximately two billion people drink unsafe water. Boiling is the most commonly used household water treatment (HWT) method globally and in China. HWT can make water safer, but sustained adoption is rare and bottled water consumption is growing. To successfully promote HWT, an understanding of associated socioeconomic factors is critical. We collected survey data and water samples from 450 rural households in Guangxi Province, China. Covariates were grouped into blocks to hierarchically construct modified Poisson models and estimate risk ratios (RR) associated with boiling methods, bottled water, and untreated water. Female-headed households were most likely to boil (RR = 1.36, p China's economy continues to grow then bottled water use will increase.

  17. Neighborhood or School? Influences on Alcohol Consumption and Heavy Episodic Drinking Among Urban Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Willy; Bakken, Anders; von Soest, Tilmann

    2017-11-28

    Little is known about the relative influences of neighborhood and school on the alcohol socialization process. Survey data from the Young in Oslo Study (N = 10,038, mean age 17.1 years, 52% girls) were used to investigate the details of such influences, using cross-classified multilevel models. School and neighborhood contexts were equally important for ordinary alcohol use; however, neighborhood influences were mainly explained by individual and family factors, whereas peer-based sociocultural processes played a key role in explaining school effects. Neither context had much impact on heavy episodic drinking. The study suggests that "privileged" youth may be at risk of high alcohol consumption. Parental influences and peer-based sociocultural aspects of the school milieu should be considered in prevention efforts.

  18. The role of personal values in Chinese consumers' food consumption decisions. A case study of healthy drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Pui Yee; Lusk, Karen; Mirosa, Miranda; Oey, Indrawati

    2014-02-01

    Differences in culture, language, and behavior between Chinese and Western consumers make entering the Chinese market a challenge. Chinese consumers may desire similar product features (e.g. brand name, quality, and flavor) to Western consumers but the value that consumers attach to the same product may differ cross-nationally. Besides values, an understanding of desired product attributes and the consequences linking to these values is also important. To the authors' knowledge, there is no published scientific research that investigates how personal values influence Chinese consumers' food consumption decisions. The aim of this research was to identify the links among product attributes, consequences of these attributes, and personal values associated with healthy drink consumption decisions within the Chinese market. Specifically, this research employed means-end chain theory and used association pattern technique (APT) as the main data collection technique to identify these links. Focus groups (n=6) were held in Hangzhou, China to identify the important attributes and consequences involved in the consumption decisions of healthy drinks. These attributes and consequences along with Schwartz's 10 basic values were used to construct the matrices included in the APT survey. A total of 600 APT surveys were administered in six different companies in Hangzhou, with 570 returned. Construction of the hierarchical value map (HVM) identified four of Schwartz's personal values influencing Chinese consumers' healthy drink consumption decisions: security, hedonism, benevolence, and self-direction. Food safety was the foremost concern for Chinese consumers when choosing healthy drinks. Chinese consumers also sought a good tasting and nutritious drink that was good value for money. Results from this study provide food marketers with an in-depth understanding of Chinese consumers' healthy drink consumption decisions. Implications and recommendations are provided that will assist

  19. Performance effects and metabolic consequences of caffeine and caffeinated energy drink consumption on glucose disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, Jane; Graham, Terry E

    2014-10-01

    This review documents two opposing effects of caffeine and caffeine-containing energy drinks, i.e., their positive effects on athletic performance and their negative impacts on glucose tolerance in the sedentary state. Analysis of studies examining caffeine administration prior to performance-based exercise showed caffeine improved completion time by 3.6%. Similar analyses following consumption of caffeine-containing energy drinks yielded positive, but more varied, benefits, which were likely due to the diverse nature of the studies performed, the highly variable composition of the beverages consumed, and the range of caffeine doses administered. Conversely, analyses of studies administering caffeine prior to either an oral glucose tolerance test or insulin clamp showed a decline in whole-body glucose disposal of ~30%. The consequences of this resistance are unknown, but there may be implications for the development of a number of chronic diseases. Both caffeine-induced performance enhancement and insulin resistance converge with the primary actions of caffeine on skeletal muscle. © 2014 International Life Sciences Institute.

  20. Is alcohol mixed with energy drinks consumption associated with susceptibility to smoking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azagba, Sunday; Sharaf, Mesbah F

    2014-04-01

    This paper examines whether adolescent students in Canada who have never smoked but who drink alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmED) are more susceptible to smoking than those who do not consume AmED. A nationally representative sample of 15,875 never-smoking students in grades 9 to 12 from the 2010-2011 Canadian Youth Smoking Survey is used. The association between AmED and susceptibility to smoking is examined using a logistic regression. About 28% of the never-smoking adolescents in grades 9 to 12 are susceptible to smoking, and 13% report using AmED. Results of the adjusted logistic regression analysis show a statistically significant positive association between consuming AmED and susceptibility to smoking. Never-smoking students who reported using AmED are more susceptible to smoking when compared with those who have not consumed AmED (OR=1.89; 95% CI=1.71-2.10). Similar results are obtained when the analysis is stratified by gender. The consumption of AmED is associated with higher odds of smoking susceptibility among Canadian adolescents. AmED use could be a potential marker for smoking susceptibility among never-smoking adolescents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A model linking video gaming, sleep quality, sweet drinks consumption and obesity among children and youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turel, O; Romashkin, A; Morrison, K M

    2017-08-01

    There is a growing need to curb paediatric obesity. The aim of this study is to untangle associations between video-game-use attributes and obesity as a first step towards identifying and examining possible interventions. Cross-sectional time-lagged cohort study was employed using parent-child surveys (t1) and objective physical activity and physiological measures (t2) from 125 children/adolescents (mean age = 13.06, 9-17-year-olds) who play video games, recruited from two clinics at a Canadian academic children's hospital. Structural equation modelling and analysis of covariance were employed for inference. The results of the study are as follows: (i) self-reported video-game play duration in the 4-h window before bedtime is related to greater abdominal adiposity (waist-to-height ratio) and this association may be mediated through reduced sleep quality (measured with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index); and (ii) self-reported average video-game session duration is associated with greater abdominal adiposity and this association may be mediated through higher self-reported sweet drinks consumption while playing video games and reduced sleep quality. Video-game play duration in the 4-h window before bedtime, typical video-game session duration, sweet drinks consumption while playing video games and poor sleep quality have aversive associations with abdominal adiposity. Paediatricians and researchers should further explore how these factors can be altered through behavioural or pharmacological interventions as a means to reduce paediatric obesity. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.

  2. Chronic ethanol consumption increases dopamine uptake in the nucleus accumbens of high alcohol drinking rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Michelle R; Rodd, Zachary A; Murphy, James M; Simon, Jay R

    2006-10-01

    Past research has indicated that chronic ethanol exposure enhances dopamine (DA) neurotransmission in several brain regions. The present study examined the effects of chronic ethanol drinking on dopamine transporter (DAT) function in the nucleus accumbens (Acb) of High-Alcohol-Drinking replicate line 1 (HAD-1) rats. HAD rats were given concurrent 24-h access to 15% ethanol and water or water alone for 8 weeks. Subsequently, DA uptake and the V(max) of the DAT were compared between the two groups using homogenates of the nucleus accumbens. DA uptake was measured following a 2 min incubation at 37 degrees C in the presence of 8 nM [(3)H]DA. For kinetic analyses, DA uptake was assessed in the presence of 5 concentrations of [(3)H]DA ranging from 8 nM to 500 nM. Analyses of the data revealed a significant increase in DA uptake in the ethanol group compared to water controls. Kinetic analyses revealed the change in DA uptake to be a consequence of an increase in the V(max) of transport. These findings demonstrate that chronic free-choice oral ethanol consumption in HAD-1 female rats increases DA uptake in the Acb by increasing the V(max) of the transporter. However, it is not known whether the ethanol-induced change in V(max) is caused by differences in the actual number of available transporter sites or from a difference in the velocity of operation of a similar number of transporters. Overall, the data indicate that chronic ethanol consumption by HAD-1 rats produces prolonged neuroadaptations within the mesolimbic DA system, which may be important for the understanding of the neurobiological basis of alcoholism.

  3. Development and Validation of HPLC Method for the Simultaneous Determination of Five Food Additives and Caffeine in Soft Drinks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bürge Aşçı

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Box-Behnken design was applied to optimize high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC conditions for the simultaneous determination of potassium sorbate, sodium benzoate, carmoisine, allura red, ponceau 4R, and caffeine in commercial soft drinks. The experimental variables chosen were pH (6.0–7.0, flow rate (1.0–1.4 mL/min, and mobile phase ratio (85–95% acetate buffer. Resolution values of all peak pairs were used as a response. Stationary phase was Inertsil OctaDecylSilane- (ODS- 3V reverse phase column (250 × 4.6 mm, 5 μm dimensions. The detection was performed at 230 nm. Optimal values were found 6.0 pH, 1.0 mL/min flow rate, and 95% mobile phase ratio for the method which was validated by calculating the linearity (r2>0.9962, accuracy (recoveries ≥ 95.75%, precision (intraday variation ≤ 1.923%, interday variation ≤ 1.950%, limits of detection (LODs, and limits of quantification (LOQs parameters. LODs and LOQs for analytes were in the range of 0.10–0.19 μg/mL and 0.33–0.63 μg/mL, respectively. The proposed method was applied successfully for the simultaneous determination of the mixtures of five food additives and caffeine in soft drinks.

  4. Characteristics associated with consumption of sports and energy drinks among US adults: National Health Interview Survey, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sohyun; Onufrak, Stephen; Blanck, Heidi M; Sherry, Bettylou

    2013-01-01

    Sales of sports and energy drinks have increased dramatically, but there is limited information on regular consumers of sports and energy drinks. Characteristics associated with sports and energy drink intake were examined among a sample representing the civilian noninstitutionalized US adult population. The 2010 National Health Interview Survey data for 25,492 adults (18 years of age or older; 48% males) were used. Nationwide, 31.3% of adults were sports and energy drink consumers during the past 7 days, with 21.5% consuming sports and energy drinks one or more times per week and 11.5% consuming sports and energy drinks three or more times per week. Based on multivariable logistic regression, younger adults, males, non-Hispanic blacks and Hispanics, not-married individuals, adults with higher family income, those who lived in the South or West, adults who engaged in leisure-time physical activity, current smokers, and individuals whose satisfaction with their social activities/relationships was excellent had significantly higher odds for drinking sports and energy drinks one or more times per week. In this model, the factor most strongly associated with weekly sports and energy drink consumption was age (odds ratio [OR]=10.70 for 18- to 24-year-olds, OR=6.40 for 25- to 39-year-olds, OR=3.17 for 40- to 59-year-olds vs 60 years or older). Lower odds for consuming sports and energy drinks one or more times per week were associated with other/multiracial (OR=0.80 vs non-Hispanic white) and obesity (OR=0.87 vs underweight/normal weight). Separate modeling of the association between other beverage intake and sports and energy drink intake showed that higher intake of regular soda, sweetened coffee/tea drinks, fruit drinks, milk, 100% fruit juice, and alcohol were significantly associated with greater odds for drinking sports and energy drinks one or more times per week. These findings can help medical care providers and public health officials identify adults most in

  5. Family influence on the consumption of sugary drinks by children under two years old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaime, Patricia Constante; Prado, Rogério Ruscitto do; Malta, Deborah Carvalho

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the influence of family habits and household characteristics on the consumption of sugary drinks by Brazilian children under two years old. This was a cross-sectional study that used secondary data generated by the National Health Survey (PNS) in 2013. We studied 4,839 pairs of children under two years old and adults living in the same house. We estimated the prevalence of the indicator of sugary drinks consumption for the total sample of children and according to family and household variables. We applied multiple logistic regression analysis to evaluate the influence of family habits and household characteristics on the consumption of sugary drinks by the children. The consumption of sugary drinks was identified in 32% of the studied children (95%CI 30.6-33.3) and was independently associated with the following family and household characteristics: regular consumption of sugary drinks by the adult living in the house (OR = 1.78; 95%CI 1.51-2.10), watching TV for more than three hours per day (OR = 1.22; 95%CI 1.03-1.45), older age (OR = 3.10; 95%CI 1.54-6.26), greater education level (OR = 0.70; 95%CI 0.53-0.91), house located in the Northeast region (OR = 0.65; 95%CI 1.54-6.26), and number of family members (OR = 1.05; 95%CI 1.00-1.09). Our findings indicate the high prevalence of sugary drinks consumption by Brazilian children under two years old and show that sociodemographic characteristics and family habits affect this feeding practice not recommended in childhood. Avaliar a influência de hábitos familiares e características do domicílio sobre o consumo de bebidas açucaradas em crianças brasileiras menores de dois anos. Estudo transversal que utilizou dados secundários gerados pela Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde (PNS), em 2013. Foram estudados 4.839 pares de crianças menores de dois anos e adultos residentes no mesmo domicílio. Foram estimadas as prevalências do indicador consumo de bebidas açucaradas para a amostra total de crianças e

  6. Future energy consumption and emissions in East-, Central- and West-China: Insights from soft-linking two global models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dai, Hancheng; Mischke, Peggy

    2014-01-01

    China's role in the global economy and energy markets is expanding, however many uncertainties with regards to the country's future energy consumption and emissions remain. Large regional disparities between China's provinces exist. Scenario analysis for different sub-regions of China......-linking affects the China-specific reference scenario results in the CGE model considerably. Energy consumption and emissions are decreasing in China until 2050 while regional differences within China remain high....... will be useful for an improved understanding of China's potential future development and associated global impacts. This study soft-links a global dynamic CGE model and a global technology-rich energy system model. Both models are expanded to include East-, Central-, and West-China. This study shows that soft...

  7. Energy drink consumption is associated with reduced sleep quality among college students: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faris, Mo'ez Al-Islam E; Jahrami, Haitham; Al-Hilali, Marwa M; Chehyber, Noor J; Ali, Sara O; Shahda, Sara D; Obaid, Reyad S

    2017-07-01

    Intake of caffeinated energy drinks has significantly increased, specifically among young adults and adolescents. College students are prone to developing unhealthy eating habits and dependence on stimulants, which puts them at a greater risk of sleep problems. This study aims to investigate the prevalence of caffeinated energy drink consumption and its association with sleep quality in college students. A sample of 919 randomly selected adults (237 males and 682 females) from various colleges at the University of Sharjah/United Arab Emirates participated in this cross-sectional study. Data were collected using an online validated questionnaire. The current study revealed that 376 students (41%) were consuming energy drinks on a regular basis. Approximately half of the students had normal sleep patterns; the other half had sleep problems (anxiety and intermittent sleep). Results of the present study revealed a significant (r = -0.10, P sleep quality and patterns. Moderate consumption of energy drinks was reported among college students. Consumption of energy drinks was significantly associated with changes in sleep quality and patterns of students. © 2016 Dietitians Association of Australia.

  8. Alcohol Consumption and Binge Drinking in Young Men as Predictors of Body Composition Changes During Military Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagnäs, Maria P; Jokelainen, Jari; Cederberg-Tamminen, Henna; Niemelä, Solja; Mikkola, Ilona; Härkönen, Pirjo; Rajala, Ulla; Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka

    2017-05-01

    To evaluate the influences of alcohol consumption frequency and binge drinking on changes in the body composition, lifestyle habits and physical fitness of healthy young men during military service. A population-based study of men performing their military service in the Sodankylä Jaeger Brigade, Finland in 2005. Body composition, fitness and lifestyle habits were evaluated at baseline and 6-12 months follow-up. Alcohol consumption frequency and binge drinking were categorized as: 'not at all', 'at least once a month' and 'at least once a week'. Data were available for 983 participants. Mean (SD) age was 19.2 (1.0) years. At baseline, participants who reported binge drinking at least once a week (29.8%) had the most unfavourable body composition, lifestyle habits and physical fitness compared with the group with no binge drinking. Significant (P composition, lifestyle habits and fitness among young men. Frequent binge drinkers may obtain the greatest benefit of military-service-based exercise intervention, as reflected in the improvements in body composition, lifestyle habits and physical fitness. Frequent binge drinking is associated with poorer body composition, lifestyle habits and fitness among young men. The greatest benefit of military service comprehending exercise intervention was observed among those with binge drinking once a week at the baseline, with favourable changes in lifestyle factors, body composition and fitness.

  9. The effects of low to moderate alcohol consumption and binge drinking in early pregnancy on behaviour in 5-year-old children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skogerbø, Å; Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler; Denny, C H

    2013-01-01

    To examine the effects of low to moderate maternal alcohol consumption and binge drinking in early pregnancy on behaviour in children at the age of 5 years.......To examine the effects of low to moderate maternal alcohol consumption and binge drinking in early pregnancy on behaviour in children at the age of 5 years....

  10. Intake of soft drinks and sugar sweetened beverages by Colombian children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Fernando Herran

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives: to describe the consumption of sugar sweetened beverages in Colombia, South America and variables associated with this consumption. Methods: based on the Food Frequency Questionnaire applied in the National Survey of the Nutritional Situation of Colombia (2010, the prevalence and frequency/day of the consumption of sugar sweetened beverages by 10,070 subjects between 5 and 17 years old was estimated. Results: the prevalence of sugar sweetened beverages consumption in subjects between 5 and 17 years old was 85.3%, and the average frequency of consumption was 0.71 times/day. The relationship between age and the prevalence of consumption displayed a J form, and the association with frequency in times/day was linear. The highest consumption occurred at 16 years of age, with a prevalence of 90.4% and an average frequency of 0.83 times/day. Overweight and obesity were not associated with consumption (p>0.05. Conclusions: the prevalence and average frequency of consumption were positively associated with age, wealth, and level of urbanism and conversely associated with education and household food security. Children with stunting have a reduced prevalence but increased frequency of consumption. The consumption of sweetened-beverages is an expression of the stage of nutritional and food transitions.

  11. Mohos y levaduras en agua envasada y bebidas sin alcohol Moulds and yeasts in bottled water and soft drinks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. G. Ancasi

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available La aparición esporádica de alteraciones en algunos envases dentro de lotes de aguas carbonatadas y de bebidas con zumos frutales (carbonatadas y no carbonatadas motivó la presente investigación, en la que se determinaron los microorganismos causantes del deterioro observado. También se estudiaron los contaminantes del azúcar utilizado en la elaboración de una de las bebidas analizadas. Se emplearon los métodos de Déak y Beuchat y de Pitt y Hocking para la identificación de levaduras y de mohos, respectivamente. Las levaduras causantes del deterioro de las bebidas fueron Debaryomyces hansenii, Debaryomyces polymorphus, Galactomyces geotrichum, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Mucor circinelloides, Pichia anomala, Pichia jadinii, Pichia subpelliculosa, Rhodotorula glutinis y Zygosaccharomyces bailii. Los mohos y las levaduras encontrados en el azúcar fueron Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus penicilloides, Aspergillus versicolor, Cladosporium sphaerospermum, Mucor racemosus, Pichia anomala y Rhizopus stolonifer. En el agua carbonatada se encontraron los mohos Paecilomyces fulvus y Penicillium glabrum.Some damaged cartons of soft drinks and carbonated water were analyzed to detect the microorganisms that caused the damage. The contaminants of sugar used in the production of one of the drinks were also studied. The methods of Déak & Beuchat and Pitt & Hocking were used for the identification of yeasts and moulds, respectively. The agents of the spoilage of soft drinks were Debaryomyces hansenii, Debaryomyces polymorphus, Galactomyces geotrichum, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Mucor circinelloides, Pichia anomala, Pichia jadinii, Pichia subpelliculosa, Rhodotorula glutinis and Zygosaccharomyces bailii. The microorganisms found in sugar were Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus penicilloides, Aspergillus versicolor, Cladosporium sphaerospermum, Mucor racemosus, P. anomala and Rhizopus stolonifer. Paecilomyces fulvus and Penicillium glabrum were observed in

  12. A reagent-free SIA module for monitoring of sugar, color and dissolved CO2 content in soft drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teerasong, S; Chan-Eam, S; Sereenonchai, K; Amornthammarong, N; Ratanawimarnwong, N; Nacapricha, D

    2010-05-23

    This work presents a new sequential injection analysis (SIA) method and a module for simultaneous and real-time monitoring of three key parameters for the beverage industry, i.e., the sugar content (measured in Brix), color and dissolved CO(2). Detection of the light reflection at the liquid interface (the schlieren effect) of sucrose and water was utilized for sucrose content measurement. A near infrared LED (890+/-40 nm) was chosen as the light source to ensure that all the ingredients and dyes in soft drinks will not interfere by contributing light absorption. A linear calibration was obtained for sucrose over a wide concentration range (3.1-46.5 Brix). The same module can be used to monitor the color of the soft drink as well as the dissolved CO(2) during production. For measuring the color, the sample is segmented between air plugs to avoid dispersion. An RGB-LED was chosen as the light source in order to make this module applicable to a wide range of colored samples. The module also has a section where dissolved CO(2) is measured via vaporization of the gas from the liquid phase. Dissolved CO(2), in a flowing acceptor stream of water resulting in the change of the acceptor conductivity, is detected using an in-house capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detector (C(4)D). The module includes a vaporization unit that is also used to degas the carbonated drink, prior the measurements of sucrose and color within the same system. The method requires no chemicals and is therefore completely friendly to the environment. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Drinking Before Going to Licensed Premises: An Event-Level Analysis of Predrinking, Alcohol Consumption, and Adverse Outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Labhart, F.; Graham, K.; Wells, S.; Kuntsche, E.N.

    2013-01-01

    Background Research in the United States and the United Kingdom indicates that drinking before going out (commonly called predrinking) is common among young people and associated with increased harm. On the basis of Swiss data, this study investigates differences in alcohol consumption and adverse

  14. Association between energy drink intake, sleep, stress, and suicidality in Korean adolescents: energy drink use in isolation or in combination with junk food consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Subin; Lee, Yeeun; Lee, Junghyun H

    2016-10-13

    A considerable amount of research suggests that the frequent use of caffeinated energy drinks may be associated with undesirable effects, particularly so in children and adolescents. This study aimed to investigate the associations between energy drink intake and mental health problems, in isolation or in combination with junk food consumption, in a nationally representative sample of Korean adolescents. Data from the 2015 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Web-Based Survey, collected from 68,043 adolescents aged 12-18 years (mean age 15.09 ± 1.72 years), were analyzed. Questionnaires were administered to collect information related to dietary behavior including energy drink intake and junk food consumption. Single item measures of sleep dissatisfaction, stress, depression, suicidal ideation, suicide plan, and suicide attempt were also administered. Associations between energy drink intake and sleep dissatisfaction, perceived severe stress, persistent depressive mood, and suicidality were investigated, and a multivariate approach was taken so that additional variance from demographic and lifestyle factors could be controlled for statistically. Energy drink intake was significantly associated with sleep dissatisfaction (adjusted odd ratios [AORs] = 1.64 and 1.25), severe stress (AORs = 2.23 and 1.38), depressive mood (AOR = 2.59 and 1.51), suicidal ideation (AORs = 3.14 and 1.43), suicide plan (AORs = 4.65 and 1.78), and suicide attempt (AORs = 6.79 and 1.91), with a higher risk for more frequent use of energy drinks (≥5 times/wk) than for less frequent use (1-4 times/wk). The detrimental effect of energy drinks on mental health was particularly prominent in frequent junk food consumers. Our data suggest that energy drink intake had detrimental effects related to stress, sleep dissatisfaction, mood, and suicidality, in isolation or in combination with junk food consumption, in Korean adolescents. However, the cross-sectional study design

  15. Revision of AUDIT Consumption Items to Improve the Screening of Youth Binge Drinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María-Teresa Cortés-Tomás

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the appropriateness of an improved version of one of the most frequently used instruments for the screening of high-risk alcohol consumption. This adaptation was created in accordance with certain limitations recognized by other researchers and in an attempt to adjust the content and scales of some items to a more consensual definition of binge drinking. After revising items 2 and 3, the areas under the ROC curves of the AUDIT and of different abbreviated versions were calculated. A total of 906 minors (468 females between the ages of 15 and 17 were evaluated. Stratified sampling was conducted on a population of high school students in the city of Valencia (Spain. One school was randomly chosen from each of the city’s 16 school districts. Information was collected on sociodemographic aspects, consumption patterns and the AUDIT containing the improved items. The percentage of underage BD reached 36%, regardless of gender or age. BD groups have been differentiated by different intensity levels, both in males and females. Upon comparing the effectiveness of the distinct versions of the AUDIT, it is recommended that researchers and clinics use the combination of the revised items 2 and 3 to ensure a more precise identification of underage BD. A cut-off point of 5 for this test would permit identification of 94% of the underage BD and would notably reduce false positives.

  16. Tea consumption and its interactions with tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking on oral cancer in southeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, F; He, B-C; Yan, L-J; Liu, F-P; Huang, J-F; Hu, Z-J; Lin, Z; Zheng, X-Y; Lin, L-S; Zhang, Z-F; Cai, L

    2017-04-01

    Epidemiological results on the association between tea consumption and oral cancer remain controversial. We aimed to evaluate the exact relationship between tea consumption and oral cancer in Chinese population. A large-scale case-control study was conducted on 586 oral cancer patients and 1024 controls frequency-matched by age and gender. Epidemiological data were collected through face-to-face interviews with a structure questionnaire. Unconditional logistic regression model was used to assess the effect of tea consumption on oral cancer stratified by smoking, alcohol drinking and demographics. Quantity of tea consumed (ml/day) was categorized into five subgroups based on quartiles and then its interactions was evaluated with tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking at each subgroup. Tea consumption showed an inverse association with oral cancer for non-smokers or non-alcohol drinkers (the odds ratios (ORs) were 0.610 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.425-0.876) and 0.686 (95% CI: 0.503-0.934), respectively). For smokers or alcohol drinkers, decreased risk was only observed in those who consumed >800 ml/day. Furthermore, oolong tea consumption was associated with decreased risk of oral cancer in smokers or alcohol drinkers but not in non-smokers or non-alcohol drinkers. Tea consumption combined with smoking or/and alcohol drinking had a greater risk than tea consumption alone, but the risk was roughly reduced from zero to Q4 (>800 ml/day). Additionally, when stratified by demographics, the protective effect of tea was especially evident in females, urban residents, normal body mass index population (18.5-23.9), farmers, office workers and those aged consumption protects against oral cancer in non-smokers or non-alcohol drinkers, but this effect may be obscured in smokers or alcohol drinkers. Additionally, demographics may modify the association between tea consumption and oral cancer.

  17. [Television and Internet as sources of women knowledge of tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption and energy drinks impact on health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strycharz-Dudziak, Małgorzata; Nakonieczna-Rudnicka, Marta; Bachanek, Teresa; Kobyłecka, Elżbieta

    2014-01-01

    Accessibility of the Internet allows obtaining information on different areas of life, including the impact of smoking, alcohol consumption and energy drinks on health. Environmental exposure to tobacco smoke and active smoking are a serious risk for women's health, especially for women in reproductive age and children at any time in their lives. Alcohol is a risk factor for the development of general diseases, and consumed by pregnant women has a toxic effect on the body of women and a child in the prenatal period. Due to the increased consumption of energy drinks containing among others nervous system stimulants and carbohydrates, their consumption should be a conscious choice of the consumers. Knowledge of the health risks resulting from the lifestyle can be a decisive factor for the implementation of health behaviour. The aim of the study was to determine the sources from which men and women acquire information concerning the effects of cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption and energy drinks on health. The respondents interest in the above mentioned subjects was also evaluated. The survey study was carried out in a group of 160 persons (114 women and 46 men), aged 19-60 years, randomly selected from the patients presenting to the Department of Conservative Dentistry with Endodontics of the Medical University of Lublin. An author's questionnaire was prepared for this research. The data were analyzed statistically with the use of Pearson's X2 test. Statistically significant test values were those with penergy drinks for 61.40 % of women and 47.83% men. Differences between sex of the respondents and indicated source of information were not statistically significant. Obtaining information from television programmes on the impact of smoking on health reported 70.18% of women and 63.04% of men, about alcohol consumption - 66.67% women and 58.70% men respectively. There was no statistically significant correlation between sex of the respondents and obtaining

  18. University Students' Reasons for NOT Drinking: Relationship to Alcohol Consumption Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slicker, Ellen K.

    1997-01-01

    Examines patterns of alcohol use at a mid-South state university so as to discover the reasons students (N=403) endorse for not drinking on those occasions when they chose not to drink. Results indicate that safety needs, the risk of underage drinking, the affordability of alcohol, and religiosity all contributed to decisions not to drink. (RJM)

  19. Beverage-specific patterns of 5+ alcoholic drink consumption by young adults in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Stephanie A; Terry-McElrath, Yvonne M; Patrick, Megan E

    2017-02-01

    Young adult binge drinking prevalence has been widely researched. However, beverage-specific binge drinking rates for beer, liquor, wine, and wine coolers have not yet been documented for this age group. This study examines consumption of specific beverages (i.e., 5+ drinks in a row in the past two weeks) by young adults aged 19/20. Data from the national Monitoring the Future study were collected one or two years after high school from 2004 to 2014 (n=2004). Logistic regression was used to examine associations between beverage-specific 5+ drinking and gender, race/ethnicity, parent education, college status, and cohort year. Overall 5+ drinking in the past two weeks was reported by 31.4% of young adults. Beverage-specific 5+ drinking was most common with liquor (22.6%) and beer (22.4%), followed by wine (4.5%) and wine coolers (3.0%). Men were more likely than women to engage in 5+ drinking with beer and liquor; women were more likely than men to do so with wine and wine coolers. Beverage-specific patterns differed by college attendance. Compared to four-year college students, two-year college/votech students were less likely to have 5+ drinks of liquor or wine, and more likely to have 5+ wine coolers; those not in college were less likely to have 5+ drinks of liquor and more likely to have 5+ wine coolers. Differences in beverage-specific 5+ drinking by gender and college enrollment suggest that intervention efforts should focus on the beverages that are most commonly consumed at high levels within specific early young adult populations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Nutritional labelling for healthier food or non-alcoholic drink purchasing and consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crockett, Rachel A; King, Sarah E; Marteau, Theresa M; Prevost, A T; Bignardi, Giacomo; Roberts, Nia W; Stubbs, Brendon; Hollands, Gareth J; Jebb, Susan A

    2018-02-27

    Nutritional labelling is advocated as a means to promote healthier food purchasing and consumption, including lower energy intake. Internationally, many different nutritional labelling schemes have been introduced. There is no consensus on whether such labelling is effective in promoting healthier behaviour. To assess the impact of nutritional labelling for food and non-alcoholic drinks on purchasing and consumption of healthier items. Our secondary objective was to explore possible effect moderators of nutritional labelling on purchasing and consumption. We searched 13 electronic databases including CENTRAL, MEDLINE and Embase to 26 April 2017. We also handsearched references and citations and sought unpublished studies through websites and trials registries. Eligible studies: were randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials (RCTs/Q-RCTs), controlled before-and-after studies, or interrupted time series (ITS) studies; compared a labelled product (with information on nutrients or energy) with the same product without a nutritional label; assessed objectively measured purchasing or consumption of foods or non-alcoholic drinks in real-world or laboratory settings. Two authors independently selected studies for inclusion and extracted study data. We applied the Cochrane 'Risk of bias' tool and GRADE to assess the quality of evidence. We pooled studies that evaluated similar interventions and outcomes using a random-effects meta-analysis, and we synthesised data from other studies in a narrative summary. We included 28 studies, comprising 17 RCTs, 5 Q-RCTs and 6 ITS studies. Most (21/28) took place in the USA, and 19 took place in university settings, 14 of which mainly involved university students or staff. Most (20/28) studies assessed the impact of labelling on menus or menu boards, or nutritional labelling placed on, or adjacent to, a range of foods or drinks from which participants could choose. Eight studies provided participants with only one labelled food

  1. BACTERIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF 8030 DRINKS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    before retailing that is taken as. M. P '. 36. 'sobo'. The consumption of sobo has continued to spread across. Nigeria been helped mainly by the worsening economic fortune of the majority of people and the escalating price of soft drinks and beverages that are commonly patronized. Foods frequently serve as vehicle for ...

  2. Not enough fruit and vegetables or too many cookies, candies, salty snacks, and soft drinks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Deborah A; Sturm, Roland; Scott, Molly; Farley, Thomas A; Bluthenthal, Ricky

    2010-01-01

    There are many contributors to obesity, including excess consumption of "discretionary calories" (foods high in sugar and fat and low in essential nutrients), lack of fruit/vegetable consumption, and insufficient physical activity. This study contrasted physical activity, fruit/vegetable consumption, and discretionary calorie consumption from selected foods relative to the 2005 dietary guidelines. We conducted a cross-sectional survey in 228 urban census tracts in Los Angeles County (LAC) and Southern Louisiana (SL) and estimated calories in the past 24 hours from fruit, vegetables, cookies, candy, salty snacks, sweetened soda, and alcohol among 2,767 participants. The population-weighted mean daily intake of calories from candy, cookies, salty snacks, soda, and alcohol was 438 in LAC and 617 in SL. Alcohol comprised a small portion of the calories consumed. Reported discretionary calorie consumption from a small set of items exceeded guidelines by more than 60% in LAC and 120% in SL. In contrast, the mean consumption of fruit and vegetables fell 10% short in LAC and 20% in SL. There was significant heterogeneity in consumption of cookies, candy, salty snacks, and soda across income, gender, and race. The overconsumption of discretionary calories was much greater than the underconsumption of fruit and vegetables. This finding suggests that unless the excessive consumption of salty snacks, cookies, candy, and sugar-sweetened beverages is curtailed, other interventions focusing on increasing physical activity and fruit and vegetable consumption will have a limited impact on obesity control. It may be politically more expedient to promote an increase in consumption of healthy items rather than a decrease in consumption of unhealthy items, but it may be far less effective.

  3. Effect of Energy Drink Consumption on Power and Velocity of Selected Sport Performance Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Bert H; Hester, Garrett M; Palmer, Ty B; Williams, Kathryn; Pope, Zachary K; Sellers, John H; Conchola, Eric C; Woolsey, Conrad; Estrada, Carlos

    2017-07-17

    Energy drinks comprise a multibillion dollar market focused on younger, active and competitive individuals. Marketing includes claims of improved alertness and performance. The purpose of this study was to assess power (W) and velocity (m·s) of a simulated, isolated forehand stroke (FHS) and a counter movement vertical jump (CVJ) before and after ingestion of a commercially available energy shot (ES) or a placebo (PL). Healthy college-aged male and female (N=36) volunteers were randomly placed in the ES or PL. Before and 30 min after ingesting either the ES or PL, participants performed three FHSs and CVJs. Power and velocity of each performance was measured using a linear velocity transducer and the highest value for each measure was used for subsequent analysis. The ES group demonstrated a significant (p=0.05) increase in velocity and power for the FHS, but not for the CVJ. All measures remained unchanged in the PL group for both, the FHS and CVJ. Females demonstrated a significant increase in velocity over males in FHS, but not in CVJ. It was concluded that while the dose of stimulants in the ES was adequate to improve performance of smaller muscle groups, it may not have been sufficient to affect the larger muscle groups of the lower legs which contribute to the CVJ. While the ES used in the present study contained a caffeine dosage within the NCAA limit and did improve performance for the upper-body, it must be noted that there are health risks associated with energy drink consumption.

  4. Energy drink consumption in Italian university students: food habits and lifestyle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitiello, V; Diolordi, L; Pirrone, M; Donini, L M; Del Balzo, V

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the consumption of ED (Energy drink) among young people, both alone and in association with alcohol, as well as the food habits and lifestyle of ED consumers. An anonymous closed-ended questionnaire, was administered to a sample of students. The questionnaire is composed of 30 questions with multiple answers. The students, who come from different regions in Italy, were enrolled at two Italian Universities: Rome and Cagliari. T-test and the analysis of variance (ANOVA) were performed and chi-square test was used to compare observed and expected frequencies. The sample was composed by 618 females and 389 males and revealed statistically significant differences related to the gender in terms of lifestyle and food habits. About 2/3 of the sample has consumed ED at least once. ED consumers in the total sample accounted for 655 students (65,0%). The 41.3% of the females and the 58,8% of males were ED consumers. Habitual consumers represent the 15,8% of the ED consumers, while occasional consumers the 84,2 %. Habitual and occasional consumers show statistically significant differences both for the lifestyle and the food habits. The 72.1% of ED consumers drink ED in association with alcohol (ED-based cocktails). Our results suggest that would be recommended to inform consumers about the side effects related to an excessive use of ED, particularly when combined with alcohol: indeed, this combination is known to have adverse effects on the cardiovascular system, on the nervous system, leading in particular to sleeping disorders.

  5. Health Effects and Public Health Concerns of Energy Drink Consumption in the United States: A Mini-Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laila Al-Shaar

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available As energy drink consumption continues to grow worldwide and within the United States, it is important to critically examine the nutritional content and effects on population health of these beverages. This mini-review summarizes the current scientific evidence on health consequences from energy drink consumption, presents relevant public health challenges, and proposes recommendations to mitigate these issues. Emerging evidence has linked energy drink consumption with a number of negative health consequences such as risk-seeking behaviors, poor mental health, adverse cardiovascular effects, and metabolic, renal, or dental conditions. Despite the consistency in evidence, most studies are of cross-sectional design or focus almost exclusively on the effect of caffeine and sugar, failing to address potentially harmful effects of other ingredients. The negative health effects associated with energy drinks (ED are compounded by a lack of regulatory oversight and aggressive marketing by the industry toward adolescents. Moreover, the rising trend of mixing ED with alcohol presents a new challenge that researchers and public health practitioners must address further. To curb this growing public health issue, policy makers should consider creating a separate regulatory category for ED, setting an evidence-based upper limit on caffeine, restricting sales of ED, and regulating existing ED marketing strategies, especially among children and adolescents.

  6. Consumption and correlates of sweet foods, carbonated beverages, and energy drinks among primary school children in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsubaie, Ali Saad R

    2017-10-01

    To assess the consumption of sweets, carbonated beverages, and energy drinks along with their correlates among primary school children.  Methods: A total of 725 children (7-12 years old) were randomly recruited from 10 elementary schools from Al-Baha city, Saudi Arabia in 2013, using a multi-stage stratified sampling technique and pre-tested validated questionnaire.  Results: Approximately 26.1% of children reported consuming sweets on daily basis, and 63.4% consumed sweets occasionally during the week. Approximately 56.3%children were reportedly drinking carbonated beverages weekly and 17.1% in daily basis. Weekly consumption of energy drinks was reported in 21.9% and daily consumption in 4.3% of the children. Daily sweets consumption was positively associated with children age (odds ratio [OR]=1.5, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.5-9.5, p=0.035), consuming carbonated beverages (OR=3.4, 95% CI: 2.2-5.2, p less than 0.001), energy drinks (OR=2.5, 95% CI: 1.1-5.4, p=0.029), eating high fat food (OR= 1.6, 95% CI: 1.1 - 2.4, p=0.023), and inversely with children body mass index (BMI) (OR=0.9, 95% CI: 0.8-0.9, p less than 0.001). Consuming carbonated beverages on regular basis was positively associated with consuming energy drinks (OR=9.0, 95% CI: 4.0-21.0, p less than 0.001).  Conclusion: Unhealthy dietary choices were found to be prevalent at early age. Comprehensive intervention programs should be established to prevent unhealthy dietary choices and promote healthier dietary behaviors. Qualitative studies are needed for better understanding of children's dietary behaviors.

  7. Re-examination of Advertising Effectiveness in Selected Soft Drink Companies in Lagos State, Nigeria: A Descriptive Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adefulu Adesoga

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper reexamined the effectiveness of Advertising in Selected Soft Drink Companies in Lagos, Nigeria. The study linked with past researches through its extensive conceptual, theoretical and empirical literature review. The methodology adopted was survey research design. The study population was the staff in marketing positions in the selected companies. Questionnaire was administered on samples from the selected Companies. The weighted means and percentage values of the respondents were used in the analysis and decision making. The findings showed the need for a better understanding of organizational factors that determine the commitment of organizational resources to drive achievement of advertising goals because of its impacts on customers’ awareness and product adoption.. The study concluded that advertising is a potent and veritable tool for achieving marketing goals. The study recommended that firms should identify the best advertising program to achieve its advertising goals. By implication, marketing decision maker should incorporate advertising expenditures in the marketing budget in appreciation of its role.

  8. A UK student survey investigating the effects of consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks on overall alcohol consumption and alcohol-related negative consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sean J; Alford, Chris; Stewart, Karina; Verster, Joris C

    2016-12-01

    Previous research reported positive associations between alcohol mixed with energy drink (AMED) consumption and overall alcohol consumption. However, results were largely based on between-subjects comparisons comparing AMED consumers with alcohol-only (AO) consumers, and therefore cannot sufficiently control for differences in personal characteristics between these groups. In order to determine whether AMED consumers drink more alcohol on occasions they consume AMED compared to those when they drink AO additional within-subjects comparisons are required. Therefore, this UK student survey assessed both alcohol consumption and alcohol-related negative consequences when consumed alone and when mixed with energy drinks, using a within-subject design. A total of 1873 students completed the survey, including 732 who consumed AMED. It was found that AMED consumers drank significantly less alcohol when they consumed AMED compared to when they drank AO (p energy drinks does not increase total alcohol consumption or alcohol-related negative consequences.

  9. Influence of drinking water treatments on chlorine dioxide consumption and chlorite/chlorate formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorlini, Sabrina; Gialdini, Francesca; Biasibetti, Michela; Collivignarelli, Carlo

    2014-05-01

    Disinfection is the last treatment stage of a Drinking Water Treatment Plant (DWTP) and is carried out to maintain a residual concentration of disinfectant in the water distribution system. Chlorine dioxide (ClO2) is a widely used chemical employed for this purpose. The aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of several treatments on chlorine dioxide consumption and on chlorite and chlorate formation in the final oxidation/disinfection stage. A number of tests was performed at laboratory scale employing water samples collected from the DWTP of Cremona (Italy). The following processes were studied: oxidation with potassium permanganate, chlorine dioxide and sodium hypochlorite, coagulation/flocculation with ferric chloride and aluminum sulfate, filtration and adsorption onto activated carbon. The results showed that the chlorine dioxide demand is high if sodium hypochlorite or potassium permanganate are employed in pre-oxidation. On the other hand, chlorine dioxide leads to the highest production of chlorite and chlorate. The coagulation/flocculation process after pre-oxidation shows that chlorine dioxide demand decreases if potassium permanganate is employed as an oxidant, both with ferric chloride and aluminum sulfate. Therefore, the combination of these processes leads to a lower production of chlorite and chlorate. Aluminum sulfate is preferable in terms of the chlorine dioxide demand reduction and minimization of the chlorite and chlorate formation. Activated carbon is the most effective solution as it reduced the chlorine dioxide consumption by about 50% and the DBP formation by about 20-40%. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. PET bottle use patterns and antimony migration into bottled water and soft drinks: the case of British and Nigerian bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tukur, Aminu; Sharp, Liz; Stern, Ben; Tizaoui, Chedly; Benkreira, Hadj

    2012-04-01

    While antimony has been reported to migrate from PET bottles into contents, reports on bottled water and soft drinks usage and PET bottle reuse patterns are currently unavailable in the literature. Bottle use conditions and patterns are important determinants of antimony migration. In this work a survey assessing the pattern of bottle use and reuse in Britain and Nigeria was undertaken. The survey findings influenced the design of laboratory experiments that assessed the migration of antimony from PET bottles into water and soft drinks. Typical storage durations for bottled contents between purchase and opening for use were 7 days or less. However storage of up to one year was reported. Bottle reuse was high and similar for the two countries with reuse durations being higher in Nigeria. The antimony concentration in 32 PET bottle materials from Britain and Nigeria were similar and ranged between 177 and 310 mg kg(-1). For 47 freshly purchased British bottled contents antimony concentration ranged between 0.03 and 6.61 μg L(-1) with only one sample exceeding the EU acceptable limit. Concentrations of Cd, Ge, Zn, Al, Be, Ti, Co and Pb were also measured. At realistic temperatures of 40 and 60 °C antimony concentration in deionised water in bottles remained below the EU acceptable limit even after 48 h exposure. The limit was exceeded for most exposures at 80 °C. Concentration of antimony in some bottled contents exceeded the EU limit after 11 months of storage at room temperature. Bottle aging and increase in bottle volume were associated with decreased migration of antimony from bottles.

  11. An emerging adolescent health risk: caffeinated energy drink consumption patterns among high school students

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Azagba, Sunday; Langille, Donald; Asbridge, Mark

    2014-01-01

    To examine the prevalence, patterns, and correlates of energy drink use among adolescents, and determine whether more frequent use of energy drinks is associated with poorer health and behavioral outcomes...

  12. 'Hardcore drinking': portrayals of alcohol consumption in young women's and men's magazines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Antonia C; Dalton, Sue I; Hoy, Anna

    2006-03-01

    Young adults and young women in particular are drinking more alcohol than ever before, with implications for risky behaviours and long-term health. This study explored the ways in which alcohol and drinking were represented in six monthly UK magazines (three targeted at young men, three at young women) across a three-month period (18 magazines). We identified three main discourses across the texts, namely the drug alcohol; masculinity and machismo; and drinking as normality. These discourses constructed women's and men's drinks and drinking behaviours in sharp contrast. Drinking was aligned with traditional masculine images, although new kinds of drinks were aligned with traditional feminine images--and derided in men's magazines. Findings highlight how gender, constructed in relation to the other, is an important aspect of representations of drinking patterns in young adults.

  13. Energy drinks consumption pattern, perceived benefits and associated adverse effects amongst students of University of Dammam, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsunni, Ahmed A; Badar, Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    There are safety concerns about energy drinks alongside marketing claims of physiological and behavioural benefits. There is no scientific data about usage of energy drinks in Saudi Arabia. This study determined consumption patterns of energy drinks as well as perceived benefits and side effects amongst students at a Saudi university. This study was carried out in students of University of Dammam from October to December 2010. A questionnaire about energy drink use, reasons for use, benefits and side effects experienced was distributed amongst the university students. Frequencies of responses and differences between male and female students were analysed. A total of 412 students (282 males and 130 females) responded, out of whom 54.60% males and 26.15% female students were energy drink users. Mean age at first use was significantly (pstudents. Inspirations for first time use were friends (both genders) and curiosity (males mainly). Most students did not have a fixed frequency of use. The commonest reasons for use were company of friends, to keep awake, for more energy and for better performance in driving, sports or exams. Amongst many the commonest (pstudents reported a number of adverse effects. Increased urination and insomnia were the commonest in males and females respectively. Only 36.70% males and 14.28% females never experienced an adverse effect. A significant proportion of students at university of Dammam use energy drinks, they have reported a number of effects (perceived as benefits) along with a variety of adverse effects.

  14. [Fill it up...! Combined consumption of alcohol with energy drinks and its correlation with risk taking behaviour among young adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gradvohl, Edina; Vida, Katalin; Rácz, József

    2015-07-05

    In Hungary and all around the world the incidence of consumption of energy drinks together with alcohol has increased among adolescents and young adults. The foremost aim of this survey was to find out whether alcohol mixed with energy drinks can enhance the appearance of other forms of risky behaviour among young adults. In spring 2013 the authors carried out a quantitative sociological survey at three faculties of two major universities in Budapest, Hungary. The survey showed that 1) consumers, who mixed alcohol with energy drinks, were likely to drink more alcohol both at parties and on ordinary days, and they took part in binge drinking more frequently than those consuming only alcohol; 2) students drank significantly less alcohol when they mixed it with energy drink. The conflicts of the results showed that even at the starting point there was a clear distinction between the two groups, moreover, it is not yet clear what interactions the combined effect of caffeine and alcohol can trigger in the behaviour of the individual.

  15. Estimating the Heterogeneous Relationship between Peer Drinking and Youth Alcohol Consumption in Chile Using Propensity Score Stratification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoonsun Han

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available When estimating the association between peer and youth alcohol consumption, it is critical to account for possible differential levels of response to peer socialization processes across youth, in addition to variability in individual, family, and social factors. Failure to account for intrinsic differences in youth’s response to peers may pose a threat of selection bias. To address this issue, we used a propensity score stratification method to examine whether the size of the association between peer and youth drinking is contingent upon differential predicted probabilities of associating with alcohol-consuming friends. Analyzing a Chilean youth sample (N = 914 of substance use, we found that youths are susceptible to the detrimental role of peer drinkers, but the harmful relationship with one’s own drinking behavior may be exacerbated among youth who already have a high probability of socializing with peers who drink. In other words, computing a single weighted-average estimate for peer drinking would have underestimated the detrimental role of peers, particularly among at-risk youths, and overestimated the role of drinking peers among youths who are less susceptible to peer socialization processes. Heterogeneous patterns in the association between peer and youth drinking may shed light on social policies that target at-risk youths.

  16. Exploration of the Independent and Joint Influences of Social Norms and Drinking Motives on Korean College Students' Alcohol Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jounghwa; Park, Dong-Jin; Noh, Ghee-Young

    2016-06-01

    Understanding what types of social norms are more or less influential and how they operate with respect to other psychological variables can provide valuable insights into the design of effective social norm campaigns. To this end, this study explores the roles of two types of social norms (injunctive norms and descriptive norms) and two types of drinking motives (social motives and conformity motives) in collegiate drinking behavior in South Korea. A survey of Korean college students (N = 569) revealed significant positive effects of injunctive norms, descriptive norms, and social motives on students' drinking frequency and quantity. Conformity motives were positively related to the frequency of drinking but negatively related to the quantity of drinking. Furthermore, the results revealed significant effects of the interactions between descriptive norms and social motives (on both the frequency and quantity of alcohol consumption), such that the positive effect of descriptive norms was more pronounced among individuals with stronger social motives. A similar pattern was observed in the interaction between injunctive norms and conformity motives (on frequency). Theoretical and practical implications of the findings for social norm campaigns seeking to curb drinking among college students are discussed.

  17. Diffusion and Monod kinetics to determine in vivo human corneal oxygen-consumption rate during soft contact-lens wear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhabra, Mahendra; Prausnitz, John M; Radke, C J

    2009-07-01

    The rate of oxygen consumption is an important parameter to assess the physiology of the human cornea. Metabolism of oxygen in the cornea is influenced by contact-lens-induced hypoxia, diseases such as diabetes, surgery, and drug treatment. Therefore, estimation of in vivo corneal oxygen-consumption rate is essential for gauging adequate oxygen supply to the cornea. Phosphorescence quenching of a dye coated on the posterior of a soft contact lens provides a powerful technique to measure tear-film oxygen tension (Harvitt and Bonanno, Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1996;37:1026-1036; Bonanno et al., Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2002;43:371-376). Unfortunately, previous work in establishing oxygen-consumption kinetics from transient postlens tear-film oxygen tensions relies on the simplistic assumption of a constant corneal-consumption rate. A more realistic model of corneal metabolism is needed to obtain reliable oxygen-consumption kinetics. Here, physiologically relevant nonlinear Monod kinetics is adopted for describing the local oxygen-consumption rate, thus avoiding aphysical negative oxygen tensions in the cornea. We incorporate Monod kinetics in an unsteady-state reactive-diffusion model for the cornea contact-lens system to determine tear-film oxygen tension as a function of time when changing from closed-eye to open-eye condition. The model was fit to available experimental data of in vivo human postlens tear-film oxygen tension to determine the corneal oxygen-consumption rate. Reliance on corneal oxygen diffusivity and solubility data obtained from rabbits is no longer requisite. Excellent agreement is obtained between the proposed model and experiment. We calculate the spatial-averaged in vivo human maximum corneal oxygen-consumption rate as Q(c)(max) = 1.05 x 10(-4) mL/(cm(3) s). The calculated Monod constant is K(m) = 2.2 mmHg. (c) 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Consumption of sugary foods and drinks and risk of endometrial cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Melony G; Chandran, Urmila; Olson, Sara H; Demissie, Kitaw; Lu, Shou-En; Parekh, Niyati; Bandera, Elisa V

    2013-07-01

    Consumption of foods high in sugar promotes insulin production, which has been linked to endometrial carcinogenesis. We evaluated the impact of dietary intake of sugary foods and beverages, as well as added sugar and total sugar on endometrial cancer risk in a population-based case-control study, including 424 cases and 398 controls. Participants completed an interview and food frequency questionnaire, and provided self-recorded waist and hip measurements. Women in the highest quartile of added sugar intake had significantly increased endometrial cancer risk (OR = 1.84, 95% CI 1.16-2.92). Among women with waist-to-hip ratio ≥0.85, risk was significantly higher for the highest versus lowest tertile of added sugar intakes (OR = 2.50, 95% CI 1.38-4.52). The association with added sugar also became stronger when analyses were restricted to never users of hormone replacement therapy (OR = 2.03; 95% CI 1.27-3.26, for highest versus lowest tertile). There was little evidence of effect modification by body mass index or physical activity. Given the high prevalence of intake of sugary foods and drinks in Western populations, additional research is warranted to confirm our findings on endometrial cancer.

  19. SoftExplorer: Estimating and Optimizing the Power and Energy Consumption of a C Program for DSP Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Martin

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available We present a method to estimate the power and energy consumption of an algorithm directly from the C program. Three models are involved: a model for the targeted processor (the power model, a model for the algorithm, and a model for the compiler (the prediction model. A functional-level power analysis is performed to obtain the power model. Five power models have been developed so far, for different architectures, from the simple RISC ARM7 to the very complex VLIW DSP TI C64. Important phenomena are taken into account, like cache misses, pipeline stalls, and internal/external memory accesses. The model for the algorithm expresses the algorithm's influence over the processor's activity. The prediction model represents the behavior of the compiler, and how it will allow the algorithm to use the processor's resources. The data mapping is considered at that stage. We have developed a tool, SoftExplorer, which performs estimation both at the C-level and the assembly level. Estimations are performed on real-life digital signal processing applications with average errors of 4.2% at the C-level and 1.8% at the assembly level. We present how SoftExplorer can be used to optimize the consumption of an application. We first show how to find the best data mapping for an algorithm. Then we demonstrate a method to choose the processor and its operating frequency in order to minimize the global energy consumption.

  20. Self-control and implicit drinking identity as predictors of alcohol consumption, problems, and cravings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindgren, K.P.; Neighbors, C.; Westgate, E.; Salemink, E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: We investigated trait and alcohol-specific self-control as unique predictors and moderators of the relation between implicit drinking identity associations and drinking. Method: Three hundred undergraduates completed a drinking identity Implicit Association Test (IAT), trait and alcohol

  1. Orange-flavored soft drink with the addition of isolated whey protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirian Souza Prado

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Current assay developed an orange-flavored soda pop with the addition of isolated whey protein, bottled in a 2L-polyethylene terephthalate container and stored at room temperature for 90 days. Physical, chemical, microbiological and sensorial analyses were conducted periodically on the product. The physicochemical analysis showed pH 3.53, 11.5ºBrix and 224 mg of citric acid per 100 mL of the drink and the following proximal composition: protein 0.501%, humidity 88.9%, ash 0.084% and carbohydrates 10.5%. Microbiological analyses detected no microorganisms during the storage period of the drink. Sensorial analysis results had good acceptability. Results showed that the product is stable when stored at room temperature for 90 days. This beverage contains higher nutritional rates and the same calorie rates when compared to sodas and some oranges juices found on the consumer market.

  2. Dental Erosion: Immediate pH Changes of Commercial Soft Drinks ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: The pH ranged from 2.74 - 2.76 for cola drinks, 2.68- 4.48 for non-cola drinks and 3.55 - 3.91 for fruit juices. LaCasera®; t0 (on opening) was 2.68, t3 (3 minutes) was 2.72. Seven up®; t0=3.15, t3=3.15. Cocacola®; t0=2.76, t3=2.74. Schweppes®; t0=2.94, t3=2.83. Krest®; t0=4.48, t3=4.54. Pepsicola®; t0=2.74 ...

  3. Non-targeted detection of chemical contamination in carbonated soft drinks using NMR spectroscopy, variable selection and chemometrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charlton, Adrian J. [Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, Central Science Laboratory, Sand Hutton, York YO41 1LZ (United Kingdom)], E-mail: adrian.charlton@csl.gov.uk; Robb, Paul; Donarski, James A.; Godward, John [Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, Central Science Laboratory, Sand Hutton, York YO41 1LZ (United Kingdom)

    2008-06-23

    An efficient method for detecting malicious and accidental contamination of foods has been developed using a combined {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and chemometrics approach. The method has been demonstrated using a commercially available carbonated soft drink, as being capable of identifying atypical products and to identify contaminant resonances. Soft-independent modelling of class analogy (SIMCA) was used to compare {sup 1}H NMR profiles of genuine products (obtained from the manufacturer) against retail products spiked in the laboratory with impurities. The benefits of using feature selection for extracting contaminant NMR frequencies were also assessed. Using example impurities (paraquat, p-cresol and glyphosate) NMR spectra were analysed using multivariate methods resulting in detection limits of approximately 0.075, 0.2, and 0.06 mM for p-cresol, paraquat and glyphosate, respectively. These detection limits are shown to be approximately 100-fold lower than the minimum lethal dose for paraquat. The methodology presented here is used to assess the composition of complex matrices for the presence of contaminating molecules without a priori knowledge of the nature of potential contaminants. The ability to detect if a sample does not fit into the expected profile without recourse to multiple targeted analyses is a valuable tool for incident detection and forensic applications.

  4. Yes, The Government Should Tax Soft Drinks: Findings from a Citizens’ Jury in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Moretto

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Taxation has been suggested as a possible preventive strategy to address the serious public health concern of childhood obesity. Understanding the public’s viewpoint on the potential role of taxation is vital to inform policy decisions if they are to be acceptable to the wider community. A Citizens’ Jury is a deliberative method for engaging the public in decision making and can assist in setting policy agendas. A Citizens’ Jury was conducted in Brisbane, Australia in May 2013 to answer the question: Is taxation on food and drinks an acceptable strategy to the public in order to reduce rates of childhood obesity? Citizens were randomly selected from the electoral roll and invited to participate. Thirteen members were purposively sampled from those expressing interest to broadly reflect the diversity of the Australian public. Over two days, participants were presented with evidence on the topic by experts, were able to question witnesses and deliberate on the evidence. The jurors unanimously supported taxation on sugar-sweetened drinks but generally did not support taxation on processed meats, snack foods and foods eaten/ purchased outside the home. They also supported taxation on snack foods on the condition that traffic light labelling was also introduced. Though they were not specifically asked to deliberate strategies outside of taxation, the jurors strongly recommended more nutritional information on all food packaging using the traffic light and teaspoon labelling systems for sugar, salt and fat content. The Citizens’ Jury suggests that the general public may support taxation on sugar-sweetened drinks to reduce rates of obesity in children. Regulatory reforms of taxation on sugar-sweetened drinks and improved labelling of nutritional information on product packaging were strongly supported by all members of the jury. These reforms should be considered by governments to prevent childhood obesity and the future burden on society from

  5. Effect of Soft Drinks and Fresh Fruit Juice on Surface Roughness of Commonly used Restorative Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Maganur, Prabhadevi; Satish, V; Prabhakar, AR; Namineni, Srinivas

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT In this in vitro study, the effects of a Cola drink, and fresh fruit juice (citrus) on the surface roughness on flowable composite and resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC) each was evaluated and compared. Using a brass mold 70 pellets each of flowable composite (Filtek? Flow) and RMGIC tricure restorative material were prepared according to the manufacturer?s instructions. Two groups (groups I and II) were formed containing 30 pellets of each material. Remaining 10 pellets of ...

  6. Yes, The Government Should Tax Soft Drinks: Findings from a Citizens’ Jury in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretto, Nicole; Kendall, Elizabeth; Whitty, Jennifer; Byrnes, Joshua; Hills, Andrew P.; Gordon, Louisa; Turkstra, Erika; Scuffham, Paul; Comans, Tracy

    2014-01-01

    Taxation has been suggested as a possible preventive strategy to address the serious public health concern of childhood obesity. Understanding the public’s viewpoint on the potential role of taxation is vital to inform policy decisions if they are to be acceptable to the wider community. A Citizens’ Jury is a deliberative method for engaging the public in decision making and can assist in setting policy agendas. A Citizens’ Jury was conducted in Brisbane, Australia in May 2013 to answer the question: Is taxation on food and drinks an acceptable strategy to the public in order to reduce rates of childhood obesity? Citizens were randomly selected from the electoral roll and invited to participate. Thirteen members were purposively sampled from those expressing interest to broadly reflect the diversity of the Australian public. Over two days, participants were presented with evidence on the topic by experts, were able to question witnesses and deliberate on the evidence. The jurors unanimously supported taxation on sugar-sweetened drinks but generally did not support taxation on processed meats, snack foods and foods eaten/ purchased outside the home. They also supported taxation on snack foods on the condition that traffic light labelling was also introduced. Though they were not specifically asked to deliberate strategies outside of taxation, the jurors strongly recommended more nutritional information on all food packaging using the traffic light and teaspoon labelling systems for sugar, salt and fat content. The Citizens’ Jury suggests that the general public may support taxation on sugar-sweetened drinks to reduce rates of obesity in children. Regulatory reforms of taxation on sugar-sweetened drinks and improved labelling of nutritional information on product packaging were strongly supported by all members of the jury. These reforms should be considered by governments to prevent childhood obesity and the future burden on society from the consequences of

  7. Yes, the government should tax soft drinks: findings from a citizens' jury in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretto, Nicole; Kendall, Elizabeth; Whitty, Jennifer; Byrnes, Joshua; Hills, Andrew P; Gordon, Louisa; Turkstra, Erika; Scuffham, Paul; Comans, Tracy

    2014-02-27

    Taxation has been suggested as a possible preventive strategy to address the serious public health concern of childhood obesity. Understanding the public's viewpoint on the potential role of taxation is vital to inform policy decisions if they are to be acceptable to the wider community. A Citizens' Jury is a deliberative method for engaging the public in decision making and can assist in setting policy agendas. A Citizens' Jury was conducted in Brisbane, Australia in May 2013 to answer the question: Is taxation on food and drinks an acceptable strategy to the public in order to reduce rates of childhood obesity? Citizens were randomly selected from the electoral roll and invited to participate. Thirteen members were purposively sampled from those expressing interest to broadly reflect the diversity of the Australian public. Over two days, participants were presented with evidence on the topic by experts, were able to question witnesses and deliberate on the evidence. The jurors unanimously supported taxation on sugar-sweetened drinks but generally did not support taxation on processed meats, snack foods and foods eaten/ purchased outside the home. They also supported taxation on snack foods on the condition that traffic light labelling was also introduced. Though they were not specifically asked to deliberate strategies outside of taxation, the jurors strongly recommended more nutritional information on all food packaging using the traffic light and teaspoon labelling systems for sugar, salt and fat content. The Citizens' Jury suggests that the general public may support taxation on sugar-sweetened drinks to reduce rates of obesity in children. Regulatory reforms of taxation on sugar-sweetened drinks and improved labelling of nutritional information on product packaging were strongly supported by all members of the jury. These reforms should be considered by governments to prevent childhood obesity and the future burden on society from the consequences of obesity.

  8. Determination of low-level agricultural residues in soft drinks and sports drinks by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry: single-laboratory validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paske, Nathan; Berry, Bryan; Schmitz, John; Sullivan, Darryl

    2007-01-01

    In this study, sponsored by PepsiCo Inc., a method was validated for measurement of 11 pesticide residues in soft drinks and sports drinks. The pesticide residues determined in this validation were alachlor, atrazine, butachlor, isoproturon, malaoxon, monocrotophos, paraoxon-methyl, phorate, phorate sulfone, phorate sulfoxide, and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) when spiked at 0.100 microg/L (1.00 microg/L for phorate). Samples were filtered (if particulate matter was present), degassed (if carbonated), and analyzed using liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. Quantitation was performed with matrix-matched external standard calibration solutions. The standard curve range for this assay was 0.0750 to 10.0 microg/L. The calibration curves for all agricultural residues had coefficient of determination (r2) values greater than or equal to 0.9900 with the exception of 2 values that were 0.9285 and 0.8514. Fortification spikes at 0.100 microg/L (1.00 microg/L for phorate) over the course of 2 days (n=8 each day) for 3 matrixes (7UP, Gatorade, and Diet Pepsi) yielded average percent recoveries (and percent relative standard deviations) as follows (n=48): 94.4 (15.2) for alachlor, 98.2 (13.5) for atrazine, 83.1 (41.6) for butachlor, 89.6 (24.5) for isoproturon, 87.9 (24.4) for malaoxon, 96.1 (9.26) for monocrotophos, 101 (25.7) for paraoxon-methyl, 86.6 (20.4) for phorate, 101 (16.5) for phorate sulfone, 93.6 (25.5) for phorate sulfoxide, and 98.2 (6.02) for 2,4-D.

  9. Quality of drinking-water at source and point-of-consumption--drinking cup as a high potential recontamination risk: a field study in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rufener, Simonne; Mäusezahl, Daniel; Mosler, Hans-Joachim; Weingartner, Rolf

    2010-02-01

    In-house contamination of drinking-water is a persistent problem in developing countries. This study aimed at identifying critical points of contamination and determining the extent of recontamination after water treatment. In total, 81 households were visited, and 347 water samples from their current sources of water, transport vessels, treated water, and drinking vessels were analyzed. The quality of water was assessed using Escherichia coli as an indicator for faecal contamination. The concentration of E. coli increased significantly from the water source [median=0 colony-forming unit (CFU)/100 mL, interquartile range (IQR: 0-13)] to the drinking cup (median=8 CFU/100 mL; IQR: 0-550; n=81, z=-3.7, pSODIS) improved the quality of drinking-water (median=0 CFU/100 mL; IQR: 0-0.05), recontamination at the point-of-consumption significantly reduced the quality of water in the cups (median=8, IQR: 0-500; n=45, z=-2.4, p=0.015). Home-based interventions in disinfection of water may not guarantee health benefits without complementary hygiene education due to the risk of posttreatment contamination.

  10. Influence of melatonin or its antagonism on alcohol consumption in ethanol drinking rats: a behavioral and in vivo voltammetric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespi, Francesco

    2012-05-03

    Melatonin, an indoleamine hormone synthesized in the pinealocytes, has been implicated as influencing the intake of alcohol in rats. It has been shown that this hormone is voltammetrically electroactive at the surface of pretreated carbon fiber microelectrodes in vitro and in vivo, in rat cerebral melatonergic regions such the pineal gland. The aim of this work consisted in the study of the influence of melatonin on spontaneously ethanol drinking or ethanol avoiding rats selected throughout a free choice two bottle test. It appeared that only the water preferring rats were affected by treatment with the hormone and that in vivo voltammetric related levels of melatonin were higher in the pineal gland of ethanol drinking rats versus water preferring rats. In addition, when treated with the melatonin antagonist GR128107 ethanol drinking rats significantly reduced the spontaneous consumption of alcohol. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Alcohol consumption and binge drinking in early pregnancy. A cross-sectional study with data from the Copenhagen Pregnancy Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Mette Langeland; Sørensen, Nina Olsén; Broberg, Lotte

    2015-01-01

    .48, CI: 3.14 - 6.40), (2-7 units aOR 10.23, CI: 7.44-14.06), (≥8 units aOR 33.18, CI: 19.53-56.36)). Multiparity and the use of assisted reproductive technology were associated with lower odds of binge drinking in early pregnancy. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of weekly alcohol consumption decreased......BACKGROUND: Since 2007 the Danish Health and Medicines Authority has advised total alcohol abstinence from the time of trying to conceive and throughout pregnancy. The prevalence of binge drinking among pregnant Danish women has nevertheless been reported to be up to 48 % during early pregnancy....... Since the introduction of the recommendation of total abstinence, no studies have examined pre-pregnancy lifestyle and reproductive risk factors associated with this behaviour in a Danish context. The aims of this study were therefore to describe the prevalence of weekly alcohol consumption and binge...

  12. Caffeinated energy drink consumption among adolescents and potential health consequences associated with their use: a significant public health hazard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sanctis, Vincenzo; Soliman, Nada; Soliman, Ashraf T; Elsedfy, Heba; Di Maio, Salvatore; El Kholy, Mohamed; Fiscina, Bernadette

    2017-08-23

    Caffeinated energy drinks (EDs) are increasingly popular among adolescents despite growing evidence of their negative health effects. The consumption of EDs has seen a substantial increase during the past few decades, especially in the Western and Asian countries. EDs contain high levels of caffeine, sugar, and novel ingredients, and are often marketed through youth-oriented media and venues. The known and unknown pharmacology of the constituents of EDs poses a risk of caffeine toxicity and other ill effects when consumed by young people. Caffeine intoxication may result in tachycardia, vomiting, cardiac arrhythmias, seizures, and even death. Other health concerns related to consumption of EDs include obesity and dental enamel erosion resulting from the acidity of EDs. Coingestion of caffeine and ethanol has been associated with increased risk-taking behaviors in adolescent users, impaired driving, and increased use of other illicit substances. Several researchers have demonstrated that consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks leads to altered subjective states including decreased perceived intoxication, enhanced stimulation, and increased desire to drink/increased drinking compared to consuming alcohol alone. Caffeine's effect on intoxication may be most pronounced when mixers are artificially sweetened, that is, lack sucrose which slows the rate of gastric emptying of alcohol. 1) health care providers should educate youth and their parents about the risks of caffeinated drinks; 2) emergency department clinicians should consider asking patients about ED and traditional caffeine usage and substance use when assessing patient symptoms; 3) policy makers should  increase their attention on introducing regulatory policies on television food advertising to which youth are exposed;  4) failure to comply with standards for efficacious product labelling, and absence of broader education regarding guidelines, need to be addressed and 5) further studies must be done to

  13. Kv7 channels in the nucleus accumbens are altered by chronic drinking and are targets for reducing alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuier, Natalie S; Griffin, William C; Gass, Justin T; Padula, Audrey E; Chesler, Elissa J; Mulholland, Patrick J

    2016-11-01

    Alcohol use disorders (AUDs) are a major public health issue and produce enormous societal and economic burdens. Current Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved pharmacotherapies for treating AUDs suffer from deleterious side effects and are only effective in a subset of individuals. It is therefore essential to find improved medications for the management of AUDs. Emerging evidence suggests that anticonvulsants are a promising class of drugs for treating individuals with AUDs. In these studies, we used integrative functional genomics to demonstrate that genes that encode Kv7 channels (i.e. Kcnq2/3) are related to alcohol (ethanol) consumption, preference and acceptance in rodents. We then tested the ability of the FDA-approved anticonvulsant retigabine, a Kv7 channel opener, to reduce voluntary ethanol consumption of Wistar rats in a two-bottle choice intermittent alcohol access paradigm. Systemic administration and microinjections of retigabine into the nucleus accumbens significantly reduced alcohol drinking, and retigabine was more effective at reducing intake in high- versus low-drinking populations of Wistar rats. Prolonged voluntary drinking increased the sensitivity to the proconvulsant effects of pharmacological blockade of Kv7 channels and altered surface trafficking and SUMOylation patterns of Kv7.2 channels in the nucleus accumbens. These data implicate Kcnq2/3 in the regulation of ethanol drinking and demonstrate that long-term drinking produces neuroadaptations in Kv7 channels. In addition, these results have identified retigabine as a potential pharmacotherapy for treating AUDs and Kv7 channels as a novel therapeutic target for reducing heavy drinking. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  14. Drinking pattern is more strongly associated with under-reporting of alcohol consumption than socio-demographic factors: evidence from a mixed-methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boniface, Sadie; Kneale, James; Shelton, Nicola

    2014-12-18

    Under-reporting of alcohol consumption is widespread; surveys typically capture 40-60% of alcohol sales. However the population distribution of under-reporting is not well understood. Mixed-methods study to identify factors associated with under-reporting, using the nationally-representative Health Survey for England (HSE) 2011 (overall response rate 66%). Comparison of retrospective computer-assisted personal interview and seven-day drinking diary (n = 3,774 adults 18+, 50% women, diary response rate 69%) to identify factors associated with diary responses exceeding those of the interview using multivariable linear regression for three outcomes: drinking days in the week recorded, volume consumed on heaviest drinking day in the week recorded, and weekly alcohol consumption. Qualitative semi-structured interviews (n = 10) explored reasons for under-reporting in further detail. Number of drinking days was slightly greater in the diary than the interview (P drinking day in the week recorded (0.7 units greater among men, 1.2 units among women, P drinking pattern with respect to the types of drink consumed or choice of drinking venues had a larger difference between their diary week and their interview week.The qualitative interviews identified having a non-routine drinking pattern, self-perception as a non-frequent drinker, and usually tracking drinking using experiential approaches as linked to more drinking being reported in the diary than the retrospective interview. Heavy drinking and non-routine drinking patterns may be associated with greater under-reporting of alcohol consumption. Estimates of drinking above recommended levels are likely to be disproportionately under-estimated.

  15. Sleep Quality, Sleep Patterns and Consumption of Energy Drinks and Other Caffeinated Beverages among Peruvian College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Sixto E; Martinez, Claudia; Oriol, Raphaelle A; Yanez, David; Castañeda, Benjamín; Sanchez, Elena; Gelaye, Bizu; Williams, Michelle A

    2013-08-01

    To evaluate sleep quality in relation to lifestyle characteristics including consumption of energy drinks and other caffeinated beverages among Peruvian college students. A total of 2,458 college students were invited to complete a self-administered questionnaire that collected information about a variety of behaviors including consumption of energy drinks, caffeinated and alcoholic beverages. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) was used to assess sleep quality. Logistic regression procedures were used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for poor sleep quality in relation to lifestyle characteristics. A total of 965 males and 1,493 female students were enrolled in the study. 52.0% of males and 58.4% of females experienced poor sleep quality (p=0.002). Females (OR=1.28; 95% CI 1.08-1.51) and those who reported consuming ≥ 3 stimulant beverages per week (OR=1.88; 95% CI 1.42-2.50) had higher odds of poor sleep quality. Students who consumed 1-19 alcoholic beverages monthly (OR=1.90; 95% CI 1.46-2.49) had a higher odds of long sleep latency. Consumption of ≥ 3 stimulant beverages per week was associated with daytime dysfunction due to sleep loss (OR=1.45; 95% CI 1.10-1.90), short sleep duration (OR= 1.49; 95% CI 1.14-1.94), and use of sleep medication (OR= 2.10; 95% CI 1.35-3.28). Consumption of energy drinks, other caffeinated beverages and alcoholic beverages are risk factors of poor sleep quality. Increased awareness of these associations should promote interventions to improve students' lifestyle habits, including consumption of alcoholic and caffeinated beverages, and overall health.

  16. Alcohol consumption and binge drinking in early pregnancy. A cross-sectional study with data from the Copenhagen Pregnancy Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iversen, Mette Langeland; Sørensen, Nina Olsén; Broberg, Lotte; Damm, Peter; Hedegaard, Morten; Tabor, Ann; Hegaard, Hanne Kristine

    2015-12-08

    Since 2007 the Danish Health and Medicines Authority has advised total alcohol abstinence from the time of trying to conceive and throughout pregnancy. The prevalence of binge drinking among pregnant Danish women has nevertheless been reported to be up to 48 % during early pregnancy. Since the introduction of the recommendation of total abstinence, no studies have examined pre-pregnancy lifestyle and reproductive risk factors associated with this behaviour in a Danish context. The aims of this study were therefore to describe the prevalence of weekly alcohol consumption and binge drinking in early pregnancy among women living in the capital of Denmark. Secondly to identify pre-pregnancy lifestyle and reproductive risk factors associated with binge drinking during early pregnancy. Data were collected from September 2012 to August 2013 at the Department of Obstetrics, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark. Self-reported information on each woman's socio-demographic characteristics, medical history, and lifestyle factors including alcohol habits was obtained from an electronic questionnaire filled out as part of the individual medical record. Descriptive analysis was conducted and multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to assess the potential associated risk factors (adjusted odds ratio (aOR)). Questionnaires from 3,238 women were included. A majority of 70 %, reported weekly alcohol consumption before pregnancy. The prevalence decreased to 3 % during early pregnancy. The overall proportion of women reporting binge drinking during early pregnancy was 35 % (n = 1,134). The following independent risk factors for binge drinking in early pregnancy were identified: lower degree of planned pregnancy, smoking and alcohol habits before pregnancy ((1 unit/weekly aOR 4.48, CI: 3.14 - 6.40), (2-7 units aOR 10.23, CI: 7.44-14.06), (≥8 units aOR 33.18, CI: 19.53-56.36)). Multiparity and the use of assisted reproductive technology were associated with lower odds of

  17. Effects of Acute Consumption of a Sport Drink on Athletic Performance in Student Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    AA ghasemnian; A Ghaeini; s Chobineh; b Ghorbanian

    2012-01-01

    Background & Aim: Athletes believe that energy drinks can be used to enhance their performance during training and competition. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of acute ingestion of a sport drink on endurance performance in student athletes. Methods: Ten healthy and trained young male athletes students were selected by systematic randomly sampling and after consuming Sport Drinks (experimental group) or placebo (control group) exercised on a treadmi...

  18. Adolescent intake of caffeinated energy drinks does not affect adult alcohol consumption in C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robins, Meridith T; DeFriel, Julia N; van Rijn, Richard M

    2016-08-01

    The rise in marketing and mass consumption of energy drink products by adolescents poses a largely unknown risk on adolescent development and drug reward. Yet, with increasing reports of acute health issues present in young adults who ingest large quantities of energy drinks alone or in combination with alcohol, the need to elucidate these potential risks is pressing. Energy drinks contain high levels of caffeine and sucrose; therefore, exposure to energy drinks may lead to changes in drug-related behaviors since caffeine and sucrose consumption activates similar brain pathways engaged by substances of abuse. With a recent study observing that adolescent caffeine consumption increased cocaine sensitivity, we sought to investigate how prolonged energy drink exposure in adolescence alters alcohol use and preference in adulthood. To do so, we utilized three different energy drink exposure paradigms and two strains of male mice (C57BL/6 and BALB/c) to monitor the effect of caffeine exposure via energy drinks in adolescence on adult alcohol intake. These paradigms included two models of volitional consumption of energy drinks or energy drink-like substances and one model of forced consumption of sucrose solutions with different caffeine concentrations. Following adolescent exposure to these solutions, alcohol intake was monitored in a limited-access, two-bottle choice between water and increasing concentrations of alcohol during adulthood. In none of the three models or two strains of mice did we observe that adolescent 'energy drink' consumption or exposure was correlated with changes in adult alcohol intake or preference. While our current preclinical results suggest that exposure to large amounts of caffeine does not alter future alcohol intake, differences in caffeine metabolism between mice and humans need to be considered before translating these results to humans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of commercial energy drink consumption on athletic performance and body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Stephanie L; Wellborn-Kim, Jennifer J; Clauson, Kevin A

    2010-04-01

    Energy drinks are frequently marketed to individuals interested in athletics and an active lifestyle. From 2001 to 2008, estimates of energy drink use in adolescent to middle-aged populations ranged from 24% to 56%. Most energy drinks feature caffeine and a combination of other components, including taurine, sucrose, guarana, ginseng, niacin, pyridoxine, and cyanocobalamin. This article examines the evidence for 2 commonly purported uses of energy drinks: athletic performance enhancement and weight loss. Observed ergogenic benefits of energy drinks are likely attributable to caffeine and glucose content. There is conflicting evidence regarding the impact of energy drinks on weight loss, although some data suggest that combining energy drink use with exercise may enhance body fat reduction. As with any pharmacologically active substance, energy drinks are associated with adverse effects. Combining energy drinks with alcohol exacerbates safety concerns and is an increasingly common practice contributing to toxic jock identity among college-aged male athletes. Practitioners should monitor identified populations likely to consume these loosely regulated beverages.

  20. The Big Drink Debate: perceptions of the impact of price on alcohol consumption from a large scale cross-sectional convenience survey in north west England

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cook, Penny A; Phillips-Howard, Penelope A; Morleo, Michela; Harkins, Corinne; Briant, Linford; Bellis, Mark A

    2011-01-01

    .... A convenience survey of residents (≥ 18 years) of north west England measured demographics, income, alcohol consumption in previous week, and opinions on drinking behaviour under two pricing conditions...

  1. Consumption of energy drinks by children and young people: a rapid review examining evidence of physical effects and consumer attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visram, Shelina; Cheetham, Mandy; Riby, Deborah M; Crossley, Stephen J; Lake, Amelia A

    2016-10-08

    To examine patterns of energy drink consumption by children and young people, attitudes towards these drinks, and any associations with health or other outcomes. Rapid evidence assessment and narrative synthesis. 9 electronic bibliographic databases, reference lists of relevant studies and searches of the internet. A total of 410 studies were located, with 46 meeting the inclusion criteria. The majority employed a cross-sectional design, involved participants aged 11-18 years, and were conducted in North America or Europe. Consumption of energy drinks by children and young people was found to be patterned by gender, with boys consuming more than girls, and also by activity levels, with the highest consumption observed in the most and least sedentary individuals. Several studies identified a strong, positive association between the use of energy drinks and higher odds of health-damaging behaviours, as well as physical health symptoms such as headaches, stomach aches, hyperactivity and insomnia. There was some evidence of a dose-response effect. 2 experimental studies involving small numbers of junior athletes demonstrated a positive impact on limited aspects of sports performance. 3 themes emerged from the qualitative studies: reasons for use; influences on use; and perceived efficacy and impact. Taste and energy-seeking were identified as key drivers, and branding and marketing were highlighted as major influences on young people's consumption choices. Awareness of possible negative effects was low. There is growing evidence that consumption of energy drinks is associated with a range of adverse outcomes and risk behaviours in terms of children's health and well-being. However, taste, brand loyalty and perceived positive effects combine to ensure their popularity with young consumers. More research is needed to explore the short-term and long-term impacts in all spheres, including health, behaviour and education. CRD42014010192. Published by the BMJ Publishing

  2. Energy drink consumption and its association with sleep problems among U.S. service members on a combat deployment - Afghanistan, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-09

    Beverages marketed as energy drinks have become a popular form of caffeine consumption targeted at young males, with some brands containing the caffeine equivalent of 1-3 cups of coffee or cans of soda. Energy drinks also include other ingredients intended to boost physical energy or mental alertness, such as herbal substances, amino acids, sugars, and sugar derivatives; however, caffeine is the main active ingredient. Approximately 6% of adolescent and young adult males in U.S. civilian and military populations consume energy drinks daily. These products generally are unregulated and can have negative side effects (e.g., caffeine intoxication, overdose, withdrawal, and poor interactions with alcohol). Paradoxically, excess consumption also can increase sleep problems and daytime sleepiness, which can impair performance. To determine the extent of energy drink use and the association with sleep problems and sleepiness during combat operations, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research analyzed data collected by Joint Mental Health Advisory Team 7 (J-MHAT 7) to Operation Enduring Freedom in Afghanistan in 2010. The analysis showed that 44.8% of deployed service members consumed at least one energy drink daily, with 13.9% drinking three or more a day. No differences by age or rank were found. Service members drinking three or more energy drinks a day were significantly more likely to report sleeping ≤4 hours a night on average than those consuming two drinks or fewer. Those who drank three or more drinks a day also were more likely to report sleep disruption related to stress and illness and were more likely to fall asleep during briefings or on guard duty. Service members should be educated regarding the potential adverse effects of excessive energy drink consumption on sleep and mission performance and should be encouraged to moderate their energy drink consumption in combat environments.

  3. A UK student survey investigating the effects of consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks on overall alcohol consumption and alcohol-related negative consequences

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Sean J.; Alford, Chris; Stewart, Karina; Verster, Joris C

    2016-01-01

    Previous research reported positive associations between alcohol mixed with energy drink (AMED) consumption and overall alcohol consumption. However, results were largely based on between-subjects comparisons comparing AMED consumers with alcohol-only (AO) consumers, and therefore cannot sufficiently control for differences in personal characteristics between these groups. In order to determine whether AMED consumers drink more alcohol on occasions they consume AMED compared to those when the...

  4. Alcohol consumption in movies and adolescent binge drinking in 6 European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanewinkel, Reiner; Sargent, James D; Poelen, Evelien A P; Scholte, Ron; Florek, Ewa; Sweeting, Helen; Hunt, Kate; Karlsdottir, Solveig; Jonsson, Stefan Hrafn; Mathis, Federica; Faggiano, Fabrizio; Morgenstern, Matthis

    2012-04-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate whether the association between exposure to images of alcohol use in movies and binge drinking among adolescents is independent of cultural context. A cross-sectional survey study in 6 European countries (Germany, Iceland, Italy, Netherlands, Poland, and Scotland) was conducted. A total of 16 551 pupils from 114 public schools with a mean (± SD) age of 13.4 (± 1.18) years participated. By using previously validated methods, exposure to alcohol use in movies was estimated from the 250 top-grossing movies of each country (years 2004-2009). Lifetime binge drinking was the main outcome measure. Overall, 27% of the sample had consumed >5 drinks on at least 1 occasion in their life. After controlling for age, gender, family affluence, school performance, television screen time, sensation seeking and rebelliousness, and frequency of drinking of peers, parents, and siblings, the adjusted β-coefficient for lifetime binge drinking in the entire sample was 0.12 (95% confidence interval: 0.10-0.14; P movie alcohol use exposure and lifetime binge drinking was significant in all countries; after covariate adjustment, the relationship was still significant in 5 of 6 countries. A sensitivity analysis revealed that the association is content specific, as there was no significant association between lifetime binge drinking and exposure to smoking in movies. The link between alcohol use in movies and adolescent binge drinking was robust and seems relatively unaffected by cultural contexts.

  5. Effects of Acute Consumption of a Sport Drink on Athletic Performance in Student Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AA Ghasemnian

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aim: Athletes believe that energy drinks can be used to enhance their performance during training and competition. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of acute ingestion of a sport drink on endurance performance in student athletes. Methods: Ten healthy and trained youn