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Sample records for soft clay experience

  1. Centrifuge modelling of rigid piles in soft clay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinkvort, R.T.; Poder, M.; Truong, P.

    2016-01-01

    of this study is to employ centrifuge modelling in order to derive experimental p-y curves for rigid piles embedded in over-consolidated soft clay. A kaolin clay sample was prepared and pre-consolidated by applying a constant pressure at the soil surface, while different over-consolidation ratios were achieved...

  2. The Physical Behavior of Stabilised Soft Clay by Electrokinetic Stabilisation Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhar, A. T. S.; Nordin, N. S.; Azmi, M. A. M.; Embong, Z.; Sunar, N.; Hazreek, Z. A. M.; Aziman, M.

    2018-04-01

    Electrokinetic Stabilisation (EKS) technology is the combination processes of electroosmosis and chemical grouting. This technique is most effective in silty and clayey soils where the hydraulic conductivity is very low. Stabilising agents will assist the EKS treatment by inducing it into soil under direct current. The movement of stabilising agents into soil is governed by the principle of electrokinetics. The aim of this study is to evaluate the physical behavior of soft soil using the EKS technology as an effective method to strengthen soft clay soils with calcium chloride (CaCl2) as the stabilising agent. Stainless steel plates were used as the electrodes, while 1.0 mol/l of CaCl2 was used as the electrolyte that fed at the anode compartment. Soft marine clay at Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia was used as the soil sample. The EKS treatment was developed at Research Centre for Soft Soil (RECESS), UTHM with a constant voltage gradient (50 V/m) in 21 days. The result shows that the shear strength of treated soil was increased across the soil sample. The treated soil near the cathode showed the highest value of shear strength (24.5 – 33 kPa) compared with the anode and in the middle of the soil sample.

  3. Compaction and Plasticity Comparative Behaviour of Soft Clay Treated with Coarse and Fine Sizes of Ceramic Tiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Bared, Mohammed Ali Mohammed; Marto, Aminaton; Sati Hamonangan Harahap, Indra; Kasim, Fauziah

    2018-03-01

    Recycled blended ceramic tiles (RBT) is a waste material produced from ceramic tile factories and construction activities. RBT is found to be cost effective, sustainable, environmental-friendly and has the potential to be used as an additive in soft soil stabilization. Recent reports show that massive amounts of RBT are dumped into legal or illegal landfills every year consuming very large spaces and creating major environmental problems. On the other hand, dredged marine clay obtained from Nusajaya, Johor, Malaysia has weak physical and engineering characteristics to be considered as unsuitable soft soil that is usually excavated, dumped into landfills and replaced by stiff soil. Hence, this study investigates the suitability of possible uses of RBT to treat marine clay. Laboratory tests included Standard proctor tests and Atterberg limits tests. The plasticity of marine clay was evaluated by adding 10%, 20%, 30% and 40% of 0.3 mm RBT. In addition, the compaction behaviour of treated marine clay was compared by adding two different sizes (0.3 mm and 1.18 mm diameter) of RBT. For both coarse and fine sizes of RBT, 10%, 20%, 30% and 40% of the dry weight of the soft clay were added. The mixture of each combination was examined in order to evaluate the Maximum Dry Density (MDD) and the optimum moisture content (OMC) for the treated soft clay. MDD and OMC for soft untreated samples were 1.59 Mg/m3 and 22%, respectively. Treated samples with 10%, 20%, 30% and 40% of 0.30 mm size RBT resulted in a significant reduction of OMC ranged from 19 to 15% while MDD resulted in increment ranged from 1.69 to 1.77 Mg/m3. In addition, samples treated with 10%, 20%, 30% and 40% of 1.18 mm size RBT resulted in major reduction of OMC ranged from 15 to 13.5% while MDD increased effectively from 1.75 to 1.82 Mg/m3. For all mix designs of soft clay-RBT, MDD was gradually increasing and OMC was sharply reducing with further increments of both sizes of RBT.

  4. Compaction and Plasticity Comparative Behaviour of Soft Clay Treated with Coarse and Fine Sizes of Ceramic Tiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Bared Mohammed Ali Mohammed

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Recycled blended ceramic tiles (RBT is a waste material produced from ceramic tile factories and construction activities. RBT is found to be cost effective, sustainable, environmental-friendly and has the potential to be used as an additive in soft soil stabilization. Recent reports show that massive amounts of RBT are dumped into legal or illegal landfills every year consuming very large spaces and creating major environmental problems. On the other hand, dredged marine clay obtained from Nusajaya, Johor, Malaysia has weak physical and engineering characteristics to be considered as unsuitable soft soil that is usually excavated, dumped into landfills and replaced by stiff soil. Hence, this study investigates the suitability of possible uses of RBT to treat marine clay. Laboratory tests included Standard proctor tests and Atterberg limits tests. The plasticity of marine clay was evaluated by adding 10%, 20%, 30% and 40% of 0.3 mm RBT. In addition, the compaction behaviour of treated marine clay was compared by adding two different sizes (0.3 mm and 1.18 mm diameter of RBT. For both coarse and fine sizes of RBT, 10%, 20%, 30% and 40% of the dry weight of the soft clay were added. The mixture of each combination was examined in order to evaluate the Maximum Dry Density (MDD and the optimum moisture content (OMC for the treated soft clay. MDD and OMC for soft untreated samples were 1.59 Mg/m3 and 22%, respectively. Treated samples with 10%, 20%, 30% and 40% of 0.30 mm size RBT resulted in a significant reduction of OMC ranged from 19 to 15% while MDD resulted in increment ranged from 1.69 to 1.77 Mg/m3. In addition, samples treated with 10%, 20%, 30% and 40% of 1.18 mm size RBT resulted in major reduction of OMC ranged from 15 to 13.5% while MDD increased effectively from 1.75 to 1.82 Mg/m3. For all mix designs of soft clay-RBT, MDD was gradually increasing and OMC was sharply reducing with further increments of both sizes of RBT.

  5. Numerical Evaluation on the Different Shapes of Gravelly Sand Columns to Increase the Loading Capacity of Soft Clay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghzili Sif Allah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Improvement on soft clay by the installation of stone column is one of the most popular methods followed worldwide. Different analytical and numerical solutions have already been developed for understanding the load transfer mechanism of soft soil reinforced with stone column. This study investigated a bearing capacity of the gravelly sand column, installed in soft clay bed at 15kpa of undrained shear strength. The column variable of length and diameter ratio at 7, 8 and 9 were evaluated. On top of that, the combination of two diameters in single column was tested and the uniform diameter was used as a control. In the numerical analysis, Mohrcoulomb model was adopted in the idealization of the behaviour of the gravelly sand column and soft clay materials. The results revealed that the optimum design that gave the highest loading capacity of the combination 11=12 of column diameter was the length and diameter ratio of 8.

  6. First application experiments with the Stockholm compact soft x-ray microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertilson, M; Hofsten, O von; Lindblom, M; Holmberg, A; Takman, P; Vogt, U; Hertz, H; Thieme, J

    2009-01-01

    Most soft x-ray microscopes operating in the water window (λ = 2.3 - 4.4 nm) rely on synchrotron radiation sources. In the future we believe scientists will use soft x-ray microscopes as one imaging tool among others in their own laboratory. For this purpose we have developed a full field soft x-ray microscope with a laser-plasma source compact enough to fit on an optical table. In this contribution we describe the current status of this microscope now featuring stable operation at λ = 3.37 nm or λ 2.48 nm. In-house fabricated single element zone plates offering the possibility to perform phase contrast imaging have been implemented. We also report on the first application experiments for compact soft x-ray microscopy, including results from studies of clay minerals and colloids existing in nature and results from phase optics experiments. Planned upgrades of the microscope include increasing the source brightness, implementing more efficient condenser optics, and installing a cryo sample stage for tomography. These improvements will open up for further applications, especially in the field of biological imaging.

  7. Nonlinear soil parameter effects on dynamic embedment of offshore pipeline on soft clay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Young Yu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the effects of nonlinear soft clay on dynamic embedment of offshore pipeline were investigated. Seabed embedment by pipe-soil interactions has impacts on the structural boundary conditions for various subsea structures such as pipeline, riser, pile, and many other systems. A number of studies have been performed to estimate real soil behavior, but their estimation of seabed embedment has not been fully identified and there are still many uncertainties. In this regards, comparison of embedment between field survey and existing empirical models has been performed to identify uncertainties and investigate the effect of nonlinear soil parameter on dynamic embedment. From the comparison, it is found that the dynamic embedment with installation effects based on nonlinear soil model have an influence on seabed embedment. Therefore, the pipe embedment under dynamic condition by nonlinear para- meters of soil models was investigated by Dynamic Embedment Factor (DEF concept, which is defined as the ratio of the dynamic and static embedment of pipeline, in order to overcome the gap between field embedment and currently used empirical and numerical formula. Although DEF through various researches is suggested, its range is too wide and it does not consider dynamic laying effect. It is difficult to find critical parameters that are affecting to the embedment result. Therefore, the study on dynamic embedment factor by soft clay parameters of nonlinear soil model was conducted and the sensitivity analyses about parameters of nonlinear soil model were performed as well. The tendency on dynamic embedment factor was found by conducting numerical analyses using OrcaFlex software. It is found that DEF was influenced by shear strength gradient than other factors. The obtained results will be useful to understand the pipe embedment on soft clay seabed for applying offshore pipeline designs such as on-bottom stability and free span analyses.

  8. Stereo soft x-ray microscopy and elemental mapping of hematite and clay suspensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gleber, S.-C.; Thieme, J.; Chao, W.; Fischer, P.

    2008-09-01

    The spatial arrangements of hematite particles within aqueous soil and clay samples are investigated with soft X-ray microscopy, taking advantage of the elemental contrast at the Fe-L edge around E = 707 eV. In combination with stereo microscopy, information about spatial arrangements are revealed and correlated to electrostatic interactions of the different mixtures. Manipulation of a sample mounted to the microscope is possible and particles added while imaging can be detected.

  9. Analysis on the Long Term Effect of Trial Test Road Constructed on Batu Pahat Soft Clay (BPSC) at Recess UTHM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idrus, M. M. M.; Edayu, A. E.; Adnan, Z.; Ismail, B.

    2016-07-01

    The reinforcement used in soil for construction of roads on the soft clay is very important as it will determine the level of service of the road after it was built. Damage or defects on the road surface to be an indicator of the level of the road has dropped and shows the deformation of the road. For this research, an analysis has carried out on the long-term effect of trial test road constructed on Batu Pahat Soft Clay (BPSC) at RECESS UTHM. Through this research, the reinforcement using Rawell Geosynthetic Clay Liner (RGCL) was the best with the stability is 14964 N, a low flow is 2.69mm, stiffness modulus is 1766 MPa, the peak load is 739.4 N and a lower horizontal deformation which is 1.71 µm compared Woven Geotextile section and section without geotextile [1] [9]. In terms of deformation can be seen clearly from physical observations that section without geotextile suffered significant damage than others. Settlement of road can also be analyzed by a longitudinal section that plotted based on the result of leveling work. After that, settlements are more visible way on the right side of the road trial. Through lab tests conducted, it indicate that the coring samples obtained from sites of each section meets the specifications set by the Jabatan Kerja Raya (JKR) in terms of stability, flow and stiffness [1]. Through this study, a trial road built on soft soil can be used as a test site because of the uniqueness of these roads which has three different types of reinforcements.

  10. Initial settlements of rock fills on soft clay

    OpenAIRE

    Pedersen, Truls Martens

    2012-01-01

    Rock fills that hit the seabed will remold the underlying material. If this material is a clay with sufficiently low shear strength, it will adopt rheological properties, causing flow through the rock fill, and contributing to the initial settlements of the rock fill in addition to conventional consolidation theory. The settlements of the rocks depend upon the height of the rock fill and how the rocks have been laid out. This is due to the viscosity of the clay, and the fact that clay is thix...

  11. Large scale laboratory diffusion experiments in clay rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Gutierrez, M.; Missana, T.; Mingarro, M.; Martin, P.L.; Cormenzana, J.L.

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Clay formations are potential host rocks for high-level radioactive waste repositories. In clay materials the radionuclide diffusion is the main transport mechanism. Thus, the understanding of the diffusion processes and the determination of diffusion parameters in conditions as similar as possible to the real ones, are critical for the performance assessment of deep geological repository. Diffusion coefficients are mainly measured in the laboratory using small samples, after a preparation to fit into the diffusion cell. In addition, a few field tests are usually performed for confirming laboratory results, and analyse scale effects. In field or 'in situ' tests the experimental set-up usually includes the injection of a tracer diluted in reconstituted formation water into a packed off section of a borehole. Both experimental systems may produce artefacts in the determination of diffusion coefficients. In laboratory the preparation of the sample can generate structural change mainly if the consolidated clay have a layered fabric, and in field test the introduction of water could modify the properties of the saturated clay in the first few centimeters, just where radionuclide diffusion is expected to take place. In this work, a large scale laboratory diffusion experiment is proposed, using a large cylindrical sample of consolidated clay that can overcome the above mentioned problems. The tracers used were mixed with clay obtained by drilling a central hole, re-compacted into the hole at approximately the same density as the consolidated block and finally sealed. Neither additional treatment of the sample nor external monitoring are needed. After the experimental time needed for diffusion to take place (estimated by scoping calculations) the block was sampled to obtain a 3D distribution of the tracer concentration and the results were modelled. An additional advantage of the proposed configuration is that it could be used in 'in situ

  12. Electrokinetic Stabilisation Method of Soft Clay in Pure System using Electrokinetic Geosynthetic Electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhar, A. T. S.; Jefferson, I.; Madun, A.; Abidin, M. H. Z.; Rogers, C. D. F.

    2018-04-01

    Electrokinetic stabilisation (EKS) method has the ability to solve the problems of soft highly compressibility soil. This study will present the results from an experimental study of EKS on soft soils using inactive kaolinite clay, inert electrode and distilled water (DW) as a pure system mechanism before any chemical stabilisers being used in this research. Therefore, this will provide a baseline study to improve the efficiency of EKS approach. The test model was using inert electrode of Electrokinetic Geosythentic (EKG) developed at the Newcastle University to apply a constant voltage gradient of 50 V/m across a soil sample approximately 400 mm. Distilled water was used at the pore electrolyte fluid compartments supplied under zero hydraulic gradient conditions for the periods of 3, 7 and 14 days. Throughout the monitoring, physical and chemical characteristics were measured. Results from the monitoring data, physical and chemical properties of the pure system showed the development of pH gradient, the changes of electrical conductivity and chemical concentrations with regards to the distance from anode and treatment periods due to the electrochemical effects even though there was no chemical stabilisers were introduced or released from the degradation of electrodes.

  13. CONSTRUCTION OF A NEW HIGHWAY EMBANKMENT ON THE SOFT CLAY SOIL TREATMENT BY STONE COLUMNS IN MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    QASIM A. ALJANABI

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available To continue of the second phase of the East Coast Expressway between Kuantan and Kula Terengganu in Malaysia system innovative solution are required. In this new phase there are embankment region has been subjected to extensive soft clay soil. These comprise typically of clayey silts of very high water content and undrained shear strengths in the range of 8 to 11 kPa to depths of up to 8m. To support an embankment height of up to 12 m, were filled and thereafter Vibro Replacement treatment was carried out to treat the very soft soil. Extensive instrumentation using rod settlement gauges, inclinometers and piezometers were installed to monitor the performance of the Vibro Replacement treatment. This paper reports on aspects of design, installation and the measured results from the instrumentation scheme.

  14. Diffusion Experiments with Opalinus and Callovo-Oxfordian Clays: Laboratory, Large-Scale Experiments and Microscale Analysis by RBS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Gutierrez, M.; Alonso, U.; Missana, T.; Cormenzana, J.L.; Mingarro, M.; Morejon, J.; Gil, P.

    2009-01-01

    Consolidated clays are potential host rocks for deep geological repositories for high-level radioactive waste. Diffusion is the main transport process for radionuclides (RN) in these clays. Radionuclide (RN) diffusion coefficients are the most important parameters for Performance Assessment (PA) calculations of clay barriers. Different diffusion methodologies were applied at a laboratory scale to analyse the diffusion behaviour of a wide range of RN. Main aims were to understand the transport properties of different RNs in two different clays and to contribute with feasible methodologies to improve in-situ diffusion experiments, using samples of larger scale. Classical laboratory essays and a novel experimental set-up for large-scale diffusion experiments were performed, together to a novel application of the nuclear ion beam technique Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS), for diffusion analyses at the micrometer scale. The main experimental and theoretical characteristics of the different methodologies, and their advantages and limitations are here discussed. Experiments were performed with the Opalinus and the Callovo-Oxfordian clays. Both clays are studied as potential host rock for a repository. Effective diffusion coefficients ranged between 1.10 - 10 to 1.10 - 12 m 2 /s for neutral, low sorbing cations (as Na and Sr) and anions. Apparent diffusion coefficients for strongly sorbing elements, as Cs and Co, are in the order of 1.10-13 m 2 /s; europium present the lowest diffusion coefficient (5.10 - 15 m 2 /s). The results obtained by the different approaches gave a comprehensive database of diffusion coefficients for RN with different transport behaviour within both clays. (Author) 42 refs

  15. High-Strengthening of Cement-Treated Clay by Mechanical Dehydration

    OpenAIRE

    Kasama, Kiyonobu; Zen, Kouki; Iwataki, Kiyoharu; 笠間, 清伸; 善, 功企; 岩瀧, 清治

    2007-01-01

    A technique called the cement-mixing and mechanical dehydration method (CMD) as one of recycling techniques for soft clay slurry is developed. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of the CMD for increasing the strength of soft clay, a series of unconfined compression tests and several durability tests were performed together with the literature review of unconfined compressive strength in cement-treated soils. Moreover, a series of constant strain rate consolidation tests were also performe...

  16. Heavy Metal Diffusion through Soft Clay under High Hydraulic Gradients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaheer Ahmed Almani

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was focused on the determination of contaminant transport parameters of heavy metal Zinc moving through saturated soft Bangkok undisturbed clay under high hydraulic gradients. These parameters were compared with contaminant transport determined under concentration gradient alone (pure diffusion. In total fifteen column tests were conducted and a mathematical model was applied to determine the coefficients. Two different source concentrations conditions, constant and decreasing, were applied. Testing periods were ranged from 15-60 days while hydraulic gradients were ranged from 0-500. The curves between relative concentration and time and pore volume were developed for the constant source condition whereas curves between source reservoirs concentrations and time were developed for decreasing source condition. The effective diffusion and distribution coefficients, De and Kd, were determined by curve fitting using the computer code POLLUTE v 6.3. The results showed that diffusion coefficient increases and distribution coefficient decreases as hydraulic gradient increases from 0 to high value of 500 due to contribution of dispersion and additional molecular diffusion at high advective velocity. Thus, testing at high gradients ensures the safe performance of earthen barriers under worse conditions.

  17. Diffusion Experiments with Opalinus and Callovo-Oxfordian Clays: Laboratory, Large-Scale Experiments and Microscale Analysis by RBS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Gutierrez, M.; Alonso, U.; Missana, T.; Cormenzana, J.L.; Mingarro, M.; Morejon, J.; Gil, P.

    2009-09-25

    Consolidated clays are potential host rocks for deep geological repositories for high-level radioactive waste. Diffusion is the main transport process for radionuclides (RN) in these clays. Radionuclide (RN) diffusion coefficients are the most important parameters for Performance Assessment (PA) calculations of clay barriers. Different diffusion methodologies were applied at a laboratory scale to analyse the diffusion behaviour of a wide range of RN. Main aims were to understand the transport properties of different RNs in two different clays and to contribute with feasible methodologies to improve in-situ diffusion experiments, using samples of larger scale. Classical laboratory essays and a novel experimental set-up for large-scale diffusion experiments were performed, together to a novel application of the nuclear ion beam technique Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS), for diffusion analyses at the micrometer scale. The main experimental and theoretical characteristics of the different methodologies, and their advantages and limitations are here discussed. Experiments were performed with the Opalinus and the Callovo-Oxfordian clays. Both clays are studied as potential host rock for a repository. Effective diffusion coefficients ranged between 1.10{sup -}10 to 1.10{sup -}12 m{sup 2}/s for neutral, low sorbing cations (as Na and Sr) and anions. Apparent diffusion coefficients for strongly sorbing elements, as Cs and Co, are in the order of 1.10-13 m{sup 2}/s; europium present the lowest diffusion coefficient (5.10{sup -}15 m{sup 2}/s). The results obtained by the different approaches gave a comprehensive database of diffusion coefficients for RN with different transport behaviour within both clays. (Author) 42 refs.

  18. Design and development of the roadbed construction on the soft soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yushkov Boris Semenovich

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Now the considerable part of territories is presented by soft soils. Construction of highways under difficult conditions, in places of the soft heaving soil distribution having an excessive moistening, low bearing capability, high compressibility and other unfavorable properties, significantly complicates and raises the price of road construction. Improvement of technology of highway construction serves as a solution of problem. In this article the authors propose the design of a roadbed on the soft clay soil, strengthened by a spatial geoweb. The experimental studies of four designs were conducted: the first one is research of the roadbed — soft clay soil mutual interaction; the second one is research of work of the geotextile material laid in the base of roadbed with the soft clay soil; the third one is research of work of the spatial geoweb laid in the base of roadbed with the soft clay soil; the fourth one is research of joint action of a spatial geoweb and the geotextile material laid in the base of a roadbed with soft clay soil. Based on the results of the carried-out laboratory tests it has been revealed that the design with strengthening by a spatial geoweb and geotextile material has a rational one of the roadbed.

  19. Large Strain Analysis of Electro-Osmosis Consolidation for Clays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yuan, J.

    2015-01-01

    Consolidation of soft clay creates a lot of problems in foundation engineering, because of the very low clay permeability and high compressibility. Primary consolidation takes a long time to complete if the material is left consolidating under atmospheric evaporation, and traditional dewatering

  20. Induced polarization of clay-sand mixtures: experiments and modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okay, G.; Leroy, P.; Tournassat, C.; Ghorbani, A.; Jougnot, D.; Cosenza, P.; Camerlynck, C.; Cabrera, J.; Florsch, N.; Revil, A.

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Frequency-domain induced polarization (IP) measurements consist of imposing an alternative sinusoidal electrical current (AC) at a given frequency and measuring the resulting electrical potential difference between two other non-polarizing electrodes. The magnitude of the conductivity and the phase lag between the current and the difference of potential can be expressed into a complex conductivity with the in-phase representing electro-migration and a quadrature conductivity representing the reversible storage of electrical charges (capacitive effect) of the porous material. Induced polarization has become an increasingly popular geophysical method for hydrogeological and environmental applications. These applications include for instance the characterization of clay materials used as permeability barriers in landfills or to contain various types of contaminants including radioactive wastes. The goal of our study is to get a better understanding of the influence of the clay content, clay mineralogy, and pore water salinity upon complex conductivity measurements of saturated clay-sand mixtures in the frequency range ∼1 mHz-12 kHz. The complex conductivity of saturated unconsolidated sand-clay mixtures was experimentally investigated using two types of clay minerals, kaolinite and smectite in the frequency range 1.4 mHz - 12 kHz. Four different types of samples were used, two containing mainly kaolinite (80% of the mass, the remaining containing 15% of smectite and 5% of illite/muscovite; 95% of kaolinite and 5% of illite/muscovite), and the two others containing mainly Na-smectite or Na-Ca-smectite (95% of the mass; bentonite). The experiments were performed with various clay contents (1, 5, 20, and 100% in volume of the sand-clay mixture) and salinities (distilled water, 0.1 g/L, 1 g/L, and 10 g/L NaCl solution). In total, 44 saturated clay or clay-sand mixtures were prepared. Induced polarization measurements

  1. Quantifying structural states of soft mudrocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, B.; Wong, R. C. K.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, a cm model is proposed to quantify structural states of soft mudrocks, which are dependent on clay fractions and porosities. Physical properties of natural and reconstituted soft mudrock samples are used to derive two parameters in the cm model. With the cm model, a simplified homogenization approach is proposed to estimate geomechanical properties and fabric orientation distributions of soft mudrocks based on the mixture theory. Soft mudrocks are treated as a mixture of nonclay minerals and clay-water composites. Nonclay minerals have a high stiffness and serve as a structural framework of mudrocks when they have a high volume fraction. Clay-water composites occupy the void space among nonclay minerals and serve as an in-fill matrix. With the increase of volume fraction of clay-water composites, there is a transition in the structural state from the state of framework supported to the state of matrix supported. The decreases in shear strength and pore size as well as increases in compressibility and anisotropy in fabric are quantitatively related to such transition. The new homogenization approach based on the proposed cm model yields better performance evaluation than common effective medium modeling approaches because the interactions among nonclay minerals and clay-water composites are considered. With wireline logging data, the cm model is applied to quantify the structural states of Colorado shale formations at different depths in the Cold Lake area, Alberta, Canada. Key geomechancial parameters are estimated based on the proposed homogenization approach and the critical intervals with low strength shale formations are identified.

  2. Research on clay covering experiment in a abandoned uranium mining area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xueli; Xu Lechang; Zhang Wei

    2014-01-01

    The clay covering experiment was designed in a abandoned uranium mining area, including experiment principle, determining size of experimental site, experiment method, choosing cover materials and determining cover thickness. According to the experiment results, the relationship between the radon exhalation rate and cover thickness, the diffusion coefficient of radon in clay were fully discussed. Also, the corresponding function expressions were established. The linear correlation coefficient test results showed that the relationship between the radon exhalation rate and cover thickness was significantly correlated. According to the correlation function expression between the radon exhalation rate and the cover thickness, the cover thickness of the decommissioning sites can be determined, in order to provide a scientific basis for the design and environmental impact assessment on decommissioning disposal project of a uranium mine. (authors)

  3. Physical and numerical modelings of lateral drag in a pipeline in very soft clay; Modelagens fisica e numerica de arraste lateral de duto em argila mole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Jose Renato M.S.; Almeida, Maria C.F.; Almeida, Marcio S.S. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia; Borges, Ricardo G.; Amaral, Claudio S. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas

    2005-07-01

    This paper discusses some results from a joint research project undertaken by COPPE/UFRJ and CENPES/PETROBRAS about soil-structure interaction applied to thermal snaking of shallowly buried pipelines embedded in very soft clay. At this phase, the lateral soil reaction due to pipeline horizontal displacements was studied by means of physical and numerical modeling. In that way, a set of comprehensive centrifuge tests has been undertaken using a 1:30 scaled pipe dragged laterally, varying the burial depth condition. The soil used for the tests is a very soft clay sample collected at the Duque de Caxias Refinery area in Rio de Janeiro. The vertical and horizontal displacements of the pipe were imposed by computer-controlled actuators, with soil reaction forces being measured on both directions. The physical modeling results were compared with numerical simulations of the same centrifuge scenarios using the software AEEPECD, developed by PETROBRAS, showing good agreement in terms of horizontal and vertical soil reactions. (author)

  4. Investigation on Insar Time Series Deformation Model Considering Rheological Parameters for Soft Clay Subgrade Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, X.; Yuan, Z.; Chen, L. F.; Yu, X. Y.; Xiao, L.

    2018-04-01

    The stability control is one of the major technical difficulties in the field of highway subgrade construction engineering. Building deformation model is a crucial step for InSAR time series deformation monitoring. Most of the InSAR deformation models for deformation monitoring are pure empirical mathematical models, without considering the physical mechanism of the monitored object. In this study, we take rheology into consideration, inducing rheological parameters into traditional InSAR deformation models. To assess the feasibility and accuracy for our new model, both simulation and real deformation data over Lungui highway (a typical highway built on soft clay subgrade in Guangdong province, China) are investigated with TerraSAR-X satellite imagery. In order to solve the unknows of the non-linear rheological model, three algorithms: Gauss-Newton (GN), Levenberg-Marquarat (LM), and Genetic Algorithm (GA), are utilized and compared to estimate the unknown parameters. Considering both the calculation efficiency and accuracy, GA is chosen as the final choice for the new model in our case study. Preliminary real data experiment is conducted with use of 17 TerraSAR-X Stripmap images (with a 3-m resolution). With the new deformation model and GA aforementioned, the unknown rheological parameters over all the high coherence points are obtained and the LOS deformation (the low-pass component) sequences are generated.

  5. Clay club catalogue of characteristics of argillaceous rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The OECD/NEA Working Group on the Characterisation, the Understanding and the Performance of Argillaceous Rocks as Repository Host Formations, namely the Clay Club, examines the various argillaceous rocks that are being considered for the deep geological disposal of radioactive waste, i.e. from plastic, soft, poorly indurated clays to brittle, hard mud-stones or shales. The Clay Club considered it necessary and timely to provide a catalogue to gather in a structured way the key geo-scientific characteristics of the various argillaceous formations that are - or were - studied in NEA member countries with regard to radioactive waste disposal. The present catalogue represents the outcomes of this Clay Club initiative. (author)

  6. Assessment of clay stiffness and strength parameters using index properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed M. Ahmed

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available A new approach is developed to determine the shear wave velocity in saturated soft to firm clays using measurements of the liquid limit, plastic limit, and natural water content with depth. The shear wave velocity is assessed using the site-specific variation of the natural water content with the effective mean stress. Subsequently, an iterative process is envisaged to obtain the clay stiffness and strength parameters. The at-rest earth pressure coefficient, as well as bearing capacity factor and rigidity index related to the cone penetration test, is also acquired from the analyses. Comparisons are presented between the measured clay parameters and the results of corresponding analyses in five different case studies. It is demonstrated that the presented approach can provide acceptable estimates of saturated clay stiffness and strength parameters. One of the main privileges of the presented methodology is the site-specific procedure developed based on the relationships between clay strength and stiffness parameters, rather than adopting direct correlations. Despite of the utilized iterative processes, the presented approach can be easily implemented using a simple spreadsheet, benefiting both geotechnical researchers and practitioners. Keywords: Soft to firm clays, Atterberg limits, Shear wave velocity, Small-strain shear modulus, Constrained modulus, Undrained shear strength, Effective friction angle, Cone penetration test

  7. Experience acquired with the realisation of a geotechnical measurement campaign in a deep clay formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manfroy, P.; Neerdael, B.; Buyens, M.

    1985-01-01

    Belgium has selected clay as a possible disposal medium for conditioned radioactive waste. CEN/SCK has launched an important research and development programme to evaluate the disposal potential of the Boom clay formation present under the nuclear site Mol-Dessel. An underground facility has been built at 220 m. depth in order to proceed to geomechanical, corrosion, migration and heat transfer experiments. During its construction numerous geotechnical measuring instruments were emplaced on the lining and in the clay medium. Successful realization of such measurement campaigns was hampered by the very difficult underground working conditions. This paper describes what can be learned from the experience gained so far. 5 refs.; 5 figs

  8. CTAB as a soft template for modified clay as filler in active packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kajonpop Rittirong

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The role of modified clay has been employed in many areas of engineering research. Structure of clay was mainly focused on alumino-silicate layer and its form was presented as pillar layer. It composed of many ion exchanges inside. In industry, in order to use clay with higher efficiency, modification on surface and porosity has been developed. CTAB, one of the most effective cationic surfactant, was employed to modify the surface and porosity of clay.

  9. Diffusion Experiments in Opalinus Clay: Laboratory, Large-Scale Diffusion Experiments and Microscale Analysis by RBS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Gutierrez, M.; Alonso de los Rios, U.; Missana, T.; Cormenzana, J.L.; Mingarro, M.; Morejon, J.; Gil, P.

    2008-08-06

    The Opalinus Clay (OPA) formation in the Zurcher Weiland (Switzerland) is a potential host rock for a repository for high-level radioactive waste. Samples collected in the Mont Terri Underground Rock Laboratory (URL), where the OPA formation is located at a depth between -200 and -300 m below the surface, were used to study the radionuclide diffusion in clay materials. Classical laboratory essays and a novel experimental set-up for large-scale diffusion experiments were performed together to a novel application of the nuclear ion beam technique Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS), to understand the transport properties of the OPA and to enhance the methodologies used for in situ diffusion experiments. Through-Diffusion and In-Diffusion conventional laboratory diffusion experiments were carried out with HTO, 36{sup C}l-, I-, 22{sup N}a, 75{sup S}e, 85{sup S}r, 233{sup U}, 137{sup C}s, 60{sup C}o and 152{sup E}u. Large-scale diffusion experiments were performed with HTO, 36{sup C}l, and 85{sup S}r, and new experiments with 60{sup C}o, 137{sup C}s and 152{sup E}u are ongoing. Diffusion experiments with RBS technique were done with Sr, Re, U and Eu. (Author) 38 refs.

  10. Biogeochemical processes in a clay formation in situ experiment: Part F - Reactive transport modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tournassat, Christophe, E-mail: c.tournassat@brgm.fr [BRGM, French Geological Survey, Orleans (France); Alt-Epping, Peter [Rock-Water Interaction Group, Institute of Geological Sciences, University of Bern (Switzerland); Gaucher, Eric C. [BRGM, French Geological Survey, Orleans (France); Gimmi, Thomas [Rock-Water Interaction Group, Institute of Geological Sciences, University of Bern (Switzerland)] [Laboratory for Waste Management, Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen (Switzerland); Leupin, Olivier X. [NAGRA, CH-5430 Wettingen (Switzerland); Wersin, Paul [Gruner Ltd., CH-4020 Basel (Switzerland)

    2011-06-15

    Highlights: > Reactive transport modelling was used to simulate simultaneously solute transport, thermodynamic reactions, ion exchange and biodegradation during an in-situ experiment in a clay-rock formation. > Opalinus clay formation has a high buffering capacity in terms of chemical perturbations caused by bacterial activity. > Buffering capacity is mainly attributed to the carbonate system and to the reactivity of clay surfaces (cation exchange, pH buffering). - Abstract: Reactive transport modelling was used to simulate solute transport, thermodynamic reactions, ion exchange and biodegradation in the Porewater Chemistry (PC) experiment at the Mont Terri Rock Laboratory. Simulations show that the most important chemical processes controlling the fluid composition within the borehole and the surrounding formation during the experiment are ion exchange, biodegradation and dissolution/precipitation reactions involving pyrite and carbonate minerals. In contrast, thermodynamic mineral dissolution/precipitation reactions involving alumo-silicate minerals have little impact on the fluid composition on the time-scale of the experiment. With the accurate description of the initial chemical condition in the formation in combination with kinetic formulations describing the different stages of bacterial activities, it has been possible to reproduce the evolution of important system parameters, such as the pH, redox potential, total organic C, dissolved inorganic C and SO{sub 4} concentration. Leaching of glycerol from the pH-electrode may be the primary source of organic material that initiated bacterial growth, which caused the chemical perturbation in the borehole. Results from these simulations are consistent with data from the over-coring and demonstrate that the Opalinus Clay has a high buffering capacity in terms of chemical perturbations caused by bacterial activity. This buffering capacity can be attributed to the carbonate system as well as to the reactivity of

  11. Stabilization of soft clayey soils with sawdust ashes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim Hussein

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The problems of soft clayey soils are taken in considerations by many Iraqi geologists and civil engineers, because about 35% of the Iraqi clay soils (especially southern Iraq are weak. Thus, it is necessary to improve the properties of such soils for road construction by means of using of various stabilizers such as sawdust ash. The main goal of the present study is to stabilize soft clay models with sawdust ash (SDA additive using different percentages (0, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10% by dry weight of soil. The results revealed that the additive has adverse effects on the property of soil indices by increasing its liquid limit and plasticity index due to clay content. The mixture of sawdust ashes with soft clay soils improves most other physical and mechanical properties of the soil, as expressed by a general reduction in specific gravity and maximum dry density (MDD, as well as a reduction in the compression coefficients (Cc and Cr with an increase in SDA content. While increasing the optimum moisture content (OMC and the undrained shear strength (cu with the increase in SDA content. The stabilized soils (with 4 and 10% ash content resulted in low CBR values (1.6-1.2% which can be used as sub-base. The SDA can be considered as a cheap and acceptable stabilizing agent in road construction for improving most of the geotechnical properties of the soft clayey soil.

  12. Investigation of Stabilised Batu Pahat Soft Soil Pertaining on its CBR and Permeability Properties for Road Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Idrus, M. M.; Singh, J. S. M.; Musbah, A. L. A.; Wijeyesekera, D. C.

    2016-07-01

    Soil stabilization by adding materials such as cement, lime and bitumen is one of the effective methods for improving the geotechnical properties of soils [11] Nano-particle is one of the newest additives and many studies about using nano-particle in soil improvement has been done but it was given less attention when soft clay soils stabilization is concerned. To evaluate the strength characteristics of stabilized Batu Pahat soft clay, laboratory investigation on early strength gained by the stabilized soil must be conducted to formulate a suitable and economical mix design [10]. To achieve such purpose, the study examined the effect of NanoClay on the California Bearing Ratio and the Permeability of soft clay. The results gained shows that the Nano-Clay is able to increase the strength of the soft clay [9]. The California Bearing Ratio of the soil is increase significantly where the results for the highest percentage of admixture is 14.4% while the permeability of the soil decreases significantly with increasing Nano-Clay whereby the results of the highest percentage of admixture is 2.0187x10-11 m/s. After doing this research, it is proven that Nano-clay can contribute towards better soil stabilization and enhance the quality of soil as subgrade and foundation at large.

  13. Research of Deformation of Clay Soil Mixtures Mixtures

    OpenAIRE

    Romas Girkontas; Tadas Tamošiūnas; Andrius Savickas

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this article is to determine clay soils and clay soils mixtures deformations during drying. Experiments consisted from: a) clay and clay mixtures bridges (height ~ 0,30 m, span ~ 1,00 m); b) tiles of clay and clay, sand and straw (height, length, wide); c) cylinders of clay; clay and straw; clay, straw and sand (diameter; height). According to the findings recommendations for clay and clay mixtures drying technology application were presented. During the experiment clay bridge bear...

  14. Constitutive relationships for elastic deformation of clay rock: Data Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, H.H.; Rutqvist, J.; Birkholzer, J.T.

    2011-04-15

    Geological repositories have been considered a feasible option worldwide for storing high-level nuclear waste. Clay rock is one of the rock types under consideration for such purposes, because of its favorable features to prevent radionuclide transport from the repository. Coupled hydromechanical processes have an important impact on the performance of a clay repository, and establishing constitutive relationships for modeling such processes are essential. In this study, we propose several constitutive relationships for elastic deformation in indurated clay rocks based on three recently developed concepts. First, when applying Hooke's law in clay rocks, true strain (rock volume change divided by the current rock volume), rather than engineering strain (rock volume change divided by unstressed rock volume), should be used, except when the degree of deformation is very small. In the latter case, the two strains will be practically identical. Second, because of its inherent heterogeneity, clay rock can be divided into two parts, a hard part and a soft part, with the hard part subject to a relatively small degree of deformation compared with the soft part. Third, for swelling rock like clay, effective stress needs to be generalized to include an additional term resulting from the swelling process. To evaluate our theoretical development, we analyze uniaxial test data for core samples of Opalinus clay and laboratory measurements of single fractures within macro-cracked Callovo-Oxfordian argillite samples subject to both confinement and water reduced swelling. The results from this evaluation indicate that our constitutive relationships can adequately represent the data and explain the related observations.

  15. Constitutive relationships for elastic deformation of clay rock: Data Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, H.H.; Rutqvist, J.; Birkholzer, J.T.

    2011-01-01

    Geological repositories have been considered a feasible option worldwide for storing high-level nuclear waste. Clay rock is one of the rock types under consideration for such purposes, because of its favorable features to prevent radionuclide transport from the repository. Coupled hydromechanical processes have an important impact on the performance of a clay repository, and establishing constitutive relationships for modeling such processes are essential. In this study, we propose several constitutive relationships for elastic deformation in indurated clay rocks based on three recently developed concepts. First, when applying Hooke's law in clay rocks, true strain (rock volume change divided by the current rock volume), rather than engineering strain (rock volume change divided by unstressed rock volume), should be used, except when the degree of deformation is very small. In the latter case, the two strains will be practically identical. Second, because of its inherent heterogeneity, clay rock can be divided into two parts, a hard part and a soft part, with the hard part subject to a relatively small degree of deformation compared with the soft part. Third, for swelling rock like clay, effective stress needs to be generalized to include an additional term resulting from the swelling process. To evaluate our theoretical development, we analyze uniaxial test data for core samples of Opalinus clay and laboratory measurements of single fractures within macro-cracked Callovo-Oxfordian argillite samples subject to both confinement and water reduced swelling. The results from this evaluation indicate that our constitutive relationships can adequately represent the data and explain the related observations.

  16. Poro-elasto-plastic behaviour of dry compacted Fo-Ca clay: experiment and modelling. Application to the re-saturation of an engineered clay barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lassabatere, Th.; Imbert, Ch.; Etile, M.A.

    1999-01-01

    Many projects of underground repositories for high level radioactive waste involve an engineered clay barrier, placed between the waste canister and the surrounding rock. When hydrated, this barrier seals the gap and provides a good watertightness. The natural clay powder, dried and compacted, exhibits hydro-mechanical couplings during the hydration. Such a coupled behaviour, interesting for the industrial application, has been clearly demonstrated by many studies and laboratory experiments. But the modelling of this behaviour, in order to predict the hydration of the clay barrier, is difficult. A coupled modelling, based, at a macroscopic scale, on the thermodynamics of unsaturated porous media, is proposed. This thermodynamical model founds a general framework for non linear poro-elastic and poro-elasto-plastic coupled behaviours. The symmetries of this coupling, induced by this thermodynamical framework, let us take into account the often neglected influence of the mechanical state on the hydraulic problem of the re-saturation of the clay. The complete resolution of the flow problem, coupled with the mechanical behaviour, leads us to study the influence of the rheological behaviour chosen for the clay (elastic - linear or no linear -, or elastoplastic) on the evaluation of the duration of the re-saturation of the clay barrier). (authors)

  17. Multi-dimensional electro-omosis consolidation of clays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yuan, J.; Hicks, M.A.; Dijkstra, J.

    2012-01-01

    Electro-osmosis consolidation is an innovative and effective ground improvement method for soft clays. But electro-osmosis is also a very complicated process, as the mechanical behaviour, and hydraulic and electrical properties of the soil are changing rapidly during the treatment process; this

  18. In situ and laboratory migration experiments through boom clay at Mol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preter, P. de; Put, M.; Canniere, P. de

    1993-01-01

    Physico-chemical characterization and migration studies in the Boom clay, envisaged as a potential host sediment for high level waste disposal in Belgium, were started some 15 years ago. A synthesis study of this experimental work has recently been conducted to compile all available data. From a comparison of the available migration data and the data requirements as derived from the performance assessment studies PAGIS (1988) and PACOMA (1991) the new migration programme (1991-1995) was defined. The critical radionuclides, both with relation to dose rates to man and to missing or unreliable migration data, turned out to be 14 C, 99 Tc. 135 Cs and 237 Np. A second group of radionuclides was found to be possibly critical: 79 Se, 93 Zr, 107 Pd, U - , Am - , Cm - , and Pu-isotopes. This report concentrates on the experimental results as obtained from the migration experiments started in the previous migration programme. Some of the reported radionuclides e.g. 90 Sr) have lost their critical character and will not be further studied within the new programme. New experimental data from laboratory tests have become available for Np, Cs, Sr and C (as HC0 3 - ) and the first results on the migration of organic molecules dissolved in the interstitial Boom clay water are reported. The hydraulic parameters (the hydraulic conductivity K and the storage coefficient S o ) were calculated from both laboratory percolation experiments and in situ piezometric measurements. Conclusions concerning Boom clay anisotropy are drawn. Finally, a short description of the ongoing in situ HTO injection experiment is given and the experimental data are analyzed and discussed. 10 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  19. Warmed up for ten-year test in the Boom Clay formation PRACLAY Heater Experiment is launched

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    The article discusses latest developments concerning the PRACLAY Heater Experiment. The PRACLAY experiment investigates the impact of heat on the properties of clay adjacent to a repository for the geological disposal of radioactive waste. Results from the PRACLAY experiment will provide significant input for the NIRAS research programme on the disposal of high-level and long-lived radioactive waste in clay formations.The heating phase of the PRACLAY underground experiment was launched in 2014. The latest preparations comprised the improvement and installation of a back-up heating system. In the future, the control, monitoring, and analysis and interpretation of the measured data will receive the greatest attention in the PRACLAY Heater Experiment.

  20. Soft condensed matter: Polymers, complex fluids, and biomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, D.

    1995-01-01

    Historians often characterize epochs through their dominant materials, clay, bronze, iron, and steel. From this perspective, the modern era is certainly the age of plastics. The progression from hard to soft materials suggests that the emerging era will be the age of open-quotes soft condensed matter.close quotes

  1. Determination of p-y Curves using Finite Element Modelling for Bucket Foundation in Undrained Soft and Medium Clay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidberg, Mogens Bonde; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    In many years the types of foundation, such as monopiles and bucket foundation which are used in the offshore wind turbine industry, have been analysed analytically with formulations that are based on much slender piles, than are used today. Because of that, the analytical calculation...... is not describing the connection between the horizontal bearing capacity of the soil and the displacement of the foundation accurate, in particular for the bucket foundation because of the much smaller slenderness of the profile. Numerical modelling is used to examine that bearing capacity the bucket foundation has...... in soft and medium clay at different dimensions of the bucket, to a horizontal displacement. After that a mathematical formulation is determined, based on (Reese et al, 1975), so it is possible to get a more accurate result in an analytical calculation....

  2. Iodide Sorption to Clays and the Relationship to Surface Charge and Clay Texture - 12356

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Andrew; Kruichiak, Jessica; Tellez, Hernesto; Wang, Yifeng [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Iodine is assumed to behave conservatively in clay barriers around nuclear waste repositories and in natural sediments. Batch experiments tend to show little to no sorption, while in column experiments iodine is often retarded relative to tritiated water. Current surface complexation theory cannot account for negatively charged ion sorption to a negatively charged clay particle. Surface protonation and iodide sorption to clay minerals were examined using surface titrations and batch sorption experiments with a suite of clay minerals. Surface titrations were completed spanning a range of both pH values and ionic strengths. For reference, similar titrations were performed on pure forms of an Al-O powder. The titration curves were deconvoluted to attain the pKa distribution for each material at each ionic strength. The pKa distribution for the Al-O shows two distinct peaks at 4.8 and 7.5, which are invariant with ionic strength. The pKa distribution of clays was highly variable between the different minerals and as a function of ionic strength. Iodide sorption experiments were completed at high solid:solution ratios to exacerbate sorption properties. Palygorskite and kaolinite had the highest amount of iodide sorption and montmorillonite had the least. (authors)

  3. Stabilization of Clay Soil Using Tyre Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Dheyab Ahmed

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The planning, designing, construction of excavations and foundations in soft to very soft clay soils are always difficult. They are problematic soil that caused trouble for the structures built on them because of the low shear strength, high water content, and high compressibility. This work investigates the geotechnical behavior of soft clay by using tyre ash material burnt in air. The investigation contains the following tests: physical tests, chemical tests, consolidation test, Compaction tests, shear test, California Bearing Ratio test CBR, and model tests. These tests were done on soil samples prepared from soft clay soil; tyre ash was used in four percentages (2, 4, 6, and 8%. The results of the tests were; The soil samples which gave the value of plasticity test were 2% (25, 4% (25.18, 6% (25.3, and 8% (26.7.The soil samples which gave the value of specific gravity were 2% (2.65, 4% (2.61, 6% (2.5, and 8% (2.36.The value of maximum dry density in a compaction test observed with 2% percentage gave the value 15.8 kN/m3, the 4% gave the value 15.4 kN/m 3 34 , 6% gave 15.3 kN/m 3 and 8%with 15.2 kN/m3 .Samples that gave the values of undrained shear strength test were 2% (55 kN/m 2 , 4% (76 kN/m2 , 6% (109 kN/m 2, and 8% (122 kN/m 2. The best of them is 8%. The sample that gave the best value for swelling test was 8%.The best value for compression index Cc was in 8%.The results of CBR test, were improved in all soil samples. The soil samples which gave the value for CBR were 2% (3.507%, 4% (4.308%, 6% (5.586%, and 8% (9.569%. The best value was obtained from 8%.

  4. Reactive transport modelling of a heating and radiation experiment in the Boom clay (Belgium)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montenegro, L.; Samper, J.; Delgado, J.

    2003-01-01

    Most countries around the world consider Deep Geological Repositories (DGR) as the most safe option for the final disposal of high level radioactive waste (HLW). DGR is based on adopting a system of multiple barriers between the HLW and the biosphere. Underground laboratories provide information about the behaviour of these barriers at real conditions. Here we present a reactive transport model for the CERBERUS experiment performed at the HADES underground laboratory at Mol (Belgium) in order to characterize the thermal (T), hydrodynamic (H) and geochemical (G) behaviour of the Boon clay. This experiment is unique because it addresses the combined effect of heat and radiation produced by the storage of HLW in a DGR. Reactive transport models which are solved with CORE, are used to perform quantitative predictions of Boom clay thermo-hydro-geochemical (THG) behaviour. Numerical results indicate that heat and radiation cause a slight oxidation near of the radioactive source, pyrite dissolution, a pH decrease and slight changes in the pore water chemical composition of the Boom clay. (Author) 33 refs

  5. Settlement Control of Soft Ground using Cement-Ricehusk Stabilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mokhtar M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cement is widely used for improvement of soft soils, but financial and environmental concerns are causing genuine concerns to all parties, leading to the quest for alternative and effective stabilizers. Ricehusk is an agricultural waste in Malaysia, commonly disposed of by open burning or dumping in landfills. Considering that the ashes derived from ricehusk are pozzolanic in nature, there is a possibility that a cement-ricehusk mixture could effectively improve soft soils with reduced cement dosage. This study examines the mixture’s effectiveness by monitoring the settlement reduction in a clay soil. Standard oedometer tests were carried out on a soft marine clay sample admixed with cement-ricehusk. Test specimens contained 0-10% cement and 0-5% of ricehusk respectively, and were left to cure for either seven or 28 days. The stabilized specimens were observed to undergo significant reduction in compressibility, verifying the potential of cement-ricehusk as an alternative soft soil stabilizer.

  6. Fe(0)-clays interactions at 90°C under anoxic conditions: a comparative study between clay fraction of Callovo-Oxfordian and other purified clays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivard, C.; Pelletier, M.; Villieras, F.; Barres, O.; Galmiche, M.; Ghanbaja, J.; Kohler, A.; Michau, N.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. In the context of the geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste it is of prime importance to understand the interactions between the saturated clay formation and steel containers. This can be achieved through an in-depth analysis of iron-clay interactions. Previous studies on the subject investigated the influence of solid/liquid ratio, iron/clay ratio, temperature and reaction time. The aim of the present study is to explain Callovo-Oxfordian-Fe(0) interactions by determining the role of each mineral phases present in the Callovo-Oxfordian (clay minerals, quartz, carbonates and pyrite) on the mechanisms of interaction between metal iron and clay particles. In that context, it is especially important to understand in detail the influence of clay nature and to obtain some insight about the relationships between interaction mechanisms at the molecular scale and crystallographic properties (particle size, TO or TOT layers, amount of edge faces...). The influence of the combination of different clays and the addition of other minerals must also be studied. In a first step, the Callovo-Oxfordian argillite from the Andra's underground research laboratory was purified to extract the clay fraction (illite, illite-smectite, kaolinite and chlorite). Batch experiments were carried out in anoxic conditions at 90 deg. C in the presence of background electrolyte (NaCl 0.02 M.L -1 , CaCl 2 0.04 M.L -1 ) for durations of one, three or nine months in the presence of metallic iron powder. Experiments without iron were used as control. The iron/clay ratio was fixed at 1/3 with a solid/liquid ratio of 1/20. The above mentioned experiments were also carried out in parallel on other purified clays: two smectites (Georgia bentonite and SWy2 from the Clay Minerals Society), one illite (illite du Puy) and one kaolinite (KGa2, from the Clay Minerals society). At the end of the experiments, solid and liquid phases were

  7. Wave liquefaction in soils with clay content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirca, Özgür; Sumer, B. Mutlu; Fredsøe, Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents the results of an experimental study of the influence of clay content (in silt-clay and sand-clay mixtures) on liquefaction beneath progressive waves. The experiments showed that the influence of clay content is very significant. Susceptibility of silt to liquefaction is increa...

  8. Water diffusion through compacted clays analyzed by neutron scattering and tracer experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Sanchez, F

    2007-11-15

    samples using various methodologies to better interpret the dynamic results. Parameters such as particle size, layer spacing, chemical composition, external and total surfaces and porosity were determined. The fundamental transport processes in compacted clay systems were studied over a broad range of temperatures, combining microscopic diffusion experiments (T {approx} 98 to -23 {sup o}C) with macroscopic measurements (T {approx} 70 to 0 {sup o}C). Moreover, the freezing behaviour of water in compacted clays and its dynamical properties in the supercooled regime were also investigated using microscopic techniques such as neutron scattering, time of flight and backscattering techniques. Such knowledge contributes to develop simplified models for water (and possibly also solute) transport through clays, as they will be used to assess the performance of radioactive waste repositories. From this point of view, it can be beneficial for the safety of radioactive waste repositories and thus the protection of the environment.

  9. Water diffusion through compacted clays analyzed by neutron scattering and tracer experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Sanchez, F.

    2007-11-01

    using various methodologies to better interpret the dynamic results. Parameters such as particle size, layer spacing, chemical composition, external and total surfaces and porosity were determined. The fundamental transport processes in compacted clay systems were studied over a broad range of temperatures, combining microscopic diffusion experiments (T ∼ 98 to -23 o C) with macroscopic measurements (T ∼ 70 to 0 o C). Moreover, the freezing behaviour of water in compacted clays and its dynamical properties in the supercooled regime were also investigated using microscopic techniques such as neutron scattering, time of flight and backscattering techniques. Such knowledge contributes to develop simplified models for water (and possibly also solute) transport through clays, as they will be used to assess the performance of radioactive waste repositories. From this point of view, it can be beneficial for the safety of radioactive waste repositories and thus the protection of the environment

  10. Status of soft photons in experiment E855

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woody, C.; Lissauer, D.; Gomez del Campo, J.; Ray, A.; Shapira, D.; Tincknell, M.; Clark, R.; Erd, C.; Schukraft, J.; Willis, W.

    1990-01-01

    Experiment E855 was carried out at the AGS at Brookhaven National Laboratory to study soft photon production near center of mass rapidity Y cm ∼ 0 in proton-nucleus collisions at 10 at 18 GeV/c. This was the first dedicated experiment to study this phenomenon at these lower energies. It is important to note that the related process of low mass dilepton pair production has been studied extensively at these energies and an excess signal of dileptons above known hadronic backgrounds has been firmly established. E855 was designed to measure photon production from P t ∼ 5 MeV/c up to several GeV/c. A search will be made for an excess of soft photons in the P t region below the Jacobian peak from π 0 decays, above that which is expected from hadronic bremsstrahlung. Any observed signal will be correlated with the total charged multiplicity in the event in order to determine its production mechanism. This correlation can be used to distinguish purely hadronic sources of soft photons, such as mesons decays and bremsstrahlung, which vary linearly with the charged multiplicity, and a thermal source of soft photons which would exhibit a quadratic dependence on the charged multiplicity. In addition, E855 will measure low energy photons from nuclear decays which can be a background for measuring soft photons near Y cm ∼ 0. These photons are also interesting from a nuclear physics point of view, since the spectrum of photons from nuclei excited by incident high energy protons gives a measure of the temperature of the excited nucleus and the amount of excitation energy which can be transferred to a nucleus in a high energy proton collision

  11. Thermal Behaviour of clay formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tassoni, E.

    1985-01-01

    The programme carried out by ENEA to model the thermal-hydraulic-mechanical behaviour of the clay formations and to measure, in situ and in laboratory, the thermal properties of these rocks, is presented. An in situ heating experiment has been carried out in an open clay quarry in the area of Monterotondo, near Rome. The main goal of the experiment was to know the temperature field and the thermal effects caused by the high level radioactive waste disposed of in a clayey geological formation. The conclusions are as follows: - the thermal conduction codes are sufficiently accurate to forecast the temperature increases caused in the clay by the dissipation of the heat generated by high level radioactive waste; - the thermal conductivity deduced by means of the ''curve fitting'' method ranges from 0.015 to 0.017 W.cm -1 . 0 C -1 - the temperature variation associated with the transport of clay interstitial water caused by temperature gradient is negligible. A laboratory automated method has been designed to measure the thermal conductivity and diffusivity in clay samples. A review of experimental data concerning thermomechanical effects in rocks as well as results of thermal experiments performed at ISMES on clays are presented. Negative thermal dilation has been found both in the elastic and plastic range under constant stress. Thermoplastic deformation appears ten times greater than the thermoelastic one. A mathematical model is proposed in order to simulate the above and other effects that encompass thermal-elastic-plastic-pore water pressure response of clays at high temperature and effective pressure with undrained and transient drainage conditions. Implementation of the two versions into a finite element computer code is described

  12. Proceedings of the NEA Clay Club Workshop on Clay characterisation from nanoscopic to microscopic resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    A wide spectrum of argillaceous media are being considered in Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) member countries as potential host rocks for the final, safe disposal of radioactive waste, and/or as major constituent of repository systems in which wastes will be emplaced. In this context, the NEA established the Working Group on the 'Characterisation, the Understanding and the Performance of Argillaceous Rocks as Repository Host Formations' in 1990, informally known as the 'Clay Club'. The Clay Club examines various argillaceous rocks that are being considered for the underground disposal of radioactive waste, ranging from soft clays to indurated shales. Very generally speaking, these clay rocks are composed of fine-grained minerals showing pore sizes from < 2 nm (micropores) up to > 50 nm (macro-pores). The water flow, solute transport and mechanical properties are largely determined by this microstructure, the spatial arrangement of the minerals and the chemical pore water composition. Examples include anion accessible ('geochemical') porosity and macroscopic membrane effects (chemical osmosis, hyper-filtration), geomechanical properties and the characteristics of two-phase flow properties (relevant for gas transport). At the current level of knowledge, there is a strong need to improve the nanoscale description of the phenomena observed at a more macroscopic scale. However, based on the scale of individual clay-minerals and pore sizes, for most of the imaging techniques this resolution is a clear challenge. The workshop, hosted by the Institute for Nuclear Waste Disposal (INE), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) in the Akademiehotel Karlsruhe (Germany) from 6 to 8 September 2011, was intended to give, inter alia, a discussion platform on: - The current state-of-the-art of different spectro-microscopic methods - New developments addressing the above mentioned knowledge gaps in clays. - The perception of the interplay between geometry

  13. Nanostructured Soft Matter Experiment, Theory, Simulation and Perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Zvelindovsky, Andrei V

    2007-01-01

    This book provides an interdisciplinary overview of a new and broad class of materials under the unifying name Nanostructured Soft Matter. It covers materials ranging from short amphiphilic molecules to block copolymers, proteins, colloids and their composites, microemulsions and bio-inspired systems such as vesicles. The book considers several fundamental questions, including: how self-assembly of various soft materials with internal structure at the nanoscale can be understood, controlled and in future used in the newly emerging field of soft nanotechnology. The book offers readers a view on the subject from different perspectives, combining modern experimental approaches from physical chemistry and physics with various theoretical techniques from physics, mathematics and the most advanced computer modelling. It is the first book of this sort in the field. All chapters are written by leading international experts, bringing together experience from Canada, Germany, Great Britain, Japan, the Netherlands, Russ...

  14. Crude oil polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons removal via clay-microbe-oil interactions: Effect of acid activated clay minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugochukwu, Uzochukwu C; Fialips, Claire I

    2017-07-01

    Acid treatment of clay minerals is known to modify their properties such as increase their surface area and surface acidity, making them suitable as catalysts in many chemical processes. However, the role of these surface properties during biodegradation processes of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is only known for mild acid (0.5 M Hydrochloric acid) treated clays. Four different clay minerals were used for this study: a montmorillonite, a saponite, a palygorskite and a kaolinite. They were treated with 3 M hydrochloric acid to produce acid activated clay minerals. The role of the acid activated montmorillonite, saponite, palygorskite and kaolinite in comparison with the unmodified clay minerals in the removal of PAHs during biodegradation was investigated in microcosm experiments. The microcosm experiments contained micro-organisms, oil, and clays in aqueous medium with a hydrocarbon degrading microorganism community predominantly composed of Alcanivorax spp. Obtained results indicated that acid activated clays and unmodified kaolinite did not enhance the biodegradation of the PAHs whereas unmodified montmorillonite, palygorskite and saponite enhanced their biodegradation. In addition, unmodified palygorskite adsorbed the PAHs significantly due to its unique channel structure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. In situ chemical osmosis experiment in the Boom Clay at the Mol underground research laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garavito, A. M.; De Cannière, P.; Kooi, H.

    Studies on the compatibility of Boom Clay with large amounts of nitrate- bearing bituminized radioactive waste have recently raised a particular interest for osmosis-induced effects in this reference formation in Belgium. Indeed, water flow and solute transport may be associated with several types of driving forces, or gradients (chemical, electrical, thermal), in addition to the hydraulic forces, resulting in the so-called coupled flows. Fluid flow caused by driving forces different than hydraulic gradients is referred to as osmosis. Chemical osmosis, the water flow induced by a chemical gradient across a semi-permeable membrane, can generate pressure increase. The question thus arises if there is a risk to create high pore pressures that could damage the near-field of medium-level waste (MLW) galleries, if osmotically driven water flows towards the galleries are produced by the release of large amounts of NaNO 3 (750 t) in the formation. To what extent a low-permeability clay formation such as the Boom Clay acts as an osmotic membrane is thus a key issue to assess the relevance of osmosis phenomena for the disposal of medium-level waste. An in situ osmosis experiment has been conducted at the H ADES underground research laboratory to determine the osmotic efficiency of Boom Clay at the field scale. A recently developed chemical osmosis flow continuum model has been used to design the osmosis experiment, and to interpret the water pressure measurements. Experimental data could be reproduced quite accurately by the model, and the inferred parameter values are consistent with independent determinations for Boom Clay. A rapid water pressure increase (but limited to about a 2 m water column) was observed after 12 h in the filter containing the more saline water. Then, the osmotically induced water pressure slowly decays on several months. So, the experimental results obtained in situ confirm the occurrence of non-hydraulic flow phenomena (chemical osmosis) in a low

  16. Performance of soft clay stabilized with sand columns treated by silica fume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samueel Zeena

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In many road construction projects, if weak soil exists, then uncontrollable settlement and critical load carrying capacity are major difficult problems to the safety and serviceability of roads in these areas. Thus ground improvement is essential to achieve the required level of performance. The paper presents results of the tests of four categories. First category was performed on saturated soft bed of clay without any treatment, the second category shed light on the improvement achieved in loading carrying capacity and settlement as a result of reinforcing with conventional sand columns at area replacement ratio = 0.196. The third set investigates the bed reinforced by sand columns stabilized with dry silica fume at different percentages (3, 5 and 7% and the fourth set investigates the behavior of sand columns treated with slurry silica fume at two percentages (10 and 12%. All sand columns models were constructed at (R.D= 60%. Model tests were performed on bed of saturated soil prepared at undrained shear strength between 16-20 kPa for all models. For all cases, the model test was loaded gradually by stress increments up to failure. Stress deformation measurements are recorded and analyzed in terms of bearing improvement ratio and settlement reduction ratio. Optimum results were indicated from soil treated with sand columns stabilized with 7% dry silica fume at medium state reflecting the highest bearing improvement ratio (3.04 and the settlement reduction ratio (0.09 after 7 days curing. While soil treated with sand columns stabilized with 10% slurry silica fume provided higher bearing improvement ratio 3.13 with lower settlement reduction ratio of 0.57 after 7-days curing.

  17. Aspects of clay/concrete interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oscarson, D.W.; Dixon, D.A.; Onofrei, M.

    1997-01-01

    In the Canadian concept for nuclear fuel waste management, both clay-based materials and concrete are proposed for use as barriers, seals or supporting structures. The main concern when clays and concrete are in proximity is the generation of a high-pH environment by concrete since clay minerals are relatively unstable at high pH. Here we examine the OH - -generating capacity of two high-performance concretes when in contact with several solutions. We also investigate various aspects of claylconcrete interactions. They are: (1) the alkalimetric titration of clay suspensions, (2) the effect of Ca(OH) 2 (portlandite) on the swelling and hydraulic properties of compacted bentonite, and (3) the influence of cement grout on a backfill clay retrieved from the 900-d Buffer/Container Experiment at the Underground Research Laboratory of AECL. The results indicate that although high-performance concretes establish significantly lower poresolution pH (9 to 10) than does ordinary portland cement, the pH is still somewhat higher than that of clay/groundwater systems of about pH 8. Hence, even if high-performance concrete is used in a disposal vault, the potential still exists for clay minerals to alter over long periods of time if in contact with this concrete. The data show, however, that clays have a substantial buffering capacity, and clay-based barriers can thus neutralize much of the OH - potentially released from concrete in a vault. Moreover, even after reacting for 120 d at 85 o C with up to 5 wt.% Ca(OH) 2 , compacted bentonite (dry density = 1.2 Mg/m 3 ) retains much of its swelling capacity and has a permeability low enough (hydraulic conductivity ≤ 10 -11 m/s) to ensure that molecular diffusion will be the main transport mechanism through compacted clay-based barriers. Furthermore, according to X-ray diffractometry, the clay mineral component of backfill was not altered by contact with a cement grout for 900 d in the Buffer/Container Experiment

  18. Evaluation of the microstructure of waterborne poly(urethane-urea)s nanocomposites with hydrophilic clay (NWPUU)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranda, Gisele dos S.; Delpech, Marcia C.; Reis, Rodrigo A. dos; Pereira, Alexandre Z.I; Coelho, Aline B.

    2015-01-01

    Waterborne poly(urethane-urea)s (WPUU) and respective nanocomposites based on hydrophilic clay (NWPUU) generally show segregation between hard and soft domains, in a greater or lesser extent, which directly influences the stability of the dispersion and affect the final properties of the material. Simple characterization techniques, such as infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X ray diffraction (XRD), employed in this study, can generate information about the microstructure and phase miscibility, using small amounts of material. The evaluation of the results obtained from the techniques showed that increments in rigid domains content and in the amount of internal emulsifier, as well as the presence of clay, decreased the size of the crystallites (crystallinity of the soft segments). (author)'

  19. Clay minerals behaviour in thin sandy clay-rich lacustrine turbidites (Lake Hazar, Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ouahabi, Meriam; Hubert-Ferrari, Aurelia; Lamair, Laura; Hage, Sophie

    2017-04-01

    Turbidites have been extensively studied in many different areas using cores or outcrop, which represent only an integrated snapshot of a dynamic evolving flow. Laboratory experiments provide the missing relationships between the flow characteristics and their deposits. In particular, flume experiments emphasize that the presence of clay plays a key role in turbidity current dynamics. Clay fraction, in small amount, provides cohesive strength to sediment mixtures and can damp turbulence. However, the degree of flocculation is dependent on factors such as the amount and size of clay particles, the surface of clay particles, chemistry and pH conditions in which the clay particles are dispersed. The present study focuses on thin clayey sand turbidites found in Lake Hazar (Turkey) occurring in stacked thin beds. Depositional processes and sources have been previously studied and three types were deciphered, including laminar flows dominated by cohesion, transitional, and turbulence flow regimes (Hage et al., in revision). For the purpose of determine the clay behavior in the three flow regimes, clay mineralogical, geochemical measurements on the cores allow characterising the turbidites. SEM observations provide further information regarding the morphology of clay minerals and other clasts. The study is particularly relevant given the highly alkaline and saline water of the Hazar Lake. Clay minerals in Hazar Lake sediments include kaolinite (1:1-type), illite and chlorite (2:1-type). Hazar lake water is alkaline having pH around 9.3, in such alkaline environment, a cation-exchange reaction takes place. Furthermore, in saline water (16‰), salts can act as a shield and decrease the repulsive forces between clay particle surfaces. So, pH and salt content jointly impact the behaviour of clays differently. Since the Al-faces of clay structures have a negative charge in basic solutions. At high pH, all kaolinite surfaces become negative-charged, and then kaolinite

  20. Strength and Stiffness Development in Soft Soils: A FESEM aided Soil Microstructure Viewpoint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijeyesekera, D. C.; Ho, M. H.; Bai, X.; Bakar, I.

    2016-07-01

    This paper opens with an overview of the debatable definition of soft soil that goes beyond a (CH) organic / inorganic clay and OH peat to include weakly cemented periglacial deposits of loess and alike. It then outlines the findings obtained from stiffness test on cement-stabilised soft clay. The findings are complemented with a microstructure viewpoint obtained using field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM). Research also comprised of making cylindrical stabilised clay samples, prepared in the laboratory with various rubber chips contents and cement, and then aged for 28 days. The samples were then subjected to unconfined compressive strength (UCS) test and observations were also made of its microstructure using the FESEM. The impact of the soil microstructure on the stiffness result was studied both with the stabilized soil and also of some of the natural undisturbed loess soils. Sustainability aspect and the potential of the use of rubber chips and sand as additives to cement stabilisation are also discussed. The overall test results indicated that rubber chips and sand contributed to the improvement in unconfined compressive strength (qu). The derogatory influence of moisture on the stiffness of the stabilised clay was studied simultaneously. SEM micrographs are presented that show bonding of cement, rubber chips/ sand and soft clay, granular units and aggregated / agglomerated units in loess. The paper concludes with observations on the dependence of soil microstructure on the soil strength and deformability and even collapsibility of the loess. Current practices adopted as engineering solutions to these challenging soils are outlined.

  1. Theory and analysis of soft x-ray laser experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitten, B.L.; Hazi, A.U.

    1985-10-01

    The atomic modeling of soft x-ray laser schemes presents a formidable challenge to the theorists - a challenge magnified by the recent successful experiments. A complex plasma environment with many ion species present must be simulated. Effects such as turbulence, time dependence, and radiation transport, which are very difficult to model accurately, may be important. We shall describe our efforts to model the recently demonstrated soft x-ray laser in collisionally pumped neon-like selenium, with emphasis on the ionization balance and excited state kinetics. The relative importance of various atomic processes, such as collisional excitation and dielectronic recombination, on the inversion kinetics will be demonstrated. We shall compare our models with experimental results and evaluate the success of this technique in predicting and analyzing the results of x-ray laser experiments. 22 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  2. The role of natural organic matter in the migration behaviour of americium in the Boom clay - Part II: analysis of migration experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hicks, T.; Bennett, D.; Maes, N.; Wang, L.; Warwick, P.; Hall, T.; Walker, G.; Dierckx, A.

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: In demonstrating the suitability of Boom Clay as a potential site for the disposal of radioactive waste in Belgium, the role of the relatively high amount of Natural Organic Matter (NOM) present in the Boom Clay on the mobility of critical radionuclides needs investigation. Trivalent actinides and lanthanides form strong complexes with humic substances. Complexation of these trivalent radionuclides with NOM present in the Boom Clay may have opposing effects. If complexed by the aqueous phase (mobile) NOM, radionuclide transport will be governed by the mobility of these dissolved radionuclide-NOM species. If complexed by the solid phase (immobile) NOM, migration will be retarded. One of the aims of the EC projects TRANCOM-Clay and TRANCOM-II was to investigate the role of mobile NOM as radionuclide carrier with the objective of deriving conceptual models that can be implemented in repository performance assessment (PA) models. A separate paper describes the results of column migration experiments involving the transport of 241 Am- 14 C-NOM complexes through Boom Clay cores. This paper describes the transport model, POPCORN, that was developed to describe and evaluate the influence of NOM on radionuclide transport in clay, taking into account attachment/detachment rates of NOM to clay surfaces and the kinetics of RN complexation to, and destabilization from, NOM. The POPCORN model was used to evaluate diffusion experiments involving injection of 14 C-labelled NOM in Boom Clay cores. Model fits were obtained by varying the rates of filtration of NOM by attachment to the surface of the clay matrix. POPCORN was then used to analyse the 241 Am- 14 C-NOM migration experiments. The stability properties of the 241 Am-NOM were characterised by kinetic constants, and good matches to the migration data were achieved for the experiments. The findings suggest that a small sub-population of the original 241 Am-OM is the most stable, and that this

  3. A Study of Clay-Epoxy Nanocomposites Consisting of Unmodified Clay and Organo Clay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Edward

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Clay-epoxy nanocomposites were synthesized from DGEBA resin and montmorillonite clay with an in-situ polymerization. One type of untreated clay and two types of organo clay were used to produce the nanocompsoites. The aims of this study were to examine the nanocomposite structure using different tools and to compare the results between the unmodified clay and modified clays as nanofillers. Although diffractogram in reflection mode did not show any apparent peak of both types of materials, the transmitted XRD (X-Ray Difraction graphs, DSC (Differential Scanning Calorimeter analysis and TEM (Transmission Electron Microscope images revealed that the modified clay-epoxy and unmodified clay-epoxy provides different results. Interestingly, the micrographs showed that some of the modified clay layers possessed non-exfoliated layers in the modified clay-epoxy nanocomposites. Clay aggregates and a hackle pattern were found from E-SEM images for both types of nanocomposite materials. It is shown that different tools should be used to determine the nanocomposite structure.

  4. Soft X-ray spectromicroscopy study of mineral-organic matter associations in pasture soil clay fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chunmei; Dynes, James J; Wang, Jian; Karunakaran, Chithra; Sparks, Donald L

    2014-06-17

    There is a growing acceptance that associations with soil minerals may be the most important overarching stabilization mechanism for soil organic matter. However, direct investigation of organo-mineral associations has been hampered by a lack of methods that can simultaneously characterize organic matter (OM) and soil minerals. In this study, STXM-NEXAFS spectroscopy at the C 1s, Ca 2p, Fe 2p, Al 1s, and Si 1s edges was used to investigate C associations with Ca, Fe, Al, and Si species in soil clay fractions from an upland pasture hillslope. Bulk techniques including C and N NEXAFS, Fe K-edge EXAFS spectroscopy, and XRD were applied to provide additional information. Results demonstrated that C was associated with Ca, Fe, Al, and Si with no separate phase in soil clay particles. In soil clay particles, the pervasive C forms were aromatic C, carboxyl C, and polysaccharides with the relative abundance of carboxyl C and polysaccharides varying spatially at the submicrometer scale. Only limited regions in the soil clay particles had aliphatic C. Good C-Ca spatial correlations were found for soil clay particles with no CaCO3, suggesting a strong role of Ca in organo-mineral assemblage formation. Fe EXAFS showed that about 50% of the total Fe in soils was contained in Fe oxides, whereas Fe-bearing aluminosilicates (vermiculite and Illite) accounted for another 50%. Fe oxides in the soil were mainly crystalline goethite and hematite, with lesser amounts of poorly crystalline ferrihydrite. XRD revealed that soil clay aluminosilicates were hydroxy-interlayered vermiculite, Illite, and kaolinite. C showed similar correlation with Fe to Al and Si, implying a similar association of Fe oxides and aluminosilicates with organic matter in organo-mineral associations. These direct microscopic determinations can help improve understanding of organo-mineral interactions in soils.

  5. Biogeochemical processes in a clay formation in situ experiment: Part G - Key interpretations and conclusions. Implications for repository safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wersin, P., E-mail: paul.wersin@gruner.ch [NAGRA, Hardstrasse 73, 5430 Wettingen (Switzerland)] [Gruner Ltd., Gellertstrasse 55, 4020 Basel (Switzerland); Stroes-Gascoyne, S. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), Whiteshell Laboratories, Pinawa, Manitoba, Canada R0E 1L0 (Canada); Pearson, F.J. [Ground-Water Geochemistry, 5108 Trent Woods Drive, New Bern, NC 28562 (United States); Tournassat, C. [BRGM, French Geological Survey, 3 Avenue Claude Guillemin, B.P. 36009, 45060 Orleans Cedex 2 (France); Leupin, O.X.; Schwyn, B. [NAGRA, Hardstrasse 73, 5430 Wettingen (Switzerland)

    2011-06-15

    Highlights: > From the results of the PC experiment it can be inferred that degradation of organic compounds may induce. > Changes in pH and Eh which may affect the mobility of radionuclides eventually released from the waste. > Such changes will be limited in space and time because of large buffering capacity and low permeability of clay. > Nevertheless, amount of organic material in high level waste repositories should be kept small. > This will ensure achievement of background concentrations within short time period after repository closure. - Abstract: The in situ porewater chemistry (PC) experiment carried out in the Opalinus Clay formation at the Mont Terri Rock Laboratory, Switzerland for a period of 5 a allowed the identification and quantification of the biogeochemical processes resulting from and affected by an anaerobic microbial disturbance. The unintentional release of degradable organic compounds (mainly glycerol) induced microbially-mediated SO{sub 4} reduction in the borehole with concomitant significant geochemical changes in the circulating water and the adjacent porewater. These changes included a decrease in SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} concentration and pH and an increase in pCO{sub 2} and alkalinity relative to the non-affected formation water. However, the cation composition of the water and the mineralogy of the clay close to the borehole wall showed very little change. This is explained by (1) the strong chemical buffering processes in the clay and (2) by the diffusion-limited flux of solutes. With the aid of a reactive transport model with a minimum set of kinetic parameters for the hypothesised degradation reactions, the evolution of solutes in the borehole could be modelled adequately. The model was also applied to the prediction of restoration times upon depletion of the C source and results indicated restoration times to undisturbed conditions of about 15 a, but also highlighted the rather large uncertainties inherent in the geochemical model

  6. Analytical Analysis and Field Test Investigation of Consolidation for CCSG Pile Composite Foundation in Soft Clay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Yu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Low-grade concrete-cored sand-gravel (CCSG pile composite foundation is a new kind of composite foundation for thick and soft clay ground treatment. An analytical solution was derived for calculating the consolidation process of this composite foundation by considering coefficients of horizontal permeability in smear zone, the radial flow within the sand-gravel shell, and the impervious property of concrete-cored pile. The results show that Terzaghi’s one-dimensional consolidation solution and the consolidation analytical solution of ordinary composite foundation were special cases of this solution. Curves of the average consolidation degree of the composite foundation under various nondimensional parameters were observed using the program based on the theoretical formula. Meanwhile, a series of in situ measurements including the settlement of pile and soil, the pore water pressure, and the total stress under embankment load were obtained on the CCSG pile composite foundation on a section of Zhenjiang-Liyang highway. The analyzed results show that the new style composite foundation patent technology has many advantages such as small differential postconstruction settlement (differential is not good, small is, reliable quality, high bearing capacity, and stability. And the consolidation of composite foundation is largely affected by the nondimensional parameters. The analytical solution is finally verified with the actual measurement data.

  7. Laboratory soft x-ray microscopy and tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertilson, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Soft x-ray microscopy in the water-window (λ = 2.28 nm - 4.36 nm) is based on zone-plate optics and allows high-resolution imaging of, e.g., cells and soils in their natural or near-natural environment. Three-dimensional imaging is provided via tomographic techniques, soft x-ray cryo tomography. However, soft x-ray microscopes with such capabilities have been based on large-scale synchrotron x-ray facilities, thereby limiting their accessibility for a wider scientific community. This Thesis describes the development of the Stockholm laboratory soft x-ray microscope to three-dimensional cryo tomography and to new optics-based contrast mechanisms. The microscope relies on a methanol or nitrogen liquid-jet laser-plasma source, normal-incidence multilayer or zone-plate condenser optics, in-house fabricated zone-plate objectives, and allows operation at two wavelengths in the water-window, λ = 2.48 nm and λ = 2.48 nm. With the implementation of a new state-of-the-art normal-incidence multilayer condenser for operation at λ = 2.48 nm and a tiltable cryogenic sample stage the microscope now allows imaging of dry, wet or cryo-fixed samples. This arrangement was used for the first demonstration of laboratory soft x-ray cryo microscopy and tomography. The performance of the microscope has been demonstrated in a number of experiments described in this Thesis, including, tomographic imaging with a resolution of 140 nm, cryo microscopy and tomography of various cells and parasites, and for studies of aqueous soils and clays. The Thesis also describes the development and implementation of single-element differential-interference and Zernike phase-contrast zone-plate objectives. The enhanced contrast provided by these optics reduce exposure times or lowers the dose in samples and are of major importance for harder x-ray microscopy. The implementation of a high-resolution 50 nm compound zone-plate objective for sub-25-nm resolution imaging is also described. All experiments

  8. Dynamic load testing on the bearing capacity of prestressed tubular concrete piles in soft ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chuang; Liu, Songyu

    2008-11-01

    Dynamic load testing (DLT) is a high strain test method for assessing pile performance. The shaft capacity of a driven PTC (prestressed tubular concrete) pile in marine soft ground will vary with time after installation. The DLT method has been successfully transferred to the testing of prestressed pipe piles in marine soft clay of Lianyungang area in China. DLT is investigated to determine the ultimate bearing capacity of single pile at different period after pile installation. The ultimate bearing capacity of single pile was founded to increase more than 70% during the inventing 3 months, which demonstrate the time effect of rigid pile bearing capacity in marine soft ground. Furthermore, the skin friction and axial force along the pile shaft are presented as well, which present the load transfer mechanism of pipe pile in soft clay. It shows the economy and efficiency of DLT method compared to static load testing method.

  9. Concrete - Opalinus clay interaction: in-situ experiment and technique for coring undisturbed interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeder, U.; Dolder, F.; Jenni, A.; Schwyn, B.; Frieg, B.; Eul, A.

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Designs for deep geologic disposal of radioactive waste foresee cementitious materials as structural elements, backfill or waste matrix. Interactions near interfaces are driven by chemical gradients in pore water and resultant diffusive transport, and are predicted to lead to mineralogical alterations in the barrier system, which in turn influences properties like swelling pressure, permeability, or specific retention in case of clay materials. Reactive transport modelling predictions and laboratory and in situ studies revealed significant alteration in both cement and clay-stone. An increase in porosity in the cement close to the interface, and clogging in the clay-stone adjacent to the interface is commonly predicted and observed. The Cement-Clay Interaction (CI) Experiment at the Mont Terri Underground Laboratory (St. Ursanne, Switzerland) aims at demonstrating some of the processes at interfaces to be expected at a realistic spatial scale and under saturated conditions. A duration of 20 years is foreseen during which reaction progress should become measurable and thus comparable to laboratory experiments and modelling predictions. Companion studies address cement hydration, and develop new high-resolution techniques for phase identification using μ-X-ray diffraction at the Paul Scherrer Institut. The field experiment at Mont Terri comprises two vertical boreholes (384 mm diameter, up to 9 m length) in Opalinus Clay (OPA) filled with layers of three different concretes and bentonite. The concrete formulations are based on three different binders: Portland cement (OPC), ESDRED cement designed for repository applications (40% of cement substituted by silica fume), and low alkali cement (LAC, containing slag and nano-silica). The characterisation of the three concrete-OPA interfaces after 2 years of alteration are presented in a companion contribution (Jenni et al.). A key issue is the repeat recovery of

  10. Experiments on thermo-hydro-mechanical behaviour of Opalinus Clay at Mont Terri rock laboratory, Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Bossart

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Repositories for deep geological disposal of radioactive waste rely on multi-barrier systems to isolate waste from the biosphere. A multi-barrier system typically comprises the natural geological barrier provided by the repository host rock – in our case the Opalinus Clay – and an engineered barrier system (EBS. The Swiss repository concept for spent fuel and vitrified high-level waste (HLW consists of waste canisters, which are emplaced horizontally in the middle of an emplacement gallery and are separated from the gallery wall by granular backfill material (GBM. We describe here a selection of five in-situ experiments where characteristic hydro-mechanical (HM and thermo-hydro-mechanical (THM processes have been observed. The first example is a coupled HM and mine-by test where the evolution of the excavation damaged zone (EDZ was monitored around a gallery in the Opalinus Clay (ED-B experiment. Measurements of pore-water pressures and convergences due to stress redistribution during excavation highlighted the HM behaviour. The same measurements were subsequently carried out in a heater test (HE-D where we were able to characterise the Opalinus Clay in terms of its THM behaviour. These yielded detailed data to better understand the THM behaviours of the granular backfill and the natural host rock. For a presentation of the Swiss concept for HLW storage, we designed three demonstration experiments that were subsequently implemented in the Mont Terri rock laboratory: (1 the engineered barrier (EB experiment, (2 the in-situ heater test on key-THM processes and parameters (HE-E experiment, and (3 the full-scale emplacement (FE experiment. The first demonstration experiment has been dismantled, but the last two ones are on-going.

  11. Iodide uptake by negatively charged clay interlayers?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, Andrew; Kruichak, Jessica; Mills, Melissa; Wang, Yifeng

    2015-01-01

    Understanding iodide interactions with clay minerals is critical to quantifying risk associated with nuclear waste disposal. Current thought assumes that iodide does not interact directly with clay minerals due to electrical repulsion between the iodide and the negatively charged clay layers. However, a growing body of work indicates a weak interaction between iodide and clays. The goal of this contribution is to report a conceptual model for iodide interaction with clays by considering clay mineral structures and emergent behaviors of chemical species in confined spaces. To approach the problem, a suite of clay minerals was used with varying degrees of isomorphic substitution, chemical composition, and mineral structure. Iodide uptake experiments were completed with each of these minerals in a range of swamping electrolyte identities (NaCl, NaBr, KCl) and concentrations. Iodide uptake behaviors form distinct trends with cation exchange capacity and mineral structure. These trends change substantially with electrolyte composition and concentration, but do not appear to be affected by solution pH. The experimental results suggest that iodide may directly interact with clays by forming ion-pairs (e.g., NaI (aq) ) which may concentrate within the interlayer space as well as the thin areas surrounding the clay particle where water behavior is more structured relative to bulk water. Ion pairing and iodide concentration in these zones is probably driven by the reduced dielectric constant of water in confined space and by the relatively high polarizability of the iodide species. - Highlights: • Iodide sorption experiments were completed with a diverse array of clay minerals. • Iodide uptake trended with CEC and swamping electrolyte identity and concentration. • Results can be explained by considering the formation of ion pairs in clay interlayers

  12. Radionuclide sorption studies on abyssal red clays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erickson, K.L.

    1979-01-01

    The radionuclide sorption properties of a widely distributed abyssal red clay are being experimentally investigated using batch equilibration techniques. This paper summarizes sorption equilibrium data obtained when 0.68 N NaCl solutions containing either Tc, U, Pu, Am or Cm were contacted with samples of the red clay and also summarizes some initial results from experiments designed to determine the relative selectivity of the clay for various nuclides. Under mildly oxidizing conditions, the sorption equilibrium distribution coefficients for technetium were essentially zero. At solution-phase nuclide concentrations on the order of 10 -6 M and less and at solution pH values of about 6.9, the distribution coefficients for plutonium were about 3 x 10 3 m1/gm and for uranium, americium, and curium were about 10 5 ml/gm or greater. However, at solution pH values of about 2.7, the distribution coefficients for each of the nuclides were greatly diminished. Initial experiments conducted in order to determine the relative selectivity of the clay for cesium, barium, and cerium, indicated that the silicate phases in the clay were selective for cesium over barium and cerium. These experiments also indicated that the hydrous oxide phases were selective for cerium over barium and for barium over cesium

  13. Technetium migration in natural clays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luebke, Maria

    2015-01-01

    The present work was performed within the joint research project ''Retention of repository relevant radionuclides in argillaceous rocks and saline systems'' (contract no.: 02E10981), funded by the Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy (BMWi). The aim was to obtain first insights into the interaction of the long-lived fission product technetium and natural clay with regard to a repository for high-level nuclear waste. For this purpose Opalinus Clay from Mont Terri (northern Switzerland) was used as a reference material. The nuclide technetium-99 will contribute to the radiotoxicity of spent nuclear fuel for more than thousand years due to its long half-live. In case of a leakage of the storage vessels, the geochemistry of technetium is determined by its oxidation state, at which only the oxidation states +IV and +VII are relevant. Because of the high solubility and low affinity to sorption on surfaces of minerals, Tc(VII) is considered to be very mobile and thus the most hazardous species. The focuses of this study therefore are diffusion experiments with this mobile species and investigations of the effect of ferrous iron on the mobility and speciation of technetium.rnThe interaction of technetium and Opalinus Clay was studied in sorption and diffusion experiments varying several parameters (pH value, addition of reducing agents, effect of oxygen, diffusion pathways). In the course of this study spatially resolved investigations of the speciation have been performed on Opalinus Clay thin sections and bore cores for the first time. In addition to the speciation, further information regarding elemental distributions and crystalline phases near technetium enrichments were obtained. Supplementary investigations of powder samples allowed determining the molecular structure of technetium on the clay surface.rnBoth the combination of sorption experiments with spectroscopic investigations and the diffusion experiment exhibit a reduction of Tc

  14. Coupled transport and chemistry in clay stone studied by advective displacement: experiments and model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landesman, C.; Grambow, B.; Bailly, C.; Ribet, S.; Perrigaud, K.; Baty, V.; Giffaut, E.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Full text of publication entered in this record. For assessing the mass transfer resistance of the Callovo-Oxfordian clay rock formation in case of implementing a nuclear waste repository, various strongly coupled processes need to be understood and quantified both in near and far field: multi-species diffusion/advection, mineral/pore water interaction, interaction with the waste matrix and engineered barrier material, radionuclide retention, colloid transport, pore water chemistry evolution etc. To study many of these processes in their interrelationship simultaneously, a series of high pressure stainless steel advection cell was designed and clay cores from different locations of different calcite and clay contents were machined to fit the inner diameter of the cells with a precision of 50 μm. After assembling, simulated oxygen free clay pore water with bromine tracer was pushed by a High Pressure pump through the reactor by a pressure of up 100 bars at temperatures between 20 and 90 deg. C and the out-flowing water was collected, protected from air and analyzed by ICP-MS, COT meter and ion chromatography in regular time intervals. The water flow rate was between 0.02 and 1.2 mL/ d, corresponding to a clay rock permeabilities between 10 -12 and 10 -14 m/s at 25 deg. C. Permeabilities increase with temperature as expected due to reduction of viscosity of water. The experiments last up to 2 years. The first drops of out flowing allow estimating the initial pore water composition. This is particular useful to assess mobile natural organic matter contents, Se concentrations and temperature effect on clay water composition. Results show that only very small organic molecules are mobile. Temperature had only little effect on water composition. After few months both tritiated (HTO) water and 36 Cl were added and from the evolution of the activities in the out flowing water dispersion coefficients and accessible

  15. Biogeochemical processes in a clay formation in situ experiment: Part E - Equilibrium controls on chemistry of pore water from the Opalinus Clay, Mont Terri Underground Research Laboratory, Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearson, F.J., E-mail: fjpearson@gmail.com [Ground-Water Geochemistry, 5108 Trent Woods Dr., New Bern, NC 28562 (United States); Tournassat, Christophe; Gaucher, Eric C. [BRGM, B.P. 36009, 45060 Orleans Cedex 2 (France)

    2011-06-15

    Highlights: > Equilibrium models of water-rock reactions in clay rocks are reviewed. > Analyses of pore waters of the Opalinus Clay from boreholes in the Mont Terri URL, Switzerland, are tabulated. > Results of modelling with various mineral controls are compared with the analyses. > Best agreement results with calcite, dolomite and siderite or daphnite saturation, Na-K-Ca-Mg exchange and/or kaolinite, illite, quartz and celestite saturation. > This approach allows calculation of the chemistry of pore water in clays too impermeable to yield water samples. - Abstract: The chemistry of pore water (particularly pH and ionic strength) is an important property of clay rocks being considered as host rocks for long-term storage of radioactive waste. Pore waters in clay-rich rocks generally cannot be sampled directly. Instead, their chemistry must be found using laboratory-measured properties of core samples and geochemical modelling. Many such measurements have been made on samples from the Opalinus Clay from the Mont Terri Underground Research Laboratory (URL). Several boreholes in that URL yielded water samples against which pore water models have been calibrated. Following a first synthesis report published in 2003, this paper presents the evolution of the modelling approaches developed within Mont Terri URL scientific programs through the last decade (1997-2009). Models are compared to the composition of waters sampled during dedicated borehole experiments. Reanalysis of the models, parameters and database enabled the principal shortcomings of the previous modelling efforts to be overcome. The inability to model the K concentrations correctly with the measured cation exchange properties was found to be due to the use of an inappropriate selectivity coefficient for Na-K exchange; the inability to reproduce the measured carbonate chemistry and pH of the pore waters using mineral-water reactions alone was corrected by considering clay mineral equilibria. Re

  16. Clay Ceramic Filter for Water Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zereffa Enyew Amare

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Ceramic water filters were prepared from different proportions of kaolin and soft wood and sintered at 900 °C, 950 °C, and 1000 °C. The flow rate, conductivity, pH of filtered water and removal efficiency (microbial, water hardness agent’s, nitrite and turbidity were analysed. The ceramic filter with 15 % saw dust, 80 % clay and 5 % grog that was fired at temperature of 950 °C or 1000 °C showed the best removal efficiency. Statistical ANOVA tests showed a significant difference between ceramic filters with various compositions in their removal efficiencies.

  17. Retention and loss of water extractable carbon in soils: effect of clay properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Trung-Ta; Marschner, Petra

    2014-02-01

    Clay sorption is important for organic carbon (C) sequestration in soils, but little is known about the effect of different clay properties on organic C sorption and release. To investigate the effect of clay content and properties on sorption, desorption and loss of water extractable organic C (WEOC), two experiments were conducted. In experiment 1, a loamy sand alone (native) or mixed with clay isolated from a surface or subsoil (78 and 96% clay) resulting in 90, 158 and 175 g clay kg(-1) soil. These soil treatments were leached with different WEOC concentrations, and then CO2 release was measured for 28 days followed by leaching with reverse osmosis water at the end of experiment. The second experiment was conducted to determine WEOC sorption and desorption of clays isolated from the loamy sand (native), surface soil and subsoil. Addition of clays isolated from surface and subsoil to sandy loam increased WEOC sorption and reduced C leaching and cumulative respiration in percentage of total organic C and WEOC added when expressed per g soil and per g clay. Compared to clays isolated from the surface and subsoil, the native clay had higher concentrations of illite and exchangeable Ca(2+), total organic C and a higher CEC but a lower extractable Fe/Al concentration. This indicates that compared to the clay isolated from the surface and the subsoil, the native clay had fewer potential WEOC binding sites because it had lower Fe/Al content thus lower number of binding sites and the existing binding sites are already occupied native organic matter. The results of this study suggest that in the soils used here, the impact of clay on WEOC sorption and loss is dependent on its indigenous organic carbon and Fe and/or Al concentrations whereas clay mineralogy, CEC, exchangeable Ca(2+) and surface area are less important. © 2013.

  18. Soft QCD at the CMS and ATLAS experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Veres, Gabor

    2016-01-01

    A short overview of some of the recent results on soft QCD processes at the LHC will be presented from the ATLAS and CMS experiments. The discussion will proceed starting from the most inclusive to the more differential and rare phenomena. New results include total inelastic cross section measurements; studies of minimum bias collisions (charged particle $\\eta$ and $p_T$ distributions and two-particle correlations in high-multiplicity events); features of the underlying event (multiplicity and $\\Sigma p_T$ distributions in the presence of a high-$p_T$ track, jet, Z boson or $t\\overline{t}$ pair); minijets characterizing the transition between the soft and hard QCD regimes; dijets with a rapidity gap (as a signature of color-singlet exchange); M\\uller-Navelet dijets and their angular decorrelations (as an attempt to search for signs of the BFKL evolution and deviations from DGLAP); and finally, Double Parton Scattering (DPS) studies using various final states (4-jet events, $\\gamma$ + 3 jets, 2 b-jets and 2 je...

  19. Clay membrane made of natural high plasticity clay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Niels; Baumann, Jens

    1998-01-01

    Leachate containment in Denmark has through years been regulated by the DIF Recommendation for Sanitary Landfill Liners (DS/R 466). It states natural clay deposits may be used for membrane material provided the membrane and drainage system may contain at least 95% of all leachate created throughout...... ion transport as well as diffusion.Clay prospection for clays rich in smectite has revealed large deposits of Tertiary clay of very high plasticity in the area around Rødbyhavn on the Danish island Lolland. The natural clay contains 60 to 75% smectite, dominantly as a sodium-type. The clay material...... has been evaluated using standardised methods related to mineralogy, classification, compaction and permeability, and initial studies of diffusion properties have been carried out. Furthermore, at a test site the construction methods for establishing a 0.15 to 0.3m thick clay membrane have been tested...

  20. Clay membrane made of natural high plasticity clay:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Niels; Baumann, Jens

    1999-01-01

    Leachate containment in Denmark has throughout the years been regulated by the DIF Recommendation for Sanitary Landfill Liners (DS/R4669. It states that natural clay deposits may be used as membrane material provided the membrane and drainage system contains at least 95% of all leachate created...... into account advective ion transport as well as diffusion. Clay prospecting for clays rich in smectite has revealed large deposits of Tertiary clay of very high plasticity in the area around Rødbyhavn on the Danish island of Lolland. The natural clay contains 60-75% smectite, dominantly as a sodium......-type. The clay material has been evaluated using the standardized methods related to mineralogy, classification, compaction and permeability, and initial studies of diffusion properties have been carried out. Furthermore, at a test site the construction methods for establishing a 0.15-0.3 m thick clay membrane...

  1. Soft, embodied, situated & connected: enriching interactions with soft wearbles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tomico Plasencia, O.; Wilde, D.

    2016-01-01

    Soft wearables include clothing and textile-based accessories that incorporate smart textiles and soft electronic interfaces to enable responsive and interactive experiences. When designed well, soft wearables leverage the cultural, sociological and material qualities of textiles, fashion and dress;

  2. Thermal volume changes in clays and clay-stones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delage, P.; Sulem, J.; Mohajerani, M.; Tang, A.M.; Monfared, M.

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. The disposal of high activity exothermic radioactive waste at great depth in clay host rocks will induce a temperature elevation that has been investigated in various underground research laboratories in Belgium, France and Switzerland through in-situ tests. Thermal effects are better known in clays (in particular Boom clay) than in clay-stone (e.g. Opalinus clay and Callovo-Oxfordian clay-stone). In terms of volume changes, Figure 1 confirms the findings of Hueckel and Baldi (1990) that volume changes depend on the over-consolidation ratio (OCR) of the clay. In drained conditions, normally consolidated clays exhibit plastic contraction when heated, whereas over-consolidated clay exhibit elastic dilation. The nature of thermal volume changes in heated clays obviously has a significant effect on thermally induced pore pressures, when drainage is not instantaneous like what occurs in-situ. Compared to clays, the thermal volume change behaviour of clay-stones is less well known than that of clays. clay-stone are a priori suspected to behave like over-consolidated clays. In this paper, a comparison of recent results obtained in the laboratory on the drained thermal volume changes of clay-stones is presented and discussed. It is difficult to run drained mechanical tests in clay-stones like the Opalinus clay and the Callovo-Oxfordian clay-stone because of their quite low permeability (10 -12 - 10 -13 m/s). This also holds true for thermal tests. Due to the significant difference in thermal expansion coefficient between minerals and water, it is necessary to adopt very slow heating rate (0.5 - 1 C/h) to avoid any thermal pressurization. To do so, a new hollow cylinder apparatus (100 mm external diameter, 60 mm internal diameter) with lateral drainages reducing the drainage length to half the sample thickness (10 mm) has been developed (Monfared et al. 2011). The results of a drained cyclic thermal test carried out on

  3. Scour at Vertical Piles in Sand-Clay Mixtures under Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dey, Subhasish; Helkjær, Anders; Sumer, B. Mutlu

    2011-01-01

    Marine sediments often contain sand-clay mixtures in widely varying proportions. This study presents the results of equilibrium scour and time variation of scour depths at circular piles embedded vertically in clay alone and sand-clay mixed beds under waves. Experiments were conducted in a wave...... flume with different proportions of sand-clay mixtures as bed sediments. Test results for the cases of steady current and sand alone under waves are used as references. The equilibrium scour depth reduces with an increase in clay proportion n (by weight) in a sand-clay mixture. Interestingly, the scour...

  4. Study of radionuclide migration in clay formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonioli, F.; Bocola, W.

    1985-01-01

    This paper reports the studies on the migration of Cs, Sr and I in clay formations, which are presently considered for the geological disposal of radioactive wastes. The distribution and diffusion coefficients were evaluated by means of experimental techniques and computer procedures, which are presented in this report. The natural clays tested in the laboratory experiments were sampled from the most representative italian basins and from the zone of Mol (Belgium). In addition tests were performed on monomineral clays artificially remade in edometer. The experimental results are in accordance with data found in the literature and show the existence of a good correlation between the observed migration properties and the granulometric and mineralogic characteristics of the natural clays

  5. Technetium migration in Boom Clay - Assessing the role of colloid-facilitated transport in a deep clay formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruggeman, C.; Martens, E.; Maes, N.; Jacops, E.; Van Gompel, M.; Van Ravestyn, L.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. The role of colloids - mainly dissolved natural organic matter (NOM, 50-150 mg/l) - in the transport of radionuclides in the Boom Clay formation (Mol, Belgium), has long since been a matter of (heavy) debate. For more than 20 years, batch experiments with Boom Clay suspensions showed a pronounced influence of the dissolved organic carbon concentration on the aqueous concentrations of different radionuclides like Tc, Np, Am and U. Moreover, small fractions of these radionuclides were also observed to elute almost un-retarded out of confined clay cores in percolation experiments. In the past years, a new conceptual model for the speciation of the long-lived fission product Technetium- 99 ( 99 Tc) under Boom Clay conditions has been drafted. In brief, the stable oxidation state of 99 Tc in these conditions is +IV, and, therefore, Tc solution concentrations are limited by the solubility of TcO 2 .nH 2 O(s). However, during reduction of TcVII (in the TcO 4 - form) to TcIV, precursor TcO 2 .nH 2 O colloids are formed, which are stabilised by the dissolved organic matter present in Boom Clay interstitial pore water, and in supernatants of Boom Clay batch suspensions. Moreover, this stabilisation process occurs in such a systematic way, that (conditional) interaction constants could be established, and the behaviour was described as a 'hydrophobic sorption', or, more accurately, a 'colloid-colloid' interaction. This conceptual model was implemented into PHREEQC geochemical and Hydrus transport code to come to a reactive transport model that was used to simulate both the outflow and the tracer profile in several long-term running percolation experiments (both in lab and under in situ conditions). To account for slow dissociation kinetics of Tc from the NOM colloid, a first-order kinetic rate equation was also added to the model. In order to describe the migration of colloidal particles (NOM), an

  6. Water-clay interactions. Experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaucher, Eric

    1998-01-01

    Clay minerals contribute to the chemical composition of soil and sediment groundwaters via surface and dissolution/precipitation reactions. The understanding of those processes is still today fragmentary. In this context, our experimental purpose is to identify the contribution of each reaction in the chemical composition of water in a water/clay System. Kaolinite, illite, montmorillonite are the reference clays. After a fine mineralogical study, the exchange equilibria between K + and H + are characterised. Different exchange sites are identified and the exchange capacities and selectivity coefficients are quantified. Then, mixtures of the three clays are equilibrated with acidic and basic (I≤10 -2 M) solutions at 25 deg. C, 60 deg. C, 80 deg. C, during 320 days. The System evolution is observed by chemical analysis of the solutions and mineralogical analysis by TEM. We show that montmorillonite is unstable compared to the kaolinite/amorphous silica assemblage for solutions of pH<7. Aqueous silica is probably controlled by the kinetics of dissolution of the montmorillonite in moderate pH media. In more acidic solutions, amorphous silica precipitates. Al is under control of 'kaolinite' neo-formations. The use of the selectivity coefficients in a numerical simulation shows that K + concentration depends on exchange reactions. The pH has a more complicated evolution, which is not completely understood. This evolution depends on both exchange equilibria and organic acid occurrence. In this type of experiments, we have demonstrated that the equilibrium equations between smectite and kaolinite are inexact. The problem of the thermodynamic nature of clays remains and is not resolved by these solubility experiments. (author) [fr

  7. Corrosion behaviour of carbon steel in the Tournemire clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foct, F.; Dridi, W.; Cabrera, J.; Savoye, S.

    2004-01-01

    Carbon steels are possible materials for the fabrication of nuclear waste containers for long term geological disposal in argillaceous environments. Experimental studies of the corrosion behaviour of such materials has been conducted in various conditions. Concerning the numerous laboratory experiments, these conditions (water and clay mixture or compacted clay) mainly concern the bentonite clay that would be used for the engineered barrier. On the opposite, only few in-situ experiments has been conducted directly in the local clay of the repository site (such as Boom clay, etc.). In order to better estimate the corrosion behaviour of carbon steels in natural clay site conditions, an experimental study has been conducted jointly by EDF and IRSN in the argillaceous French site of Tournemire. In this study, A42 carbon steel specimens have been exposed in 3 different zones of the Tournemire clay formation. The first type of environmental conditions concerns a zone where the clay has not been affected by the excavation (EDZ) of the main tunnel neither by the main fracture zone of the clay formation. The second and third ones are located in the EDZ of the tunnel. In the second zone, an additional aerated water flows from the tunnel, whereas it does not in the third place. Some carbon steel specimens have been extracted after several years of exposure to these conditions. The average corrosion rate has been measured by the weight loss technique and the pitting corrosion depth has been evaluated under an optical microscope. Corrosion products have also been characterised by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction technique. Results are then discussed regarding the surrounding environmental conditions. Calculations of the oxygen transport from the tunnel through the clay and of the clay re-saturation can explain, in a first approach, the corrosion behaviour of the carbon steel in the different tested zones. (authors)

  8. The effect of high pH alkaline solutions on the mineral stability of the Boom Clay - Batch experiments at 60 deg. C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honty, M.; De Craen, M.; Wang, L.; Madejova, J.; Czimerova, A.; Pentrak, M.; Stricek, I.; Van Geet, M.

    2010-01-01

    Boom Clay is currently viewed as a reference host formation for studies on deep geological disposal of radioactive waste in Belgium. The interactions between bulk rock Boom Clay and 0.1 M KOH, 0.1 M NaOH, 0.1 M Ca(OH) 2 , young cement water and evolved cement water solutions, ranging in pH from 12.5 to 13.2, were examined as static batch experiments at 60 deg. C to simulate alkaline plume perturbations, which are expected to occur in the repository due to the presence of concrete. Both liquids and solids were investigated at specific times between 90 and 510 days in order to control the elemental budget and to search for potential mineralogical alterations. Also, the clay fraction was separated from the whole-rock Boom Clay at the end of each run and characterized for its mineralogical composition. Thereby, the importance of the mineral matrix to buffer the alkaline attack and the role of organic matter to protect clay minerals were also addressed. The results indicate that the degree of geochemical perturbation in Boom Clay is dependent on the initial pH of the applied solution together with the nature of the major cation in the reactant fluids. The higher the initial pH of the media, the stronger its interaction with Boom Clay. No major non-clay mineralogical alteration of the Boom Clay was detected, but dissolution of kaolinite, smectite and illite occurred within the studied experimental conditions. The dissolution of clays is accompanied by the decrease in the layer charge, followed by a decrease in the cation-exchange capacity. The highest TOC values coincide with the highest total elemental concentrations in the leachates, and correspondingly, the highest dissolution degree. However, no quantitative link could be established between the degree of organic matter decomposition and clay dissolution.

  9. Hydroxyapatite clay for gap filling and adequate bone ingrowth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, M; Terayama, K; Ito, M; Takei, T; Kitagawa, E

    1995-03-01

    In uncemented total hip arthroplasty, a complete filling of the gap between femoral prosthesis and the host bone is difficult and defects would remain, because the anatomy of the reamed intramedullary canal cannot fit the prosthesis. Therefore, it seems practical to fill the gap with a clay containing hydroxyapatite (HA), which has an osteoconductive character. The clay (HA clay) is made by mixing HA granules (size 0.1 mm or more) having a homogeneous pore distribution and a porosity of 35-48 vol%, and a viscous substance such as a saline solution of sodium alginate (SSSA). In the first experiment, the ratio of HA granules and sodium alginate in SSSA is set for the same handling properties of HA clay and polymethylmethacrylate bone cement (standard viscosity) before hardening. As a result, the ratio is set for 55 wt% of HA in the clay and 12.5 wt% of sodium alginate in SSSA (i.e., HA:sodium alginate:saline solution = 9.8:1:7). In the second study, the gap between the femoral stem and bone model is completely filled with HA clay. However, the gap is not filled only with HA granules or HA granules mixed with saline solution. In the third animal experiment, using an unloaded model, histology shows that HA clay has an osteoconductive property bridging the gap between the implant and the cortical bone without any adverse reaction. HA clay is considered a useful biomaterial to fill the gap with adequate bone ingrowth.

  10. Anatomical knowledge gain through a clay-modeling exercise compared to live and video observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooloos, Jan G M; Schepens-Franke, Annelieke N; Bergman, Esther M; Donders, Rogier A R T; Vorstenbosch, Marc A T M

    2014-01-01

    Clay modeling is increasingly used as a teaching method other than dissection. The haptic experience during clay modeling is supposed to correspond to the learning effect of manipulations during exercises in the dissection room involving tissues and organs. We questioned this assumption in two pretest-post-test experiments. In these experiments, the learning effects of clay modeling were compared to either live observations (Experiment I) or video observations (Experiment II) of the clay-modeling exercise. The effects of learning were measured with multiple choice questions, extended matching questions, and recognition of structures on illustrations of cross-sections. Analysis of covariance with pretest scores as the covariate was used to elaborate the results. Experiment I showed a significantly higher post-test score for the observers, whereas Experiment II showed a significantly higher post-test score for the clay modelers. This study shows that (1) students who perform clay-modeling exercises show less gain in anatomical knowledge than students who attentively observe the same exercise being carried out and (2) performing a clay-modeling exercise is better in anatomical knowledge gain compared to the study of a video of the recorded exercise. The most important learning effect seems to be the engagement in the exercise, focusing attention and stimulating time on task. © 2014 American Association of Anatomists.

  11. Clay Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Liz; Steffan, Dana

    2009-01-01

    This article describes how to use clay as a potential material for young children to explore. As teachers, the authors find that their dialogue about the potential of clay as a learning medium raises many questions: (1) What makes clay so enticing? (2) Why are teachers noticing different play and conversation around the clay table as compared to…

  12. Dental caries experience in high risk soft drinks factory workers of South India: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sandeep; Acharya, Shashidhar; Vasthare, Ramprasad; Singh, Siddharth Kumar; Gupta, Anjali; Debnath, Nitai

    2014-01-01

    The consumption of soft-drinks has been associated with dental caries development. The aim was to evaluate dental caries experience amongst the workers working in soft-drink industries located in South India and compare it with other factory workers. To evaluate the validity of specific caries index (SCI), which is newer index for caries diagnosis. This was a cross-sectional study carried out among 420 workers (210 in soft-drinks factory and 210 in other factories), in the age group of 20-45 years of Udupi district, Karnataka, India. Index used for clinical examination was decayed, missing, filled surfaces (DMFS) index and SCI. The mean and standard deviation (SD) of decayed surface (5.8 ± 1.8), missing surface (4.3 ± 2) and filled surface (1.94 ± 1.95) and total DMFS score (12.11 ± 3.8) in soft-drinks factory workers were found to be significantly higher than the other factory workers. The total SCI score (mean and SD) was found to be significantly higher in soft-drinks factory workers (5.83 ± 1.80) compared with other factory workers (4.56 ± 1.45). There was a high correlation obtained between SCI score and DMFS score. The regression equation given by DMFS = 1.178 + 1.866 (SCI scores). The caries experience was higher in workers working in soft-drinks factory and this study also showed that specific caries index can be used as a valid index for assessing dental caries experience.

  13. Biogeochemical processes in a clay formation in situ experiment: Part A - Overview, experimental design and water data of an experiment in the Opalinus Clay at the Mont Terri Underground Research Laboratory, Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wersin, P.; Leupin, O.X.; Mettler, S.; Gaucher, E.C.; Maeder, U.; De Canniere, P.; Vinsot, A.; Gaebler, H.E.; Kunimaro, T.; Kiho, K.; Eichinger, L.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The composition was affected by the complex interplay of diffusion, mineral and surface reactions. → The 13 C signals for carbon species showed significant variations which could only be partly explained. → The main cations remained remarkably constant during the experiment. → This underlines the strong buffering via cation exchange and carbonate dissolution/precipitation. - Abstract: An in situ test in the Opalinus Clay formation, termed porewater chemistry (PC) experiment, was carried out for a period of 5 years. It was based on the concept of diffusive equilibration whereby a traced water with a composition close to that expected in the formation was continuously circulated and monitored in a packed-off borehole. The main original focus was to obtain reliable data on the pH/pCO 2 conditions of the porewater, but because of unexpected microbiologically-induced redox reactions, the objective was extended to elucidate the biogeochemical processes occurring in the borehole and to understand their impact on pH/pCO 2 and porewater chemistry in the low permeability clay formation. The behaviour of the conservative tracers 2 H and Br - could be explained by diffusive dilution in the clay and moreover the results showed that diffusive equilibration between the borehole water and the formation occurred within about 3 year's time. However, the composition and pH/pCO 2 conditions differed considerably from those of the in situ porewater. Thus, pH was lower and pCO 2 was higher than indicated by complementary laboratory investigations. The noted differences are explained by microbiologically-induced redox reactions occurring in the borehole and in the interfacial wall area which were caused by an organic source released from the equipment material. The degradation of this source was accompanied by sulfate reduction and - to a lesser extent - by methane generation, which induced a high rate of acetogenic reactions corresponding to very high acetate

  14. Low frequency complex dielectric (conductivity) response of dilute clay suspensions: Modeling and experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Chang-Yu; Feng, Ling; Seleznev, Nikita; Freed, Denise E

    2018-04-11

    In this work, we establish an effective medium model to describe the low-frequency complex dielectric (conductivity) dispersion of dilute clay suspensions. We use previously obtained low-frequency polarization coefficients for a charged oblate spheroidal particle immersed in an electrolyte as the building block for the Maxwell Garnett mixing formula to model the dilute clay suspension. The complex conductivity phase dispersion exhibits a near-resonance peak when the clay grains have a narrow size distribution. The peak frequency is associated with the size distribution as well as the shape of clay grains and is often referred to as the characteristic frequency. In contrast, if the size of the clay grains has a broad distribution, the phase peak is broadened and can disappear into the background of the canonical phase response of the brine. To benchmark our model, the low-frequency dispersion of the complex conductivity of dilute clay suspensions is measured using a four-point impedance measurement, which can be reliably calibrated in the frequency range between 0.1 Hz and 10 kHz. By using a minimal number of fitting parameters when reliable information is available as input for the model and carefully examining the issue of potential over-fitting, we found that our model can be used to fit the measured dispersion of the complex conductivity with reasonable parameters. The good match between the modeled and experimental complex conductivity dispersion allows us to argue that our simplified model captures the essential physics for describing the low-frequency dispersion of the complex conductivity of dilute clay suspensions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Ball clay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virta, R.L.

    2001-01-01

    Part of the 2000 annual review of the industrial minerals sector. A general overview of the ball clay industry is provided. In 2000, sales of ball clay reached record levels, with sanitary ware and tile applications accounting for the largest sales. Ball clay production, consumption, prices, foreign trade, and industry news are summarized. The outlook for the ball clay industry is also outlined.

  16. Influence of clay mineralogy on clay based ceramic products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radzali Othman; Tuan Besar Tuan Sarif; Zainal Arifin Ahmad; Ahmad Fauzi Mohd Noor; Abu Bakar Aramjat

    1996-01-01

    Clay-based ceramic products can either be produced directly from a suitable clay source without the need further addition or such products can be produced from a ceramic body formulated by additions of other raw materials such as feldspar and silica sand. In either case, the mineralogical make-up of the clay component plays a dominating role in the fabrication and properties of the ceramic product. This study was sparked off by a peculiar result observed in one of five local ball clay samples that were used to reformulate a ceramic body. Initial characterisation tests conducted on the clays indicated that these clays can be classified as kaolinitic. However, one of these clays produced a ceramic body that is distinctively different in terms of whiteness, smoothness and density as compared to the other four clays. Careful re-examination of other characterisation data, such as particle size distribution and chemical analysis, failed to offer any plausible explanation. Consequently, the mineralogical analysis by x-ray diffraction was repeated by paying meticulous attention to specimen preparation. Diffraction data for the clay with anomalous behaviour indicated the presence of a ∼ 10A peak that diminished when the same specimen was re-tested after heating in an oven at 12O degree C whilst the other four clays only exhibit the characteristic kaolinite (Al sub 2 O sub 3. 2SiO sub 2. 2H sub 2 0) and muscovite peaks at ∼ 7A and ∼ 10A before and after heat treatment. This suggests the presence of the mineral halloysite (A1 sub 2 0 sub 3. 2SiO sub 2.4H sub 2 0) in that particular clay. This difference in mineralogy can be attributed to account for the variations in physical properties of the final product. Consequently, this paper reviews in general the precautionary measures that must be adhered to during any mineralogical investigation of clay minerals or clay-based materials. The common pitfalls during specimen preparation, machine settings and interpretation of

  17. Clays in natural and engineered barriers for radioactive waste confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The meeting covers all topics concerning natural argillaceous geological barriers and the clay material based engineered barrier systems, investigated by means of: laboratory experiments on clay samples (new analytical developments), in situ experiments in underground research laboratories, mock-up demonstrations, natural analogues, as well as numerical modelling and global integration approaches (including up-scaling processes and treatment of uncertainties). The works presented deal with: examples of broad research programs (national or international) on the role of natural and artificial clay barriers for radionuclide confinement; clay-based repository concepts: repository designs, including technological and safety issues related to the use of clay for nuclear waste confinement; geology and clay characterisation: mineralogy, sedimentology, paleo-environment, diagenesis, dating techniques, discontinuities in rock clay, fracturing, self sealing processes, role of organic matter and microbiological processes; geochemistry: pore water geochemistry, clay thermodynamics, chemical retention, geochemical modelling, advanced isotopic geochemistry; mass transfer: water status and hydraulic properties in low permeability media, pore space geometry, water, solute and gas transfer processes, colloid mediated transport, large scale movements, long-term diffusion; alteration processes: oxidation effects, hydration-dehydration processes, response to thermal stress, iron-clay interactions, alkaline perturbation; geomechanics: thermo-hydro-mechanical behaviour of clay, rheological models, EDZ characterisation and evolution, coupled behaviour and models (HM, THM, THMC). A particular interest is given to potential contributions coming from fields of activities other than radioactive waste management, which take advantage of the confinement properties of the clay barrier (oil and gas industries, gas geological storage, CO 2 geological sequestration, chemical waste isolation

  18. Clays in natural and engineered barriers for radioactive waste confinement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    The meeting covers all topics concerning natural argillaceous geological barriers and the clay material based engineered barrier systems, investigated by means of: laboratory experiments on clay samples (new analytical developments), in situ experiments in underground research laboratories, mock-up demonstrations, natural analogues, as well as numerical modelling and global integration approaches (including up-scaling processes and treatment of uncertainties). The works presented deal with: examples of broad research programs (national or international) on the role of natural and artificial clay barriers for radionuclide confinement; clay-based repository concepts: repository designs, including technological and safety issues related to the use of clay for nuclear waste confinement; geology and clay characterisation: mineralogy, sedimentology, paleo-environment, diagenesis, dating techniques, discontinuities in rock clay, fracturing, self sealing processes, role of organic matter and microbiological processes; geochemistry: pore water geochemistry, clay thermodynamics, chemical retention, geochemical modelling, advanced isotopic geochemistry; mass transfer: water status and hydraulic properties in low permeability media, pore space geometry, water, solute and gas transfer processes, colloid mediated transport, large scale movements, long-term diffusion; alteration processes: oxidation effects, hydration-dehydration processes, response to thermal stress, iron-clay interactions, alkaline perturbation; geomechanics: thermo-hydro-mechanical behaviour of clay, rheological models, EDZ characterisation and evolution, coupled behaviour and models (HM, THM, THMC). A particular interest is given to potential contributions coming from fields of activities other than radioactive waste management, which take advantage of the confinement properties of the clay barrier (oil and gas industries, gas geological storage, CO{sub 2} geological sequestration, chemical waste isolation

  19. Role of soil texture, clay mineralogy, location, and temperature in coarse wood decomposition - a mesocosm experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinzia Fissore; Martin F. Jurgensen; James Pickens; Chris Miller; Deborah Page-Dumroese; Christian P. Giardina

    2016-01-01

    Of all the major pools of terrestrial carbon (C), the dynamics of coarse woody debris (CWD) are the least understood. In contrast to soils and living vegetation, the study of CWD has rarely relied on ex situ methods for elaborating controls on decomposition rates. In this study, we report on a mesocosm incubation experiment examining how clay amount (8%, 16%,...

  20. The long-term behaviour of cemented research reactor waste under the geological disposal conditions of the Boom Clay Formation: results from leach experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sneyers, A.; Fays, J.; Iseghem, P. van

    2001-01-01

    The Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN has carried out a number of studies to evaluate the long-term behaviour of cemented research reactor waste under the geological disposal conditions of the Boom Clay Formation. Static leach experiments in synthetic clay water were performed on active samples of cemented research reactor waste. The leach experiments were carried out under anaerobic conditions at two testing temperatures (23 and 85 o C). Leach rates of seven radionuclides ( 60 Co, 90 Sr, 134 Cs, 137 Cs, 144 Ce, 154 Eu and 241 Am) were measured. Most investigated radionuclides are well retained within the cement matrix over a 280 days testing period. Results on the source term of radionuclides were complemented with data on the leaching behaviour of cement matrix constituents as Ca, Si, Al, Na, K, Mg and SO 4 as well as with data from performance assessment calculations and in situ tests. Despite limitations inherent to short-term experiments, combined results from these investigations indicate only limited interactions of disposed research reactor waste with the near field of a geological repository in clay. (author)

  1. Silt-clay aggregates on Mars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greeley, R.

    1979-01-01

    Viking observations suggest abundant silt and clay particles on Mars. It is proposed that some of these particles agglomerate to form sand size aggregates that are redeposited as sandlike features such as drifts and dunes. Although the binding for the aggregates could include salt cementation or other mechanisms, electrostatic bonding is considered to be a primary force holding the aggregates together. Various laboratory experiments conducted since the 19th century, and as reported here for simulated Martian conditions, show that both the magnitude and sign of electrical charges on windblown particles are functions of particle velocity, shape and composition, atmospheric pressure, atmospheric composition, and other factors. Electrical charges have been measured for saltating particles in the wind tunnel and in the field, on the surfaces of sand dunes, and within dust clouds on earth. Similar, and perhaps even greater, charges are proposed to occur on Mars, which could form aggregates of silt and clay size particles. Electrification is proposed to occur within Martian dust clouds, generating silt-clay aggregates which would settle to the surface where they may be deposited in the form of sandlike structures. By analog, silt-clay dunes are known in many parts of the earth where silt-clay aggregated were transported by saltation and deposited as 'sand.' In these structures the binding forces were later destroyed, and the particles reassumed the physical properties of silt and clay, but the sandlike bedding structure within the 'dunes' was preserved. The bedding observed in drifts at the Viking landing site is suggested to result from a similar process involving silt-clay aggregates on Mars

  2. Admixing dredged marine clay with cement-bentonite for reduction of compressibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahilman, Nur Nazihah Nur; Chan, Chee-Ming

    2017-11-01

    Cement-based solidification/stabilization is a method that is widely used for the treatment of dredged marine clay. The key objective for solidification/stabilization is to improve the engineering properties of the originally soft, weak material. Dredged materials are normally low in shear strength and bearing capacity while high incompressibility. In order to improve the material's properties for possible reuse, a study on the one-dimensional compressibility of lightly solidified dredged marine clay admixed with bentonite was conducted. On the other hand, due to the viscous nature, particularly the swelling property, bentonite is a popular volumising agent for backfills. In the present study, standard oedometer test was carried out to examine the compressibility of the treated sample. Complementary strength measurements were also conducted with laboratory vane shear setup on both the untreated and treated dredged marine clay. The results showed that at the same binder content, the addition of bentonite contributed significantly to the reduction of compressibility and rise in undrained shear strength. These improved properties made the otherwise discarded dredged marine soils potentially reusable for reclamation works, for instance.

  3. A contribution to the better understanding of swelling in soils and soft rocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Petkovšek

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Swelling and shrinkage of sediments rich with clay belong to geologically conditioned risk factors. Economicloss as the consequence of volume changes in the geological catchment area of buildings and infrastructuralobjects is immense. Untimely detected swelling causes higher prices and unnecessary delays during the construction.In those cases when deep cuts and underground spaces are used as intervention into highly preconsolidatedsoils and soft rock with clay contents, failures of embankments and improperly designed supporting measures dueto swelling are not infrequent. Also periodic appearance of landslides at certain areas can be the consequence ofswelling. Some countries, such as the USA, introduced the guidelines and standards for the detection, assessmentand handling with swellable geological materials decades ago. Due to some other more urgent geologically conditionedrisks, such as landslides, earthquakes and constructions on soft ground, in Slovenia the development ofknowledge in the area of swelling soils was several years behind the knowledge in the rest of the world. With theconstruction of the Slovenian-Hungarian railway connection after 1998, motorways and the introduction of newknowledge about soil suction, also Slovenian experts were introduced to a different dimension of the problem ofswelling soils, as well as some important experiences were learned and new possibilities for the investigation andunderstanding of volume behaviour of swelling soils were opened. This is especially important for the predictedweather extremes, as only adequate knowledge will allow us to adequately explain any new phenomena in theground and prepare appropriate protection.

  4. Design of a Soft Robot with Multiple Motion Patterns Using Soft Pneumatic Actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Yu; Dong, Wei; Du, Zhijiang

    2017-11-01

    Soft robots are made of soft materials and have good flexibility and infinite degrees of freedom in theory. These properties enable soft robots to work in narrow space and adapt to external environment. In this paper, a 2-DOF soft pneumatic actuator is introduced, with two chambers symmetrically distributed on both sides and a jamming cylinder along the axis. Fibers are used to constrain the expansion of the soft actuator. Experiments are carried out to test the performance of the soft actuator, including bending and elongation characteristics. A soft robot is designed and fabricated by connecting four soft pneumatic actuators to a 3D-printed board. The soft robotic system is then established. The pneumatic circuit is built by pumps and solenoid valves. The control system is based on the control board Arduino Mega 2560. Relay modules are used to control valves and pressure sensors are used to measure pressure in the pneumatic circuit. Experiments are conducted to test the performance of the proposed soft robot.

  5. Development of soft x-ray tracer diagnostics for hohlraum experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacFarlane, J.J.; Cohen, D.H.; Wang, P.; Peterson, R.R.; Moses, G.A.

    1998-04-01

    The purpose of this report is to summarize work performed by the University of Wisconsin during fiscal year 1996 under the NLUF contract DE-FG-96SF21015. This contract involved the development of soft x-ray spectral diagnostics from tracer layers in hohlraum witness plates. This effort was originally intended to be focused on OMEGA experiments, but the experiments were changed to NOVA because initial indirect drive shots had not yet been performed on the OMEGA upgrade. Data were collected in a series of experiments between January 1997 and October 1997. Experiments were delayed somewhat due to bringing up the Hettrick spectrometer on the NOVA target chamber. The tasks related to the planning, carrying out, and modeling of the experiments are outlined in Table 1.1 and detailed in the remainder of this report

  6. Iodide uptake by negatively charged clay interlayers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Andrew; Kruichak, Jessica; Mills, Melissa; Wang, Yifeng

    2015-09-01

    Understanding iodide interactions with clay minerals is critical to quantifying risk associated with nuclear waste disposal. Current thought assumes that iodide does not interact directly with clay minerals due to electrical repulsion between the iodide and the negatively charged clay layers. However, a growing body of work indicates a weak interaction between iodide and clays. The goal of this contribution is to report a conceptual model for iodide interaction with clays by considering clay mineral structures and emergent behaviors of chemical species in confined spaces. To approach the problem, a suite of clay minerals was used with varying degrees of isomorphic substitution, chemical composition, and mineral structure. Iodide uptake experiments were completed with each of these minerals in a range of swamping electrolyte identities (NaCl, NaBr, KCl) and concentrations. Iodide uptake behaviors form distinct trends with cation exchange capacity and mineral structure. These trends change substantially with electrolyte composition and concentration, but do not appear to be affected by solution pH. The experimental results suggest that iodide may directly interact with clays by forming ion-pairs (e.g., NaI(aq)) which may concentrate within the interlayer space as well as the thin areas surrounding the clay particle where water behavior is more structured relative to bulk water. Ion pairing and iodide concentration in these zones is probably driven by the reduced dielectric constant of water in confined space and by the relatively high polarizability of the iodide species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Excavation Induced Hydraulic Response of Opalinus Clay - Investigations of the FE-Experiment at the Mont Terri URL in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, T.; Müller, H. R.; Garitte, B.; Sakaki, T.; Vietor, T.

    2013-12-01

    The Full-Scale Emplacement (FE) Experiment at the Mont Terri underground research laboratory in Switzerland is a full-scale heater test in a clay-rich formation (Opalinus Clay). Based on the Swiss disposal concept it simulates the construction, emplacement, backfilling, and post-closure thermo-hydro-mechanical (THM) evolution of a spent fuel / vitrified high-level waste (SF / HLW) repository tunnel in a realistic manner. The main aim of this experiment is to investigate SF / HLW repository-induced THM coupled effects mainly in the host rock but also in the engineered barrier system (EBS), which consists of bentonite pellets and blocks. A further aim is to gather experience with full-scale tunnel construction and associated hydro-mechanical (HM) processes in the host rock. The entire experiment implementation (in a 50 m long gallery with approx. 3 m diameter) as well as the post-closure THM evolution will be monitored using a network of several hundred sensors (state-of-the-art sensors and measurement systems as well as fiber-optic sensors). The sensors are distributed in the host rock's near- and far-field, the tunnel lining, the EBS, and on the heaters. The heater emplacement and backfilling has not started yet, therefore only the host rock instrumentation is installed at the moment and is currently generating data. We will present the instrumentation concept and rationale as well as the first monitoring results of the excavation and ventilation phase. In particular, we investigated the excavation induced hydraulic response of the host rock. Therefore, the spatiotemporal evolution of porewater-pressure time series was analyzed to get a better understanding of HM coupled processes during and after the excavation phase as well as the impact of anisotropic geomechanic and hydraulic properties of the clay-rich formation on its hydraulic behavior. Excavation related investigations were completed by means of inclinometer data to characterize the non-elastic and time

  8. Wetland eco-engineering: Measuring and modeling feedbacks of oxidation processes between plants and clay-rich material

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saaltink, R.; Dekker, S.C.; Griffioen, J.; Wassen, M.J.

    2016-01-01

    Interest is growing in using soft sediment as a foundation in eco-engineering projects. Wetland construction in the Dutch lake Markermeer is an example: here, dredging some of the clay-rich lake-bed sediment and using it to construct wetland will soon begin. Natural processes will be utilized during

  9. Biogeochemical processes in a clay formation in situ experiment: Part A - Overview, experimental design and water data of an experiment in the Opalinus Clay at the Mont Terri Underground Research Laboratory, Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wersin, P., E-mail: paul.wersin@gruner.ch [NAGRA, Hardstrasse 73, 5430 Wettingen (Switzerland)] [Gruner Ltd., Gellertstrasse 55, 4020 Basel (Switzerland); Leupin, O.X. [NAGRA, Hardstrasse 73, 5430 Wettingen (Switzerland); Mettler, S. [NAGRA, Hardstrasse 73, 5430 Wettingen (Switzerland)] [Solexperts Ltd., Mettlenbachstrasse 25, 8617 Moenchaltorf (Switzerland); Gaucher, E.C. [BRGM, 3 avenue Claude Guillemin, B.P. 36009, 45060 Orleans Cedex 2 (France); Maeder, U. [University of Bern, Institute of Geological Sciences, Baltzerstrasse 3, CH-3012 Bern (Switzerland); De Canniere, P. [SCK.CEN, Waste and Disposal Project, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Vinsot, A. [ANDRA, Laboratoire de Recherche Souterrain de Meuse/Haute-Marne, RD960 BP9, 55290 Bure (France); Gaebler, H.E. [BGR, Stilleweg 2, 30655 Hannover (Germany); Kunimaro, T. [JAEA, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Kiho, K. [CRIEPI, 1646 Abiko, Abiko-city Chiba 270-1194 (Japan); Eichinger, L. [Hydroisotop, 85301 Schweitenkirchen (Germany)

    2011-06-15

    Highlights: > The composition was affected by the complex interplay of diffusion, mineral and surface reactions. > The {sup 13}C signals for carbon species showed significant variations which could only be partly explained. > The main cations remained remarkably constant during the experiment. > This underlines the strong buffering via cation exchange and carbonate dissolution/precipitation. - Abstract: An in situ test in the Opalinus Clay formation, termed porewater chemistry (PC) experiment, was carried out for a period of 5 years. It was based on the concept of diffusive equilibration whereby a traced water with a composition close to that expected in the formation was continuously circulated and monitored in a packed-off borehole. The main original focus was to obtain reliable data on the pH/pCO{sub 2} conditions of the porewater, but because of unexpected microbiologically-induced redox reactions, the objective was extended to elucidate the biogeochemical processes occurring in the borehole and to understand their impact on pH/pCO{sub 2} and porewater chemistry in the low permeability clay formation. The behaviour of the conservative tracers {sup 2}H and Br{sup -} could be explained by diffusive dilution in the clay and moreover the results showed that diffusive equilibration between the borehole water and the formation occurred within about 3 year's time. However, the composition and pH/pCO{sub 2} conditions differed considerably from those of the in situ porewater. Thus, pH was lower and pCO{sub 2} was higher than indicated by complementary laboratory investigations. The noted differences are explained by microbiologically-induced redox reactions occurring in the borehole and in the interfacial wall area which were caused by an organic source released from the equipment material. The degradation of this source was accompanied by sulfate reduction and - to a lesser extent - by methane generation, which induced a high rate of acetogenic reactions

  10. Numerical experiments on plasma focus for soft x-ray yield scaling laws derivation using Lee model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akel, M.

    2012-09-01

    The required plasma parameters of krypton and xenon at different temperatures were calculated, the x-ray emission properties of plasmas were studied, and based on the corona model the suitable temperature range for generating H-like and He-like ions (therefore soft x-ray emissions) of different gases plasma were found. The code is applied to characterize the plasma focus in different plasma focus devices, and for optimizing the nitrogen, oxygen, neon, argon, krypton and xenon soft x-ray yields based on bank, tubes and operating parameters. It is found that the soft x-ray yield increases with changing pressure until it reaches the maximum value for each plasma focus device. Keeping the bank parameters, operational voltage unchanged but systematically changing other parameters, numerical experiments were performed finding the optimum combination of P o , Z o and 'a' for the maximum soft x-ray yield. Thus we expect to increase the soft x-ray yield of plasma focus device several-fold from its present typical operation; without changing the capacitor bank, merely by changing the electrode configuration and the operating pressure. The Lee model code was also used to run numerical experiments on plasma focus devices for optimizing soft x-ray yield with reducing L o , varying L o and 'a' to get engineering designs with maximum soft x-ray yield for these devices at different experimental conditions and gases. Numerical experiments showed the influence of the gas used in plasma focus and its properties on soft x-ray emission and its properties and then on its applications. Scaling laws for soft x-ray of nitrogen, oxygen, neon, argon, krypton and xenon plasma focus, in terms of energy, peak discharge current and focus pinch current were found. Radiative cooling effects are studied indicating that radiative collapse may be observed for heavy noble gases (Ar, Kr, Xe) for pinch currents even below 100 kA. The results show that the line radiation emission and tube voltages have

  11. Numerical experiments on plasma focus for soft x-ray yield scaling laws derivation using Lee model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akel, M.

    2015-01-01

    The required plasma parameters of krypton and xenon at different temperatures were calculated, the x-ray emission properties of plasmas were studied, and based on the corona model the suitable temperature range for generating H-like and He-like ions (therefore soft x-ray emissions) of different gases plasma were found. The code is applied to characterize the plasma focus in different plasma focus devices, and for optimizing the nitrogen, oxygen, neon, argon, krypton and xenon soft x-ray yields based on bank, tubes and operating parameters. It is found that t he soft x-ray yield increases with changing pressure until it reaches the maximum value for each plasma focus device. Keeping the bank parameters, operational voltage unchanged but systematically changing other parameters, numerical experiments were performed finding the optimum combination of Po, z0 and 'a' for the maximum soft x-ray yield. Thus we expect to increase the soft x-ray yield of plasma focus device several-fold from its present typical operation; without changing the capacitor bank, merely by changing the electrode configuration and the operating pressure. The Lee model code was also used to run numerical experiments on plasma focus devices for optimizing soft x-ray yield with reducing Lo, varying z0 and 'a' to get engineering designs with maximum soft x-ray yield for these devices at different experimental conditions and gases. Numerical experiments showed the influence of the gas used in plasma focus and its propor ties on soft x-ray emission and its propor ties and then on its applications. Scaling laws for soft x-ray of nitrogen, oxygen, neon, argon, krypton and xenon plasma focus in terms of energy, peak discharge current and focus pinch current were found. Radiative cooling effects are studied indicating that radiative collapse may be observed for heavy noble gases (Ar, Kr, Xe) for pinch currents even below 100 k A. The results show that the line radiation emission and

  12. Monitoring water content in Opalinus Clay within the FE-Experiment: Test application of dielectric water content sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaki, T.; Vogt, T.; Komatsu, M.; Müller, H. R.

    2013-12-01

    The spatiotemporal variation of water content in the near field rock around repository tunnels for radioactive waste in clay formations is one of the essential quantities to be monitored for safety assessment in many waste disposal programs. Reliable measurements of water content are important not only for the understanding and prediction of coupled hydraulic-mechanic processes that occur during tunnel construction and ventilation phase, but also for the understanding of coupled thermal-hydraulic-mechanical (THM) processes that take place in the host rock during the post closure phase of a repository tunnel for spent fuel and high level radioactive waste (SF/HLW). The host rock of the Swiss disposal concept for SF/HLW is the Opalinus Clay formation (age of approx. 175 Million years). To better understand the THM effects in a full-scale heater-engineered barrier-rock system in Opalinus Clay, a full-scale heater test, namely the Full-Scale Emplacement (FE) experiment, was initiated in 2010 at the Mont Terri underground rock laboratory in north-western Switzerland. The experiment is designed to simulate the THM evolution of a SF/HLW repository tunnel based on the Swiss disposal concept in a realistic manner during the construction, emplacement, backfilling, and post-closure phases. The entire experiment implementation (in a 50 m long gallery with approx. 3 m diameter) as well as the post-closure THM evolution will be monitored using a network of several hundred sensors. The sensors will be distributed in the host rock, the tunnel lining, the engineered barrier, which consists of bentonite pellets and blocks, and on the heaters. The excavation is completed and the tunnel is currently being ventilated. Measuring water content in partially saturated clay-rich high-salinity rock with a deformable grain skeleton is challenging. Therefore, we use the ventilation phase (before backfilling and heating) to examine the applicability of commercial water content sensors and to

  13. A desk study of surface diffusion and mass transport in clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, A.J.

    1988-09-01

    The concept of a geological barrier to radionuclide migration from theoretical radioactive waste repositories has drawn attention to the physico-chemical properties of clays, which are traditionally regarded as retarding media. This report addresses the different mechanisms of transport of radionuclides through clay and in particular focuses on the surface diffusion movement of sorbed cations. The relative contributory importance of the different transport mechanisms is governed by the pore size distributions and interconnections within the clay fabric. Surface diffusion data in the literature have been from experiments using compacted montmorillonite and biotite gneiss. A possible programme of laboratory work is outlined, based on diffusion experiments, which describes the way of measuring the effect of surface diffusion more accurately in clays, mudstones and shales. (author)

  14. Mars, clays and the origins of life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Hyman

    1989-01-01

    To detect life in the Martian soil, tests were designed to look for respiration and photosynthesis. Both tests (labeled release, LR, and pyrolytic release, PR) for life in the Martian soils were positive. However, when the measurement for organic molecules in the soil of Mars was made, none were found. The interpretation given is that the inorganic constituents of the soil of Mars were responsible for these observations. The inorganic analysis of the soil was best fitted by a mixture of minerals: 60 to 80 percent clay, iron oxide, quartz, and soluble salts such as halite (NaCl). The minerals most successful in simulating the PR and LR experiments are iron-rich clays. There is a theory that considers clays as the first organisms capable of replication, mutation, and catalysis, and hence of evolving. Clays are formed when liquid water causes the weathering of rocks. The distribution of ions such as aluminum, magnesium, and iron play the role of bases in the DNA. The information was stored in the distribution of ions in the octahedral and tetrahedral molecules, but that they could, like RNA and DNA, replicate. When the clays replicated, each sheet of clay would be a template for a new sheet. The ion substitutions in one clay sheet would give rise to a complementary or similar pattern on the clay synthesized on its surface. It was theorized that it was on the surface of replicating iron-rich clays that carbon dioxide would be fixed in the light into organic acids such as formic or oxalic acid. If Mars had liquid water during a warm period in its past, clay formation would have been abundant. These clays would have replicated and evolved until the liquid water was removed due to cooling of Mars. It is entirely possible that the Viking mission detected life on Mars, but it was clay life that awaits the return of water to continue its evolution into life based on organic molecules.

  15. The Edinburgh experience of treating sarcomas of soft tissues and bone with neutron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, W.; Arnott, S.J.; Jack, W.J.L.

    1986-01-01

    The experience of treating 30 patients with sarcomas of soft tissue and bone with d(15)+Be neutron irradiation is reported. The local control of measurable soft-tissue sarcomas was 38.5% (minimum follow-up 2 years), which is similar to that expected after photon therapy. The radiation morbidity was unacceptably high (50%). Bone tumours did not respond well; in only one out of nine was lasting local tumour control achieved. (author)

  16. Determination of Soft Lithology Causes The Land Subsidence in Coastal Semarang City by Resistivity Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widada, Sugeng; Saputra, Sidhi; Hariadi

    2018-02-01

    Semarang City is located in the northern coastal plain of Java which is geologically composed of alluvial deposits. The process of the sediment diagenesis has caused a land subsidence. On the other hand, the development of the industrial, service, education and housing sectors has increased the number of building significantly. The number of building makes the pressure of land surface increased, and finally, this also increased the rate of land subsidence. The drilling data indicates that not all layers of lithology are soft layers supporting the land subsidence. However, vertical distribution of the soft layer is still unclear. This study used Resistivity method to map out the soft zone layers of lithology. Schlumberger electrode configuration with sounding system method was selected to find a good vertical resolution and maximum depth. The results showed that the lithology layer with resistivity less than 3 ohm is a layer of clay and sandy clay that has the low bearing capacity so easily compressed by pressure load. A high land subsidence is happening in the thick soft layer. The thickness of that layer is smaller toward the direction of avoiding the beach. The improvement of the bearing capacity of this layer is expected to be a solution to the problem of land subsidence.

  17. Clay Houses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedro, Cathy

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a project designed for fourth-graders that involves making clay relief sculptures of houses. Knowing the clay houses will become a family heirloom makes this lesson even more worth the time. It takes three classes to plan and form the clay, and another two to underglaze and glaze the final products.

  18. Evaluation of the mineralogical characterization of several smectite clay deposits of the state of Paraiba, Brazil using statistical analysis of variance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gama, A.J.A.; Menezes, R.R.; Neves, G.A.; Brito, A.L.F. de

    2015-01-01

    Currently over 80% of industrialized bentonite clay produced in Brazil in sodium form for use in various industrial applications come from the deposits in Boa Vista - PB. Recently they were discovered new bentonite deposits situated in the municipalities of Cubati - PB, Drawn Stone - PB, Sossego - PB, and last in olive groves - PB, requiring systematic studies to develop all its industrial potential. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate chemical characterization several deposits of smectite clays from various regions of the state of Paraíba through the analysis of statistical variance. Chemical analysis form determined by fluorescence x-ray (EDX). Then analyzes were carried out of variance statistics and Tukey test using the statistical soft MINITAB® 17.0. The results showed that the chemical composition of bentonite clay of new deposits showed different amounts of silica, aluminum, magnesium and calcium in relation clays in Boa Vista, and clays imported. (author)

  19. A Classification of Clay-Rich Subaqueous Density Flow Structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermidas, N.; Eggenhuisen, Joris T.; Jacinto, Ricardo Silva; Luthi, S.M.; Toth, Ferenc; Pohl, Florian

    2018-01-01

    This study presents a classification for subaqueous clay-laden sediment gravity flows. A series of laboratory flume experiments were performed using 9%, 15%, and 21% sediment mixture concentrations composed of sand, silt, clay, and tap water, on varying bed slopes of 6°, 8°, and 9.5°, and with

  20. Exploring biotic vs. abiotic controls on syngenetic carbonate and clay mineral precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Gabriela S.; McKenzie, Judith A.; Martinez Ruiz, Francisca; Bontognali, Tomaso R. R.; Vasconcelos, Crisogono

    2016-04-01

    A possible syngenetic relationship between carbonate and clay mineral precipitation has been reported for sedimentary rocks deposited in both lacustrine and marine sedimentary environments throughout the geological record. In particular, the mineral dolomite is often found associated with Mg-rich clays, such as stevensite. It is notable that this carbonate/clay association has been recorded in numerous samples taken from modern dolomite precipitating environments; for example, the Coorong lakes, South Australia, coastal sabkhas, Abu Dhabi, UAE and coastal hypersaline lagoons (Lagoa Vermelha and Brejo do Espinho) east of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. An HRTEM study of samples from these three locations indicates a possible physical/chemical association between the Ca-dolomite and Mg-rich clays, demonstrating a probable co-precipitation. To test this hypothesis, we have conducted a series of biotic and abiotic laboratory experiments. If this syngenesis actually occurs in nature, what, if any, are the biogeochemical processes controlling these precipitation reactions? Our experiments were designed to determine the extent of the biotic versus abiotic component influencing the mineral precipitation and, in the case of a biotic influence, to understand the mechanism through which microorganisms might mediate the formation of clay minerals. The experiments were carried out in the Geomicrobiology Laboratory of ETH Zürich using cultures of living microbes and artificial organic compounds that simulate functional groups present in natural biofilms formed under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. In addition, pure inorganic experiments were designed to understand possible physico-chemical conditions for diagenetic processes that could induce dissolution of Mg-carbonates and precipitation of Mg-rich clays. Our results show a remarkable biotic influence during the formation of clay minerals. Specifically, extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), released by microbes in their

  1. The systems containing clays and clay minerals from modified drug release: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Luís Alberto de Sousa; Figueiras, Ana; Veiga, Francisco; de Freitas, Rivelilson Mendes; Nunes, Lívio César Cunha; da Silva Filho, Edson Cavalcanti; da Silva Leite, Cleide Maria

    2013-03-01

    Clays are materials commonly used in the pharmaceutical industry, either as ingredients or as active ingredients. It was observed that when they are administered concurrently, they may interact with drugs reducing their absorption. Therefore, such interactions can be used to achieve technological and biopharmaceutical advantages, regarding the control of release. This review summarizes bibliographic (articles) and technological (patents) information on the use of systems containing clays and clay minerals in modified drug delivery. In this area, formulations such natural clay, commercial clay, synthetic clay, composites clay-polymers, nanocomposites clay-polymers, films and hidrogels composites clay-polymers are used to slow/extend or vectorize the release of drugs and consequently they increase their bioavailability. Finally, this review summarizes the fields of technology and biopharmaceutical applications, where clays are applied. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. A lysimeter experiment to investigate the leaching of veterinary antibiotics through a clay soil and comparison with field data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kay, Paul; Blackwell, Paul A.; Boxall, Alistair B.A.

    2005-01-01

    Pharmaceuticals used in livestock production may be present in manure and slurry as the parent compound and/or metabolites. The environment may therefore be exposed to these substances due to the application of organic fertilisers to agricultural land or deposition by grazing livestock. For other groups of substances that are applied to land (e.g. pesticides), preferential flow in clay soils has been identified as an extremely important mechanism by which surface water pollution can occur. This lysimeter study was therefore performed to investigate the fate of three antibiotics from the sulphonamide, tetracycline and macrolide groups in a clay soil. Only sulphachloropyridazine was detected in leachate and soil analysis at the end of the experiment showed that almost no antibiotic residues remained. These data were analysed alongside field data for the same compounds to show that soil tillage which breaks the connectivity of macropores formed over the summer months, prior to slurry application, significantly reduces chemical mobility. - This paper describes one of the first studies to investigate the fate of veterinary medicines in cracking clay soils

  3. A lysimeter experiment to investigate the leaching of veterinary antibiotics through a clay soil and comparison with field data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kay, Paul [Cranfield Centre for EcoChemistry, Cranfield University, Shardlow Hall, Shardlow, Derby DE72 2GN (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: paul.kay@adas.co.uk; Blackwell, Paul A. [Cranfield Centre for EcoChemistry, Cranfield University, Shardlow Hall, Shardlow, Derby DE72 2GN (United Kingdom); Boxall, Alistair B.A. [Cranfield Centre for EcoChemistry, Cranfield University, Shardlow Hall, Shardlow, Derby DE72 2GN (United Kingdom)

    2005-03-01

    Pharmaceuticals used in livestock production may be present in manure and slurry as the parent compound and/or metabolites. The environment may therefore be exposed to these substances due to the application of organic fertilisers to agricultural land or deposition by grazing livestock. For other groups of substances that are applied to land (e.g. pesticides), preferential flow in clay soils has been identified as an extremely important mechanism by which surface water pollution can occur. This lysimeter study was therefore performed to investigate the fate of three antibiotics from the sulphonamide, tetracycline and macrolide groups in a clay soil. Only sulphachloropyridazine was detected in leachate and soil analysis at the end of the experiment showed that almost no antibiotic residues remained. These data were analysed alongside field data for the same compounds to show that soil tillage which breaks the connectivity of macropores formed over the summer months, prior to slurry application, significantly reduces chemical mobility. - This paper describes one of the first studies to investigate the fate of veterinary medicines in cracking clay soils.

  4. Procedures and apparatus for measuring diffusion and distribution coefficients in compacted clays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hume, H B

    1993-12-01

    Diffusion and distribution coefficients are needed to assess the migration of radionuclides through the compacted clay-based buffer and backfill materials proposed for use in a nuclear fuel waste disposal vault. This report describes the techniques used to measure these coefficients. Both steady-state and transient diffusion experiments are discussed. The procedures used to prepare the clay plug, assemble the cell, conduct the experiment and calculate the results are described. In addition, methods for obtaining distribution coefficients for radionuclides on both loose and compacted clays are discussed. (author). 18 refs., 3 tabs., 16 figs.

  5. Procedures and apparatus for measuring diffusion and distribution coefficients in compacted clays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hume, H.B.

    1993-12-01

    Diffusion and distribution coefficients are needed to assess the migration of radionuclides through the compacted clay-based buffer and backfill materials proposed for use in a nuclear fuel waste disposal vault. This report describes the techniques used to measure these coefficients. Both steady-state and transient diffusion experiments are discussed. The procedures used to prepare the clay plug, assemble the cell, conduct the experiment and calculate the results are described. In addition, methods for obtaining distribution coefficients for radionuclides on both loose and compacted clays are discussed. (author). 18 refs., 3 tabs., 16 figs

  6. Geochemical effects of electro-osmosis in clays

    KAUST Repository

    Loch, J. P. Gustav

    2010-02-13

    Geochemical effects of electro-osmosis in bentonite clay are studied in the laboratory, where a 6 mm thick bentonite layer is subjected to direct current. Acidification and alkalization near anode and cathode are expected, possibly causing mineral deterioration, ion mobilization and precipitation of new solids. Afterwards the clay is analysed by XRF and anolyte and catholyte are analysed by ICP-MS. In addition, as a preliminary experiment treated bentonite is analysed by high resolution μ-XRF. Electro-osmotic flow is observed. Due to its carbonate content the bentonite is pH-buffering. Alkalization in the catholyte is substantial. Ca, Na and Sr are significantly removed from the clay and accumulate in the catholyte. Recovery in the catholyte accounts for a small fraction of the element-loss from the clay. The rest will have precipitated in undetected solid phases. μ-XRF indicates the loss of Ca-content throughout the bentonite layer. © The Author(s) 2010.

  7. Behavior of clay exposed to heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heremans, R.; Buyens, M.; Manfroy, P.

    1978-01-01

    In the frame of his R and D programme on geological burial of solidified radioactive waste, the C.E.N./S.C.K. undertook experimental and theoretical work on the behavior of the Boom clay against heat. The work is performed under contract with the Commission of European Communities. In a first phase a series of chemical and physical properties were determined on clay samples taken at various depths during the core boring performed on the C.E.N./S.C.K. site in 1975. In a second phase, a simulated high level waste heat source was developed and tested in view of representative heat transfer experiments into the geological formation. In parallel to the experimental work, computarized theoretical studies were undertaken aiming an evaluation of heat effect of a vitrified high level waste repository on an underground structure in clay

  8. Removal of clay by stingless bees: load size and moisture selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Pereira, Raul

    2014-09-01

    Some organisms disperse energy, associated with the transportation of resource, which is not necessarily food. Stingless bees of Central Amazonia (Melipona flavolineata and M. lateralis) collect clay in banks along streams for nest building. The moisture of the clay varies along the bank, and bees collect clay from specific location, indicating that there is some sort of preference regarding their selection. This study aims at identifying: if larger bees carry more clay; if there is a preference for moisture of substrates; and if bees are less efficient accumulating and transporting clay when it is wet. In order to do so, I measured the size of the bees and of the pellets of clay found in the corbicula. I set up a field experiment to test substrate preferences. The amount of clay transported, increased exponentially in accordance to the size of the bee, and the preferred substrate was the driest clay. The amount and the efficiency of removal of clay were not affected by the moisture of the substrate. Despite the wet clay being denser, it does not reduce the efficiency of exploitation of the resource, but suggests that bees spend more energy to carry the same quantity of wet clay, which may be the underlying mechanism explaining their preference for removing drier clay.

  9. Removal of Cr(VI) from Aqueous Environments Using Micelle-Clay Adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qurie, Mohannad; Khamis, Mustafa; Manassra, Adnan; Ayyad, Ibrahim; Nir, Shlomo; Scrano, Laura; Bufo, Sabino A.; Karaman, Rafik

    2013-01-01

    Removal of Cr(VI) from aqueous solutions under different conditions was investigated using either clay (montmorillonite) or micelle-clay complex, the last obtained by adsorbing critical micelle concentration of octadecyltrimethylammonium ions onto montmorillonite. Batch experiments showed the effects of contact time, adsorbent dosage, and pH on the removal efficiency of Cr(VI) from aqueous solutions. Langmuir adsorption isotherm fitted the experimental data giving significant results. Filtration experiments using columns filled with micelle-clay complex mixed with sand were performed to assess Cr(VI) removal efficiency under continuous flow at different pH values. The micelle-clay complex used in this study was capable of removing Cr(VI) from aqueous solutions without any prior acidification of the sample. Results demonstrated that the removal effectiveness reached nearly 100% when using optimal conditions for both batch and continuous flow techniques. PMID:24222757

  10. Verification of substitution of bentonites by montmorillonitic clays summary report on Czech montmorillonitic clays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, L.; Keto, P.

    2006-10-01

    Czech bentonites and smectite-rich clays were characterised in order to study if they could be used as buffer and backfill materials instead of non-Czech commercial bentonites. The characterisation work was orgnized by RAWRA (the Czech Radioactive Waste Repository Authority) and the main part of the work was performed in the Czech Republic at Charles University and at Czech Technical University. Parallel and complementary characterisation was conducted in Finland in Sweden. This report was compiled with the aim to summarise the results, and to compare the methods and results gained in different testing laboratories. The characterisation included mineralogical, chemical and geotechnical investigations and experiments on thermal stability and sorption. There were some variations between the results gained in different laboratories. This was mainly due to differences between the testing methods used but also due to heterogeneity of the samples. The Czech bentonite-clays from Rokle and Strance clay deposits contained relatively high amount of swelling minerals and thus can be considered as potential buffer and backfill materials. (orig.)

  11. Towards an assessment of colloid transport in undisturbed clay stone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durce, D.; Landesman, C.; Grambow, B.; Giffaut, E.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: Colloids are known as a potentially important transport vector for sparingly soluble radionuclides in natural water environments. For assessing the mass transfer resistance of the Callovo-Oxfordian clay rock formation for colloid transport, a series of percolation experiments have been performed, using high pressure stainless steel advection cells of different diameters containing clay cores machined to about 50 μm of accuracy to the inner diameter of the cells. Synthetic clay pore water was pushed by a high pressure syringe pump across the clay core. In order to assess the cut-off size for colloid transport, molecules of different molecular weight were injected. C 14 labeled polymaleic acid (PMA) of sizes of 2 and 50 kDa were used. The effect of clay permeability, of water flow rate (injection pressure) and of ionic strength was studied. Low ionic strength experiments (I = 0.001) were realized by replacing the pore water by advective displacement with the required composition. Clay rock permeabilities were between 10 -12 and 10 -14 m/s. Hydrodynamic parameters were determined by HTO and 36 Cl injection. The results show already at 2 kDa and a permeability of 10 -12 m/s strong retention by partial filtration. The experimental results were modeled using simple chromatographic theory. (authors)

  12. Anatomical Knowledge Gain through a Clay-Modeling Exercise Compared to Live and Video Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooloos, Jan G. M.; Schepens-Franke, Annelieke N.; Bergman, Esther M.; Donders, Rogier A. R. T.; Vorstenbosch, Marc A. T. M.

    2014-01-01

    Clay modeling is increasingly used as a teaching method other than dissection. The haptic experience during clay modeling is supposed to correspond to the learning effect of manipulations during exercises in the dissection room involving tissues and organs. We questioned this assumption in two pretest-post-test experiments. In these experiments,…

  13. Investigation of the overconsolidation and structural behavior of Shanghai clays by element testing and constitutive modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guan-lin Ye

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The mechanical properties and constitutive modeling of Shanghai clays are very important for numerical analysis on geotechnical engineering in Shanghai, where continuous layers of soft clays run 30–40 m deep. The clays are divided into 5 major layers. A series of laboratory tests are carried out to investigate their mechanical properties. The top and bottom layers are overconsolidated hard clays, and the middle layers are normally consolidated or lightly overconsolidated sensitive marine clays. A constitutive model, which can describe the overconsolidation and structure of soils using only 8 parameters, is modified to simulate the test results. A rational procedure to determine the values of the material parameters and initial conditions is also proposed. The model is able to effectively reproduce both one-dimensional (1D consolidation and drained/undrained triaxial test results of Shanghai clays, with one set of parameters for each layer. From element testing and constitutive modeling, two findings are obtained. First, the decay rates of overconsolidation are smaller in overconsolidated layers than in normally consolidated layers. Second, the natural microstructure of layer 4 is relatively stable, that is, a large degree of structure is still maintained in the specimen even after 1D consolidation and drained triaxial tests. The modified model and obtained parameter values can be used for numerical analysis of geotechnical projects in Shanghai.

  14. The impact of soft skills training on female youth employment: Evidence from a randomized experiment in Jordan

    OpenAIRE

    Groh, Matthew; Krishnan, Nandini; McKenzie, David; Vishwanath, Tara

    2016-01-01

    Employers around the world complain that youth lack the soft skills needed for success in the workplace. In response, a number of employment programs have begun to incorporate soft skills training, but to date there has been little evidence as to the effectiveness of such programs. This paper reports on a randomized experiment in Jordan in which female community college graduates were randomly assigned to a soft skills training program. Despite this program being twice as long in length as th...

  15. Hydrothermal field test with french candidate clay embedding steel heater in the Stripa mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pusch, R.; Karnland, O.; Lajudie, A.; Lechelle, J.; Bouchet, A.

    1992-12-01

    Field experiments with French kaolinite/smectite clay heated up to 170 degrees C in boreholes in granite were conducted for 8 months and 4 years. The clay heated for 8 months has a considerably higher water content and it had undergone much less changes in mineralogy and physical properties than the clay exposed to heating for 4 years. The drying of the latter clay was probably caused by hydrogen gas from corrosion of the heater. The clay next to the heater turned into clay-stone despite conversion of the kaolinite component to smectite. (42 refs)

  16. A preliminary study on titanium-clay interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wersin, P.; Grolimund, D.; Kumpulainen, S.; Brendle, J.; Snellman, M.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Posiva and SKB are developing a horizontal disposal design alternative, termed KBS-3H. In this design alternative, modules of a Cu-waste canister surrounded by bentonite blocks is placed in a perforated steel cylinder, a so-called supercontainer (SC), before emplacement in the deposition drifts. The current design for the SC is based on carbon steel. But because corrosion will lead to high hydrogen levels and iron-clay interactions, alternative materials are also being considered. A promising alternative are Ti alloys which display high strength and are known to behave as chemically inert materials under variety of conditions. Also for the Ti alloys, both the corrosion rate and interaction behaviour with other components in the drift needs to be known. In particular, it needs to be demonstrated that corrosion-derived Ti has no significant detrimental effects on the bentonite buffer which is one main barrier within the KBS-3H concept. Unfortunately, the benign inert behaviour of Ti makes it difficult to perform meaningful experiments. Hence, it is not surprising that so far, very little research work on this topic has been carried out and experience is very limited. A preliminary batch-type investigation has been launched to shed more light on Ti-clay interaction processes and on the Ti species resulting from these interactions. A series of experiments including purified MX-80 bentonite or synthetic 'Ti-free' montmorillonite were mixed with metallic Ti nano-powder or foil in 0.1 M NaCl solutions at different pH and temperature conditions. After several months, solid and solute samples from the first set of tests were analyzed by wet chemistry and spectroscopic methods. Ti speciation was analyzed with XAS combined with XRF as elemental mapping tool. A further series of tests will be analyzed in the near future. In addition to reacted samples, a number of reference and starting materials (e.g. MX-80, Rokle

  17. Geochemical of clay formations : study of Spanish clay REFERENCE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turrero, M. J.; Pena, J.

    2003-01-01

    Clay rocks are investigated in different international research programs in order to assess its feasibility for the disposal of high level radioactive wastes. This is because different sepcific aspects: they have low hydraulic conductivity (10''-11-10''-15 m/s), a high sorption capacity, self-sealing capacity of facults and discontinuities and mechanical resistance. Several research programs on clay formations are aimed to study the chemistry of the groundwater and the water-rock reactions that control it: e. g. Boom Clay (Mol, Belgium), Oxford Clay /Harwell, United Kingdom), Toarcian Clay (Tournemire, France), Palfris formation (Wellenberg, Switzerland), Opalinus Clay (Bure, France). Based on these studies, considerable progress in the development of techniques for hydrologic, geochemical and hydrogeochemical characterization of mudstones has been accomplished (e. g. Beaufais et al. 1994, De Windt el al. 1998. Thury and Bossart 1999, Sacchi and Michelot 2000) with important advances in the knowledge of geochemical process in these materials (e. g. Reeder et al. 1993, Baeyens and Brandbury 1994, Beaucaire et al. 2000, Pearson et al., 2003).Furtermore, geochemical modeling is commonly used to simulate the evolution of water chemistry and to understand quantitatively the processes controlling the groundwater chemistry (e. g. Pearson et al. 1998, Tempel and Harrison 2000, Arcos et al., 2001). The work presented here is part of a research program funded by Enresa in the context of its R and D program. It is focused on the characterization of a clay formation (reference Argillaceous Formation, RAF) located within the Duero Basin (north-centralSpain). The characterisation of th ephysical properties,, fluid composition, mineralogy, water-rock reaction processes, geochemical modelling and sorption properties of the clays from the mentioned wells is the main purpose of this work. (Author)

  18. Removal of clay by stingless bees: load size and moisture selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAUL COSTA-PEREIRA

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Some organisms disperse energy, associated with the transportation of resource, which is not necessarily food. Stingless bees of Central Amazonia (Melipona flavolineata and M. lateralis collect clay in banks along streams for nest building. The moisture of the clay varies along the bank, and bees collect clay from specific location, indicating that there is some sort of preference regarding their selection. This study aims at identifying: if larger bees carry more clay; if there is a preference for moisture of substrates; and if bees are less efficient accumulating and transporting clay when it is wet. In order to do so, I measured the size of the bees and of the pellets of clay found in the corbicula. I set up a field experiment to test substrate preferences. The amount of clay transported, increased exponentially in accordance to the size of the bee, and the preferred substrate was the driest clay. The amount and the efficiency of removal of clay were not affected by the moisture of the substrate. Despite the wet clay being denser, it does not reduce the efficiency of exploitation of the resource, but suggests that bees spend more energy to carry the same quantity of wet clay, which may be the underlying mechanism explaining their preference for removing drier clay.

  19. A Large-Scale Multibody Manipulator Soft Sensor Model and Experiment Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Ren

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Stress signal is difficult to obtain in the health monitoring of multibody manipulator. In order to solve this problem, a soft sensor method is presented. In the method, stress signal is considered as dominant variable and angle signal is regarded as auxiliary variable. By establishing the mathematical relationship between them, a soft sensor model is proposed. In the model, the stress information can be deduced by angle information which can be easily measured for such structures by experiments. Finally, test of ground and wall working conditions is done on a multibody manipulator test rig. The results show that the stress calculated by the proposed method is closed to the test one. Thus, the stress signal is easier to get than the traditional method. All of these prove that the model is correct and the method is feasible.

  20. Lab. experiments of mass transfer in the London clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourke, P.J.; Gilling, D.; Jefferies, N.L.; Lineham, T.R.; Lever, D.A.

    1989-01-01

    Aqueous phase mass transfer through the rocks surrounding a radioactive waste repository will take place by diffusion and convection. This paper presents a comprehensive set of measurements of the mass transfer characteristics for a single, naturally occurring, clay. These data are compared with the results predicted by mathematical models of mass transport in porous media, in order to build confidence in these models

  1. Laboratory and field tests for radionuclide migration and high flow paths in clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourke, P.J.; Jefferies, N.L.; Lineham, T.R.; Nesirky, P.

    1991-01-01

    Two investigations have been undertaken in this programme. The principal investigation was at Culham Laboratory, England, where water flow within the Kimmeridge clay was measured. A subsidiary investigation at SCK/CEN was undertaken at the Underground Research Laboratory SCK/CEN Mol, Belgium, where an in situ measurement of solute transport by diffusion was attempted. The in situ migration experiment at the Underground Research Laboratory at SCK/CEN Mol, Belgium, was unsuccessful, due to problems with the engineering installation. These difficulties caused significant disturbance to the Boom clay which was to be tested. Nevertheless the laboratory test proved the feasibility of the experiment. The field measurements at Culham Laboratory, Oxfordshire, were completed with the flow testing of a very silty clay horizon in the Kimmeridge clay. This layer was proved to be laterally continuous after drilling three exploratory boreholes. The hydraulic conductivity of the layer was ≥ 10 -8 ms -1 and comparative tests in the clay showed the conductivity of the clay to be at least 50 times less. 12 figs

  2. Higher order structure analysis of nano-materials by spectral reflectance of laser-plasma soft x-ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azuma, Hirozumi; Takeichi, Akihiro; Noda, Shoji

    1995-01-01

    We have proposed a new experimental arrangement to measure spectral reflectance of nano-materials for analyzing higher order structure with laser-plasma soft x-rays. Structure modification of annealed Mo/Si multilayers and a nylon-6/clay hybrid with poor periodicity was investigated. The measurement of the spectral reflectance of soft x-rays from laser-produced plasma was found to be a useful method for the structure analysis of nano-materials, especially those of rather poor periodicity

  3. Thermo-hydro-mechanical characterization of the Spanish reference clay material for engineered barrier for granite and clay HLW repository: laboratory and small mock up testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villar, M.V.

    1995-01-01

    This report refers to the work carried out by Technic Geologic Division of CIEMAT (CIEMAT.DT.TG) coordinated by SCK/CEN (Belgium), participating besides UPC-DIT and University of Wales on the framework of CEC Contract F12W-CT91-0102 (DOEO). It presents the results obtained. The total results on the project will be published by CE in the EUR series. The role of CIEMAT in this project was to carry out tests in which the conditions of the clay barrier in the repository were simulated. The interaction of heat coming from the wastes and of water coming from the geological medium has been reproduced on compacted clay blocks. For the performance of tests on high density compacted clay blocks (Task 2.1) and for the cementation and chemical-mineralogical transformation studies two different cells were designed and constructed in stainless steel: a thermohydraulic cell and an alteration cell. The experiments performed in these cells have provided us with a better knowledge of the heat source, hydration system and sensors, as well as interesting data on heat and water diffusion. A revision of the experiments performed on the thermohydraulic cell was presented at the ''International Workshop on Thermomechanics of Clays and Clay Barriers'' held in Bergamo in October'93 (Villar et al. 1993)

  4. Processes of cation migration in clay-rocks: Final Scientific Report of the CatClay European Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altmann, S.; Aertsens, M.; Appelo, T.; Bruggeman, C.; Gaboreau, S.; Glaus, M.; Jacquier, P.; Kupcik, T.; Maes, N.; Montoya, V.; Rabung, T.; Robinet, J.-C.; Savoye, S.; Schaefer, T.; Tournassat, C.; Van Laer, L.; Van Loon, L.

    2015-07-01

    illite and clay rocks, even though some assumptions made have to be verified. In parallel, actual 3D geometrical pore size distributions of compacted illite, and in less extent, clay rock samples, were successfully determined by combining TEM and FIB-nt analyses on materials maintained in a water-like saturation state by means of an extensive impregnation step. Based on this spatial distribution of pores, first numerical diffusion experiments were carried at the pore scale through virtual illite, enabling a better understanding of how transfer pathways are organized in the porous media. Finally, the EC CatClay project allowed a better understanding of the migration of strongly sorbing tracers through low permeability 'clay rock' formations, increasing confidence in our capacity to demonstrate that the models used to predict radionuclide migration through these rocks are scientifically sound. (authors)

  5. Chemo-hydro-mechanical behaviour of unsaturated clays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mokni, N.; Olivella, S.; Alonso, E.E.; Romero, E.

    2010-01-01

    influence of chemical loading on this reference formation in Belgium. To map out the chemo-hydro-mechanical behaviour of the Boom Clay a series of oedometric tests under saturated and unsaturated conditions are being performed. The experiments are being conducted on reconstituted specimens prepared by mixing the powdered clay with sodium nitrate solution to slurry at about the liquid limit. (authors)

  6. Comprehensive review of geosynthetic clay liner and compacted clay liner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankar, M. Uma; Muthukumar, M.

    2017-11-01

    Human activity inevitably produces waste materials that must be managed. Some waste can be reused. However many wastes that cannot be used beneficially must be disposed of ensuring environmental safety. One of the common methods of disposal is landfilling. The most common problems of the landfill site are environmental degradation and groundwater contamination caused by leachate produced during the decomposition process of organic material and rainfall. Liner in a landfill is an important component which prevent leachate migration and prevent groundwater contamination. Earthen liners have been widely used to contain waste materials in landfill. Liners and covers for municipal and hazardous waste containment facilities are often constructed with the use of fine-grained, low plasticity soils. Because of low permeability geosynthetic clay liners and compacted clay liners are the main materials used in waste disposal landfills. This paper summaries the important geotechnical characteristics such as hydraulic conductivity, liquid limit and free swell index of geosynthetic clay liner and compacted clay liner based on research findings. This paper also compares geosynthetic clay liner and compacted clay liner based on certain criteria such as thickness, availability of materials, vulnerability to damage etc.

  7. Possibilities for the storage of radioactive waste in deep clay formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Pochat, G.; Lienhardt, M.J.; Peaudecerf, P.; Platel, J.P.; Simon, J.M.; Berest, P.; Charpentier, J.P.; Andre-Jehan, R.

    1984-02-01

    The possible storage sites in deep clay formations have been studied in parts of large French sedimentary basins which prima facie seem to have suitable characteristics. The most suitable areas were chosen on the basis of earlier oil prospecting data consisting of information on seismic movements, diagraphic well-logging data and old samples that happened to have been preserved. At the same time, the lithology of the clay formations can be determined from mineralogical studies on samples taken from boreholes or from outcrops. Before carrying out in situ experiments concerned with the geotechnical characterization of the deep clays, measurements were made in the laboratory on samples obtained in two ways: from tertiary clay outcrops and from cores taken at 950 m in the clay layers during oil well logging. The results of studies carried out on tertiary clays in Les Landes illustrate this procedure

  8. p-Nitrophenol, phenol and aniline sorption by organo-clays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, C.H.; Fan Chihhao; Chiang, P.N.; Wang, M.K.; Lin, K.C.

    2007-01-01

    The aims of this study were to make use of organo-clays (i.e., Cloisite-10A, Cloisite-15A, Cloisite-30B and Cloisite-93A), to remove p-nitrophenol, phenol and aniline of organic pollutants. The organo-clays were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Sorption isotherm, kinetic and pH effect of p-nitrophenol, phenol and aniline sorbed by four organo-clays were evaluated. The d-spacings (0 0 1) of the XRD peak of Cloisite-10A, Cloisite-15A, Cloisite-30B and Cloisite-93A are 1.98, 2.76, 1.93 and 2.64 nm, respectively. The d(0 0 1)-spacings of XRD indicated that these p-nitropheno, phenol and aniline could penetrate into the interlayer of clays and expand the d(0 0 1)-spacings. The linear sorption isotherm of constant partition was employed to describe the sorption isotherms of phenols sorbed by organo-clays through hydrophobic-hydrophobic chemical reactions. The parabolic diffusion and power-function of kinetic models were employed to describe properly the kinetic experiments. The rate limiting step of the p-nitrophenol sorption reactions on organo-clays were diffusion-controlled processes (i.e., 15A, 30B, 93A) and chemical-controlled process for 10A organo-clays. The pre-exponential factor of the p-nitrophenol sorbed by four organo-clays showed the trend as follows: 10A > 30B > 93A > 15A. The efficiency of these organo-clays in removing phenol compounds in water treatments merit further study

  9. 3D Chemical Information in Clays Using Synchrotron Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denecke, Melissa A.; Schaefer, Thorsten

    2013-01-01

    In this presentation, two examples exploiting these advantages of using focused beams and especially X-rays for understanding actinide geochemistry in heterogeneous, natural geological media (sediment and granite), necessary for establishment of reliable predictive models required for designing safe nuclear disposal concepts and assessing associated potential long-term hazards. Combining spectroscopic results from focused IR radiation and X-rays in both the hard and soft (C 1s) regimes in the first example reveals the speciation of U in U-rich argillaceous sediment to be a nano-particulate tetravalent UO 2 -like phase, which is associated with light elements and organic material. This allows a tentative hypothesis for U immobilization in the sediment involving the organic material associated with the clay. The second example specifically deals with characterizing an immobile actinide (Np) species in a granite column following a tracer experiment. These results will be presented orally and are not found in the abstract below; information can be found in (Denecke et al. 2009, 2011). The talk will conclude with an outlook of the exciting opportunities offered by emerging X-ray sources such as the new PETRAIII facility at the Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY). (authors)

  10. SoftAR: visually manipulating haptic softness perception in spatial augmented reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punpongsanon, Parinya; Iwai, Daisuke; Sato, Kosuke

    2015-11-01

    We present SoftAR, a novel spatial augmented reality (AR) technique based on a pseudo-haptics mechanism that visually manipulates the sense of softness perceived by a user pushing a soft physical object. Considering the limitations of projection-based approaches that change only the surface appearance of a physical object, we propose two projection visual effects, i.e., surface deformation effect (SDE) and body appearance effect (BAE), on the basis of the observations of humans pushing physical objects. The SDE visualizes a two-dimensional deformation of the object surface with a controlled softness parameter, and BAE changes the color of the pushing hand. Through psychophysical experiments, we confirm that the SDE can manipulate softness perception such that the participant perceives significantly greater softness than the actual softness. Furthermore, fBAE, in which BAE is applied only for the finger area, significantly enhances manipulation of the perception of softness. We create a computational model that estimates perceived softness when SDE+fBAE is applied. We construct a prototype SoftAR system in which two application frameworks are implemented. The softness adjustment allows a user to adjust the softness parameter of a physical object, and the softness transfer allows the user to replace the softness with that of another object.

  11. Do scaly clays control seismicity on faulted shale rocks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orellana, Luis Felipe; Scuderi, Marco M.; Collettini, Cristiano; Violay, Marie

    2018-04-01

    One of the major challenges regarding the disposal of radioactive waste in geological formations is to ensure isolation of radioactive contamination from the environment and the population. Shales are suitable candidates as geological barriers. However, the presence of tectonic faults within clay formations put the long-term safety of geological repositories into question. In this study, we carry out frictional experiments on intact samples of Opalinus Clay, i.e. the host rock for nuclear waste storage in Switzerland. We report experimental evidence suggesting that scaly clays form at low normal stress (≤20 MPa), at sub-seismic velocities (≤300 μm/s) and is related to pre-existing bedding planes with an ongoing process where frictional sliding is the controlling deformation mechanism. We have found that scaly clays show a velocity-weakening and -strengthening behaviour, low frictional strength, and poor re-strengthening over time, conditions required to allow the potential nucleation and propagation of earthquakes within the scaly clays portion of the formation. The strong similarities between the microstructures of natural and experimental scaly clays suggest important implications for the slip behaviour of shallow faults in shales. If natural and anthropogenic perturbations modify the stress conditions of the fault zone, earthquakes might have the potential to nucleate within zones of scaly clays controlling the seismicity of the clay-rich tectonic system, thus, potentially compromising the long-term safeness of geological repositories situated in shales.

  12. Clay dispersibility and soil friability – testing the soil clay-to-carbon saturation concept

    OpenAIRE

    Schjønning, P.; de Jonge, L.W.; Munkholm, L.J.; Moldrup, P.; Christensen, B.T.; Olesen, J.E.

    2011-01-01

    Soil organic carbon (OC) influences clay dispersibility, which affects soil tilth conditions and the risk of vertical migration of clay colloids. No universal lower threshold of OC has been identified for satisfactory stabilization of soil structure. We tested the concept of clay saturation with OC as a predictor of clay dispersibility and soil friability. Soil was sampled three years in a field varying in clay content (~100 to ~220 g kg-1 soil) and grown with different crop rotations. Clay ...

  13. Biogeochemical processes in a clay formation in situ experiment: Part B - Results from overcoring and evidence of strong buffering by the rock formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koroleva, M. [Institute of Geological Sciences, University of Bern, Baltzerstrasse 3, CH-3012 Bern (Switzerland); Lerouge, C. [BRGM, French Geological Survey, 3 Avenue Claude Guillemin, B.P. 36009, 45060 Orleans Cedex 2 (France); Maeder, U., E-mail: urs.maeder@geo.unibe.ch [Institute of Geological Sciences, University of Bern, Baltzerstrasse 3, CH-3012 Bern (Switzerland); Claret, F.; Gaucher, E. [BRGM, French Geological Survey, 3 Avenue Claude Guillemin, B.P. 36009, 45060 Orleans Cedex 2 (France)

    2011-06-15

    Highlights: > A 5-year in situ porewater chemistry experiment in Opalinus Clay was overcored and examined. > A microbial perturbation induced sulfate reduction, pH decrease and alkalinity / P{sub CO2} increase. > Changes to mineralogy, isotopic composition and bulk properties could not be detected. > Precipitation of Fe-sulfides and carbonate occurred at the interface of the test interval. > The chemical perturbation was effectively buffered by the claystone's large capacity. - Abstract: An in situ Porewater Chemistry (PC) experiment in the Opalinus Clay formation was carried out at the Mont Terri underground rock laboratory (Jura Mountains, Switzerland) for a period of 5 a. A traced water with a composition close to that expected in the formation was continuously circulated and monitored in a packed-off borehole to achieve diffusive equilibration. An unwanted microbial perturbation changed the water composition, characterized by reduction of SO{sub 4} combined with increasing sulfide, increasing alkalinity, decreasing pH and increasing P(CO{sub 2}). In contrast, the main cations (Na, Ca, Mg) remained remarkably constant during the experiment, thus indicating the strong buffering of the formation via cation and proton exchange as well as carbonate dissolution/precipitation reactions. After 5 a, the 4.5 m long vertical test interval was overcored and Opalinus Clay samples were analyzed along ca. 15 cm long radial profiles. The analytical investigations included mineralogy (XRD, SEM-EDX), bulk parameters (water content, density, C, S), cation exchange capacity and occupancy, aqueous leachates for Cl{sup -}, Br{sup -}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} and water and carbonate stable isotopes. Emphasis was put on best sample preparation and conservation techniques. Results show that the distribution of non-reactive tracers (Br{sup -} and {sup 2}H) follows the expected out/in-diffusion profiles compatible with the time-dependent boundary conditions in the test interval of the

  14. HydroSoft coil versus HydroCoil for endovascular aneurysm occlusion study: A single center experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Xinbin; Fan Yimu; Zhang Jianning

    2011-01-01

    Background and purpose: The HydroCoil Embolic System (HES) was developed to reduce recurrences of aneurysms relative to platinum coils. But the HydroCoil Embolic System was characterized with many limitations. The manufacturer had recognized the challenge and recently a new design of hydrogel-coated coil-HydroSoft has become available in the market as the new generation HydroCoil. We reported our initial experience using HydroSoft coil versus HydroCoil in our center. Methods: 75 aneurysms embolized primarily using HydroSoft Coils from July 2008 to May 2009 were compared with 66 volume- and shape-matched aneurysms treated with HydroCoils from March 2006 to August 2008. Outcome measures included length and number of coils used, contrast volume, and length of hospital stay. During embolization, a stable framework was first established with bare coils, and hydrogel-coated coils were used subsequently to increase the packing density. Follow-up angiographic results 6 months after treatment were evaluated among some of the patients. Results: Successful coil embolization was achieved in all patients. There were no differences in average total coil length used per aneurysm. There were no differences in length of hospital stay and packing density. HydroSoft coils were more suitable using as the finishing or final coil. HydroSoft coil decreased the procedure-related retreated rates, and aneurysm packing was finished with soft, flexible HydroSoft coil and decreased the neck remnant rates. Follow-up angiography in HydroSoft-treated patients at 6 months revealed aneurysm stability without significant residual neck. Conclusions: HydroSoft coil allowed us to deploy coated coils with good packing density. A slight expansion of these coils at the neck can be expected to reduce neck remnant and potentially inhibit recurrence.

  15. Experimental Study on Environment Friendly Tap Hole Clay for Blast Furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siva kumar, R.; Mohammed, Raffi; Srinivasa Rao, K.

    2018-03-01

    Blast furnace (BF) is the best possible route of iron production available. Blast furnace is a high pressure vessel where iron ore is melted and liquid iron is produced. The liquid iron is tapped through the hole in Blast Furnace called tap hole. The tapped liquid metal flowing through the tap hole is plugged using a clay called tap hole clay. Tap hole clay (THC) is a unshaped refractory used to plug the tap hole. The tap hole clay extruded through the tap hole using a gun. The tap hole clay is designed to expand and plug the tap hole. The tap hole filled with clay is drilled using drill bit and the hole made through the tap hole to tap the liquid metal accumulated inside the furnace. The number of plugging and drilling varies depending on the volume of the furnace. The tap hole clay need to have certain properties to avoid problems during plugging and drilling. In the present paper tap hole clay properties in industrial use was tested and studied. The problems were identified related to tap hole clay manufacturing. Experiments were conducted in lab scale to solve the identified problems. The present composition was modified with experimental results. The properties of the modified tap hole clay were found suitable and useful for blast furnace operation with lab scale experimental results.

  16. On the effect of hot water vapor on MX-80 clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pusch, Roland

    2000-10-01

    Earlier experiments with smectite clay exposed to hot water vapor have indicated that the expandability may be largely lost. If such conditions prevail in a HLW repository the buffer clay may deteriorate and lose its isolating potential. The present study aimed at checking this by hydrothermal treatment at 90 to 110 deg C of rather dense MX-80 clay with subsequent oedometer testing for determining the hydration rate, swelling pressure and hydraulic conductivity, which are all expected to be quite different from those of untreated clay if the expandability is actually reduced. The results show that the swelling pressure of MX-80 clay is not noticeably altered by exposing it to vapor with a temperature of up to 110 deg C for one month while the hydraulic conductivity is increased by about 10% due to some permanent microstructural alteration. The overall change in physical properties of MX-80 clay under the prevailing laboratory conditions is not very significant

  17. On the effect of hot water vapor on MX-80 clay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pusch, Roland [Geodevelopment AB, Lund (Sweden)

    2000-10-01

    Earlier experiments with smectite clay exposed to hot water vapor have indicated that the expandability may be largely lost. If such conditions prevail in a HLW repository the buffer clay may deteriorate and lose its isolating potential. The present study aimed at checking this by hydrothermal treatment at 90 to 110 deg C of rather dense MX-80 clay with subsequent oedometer testing for determining the hydration rate, swelling pressure and hydraulic conductivity, which are all expected to be quite different from those of untreated clay if the expandability is actually reduced. The results show that the swelling pressure of MX-80 clay is not noticeably altered by exposing it to vapor with a temperature of up to 110 deg C for one month while the hydraulic conductivity is increased by about 10% due to some permanent microstructural alteration. The overall change in physical properties of MX-80 clay under the prevailing laboratory conditions is not very significant.

  18. The effect of freeze-thaw cycles on the hydraulic conductivity of compacted clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waite, D.; Anderson, L.; Caliendo, J.; McFarland, M.

    1994-01-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the detrimental effects of freeze-thaw on the hydraulic conductivity of compacted clay. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect that molding water content has on the hydraulic conductivity of a compacted clay soil that is subjected to freeze-thaw cycles, and to determine the relationship between the number of freeze-thaw cycles and the hydraulic conductivity of the compacted clay soil. Clay soils compacted and frozen wet of optimum experienced an increase in hydraulic conductivity of approximately 140 fold. The hydraulic conductivity of clay compacted dry of optimum increased ten fold. These results are consistent with recent research which suggests that clay compacted wet of optimum experiences large increases in hydraulic conductivity while the hydraulic conductivity of clay compacted dry of optimum increases to a lesser extent. 12 refs., 9 figs

  19. Synchrotron SAXS/WAXD and rheological studies of clay suspensions in silicone fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li-Ming; Jahns, Christopher; Hsiao, Benjamin S; Chu, Benjamin

    2003-10-15

    Suspensions of two commercial smectite clays, montmorillonite KSF and montmorillonite K10, in a low-viscosity silicone oil (Dow Corning 245 Fluid) were studied by simultaneous synchrotron small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS)/wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) techniques and rheological measurements. In the 0.5% (w/v) KSF clay suspension and two K10 clay suspensions (0.5% and 1.0%), WAXD profiles below 2theta=10.0 degrees did not display any characteristic reflection peaks associated with the chosen montmorillonite clays, while corresponding SAXS profiles exhibited distinct scattering maxima, indicating that both clays were delaminated by the silicone oil. In spite of the large increase in viscosity, the clay suspensions exhibited no gel characteristics. Dynamic rheological experiments indicated that the clay/silicone oil suspensions exhibited the behavior of viscoelasticity, which could be influenced by the type and the concentration of the clay. For the K10 clay suspensions, the frequency-dependent loss modulus (G") was greater in magnitude than the storage modulus (G') in the concentration range from 0.5 to 12.0%. The increase in the clay concentration shifted the crossover point between G' and G" into the accessible frequency range, indicating that the system became more elastic. In contrast, the KSF clay suspension exhibited lower G' and G" values, indicating a weaker viscoelastic response. The larger viscoelasticity response in the K10 clay suspension may be due to the acid treatment generating a higher concentration of silanol groups on the clay surface.

  20. Termites utilise clay to build structural supports and so increase foraging resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberst, Sebastian; Lai, Joseph C S; Evans, Theodore A

    2016-02-08

    Many termite species use clay to build foraging galleries and mound-nests. In some cases clay is placed within excavations of their wooden food, such as living trees or timber in buildings; however the purpose for this clay is unclear. We tested the hypotheses that termites can identify load bearing wood, and that they use clay to provide mechanical support of the load and thus allow them to eat the wood. In field and laboratory experiments, we show that the lower termite Coptotermes acinaciformis, the most basal species to build a mound-nest, can distinguish unloaded from loaded wood, and use clay differently when eating each type. The termites target unloaded wood preferentially, and use thin clay sheeting to camouflage themselves while eating the unloaded wood. The termites attack loaded wood secondarily, and build thick, load-bearing clay walls when they do. The termites add clay and build thicker walls as the load-bearing wood is consumed. The use of clay to support wood under load unlocks otherwise unavailable food resources. This behaviour may represent an evolutionary step from foraging behaviour to nest building in lower termites.

  1. Multiscale Micromechanical Modeling of Polymer/Clay Nanocomposites and the Effective Clay Particle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Nuo; Boyce, Mary C.; Parks, David M.; Manovitch, Oleg; Rutledge, Gregory C.; Lee, Hojun; McKinley, Gareth H.

    2003-03-01

    Polymer/clay nanocomposites have been observed to exhibit enhanced mechanical properties at low weight fractions (Wp) of clay. Continuum-based composite modeling reveals that the enhanced properties are strongly dependent on particular features of the second-phase ¡°particles¡+/-; in particular, the particle volume fraction (fp), the particle aspect ratio (L/t), and the ratio of particle mechanical properties to those of the matrix. However, these important aspects of as-processed nanoclay composites have yet to be consistently and accurately defined. A multiscale modeling strategy was developed to account for the hierarchical morphology of the nanocomposite: at a lengthscale of thousands of microns, the structure is one of high aspect ratio particles within a matrix; at the lengthscale of microns, the clay particle structure is either (a) exfoliated clay sheets of nanometer level thickness or (b) stacks of parallel clay sheets separated from one another by interlayer galleries of nanometer level height. Here, quantitative structural parameters extracted from XRD patterns and TEM micrographs are used to determine geometric features of the as-processed clay ¡°particles¡+/-, including L/t and the ratio of fp to Wp. These geometric features, together with estimates of silicate lamina stiffness obtained from molecular dynamics simulations, provide a basis for modeling effective mechanical properties of the clay particle. The structure-based predictions of the macroscopic elastic modulus of the nanocomposite as a function of clay weight fraction are in excellent agreement with experimental data. The adopted methodology offers promise for study of related properties in polymer/clay nanocomposites.

  2. Influence of non-clay minerals on the interaction between metallic iron and Callovo-Oxfordian clay fraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivard, C.; Pelletier, M.; Villieras, F.; Michau, N.

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. In the context of the geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste, it is of prime importance to understand the interaction mechanisms between the geological matrix, Callovo-Oxfordian clay rock (COx) and metallic iron, from the package overpack. In order to evidence the individual role of each clay component entering in the mineralogy of the COx, interactions between metallic iron and pure clays (smectites, illite and kaolinite) were first conducted. To investigate the role of the other minerals, the reactivity of COx, COx clay fraction (COxCF) and mixtures between COxCF and quartz, calcite or pyrite, was studied. Clays and additional minerals were put in contact with powder metallic iron with a weight ratio iron:clay fixed at 1:3 and a clay:solution ratio of 1:20. Proportions of non-clay minerals were deduced from the average COx composition: 50% clays, 24.5% quartz, 24.5% calcite and 1% pyrite. Batch experiments were carried out in anoxic conditions at 90 deg. C in the presence of background electrolyte (NaCl 0.02 M.L -1 , CaCl 2 0.04 M.L -1 ) in Parr reactors for durations of one, three or nine months. After reaction, solid and liquid phases were separated by centrifugation and characterized by classical techniques combining chemical analyses (liquid analyses, transmission electron microscopy combined with Energy Dispersive of X-rays spectroscopy TEM-EDS), mineralogical (X-ray diffraction), spectroscopic ( 57 Fe Moessbauer) and morphometric techniques (TEM, scanning electron microscopy and N 2 adsorption). For COx, COxCF and all the pure clay phases, major evolutions were observed during the first month, which shows that the oxidation of metallic iron is rapid in our experimental conditions. Release of iron cations in solution, pH increase (8-10) and Eh decrease (reductive conditions) are responsible for the partial dissolution of initial clay phases. Released iron is involved in the crystallization of Fe

  3. Clays in natural and engineered barriers for radioactive waste confinement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    Andra organised an International Symposium on the use of Natural and Engineered Clay-based Barriers for the Containment of Radioactive Waste hold at the Congress Centre of Tours, France, in March 2005. The symposium provided an opportunity to take stock of the potential properties of the clay-based materials present in engineered or natural barriers in order to meet the containment specifications of a deep geological repository for radioactive waste. It was intended for specialists working in the various disciplines involved with clays and clay based minerals, as well as scientists from agencies and organisations dealing with investigations on the disposal of high-level and long-lived radioactive waste. The themes of the Symposium included geology, geochemistry, transfers of materials, alteration processes, geomechanics, as well as the recent developments regarding the characterisation of clays, as well as experiments in surface and underground laboratories. The symposium consisted of plenary sessions, parallel specialized sessions and poster sessions. (author)

  4. Pulse heating tests on two reference Belgian clay formations. Laboratory experiments and numerical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, A.; Romero, E.; Vaunat, J.; Gens, A.; Li, X.L.

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Two deep clay formations are being investigated in Belgium in connection with the design of a repository for 'High-Level Radioactive Waste': Boom clay at Mol (located between 160 and 270 m depths), considered the reference host formation, and Ypresian clay at Kallo (located between 300 and 450 m depths) as an alternative one. Thermal impact may play an important role on the behaviour of these low-permeability clayey formations. In this context, heating pulse tests on intact borehole samples retrieved in vertical and horizontal directions were carried out on both clays using an axisymmetric heating cell. Heating tests under nearly constant volume conditions and different target temperatures (maximum 85 C) were performed under controlled hydraulic boundary conditions. Attention is focused on the time evolution of temperature and pore water pressure changes during heating and cooling paths -i.e., pore pressure build-up during quasi-undrained heating and later dissipation to the applied hydraulic boundary conditions-. The finite element program CODE-BRIGHT was used to determine thermal parameters by back-analysis and to simulate the experimental results. Table 1 summarises the main properties of these clays. The experimental programme was carried out on a fully-instrumented cell (sample 75 mm diameter and 100 mm high) with a controlled-power heater housed inside the cell. Two miniature pore water pressure transducers located at different heights of the lateral wall of the cell and three thermocouples were used to monitor the sample response. The cell has top and bottom valves to control hydraulic conditions. The protocol of the tests included three main phases: hydration, heating and cooling. Throughout the heating and cooling phases, the bottom drainage was maintained open at a constant water pressure using an automatic pressure/volume controller, while the upper valve was kept closed. Figures 1a and 1c show the time

  5. Clay intercalation and influence on crystallinity of EVA-based clay nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhary, D.S.; Prasad, R.; Gupta, R.K.; Bhattacharya, S.N.

    2005-01-01

    Various polymer clay nanocomposites (PCNs) were prepared from ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA) with 9, 18 and 28% vinyl acetate (VA) content filled with different wt.% (2.5, 5 and 7.5) of a Montmorillonite-based organo-modified clay (Cloisite[reg] C15A and C30B). The PCNs were prepared using melt blending techniques. Morphological information regarding intercalation and exfoliation were determined by using wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). WAXS and TEM confirmed that increasing the VA content was necessary to achieve greater clay-polymer interaction as seen from the comparatively higher intercalation of clay platelets with 28% VA. The effect of addition of clay on the development and the modification of crystalline morphology in EVA matrix was also studied using WAXS and temperature-modulated differential scanning calorimetry (MDSC). Results are presented showing that the addition of clay platelets does not increase the matrix crystallinity but the morphology was significantly modified such that there was an increase in the 'rigid' amorphous phase. Mechanical properties were also evaluated against the respective morphological information for each specimen and there are indications that the level of clay-polymer interaction plays a significant role in such morphological modification, and in such a way that affects the final PCN mechanical properties which has wide and significant applications in the packaging industries

  6. Migration of uranium in the presence of clay colloids in a sandy aquifer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Cointe, P.; Grambow, B.; Piscitelli, A.; Montavon, G.; Van der Lee, J.; Giffaut, E.; Schneider, V.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. In France, low and medium level radioactive waste of short period (nuclides with a half-life less than 31 years and an activity ranging from 100 to 1,000,000 Bq/g) is stored in concrete constructions on a surface site in Soulaines-Dhuys (Aube). The site was chosen for its simple geology: it entirely lays on an aquifer formation, the Upper Aptian sands, above a Lower Aptian impermeable clay formation. The site is surrounded by the Noues d'Amance stream, which serves as the single outlet of the groundwater on the site. The objective of this study is to improve knowledge of radionuclides migration in the aquifer formation to improve safety, using U(VI) as an example and focusing on colloids, capable of transporting U(VI) on long distances. The sediment is composed of two main phases: quartz and clay minerals (glauconite, with a small fraction of kaolinite and smectite), with relative amounts of 91 and 6% in weight, respectively. The aquifer water contains clay colloids, invisible to the eye though observed with SEM and TEM in a non disturbed sample. No signal was measured with usual light diffusion techniques and Asymmetric Flow Field-Flow Fractionation (AF4). Only the Laser Induced Breakdown Detection (LIBD) technique could characterize the size (between 30 and 70 nm) and the concentration (around 10 ppb) of the clay colloids. Batch experiments were carried out to define U(VI)-Quartz and U(VI)-Clay interactions, with U(VI) concentration, pH and pCO 2 being the studied variables. The data were modelled with the Chess geochemistry code developed at the Paris School of Mines and compared to literature. Davis applied model for U(VI)-Quartz interaction and Bradbury and Baeyens applied model for U(VI)-Illite interaction adequately describe the experimental data. To know if clay colloids can move freely in the groundwater, pore size was measured using X-ray microtomography. Nanoparticles tracing was done with

  7. Migration of uranium in the presence of clay colloids in a sandy aquifer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Cointe, P. [Laboratoire SUBATECH, UMR 6457 Ecole des Mines/CNRS/Universite, 4 rue A. Kastler, BP 20722, 44307 Nantes Cedex 03 (France); Centre de Geosciences, Ecole des Mines de Paris, 35 rue St-Honore, 77305 Fontainebleau Cedex (France); ANDRA 1/7 rue Jean Monnet - 92298 Chatenay Malabry Cedex (France); Grambow, B.; Piscitelli, A.; Montavon, G. [Laboratoire SUBATECH, UMR 6457 Ecole des Mines/CNRS/Universite, 4 rue A. Kastler, BP 20722, 44307 Nantes Cedex 03 (France); Van der Lee, J. [EDF R ete D, Site des Renardieres, Route de Sens - Ecuelles, 77250 Moret sur Loing (France); Giffaut, E.; Schneider, V. [ANDRA 1/7 rue Jean Monnet - 92298 Chatenay Malabry Cedex (France)

    2010-07-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. In France, low and medium level radioactive waste of short period (nuclides with a half-life less than 31 years and an activity ranging from 100 to 1,000,000 Bq/g) is stored in concrete constructions on a surface site in Soulaines-Dhuys (Aube). The site was chosen for its simple geology: it entirely lays on an aquifer formation, the Upper Aptian sands, above a Lower Aptian impermeable clay formation. The site is surrounded by the Noues d'Amance stream, which serves as the single outlet of the groundwater on the site. The objective of this study is to improve knowledge of radionuclides migration in the aquifer formation to improve safety, using U(VI) as an example and focusing on colloids, capable of transporting U(VI) on long distances. The sediment is composed of two main phases: quartz and clay minerals (glauconite, with a small fraction of kaolinite and smectite), with relative amounts of 91 and 6% in weight, respectively. The aquifer water contains clay colloids, invisible to the eye though observed with SEM and TEM in a non disturbed sample. No signal was measured with usual light diffusion techniques and Asymmetric Flow Field-Flow Fractionation (AF4). Only the Laser Induced Breakdown Detection (LIBD) technique could characterize the size (between 30 and 70 nm) and the concentration (around 10 ppb) of the clay colloids. Batch experiments were carried out to define U(VI)-Quartz and U(VI)-Clay interactions, with U(VI) concentration, pH and pCO{sub 2} being the studied variables. The data were modelled with the Chess geochemistry code developed at the Paris School of Mines and compared to literature. Davis applied model for U(VI)-Quartz interaction and Bradbury and Baeyens applied model for U(VI)-Illite interaction adequately describe the experimental data. To know if clay colloids can move freely in the groundwater, pore size was measured using X-ray microtomography. Nanoparticles tracing was done with

  8. Clay Dispersibility and Soil Friability-Testing the Soil Clay-to-Carbon Saturation Concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjønning, Per; de Jonge, Lis Wollesen; Munkholm, Lars Juhl

    2012-01-01

    Soil organic carbon (OC) influences clay dispersibility, which affects soil tilth conditions and the risk of vertical migration of clay colloids. No universal lower threshold of OC has been identified for satisfactory stabilization of soil structure. We tested the concept of clay saturation with OC...... as a predictor of clay dispersibility and soil friability. Soil was sampled 3 yr in a field varying in clay content (∼100 to ∼220 g kg−1 soil) and grown with different crop rotations. Clay dispersibility was measured after end-over-end shaking of field-moist soil and 1- to 2-mm sized aggregates either air......-dried or rewetted to −100 hPa matric potential. Tensile strength of 1- to 2-, 2- to 4-, 4- to 8-, and 8- to 16-mm air-dried aggregates was calculated from their compressive strength, and soil friability estimated from the strength–volume relation. Crop rotation characteristics gave only minor effects on clay...

  9. Adsorption of hydrogen gas and redox processes in clays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didier, Mathilde; Leone, Laura; Greneche, Jean-Marc; Giffaut, Eric; Charlet, Laurent

    2012-03-20

    In order to assess the adsorption properties of hydrogen gas and reactivity of adsorbed hydrogen, we measured H(2)(g) adsorption on Na synthetic montmorillonite-type clays and Callovo-Oxfordian (COx) clayrock using gas chromatography. Synthetic montmorillonites with increasing structural Fe(III) substitution (0 wt %, 3.2 wt %, and 6.4 wt % Fe) were used. Fe in the synthetic montmorillonites is principally present as structural Fe(III) ions. We studied the concomitant reduction of structural Fe(III) in the clays using (57)Fe Mössbauer spectrometry. The COx, which mainly contains smectite/illite and calcite minerals, is also studied together with the pure clay fraction of this clayrock. Experiments were performed with dry clay samples which were reacted with hydrogen gas at 90 and 120 °C for 30 to 45 days at a hydrogen partial pressure close to 0.45 bar. Results indicate that up to 0.11 wt % of hydrogen is adsorbed on the clays at 90 °C under 0.45 bar of relative pressure. (57)Fe Mössbauer spectrometry shows that up to 6% of the total structural Fe(III) initially present in these synthetic clays is reduced upon adsorption of hydrogen gas. No reduction is observed with the COx sample in the present experimental conditions.

  10. SBR Brazilian organophilic/clay nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guimaraes, Thiago R.; Valenzuela-Diaz, Francisco R.; Morales, Ana Rita; Paiva, Lucilene B.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this work is the obtaining of SBR composites using a Brazilian raw bentonite and the same bentonite treated with an organic salt. The clays were characterized by XRD. The clay addition in the composites was 10 pcr. The composites were characterized by XRD and had measured theirs tension strength (TS). The composite with Brazilian treated clay showed TS 233% higher than a composite with no clay, 133% higher than a composite with Cloisite 30B organophilic clay and 17% lower than a composite with Cloisite 20 A organophilic clay. XRD and TS data evidence that the composite with Brazilian treated clay is an intercalated nanocomposite. (author)

  11. Assessment of geomechanical properties of intact Opalinus Clay - Expert report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amann, F.; Vogelhuber, M.

    2015-11-01

    This comprehensive report published by the Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate ENSI presents an expert report published on the assessment of the geomechanical properties of intact Opalinus Clay. This review report addresses the conceptual constitutive framework for repositories in Opalinus Clay. The author addresses the geomechanical fundamentals that are necessary in order to adequately judge experiments on intact Opalinus Clay and the interpretation of the results. The report assesses in detail the various test series on intact Opalinus Clay carried out along with the interpretations made by experts and NAGRA. Further assessments are quoted including those on sample geometries tested, effective strength properties, undrained shear strength properties and elastic properties. The results of work done by other experts are also presented and discussed. The report is completed with a list of relevant literature

  12. Assessment of geomechanical properties of intact Opalinus Clay - Expert report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amann, F. [Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule ETHZ, Zürich (Switzerland); Vogelhuber, M. [Dr. von Moos AG, Geotechnisches Büro, Zürich (Switzerland)

    2015-11-15

    This comprehensive report published by the Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate ENSI presents an expert report published on the assessment of the geomechanical properties of intact Opalinus Clay. This review report addresses the conceptual constitutive framework for repositories in Opalinus Clay. The author addresses the geomechanical fundamentals that are necessary in order to adequately judge experiments on intact Opalinus Clay and the interpretation of the results. The report assesses in detail the various test series on intact Opalinus Clay carried out along with the interpretations made by experts and NAGRA. Further assessments are quoted including those on sample geometries tested, effective strength properties, undrained shear strength properties and elastic properties. The results of work done by other experts are also presented and discussed. The report is completed with a list of relevant literature.

  13. Atrazine biodegradation modulated by clays and clay/humic acid complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besse-Hoggan, Pascale; Alekseeva, Tatiana; Sancelme, Martine; Delort, Anne-Marie; Forano, Claude

    2009-01-01

    The fate of pesticides in the environment is strongly related to the soil sorption processes that control not only their transfer but also their bioavailability. Cationic (Ca-bentonite) and anionic (Layered Double Hydroxide) clays behave towards the ionisable pesticide atrazine (AT) sorption with opposite tendencies: a noticeable sorption capacity for the first whereas the highly hydrophilic LDH showed no interactions with AT. These clays were modified with different humic acid (HA) contents. HA sorbed on the clay surface and increased AT interactions. The sorption effect on AT biodegradation and on its metabolite formation was studied with Pseudomonas sp. ADP. The biodegradation rate was greatly modulated by the material's sorption capacity and was clearly limited by the desorption rate. More surprisingly, it increased dramatically with LDH. Adsorption of bacterial cells on clay particles facilitates the degradation of non-sorbed chemical, and should be considered for predicting pesticide fate in the environment. - The biodegradation rate of atrazine was greatly modulated by adsorption of the pesticide and also bacterial cells on clay particles.

  14. Influence of Polymer-Clay Interfacial Interactions on the Ignition Time of Polymer/Clay Nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zope, Indraneel S; Dasari, Aravind; Yu, Zhong-Zhen

    2017-08-11

    Metal ions present on smectite clay (montmorillonite) platelets have preferential reactivity towards peroxy/alkoxy groups during polyamide 6 (PA6) thermal decomposition. This changes the decomposition pathway and negatively affects the ignition response of PA6. To restrict these interfacial interactions, high-temperature-resistant polymers such as polyetherimide (PEI) and polyimide (PI) were used to coat clay layers. PEI was deposited on clay by solution-precipitation, whereas PI was deposited through a solution-imidization-precipitation technique before melt blending with PA6. The absence of polymer-clay interfacial interactions has resulted in a similar time-to-ignition of PA6/PEI-clay (133 s) and PA6/PI-clay (139 s) composites as neat PA6 (140 s). On the contrary, PA6 with conventional ammonium-based surfactant modified clay has showed a huge drop in time-to-ignition (81 s), as expected. The experimental evidences provided herein reveal the role of the catalytic activity of clay during the early stages of polymer decomposition.

  15. The Fate of Dissolved Creosote Compounds in an Intact Fratured Clay Column

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broholm, Kim; Arvin, Erik; Hansen, Asger

    1995-01-01

    The fate of 16 different organics typical for creosote was studied under aerobic conditions in a large intact fractured clay column experiment. Some of the organics (benzene, toluene, o-xylene, phenol, and o-cresol) were transported at the same rate as bromide through the fractured clay, whereas ...

  16. Phosphonium modified clay/polyimide nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceylan, Hatice; Çakmakçi, Emrah; Beyler-Çiǧil, Asli; Kahraman, Memet Vezir

    2014-01-01

    In this study, octyltriphenylphosphonium bromide [OTPP-Br] was prepared from the reaction of triphenylphosphine and 1 -bromooctane. The modification of clay was done by ion exchange reaction using OTPP-Br in water medium. Poly(amic acid) was prepared from the reaction of 3,3',4,4'-Benzophenonetetracarboxylic dianhydride (BTDA) and 4,4'-Oxydianiline (ODA). Polyimide(PI)/clay hybrids were prepared by blending of poly(amic acid) and organically modified clay as a type of layered clays. The morphology of the Polyimide/ phosphonium modified clay hybrids was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Chemical structures of polyimide and Polyimide/ phosphonium modified clay hybrids were characterized by FTIR. SEM and FTIR results showed that the Polyimide/ phosphonium modified clay hybrids were successfully prepared. Thermal properties of the Polyimide/ phosphonium modified clay hybrids were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA)

  17. [Mechanism of tritium persistence in porous media like clay minerals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dong-Jie; Wang, Jin-Sheng; Teng, Yan-Guo; Zhang, Ke-Ni

    2011-03-01

    To investigate the mechanisms of tritium persistence in clay minerals, three types of clay soils (montmorillonite, kaolinite and illite) and tritiated water were used in this study to conduct the tritium sorption tests and the other related tests. Firstly, the ingredients, metal elements and heat properties of clay minerals were studied with some instrumental analysis methods, such as ICP and TG. Secondly, with a specially designed fractionation and condensation experiment, the adsorbed water, the interlayer water and the structural water in the clay minerals separated from the tritium sorption tests were fractionated for investigating the tritium distributions in the different types of adsorptive waters. Thirdly, the location and configuration of tritium adsorbed into the structure of clay minerals were studied with infrared spectrometry (IR) tests. And finally, the forces and mechanisms for driving tritium into the clay minerals were analyzed on the basis of the isotope effect of tritium and the above tests. Following conclusions have been reached: (1) The main reason for tritium persistence in clay minerals is the entrance of tritium into the adsorbed water, the interlayer water and the structural water in clay minerals. The percentage of tritium distributed in these three types of adsorptive water are in the range of 13.65% - 38.71%, 0.32% - 5.96%, 1.28% - 4.37% of the total tritium used in the corresponding test, respectively. The percentages are different for different types of clay minerals. (2) Tritium adsorbed onto clay minerals are existed in the forms of the tritiated hydroxyl radical (OT) and the tritiated water molecule (HTO). Tritium mainly exists in tritiated water molecule for adsorbed water and interlayer water, and in tritiated hydroxyl radical for structural water. (3) The forces and effects driving tritium into the clay minerals may include molecular dispersion, electric charge sorption, isotope exchange and tritium isotope effect.

  18. Soft, Embodied, Situated & Connected

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomico, Oscar; Wilde, Danielle

    2015-01-01

    Soft wearables include clothing and textile-based accessories that incorporate smart textiles and soft electronic interfaces to enable responsive and interactive experiences. When designed well, they leverage the cultural, sociological and material qualities of textiles, fashion and dress; divers...

  19. Soft, embodied, situated & connected

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tomico Plasencia, O.; Wilde, D.

    2015-01-01

    Soft wearables include clothing and textile-based accessories that incorporate smart textiles and soft electronic interfaces to enable responsive and interactive experiences. When designed well, they leverage the cultural, sociological and material qualities of textiles, fashion and dress; diverse

  20. Electrokinetic-enhanced bioaugmentation for remediation of chlorinated solvents contaminated clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao, Xuhui; Wang, James; Ciblak, Ali; Cox, Evan E.; Riis, Charlotte; Terkelsen, Mads; Gent, David B.; Alshawabkeh, Akram N.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Simultaneous delivery of electron donors and bacteria into low permeability clays. ► Bacteria injection, growth and consequent transformation of contaminants are viable. ► EK injection is more effective than advection-based injection for clay soil. ► Electroosmosis appears to be the driving mechanism for bacteria injection. ► Both EK transport and biodegradation contribute the removal of VOCs in clay. - Abstract: Successful bioremediation of contaminated soils is controlled by the ability to deliver bioremediation additives, such as bacteria and/or nutrients, to the contaminated zone. Because hydraulic advection is not practical for delivery in clays, electrokinetic (EK) injection is an alternative for efficient and uniform delivery of bioremediation additive into low-permeability soil and heterogeneous deposits. EK-enhanced bioaugmentation for remediation of clays contaminated with chlorinated solvents is evaluated. Dehalococcoides (Dhc) bacterial strain and lactate ions are uniformly injected in contaminated clay and complete dechlorination of chlorinated ethene is observed in laboratory experiments. The injected bacteria can survive, grow, and promote effective dechlorination under EK conditions and after EK application. The distribution of Dhc within the clay suggests that electrokinetic transport of Dhc is primarily driven by electroosmosis. In addition to biodegradation due to bioaugmentation of Dhc, an EK-driven transport of chlorinated ethenes is observed in the clay, which accelerates cleanup of chlorinated ethenes from the anode side. Compared with conventional advection-based delivery, EK injection is significantly more effective for establishing microbial reductive dechlorination capacity in low-permeability soils.

  1. LABORATORY TESTING OF BENTONITE CLAYS FOR LANDFILL DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biljana Kovačević Zelić

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Top and bottom liners are one of the key construction elements in every landfill. They are usually made as compacted clay liners (CCLs composed of several layers of compacted clay with strictly defined properties or by the use of alternative materials such as: GCL – geosynthetic clay liner, BES – bentonite enhanced soils or bentonite/polymer mixtures. Following the state of the art experiences in the world, GCLs are used in Croatian landfills for several years, as well. Depending upon the location and the obeying function, GCLs have to fulfill certain conditions. A legislated compatibility criterion has to be proven by various laboratory tests. In the paper are presented the results of direct shear and chemical compatibility tests of GCLs as well as the results of permeability measurement of kaolin clay (the paper is published in Croatian .

  2. Catsius Clay Project. Calculation and Testing of Behaviour of Unsaturated Clay as Barrier in Radioactive Waste Repositories. Stage 2: Validation Exercises at Laboratory scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso, E E; Alcoverro, J

    1999-07-01

    Stage 2 of CATSIUS CLAY Project: Validation Exercises at Laboratory Scale includes two Benchmarks, Benchmark 2.1: Oedometer Suction Controlled Tests on Samples of compacted Boom Clay and Benchmark 2.2: Small Scale Weltting-Heating Test on Compacted Bentonite. BM 2.1 had two parts: BM 2.1A (volumetric deformation upon wetting-drying cycles) and BM 2.1 B (swelling pressure test). In BM 2.1A, participants were asked to model the results of a series of five tests on samples of compacted Boom clay. In BM 2.1B, a swelling pressure test in which suction, vertical and horizontal stresses were monitored, was proposed as a blind exercise. Participants were asked to use, without further changes, the models calibrated in BM 2.1A. This exercise provides an evaluation of the capabilities of current mechanical constitutive models for unsaturated clay behaviour. It was found that, even if a calibration exercise on the basis of known experimental data is satisfactory, blind predictions of tests involving different paths may prove difficult. The test set up for BM 2.2 consisted of a stainless stell cell filled with highly expansive compacted bentonite (S2 clay from Almeria, Spain). The clay was subjected to a simultaneous central heating and a progressive water inflow through the botton plate. Temperature at various locations within the sample and the boundary radial stress were monitored throughout the test. Water content distribution was also measured at the end of the experiment. Predictions for this benchmark required the solution of field equations for flow, temperature distribution and mechanical analysis. Model parameters were derived from the extensive set of available experiments on this clay. Comparison between model predictions and measurements revealed the significance of water transport in vapour phase, the difficulties to predict boundary stresses and the general good agreement between measured and calculated temperatures. The report provides a detailed accojnt of the

  3. Catsius Clay Project. Calculation and Testing of Behaviour of Unsaturated Clay as Barrier in Radioactive Waste Repositories. Stage 2: Validation Exercises at Laboratory scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, E. E.; Alcoverro, J.

    1999-01-01

    Stage 2 of CATSIUS CLAY Project: Validation Exercises at Laboratory Scale includes two Benchmarks, Benchmark 2.1: Oedometer Suction Controlled Tests on Samples of compacted Boom Clay and Benchmark 2.2: Small Scale Weltting-Heating Test on Compacted Bentonite. BM 2.1 had two parts: BM 2.1A (volumetric deformation upon wetting-drying cycles) and BM 2.1 B (swelling pressure test). In BM 2.1A, participants were asked to model the results of a series of five tests on samples of compacted Boom clay. In BM 2.1B, a swelling pressure test in which suction, vertical and horizontal stresses were monitored, was proposed as a blind exercise. Participants were asked to use, without further changes, the models calibrated in BM 2.1A. This exercise provides an evaluation of the capabilities of current mechanical constitutive models for unsaturated clay behaviour. It was found that, even if a calibration exercise on the basis of known experimental data is satisfactory, blind predictions of tests involving different paths may prove difficult. The test set up for BM 2.2 consisted of a stainless stell cell filled with highly expansive compacted bentonite (S2 clay from Almeria, Spain). The clay was subjected to a simultaneous central heating and a progressive water inflow through the botton plate. Temperature at various locations within the sample and the boundary radial stress were monitored throughout the test. Water content distribution was also measured at the end of the experiment. Predictions for this benchmark required the solution of field equations for flow, temperature distribution and mechanical analysis. Model parameters were derived from the extensive set of available experiments on this clay. Comparison between model predictions and measurements revealed the significance of water transport in vapour phase, the difficulties to predict boundary stresses and the general good agreement between measured and calculated temperatures. The report provides a detailed accojnt of the

  4. Common clay and shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virta, R.L.

    2000-01-01

    Part of the 1999 Industrial Minerals Review. The clay and shale market in 1999 is reviewed. In the U.S., sales or use of clay and shale increased from 26.4 million st in 1998 to 27.3 million st in 1999, with an estimated 1999 value of production of $143 million. These materials were used to produce structural clay products, lightweight aggregates, cement, and ceramics and refractories. Production statistics for clays and shales and for their uses in 1999 are presented.

  5. Effects of modified Clay on the morphology and thermal stability of PMMA/clay nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, Tsung-Yen; Lin, Mei-Ju; Chuang, Yi-Chen; Chou, Po-Chiang

    2013-01-01

    The potential to improve the mechanical, thermal, and optical properties of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)/clay nanocomposites prepared with clay containing an organic modifier was investigated. Pristine sodium montmorillonite clay was modified using cocoamphodipropionate, which absorbs UVB in the 280–320 nm range, via ion exchange to enhance the compatibility between the clay platelets and the methyl methacrylate polymer matrix. PMMA/clay nanocomposites were synthesized via in situ free-radical polymerization. Three types of clay with various cation-exchange capacities (CEC) were used as inorganic layered materials in these organic–inorganic hybrid nanocomposites: CL42, CL120, and CL88 with CEC values of 116, 168, and 200 meq/100 g of clay, respectively. We characterized the effects of the organoclay dispersion on UV resistance, effectiveness as an O 2 gas barrier, thermal stability, and mechanical properties of PMMA/clay nanocomposites. Gas permeability analysis demonstrated the excellent gas barrier properties of the nanocomposites, consistent with the intercalated or exfoliated morphologies observed. The optical properties were assessed using UV–Visible spectroscopy, which revealed that these materials have good optical clarity, UV resistance, and scratch resistance. The effect of the dispersion capability of organoclay on the thermal properties of PMMA/clay nanocomposites was investigated by thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry; these analyses revealed excellent thermal stability of some of the modified clay nanocomposites. - Highlights: ► We control the dispersion morphology by protonation of K2 into the clay. ► The CL120 and CL88, with the higher CEC, are more random intercalated by K2. ► We report these materials have good optical clarity, and UV resistance

  6. Hydrothermal behaviour of sedimentary saponitic clays from Madrid Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuevas Rodriguez, J.

    1993-01-01

    The hydrothermal behavior of sedimentary saponitic clays from Madrid Basin has been investigated to assess their potential use as a buffer material in high level radioactive waste repositories. This paper deals with a review of several aspects that has been studied: the adsorption and irreversible fixation of K'+, the alteration in absence of potassium and the effects of heat and steam on textural properties of the smectitic clay. Experiments have covered temperatures up to 175 degree centigree with an excess of liquid water except on the last subject. Chemical and XRD analyses of final clay products and solutions indicates minor alteration of the saponite in the hydrothermal experiments either in the presence or absence of potassium. No illitization or chloritization processes seems to affect the smectite. Sepiolite was found to be largely dissolved at 175 degree centigree, a process that inhibited recrystallization or formation of illite observed when illite was present in significant amounts in starting materials. Accessory minerals (illite and sepiolite) accompanying as traces the saponitic material underwent and intense degradation at 175 degree centigree in absence of potassium. On the other hand, clay steamed at 200 degree centigree showed significant textural changes forming highly stable silt size aggregates which hindered the swelling abilities of the saponitic material, a fact that was previously observed in montmorillonites. (Author) 25 refs

  7. Selective Clay Placement Within a Silicate-Clay Epoxy Blend Nanocomposite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Sandi G (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A clay-epoxy nanocomposite may be prepared by dispersing a layered clay in an alkoxy epoxy, such as a polypropylene oxide based epoxide before combining the mixture with an aromatic epoxy to improve the nanocomposite's thermal and mechanical properties.

  8. Clay nanoparticles for regenerative medicine and biomaterial design: A review of clay bioactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousa, Mohamed; Evans, Nicholas D; Oreffo, Richard O C; Dawson, Jonathan I

    2018-03-01

    Clay nanoparticles, composites and hydrogels are emerging as a new class of biomaterial with exciting potential for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications. Clay particles have been extensively explored in polymeric nanocomposites for self-assembly and enhanced mechanical properties as well as for their potential as drug delivery modifiers. In recent years, a cluster of studies have explored cellular interactions with clay nanoparticles alone or in combination with polymeric matrices. These pioneering studies have suggested new and unforeseen utility for certain clays as bioactive additives able to enhance cellular functions including adhesion, proliferation and differentiation, most notably for osteogenesis. This review examines the recent literature describing the potential effects of clay-based nanomaterials on cell function and examines the potential role of key clay physicochemical properties in influencing such interactions and their exciting possibilities for regenerative medicine. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Facts and features of radionuclide migration in Boom Clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Regge, P.; Henrion, P.; Monsecour, M.; Put, M.

    1988-01-01

    The evolution which took place during ten years of research on the behaviour of radionuclides in Boom Clay is described. Initially, the Boom Clay was regarded as a chemically inert exchanger and the radiochemical research aimed at determining the distribution of cations between the clay and some liquid phases. The observation that Boom Clay deteriorates in contact with air and loses important intrinsic properties formed a major breakthrough in the research and led to a careful examination of the real in-situ conditions. Efforts devoted to the understanding of the chemical factors pertaining to the pH, the redox potential, the extent of the buffering capacity of FeS 2 and CaCO 3 in equilibrium with the interstitial aqueous phase are reviewed. Also emerging from the overall picture was the role of the organic material present in the Boom Clay. In contrast to the water percolating fractured formations which may not be in equilibrium with the rock, the interstitial aqueous phase is completely in equilibrium with Boom Clay mainly because of its low permeability and the large excesses of buffering components. As the retention mechanisms are better understood, a more coherent picture is obtained from distribution and diffusion experiments and the effects of consolidation are being investigated in detail. 23 refs.; 4 figs.; 3 tabs

  10. Thixotropic Properties of Latvian Clays

    OpenAIRE

    Lakevičs, Vitālijs; Stepanova, Valentīna; Ruplis, Augusts

    2015-01-01

    This research studies Latvia originated Devon (Tūja, Skaņkalne), quaternary (Ceplīši), Jurassic, (Strēļi) and Triassic (Vadakste) deposit clays as well as Lithuania originated Triassic (Akmene) deposit clays. Thixotropic properties of clay were researched by measuring relative viscosity of clay in water suspensions. Relative viscosity is measured with a hopper method. It was detected that, when concentration of suspension is increased, clay suspension’s viscosity also increases. It happens un...

  11. Study of Adsorption of Phenanthrene on Different Types of Clay Minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contreras, M. L.; Escolano, O.; Rodriguez, V.; Diaz, F. J.; Perez, R.; Garcia, S.; Garcia Frutos, F. J.

    2003-01-01

    The fate and behaviour of non-ionic hydrophobic organic compounds in deep soil is mainly controlled by the mineral fraction present in the soil due to the very low organic carbon content of the deep soil. The mineral fraction that may greatly influence the fate and transport of these compounds due to its presence and properties are the clay minerals. Clay minerals also become increasingly important in low organic matter content soils. There tree, studies of non-ionic hydrophobic organic compounds adsorption on clay minerals without organic matter are necessary lo better understand the fate and transport of these compounds. In this work we used phenanthrene as model compound of non-ionic hydrophobic organic compound and four pure clay minerals: kaolinite, illite, montmorillonite, and vermiculite including muscovite mica. These clays minerals are selected due to its abundance in represents ve Spanish soils and different properties as its structural layers and expanding capacity. Batch experiments were performed using phenanthrene aqueous solutions and the clays selected. Phenanthrene sorption isotherms for all clays, except muscovite mica, were best described by the Freundlich model. Physical sorption on the external surfaces is the most probable adsorption mechanisms. In this sense, the presence of non-polar nano-sites on clay surfaces could determine the adsorption of phenanthrene by hydrophobic interaction on these sites. (Author) 22 refs

  12. Geomechanical behaviour of boom clay under ambient and elevated temperature conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neerdael, B.; Beaufays, R.; Buyens, M.; Bruyn, D. de; Voet, M.

    1992-01-01

    This research is focused upon in-situ investigations related to the (thermo-) mechanical behaviour of clay. Three main items are covered in this research area: Stress measurements around the underground research facility for radioactive waste disposal using hydraulical stress monitoring stations; detection of micro-fractures in the clay host, mainly using geophysical seismic techniques; long term mechanical behaviour of clay (this last item, studied by ANDRA at Mol, is not described in this paper). The stress monitoring stations appear to be more reliable in getting relative pressure variations with time rather than absolute values of stress, even after studying and improving the characteristics of the surrounding grout. The seismic techniques used to appear to be sensitive and accurate enough for detecting induced fracturation in the clay host, even for the low temperature. This is also in agreement with bench-scale experiments on clay samples intended to quantify the influence of both temperature and consolidation on the velocity. 10 refs., 80 figs., 3 tabs

  13. Clay mineral formation under oxidized conditions and implications for paleoenvironments and organic preservation on Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gainey, Seth R; Hausrath, Elisabeth M; Adcock, Christopher T; Tschauner, Oliver; Hurowitz, Joel A; Ehlmann, Bethany L; Xiao, Yuming; Bartlett, Courtney L

    2017-11-01

    Clay mineral-bearing locations have been targeted for martian exploration as potentially habitable environments and as possible repositories for the preservation of organic matter. Although organic matter has been detected at Gale Crater, Mars, its concentrations are lower than expected from meteoritic and indigenous igneous and hydrothermal reduced carbon. We conducted synthesis experiments motivated by the hypothesis that some clay mineral formation may have occurred under oxidized conditions conducive to the destruction of organics. Previous work has suggested that anoxic and/or reducing conditions are needed to synthesize the Fe-rich clay mineral nontronite at low temperatures. In contrast, our experiments demonstrated the rapid formation of Fe-rich clay minerals of variable crystallinity from aqueous Fe 3+ with small amounts of aqueous Mg 2+ . Our results suggest that Fe-rich clay minerals such as nontronite can form rapidly under oxidized conditions, which could help explain low concentrations of organics within some smectite-containing rocks or sediments on Mars.

  14. Clay mineral formation under oxidized conditions and implications for paleoenvironments and organic preservation on Mars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gainey, Seth R.; Hausrath, Elisabeth M.; Adcock, Christopher T.; Tschauner, Oliver; Hurowitz, Joel A.; Ehlmann, Bethany L.; Xiao, Yuming; Bartlett, Courtney L. (CIW); (UNLV); (CIT); (SBU)

    2017-11-01

    Clay mineral-bearing locations have been targeted for martian exploration as potentially habitable environments and as possible repositories for the preservation of organic matter. Although organic matter has been detected at Gale Crater, Mars, its concentrations are lower than expected from meteoritic and indigenous igneous and hydrothermal reduced carbon. We conducted synthesis experiments motivated by the hypothesis that some clay mineral formation may have occurred under oxidized conditions conducive to the destruction of organics. Previous work has suggested that anoxic and/or reducing conditions are needed to synthesize the Fe-rich clay mineral nontronite at low temperatures. In contrast, our experiments demonstrated the rapid formation of Fe-rich clay minerals of variable crystallinity from aqueous Fe3+ with small amounts of aqueous Mg2+. Our results suggest that Fe-rich clay minerals such as nontronite can form rapidly under oxidized conditions, which could help explain low concentrations of organics within some smectite-containing rocks or sediments on Mars.

  15. Euroclay 95. Clays and clay materials sciences. Book of abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsen, A; Grobet, P; Keung, M; Leeman, H; Schoonheydt, R; Toufar, H [eds.

    1995-08-20

    The document contains the abstracts of the invited lecturers (18) and posters (247) presented at EUROCLAY `95. Clays and clay materials sciences. 13 items (4 from the invited lecturers and 12 from posters) have been considered within the INIS Subject Scope and indexed separately.

  16. Euroclay 95. Clays and clay materials sciences. Book of abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsen, A.; Grobet, P.; Keung, M.; Leeman, H.; Schoonheydt, R.; Toufar, H.

    1995-01-01

    The document contains the abstracts of the invited lecturers (18) and posters (247) presented at EUROCLAY '95. Clays and clay materials sciences. 13 items (4 from the invited lecturers and 12 from posters) have been considered within the INIS Subject Scope and indexed separately

  17. Technetium migration in natural clays; Migration von Technetium in natuerlichem Tongestein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luebke, Maria

    2015-10-01

    The present work was performed within the joint research project ''Retention of repository relevant radionuclides in argillaceous rocks and saline systems'' (contract no.: 02E10981), funded by the Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy (BMWi). The aim was to obtain first insights into the interaction of the long-lived fission product technetium and natural clay with regard to a repository for high-level nuclear waste. For this purpose Opalinus Clay from Mont Terri (northern Switzerland) was used as a reference material. The nuclide technetium-99 will contribute to the radiotoxicity of spent nuclear fuel for more than thousand years due to its long half-live. In case of a leakage of the storage vessels, the geochemistry of technetium is determined by its oxidation state, at which only the oxidation states +IV and +VII are relevant. Because of the high solubility and low affinity to sorption on surfaces of minerals, Tc(VII) is considered to be very mobile and thus the most hazardous species. The focuses of this study therefore are diffusion experiments with this mobile species and investigations of the effect of ferrous iron on the mobility and speciation of technetium.rnThe interaction of technetium and Opalinus Clay was studied in sorption and diffusion experiments varying several parameters (pH value, addition of reducing agents, effect of oxygen, diffusion pathways). In the course of this study spatially resolved investigations of the speciation have been performed on Opalinus Clay thin sections and bore cores for the first time. In addition to the speciation, further information regarding elemental distributions and crystalline phases near technetium enrichments were obtained. Supplementary investigations of powder samples allowed determining the molecular structure of technetium on the clay surface.rnBoth the combination of sorption experiments with spectroscopic investigations and the diffusion experiment exhibit a reduction of Tc

  18. Clay particles as binder for earth buildings materials: a fresh look into rheology of dense clay suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landrou, Gnanli; Brumaud, Coralie; Habert, Guillaume

    2017-06-01

    In the ceramic industry and in many sectors, clay minerals are widely used. In earthen construction technique, clay plays a crucial role in the processing. The purpose of this research is to understand and modify the clay properties in earth material to propose an innovative strategy to develop a castable earth-based material. To do so, we focused on the modification of clay properties at fresh state with inorganic additives. As the rheological behaviour of clays is controlled by their surface charge, the addition of phosphate anion allows discussing deep the rheology of concentrated clay suspensions. We highlighted the thixotropic and shear thickening behaviour of a dispersed kaolinite clay suspensions. Indeed, by adding sodium hexametaphosphate the workability of clay paste increases and the behaviour is stable during time after a certain shear is applied. Moreover, we stress that the aging and the shift in critical strain in clay system are due to the re-arrangement of clay suspension and a decrease of deformation during time. The understanding of both effect: thixotropy and aging are crucial for better processing of clay-based material and for self-compacting clay concrete. Yet, studies need to pursue to better understand the mechanism.

  19. Experimental Study on Vacuum Dynamic Consolidation Treatment of Soft Soil Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu-lai, Ni; Xin, Wen; Xiao-bin, Zhang; Wei, Li

    2017-11-01

    In view of the deficiency of the saturated silt clay foundation reinforced by the dynamic consolidation method, combination the project of soft foundation treatment test area in Tangshan, the reaserch analysed indexes, included groundwater level, pore water pressure, settlement about soil layer and so on, by use of field tests and indoor geotechnical tests, The results showed that the whole reinforcement effect with vacuum dynamic compaction method to blow fill foundation is obvious, due to the result of vacuum precipitation, generally, the excess pore water pressure can be dissipated by 90% above in 2 days around and the effective compaction coefficient can reached more than 0.9,the research work in soft foundation treatment engineering provide a new method and thought to similar engineering.

  20. Further studies on the problems of geomagnetic field intensity determination from archaeological baked clay materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostadinova-Avramova, M.; Kovacheva, M.

    2015-10-01

    Archaeological baked clay remains provide valuable information about the geomagnetic field in historical past, but determination of the geomagnetic field characteristics, especially intensity, is often a difficult task. This study was undertaken to elucidate the reasons for unsuccessful intensity determination experiments obtained from two different Bulgarian archaeological sites (Nessebar - Early Byzantine period and Malenovo - Early Iron Age). With this aim, artificial clay samples were formed in the laboratory and investigated. The clay used for the artificial samples preparation differs according to its initial state. Nessebar clay was baked in the antiquity, but Malenovo clay was raw, taken from the clay deposit near the site. The obtained artificial samples were repeatedly heated eight times in known magnetic field to 700 °C. X-ray diffraction analyses and rock-magnetic experiments were performed to obtain information about the mineralogical content and magnetic properties of the initial and laboratory heated clays. Two different protocols were applied for the intensity determination-Coe version of Thellier and Thellier method and multispecimen parallel differential pTRM protocol. Various combinations of laboratory fields and mutual positions of the directions of laboratory field and carried thermoremanence were used in the performed Coe experiment. The obtained results indicate that the failure of this experiment is probably related to unfavourable grain sizes of the prevailing magnetic carriers combined with the chosen experimental conditions. The multispecimen parallel differential pTRM protocol in its original form gives excellent results for the artificial samples, but failed for the real samples (samples coming from previously studied kilns of Nessebar and Malenovo sites). Obviously the strong dependence of this method on the homogeneity of the used subsamples hinders its implementation in its original form for archaeomaterials. The latter are often

  1. The regeneration viability evaluation of zinc on bofe clay columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, A.L.P. de; Silva, M.G.C da; Gimenes, M.L.; Barros, M.A.S.D.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the Bofe bentonite clay, calcined at 500 °C was used for removal of zinc in porous bed with multiple cycles of adsorption-desorption. The natural and calcined clay was characterized by N 2 physisorption (BET method), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermal analysis). The experiments for the removal of zinc were carried out at room temperature (25 °C) with particle diameter of 0.855 mm and a flow rate of 3 mL/min. The results indicated that over the four cycles of adsorption/desorption of which was submitted, the clay has not lost the capacity for adsorption of metal and that this process may be feasible to replace or complement conventional treatments to remove metals, since that clay was able to reduce the concentration of zinc to the amount recommended by Resolution Nº 357/2005 of CONAMA (5 mg.L -1 ). (author)

  2. Spatially resolved XRF, XAFS, XRD, STXM and IR investigation of a natural U-rich clay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denecke, M. A.; Michel, P.; Schäfer, T.; Huber, F.; Rickers, K.; Rothe, J.; Dardenne, K.; Brendebach, B.; Vitova, T.; Elie, M.

    2009-11-01

    Combined spatially resolved hard X-ray μ-XRF and μ-XAFS studies using an X-ray beam with micrometer dimensions at the INE-Beamline for actinide research at ANKA and Beamline L at HASYLAB with those from scanning transmission soft X-ray microscopy (STXM) and synchrotron-based Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy (μ-FTIR) recorded with beam spots in the nanometer range are used to study a U-rich clay originating from Autunian shales in the Permian Lodève Basin (France). This argillaceous formation is a natural U deposit associated with organic matter (bitumen). Results allow us to differentiate between possible mechanisms leading to U enrichment: likely U immobilization via reaction with organic material associated with clay mineral. Such investigations support development of reliable assessment of the long term radiological safety for proposed nuclear waste disposal sites.

  3. Influence of clay content on wave-induced liquefaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirca, V.S. Ozgur; Sumer, B. Mutlu; Fredsøe, Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    of measurements were carried out: (1) pore-water pressure measurements across the soil depth and (2) water-surface elevation measurements. These measurements were synchronized with video recordings of the liquefaction process from the side. The ranges of the various quantities in the experiments were wave height...... of silt and clay was not liquefied. Sand may become prone to liquefaction with the introduction of clay, contrary to the general perception that this type of sediment is normally liquefaction-resistant under waves. For instance, sand with d50 50:4 mmwas liquefied with CC510:8%, whereas sand with d50 50...

  4. Sorption of radioiodine in organo-clays and -soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bors, J.

    1990-01-01

    In the framework of investigations on the sorption of radioiodine to natural and artificially altered soil components, a number of clay minerals and natural soils were treated with quaternary alkylammonium ions to replace the exchangeable metal cations. With help of batch experiments the resulting organo-clays were tested with respect to their sorption capability of radioiodine quantified by the distribution ratio (R D -value). Treatment of bentonite, vermiculite and cretaceous clay as well as of samples from natural horizons of chernozem soil with hexadecylpyridinium (HDPY + ) and benzethonium (BE + ) exhibited sorptions rates and amounts, which are several orders of magnitude higher than those of the respective untreated samples. Moderate increases of the R D -values were found after cation exchange with hexadecyltrimethylammonium (HDTMA + ), while the applications of trimethylphenylammonium (TMPA + ) and tetramethylammonium (TMA + ) were ineffective. Considerable sorption of radioiodine was observed with the commercially available Bentone. (orig.)

  5. Clay particles as binder for earth buildings materials: a fresh look into rheology of dense clay suspensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Landrou Gnanli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the ceramic industry and in many sectors, clay minerals are widely used. In earthen construction technique, clay plays a crucial role in the processing. The purpose of this research is to understand and modify the clay properties in earth material to propose an innovative strategy to develop a castable earth-based material. To do so, we focused on the modification of clay properties at fresh state with inorganic additives. As the rheological behaviour of clays is controlled by their surface charge, the addition of phosphate anion allows discussing deep the rheology of concentrated clay suspensions. We highlighted the thixotropic and shear thickening behaviour of a dispersed kaolinite clay suspensions. Indeed, by adding sodium hexametaphosphate the workability of clay paste increases and the behaviour is stable during time after a certain shear is applied. Moreover, we stress that the aging and the shift in critical strain in clay system are due to the re-arrangement of clay suspension and a decrease of deformation during time. The understanding of both effect: thixotropy and aging are crucial for better processing of clay-based material and for self-compacting clay concrete. Yet, studies need to pursue to better understand the mechanism.

  6. Synthesis of templated carbons starting from clay and clay-derived zeolites for hydrogen storage applications

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Musyoka, Nicholas M

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available 57 58 59 60 For Peer Review 1 Synthesis of templated carbons starting from clay and clay-derived zeolites for hydrogen storage applications N. M. Musyoka1*, J. Ren1, H. W. Langmi1, D. E. C. Rogers1, B. C. North1, M. Mathe1 and D. Bessarabov2... clear (filtered) extract of cloisite clay, SNC for zeolite from unfiltered cloisite clay extract and SBC for zeolite from unfiltered South African bentonite clay extract. Furfuryl alcohol (Sigma Aldrich, C5H6O2, 98%) and Ethylene gas were used...

  7. Law of nonlinear flow in saturated clays and radial consolidation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    It was derived that micro-scale amount level of average pore radius of clay changed from 0.01 to 0.1 micron by an equivalent concept of flow in porous media. There is good agreement between the derived results and test ones. Results of experiments show that flow in micro-scale pore of saturated clays follows law of nonlinear flow. Theoretical analyses demonstrate that an interaction of solid-liquid interfaces varies inversely with permeability or porous radius. The interaction is an important reason why nonlinear flow in saturated clays occurs. An exact mathematical model was presented for nonlinear flow in micro-scale pore of saturated clays. Dimension and physical meanings of parameters of it are definite. A new law of nonlinear flow in saturated clays was established. It can describe characteristics of flow curve of the whole process of the nonlinear flow from low hydraulic gradient to high one. Darcy law is a special case of the new law. A mathematical model was presented for consolidation of nonlinear flow in radius direction in saturated clays with constant rate based on the new law of nonlinear flow. Equations of average mass conservation and moving boundary, and formula of excess pore pressure distribution and average degree of consolidation for nonlinear flow in saturated clay were derived by using an idea of viscous boundary layer, a method of steady state in stead of transient state and a method of integral of an equation. Laws of excess pore pressure distribution and changes of average degree of consolidation with time were obtained. Results show that velocity of moving boundary decreases because of the nonlinear flow in saturated clay. The results can provide geology engineering and geotechnical engineering of saturated clay with new scientific bases. Calculations of average degree of consolidation of the Darcy flow are a special case of that of the nonlinear flow.

  8. Gelation mechanism of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)-clay nanocomposite hydrogels synthesized by photopolymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferse, Bernhard; Richter, Sven; Eckert, Franziska; Kulkarni, Amit; Papadakis, Christine M; Arndt, Karl-Friedrich

    2008-11-04

    The gelation process of poly-(N-isopropylacrylamide)-clay nanocomposite hydrogels (PNIPAAm-clay NC gels) was investigated by dynamic and static light scattering (DLS and SLS), as well as by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS). The photopolymerization method chosen for the radical polymerizing system ensured that, when the irradiation is removed, the reaction stopped immediately. Experiments showed that shortly before the gelation threshold is reached, no changes in the DLS autocorrelation functions appear, while the monomer conversion can be observed by 1H NMR spectroscopy. These results correspond to the formation of microparticles, in which the PNIPAAm chains are closely attached to the clay platelets. During the further polymerization process, clay clusters are developed before the sol-gel threshold is reached. FCS measurements were performed to obtain information on the motion of the clay platelets inside the NC gel. The DLS method gives only an average of the motions in the gel. In a time window between 10 micros and 1 s, the clay sheets labeled with Rhodamine B show no characteristic motions.

  9. Deformation and failure mechanism of excavation in clay subjected to hydraulic uplift

    CERN Document Server

    Hong, Yi

    2016-01-01

    This book presents the latest experimental and numerical analysis work in the field of ground deformation and base instability of deep excavations in soft clay subjected to hydraulic uplift. The authors’ latest research findings, based on dimensional analyses, well-instrumented full-scale field tests, systematic coupled-consolidation finite element analyses and centrifuge tests are reported. This book shows how to systematically approach a complex geotechnical problem, from identifying existing problems, reviewing literature, to dimensional and numerical analyses, validation through full-scale testing and centrifuge model testing. The methodologies are also introduced as major tools adopted in geotechnical research.

  10. A robotic system to characterize soft tailings deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipsett, M.G.; Dwyer, S.C. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2009-07-01

    A robotic system for characterizing soft tailings deposits was discussed in this presentation. The system was developed to reduce variability in feedstocks and process performance as well as to improve the trafficability of composite tailings (CT). The method was designed to reliably sample different locations of a soft deposit. Sensors were used to determine water content, clay content, organic matter, and strength. The system included an autonomous rover with a sensor package and teleoperation capability. The system was also designed to be used without automatic controls. The wheeled mobile robot was used to conduct ground contact and soil measurements. The gas-powered robot included on-board microcontrollers and a host computer. The system also featured traction control and fault recovery sub-systems. Wheel contact was used to estimate soil parameters. It was concluded that further research is needed to improve traction control and soil parameter estimation testing capabilities. Overall system block diagrams were included. tabs., figs.

  11. Toxicological evaluation of clay minerals and derived nanocomposites: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maisanaba, Sara; Pichardo, Silvia; Puerto, María; Gutiérrez-Praena, Daniel; Cameán, Ana M; Jos, Angeles

    2015-04-01

    Clays and clay minerals are widely used in many facets of our society. This review addresses the main clays of each phyllosilicate groups, namely, kaolinite, montmorillonite (Mt) and sepiolite, placing special emphasis on Mt and kaolinite, which are the clays that are more frequently used in food packaging, one of the applications that are currently exhibiting higher development. The improvements in the composite materials obtained from clays and polymeric matrices are remarkable and well known, but the potential toxicological effects of unmodified or modified clay minerals and derived nanocomposites are currently being investigated with increased interest. In this sense, this work focused on a review of the published reports related to the analysis of the toxicological profile of commercial and novel modified clays and derived nanocomposites. An exhaustive review of the main in vitro and in vivo toxicological studies, antimicrobial activity assessments, and the human and environmental impacts of clays and derived nanocomposites was performed. From the analysis of the scientific literature different conclusions can be derived. Thus, in vitro studies suggest that clays in general induce cytotoxicity (with dependence on the clay, concentration, experimental system, etc.) with different underlying mechanisms such as necrosis/apoptosis, oxidative stress or genotoxicity. However, most of in vivo experiments performed in rodents showed no clear evidences of systemic toxicity even at doses of 5000mg/kg. Regarding to humans, pulmonary exposure is the most frequent, and although clays are usually mixed with other minerals, they have been reported to induce pneumoconiosis per se. Oral exposure is also common both intentionally and unintentionally. Although they do not show a high toxicity through this pathway, toxic effects could be induced due to the increased or reduced exposure to mineral elements. Finally, there are few studies about the effects of clay minerals on

  12. Mont Terri Project - Ventilation experiment in Opalinus Clay for the disposal of radioactive waste in underground repositories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayor, J. C. [Empresa Nacional de Residuos Radioactivos SA (ENRESA), Madrid (Spain); Garcia-Sineriz, J. [Asociacion para la Investigacion y Desarollo Industrial de los Recursos Naturales (AITEMIN), Madrid (Spain); Velasco, M. [DM Iberia SA, Madrid (Spain); Gomez-Hernandez, J. [Ingenieria Hidraulica y Medio Ambiente, Escuela de Ingenieros de Caminos (UPV), Valencia (Spain); Lloret, A.; Matray, J.-M. [IRSN/DEI/SARG/LETS, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Coste, F. [Aradis ESG, Sevres Cedex (France); Giraud, A. [LAEGO-ENSG, Vandoeuvre les Nancy (France); Rothfuchs, T. [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen und Reaktorsicherheit mbH (GRS), Braunschweig (Germany); Marschall, P. [National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste (Nagra), Wettingen (Switzerland); Roesli, U. [Solexperts AG, Moenchaltorf (Switzerland); Mayer, G. [Colenco Power Engineering Ltd, Baden (Switzerland)

    2007-07-01

    The ventilation of the underground drifts during the construction and operation of a radioactive waste repository could produce the partial desaturation of the rock around the drifts, modifying its thermo-hydro-mechanical properties, especially in clayey rocks. This change of rock properties may have an impact on the design of the repositories (drifts spacing and repository size), which depends on the thermal load that the clay barrier and the rock can accept. To evaluate 'in situ' and better understand the desaturation process of a hard clay formation, the Ventilation Experiment (VE) has been carried out at the Mont Terri underground laboratory (Switzerland), generating a flow of dry air during several months along a section of a microtunnel. Specifically, the VE test has been performed, under practically isothermal conditions (T {approx_equal} 15-16 {sup o}C), in a 10 m long section of a non-lined horizontal microtunnel (diameter = 1.3 m), excavated in 1999 in the shaly facies of the Opalinus Clay of Mont Terri. The microtunnel is oriented perpendicular to the bedding strike direction of the rock (mean value of the bedding dip {approx_equal} 25{sup o}). The VE experiment real data and its modelling have shown that the desaturation of clayey rocks of low hydraulic conductivity (K < 10{sup -12} m/s) due to ventilation is very small. Under real repository conditions, the thermal and hydro-mechanical rock characteristics will not be practically affected by the ventilation. Specifically, the monitoring of the VE test (mainly the hygrometer data, confirmed also by the geoelectrical measurements) indicates that, after about 5 months of ventilation with almost dry air, the rock relative humidity (and then the degree of saturation) was less than 95% only in a ring of thickness less than 40 cm. Nevertheless, a suction state (subatmospheric liquid pressures) developed up to a distance of about 2 m, but it should be kept in mind that a clayey rock such as the

  13. Mont Terri Project - Ventilation experiment in Opalinus Clay for the disposal of radioactive waste in underground repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayor, J. C.; Garcia-Sineriz, J.; Velasco, M.; Gomez-Hernandez, J.; Lloret, A.; Matray, J.-M.; Coste, F.; Giraud, A.; Rothfuchs, T.; Marschall, P.; Roesli, U.; Mayer, G.

    2007-01-01

    The ventilation of the underground drifts during the construction and operation of a radioactive waste repository could produce the partial desaturation of the rock around the drifts, modifying its thermo-hydro-mechanical properties, especially in clayey rocks. This change of rock properties may have an impact on the design of the repositories (drifts spacing and repository size), which depends on the thermal load that the clay barrier and the rock can accept. To evaluate 'in situ' and better understand the desaturation process of a hard clay formation, the Ventilation Experiment (VE) has been carried out at the Mont Terri underground laboratory (Switzerland), generating a flow of dry air during several months along a section of a microtunnel. Specifically, the VE test has been performed, under practically isothermal conditions (T ≅ 15-16 o C), in a 10 m long section of a non-lined horizontal microtunnel (diameter = 1.3 m), excavated in 1999 in the shaly facies of the Opalinus Clay of Mont Terri. The microtunnel is oriented perpendicular to the bedding strike direction of the rock (mean value of the bedding dip ≅ 25 o ). The VE experiment real data and its modelling have shown that the desaturation of clayey rocks of low hydraulic conductivity (K -12 m/s) due to ventilation is very small. Under real repository conditions, the thermal and hydro-mechanical rock characteristics will not be practically affected by the ventilation. Specifically, the monitoring of the VE test (mainly the hygrometer data, confirmed also by the geoelectrical measurements) indicates that, after about 5 months of ventilation with almost dry air, the rock relative humidity (and then the degree of saturation) was less than 95% only in a ring of thickness less than 40 cm. Nevertheless, a suction state (subatmospheric liquid pressures) developed up to a distance of about 2 m, but it should be kept in mind that a clayey rock such as the Opalinus Clay is quasi-saturated for suction values up

  14. Inner power, physical strength and existential well-being in daily life: relatives' experiences of receiving soft tissue massage in palliative home care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronfalk, Berit Seiger; Strang, Peter; Ternestedt, Britt-Marie

    2009-08-01

    This article explores relatives' experiences of receiving soft tissue massage as a support supplement while caring for a dying family member at home. In palliative home care, relatives play an important role as carers to seriously ill and dying family members. To improve their quality of life, different support strategies are of importance. Complementary methods, such as soft tissue massage have become an appreciated supplement for these patients. However, only few studies focus on relatives experiences of receiving soft tissue massage as a supplemental support. Qualitative design Nineteen relatives received soft tissue massage (hand or foot) nine times (25 minutes) in their homes. Open-ended semi-structured tape-recorded interviews were conducted once per relative after the nine times of massage, using qualitative content analysis. Soft tissue massage gave the relatives' feelings of 'being cared for', 'body vitality' and 'peace of mind'. For a while, they put worries of daily life aside as they just experienced 'being'. During massage, it became apparent that body and mind is constituted of an indestructible completeness. The overarching theme was 'inner power, physical strength and existential well-being in their daily lives'. All relatives experienced soft tissue massage positively, although they were under considerable stress. Soft tissue massage could be an option to comfort and support relatives in palliative home care. In palliative nursing care, soft tissue massage could present a worthy supplement in supporting caring relatives.

  15. Corrosion of iron and low alloyed steel within a water saturated brick of clay under anaerobic deep geological disposal conditions: An integrated experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, F.A.; Bataillon, C.; Schlegel, M.L.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the corrosion behaviour of iron and low alloyed steels under simulated geological disposal conditions, related to long-term disposal of nuclear wastes in the site of Bure (Meuse-Haute Marne, Champagne, France). The dedicated experiment was a fully integrated set-up: three different bars of material (iron, steel or nickel) have been introduced inside a solid block of clay, which has been saturated with synthetic Bure water and maintained at 90 deg. C during 8 months. Two types of clay have been tested: first, a compacted MX80 (Wyoming, USA) and second, argilite directly taken from the Bure site (Callovo-Oxfordian). In situ electrochemistry has been performed: impedance spectra, chronopotentiometry... The samples have been analysed using a combination of techniques, such as SEM, XRD, EDS, μXAS, μRaman, gravimetry after desquamation. In both cases, the steel or the iron seemed to passivate in contact with the clay. Post-processing of the EIS determined the corrosion rates and the changes in the kinetics have been noticed. The post mortem analysis of the corrosion products showed in both cases the presence of an internal layer made of magnetite (Raman, EDX). The external layer was made of partially Ca-substituted siderite (Fe 1-x Ca x CO 3 ), which could play an extra role in the passivation. Moreover, the samples embedded in the Bure argilite presented an intermediate unique layer containing Fe, O, Na and Si. This study suggests the corrosion products started to react with the silica issued from the dissolution of the Bure clay minerals, resulting in clay minerals neo-formation and in corrosion kinetic changes

  16. Deformation properties of highly plastic fissured Palaeogene clay - Lack of stress memory?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogsbøll, Anette; Hededal, Ole; Foged, Niels Nielsen

    2012-01-01

    are evaluated based on the degree of debonding caused by natural processes insitu as compared to processes induced during severe loading and unloading in laboratory. A long term oedometer test on Lillebælt Clay with a series of loading and unloading cycles was carried out. The test results are used to evaluate......The geological preconsolidation of the Palaeogene clays in Denmark is estimated to 5-8 MPa or more, whereas laboratory and field experiences indicate values between 100 and 3000 kPa. Presumably, the high plasticity clay loses its memory of earlier preloads due to swelling, or as an effect...

  17. Sorption of radioiodine in organo-clays and -soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bors, J. (Niedersaechsisches Inst. fuer Radiooekologie, Hannover (Germany, F.R.))

    1990-01-01

    In the framework of investigations on the sorption of radioiodine to natural and artificially altered soil components, a number of clay minerals and natural soils were treated with quaternary alkylammonium ions to replace the exchangeable metal cations. With help of batch experiments the resulting organo-clays were tested with respect to their sorption capability of radioiodine quantified by the distribution ratio (R{sub D}-value). Treatment of bentonite, vermiculite and cretaceous clay as well as of samples from natural horizons of chernozem soil with hexadecylpyridinium (HDPY{sup +}) and benzethonium (BE{sup +}) exhibited sorptions rates and amounts, which are several orders of magnitude higher than those of the respective untreated samples. Moderate increases of the R{sub D}-values were found after cation exchange with hexadecyltrimethylammonium (HDTMA{sup +}), while the applications of trimethylphenylammonium (TMPA{sup +}) and tetramethylammonium (TMA{sup +}) were ineffective. Considerable sorption of radioiodine was observed with the commercially available Bentone. (orig.).

  18. HDPE/clay hybrids: the effect of clay modified with poly(diphenyl siloxanes) on thermal and rheological properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monasterio, Fernanda E.; Carrera, Maria C.; Erdmann, Eleonora; Destefanis, Hugo A., E-mail: ferelenakq@gmail.co [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET), Buenos Aires (Argentina). Inst. de Investigaciones para la Industria Quimica; Pita, Victor J.R.R.; Dias, Marcos L. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IMA/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Macromoleculas Profa. Eloisa Mano

    2009-07-01

    Poly(diphenyl siloxanes) (PDPhS) were synthesized in presence of organophilic clay in order to modify its nano structure. Two silane monomers were used: dimethoxydiphenylsilane and dichlorodiphenylsilane. The following characterizations were performed for all clays: XRD, FTIR and TGA/DTG. These siloxane-modified clays were more hydrophobic and had enhanced thermal stability. Solvent extraction was carried out in the siloxane-modified clays and the PDPhS soluble fraction analyzed according the molecular weight via GPC. The presence of free and grafted oligomers on clay surface was identified. The modified clays were added to HDPE by melt processing to obtain HDPE/clay hybrids which exhibited marked differences in the rheological behavior when compared with neat HDPE. (author)

  19. HDPE/clay hybrids: the effect of clay modified with poly(diphenyl siloxanes) on thermal and rheological properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monasterio, Fernanda E.; Carrera, Maria C.; Erdmann, Eleonora; Destefanis, Hugo A.; Pita, Victor J.R.R.; Dias, Marcos L.

    2009-01-01

    Poly(diphenyl siloxanes) (PDPhS) were synthesized in presence of organophilic clay in order to modify its nano structure. Two silane monomers were used: dimethoxydiphenylsilane and dichlorodiphenylsilane. The following characterizations were performed for all clays: XRD, FTIR and TGA/DTG. These siloxane-modified clays were more hydrophobic and had enhanced thermal stability. Solvent extraction was carried out in the siloxane-modified clays and the PDPhS soluble fraction analyzed according the molecular weight via GPC. The presence of free and grafted oligomers on clay surface was identified. The modified clays were added to HDPE by melt processing to obtain HDPE/clay hybrids which exhibited marked differences in the rheological behavior when compared with neat HDPE. (author)

  20. Embodying Soft Wearables Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomico, Oscar; Wilde, Danielle

    2016-01-01

    of soft wearables. Throughout, we will experiment with how embodied design research techniques might be shared, developed, and used as direct and unmediated vehicles for their own reporting. Rather than engage in oral presentations, participants will lead each other through a proven embodied method...... and knowledge transfer in the context of soft wearables....

  1. Migration of leachate solution through clay soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel Warith, M M

    1987-01-01

    The problem of domestic solid wastes buried in landfill sites is viewed from the aspect of leachate contamination and migration in the substrate, and the efficiency of natural clay barriers as an expedient economic lining material is assessed. Various chemical constituents of the landfill leachate of an actual waste containment site at Lachenaie (35 km east of Montreal) were determined from samples collected from specially designed basins. Data for companion tests on laboratory columns are also presented. Chemical analysis on samples from the basins and leachates from the columns measured changes in the concentration of: (a) cations (Na, K, Ca, and Mg), (b) anions (Cl, HCO/sub 3/, and CO/sub 3/) (c) total organic carbon (TOC), and (d) heavy metals (Fe, Zn, Pb, and Cu). The physical parameters measured included: (a) pH, and (b) specific conductivity. Predictions, using a dispersion-convection model for concentration profile development for either adsorbed or retained contaminants, were compared with the experimentally determined profiles (both in leaching columns and landfill laboratory model). Another set of experiments was also conducted to evaluate the effect of some organic fluids on the geotechnical properties of different clay soils (natural clay and two reference clay soils: illite and kaolinite). The results from this study have demonstrated that the natural clay soil can be used to adequately contain the different contaminant species usually present in the leachate solutions. Furthermore, the data suggested that under favorable soil conditions, landfill leachates containing low levels of trace metals will not pose a substantial contamination threat to the subsurface environment, provided that a proper thickness of barrier is used.

  2. Laboratory experiments on ammoniated clay minerals with relevance for asteroid (1) Ceres

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Angelis, Simone; Stefani, Stefania; De Sanctis, Maria Cristina; Piccioni, Giuseppe; Ammannito, Eleonora

    2017-04-01

    Recent observations with VIR spectrometer onboard Dawn spacecraft [1] have suggested the presence of ammoniated phyllosilicates widespread on the surface of asteroid (1) Ceres [2,3]. The global surface composition of Ceres as suggested by VIR average infrared spectrum in the 1-4 micron range appears to be due to a mixture of NH4-bearing phyllosilicates, serpentine, carbonates and a dark absorbing phase (magnetite or amorphous carbon) [2]. An absorption feature occurring near 3.1 micron in the average spectrum is considered the main evidence for the presence of NH4-bearing phase; nevertheless in the past several authors tried to explain this feature, as observed with telescopic spectra, invoking the presence of brucite, cronstedtite, water ice or clays [4]. In this project we are carrying out laboratory experiments with the aim of studying ammoniated phyllosilicates in the visible-infrared range. A suite of 9 clay minerals has been used for this study, including illite, nontronite and montmorillonite. In order to produce the ammoniated species we followed a modified procedure based on the one described in Bishop et al. (2002) [5]. All minerals were reduced in fine grain size (features, appearing at different wavelengths near 2, 3, 6 and 7 micron. In some cases the spectral shape of already existent absorption bands resulted deeply modified. A few species did not show the appearance of new features. These results suggest that NH4+ ions fix in various ways in different minerals. Nontronite and montmorillonite appear to be the best candidates, among the studied suite, to be used in future laboratory reproduced analog mixtures. [1] Russell C.T. et al., 2004, Planetary and Space Science, 52, 465-489 [2] De Sanctis M.C. et al., 2015, Nature, 528, 241-244 [3] Ammannito E. et al., 2016, Science, vol.353, issue 6303 [4] Rivkin A.S. et al., 2011, Space Science Reviews, 163, 95-116 [5] Bishop J.L. et al., 2002, Planetary and Space Science, 50, 11-19

  3. Crystallite size distribution of clay minerals from selected Serbian clay deposits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simić Vladimir

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The BWA (Bertaut-Warren-Averbach technique for the measurement of the mean crystallite thickness and thickness distributions of phyllosilicates was applied to a set of kaolin and bentonite minerals. Six samples of kaolinitic clays, one sample of halloysite, and five bentonite samples from selected Serbian deposits were analyzed. These clays are of sedimentary volcano-sedimentary (diagenetic, and hydrothermal origin. Two different types of shape of thickness distribution were found - lognormal, typical for bentonite and halloysite, and polymodal, typical for kaolinite. The mean crystallite thickness (T BWA seams to be influenced by the genetic type of the clay sample.

  4. Physical Properties of Latvian Clays

    OpenAIRE

    Jurgelāne, I; Stepanova, V; Ločs, J; Mālers, J; Bērziņa-Cimdiņa, L

    2012-01-01

    Physical and chemical properties of clays mostly depends on its mineral and chemical composition, particle size and pH value. The mutual influence of these parameters is complex. Illite is the most abundant clay mineral in Latvia and usually used in building materials and pottery. The viscosity and plasticity of Latvian clays from several deposits were investigated and correlated with mineral composition, particle size and pH value. Fractionated and crude clay samples were used. The p...

  5. Mobility of the dissolved organic matter through intact boom clay cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Put, M.J.; Dierckx, A.; Aertsens, M.; Canniere, P. de

    1998-01-01

    Performance assessment studies are expected to predict the enhancement of the migration of trivalent lanthanides and actinides due to their complexation with organic matter, which play a role as a transport agent [1]. Therefore, the mobility of the dissolved organic matter in the interstitial boom clay water is studied. For the first time, the mobile fraction present in the clay water is concentrated and labelled with a radioisotope to study the mobility of the organic matter in clay and the interaction of the mobile with the non-mobile. The isotopes tested as label are 125 I and 14 C. The 125 I label proved to be unstable and hence discarded. The labelled organic matter is then diluted for migration experiments on boom clay cores under anaerobic conditions. The influence of the molecular size on its mobility is studied by the separation of the labelled organic matter in different size fractions. (orig.)

  6. Enchanted Clays: 44th Annual Meeting of the Clay Minerals Society (June 2007)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randall T. Cygan

    2007-06-01

    “Enchanted Clays: 44th Annual Meeting of the Clay Minerals Society” was held in early June 2007 in beautiful and historic Santa Fe, New Mexico, USA. Santa Fe provided an idyllic location in the southwestern United States for the attendees to enjoy technical and social sessions while soaking up the diverse culture and wonderful climate of New Mexico—The Land of Enchantment. The meeting included a large and varied group of scientists, sharing knowledge and ideas, benefitting from technical interactions, and enjoying the wonderful historic and enchanted environs of Santa Fe. Including significant number of international scientists, the meeting was attended by approximately two hundred participants. The meeting included three days of technical sessions (oral and poster presentations), three days of field trips to clay and geological sites of northern New Mexico, and a full day workshop on the stabilization of carbon by clays. Details can be found at the meeting web site: www.sandia.gov/clay.

  7. Evaluation of the bleaching flux in clays containing hematite and different clay minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva Junior, E.M.; Lusa, T.; Silva, T.M.; Medeiros, B.B.; Santos, G.R. dos; Morelli, M.R.

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the addition of a synthetic flux in a clay mineral constituted by illite phase in the presence of iron oxide with the hematite, promotes color change of the firing products, making the reddish color firing into whiteness. This flow is constituted of a vitreous phase of the silicates family obtained by fusion/solidification of oxides and carbonates. Thus, the objective of this work was that of studying the interaction of the iron element in the final color mechanism of the different types of mineral crystal phase of the clays. In order to study the phenomenon, we obtained different compositions between the select clays and the synthetic flow, and characterization using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and visual analysis. The results showed that the action of the synthetic flow as a modifying agent for color depends on the mineral crystal phase of the clays. The color firing modification does not occur in the clays content high levels of kaolinite mineral phase. (author)

  8. Columns in Clay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leenhouts, Robin

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a clay project for students studying Greece and Rome. It provides a wonderful way to learn slab construction techniques by making small clay column capitols. With this lesson, students learn architectural vocabulary and history, understand the importance of classical architectural forms and their influence on today's…

  9. Micromechanics of non-active clays in saturated state and DEM modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pagano Arianna Gea

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a conceptual micromechanical model for 1-D compression behaviour of non-active clays in saturated state. An experimental investigation was carried out on kaolin clay samples saturated with fluids of different pH and dielectric permittivity. The effect of pore fluid characteristics on one-dimensional compressibility behaviour of kaolin was investigated. A three dimensional Discrete Element Method (DEM was implemented in order to simulate the response of saturated kaolin observed during the experiments. A complex contact model was introduced, considering both the mechanical and physico-chemical microscopic interactions between clay particles. A simple analysis with spherical particles only was performed as a preliminary step in the DEM study in the elastic regime.

  10. Mineralogy of subducted clay and clay restite in the lower mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, L.; Skora, S. E.; Walter, M. J.

    2012-12-01

    Seismic tomography indicates that subducting oceanic lithosphere often penetrates the transition zone and eventually the lower mantle [e.g. 1, 2]. While mineralogical changes in the mafic and ultramafic portions of slabs have been well documented experimentally, the phase relations of overlying sediments at pressures above 25 GPa remain poorly studied. This is in part because sediments are expected to partially melt at sub-arc depth (P~2.5-4.5 GPa), and contribute to the genesis of arc magmas. Sediment restites left behind after the extraction of low pressure melts undergo major chemical changes, according to the melting reaction: Coe+Phen+Cpx+H2O = Grt+Ky+Melt [3]. However, sediments may not always melt depending on the thermal regime and volatile availability and composition [3]. Hence, chemically unmodified sediments as well as restites may be entrained to greater depths and contribute to compositional heterogeneity in the deep mantle. Indeed, mineral inclusions with compositions indicative of subducted sedimentary protoliths (CAS-phase; K-hollandite; stishovite) have been reported in 'ultradeep' diamonds and suggest that deep subduction and survival of sediments occurs to at least transition zone depths [4]. With this in mind, we have performed laser heated diamond anvil cell experiments at pressures of 8-80 GPa on two anhydrous glass starting materials: a marine clay and the restite that is left after 50% melt extraction of this clay at 3 GPa and 800 °C [3]. We chose to work with an anhydrous version of the marine clay given that the investigated pressure range exceeds that of phengite stability [5], and phengite is the only hydrous phase in subducted sediments at UHP conditions. The clay was heated along a P-T path representative of a cold subduction geotherm, whereas the clay restite was heated along a hotter subduction geotherm consistent with low pressure melting. Phases were identified by synchrotron X-ray micro-diffraction at beamline I15 of the Diamond

  11. Effects of Different Types of Clays and Maleic Anhydride Modified Polystyrene on Polystyrene/Clay Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mehrabzadeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Polymer/clay nanocomposites are considered as a new subject of research in Iran and the world. Addition of a minimum amount of clay (2-5wt% can improve the mechanical properties, enhance barrier properties and reduce flammability dramatically. Polystyrene (PS exhibits high strength, high modulus and excellent dimensional stability, but it has poor ductility, elongation, and flexural modulus. By incorporating clay into polystyrene these properties can be improved. In this study preparation of polystyrene/clay nanocomposite, effects of different types of clays (Cloisite 10A andNanomer I.30TC and maleic anhydride modified polystyrene on mechanical properties of the prepared polystyrene/clay nanocomposites were evaluated. Samples were prepared by a twin screw extruder. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM and X-ray diffraction (XRD techniques were employed to evaluate the extent of intercalation and exfoliation of silicate layers in the nanocomposites. Mechanical tests show that by addition of clay and maleic anhydride modified polystyrene the flexural modulus (~30% and elongation-at-break (~40% of prepared nanocomposites have been improved. XRD and TEM results show that nanocomposite have an intercalated structure with ability to change to further exfoliation structure.

  12. Thixotropic Properties of Latvian Illite Containing Clays

    OpenAIRE

    Lakevičs, Vitālijs; Stepanova, Valentīna; Niedra, Santa; Dušenkova, Inga; Ruplis, Augusts

    2015-01-01

    Thixotropic properties of Latvian Devonian and Quaternary clays were studied. Dynamic viscosity of the water clay suspensions were measured with a rotating viscometer. Influence of concentration, pH and modifiers on the thixotropic clay properties was analyzed. It was found that Latvian clays have thixotropic properties. Stability of clay suspensions is described with the thixotropy hysteresis loop. Increasing the speed of the viscometer rotation, dynamic viscosity of the clay suspension decr...

  13. Clay exfoliation and polymer/clay aerogels by supercritical carbon dioxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona eLongo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2 treatments of a montmorillonite (MMT intercalated with ammonium cations bearing two long hydrocarbon tails (organo-modified MMT, OMMT led to OMMT exfoliation, with loss of the long-range order in the packing of the hydrocarbon tails and maintenance of the long-range order in the clay layers. The intercalated and the derived exfoliated OMMT have been deeply characterized, mainly by X-ray diffraction analyses. Monolithic composite aerogels, with large amounts of both intercalated and exfoliated OMMT and including the nanoporous-crystalline δ form of syndiotactic polystyrene (s-PS, have been prepared, by scCO2 extractions of s-PS-based gels. Also for high OMMT content, the gel and aerogel preparation procedures occur without re-aggregation of the exfoliated clay, which is instead observed for other kinds of polymer processing. Aerogels with the exfoliated OMMT have more even dispersion of the clay layers, higher elastic modulus and larger surface area than aerogels with the intercalated OMMT. Extremely light materials with relevant transport properties could be prepared. Moreover, s-PS-based aerogels with exfoliated OMMT could be helpful for the handling of exfoliated clay minerals.

  14. Retention of radiocaesium traces in clay: a dynamic semi-empirical modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewyckyi, N.

    2001-01-01

    The contribution consists of an abstract of a PhD thesis. After deposition, Cs + bioavailability in soil is a key parameter with regard to public exposure after a severe nuclear accident.The objective of the PhD thesis was to understand and model the interaction of Cs + and 2:1 clay minerals. This interaction was characterised through Cs + sorption-desorption experiments carried out on seven 2:1 clay minerals (four smectite types, illite, biotite and vermiculite)

  15. What makes a natural clay antibacterial?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Lynda B.; Metge, David W.; Eberl, Dennis D.; Harvey, Ronald W.; Turner, Amanda G.; Prapaipong, Panjai; Port-Peterson, Amisha T.

    2011-01-01

    Natural clays have been used in ancient and modern medicine, but the mechanism(s) that make certain clays lethal against bacterial pathogens has not been identified. We have compared the depositional environments, mineralogies, and chemistries of clays that exhibit antibacterial effects on a broad spectrum of human pathogens including antibiotic resistant strains. Natural antibacterial clays contain nanoscale (2+ solubility.

  16. Viscosity and Plasticity of Latvian Illite Clays

    OpenAIRE

    Jurgelāne, I; Vecstaudža, J; Stepanova, V; Mālers, J; Bērziņa-Cimdiņa, L

    2012-01-01

    Due to viscosity and plasticity, clays and clay minerals are used in civil engineering, pottery and also in cosmetics and medicine as thickening agents and emulsion and suspension stabilizers. The rheological properties of clay suspensions are complex. Mostly it is an interaction between mineral composition, clay particle size and pH value and also depends on clay minerals. Clay-water suspension is non-Newtonian fluid showing thixotropic and pseudoplastic properties. Results showed that plast...

  17. Modelling of natural organic matter-linked radionuclide transport in Boom clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Govaerts, J.; Maes, N.

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. In the framework of the Belgian research program on long term management of high-level and/or long-lived radioactive wastes coordinated by ONDRAF/NIRAS, Boom Clay is investigated for its potential to host a deep geological disposal repository. In order to demonstrate the suitability of the Boom Clay as a host rock, the mobility of critical radionuclides in this clay layer has been the subject of research during many years. As actinides, lanthanides and transition metals are known to form strong complexes with organic substances, the influence of the Natural Organic Matter (NOM) present in Boom Clay on the mobility of these critical radionuclides is of crucial importance. Interaction of radionuclides with OM present in Boom Clay could on the one hand retard the migration due to complexation/colloid interaction with the immobile OM, and on the other hand the mobility and solubility of the radionuclide can be enhanced by the formation of complexes/colloids with the mobile OM. The conceptual understanding (and its numerical modelling) of the kinetic stability and transport of these complexes/colloids is therefore regarded as highly important for the the long-term safety assesment of the geological disposal. This can be broken down into two subproblems: 1. Describing the transport behaviour of mobile OM in Boom Clay; 2. Describing the interaction of RN with mobile OM and the transport behaviour of the resulting complexes in Boom Clay. The first part of this paper revolves around the first subproblem, where a robust model for the description of the migration behaviour of Natural Organic Matter (NOM) is derived based on data from column migration experiments using 14 C-labelled NOM Tracer solution, obtained in the framework of the EC TRANCOM-II project. Clay plugs of different lengths and different Darcy velocities were used. Inverse modelling with the MATLAB and COMSOL numerical code was done in order to identify the

  18. Clay Portrait Boxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilbert, Nancy Corrigan

    2009-01-01

    In an attempt to incorporate sculptural elements into her ceramics program, the author decided to try direct plaster casting of the face to make a plaster mold for clay. In this article, the author shares an innovative ceramics lesson that teaches students in making plaster casts and casting the face in clay. This project gives students the…

  19. Clay matrix voltammetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perdicakis, Michel

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. In many countries, it is planned that the long life highly radioactive nuclear spent fuel will be stored in deep argillaceous rocks. The sites selected for this purpose are anoxic and satisfy several recommendations as mechanical stability, low permeability and low redox potential. Pyrite (FeS 2 ), iron(II) carbonate, iron(II) bearing clays and organic matter that are present in very small amounts (about 1% w:w) in soils play a major role in their reactivity and are considered today as responsible for the low redox potential values of these sites. In this communication, we describe an electrochemical technique derived from 'Salt matrix voltammetry' and allowing the almost in-situ voltammetric characterization of air-sensitive samples of soils after the only addition of the minimum humidity required for electrolytic conduction. Figure 1 shows the principle of the developed technique. It consists in the entrapment of the clay sample between a graphite working electrode and a silver counter/quasi-reference electrode. The sample was previously humidified by passing a water saturated inert gas through the electrochemical cell. The technique leads to well-defined voltammetric responses of the electro-active components of the clays. Figure 2 shows a typical voltammogram relative to a Callovo-Oxfordian argillite sample from Bure, the French place planned for the underground nuclear waste disposal. During the direct scan, one can clearly distinguish the anodic voltammetric signals for the oxidation of the iron (II) species associated with the clay and the oxidation of pyrite. The reverse scan displays a small cathodic signal for the reduction of iron (III) associated with the clay that demonstrates that the majority of the previously oxidized iron (II) species were transformed into iron (III) oxides reducible at lower potentials. When a second voltammetric cycle is performed, one can notice that the signal for iron (II

  20. CATSIUS CLAY PROJECT: Calculation and testing of behaviour of unsaturated clay as barrier in radioactive waste repositories: stage 3: validation exercises at a large in situ scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, E. E.; Alcoverro, J.

    1999-01-01

    Stage 3 of CATSIUS CLAY Project: Validation Exercises at a Large in situ Scale includes two Benchmarks: Benchmark 3.1: In situ Hydration of Boom Clay Pellets (BACCHUS 2) and Benchmark 3.2: FEBEX Mock-up Test. The BACCHUS 2 in situ test was performed in the HADES underground laboratory (Mol, Belgium) to demonstrate and optimize an installation procedure for a clay based material and to study its hydration process. After drilling a vertical shaft (540 mm in diameter, 3.0 m in length) in the host Boom clay, a central filter (90 mm in diameter) was placed, the remaining space was filled with a mixture of clay pellets and clay powder and the assembly was sealed at the upper end by a resin plug (0.20 m in thickness) over which concrete was poured. The test was instrumented so that it could be used as a validation experiment. Total stress, pore water pressure and water content measurements were performed both in the backfill material and in the surrounding clay massif. Once the installation was complete, the natural hydration of the backfill material began (day 0). To accelerate the hydration process, on day 516 water was injected through the central filter. On day 624, after the saturation of the backfill was reached, the hydraulic circuit was closed and the undrained response of the system backfill-host clay was monitored until an overall steady state was reached. Partners were asked to provide predictions for the evolution of the pore water pressure and total pressure of various points where appropriate sensors are installed. This benchmark addresses the Hydro-Mechanical response of an unsaturated low density clay barrier under natural and artificial hydration. (Author)

  1. CATSIUS CLAY PROJECT: Calculation and testing of behaviour of unsaturated clay as barrier in radioactive waste repositories: stage 3: validation exercises at a large in situ scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso, E E; Alcoverro, J

    1999-07-01

    Stage 3 of CATSIUS CLAY Project: Validation Exercises at a Large in situ Scale includes two Benchmarks: Benchmark 3.1: In situ Hydration of Boom Clay Pellets (BACCHUS 2) and Benchmark 3.2: FEBEX Mock-up Test. The BACCHUS 2 in situ test was performed in the HADES underground laboratory (Mol, Belgium) to demonstrate and optimize an installation procedure for a clay based material and to study its hydration process. After drilling a vertical shaft (540 mm in diameter, 3.0 m in length) in the host Boom clay, a central filter (90 mm in diameter) was placed, the remaining space was filled with a mixture of clay pellets and clay powder and the assembly was sealed at the upper end by a resin plug (0.20 m in thickness) over which concrete was poured. The test was instrumented so that it could be used as a validation experiment. Total stress, pore water pressure and water content measurements were performed both in the backfill material and in the surrounding clay massif. Once the installation was complete, the natural hydration of the backfill material began (day 0). To accelerate the hydration process, on day 516 water was injected through the central filter. On day 624, after the saturation of the backfill was reached, the hydraulic circuit was closed and the undrained response of the system backfill-host clay was monitored until an overall steady state was reached. Partners were asked to provide predictions for the evolution of the pore water pressure and total pressure of various points where appropriate sensors are installed. This benchmark addresses the Hydro-Mechanical response of an unsaturated low density clay barrier under natural and artificial hydration. (Author)

  2. Iron-clay interactions under a thermal gradient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jodin-Caumon, Marie-Camille; Mosser-Ruck, Regine; Randi, Aurelien; Cathelineau, Michel; Michau, Nicolas

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Repository in deep geological formations is considered as a possible solution for long-term high-level nuclear waste (HLW) management. The concept generally consists in a multiple barriers system including steel canister in a clay host rock. Heat and radiation emissions by HLW, corrosion of the canister and desaturation/re-saturation of the clay may affect the properties of the geological formation. In this context, the possible mineralogical evolutions of clays in contact with metal iron were studied in various conditions simulating those of HLW repository. Most of these studies were carried out at a constant temperature whereas the system will undergo a thermal gradient in time (progressive decrease of the temperature of the HLW with the decrease of its activity) and space (from the waste to the host rock). A thermal gradient may imply mass transport phenomena by convection and diffusion processes as a function of temperature, gradient intensity and the nature of the chemical elements. Here we show the effect of a thermal gradient in space on the interaction between the argillite from the ANDRA underground laboratory at Bure (Meuse/Haute-Marne) and metal iron. Tube-in-tube experiments were carried out. Argillite was put in two previously drilled platinum capsules (Diam. holes: 200 μm). Metal iron (powder and plate) was added in one of the Pt capsule. The Pt capsules were then loaded at the two ends of a gold tube. A fluid (H 2 O or a saline solution) was added and the gold tube was sealed and regularly pinched to form 5 precipitation niches. The iron/argillite mass ratio ranged between 0.3 and 0.5 and the fluid/argillite mass ratio was around 10. A thermal gradient 80 deg. C-150 deg. C or 150 deg. C-300 deg. C was applied to the tube during 3 and 6 months. The end of the gold tube with the Pt capsule containing iron was placed at the hot point (max. temperature 150 deg. C or 300 deg. C) or at the cold point (min

  3. Interaction with Soft Robotic Tentacles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jonas

    2018-01-01

    Soft robotics technology has been proposed for a number of applications that involve human-robot interaction. In this tabletop demonstration it is possible to interact with two soft robotic platforms that have been used in human-robot interaction experiments (also accepted to HRI'18 as a Late...

  4. The Relationship between Elastic Properties and Shear Fabric in Clay-Rich Fault Gouge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenigsberg, A.; Saffer, D. M.; Riviere, J.; Ryan, K. L.; Marone, C.

    2016-12-01

    The low mechanical strength of major crustal faults remains a fundamental problem in geophysics and earthquake mechanics. Although both clay abundance and shear fabric are known as key controls on the frictional weakening of faults, the detailed links between fabric, elastic properties, composition, and fault strength remain poorly understood. This gap in information is in part because data are lacking to fully characterize the evolution of gouge microstructures and elastic properties during shearing. Here, we use seismic wave propagation to probe gouge ultrasonic and elastic properties, as a proxy for the development of shear fabrics. We report on a suite of direct shear experiments that include ultrasonic wave transmission to monitor compressional and shear wave velocities (Vp, Vs), during progressive shear of synthetic, clay-rich fault gouge. In order to better understand when and how clay grain alignment and nano-coatings begin to dominate the affect of shear fabric and local gouge density on elastic properties and shear strength, we studied a suite of synthetic gouges composed of Ca-montmorillonite and quartz ranging from 0-100% clay. Our laboratory experiments document friction coefficients (μ) ranging from 0.21 for gouges composed of 100% smectite to 0.62 for 100% quartz, with μ decreasing as clay content increases. We find that Vp and Vs increases as shear progresses and porosity decreases. Ongoing analyses of ultrasonic waves will assess variations of Vp, Vs, and elastic moduli throughout shear and as a function of gouge composition. We anticipate that these variations will be linked to formation of fabric elements observed via microstructural analysis, and will be indicative of whether quartz or clay is dominating how the fabrics form. Finally, we expect that clay content will be the dominant factor controlling shear fabric evolution and, consequently, the key control on the evolution of elastic properties with shear.

  5. Clay Animals and Their Habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, Kay

    2010-01-01

    Creating clay animals and their habitats with second-grade students has long been one of the author's favorite classroom activities. Students love working with clay and they also enjoy drawing animal homes. In this article, the author describes how the students created a diorama instead of drawing their clay animal's habitat. This gave students…

  6. Ultra-thin clay layers facilitate seismic slip in carbonate faults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeraglia, Luca; Billi, Andrea; Carminati, Eugenio; Cavallo, Andrea; Di Toro, Giulio; Spagnuolo, Elena; Zorzi, Federico

    2017-04-06

    Many earthquakes propagate up to the Earth's surface producing surface ruptures. Seismic slip propagation is facilitated by along-fault low dynamic frictional resistance, which is controlled by a number of physico-chemical lubrication mechanisms. In particular, rotary shear experiments conducted at seismic slip rates (1 ms -1 ) show that phyllosilicates can facilitate co-seismic slip along faults during earthquakes. This evidence is crucial for hazard assessment along oceanic subduction zones, where pelagic clays participate in seismic slip propagation. Conversely, the reason why, in continental domains, co-seismic slip along faults can propagate up to the Earth's surface is still poorly understood. We document the occurrence of micrometer-thick phyllosilicate-bearing layers along a carbonate-hosted seismogenic extensional fault in the central Apennines, Italy. Using friction experiments, we demonstrate that, at seismic slip rates (1 ms -1 ), similar calcite gouges with pre-existing phyllosilicate-bearing (clay content ≤3 wt.%) micro-layers weaken faster than calcite gouges or mixed calcite-phyllosilicate gouges. We thus propose that, within calcite gouge, ultra-low clay content (≤3 wt.%) localized along micrometer-thick layers can facilitate seismic slip propagation during earthquakes in continental domains, possibly enhancing surface displacement.

  7. Surface modification of montmorillonite on surface Acid-base characteristics of clay and thermal stability of epoxy/clay nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soo-Jin; Seo, Dong-Il; Lee, Jae-Rock

    2002-07-01

    In this work, the effect of surface treatments on smectitic clay was investigated in surface energetics and thermal behaviors of epoxy/clay nanocomposites. The pH values, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) were used to analyze the effect of cation exchange on clay surface and the exfoliation phenomenon of clay interlayer. The surface energetics of clay and thermal properties of epoxy/clay nanocomposites were investigated in contact angles and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), respectively. From the experimental results, the surface modification of clay by dodecylammonium chloride led to the increases in both distance between silicate layers of about 8 A and surface acid values, as well as in the electron acceptor component (gamma(+)(s)) of surface free energy, resulting in improved interfacial adhesion between basic (or electron donor) epoxy resins and acidic (electron acceptor) clay interlayers. Also, the thermal stability of nanocomposites was highly superior to pure epoxy resin due to the presence of the well-dispersed clay nanolayer, which has a barrier property in a composite system.

  8. 21 CFR 186.1256 - Clay (kaolin).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Clay (kaolin). 186.1256 Section 186.1256 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1256 Clay (kaolin). (a) Clay (kaolin) Al2O3.2SiO2.nH2O, Cas Reg. No. 1332-58-7) consists of hydrated aluminum silicate. The commercial products of clay (kaolin) contain...

  9. Quantifying the effect of squirt flow dispersion from compliant clay porosity in clay bearing sandstones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Morten Kanne; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2013-01-01

    Compliant porosity in the form of cracks is known to cause significant attenuation and velocity dispersion through pore pressure gradients and consequent relaxation, dubbed squirt flow. Squirt flow from cracks vanish at high confining stress due to crack closing. Studies on clay bearing sandstones......-squirt flow on the bulk modulus of a clay bearing sandstone. The predicted magnitude of the clay-squirt effect on the bulk modulus is compared with experimental data. The clay-squirt effect is found to possibly account for a significant portion of the deviances from Gassmann fluid substitution in claybearing...... sandstones....

  10. Evaluation of natural clay Brasgel as adsorbent in removal of lead in synthetic waste water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, W.S.; Rodrigues, M.G.F.; Mota, M.F.; Patricio, A.C.L.; Silva, M.M.

    2012-01-01

    The smectite clays have high adsorption capacity and cation exchange. Due to its chemical and physical characteristics, they can be effectively used as adsorbent of pollutants (such as metal ions). The initial objective of this study was to characterize the clay Brasgel through the techniques of X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), X-Ray Spectrometry by Energy Dispersive (EDX) and nitrogen adsorption (BET method), seeking its use in removing lead (Pb 2+ ) from synthetic effluents. System was used in finite bath to assess the potential removal of lead (Pb 2+ ), following a 2 2 factorial experimental design with three center point experiments, taking as input variables: pH and initial concentrations of lead (Pb 2+ ). The clay has Brasgel clay in its composition that characterize it as a smectite clay. By having a large surface area, this clay showed great potential on the adsorption of metal ions. (author)

  11. Coupled transport phenomena in a clay from a Callovo-Oxfordian formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paszkuta, M.

    2005-06-01

    Low permeability materials containing clay play an important role in practical life and natural environment. Indeed, the ability of clay soils to act as semi permeable membranes, that inhibit the passage of electrolytes, is of great interest. The major objective of this thesis is to evaluate the transport properties of natural clays and in particular coupled transports when a pressure gradient, an electrical field, a concentration gradient and a temperature gradient interact. The material is a compact argillite extracted in East France from a Callovo-Oxfordian formation which was supplied to us by ANDRA. NaCl was used as the main solute. Two series of experiments were performed to measure permeability, diffusion, conductivity, the electro-osmotic coefficient and the Soret coefficient. (author)

  12. Smectite clays in Mars soil - Evidence for their presence and role in Viking biology experimental results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banin, A.; Rishpon, J.

    1979-01-01

    Evidence for the presence of smectite clays in Martian soils is reviewed and results of experiments with certain active clays simulating the Viking biology experiments are reported. Analyses of Martian soil composition by means of X-ray fluorescence spectrometry and dust storm spectroscopy and Martian geological history strongly suggest the presence of a mixture of weathered ferro-silicate minerals, mainly nontronite and montmorillonite, accompanied by soluble sulphate salts, as major constituents. Samples of montmorillonite and nontronite incubated with (C-14)-formate or the radioactive nutrient medium solution used in the Viking Labeled Release experiment, were found to produce patterns of release of radioactive gas very similar to those observed in the Viking experiments, indicating the iron-catalyzed decomposition of formate as the reaction responsible for the Viking results. The experimental results of Hubbard (1979) simulating the results of the Viking Pyrolytic Release experiment using iron montmorillonites are pointed out, and it is concluded that many of the results of the Viking biology experiments can be explained in terms of the surface activity of smectite clays in catalysis and adsorption.

  13. Mineral acquisition from clay by budongo forest chimpanzees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reynolds, Vernon; Lloyd, Andrew W.; English, Christopher J.; Lyons, Peter; Dodd, Howard; Hobaiter, Catherine; Newton-Fisher, Nicholas; Mullins, Caroline; Lamon, Noemie; Schel, Anne Marijke; Fallon, Brittany

    2015-01-01

    Chimpanzees of the Sonso community, Budongo Forest, Uganda were observed eating clay and drinking clay-water from waterholes. We show that clay, clay-rich water, and clay obtained with leaf sponges, provide a range of minerals in different concentrations. The presence of aluminium in the clay

  14. The effect of clay amendment on substrate properties and growth of woody plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Meisl

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with the effect of two clay products differing in particle size distribution on properties of growing substrate and on growth of containerized woody plants in substrates amended with these clay products. Fine and coarse clay were added to a peat substrate, each at two rates. The peat substrate without clay was used as a control. The substrates were tested in experiments with two woody ornamentals (Thuja occidentalis ’Smaragd’ and Prunus cistena. Chemical and physical properties of the substrates were measured according to European Standards before planting. Proportion of water categories differing in availability to the plants were calculated from retention curves measured on the sand box. Properties of substrates in containers with and without plants were evaluated in the same way at the end of the culture. Clay addition changed chemical and physical properties of the tested substrates in terms: available nutrients content, particle density, bulk density, total pore volume, easy available water, water buffering capacity, air capacity, and shrinkage. The effect of fine clay was much stronger. In comparison with the clear effect of clay addition on the substrate chemical and physical properties, the effect on the growth and quality of model woody plants was not so explicit.

  15. Evaluation of kaolinite clays of Moa for the production of cement based clinker-calcined clay-limestone (LC3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger S. Almenares-Reyes

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Clay materials from two outcrops of the Moa region were analyzed to determine their potential use as supplementary cementitious material in the production of ternary cements based on limestone-calcined clay. The clays were characterized by atomic absorption spectroscopy (EAA, X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and thermogravimetric analysis (ATG. These methods revealed high aluminum in clays, moderate kaolinite content, a disordered structure and the presence of impurities. The solubility of aluminum and silicon in alkali and the compressive strength of LC3 systems is proportional to their content in clay, being higher for the one with higher kaolinite content and greater structural disorder (outcrop D1, although the clay of both outcrops may constitute supplementary cementitious materials in the production of ternary cements based clinker-calcined clay-limestone. The suitable thermal activation range for both clays is between 650 ° C and 850 ° C.

  16. Heteroaggregation of Silver Nanoparticles with Clay Minerals in Aqueous System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J.; Burrow, E.; Hwang, Y.; Lenhart, J.

    2013-12-01

    Nanoparticles are increasingly being used in industrial processes and consumer products that exploit their beneficial properties and improve our daily lives. Nevertheless, they also attract attention when released into natural environment due to their potential for causing adverse effects. The fate and transport of nanoparticles in aqueous systems have been the focus of intense study. However, their interactions with other natural particles have received only limited attention. Clay minerals are ubiquitous in most aquatic systems and their variably charged surfaces can act as deposition sites that can alter the fate and transport of nanoparticles in natural aqueous environments. In this study, we investigated the homoaggregation of silver nanoparticles with different coating layers and their heteroaggregation behavior with clay minerals (illite, kaolinite, montmorillonite) in neutral pH solutions. Silver nanoparticles with a nominal diameter of 80 nm were synthesized with three different surface coating layers: uncoated, citrate-coated and Tween-coated. Illite (IMt-2), kaolinite (KGa-2), and montmorillonite (SWy-2) were purchased from the Clay Mineral Society (Indiana) and pretreated to obtain monocationic (Na-clay) and dicationic (Ca-clay) suspensions before the experiments. The change in hydrodynamic diameter as a function of time was monitored using dynamic light scattering (DLS) measurements in order to evaluate early stage aggregation as a function of electrolyte concentration in both the homo- and heteroaggregation scenarios. A shift in the critical coagulation concentration (CCC) values to lower electrolyte concentrations was observed in binary systems, compared to single silver nanoparticle and clay systems. The results also suggest more rapid aggregation in binary system during the early aggregation stage when compared to the single-particle systems. The behavior of citrate-coated silver nanoparticles was similar to that of the bare particles, while the

  17. Influence of herbicide structure, clay acidity, and humic acid coating on acetanilide herbicide adsorption on homoionic clays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weiping; Gan, Jianying; Yates, Scott R

    2002-07-03

    Adsorption of chloroacetanilide herbicides on homoionic montmorillonite was studied by coupling batch equilibration and FT-IR analysis. Adsorption decreased in the order metolachlor > acetochlor > alachlor > propachlor on Ca(2+)- or Mg(2+)-saturated clays and in the order metolachlor > alachlor > acetachlor > propachlor on Al(3+)- or Fe(3+)-saturated clays. FT-IR spectra showed that the carbonyl group of the herbicide molecule was involved in bonding. For the same herbicide, adsorption of alachlor, acetachlor, and metolachlor on clay followed the order Ca(2+) approximately Mg(2+) < Al(3+) < or = Fe(3+), which coincided with the increasing acidity of homoionic clays. Adsorption of propachlor, however, showed an opposite dependence, suggesting a different governing interaction. In clay and humic acid mixtures, herbicide adsorption was less than that expected from independent additive adsorption by the individual constituents, and the deviation was dependent on the clay-to-humic acid ratio, with the greatest deviation consistently occurring at a 60:40 clay-to-humic acid ratio.

  18. Clay pot irrigation for tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill production in the north east semiarid region of Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kebede Woldetsadik

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Water shortage is one of the major constraints for production of horticultural crops in arid and semiarid regions. A field experiment was conducted to determine irrigation water and fertilizer use efficiency, growth and yield of tomato under clay pot irrigation at the experimental site of Sekota Dryland Agricultural Research Center, Lalibela, Ethiopia in 2009/10. The experiment comprised of five treatments including furrow irrigated control and clay pot irrigation with different plant population and fertilization methods, which were arranged in Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. The highest total and marketable fruit yields were obtained from clay pot irrigation combined with application of nitrogen fertilizer with irrigation water irrespective of difference in plant population. The clay pot irrigation had seasonal water use of up to 143.71 mm, which resulted in significantly higher water use efficiency (33.62 kg m-3 as compared to the furrow irrigation, which had a seasonal water use of 485.50 mm, and a water use efficiency of 6.67 kg m-3. Application of nitrogen fertilizer with irrigation water in clay pots improved fertilizer use efficiency of tomato by up to 52% than band application with furrow or clay pot irrigation. Thus, clay pot irrigation with 33,333 plants ha-1 and nitrogen fertilizer application with irrigation water in clay pots was the best method for increasing the yield of tomato while economizing the use of water and nitrogen fertilizer in a semiarid environment.

  19. Clay shale as host rock. A geomechanical contribution about Opalinus clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lempp, Christof; Menezes, Flora; Sachwitz, Simon

    2016-01-01

    The Opalinuston is a prominent rock representing the type of organic clay shales or clay stones within the sequence of Triassic and Jurassic marine sediments in Southern Germany. The rock forms a homogenous unit some ten meters thick. The degree of consolidation of this type of pelitic rock depends mainly on the former load conditions, but is also dependent on the long-term weathering and even on the present exposition. The geomechanical parameters such as shear strength, tensional strength and permeability vary with the state of consolidation and become important when the use is discussed of such rocks for radioactive waste disposal. A tunneling project at the northern escarpment of the Swabian Alb (Southwest Germany) within the Opalinus clay offered the rare opportunity to obtain fresh unweathered rock samples in greater amounts compared to fresh drilling cores from which geomechanical investigations are usually undertaken. Consequently, the results of geomechanical laboratory testings are presented in order to compare here the results of multistep triaxial compression tests, of hydraulic fracturing laboratory tests and of some other tests for rock characterization with the corresponding results of Opalinus clay sites in Switzerland that were investigated by the Swiss Nagra Company for host rock characterization. After a discussion of the relevant state of fresh Opalinus clay, especially of suction pressure conditions and saturation state, the results of triaxial shear tests are presented. Increasing shear deformation at increasing pressure and unchanged water saturation do not result in a significant strength reduction of the Opalinus clay. The rock shows increasing cohesion and stiffness, if multiple loading has repeatedly reached the failure point. Thus there is no increased permeability with continued shearing. Only at the beginning of the shearing process is a temporarily increased permeability to be expected due to dilatation processes. An increased

  20. Hollow Cylinder Tests on Boom Clay: Modelling of Strain Localization in the Anisotropic Excavation Damaged Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    François, Bertrand; Labiouse, Vincent; Dizier, Arnaud; Marinelli, Ferdinando; Charlier, Robert; Collin, Frédéric

    2014-01-01

    Boom Clay is extensively studied as a potential candidate to host underground nuclear waste disposal in Belgium. To guarantee the safety of such a disposal, the mechanical behaviour of the clay during gallery excavation must be properly predicted. In that purpose, a hollow cylinder experiment on Boom Clay has been designed to reproduce, in a small-scale test, the Excavation Damaged Zone (EDZ) as experienced during the excavation of a disposal gallery in the underground. In this article, the focus is made on the hydro-mechanical constitutive interpretation of the displacement (experimentally obtained by medium resolution X-ray tomography scanning). The coupled hydro-mechanical response of Boom Clay in this experiment is addressed through finite element computations with a constitutive model including strain hardening/softening, elastic and plastic cross-anisotropy and a regularization method for the modelling of strain localization processes. The obtained results evidence the directional dependency of the mechanical response of the clay. The softening behaviour induces transient strain localization processes, addressed through a hydro-mechanical second grade model. The shape of the obtained damaged zone is clearly affected by the anisotropy of the materials, evidencing an eye-shaped EDZ. The modelling results agree with experiments not only qualitatively (in terms of the shape of the induced damaged zone), but also quantitatively (for the obtained displacement in three particular radial directions).

  1. Mineralogy and geotechnical characteristics of some pottery clay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mujib Olamide ADEAGBO

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The physical properties of soils, which are tremendously influenced by the active clay minerals in soil, are of great importance in geotechnical engineering. This paper investigates the clay-sized particles of the Igbara-Odo pottery clay, and compares results obtained with available data on the bulk sample, to determine their correlation and underline the dependence of the geotechnical properties of the bulk clay material on the clay-sized particles. The bulk clay sample consists of 52% sand-size particles, 21% silt and 27% clay. Analysis of the clay-sized particles and the bulk materials shows: specific gravity of 2.07 and 2.66, liquid limit of 91.0% and 33.0%, plastic limit of 27.5% and 14.3%, plasticity index of 63.5% and 18.7% and a linear shrinkage of 7.9% and 5.4%, for both clay-sized particles and bulk clay respectively. The activity value of the clay material (0.64 suggests the presence of Kaolinite and Ilite; and these were confirmed with X-Ray diffraction on the bulk sample and clay-sized particles. X-Ray diffraction patterns shows distinctive peaks which highlight the dominance of Kaolinite (with 8 peaks in the pottery clay sample for both clay-sized particles and bulk material; while traces of other clay minerals like Illite and Halloysite and rock minerals like Mica, Feldspar and Chrysotile were also found. These results suggest that the clay possesses high viability in the manufacturing of ceramics, refractory bricks, paper, fertilizer and paint. The clay material can be used as a subgrade in road construction, since it possesses low swelling characteristics.

  2. Xenon-129 NMR study of the microporous structure of clays and pillared clays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsiao, C.; Carrado, K.A.

    1990-01-01

    129 Xe NMR studies have been carried out using xenon gas adsorbed in clays and pillared clays. Data from the measurements provide information on the pore structure of clays before and after pillaring. The results indicate that the effective pore diameter of montmorillonite increases, for example, from 5.4 Angstrom to 8.0 Angstrom after pillaring cheto-montmorillonite with aluminum polyoxohydroxy Keggin cations. The data are consistent with X-ray powder diffraction results, which show a corresponding increase in the interlamellar gallery height from 5.6 Angstrom to 8.4 Angstrom

  3. Self-sealing of fractures in argillaceous formations - Evidence, mechanisms and implications for performance assesment (an NEA Clay Club project)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bock, H.; Dehandschutter, B.; Martin, C.D.; Mazurek, M.; Haller, A. de; Skoczylas, F.; Davy, C.

    2010-01-01

    of veins and in the sealing of hard fissile clay-stones. Relating to a time scale of the order of 100 years, evidence for self-sealing of natural and induced fractures has been found in old traffic tunnels. Numerous laboratory and URL experiments have shown that, in soft and moderately indurated formations, self-sealing commonly occurs within a time span of months up to a few years. The project has advanced the knowledge on the general geo-conditions (G) (geologic, hydrogeological, geochemical, geotechnical) which must prevail in deep geological repositories that argillaceous formations become amenable to self-sealing. The following seven sealing mechanisms (M) were considered on their respective sealing potential of argillaceous formations in repository conditions: - M-1 Sealing of rock matrix by additional compaction (porosity reduction) - M-2 Closure of fractures by increased effective normal stress sn' - M-3 Contraction of fractures when subjected to shear - M-4 Creep of the fracture wall material towards the open fracture space - M-5 Swelling of the fracture wall material - M-6 Slaking of the fracture wall material (both body and surface slaking) - M-7 Mineral precipitation onto fracture walls. With regard to PA relevance, each self-sealing issue was finally classified in line with a scheme developed within the FEPCAT approach. It is concluded that the scientific knowledge on self-sealing has progressed to a level which, for soft and slight to moderately indurated argillaceous formations, could justify the inclusion of sealing processes in the performance assessment (PA) of deep geological repositories. (authors)

  4. Evaluation of Used Fuel Disposition in Clay-Bearing Rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jove-Colon, Carlos F. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Weck, Philippe F. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hammond, Glenn Edward [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kuhlman, Kristopher L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Zheng, Liange [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Rutqvist, Jonny [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Kim, Kunhwi [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Houseworth, James [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Caporuscio, Florie Andre [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Cheshire, Michael [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Palaich, Sarah [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Norskog, Katherine E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Zavarin, Mavrik [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Wolery, Thomas J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Jerden, James L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Copple, Jacqueline M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Cruse, Terry [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Ebert, William L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-09-04

    Deep geological disposal of nuclear waste in clay/shale/argillaceous rock formations has received much consideration given its desirable attributes such as isolation properties (low permeability), geochemically reduced conditions, slow diffusion, sorbtive mineralogy, and geologically widespread (Jové Colón et al., 2014). There is a wealth of gained scientific expertise on the behavior of clay/shale/ argillaceous rock given its focus in international nuclear waste repository programs that includes underground research laboratories (URLs) in Switzerland, France, Belgium, and Japan. Jové Colón et al. (2014) have described some of these investigative efforts in clay rock ranging from site characterization to research on the engineered barrier system (EBS). Evaluations of disposal options that include nuclear waste disposition in clay/shale/argillaceous rock have determined that this host media can accommodate a wide range of waste types. R&D work within the Used Fuel Disposition Campaign (UFDC) assessing thermal effects and fluid-mineral interactions for the disposition of heat-generating waste have so far demonstrated the feasibility for the EBS and clay host rock to withstand high thermal loads. This report represents the continuation of disposal R&D efforts on the advancement and refinement of coupled Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical-Chemical (THMC), hydrothermal experiments on clay interactions, used fuel degradation (source term), and thermodynamic modeling and database development. The development and implementation of a clay/shale/argillite reference case described in Jové Colón et al. (2014) for FY15 will be documented in another report (Mariner et al. 2015) – only a brief description will be given here. This clay reference case implementation is the result of integration efforts between the GDSA PA and disposal in argillite work packages. The assessment of sacrificial zones in the EBS is being addressed through experimental work along with 1D reactive

  5. Wave-induced ripple development in mixed clay-sand substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xuxu; Parsons, Daniel; Baas, Jaco H.; Mouazé, Dominique; McLelland, Stuart; Amoudry, Laurent; Eggenhuisen, Jorris; Cartigny, Matthieu; Ruessink, Gerben

    2016-04-01

    This paper reports on a series of experiments that aim to provide a fuller understanding of ripple development within clay-sand mixture substrates under oscillatory flow conditions. The work was conducted in the Total Environment Simulator at the University of Hull and constituted 6 separate runs, in which 5 runs were conducted under identical sets of regular waves (an additional run was conducted under irregular waves, but is not discussed in present paper). The bed content was systematically varied in its composition ranging from a pure sand bed through to a bed comprising 7.4% clay. A series of state-of-the-art measurements were employed to quantify interactions of near-bed hydrodynamics, sediment transport, and turbulence over rippled beds formed by wave action, during and after, each run. The experimental results demonstrate the significant influence of the amount of cohesive clay materials in the substrate on ripple evolution under waves. Most importantly, addition of clay in the bed dramatically slowed down the rate of ripple development and evolution. The equilibrium time of each run increased exponentially from 30 minutes under the control conditions of a pure sand bed, rising to ~350 minutes for the bed with the highest fraction of clay. The paper discusses the slower ripple growth rates with higher cohesive fractions, via an influence on critical shear, but highlights that the end equilibrium size of ripples is found to be independent of increasing substrate clay fraction. The suspended particles mass (SPM) concentration indicates that clay particles were suspended and winnowed by wave action. Additionally, laser granulometry of the final substrates verified that ripple crests were composed of pure sand layers that were absent at ripple troughs, reflecting a relatively higher winnowing efficiency at wave ripples crest. The winnowing process and its efficiency is inexorably linked to wave ripple development and evolution. The implications of the results

  6. Study of delayed behaviour of clays in deep geologic formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rousset, G.; Bazargan, B.; Ouvry, J.F.; Bouilleau, M.

    1993-01-01

    This study is a cost-sharing contract with the European Atomic Energy Community within the framework of Research and Development Program on Management, Storage and Radioactive Waste Disposal. The aim of the work presented in this report is to study the time-dependent behaviour of deep clays in Laboratory or in situ, by means of tests of similar geometry, in order to get easy comparisons and to study scale effect. The cylindrical geometry has been chosen as it resembles in situ works (tunnels, galleries) more closely. The first part of the study concerns a new test on hollow-cylinder. The experimental system, set up specially for this study, has allowed to conduct experiments in which 3 loading parameters may be controlled independently. Different types of experiments can therefore be conducted to study various aspects of mechanical behavior of rocks. A comprehensive experimental program was conducted in the particular case of Boom clay. In the second part of the report devoted to in situ creep or relaxation dilatometer tests, by using new techniques or loading paths, it was shown that time-dependent convergence of boreholes can reach significant values, and is dependent on the direction of the borehole. The anisotropy of the initial state of stress was also put in evidence. The proposed constitutive model (part III) appears to be very suitable to explain the behavior of the Boom clay, in view of the experimental results. In particular, the scale effect is low for Boom clay. 15 refs., 58 figs., 10 tabs

  7. The application of small-angle neutron scattering to the study of mass transfer in clays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, A.J.; Baston, A.H.; Bourke, P.J.; Jefferies, N.L.

    1990-01-01

    An extensive study using small angle neutron scattering (SANS) has been made of the pore structures in London Clay and in Ca-montmorillonite. Using SANS contrast variation techniques, the accessibilities of the pores to D 2 O by diffusion and permeation have been studied. Characterisation of the accessibility to different parts of the pore structure is intended to provide input data for models of radionuclide transport through clay geological barriers, and to improve interpretation of laboratory experiments that measure sorption of radionuclides on clays. (author)

  8. Bipolar soft connected, bipolar soft disconnected and bipolar soft compact spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Shabir

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Bipolar soft topological spaces are mathematical expressions to estimate interpretation of data frameworks. Bipolar soft theory considers the core features of data granules. Bipolarity is important to distinguish between positive information which is guaranteed to be possible and negative information which is forbidden or surely false. Connectedness and compactness are the most important fundamental topological properties. These properties highlight the main features of topological spaces and distinguish one topology from another. Taking this into account, we explore the bipolar soft connectedness, bipolar soft disconnectedness and bipolar soft compactness properties for bipolar soft topological spaces. Moreover, we introduce the notion of bipolar soft disjoint sets, bipolar soft separation, and bipolar soft hereditary property and study on bipolar soft connected and disconnected spaces. By giving the detailed picture of bipolar soft connected and disconnected spaces we investigate bipolar soft compact spaces and derive some results related to this concept.

  9. Characterization of clay minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz N, C.; Olguin, M.T.; Solache R, M.; Alarcon H, T.; Aguilar E, A.

    2002-01-01

    The natural clays are the more abundant minerals on the crust. They are used for making diverse industrial products. Due to the adsorption and ion exchange properties of these, a great interest for developing research directed toward the use of natural clays for the waste water treatment has been aroused. As part of such researches it is very important to carry out previously the characterization of the interest materials. In this work the results of the mineral and elemental chemical composition are presented as well as the morphological characteristics of clay minerals from different regions of the Mexican Republic. (Author)

  10. Geological modeling of a fault zone in clay rocks at the Mont-Terri laboratory (Switzerland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakurina, M.; Guglielmi, Y.; Nussbaum, C.; Valley, B.

    2016-12-01

    Clay-rich formations are considered to be a natural barrier for radionuclides or fluids (water, hydrocarbons, CO2) migration. However, little is known about the architecture of faults affecting clay formations because of their quick alteration at the Earth's surface. The Mont Terri Underground Research Laboratory provides exceptional conditions to investigate an un-weathered, perfectly exposed clay fault zone architecture and to conduct fault activation experiments that allow explore the conditions for stability of such clay faults. Here we show first results from a detailed geological model of the Mont Terri Main Fault architecture, using GoCad software, a detailed structural analysis of 6 fully cored and logged 30-to-50m long and 3-to-15m spaced boreholes crossing the fault zone. These high-definition geological data were acquired within the Fault Slip (FS) experiment project that consisted in fluid injections in different intervals within the fault using the SIMFIP probe to explore the conditions for the fault mechanical and seismic stability. The Mont Terri Main Fault "core" consists of a thrust zone about 0.8 to 3m wide that is bounded by two major fault planes. Between these planes, there is an assembly of distinct slickensided surfaces and various facies including scaly clays, fault gouge and fractured zones. Scaly clay including S-C bands and microfolds occurs in larger zones at top and bottom of the Mail Fault. A cm-thin layer of gouge, that is known to accommodate high strain parts, runs along the upper fault zone boundary. The non-scaly part mainly consists of undeformed rock block, bounded by slickensides. Such a complexity as well as the continuity of the two major surfaces are hard to correlate between the different boreholes even with the high density of geological data within the relatively small volume of the experiment. This may show that a poor strain localization occurred during faulting giving some perspectives about the potential for

  11. Clays and Clay Minerals and their environmental application in Food Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Hoyo Martínez, Carmen; Cuéllar Antequera, Jorge; Sánchez Escribano, Vicente; Solange Lozano García, Marina; Cutillas Díez, Raul

    2013-04-01

    The clay materials have led to numerous applications in the field of public health (del Hoyo, 2007; Volzone, 2007) having been demonstrated its effectiveness as adsorbents of all contaminants. Some biodegradable materials are used for for adsorption of chemical contaminants: lignins (Valderrabano et al., 2008) and also clays and clay minerals, whose colloidal properties, ease of generating structural changes, abundance in nature, and low cost make them very suitable for this kind of applications. Among the strategies used at present to preserve the quality of the water and this way to diminish the environmental risk that supposes the chemical pollution, stands out the use of adsorbents of under cost, already they are natural or modified, to immobilize these compounds and to avoid the pollution of the water with the consequent reduction of environmental and economic costs Thanks to the development of the science and the technology of the nourishment in the last 50 years, there have revealed itself several new substances that can fulfill beneficial functions in the food, and these substances, named food additives, are today within reach of all. The food additives recover a very important role in the complex nourishing supply. The additives fulfill several useful functions in the food, which often we give for sat. Nevertheless the widespread use of food additives in the food production also influences the public health. The food industries, which are very important for the economy, spill residues proved from its activity that they have to be controlled to evaluate the environmental impact and to offer the necessary information about the quantitative evaluation of the chemical risk of the use of food additives for the public health. We have studied the adsorption of several contaminants by natural or modified clays, searching their interaction mechanisms and the possible recycling of these materials for environmental purposes and prevention of the health. References

  12. Diagnostic, evaluation and handling of the tumors of soft tissues. Experience in the Central Military Hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pineda Acero, Gustavo Adolfo; Torres Quintero, Pio

    2001-01-01

    With the purpose of analyzing the experience of the orthopedics service and traumatology of the central military hospital in the treatment of the tumors of soft tissues, it carries out a descriptive observational study, type series of cases and retrospective. The incidence of the tumors of soft tissues compared with carcinomas and other neoplasia, constitutes less than 1% of all cancerous and the benign ones are more common than the wicked ones in a range of 100:1. The knowledge of the classification, stadification, evaluation strategies, previous biopsy, surgical treatment, radiotherapy y/o chemotherapy is vital for a good final result. 29 clinical histories were included of patient with tumoral lesions in the soft tissues, valued in the central military hospital between March of 1996 and March of 2001. The age average was of 39 years and the pursuit of 24 months. In most of the cases the anatomical commitment belonged to the inferior members (93%), 79% for benign tumors and 21% for wicked tumors. To avoid incorrect diagnoses and inappropriate treatments it is necessary the coordinated evaluation of all multidisciplinary team

  13. Mineral Acquisition from Clay by Budongo Forest Chimpanzees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vernon Reynolds

    Full Text Available Chimpanzees of the Sonso community, Budongo Forest, Uganda were observed eating clay and drinking clay-water from waterholes. We show that clay, clay-rich water, and clay obtained with leaf sponges, provide a range of minerals in different concentrations. The presence of aluminium in the clay consumed indicates that it takes the form of kaolinite. We discuss the contribution of clay geophagy to the mineral intake of the Sonso chimpanzees and show that clay eaten using leaf sponges is particularly rich in minerals. We show that termite mound soil, also regularly consumed, is rich in minerals. We discuss the frequency of clay and termite soil geophagy in the context of the disappearance from Budongo Forest of a formerly rich source of minerals, the decaying pith of Raphia farinifera palms.

  14. Mineral Acquisition from Clay by Budongo Forest Chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Vernon; Lloyd, Andrew W; English, Christopher J; Lyons, Peter; Dodd, Howard; Hobaiter, Catherine; Newton-Fisher, Nicholas; Mullins, Caroline; Lamon, Noemie; Schel, Anne Marijke; Fallon, Brittany

    2015-01-01

    Chimpanzees of the Sonso community, Budongo Forest, Uganda were observed eating clay and drinking clay-water from waterholes. We show that clay, clay-rich water, and clay obtained with leaf sponges, provide a range of minerals in different concentrations. The presence of aluminium in the clay consumed indicates that it takes the form of kaolinite. We discuss the contribution of clay geophagy to the mineral intake of the Sonso chimpanzees and show that clay eaten using leaf sponges is particularly rich in minerals. We show that termite mound soil, also regularly consumed, is rich in minerals. We discuss the frequency of clay and termite soil geophagy in the context of the disappearance from Budongo Forest of a formerly rich source of minerals, the decaying pith of Raphia farinifera palms.

  15. Influence of carbonate micro-fabrics on the failure strength of Callovo-Oxfordian clay stones and Opalinus Clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinkenberg, M.; Dohrmann, R.; Kaufhold, S.; Siegesmund, S.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. The potential use of clay stones as host rock for radioactive waste disposal is currently investigated. For this application, hydraulic conductivity, swelling properties, water uptake, rheological and mechanical properties are of great importance. The Opalinus Clay (Mont-Terri, Switzerland) and the Callovo- Oxfordian clay stone (France) are the most frequently studied clay stones. One goal is to develop a numerical model being able to predict the mechanical behaviour of clay stones under repository-like conditions. Experimental investigations reveal that Opalinus Clay and Callovo-Oxfordian clay stone behave different with respect to the dependence of mechanical strength on the carbonate content. The failure strength of Opalinus Clay decreases with increasing carbonate content, whereas it increases with increasing carbonate content when Callovo-Oxfordian clay stone is considered. To supply proper data and enable reliable model assumptions, the use of suitable experimental techniques for the description of the microstructure is indispensable. After mechanical testing, samples were taken perpendicular to the bedding and polished sections were prepared. The micro-fabrics were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and image analysis. Backscattered electron (BSE) images were used for the image analysis because carbonates can be extracted by grey level analysis. The image analysis of the extracted particles provides the following parameters: area, longest and shortest axis of an ellipse (surrounding the particle), perimeter, the angle to horizontal (longest axis), and the aspect ratio (longest axis/shortest axis). Callovo-Oxfordian clay stone shows a homogenous distribution of fine-grained carbonates and dovetail connection of calcium carbonate with the clayey matrix. In contrast Opalinus Clay shows large elongated carbonate grains (high aspect ratios) of shell fragments. Cracks are mostly related to these

  16. Excavation induced damage evolution during a mine-by experiment in Opalinus Clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vietor, T.; Armand, G.; Nyonoya, S.; Schuster, K.; Wieczorek, K.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. In Switzerland Opalinus Clay, a potential host rock formation for a nuclear waste repository, is intensively studied in the Mont Terri Underground Rock Laboratory (URL) in North-Western Switzerland. During the 2008 extension of the URL, the construction works were repeatedly interrupted to implement monitoring systems for a mine-by experiment. The future position of a 24 m long tunnel was instrumented with 36 different monitoring systems comprising approximately 200 sensors. Key features of this tunnel were chosen similar to the current Swiss concept for emplacement tunnels for High Level Radioactive Waste: circular section, full-face excavation following the geological bedding, support by a thin layer of shotcrete and 6 anchors every 1.3 m. For a mine-by experiment 26 boreholes were equipped with 7 multipoint extensometers, two multi segment inclinometer chains and 26 pore pressure chambers. The data acquisition system recorded 12 data sets per hour. For seismic transmission and acoustic emission monitoring, 8 piezo-electric emitters and 15 piezo-electric receivers were installed in 5 boreholes. The excavation of the instrumented tunnel took place in October/November 2008. The activities on the site were monitored with a web cam to separate spontaneous and excavation induced rock mass reactions. Daily mappings of the tunnel face and the sidewalls revealed the fracture pattern that was generated ahead of the advancing excavation. Three sets of excavation activated discontinuities could be clearly identified. These three sets develop within the framework of the pre-existing tectonic micro-faults that generally have a half-meter spacing. Where their density is high the intensity of excavation induced new slip planes apparently drops. Despite the presence of micro-faults the deformation monitoring around the advancing tunnel face showed a remarkably homogenous response to the excavation. Inclinometer chain segments

  17. Preparation of nanocomposites polyurethane water bone with clay montmorillonite sodica and organophilic clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Claudia P.; Delpech, Marcia C.; Coutinho, Fernanda M.B.; Mello, Ivana L.

    2009-01-01

    Nanocomposites based on water bone polyurethane (NWPU's) were synthesized based on poli(propylene glycol), dimethylolpropionic acid (DMPA), isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI) and hydrazine (HYD), as chain extender. Two kinds of clays were employed: hydrophilic and organophilic. The nanocomposites were characterized by infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) and the mechanical properties were evaluated. The FTIR results showed the presence of specific groups of clay and the XRD suggested that occurred their intercalation/exfoliation through polyurethane matrix. The mechanical resistance of the systems showed significant increase when compared to water dispersions synthesized without clay. (author)

  18. Soft Space Planning in Cities unbound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Kristian

    This paper analyses contemporary experiments of building governance capacity in new soft spaces in Denmark through processes of spatial strategy-making. The paper argues that new soft spaces are emerging in Danish spatial planning, which set out to promote more effective forms of strategic spatial...... planning, and how their obsession with promoting economic development at the expense of wider planning responsibilities support contemporary neoliberal transformations of strategic spatial planning....... planning. The Danish case of soft space planning demonstrates how Danish soft spaces at subnational scales fail to fill in the gaps between formal planning structures and provide the glue that binds formal scales of planning together as promised in the soft space literature. This raises a number...

  19. Clays in natural and engineered barriers for radioactive waste confinement - 4. International meeting. Book of abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    proposed within the Strategic Research Agenda, elaborated through the Implementing Geological Disposal of Radioactive Waste Technology Platform (IGD-TP). The conference offers a particular opportunity to present the more recent developments and main outputs of research carried out within the framework of national and international cooperative experiments and dedicated European projects. Contributions coming from fields other than radioactive waste disposal; like geological storage of natural gas, sequestration of CO 2 , energy storage in underground, chemical waste isolation, etc., also taking advantage of the properties of the clay material, were encouraged. This conference covers all topics concerning the natural argillaceous geological barriers and the clay-based engineered barrier systems, investigated by means of: laboratory experiments on clay samples (new analytical developments), in situ experiments in underground research laboratories, mock-up demonstrations, natural analogues, as well as numerical modelling and global integration approaches (including up-scaling processes and treatment of uncertainties) and monitoring. General strategy for clay based repository concepts Examples of research programmes (national or international) concerning the role of natural and engineered clay barriers for radioactive waste confinement including repository designs, safety assessment, full-scale demonstrations and implementations (e.g. heater tests). Geology and clay characterisation Clay mineralogy, sedimentology, paleo-environment, diagenesis, dating techniques, discontinuities in clay rock, fracturing, self-sealing processes, role of organic matters and microbiological processes, micro and nano characterisation of clay minerals and argillaceous rocks. Geochemistry Pore water geochemistry, clay thermodynamics, chemical retention, geochemical modelling, advanced isotopic geochemistry. Mass transfer Water status and hydraulic properties in low permeability media, pore space

  20. OSO-8 soft X-ray wheel experiment: Data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraushaar, W. L.

    1982-01-01

    The soft X-ray experiment hardware and its operation are described. The device included six X-ray proportional counters, two of which, numbers 1 and 4, were pressurized with on-board methane gas supplies. Number 4 developed an excessive leak rate early in the mission and was turned off on 1975 day number 282 except for brief (typically 2-hour) periods up to day 585 after which it as left off. Counter 1 worked satisfactorily until 1975 day number 1095 (January 1, 1978) at which time the on-board methane supply was depleted. The other four counters were sealed and all except number 3 worked satisfactorily throughout the mission which terminated with permanent satellie shut-down on day 1369. This was the first large area thin-window, gas-flow X-ray detector to be flown in orbit. The background problems were severe and consumed a very large portion of the data analysis effort. These background problems were associated with the Earth's trapped electron belts.

  1. From clay bricks to deep underground storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-05-01

    This booklet issued by the Swiss National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste NAGRA takes a look at the use of clay strata for the storage of radioactive wastes in deep-lying repositories. First of all, a geological foray is made concerning the history of the use of clay and its multifarious uses. The characteristics of clay and its composition are examined and its formation in the geological past is explained. In particular Opalinus clay is looked at and the structures to be found are discussed. The clay's various properties and industrial uses are examined and its sealing properties are examined. Also, Bentonite clay is mentioned and work done by Nagra and co-researchers is noted

  2. Applying squeezing technique to clay-rocks: lessons learned from ten years experiments at Mont Terri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, A. M.; Melon, A.; Sanchez-Ledesma, D.M.; Tournassat, C.; Gaucher, E.; Astudillo, J.; Vinsot, A.

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Argillaceous formations of low permeability are considered in several countries as potential host rocks for the disposal of high level radioactive wastes (HLRW). In order to determine their suitability for waste disposal, evaluations of the hydro-geochemistry and transport mechanisms from such geologic formations to the biosphere must be undertaken. The migration of radionuclides through the geosphere will occur predominantly in the aqueous phase, and hence the pore water chemistry plays an important role in determining ion diffusion characteristics in argillaceous formations. Consequently, a great effort has been made to characterise the pore water chemistry in clay-rocks formations. In the last 10 years various techniques were developed for determining pore water composition of clay-rocks including both direct and indirect methods: 1) In situ pore water sampling (water and gas) from sealed boreholes (Pearson et al., 2003; Vinsot et al. 2008); 2) Laboratory pore water sampling from unaltered core samples by the squeezing technique at high pressures (Fernandez et al., 2009); and 3) Characterization of the water chemistry by geochemical modelling (Gaucher et al. 2009). Pore water chemistry in clay-rocks and extraction techniques were documented and reviewed in different studies (Sacchi et al., 2001). Recovering pristine pore water from low permeable and low water content systems is very difficult and sometimes impossible. Besides, uncertainties are associated to each method used for the pore water characterization. In this paper, a review about the high pressure squeezing technique applied to indurate clay-rocks was performed. For this purpose, the experimental work on Opalinus Clay at the Mont Terri Research Laboratory during the last ten years was evaluated. A complete discussion was made about different issues such as: a) why is necessary to obtain the pore water by squeezing in the context of radioactive waste

  3. Microstructure and Thermal Properties of Polypropylene/Clay Nanocomposites with TiCl4/MgCl2/Clay Compound Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limei Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Polypropylene (PP/clay nanocomposites were synthesized by in situ intercalative polymerization with TiCl4/MgCl2/clay compound catalyst. Microstructure and thermal properties of PP/clay nanocomposites were studied in detail. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectra indicated that PP/clay nanocomposites were successfully prepared. Both wide-angle X-ray diffraction (XRD and transmission electron microscopy (TEM examination proved that clay layers are homogeneously distributed in PP matrix. XRD patterns also showed that the α phase was the dominate crystal phase of PP in the nanocomposites. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA examinations confirmed that thermal stability of PP/clay nanocomposites was markedly superior to pure PP. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC scans showed that the melt temperature and the crystallinity of nanocomposites were slightly lower than those of pure PP due to crystals imperfections.

  4. Mont Terri Project - Engineered barrier emplacement experiment in Opalinus Clay for the disposal of radioactive waste in underground repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayor, J. C.; Garcia-Sineriz, J.; Alonso, E.; Alheid, H.-J.; Bluemling, P.

    2007-01-01

    The Engineered Barrier (EB) experiment was a full-scale test for the demonstration, in a horizontal drift, of an emplacement technics of the clay barrier, using a granular bentonite material in the upper part of this barrier and bentonite blocks at the bottom. The test has been carried out in a 6 m long section of a niche excavated in Opalinus Clay of the Mont Terri underground laboratory. A steel dummy canister, with the same dimensions and weight as the real reference canisters, was placed on top of a bed of highly compacted bentonite blocks (in turn lying on a concrete bed), and the rest of the clay barrier volume was backfilled with a Granular Bentonite Material (GBM), made of very highly compacted pellets of different sizes. Hydro-mechanical instrumentation and an artificial hydration system (to accelerate the saturation of the clay barrier) were installed, and the test section sealed with a concrete plug. The evolution of the hydro-mechanical parameters along the hydration, both in the barrier and in the clayey rock formation, has been monitored during about 1.5 years, and modelled using the CODE-BRIGHT code. The EB experiment has proved that fully automated production of a Granular Bentonite Material (GBM) is possible and large quantities can be produced in due time in the required quality. Only minor modifications of existing production lines in industry for other applications were necessary to achieve this result. In the EB test section, a dry density of 1.36 g/cm 3 of the emplaced GBM has been obtained. With this value it is estimated that the hydraulic conductivity of this material is lower than 5 x 10 -12 m/s and the swelling pressure is about 1.3 MPa. Even though the EB test section conditions are now not considered as representative of a true demonstration, it is deemed that the model emplacement testing results (dry density of about 1.40 g/cm 3 ) serve well to demonstrate the achievable densities expected in the real world setting. The artificial

  5. Mont Terri Project - Engineered barrier emplacement experiment in Opalinus Clay for the disposal of radioactive waste in underground repositories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayor, J. C. [Empresa Nacional de Residuos Radioactivos SA (ENRESA), Madrid (Spain); Garcia-Sineriz, J. [Asociacion para la Investigacion y Desarollo Industrial de los Recursos Naturales (AITEMIN), Madrid (Spain); Alonso, E. [Centre Internacional de Metodos Numerics en Ingenyeria (CIMNE), Barcelona (Spain); Alheid, H.-J. [Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe (BGR), Hannover (Germany); Bluemling, P. [National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste (Nagra), Wettingen (Switzerland)

    2007-07-01

    The Engineered Barrier (EB) experiment was a full-scale test for the demonstration, in a horizontal drift, of an emplacement technics of the clay barrier, using a granular bentonite material in the upper part of this barrier and bentonite blocks at the bottom. The test has been carried out in a 6 m long section of a niche excavated in Opalinus Clay of the Mont Terri underground laboratory. A steel dummy canister, with the same dimensions and weight as the real reference canisters, was placed on top of a bed of highly compacted bentonite blocks (in turn lying on a concrete bed), and the rest of the clay barrier volume was backfilled with a Granular Bentonite Material (GBM), made of very highly compacted pellets of different sizes. Hydro-mechanical instrumentation and an artificial hydration system (to accelerate the saturation of the clay barrier) were installed, and the test section sealed with a concrete plug. The evolution of the hydro-mechanical parameters along the hydration, both in the barrier and in the clayey rock formation, has been monitored during about 1.5 years, and modelled using the CODE-BRIGHT code. The EB experiment has proved that fully automated production of a Granular Bentonite Material (GBM) is possible and large quantities can be produced in due time in the required quality. Only minor modifications of existing production lines in industry for other applications were necessary to achieve this result. In the EB test section, a dry density of 1.36 g/cm{sup 3} of the emplaced GBM has been obtained. With this value it is estimated that the hydraulic conductivity of this material is lower than 5 x 10{sup -12} m/s and the swelling pressure is about 1.3 MPa. Even though the EB test section conditions are now not considered as representative of a true demonstration, it is deemed that the model emplacement testing results (dry density of about 1.40 g/cm{sup 3}) serve well to demonstrate the achievable densities expected in the real world setting. The

  6. Effects of magnesium minerals representative of the Callovian-Oxfordian clay-stone on borosilicate glass alteration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debure, M.

    2012-01-01

    Borosilicate glasses dissolution has been studied in presence of magnesium minerals. Those minerals (dolomite, illite, smectite...) belong to the Callovo-Oxfordian (COx) clay-stone layer, studied in France as a potential site for nuclear waste disposal. Such minerals contain magnesium, an element able to sustain glass alteration when it is available in solution. In the confined media of the wastes disposal, the solids reactivity controls the solution composition and can be the driving force of nuclear glass alteration. Experiments show that magnesium carbonates (hydro-magnesite and dolomite) increase in the glass alteration: the precipitation of magnesium silicates consumes silicon which slows down the formation of the glass passivating layer. The lower the magnesium mineral solubility, the lower the glass alteration. The purified clay phases (illite, smectite...) from the COx layer increase the glass alteration. Half the magnesium was replaced by sodium during the purification process. In such conditions, the effect of clay phases on glass alteration is in part due to the acidic pH-buffering effect of the clay fraction. The GRAAL model implemented in the geochemical transport code HYTEC has confirmed and quantified the mechanisms put in evidence in the experiments. Cells diffusion experiments where the two solids were separated by an inert diffusion barrier allow to valid reactive transport modelling. Such experiments are more representative of the glass package which will be separated from the COx by corrosion products. They show that glass alteration rate is reduced when solids are not close. (author) [fr

  7. Analysis on Wetting Deformation Properties of Silty Clay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinrong Liu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Changes in water level that cause deformation and stability problems often occur in foundation pit engineering. Water damage is one of the main problems that will lead to disasters in foundation pit engineering. Research findings with regard to properties of wetting deformation due to water damage can be applied not only in foundation pit engineering, slope engineering, hydraulic engineering, and mining engineering but also in related issues in the field of theoretical research and practice. In this study, the characteristics of silty clay deformation after wetting are examined from the perspective of the effect of wetting on the side wall of foundation pit, and wetting experiments on silty clay of a selected area’s stratum located in Chongqing Municipality are conducted under different confining pressures and stress levels through a multi-function triaxial apparatus. Then, laws of silty clay wetting deformation are obtained, and the relationship between wetting stress level and wetting deformation amount is also figured out. The study reveals that the maximum values of wetting deformation under different confining pressures have appear at a particular stress level; therefore, the related measures should be taken to avoid this deformation in the process of construction.

  8. Using Online Project-Based Capstone Experiences to Enhance Soft Skills Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, Gwendolyn Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    Employers of newly minted information technology graduates are concerned that students graduating with information technology degrees offered in online environments are lacking critical noncomputing skills (soft skills). Further, it is unclear whether online environments have the capacity to foster the "soft skills" necessary for…

  9. Sealing Clay Text Segmentation Based on Radon-Like Features and Adaptive Enhancement Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Text extraction is a key issue in sealing clay research. The traditional method based on rubbings increases the risk of sealing clay damage and is unfavorable to sealing clay protection. Therefore, using digital image of sealing clay, a new method for text segmentation based on Radon-like features and adaptive enhancement filters is proposed in this paper. First, adaptive enhancement LM filter bank is used to get the maximum energy image; second, the edge image of the maximum energy image is calculated; finally, Radon-like feature images are generated by combining maximum energy image and its edge image. The average image of Radon-like feature images is segmented by the image thresholding method. Compared with 2D Otsu, GA, and FastFCM, the experiment result shows that this method can perform better in terms of accuracy and completeness of the text.

  10. SORPTION AND DISPERSION OF STRONTIUM RADIONUCLIDE IN THE BENTONITE-QUARTZ-CLAY AS BACKFILL MATERIAL CANDIDATE ON RADIOACTIVE WASTE REPOSITORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herry Poernomo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The experiment of sorption and dispersion characteristics of strontium in the mixture of bentonite-quartz, clay-quartz, bentonite-clay-quartz as candidate of raw material for backfill material in the radioactive waste repository has been performed. The objective of this research is to know the grain size effect of bentonite, clay, and quartz on the weight percent ratio of bentonite to quartz, clay to quartz, bentonite to clay to-quartz can be gives physical characteristics of best such as bulk density (rb, effective porosity (e, permeability (K, best sorption characteristic such as distribution coefficient (Kd, and best dispersion characteristics such as dispersivity (a and effective dispersion coefficient (De of strontium in the backfill material candidate. The experiment was carried out in the column filled by the mixture of bentonite-quartz, clay-quartz, bentonite-clay-quartz with the weight percent ratio of bentonite to quartz, clay to quartz, bentonite to clay to quartz of 100/0, 80/20, 60/40, 40/60, 20/80, 0/100 respectively at saturated condition of water, then flowed 0.1 N Sr(NO32 as buffer solution with tracer of 0.05 Ci/cm3 90Sr as strontium radionuclide simulation was leached from immobilized radioactive waste in the radioactive waste repository. The concentration of 90Sr in the effluents represented as Ct were analyzed by Ortec b counter every 30 min, then by using profile concentration of Co and Ct, values of Kd, a and De of 90Sr in the backfill material was determined. The experiment data showed that the best results were -80+120 mesh grain size of bentonite, clay, quartz respectively on the weight percent ratio of bentonite to clay to quartz of 70/10/20 with physical characteristics of rb = 0.658 g/cm3, e = 0.666 cm3/cm3, and K = 1.680x10-2 cm/sec, sorption characteristic of Kd = 46.108 cm3/g, dispersion characteristics of a = 5.443 cm, and De = 1.808x10-03 cm2/sec can be proposed as candidate of raw material of backfill material

  11. Soft sediment deformation structures in the Maastrichtian Ajali Formation Western Flank of Anambra Basin, Southern Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olabode, Solomon Ojo

    2014-01-01

    Soft sediment deformation structures were recognized in the Maastrichtian shallow marine wave to tide influenced regressive sediments of Ajali Formation in the western flank of Anambra basin, southern Nigerian. The soft sediment deformation structures were in association with cross bedded sands, clay and silt and show different morphological types. Two main types recognised are plastic deformations represented by different types of recumbent folds and injection structure represented by clastic dykes. Other structures in association with the plastic deformation structures include distorted convolute lamination, subsidence lobes, pillars, cusps and sand balls. These structures are interpreted to have been formed by liquefaction and fluidization mechanisms. The driving forces inferred include gravitational instabilities and hydraulic processes. Facies analysis, detailed morphologic study of the soft sediment deformation structures and previous tectonic history of the basin indicate that the main trigger agent for deformation is earthquake shock. The soft sediment deformation structures recognised in the western part of Anambra basin provide a continuous record of the tectonic processes that acted on the regressive Ajali Formation during the Maastrichtian.

  12. Research and development programme on radioactive waste disposal in deep geological formation (study of a clay formation)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heremans, R.; Manfroy, P.; Bonne, A.

    1980-01-01

    The experiments carried out at the Mol nuclear research center from 1 January 1976 to 30 June 1978 on the management and storage of radioactive wastes are described. The possibility of underground disposal and storage at Mol has been studied. Mol clay samples and ground water were analysed. Hydrogeological measurement were made together with experiments or heat transfer in clayes. The technical realization and environmental riscks of radioactive underground disposal at Mol are discussed

  13. The Mont Terri rock laboratory: International research in the Opalinus Clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossart, P.

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on a visit made to the rock laboratory in Mont Terri, Switzerland, where research is being done concerning rock materials that can possibly be used for the implementation of repositories for nuclear wastes. Emphasis is placed on the project’s organisation, rock geology and on-going experiments. International organisations also involved in research on nuclear waste repositories are listed. The research facilities in tunnels built in Opalinus Clay at the Mont Terri site are described. The geology of Opalinus Clay and the structures found in the research tunnels are discussed, as is the hydro-geological setting. The research programme and various institutions involved are listed and experiments carried out are noted. The facilities are now also being used for research on topics related to carbon sequestration

  14. Feasibility of using overburden clays for sealing purposes and laboratory testing of the clays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, J. (Vyzkumny Ustav pro Hnede Uhli, Most (Czechoslovakia))

    1992-03-01

    Studies properties of overburden clay from North Bohemian surface coal mines for use as sealants of industrial and household waste that will be dumped at Czechoslovak surface mine sites. Basic requirements of sealing layers are optimum compressibility and impermeability by suitable compacting. Laboratory soil mechanical tests of different clay samples were carried out using the Proctor standard tests (PCS) and the Norwegian Geonor A/S - m 45 instrument. Laboratory tests were used to select the best available clay types with optimum density and moisture content. Experimental results of laboratory tests are provided.

  15. Sorption of radionuclides by tertiary clays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, J.F.; Czurda, K.A.

    1990-01-01

    The sorption capacity of different clay types for some metals (Co, Cs, Sr and Zn), occurring as common radionuclides in radioactive waste deposits, had been analysed by a static (batch technique) and a dynamic method (percolation tests, in which the driving force is a hydraulic gradient). Sorption capacity generally increased with an increasing pH of solution. A decrease of sorption capacity had been observed in the order Zn > Cs ≥ Co > Sr for the batch and Cs > Zn > Sr > Co for the percolation tests. Clay marls showed a distinctly higher sorption respectively retention capacity as pure clays. Sorption capacity depends on solution parameters like type and concentration of radionuclide, pH, salt concentration, etc., and on rock parameters like mineral content (e.g. swelling clay minerals and carbonates), organic material, rock pH, micro fabric, etc. A third parameter of great influence is the contact time between clay and solution. The adsorption isotherms reflect two different adsorption mechanisms: a very rapid adsorption (a few minutes) on the external surfaces of clay minerals and a slow adsorption process (weeks and longer), due to the diffusion of metal ions into the interlayer space of clay minerals. 12 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab

  16. Sorption of Cesium on smectite-rich clays from the Bohemian Massif (Czech Republic) and their mixtures with sand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vejsada, J; Jelínek, E; Randa, Z; Hradil, D; Prikryl, R

    2005-01-01

    Sorption is an important process for the transport of radionuclides through backfill materials in a radioactive waste underground repository. Within this study, sorption of Cs on selected Czech clay materials and their mixtures with sand was investigated by batch tests. The experiments were performed under oxic conditions at 25 degrees C. Synthetic groundwater as a liquid phase and unconditioned clays (as they were provided by their producer) were used to reach the natural conditions as close as possible. Distribution ratios (Rds) of Cs for all selected clays rise with increase of the clay fraction in clay/sand mixtures in agreement with previous works studying sorption behaviour of such mixtures. The rise of Rds is from 10(2) cm3 g(-1) for mixtures with 80% of sand to 10(3) cm3 g(-1) for pure clays. There are significant differences between natural and technologically modified clays.

  17. Ice nucleation efficiency of clay minerals in the immersion mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Pinti

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Emulsion and bulk freezing experiments were performed to investigate immersion ice nucleation on clay minerals in pure water, using various kaolinites, montmorillonites, illites as well as natural dust from the Hoggar Mountains in the Saharan region. Differential scanning calorimeter measurements were performed on three different kaolinites (KGa-1b, KGa-2 and K-SA, two illites (Illite NX and Illite SE and four natural and acid-treated montmorillonites (SWy-2, STx-1b, KSF and K-10. The emulsion experiments provide information on the average freezing behaviour characterized by the average nucleation sites. These experiments revealed one to sometimes two distinct heterogeneous freezing peaks, which suggest the presence of a low number of qualitatively distinct average nucleation site classes. We refer to the peak at the lowest temperature as "standard peak" and to the one occurring in only some clay mineral types at higher temperatures as "special peak". Conversely, freezing in bulk samples is not initiated by the average nucleation sites, but by a very low number of "best sites". The kaolinites and montmorillonites showed quite narrow standard peaks with onset temperatures 238 K<Tonstd<242 K and best sites with averaged median freezing temperature Tmedbest=257 K, but only some featuring a special peak (i.e. KSF, K-10, K-SA and SWy-2 with freezing onsets in the range 240–248 K. The illites showed broad standard peaks with freezing onsets at 244 K Tonstd<246 K and best sites with averaged median freezing temperature Tmedbest=262 K. The large difference between freezing temperatures of standard and best sites shows that characterizing ice nucleation efficiencies of dust particles on the basis of freezing onset temperatures from bulk experiments, as has been done in some atmospheric studies, is not appropriate. Our investigations

  18. Experience with esthetic reconstruction of complex facial soft tissue trauma: application of the pulsed dye laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Ali; Kazemi, Hossein Mohammad; Nejadsarvari, Nasrin

    2014-08-01

    Facial soft tissue injury can be one of the most challenging cases presenting to the plastic surgeon. The life quality and self-esteem of the patients with facial injury may be compromised temporarily or permanently. Immediate reconstruction of most defects leads to better restoration of form and function as well as early rehabilitation. The aim of this study was to present our experience in management of facial soft tissue injuries from different causes. We prospectively studied patients treated by plastic surgeons from 2010 to 2012 suffering from different types of blunt or sharp (penetrating) facial soft tissue injuries to the different areas of the face. All soft tissue injuries were treated primarily. Photography from all patients before, during, and after surgical reconstruction was performed and the results were collected. We used early pulsed dye laser (PDL) post-operatively. In our study, 63 patients including 18 (28.5%) women and 45 (71.5%) men aged 8-70 years (mean 47 years) underwent facial reconstruction due to soft tissue trauma in different parts of the face. Sharp wounds were seen in 15 (23%) patients and blunt trauma lacerations were seen in 52 (77%) patients. Overall, 65% of facial injuries were repaired primary and the remainder were reconstructed with local flaps or skin graft from adjacent tissues. Postoperative PDL therapy done two weeks following surgery for all scars yielded good results in our cases. Analysis of the injury including location, size, and depth of penetration as well as presence of associated injuries can aid in the formulation of a proper surgical plan. We recommend PDL in the early post operation period (two weeks) after suture removal for better aesthetic results.

  19. Modification and characterization of montmorillonite clay for the extraction of zearalenone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hue, Kerri-Ann Alicia

    caused by washing of the clays or exposure to electrolytic solutions. Statistical design of experiments was used to determine the factors most influential during ZEN extraction. Modification by TCMA resulted in an increase in intergallery spacing of ˜0.6nm. TGA and FTIR studies indicated intercalation of organic species within the clay layers. An increase in weight loss proportional to the amount of TCMA added was observed by TGA analysis. In addition to the peaks found in the natural clay, peaks at 2928 cm-1, 2852 cm -1, and 1466 cm-1, which belong to C-H asymmetric stretching, C-H symmetric stretching and -CH2 scissoring respectively characteristic of TCMA were present. The clays developed were able to extract >90% ZEN in vitro at pH 3 and pH7. The factors most important for extraction changed depending on the levels of parameters chosen. Mathematical models were developed that showed the relationship between the factors and the ZEN removal percentage. When exposed to electrolyte solutions ˜1.5pmm of surfactant desorbed from the modified clay.

  20. Organophilization and characterization of commercial bentonite clays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunha, B.B. da; Lima, J.C.C.; Alves, A.M.; Araujo, E.M.; Melo, T.J.A. de

    2012-01-01

    Bentonite clay is a plastic changes resulting from volcanic ash, consisting mostly of montmorillonite. The state of Paraiba is a major source of bentonite clay from Brazil, where the main oil fields are located in Boa Vista and represents the largest national production of raw and beneficiated bentonite. Aimed at the commercial value of this type of clay and its high applicability in the polls, this article aims to make a comparison between two kinds of clay, a national (Brasgel) and other imported (Cloisite) from organophilization of two commercial bentonite, ionic surfactant with Praepagem WB, and characterize them by XRD, FTIR and TG / DTG. We observe that despite getting inferior properties, the clay presents national values very similar to those presented by imported clay. (author)

  1. Electrokinetic enhancement of phenanthrene biodegradation in creosote-polluted clay soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niqui-Arroyo, Jose-Luis; Bueno-Montes, Marisa; Posada-Baquero, Rosa; Ortega-Calvo, Jose-Julio

    2006-01-01

    Given the difficulties caused by low-permeable soils in bioremediation, a new electrokinetic technology is proposed, based on laboratory results with phenanthrene, to afford bioremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in clay soils. Microbial activity in a clay soil historically polluted with creosote was promoted using a specially designed electrokinetic cell with a permanent anode-to-cathode flow and controlled pH. The rates of phenanthrene losses during treatment were tenfold higher in soil treated with an electric field than in the control cells without current or microbial activity. Results from experiments with Tenax-assisted desorption and mineralization of 14 C-labeled phenanthrene indicated that phenanthrene biodegradation was limited by mass-transfer of the chemical. We suggest that the enhancement effect of the applied electric field on phenanthrene biodegradation resulted from mobilization of the PAH and nutrients dissolved in the soil fluids. - Electrokinetic bioremediation is a potentially effective technology to treat PAH-polluted, clay-rich soils

  2. Synchrotron radiation calibration for soft X-ray detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ning, Jiamin; Guo, Cun; Xu, Rongkun; Jiang, Shilun; Xu, Zeping; Chen, Jinchuan; Xia, Guangxin; Xue, Feibiao; Qin, Yi

    2009-04-01

    The calibration experiments were carried out to X-ray film, scintillator and transmission grating by employing the soft X-ray station at 3W1B beam-line in Beijing synchrotron Radiation Facility. The experiments presented the black intensity curve and energy response curve of soft X-ray film. And the experimental results can be used in diagnosis of X-ray radiation characterization of Z-pinch, such as in the measurement of soft X-ray Power Meter, grating spectrometer, pinhole camera and one-dimension imaging system which can ensure precision of Z-pinch results. (authors)

  3. What Makes a Natural Clay Antibacterial?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Lynda B.; Metge, David W.; Eberl, Dennis D.; Harvey, Ronald W.; Turner, Amanda G.; Prapaipong, Panjai; Poret-Peterson, Amisha T.

    2011-01-01

    Natural clays have been used in ancient and modern medicine, but the mechanism(s) that make certain clays lethal against bacterial pathogens has not been identified. We have compared the depositional environments, mineralogies, and chemistries of clays that exhibit antibacterial effects on a broad spectrum of human pathogens including antibiotic resistant strains. Natural antibacterial clays contain nanoscale (clay minerals in the bactericidal process is to buffer the aqueous pH and oxidation state to conditions that promote Fe2+ solubility. Chemical analyses of E. coli killed by aqueous leachates of an antibacterial clay show that intracellular concentrations of Fe and P are elevated relative to controls. Phosphorus uptake by the cells supports a regulatory role of polyphosphate or phospholipids in controlling Fe2+. Fenton reaction products can degrade critical cell components, but we deduce that extracellular processes do not cause cell death. Rather, Fe2+ overwhelms outer membrane regulatory proteins and is oxidized when it enters the cell, precipitating Fe3+ and producing lethal hydroxyl radicals. PMID:21413758

  4. Diffusion of Radionuclides in Bentonite Clay - Laboratory and in situ Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansson, Mats

    2002-12-01

    This thesis deals with the diffusion of ions in compacted bentonite clay. Laboratory experiments were performed to examine in detail different processes that affect the diffusion. To demonstrate that the results obtained from the laboratory investigations are valid under in situ conditions, two different kinds of in situ experiments were performed. Laboratory experiments were performed to better understand the impact of ionic strength on the diffusion of S 2+ and Cs + ions, which sorb to mineral surfaces primarily by ion exchange. Furthermore, surface related diffusion was examined and demonstrated to take place for Sr 2+ and Cs + but not for Co 2+ , which sorbs on mineral surfaces by complexation. The diffusion of anions in bentonite clay compacted to different dry densities was also investigated. The results indicate that anion diffusion in bentonite clay consists of two processes, one fast and another slower. We ascribe the fast diffusive process to intralayer diffusion and the slow process to diffusion in interparticle water, where anions are to some extent sorbed to edge sites of the montmorillonite. Two different types of in situ experiments were performed, CHEMLAB and LOT. CHEMLAB is a borehole laboratory, where cation (Cs + , Sr 2+ and Co 2+ ) and anion (I- and TcO 4 - ) diffusion experiments were performed using groundwater from a fracture in the borehole. In the LOT experiments cylindrical bentonite blocks surrounding a central copper rod were placed in a 4 m deep vertical borehole. The borehole was then sealed and the blocks are left for 1, 5 or >> 5 years. When the bentonite was water saturated the central copper rod is heated to simulate the temperature increase due to radioactive decay of the spent fuel. Bentonite doped with radioactive Cs and Co was placed in one of the lower blocks. Interestingly, the redox-sensitive pertechnetate ion (TcO 4 - ) which thermodynamically should be reduced and precipitate as TcO 2 n H 2 O, travelled unreduced through

  5. Speciation of neptunium after diffusion in Opalinus Clay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reich, Tobias; Amayri, Samer; Drebert, Jakob; Froehlich, Daniel R.; Grolimund, Daniel; Rosemann, Jonathan [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Nuclear Chemistry; Kaplan, Ugras [Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen (Switzerland). Swiss Light Source

    2015-07-01

    Argillaceous rock formations are under consideration as a potential host rock for the construction of high-level nuclear waste repositories. Under environmental conditions the most stable oxidation states of {sup 237}Np (t{sub 1/2}=2.1 x 10{sup 6} a) are Np(IV) and Np(V). We have investigated the sorption and diffusion of the more mobile Np(V) in Opalinus Clay (OPA, Mont Terri, Switzerland) (Wu et al. 2009, Froehlich et al. 2011 and 2012 a). OPA, which is present in Switzerland and southern Germany, possesses a micro-scale heterogeneity and is composed of several types of clay minerals, but also of calcite, quartz and iron(II)-bearing minerals. In our previous diffusion (Wu et al. 2009) and anaerobic sorption experiments (Froehlich et al. 2011), we observed higher distribution coefficients, K{sub d}, than expected from batch experiments performed in air, indicating that a partial reduction of Np(V) to Np(IV) had occurred. To test this hypothesis, different sorption and diffusion samples with Np(V) were prepared at pH 7.6 for spatially resolved molecular-level investigations at the microXAS beamline at the Swiss Light Source (PSI, Villigen, Switzerland) (Froehlich et al. 2012 b). Elemental distributions of Ca, Fe and Np have been determined by μ-XRF mapping. Regions of high Np concentration were subsequently investigated by Np L{sub III}-edge μ-XANES. In most samples Np spots with considerable amounts of tetravalent Np could be found, even when the experiments were performed under ambient-air conditions. In some cases, almost pure Np(IV) L{sub III}-edge XANES spectra were recorded. In case of the anaerobic sorption sample, a clear correlation between Np and Fe was observed by μ-XRF, indicating that iron(II)-bearing minerals could be responsible for the reduction of Np(V). μ-XRD measurements of this sample showed that pyrite is at least one of the redox-active phases determining the speciation of Np in OPA. In this case, Np was accumulated on pyrite, indicating

  6. Concrete-Opalinus clay interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenni, A.; Maeder, U.; Lerouge, C.; Gaboreau, S.; Schwyn, B.

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Designs for deep geologic disposal of radioactive waste foresee cementitious materials as structural elements, backfill or waste matrix. Therefore, studies of interactions between cement and all other materials involved are important. Interactions are mostly driven by chemical gradients in pore water and might lead to mineralogical alterations in the barrier system, which in turn influence properties like swelling pressure, permeability, or specific retention in case of clay materials. Existing laboratory and in-situ studies using clay-stone revealed significant alteration in both cement and clay-stone. Phase dissolution, precipitation, and carbonation, were found to cause an overall porosity increase in the cement with a possible decrease close to the interface, and clogging in the clay-stone [2]. Most of the work was done on cement pastes rather than concretes to avoid analytical complications caused by aggregates, and the scale of investigation was chosen in the range of centimetres rather than micrometers. The Cement-Clay Interaction (CI) experiment at the Mont Terri Underground Laboratory (St. Ursanne, Switzerland) aims at replicating some of the processes at interfaces to be expected.For this purpose, two vertical cylindrical boreholes (384 mm diameter, up to 10 m length) in Opalinus Clay (OPA) were filled with layers of three different concretes and bentonite. The concrete formulations are based on common aggregate content and grain size distributions, combined with three different cements: Portland cement (OPC), ESDRED cement especially designed for repository applications (40% of cement substituted with silica fume), and low alkali cement (LAC, containing slag and nano-silica).In this study, we present a characterisation of the three concrete-OPA interfaces after two years of alteration and deduce possible mechanisms. Backscattered electron (BE) imaging and energy dispersive spectrum (EDX) element mapping

  7. Influence of coupling phenomena on the transport through compacted clays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosanne, M.; Koudina, N.; Adler, P.M. [IPGP, Paris (France); Tevissen, E. [ANDRA, Dept. Etude-Experimentation et Calcul, Chatenay Malabry (France)

    2001-07-01

    Our principal motivation was to study the influence of the coupling phenomena on transport through compacted clays. Coupled transports may occur when a pressure gradient {nabla}P, and electrical field E and a concentration gradient {nabla}C interact. These three gradients induce three fluxes. A flow is generated characterized by the seepage velocity U; a solute flux J{sub L} and a current density I are generated. Close to equilibrium, when the gradients are not to large, the problem is linear and the fluxes are linear functions of the gradients. A first series of experiments was performed with argillite to determine the diagonal properties, i.e., permeability, conductivity, and diffusion coefficient. In a second series of experiments, the voltage resulting from an imposed concentration gradient between two reservoirs separated by a clay sample was systematically measured; this corresponds to the coefficient L{sub 13}. (orig.)

  8. Microfabric of illitic clays from the Pacific deep-sea basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkett, D.J.; Bennett, R.H.; Bryant, W.R.

    1990-01-01

    The microfabric of deep-sea illitic clays was investigated using electron microscopy in support of the In-Situ Heat Transfer Experiment (ISHTE) Simulation test (ISIMU) and the Subseabed Disposal Program (SDP). Sandia National Laboratories, ISHTE and the field exercises were designed to investigate the thermal, fluid, and mechanical response of the sediment to the emplacement of radioactive waste in the seabed. Clay fabric of an undisturbed core sample, designated RAMA, was compared to dredge, remolded, reconsolidated material in order to investigate the effects of mechanical disturbances from sediment remolding and heater probe insertion and effects of induced thermal gradients caused by heating of the sediment

  9. Study of methods for electrical modification of a clay suspension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karimov, R A; Kudaktina, T T; Parpiyev, T R

    1982-01-01

    As a result of the conducted experiments it was established that the viscosity and maximum static shear stress of the drilling muds prepared on electrically treated water increases 2-3-fold as compared to the muds prepared on standard water. This is explained by the fact that the unipolar treatment results in deep change in the water structure. Under the influence of the electrical current, there is activation, rise in the electrical conductivity, decrease in surface tension, considerable rise in the pH value, etc. The output of clay mud increases 1.5-fold in the clay suspension that is prepared on electrically treated water.

  10. Study of the Boom clay layer as a geochemical barrier for long-lived radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baetsle, L.H.; Henrion, P.; Put, M.; Cremers, A.

    1985-01-01

    The Boom clay layer below the nuclear site of Mol, Belgium has been thoroughly investigated on its geohydrologic and physicochemical characteristics as well as by laboratory experiments and in situ tests in the underground laboratory. Hydraulic permeabilities have been measured in situ; the chemical composition of the interstitial clay water is related to the mineralogical composition. Radionuclide sorption data and sorption mechanisms are given for Cs, Sr, Eu, Tc, Am, Pu and Np; experimental diffusion coefficients were determined by clay plug migration tests in representative conditions. Results of model calculations for the migration of radionuclides in dense porous media are given for Cs, Sr, Pu and Np

  11. Numerical analyses of caisson breakwaters on soft foundations under wave cyclic loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuan-zhan; Yan, Zhen; Wang, Yu-chi

    2016-03-01

    A caisson breakwater is built on soft foundations after replacing the upper soft layer with sand. This paper presents a dynamic finite element method to investigate the strength degradation and associated pore pressure development of the intercalated soft layer under wave cyclic loading. By combining the undrained shear strength with the empirical formula of overconsolidation clay produced by unloading and the development model of pore pressure, the dynamic degradation law that describes the undrained shear strength as a function of cycle number and stress level is derived. Based on the proposed dynamic degradation law and M-C yield criterion, a dynamic finite element method is numerically implemented to predict changes in undrained shear strength of the intercalated soft layer by using the general-purpose FEM software ABAQUS, and the accuracy of the method is verified. The effects of cycle number and amplitude of the wave force on the degradation of the undrained shear strength of the intercalated soft layer and the associated excess pore pressure response are investigated by analyzing an overall distribution and three typical sections underneath the breakwater. By comparing the undrained shear strength distributions obtained by the static method and the quasi-static method with the undrained shear strength distributions obtained by the dynamic finite element method in the three typical sections, the superiority of the dynamic finite element method in predicting changes in undrained shear strength is demonstrated.

  12. Stools - pale or clay-colored

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/article/003129.htm Stools - pale or clay-colored To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Stools that are pale, clay, or putty-colored may be due to problems ...

  13. Preparation of organophilic clays and polypropylene nano composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Martha Fogliato S.; Nascimento, Vinicius G. do; Lenz, Denise M.; Schenato, Flavia

    2011-01-01

    Polypropylene/montmorillonite nano composites were prepared by the melt intercalation technique. The clay was organically modified with different quaternary ammonium salts to obtain the organo clay. The modified clays with the quaternary ammonium salts were introduced in a polypropylene matrix with 3 wt. % of clay. The interlayer distance (d001) of the clay particles were obtained by X- ray diffraction and the thermal stability of the systems were investigated by thermogravimetry. The organo clay presence in the polymer matrix increased the degradation temperature in relation to the pure polymer. (author)

  14. An Evidence-Based Review on Medicinal Value of Clays in Traditional Persian Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinkhani, Ayda; Montaseri, Hashem; Hosamo, Ammar; Zarshenas, Mohammad Mehdi

    2017-01-01

    The use of earths and clays for medical purposes dates back to antiquity. In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in researches on traditional remedies in the hope of discovering new drug. Iran is an ancient country with a medical backbone acquired from the experiences of ancient Persian scholars, who had made a great contribution to the development of the medical sciences. Many medical and pharmaceutical books by early Persian scientists still exist and may have the potential of leading researchers to new drug discoveries. Owing to the emergence of new and antimicrobial-resistant infections, present-day medicine has recently begun focusing on medicinal earths and clays especially as mineral antimicrobials. The current study is, therefore, aimed at gathering information regarding medicinal clays in traditional Persian medicine (TPM). Five main Persian materia medica with the key word 'tin' (clay) and current databases such as PubMed, Scopus, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar were searched by key words 'white, green, red, maroon, violet, black, grey and pink clays' and 'pharmacological effects'. Twenty three clays were found in Persian manuscripts. Although their mineralogical compositions are unknown, different pharmacological properties have been attributed to these mineral medicaments. Clay's properties were widely used in medieval times for the treatment of infections to poisoning. They were also used in compound formulations, possibly for their pharmaceutical formulation modifying effects. Modern scientific proofs have also been found in many of the medicinal clays reported in Persian manuscripts. Although many of the reported clays are still unknown, their characterization may lead to new medicinal developments. Novel analytical methods available today make it possible to elucidate the chemical compositions of these minerals as parameters responsible for their medicinal effects. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please

  15. In situ geochemical properties of clays subject to thermal loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, N.A.

    1980-01-01

    Compositional variation and geochemical environment in an argillaceous unit are a function of age, depth of burial and mode of origin. This paper considers the variation limits likely to be encountered in potential repository host rocks and examines the significance of factors such as porosity, pore-fluid pressure, total fluid content, and major and accessory mineral component behaviors in controlling the geochemical environment in the neighbourhood of a thermally active waste canister. Particular attention is paid to the use of Eh-pH diagrams in assessing corrosion environments and nuclide speciation. The paper outlines the variables which must be considered when endeavouring to interpret such plots (e.g. temperature, concentration, concurrent reactions and probabilities) and uses the behavior of various iron minerals found in clay deposits under specific conditions to illustrate the complexities. The overall thermal stability of various clay and accessory minerals is discussed and extended to attempt to predict behavior under deep repository conditions, using available data on the diagenetic characteristics of clay-rich sediments. The physical behavior of fluids in plastic clays is considered and methods evaluated for deriving induced geochemical conditions in a thermally active repository. The latter section is particularly related to canister corrosion studies, in situ experiments, and waste dissolution parameters

  16. Hydrogen isotope ratios of clay minerals constituting clay veins found in granitic rocks in Hiroshima Prefecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitagawa, Ryuji; Kakitani, Satoru; Kuroda, Yoshimatsu; Matsuo, Sadao; Suzuoki, Tetsuro.

    1980-01-01

    The deuterium content of the constitutional and interlayer water extracted from the clay minerals (illite, montmorillonite, interstratified illite-montmorillonite mineral, kaolinite, halloysite) constituting the clay veins found in the granitic rocks in Hiroshima Prefecture was measured. The clay minerals were heated at 270 deg C to extract the interlayer water, then heated to 1,400 or 1,500 deg C to extract the constitutional water. The deuterium content of the local surface water collected from sampling points was measured. In the clay veins formed along perpendicular joints, the constituent clay minerals change from lower to upper part: illite → montmorillonite → kaolinite → halloysite. The deuterium content values of the constitutional water for illite and montmorillonite were estimated to be -67 to -69% and -86 to -89%, respectively. The deuterium content values of the constitutional water for halloysite range from -68 to -80% and for kaolinite from -63 to -67%. (J.P.N.)

  17. In-situ pH measurements and sample analyses in glass-iron-clay systems at 90 deg. C and 150 deg. C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozsypal, Christophe; Mosser-Ruck, Regine; Truche, Laurent; Pignatelli, Isabella; Randi, Aurelien; Bartier, Daniele; Cathelineau, Michel; Michau, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. The long term repository of long life and high activity radioactive waste consists in the burial of steel overpacks of vitrified waste in a clay-stone. As the natural interstitial fluid of the clay-stone is a potential corrosion enhancer for the containers, the viability of the repository requires previous data acquisition on the interactions between clays, water, metallic iron, and glass. A set of experiments have been performed in autoclaves at 90 deg. C (thermal peak of the site) in order to follow the pH evolution and to characterize fluids with time and solids at the end of the experiments. Another set of experiments at 150 deg. C have also been carried out in order to increase the rates of the involved chemical reactions and mineralogical transformations. The objectives of those two sets of experiments were to measure the in-situ pH, to study how it was influenced by various parameters, such as the presence of glass and/or iron, to estimate the increase of the CO 2 and H 2 pressures, and to analyze gas and liquids taken in the course or at the end of experiments and solids recovered at the end of the experiments. The initial aqueous solution simulating the natural interstitial fluid was made of 22 mM of sodium, 4 mM of calcium, 29.75 mM of chloride, and 0.25 mM of bromide as a tracer. The initial solution/clay mass ratio was 10 for all the experiments, the metallic iron/clay or glass/clay mass ratios were 0.1 or 0. The list of the experiments and their characteristics is given in Table (1). The first results concern the evolution of the in-situ pH during the A90pH experiment and are reported on Figure (1). The measurements started after a 48 hours stabilization time of the pH probe. The pH seemed to tend reaching a plateau after several weeks. (authors)

  18. Cu(II adsorption on modified bentonitic clays: different isotherm behaviors in static and dynamic systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambrósio Florêncio de Almeida Neto

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Cu (II removal equilibrium from aqueous solutions using calcined clays "Bofe" and "Verde-lodo" has been studied by batch and fixed-bed in static and dynamic systems, respectively. Analyses were performed for physicochemical characterization of clays using the techniques: X-ray fluorescence (XRF, thermogravimetry (TG, N2 adsorption (BET and Cationic Exchange Capacity (CEC. Batch experiments were performed at a constant temperature, adjusting the pH of the solution in contact with clays. Adsorption assays in fixed bed were conducted at the flow rate determined through mass transfer zone (MTZ. Langmuir and Freundlich models were adjusted to equilibrium data. The results of characterization indicated that the temperature of 500ºC is best suited for the calcination of the clays. The maximum adsorption capacity was higher for dynamic system than fixed bed compared to static system, enhancing from 0.0748 to 0.1371 and from 0.0599 to 0.22 mmol.g-1 of clay for "Bofe" and "Verde-lodo", respectively.

  19. Towards a numerical run-out model for quick-clay slides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issler, Dieter; L'Heureux, Jean-Sébastien; Cepeda, José M.; Luna, Byron Quan; Gebreslassie, Tesfahunegn A.

    2015-04-01

    Highly sensitive glacio-marine clays occur in many relatively low-lying areas near the coasts of eastern Canada, Scandinavia and northern Russia. If the load exceeds the yield stress of these clays, they quickly liquefy, with a reduction of the yield strength and the viscosity by several orders of magnitude. Leaching, fluvial erosion, earthquakes and man-made overloads, by themselves or combined, are the most frequent triggers of quick-clay slides, which are hard to predict and can attain catastrophic dimensions. The present contribution reports on two preparatory studies that were conducted with a view to creating a run-out model tailored to the characteristics of quick-clay slides. One study analyzed the connections between the morphological and geotechnical properties of more than 30 well-documented Norwegian quick-clay slides and their run-out behavior. The laboratory experiments by Locat and Demers (1988) suggest that the behavior of quick clays can be reasonably described by universal relations involving the liquidity index, plastic index, remolding energy, salinity and sensitivity. However, these tests should be repeated with Norwegian clays and analyzed in terms of a (shear-thinning) Herschel-Bulkley fluid rather than a Bingham fluid because the shear stress appears to grow in a sub-linear fashion with the shear rate. Further study is required to understand the discrepancy between the material parameters obtained in laboratory tests of material from observed slides and in back-calculations of the same slides with the simple model by Edgers & Karlsrud (1982). The second study assessed the capability of existing numerical flow models to capture the most important aspects of quick-clay slides by back-calculating three different, well documented events in Norway: Rissa (1978), Finneidfjord (1996) and Byneset (2012). The numerical codes were (i) BING, a quasi-two-dimensional visco-plastic model, (ii) DAN3D (2009 version), and (iii) MassMov2D. The latter two are

  20. Is it efficient to co-compost and co-vermicompost green waste with biochar and/or clay to reduce CO2 emissions? A short-term laboratory experiment on (vermi)composts with additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthod, Justine; Rumpel, Cornélia; Paradelo, Remigio; Dignac, Marie-France

    2016-04-01

    Intensive farming practices can lead to a depletion of soil organic matter, negatively impacting important soil properties such as structural stability, fertility and C storage. The addition of organic amendments such as compost and vermicompost, rich in carbon, helps maintaining soil organic matter levels or restoring degraded soils. Composting and vermicomposting are based on stabilization of organic matter through the mineralization of easily decomposable organic matter compounds, therefore releasing greenhouse gases, including CO2. The aim of this study was to evaluate the global potential reduction of such emissions by the use of additives (2:1 clay and/or biochar): during (vermi)composting processes and after use of the final products as soil amendments. We hypothesized that the interactions between the additives and organic matter may lead to carbon stabilization and that such interactions may be enhanced by the presence of worms (Eisenia). We added in different proportions clay (25% or 50%), biochar (10%) and a mixture of biochar (10%) with clay (25%) to pre-composted green waste. The CO2 emissions of the composting and vermicomposting processes were measured during 21 days. After that, the amendments were added to a loamy cambisol soil and the CO2 emissions were monitored during 30 days of a laboratory experiment. The most efficient treatments in terms of reducing global CO2 emissions were the co-vermicomposting process with 25% clay followed by co-composting with 50% clay and with 10% biochar plus 25% clay. In this treatment (vermicompost with 25% clay), the carbon emissions were decreased by up to 44% compared to regular compost. Addition of biochar reduced CO2 emissions only during composting. Co-composting with biochar could be a promising avenue to limit global CO2 emissions whereas in presence of worms clay additions are better suited. These findings suggest that the presence of worms increased the formation of organo-mineral associations and thus C

  1. Effective Strategies and Activities for Developing Soft Skills, Part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Diana J.; Blaszczynski, Carol

    2012-01-01

    Employers seek employees who possess soft skills. Employees who do not have excellent soft skills may not experience success in obtaining and sustaining employment. McEwen's (2010) framework for skill-building--introduce, explain, practice, and reinforce--was used to describe activities for enhancing soft skills. Soft skills building activities…

  2. Effective Strategies and Activities for Developing Soft Skills, Part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaszczynski, Carol; Green, Diana J.

    2012-01-01

    Employers seek employees who possess soft skills. Employees who do not have excellent soft skills may not experience success in obtaining and sustaining employment. McEwen's (2010) framework for skill-building--introduce, explain, practice, and reinforce--was used to describe activities for enhancing soft skills. Assessment of soft skills…

  3. Selection of a site adapted to the realization of an underground laboratory in clay formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benvegnu, F.

    1984-01-01

    Research carried out in Italy by ENEA for site selection of an underground laboratory in a clay formation are presented. Mine roadways, abandoned tunnels, natural or artificial escarpments are prospected. The Pasquasia potash mine in Sicily was selected. The decline reach the lower pliocen starta from -110m to -200m below surface through a clay formation. The site selected for the laboratory is 160 m deep. A 50 meter-long horizontal tunnel will be dug. Experiments planned include thermal, hydrological, mechanical and thermomechanical behavior of clays. Data on temperature variations, interstitial fluid pressure, total pressure, deformations produced by a heater placed in clay will be obtained. Data related to mechanical behavior of formation will be recorded before, during and after the construction of the gallerie. Convergence of borehole will be also studied

  4. Pedological ~cterization, Clay Mine:at~ and .~cation of,

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    namely, very deep, well drained, dark reddish brown to dark brown, sandy clay loams and sandy clays on the steep convex slopes; very deep, well drained, dark brown to dark red, sandy clay loams and; sandy clays on the linear slopes; and very ...

  5. VIS/NIR Spectroscopy to determine the spatial variation of the weathering degree in Paleogene clay soil - London Clay Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasser, Mohammed; Gibson, Andy, ,, Dr; Koor, Nick, ,, Dr; Gale, Professor Andy; Huggett, Jenny, ,, Dr; Branch, Steve

    2017-04-01

    The London Clay Formation (LCF) which underlies much of South-East England is hugely important as a construction medium. However, its geotechnical performance (shear strength, compressive strength, shrink-swell behaviour, etc. ) is greatly affected by its degree of weathering. Despite this importance, little attention has been focussed on a robust method to define and measure its degree of weathering. This is perhaps a result of a well-known colour change from bluish-grey to brown that accompanies 'weathering' and considered to be the result of oxidisation (Chandler and Apted 1988). Through wide experience, this definition is normally effective, but it is perhaps subjective and reliant on the experience of the investigator and the ability to observe samples or exposures. More objective investigation, typically using SEM is not normally economically feasible or expedient for construction works. We propose a simple, robust method to characterise the degree of weathering in the LCF using reflective or Visible-Near-InfraRed-Spectroscopy (VNIRS). 24 samples were extracted from 2 boreholes drilled in the Hampstead area of London to depths of 12 m within the uppermost Claygate Member of the LCF. VNIRS spectra (350-2500 nm) were measured from all samples and compared with XRD, XRF, SEM and PSD results on the same samples. Results show increased magnitude of absorption features related to clay mineralogy around 1400, 1900 and 2200 nm to a depth of 5 m beneath ground level. Beneath this depth, the absorption features show little variation. SEM analyses show corresponding changes in the degradation of pyrite crystals and individual clay (illite/smectite). These preliminary results show that there is a good potential for VNIRS spectroscopy to determine the variation of weathering in the LCF.

  6. Preparation and characterization of bentonite organo clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertagnolli, C.; Almeida Neto, A.F.; Silva, M.G.C.

    2009-01-01

    Bentonite clays organically modified have great potential use for environmental remediation, especially in the separation of organic compounds from the water. The aim of this work was the preparation of organophilic clays from 'Verde-Lodo' bentonite clay with the quaternary ammonium salts cetyl-pyridinium chloride and benzalkonium chloride. The materials obtained were characterized by XRD, thermogravimetric analyses, Helium picnometry, SEM and energy dispersive X-ray techniques. The results show consistently successful synthesis of the organoclay through the increase in the basal spacing, as well as salt elimination picks and presence of carbon and chlorine in the modified clays; they are inexistent elements in the natural clay. (author)

  7. Treatment for cracked and permeable Houston clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vipulanandan, C.; Leung, M.

    1991-01-01

    In this study, the treatability of a field clay (obtained from Houston, Texas) and a clay-sand mixture to reduce their hydraulic conductivity was evaluated. Remolded field clay and clay-sand mixture with and without methanol contamination were treated to reduce their hydraulic conductivity by permeating very dilute grout solutions. The concentration of sodium silicate in the grout solution was 8%, while the solid content in the cement grout was 0.3%. The hydraulic conductivity of permeable Houston clay (hydraulic conductivity >10 -5 cm/sec) could be reduced to less than 10 -7 cm/sec (U.S. EPA limit for soil barriers) by permeating with a selected combination of grout solutions

  8. Viscoelastic and fractal characteristics of a supramolecular hydrogel hybridized with clay nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Fei; Zhang, Li-Ming; Shi, Jun-Feng; Li, Nan-Nan

    2010-12-01

    The supramolecular hydrogels derived from low-molecular-mass gelators represent a unique class of soft matters and have important potential applications in biomedical fields, separation technology and cosmetic science. However, they suffer usually from weak mechanical and viscoelastic properties. In this work, we carry out the in situ hybridization of clay nanoparticles (Laponite RD) into the supramolecular hydrogel formed from a low-molecular-mass hydrogelator, 2,6-di[N-(carboxyethyl carbonyl)amino]pyridine (DAP), and investigate the viscoelastic and structural characteristics of resultant hybrid hydrogel. It was found that a small concentration of Laponite RD could lead to a significant increase in the storage modulus, loss modulus or complex viscosity. Compared with neat DAP hydrogel, the hybrid hydrogel has a greater hydrogel strength and a lower relaxation exponent. In particular, the enhancement of the clay nanoparticles to the viscoelastic properties of the DAP hydrogel is more effective in the case of higher DAP concentration. By relating its macroscopic elastic properties to a scaling fractal model, such a hybrid hydrogel was confirmed to be in the strong-link regime and to have a more complex network structure with a higher fractal dimension when compared with neat DAP hydrogel. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Characterization of clay used for red ceramic fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, P.S.; Morais, A.S.C.; Caldas, T.C.C.; Monteiro, S.N.; Vieira, C.M.F.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this work is to characterize a clay used in the red ceramics fabrication, from Campos dos Goytacazes north of the State of Rio de Janeiro. The clay was submitted for physical, chemical and mineralogical tests. The results showed that the clay has a high content of clay minerals with kaolinitic predominance, high loss on ignition and low flux oxides. It is recommended that this clay is mixed with non-plastic materials. (author)

  10. Encapsulation of Clay Platelets inside Latex Particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorn, D.J.; Ming, W.; Herk, van A.M.; Fernando, R.H.; Sung, Li-Piin

    2009-01-01

    We present our recent attempts in encapsulating clay platelets inside latex particles by emulsion polymerization. Face modification of clay platelets by cationic exchange has been shown to be insufficient for clay encapsulation, leading to armored latex particles. Successful encapsulation of

  11. Geotechnical Characterization of Mined Clay from Appalachian Ohio: Challenges and Implications for the Clay Mining Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Anthony R.; Hettiarachchi, Hiroshan

    2011-01-01

    Clayey soil found in coal mines in Appalachian Ohio is often sold to landfills for constructing Recompacted Soil Liners (RSL) in landfills. Since clayey soils possess low hydraulic conductivity, the suitability of mined clay for RSL in Ohio is first assessed by determining its clay content. When soil samples are tested in a laboratory, the same engineering properties are typically expected for the soils originated from the same source, provided that the testing techniques applied are standard, but mined clay from Appalachian Ohio has shown drastic differences in particle size distribution depending on the sampling and/or laboratory processing methods. Sometimes more than a 10 percent decrease in the clay content is observed in the samples collected at the stockpiles, compared to those collected through reverse circulation drilling. This discrepancy poses a challenge to geotechnical engineers who work on the prequalification process of RSL material as it can result in misleading estimates of the hydraulic conductivity of the samples. This paper describes a laboratory investigation conducted on mined clay from Appalachian Ohio to determine how and why the standard sampling and/or processing methods can affect the grain-size distributions. The variation in the clay content was determined to be due to heavy concentrations of shale fragments in the clayey soils. It was also concluded that, in order to obtain reliable grain size distributions from the samples collected at a stockpile of mined clay, the material needs to be processed using a soil grinder. Otherwise, the samples should be collected through drilling. PMID:21845150

  12. Geotechnical characterization of mined clay from Appalachian Ohio: challenges and implications for the clay mining industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Anthony R; Hettiarachchi, Hiroshan

    2011-07-01

    Clayey soil found in coal mines in Appalachian Ohio is often sold to landfills for constructing Recompacted Soil Liners (RSL) in landfills. Since clayey soils possess low hydraulic conductivity, the suitability of mined clay for RSL in Ohio is first assessed by determining its clay content. When soil samples are tested in a laboratory, the same engineering properties are typically expected for the soils originated from the same source, provided that the testing techniques applied are standard, but mined clay from Appalachian Ohio has shown drastic differences in particle size distribution depending on the sampling and/or laboratory processing methods. Sometimes more than a 10 percent decrease in the clay content is observed in the samples collected at the stockpiles, compared to those collected through reverse circulation drilling. This discrepancy poses a challenge to geotechnical engineers who work on the prequalification process of RSL material as it can result in misleading estimates of the hydraulic conductivity of the samples. This paper describes a laboratory investigation conducted on mined clay from Appalachian Ohio to determine how and why the standard sampling and/or processing methods can affect the grain-size distributions. The variation in the clay content was determined to be due to heavy concentrations of shale fragments in the clayey soils. It was also concluded that, in order to obtain reliable grain size distributions from the samples collected at a stockpile of mined clay, the material needs to be processed using a soil grinder. Otherwise, the samples should be collected through drilling.

  13. Geotechnical Characterization of Mined Clay from Appalachian Ohio: Challenges and Implications for the Clay Mining Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony R. Moran

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Clayey soil found in coal mines in Appalachian Ohio is often sold to landfills for constructing Recompacted Soil Liners (RSL in landfills. Since clayey soils possess low hydraulic conductivity, the suitability of mined clay for RSL in Ohio is first assessed by determining its clay content. When soil samples are tested in a laboratory, the same engineering properties are typically expected for the soils originated from the same source, provided that the testing techniques applied are standard, but mined clay from Appalachian Ohio has shown drastic differences in particle size distribution depending on the sampling and/or laboratory processing methods. Sometimes more than a 10 percent decrease in the clay content is observed in the samples collected at the stockpiles, compared to those collected through reverse circulation drilling. This discrepancy poses a challenge to geotechnical engineers who work on the prequalification process of RSL material as it can result in misleading estimates of the hydraulic conductivity of the samples. This paper describes a laboratory investigation conducted on mined clay from Appalachian Ohio to determine how and why the standard sampling and/or processing methods can affect the grain-size distributions. The variation in the clay content was determined to be due to heavy concentrations of shale fragments in the clayey soils. It was also concluded that, in order to obtain reliable grain size distributions from the samples collected at a stockpile of mined clay, the material needs to be processed using a soil grinder. Otherwise, the samples should be collected through drilling.

  14. Clay as indicator of sediment plume movement in deep-sea environment

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Valsangkar, A.B.

    artificially disturbed and resuspended 5 m above the seabed in 1997 during the Indian Deep-Sea Experiment. Initial studies have shown that the clay content during monitoring-1 phase significantly increased compared to post-disturbance, by 15 and 24...

  15. Sorption of Pu onto some kinds of clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Haihong; Si Gaohua; Liu Wei; Yu Jing

    2010-01-01

    There are rich clay mines holding in one area, so it's necessary to know about these clays' sorption capacity to Pu, for building radioactive waste repository in the area. Distribution coefficients of Pu onto different clays were acquired in static method, with the result about 104. The size of clay is different, but the result of Kds is near. In addition, it's estimated how far Pu moves in the most rapid speed in the clay based on these Kids', disregarding the influence of Pu-colloid. In a word, as a kind of backfilling material clays in the area can effectively prevent Pu from moving to environment, and when designing the backfilling layer, it's not necessary to catch clays through NO.200 sieve, if only considering the influence of Kd. (authors)

  16. Rheological characterization of nanocomposites Nylon 6/bentonite clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, T.R.G.; Fernandes, P.C.; Oliveira, S.V.; Araujo, E.M.; Melo, T.J.A.

    2010-01-01

    Polymer nanocomposites are a class of materials that have been widely used in various applications. Among them, has been emphasizing the preparation of polymer films with barrier properties for applications in polymer membranes. In this work, nanocomposites of nylon 6/bentonite clay were obtained from a Homogenizer, in the ratios of 1, 3 and 5 wt% clay. The Brasgel PA bentonite clay was treated organically with Praepagen HY salt, to make it organophilic. By X-ray diffraction (XRD), it was showed that the efficiency of the incorporation of salt in the clay. The rheological curves showed that for the AST clay the torque did not change when compared with the pure nylon 6, while for the clay ACT, the torque increased gradually with the percentage of clay. (author)

  17. Polymer-clay nanocomposites obtained by solution polymerization ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Clay minerals can be found all over the world.1 Clay minerals have ... salts or covalent bonding with silanes at the OH edges of the clay. ..... Marras S I, Tsimpliaraki A, Zuburtikudis I and ... Mansoori Y, Roojaei K, Zamanloo M R and Imanzadeh.

  18. Magnetic resonance imaging appearance of soft-tissue metastases: our experience at an orthopedic oncology center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sammon, Jennifer; Jain, Abhishek; Bleakney, Robert; Mohankumar, Rakesh

    2017-01-01

    To assess the prevalence and magnetic resonance imaging appearance of metastasis presenting as a soft-tissue mass. A retrospective chart review was performed on 51 patients who presented to an orthopedic oncology center with soft-tissue masses, with a histology-proven diagnosis of soft-tissue metastasis, over a 14-year period. Their magnetic resonance imaging, primary origin, and follow-up have been assessed. Soft-tissue metastasis was identified in patients ranging from 18 to 85 years old. Most (80%) of the masses were located deep to the deep fascia. In our cohort of patients, melanoma was the most common primary malignancy contributing to soft-tissue metastasis (21.8%). Among soft-tissue metastasis from solid organs, breast and lung were the most frequent (9.1% each). Five patients had soft-tissue metastases from an unknown primary. Imaging diagnosis of soft-tissue metastases is challenging as it can demonstrate imaging appearances similar to primary soft-tissue sarcoma. The presence of a known malignancy may not be evident in everyone, and even if available, histopathology will be necessary for diagnosis if this is the only site of recurrence/metastasis to differentiate from a primary soft-tissue sarcoma. Moreover, soft-tissue metastasis may be the initial presentation of a malignancy. Primary malignancies with soft-tissue metastasis carry a poor prognosis; hence, prompt diagnosis and management in essential. (orig.)

  19. Magnetic resonance imaging appearance of soft-tissue metastases: our experience at an orthopedic oncology center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sammon, Jennifer; Jain, Abhishek; Bleakney, Robert; Mohankumar, Rakesh [Mount Sinai Hospital and University of Toronto, Division of Musculoskeletal Imaging, Joint Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2017-04-15

    To assess the prevalence and magnetic resonance imaging appearance of metastasis presenting as a soft-tissue mass. A retrospective chart review was performed on 51 patients who presented to an orthopedic oncology center with soft-tissue masses, with a histology-proven diagnosis of soft-tissue metastasis, over a 14-year period. Their magnetic resonance imaging, primary origin, and follow-up have been assessed. Soft-tissue metastasis was identified in patients ranging from 18 to 85 years old. Most (80%) of the masses were located deep to the deep fascia. In our cohort of patients, melanoma was the most common primary malignancy contributing to soft-tissue metastasis (21.8%). Among soft-tissue metastasis from solid organs, breast and lung were the most frequent (9.1% each). Five patients had soft-tissue metastases from an unknown primary. Imaging diagnosis of soft-tissue metastases is challenging as it can demonstrate imaging appearances similar to primary soft-tissue sarcoma. The presence of a known malignancy may not be evident in everyone, and even if available, histopathology will be necessary for diagnosis if this is the only site of recurrence/metastasis to differentiate from a primary soft-tissue sarcoma. Moreover, soft-tissue metastasis may be the initial presentation of a malignancy. Primary malignancies with soft-tissue metastasis carry a poor prognosis; hence, prompt diagnosis and management in essential. (orig.)

  20. Hydro-mechanical properties of the red salt clay (T4) - Natural analogue of a clay barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minkley, W.; Popp, T.; Salzer, K.; Gruner, M.; Boettge, V.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Long-term storage of high-level radioactive waste in deep geologic formations is worldwide the only accepted solution to warranty long term safety. Besides clay and crystalline rocks, salt is one of the potential host-rock candidates, mainly favored in Germany. As salts rocks are highly soluble their barrier integrity against water inflow from the cap rock is questionable. Argillaceous cap rocks or intercalated clay layers may act as protective shield in the hanging wall above a repository, thus providing a multi-barrier system. The aims of our study are twofold: 1) to characterize the mineralogical, hydraulic and rock-mechanical properties of the so-called Red Salt Clay (T4) as natural analogue of a clay barriers represented by different states of induration corresponding to various depth of burial diagenesis; 2) to demonstrate the favoured barrier properties of an argillaceous layer in the top of a salt formation undergoing dynamic processes such as rock bursts. The so-called Red Salt Clay (T4) is deposited as clay rich clastic sediment at the base of the Aller-series forming a persistent lateral layer above the lower Zechstein-series. The thickness of the clay-formation becomes smaller with decreasing distance from the border of the basin, i.e. from ∼15 m at Rossleben, over 7 m at Bernburg to 3.5 m at Zielitz, all in Saxony-Anhalt, D). The mineralogical composition of the Red Salt Clay varies, e.g. average composition for the Teutschenthal area: clay minerals 54% (Chlorite: 8%; Illite/Muscovite: 46%); quartz: 22%; anhydrite: 15%; accessory gypsum; Halite: 6%, Hematite: ∼ 2%). The geochemical and mineralogical composition of the Red Salt Clay represents a final state of natural salt-clay-systems, thus standing as a natural analogue for bentonite-based sealing systems in contact with high-saline solutions (e.g. saturated NaCl-solution, solutions with various Mg 2+ -, K + -, SO 4 2- - concentrations). The

  1. Scaling law to determine peak forces in tapping-mode AFM experiments on finite elastic soft matter systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, Horacio V

    2017-01-01

    Analytical equations to estimate the peak force will facilitate the interpretation and the planning of amplitude-modulation force microscopy (tapping mode) experiments. A closed-form analytical equation to estimate the tip-sample peak forces while imaging soft materials in liquid environment and within an elastic deformation regime has been deduced. We have combined a multivariate regression method with input from the virial-dissipation equations and Tatara's bidimensional deformation contact mechanics model. The equation enables to estimate the peak force based on the tapping mode observables, probe characteristics and the material properties of the sample. The accuracy of the equation has been verified by comparing it to numerical simulations for the archetypical operating conditions to image soft matter with high spatial resolution in tapping-mode AFM.

  2. Utilization of Nkpuma-Akpatakpa clay in ceramics: characterization ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nkpuma – Akpatakpa clay was analysed for its ceramics suitability. Chemical, mechanical and spectral characterization of the clay was carried out to obtain more information from this clay found in commercial quantity at Ebonyi State Nigeria. The XRD analysis showed that the principal minerals in the clay are quartz, ...

  3. Preparation and properties of recycled HDPE/clay hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong Lei; Qinglin Wu; Craig M. Clemons

    2007-01-01

    Hybrids based on recycled high density polyethylene (RHDPE) and organic clay were made by melt compounding. The influence of blending method, compatibilizers, and clay content on clay intercalation and exfoliation, RHDPE crystallization behavior, and the mechanical properties of RHDPE/clay hybrids were investigated. Both maleated polyethylene (MAPE) and titanate could...

  4. An ultrahigh-vacuum apparatus for resonant diffraction experiments using soft x rays (hν=300-2000 eV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, T.; Chainani, A.; Takata, Y.; Tanaka, Y.; Oura, M.; Tsubota, M.; Senba, Y.; Ohashi, H.; Mochiku, T.; Hirata, K.; Shin, S.

    2009-01-01

    We have developed an ultrahigh-vacuum instrument for resonant diffraction experiments using polarized soft x rays in the energy range of hν=300-2000 eV at beamline BL17SU of SPring-8. The diffractometer consists of modified differentially pumped rotary feedthroughs for θ-2θ stages, a sample manipulator with motor-controlled x-y-z-, tilt (χ)-, and azimuth (φ)-axes, and a liquid helium flow-type cryostat for temperature dependent measurements between 30 and 300 K. Test results indicate that the diffractometer exhibits high reproducibility (better than 0.001 deg.) for a Bragg reflection of α-quartz 100 at a photon energy of hν=1950 eV. Typical off- and on-resonance Bragg reflections in the energy range of 530-1950 eV could be measured using the apparatus. The results show that x-ray diffraction experiments with energy-, azimuth-, and incident photon polarization-dependence can be reliably measured using soft x rays in the energy range of ∼300-2000 eV. The facility can be used for resonant diffraction experiments across the L-edge of transition metals, M-edge of lanthanides, and up to the Si K-edge of materials.

  5. generalized constitutive model for stabilized quick clay

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    QUICK CLAY. PANCRAS MUGISHAGWE BUJULU AND GUSTAV GRIMSTAD. ABSTRACT. An experimentally-based two yield surface constitutive model for cemented quick clay has been ... Clay Model, the Koiter Rule and two Mapping Rules. .... models, where a mobilization formulation is used, this is independent of q.

  6. Electron transfer and atom exchange between aqueous Fe(II) and structural Fe(III) in clays. Role in U and Hg(II) transformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scherer, Michelle [Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States)

    2016-08-31

    During this project, we investigated Fe electron transfer and atom exchange between aqueous Fe(II) and structural Fe(III) in clay minerals. We used selective chemical extractions, enriched Fe isotope tracer experiments, computational molecular modeling, and Mössbauer spectroscopy. Our findings indicate that structural Fe(III) in clay minerals is reduced by aqueous Fe(II) and that electron transfer occurs when Fe(II) is sorbed to either basal planes and edge OH-groups of clay mineral. Findings from highly enriched isotope experiments suggest that up to 30 % of the Fe atoms in the structure of some clay minerals exhanges with aqueous Fe(II). First principles calculations using a small polaron hopping approach suggest surprisingly fast electron mobility at room temperature in a nontronite clay mineral and are consistent with temperature dependent Mössbauer data Fast electron mobility suggests that electrons may be able to conduct through the mineral fast enough to enable exchange of Fe between the aqueous phase and clay mineral structure. over the time periods we observed. Our findings suggest that Fe in clay minerals is not as stable as previously thought.

  7. In situ determination of anisotropic permeability of clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao, H.; Soennke, J.; Morel, J.; Krug, S.

    2011-01-01

    Argillaceous formations are being considered as potential host rocks for repositories of radioactive waste in many countries. For this purpose, the thermal, hydraulic, mechanical, and chemical properties of the clay stone are being widely investigated in the laboratories and in situ. However, clay stone behaves, due to its tectonic evolution of the formation, hydraulically and mechanically transversal isotropic. Argillite bedding or layering structure has been observed in the underground laboratories Mont Terri in the Switzerland and Meuse/Haute-Marne at Bure site in France. Conventional packer systems used for the borehole hydraulic characterisation cannot distinguish the difference between the properties parallel and perpendicular to the bedding. For this purpose, a new 'slot packer' system has been developed by the BGR. This type of new packer system is intensively tested in the BGR laboratory and the Mont Terri Rock Laboratory to judge the feasibility. The anisotropic ratio of the Opalinus clay defined by permeability value parallel to the bedding/permeability value perpendicular to the bedding is evaluated up to eight times to one order of magnitude within the HG-B experiment in the Mont Terri Rock Laboratory. Within the cooperation between BGR and ANDRA, the 'slot packer' will be used for the measurement of anisotropic permeability of the Callovo-Oxfordian formation at the Bure site. (authors)

  8. Imaging of musculoskeletal soft tissue infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turecki, Marcin B.; Taljanovic, Mihra S.; Holden, Dean A.; Hunter, Tim B.; Rogers, Lee F. [University of Arizona HSC, Department of Radiology, Tucson, AZ (United States); Stubbs, Alana Y. [Southern Arizona VA Health Care System, Department of Radiology, Tucson, AZ (United States); Graham, Anna R. [University of Arizona HSC, Department of Pathology, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    2010-10-15

    Prompt and appropriate imaging work-up of the various musculoskeletal soft tissue infections aids early diagnosis and treatment and decreases the risk of complications resulting from misdiagnosis or delayed diagnosis. The signs and symptoms of musculoskeletal soft tissue infections can be nonspecific, making it clinically difficult to distinguish between disease processes and the extent of disease. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the imaging modality of choice in the evaluation of soft tissue infections. Computed tomography (CT), ultrasound, radiography and nuclear medicine studies are considered ancillary. This manuscript illustrates representative images of superficial and deep soft tissue infections such as infectious cellulitis, superficial and deep fasciitis, including the necrotizing fasciitis, pyomyositis/soft tissue abscess, septic bursitis and tenosynovitis on different imaging modalities, with emphasis on MRI. Typical histopathologic findings of soft tissue infections are also presented. The imaging approach described in the manuscript is based on relevant literature and authors' personal experience and everyday practice. (orig.)

  9. Imaging of musculoskeletal soft tissue infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turecki, Marcin B.; Taljanovic, Mihra S.; Holden, Dean A.; Hunter, Tim B.; Rogers, Lee F.; Stubbs, Alana Y.; Graham, Anna R.

    2010-01-01

    Prompt and appropriate imaging work-up of the various musculoskeletal soft tissue infections aids early diagnosis and treatment and decreases the risk of complications resulting from misdiagnosis or delayed diagnosis. The signs and symptoms of musculoskeletal soft tissue infections can be nonspecific, making it clinically difficult to distinguish between disease processes and the extent of disease. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the imaging modality of choice in the evaluation of soft tissue infections. Computed tomography (CT), ultrasound, radiography and nuclear medicine studies are considered ancillary. This manuscript illustrates representative images of superficial and deep soft tissue infections such as infectious cellulitis, superficial and deep fasciitis, including the necrotizing fasciitis, pyomyositis/soft tissue abscess, septic bursitis and tenosynovitis on different imaging modalities, with emphasis on MRI. Typical histopathologic findings of soft tissue infections are also presented. The imaging approach described in the manuscript is based on relevant literature and authors' personal experience and everyday practice. (orig.)

  10. Uranyl adsorption at clay mineral surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roesch, N. [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Fachgebiet Theoretische Chemie

    2016-11-01

    This first systematic survey of actinide adsorption at complex clay mineral surfaces, which provided new insights at the atomic level, is currently being extended to neptunyl NpO{sub 2}{sup +} and more complex minerals, like iron-substituted phyllosilicates. In this way we examine if the concepts developed so far can be applied more generally to support the interpretation of pertinent experiments. A further facet of these studies is to account also for the dynamic nature of the mineral/water interface by means of exemplary dynamic simulations.

  11. Evaluation of used fuel disposition in clay-bearing rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jove-Colon, Carlos F. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hammond, Glenn Edward [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kuhlman, Kristopher L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Zheng, Liange [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Kim, Kunhwi [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Xu, Hao. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Rutqvist, Jonny [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Caporuscio, Florie Andre [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Norskog, Katherine E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Maner, James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Palaich, Sarah [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Cheshire, Michael [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Zavarin, Mavrik [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Wolery, Thomas J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Atkins-Duffin, Cindy [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Jerden, James L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Copple, Jacqueline M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Cruse, Terry [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Ebert, William L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-09-01

    The R&D program from the DOE Used Fuel Disposition Campaign (UFDC) has documented key advances in coupled Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical-Chemical (THMC) modeling of clay to simulate its complex dynamic behavior in response to thermal and hydrochemical feedbacks. These efforts have been harnessed to assess the isolation performance of heat-generating nuclear waste in a deep geological repository in clay/shale/argillaceous rock formations. This report describes the ongoing disposal R&D efforts on the advancement and refinement of coupled THMC process models, hydrothermal experiments on barrier clay interactions, used fuel and canister material degradation, thermodynamic database development, and reactive transport modeling of the near-field under non-isothermal conditions. These play an important role to the evaluation of sacrificial zones as part of the EBS exposure to thermally-driven chemical and transport processes. Thermal inducement of chemical interactions at EBS domains enhances mineral dissolution/precipitation but also generates mineralogical changes that result in mineral H2O uptake/removal (hydration/dehydration reactions). These processes can result in volume changes that can affect the interface / bulk phase porosities and the mechanical (stress) state of the bentonite barrier. Characterization studies on bentonite barrier samples from the FEBEX-DP international activity have provided important insight on clay barrier microstructures (e.g., microcracks) and interactions at EBS interfaces. Enhancements to the used fuel degradation model outlines the need to include the effects of canister corrosion due the strong influence of H2 generation on the source term.

  12. Study of clay behaviour around a heat source by frequency spectrum analysis of seismic waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sloovere, P. de.

    1993-01-01

    Wave propagated into soft rock is not completely described by purely linear elastic theory. Through spectrum analysis of wave, one can see that several frequencies are selected by the ground. ME2i uses this method to check grouting, piles a.s.o. The Mol experiment (on Radioactive Waste Disposal) aims to prove that little changes into heated clay can be detected by 'frequential seismic'. A cross-hole investigation system has been installed and tests have been performed for two years with a shear-hammer named MARGOT built to work inside horizontal boreholes: - Before heating the tests show the same results every time: . main frequency at 330 hertz; . maximal frequency at 520 hertz; - During heating: . the rays at 330 and 520 hertz disappear; . The frequencies in the range 100 - 300 hertz are prevailing; - After heating spectra have again their original shape. These results show that the effect is clear around an heated zone. The next steps should be: - Interpretation with computer's codes treating of wave propagation into a viscoelastic body; - Experimentations: . at the opening of a new gallery; . on big samples; . on granites and salt. 9 refs., 4 appendices

  13. Clay-Enriched Silk Biomaterials for Bone Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mieszawska, Aneta J.; Llamas, Jabier Gallego; Vaiana, Christopher A.; Kadakia, Madhavi P.; Naik, Rajesh R.; Kaplan, David L.

    2011-01-01

    The formation of silk protein/clay composite biomaterials for bone tissue formation is described. Silk fibroin serves as an organic scaffolding material offering mechanical stability suitable for bone specific uses. Clay montmorillonite (Cloisite ® Na+) and sodium silicate are sources of osteoinductive silica-rich inorganic species, analogous to bioactive bioglass-like bone repair biomaterial systems. Different clay particle-silk composite biomaterial films were compared to silk films doped with sodium silicate as controls for support of human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) in osteogenic culture. The cells adhered and proliferated on the silk/clay composites over two weeks. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed increased transcript levels for alkaline phosphatase (ALP), bone sialoprotein (BSP), and collagen type 1 (Col I) osteogenic markers in the cells cultured on the silk/clay films in comparison to the controls. Early evidence for bone formation based on collagen deposition at the cell-biomaterial interface was also found, with more collagen observed for the silk films with higher contents of clay particles. The data suggest that the silk/clay composite systems may be useful for further study toward bone regenerative needs. PMID:21549864

  14. Strength Properties of Aalborg Clay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Kirsten Malte; Nielsen, Benjaminn Nordahl; Augustesen, Anders Hust

    glacial time are characterised by the absence of this mussel. These deposits are named Aalborg Clay and Aalborg Sand. In the city of Aalborg, a fill layer superposes Aalborg Clay. This layer is at some places found to be 6m thick. This fill layer does not provide sufficient bearing capacity, which has...... resulted in many damaged buildings in Aalborg. To provide sufficient bearing capacity it is therefore necessary either to remove the fill or to construct the building on piles. Both methods imply that the strength of Aalborg Clay is important for the construction. This paper evaluates the strength...

  15. In situ analysis of microbial reduction of a nitrate plume in Opalinus clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bleyen, N.; Smets, S.; Valcke, E.; Albrecht, A.; De Canniere, P.; Schwyn, B.; Wittebroodt, C.

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. In several countries, such as Belgium, France and Switzerland, clay formations are foreseen as the host rock for geological disposal of bituminized low-level and intermediate-level long-lived radioactive waste. Suitable clay formations exhibit favorable hydro-mechanical and geochemical characteristics, which are expected to retard the migration of leached radionuclides. Along with radionuclides, certain classes of bituminized radioactive waste may also contain high concentrations of NaNO 3 , dispersed into the hydrophobic bitumen matrix used to stabilize the waste. During and after saturation of the disposal gallery, this bituminized waste will start to take up water due to osmosis, resulting in the leaching of significant amounts of NaNO 3 and soluble organic bitumen degradation products (BDP) into the clay pore water. This nitrate plume could cause several geochemical and biochemical processes in the clay surrounding the waste disposal gallery, potentially affecting the barrier function of the host rock. To study these processes, an in situ experiment in the Opalinus Clay, named the Bitumen-Nitrate-Clay interaction (BN) experiment, is being performed at the Mont Terri Rock Laboratory (CH). The experiment consists of a vertical borehole rigged with a downhole equipment containing three packed-off intervals, each lined with a cylindrical sintered stainless steel filter screen to allow contact with the surrounding clay. Prior to the start of the tests, the intervals were injected with an artificial Opalinus Clay pore water, containing all major ions at pore water concentrations at Mont Terri, but no organic matter, and were equilibrated with the surrounding clay for ∼8 months. To ensure a continuous water flow during the tests, each interval is connected to a stainless steel water circulation unit, equipped with water sampling containers, circulation pumps and flow meters. In addition, to continuously monitor the

  16. Mechanical interaction between swelling compacted clay and fractured rock, and the leaching of clay colloids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grindrod, P.; Peletier, M.A.; Takase, H.

    1999-01-01

    We consider the interaction between a saturated clay buffer layer and a fractured crystalline rock engineered disturbed zone. Once saturated, the clay extrudes into the available rock fractures, behaving as a compressible non-Newtonian fluid. We discuss the modelling implications of published

  17. The C-300 soft X-ray power measurement on Sino-Russian joint Z-pinch experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ning Jiamin; Jiang Shilun; Xu Rongkun; Guo Cun

    2008-06-01

    The measurement system for soft X-ray radiation power was introduced which applied in Sino-Russia joint Z-pinch experiments on C-300. The system measured the soft X-ray radiation power and energy, investigated relation between radiation power and time, and provided the time-relating signals. The type of experimental wire array loads were tungsten wire array single layer, aluminum wire array and nested wire array, and obtained the radiation wave, power and energy. Radiation peak of double wire array generally lower than that of single wire, radial radiation synchronization didn't obviously affected radiation front, fast pulse front may reflect better homogenous of plasma inner explosive which generally produced higher radiation power. There are no direct relationship between wide and power of radiation pulse. The micro-structures of wire array load were a very important factor for radiation power. Increasing the homogenous of wire array gap could optimize radiation synchronization and obviously increased the radiation power. (authors)

  18. 1st International Conference on Calcined Clays for Sustainable Concrete

    CERN Document Server

    Favier, Aurélie

    2015-01-01

    This volume focuses on research and practical issues linked to Calcined Clays for Sustainable Concrete. The main subjects are geology of clays, hydration and performance of blended systems with calcined clays, alkali activated binders, economic and environmental impacts of the use of calcined clays in cement based materials. Topics addressed in this book include the influence of processing on reactivity of calcined clays, influence of clay mineralogy on reactivity, geology of clay deposits, Portland-calcined clay systems, hydration, durability, performance, Portland-calcined clay-limestone systems, hydration, durability, performance, calcined clay-alkali systems, life cycle analysis, economics and environmental impact of use of calcined clays in cement and concrete, and field applications. This book compiles the different contributions of the 1st International Conference on Calcined Clays for Sustainable Concrete, which took place in Lausanne, Switzerland, June, 23-25, 2015.The papers present the latest  res...

  19. Interphase vs confinement in starch-clay bionanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coativy, Gildas; Chevigny, Chloé; Rolland-Sabaté, Agnès; Leroy, Eric; Lourdin, Denis

    2015-03-06

    Starch-clay bionanocomposites containing 1-10% of natural montmorillonite were elaborated by melt processing in the presence of water. A complex macromolecular dynamics behavior was observed: depending on the clay content, an increase of the glass transition temperature and/or the presence of two overlapped α relaxation peaks were detected. Thanks to a model allowing the prediction of the average interparticle distance, and its comparison with the average size of starch macromolecules, it was possible to associate these phenomena to different populations of macromolecules. In particular, it seems that for high clay content (10%), the slowdown of segmental relaxation due to confinement of the starch macromolecules between the clay tactoïds is the predominant phenomenon. While for lower clay contents (3-5%), a significant modification of chain relaxation seems to occur, due to the formation of an interphase by the starch macromolecules in the vicinity of clay nanoparticles coexisting with the bulk polymer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Soil clay content underlies prion infection odds

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Walter W.; Walsh, D.P.; Farnsworth, Matthew L.; Winkelman, D.L.; Miller, M.W.

    2011-01-01

    Environmental factors-especially soil properties-have been suggested as potentially important in the transmission of infectious prion diseases. Because binding to montmorillonite (an aluminosilicate clay mineral) or clay-enriched soils had been shown to enhance experimental prion transmissibility, we hypothesized that prion transmission among mule deer might also be enhanced in ranges with relatively high soil clay content. In this study, we report apparent influences of soil clay content on the odds of prion infection in free-ranging deer. Analysis of data from prion-infected deer herds in northern Colorado, USA, revealed that a 1% increase in the clay-sized particle content in soils within the approximate home range of an individual deer increased its odds of infection by up to 8.9%. Our findings suggest that soil clay content and related environmental properties deserve greater attention in assessing risks of prion disease outbreaks and prospects for their control in both natural and production settings. ?? 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  1. Use of swelling clays to reduce permeability and its potential application to nuclear waste repository sealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, D.E.; Morrow, C.A.; Byerlee, J.D.

    1982-01-01

    The injection of swelling-clay slurries into joints or faults at a deep-burial nuclear waste disposal site may result in signficant permeability reductions for the effective containment of radioactive wastes. In an experiment conducted to illustrate the permeability change accompanying clay swelling, a coarse stone with interconnected pore spaces was injected with a clay-electrolyte slurry, modelling the pressure-grouting of a fractured repository rock. Subsequently, solutions with lower electroylte concentrations were driven through the clay-filled stone, corresponding to migration of lower salinity ground-waters through the clay-grouted fracture. The initial injection procedure reduced the permeability of the stone from 1--10 darcies to 700 nanodarcies; the changes in solution composition decreased permeability by more than 2 additional orders of magnitude to 3 nanodarcies. For application at a nuclear waste repository, the electrolyte concentration of the injected clay slurry should be made higher than that of the ground-water in the host rock. Subesquent interaction of the ground-water with the clays would initiate swelling and create the additional, post-injection permeability reductions that may be important in preventing the escape of buried radioactive wastes. The measured permeability of the clay filling is considerably lower than that of cement tested for borehole plugging. Clays also have the advantage over cement and chemical grouts in that they are geologically stable at relatively low temperatures and have a high capacity for radionuclide adsorption

  2. Natural gas extraction and artificial gas injection experiments in Opalinus Clay, Mont Terri rock laboratory (Switzerland)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinsot, A.; Lundy, M. [Agence Nationale pour la Gestion des Déchets Radioactifs ANDRA, Meuse Haute-Marne Center, Bure (France); Appelo, C.A.J. [Dr C.A.J. Appelo, Hydrochemical Consultant, Amsterdam (Netherlands); and others

    2017-04-15

    Two experiments have been installed at Mont Terri in 2004 and 2009 that allowed gas circulation within a borehole at a pressure between 1 and 2 bar. These experiments made it possible to observe the natural gases that were initially dissolved in pore-water degassing into the borehole and to monitor their content evolution in the borehole over several years. They also allowed for inert (He, Ne) and reactive (H{sub 2}) gases to be injected into the borehole with the aim either to determine their diffusion properties into the rock pore-water or to evaluate their removal reaction kinetics. The natural gases identified were CO{sub 2}, light alkanes, He, and more importantly N{sub 2}. The natural concentration of four gases in Opalinus Clay pore-water was evaluated at the experiment location: N{sub 2} 2.2 mmol/L ± 25%, CH{sub 4} 0.30 mmol/L ± 25%, C{sub 2}H{sub 6} 0.023 mmol/L ± 25%, C{sub 3}H{sub 8} 0.012 mmol/L ± 25%. Retention properties of methane, ethane, and propane were estimated. Ne injection tests helped to characterize rock diffusion properties regarding the dissolved inert gases. These experimental results are highly relevant towards evaluating how the fluid composition could possibly evolve in the drifts of a radioactive waste disposal facility. (authors)

  3. Dynamics and Scaling Properties of Fractures in clay-like Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walmann, Thomas

    1998-12-31

    Computer models that can help oil companies predict realistic and physically correct fracture patterns are important. To verify such a model, experiments described in this thesis were undertaken, using wet clay and powder. The main focus was on extensional fractures, but other types of fractures were also studied. High resolution digital images of the fracture patterns were recorded and analyzed using statistical physics and fractal geometry. The characteristic shapes and size distributions of individual fractures and the overall fracture patterns obtained from laboratory model studies were compared to results from aerial photographs of a fracture pattern in a collapsed glacier that had undergone a similar deformation. A new scaling relation (a power-law) between the length of a fracture and the projected area is derived for fractures formed during clay model experiments. This scaling relation is found also in a field study of a fracture pattern in a glacier. The forms of the different distributions that characterizes fractures in clay experiments are discussed. Several characteristic lengths are associated with the laboratory experiments. They are related to the sample size and shape, the model material and the nature of the imposed deformation. The roughness of the fracture traces obtained from powder experiments was found to have a self-affine form. The roughness, or Hurst exponent, was found to have the value 0.73, plus or minus 0.09. A large number of interacting fractures were formed in the systems studied, and under such conditions the fluctuations about the direction perpendicular to the principle strain direction are influenced by neighbouring fractures. As expected, an upper cutoff for the scaling range was observed. But the length at which the crossover from a self-affine shape to a flat shape took place did not depend systematically on any of the experimental parameters or characteristic length scales. The total fracture trace patterns could not be

  4. Radiation synthesis and characterization of thermo-sensitive PNIPA/clay hydrogels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Hongyan; He Suqin; Liu Wentao; Zhu Chengshen; Yang Mingcheng

    2007-01-01

    In this work, the thermo-sensitive hydrogels of PNIPA/Clay were synthesized by 60 Co-γ rays irradiation. The effects of organically modified clay and Na + clay, clay content, and dispersing condition on swelling behavior of PNIPA/clay hydrogels were investigated. The results showed that the equilibrium swelling ratio (SR) of the PNIPA/clay hydrogels is better than PNIPA, and the SR of PNIPA/organically modified clay hydrogels is the highest. With clay content increases, the SR of hydrogels became better. The deswelling behavior of hydrogel was improved, the deswelling ratio of the hydrogel with organically modified clay is highest, and ratio of losing water is 83%, while PNIPA is about 50%. The compressive properties of hydrogel composites were also examined. The results showed that the compressive properties of the PNIPA/clay hydrogels were improved distinctly than that of the conventional hydrogels without clay. And with increasing of clay content, the compressive properties of hydrogel composites improve rapidly. When the content of clay is 15%, the maximum compression force of the PNIPA/clay hydrogel is 5.28N, which is 14 times of PNIPA hydrogel and compression strength is 2.5 times. (authors)

  5. Evaluation of the mineralogical characterization of several smectite clay deposits of the state of Paraiba, Brazil using statistical analysis of variance; Avaliacao da caracterizacao mineralogica de diversos depositos de argilas esmectiticas do estado da Paraiba utilizando analise estatistica de variancia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gama, A.J.A.; Menezes, R.R.; Neves, G.A.; Brito, A.L.F. de, E-mail: agama@reitoria.ufcg.edu.br [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Currently over 80% of industrialized bentonite clay produced in Brazil in sodium form for use in various industrial applications come from the deposits in Boa Vista - PB. Recently they were discovered new bentonite deposits situated in the municipalities of Cubati - PB, Drawn Stone - PB, Sossego - PB, and last in olive groves - PB, requiring systematic studies to develop all its industrial potential. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate chemical characterization several deposits of smectite clays from various regions of the state of Paraíba through the analysis of statistical variance. Chemical analysis form determined by fluorescence x-ray (EDX). Then analyzes were carried out of variance statistics and Tukey test using the statistical soft MINITAB® 17.0. The results showed that the chemical composition of bentonite clay of new deposits showed different amounts of silica, aluminum, magnesium and calcium in relation clays in Boa Vista, and clays imported. (author)

  6. Developments in modelling of thermohydro-geomechanical behaviour of Boom clay and clay-based buffer materials (Volume 1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldi, G.; Hueckel, T.; Peano, A.; Pellegrini, R.

    1991-01-01

    The results of two years of research on thermomechanics of clays performed within CEC contract Fl1W/0150 are described herein. Previous studies (research contracts with CEC/WAS/380.83.7 l) performed by ISMES have evidenced the need for an improved modelling of the volumetric response of natural clays. In a coupled approach, this leads to an improved prediction of pore-pressure development and dissipation. This is crucial for assessing conditions of a possible local thermal failure as verified in laboratory tests done at ISMES. The first part of the study lays the foundations of a comprehensive theoretical treatment of the interaction between water and soil skeleton. It consists in: (a) developing a framework for inclusion of water/soil particle thermally induced interaction into a thermodynamically consistent mixture theory approach (Section 2); (b) studying possible modelling approaches of considering the effective thermal expansion coefficient of pore water dependency on pore water status (Section 2); (c) testing artificial clays to assess pore water thermal expansion dependence on temperature in the presence of different amounts of active clay minerals and also Boom clay (Section 3); (d) performing a laboratory test campaign on Boom clay with special attention to the response in the overconsolidated domain (Section 4). 89 figs., 18 tabs., 102 refs

  7. Developments in modelling of thermohydro-geomechanical behaviour of Boom clay and clay-based buffer materials (volume 2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldi, G.; Hueckel, T.; Peano, A.; Pellegrini, R.

    1991-01-01

    This study is composed of two parts: The first part (Volume 1) lays the foundations of a comprehensive theoretical treatment of the interaction between water and soil skeleton during thermal dilatation. The second part (volume 2) is devoted to the development and the application of advance constitutive modelling of mechanical behaviour of clays taking into account the extensive tests of Boom clay reported in the first volume. The development concentrated on the improvement of prediction of the volumetric response of clay skeleton: (a) improving the dilatancy prediction at low to high overconsolidation ratios (Section 2). An elasto-plastic constitutive model has been developed to account for this effect (Section 3.2.); (b) modelling of swelling effects (Section 2.5). A preliminary interpretative model for swelling prediction has been developed (Section 2.5). The application part consisted in interpreting the experimental results obtained for Boom clay to calibrate a set of constants (Section 3) for performing numerical analyses (Section 4) for the thermomechanical model already calibrated for Boom clay (Appendix). Interpretation of the tests required an assessment of influence of the strong anisotropy effects revealed by Boom clay on the basis of an interpretative model characterized by a kinematic hardening plasticity and coupled elasticity (section 3)

  8. Investigations of salt mortar containing saliferous clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, F.

    1992-01-01

    Saliferous clay mortar might be considered for combining individual salt bricks into a dense and tight long-term seal. A specific laboratory program was started to test mortars consisting of halite powder and grey saliferous clay of the Stassfurt from the Bleicherode salt mine. Clay fractions between 0 and 45% were used. The interest focused upon obtaining good workabilities of the mixtures as well as upon the permeability and compression strength of the dried mortar samples. Test results: 1) Without loss of quality the mortar can be mixed using fresh water. Apprx. 18 to 20 weight-% of the solids must be added as mixing water. 2) The porosity and the permeability of the mortar samples increases distinctly when equally coarse-grained salt power is used for mixing. 3) The mean grain size and the grain size distribution of the saliferous clay and the salt powder should be very similar to form a useful mortar. 4) The permeability of the mortar samples decreases with increasing clay fraction from 2 10 -12 m 2 to 2 10 -14 m 2 . The investigated samples, however, were large and dried at 100degC. 5) The uniaxial compressive strength of the clay mortar equals, at an average, only 4 MPa and decreases clearly with increasing clay fraction. Moist mortar samples did not show any measurable compressive strength. 6) Moistened saliferous clay mortar may show little temporary swelling. (orig./HP)

  9. Numerical analysis of thermo-hydro-mechanical (THM) processes in the clay based material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xuerui

    2016-10-06

    conductivity on the degree of water saturation, the dependency of the thermal effects on the water retention behaviour, and the dependency of the effects of the pore pressure variation on the permeability and the anisotropic swelling/shrinkage behaviour have been intensively analysed and the corresponding numerical models to consider those coupling effects have been developed. The developed numerical model has been applied to simulate the laboratory and in situ heating experiments on the bentonite and clay rock at different scales. Firstly the laboratory heating experiment on Callovo-Oxfordian Clay (COX) and the laboratory long-term heating and hydration experiment on MX80 pellets were simulated. Based on the knowledge from the numerical analysis of the laboratory experiments, a 1:2 scale in situ heating experiment of an integrated system of the bentonite engineered barrier system (EBS) in the Opalinus Clay host rock was simulated. All the relevant operation phases were considered in the modelling. Besides, the modelling was extended to 50 years after the heat shut-down with the aim of predicting the long-term behaviours. Additionally, variation calculations were carried out to investigate the effects of the storage capacity of the Opalinus Clay on the thermally induced hydraulic response. In the long-term modelling, the effects of different saturated water permeabilities of buffer material on the resaturation process were analysed. Based on the current researches and model developments, the observed THM behaviours of the bentonite buffer and the clay rock, that is, the measured evolution of temperature, pore pressure, humidity, swelling pressure, and so on in the laboratory and in situ experiments can be reproduced and interpreted well. It is proved that by using both a non-isothermal multiphase flow model and a non-isothermal Richards flow model combined with the corresponding thermal and mechanical models, the major THM behaviours can be captured. It is validated that the

  10. Numerical analysis of thermo-hydro-mechanical (THM) processes in the clay based material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xuerui

    2016-01-01

    conductivity on the degree of water saturation, the dependency of the thermal effects on the water retention behaviour, and the dependency of the effects of the pore pressure variation on the permeability and the anisotropic swelling/shrinkage behaviour have been intensively analysed and the corresponding numerical models to consider those coupling effects have been developed. The developed numerical model has been applied to simulate the laboratory and in situ heating experiments on the bentonite and clay rock at different scales. Firstly the laboratory heating experiment on Callovo-Oxfordian Clay (COX) and the laboratory long-term heating and hydration experiment on MX80 pellets were simulated. Based on the knowledge from the numerical analysis of the laboratory experiments, a 1:2 scale in situ heating experiment of an integrated system of the bentonite engineered barrier system (EBS) in the Opalinus Clay host rock was simulated. All the relevant operation phases were considered in the modelling. Besides, the modelling was extended to 50 years after the heat shut-down with the aim of predicting the long-term behaviours. Additionally, variation calculations were carried out to investigate the effects of the storage capacity of the Opalinus Clay on the thermally induced hydraulic response. In the long-term modelling, the effects of different saturated water permeabilities of buffer material on the resaturation process were analysed. Based on the current researches and model developments, the observed THM behaviours of the bentonite buffer and the clay rock, that is, the measured evolution of temperature, pore pressure, humidity, swelling pressure, and so on in the laboratory and in situ experiments can be reproduced and interpreted well. It is proved that by using both a non-isothermal multiphase flow model and a non-isothermal Richards flow model combined with the corresponding thermal and mechanical models, the major THM behaviours can be captured. It is validated that the

  11. Remember Hard but Think Softly: Metaphorical Effects of Hardness/Softness on Cognitive Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiushu Xie

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have found that bodily stimulation, such as hardness, biases social judgment and evaluation via metaphorical association; however, it remains unclear whether bodily stimulation also affects cognitive functions, such as memory and creativity. The current study used metaphorical associations between hard and rigid and between soft and flexible in Chinese, to investigate whether the experience of hardness affected cognitive functions requiring either rigidity (memory or flexibility (creativity. In Experiment 1, we found that Chinese-speaking participants performed better at recalling previously memorized words while sitting on a hard-surface stool (the hard condition than a cushioned one (the soft condition. In Experiment 2, participants sitting on a cushioned stool outperformed those sitting on a hard-surface stool on a Chinese riddle task, which required creative/flexible thinking, but not on an analogical reasoning task, which required both rigid and flexible thinking. The results suggest the hardness experience affects cognitive functions that are metaphorically associated with rigidity and flexibility. They support the embodiment proposition that cognitive functions and representations could be grounded via metaphorical association in bodily states.

  12. Shear induced structures of soft colloids: Rheo-SANS experiments on kinetically frozen PEP-PEO diblock copolymer micelles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stellbrink, J; Lonetti, B; Rother, G; Willner, L; Richter, D

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the effect of external steady shear on dilute to concentrated solutions of PEP-PEO diblock copolymer micelles (soft colloids). The degree of softness in terms of particle interactions (intermolecular softness) and deformability of the individual particle (intramolecular softness) was varied by changing the ratio between hydrophobic and hydrophilic blocks from symmetric (1:1, hard sphere-like) to very asymmetric (1:20, star-like). We performed in situ rheology and small angle neutron scattering experiments (Rheo-SANS) to relate macroscopic flow properties to microscopic structural changes. The rheology data qualitatively show the same behavior for both types of micelles: (i) a divergence of the zero shear viscosity η 0 at a critical concentration φ c approximately following a Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann law and (ii) close to this liquid-solid transition a shear rate dependent viscosity which can be described by the Carreau function with an asymptotic power law η(γ-dot) ∼ γ-dot -0.4 starting at a critical shear rate γ-dot c . Rheo-SANS experiments in the liquid phase close to φ c were extended into the strong shear thinning region for both types of micelles at φ/φ c ∼0.8 and γ-dot red =γ-dot/γ-dot c approx. 10. In our Rheo-SANS data we observe a rather controversial influence of external shear on the structural properties of the two different micellar systems. With increasing shear rate the symmetric, hard sphere-like micelles show a decreasing structure factor S(Q) but a shear rate independent interparticle distance. The asymmetric, star-like micelles show an increase in S(Q) and an increase of the interparticle distance, both in the flow and vorticity direction. This unexpected behavior can be rationalized by a shear induced elongation and tilt of the star-like micelles along the flow direction as predicted by recent MD simulations (Ripoll et al 2006 Phys. Rev. Lett. 96 188302)

  13. Using mixture design of experiments to assess the environmental impact of clay-based structural ceramics containing foundry wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coronado, M. [Department of Chemistry and Process and Resources Engineering, University of Cantabria, 39005 Santander (Spain); Department of Materials and Ceramics Engineering (CICECO), University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Segadães, A.M. [Department of Materials and Ceramics Engineering (CICECO), University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Andrés, A., E-mail: andresa@unican.es [Department of Chemistry and Process and Resources Engineering, University of Cantabria, 39005 Santander (Spain)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • Modelling of the environmental risk in terms of clay and by-products contents. • M-DoE and response surface plots enable quick comparison of three ceramic processes. • Basicity of the mixture increases the leaching, especially at low firing temperatures. • Liquid phase content plays a major role decreasing the leaching of Cr and Mo. • Together, M-DoE and phase diagrams enable better prediction of pollutants leaching. - Abstract: This work describes the leaching behavior of potentially hazardous metals from three different clay-based industrial ceramic products (wall bricks, roof tiles, and face bricks) containing foundry sand dust and Waelz slag as alternative raw materials. For each product, ten mixtures were defined by mixture design of experiments and the leaching of As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, and Zn was evaluated in pressed specimens fired simulating the three industrial ceramic processes. The results showed that, despite the chemical, mineralogical and processing differences, only chrome and molybdenum were not fully immobilized during ceramic processing. Their leaching was modeled as polynomial equations, functions of the raw materials contents, and plotted as response surfaces. This brought to evidence that Cr and Mo leaching from the fired products is not only dependent on the corresponding contents and the basicity of the initial mixtures, but is also clearly related with the mineralogical composition of the fired products, namely the amount of the glassy phase, which depends on both the major oxides contents and the firing temperature.

  14. Organic waste treatment with organically modified clays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, J.C.; Pancoski, S.E.; Alther, G.

    1989-01-01

    The use of organically modified clays in hazardous waste management applications offers a significant new and untapped potential. These clays may be used in the stabilization of organic wastes and organically contaminated soils, for waste water treatment, for oil spill control, for liner systems beneath fuel oil storage tanks, and as a component within liner systems of hazardous waste storage treatment and disposal facilities. Organically modified clays (organophilic clays) may be employed in each of these systems to adsorb organic waste constituents, enhancing the performance of the applications

  15. Experience With Esthetic Reconstruction of Complex Facial Soft Tissue Trauma; Application of the Pulsed Dye Laser

    OpenAIRE

    Ebrahimi; Kazemi; Nejadsarvari

    2014-01-01

    Background Facial soft tissue injury can be one of the most challenging cases presenting to the plastic surgeon. The life quality and self-esteem of the patients with facial injury may be compromised temporarily or permanently. Immediate reconstruction of most defects leads to better restoration of form and function as well as early rehabilitation. Objectives The aim of this study was to present our experience in management of fac...

  16. Compressibility characteristics of Sabak Bernam Marine Clay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lat, D. C.; Ali, N.; Jais, I. B. M.; Baharom, B.; Yunus, N. Z. M.; Salleh, S. M.; Azmi, N. A. C.

    2018-04-01

    This study is carried out to determine the geotechnical properties and compressibility characteristics of marine clay collected at Sabak Bernam. The compressibility characteristics of this soil are determined from 1-D consolidation test and verified by existing correlations by other researchers. No literature has been found on the compressibility characteristics of Sabak Bernam Marine Clay. It is important to carry out this study since this type of marine clay covers large coastal area of west coast Malaysia. This type of marine clay was found on the main road connecting Klang to Perak and the road keeps experiencing undulation and uneven settlement which jeopardise the safety of the road users. The soil is indicated in the Generalised Soil Map of Peninsular Malaysia as a CLAY with alluvial soil on recent marine and riverine alluvium. Based on the British Standard Soil Classification and Plasticity Chart, the soil is classified as a CLAY with very high plasticity (CV). Results from laboratory test on physical properties and compressibility parameters show that Sabak Bernam Marine Clay (SBMC) is highly compressible, has low permeability and poor drainage characteristics. The compressibility parameters obtained for SBMC is in a good agreement with other researchers in the same field.

  17. Fracture behavior of polypropylene/clay nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ling; Wang, Ke; Kotaki, Masaya; Hu, Charmaine; He, Chaobin

    2006-12-01

    Polypropylene (PP)/clay nanocomposites have been prepared via a reactive compounding approach with an epoxy based masterbatch. Compared with PP and common PP/organoclay nanocomposites, the PP/clay nanocomposites based on epoxy/clay masterbatch have higher impact strength. The phenomenon can be attributed to the epoxy phase dispersed uniformly in the PP matrix, which may act as impact energy absorber and helps to form a large damage zone, thus a higher impact strength value is achieved.

  18. Preparation and properties of biodegradable starch–clay nanocomposites

    KAUST Repository

    Chung, Yi-Lin; Ansari, Seema; Estevez, Luis; Hayrapetyan, Suren; Giannelis, Emmanuel P.; Lai, Hsi-Mei

    2010-01-01

    Well-dispersed starch-clay nanocomposites were prepared by adding a dilute clay dispersion to a solution of starch followed by coprecipitation in ethanol. The clay didn't significantly influence the type of crystalline structure of starch molecules although the amount of crystallinity appears to be somewhat lower in the nanocomposites. The nanocomposites show improved modulus and strength without a decrease in elongation at break. The increase in modulus and strength is 65% and 30%, respectively for the nanocomposite containing 5 wt.% clay compared to the unfilled starch materials. Further increases in clay result in deterioration in properties most likely due to poorer clay dispersion and lower polymer crystallinity. As the amount of water increases, the modulus of both pure starch and starch nanocomposites decreases, although the change is less pronounced in the nanocomposites suggesting that the addition of clay to form nanocomposites can improve the stability of starch-based products during transportation and storage. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Preparation and properties of biodegradable starch–clay nanocomposites

    KAUST Repository

    Chung, Yi-Lin

    2010-01-01

    Well-dispersed starch-clay nanocomposites were prepared by adding a dilute clay dispersion to a solution of starch followed by coprecipitation in ethanol. The clay didn\\'t significantly influence the type of crystalline structure of starch molecules although the amount of crystallinity appears to be somewhat lower in the nanocomposites. The nanocomposites show improved modulus and strength without a decrease in elongation at break. The increase in modulus and strength is 65% and 30%, respectively for the nanocomposite containing 5 wt.% clay compared to the unfilled starch materials. Further increases in clay result in deterioration in properties most likely due to poorer clay dispersion and lower polymer crystallinity. As the amount of water increases, the modulus of both pure starch and starch nanocomposites decreases, although the change is less pronounced in the nanocomposites suggesting that the addition of clay to form nanocomposites can improve the stability of starch-based products during transportation and storage. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. R7T7 nuclear waste glass behavior in moist clay: role of the clay mass/glass surface area ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godon, N.; Vernaz, E.

    1989-01-01

    R7T7 glass alteration was investigated in the presence of various moist clays. In contact with smectite 4a, selected in France as a potential engineered barrier material, the glass was significantly corroded: after 6 months the glass corrosion rate was practically the same as the initial alteration rate in double-distilled water. Substantially lower alteration was observed in contact with bentonite 6 activated by sodium carbonate. Smectite 4a consumes silicon released by glass corrosion, and thus retards the rise to high silicon concentrations in solution at which the glass corrosion rate diminishes. Glass can therefore in some cases be altered as much in moist clay as in water with high renewal rates. Other experiments with smaller quantities of smectite 4a showed that the phenomenon becomes less important in time: its duration is proportional to the ratio between the clay mass (C) and the glass surface area (SA). Comparing the results of studies at different C/SA ratios indicates that low glass corrosion rates are obtained more slowly at higher C/SA ratios. Tests with 239 Pu-doped R7T7 glass also showed that the radionuclide retention factor in the alteration film at the glass surface is only 6, compared with a factor of nearly 50 in double-distilled water

  1. Studying the migration behaviour of radionuclides in boom clay by electromigration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norbert Maes, H.; Moors, H.; Dierckx, A.; Aertsens, M.; Wang, L.; Canniere, P. de; Put, M. [SCK-CEN, Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, Waste and Disposal - R and D Geological Disposal Mol (Belgium)

    2001-07-01

    Migration studies are an important part in the assessment of the performance of the Boom Clay Formation as a candidate for geological disposal of High-Level radwaste in Belgium. However, classical diffusion experiments take a long time because of the excellent retention characteristics of the Boom Clay. Electrical fields can be used to move ionic species. Especially for low permeability soils/sediments (such as clays), this driving force is far more efficient than a hydraulic gradient. As a consequence, the experimental time can be reduced drastically. This paper gives an overview on the quantitative and qualitative use of electromigration as a powerful technique to study radionuclides migration in clays. The enormous time gain in the determination of migration parameters for strongly retarded radionuclides as {sup 137}Cs{sup +} and {sup 226}Ra{sup 2+} is first demonstrated. Secondly, we want to demonstrate that electromigration has some useful features to study the behaviour of radionuclides with a more complex chemistry like the redox sensitive element uranium and Am-Organic Matter (OM) complexes. In the case of uranium, electromigration provides information on the speciation of the migrating species while for the Am-organic Matter complexes the role of OM as a possible carrier of actinides is investigated. (orig.)

  2. Studying the migration behaviour of radionuclides in boom clay by electromigration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norbert Maes, H.; Moors, H.; Dierckx, A.; Aertsens, M.; Wang, L.; Canniere, P. de; Put, M.

    2001-01-01

    Migration studies are an important part in the assessment of the performance of the Boom Clay Formation as a candidate for geological disposal of High-Level radwaste in Belgium. However, classical diffusion experiments take a long time because of the excellent retention characteristics of the Boom Clay. Electrical fields can be used to move ionic species. Especially for low permeability soils/sediments (such as clays), this driving force is far more efficient than a hydraulic gradient. As a consequence, the experimental time can be reduced drastically. This paper gives an overview on the quantitative and qualitative use of electromigration as a powerful technique to study radionuclides migration in clays. The enormous time gain in the determination of migration parameters for strongly retarded radionuclides as 137 Cs + and 226 Ra 2+ is first demonstrated. Secondly, we want to demonstrate that electromigration has some useful features to study the behaviour of radionuclides with a more complex chemistry like the redox sensitive element uranium and Am-Organic Matter (OM) complexes. In the case of uranium, electromigration provides information on the speciation of the migrating species while for the Am-organic Matter complexes the role of OM as a possible carrier of actinides is investigated. (orig.)

  3. Single clay sheets inside electrospun polymer nanofibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhaohui

    2005-03-01

    Nanofibers were prepared from polymer solution with clay sheets by electrospinning. Plasma etching, as a well controlled process, was used to supply electrically excited gas molecules from a glow discharge. To reveal the structure and arrangement of clay layers in the polymer matrix, plasma etching was used to remove the polymer by controlled gasification to expose the clay sheets due to the difference in reactivity. The shape, flexibility, and orientation of clay sheets were studied by transmission and scanning electron microscopy. Additional quantitative information on size distribution and degree of exfoliation of clay sheets were obtained by analyzing electron micrograph of sample after plasma etching. Samples in various forms including fiber, film and bulk, were thinned by plasma etching. Morphology and dispersion of inorganic fillers were studied by electron microscopy.

  4. Dynamic mechanical properties and anisotropy of synthetic shales with different clay minerals under confining pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Fei; Di, Bangrang; Wei, Jianxin; Ding, Pinbo; Shuai, Da

    2018-03-01

    The presence of clay minerals can alter the elastic behaviour of reservoir rocks significantly as the type of clay minerals, their volume and distribution, and their orientation control the shale's intrinsic anisotropic behaviours. Clay minerals are the most abundant materials in shale, and it has been proven extremely difficult to measure the elastic properties of natural shale by means of a single variable (in this case, the type of clay minerals), due to the influences of multiple factors, including water, TOC content and complex mineral compositions. We used quartz, clay (kaolinite, illite and smectite), carbonate and kerogen extract as the primary materials to construct synthetic shale with different clay minerals. Ultrasonic experiments were conducted to investigate the anisotropy of velocity and mechanical properties in dry synthetic and natural shale as a function of confining pressure. Velocities in synthetic shale are sensitive to the type of clay minerals, possibly due to the different structures of the clay minerals. The velocities increase with confining pressure and show higher rate of velocity increase at low pressures, and P-wave velocity is usually more sensitive than S-wave velocity to confining pressure according to our results. Similarly, the dynamic Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio increase with applied pressure, and the results also reveal that E11 is always larger than E33 and ν31 is smaller than ν12. Velocity and mechanical anisotropy decrease with increasing stress, and are sensitive to stress and the type of clay minerals. However, the changes of mechanical anisotropy with applied stress are larger compared with the velocity anisotropy, indicating that mechanical properties are more sensitive to the change of rock properties.

  5. Study of the Effect of Clay Particles on Low Salinity Water Injection in Sandstone Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sina Rezaei Gomari

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The need for optimal recovery of crude oil from sandstone and carbonate reservoirs around the world has never been greater for the petroleum industry. Water-flooding has been applied to the supplement primary depletion process or as a separate secondary recovery method. Low salinity water injection is a relatively new method that involves injecting low salinity brines at high pressure similar to conventional water-flooding techniques, in order to recover crude oil. The effectiveness of low salinity water injection in sandstone reservoirs depends on a number of parameters such as reservoir temperature, pressure, type of clay particle and salinity of injected brine. Clay particles present on reservoir rock surfaces adsorb polar components of oil and modify wettability of sandstone rocks to the oil-wet state, which is accountable for the reduced recovery rates by conventional water-flooding. The extent of wettability alteration caused by three low salinity brines on oil-wet sandstone samples containing varying clay content (15% or 30% and type of clay (kaolinite/montmorillonite were analyzed in the laboratory experiment. Contact angles of mica powder and clay mixture (kaolinite/montmorillonite modified with crude oil were measured before and after injection with three low salinity sodium chloride brines. The effect of temperature was also analyzed for each sample. The results of the experiment indicate that samples with kaolinite clay tend to produce higher contact angles than samples with montmorillonite clay when modified with crude oil. The highest degree or extent of wettability alteration from oil-wet to intermediate-wet state upon injection with low salinity brines was observed for samples injected with brine having salinity concentration of 2000 ppm. The increase in temperature tends to produce contact angles values lying in the higher end of the intermediate-wet range (75°–115° for samples treated at 50 °C, while their corresponding

  6. Perceptions of a Soft Robotic Tentacle in Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jonas

    2018-01-01

    Soft robotics technology has been proposed for a number of applications that involve human-robot interaction. This video documents a platform created to explore human perceptions of soft robots in interaction. The video presents select footage from an interaction experiment conducted...

  7. 'Optical' soft x-ray arrays for fluctuation diagnostics in magnetic fusion energy experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delgado-Aparicio, L.F.; Stutman, D.; Tritz, K.; Finkenthal, M.; Kaita, R.; Roquemore, L.; Johnson, D.; Majeski, R.

    2004-01-01

    We are developing large pixel count, fast (≥100 kHz) and continuously sampling soft x-ray (SXR) array for the diagnosis of magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) and turbulent fluctuations in magnetic fusion energy plasmas. The arrays are based on efficient scintillators, high thoughput multiclad fiber optics, and multichannel light amplification and integration. Compared to conventional x-ray diode arrays, such systems can provide vastly increased spatial coverage, and access to difficult locations with small neutron noise and damage. An eight-channel array has been built using columnar CsI:Tl as an SXR converter and a multianode photomultiplier tube as photoamplifier. The overall system efficiency is measured using laboratory SXR sources, while the time response and signal-to-noise performance have been evaluated by recording MHD activity from the spherical tori (ST) Current Drive Experiment-Upgrade and National Spherical Torus Experiment, both at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

  8. Comparing uranyl sorption complexes on soil and reference clays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chisholm-Brause, C.J.; Berg, J.M.; Conradson, S.D.; Morris, D.E.; McKinley, J.P.; Zachara, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    Clay minerals and other components in natural soils may play a key role in limiting the mobility of uranium in the environment through the formation of sorption complexes. Reference clays are frequently used as models to study sorption processes because they have well-known chemical and physical properties, but they may differ chemically and morphologically from clays derived from natural soils. Therefore, inferences based on reference clay data have been questioned. The authors have used luminescence and x-ray absorption spectroscopies to characterize the sorption complexes of aqueous uranyl (UO 2 2+ ) species on two soil smectites from the Kenoma and Ringold formations, and compared these results to those obtained on reference smectite clays. The pH dependence of uptake suggests that the ratio of sorption on amphoteric edge sites is greater for the soil smectites than for reference clays such as Wyoming montmorillonite (SWy-1). The luminescence spectra for uranyl sorbed to the soil clays are very similar to those for uranyl sorbed principally to the edge sites of SWy-1. This observation supports the solution data suggesting that adsorption to amphoteric sites is a more important mechanism for soil clays. However, the spectral data indicate that the sorption complexes on natural and reference clays are quite similar. Furthermore, as with the reference clays, the authors have found that the chemistry of the solution plays a greater role in defining the sorption complex than does the clay matrix. Thus, if differences in surface properties are adequately taken into account, the reference clays may serve as useful analogs for soil clays in investigations of metal-ion sorption

  9. Thermal stability of segmented polyurethane elastomers reinforced by clay particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavličević Jelena

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to determine the influence of clay nanoparticles on thermal properties of segmented polyurethanes based on hexamethylene- diisocyanate, aliphatic polycarbonate diol and 1,4-butanediol as chain extender. The organically modified particles of montmorillonite and bentonite were used as reinforcing fillers. The structure of elastomeric materials was varied either by diol type or chain extender content. The ratio of OH groups from diol and chain extender (R was either 1 or 10. Thermal properties of prepared materials were determined using modulated differential scanning calorimetry (MDSC. Thermal stability of obtained elastomers has been studied by simultaneously thermogravimetry coupled with DSC. The glass transition temperature, Tg, of soft segments for all investigated samples was about -33°C. On the basis of DTG results, it was concluded that obtained materials were very stable up to 300°C.

  10. Clay Cuffman: A Cool, Calm, Relaxed Guy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Gina

    2010-01-01

    This article describes Clay Cuffman, a simple clay-sculpture project that requires two or three sessions, and works for students from the upper-elementary level through high school. It takes about 1.5 pounds of clay per student--about the size of a small grapefruit. The Cuffman project is a great way for upper-elementary through high-school…

  11. Hygrothermal behavior for a clay brick wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allam, R.; Issaadi, N.; Belarbi, R.; El-Meligy, M.; Altahrany, A.

    2018-06-01

    In Egypt, the clay brick is the common building materials which are used. By studying clay brick walls behavior for the heat and moisture transfer, the efficient use of the clay brick can be reached. So, this research studies the hygrothermal transfer in this material by measuring the hygrothermal properties and performing experimental tests for a constructed clay brick wall. We present the model for the hygrothermal transfer in the clay brick which takes the temperature and the vapor pressure as driving potentials. In addition, this research compares the presented model with previous models. By constructing the clay brick wall between two climates chambers with different boundary conditions, we can validate the numerical model and analyze the hygrothermal transfer in the wall. The temperature and relative humidity profiles within the material are measured experimentally and determined numerically. The numerical and experimental results have a good convergence with 3.5% difference. The surface boundary conditions, the ground effect, the infiltration from the closed chambers and the material heterogeneity affects the results. Thermal transfer of the clay brick walls reaches the steady state very rapidly than the moisture transfer. That means the effect of using only the external brick wall in the building in hot climate without increase the thermal resistance for the wall, will add more energy losses in the clay brick walls buildings. Also, the behavior of the wall at the heat and mass transfer calls the three-dimensional analysis for the whole building to reach the real behavior.

  12. Hygrothermal behavior for a clay brick wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allam, R.; Issaadi, N.; Belarbi, R.; El-Meligy, M.; Altahrany, A.

    2018-01-01

    In Egypt, the clay brick is the common building materials which are used. By studying clay brick walls behavior for the heat and moisture transfer, the efficient use of the clay brick can be reached. So, this research studies the hygrothermal transfer in this material by measuring the hygrothermal properties and performing experimental tests for a constructed clay brick wall. We present the model for the hygrothermal transfer in the clay brick which takes the temperature and the vapor pressure as driving potentials. In addition, this research compares the presented model with previous models. By constructing the clay brick wall between two climates chambers with different boundary conditions, we can validate the numerical model and analyze the hygrothermal transfer in the wall. The temperature and relative humidity profiles within the material are measured experimentally and determined numerically. The numerical and experimental results have a good convergence with 3.5% difference. The surface boundary conditions, the ground effect, the infiltration from the closed chambers and the material heterogeneity affects the results. Thermal transfer of the clay brick walls reaches the steady state very rapidly than the moisture transfer. That means the effect of using only the external brick wall in the building in hot climate without increase the thermal resistance for the wall, will add more energy losses in the clay brick walls buildings. Also, the behavior of the wall at the heat and mass transfer calls the three-dimensional analysis for the whole building to reach the real behavior.

  13. Integrated modelling of the glass-iron-clay system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bildstein, O.

    2007-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of integrated calculations on the near-field evolution in the VHLW/steel/bentonite/clay system. The calculations of the near-field evolution include different components: the vitrified waste packages, the steel container, the bentonite-based EBS (optional), the EDZ and the geological medium. Coupled reaction-transport (X-T) is used to simulate the corrosion of the steel canister and the glass alteration phase in presence of corrosion products (CPs), looking at mass transfer for chemical elements, especially iron and silica, pH, and porosity change. Calculations as performed give actual parameters for PA calculations: rate of glass alteration (through the calculated pH) as a function of time, extension of altered zone for iron-clay interactions with their own transport parameters, nature of CPs, effect on porosity distribution. According to the operational model currently used at the CEA and the calculations performed on the glass-iron-clay system, the alteration rate of glass and the evolution of the system strongly depend on the timing of CPs saturation with respect to silica sorption. The fate of silica which can be sorbed or precipitate is crucial to the lifetime of glass and to the overall evolution of the system. The other process that might influence the glass is the porosity decrease due to the precipitation of CPs and silica rich phases. However, it is difficult to assign a safety functions to clogging. It is scarcely observed in experiments, either because the conditions are not met for clogging or because the timescale of experiments does not allow for observable clogging. Moreover, the effect of mechanical stress in the NF has to be accounted for in the assessment of the effect of porosity changes. (author)

  14. Integrated modelling of the glass-iron-clay system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bildstein, O

    2007-01-15

    This report summarizes the results of integrated calculations on the near-field evolution in the VHLW/steel/bentonite/clay system. The calculations of the near-field evolution include different components: the vitrified waste packages, the steel container, the bentonite-based EBS (optional), the EDZ and the geological medium. Coupled reaction-transport (X-T) is used to simulate the corrosion of the steel canister and the glass alteration phase in presence of corrosion products (CPs), looking at mass transfer for chemical elements, especially iron and silica, pH, and porosity change. Calculations as performed give actual parameters for PA calculations: rate of glass alteration (through the calculated pH) as a function of time, extension of altered zone for iron-clay interactions with their own transport parameters, nature of CPs, effect on porosity distribution. According to the operational model currently used at the CEA and the calculations performed on the glass-iron-clay system, the alteration rate of glass and the evolution of the system strongly depend on the timing of CPs saturation with respect to silica sorption. The fate of silica which can be sorbed or precipitate is crucial to the lifetime of glass and to the overall evolution of the system. The other process that might influence the glass is the porosity decrease due to the precipitation of CPs and silica rich phases. However, it is difficult to assign a safety functions to clogging. It is scarcely observed in experiments, either because the conditions are not met for clogging or because the timescale of experiments does not allow for observable clogging. Moreover, the effect of mechanical stress in the NF has to be accounted for in the assessment of the effect of porosity changes. (author)

  15. Experiments on the reduction of radiocesium in pigs by adding clay minerals to the contaminated feed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holdt, C.S.

    1987-05-01

    For some time now clay minerals are used as feed additives in animal production but are even discussed lately as a possibility of decontamination of radiocesium in the living animal because of their ion exchange property. The nuclear accident of Chernobyl in April 1986 induced the Austrian government to set radioactivity limits for contamination with Cs-137 and 134. For pork the total of 5nCi Cs-137 and 134/kg was set which proved to be a problem for pig fattening when fed on whey and concentrate. The aim of this study was to see if the addition of clays to the animal feed can reduce the cesium content in the meat. After 3 short-term-trials with the total amount of 21 animals one long-term pig-fattening experiment with 40 animals was conducted. For 70 days their feed contained fallout Cs in form of dried whey. The control group was fed the normal ration, for test group 1 bentonite and for test group 2 bolus alba were mixed into the concentrate in amounts corresponding to 5%. After administering fallout-Cs for 70 days 5 animals of each group were slaughtered and the Cs-activity specified in leg, butt, neck, liver, kidney and blood. With exception of the liver the mean values of the control group reached higher levels than 5nCi Cs-137 and 134, test group 2 showed the same tendency in the leg. Test group 1 proved satisfactorily with all mean values well beyond the limit with highly significant response. Feeding the remaining animals with uncontaminated rations of feed it could be demonstrated that bentonite decreases the biological half-life of cesium. 52 refs., 10 figs., 26 tabs

  16. Some Tests on Heather Field Moraine Clay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Mogens B.; Jacobsen, Moust

    This report deals with oedometer tests on three samples of moraine clay from the Heather Field in the English part of the North Sea. The tests have been carried out in the very unelastic apparatus used in Denmark and with special test procedures differing from the ones used elsewhere. In Denmark...... Moraine Clay covers a large part of the surface, and it has therefore been investigated extensively in the field and in the laboratories during the last 25 years. It is to day - from a geotechnical point of view - the best known clay in Denmark. It could therefore be of some interest to compare...... the English North Sea moraine clays with the corresponding Danish Moraine Clays. The Danish test procedures are explained in details and some comments are given in the hope that they may not be banalities all of them....

  17. Creep in buffer clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pusch, R.; Adey, R.

    1999-12-01

    The study involved characterization of the microstructural arrangement and molecular forcefields in the buffer clay for getting a basis for selecting suitable creep models. It is concluded that the number of particles and wide range of the particle bond spectrum require that stochastical mechanics and thermodynamics will be considered and they are basic to the creep model proposed for predicting creep settlement of the canisters. The influence of the stress level on creep strain of MX-80 clay is not well known but for the buffer creep is approximately proportional to stress. Theoretical considerations suggest a moderate impact for temperatures up to 90 deg C and this is supported by model experiments. It is believed that the assumption of strain being proportional to temperature is conservative. The general performance of the stochastic model can be illustrated in principle by use of visco-elastic rheological models implying a time-related increase in viscosity. The shear-induced creep settlement under constant volume conditions calculated by using the proposed creep model is on the order of 1 mm in ten thousand years and up to a couple of millimeters in one million years. It is much smaller than the consolidation settlement, which is believed to be on the order of 10 mm. The general conclusion is that creep settlement of the canisters is very small and of no significance to the integrity of the buffer itself or of the canisters

  18. Soft-photon analysis of pion-proton bremsstrahlung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liou, M.K.; Nutt, W.T.

    1977-01-01

    We define the soft-photon approximation consistent in its treatment of both the kinematical and dynamical aspects of bremsstrahlung. Using this consistent soft-photon approximation, we calculate π +- p cross sections and obtain excellent agreement with experiment. Our results suggest that the contributions from off-mass-shell effects and resonances are small

  19. Geosynthetic clay liners shrinkage under simulated daily thermal cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarabadani, Hamid; Rayhani, Mohammad T

    2014-06-01

    Geosynthetic clay liners are used as part of composite liner systems in municipal solid waste landfills and other applications to restrict the escape of contaminants into the surrounding environment. This is attainable provided that the geosynthetic clay liner panels continuously cover the subsoil. Previous case histories, however, have shown that some geosynthetic clay liner panels are prone to significant shrinkage and separation when an overlying geomembrane is exposed to solar radiation. Experimental models were initiated to evaluate the potential shrinkage of different geosynthetic clay liner products placed over sand and clay subsoils, subjected to simulated daily thermal cycles (60°C for 8 hours and 22°C for 16 hours) modelling field conditions in which the liner is exposed to solar radiation. The variation of geosynthetic clay liner shrinkage was evaluated at specified times by a photogrammetry technique. The manufacturing techniques, the initial moisture content, and the aspect ratio (ratio of length to width) of the geosynthetic clay liner were found to considerably affect the shrinkage of geosynthetic clay liners. The particle size distribution of the subsoil and the associated suction at the geosynthetic clay liner-subsoil interface was also found to have significant effects on the shrinkage of the geosynthetic clay liner. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. Prefabricated Vertical Drain (PVD) and Deep Cement Mixing (DCM)/Stiffened DCM (SDCM) techniques for soft ground improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergado, D. T.; Long, P. V.; Chaiyaput, S.; Balasubramaniam, A. S.

    2018-04-01

    Soft ground improvement techniques have become most practical and popular methods to increase soil strength, soil stiffness and reduce soil compressibility including the soft Bangkok clay. This paper focuses on comparative performances of prefabricated vertical drain (PVD) using surcharge, vacuum and heat preloading as well as the cement-admixed clay of Deep Cement Mixing (DCM) and Stiffened DCM (SDCM) methods. The Vacuum-PVD can increase the horizontal coefficient of consolidation, Ch, resulting in faster rate of settlement at the same magnitudes of settlement compared to Conventional PVD. Several field methods of applying vacuum preloading are also compared. Moreover, the Thermal PVD and Thermal Vacuum PVD can increase further the coefficient of horizontal consolidation, Ch, with the associated reduction of kh/ks values by reducing the drainage retardation effects in the smear zone around the PVD which resulted in faster rates of consolidation and higher magnitudes of settlements. Furthermore, the equivalent smear effect due to non-uniform consolidation is also discussed in addition to the smear due to the mechanical installation of PVDs. In addition, a new kind of reinforced deep mixing method, namely Stiffened Deep Cement Mixing (SDCM) pile is introduced to improve the flexural resistance, improve the field quality control, and prevent unexpected failures of the Deep Cement Mixing (DCM) pile. The SDCM pile consists of DCM pile reinforced with the insertion of precast reinforced concrete (RC) core. The full scale test embankment on soft clay improved by SDCM and DCM piles was also analysed. Numerical simulations using the 3D PLAXIS Foundation finite element software have been done to understand the behavior of SDCM and DCM piles. The simulation results indicated that the surface settlements decreased with increasing lengths of the RC cores, and, at lesser extent, increasing sectional areas of the RC cores in the SDCM piles. In addition, the lateral movements

  1. A shovel with a perforated blade reduces energy expenditure required for digging wet clay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harivanam, Sridhar; Marklin, Richard W; Papanek, Paula E; Cariapa, Vikram

    2010-08-01

    A shovel with a blade perforated with small holes was tested to see whether a worker would use less whole-body energy to dig wet clay than with a shovel with an opaque blade. A perforated shovel is hypothesized to require less whole-body energy on the basis of adhesion theory; a smaller surface area would require less physical effort to dig and release soil from the blade. The study involved 13 workers from an electric utility who dug wet clay with two 1.5-m long-handled point shovels, which differed only in blade design (perforated and opaque). Oxygen consumption was measured with a portable system while each worker dug wet clay at a self-regulated pace for 10 min. There was no significant difference in number of scoops dug during the 10-min sessions, but workers dug 9.5% more weight of clay with the perforated shovel than with the conventional shovel (404 kg vs. 369 kg, respectively). Furthermore, stable oxygen uptake normalized to weight of participant and to the weight of clay dug revealed that participants expended 11.7% less relative energy per kilogram of clay dug with the perforated shovel. A point shovel with a perforated blade is recommended for digging and shoveling wet clay. However, the extra weight that workers chose to dig with the perforated shovel may increase the loading on the spine and may offset the metabolic advantages. Manual shoveling is a common task, and workers may experience less whole-body and muscle fatigue when using a perforated shovel.

  2. Diffusion, sorption and stability of radionuclide-organic complexes in clays and clay-organic complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staunton, S.; Rees, L.V.C.

    1991-01-01

    The dependence on various parameters of the diffusion coefficient of neptunium (V) in clay systems has been studied. The effect of the clay mineralogy, the charge compensating cation in the clay, the ionic strength of a background perchlorate solution and the presence of three organic ligands have been investigated. The diffusion coefficients were compared to those predicted if diffusion occurred only in the liquid phase and adsorption was reversible; agreement was fairly good. An approximation to the diffusion coefficient can thus be obtained from readily measured experimental parameters. There is no evidence of surface phase diffusion. The most significant factor in determining the diffusion coefficient is the magnitude of the distribution ratio, itself highly dependent on the nature of the clay. Neither EDTA nor citrate modified the diffusion coefficient. Although the presence of 1 or 100 mg dm -3 of Aldrich humic acid had little effect on the distribution ratio of neptunium, it caused a lowering of the measured diffusion coefficient. This is interpreted in terms of the limiting liquid phase diffusion coefficient and the true liquid phase impedance factor of neptunium-humic acid complexes. 21 figs; 3 tabs; 20 refs

  3. Recent advances in clay mineral-containing nanocomposite hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Li Zhi; Zhou, Chun Hui; Wang, Jing; Tong, Dong Shen; Yu, Wei Hua; Wang, Hao

    2015-12-28

    Clay mineral-containing nanocomposite hydrogels have been proven to have exceptional composition, properties, and applications, and consequently have attracted a significant amount of research effort over the past few years. The objective of this paper is to summarize and evaluate scientific advances in clay mineral-containing nanocomposite hydrogels in terms of their specific preparation, formation mechanisms, properties, and applications, and to identify the prevailing challenges and future directions in the field. The state-of-the-art of existing technologies and insights into the exfoliation of layered clay minerals, in particular montmorillonite and LAPONITE®, are discussed first. The formation and structural characteristics of polymer/clay nanocomposite hydrogels made from in situ free radical polymerization, supramolecular assembly, and freezing-thawing cycles are then examined. Studies indicate that additional hydrogen bonding, electrostatic interactions, coordination bonds, hydrophobic interaction, and even covalent bonds could occur between the clay mineral nanoplatelets and polymer chains, thereby leading to the formation of unique three-dimensional networks. Accordingly, the hydrogels exhibit exceptional optical and mechanical properties, swelling-deswelling behavior, and stimuli-responsiveness, reflecting the remarkable effects of clay minerals. With the pivotal roles of clay minerals in clay mineral-containing nanocomposite hydrogels, the nanocomposite hydrogels possess great potential as superabsorbents, drug vehicles, tissue scaffolds, wound dressing, and biosensors. Future studies should lay emphasis on the formation mechanisms with in-depth insights into interfacial interactions, the tactical functionalization of clay minerals and polymers for desired properties, and expanding of their applications.

  4. Geotechnical properties of Karwar marine clay

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhat, S.T.; Nayak, B.U.; Naik, R.L.

    Karwar marine clay possesses high plasticity characteristics with natural water content higher than the liquid limit. Liquidity index was as high as 1.7. Predominant clay mineral was kaolinite. Undrained shear strength showed an increasing trend...

  5. Final report of the rock sealing project - Sealing properties and longevity of smectitic clay grouts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pusch, R.; Karnland, O.; Hoekmark, H.; Sanden, T.; Boergesson, L.

    1991-12-01

    Na and Ca bentonite clay grouts with densities that make them easily injected into fine fractures have been hydrothermally treated and investigated with respect to the hydraulic conductivity and shear strength. Exposure of the grouts to salt groundwater increased the hydraulic conductivity up to around 10 -5 m/s, which is on the same order of magnitude as the value at complete conversion of soft montmorillonite clay to hydrous mica, i.e. the major ultimate reaction product. Still, even this 'worst scenario' case will not lead to a higher bulk conductivity of the grouted rock than around 10 -10 m/s of rock with a conductivity of 10 -8 m/s before grouting. The rate of such conversion, which is entirely dependent on the potassium content of the groundwater, can be anything from a few hundred years to several thousand years depending primarily on the magnitude of prevailing hydraulic gradients. The shear strength of the grouts, which determines the resistance to piping and erosion, increases with time and temperature. The most critical situation is immediately after injection into the rock, when hydraulic gradients exceeding about 30 may produce piping. (au)

  6. Enrichment and activation of smectite-poor clay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarcevica, Inese; Kostjukovs, Juris; Actint, Andris, E-mail: inese.sarcevicha@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, University of Latvia, Kr. Valdemara street 48, Riga (Latvia)

    2011-06-23

    A new method of smectite clay enrichment has been developed. The method is based on dispersing clay in a phosphate solution and sequential coagulation. The product of enrichment is characterized with X-ray powder diffraction, wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, differential thermal analysis and thermogravimetry. Sorption of methylene blue and hexadecylpyridinium bromide on raw and purified clays was studied.

  7. Pure and impure clays and their firing products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murad, E.; Wagner, U.

    1989-01-01

    Moessbauer spectroscopy is highly suited for the study of clays whose industrial uses depend on the iron content. Reactions that take place during clay firing can be readily monitored by Moessbauer spectroscopy. Following dehydroxylation of clay minerals, the quadrupole splitting of octahedrally coordinated iron (III) increases abruptly, but reverts to lower values upon the formation of new, better ordered phases at higher temperatures. It is also shown that iron oxides may account for a considerably higher proportion of the total iron content of many clays than is commonly recognized, and their existence must be taken into consideration for a correct interpretation of the Moessbauer spectra of clays. (orig.)

  8. Hydration Phase Diagram of Clay Particles from Molecular Simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honorio, Tulio; Brochard, Laurent; Vandamme, Matthieu

    2017-11-07

    Adsorption plays a fundamental role in the behavior of clays. Because of the confinement between solid clay layers on the nanoscale, adsorbed water is structured in layers, which can occupy a specific volume. The transition between these states is intimately related to key features of clay thermo-hydro-mechanical behavior. In this article, we consider the hydration states of clays as phases and the transition between these states as phase changes. The thermodynamic formulation supporting this idea is presented. Then, the results from grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations of sodium montmorillonite are used to derive hydration phase diagrams. The stability analysis presented here explains the coexistence of different hydration states at clay particle scale and improves our understanding of the irreversibilities of clay thermo-hydro-mechanical behavior. Our results provide insights into the mechanics of the elementary constituents of clays, which is crucial for a better understanding of the macroscopic behavior of clay-rich rocks and soils.

  9. Beam line for experiments with coherent soft x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howells, M.R.; Kirz, J.; Krinsky, S.

    1982-12-01

    The advantages of coherent soft x-rays for three-dimensional imaging of biological specimens are discussed, the x-ray source requirements are described, and the general design of the beam line and its optical system are given

  10. 1.7. Acid decomposition of kaolin clays of Ziddi Deposit. 1.7.1. The hydrochloric acid decomposition of kaolin clays and siallites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirsaidov, U.M.; Mirzoev, D.Kh.; Boboev, Kh.E.

    2016-01-01

    Present article of book is devoted to hydrochloric acid decomposition of kaolin clays and siallites. The chemical composition of kaolin clays and siallites was determined. The influence of temperature, process duration, acid concentration on hydrochloric acid decomposition of kaolin clays and siallites was studied. The optimal conditions of hydrochloric acid decomposition of kaolin clays and siallites were determined.

  11. Absorption characteristics of Kupravas deposit clays modified by phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruplis, A.; Mezinskis, G.; Chaghuri, M.

    1998-01-01

    Literature data suggested that clays may be used as sorbents for waste water treatment. The surface and sorption properties of minerals changes due to the influence of acid rains. The process of recession of clay properties has been modeled in laboratory by treatment of clays with mineral acids at higher temperature that in natural conditions. The present paper is devoted to the study of influence of phosphoric acid on the sorption properties of Kupravas deposit clays. Natural clay samples and samples treated with phosphoric acid were characterized by means of x-ray diffraction an differential thermal analysis (DTA) methods These methods were used also to identify the sample of Lebanese clays. X-ray diffraction analysis data show that the samples of clays from the deposit of Kuprava contain illite and kaolinite while sample of Lebanese clay contains quartz, calcite, and montmorillonite. DTA results show characteristic features of Kuprava clays described in reference with DTA of Lebanese clay clearly demonstrate the presence of large quantity of calcite

  12. Feasibility of classification of clay minerals by using PAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, Y; Yoshida, Y; Akiyama, Y; Nishijima, S

    2015-01-01

    After the nuclear power plant disaster, the evaluation of radioactive Cs kept in soil, especially in clay minerals and the elucidation of its movement are urgent subjects to promote decontamination. It is known that the extractable level of Cs depends on the sort of clay minerals. We tried to find the characteristics of clay minerals belonging to phillosilicate group using positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) and the relationship between the results of PAS and the amounts of substantially extracted Cs from the clay minerals. The results showed that each clay mineral was found to be distinguishable from other clay minerals by PAS and the extraction rate of Cs was different among those clay minerals, however the direct correlation between the results of PAS and the extraction rates of Cs was not found. (paper)

  13. Clay-Alcohol-Water Dispersions: Anomalous Viscosity Changes Due to Network Formation of Clay Nanosheets Induced by Alcohol Clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Yuji; Haraguchi, Kazutoshi

    2017-05-16

    Clay-alcohol-water ternary dispersions were compared with alcohol-water binary mixtures in terms of viscosity and optical absorbance. Aqueous clay dispersions to which lower alcohols (ethanol, 1-propanol, 2-propanol, and tert-butanol) were added exhibited significant viscosity anomalies (maxima) when the alcohol content was 30-55 wt %, as well as optical absorbance anomalies (maxima). The maximum viscosity (η max ) depended strongly on the clay content and varied between 300 and 8000 mPa·s, making it remarkably high compared with the viscosity anomalies (2 mPa·s) observed in alcohol-water binary mixtures. The alcohol content at η max decreased as the hydrophobicity of the alcohol increased. The ternary dispersions with viscosity anomalies exhibited thixotropic behaviors. The effects of other hydrophilic solvents (glycols) and other kinds of clays were also clarified. Based on these findings and the average particle size changes, the viscosity anomalies in the ternary dispersions were explained by alcohol-clustering-induced network formation of the clay nanosheets. It was estimated that 0.9, 1.7, and 2.5 H 2 O molecules per alcohol molecule were required to stabilize the ethanol, 2-propanol, and tert-butanol, respectively, in the clay-alcohol-water dispersions.

  14. Birds of a Feather... and Clay, Wire, Tissue and Paint!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feiner, Lois

    2011-01-01

    What began as a review lesson in clay construction quickly became a fun learning experience filled with inspiring conversations and creatively painted birds. This lesson was successful from beginning to end, with a final reward when the artwork was displayed. The author describes the process of working on this project and shares how the students…

  15. Utilisation of Sepidrud dam basin sediments in fired clay bricks: laboratory scale experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Jamshidi-Chenari, R.; Rabanifar, H.; Veiseh, S.

    2015-01-01

    The prevailing disposal methods for dam basin sediments are not free from the environmental pollution and the ecological imbalance. At present, a new way to treat the dredged sediments to manufacture bricks is being investigated, prioritizing waste recovery over its deposition in landfills. However, construction materials such as clay bricks must comply with the international and local standards. Considering the perpetual availability of the sediments, particle sizing and their chemical compo...

  16. Development of an in-situ heat transfer experiment (ISHTE) for illite clays of MPG-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, L.O.; Ewart, T.E.

    1981-01-01

    During 1979 the Applied Physics Laboratory of the University of Washington has been working on the design and development of components for an In-Situ Heat Transfer Experiment (ISHTE). The goal of the experiment is to test the validity of using laboratory experiments and analytical studies to predict the thermal response of red clay sediments in the deep ocean. All areas of the conceptual ISHTE developed during 1978 have been investigated this year at some level, with the greatest emphasis on the key components. Because the platform tracking and acoustic communication system is the most crucial component of the experiment, the major effort has been spent on developing this equipment. Hardware and software for the system are nearly operational. Some preliminary testing to evaluate transducers has been performed in Puget Sound and at shallow ocean depths. The transducers purchased initially were not adequate, but units from another company have been purchased and tested with good results. Deep ocean transponder tests will be run in the spring of 1980, and tests of the full tracking system will be conducted in July of 1980 at MPG-1. Several other hardware systems developed this year were an electric heater to simulate the isotope heatsource for system testing, the heater implantment arm, the heater's thermal sensor system, the thermal sensors for the sediment, and a 1/5 scale model of the planned ISHTE platform for visulization of component interaction. The hydrostatic corers are being designed but no construction will be started on prototypes until late 1980. No severe problems have been found thus far with the conceptualized system for the ISHTE platform, and work is progressing on building and testing all of these component systems before the seafloor platform is designed in detail. Present plans are to start designing the platform in FY 81

  17. Effects of Consolidation Stress State on Normally Consolidated Clay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lade, Poul V.

    2000-01-01

    The effect of consolidation stress state on the stress-strain and strength characteristics has been studied from experiments on undisturbed block samples of a natural, normally consolidated clay known as San Francisco Bay Mud. The results of experiments on K0-consolidated, hollow cylinder specimens...... and on isotropically consolidated, cubical specimens, both tested in triaxial compression and extension, clearly showed the influence of the undisturbed fabric as well as the effect of the initial consolidation stress states. While the K0-consolidated specimens appeared to retain their original fabric and exhibit...

  18. Synthetic mullite fabrication from smectite clays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, L.N. de; Kiminami, R.H.G.A.

    1988-01-01

    The technological importance of mullite is mostly due to its refractory properties. Mullite in native form is very rare, and therefore it may be necessary to produced it by synthetic means. Brazil has a large reserve of smectite clays. In this work the process to produce synthetic mullite from these clays by treatment with aluminum sulphate was studied. X-ray analyses has shown the presence of mullite crystals in treated smectite clays of several colours, sinterized at 1100 0 C. By sintering at 1300 0 C, pure mullite was obtained in some colours. (author) [pt

  19. Understanding soft condensed matter via modeling and computation

    CERN Document Server

    Shi, An-Chang

    2011-01-01

    All living organisms consist of soft matter. For this reason alone, it is important to be able to understand and predict the structural and dynamical properties of soft materials such as polymers, surfactants, colloids, granular matter and liquids crystals. To achieve a better understanding of soft matter, three different approaches have to be integrated: experiment, theory and simulation. This book focuses on the third approach - but always in the context of the other two.

  20. Effect of addition of different nano-clays on the fumed silica-polyethylene glycol based shear-thickening fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mansi; Mehta, Rajeev; Verma, Sanjeev K.; Biswas, Ipsita

    2018-01-01

    A comparative study of the rheology of shear thickening suspensions of 20% fumed silica in polyethylene glycol (PEG200) with different nano clays as additives has been done. The nano-clays used are montmorillonite (MMT), Closite15A, Kaolin and Halloysite clay. The objective was to study the effect of relatively cost-effective clays as a partial substitute of silica. Specifically, the effect of type, concentration, temperature and frequency were considered. The results indicate that the shear thickening properties of Closite15A as additive in temperature ranges of 25 °C-45 °C performs the best and Halloysite performs best at higher (55 °C) and lower temperatures (5, 15 °C). The elasticity effects in dynamic experiments were markedly enhanced by Halloysite clay addition. Addition of MMT, however, led to insignificant enhancement in critical viscosity in steady-state as well as dynamic state-rheology. Interestingly, shear thickening fluid (STF) with all clay except MMT was stable after storing for more than a month. These findings indicate that the introduction of nano-clay as additives is a promising and cost effective method for enhancing the STF behavior which can be utilized in high impact resistant (about 3000% strain and 300 rad s-1 frequency) applications.

  1. Clay filter-aid in ultrafiltration (UF) of humic acid solution

    KAUST Repository

    Pontié , M.; Thekkedath, A.; Kecili, K.; Dach, H.; De Nardi, F.; Castaing, J.B.

    2012-01-01

    Fouling studies with three different molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) (100. kDa, 30. kDa and 10. kDa) membranes in regenerated cellulose were carried out in the presence of Acros humic acids (HA) at pH 3.0, 6.7 and 9.5. It was shown that the tighter membranes were less fouled compared with the higher MWCO membranes. 100. kDa membrane showed the highest degree of fouling. The role of pH showed that the highest degree of fouling happened at a neutral pH (pH 6.7) and the lowest degree of fouling happened at a basic pH (pH 9.5).Effectiveness of a novel pre-treatment method was applied to the 100kDa membrane. We added in the HA solution clay particles, homemade synthetized from natural bentonite and denoted Mont-CTAB. We observed a gain in productivity of 25%. 2D-fractal dimension parameter decreased under 1.5, showing a de-organization of the cake due to clay particles in/on the cake and a specific resistance of 4.4×10 11m/kg was obtained in presence of clays versus 3.6×10 14m/kg with HA alone. Finally the development of clay assisted ultrafiltration process changes the cake morphology limiting fouling impact and it is hope that for long term experiments, formation of a gel-layer should be limited. © 2012 Elsevier B.V..

  2. Clay filter-aid in ultrafiltration (UF) of humic acid solution

    KAUST Repository

    Pontié, M.

    2012-04-01

    Fouling studies with three different molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) (100. kDa, 30. kDa and 10. kDa) membranes in regenerated cellulose were carried out in the presence of Acros humic acids (HA) at pH 3.0, 6.7 and 9.5. It was shown that the tighter membranes were less fouled compared with the higher MWCO membranes. 100. kDa membrane showed the highest degree of fouling. The role of pH showed that the highest degree of fouling happened at a neutral pH (pH 6.7) and the lowest degree of fouling happened at a basic pH (pH 9.5).Effectiveness of a novel pre-treatment method was applied to the 100kDa membrane. We added in the HA solution clay particles, homemade synthetized from natural bentonite and denoted Mont-CTAB. We observed a gain in productivity of 25%. 2D-fractal dimension parameter decreased under 1.5, showing a de-organization of the cake due to clay particles in/on the cake and a specific resistance of 4.4×10 11m/kg was obtained in presence of clays versus 3.6×10 14m/kg with HA alone. Finally the development of clay assisted ultrafiltration process changes the cake morphology limiting fouling impact and it is hope that for long term experiments, formation of a gel-layer should be limited. © 2012 Elsevier B.V..

  3. Self-sealing barriers of sand/bentonite-mixtures in a clay repository. SB-experiment in the Mont Terri Rock Laboratory. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothfuchs, Tilmann; Czaikowski, Oliver; Hartwig, Lothar; Hellwald, Karsten; Komischke, Michael; Miehe, Ruediger; Zhang, Chun-Liang

    2012-10-01

    Several years ago, GRS performed laboratory investigations on the suitability of clay/mineral mixtures as optimized sealing materials in underground repositories for radioactive wastes /JOC 00/ /MIE 03/. The investigations yielded promising results so that plans were developed for testing the sealing properties of those materials under representative in-situ conditions in the Mont Terri Rock Laboratory (MTRL). The project was proposed to the ''Projekttraeger Wassertechnologie und Entsorgung (PtWT+E)'', and finally launched in January 2003 under the name SB-project (''Self-sealing Barriers of Clay/Mineral Mixtures in a Clay Repository''). The project was divided in two parts, a pre-project running from January 2003 until June 2004 under contract No. 02E9713 /ROT 04/ and the main project running from January 2004 until June 2012 under contract No. 02E9894 with originally PtWT+E, later renamed as PTKA-WTE. In the course of the pre-project it was decided to incorporate the SB main project as a cost shared action of PtWT+E and the European Commission (contract No. FI6W-CT-2004-508851) into the EC Integrated Project ESDRED (Engineering Studies and Demonstrations of Repository Designs) performed by 11 European project partners within the 6th European framework programme. The ESDRED project was terminated prior to the termination of the SB project. Interim results were reported by mid 2009 in two ESDRED reports /DEB09/ /SEI 09/. This report presents the results achieved in the whole SB-project comprising preceding laboratory investigations for the final selection of suited material mixtures, the conduction of mock-up tests in the geotechnical laboratory of GRS in Braunschweig and the execution of in-situ experiments at the MTRL.

  4. Multifaceted role of clay minerals in pharmaceuticals

    OpenAIRE

    Khurana, Inderpreet Singh; Kaur, Satvinder; Kaur, Harpreet; Khurana, Rajneet Kaur

    2015-01-01

    The desirable physical and physiochemical properties of clay minerals have led them to play a substantial role in pharmaceutical formulations. Clay minerals like kaolin, smectite and palygorskite-sepiolite are among the world's most valuable industrial minerals and of considerable importance. The elemental features of clay minerals which caused them to be used in pharmaceutical formulations are high specific area, sorption capacity, favorable rheological properties, chemical inertness, swelli...

  5. Aluminium - Cobalt-Pillared Clay for Dye Filtration Membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmawan, A.; Widiarsih

    2018-04-01

    The manufacture of membrane support from cobalt aluminium pillared clay has been conducted. This research was conducted by mixing a clay suspension with pillared solution prepared from the mixture of Co(NO3)2.6H2O and AlCl3.6H2O. The molar ratio between Al and Co was 75:25 and the ratio of [OH-]/[metal] was 2. The clay suspension was stirred for 24 hours at room temperature, filtered and dried. The dried clay was then calcined at 200°C, 300°C and 400°C with a ramp rate of 2°C/min. Aluminium-cobalt-pillared clay was then characterized by XRD and GSA and moulded become a membrane support for subsequent tests on dye filtration. The XRD analysis showed that basal spacing (d 001) value of aluminium cobalt was 19.49 Å, which was higher than the natural clay of 15.08Å however, the basal spacing decreased with increasing calcination temperature. The result of the GSA analysis showed that the pore diameter of the aluminium cobalt pillared clay membrane was almost the same as that of natural clay that were 34.5Å and 34.2Å, respectively. Nevertheless, the pillared clay has a more uniform pore size distribution. The results of methylene blue filtration measurements demonstrated that the membrane filter support could well which shown by a clear filtrate at all concentrations tested. The value of rejection and flux decreased with the increasing concentration of methylene blue. The values of dye rejection and water flux reached 99.89% and 5. 80 x 10-6 kg min-1, respectively but they decreased with increasing concentration of methylene blue. The results of this study indicates that the aluminium-pillared clay cobalt could be used as membrane materials especially for ultrafiltration.

  6. R and D programme on radioactive waste disposal into geological formations (study of a clay formation)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Centre d'Etude de l'Energie Nucleaire, Mol

    1987-01-01

    This report deals with the R and D activities performed by the Belgian Nuclear Research Establishment (SCK/CEN) and its subcontractors concerning the disposal of high-level and long-life conditioned wastes in a deep clay formation, the Boom clay. The studies reported concern equally experimental as theoretical work spread over the following research issues: geochemical characterization of the Boom clay, modelling of radionuclide migration in the clay environment, irradiation effects and corrosion behaviour of candidate canister materials in the Boom clay, geomechanical, construction, backfilling and sealing studies related to underground facilities, regional hydrological investigations of the Mol site and safety and risk analysis. The geomechanical and construction-related studies are to a large extent focused on in situ research, performed along the construction of the underground Hades laboratory. The corrosion studies are also dealing with the preparation of in situ experiments in the same underground laboratory. These various research issues are meant to contribute to the assessment of the technical feasibility and safety of the geological disposal in an argillaceous host formation

  7. clay nanocomposite by solution intercalation technique

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Polymer–clay nanocomposites of commercial polystyrene (PS) and clay laponite were prepared via solution intercalation technique. Laponite was modified suitably with the well known cationic surfactant cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide by ion-exchange reaction to render laponite miscible with hydrophobic PS.

  8. Micromechanism Underlying Nonlinear Stress-Dependent K0 of Clays at a Wide Range of Pressures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang-yu Shang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the mechanism underlying the reported nonlinear at-rest coefficient of earth pressure, K0 of clays at high pressure, a particle-scale model which can be used to calculate vertical and horizontal repulsion between clay particles has been proposed. This model has two initial states which represent the clays at low pressure and high pressure, and the particles in this model can undergo rotation and vertical translation. The computation shows that the majority of particles in a clay sample at high pressure state would experience rotation during one-dimensional compression. In addition, rotation of particles which tends to form a parallel structure causes an increase of the horizontal interparticle force, while vertical translation leads to a decrease in it. Finally, the link between interparticle force, microstructure, and macroscopic K0 is analyzed and it can be used to interpret well the nonlinear changes in K0 with both vertical consolidation stress and height-diameter ratio.

  9. Aqueous suspensions of natural swelling clay minerals. 2. Rheological characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paineau, Erwan; Michot, Laurent J; Bihannic, Isabelle; Baravian, Christophe

    2011-06-21

    We report in this article a comprehensive investigation of the viscoelastic behavior of different natural colloidal clay minerals in aqueous solution. Rheological experiments were carried out under both dynamic and steady-state conditions, allowing us to derive the elasticity and yield stress. Both parameters can be renormalized for all sizes, ionic strength, and type of clay using in a first approach only the volume of the particles. However, applying such a treatment to various clays of similar shapes and sizes yields differences that can be linked to the repulsion strength and charge location in the swelling clays. The stronger the repulsive interactions, the better the orientation of clay particles in flows. In addition, a master linear relationship between the elasticity and yield stress whose value corresponds to a critical deformation of 0.1 was evidenced. Such a relationship may be general for any colloidal suspension of anisometric particles as revealed by the analysis of various experimental data obtained on either disk-shaped or lath- and rod-shaped particles. The particle size dependence of the sol-gel transition was also investigated in detail. To understand why suspensions of larger particles gel at a higher volume fraction, we propose a very simplified view based on the statistical hydrodynamic trapping of a particle by an another one in its neighborhood upon translation and during a short period of time. We show that the key parameter describing this hydrodynamic trapping varies as the cube of the average diameter and captures most features of the sol-gel transition. Finally, we pointed out that in the high shear limit the suspension viscosity is still closely related to electrostatic interactions and follows the same trends as the viscoelastic properties. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  10. Impact-Induced Clay Mineral Formation and Distribution on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Valentin, E. G.; Craig, P. I.

    2015-01-01

    Clay minerals have been identified in the central peaks and ejecta blankets of impact craters on Mars. Several studies have suggested these clay minerals formed as a result of impact induced hydrothermalism either during Mars' Noachian era or more recently by the melting of subsurface ice. Examples of post-impact clay formation is found in several locations on Earth such as the Mjolnir and Woodleigh Impact Structures. Additionally, a recent study has suggested the clay minerals observed on Ceres are the result of impact-induced hydrothermal processes. Such processes may have occurred on Mars, possibly during the Noachian. Distinguishing between clay minerals formed preor post-impact can be accomplished by studying their IR spectra. In fact, showed that the IR spectra of clay minerals is greatly affected at longer wavelengths (i.e. mid-IR, 5-25 micron) by impact-induced shock deformation while the near-IR spectra (1.0-2.5 micron) remains relatively unchanged. This explains the discrepancy between NIR and MIR observations of clay minerals in martian impact craters noted. Thus, it allows us to determine whether a clay mineral formed from impact-induced hydrothermalism or were pre-existing and were altered by the impact. Here we study the role of impacts on the formation and distribution of clay minerals on Mars via a fully 3-D Monte Carlo cratering model, including impact- melt production using results from modern hydrocode simulations. We identify regions that are conducive to clay formation and the location of clay minerals post-bombardment.

  11. Influence of natural mobile organic matter on europium retention on Bure clay rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vu-Do, Laurence

    2013-01-01

    Bure clay rock (CR) was chosen as host rock for the French high and intermediate level long lived radioactive waste repository. This choice is mostly explained by the retention ability of the Callovo-Oxfordian rock (COx). Bure clay rock contains natural organic matter (OM) that could have an influence on radionuclide retention. The aim of this work is to assess the influence of natural mobile OM on the retention of Eu on clay rock. Eu was chosen as a chemical model for trivalent actinides contained in vitrified waste. Three organic molecules were studied: suberic, sorbic and tiglic acids, small organic acids identified in COx pore water. All the experiments were carried out in an environment recreating COx water (pH=7.5; I=0.1 mol/L; PCO 2 =10 -2 bar).Clay rock sample characterization showed that the sample used in this work was similar to those previously extracted from the area of interest and that it was necessary to maintain pH at 7.5 to avoid altering the clay rock. The Eu-OM system study indicated that organic acids had no influence on Eu speciation in COx water. The Eu-CR system experimental study confirmed that retention implied sorption on CR (C(Eu)≤6.10 -6 mol/L) and precipitation in COx water (C(Eu)≥6.10 -6 mol/L). Distribution coefficient Rd (quantifying sorption) was estimated at 170 ± 30 L/g. This high value is consistent with literature values obtained on clay rocks. The ternary Eu-OM-CR system study showed a slight increase of sorption in the presence of organic matter. This synergistic effect is very satisfactory in terms of storage security: the presence of small organic acids in clay rock does not question retention properties with respect to europium and trivalent actinides. (author)

  12. Polyethersulfone/clay membranes and its water permeability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavalho, Thamyres Cardoso de; Medeiros, Vanessa da Nobrega; Araujo, Edcleide Maria de; Lira, Helio Lucena; Leite, Amanda Melissa Damiao

    2017-01-01

    Membranes can be considered polymeric or inorganic films that function as a semipermeable barrier to filtration on a molecular scale, separating two phases and restricting, totally or partially, the transportation of one or more chemical species (solute) present in the solution. Therefore, the aim of this work is to produce polyethersulfone membranes (PES) and polyethersulfone/clay by phase inversion technique and evaluate the presence of clay in obtaining membranes for wastewater treatment. The used solvent was dimethylformamide (DMF) and clays were Brasgel PA (MMT) and Cloisite Na (CL Na) in the proportion of 3 to 5% (wt.). By Xray diffraction (XRD), the membranes with 3% of MMT and CL Na clays apparently had partially exfoliated structures. For the composition with 5% of CL Na a small peak was observed, which indicates that this is possibly an intercalated structure or microcomposite. By scanning electron microscopy (SEM), visualizes that the pure surface of the pure PES membrane a structure apparently without pores was observed in the used magnification and without roughness surface when compared to membranes with clay. The measurements of contact angle indicated that the inclusion of clay altered the wetting ability of the membranes. The flow with distilled water for all membranes started high and over time reached a stabilization level. Thus, it can be concluded that the presence and the content of clay altered the morphology of the membrane, contributing to an increase in water flow. (author)

  13. Influence of clay organic modifier on morphology and performance of poly(ε-caprolactone/clay nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Marija S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Two series of poly(e-caprolactone nanocomposites with different organo-modified clays (1 to 8 wt% were prepared by the solution casting method. Organoclays with polar (Cloisite®C30B and nonpolar (Cloisite®C15A organic modifier and with different miscibility with poly(e-caprolactone matrix, were chosen. Exfoliated and/or intercalated nanocomposite’s structures were obtained by using high dilution and an ultrasonic treatment for the composite preparation. The effect of the surface modification and clay content on the morphology, mechanical and thermal properties of the nanocomposites was studied. Scanning electron microscopy excluded the formation of microcomposite. The wide-angle X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that the tendency toward exfoliated structure is higher for the Cloisite®C30B, which had better miscibility with poly(e-caprolactone matrix. Differences in spherulites’ sizes and morphology between two series of the nanocomposites were observed by the optical microscopy performed on as-casted films. Enthalpies of fusion and degrees of crystallinity were higher for nanocomposites than for neat poly(e-caprolactone and increase with the clay loading in both series, as a consequence of the clay nucleating effect. Decreased thermal stability of nanocomposites was ascribed to thermal instability of organic modifiers of the clays. The Halpin-Tsai model was used to compare the theoretically predicted values of the Young’s modulus with experimentally obtained ones in tensile tests.[Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172062

  14. "Soft-shelled" monothalamid foraminifers as a modern analogue of early life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitazato, Hiroshi; Ohkawara, Nina; Gooday, Andrew

    2017-04-01

    According to the fossil record, the earliest undoubted foraminifers are found in the Early Cambrian, where they are represented by tubular agglutinated forms, thought to be the most primitive foraminiferal morphotypes. The numerous foraminifers with single-chambered, organic-walled tests (i.e. 'soft-shelled' monothalamids) exist in the deep sea and are difficult to preserve as fossils. Molecular phylogenetic data tell us that these 'primitive' taxa include the deepest foraminiferal clades, originating around 600 - 900 Ma. We found many soft-shelled monothalamids in sediment samples from deep trenches, including the Challenger Deep (Marianas Trench) and the Horizon Deep (Tonga Trench). Both deeps exceed 10,000 m water depth, well below the carbonate compensation depth, which represents an environmental barrier for calcareous foraminifera. The foraminifera at these extreme hadal sites include tubular and globular forms with organic walls, among which species of the genera Nodellum and Resigella are particularly abundant. Some forms selectively agglutinate minute flakes of clay minerals on the surface of the organic test. Many soft-shelled monothalamids, including most of those in deep tranches, contain stercomata, the function of which is currently unknown. Gromiids (a rhizarian group related to foraminifera) also accumulate stercomata in their sack-shaped tests. This suggests the possibility that the function of these waste particles is to add bulk, like the filling of soft bags or pillows. We suggest that the monothalamid foraminifera that dominate small-sized eukaryotes in extreme hadal settings may provide clues to understanding the biology and ecology of early life in Neoproterozoic sedimented habitats.

  15. The role of organic matter and clay content in sediments for bioavailability of pyrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spasojević, Jelena; Maletić, Snežana; Rončević, Srđan; Grgić, Marko; Krčmar, Dejan; Varga, Nataša; Dalmacija, Božo

    2018-01-01

    Evaluation of the bioavailable fractions of organic contaminants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is extremely important for assessing their risk to the environment. This available fraction, which can be solubilised and/or easily extracted, is believed to be the most accessible for bioaccumulation, biosorption and/or transformation. Sediment organic matter (OM) and clay play an important role in the biodegradation and bioavailability of PAHs. The strong association of PAHs with OM and clay in sediments has a great influence not only on their distribution but also on their long-term environmental impact. This paper investigates correlations between bioavailability and the clay and OM contents in sediments. The results show that OM is a better sorbent for pyrene (chosen as a model PAH) and that increasing the OM content reduces the bioavailable fraction. A mathematical model was used to predict the kinetic desorption, and these results showed that the sediment with the lowest content of OM had an F fast value of 24%, whereas sediment with 20% OM gave a value of 9%. In the experiments with sediments with different clay contents, no clear dependence between clay and rate constants of the fast desorbing fractions was observed, which can be explained by the numerous possible interactions at the molecular level.

  16. Effect of mechanical and chemical clay removals by hydrocyclone and dispersants on coal flotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oats, W.J.; Ozdemir, O.; Nguyen, A.V. [University of Queensland, Brisbane, Qld. (Australia). School of Chemical Engineering

    2010-04-15

    Fine minerals, mostly clays, are known to have a detrimental effect on coal flotation. This paper focuses on the effect of mechanical and chemical removals of fine minerals by hydrocyclone and dispersants on coal flotation. The experimental results showed that the flotation recovery slightly increased from medium acidic to medium alkaline ranges. The flotation experiments carried out with dispersants at different dosages showed that the dispersants did not enhance the flotation recovery significantly. However, the removal of the fine fraction from the feed using a hydrocyclone significantly increased the flotation recovery. The bubble-particle attachment tests also indicated that the attachment time between an air bubble and the coal particles increased in the presence of clay particles. These attachment time results clearly showed that the clay particles adversely affected the flotation of coal particles by covering the coal surfaces which reduced the efficiency of bubble-coal attachment. An analysis based on the colloid stability theory showed that the clay coating was governed by the van der Waals attraction and that the double-layer interaction played a secondary role. It was also concluded that the best way to increase the flotation recovery in the presence of clays was to remove these fine minerals by mechanical means such as hydrocylones.

  17. Surface Assisted Formation of methane Hydrates on Ice and Na Montmorillonite Clay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, Margaret Ellen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Teich-McGoldrick, Stephanie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Cygan, Randall Timothy [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Meserole, Stephen P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rodriguez, Mark A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Methane hydrates are extremely important naturally-occurring crystalline materials that impact climate change, energy resources, geological hazards, and other major environmental issues. Whereas significant experimental effort has been completed to understanding the bulk thermodynamics of methane hydrate assemblies, little is understood on heterogeneous nucleation and growth of methane hydrates in clay-rich environments. Controlled synthesis experiments were completed at 265-285 K and 6.89 MPa to examine the impact of montmorillonite surfaces in clay-ice mixtures to nucleate and form methane hydrate. The results suggest that the hydrophilic and methane adsorbing properties of Namontmorillonite reduce the nucleation period of methane hydrate formation in pure ice systems.

  18. Environmental Degradation and Durability of Epoxy-Clay Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raman P. Singh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This experimental investigation reports on the durability of epoxy-clay nanocomposites upon exposure to multiple environments. Nanocomposites are fabricated by mixing the clay particles using various combinations of mechanical mixing, high-shear dispersion, and ultrasonication. Clay morphology is characterized using X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Specimens of both neat epoxy and the epoxy-clay nanocomposite are subjected to two environmental conditions: combined UV radiation and condensation on 3-hour repeat cycle and constant temperature-humidity, for a total exposure duration of 4770 hours. The presence of nanoscale clay inhibits moisture uptake, as demonstrated by exposure to constant temperature-humidity. Nonetheless, both materials lose mass under exposure to combined UV radiation and condensation due to the erosion of epoxy by a synergistic process. Surprisingly, the epoxy-clay specimens exhibit greater mass loss, as compared to neat epoxy. Mechanical testing shows that either environment does not significant affect the flexure modulus of either material. On the other hand, both materials undergo degradation in flexural strength when exposed to either environment. However, the epoxy-clay nanocomposite retains 37% more flexure strength than the neat epoxy after 4072 hours of exposure.

  19. Environmental Degradation and Durability of Epoxy-Clay Nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, R.P.; Zunjarrao, S.C.; Pandey, G.; Khait, M.; Korach, C.S.

    2010-01-01

    This experimental investigation reports on the durability of epoxy-clay nanocomposites upon exposure to multiple environments. Nanocomposites are fabricated by mixing the clay particles using various combinations of mechanical mixing, high-shear dispersion, and ultrasonication. Clay morphology is characterized using X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Specimens of both neat epoxy and the epoxy-clay nanocomposite are subjected to two environmental conditions: combined UV radiation and condensation on 3-hour repeat cycle and constant temperature-humidity, for a total exposure duration of 4770 hours. The presence of nanoscale clay inhibits moisture uptake, as demonstrated by exposure to constant temperature-humidity. Nonetheless, both materials lose mass under exposure to combined UV radiation and condensation due to the erosion of epoxy by a synergistic process. Surprisingly, the epoxy-clay specimens exhibit greater mass loss, as compared to neat epoxy. Mechanical testing shows that either environment does not significant affect the flexure modulus of either material. On the other hand, both materials undergo degradation in flexural strength when exposed to either environment. However, the epoxy-clay nanocomposite retains 37% more flexure strength than the neat epoxy after 4072 hours of exposure.

  20. Feasibility study of development a pressuremeter for use in stiff to hard clays for land based site investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-03-01

    Existing borehole pressuremeters and jacks have been reviewed for suitability in light of the requirements for testing to depths of 350 metres in hard clays and soft rocks to provide geotechnical information for repository design. Since no currently available device is suitable for immediate use in this application, recommendations have been made for the development work necessary to achieve a satisfactory pressuremeter instrument. Drilling and instrument insertion procedures have also been reviewed and it has been concluded that a wireline system is the most appropriate. Development costs are detailed for the provision of a prototype high pressure pressuremeter testing package. (author)

  1. Studies on Tagged Clay Migration Due to Water Movement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scharpenseel, H.W.; Kerpen, W.

    1967-01-01

    55 Fe-tagged clay minerals, produced by hydrothermal synthesis, serve to clarify the question whether clay migration or clay formation in situ is the predominating mechanism in the B t -development of Parabraunerde (sol brun lessive, grey brown podsolic, hapludalf, dernopodsol). They further indicate the possibilities of clay transportation caused by water percolation. Suitable experimental approaches, such as thin-layer chromatography and autoradiography, translocation tests in columns filled with monotypical textural fractions or with undisturbed soil profiles, and synchronous hydrothermal treatment of 55 Fe-con raining material from different horizons of Parabraunerde, to reveal the specific readiness of the different profile zones for 55 Fe-clay production, are described. The possibilities of clay percolation are discussed. (author)

  2. Agricultural residues and expanded clay in Oncidium baueri Lindl. orchid cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Marchezi Mora

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available For orchid cultivation in containers is essential to select the right substrate, since this will influence the quality of the final product, it serve as a support for the root system of the plants. This study aimed to evaluate different agricultural residues and expanded clay in Oncidium baueri Lindl. orchid cultivation. The plants were subjected to treatments: pinus husk + carbonized rice husk, pinus husk + coffee husk, pinus husk + fibered coconut, pecan nut husk, expanded clay, fibered coconut, coffee husk, carbonized rice husk, pinus husk. After eleven months of the experiment, the following variables were evaluated: plant height; largest pseudo-bulb diameter; number of buds; shoot fresh dry matter; the longest root length; number of roots; root fresh matter; root dry matter; and electric conductivity; pH and water retention capacity of the substrates. Except the expanded clay, the other substrates showed satisfactory results in one or more traits. Standing out among these substrates pinus husk + coffee husk and pine bark + fibered coconut, which favored the most vegetative and root characteristic of the orchid. The mixture of pinus husk + coffee husk and pinus husk + fibered coconut, provided the best results in vegetative and root growth of the orchid Oncidium baueri and the expanded clay did not show favorable results in the cultivation of this species.

  3. clay nanocomposites

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The present work deals with the synthesis of specialty elastomer [fluoroelastomer and poly (styrene--ethylene-co-butylene--styrene (SEBS)]–clay nanocomposites and their structure–property relationship as elucidated from morphology studies by atomic force microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray ...

  4. α-Pinene conversion by modified-kaolinitic clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volzone, C.; Masini, O.; Comelli, N.A.; Grzona, L.M.; Ponzi, E.N.; Ponzi, M.I.

    2005-01-01

    The isomerization of α-pinene using natural kaolinitic clay before and after different treatments was studied in this work. The kaolinite is a clay material constituted by phyllosilicate 1:1 layer (one sheet of tetrahedral silicon and one sheet of octahedral alumina). The clay was treated at different times using 6.0 N solution of sulfuric acid previous heating to 500 or 700 K. The materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction, by chemical analyses and acidity measurements. The catalytic reactions were carried out at 373 K in a reactor batch with condenser and stirrer. Samples were taken at regular intervals, and reactants and products were quantitatively analyzed with a gas chromatograph after separation of the individual compounds. Conversions of alpha pinene between 67 and 94%, and selectivities in camphene and in limonene of 65 and 23%, respectively, were obtained with the clay treated at different conditions. The structural and textural changes of the clay by the treatments influenced on catalytic reactions

  5. {alpha}-Pinene conversion by modified-kaolinitic clay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volzone, C. [CETMIC-Centro de Tecnologia de Recursos Minerales y Ceramica-(CONICET-CIC), C.C. 49, Cno. Centenario y 506 (1897) M.B. Gonnet, Prov., Buenos Aires (Argentina)]. E-mail: volzcris@netverk.com.ar; Masini, O. [INTEQUI (CONICET-UNSL), Facultad de Ingenieria y Ciencias Economico Sociales, 25 de Mayo 384, V. Mercedes, Prov., San Luis (Argentina); Comelli, N.A. [INTEQUI (CONICET-UNSL), Facultad de Ingenieria y Ciencias Economico Sociales, 25 de Mayo 384, V. Mercedes, Prov., San Luis (Argentina); Grzona, L.M. [INTEQUI (CONICET-UNSL), Facultad de Ingenieria y Ciencias Economico Sociales, 25 de Mayo 384, V. Mercedes, Prov., San Luis (Argentina); Ponzi, E.N. [CINDECA (CONICET-UNLP) calle 47 No. 257 (1900) La Plata, Prov., Buenos Aires (Argentina); Ponzi, M.I. [INTEQUI (CONICET-UNSL), Facultad de Ingenieria y Ciencias Economico Sociales, 25 de Mayo 384, V. Mercedes, Prov., San Luis (Argentina)

    2005-10-15

    The isomerization of {alpha}-pinene using natural kaolinitic clay before and after different treatments was studied in this work. The kaolinite is a clay material constituted by phyllosilicate 1:1 layer (one sheet of tetrahedral silicon and one sheet of octahedral alumina). The clay was treated at different times using 6.0 N solution of sulfuric acid previous heating to 500 or 700 K. The materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction, by chemical analyses and acidity measurements. The catalytic reactions were carried out at 373 K in a reactor batch with condenser and stirrer. Samples were taken at regular intervals, and reactants and products were quantitatively analyzed with a gas chromatograph after separation of the individual compounds. Conversions of alpha pinene between 67 and 94%, and selectivities in camphene and in limonene of 65 and 23%, respectively, were obtained with the clay treated at different conditions. The structural and textural changes of the clay by the treatments influenced on catalytic reactions.

  6. Active containment systems incorporating modified pillared clays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundie, P.; McLeod, N.

    1997-01-01

    The application of treatment technologies in active containment systems provides a more advanced and effective method for the remediation of contaminated sites. These treatment technologies can be applied in permeable reactive walls and/or funnel and gate systems. The application of modified pillared clays in active containment systems provides a mechanism for producing permeable reactive walls with versatile properties. These pillared clays are suitably modified to incorporate reactive intercalatants capable of reacting with both a broad range of organic pollutants of varying molecular size, polarity and reactivity. Heavy metals can be removed from contaminated water by conventional ion-exchange and other reactive processes within the clay structure. Complex contamination problems can be addressed by the application of more than one modified clay on a site specific basis. This paper briefly describes the active containment system and the structure/chemistry of the modified pillared clay technology, illustrating potential applications of the in-situ treatment process for contaminated site remediation

  7. The design and fabrication of power splitter used in the timescale system of soft X-ray energy dispersive spectrometer in ICF experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Huige; China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang; Bai Lixin; Yu Ruizhen; Yang Cunbang; Su Cunxiao

    2006-01-01

    An improved eight power splitter is designed and fabricated newly, which is crucial in the time-scale system of soft X-ray energy dispersive spectrometer. The spectrometer is used in ICF laser facility to measure the evolution of soft X-ray spectrum, whose duration is only several nanoseconds. The synchronization and high bandwidth of signals produced by power splitter are tested, which shows the power splitter could meet the strict requirements of the experiments. The discussion of further improvement of power splitter are also presented. (authors)

  8. Controlling harmful algae blooms using aluminum-modified clay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Cao, Xihua; Yu, Zhiming; Song, Xiuxian; Qiu, Lixia

    2016-02-15

    The performances of aluminum chloride modified clay (AC-MC), aluminum sulfate modified clay (AS-MC) and polyaluminum chloride modified clay (PAC-MC) in the removal of Aureococcus anophagefferens were compared, and the potential mechanisms were analyzed according to the dispersion medium, suspension pH and clay surface charges. The results showed that AC-MC and AS-MC had better efficiencies in removing A.anophagefferens than PAC-MC. The removal mechanisms of the three modified clays varied. At optimal coagulation conditions, the hydrolysates of AC and AS were mainly monomers, and they transformed into Al(OH)3(am) upon their addition to algae culture, with the primary mechanism being sweep flocculation. The PAC mainly hydrolyzed to the polyaluminum compounds, which remained stable when added to the algae culture, and the flocculation mainly occurred through polyaluminum compounds. The suspension pH significantly influenced the aluminum hydrolysate and affected the flocculation between the modified clay and algae cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Tensile mechanical response of polyethylene – clay nanocomposites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work we report on the microstructural and the mechanical characteristics of high density polyethylene (HDPE-clay nanocomposites, with particular attention to the creep behaviour. The samples were prepared through melt compounding, using two high-density polyethylenes with different melt flow rate (MFR, two different organo-modified clays, and changing the relative amount of a polyethylene grafted with maleic anhydride (PEgMA compatibilizer. The intercalation process is more effective as the matrix melt viscosity decreases (higher MFR, while the clay interlamellar spacing increases as the compatibilizer amount increases. The relative stiffness of the nanocomposites increases with the addition of clay, with a limited enhancement of the relative yield stress. The better intercalation obtained by the addition of the compatibilizer is not accompanied by a concurrent improvement of the tensile mechanical properties. The creep resistance is enhanced by the introduction of clay, with an appreciable dependence on both the polyethylene and the clay type.

  10. Quality of clay-powders of industrial assortment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lityayeva, Z A; Dzetl, B G; Goncharenko, N N; Naurova, I V; Rybchenko, V I; Voyevodin, L I

    1979-01-01

    Nomenclature was developed for the quality indicators of clay powders which took into consideration the foreign experience, and it is suggested that a suspension of clay powders be viewed as the simplest type of drilling. In this case the technique of preparing the suspensions approaches the maximum to that used in the recommended standard (TU-39-043-074). The output of solution is determined with standardized effective viscosity /eta/ ef =/sup 20/ /SUP cP/ on a series domestic rotary viscosimeter VSN-3 with gradient of shear velocity EPSILON=666 sec/sup -1/; with EPSILON=1022 sec /sup -1//eta/ /SUB ef/ = 15 cP. This makes it possible to obtain data comparable to the foreign standards regarding the output of the fluid from the powders. According to the suggested technique, the clay powder is dispersed for 20-30 minutes in water or saturated solution of NaC1 in a mixing unit ''Voronezh2'' with rotation frequency of 9000 rpm, is left to rest and is again dispersed for 15 minutes. Then the dynamic shear stress (P /SUB k2/ ), plastic viscosity (/eta/ /SUB ef/ ), coefficients of coagulation (K /SUB c/ ) and thyxotropic (K /SUB T/ ) structure-formation are defined. Measurements are made on the instrument FLR-1 of water output with 0.7 (B) or 0.1 (B) MPa. According to this technique, a comparison was made of the domestic powders of industrial assortment with the powder ''Aquagel'' widely used abroad. It was established that only the modified concrete powders with correct selection of reagents can compete with the foreign.

  11. Heteroaggregation of titanium dioxide nanoparticles with natural clay colloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labille, Jérôme; Harns, Carrie; Bottero, Jean-Yves; Brant, Jonathan

    2015-06-02

    To better understand and predict the fate of engineered nanoparticles in the water column, we assessed the heteroaggregation of TiO2 nanoparticles with a smectite clay as analogues for natural colloids. Heteroaggregation was evaluated as a function of water salinity (10(-3) and 10(-1) M NaCl), pH (5 and 8), and selected nanoparticle concentration (0-4 mg/L). Time-resolved laser diffraction was used, coupled to an aggregation model, to identify the key mechanisms and variables that drive the heteroaggregation of the nanoparticles with colloids. Our data show that, at a relevant concentration, nanoparticle behavior is mainly driven by heteroaggregation with colloids, while homoaggregation remains negligible. The affinity of TiO2 nanoparticles for clay is driven by electrostatic interactions. Opposite surface charges and/or high ionic strength favored the formation of primary heteroaggregates via the attachment of nanoparticles to the clay. The initial shape and dispersion state of the clay as well as the nanoparticle/clay concentration ratio also affected the nature of the heteroaggregation mechanism. With dispersed clay platelets (10(-3) M NaCl), secondary heteroaggregation driven by bridging nanoparticles occurred at a nanoparticle/clay number ratio of greater than 0.5. In 10(-1) M NaCl, the clay was preaggregated into larger and more spherical units. This favored secondary heteroaggregation at lower nanoparticle concentration that correlated to the nanoparticle/clay surface area ratio. In this latter case, a nanoparticle to clay sticking efficiency could be determined.

  12. Influence of chemical treatment of clay to obtain polypropylene nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa, Jeferson L.S.; Marques, Maria F.V.

    2009-01-01

    Commercial clay was chemically treated to prepare a Ziegler-Natta catalyst containing MgCl 2 and clay for the synthesis of polypropylene nanocomposites by in situ polymerization. The performance of this catalyst and materials obtained in propylene polymerization was compared with a reference catalyst (without clay) and with another, whose composition presents the same clay but without prior chemical treatment. Techniques like differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and melt flow index (MFI) measurements were performed. There was a marked reduction in catalytic activity of clay catalysts in comparison with the reference one, and a slight reduction in melting temperature of the polymers produced from first ones. The melt flow index of polymers obtained with treated clay were notably higher than those synthesized with the untreated clay, so the treated clay caused treated the production of PP's with lower molar mass. The clays showed an increase of spacing and irregular stacking of the lamellas, especially if chemically treated. (author)

  13. Use of clay-free polymer saline drilling muds. Primeneniye bezglinistykh polimerosolevykh burovykh rastvorov

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krysin, N I; Ishmukhametova, A M; Krysina, T I; Mavlyutov, M R

    1982-01-01

    A brief analysis is made of the geological and technical and technological conditions for drilling and stripping productive beds in the Perm Prikamye. Domestic and foreign experience in the area of studies covering the effect of properties of the drilling muds on the indicators of operation of bits and preservation of stability of the well shaft walls, as well as for development of formulas for clay-free drilling muds is generalized. Results are presented of studies on viscosity and filtering properties of drilling muds, development of clay-free drilling muds based on potassium containing wastes and bed waters.

  14. Performance of Mn 2+ -modified bentonite clay for the removal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alow-cost adsorbent produced from Mn2+-modified bentonite clay was evaluated for groundwater defluoridation. Batch experiments were used to evaluate the effect of contact time at various adsorbent dosages, adsorption isotherms and the effect of pH on fluoride removal. The results showed that the optimum F– uptake ...

  15. Assessment of structural stability of a degraded sandy clay loam soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of bare, two legumes and four grasses cover treatments on the structural stability of a sandy clay loam Ultisol were studied within a two year period. The experiment was of a randomised complete block design with seven treatments. The legume treatments were Centrosema pubescens (Ce) and Pueraria ...

  16. Speciation of plutonium during sorption and diffusion in Opalinus clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, Ugras

    2013-01-01

    The presented work was carried out in the framework of the BMWi-project ''Interaction and migration of actinides in natural clay rocks taking into account humic substances and clay organic matter - Interactions of neptunium and plutonium with natural clay rocks''. For the long-term safety assessments of nuclear repositories, the possible migration of the radiotoxic wastes into the environment must be considered. Due to its long half-life (T 1/2 = 24000 y) 239 Pu has a significant contribution to the radiotoxicity of spent nuclear fuel in a repository after long periods of storage. The redox-sensitive plutonium has a very complicated chemical behavior. In aqueous solution under environmental relevant conditions Pu can exist in oxidation states +III to +VI and it can exist in up to four oxidation states simultaneously in a solution. Clays are considered as a possible host rock formation for of high-level radioactive waste disposal. Therefore, detailed information on the mobilization and immobilization of plutonium through / into the groundwater from a repository are of special interest. In this work new insights into the interaction between Pu and natural Opalinus clay (OPA, Mont Terri, Switzerland) are obtained with regard to the disposal of heat-generating radioactive waste in a deep geological repository.rnThe focus of this work was on the determination of the speciation of Pu on the mineral surface after sorption and diffusion process by different synchrotron based techniques (μ-XRF, μ-XANES/-EXAFS, μ-XRD, and EXAFS/XANES). The interaction between Pu and OPA was studied in batch sorption and diffusion experiments in dependence of various experimental parameters (e.g. pH, Pu oxidation state). Sorption experiments showed that some experimental parameters (e.g. temperature, humic acid) have a significant impact on the sorption of Pu on OPA. Speciation studies were performed as a function of various chemical parameters on powder samples form batch experiments as

  17. Rapid pyrolysis of Serbian soft brown coals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jankes Goran

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Soft brown coals of the open coal fields of Kolubara and Kostolac are the main domestic energy sources of Serbia. This paper presents the results of investigations on rapid devolatilization of these two coals which have covered kinetics of devolatilization (based on total volatile yield, forms of sulphur and petrographic analysis of coal and char. Experiments of devolatilization were performed in inert gas (N2 at atmospheric pressure and in batch-type hot-wire screen reactor. The mass-loss values of both coals at selected final reaction temperatures (300-900°C and retention times (3-28 s were obtained. Anthony and Howard's kinetic model was applied over two temperature ranges (300-500 and 700-900°C. The types of sulphur as monosulphide, sulphate, pyritic, and organic sulphur were determined for chars and original coals. Strong transformation of pyrite was evident even at low temperatures (300°C. Devolatilization of all types of sulphur has started over 600 and at 900°C the content of sulphur in char remained only 66% of total sulphur in original coal. Microscopic investigations were carried out on samples prepared for reflected light measurements. The petrographic analysis included: the ratio of unchanged and changed coal, maceral types, the share of cenosferes, isotropic mixed carbonized grains, mixed grains, small fragments, clay, and pyrite. The change of the structure of devolatilized coal was also observed.

  18. Practical experience with own monitoring of clay sealings on dumps for brown coal-fired power station residues. Erfahrungen mit der Eigenueberwachung an Tonabdichtungen der Deponien fuer Braunkohlenkraftwerksrueckstaende

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winter, K

    1989-07-01

    In order to dispose of power station residues Rheinbraun erects dumps which are encased by a clay sealing. For the Fortuna dump 10 hectares sealing area, with a permeability that is lower than the required limit value of k = 5x10{sup -10} m/s, have so far been constructed. The quality of the sealing is monitored and ensured by graded checking. The practical experience gained so far with own monitoring (selection of material, supervision of construction site and own checking) on the finished clay sealings is discussed in the present paper. The system of testing the sealings has proved very satisfactory. The results of the tests carried out in the course of own monitoring show that processing work in the laboratory can be reduced by systematic selection of material and intensive expert supervision of the construction site. (orig.).

  19. Sorption-desorption of imidacloprid onto a lacustrine Egyptian soil and its clay and humic acid fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandil, Mahrous M; El-Aswad, Ahmed F; Koskinen, William C

    2015-01-01

    Sorption-desorption of the insecticide imidacloprid 1-[(6-chloro-3-pyridinyl)-methyl]-N-nitro-2-imidazolidinimine onto a lacustrine sandy clay loam Egyptian soil and its clay and humic acid (HA) fractions was investigated in 24-h batch equilibrium experiments. Imidacloprid (IMDA) sorption-desorption isotherms onto the three sorbents were found to belong to a non-linear L-type and were best described by the Freundlich model. The value of the IMDA adsorption distribution coefficient, Kd(ads), varied according to its initial concentration and was ranged 40-84 for HA, 14-58 for clay and 1.85-4.15 for bulk soil. Freundlich sorption coefficient, Kf(ads), values were 63.0, 39.7 and 4.0 for HA, clay and bulk soil, respectively. The normalized soil Koc value for imidacloprid sorption was ∼800 indicating its slight mobility in soils. Nonlinear sorption isotherms were indicated by 1/n(ads) values imidacloprid sorption process with all tested sorbents. Gibbs free energy (ΔG) values indicated a spontaneous and physicosorption process for IMDA and a more favorable sorption to HA than clay and soil. In conclusion, although the humic acid fraction showed the highest capacity and affinity for imidacloprid sorption, the clay fraction contributed to approximately 95% of soil-sorbed insecticide. Clay and humic acid fractions were found to be the major two factors controlling IMDA sorption in soils. The slight mobility of IMDA in soils and the hysteresis phenomenon associated with the irreversibility of its sorption onto, mainly, clay and organic matter of soils make its leachability unlikely to occur.

  20. Zeolites and clays behavior in presence of radioactive solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrera Garcia, L.M.

    1991-01-01

    Natural aluminosilicates have found application as selective ion exchangers for radioactive cations, present in liquid wastes arising from nuclear facilities. Among severals cations and complex mixtures of them, Co is a common constituent of liquid radioactive wastes. Two types of zeolites (Y zeolite, and natural mexican erionite), and two types of clays (natural bentonite, and Al-expanded bentonite (Al-B) were used. Previous to the experiments, the zeolites and the natural bentonite were stabilized to their respective Na + form using 5N NaCl solution. 2Na + → 60 Co 2+ ion exchange kinetics in zeolites and clays was followed by gamma spectrometry using a NaCl-Co(NO 3 ) 2 isonormal solution (0.1N) labeled with 60 Co-Co(NO 3 ) 2 (100 μ Ci). Before and after experiments, the structural changes in the cristallinity of aluminosilicates were determined by X-ray diffraction. XRD analyzes show that the cristallinity of the aluminosilicates was not affected by ion exchange. After Co exchange the cell parameters were determined in all samples. The efficiency of zeolites, natual clays and expanded clays to remove cobalt ions from solutions depends on the ion echange capacity of the material. Results for long contacts time, 18 days, show that Co is more effectively removed by Y zeolite ( 4.07 wt %), followed by erionite (3.09 wt %), then bentonite ( 2.36 wt %) and finally expanded bentonite ( 0.70 wt %). In Y zeolite an unusual fast soportion uptake of 4.51 % wt Co was observed followed by a desorption process to 4.07 %. This effect is due to the different hydration degree of zeolites during the contact time between the zeolite and the 60 Co solution. In erionite the exchange is lower than in Y-zeolite, frist because the Si/Al ratio is higher for erionite than for Y-zeolite and second because K ions in erionite cannot be exchanged during the stabilization of erionite in 5N NaCl solution. The low exchange in expanded bentonite was expected because its cation exchange

  1. A Biogeotechnical approach to Stabilize Soft Marine Soil with a Microbial Organic Material called Biopolymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, I.; Cho, G. C.; Kwon, Y. M.; Im, J.

    2017-12-01

    The importance and demands of offshore and coastal area development are increasing due to shortage of usable land and to have access to valuable marine resources. However, most coastal soils are soft sediments, mainly composed with fines (silt and clay) and having high water and organic contents, which induce complicated mechanical- and geochemical- behaviors and even be insufficient in Geotechnical engineering aspects. At least, soil stabilization procedures are required for those soft sediments, regardless of the purpose of usage on the site. One of the most common soft soil stabilization method is using ordinary cement as a soil strengthening binder. However, the use of cement in marine environments is reported to occur environmental concerns such as pH increase and accompanying marine ecosystem disturbance. Therefore, a new environmentally-friendly treatment material for coastal and offshore soils. In this study, a biopolymer material produced by microbes is introduced to enhance the physical behavior of a soft tidal flat sediment by considering the biopolymer rheology, soil mineralogy, and chemical properties of marine water. Biopolymer material used in this study forms inter-particle bonds between particles which is promoted through cation-bridges where the cations are provided from marine water. Moreover, biopolymer treatment renders unique stress-strain relationship of soft soils. The mechanical stiffness (M) instantly increase with the presence of biopolymer, while time-dependent settlement behavior (consolidation) shows a big delay due to the viscous biopolymer hydrogels in pore spaces.

  2. Studies on Tagged Clay Migration Due to Water Movement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scharpenseel, H. W. [Institut fuer Bodenkunde der Universitaet Bonn, Federal Republic of Germany (Germany); Kerpen, W. [Arbeitsgruppe, Institut fuer Landwirtschaft der KFA Juelich, Bonn, Federal Republic of Germany (Germany)

    1967-11-15

    {sup 55}Fe-tagged clay minerals, produced by hydrothermal synthesis, serve to clarify the question whether clay migration or clay formation in situ is the predominating mechanism in the B{sub t}-development of Parabraunerde (sol brun lessive, grey brown podsolic, hapludalf, dernopodsol). They further indicate the possibilities of clay transportation caused by water percolation. Suitable experimental approaches, such as thin-layer chromatography and autoradiography, translocation tests in columns filled with monotypical textural fractions or with undisturbed soil profiles, and synchronous hydrothermal treatment of {sup 55}Fe-con raining material from different horizons of Parabraunerde, to reveal the specific readiness of the different profile zones for {sup 55}Fe-clay production, are described. The possibilities of clay percolation are discussed. (author)

  3. Geological Investigations on Boulder-Clay of E. Groningen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijzel, van P.; Overweel, C.J.; Veenstra, H.J.

    1959-01-01

    In this article the results of a study on boulder-clay in the neighbourhood of Winschoten (N.E. Netherlands) are communicated (Chapter I). The underlying sediments of the boulder-clay in this area consist of fine preglacial sands and black clay. In the nuclei of the many drumlins a strongly

  4. Nanoporous polymer--clay hybrid membranes for gas separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defontaine, Guillaume; Barichard, Anne; Letaief, Sadok; Feng, Chaoyang; Matsuura, Takeshi; Detellier, Christian

    2010-03-15

    Nanohybrid organo-inorgano clay mineral-polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) membranes were prepared by the reaction of pure and/or modified natural clay minerals (Sepiolite and montmorillonite) with PDMS in hexane, followed by evaporation of the solvent at 70 degrees C. The membranes were characterized by means of XRD, SEM, ATD-TG and solid state (29)Si magic angle spinning (MAS) and cross-polarization (CP) CP/MAS NMR. The morphology of the membranes depends on the content loading of clay mineral. For low content, the membrane composition is homogeneous, with well dispersed nanoparticles of clay into the polymer matrix, whereas for higher clay content, the membranes are constituted also of a mixture of well dispersed nanoparticles into the polymer, but in the presence of agglomerations of small clay particles. Quantitative (29)Si MAS NMR demonstrated a strong correlation between the clay content of the membrane and the average length of the PDMS chain, indicating that the nanohybrid material is made of clay particles covalently linked to the PDMS structure. This is particularly the case for Sepiolite with has a high density of Q(2) silanol sites. The separation performances of the prepared membranes were tested for CO(2)/CH(4) and O(2)/N(2) mixtures. The observed separation factors showed an increase of the selectivity in the case of CO(2)/CH(4) in comparison with membranes made from PDMS alone under the same conditions. 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Polyurethane/organo clay nano composite materials via in-situ polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehab, A.; Agag, T; Akelah, A.; Shalaby, N.

    2005-01-01

    Polyurethane/organo clay nano composites have been synthesized via in situ polymerization. The organo clay firstly prepared by intercalation of lyamine or amino lauric acid into montmorillonite-clay (MMT) through ion exchange process. The syntheses of polyurethane/organo clay hybrid films containing different ratio of clay were carried out by swelling the organo clay, into diol and diamine or into different kinds of diols, followed by addition of diisocyanate. The nano composites with dispersed structure of MMT was obtained as evidence by scanning electron microscope and x-ray diffraction. X-ray analysis showed that the d-spacing increased to more than 44A since there is no peaks corresponding to do spacing in organo clay with all the ratios (1, 5, 10, 20%). Also, SEM results confirm the dispersion of nanometer silicate layers in the polyurethane matrix. This indicated that the clay was completely exfoliated and homogeneous dispersion in the polyurethane matrix. Also, it was found that the presence of organo clay leads to improvement the mechanical properties. Since, the tensile strength increased with increasing the organo clay contents to 20% by the ratio 194% in compared to the 1H: with 0% organo clay. Also, the elongation is a decreases with increasing the organo clay contents. The results shown the tensile strength of PU/SMA/ALA-MMT nano composites is high by 6-7 times than the corresponding to PU/Tvr-MMT

  6. Development of polymer nanocomposites with regional bentonite clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, Edcleide M.; Leite, Amanda M.D.; Paz, Rene A. da; Medeiros, Keila M. de; Melo, Tomas J.A.; Barbosa, Josiane D.V.; Barbosa, Renata

    2011-01-01

    nanocomposites with regional bentonite clay were prepared by melt intercalation technique. The clays were studied without modification and modified with four quaternary ammonium salts. It was evidenced by X-ray diffraction that salts were incorporated into the clay structure thus confirming its organophilization. The nanocomposites were evaluated by means of thermal mechanic and flammability tests where presented properties significantly improved their pure polymers. The process of biodegradation of obtained bio nanocomposites was accelerated by the presence of clay. The produced membranes from nanocomposites have potential in the oil-water separation. (author)

  7. Clays causing adhesion with tool surfaces during mechanical tunnel driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spagnoli, G.; Fernández-Steeger, T.; Stanjek, H.; Feinendegen, M.; Post, C.; Azzam, R.

    2009-04-01

    During mechanical excavation with a tunnel boring machine (TBM) it is possible that clays stick to the cutting wheel and to other metal parts. The resulting delays in the progress of construction work, cause great economic damage and often disputes between the public awarding authorities and executing companies. One of the most important factors to reduce successfully the clay adhesion is the use of special polymers and foams. But why does the clay stick to the metal parts? A first step is to recognize which kind of clay mineralogy shows serious adhesion problems. The mechanical properties of clay and clay suspensions are primarily determined by surface chemistry and charge distribution at the interfaces, which in turn affect the arrangement of the clay structure. As we know, clay is a multi-phase material and its behaviour depends on numerous parameters such as: clay mineralogy, clay fraction, silt fraction, sand fraction, water content, water saturation, Atterberg limits, sticky limit, activity, cation exchange capacity, degree of consolidation and stress state. It is therefore likely that adhesion of clay on steel is also affected by these clay parameters. Samples of clay formations, which caused problems during tunnel driving, will be analyzed in laboratory. Mineralogical analyses (diffractometry, etc.) will be carried out to observe which minerals are responsible for adherence problems. To manipulate the physical properties, batch tests will be carried out in order to eliminate or reduce the adhesion on tool surfaces through variation of the zeta potential. Second step is the performance of vane shear tests on clay samples. Different pore fluid (distilled water, pure NaCl solution, ethanol and methanol) will be used to study the variation of the mechanical behaviour of clay depending on the dielectric constant of the fluids. This project is funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) and the DFG (German Research Foundation) in the

  8. Microbiological analysis of the in situ bitumen-nitrate-Opalinus clay interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moors, Hugo; Boven, Patrick; Leys, Natalie; Geissler, Andrea; Selenska-Pobell, Sonja

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Clay formations like the Opalinus Clay are foreseen to serve as the host rock for geological disposal of high and intermediate-level long-lived radioactive waste in several countries, because of their favourable properties to delay the migration of radionuclides over time. However, bituminized intermediate-level long-lived radioactive waste may physico-chemically perturb the clay barrier properties because in time it will leach substantial amounts of nitrate and organic bitumen degradation products (BDP). To study the physico-chemical impact of intermediate-level radioactive waste containing bitumen and nitrate, an in situ experiment in the Opalinus Clay (Saint Ursanne, Switzerland) named the Bitumen-Nitrate- Clay interaction (BN) experiment, is being performed at the Mont Terri Rock Laboratory. The in situ equipment of the BN-experiment consists of three separate packed-off intervals, supplied with a filter screen. Each interval is equipped with its own stainless steel water circulation unit. Such water circulation unit contains water sampling containers, circulation pumps and flow meters. One of the circulation units is equipped with an on-line UV spectrophotometer and pH electrode intervals, allowing a continuous monitoring of nitrate, nitrite concentrations, organic carbon level and pH. In a first series of tests, the microbial and biogeochemical effect of a nitrate and/or acetate perturbation is studied. Acetate is used as it a good representation of BDP. Hereto, nitrate was injected in interval 1 while a mixture of nitrate and acetate is injected in interval 2. As an active microbial community can have a significant impact on the physical and (geo)chemical conditions of the clay surrounding the disposal gallery, microbial analyses were performed on samples taken from the interval solutions before, during and after this first series of tests. Our microbial investigations which included Scanning Electron

  9. Microbiological analysis of the in situ bitumen-nitrate-Opalinus clay interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moors, Hugo; Boven, Patrick; Leys, Natalie [SCK.CEN, Institute for Environment, Health and Safety, Laboratory for Molecular and Cellular Biology, Boeretang 200, B-2400 MOL (Belgium); Geissler, Andrea; Selenska-Pobell, Sonja [Helmholtz Zentrum Dresden Rossendorf, Institute of Radiochemistry, Biogeochemistry, Bautzner Landstr. 400, D-01328 Dresden (Germany)

    2012-10-15

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Clay formations like the Opalinus Clay are foreseen to serve as the host rock for geological disposal of high and intermediate-level long-lived radioactive waste in several countries, because of their favourable properties to delay the migration of radionuclides over time. However, bituminized intermediate-level long-lived radioactive waste may physico-chemically perturb the clay barrier properties because in time it will leach substantial amounts of nitrate and organic bitumen degradation products (BDP). To study the physico-chemical impact of intermediate-level radioactive waste containing bitumen and nitrate, an in situ experiment in the Opalinus Clay (Saint Ursanne, Switzerland) named the Bitumen-Nitrate- Clay interaction (BN) experiment, is being performed at the Mont Terri Rock Laboratory. The in situ equipment of the BN-experiment consists of three separate packed-off intervals, supplied with a filter screen. Each interval is equipped with its own stainless steel water circulation unit. Such water circulation unit contains water sampling containers, circulation pumps and flow meters. One of the circulation units is equipped with an on-line UV spectrophotometer and pH electrode intervals, allowing a continuous monitoring of nitrate, nitrite concentrations, organic carbon level and pH. In a first series of tests, the microbial and biogeochemical effect of a nitrate and/or acetate perturbation is studied. Acetate is used as it a good representation of BDP. Hereto, nitrate was injected in interval 1 while a mixture of nitrate and acetate is injected in interval 2. As an active microbial community can have a significant impact on the physical and (geo)chemical conditions of the clay surrounding the disposal gallery, microbial analyses were performed on samples taken from the interval solutions before, during and after this first series of tests. Our microbial investigations which included Scanning Electron

  10. Thermally modified bentonite clay for copper removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertagnolli, C.; Kleinübing, S.J.; Silva, M.G.C.

    2011-01-01

    Bentonite clay coming from Pernambuco was thermally modified in order to increase its affinity and capacity in the copper removal in porous bed. The application of this procedure is justified by the low cost of clay, their abundance and affinity for various metal ions. Thermally treatment modifies the clay adsorption properties enables its use in porous bed system, with the increase in surface area and mechanical strength. The material was characterized by x-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis and N_2 physisorption. Then tests were carried out for adsorption of copper in various experimental conditions and evaluated the mass transfer zone, useful and total adsorbed removal amounts and total copper removal percentage. The results showed that the clay treated at higher temperature showed higher copper removal. (author)

  11. Performance of Kaolin Clay on the Concrete Pavement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, M. E.; Jaya, R. P.; Shahafuddin, M. N. A.; Yaacob, H.; Ibrahim, M. H. Wan; Nazri, F. M.; Ramli, N. I.; Mohammed, A. A.

    2018-05-01

    This paper investigates the performance of concrete pavement containing kaolin clay with their engineering properties and to determine the optimum kaolin clay content. The concrete used throughout the study was designed as grade 30 MPa strength with constant water to cement ratio of 0.49. The compressive strength, flexural strength and water absorption test was conducted in this research. The concrete mix designed with kaolin clay as cement replacement comprises at 0%, 5%, 10% and 15% by the total weight of cement. The results indicate that the strength of pavement concrete decreases as the percentage of kaolin clay increases. It also shows that the water absorption increases with the percentage of cement replacement. However, 5% kaolin clay is found to be the optimum level to replace cement in a pavement concrete.

  12. Soft error evaluation in SRAM using α sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Chaohui; Chu Jun; Ren Xueming; Xia Chunmei; Yang Xiupei; Zhang Weiwei; Wang Hongquan; Xiao Jiangbo; Li Xiaolin

    2006-01-01

    Soft errors in memories influence directly the reliability of products. To compare the ability of three different memories against soft errors by experiments of alpha particles irradiation, the numbers of soft errors are measured for three different SRAMs and the cross sections of single event upset (SEU) and failures in time (FIT) are calculated. According to the cross sections of SEU, the ability of A166M against soft errors is the best and then B166M, the last B200M. The average FIT of B166M is smaller than that of B200M, and that of A166M is the biggest among them. (authors)

  13. Relationship between premature loss of primary teeth with oral hygiene, consumption of soft drinks, dental care, and previous caries experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Gómez, Sandra Aremy; Villalobos-Rodelo, Juan José; Ávila-Burgos, Leticia; Casanova-Rosado, Juan Fernando; Vallejos-Sánchez, Ana Alicia; Lucas-Rincón, Salvador Eduardo; Patiño-Marín, Nuria; Medina-Solís, Carlo Eduardo

    2016-02-26

    We determine the relationship between premature loss of primary teeth and oral hygiene, consumption of soft drinks, dental care and previous caries experience. This study focused on 833 Mexican schoolchildren aged 6-7. We performed an oral examination to determine caries experience and the simplified oral hygiene index. The dependent variable was the prevalence of at least one missing tooth (or indicated for extraction) of the primary dentition; this variable was coded as 0 = no loss of teeth and 1 = at least one lost primary tooth. The prevalence of at least one missing tooth was 24.7% (n = 206) (95% CI = 21.8-27.7). The variables that were associated with the prevalence of tooth loss (p oral hygiene (OR = 3.24), a lower frequency of brushing (OR = 1.60), an increased consumption of soda (OR = 1.89) and use of dental care (curative: OR = 2.83, preventive: OR = 1.93). This study suggests that the premature loss of teeth in the primary dentition is associated with oral hygiene, consumption of soft drinks, dental care and previous caries experience in Mexican schoolchildren. These data provide relevant information for the design of preventive dentistry programs.

  14. Clay minerals in sandstone uranium deposits: radwaste applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brookins, D.G.

    1990-01-01

    Clay minerals play an important role in the genesis of uranium deposits in sandstones. They incorporate the rate earths (REE), U, Sb, Th, Cs, Rb, Sr, Y, Ba, and even small amounts of chalcophiles. These minerals possess analog elements for many of the radwaste fission products as well as actinides and some actinide daughters. In sandstone uranium deposits, clay minerals are also associated with sulfide minerals, usually pyrite, and organic carbonaceous matter. The primary clay minerals are usually smectites, illites, chlorites and mixed layer varieties. The integrity of these clay minerals is demonstrated by their retention of formational-mineralization ages determined by Rb-Sr geochronologic investigation of the Grants Mineral Belt of the United States. The importance of the clay minerals as analog for parts of the multi-barrier concept in radwaste disposal is their ability to impede water penetration into - and movement of key elements out of uranium rich zones. The clay minerals further sorb and in other ways incorporate into their structures many fission products and actinide analogs from man-made nuclear wastes. 22 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  15. Benchtop Nanoscale Patterning Using Soft Lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meenakshi, Viswanathan; Babayan, Yelizaveta; Odom, Teri W.

    2007-01-01

    This paper outlines several benchtop nanoscale patterning experiments that can be incorporated into undergraduate laboratories or advanced high school chemistry curricula. The experiments, supplemented by an online video lab manual, are based on soft lithographic techniques such as replica molding, micro-molding in capillaries, and micro-contact…

  16. Organic or organometallic template mediated clay synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregar, Kathleen C.; Winans, Randall E.; Botto, Robert E.

    1994-01-01

    A method for incorporating diverse Varieties of intercalants or templates directly during hydrothermal synthesis of clays such as hectorite or montmorillonite-type layer-silicate clays. For a hectorite layer-silicate clay, refluxing a gel of silica sol, magnesium hydroxide sol and lithium fluoride for two days in the presence of an organic or organometallic intercalant or template results in crystalline products containing either (a) organic dye molecules such as ethyl violet and methyl green, (b) dye molecules such as alcian blue that are based on a Cu(II)-phthalocyannine complex, or (c) transition metal complexes such as Ru(II)phenanthroline and Co(III)sepulchrate or (d) water-soluble porphyrins and metalloporphyrins. Montmorillonite-type clays are made by the method taught by U.S. Pat. No. 3,887,454 issued to Hickson, Jun. 13, 1975; however, a variety of intercalants or templates may be introduced. The intercalants or templates should have (i) water-solubility, (ii) positive charge, and (iii) thermal stability under moderately basic (pH 9-10) aqueous reflux conditions or hydrothermal pressurized conditions for the montmorillonite-type clays.

  17. Modification of clay-based waste containment materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adu-Wusu, K.; Whang, J.M.; McDevitt, M.F.

    1997-01-01

    Bentonite clays are used extensively for waste containment barriers to help impede the flow of water in the subsurface because of their low permeability characteristics. However, they do little to prevent diffusion of contaminants, which is the major transport mechanism at low water flows. A more effective way of minimizing contaminant migration in the subsurface is to modify the bentonite clay with highly sorptive materials. Batch sorption studies were conducted to evaluate the sorptive capabilities of organo-clays and humic- and iron-based materials. These materials proved to be effective sorbents for the organic contaminants 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene, nitrobenzene, and aniline in water, humic acid, and methanol solution media. The sorption capacities were several orders of magnitude greater than that of unmodified bentonite clay. Modeling results indicate that with small amounts of these materials used as additives in clay barriers, contaminant flux through walls could be kept very small for 100 years or more. The cost of such levels of additives can be small compared to overall construction costs

  18. Experiment Study on Determination of Surface Area of Finegrained Soils by Mercury Intrusion Porosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, X. Q.; Zhou, C. Y.; Fang, Y. G.; Lin, L. S.

    2017-12-01

    The specific surface area (SSA) has a great influence on the physical and chemical properties of fine-grained soils. Determination of specific surface area is an important content for fine-grained soils micro-meso analysis and characteristic research. In this paper, mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) was adopted to determine the SSA of fine-grained soils including quartz, kaolinite, bentonite and natural Shenzhen soft clay. The test results show that the average values of SSA obtained by MIP are 0.78m2/g, 11.31m2/g, 57.28m2/g and 27.15m2/g respectively for very fine-grained quartz, kaolin, bentonite and natural Shenzhen soft clay, and that it is feasible to apply MIP to obtain the SSA of fine-grained soils through statistical analysis of 97 samples. Through discussion, it is necessary to consider the state of fine-grained soils such as pore ratio when the SSA of fine-grained soils is determined by MIP.

  19. Removal of waterborne microorganisms by filtration using clay-polymer complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Undabeytia, Tomas; Posada, Rosa; Nir, Shlomo; Galindo, Irene; Laiz, Leonila; Saiz-Jimenez, Cesareo; Morillo, Esmeralda

    2014-08-30

    Clay-polymer composites were designed for use in filtration processes for disinfection during the course of water purification. The composites were formed by sorption of polymers based on starch modified with quaternary ammonium ethers onto the negatively charged clay mineral bentonite. The performance of the clay-polymer complexes in removal of bacteria wa