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Sample records for sodium sampling system

  1. System for detecting leaks by liquid sodium sampling in a steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabregue, J.P.

    1983-01-01

    The sodium sampling facility is composed of a tubular collector located in the protection area on the periphery of the tube plate and along which are distributed a number of sampling orifices and a number of channels emerging at one end into the protection space and at the other end into the sodium flow containment [fr

  2. Sodium sampling and impurities determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Docekal, J.; Kovar, C.; Stuchlik, S.

    1980-01-01

    Samples may be obtained from tubes in-built in the sodium facility and further processed or they are taken into crucibles, stored and processed later. Another sampling method is a method involving vacuum distillation of sodium, thus concentrating impurities. Oxygen is determined by malgamation, distillation or vanadium balance methods. Hydrogen is determined by the metal diaphragm extraction, direct extraction or amalgamation methods. Carbon is determined using dry techniques involving burning a sodium sample at 1100 degC or using wet techniques by dissolving the sample with an acid. Trace amounts of metal impurities are determined after dissolving sodium in ethanol. The trace metals are concentrated and sodium excess is removed. (M.S.)

  3. Sorption of radionuclides on sodium sampling vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stamm, H.H.

    1976-01-01

    Determination of radionuclides in KNK primary sodium yielded different results when ceramic crucibles instead of nickel crucibles were used for sodium sampling. It was shown that adsorption of some radionuclides on nickel crucibles was the reason for this effect. Small cylinders and metal coupons were introduced into the KNK primary sodium sampling station for radionuclide deposition studies. These deposition samples, made of different types of stainless steel, nickel, tantalum, titanium, and molybdenum, were exposed to the contaminated, flowing primary coolant for times up to 24 hours. Gamma spectrometric measurements indicated a strong adsorption of 65 Zn on all nickel samples; the activities of 51 Cr, 54 Mn, 60 Co, and at low temperatures (473 0 K) even of /sup 110m/Ag were higher on nickel samples than on any other material exposed to the primary sodium. These results were confirmed for the adsorption of radionuclides on crucibles of various metals. Consequently, stainless steel crucibles will be used for sampling primary sodium in order to determine radionuclides at KNK-II

  4. Determination of chloride and sulphur in sodium by ion chromatography and its application to PFBR sodium samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijayalakshmi, S.; Ushalakshmi, K.

    2011-01-01

    Analytical method using ion chromatography was developed for the determination of chloride and sulphur in sodium. In this method, sodium was dissolved in water and various sulphur species present in the sample was oxidized to sulphate using hydrogen peroxide. Carbon dioxide gas was passed through the solution to convert sodium hydroxide to carbonate solution. The resulting sample solution was analysed using suppressed Ion chromatography employing carbonate eluent. This method was applied to the analysis of sodium samples procured for prototype fast breeder reactor. (author)

  5. [Determination of sodium, magnesium, calcium, lithium and strontium in natural mineral drinking water by microwave plasma torch spectrometer with nebulization sample introduction system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wei; Xiong, Hai-long; Feng, Guo-dong; Yu, Ai-min; Chen, Huan-wen

    2014-06-01

    The microwave plasma torch (MPT) was used as the emission light source. Aqueous samples were introduced with a nebulizer and a desolvation system. A method for the determination of Na, Mg, Ca, Li and Sr in natural mineral drinking water by argon microwave plasma torch spectrometer (ArMPT spectrometer) was established. The effects of microwave power, flow rate of carrier gas and support gas were investigated in detail and these parameters were optimized. Under the optimized condition, the experiments for the determination of Na, Mg, Ca, Li and Sr in 11 kinds of bottled mineral drinking water were carried out by ArMPT spectrometer. The limit-of-detection (LOD) of Na, Mg, Ca, Li and Sr was found to be 4.4, 21, 56, 11 and 84 μg x mL(-1), respectively. Relative standard deviation (n = 6) was in the range of 1.30%-5.45% and standard addition recoveries were in the range of 84.6%-98.5%. MPT spectrometer was simpler, more convenient and of lower cost as compared to ICP unit. MPT spectrometer demonstrated its rapid analysis speed, accuracy, sensitivity and simultaneous multi element analysis ability during the analysis process. The results showed that MPT spectrometer was suitable for metal elements detection for natural mineral drinking water. This approach provides not only one way for resisting the illegal dealings, but also a security for the quality of drinking water. Moreover, the usability of MPT spectrometer in the field of food security; drug safety; clinical diagnostic is promised.

  6. Sodium-NaK engineering handbook. Volume III. Sodium systems, safety, handling, and instrumentation. [LMFBR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foust, O J [ed.

    1978-01-01

    The handbook is intended for use by present and future designers in the Liquid Metals Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) Program and by the engineering and scientific community performing other type investigation and exprimentation requiring high-temperature sodium and NaK technology. The arrangement of subject matter progresses from a technological discussion of sodium and sodium--potassium alloy (NaK) to discussions of varius categories and uses of hardware in sodium and NaK systems. Emphasis is placed on sodium and NaK as heat-transport media. Sufficient detail is included for basic understanding of sodium and NaK technology and of technical aspects of sodium and NaK components and instrument systems. Information presented is considered adequate for use in feasibility studies and conceptual design, sizing components and systems, developing preliminary component and system descriptions, identifying technological limitations and problem areas, and defining basic constraints and parameters.

  7. CHEMICAL ANALYSES OF SODIUM SYSTEMS FINAL REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenhalgh, W. O.; Yunker, W. H.; Scott, F. A.

    1970-06-01

    BNWL-1407 summarizes information gained from the Chemical Analyses of Sodium Systems Program pursued by Battelle- Northwest over the period from July 1967 through June 1969. Tasks included feasibility studies for performing coulometric titration and polarographic determinations of oxygen in sodium, and the development of new separation techniques for sodium impurities and their subsequent analyses. The program was terminated ahead of schedule so firm conclusions were not obtained in all areas of the work. At least 40 coulometric titrations were carried out and special test cells were developed for coulometric application. Data indicated that polarographic measurements are theoretically feasible, but practical application of the method was not verified. An emission spectrographic procedure for trace metal impurities was developed and published. Trace metal analysis by a neutron activation technique was shown to be feasible; key to the success of the activation technique was the application of a new ion exchange resin which provided a sodium separation factor of 10{sup 11}. Preliminary studies on direct scavenging of trace metals produced no conclusive results.

  8. An investigation of sodium iodide solubility in sodium-stainless steel systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagawa, Norihiko; Tashiro, Suguru

    1996-01-01

    Sodium iodide and major constituents of stainless steel in sodium are determined by using the steel capsules to obtain a better understanding on contribution of the constituents to the apparent iodide solubility in sodium. The capsule loaded with 20 g sodium and 0.1 - 0.3 g powder of sodium iodide is heated at its upper part in a furnace and cooled at its bottom on brass plates to establish a large temperature gradient along the capsule tube. After a given period of equilibration, the iodide and constituents are fixed in solidified sodium by quick quenching of the capsules. Sodium samples are taken from the sectioned capsule tube and submitted to sodium dissolution by vaporized water for determination of the iodine and to vacuum distillation for determination of the metal elements. Iron and nickel concentrations are observed to be lower in the samples at higher iodine concentrations. Chromium and manganese concentrations are seen to be insensitive to the iodine concentrations. The observations can be interpreted by a model that sodium oxide combines with metal iodide in sodium to form a complex compound and with consideration that the compound will fall and deposit onto the bottom of the capsule by thermal diffusion. (author)

  9. Research and application of sampling and analysis method of sodium aerosol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Xiaochen; Guo Qingzhou; Wen Ximeng

    1998-01-01

    Method of sampling-analysis for sodium aerosol is researched. The vacuum sampling technology is used in the sampling process, and the analysis method adopted is volumetric analysis and atomic absorption. When the absolute content of sodium is in the rang of 0.1 mg to 1.0 mg, the deviation of results between volumetric analysis and atomic absorption is less than 2%. The method has been applied in a sodium aerosol removal device successfully. The analysis range, accuracy and precision can meet the requirements for researching sodium aerosol

  10. Aerosol sampling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masquelier, Donald A.

    2004-02-10

    A system for sampling air and collecting particulate of a predetermined particle size range. A low pass section has an opening of a preselected size for gathering the air but excluding particles larger than the sample particles. An impactor section is connected to the low pass section and separates the air flow into a bypass air flow that does not contain the sample particles and a product air flow that does contain the sample particles. A wetted-wall cyclone collector, connected to the impactor section, receives the product air flow and traps the sample particles in a liquid.

  11. Structure-rheology relations in sodium caseinate containing systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruis, H.G.M.

    2007-01-01

    The general aim of the work described in this thesis was to investigate structure-rheologyrelations for dairy related products, focusing on model systems containing sodium caseinate. The acid inducedgelationof sodium caseinate, of sodium caseinate

  12. Effects of sodium azide on the abundance of prokaryotes and viruses in marine samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Winter

    Full Text Available Flow cytometry is set to become the standard method for enumerating prokaryotes and viruses in marine samples. However, the samples need to be flash-frozen in liquid nitrogen directly after aldehyde fixation. Because liquid nitrogen may not always be available, we tested the potential of sodium azide as a preservative for prokaryotes and viruses in marine samples as a possible alternative. For that we conducted incubation experiments with untreated and sodium azide treated marine water samples at 4°C and room temperature. The data indicate that sodium azide cannot be used to maintain marine samples used for the enumeration of prokaryotes and viruses.

  13. Sodium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Table salt is a combination of two minerals - sodium and chloride Your body needs some sodium to work properly. It helps with the function ... in your body. Your kidneys control how much sodium is in your body. If you have too ...

  14. CNEN experience on bellows for sodium system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gai, A.; Casalini, P.

    1980-01-01

    In Italy work on the breeder reactors is being carried out in three main areas: The PEC reactor; Construction of the components for the Creys-Malville plant, the testing in support of this, and work on the SPX reactor; Standardized industrial supplies. With regard to the PEC reactor, design work for the system and a part of the components is being conducted mainly in Italy by CNEN and NIRA, with the experimental testing in support being conducted in Italy and abroad. With regard to the Creys-Malville plant and the SPX reactor programs, activities for the supply of the components and testing in support of them are being conducted within a tight framework of agreements between the research organizations and Italian and French industries. Finally, the standardized industrial supplies are developing autonomously, without any major research and development involvement. The differences in methodologies, procedures and organizations involved in the three above mentioned work areas and the relative limitation of activities conducted in the breeder reactor area in Italy have made the carrying out of a systematic, organic program for the use of sodium bellows impossible. In particular, until today no sodium testing program has been carried out on this component in Italy

  15. Specialists' meeting on bellows for sodium systems. Summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-02-01

    The Specialists' Meeting on Bellows for Sodium Systems was sponsored by the IAEA on the recommendation of the International Working Group on Fast Reactors (IWGFR) was attended by participants and observers from France, the Federal Republic of Germany, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom and the IAEA. The purpose of the meeting was to provide forum for exchanging views on application of bellows for FBR use, problems found in service in sodium systems, design and fabrication of bellows for sodium systems and studies necessary for estimation and improvement of reliability of bellows in long term use under the condition of high temperature sodium. The technical parts of the meeting were divided into five major sessions, as follows: Experience of Bellows Applications for Sodium Systems; Design and Analysis; Fabrication; In-Service Inspection and Repair; Research Work

  16. 105-DR Large sodium fire facility soil sampling data evaluation report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adler, J.G.

    1996-01-01

    This report evaluates the soil sampling activities, soil sample analysis, and soil sample data associated with the closure activities at the 105-DR Large Sodium Fire Facility. The evaluation compares these activities to the regulatory requirements for meeting clean closure. The report concludes that there is no soil contamination from the waste treatment activities

  17. Software Configuration Management Plan for the Sodium Removal System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HILL, L.F.

    2000-03-06

    This document establishers the Software Configuration Management Plan (SCMP) for the software associated with the control system of the Sodium Removal System (SRS) located in the Interim Examination and Maintenance (IEM Cell) Facility of the FFTF Flux Test.

  18. Software Configuration Management Plan for the Sodium Removal System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HILL, L.F.

    2000-01-01

    This document establishers the Software Configuration Management Plan (SCMP) for the software associated with the control system of the Sodium Removal System (SRS) located in the Interim Examination and Maintenance (IEM Cell) Facility of the FFTF Flux Test

  19. Sodium Hydroxide and Calcium Hydroxide Hybrid Oxygen Bleaching with System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doelle, K.; Bajrami, B.

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates the replacement of sodium hydroxide in the oxygen bleaching stage using a hybrid system consisting of sodium hydroxide calcium hydroxide. Commercial Kraft pulping was studied using yellow pine Kraft pulp obtained from a company in the US. The impact of sodium hydroxide, calcium hydroxide hybrid system in regard to concentration, reaction time and temperature for Kraft pulp was evaluated. The sodium hydroxide and calcium hydroxide dosage was varied between 0% and 15% based on oven dry fiber content. The bleaching reaction time was varied between 0 and 180 minutes whereas the bleaching temperature ranged between 70 °C and 110 °C. The ability to bleach pulp was measured by determining the Kappa number. Optimum bleaching results for the hybrid system were achieved with 4% sodium hydroxide and 2% calcium hydroxide content. Beyond this, the ability to bleach pulp decreased.

  20. Determination of sodium in biological samples by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parwate, D.V.; Garg, A.N.

    1981-01-01

    Sodium is one of the most essential elements needed for metabolic processes amongst human beings. It is consumed in the form of sodium chloride but it is also present in edible plant leaves. Sodium is mostly analyzed by flame photometric method, a destructive and time consuming technique. Sodium has been determined in some green leave vegetables samples-palak, radish, khatta palak (ambat chuka), chaulai leaves, chauli bean covers and its seeds by instrumental neutron activation analysis. The method involves irradiation of samples with thermal neutrons from 241 Am-Be source and counting 24 Na activity (half life 15 hr) from the reaction 23 Na(n,γ) 24 Na. Activity due to 1.37 MeV photopeak was counted with a NaI(Tl) crystal coupled to gamma ray spectrometer. Green leaves of the vegetables were thoroughly washed, dried at constant temperature and powdered. Bowen's Kale powder was used as standard for measuring sodium abundances. About 2g each of samples and the standard were packed in polythene vials. They were irradiated for 24 hrs, delayed by 1 hr and then counted for 20 mts. It is found that radish leaves are most enriched in sodium (14.0 +-0.45%) amongst four leave samples analyzed. For three different parts of chaulai leaves, bean covers and seeds, sodium contents are 1.38%, 1820 and 1010 ppm. Palak contains 2.84 +-0.29% while khatta palak contains only 4210 +- 830 ppm sodium. All values reported here are for dry weight samples and are means of three replicate measurements with standard deviation. (author)

  1. Development of KALIMER auxiliary sodium and cover gas management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Sang Woon; Hwang, Sung Tae

    1996-11-01

    The objectives of this report are to develop and to describe the auxiliary liquid metal and cover gas management systems of KALIMER. the system includes following system: (1) Auxiliary liquid metal system (2) Inert gas receiving and processing system (3) Impurity monitoring and analysis system. Auxiliary liquid metal and cover gas management system of KALIMER was developed. Functions of each systems and design basis were describes. The auxiliary liquid metal system receives, transfers, and purifies all sodium used in the plant. The system furnishes the required sodium quantity at the pressure, temperature, flow rate, and purity specified by the interfacing system. The intermediated sodium processing subsystem (ISPS) provides continuous purification of IHTS sodium, as well as performs the initial fill operation for both the IHTS and reactor vessel. The primary sodium processing subsystem provides purification (cold trapping) for sodium used in the reactor vessel. The inert gas receiving and processing (IGRP) system provides liquefied and ambient gas storage, delivers inert gases of specified composition and purity at regulated flow rates and pressures to points of usage throughout the KALIMER, and accepts the contaminated gases through its vacuum facilities for storage and transfer to the gas radwaste system. Three gases are used in the KALIMER: helium, argon, and nitrogen. 11 tabs., 12 figs. (Author)

  2. A Mars Sample Return Sample Handling System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, David; Stroker, Carol

    2013-01-01

    We present a sample handling system, a subsystem of the proposed Dragon landed Mars Sample Return (MSR) mission [1], that can return to Earth orbit a significant mass of frozen Mars samples potentially consisting of: rock cores, subsurface drilled rock and ice cuttings, pebble sized rocks, and soil scoops. The sample collection, storage, retrieval and packaging assumptions and concepts in this study are applicable for the NASA's MPPG MSR mission architecture options [2]. Our study assumes a predecessor rover mission collects samples for return to Earth to address questions on: past life, climate change, water history, age dating, understanding Mars interior evolution [3], and, human safety and in-situ resource utilization. Hence the rover will have "integrated priorities for rock sampling" [3] that cover collection of subaqueous or hydrothermal sediments, low-temperature fluidaltered rocks, unaltered igneous rocks, regolith and atmosphere samples. Samples could include: drilled rock cores, alluvial and fluvial deposits, subsurface ice and soils, clays, sulfates, salts including perchlorates, aeolian deposits, and concretions. Thus samples will have a broad range of bulk densities, and require for Earth based analysis where practical: in-situ characterization, management of degradation such as perchlorate deliquescence and volatile release, and contamination management. We propose to adopt a sample container with a set of cups each with a sample from a specific location. We considered two sample cups sizes: (1) a small cup sized for samples matching those submitted to in-situ characterization instruments, and, (2) a larger cup for 100 mm rock cores [4] and pebble sized rocks, thus providing diverse samples and optimizing the MSR sample mass payload fraction for a given payload volume. We minimize sample degradation by keeping them frozen in the MSR payload sample canister using Peltier chip cooling. The cups are sealed by interference fitted heat activated memory

  3. Enhanced osteoconductivity of sodium-substituted hydroxyapatite by system instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang Cho, Jung; Um, Seung-Hoon; Su Yoo, Dong; Chung, Yong-Chae; Hye Chung, Shin; Lee, Jeong-Cheol; Rhee, Sang-Hoon

    2014-07-01

    The effect of substituting sodium for calcium on enhanced osteoconductivity of hydroxyapatite was newly investigated. Sodium-substituted hydroxyapatite was synthesized by reacting calcium hydroxide and phosphoric acid with sodium nitrate followed by sintering. As a control, pure hydroxyapatite was prepared under identical conditions, but without the addition of sodium nitrate. Substitution of calcium with sodium in hydroxyapatite produced the structural vacancies for carbonate ion from phosphate site and hydrogen ion from hydroxide site of hydroxyapatite after sintering. The total system energy of sodium-substituted hydroxyapatite with structural defects calculated by ab initio methods based on quantum mechanics was much higher than that of hydroxyapatite, suggesting that the sodium-substituted hydroxyapatite was energetically less stable compared with hydroxyapatite. Indeed, sodium-substituted hydroxyapatite exhibited higher dissolution behavior of constituent elements of hydroxyapatite in simulated body fluid (SBF) and Tris-buffered deionized water compared with hydroxyapatite, which directly affected low-crystalline hydroxyl-carbonate apatite forming capacity by increasing the degree of apatite supersaturation in SBF. Actually, sodium-substituted hydroxyapatite exhibited markedly improved low-crystalline hydroxyl-carbonate apatite forming capacity in SBF and noticeably higher osteoconductivity 4 weeks after implantation in calvarial defects of New Zealand white rabbits compared with hydroxyapatite. In addition, there were no statistically significant differences between hydroxyapatite and sodium-substituted hydroxyapatite on cytotoxicity as determined by BCA assay. Taken together, these results indicate that sodium-substituted hydroxyapatite with structural defects has promising potential for use as a bone grafting material due to its enhanced osteoconductivity compared with hydroxyapatite. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Sampling system and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, David L.; Lyles, Brad F.; Purcell, Richard G.; Hershey, Ronald Lee

    2013-04-16

    The present disclosure provides an apparatus and method for coupling conduit segments together. A first pump obtains a sample and transmits it through a first conduit to a reservoir accessible by a second pump. The second pump further conducts the sample from the reservoir through a second conduit.

  5. sodium

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Les initiatives de réduction de la consommation de sel qui visent l'ensemble de la population et qui ciblent la teneur en sodium des aliments et sensibilisent les consommateurs sont susceptibles de réduire la consommation de sel dans toutes les couches de la population et d'améliorer la santé cardiovasculaire. Ce projet a ...

  6. Hydrogen generation systems utilizing sodium silicide and sodium silica gel materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Andrew P.; Melack, John M.; Lefenfeld, Michael

    2015-07-14

    Systems, devices, and methods combine reactant materials and aqueous solutions to generate hydrogen. The reactant materials can sodium silicide or sodium silica gel. The hydrogen generation devices are used in fuels cells and other industrial applications. One system combines cooling, pumping, water storage, and other devices to sense and control reactions between reactant materials and aqueous solutions to generate hydrogen. Multiple inlets of varied placement geometries deliver aqueous solution to the reaction. The reactant materials and aqueous solution are churned to control the state of the reaction. The aqueous solution can be recycled and returned to the reaction. One system operates over a range of temperatures and pressures and includes a hydrogen separator, a heat removal mechanism, and state of reaction control devices. The systems, devices, and methods of generating hydrogen provide thermally stable solids, near-instant reaction with the aqueous solutions, and a non-toxic liquid by-product.

  7. DISTRIBUTION OF PERCHLORATE IN SAMPLES OF SODIUM NITRATE (CHILE SALTPETER) FERTILIZER DERIVED FROM NATURAL CALICHE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two lots of sodium nitrate fertilizer derived from Chilean caliche were analyzed to determine the distribution of perchlorate throughout the material. Although our samples represent a limited amount, we found that distribution was essentially homogeneous in any 100-g portion. Whe...

  8. Modeling and Validation of Sodium Plugging for Heat Exchangers in Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferroni, Paolo [Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, Cranberry Township, PA (United States). Global Technology Development; Tatli, Emre [Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, Cranberry Township, PA (United States); Czerniak, Luke [Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, Cranberry Township, PA (United States); Sienicki, James J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Chien, Hual-Te [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Yoichi, Momozaki [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Bakhtiari, Sasan [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-06-29

    The project “Modeling and Validation of Sodium Plugging for Heat Exchangers in Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor Systems” was conducted jointly by Westinghouse Electric Company (Westinghouse) and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), over the period October 1, 2013- March 31, 2016. The project’s motivation was the need to provide designers of Sodium Fast Reactors (SFRs) with a validated, state-of-the-art computational tool for the prediction of sodium oxide (Na2O) deposition in small-diameter sodium heat exchanger (HX) channels, such as those in the diffusion bonded HXs proposed for SFRs coupled with a supercritical CO2 (sCO2) Brayton cycle power conversion system. In SFRs, Na2O deposition can potentially occur following accidental air ingress in the intermediate heat transport system (IHTS) sodium and simultaneous failure of the IHTS sodium cold trap. In this scenario, oxygen can travel through the IHTS loop and reach the coldest regions, represented by the cold end of the sodium channels of the HXs, where Na2O precipitation may initiate and continue. In addition to deteriorating HX heat transfer and pressure drop performance, Na2O deposition can lead to channel plugging especially when the size of the sodium channels is small, which is the case for diffusion bonded HXs whose sodium channel hydraulic diameter is generally below 5 mm. Sodium oxide melts at a high temperature well above the sodium melting temperature such that removal of a solid plug such as through dissolution by pure sodium could take a lengthy time. The Sodium Plugging Phenomena Loop (SPPL) was developed at ANL, prior to this project, for investigating Na2O deposition phenomena within sodium channels that are prototypical of the diffusion bonded HX channels envisioned for SFR-sCO2 systems. In this project, a Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) model capable of simulating the thermal-hydraulics of the SPPL test

  9. Carbon and nitrogen transport in sodium systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schrock, S.L.; Shiels, S.A.; Bagnall, C.

    1976-01-01

    Materials for the liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactor will be exposed to high temperature sodium for time periods up to 30 years. One consequence of this exposure will be changes in the interstitial element concentrations of the alloys and concomitant alterations in their mechanical behavior characteristics. Several ongoing technology programs have as their objective a quantitative definition of the rate and extent of this interstitial movement. The paper summarizes the status of these programs and reports in detail on the results of a recently completed, USERDA funded program at the Advanced Reactors Division of Westinghouse. These results, while substantiating earlier reported trends on interstitial movement, indicate the problem is not as severe as initially estimated. Moreover, the present wastage allowance for most reactor components contains sufficient conservatism to compensate for changes in mechanical strength resulting from this change in interstitial concentration

  10. Hydrogen generation systems and methods utilizing sodium silicide and sodium silica gel materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Andrew P.; Melack, John M.; Lefenfeld, Michael

    2015-08-11

    Systems, devices, and methods combine thermally stable reactant materials and aqueous solutions to generate hydrogen and a non-toxic liquid by-product. The reactant materials can sodium silicide or sodium silica gel. The hydrogen generation devices are used in fuels cells and other industrial applications. One system combines cooling, pumping, water storage, and other devices to sense and control reactions between reactant materials and aqueous solutions to generate hydrogen. Springs and other pressurization mechanisms pressurize and deliver an aqueous solution to the reaction. A check valve and other pressure regulation mechanisms regulate the pressure of the aqueous solution delivered to the reactant fuel material in the reactor based upon characteristics of the pressurization mechanisms and can regulate the pressure of the delivered aqueous solution as a steady decay associated with the pressurization force. The pressure regulation mechanism can also prevent hydrogen gas from deflecting the pressure regulation mechanism.

  11. Hydrogen generation systems and methods utilizing sodium silicide and sodium silica gel materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallace, Andrew P.; Melack, John M.; Lefenfeld, Michael

    2017-12-19

    Systems, devices, and methods combine thermally stable reactant materials and aqueous solutions to generate hydrogen and a non-toxic liquid by-product. The reactant materials can sodium silicide or sodium silica gel. The hydrogen generation devices are used in fuels cells and other industrial applications. One system combines cooling, pumping, water storage, and other devices to sense and control reactions between reactant materials and aqueous solutions to generate hydrogen. Springs and other pressurization mechanisms pressurize and deliver an aqueous solution to the reaction. A check valve and other pressure regulation mechanisms regulate the pressure of the aqueous solution delivered to the reactant fuel material in the reactor based upon characteristics of the pressurization mechanisms and can regulate the pressure of the delivered aqueous solution as a steady decay associated with the pressurization force. The pressure regulation mechanism can also prevent hydrogen gas from deflecting the pressure regulation mechanism.

  12. Air-cleaning systems for sodium-fire-aerosol control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilliard, R.K.; Muhlestein, L.D.

    1982-05-01

    A development program has been carried out at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL) with the purpose of developing and proof testing air cleaning components and systems for use under severe sodium fire conditions, including those involving high levels of radioactivity. The air cleaning components tested can be classified as either dry filters or aqueous scrubbers. Test results are presented

  13. PFR experience of bellows operating in sodium systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodgson, D.

    1980-01-01

    Although there was little operating experience with bellows in sodium systems available during the design phase of the UK 250 MWe prototype fast reactor, bellows were extensively utilised to seal valves and to overcome the problems of differential thermal movements in several important applications. However, because of this lack of operational experience in sodium and the non-availability of design codes it was considered prudent not to install bellows in situations where failure could possibly initiate events of unpredictable proportions, or in positions where replacement following failure would be extremely difficult i.e. involving complete shutdown of the reactor over an extended period (in excess of six months) and/or necessitate removal of large quantities of primary sodium from the reactor vessel. This paper describes some of the bellows units installed in the PFR and the performance achieved during six years of reactor operation

  14. Estimation of 24-hour urinary sodium excretion using spot urine samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Moo-Yong; Kim, Ji-Hyun; Shin, Sung-Joon; Gu, Namyi; Nah, Deuk-Young; Hong, Kyung-Soon; Cho, Eun-Joo; Sung, Ki-Chul

    2014-06-20

    The present study evaluated the reliability of equations using spot urine (SU) samples in the estimation of 24-hour urine sodium excretion (24-HUNa). Equations estimating 24-HUNa from SU samples were derived from first-morning SU of 101 participants (52.4 ± 11.1 years, range 24-70 years). Equations developed by us and other investigators were validated with SU samples from a separate group of participants (n = 224, 51.0 ± 10.9 years, range 24-70 years). Linear, quadratic, and cubic equations were derived from first-morning SU samples because these samples had a sodium/creatinine ratio having the highest correlation coefficient for 24-HUNa/creatinine ratio (r = 0.728, p quadratic, and cubic equations developed from our study were not significantly different from measured 24-HUNa, while estimated 24-HUNa by previously developed equations were significantly different from measured 24-HUNa values. The limits of agreement between measured and estimated 24-HUNa by six equations exceeded 100 mmol/24-hour in the Bland-Altman analysis. All equations showed a tendency of under- or over-estimation of 24-HUNa, depending on the level of measured 24-HUNa. Estimation of 24-HUNa from single SU by equations as tested in the present study was found to be inadequate for the estimation of an individual's 24-HUNa.

  15. Versatile UHV sample transfer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clausing, R.E.; Heatherly, L.; Emerson, L.C.

    1978-01-01

    A vacuum transfer system has been developed that allows samples to be inserted from air into an Auger analyzer. Following an initial analysis they may then be moved to and from a separate vacuum chamber for other studies. The system is constructed of standard UHV components and is unlimited with respect to the transfer distance. All-metal sealed valves isolate the various chambers so that the vacuum integrity of each is maintained. The sample size is limited only by the smallest constriction within the components which, in the system described, is 2 cm. The transfer is rapid and is capable of being controlled remotely for use in a hostile environment

  16. Simpler and Faster Spectrophotometric Determination of Diclofenac Sodium in Tablets, Serum and Urine Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Rauf Khaskheli

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This work describes a simple, sensitive, rapid and economical analytical procedure for direct spectrophotometric evaluation of diclofenac sodium (DS using aqueous medium without using a chemical reagent. Parameters like time, temperature, acidic and basic conditions and interference by analgesic drugs were studied for a 5µg ml-1 solution of DS at 276 nm. Under optimized parameters, a linear working range of 0.1–30 g ml-1 with regression coefficient of 0.9998 and lower detection limit of 0.01 g ml-1 was obtained. The method was applied for DS contents in tablets, serum and urine samples.

  17. Analysis of Furaneol in tomato using dynamic headspace sampling with sodium sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttery, R G; Takeoka, G R; Naim, M; Rabinowitch, H; Nam, Y

    2001-09-01

    High-flow dynamic headspace sampling with excess anhydrous sodium sulfate was found to be an effective method of isolating Furaneol from fresh tomatoes. Quantitative analysis was carried out by gas chromatography using maltol as internal standard. Furaneol was found in the highest concentrations (660-1100 ppb) in the summer crop of home-grown tomatoes and in some of the greenhouse hydroponically grown tomatoes, which are ripened on the plant before being transported to the supermarkets. Furaneol was found in the lowest concentrations (38-180 ppb) in the common ethylene-ripened, field-grown, supermarket tomatoes.

  18. Improvement of a sample preparation method assisted by sodium deoxycholate for mass-spectrometry-based shotgun membrane proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yong; Lin, Haiyan; Liu, Zhonghua; Wang, Kunbo; Yan, Yujun

    2014-11-01

    In current shotgun-proteomics-based biological discovery, the identification of membrane proteins is a challenge. This is especially true for integral membrane proteins due to their highly hydrophobic nature and low abundance. Thus, much effort has been directed at sample preparation strategies such as use of detergents, chaotropes, and organic solvents. We previously described a sample preparation method for shotgun membrane proteomics, the sodium deoxycholate assisted method, which cleverly circumvents many of the challenges associated with traditional sample preparation methods. However, the method is associated with significant sample loss due to the slightly weaker extraction/solubilization ability of sodium deoxycholate when it is used at relatively low concentrations such as 1%. Hence, we present an enhanced sodium deoxycholate sample preparation strategy that first uses a high concentration of sodium deoxycholate (5%) to lyse membranes and extract/solubilize hydrophobic membrane proteins, and then dilutes the detergent to 1% for a more efficient digestion. We then applied the improved method to shotgun analysis of proteins from rat liver membrane enriched fraction. Compared with other representative sample preparation strategies including our previous sodium deoxycholate assisted method, the enhanced sodium deoxycholate method exhibited superior sensitivity, coverage, and reliability for the identification of membrane proteins particularly those with high hydrophobicity and/or multiple transmembrane domains. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Development of hydrogen storage systems using sodium alanate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lozano Martinez, Gustavo Adolfo

    2010-12-06

    In this work, hydrogen storage systems based on sodium alanate were studied, modelled and optimised, using both experimental and theoretical approaches. The experimental approach covered investigations of the material from mg scale up to kg scale in demonstration test tanks, while the theoretical approach discussed modelling and simulation of the hydrogen sorption process in a hydride bed. Both approaches demonstrated the strong effect of heat transfer on the sorption behaviour of the hydride bed and led to feasible methods to improve and optimise the volumetric and gravimetric capacities of hydrogen storage systems. The applied approaches aimed at an optimal integration of sodium alanate material in practical hydrogen storage systems. First, it was experimentally shown that the size of the hydride bed influences the hydrogen sorption behaviour of the material. This is explained by the different temperature profiles that are developed inside the hydride bed during the sorptions. In addition, in a self-constructed cell it was possible to follow the hydrogen sorptions and the developed temperature profiles within the bed. Moreover, the effective thermal conductivity of the material was estimated in-situ in this cell, given very good agreement with reported values of ex-situ measurements. It was demonstrated that the effective thermal conductivity of the hydride bed can be enhanced by the addition of expanded graphite. This enhancement promotes lower temperature peaks during the sorptions due to faster heat conduction through the bed, which in addition allows faster heat transfer during sorption. Looking towards simulations and further evaluations, empirical kinetic models for both hydrogen absorption and desorption of doped sodium alanate were developed. Based on the results of the model, the optimal theoretical pressure-temperature conditions for hydrogen sorptions were determined. A new approach is proposed for the mass balance of the reactions when implementing

  20. Technical Information on the Carbonation of the EBR-II Reactor, Summary Report Part 1: Laboratory Experiments and Application to EBR-II Secondary Sodium System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven R. Sherman

    2005-04-01

    Residual sodium is defined as sodium metal that remains behind in pipes, vessels, and tanks after the bulk sodium metal has been melted and drained from such components. The residual sodium has the same chemical properties as bulk sodium, and differs from bulk sodium only in the thickness of the sodium deposit. Typically, sodium is considered residual when the thickness of the deposit is less than 5-6 cm. This residual sodium must be removed or deactivated when a pipe, vessel, system, or entire reactor is permanently taken out of service, in order to make the component or system safer and/or to comply with decommissioning regulations. As an alternative to the established residual sodium deactivation techniques (steam-and-nitrogen, wet vapor nitrogen, etc.), a technique involving the use of moisture and carbon dioxide has been developed. With this technique, sodium metal is converted into sodium bicarbonate by reacting it with humid carbon dioxide. Hydrogen is emitted as a by-product. This technique was first developed in the laboratory by exposing sodium samples to humidified carbon dioxide under controlled conditions, and then demonstrated on a larger scale by treating residual sodium within the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) secondary cooling system, followed by the primary cooling system, respectively. The EBR-II facility is located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) in southeastern Idaho, U.S.A. This report is Part 1 of a two-part report. It is divided into three sections. The first section describes the chemistry of carbon dioxide-water-sodium reactions. The second section covers the laboratory experiments that were conducted in order to develop the residual sodium deactivation process. The third section discusses the application of the deactivation process to the treatment of residual sodium within the EBR-II secondary sodium cooling system. Part 2 of the report, under separate cover, describes the application of the technique to residual sodium

  1. Restraining Sodium Volatilization in the Ferric Bauxite Direct Reduction System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wentao Hu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Direct reduction is an emerging utilization technology of ferric bauxite. However, it requires much more sodium carbonate than ordinary bauxite does. The volatilization is one of the most significant parts of sodium carbonate consumption, as reported in previous studies. Based on the new direct reduction method for utilization of ferric bauxite, this paper has systematically investigated factors including heating temperature, heating time, and sodium carbonate dosage influencing sodium volatilization. For the purpose of reducing sodium volatilization, the Box–Benhken design was employed, and the possibility of separating iron and sodium after direct reduction was also investigated.

  2. Role of the serotoninergic system in the sodium appetite control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís C. Reis

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The present article reviews the role of the serotoninergic system in the regulation of the sodium appetite. Data from the peripheral and icv administration of serotoninergic (5-HTergic agents showed the participation of 5-HT2/3 receptors in the modulation of sodium appetite. These observations were extended with the studies carried out after brain serotonin depletion, lesions of DRN and during blockade of 5-HT2A/2C receptors in lateral parabrachial nucleus (LPBN. Brain serotonin depletion and lesions of DRN increased the sodium appetite response, in basal conditions, after sodium depletion and hypovolemia or after beta-adrenergic stimulation as well. These observations raised the hypothesis that the suppression of ascending pathways from the DRN, possibly, 5-HTergic fibers, modifies the angiotensinergic or sodium sensing mechanisms of the subfornical organ involved in the control of the sodium appetite. 5-HTergic blockade in LPBN induced to similar results, particularly those regarded to the natriorexigenic response evoked by volume depletion or increase of the hypertonic saline ingestion induced by brain angiotensinergic stimulation. In conclusion, many evidences lead to acceptation of an integrated participation resulting of an interaction, between DRN and LPBN, for the sodium appetite control.Este artigo revisa o papel do sistema serotoninérgico no controle do apetite ao sódio. Dados derivados da administração periférica e icv de agentes serotoninérgicos demonstraram a participação de receptores 5-HT2/3 na modulação do apetite ao sódio. Estas observações foram estendidas com os estudos realizados após a depleção cerebral de serotonina, lesões do NDR e durante o bloqueio 5-HT2A/2C no núcleo parabraquial lateral (NPBL. A depleção cerebral de serotonina e as lesões do NDR aumentaram o apetite ao sódio, em condições basais, após depleção de sódio, durante a hipovolemia ou após a estimulação beta-adrenérgica. Estas

  3. Dynamic response of the EBR-II secondary sodium system to postulated leaks of steam and water into sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivas, S.; Chopra, P.S.; Stone, C.C.

    1976-01-01

    The paper presents evaluations of the dynamic response of a steam generator system to postulated leaks of steam and water into sodium. This work is part of a comprehensive fail-safe analysis of the EBR-II steam generator system

  4. Clinch River breeder reactor sodium fire protection system design and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, K.W.; Boasso, C.J.; Kaushal, N.N.

    1984-01-01

    To assure the protection of the public and plant equipment, improbable accidents were hypothesized to form the basis for the design of safety systems. One such accident is the postulated failure of the Intermediate Heat Transfer System (IHTS) piping within the Steam Generator Building (SGB), resulting in a large-scale sodium fire. This paper discusses the design and development of plant features to reduce the consequences of the accident to acceptable levels. Additional design solutions were made to mitigate the sodium spray contribution to the accident scenario. Sodium spill tests demonstrated that large sodium leaks can be safely controlled in a sodium-cooled nuclear power plant

  5. Design of a microemulsion-based drug delivery system for diclofenac sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kkizibash, N.A.; Asif, S.; Nazar, M.F.; Alenizi, D.; Shah, S.S.

    2011-01-01

    A microemulsion-based drug delivery system has been designed for Diclofenac Sodium(DS) comprising Span 60, 1-Propanol, Water, and Lemon Oil. The microemulsion system has been characterized by a pseudo-ternary phase diagram using the water titration method. The properties and structure of this system have been studied by the use of refractive index, electrical conductivity, viscosity and UV-Visible spectroscopy. The conductivity (s) and viscosity (k nu) measurements have provided evidence for percolation behavior with variation in F (weight fraction of aqueous phase). This phase transition corresponds to the structural change from water-in-oil to a bicontinuous microemulsion system. The percolation threshold (FC) obtained from conductivity measurements was in accordance with that obtained by viscosity measurements. Five microemulsion samples were selected and the changes in microstructure after incorporation of the drug, Diclofenac Sodium (DS) were examined by centrifugation, conductivity measurements, viscosity measurements and spectroscopic studies. The conductivity measurements showed that DS-loaded samples have higher conductivity values when compared to non-loaded samples. It was also found that DS is inter facially active. In addition, loading of DS had no negative effect on the stability of the system. (author)

  6. Determination of butyltins in environmental samples using sodium tetraethylborate derivatisation: characterisation and minimisation of interferences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowles, Karl C.; Tiltman, Matt D.; Apte, Simon C.; Hales, Leigh T.; Kalman, John

    2004-05-03

    Interferences affecting the determination of butyltin species by sodium tetraethylborate (STEB) derivatisation followed by purge-trap preconcentration were systematically studied using synthetic solutions, natural water samples and sediment extracts. Substances that did not cause interferences included most common cations (apart from those metal ions listed below), anions, metalloids and polar organic compounds. Natural organic matter (NOM) specifically interfered with tributyltin (TBT) due to a mechanism involving partitioning of the butyltin to the hydrophobic portions of the NOM. The metal ions Ag(I) ({>=}2 {mu}M), Cd(II) ({>=}2 {mu}M), Cu(II) ({>=}0.5 {mu}M) interfered predominantly with the determination of monobutyltin (MBT) due to catalytic degradation of the STEB reagent. Pb(II) ({>=}14 {mu}M) interfered with butyltin determination by an unknown mechanism. Other interferences to the purge-trap method were shown to occur in the presence of chelating agents (e.g. EDTA) or hydrophobic liquids such as diesel fuel. A mixture comprising methanol (MeOH), EDTA and Mn(II) was used to partially mask the effect of interfering NOM and metals. Spike recoveries (mean{+-}S.D. of n=7 different samples) of MBT, dibutyltin (DBT) and TBT in contaminated natural water samples were improved from 70{+-}36,90{+-}11 and 91{+-}24 to 102{+-}10,98{+-}3 and 98{+-}4%, respectively. Spike recoveries (mean{+-}S.D. of n=5 different samples) of MBT, DBT and TBT in aliquots of sediment extracts were improved from 86{+-}17,79{+-}18 and 59{+-}32 to 97{+-}6.2,103{+-}3.6 and 103{+-}5.0%, respectively. The ability to analyse larger aliquots of sediment extracts in the presence of the masking mixture improved the detection limit four-fold if MBT and DBT determination was required and 10-fold if only TBT determination was required.

  7. Evaluation of Equations for Predicting 24-Hour Urinary Sodium Excretion from Casual Urine Samples in Asian Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitton, Clare; Gay, Gibson Ming Wei; Lim, Raymond Boon Tar; Tan, Linda Wei Lin; Lim, Wei-Yen; van Dam, Rob M

    2016-08-01

    The collection of 24-h urine samples for the estimation of sodium intake is burdensome, and the utility of spot urine samples in Southeast Asian populations is unclear. We aimed to assess the validity of prediction equations with the use of spot urine concentrations. A sample of 144 Singapore residents of Chinese, Malay, and Indian ethnicity aged 18-79 y were recruited from the Singapore Health 2 Study conducted in 2014. Participants collected urine for 24 h in multiple small bottles on a single day. To determine the optimal collection time for a spot urine sample, a 1-mL sample was taken from a random bottle collected in the morning, afternoon, and evening. Published equations and a newly derived equation were used to predict 24-h sodium excretion from spot urine samples. The mean ± SD concentration of sodium from the 24-h urine sample was 125 ± 53.4 mmol/d, which is equivalent to 7.2 ± 3.1 g salt. Bland-Altman plots showed good agreement at the group level between estimated and actual 24-h sodium excretion, with biases for the morning period of -3.5 mmol (95% CI: -14.8, 7.8 mmol; new equation) and 1.46 mmol (95% CI: -10.0, 13.0 mmol; Intersalt equation). A larger bias of 25.7 mmol (95% CI: 12.2, 39.3 mmol) was observed for the Tanaka equation in the morning period. The prediction accuracy did not differ significantly for spot urine samples collected at different times of the day or at a random time of day (P = 0.11-0.76). This study suggests that the application of both our own newly derived equation and the Intersalt equation to spot urine concentrations may be useful in predicting group means for 24-h sodium excretion in urban Asian populations. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  8. Fast reactor sodium systems operation experience and 'leak-before-break' criterion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanenko, V.N.; Zybin, V.A.

    1996-01-01

    In the paper sodium leakage detection systems used at fast reactors are described. Requirements on their main characteristics (sensitivity, response lime) are formulated. Results of tests are presented on studying the parameters of sodium leak detection systems including experiments on the measurement of size distribution of aerosol particles that have passed through sodium systems thermal insulation after leak initiation. Comparison of these data with dispersion of particles formed at free burning is carried out. Experience of real leaks that occurred at fast reactor sodium systems is analyzed. It has been shown that initiation and development of real leaks do not always follow the theoretical scheme. A substantial role of human factor for sodium systems reliability relative to sodium leaks is stressed. (author)

  9. Development and demonstration of sodium fire mitigation system in the SAPFIRE facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Himeno, Y.; Miyahara, S.; Morii, T.; Sasaki, K.

    1989-01-01

    Flow pattern of a realistic sodium leak from the sodium piping equipped with jackets and thermal insulator was experimentally investigated. Then, based on this result, the fire mitigation system consisting of an inclined liner, a drain piping, and a smothering tank has been developed. The performance of the system was, in final, validated in the large-scale sodium leak and fire test in the SAPFIRE facility. (author)

  10. Determination of butyltins in environmental samples using sodium tetraethylborate derivatisation: characterisation and minimisation of interferences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowles, Karl C.; Tiltman, Matt D.; Apte, Simon C.; Hales, Leigh T.; Kalman, John

    2004-01-01

    Interferences affecting the determination of butyltin species by sodium tetraethylborate (STEB) derivatisation followed by purge-trap preconcentration were systematically studied using synthetic solutions, natural water samples and sediment extracts. Substances that did not cause interferences included most common cations (apart from those metal ions listed below), anions, metalloids and polar organic compounds. Natural organic matter (NOM) specifically interfered with tributyltin (TBT) due to a mechanism involving partitioning of the butyltin to the hydrophobic portions of the NOM. The metal ions Ag(I) (≥2 μM), Cd(II) (≥2 μM), Cu(II) (≥0.5 μM) interfered predominantly with the determination of monobutyltin (MBT) due to catalytic degradation of the STEB reagent. Pb(II) (≥14 μM) interfered with butyltin determination by an unknown mechanism. Other interferences to the purge-trap method were shown to occur in the presence of chelating agents (e.g. EDTA) or hydrophobic liquids such as diesel fuel. A mixture comprising methanol (MeOH), EDTA and Mn(II) was used to partially mask the effect of interfering NOM and metals. Spike recoveries (mean±S.D. of n=7 different samples) of MBT, dibutyltin (DBT) and TBT in contaminated natural water samples were improved from 70±36,90±11 and 91±24 to 102±10,98±3 and 98±4%, respectively. Spike recoveries (mean±S.D. of n=5 different samples) of MBT, DBT and TBT in aliquots of sediment extracts were improved from 86±17,79±18 and 59±32 to 97±6.2,103±3.6 and 103±5.0%, respectively. The ability to analyse larger aliquots of sediment extracts in the presence of the masking mixture improved the detection limit four-fold if MBT and DBT determination was required and 10-fold if only TBT determination was required

  11. Core sampling system spare parts assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, E.J.

    1995-01-01

    Soon, there will be 4 independent core sampling systems obtaining samples from the underground tanks. It is desirable that these systems be available for sampling during the next 2 years. This assessment was prepared to evaluate the adequacy of the spare parts identified for the core sampling system and to provide recommendations that may remediate overages or inadequacies of spare parts

  12. Robotic system for process sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyches, G.M.

    1985-01-01

    A three-axis cartesian geometry robot for process sampling was developed at the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) and implemented in one of the site radioisotope separations facilities. Use of the robot reduces personnel radiation exposure and contamination potential by routinely handling sample containers under operator control in a low-level radiation area. This robot represents the initial phase of a longer term development program to use robotics for further sample automation. Preliminary design of a second generation robot with additional capabilities is also described. 8 figs

  13. Sodium Variable Conductance Heat Pipe for Radioisotope Stirling Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarau, Calin; Anderson, William G.; Walker, Kara

    2009-01-01

    In a Stirling radioisotope system, heat must continually be removed from the General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules to maintain the modules and surrounding insulation at acceptable temperatures. Normally, the Stirling convertor provides this cooling. If the converter stops in the current system, the insulation is designed to spoil, preventing damage to the GPHS, and also ending the mission. An alkali-metal Variable Conductance Heat Pipe (VCHP) has been designed to allow multiple stops and restarts of the Stirling convertor in an Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG). When the Stirling convertor is turned off, the VCHP will activate when the temperatures rises 30 C above the setpoint temperature. A prototype VCHP with sodium as the working fluid was fabricated and tested in both gravity aided and against gravity conditions for a nominal heater head temperature of 790 C. The results show very good agreement with the predictions and validate the model. The gas front was located at the exit of the reservoir when heater head temperature was 790 C while cooling was ON, simulating an operating Advanced Stirling Converter (ASC). When cooling stopped, the temperature increased by 30 C, allowing the gas front to move past the radiator, which transferred the heat to the case. After resuming the cooling flow, the front returned at the initial location turning OFF the VCHP. The against gravity working conditions showed a colder reservoir and faster transients.

  14. Sodium leak detection system for liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modarres, Dariush

    1991-01-01

    A light source is projected across the gap between the containment vessel and the reactor vessel. The reflected light is then analyzed with an absorption spectrometer. The presence of any sodium vapor along the optical path results in a change of the optical transmissivity of the media. Since the absorption spectrum of sodium is well known, the light source is chosen such that the sensor is responsive only to the presence of sodium molecules. The optical sensor is designed to be small and require a minimum of amount of change to the reactor containment vessel.

  15. Equipment for testing components of system of sodium circuit protection against liquid sodium leaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bar, J.; Urbancik, L.

    1983-01-01

    The equipment consists of a first bin with a closure and heater and of a second bin with a funnel. Both bins are made of molten quartz and consist of a vessel with a neck and nozzle. The input and output of the inert gas lead into the vessel. The closure of the first bin is provided with a thermocouple thermometer. The tested parts are installed above the funnel and on it. The equipment may beused for a large number of tests without using complicated and costly sodium channels. (M.D.)

  16. Conceptual Design of Liquid Sodium Charging and Draining System of STELLA-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Chungho; Nam, Ho-Yun; Kim, Jong-Man; Ko, Yung Joo; Kim, Byeongyeon; Cho, Youngil; Eoh, Jeahyuk; Yoon, Jung; Kim, Hyungmo; Lee, Hyeong-Yeon; Lee, Yong Bum; Jeong, Ji-Young; Kim, Jong-Bum [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    STELLA program consist of two phases. In the first phase of the program, separated effects tests for demonstrating the thermal-hydraulic performances of major components such as a decay heat exchanger (DHX), Natural-draft sodium-to-air heat exchanger (AHX) of the decay heat removal system, and mechanical sodium pump of the primary heat transport system (PHTS) had been successfully performed using STELLA-1 in 2015. Now is the time for us to proceed to the second phase of STELLA program. In the second phase, to demonstrate thermal-hydraulic performances and safety features and to produce base data for the specific design approval for the PGSFR (Prototype Generation IV Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor) which will be constructed by 2028 in Korea, integral effects tests will be carried out using the STELLA-2 test facility which is underway with detailed design and will be constructed in 2018. To establish the maintenance easiness of test facility and to prevent a de-functionalization of elementary sodium component located under the main experimental sodium loops, arrangement area was separated the sodium charging and draining piping area from main system experimental piping area. The operation margin of test facility and the best use of electro-magnetic pumps were established according to employ connecting line between RV charging piping and main experimental system charging piping. To prevent liquid sodium inflow into the piping of gas supply system, the overflow line was employed in sodium expansion tanks of PHDRS and ADHRS, RV, and reservoirs of IHTS.

  17. PERCHLORATE LEVELS IN SAMPLES OF SODIUM NITRATE FERTILIZER DERIVED FROM CHILEAN CALICHE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paleogeochemical deposits in northern Chile are a rich source of naturally occurring sodium nitrate. These caliche ores are mined and processed to isolate NaNO3 (16-0-0) for use in fertilizers. Coincidentally, these very same deposits are a natural soure of perchlorate anion (C...

  18. New small sodium leak detection system. (2) Experiments of moving fluid ionization detector and laser leak detector in fast breeder reactor Monju

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okazaki, Koki; Naito, Susumu; Nakayama, Kunihiko; Ito, Jun; Muto, Keitaro

    2011-01-01

    In fast breeder reactor (FBR), it is important to detect a small sodium leak for safety. As the coolant sodium used in FBR is low pressure, a small leak occurs from a crack before a pipe breaks, therefore it is possible to detect a sodium leak so as to shutdown a reactor before a pipe completely breaks. The sodium leaking from piping of a cooling system reacts with oxygen etc. including with the ambient gas to form aerosols. In the second coolant system of the prototype liquid metal FBR Monju, the ambient air around piping is drawn into radiative ionization detectors (RID). When sodium aerosols are detected by RID, chemical analysis of aerosols and the viewing of the leak point are carried out, then the sodium leak is confirmed. As the signal of RID depends strongly on temperature and RID detects the aerosols which do not include sodium (smoke, mist, volatile materials, etc.), the improvements of RID are demanded for reliability. Moving fluid ionization detectors (MID) and laser leak detectors (LLD) have been developed to improve these points. MID can reduce the dependence for temperature of the signal strength, and LLD can detect sodium atoms which are included in aerosols by means of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy. An experiment was carried out for validating sodium leak detection system with MID and LLD under a real environment installed in the second coolant system of Monju. In the experiment, sodium was not leaked, and ambient air around piping of the secondary coolant system was introduced through actual sampling line and measured by MID and LLD. In addition a sodium level in the ambient air was measured by means of ion chromatography. The experiment showed that the background signals of MID and LLD were stable and low and that the sodium level due to salt particles contained in the ambient air was lower than three orders of magnitude than the sodium level for a small sodium leak. The plant applicability of MID and LLD was validated by this experiment

  19. Water sample-collection and distribution system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, R. R.

    1978-01-01

    Collection and distribution system samples water from six designated stations, filtered if desired, and delivers it to various analytical sensors. System may be controlled by Water Monitoring Data Acquisition System or operated manually.

  20. Design of the US-CRBRP sodium/water reaction pressure relief system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruger, G.B.; Murdock, T.B.; Rodwell, E.; Sane, J.O.

    1976-01-01

    Protection against intermediate sodium system overpressure from the sodium/water reaction associated with large leaks within the CRBRP Steam Generators is provided by the sodium/water reaction pressure relief system (SWRPRS). This system consists of rupture disks connected to the intermediate sodium piping adjacent to the inlet to the superheater and outlet from the evaporator modules. The rupture discs relieve into piping that leads to reaction produce separator tanks, which in turn are vented to a centrifugal separator and flare stack arranged to burn hydrogen gas exhausting into the atmosphere. Analyses have been conducted using the TRANSWRAP Computer Code to predict the system pressures and flow rates during the large leak event. Experimental tests to be conducted in the large leak test rig (LLTR) will be used to confirm the analysis techniques used in the design

  1. Development of a transfer model for design of sodium purification systems for Fast Breeder Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khatcheressian, N.

    2013-01-01

    Operating a Sodium Fast Reactor (SFR) in reliable and safe conditions requires to master the quality of the sodium fluid coolant, regarding oxygen and hydrogen impurities contents. A cold trap is a purification unit in SFR, designed for maintaining oxygen and hydrogen contents within acceptable limits. The purification of these impurities is based on crystallization of sodium hydride on cold walls and sodium oxide or hydride on wire mesh packing. Indeed, as oxygen and hydrogen solubilities are nearly nil at temperatures close to the sodium fusion point, i.e. 97.8 C, on line sodium purification can be performed by crystallization of sodium oxide and hydride from liquid sodium flows. However, the management of cold trap performances is necessary to prevent from unforeseen maintenance operations, which could induce shut-down of the reactor. It is thus essential to understand how a cold trap fills up with impurities crystallization in order to optimize the design of this system and to overcome any problems during nominal operation. The objective is to develop a design and simulation tool for cold traps able to predict the location and the amount of the impurities deposited. Crystallization model involve phenomena coupling in a porous medium with hydrodynamics, heat and mass transfer, distinguishing nucleation and growth phases for each impurity. It enables to understand how thermo hydraulic conditions and growing impurities interact on each other. This analysis will adapt operating and management conditions in order to optimize purification requirements. (author) [fr

  2. Quantitation of yeast total proteins in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis sample buffer for uniform loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheen, Hyukho

    2016-04-01

    Proteins in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) sample buffer are difficult to quantitate due to SDS and reducing agents being in the buffer. Although acetone precipitation has long been used to clean up proteins from detergents and salts, previous studies showed that protein recovery from acetone precipitation varies from 50 to 100% depending on the samples tested. Here, this article shows that acetone precipitates proteins highly efficiently from SDS-PAGE sample buffer and that quantitative recovery is achieved in 5 min at room temperature. Moreover, precipitated proteins are resolubilized with urea/guanidine, rather than with SDS. Thus, the resolubilized samples are readily quantifiable with Bradford reagent without using SDS-compatible assays. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Sodium leak detection system for liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modarres, D.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes a device for detecting sodium leaks from a reactor vessel of a liquid sodium cooled nuclear reactor the reactor vessel being concentrically surrounded by a a containment vessel so as to define an airtight gap containing argon. It comprises: a light source for generating a first light beam, the first light beam having first and second predominant wavelengths, the first wavelength being substantially equal to an absorption line of sodium and the second wavelength being chosen such that it is not absorbed by sodium and argon; an optical multiplexer optically coupled to the light source; optically coupled to the multiplexer, each of the sensors being embedded in the containment vessel of the reactor, each of the sensors projecting the first light beam into the gap and collecting the first light beam after it has reflected off of a surface of the reactor vessel; a beam splitter optically coupled to each of the sensors through the multiplexer, the beam splitter splitting the first light beam into second and third light beams of substantially equal intensities; a first filter dispersed within a path of second light beam for filtering the second wavelength out of the third light beam; first and second detector beams disposed with in the paths of the second and third light beams so as to detect the intensities of the second and third light beams, respectively; and processing means connected to the first and second detector means for calculating the amount of the first wavelength which is absorbed when passing through the argon

  4. Validation study of the Tanaka and Kawasaki equations to estimate the daily sodium excretion by a spot urine sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mill, José Geraldo; Rodrigues, Sérgio Lamêgo; Baldo, Marcelo Perim; Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Szwarcwald, Celia Landmann

    2015-12-01

    To validate Tanaka and Kawasaki's formulas to calculate the salt intake by the sodium/creatinine ratio in spot of urine. Two hundred and seventy two adults (20 - 69 years old; 52.6% women) with 24 h urine collection and two urinary spots collected on the same day (while fasting - spot 1 - or not fasting - spot 2). Anthropometry, blood pressure and fasting blood were measured on the same day. The analysis of agreement between salt consumption measured in the 24 h urine test and urinary spots were determined by the Pearson's correlation (r) and the Bland & Altman method. The mean salt consumption measured by the 24 h sodium excretion was 10.4 ± 5.3 g/day. The correlation between the measured 24 h sodium excretion and the estimation based on spots 1 and 2, respectively, was only moderated according to Tanaka (r = 0.51 and r = 0.55; p salt consumption by Tanaka to increasing salt consumption and conversely, an overestimation of consumption by the Kawasaki formula. The estimation of salt consumption (difference between measured and calculated salt consumption lower than 1 g/day) was adequate only when the consumption was between 9 - 12 g/day (Tanaka) and 12 - 18 g/day (Kawasaki). Spot urine sampling is adequate to estimate salt consumption only among individuals with an actual consumption near the population mean.

  5. 40 CFR 1065.805 - Sampling system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sampling system. 1065.805 Section 1065.805 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Testing With Oxygenated Fuels § 1065.805 Sampling system. (a) Dilute engine...

  6. Manufacturing of Sample Transfer of Rabbit System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasibuan, Djaruddin

    2004-01-01

    The samples transfer of rabbit system, has been built in the Reactor Serba Guna G.A. Siwabessy building. The erection of the samples transfer of rabbit system, doing by started of preparation the Manufacturing procedure refer to Final design of the facility of rabbit system transfer. Manufacturing process and erection doing refer to procedures makes. By providing of the Samples transfer of rabbit system can be concluded that the research activity and users services in P2TRR well meet to be done. (author)

  7. The use of distributed micro processors for sodium pre-heating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, K; Satou, J.; Satou, M.; Okano, H.

    1980-01-01

    This article deals with a hierarchy/distributed control system for the sodium system in a Liquid Cooled Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR). The control system consists of mini-computers, a computerized control panel, and distributed front-end units with micro-computer. In this system, the concentration of the plant operation information and the distribution of the control function are aimed at improving man-machine communication to increase system availability. The preheating control device with a micro-computer dealing with several thousands of temperature control points and the preheating system to maintain piping and components above the sodium melting temperature has been developed and tested at actual sodium test facilities, and the result satisfies system requirements of the prototype LMFBR. (auth)

  8. Development of sodium leak detection technology using laser resonance ionization mass spectrometry. Design and functional test using prototype sodium detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoyama, Takafumi; Ito, Chikara; Harano, Hideki; Okazaki, Koki; Watanabe, Kenichi; Iguchi, Tetsuo

    2009-01-01

    In a sodium-cooled fast reactor, highly sensitive technology is required to detect small amounts of sodium leaking from the cooling system piping or components. The conventional sodium leak detectors have a fundamental difficulty in improving the detection sensitivity for a sodium leak because of the presence of salinity ( 23 NaCl) in the atmosphere around the components and piping of cooling systems. In order to overcome this problem, an innovative technology has been developed to selectively detect the radioactive sodium ( 22 Na) produced by a neutron reaction in the primary cooling system using Laser Resonance Ionization Mass Spectrometry (RIMS). In this method, sodium ions produced with the two processes of (1) atomization of sodium aerosols and (2) resonance ionization of sodium atom, are detected selectively using a time-of-flight mass spectrometer. The 22 Na can be distinguished from the stable isotope ( 23 Na) by mass spectrometry, which is the advantage of RIMS comparing to the other methods. The design and the construction of the prototype system based on fundamental experiments are shown in the paper. The aerodynamic lens was newly introduced, which can transfer aerosols at atmospheric pressure into a vacuum chamber while increasing the aerosol density at the same time. Furthermore, the ionization process was applied by using the external electric field after resonance exciting from the ground level to the Rydberg level in order to increase the ionization efficiency. The preliminary test results using the stable isotope ( 23 Na) showed that prototype system could easily detect sodium aerosol of 100 ppb, equivalent to the sensitivity of the conventional detectors. (author)

  9. Nitrogen gas extinguisher system as a countermeasure against a sodium fire at Monju

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, M.; Ikeda, M.; Kikuchi, H.

    2001-01-01

    Monju is a prototype sodium cooled FBR in Japan and occurred a sodium leakage incident in the secondary heat transport system on Dec. 8, 1995. The cause of the sodium leakage was a thermocouple well tube failure resulting from high cycle fatigue due to flow-induced vibration. The investigative research revealed that this type of flow-induced vibration was not a well-known Von Karman vortex shedding, but a symmetric vortex shedding. In the light of lessons from the sodium leakage incident, Monju will take several improvements in order to enhance the safety and reliability of the plant. A nitrogen gas extinguisher system will be installed at Monju as one of countermeasures against sodium fires. The basic design specifications of the system were determined by some experiments. Three kinds of experiment were conducted with the object of confirming; (1) an oxygen concentration to suppress the sodium fire, (2) a nitrogen gas mixing efficiency to decrease the oxygen concentration, and (3) a nitrogen gas feed rate to prevent air in-leak from the outside to keep the low oxygen atmosphere. This paper reports these tests which were performed to determine the design specification of the system. (authors)

  10. Pneumatic system for transferring radioactive samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, J.A.

    1979-01-01

    A pneumatic sample transfer system has been installed at the Savannah River Laboratory. Radioactive liquid samples are transferred from inside a shielded research cell to a shielded analytical chemistry cell 125 meters away. Samples are drawn into 4-mL glass vials which are sealed in polyethylene capsules. The capsules are propelled by compressed air at high speed through a 1-inch polyethylene tube. Equipment is provided for sealing and opening the polyethylene transfer capsules. The system has operated for 12 months, and 500 samples have been transferred successfully

  11. A Comet Surface Sample Return System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed Phase I investigation will focus on the development of spacecraft systems required to obtain a sample from the nucleus of a comet, hermetically seal the...

  12. A Sample Delivery System for Planetary Missions

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The project will develop, test and characterize the performance of a prototype /sample delivery system (SDS) implemented as an end effector on a robotic arm capable...

  13. Modular microfluidic system for biological sample preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Klint A.; Mariella, Jr., Raymond P.; Bailey, Christopher G.; Ness, Kevin Dean

    2015-09-29

    A reconfigurable modular microfluidic system for preparation of a biological sample including a series of reconfigurable modules for automated sample preparation adapted to selectively include a) a microfluidic acoustic focusing filter module, b) a dielectrophoresis bacteria filter module, c) a dielectrophoresis virus filter module, d) an isotachophoresis nucleic acid filter module, e) a lyses module, and f) an isotachophoresis-based nucleic acid filter.

  14. Sampling systems theory and its application

    CERN Document Server

    Tsypkin, Ya Z; Higinbotham, W

    1964-01-01

    Sampling Systems Theory and its Application, Volume 2 is a two-chapter text that focuses on closed pulse systems.The first chapter highlights the fundamentals of closed pulse systems. This chapter particularly tackles the equations, transfer functions, stability, frequency, characteristics, processes, and synthesis of these systems. The second chapter discusses the automatic temperature, ranging, and frequency control system and non-contact servo-system of closed pulse systems. This chapter also looks into the smoothing and prediction of discrete data in digital computers.This book will prove

  15. Rotary Mode Core Sample System availability improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, W.W.; Bennett, K.L.; Potter, J.D.; Cross, B.T.; Burkes, J.M.; Rogers, A.C.

    1995-01-01

    The Rotary Mode Core Sample System (RMCSS) is used to obtain stratified samples of the waste deposits in single-shell and double-shell waste tanks at the Hanford Site. The samples are used to characterize the waste in support of ongoing and future waste remediation efforts. Four sampling trucks have been developed to obtain these samples. Truck I was the first in operation and is currently being used to obtain samples where the push mode is appropriate (i.e., no rotation of drill). Truck 2 is similar to truck 1, except for added safety features, and is in operation to obtain samples using either a push mode or rotary drill mode. Trucks 3 and 4 are now being fabricated to be essentially identical to truck 2

  16. Sampling system for a boiling reactor NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zabelin, A.I.; Yakovleva, E.D.; Solov'ev, Yu.A.

    1976-01-01

    Investigations and pilot running of the nuclear power plant with a VK-50 boiling reactor reveal the necessity of normalizing the design system of water sampling and of mandatory replacement of the needle-type throttle device by a helical one. A method for designing a helical throttle device has been worked out. The quantitative characteristics of depositions of corrosion products along the line of reactor water sampling are presented. Recommendations are given on the organizaton of the sampling system of a nuclear power plant with BWR type reactors

  17. Comparison of calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, zinc, and creatinine concentration in 24-h and spot urine samples in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilich, Jasminka Z; Blanusa, Maja; Orlić, Zeljka Crncević; Orct, Tatjana; Kostial, Krista

    2009-01-01

    The 24-h urine sample is considered as the most reliable material for testing many but not necessarily all constituents in urine. However, its collection is tedious for both patients and research participants. The aim of this study was to compare concentrations of essential elements calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), sodium (Na), potassium (K), and zinc (Zn) in 24-h and spot urine samples. Urine samples were collected from 143 generally healthy women, aged 30-79 years. Fasting spot urine was collected immediately after the end of the 24-h collection, therefore being of the same content as the first morning urine which ended the 24-h collection. Elements were analyzed by flame atomic absorption/emission spectrometry and expressed as mg/g and/or mmol/mol of creatinine (Cr). Spearman rank order correlations between 24-h and spot urine were carried out for each element. Ratios of elements in 24-h to spot urine samples were calculated to estimate the element-proportion of spot in the 24-h sample. All coefficients of correlation between 24-h and spot urine of measured elements and Cr were significant (purine samples for each element (except K) were similar and close to 2, indicating uniform proportion of elements from spot urine sample in the 24-h sample. In addition, a high correlation between various pairs of elements was obtained in both 24-h and spot urine; the highest being between Na/Ca (0.435) and (0.578), respectively. This is in accordance with theoretical presumptions and previous findings regarding those relationships. Although replacing burdensome 24-h urine collection with spot urine sampling might not provide the solution in all cases, our results show that for the elements analyzed, spot urine could be a reliable alternative.

  18. Sodium polyanethole sulfonate as an inhibitor of activation of complement function in blood culture systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palarasah, Yaseelan; Skjoedt, Mikkel-Ole; Vitved, Lars

    2010-01-01

    Sodium polyanethole sulfonate (SPS; trade name, Liquoid) is a constituent in culture media used to grow bacteria from blood samples from patients suspected of bacteremia. SPS prevents the killing of bacteria by innate cellular and humoral factors. We analyzed the effect of SPS on the three...

  19. Small sodium-to-gas leak behavior in relation to LMFBR leak detection system design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopenfeld, J.; Taylor, G.R.; James, L.A.

    1976-01-01

    Various aspects of sodium-to-gas leaks which must be considered in the design of leak detection systems for LMFBR's are discussed. Attention is focused primarily on small, weeping type leaks. Corrosion rates of steels in fused sodium hydroxide and corrosion damage observed at the site of small leaks lead to the conclusion that the sodium-gas reaction products could attack the primary hot leg piping at rates up to 0.08 mils per hour. Based on theoretical considerations of the corrosion mechanism and on visual observations of pipe topography following small sodium leak tests, it is concluded that pipe damage will be manifested by the formation of small detectable leaks prior to the appearance of larger leaks. The case for uniform pipe corrosion along the pipe circumference or along a vertical section of the pipe is also examined. Using a theoretical model for the gravity flow of sodium and reaction products along the pipe surface and a mass transport controlled corrosion process, it is shown that below sodium leak rates of about 30 g/hr for the primary piping corrosion damage will not extend beyond one radius distance from the leak site. A method of estimating the time delay between the initiation of such leaks and the development of a larger leak due to increased pipe stresses resulting from corrosion is presented

  20. Dietary Sodium Suppresses Digestive Efficiency via the Renin-Angiotensin System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidemann, Benjamin J; Voong, Susan; Morales-Santiago, Fabiola I; Kahn, Michael Z; Ni, Jonathan; Littlejohn, Nicole K; Claflin, Kristin E; Burnett, Colin M L; Pearson, Nicole A; Lutter, Michael L; Grobe, Justin L

    2015-06-11

    Dietary fats and sodium are both palatable and are hypothesized to synergistically contribute to ingestive behavior and thereby obesity. Contrary to this hypothesis, C57BL/6J mice fed a 45% high fat diet exhibited weight gain that was inhibited by increased dietary sodium content. This suppressive effect of dietary sodium upon weight gain was mediated specifically through a reduction in digestive efficiency, with no effects on food intake behavior, physical activity, or resting metabolism. Replacement of circulating angiotensin II levels reversed the effects of high dietary sodium to suppress digestive efficiency. While the AT1 receptor antagonist losartan had no effect in mice fed low sodium, the AT2 receptor antagonist PD-123,319 suppressed digestive efficiency. Correspondingly, genetic deletion of the AT2 receptor in FVB/NCrl mice resulted in suppressed digestive efficiency even on a standard chow diet. Together these data underscore the importance of digestive efficiency in the pathogenesis of obesity, and implicate dietary sodium, the renin-angiotensin system, and the AT2 receptor in the control of digestive efficiency regardless of mouse strain or macronutrient composition of the diet. These findings highlight the need for greater understanding of nutrient absorption control physiology, and prompt more uniform assessment of digestive efficiency in animal studies of energy balance.

  1. Development and application of a validated HPLC method for the analysis of dissolution samples of levothyroxine sodium drug products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, J W; Shah, R B; Bryant, A R; Habib, M J; Khan, M A; Faustino, P J

    2011-02-20

    A rapid, selective, and sensitive gradient HPLC method was developed for the analysis of dissolution samples of levothyroxine sodium tablets. Current USP methodology for levothyroxine (L-T(4)) was not adequate to resolve co-elutants from a variety of levothyroxine drug product formulations. The USP method for analyzing dissolution samples of the drug product has shown significant intra- and inter-day variability. The sources of method variability include chromatographic interferences introduced by the dissolution media and the formulation excipients. In the present work, chromatographic separation of levothyroxine was achieved on an Agilent 1100 Series HPLC with a Waters Nova-pak column (250 mm × 3.9 mm) using a 0.01 M phosphate buffer (pH 3.0)-methanol (55:45, v/v) in a gradient elution mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min and detection UV wavelength of 225 nm. The injection volume was 800 μL and the column temperature was maintained at 28°C. The method was validated according to USP Category I requirements. The validation characteristics included accuracy, precision, specificity, linearity, and analytical range. The standard curve was found to have a linear relationship (r(2)>0.99) over the analytical range of 0.08-0.8 μg/mL. Accuracy ranged from 90 to 110% for low quality control (QC) standards and 95 to 105% for medium and high QC standards. Precision was <2% at all QC levels. The method was found to be accurate, precise, selective, and linear for L-T(4) over the analytical range. The HPLC method was successfully applied to the analysis of dissolution samples of marketed levothyroxine sodium tablets. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Ultrasonic instrument for continuous measurement of liquid levels in sodium systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehmer, L.S.

    1975-01-01

    An ultrasonic level measurement system which provides a continuous digital readout over a range of 3-180 inches, was tested in 500 0 F liquid sodium. The system proved to be accurate and reliable, required no initial warm-up period and experienced no long term drift. Modifications can extend the present operating temperatures to greater than 1200 0 F

  3. The equilibrium hydrogen pressure-temperature diagram for the liquid sodium-hydrogen-oxygen system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knights, C.F.; Whittingham, A.C.

    1982-01-01

    The underlying equilibria in the sodium-hydrogen-oxygen system are presented in the form of a completmentary hydrogen equilibrium pressure-temperature diagram, constructed by using published data and supplemented by experimental measurements of hydrogen equilibrium pressures over condensed phases in the system. Possible applications of the equilibrium pressure-temperature phase diagram limitations regarding its use are outlined

  4. The design and commissioning of cold trap purifying system of hydrogen meter sodium loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Zhaoyi; Jia Baoshan; Chen Xiaoming; Pan Fengguo

    1993-01-01

    The design feature and parameters of cold trap purifying system of hydrogen meter sodium loop and its commissioning results are reported and discussed. In order to adjust the flow easily,. the cold trap purifying system is arranged in the exit of the electromagnetic pump. It is composed of regenerator and the cold trap. The regenerator is above the cold trap. The high temperature sodium in the main-loop flows through the regenerator, in the entrance of the cold trap, its temperature is reduced to 180 degree C. After entering into the cold trap, the sodium flows to the purifying region by side, when it arrives the bottom of the trap, its temperature is reduced to 110 degree C. The cold trap is cooled by air. The temperature of the clean sodium rises nearby the main-loop's by the regenerator, and then it returns to the entrance of the electromagnetic pump. According to the commissioning results, the sodium's temperature of the cold trap could be reduced to 110 degree C by reducing the flow of the cold trap purifying system and the temperature of the main-loop, or increasing the air flow and cutting off the power supply of its heating. The authors think that the latter is more conformable with the design stipulation and with the requirement of the hydrogen meter experiment, and it can meet the requirements of the operation of the Nuclear Power Plant

  5. Sampling system for in vivo ultrasound images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jorgen Arendt; Mathorne, Jan

    1991-01-01

    Newly developed algorithms for processing medical ultrasound images use the high frequency sampled transducer signal. This paper describes demands imposed on a sampling system suitable for acquiring such data and gives details about a prototype constructed. It acquires full clinical images at a s...... at a sampling frequency of 20 MHz with a resolution of 12 bits. The prototype can be used for real time image processing. An example of a clinical in vivo image is shown and various aspects of the data acquisition process are discussed....

  6. Development and application of a validated HPLC method for the analysis of dissolution samples of levothyroxine sodium drug products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, J.W.; Shah, R.B.; Bryant, A.R.; Habib, M.J.; Khan, M.A.; Faustino, P.J.

    2011-01-01

    A rapid, selective, and sensitive gradient HPLC method was developed for the analysis of dissolution samples of levothyroxine sodium tablets. Current USP methodology for levothyroxine (l-T4) was not adequate to resolve co-elutants from a variety of levothyroxine drug product formulations. The USP method for analyzing dissolution samples of the drug product has shown significant intra- and inter-day variability. The sources of method variability include chromatographic interferences introduced by the dissolution media and the formulation excipients. In the present work, chromatographic separation of levothyroxine was achieved on an Agilent 1100 Series HPLC with a Waters Nova-pak column (250mm × 3.9mm) using a 0.01 M phosphate buffer (pH 3.0)–methanol (55:45, v/v) in a gradient elution mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min and detection UV wavelength of 225 nm. The injection volume was 800 µL and the column temperature was maintained at 28 °C. The method was validated according to USP Category I requirements. The validation characteristics included accuracy, precision, specificity, linearity, and analytical range. The standard curve was found to have a linear relationship (r2 > 0.99) over the analytical range of 0.08–0.8 µg/mL. Accuracy ranged from 90 to 110% for low quality control (QC) standards and 95 to 105% for medium and high QC standards. Precision was levothyroxine sodium tablets. PMID:20947276

  7. 5C.07: A METHOD TO ESTIMATE 24-HOUR SODIUM EXCRETION THROUGH SPOT URINE SAMPLES AND ITS APPLICATION VALUE FOR TARGET-ORGAN DAMAGE ASSESSMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H; Zhao, L; Xi, Y; Sun, N

    2015-06-01

    24-h urine sodium excretion is considered the most reliable method to evaluate the salt intakes. However, this method is cumbersome. So we want to develop formulas to estimate 24-h urinary sodium excretion using spot urinary samples in Chinese hypertensive population and explore the application value of this method in salt intake assessment and target organ damage. 1. We enrolled 510 cases of hospitalized patients with hypertension, 2/3 of them were arranged randomly to formula group to develop a new formula and the remainings were used to test the performance of the formula. All participants were instructed to collect a 24-h urine sample, a second morning voiding urine sample (SMU), and a post-meridiem urine sample in the late afternoon or early evening, prior to the evening meal (PMU). All samples were sent to measure sodium and creatinine concentration.2. We compared the differences of office blood pressure, 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure and left ventricular hypertrophy, vascular stiffness and urine protein among groups of different sodium intake. 24hour sodium excretion formulas was obtained using SMU and PMU respectively, which have good cosistency. The difference between the estimated and measured values in sodium excretion is 12.66mmol/day (SMU) and 9.41mmol/day (PM), to be equal to 0.7 g (SMU) and 0.6 g (PM) salt intake. Comparing with Kawasaki and Tanaka method, the new formula shows the lower degree of deviation, and higher accuracy and precision. Blood pressure of high urinary sodium group is higher than that in low urinary sodium group (P < 0.05). Left ventricular hypertrophy and urinary albumin/creatinine aggravated with the salt intake increase, this has eliminated the influence of other factors. All of morphologies of the relationship between ambulatory arterial stiffness index, pulse wave velocity and carotid intima-media thickness with quartiles of sodium intake resembled a J-shaped curve. In Chinese hypertensive population, the

  8. Analysis of carbon transport in the EBR-II and FFTF primary sodium systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snyder, R.B.; Natesan, K.; Kassner, T.F.

    1976-01-01

    An analysis of the carburization-decarburization behavior of austenitic stainless steels in the primary heat-transport systems of the EBR-II and FFTF has been made that is based upon a kinetic model for the diffusion process and the surface area of steel in contact with flowing sodium at various temperatures in the two systems. The analysis was performed for operating conditions that result in sodium outlet temperatures of 474 and 566 0 C in the FFTF and 470 0 C in the EBR-II. If there was no external source of carbon to the system, i.e., other than the carbon initially present in the steel and the sodium, the dynamic-equilibrium carbon concentrations calculated for the FFTF primary sodium were approximately 0.025 and approximately 0.065 ppm for the 474 and 566 0 C outlet temperatures, respectively, and approximately 0.018 ppm for the EBR-II primary system. The analysis indicated that a carbon-source rate of approximately 250 g/y would be required to increase the carbon concentration of the EBR-II sodium to the measured range of approximately 0.16--0.19 ppm. An evaluation of possible carbon sources and the amount of carbonaceous material introduced into the reactor cover gas and sodium suggests that the magnitude of the calculated contamination rate is reasonable. For a 566 0 C outlet temperature, carbonaceous material would have to be introduced into the FFTF primary system at a rate approximately 4--6 times higher than in EBR-II to achieve the same carbon concentration in the sodium in the two systems. Since contamination rates of approximately 1500 g/y are unlikely, high-temperature fuel cladding in the FFTF should exhibit decarburization similar to that observed in laboratory loop systems, in contrast to the minimal compositional changes that result after exposure of Type 316 stainless steel to EBR-II sodium at temperatures between approximately 625 and 650 0 C

  9. Distribution and function of voltage-gated sodium channels in the nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Ou, Shao-Wu; Wang, Yun-Jie

    2017-11-02

    Voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) are the basic ion channels for neuronal excitability, which are crucial for the resting potential and the generation and propagation of action potentials in neurons. To date, at least nine distinct sodium channel isoforms have been detected in the nervous system. Recent studies have identified that voltage-gated sodium channels not only play an essential role in the normal electrophysiological activities of neurons but also have a close relationship with neurological diseases. In this study, the latest research findings regarding the structure, type, distribution, and function of VGSCs in the nervous system and their relationship to neurological diseases, such as epilepsy, neuropathic pain, brain tumors, neural trauma, and multiple sclerosis, are reviewed in detail.

  10. Improvements to the sodium supply system of a nuclear reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevallier, Rene; Marchais, Christian.

    1981-01-01

    This invention concerns an improvement to the sodium supply system of a nuclear reactor core and, in particular, concerns the area included between the outlet of the primary circulation pumps and the core proper. A simplified structure and a lightening of all this linking area between the circulation pumps and the distribution tank under the core is achieved and this results in a very significant reduction in the risks of deterioration and in a definite increase in the reliability of the reactor. The invention is therefore an improvement to the sodium supply system of the nuclear reactor core vessel with incorporated exchangers, in which the cool sodium, after passing through the primary exchangers, is collected in a ring compartment from whence it is taken up by the pumps and moved to at least one pipe reaching a distribution tank located under the reactor core [fr

  11. The system water-sodium oxide-silicon dioxide at 200, 250, and 300°

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Jack J.; Fournier, Robert O.; Morey, G.W.

    1967-01-01

    Studies were made of the H2O-Na2O-SiO2 system at its vapor pressure at 200, 250, and 300??. Three different sodium trisilicate hydrates were encountered in the investigation. At 300??, Na2Si3O7??5H2O is found: at 250??, Na2Si3O7??6H2O; and at 200??, Na2Si3O7??11H2O. The liquid immiscibility previously reported to exist in the system was found to be a quenching phenomenon caused by the decomposition of the hydrates to unstable, supersaturated, viscous liquids. Under conditions where equilibrium is maintained, as temperature is lowered, the hydrates decompose to quartz, sodium disilicate, and liquid. The retrograde solubility of sodium disilicate and its tendency to form supersaturated solutions during heating from 25 to 250?? account for higher solubilities reported by others than were found in this study. The solubility of sodium disilicate in water is 26% at 200??, 9% at 250??, and 5% at 300??. Sodium metasilicate solubility is 38% at 200?? and 34% at 250??; this compound is incongruently soluble at 300??.

  12. Operation of the water-to-sodium leak detection system at the experimental breeder reactor II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osterhout, M.M.

    1978-01-01

    A water-to-sodium leak detection system was installed at the Experimental Breeder Reactor II in April 1975. The system is designed for early detection of steam generator leaks, using hydrogen meters at the sodium outlets of the evaporators and superheaters. The leak detectors operate by measuring the rate of diffusion of hydrogen from the liquid sodium through a nickel membrane into a dynamic vacuum system. The advantages of this detection system are rapid response time, high sensitivity, stability, and reliability. The system was operated on an experimental basis for the first two years. During this period, data were obtained on detector stability, reliability, maintenance needs, computer interface requirements, calibration, and background hydrogen-level fluctuations. A generic defect in the original detectors was also discovered, requiring redesign of the units. When the new units were installed and proven to be reliable, the system was made fully operational. The data from the hydrogen meters are now used as the primary basis for detection of water-to-sodium leaks

  13. The LITA Drill and Sample Delivery System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsen, G.; Yoon, S.; Zacny, K.; Wettergreeng, D.; Cabrol, N. A.

    2013-12-01

    The Life in the Atacama (LITA) project has a goal of demonstrating autonomous roving, sample acquisition, delivery and analysis operations in Atacama, Chile. To enable the sample handling requirement, Honeybee Robotics developed a rover-deployed, rotary-percussive, autonomous drill, called the LITA Drill, capable of penetrating to ~80 cm in various formations, capturing and delivering subsurface samples to a 20 cup carousel. The carousel has a built-in capability to press the samples within each cup, and position target cups underneath instruments for analysis. The drill and sample delivery system had to have mass and power requirements consistent with a flight system. The drill weighs 12 kg and uses less than 100 watt of power to penetrate ~80 cm. The LITA Drill auger has been designed with two distinct stages. The lower part has deep and gently sloping flutes for retaining powdered sample, while the upper section has shallow and steep flutes for preventing borehole collapse and for efficient movement of cuttings and fall back material out of the hole. The drill uses the so called 'bite-sampling' approach that is samples are taken in short, 5-10 cm bites. To take the first bite, the drill is lowered onto the ground and upon drilling of the first bite it is then retracted into an auger tube. The auger with the auger tube are then lifted off the ground and positioned next to the carousel. To deposit the sample, the auger is rotated and retracted above the auger tube. The cuttings retained on the flutes are either gravity fed or are brushed off by a passive side brush into the cup. After the sample from the first bite has been deposited, the drill is lowered back into the same hole to take the next bite. This process is repeated until a target depth is reached. The bite sampling is analogous to peck drilling in the machining process where a bit is periodically retracted to clear chips. If there is some fall back into the hole once the auger has cleared the hole, this

  14. Determination of Sodium Benzoate and Potassium Sorbate in “Doogh” Samples in Post Market Surveillance in Iran 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Akbari-adergani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Sodium benzoate and potassium sorbate are two major chemical preservatives which are used in Doogh (Iranian traditional dairy drink. In this study, a total of 27 commercial brands of highly consumed of Doogh samples were analyzed. The means and standard deviation for concentration of these preservatives based on HPLC results for analysis of benzoate and sorbate were 195·9 (SD 1·8 and 328·8 (SD 2·1 mg.Kg-1 respectively. The minimum and maximum of benzoate content in various brands were 18.3 and 2345.1 mg.Kg-1 and for sorbate were not detected and 4961.3 mg.Kg-1 respectively. The study revealed that there was not significant difference in preservative concentration in the samples that belonged to various dates. However, a few samples had a high preservative concentration, which could be a risk factor for human health, especially when their intake was being occurred by various foodstuffs simultaneously.

  15. Blood Sample Transportation by Pneumatic Transportation Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, Mads; Lund, Merete E; Titlestad, Kjell

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pneumatic transportation systems (PTSs) are increasingly used for transportation of blood samples to the core laboratory. Many studies have investigated the impact of these systems on different types of analyses, but to elucidate whether PTSs in general are safe for transportation...... of blood samples, existing literature on the subject was systematically assessed. METHODS: A systematic literature review was conducted following the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and metaanalyses (PRISMA) Statement guidelines to gather studies investigating the impact of PTS on analyses...... in blood samples. Studies were extracted from PubMed and Embase. The search period ended November 2016. RESULTS: A total of 39 studies were retrieved. Of these, only 12 studies were conducted on inpatients, mainly intensive care unit patients. Blood gases, hematology, and clinical chemistry were well...

  16. Note: A four-pass acousto-optic modulator system for laser cooling of sodium atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Bo; Wang, Dajun

    2017-07-01

    We present a four-pass acousto-optic modulator (AOM) system for providing the repumping light for laser cooling of sodium atoms. With only one 400 MHz AOM, we achieve a tunable laser frequency shift around 1.6 GHz with total efficiency up to 30%. This setup provides an alternative over conventional methods to generate a sodium repumping light using more expensive high frequency AOMs or electro-optical modulators (EOMs) in the GHz domain. This compact and reliable setup can be easily adapted to other frequencies and may find applications in laser spectroscopy, laser cooling and trapping, and coherent manipulation of atomic quantum states.

  17. Removal of copper, nickel and zinc by sodium dodecyl sulphate coated magnetite nanoparticles from water and wastewater samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Adeli

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, sodium dodecyl sulphate-coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles (SDS–Fe3O4 NPs were applied to remove Cu(II, Ni(II and Zn(II ions from water and wastewater samples. The effects of pH of solution, SDS, Fe3O4 NPs and salt addition on removal efficiency of the metal ions were investigated and optimized. Salt addition has a negative effect on the removal efficiency of the metal ions, thus extraction follows the ion exchange mechanism. The results showed that the adsorption process onto the adsorbent is very fast under optimum conditions and nearly 1 min of contact time was found to be sufficient for completion of the metal ions' adsorption. Adsorption equilibrium of the metal ions reveals that data were fitted well to the Langmuir isotherm. Also, the maximum monolayer capacity, qmax, obtained from the Langmuir isotherm was 24.3, 41.2 and 59.2 mg g−1 for Cu(II, Ni(II and Zn(II, respectively. Desorption experiments by elution of the adsorbent with methanol show that the SDS-Fe3O4 NPs could be reconditioned without significant loss of its initial properties even after three adsorption–desorption cycles. Finally, application of the SDS-Fe3O4 NPs as efficient adsorbent material for removal of the metal ions from Iran Khodro's wastewater samples was investigated and satisfactory results were obtained.

  18. Preliminary studies of the dynamic stiffness modules of soil samples from the Solvay Sodium Plant waste landfill in Krakow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilecka, Elżbieta; Zięba, Jakub

    2017-11-01

    The article presents the results of laboratory tests for determining the dynamic modules of the elasticity M and the shear G, for soil samples from the landfill of the closed Solvay Sodium Plant in Krakow. The tests were performed using a triaxial apparatus equipped with "bender" piezoelements. The samples subjected to these tests were taken from two boreholes, located in the area known as the "white seas", whose formation is the result of Solvay Plant activity throughout the 20th century. The location of the test holes was planned at the place in which a road known as the "Łagiewnicka route" was planned. Studies on soil stiffness were also conducted as part of the one of the dissertation from 2008 to 2010 in the Cracow University of Technology. The results of these tests and the results of the laboratory tests that are presented in the article will be used in the designing of a computer model. This model is intended to help in assessing the dynamic impact of motor vehicle traffic on the planned Łagiewnicka route on the structure of the existing buildings located in the former Solvay Plant.

  19. Preliminary studies of the dynamic stiffness modules of soil samples from the Solvay Sodium Plant waste landfill in Krakow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilecka Elżbieta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of laboratory tests for determining the dynamic modules of the elasticity M and the shear G, for soil samples from the landfill of the closed Solvay Sodium Plant in Krakow. The tests were performed using a triaxial apparatus equipped with “bender” piezoelements. The samples subjected to these tests were taken from two boreholes, located in the area known as the “white seas”, whose formation is the result of Solvay Plant activity throughout the 20th century. The location of the test holes was planned at the place in which a road known as the “Łagiewnicka route” was planned. Studies on soil stiffness were also conducted as part of the one of the dissertation from 2008 to 2010 in the Cracow University of Technology. The results of these tests and the results of the laboratory tests that are presented in the article will be used in the designing of a computer model. This model is intended to help in assessing the dynamic impact of motor vehicle traffic on the planned Łagiewnicka route on the structure of the existing buildings located in the former Solvay Plant.

  20. Design evaluation on sodium piping system and comparison of the design codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dong Won; Jeong, Ji Young; Lee, Yong Bum; Lee, Hyeong Yeon

    2015-01-01

    A large-scale sodium test loop of STELLA-1 (Sodium integral effect test loop for safety simulation and assessment) with two main piping systems has been installed at KAERI. In this study, design evaluations on the main sodium piping systems in STELLA-1 have been conducted according to the DBR (design by rule) codes of the ASME B31.1 and RCC-MRx RB-3600. In addition, design evaluations according to the DBA (design by analysis) code of the ASME Section III Subsection NB-3200 have been conducted. The evaluation results for the present piping systems showed that results from the DBR codes were more conservative than those from the DBA code, and among the DBR codes, the non-nuclear code of the ASME B31.1 was more conservative than the French nuclear DBR code of the RCC-MRx RB-3600. The conservatism on the DBR codes of the ASME B31.1 and RCC-MRx RB-3600 was quantified based on the present sodium piping analyses.

  1. Effect of a passive sonic irrigation system on elimination of Enterococcus faecalis from root canal systems of primary teeth, using different concentrations of sodium hypochlorite: An in vitro evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Afshari

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. This in vitro study aimed to compare the antibacterial effect of different concentrations of sodium hypochlorite on elimination of Enterococcus faecalis from root canal systems of primary teeth with or without a passive sonic irrigation system (EndoActivator. Methods. The root canals of 120 extracted single-rooted primary incisors were prepared using the crown-down technique. The teeth were autoclaved and inoculated with E. faecalis. The infected samples were then randomly divided into 6 experimental groups of 15 and positive and negative control groups as follows: group 1: 0.5% sodium hypochlorite solution; group 2: 2.5% sodium hypochlorite solution; group 3: 5% sodium hypochlorite solution; group 4: 0.5% sodium hypochlorite solution + sonic activation; group 5: 2.5% sodium hypochlorite solution + sonic activation; and group 6: 5% sodium hypochlorite solution + sonic activation. Microbiological samples were collected before and after disinfection procedures and the colony-forming units were counted. Statistical analyses were performed using the two-way ANOVA and post hoc Duncan's tests in cases of significant difference. Results. There were no significant differences between the groups in any of the variables (concentration of antiseptic or use of sonic irrigation system. Conclusion. Use of passive sonic irrigation systems in endodontic treatment of single-rooted primary teeth is of no benefit compared to regular needle irrigation. The results of this study also recommends use of lower concentrations of sodium hypochlorite solution (0.5% for irrigation of the root canal system rather than higher concentrations given approximately equal efficacy.

  2. Designing an enhanced groundwater sample collection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schalla, R.

    1994-10-01

    As part of an ongoing technical support mission to achieve excellence and efficiency in environmental restoration activities at the Laboratory for Energy and Health-Related Research (LEHR), Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) provided guidance on the design and construction of monitoring wells and identified the most suitable type of groundwater sampling pump and accessories for monitoring wells. The goal was to utilize a monitoring well design that would allow for hydrologic testing and reduce turbidity to minimize the impact of sampling. The sampling results of the newly designed monitoring wells were clearly superior to those of the previously installed monitoring wells. The new wells exhibited reduced turbidity, in addition to improved access for instrumentation and hydrologic testing. The variable frequency submersible pump was selected as the best choice for obtaining groundwater samples. The literature references are listed at the end of this report. Despite some initial difficulties, the actual performance of the variable frequency, submersible pump and its accessories was effective in reducing sampling time and labor costs, and its ease of use was preferred over the previously used bladder pumps. The surface seals system, called the Dedicator, proved to be useful accessory to prevent surface contamination while providing easy access for water-level measurements and for connecting the pump. Cost savings resulted from the use of the pre-production pumps (beta units) donated by the manufacturer for the demonstration. However, larger savings resulted from shortened field time due to the ease in using the submersible pumps and the surface seal access system. Proper deployment of the monitoring wells also resulted in cost savings and ensured representative samples

  3. 40 CFR 141.41 - Special monitoring for sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special monitoring for sodium. 141.41... and Prohibition on Lead Use § 141.41 Special monitoring for sodium. (a) Suppliers of water for... distribution system for the determination of sodium concentration levels; samples must be collected and...

  4. Characterization of sodium phenytoin co-gelled with titania for a controlled drug-release system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, T.; Quintana, P.; Ortiz-Islas, E.; Vinogradova, E.; Manjarrez, J.; Aguilar, D.H.; Castillo-Ocampo, P.; Magana, C.; Azamar, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    Sodium phenytoin, C 15 H 11 N 2 NaO 2 , in several concentrations was co-gelled with titania (TiO 2 ), by a sol-gel process. This technique is a promising method to encapsulate several drugs, in this case, phenytoin is an anticonvulsant used to control epileptic seizures. Samples were prepared by adding different concentrations (X = 50, 100, 200 and 250 mg per 20 g of titania matrix) of sodium phenytoin (Ph) to a solution of titanium n-butoxide. The resulting titania-Ph-X materials were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transformed infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Brunauer-Emmet-Teller (BET) surface areas. The porous nanomaterials showed a wide range of particle size, from 10 to 210 nm, with a mean pore diameter of 5 nm. X-ray diffraction showed an amorphous structure of the prepared samples

  5. Automated system for fractionation of blood samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, N. E.; Genung, R. K.; Johnson, W. F.; Mrochek, J. E.; Scott, C. D.

    1978-01-01

    A prototype system for preparing multiple fractions of blood components (plasma, washed red cells, and hemolysates) using automated techniques has been developed. The procedure is based on centrifugal separation and differential pressure-induced transfer in a rotor that has been designed to process numerous samples simultaneously. Red cells are sedimented against the outer walls of the sample chamber, and plasma is syphoned, by imposition of eithr a slight positive or negative pressure, into individual reservoirs in a collection ring. Washing of cells is performed in situ; samples of washed cells, either packed or in saline solution, can be recovered. Cellular hemolysates are prepared and automatically transferred to individual, commercially available collection vials ready for storage in liquid nitrogen or immediate analysis. The system has potential application in any biomedical area which requires high sample throughput and in which one or more of the blood fractions will be used. A separate unit has been designed and developed for the semiautomated cleaning of the blood processing vessel.

  6. Mobile Variable Depth Sampling System Design Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BOGER, R.M.

    2000-08-25

    A design study is presented for a mobile, variable depth sampling system (MVDSS) that will support the treatment and immobilization of Hanford LAW and HLW. The sampler can be deployed in a 4-inch tank riser and has a design that is based on requirements identified in the Level 2 Specification (latest revision). The waste feed sequence for the MVDSS is based on Phase 1, Case 3S6 waste feed sequence. Technical information is also presented that supports the design study.

  7. Mobile Variable Depth Sampling System Design Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BOGER, R.M.

    2000-01-01

    A design study is presented for a mobile, variable depth sampling system (MVDSS) that will support the treatment and immobilization of Hanford LAW and HLW. The sampler can be deployed in a 4-inch tank riser and has a design that is based on requirements identified in the Level 2 Specification (latest revision). The waste feed sequence for the MVDSS is based on Phase 1, Case 3S6 waste feed sequence. Technical information is also presented that supports the design study

  8. A Study on Renin-Angiotensin System and Total Exchangeable Sodium in Hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choe, Kang Won; Park, Jung Sik; Lee, Jung Sang; Koh, Chang Soon

    1976-01-01

    The etiologic role of renin-angiotensin system and sodium-volume status in the pathophysiology of various forms of hypertension was investigated. Plasma renin activity (PRA) was measured by radioimmunoassay, while sodium-volume status was evaluated by the determination of total exchangeable sodium(NaE) using isotope dilution method. The subjects consisted of 25 controls, 24 patients with essential hypertension, 22 patients with chronic renal failure (13 with hypertension, 9 without hypertension) and 14 patients with malignant hypertension. The results were as follows: 1) An inverse correlation between NaE and PRA was noted in control subjects (r=-0.598, p 0.1) 3) Absolute value of PRA was not deviated significantly from control group (2.53±1.416 ng/ml/hr) except in malignant hypertension (6.09±2.042, p 0.1). It is suggested that renin-angiotensin system plays a predominant role in the pathogenesis of malignant hypertension and in hypertension of chronic renal failure, though sodium retention is also contributing factor. PRA variation in essential hypertension does not appear to be associated with any consistent change in Na-volume status, suggesting the existence of another mechanism in the genesis of hypertension and PRA variation.

  9. Ion Dynamics Study of Potato Starch + Sodium Salts Electrolyte System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuhina Tiwari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of different anions, namely, SCN−, I−, and ClO4−, on the electrical properties of starch-based polymer electrolytes has been studied. Anion size and conductivity are having an inverse trend indicating systems to be predominantly anionic conductor. Impact of anion size and multiplet forming tendency is reflected in number of charge carriers and mobility, respectively. Ion dynamics study reveals the presence of different mechanisms in different frequency ranges. Interestingly, superlinear power law (SLPL is found to be present at <5 MHz frequency, which is further confirmed by dielectric data.

  10. Design compliance matrix waste sample container filling system for nested, fixed-depth sampling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BOGER, R.M.

    1999-01-01

    This design compliance matrix document provides specific design related functional characteristics, constraints, and requirements for the container filling system that is part of the nested, fixed-depth sampling system. This document addresses performance, external interfaces, ALARA, Authorization Basis, environmental and design code requirements for the container filling system. The container filling system will interface with the waste stream from the fluidic pumping channels of the nested, fixed-depth sampling system and will fill containers with waste that meet the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) criteria for waste that contains volatile and semi-volatile organic materials. The specifications for the nested, fixed-depth sampling system are described in a Level 2 Specification document (HNF-3483, Rev. 1). The basis for this design compliance matrix document is the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) desk instructions for design Compliance matrix documents (PI-CP-008-00, Rev. 0)

  11. Multi-Sensor Aerosol Products Sampling System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrenko, M.; Ichoku, C.; Leptoukh, G.

    2011-01-01

    Global and local properties of atmospheric aerosols have been extensively observed and measured using both spaceborne and ground-based instruments, especially during the last decade. Unique properties retrieved by the different instruments contribute to an unprecedented availability of the most complete set of complimentary aerosol measurements ever acquired. However, some of these measurements remain underutilized, largely due to the complexities involved in analyzing them synergistically. To characterize the inconsistencies and bridge the gap that exists between the sensors, we have established a Multi-sensor Aerosol Products Sampling System (MAPSS), which consistently samples and generates the spatial statistics (mean, standard deviation, direction and rate of spatial variation, and spatial correlation coefficient) of aerosol products from multiple spacebome sensors, including MODIS (on Terra and Aqua), MISR, OMI, POLDER, CALIOP, and SeaWiFS. Samples of satellite aerosol products are extracted over Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) locations as well as over other locations of interest such as those with available ground-based aerosol observations. In this way, MAPSS enables a direct cross-characterization and data integration between Level-2 aerosol observations from multiple sensors. In addition, the available well-characterized co-located ground-based data provides the basis for the integrated validation of these products. This paper explains the sampling methodology and concepts used in MAPSS, and demonstrates specific examples of using MAPSS for an integrated analysis of multiple aerosol products.

  12. French code system for a sodium cooled LMR inter-assembly thermal hydraulic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young-Gyun; Lim, Hyun-Jin; Kim, Young-Il

    2005-03-01

    Sodium cooled LMR core is generally comprised of many ducted assemblies which have no flow exchanges between them. So, the required flow to each assembly corresponding to its power has to be allocated in thermal hydraulic design. Flow allocation facility, which is called orifice, is used for this purpose in an LMR core. In this context, flow grouping, assembly subchannel analysis and inter-assembly flow analysis have to be done in the LMR core thermal hydraulic design and analysis. This report describes this sodium cooled LMR core thermal hydraulic design procedure, in which are flow grouping, subchannel analysis and inter-assembly whole core analysis. And the French whole core analysis code system is described which is used for the domestic whole core thermal hydraulic analysis code system development. Firstly, sodium cooled LMR core thermal hydraulic conceptual design and analysis procedure is explained in chapter 2. Chapter 3 overviews the necessity and methodology of the whole core thermal hydraulic analysis, and the French whole core analysis system is described in chapter 4. Chapter 5 describes the domestic plan of the inter-assembly thermal hydraulic analysis system, and chapter 6 shows the conclusion and the future works

  13. French code system for a sodium cooled LMR inter-assembly thermal hydraulic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young-Gyun; Lim, Hyun-Jin; Kim, Young-Il

    2005-03-01

    Sodium cooled LMR core is generally comprised of many ducted assemblies which have no flow exchanges between them. So, the required flow to each assembly corresponding to its power has to be allocated in thermal hydraulic design. Flow allocation facility, which is called orifice, is used for this purpose in an LMR core. In this context, flow grouping, assembly subchannel analysis and inter-assembly flow analysis have to be done in the LMR core thermal hydraulic design and analysis. This report describes this sodium cooled LMR core thermal hydraulic design procedure, in which are flow grouping, subchannel analysis and inter-assembly whole core analysis. And the French whole core analysis code system is described which is used for the domestic whole core thermal hydraulic analysis code system development. Firstly, sodium cooled LMR core thermal hydraulic conceptual design and analysis procedure is explained in chapter 2. Chapter 3 overviews the necessity and methodology of the whole core thermal hydraulic analysis, and the French whole core analysis system is described in chapter 4. Chapter 5 describes the domestic plan of the inter-assembly thermal hydraulic analysis system, and chapter 6 shows the conclusion and the future works.

  14. Sampled Data Systems Passivity and Discrete Port-Hamiltonian Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stramigioli, Stefano; Secchi, Cristian; Schaft, Arjan J. van der; Fantuzzi, Cesare

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we present a novel way to approach the interconnection of a continuous and a discrete time physical system. This is done in a way which preserves passivity of the coupled system independently of the sampling time T. This strategy can be used both in the field of telemanipulation, for

  15. Familial predisposition to hypertension and the association between urinary sodium excretion and blood pressure in a population-based sample of young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.S. Moraes

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available The reasons for the inconsistent association between salt consumption and blood pressure levels observed in within-society surveys are not known. A total of 157 normotensive subjects aged 18 to 35 years, selected at random in a cross-sectional population-based survey, answered a structured questionnaire. They were classified as strongly predisposed to hypertension when two or more first-degree relatives had a diagnosis of hypertension. Anthropometric parameters were obtained and sitting blood pressure was determined with aneroid sphygmomanometers. Sodium and potassium excretion was measured by flame spectrophotometry in an overnight urine sample. A positive correlation between blood pressure and urinary sodium excretion was detected only in the group of individuals strongly predisposed to hypertension, both for systolic blood pressure (r = 0.51, P<0.01 and diastolic blood pressure (r = 0.50, P<0.01. In a covariance analysis, after controlling for age, skin color and body mass index, individuals strongly predisposed to hypertension who excreted amounts of sodium above the median of the entire sample had higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure than subjects classified into the remaining conditions. The influence of familial predisposition to hypertension on the association between salt intake and blood pressure may be an additional explanation for the weak association between urinary sodium excretion and blood pressure observed in within-population studies, since it can influence the association between salt consumption and blood pressure in some but not all inhabitants.

  16. Validation and Assessment of Three Methods to Estimate 24-h Urinary Sodium Excretion from Spot Urine Samples in High-Risk Elder Patients of Stroke from the Rural Areas of Shaanxi Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wenxia; Yin, Xuejun; Zhang, Ruijuan; Liu, Furong; Yang, Danrong; Fan, Yameng; Rong, Jie; Tian, Maoyi; Yu, Yan

    2017-10-11

    Background : 24-h urine collection is regarded as the "gold standard" for monitoring sodium intake at the population level, but ensuring high quality urine samples is difficult to achieve. The Kawasaki, International Study of Sodium, Potassium, and Blood Pressure (INTERSALT) and Tanaka methods have been used to estimate 24-h urinary sodium excretion from spot urine samples in some countries, but few studies have been performed to compare and validate these methods in the Chinese population. Objective : To compare and validate the Kawasaki, INTERSALT and Tanaka formulas in predicting 24-h urinary sodium excretion using spot urine samples in 365 high-risk elder patients of strokefrom the rural areas of Shaanxi province. Methods : Data were collected from a sub-sample of theSalt Substitute and Stroke Study. 365 high-risk elder patients of stroke from the rural areas of Shaanxi province participated and their spot and 24-h urine specimens were collected. The concentrations of sodium, potassium and creatinine in spot and 24-h urine samples wereanalysed. Estimated 24-h sodium excretion was predicted from spot urine concentration using the Kawasaki, INTERSALT, and Tanaka formulas. Pearson correlation coefficients and agreement by Bland-Altman method were computed for estimated and measured 24-h urinary sodium excretion. Results : The average 24-h urinary sodium excretion was 162.0 mmol/day, which representing a salt intake of 9.5 g/day. Three predictive equations had low correlation with the measured 24-h sodium excretion (r = 0.38, p h sodium excretion were observed (all p h sodium excretion. Conclusion : The Kawasaki, INTERSALT and Tanaka methods for estimation of 24-h urinary sodium excretion from spot urine specimens were inadequate for the assessment of sodium intake at the population level in high-risk elder patients of stroke from the rural areas of Shaanxi province, although the Kawasaki method was the least biased compared with the other two methods.

  17. Multiple-quantum nuclear magnetic resonance studies of sodium-23 in model and biological systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pekar, J.J.

    1988-01-01

    Time-domain multiple-quantum nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy is applied to sodium-23 in gels, liquid crystals, cell suspensions, and intact human limbs. In many biological systems, interactions between the nuclear electric quadrupole moment and fluctuating electric field gradients cause the outer transitions, which contribute 60% of the nuclear magnetic resonance signal from the spin-3/2 nuclei, to relax faster than the central transition, which contributes the remains in 40% of the signal. New multiple-quantum experiments, designed specifically for quadrupolar spin-3/2 nuclei, reveal much information not usually available from conventional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, because they allow indirect measurement of the rapid relaxation rate of the outer transitions, and may highlight the distribution of sodium ions among microscopic physiological compartments such as intracellular space, the interstitium, and the vasculature. The use of venous occlusion plethysmography to alter this distribution is discussed.

  18. Water experiment on phased array acoustic leak detection system for sodium-heated steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chikazawa, Yoshitaka; Yoshiuji, Takahiro

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • An acoustic leak detection system for sodium heated steam generator is proposed. • The new system can separate leak source from steam generator background noise. • Performance of the new system has been confirmed in water experiments. - Abstract: A phased array acoustic leak detection system for sodium heated steam generator has been proposed. The major advantage of the new system is it could provide information of acoustic source direction. An acoustic source of a sodium–water reaction is supposed to be localized while the background noise of the steam generator operation is uniformly distributed in the steam generator tube region. Therefore the new system could separate the target leak source from steam generator background noise. In the previous study, the methodology was proposed and basic performance was confirmed by numerical analysis. However, in the numerical analysis, acoustic transportation through the SG tube bundle was not modeled. In the present study, performance the proposed system has been confirmed in water experiments with mockup tube bundles

  19. Aerobot Sampling and Handling System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Honeybee Robotics proposes to: ?Derive and document the functional and technical requirements for Aerobot surface sampling and sample handling across a range of...

  20. Comparison of the Remineralizing Effects of Sodium Fluoride and Bioactive Glass Using Bioerodible Gel Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attiguppe Ramashetty Prabhakar

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. A carious lesion is the accumulation of numerous episodes of de- and remineralization, rather than a unidirectional demineralization process. Tooth destruction can be arrested or reversed by the frequent delivery of fluoride or calcium/phosphorous ions to the tooth surface. The present study compared and evaluated the remineralization potential of sodium fluoride and bioactive glass delivered through a bioerodible gel system. Materials and methods. Longitudinal sections of artificial carious lesions, created at the gingivofacial surface of 64 primary maxillary incisors were photographed under a polarized light microscope and quantified for demineralization. The sections were repositioned into the tooth form and randomly mounted in sets of four that simulated an arch form. The teeth were divided into 4 groups: 1 sodium fluoride films, 2 bioactive glass films, 3 control films placed interproximally and 4 nontreatment group. Following exposure to artificial saliva for 30 days, the lesions were again photographed and quantified as above. The recorded values were statistically analyzed using Student’s paired t-test for intragroup comparison, one-way ANOVA and Post-Hoc Tukey’s test for pairwise comparison. Results. The sodium fluoride and bioactive gel groups showed significant remineralization compared with the control groups (P < 0.001. Conclusion. Bioerodible gel films can be used to deliver remineralizing agents to enhance remineralization.

  1. EBR-II secondary sodium loop Plugging Temperature Indicator control system upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, R.B.; Gehrman, R.L.

    1995-01-01

    The Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) secondary sodium coolant loop Plugging Temperature Indicator (PTI) control system was upgraded in 1993 to a real-time computer based system. This was done to improve control, to remove obsolete and high maintenance equipment, and to provide a graphical CRT based operator interface. A goal was to accomplish this inexpensively using small, reliable computer and display hardware with a minimum of purchased software. This paper describes the PTI system, the upgraded control system and its operator interface, and development methods and tools. The paper then assesses how well the system met its goals, discusses lessons learned and operational improvements noted, and provides some recommendations and suggestions on applying small real-time control systems of this type

  2. Efficacy of systemic diclofenac sodium on intravitreal concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panahi, Yunes; Naderi, Mostafa; Jadidi, Khosrow; Hoseini, Hadise; Abrishami, Mojtaba

    2018-02-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), as an alternative, are replacing corticosteroids in ocular inflammatory diseases. Diclofenac has been used mainly topically, and recent focus has been on intravitreal delivery. Both of these methods have been shown to have complications in long-term application. To assess the efficacy of slow release oral diclofenac sodium on intravitreal concentration in experimental model of chemically injured eyes. In an experimental double-masked clinical trial, right eyes of 24 albino rabbits were chemically injured by 1 N NaOH. One hour after chemical injury, 10 cc suspension gavage containing 100 mg slow release diclofenac sodium was administered in all cases. 2, 4, 6, 12, 24, 48 h after gavage, vitreous samples were obtained in all cases. Intravitreal concentration of diclofenac sodium was evaluated in all samples using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. Intravitreal diclofenac levels by oral intake were enhanced by the inflammation in all the measurements. In inflamed eyes, diclofenac concentration was ten times more than control eye (2.658 ± 0.344 vs. 0.242 ± 0.0279 and 1.617 ± 0.527 vs. 0.148 ± 0.095; in 2 and 4 h, respectively). After 6 h, diclofenac concentration was statistically different, although it reduced below 1 μg/ml. Diclofenac is delivered to the inflamed eye more than healthy eye. It seems that by oral diclofenac consumption, it is possible to make a significant intravitreal concentration.

  3. Conceptual design of advanced central receiver power systems sodium-cooled receiver concept. Volume 2, Book 2. Appendices. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-03-01

    The appendices include: (A) design data sheets and P and I drawing for 100-MWe commercial plant design, for all-sodium storage concept; (B) design data sheets and P and I drawing for 100-MWe commercial plant design, for air-rock bed storage concept; (C) electric power generating water-steam system P and I drawing and equipment list, 100-MWe commercial plant design; (D) design data sheets and P and I drawing for 281-MWe commercial plant design; (E) steam generator system conceptual design; (F) heat losses from solar receiver surface; (G) heat transfer and pressure drop for rock bed thermal storage; (H) a comparison of alternative ways of recovering the hydraulic head from the advanced solar receiver tower; (I) central receiver tower study; (J) a comparison of mechanical and electromagnetic sodium pumps; (K) pipe routing study of sodium downcomer; and (L) sodium-cooled advanced central receiver system simulation model. (WHK)

  4. Sodium deoxycholate-decorated zein nanoparticles for a stable colloidal drug delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagliardi, Agnese; Paolino, Donatella; Iannone, Michelangelo; Palma, Ernesto; Fresta, Massimo; Cosco, Donato

    2018-01-01

    The use of biopolymers is increasing in drug delivery, thanks to the peculiar properties of these compounds such as their biodegradability, availability, and the possibility of modulating their physico-chemical characteristics. In particular, protein-based systems such as albumin are able to interact with many active compounds, modulating their biopharmaceutical properties. Zein is a protein of 20-40 kDa made up of many hydrophobic amino acids, generally regarded as safe (GRAS) and used as a coating material. In this investigation, zein was combined with various surfactants in order to obtain stable nanosystems by means of the nanoprecipitation technique. Specific parameters, eg, temperature, pH value, Turbiscan Stability Index, serum stability, in vitro cytotoxicity and entrapment efficiency of various model compounds were investigated, in order to identify the nanoformulation most useful for a systemic drug delivery application. The use of non-ionic and ionic surfactants such as Tween 80, poloxamer 188, and sodium deoxycholate allowed us to obtain nanoparticles characterized by a mean diameter of 100-200 nm when a protein concentration of 2 mg/mL was used. The surface charge was modulated by means of the protein concentration and the nature of the stabilizer. The most suitable nanoparticle formulation to be proposed as a colloidal drug delivery system was obtained using sodium deoxycholate (1.25% w/v) because it was characterized by a narrow size distribution, a good storage stability after freeze-drying and significant feature of retaining lipophilic and hydrophilic compounds. The sodium deoxycholate-coated zein nanoparticles are stable biocompatible colloidal carriers to be used as useful drug delivery systems.

  5. Regression of cardiac hypertrophy in the SHR by combined renin-angiotensin system blockade and dietary sodium restriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emad Abro

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Altered operation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS and dietary sodium intake have been identified as independent risk factors for cardiac hypertrophy. The way in which sodium intake and the operation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system interact in the pathogenesis of cardiac hypertrophy is poorly understood. The aims of this study were to investigate the cardiac effects of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS blockade in the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR, using co-treatment with an angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB and an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE inhibitor with different sodium intakes. Our experiments with SHR show that, at high levels of sodium intake (4.0%, aggressive RAS blockade treatment with candesartan (3 mg/kg and perindopril (6 mg/kg does not result in regression of cardiac hypertrophy. In contrast, RAS blockade coupled with reduced sodium diet (0.2% significantly regresses cardiac hypertrophy, impairs animal growth and is associated with elevated plasma renin and dramatically suppressed plasma angiotensinogen levels. Histological analyses indicate that the differential effect of reduced sodium on heart growth during RAS blockade is not associated with any change in myocardial interstitial collagen, but reflects modification of cellular geometry. Dimensional measurements of enzymatically-isolated ventricular myocytes show that, in the RAS blocked, reduced sodium group, myocyte length and width were decreased by about 16—19% compared with myocytes from the high sodium treatment group. Our findings highlight the importance of `titrating' sodium intake with combined RAS blockade in the clinical setting to optimise therapeutic benefit.

  6. A Geology Sampling System for Small Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naids, Adam J.; Hood, Anthony D.; Abell, Paul; Graff, Trevor; Buffington, Jesse

    2016-01-01

    Human exploration of microgravity bodies is being investigated as a precursor to a Mars surface mission. Asteroids, comets, dwarf planets, and the moons of Mars all fall into this microgravity category and some are being discussed as potential mission targets. Obtaining geological samples for return to Earth will be a major objective for any mission to a small body. Currently, the knowledge base for geology sampling in microgravity is in its infancy. Humans interacting with non-engineered surfaces in microgravity environment pose unique challenges. In preparation for such missions a team at the NASA Johnson Space Center has been working to gain experience on how to safely obtain numerous sample types in such an environment. This paper describes the type of samples the science community is interested in, highlights notable prototype work, and discusses an integrated geology sampling solution.

  7. A Geology Sampling System for Microgravity Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Anthony; Naids, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Human exploration of microgravity bodies is being investigated as a precursor to a Mars surface mission. Asteroids, comets, dwarf planets, and the moons of Mars all fall into this microgravity category and some are been discussed as potential mission targets. Obtaining geological samples for return to Earth will be a major objective for any mission to a microgravity body. Currently the knowledge base for geology sampling in microgravity is in its infancy. Humans interacting with non-engineered surfaces in microgravity environment pose unique challenges. In preparation for such missions a team at the NASA Johnson Space Center has been working to gain experience on how to safely obtain numerous sample types in such an environment. This paper describes the type of samples the science community is interested in, highlights notable prototype work, and discusses an integrated geology sampling solution.

  8. Sodium technology at EBR-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, J.T.; Smith, C.R.F.; Olson, W.H.

    1976-01-01

    Since the installation of purity monitoring systems in 1967, the control of the purity of the primary and secondary sodium and cover gas systems at the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) has been excellent. A rigorous monitoring program is being used to assure that operating limits for more than 25 chemical and radioactive impurities are not exceeded. The program involves the use of sophisticated sampling and analysis techniques and on-line monitors for both sodium and cover gas systems. Sodium purity control is accomplished by essentially continuous cold trapping of a small side stream of the total circulating sodium. The cold traps have been found to be very effective for the removal of the major chemical impurities (oxygen and hydrogen) and tritium but are almost ineffective for 131 I and 137 Cs that enter the sodium from fuel cladding breaks. Purging with pure argon maintains the cover gas purity

  9. System and method for extracting a sample from a surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Berkel, Gary; Covey, Thomas

    2015-06-23

    A system and method is disclosed for extracting a sample from a sample surface. A sample is provided and a sample surface receives the sample which is deposited on the sample surface. A hydrophobic material is applied to the sample surface, and one or more devices are configured to dispense a liquid on the sample, the liquid dissolving the sample to form a dissolved sample material, and the one or more devices are configured to extract the dissolved sample material from the sample surface.

  10. A molecular dynamics simulation of sodium pentadecyl sulphonate (SPDS)/water system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsenyan, L.H.; Poghosyan, A.H.; Shahinyan, A.A.

    2008-07-01

    We have carried out a molecular dynamics simulation of a sodium pentadecylsulfonate (SPDS)/water system consisting of 64PDS/1200water and 512PDS/9000water molecules, correspondingly. The overall simulation time for both cases reaches up to 60ns and the simulation was performed using the NAMD code with CHARMM27 force field. The main parameters of the system have been calculated and compared with available X-ray diffraction findings. For large system, after a couple of ns, we receive the molecule's hydrocarbon chains tilt in the opposite sense in layers and reducing the system size leads to the decrease of the average angle between bilayer normal and chain vector. At the end of 50ns of a simulation run we achieve the crystalline-like structure of hydrocarbon packing. For both cases, we obtain tilted hydrocarbon chains packing and the average angle between bilayer normal and chain vector is estimated to be about 13 deg. and 10 deg. (author)

  11. Determination of inorganic mercury and total mercury in biological and environmental samples by flow injection-cold vapor-atomic absorption spectrometry using sodium borohydride as the sole reducing agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rio Segade, Susana; Tyson, Julian F.

    2003-01-01

    A simple, fast, precise and accurate method to determine inorganic mercury and total mercury in biological and environmental samples was developed. The optimized flow-injection mercury system permitted the separate determination of inorganic mercury and total mercury using sodium borohydride as reducing agent. Inorganic mercury was selectively determined after reduction with 10 -4 % w/v sodium borohydride, while total mercury was determined after reduction with 0.75% w/v sodium borohydride. The calibration graphs were linear up to 30 ng ml -1 . The detection limits of the method based on three times the standard deviation of the blank were 24 and 3.9 ng l -1 for total mercury and inorganic mercury determination, respectively. The relative standard deviation was less than 1.5% for a 10 ng ml -1 mercury standard. As a means of checking method performance, deionized water and pond water samples were spiked with methylmercury and inorganic mercury; quantitative recovery for total mercury and inorganic mercury was obtained. The accuracy of the method was verified by analyzing alkaline and acid extracts of five biological and sediment reference materials. Microwave-assisted extraction procedures resulted in higher concentrations of recovered mercury species, lower matrix interference with mercury determination and less time involved in sample treatment than conventional extraction procedures. The standard addition method was only needed for calibration when biological samples were analyzed. The detection limits were in the range of 1.2-19 and 6.6-18 ng g -1 in biological and sediment samples for inorganic mercury and total mercury determination, respectively

  12. Sample Return Systems for Extreme Environments

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In Phase I we were able to demonstrate that sample return missions utilizing high velocity penetrators (0.1- 1 km/s) could provide substantial new capabilities for...

  13. Sample Return Systems for Extreme Environments

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed work seeks to design, develop and test a hard impact penetrator/sampler that can withstand the hard impact and enable the sample to be returned to...

  14. Development of a sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis reference method for the analysis and identification of fish species in raw and heat-processed samples : A collaborative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pineiro, C.; Barros-Velazquez, J.; Perez-Martin, R.I.

    1999-01-01

    A collaborative study was carried out in seven European labs with the aim of achieving a sodium dodecyl sulfate- polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) standard operation procedure to identify fish species in raw and cooked samples. Urea and SDS-containing solutions were evaluated...... as extractants. Several preelectrophoretic operations - such as treatment with RNase/DNase, ultrafiltration and desalting - and up to ten types of gels and three SDS-PAGE systems were considered. The SDS-containing solution allowed a higher protein extractability than urea. Unlike urea extraction, SDS extraction...

  15. DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF MUCOADHESIVE DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM OF MONTELUKAST SODIUM

    OpenAIRE

    N. G. Raghavendra Rao; V. B. Suryakar

    2011-01-01

    The Montelukast sodium is a leukotrine receptor antagonist used for the maintenance treatment of asthma, chronic asthma attacks and to relieve symptoms of seasonal allergies. The biological half life of montelukast sodium is 2.5 to 5.5 hrs and poor bioavailability upto 64%. Because of poor bioavailability of montelukast sodium by oral route, there is a need to increase its bioavailability by formulating it into buccal dosage forms. Hence, montelukast sodium is a suitable drug for buccal dosa...

  16. Liquid sodium technology research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, W.C.; Lee, Y.W.; Nam, H.Y.; Chun, S.Y.; Kim, J.; Won, S.Y.

    1982-01-01

    This report describes the technology of impurity control and measurement of liquid sodium, problems associated with material degradation and change of heat transfer characteristics in liquid sodium, and the conceptual design of multipurpose sodium test loop. Discussion and the subsequent analysis are also made with regard to the test results for the sodium-H 2 0 reaction and its effects on the system. (author)

  17. Development of the Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor R and D and Technology Monitoring System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dong Uk; Won, Byung Chool; Kim, Young In; Hahn, Do Hee

    2008-01-01

    This study presents a R and D performance monitoring system that is applicable for managing the generation IV sodium-cooled fast reactor development. The prime goal of this system is to furnish project manager with reliable and accurate information of status of progress, performance and resource allocation, and attain traceability and visibility of project implementation for effective project management. In this study, the work breakdown structure, the related schedule and the expected outputs were established to derive the interfaces between projects and the above parameters was loaded PCs. The R and D performance monitoring system is composed of about 750 R and D activities within 'Development of Basic Key Technologies for Gen IV SFR' project in 2007. The Microsoft Project Professional software was used to monitor the progress, evaluate the results and analyze the resource distribution to activities

  18. Automated blood sampling systems for positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksson, L.; Holte, S.; Bohm, C.; Kesselberg, M.; Hovander, B.

    1988-01-01

    An automated blood sampling system has been constructed and evaluated. Two different detector units in the blood sampling system are compared. Results from studies of blood-brain barrier transfer of a C-11 labelled receptor antagonist will be discussed

  19. User's manual of BISHOP. A Bi-Phase, Sodium-Hydrogen-Oxygen system, chemical equilibrium calculation program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okano, Yasushi; Yamaguchi, Akira

    2001-07-01

    In an event of sodium leakage in liquid metal fast breeder reactors, liquid sodium flows out of piping, and droplet combustion might occur under a certain environmental condition. The combustion heat and reaction products should be evaluated in the sodium fire analysis codes for investigating the influence of the sodium leak age and fire incident. In order to analyze the reaction heat and products, the multi-phase chemical equilibrium calculation program for a sodium, oxygen and hydrogen system has been developed. The developed numerical program is named BISHOP, which denotes 'Bi-Phase, Sodium-Hydrogen-Oxygen, Chemical Equilibrium Calculation Program'. The Gibbs free energy minimization method is used because of the following advantages. Chemical species are easily added and changed. A variety of thermodynamic states, such as isothermal and isentropic changes, can be dealt with in addition to constant temperature and pressure processes. In applying the free energy minimization method to solve the multi-phase sodium reaction system, three new numerical calculation techniques are developed. One is theoretical simplification of phase description in equation system, the other is to extend the Gibbs free energy minimization method to a multi-phase system, and the last is to establish the efficient search for the minimum value. The reaction heat and products at the equilibrium state can be evaluated from the initial conditions, such as temperature, pressure and reactants, using BISHOP. This report describes the thermochemical basis of chemical equilibrium calculations, the system of equations, simplification models, and the procedure to prepare input data and usage of BISHOP. (author)

  20. Consensus of heterogeneous multi-agent systems based on sampled data with a small sampling delay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Na; Wu Zhi-Hai; Peng Li

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, consensus problems of heterogeneous multi-agent systems based on sampled data with a small sampling delay are considered. First, a consensus protocol based on sampled data with a small sampling delay for heterogeneous multi-agent systems is proposed. Then, the algebra graph theory, the matrix method, the stability theory of linear systems, and some other techniques are employed to derive the necessary and sufficient conditions guaranteeing heterogeneous multi-agent systems to asymptotically achieve the stationary consensus. Finally, simulations are performed to demonstrate the correctness of the theoretical results. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  1. Methodology for Extraction of Remaining Sodium of Used Sodium Containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Minhwan; Kim, Jongman; Cho, Youngil; Jeong, Jiyoung

    2014-01-01

    Sodium used as a coolant in the SFR (Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor) reacts easily with most elements due to its high reactivity. If sodium at high temperature leaks outside of a system boundary and makes contact with oxygen, it starts to burn and toxic aerosols are produced. In addition, it generates flammable hydrogen gas through a reaction with water. Hydrogen gas can be explosive within the range of 4.75 vol%. Therefore, the sodium should be handled carefully in accordance with standard procedures even though there is a small amount of target sodium remainings inside the containers and drums used for experiment. After the experiment, all sodium experimental apparatuses should be dismantled carefully through a series of draining, residual sodium extraction, and cleaning if they are no longer reused. In this work, a system for the extraction of the remaining sodium of used sodium drums has been developed and an operation procedure for the system has been established. In this work, a methodology for the extraction of remaining sodium out of the used sodium container has been developed as one of the sodium facility maintenance works. The sodium extraction system for remaining sodium of the used drums was designed and tested successfully. This work will contribute to an establishment of sodium handling technology for PGSFR. (Prototype Gen-IV Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor)

  2. Improving sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis detection of low-abundance protein samples by rapid freeze centrifugation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virgen-Ortíz, J J; Ibarra-Junquera, V; Escalante-Minakata, P; Osuna-Castro, J A; Ornelas-Paz, J de J; Mancilla-Margalli, N A; Castañeda-Aguilar, R L

    2013-12-15

    This work presents a rapid and simple freeze centrifugation method to concentrate dilute protein solutions for detection by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) Coomassie blue staining. Moreover, a simple way to assemble a cryoconcentration device is presented, and its use is discussed. Commercial purified protein standard and an enzyme with high fructosyltransferase (FTase) activity, coming from target fractions obtained by chromatographic separation, were used as an example. FTase, coming directly from the chromatographic fractions, was difficult to view through SDS-PAGE analysis; however, it was easily visualized, and its activity was enhanced, after the application of the freeze centrifugation protocol presented here. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparative evaluation of topical Sodium fusidate cream in common pyodermas with topical gentamicin ointment and systemic antibiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy AK

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: One hundred cases of common pyodermas consisting of four groups, namely impetigo, furunculosis and chronic folliculitis were taken. Each group containing twenty five cases were divided again into three subgroups. From each group, 15 were treated with 2 percent Sodium fusidate cream, 5 were with 0.1 percent Gentamycin sulphate cream and the rest 5 with systemic Erythromycin stearate. In the group of Impetigo, Bockhart′s Impetigo and Furunculosis, topical Sodium fusidate cream showed excellent result, better than Gentamycin topical and equal to that of systemic Erythromycin stearate.

  4. Evaluation of calcium, magnesium, potassium, and sodium in biological samples (scalp hair, serum, blood, and urine) of Pakistani referents and arthritis patients of different age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afridi, Hassan Imran; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Kazi, Naveed; Shah, Abdul Qadir; Khan, Sumaira; Kolachi, Nida Fatima; Wadhwa, Sham Kumar; Shah, Faheem

    2012-01-01

    Rheumatoid Arthritis is a chronic inflammatory disease resulting in joint inflammation (particularly joints of hands, wrists, feet, knees, ankles, and shoulder) that is manifested by swelling and functional impairment. This study was designed to compare the levels of calcium (Ca), magnesium (mg), potassium (K), and sodium (Na) in four biological samples (scalp hair, serum, blood, and urine) of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) as compared to referent subjects of both genders who do have not arthritis problems. All patients and referents were divided in two age groups, (46-60) and (61-75) years. A microwave assisted wet acid digestion procedure was used for acid digestion of biological samples. The digests of all biological samples were analysed for Ca, Mg, K, and Na by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). The proposed method was validated by using conventional wet digestion of the same sub samples and certified reference samples of hair, serum, blood, and urine. The results indicated significantly lower levels of Ca, Mg, and K in the biological samples (blood, serum, and scalp hair) of male and female rheumatoid arthritis patients when compared to referents of both genders, whereas the levels of Na were found to be high in blood and urine samples of patients as compared to nonrheumatic referents. These data represent a guide for clinicians and other professionals who will be investigating the deficiency of essential micronutrients in biological samples (scalp hair, serum, and blood) of rheumatoid arthritis patients.

  5. Development and evaluation of a hydrophilic matrix as a buccoadhesive system containing diclofenac sodium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaiz Cristina Wypych

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the development and evaluation of a hydrolphilic matrix as a buccoadhesive system containing diclofenac sodium. Eleven formulations were prepared containing the following bioadhesive polymers: hydroxylpropylmethylcellulose, polycarbophil, guar gum and xanthan gum individually and in combination. All the formulations were evaluated for the swelling index, adhesive index, and the time of adhesive and drug release profile (%. The results showed that the formulations that presented the most swelling index were the F3 (PAA/GX and F6 (GG/GX. The smaller index swelling was for F1 (PAA/CM and F10 (HPCMC/CM. The F4 (PAA/HPMC formulation presented the best adhesive index and F10 (HPMC/CM the worst. F1 (PAA/CM was the best matrix hydrophilic adhesive for controlled release. The hydroxylpropylmethylcellulose, guar and xanthan gum when used individually presented low adhesiveness.

  6. Salt (sodium chloride) content of retail samples of Nigerian white bread: implications for the daily salt intake of normotensive and hypertensive adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwanguma, B C; Okorie, C H

    2013-10-01

    Bread has been identified as a major contributor to the excessive salt (sodium chloride) intake of consumers in many countries, some of which have very high incidences of hypertension and related cardiovascular complications, such as stroke. This has prompted a global rise in interest in the salt content of breads produced and consumed in many other countries. The sodium contents of retail samples of 100 brands of Nigerian white bread were determined by photometry with a view to estimating the relative contribution of bread to the recommended daily sodium intake of both normotensive and hypertensive adults in the country. The salt content of the bread samples varied extensively, ranging from 0.51 g per 100 g (0.51%) to 1.8 g per 100 g (1.8%). The average salt content was 1.36 g per 100 g. Based on an estimated consumption of six slices of bread (about 180 g) per meal of bread, this equates to a daily intake of between 0.99 g and 3.33 g of salt from bread alone. This represents between 19.8% and 66.6% of the recommended daily allowance of 5 g for normotensive adults, and between 24.75% and 83.25% of the recommended daily allowance of 4 g for hypertensive adults. The consumption of some brands of bread by normotensive and hypertensive adults puts them at great risk of exceeding their recommended daily allowance for salt. Thus, there is an urgent need to regulate the amount of salt added to bread. In the interim, compelling bakers to declare the salt content of their products on the packaging could help consumers, especially hypertensive adults, avoid brands with a high salt content. © 2013 The Authors Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  7. Validation and Assessment of Three Methods to Estimate 24-h Urinary Sodium Excretion from Spot Urine Samples in High-Risk Elder Patients of Stroke from the Rural Areas of Shaanxi Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenxia Ma

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: 24-h urine collection is regarded as the “gold standard” for monitoring sodium intake at the population level, but ensuring high quality urine samples is difficult to achieve. The Kawasaki, International Study of Sodium, Potassium, and Blood Pressure (INTERSALT and Tanaka methods have been used to estimate 24-h urinary sodium excretion from spot urine samples in some countries, but few studies have been performed to compare and validate these methods in the Chinese population. Objective: To compare and validate the Kawasaki, INTERSALT and Tanaka formulas in predicting 24-h urinary sodium excretion using spot urine samples in 365 high-risk elder patients of strokefrom the rural areas of Shaanxi province. Methods: Data were collected from a sub-sample of theSalt Substitute and Stroke Study. 365 high-risk elder patients of stroke from the rural areas of Shaanxi province participated and their spot and 24-h urine specimens were collected. The concentrations of sodium, potassium and creatinine in spot and 24-h urine samples wereanalysed. Estimated 24-h sodium excretion was predicted from spot urine concentration using the Kawasaki, INTERSALT, and Tanaka formulas. Pearson correlation coefficients and agreement by Bland-Altman method were computed for estimated and measured 24-h urinary sodium excretion. Results: The average 24-h urinary sodium excretion was 162.0 mmol/day, which representing a salt intake of 9.5 g/day. Three predictive equations had low correlation with the measured 24-h sodium excretion (r = 0.38, p < 0.01; ICC = 0.38, p < 0.01 for the Kawasaki; r = 0.35, p < 0.01; ICC = 0.31, p < 0.01 for the INTERSALT; r = 0.37, p < 0.01; ICC = 0.34, p < 0.01 for the Tanaka. Significant biases between estimated and measured 24-h sodium excretion were observed (all p < 0.01 for three methods. Among the three methods, the Kawasaki method was the least biased compared with the other two methods (mean bias: 31.90, 95% Cl: 23.84, 39

  8. Sample preparation system for microfluidic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosier, Bruce P [San Francisco, CA; Crocker, Robert W [Fremont, CA; Patel, Kamlesh D [Dublin, CA; Harnett, Cindy K [Livermore, CA

    2007-05-08

    An apparatus that couples automated injection with flow feedback to provide nanoliter accuracy in controlling microliter volumes. The apparatus comprises generally a source of hydraulic fluid pressure, a fluid isolator joined to the outlet of the hydraulic pressure source and a flow sensor to provide pressure-driven analyte metering. For operation generally and particularly in microfluidic systems the hydraulic pressure source is typically an electrokinetic (EK) pump that incorporates gasless electrodes. The apparatus is capable of metering sub-microliter volumes at flowrates of 1 100 .mu.L/min into microsystem load pressures of up to 1000 50 psi, respectively. Flowrates can be specified within 0.5 .mu.L/min and volumes as small as 80 nL can be metered.

  9. Extreme Environment Sampling System Deployment Mechanism, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Future Venus or Comet mission architectures may feature robotic sampling systems comprised of a Sampling Tool and Deployment Mechanism. Since 2005, Honeybee has been...

  10. 47 CFR 73.68 - Sampling systems for antenna monitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sampling systems for antenna monitors. 73.68... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES AM Broadcast Stations § 73.68 Sampling systems for antenna monitors. (a) Each AM station permittee authorized to construct a new directional antenna system which will be subject...

  11. Solubility of sodium 4-nitrotoluene-2-sulfonate in (propanol + water) and (ethylene glycol + water) systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Lingxin; Yu Xiaoman; Xia Qing; Zhang Fengbao; Zhang Guoliang

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: → The solubilities of NTSNa in 2 binary solvent mixtures are experimental determined. → The E-NRTL model and modified Apelblat model are used to describe systems. → The effect of solvents on the reaction of oxidation NTS to DNS was discussed. - Abstract: The solubility data of sodium 4-nitrotoluene-2-sulfonate (NTSNa) in aqueous organic solutions (propanol + water) and (ethylene glycol + water) were measured at temperatures ranging from (290 to 351) K using a dynamic method. The mole fraction of water in solvent mixtures ranged from 0 to 0.8. The solubility values are correlated with the electrolyte non-random two-liquid (E-NRTL) model. From the results obtained, the E-NRTL model provides a satisfactory mathematical representation of the experimental results for the (NTSNa + propanol + water) system and an unsatisfactory result for the (NTSNa + ethylene glycol + water) system. Thus, the modified Apelblat model is applied to describe the (NTSNa + ethylene glycol + water) system also. The calculated (solid + liquid) equilibrium temperatures with the modified Apelblat model are in good agreement with the experimental results. The root-mean-square deviations of solubility temperature varied from (0.08 to 0.94) K for two models. The effect of different aqueous organic solutions on the reaction of oxidation 4-nitrotoluene-2-sulfonic acid (NTS) to 4,4'-dinitrostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (DNS) was discussed.

  12. Development and evaluation of diclofenac sodium thermorevesible subcutaneous drug delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, Fazli; Iqbal, Zafar; Khan, Jamshaid A; Khan, Abad; Khuda, Fazli; Ahmad, Lateef; Khan, Amirzada; Khan, Abbas; Dayoo, Abdullah; Roohullah

    2012-12-15

    The objective of current work was to develop and evaluate thermoreversible subcutaneous drug delivery system for diclofenac sodium. The poloxamer 407, methyl cellulose, hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose and polyethylene glycol were used alone and in combination in different ratios to design the delivery system. The physical properties like Tsol-gel, viscosity, clarity of solution and gel were evaluated. The in vitro release of the drug delivery system was evaluated using membrane less method and the drug release kinetics and mechanism was predicted by applying various mathematical models to the in vitro dissolution data. Rabbits were used as in vivo model following subcutaneous injection to predict various pharmacokinetics parameters by applying Pk-Summit software. The in vitro and in vivo data revealed that the system consisting of the poloxamer 407 in concentration of 20% (DP20) was the most capable formulation for extending the drug release and maintaining therapeutic blood level of DS for longer duration (144 h). The data obtained for drug content after autoclaving the solutions indicate that autoclaving results in 6% degradation of DS. The data also suggested that the studied polymers poloxamer, MC and PG are good candidate to extend the drug release possessing a unique thermoreversible property. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of Sodium Ascorbate and Delayed Bonding on the Bond Strength of Silorane and Two-step Self-etch Adhesive Systems in Bleached Enamel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Abed Kahnemooyi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. Studies have shown decreased bond strength of composite resin to human and bovine bleached enamel. This study evaluated the effect of sodium ascorbate and delayed bonding on the bond strength of two adhesive systems to bleached enamel. Materials and methods. The labial surfaces of 150 sound bovine incisor teeth were abraded with abrasive paper. The teeth were randomly divided into 8 groups: A: control; B: bleached with 35% hydrogen peroxide; C: bleached with 35% hydrogen peroxide + sodium ascorbate gel; and D: bleached with 35% hydrogen peroxide + delayed bonding. In groups A‒D, silorane adhesive system and Filtek silorane composite resin were used. In groups E‒H, the same preparation methods of groups A‒D were used. Two-step self-etch Clearfil SE Bond adhesive systems and AP-X composite resin were administered. Shear bond strength of each group was measured. Two samples were prepared for each surface preparation for ultrastructural evaluation. Two-way ANOVA and Tukey test were used for data analysis at P<0.05. Results. The interaction between the adhesive system type and surface preparation protocol was significant (P=0.014, with significant differences in shear bond strengths in terms of the adhesive systems (P<0.01. There were significant differences in shear bond strength in terms of surface preparation techniques irrespective of the adhesive system (P<0.01. Conclusion. The results showed that bleaching with 35% hydrogen peroxide decreased the shear bond strength values with both adhesive systems, and a one-week delay in bonding and 10% sodium ascorbate for 10 minutes restored the bond strength in both adhesive systems.

  14. Modulation of the cardiac sodium/bicarbonate cotransporter by the renin angiotensin aldosterone system: pathophysiological consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Giusti, Verónica C; Ciancio, María C; Orlowski, Alejandro; Aiello, Ernesto A

    2013-01-01

    The sodium/bicarbonate cotransporter (NBC) is one of the major alkalinizing mechanisms in the cardiomyocytes. It has been demonstrated the existence of at least two functional isoforms, one that promotes the co-influx of 1 molecule of Na(+) per 1 molecule of HCO(-) 3 (electroneutral isoform; NBCn1) and the other one that generates the co-influx of 1 molecule of Na(+) per 2 molecules of HCO(-) 3 (electrogenic isoform; NBCe1). Both isoforms are important to maintain intracellular pH (pH i ) and sodium concentration ([Na(+)] i ). In addition, NBCe1 generates an anionic repolarizing current that modulates the action potential duration (APD). The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) is implicated in the modulation of almost all physiological cardiac functions and is also involved in the development and progression of cardiac diseases. It was reported that angiotensin II (Ang II) exhibits an opposite effect on NBC isoforms: it activates NBCn1 and inhibits NBCe1. The activation of NBCn1 leads to an increase in pH i and [Na(+)] i , which indirectly, due to the stimulation of reverse mode of the Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger (NCX), conduces to an increase in the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration. On the other hand, the inhibition of NBCe1 generates an APD prolongation, potentially representing a risk of arrhythmias. In the last years, the potentially altered NBC function in pathological scenarios, as cardiac hypertrophy and ischemia-reperfusion, has raised increasing interest among investigators. This review attempts to draw the attention on the relevant regulation of NBC activity by RAAS, since it modulates pH i and [Na(+)] i , which are involved in the development of cardiac hypertrophy, the damage produced by ischemia-reperfusion and the generation of arrhythmic events, suggesting a potential role of NBC in cardiac diseases.

  15. Structural basis for the transformation pathways of the sodium naproxen anhydrate–hydrate system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Andrew D.; Cornett, Claus; Larsen, Flemming H.; Qu, Haiyan; Raijada, Dhara; Rantanen, Jukka

    2014-01-01

    Crystal structures are presented for two dihydrate polymorphs (DH-I and DH-II) of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug sodium (S)-naproxen. The structure of DH-I is determined from twinned single crystals obtained by solution crystallization. DH-II is obtained by solid-state routes, and its structure is derived using powder X-ray diffraction, solid-state 13C and 23Na MAS NMR, and molecular modelling. The validity of both structures is supported by dispersion-corrected density functional theory (DFT-D) calculations. The structures of DH-I and DH-II, and in particular their relationships to the monohydrate (MH) and anhydrate (AH) structures, provide a basis to rationalize the observed transformation pathways in the sodium (S)-naproxen anhydrate–hydrate system. All structures contain Na+/carboxylate/H2O sections, alternating with sections containing the naproxen molecules. The structure of DH-I is essentially identical to MH in the naproxen region, containing face-to-face arrangements of the naphthalene rings, whereas the structure of DH-II is comparable to AH in the naproxen region, containing edge-to-face arrangements of the naphthalene rings. This structural similarity permits topotactic transformation between AH and DH-II, and between MH and DH-I, but requires re-organization of the naproxen molecules for transformation between any other pair of structures. The topotactic pathways dominate at room temperature or below, while the non-topotactic pathways become active at higher temperatures. Thermochemical data for the dehydration processes are rationalized in the light of this new structural information. PMID:25295174

  16. Structural basis for the transformation pathways of the sodium naproxen anhydrate–hydrate system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew D. Bond

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Crystal structures are presented for two dihydrate polymorphs (DH-I and DH-II of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug sodium (S-naproxen. The structure of DH-I is determined from twinned single crystals obtained by solution crystallization. DH-II is obtained by solid-state routes, and its structure is derived using powder X-ray diffraction, solid-state 13C and 23Na MAS NMR, and molecular modelling. The validity of both structures is supported by dispersion-corrected density functional theory (DFT-D calculations. The structures of DH-I and DH-II, and in particular their relationships to the monohydrate (MH and anhydrate (AH structures, provide a basis to rationalize the observed transformation pathways in the sodium (S-naproxen anhydrate–hydrate system. All structures contain Na+/carboxylate/H2O sections, alternating with sections containing the naproxen molecules. The structure of DH-I is essentially identical to MH in the naproxen region, containing face-to-face arrangements of the naphthalene rings, whereas the structure of DH-II is comparable to AH in the naproxen region, containing edge-to-face arrangements of the naphthalene rings. This structural similarity permits topotactic transformation between AH and DH-II, and between MH and DH-I, but requires re-organization of the naproxen molecules for transformation between any other pair of structures. The topotactic pathways dominate at room temperature or below, while the non-topotactic pathways become active at higher temperatures. Thermochemical data for the dehydration processes are rationalized in the light of this new structural information.

  17. Structural basis for the transformation pathways of the sodium naproxen anhydrate-hydrate system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Andrew D; Cornett, Claus; Larsen, Flemming H; Qu, Haiyan; Raijada, Dhara; Rantanen, Jukka

    2014-09-01

    Crystal structures are presented for two dihydrate polymorphs (DH-I and DH-II) of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug sodium (S)-naproxen. The structure of DH-I is determined from twinned single crystals obtained by solution crystallization. DH-II is obtained by solid-state routes, and its structure is derived using powder X-ray diffraction, solid-state (13)C and (23)Na MAS NMR, and molecular modelling. The validity of both structures is supported by dispersion-corrected density functional theory (DFT-D) calculations. The structures of DH-I and DH-II, and in particular their relationships to the monohydrate (MH) and anhydrate (AH) structures, provide a basis to rationalize the observed transformation pathways in the sodium (S)-naproxen anhydrate-hydrate system. All structures contain Na(+)/carboxylate/H2O sections, alternating with sections containing the naproxen molecules. The structure of DH-I is essentially identical to MH in the naproxen region, containing face-to-face arrangements of the naphthalene rings, whereas the structure of DH-II is comparable to AH in the naproxen region, containing edge-to-face arrangements of the naphthalene rings. This structural similarity permits topotactic transformation between AH and DH-II, and between MH and DH-I, but requires re-organization of the naproxen molecules for transformation between any other pair of structures. The topotactic pathways dominate at room temperature or below, while the non-topotactic pathways become active at higher temperatures. Thermochemical data for the dehydration processes are rationalized in the light of this new structural information.

  18. Microbial Growth in the Magnesium- Chloride - Sodium- Sulphate Ion System: Implications for Habitability in Terrestrial and Extraterrestrial Salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loudon, C. M.; Aka, S.; Cockell, C. S.

    2017-12-01

    Icy moons in the outer solar system are key targets in the search for extra-terrestrial life as there is evidence that they harbour subsurface oceans. Observational evidence of icy moons such as Europa suggest that these likely brine oceans should be composed of chloride and sulphate salts. The effects of the ions that compose these salts on biology and how the interactions between them can create geochemical and geophysical barriers to life are poorly understood. Here we present an in depth study of four microorganisms grown in solutions with varying combinations of the magnesium- chloride- sodium- sulphate ions. We find that the ion composition of the brine solution can have a large effect on growth. Whilst the water activity must be permissible for growth we found that this alone could not predict the effects of the ions on growth, chaotropic effects and ion specific effects influenced by the specific physiology of organisms are also evident. For this reason we conclude that simply knowing which salts are present on icy moons is not sufficient information to determine their potential habitibility. A full sample of any brine ocean would need to be studied to fully determine the potential for biology on these outer solar system satellites.

  19. Electrochemical Behavior of PEDOT/Lignin in Ionic Liquid Electrolytes: Suitable Cathode/Electrolyte System for Sodium Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casado, Nerea; Hilder, Matthias; Pozo-Gonzalo, Cristina; Forsyth, Maria; Mecerreyes, David

    2017-04-22

    Biomass-derived polymers, such as lignin, contain quinone/ hydroquinone redox moieties that can be used to store charge. Composites based on the biopolymer lignin and several conjugated polymers have shown good charge-storage properties. However, their performance has been only studied in acidic aqueous media limiting their applications mainly to supercapacitors. Here, we show that PEDOT/lignin (PEDOT: poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)) biopolymers are electroactive in aprotic ionic liquids (ILs) and we move a step further by assembling sodium full cell batteries using PEDOT/lignin as electrode material and IL electrolytes. Thus, the electrochemical activity and cycling of PEDOT/lignin electrodes was investigated in 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (BMPyrTFSI), 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide (BMPyrFSI), 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (EMImTFSI) and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide (EMImFSI) IL electrolytes. The effects of water and sodium salt addition to the ILs were investigated to obtain optimum electrolyte systems for sodium batteries. Finally, sodium batteries based on PEDOT/lignin cathode with imidazolium-based IL electrolyte showed higher capacity values than pyrrolidinium ones, reaching 70 mAhg -1 . Our results demonstrate that PEDOT/lignin composites can serve as low cost and sustainable cathode materials for sodium batteries. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. A Sample Handling System for Mars Sample Return - Design and Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allouis, E.; Renouf, I.; Deridder, M.; Vrancken, D.; Gelmi, R.; Re, E.

    2009-04-01

    A mission to return atmosphere and soil samples form the Mars is highly desired by planetary scientists from around the world and space agencies are starting preparation for the launch of a sample return mission in the 2020 timeframe. Such a mission would return approximately 500 grams of atmosphere, rock and soil samples to Earth by 2025. Development of a wide range of new technology will be critical to the successful implementation of such a challenging mission. Technical developments required to realise the mission include guided atmospheric entry, soft landing, sample handling robotics, biological sealing, Mars atmospheric ascent sample rendezvous & capture and Earth return. The European Space Agency has been performing system definition studies along with numerous technology development studies under the framework of the Aurora programme. Within the scope of these activities Astrium has been responsible for defining an overall sample handling architecture in collaboration with European partners (sample acquisition and sample capture, Galileo Avionica; sample containment and automated bio-sealing, Verhaert). Our work has focused on the definition and development of the robotic systems required to move the sample through the transfer chain. This paper presents the Astrium team's high level design for the surface transfer system and the orbiter transfer system. The surface transfer system is envisaged to use two robotic arms of different sizes to allow flexible operations and to enable sample transfer over relatively large distances (~2 to 3 metres): The first to deploy/retract the Drill Assembly used for sample collection, the second for the transfer of the Sample Container (the vessel containing all the collected samples) from the Drill Assembly to the Mars Ascent Vehicle (MAV). The sample transfer actuator also features a complex end-effector for handling the Sample Container. The orbiter transfer system will transfer the Sample Container from the capture

  1. Modification of both d33 and TC in a potassium-sodium niobate ternary system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bo; Wu, Jiagang; Xiao, Dingquan; Zhu, Jianguo

    2015-12-28

    In this work, we simultaneously achieved a giant d33 and a high TC in a lead-free piezoelectric ternary system of (1-x-y)K0.48Na0.52NbO3-xBiFeO3-yBi0.5Na0.5ZrO3 {(1-x-y)KNN-xBF-yBNZ}. Owing to the rhombohedral-orthorhombic-tetragonal (R-O-T) phase coexistence and the enhanced dielectric and ferroelectric properties, the ceramics with a composition of (x = 0.006, y = 0.04) show a giant d33 of ∼428 pC N(-1) together with a TC of ∼318 °C, thereby proving that the design of ternary systems is an effective way to achieve both high d33 and high TC in KNN-based materials. In addition, a good thermal stability for piezoelectricity was also observed in these ceramics (e.g., d33 > 390 pC N(-1), T ≤ 300 °C). This is the first time such a good comprehensive performance in potassium-sodium niobate materials has been obtained. As a result, we believe that this type of material system with both giant d33 and high TC is a promising candidate for high-temperature piezoelectric devices.

  2. Carbon transport in a bimetallic sodium loop simulating the intermediate heat transport system of a liquid metal fast breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hampton, L.V.; Spalaris, C.N.; Roy, P.

    1980-04-01

    Carbon transport data from a bimetallic sodium loop simulating the intermediate heat transport system of a Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor are discussed. The results of bulk carbon analyses after 15,000 hours' exposure indicate a pattern of carburization of Type 304 stainless steel foils which is independent of loop sodium temperature. A model based on carbon activity gradients accounting for this behavior is proposed. Data also indicate that carburization of Type 304 stainless steel is a diffusion-controlled process; however, decarburization of the ferritic 2 1/4 Cr-1Mo steel is not. It is proposed that the decarburization of the ferritic steel is controlled by the dissolution of carbides in the steel matrix. The differences in the sodium decarburization behavior of electroslag remelted and vacuum-arc remelted 2 1/4 Cr-1Mo steel are also highlighted

  3. Automatic remote sampling and delivery system incorporating decontamination and disposal of sample bottles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savarkar, V.K.; Mishra, A.K.; Bajpai, D.D.; Nair, M.K.T.

    1990-01-01

    The present generation of reprocessing plants have sampling and delivery systems that have to be operated manually with its associated problems. The complete automation and remotisation of sampling system has hence been considered to reduce manual intervention and personnel exposure. As a part of this scheme an attempt to automate and remotise various steps in sampling system has been made. This paper discusses in detail the development work carried out in this area as well as the tests conducted to incorporate the same in the existing plants. (author). 3 figs

  4. Microemulsification in the water-sodium di-2-ehtylhexylphosphate-toluene system in the presence of lanthanum nitrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chekmarev, A.M.; Sinegribova, O.A.; Kushnerev, A.V.; Bukar', N.V.; Kim, V.; Chibirkina, E.I.

    1997-01-01

    The phase and structure of water-organic systems containing sodium and lanthanum salts of di-2-ethyl-hexylphosphoric acid have been considered. It has been revealed that conditions of microemulsions appearance in the system above are largely determined by temperature and content of aliphatic alcohol. The obtained phase diagrams permit predicting concentrations of the system components, bringing about an essential influence of microemulsification on distribution factor during lanthanum solvent extraction

  5. Drilling, sampling, and sample-handling system for China's asteroid exploration mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Zhang, Wenming; Wang, Kang; Gao, Sheng; Hou, Liang; Ji, Jianghui; Ding, Xilun

    2017-08-01

    Asteroid exploration has a significant importance in promoting our understanding of the solar system and the origin of life on Earth. A unique opportunity to study near-Earth asteroid 99942 Apophis will occur in 2029 because it will be at its perigee. In the current work, a drilling, sampling, and sample-handling system (DSSHS) is proposed to penetrate the asteroid regolith, collect regolith samples at different depths, and distribute the samples to different scientific instruments for in situ analysis. In this system, a rotary-drilling method is employed for the penetration, and an inner sampling tube is utilized to collect and discharge the regolith samples. The sampling tube can deliver samples up to a maximum volume of 84 mm3 at a maximum penetration depth of 300 mm to 17 different ovens. To activate the release of volatile substances, the samples will be heated up to a temperature of 600 °C by the ovens, and these substances will be analyzed by scientific instruments such as a mass spectrometer, an isotopic analyzer, and micro-cameras, among other instruments. The DSSHS is capable of penetrating rocks with a hardness value of six, and it can be used for China's asteroid exploration mission in the foreseeable future.

  6. Dexamethasone sodium phosphate-loaded Chitosan based delivery systems for buccal application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pignatello, R; Stancampiano, A H S; Ventura, C A; Puglisi, G

    2007-11-01

    Chitosan (CH) was used as a biocompatible and bioadhesive polymer material to prepare solid dispersions as well as hydrogels loaded with dexamethasone sodium phosphate (DSP), a steroidal anti-inflammatory agent clinically used for treatment of different mouth diseases. Binary solid dispersions at various drug-to-polymer weight ratios were prepared by freeze-drying; their direct compression gave tablets which were characterized for the swelling behaviour and drug release in vitro. Similarly, DSP-loaded hydrogels composed of CH and glycerine were prepared and characterized. CH and DSP showed a good physical compatibility. A slow and prolonged release of the drug was observed in vitro from both kinds of systems. The swelling properties of the polymer seemed to be the main parameter affecting the drug release profile from both tablets and hydrogels at the pH value of mouth. In vivo buccal application of both the systems allowed to obtain a prolonged release of DSP, as compared with a glycerine solution of the drug. From the in vitro swelling studies and in vivo test, the 2:1 CH-DSP solid dispersion in particular can be designated for further investigation.

  7. Sodium outleakage detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casselman, C.

    1979-01-01

    Effective detection of outleakage from sodium facilities permits timely intervention capable of limiting the consequences of such leakage. Two types of detection systems are described: local and overall detection. The use of two independent systems in sodium facilities is recommended. (author)

  8. Modern Numerical Methods for Classical Sampled System Analysis-SAMSAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisch, H. P.

    1984-01-01

    SAMSAN aids control-system analyst by providing self-consistent set of computer algorithms that support large-order control-system design and evaluation studies, with emphasis placed on sampled system analysis. Program provides set of algorithms readily integrated for solving control-system problems.

  9. Numerical Methods for Classical Sampled-System Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisch, H. P.; Bauer, F. H.

    1986-01-01

    SAMSAN provides control-system analyst with self-consistent computer algorithms that support large-order control-system design and evaluation studies. Emphasizes sampled-system analysis. SAMSAN reduces burden on analyst by providing set of algorithms well tested and documented and readily integrated for solving control-system problems.

  10. Initial performance of the advanced inventory verification sample system (AVIS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marlow, Johnna B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Swinhoe, Martyn T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Menlove, Howard O [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rael, Carlos D [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the requirements, design and initial performance of the Advanced Inventory Verification Sample System (AVIS) a non-destructive assay (NDA) system to measure small samples of bulk mixed uranium-plutonium oxide (MOX) materials (powders and pellets). The AVIS design has evolved from previously developed conceptual physics and engineering designs for the Inventory Sample Verification System (INVS), a safeguards system for nondestructive assay of small samples. The AVIS is an integrated gamma-neutron system. Jointly designed by the Nuclear Material Control Center (NMCC) and the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), AVIS is intended to meet a performance specification of a total measurement uncertainty of less than 0.5% in the neutron ({sup 240}Pu{sub effective}) measurement. This will allow the AVIS to replace destructive chemical analysis for many samples, with concomitant cost, exposure and waste generation savings for the facility. Data taken to date confirming the performance of the AVIS is presented.

  11. Estimating the Optimal Dosage of Sodium Valproate in Idiopathic Generalized Epilepsy with Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayyeh Lotfi Noghabi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Epilepsy is a clinical syndrome in which seizures have a tendency to recur. Sodium valproate is the most effective drug in the treatment of all types of generalized seizures. Finding the optimal dosage (the lowest effective dose of sodium valproate is a real challenge to all neurologists. In this study, a new approach based on Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS was presented for estimating the optimal dosage of sodium valproate in IGE (Idiopathic Generalized Epilepsy patients. Methods: 40 patients with Idiopathic Generalized Epilepsy, who were referred to the neurology department of Mashhad University of Medical Sciences between the years 2006-2011, were included in this study. The function Adaptive Neuro- Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS constructs a Fuzzy Inference System (FIS whose membership function parameters are tuned (adjusted using either a back-propagation algorithm alone, or in combination with the least squares type of method (hybrid algorithm. In this study, we used hybrid method for adjusting the parameters. Methods: The R-square of the proposed system was %598 and the Pearson correlation coefficient was significant (P 0.05. Although the accuracy of the model was not high, it wasgood enough to be applied for treating the IGE patients with sodium valproate. Discussion: This paper presented a new application of ANFIS for estimating the optimal dosage of sodium valproate in IGE patients. Fuzzy set theory plays an important role in dealing with uncertainty when making decisions in medical applications. Collectively, it seems that ANFIS has a high capacity to be applied in medical sciences, especially neurology.

  12. On the sample transport time of a pneumatic transfer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Yoshihide

    1983-01-01

    The counts accumulated in measuring system are affected by the variations in transport time of the sample on cyclic activation experiments with a mechanical sample transfer system. In use of the pneumatic transfer system, which has been set up, the transport time is variable according to the differences as follows: The form, size and weight of samples, the pneumatic pressure and so on. Comprehending the relationships between the transpot time and these variable factors is essentially important to make experiments with this transfer system. (author)

  13. Ten Years of Advancing Sample Management Best Practices: The System for Earth Sample Registration (SESAR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, M.; Lehnert, K.

    2016-12-01

    Physical samples collected and curated as part of Earth science research represent both research resources and research products that need to be properly documented, shared, and cited. The System for Earth Sample Registration (SESAR) is a registry for Earth and environmental science samples operated as part of the IEDA Data Facility that supports discovery and access of samples by making sample metadata openly and persistently accessible on the web for both humans and machines, and by providing IGSNs as unique, persistent identifiers for samples that resolve to sample metadata profiles at SESAR and at other sample catalogs. SESAR was developed more than a decade ago, and was at the time the only Allocating Agent for the IGSN. Although the IGSN system now consists of a globally-distributed architecture with six Allocating Agents in three countries, SESAR remains the primary sample registration and metadata management system for many investigators and even repositories, even those from other countries with operating allocating agents, and provides unmatched services that support the sample curation workflow. In its ongoing effort to respond to the needs of its users, SESAR continues to upgrade its interfaces (web application MySESAR as the personal workspace and web services) and functionality. We will present an update on the most recent developments and most highly-used functionalities, including role-based access to MySESAR functionalities, grouping and sharing subsets of sample metadata, customizing and printing labels, and transferring ownership of sample metadata. In addition to its many functionalities, SESAR enforces a high-level of metadata quality control, which is made possible through a combination of automated validation procedures and data curator-expertise.

  14. Sodium fire suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malet, J.C.

    1979-01-01

    Ignition and combustion studies have provided valuable data and guidelines for sodium fire suppression research. The primary necessity is to isolate the oxidant from the fuel, rather than to attempt to cool the sodium below its ignition temperature. Work along these lines has led to the development of smothering tank systems and a dry extinguishing powder. Based on the results obtained, the implementation of these techniques is discussed with regard to sodium fire suppression in the Super-Phenix reactor. (author)

  15. Sodium Velocity Maps on Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, A. E.; Killen, R. M.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the current work was to measure two-dimensional maps of sodium velocities on the Mercury surface and examine the maps for evidence of sources or sinks of sodium on the surface. The McMath-Pierce Solar Telescope and the Stellar Spectrograph were used to measure Mercury spectra that were sampled at 7 milliAngstrom intervals. Observations were made each day during the period October 5-9, 2010. The dawn terminator was in view during that time. The velocity shift of the centroid of the Mercury emission line was measured relative to the solar sodium Fraunhofer line corrected for radial velocity of the Earth. The difference between the observed and calculated velocity shift was taken to be the velocity vector of the sodium relative to Earth. For each position of the spectrograph slit, a line of velocities across the planet was measured. Then, the spectrograph slit was stepped over the surface of Mercury at 1 arc second intervals. The position of Mercury was stabilized by an adaptive optics system. The collection of lines were assembled into an images of surface reflection, sodium emission intensities, and Earthward velocities over the surface of Mercury. The velocity map shows patches of higher velocity in the southern hemisphere, suggesting the existence of sodium sources there. The peak earthward velocity occurs in the equatorial region, and extends to the terminator. Since this was a dawn terminator, this might be an indication of dawn evaporation of sodium. Leblanc et al. (2008) have published a velocity map that is similar.

  16. Partitioning of L-methionine in aqueous two-phase systems containing poly(propylene glycol) and sodium phosphate salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salabat, Alireza, E-mail: a-salabat@araku.ac.ir [Chemistry Department, Arak University, P.O. Box 38156-879, Arak (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sadeghi, Rahmat [Department of Chemistry, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj, Kurdistan 66135 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moghadam, Somayeh Tiani [Chemistry Department, Arak University, P.O. Box 38156-879, Arak (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jamehbozorg, Bahman [Department of Chemistry, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj, Kurdistan 66135 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    Highlights: > Thermodynamics parameters for partitioning of L-methionine in ATPS. > Investigation of different effects on partition coefficient of the amino acid. > Propose the best condition for L-methionine partitioning. - Abstract: The partitioning behavior of L-methionine has been studied in aqueous two-phase systems of (poly(propylene glycol) + sodium phosphate salts + H{sub 2}O) at different temperatures. The salts used were sodium di-hydrogen phosphate (NaH{sub 2}PO{sub 4}), di-sodium hydrogen phosphate (Na{sub 2}HPO{sub 4}) and tri-sodium phosphate (Na{sub 3}PO{sub 4}). The effects of tie line length, salt type, and temperature on the partition coefficient of this amino acid have been studied. In addition, thermodynamic parameters ({Delta}H{sup o}, {Delta}S{sup o} and {Delta}G{sup o}) as a function of temperature were calculated. The results showed that increasing tie line length led to decreasing of the partition coefficient. We also showed that the partition coefficients of the amino acid in the systems containing Na{sub 3}PO{sub 4} are greater than the other two salts. Moreover, it is verified that increasing temperature led to decreasing the partition coefficient. The experimental partition coefficient data are correlated using a modified virial-type model.

  17. Partitioning of L-methionine in aqueous two-phase systems containing poly(propylene glycol) and sodium phosphate salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salabat, Alireza; Sadeghi, Rahmat; Moghadam, Somayeh Tiani; Jamehbozorg, Bahman

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Thermodynamics parameters for partitioning of L-methionine in ATPS. → Investigation of different effects on partition coefficient of the amino acid. → Propose the best condition for L-methionine partitioning. - Abstract: The partitioning behavior of L-methionine has been studied in aqueous two-phase systems of (poly(propylene glycol) + sodium phosphate salts + H 2 O) at different temperatures. The salts used were sodium di-hydrogen phosphate (NaH 2 PO 4 ), di-sodium hydrogen phosphate (Na 2 HPO 4 ) and tri-sodium phosphate (Na 3 PO 4 ). The effects of tie line length, salt type, and temperature on the partition coefficient of this amino acid have been studied. In addition, thermodynamic parameters (ΔH o , ΔS o and ΔG o ) as a function of temperature were calculated. The results showed that increasing tie line length led to decreasing of the partition coefficient. We also showed that the partition coefficients of the amino acid in the systems containing Na 3 PO 4 are greater than the other two salts. Moreover, it is verified that increasing temperature led to decreasing the partition coefficient. The experimental partition coefficient data are correlated using a modified virial-type model.

  18. Process and system for stirring liquid sodium flowing through the primary circuit of a steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabregue, J.P.

    1982-01-01

    The invention concerns the stirring of the liquid sodium of a steam generator comprising a primary circuit composed of an elongated vessel through which the liquid sodium flows, a secondary circuit composed of a number of tubes extending inside the long cyclindrical vessel. The process consists in imparting simultaneously to the liquid sodium, during its passage through the cylindrical vessel, a movement of continuous rotation about the longitudinal axis of the cylindrical vessel and an alternating series of radial movements, centripetal and centrifugal, in relation to the longitudinal axis, so that each unit quantity of the sodium comes into contact with a large number of tubes. The application particularly concerns steam generators for nuclear power stations [fr

  19. The Sodium/Multivitamin Transporter (SMVT): a Multipotent System With Therapeutic Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quick, Matthias; Shi, Lei

    2017-01-01

    The Na+/multivitamin transporter (SMVT) is a member of the Solute:Sodium Symporter (SSS) family, that catalyzes the Na+-dependent uptake of the structurally diverse water-soluble vitamins pantothenic acid (vitamin B5) and biotin (vitamin H), α-lipoic acid – a vitamin-like substance with strong anti-oxidant properties – and iodide. The organic substrates of SMVT play central roles in the cellular metabolism and are, therefore, essential for normal human health and development. For example, biotin deficiency leads to growth retardation, dermatological disorders, and neurological disorders. Animal studies have shown that biotin deficiency during pregnancy is directly correlated to embryonic growth retardation, congenital malformation, and death of the embryo. This chapter focuses on the structural and functional features of the human isoform of SMVT (hSMVT) the discovery of which was greatly facilitated by the cloning and expression of hSMVT in tractable expression systems. Special emphasis will be given to mechanistic implications of the transport process of hSMVT that will inform our understanding of the molecular determinants of hSMVT-mediated transport in dynamic context to alleviate the development and optimization of hSMVT as a multipotent platform for drug delivery. PMID:25817866

  20. The sodium/multivitamin transporter: a multipotent system with therapeutic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quick, Matthias; Shi, Lei

    2015-01-01

    The Na(+)/multivitamin transporter (SMVT) is a member of the solute:sodium symporter family that catalyzes the Na(+)-dependent uptake of the structurally diverse water-soluble vitamins pantothenic acid (vitamin B5) and biotin (vitamin H), α-lipoic acid-a vitamin-like substance with strong antioxidant properties-and iodide. The organic substrates of SMVT play central roles in the cellular metabolism and are, therefore, essential for normal human health and development. For example, biotin deficiency leads to growth retardation, dermatological disorders, and neurological disorders. Animal studies have shown that biotin deficiency during pregnancy is directly correlated to embryonic growth retardation, congenital malformation, and death of the embryo. This chapter focuses on the structural and functional features of the human isoform of SMVT (hSMVT); the discovery of which was greatly facilitated by the cloning and expression of hSMVT in tractable expression systems. Special emphasis will be given to mechanistic implications of the transport process of hSMVT that will inform our understanding of the molecular determinants of hSMVT-mediated transport in dynamic context to alleviate the development and optimization of hSMVT as a multipotent platform for drug delivery. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of sodium hypochlorite on typical biofilms formed in drinking water distribution systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Huirong; Zhu, Xuan; Wang, Yuxin; Yu, Xin

    2017-04-01

    Human health and biological safety problems resulting from urban drinking water pipe network biofilms pollution have attracted wide concern. Despite the inclusion of residual chlorine in drinking water distribution systems supplies, the bacterium is a recalcitrant human pathogen capable of forming biofilms on pipe walls and causing health risks. Typical drinking water bacterial biofilms and their response to different concentrations of chlorination was monitored. The results showed that the four bacteria all formed single biofilms susceptible to sodium hypochlorite. After 30 min disinfection, biomass and cultivability decreased with increasing concentration of disinfectant but then increased in high disinfectant doses. PMA-qPCR results indicated that it resulted in little cellular damage. Flow cytometry analysis showed that with increasing doses of disinfectant, the numbers of clusters increased and the sizes of clusters decreased. Under high disinfectant treatment, EPS was depleted by disinfectant and about 0.5-1 mg/L of residual chlorine seemed to be appropriate for drinking water treatment. This research provides an insight into the EPS protection to biofilms. Resistance of biofilms against high levels of chlorine has implications for the delivery of drinking water.

  2. A conductometric investigation of hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose/sodium dodecyl sulfate/nonionic surfactant systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Lidija B.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Surfactant mixtures are very often used in various cosmetic and pharmaceutical products because they commonly act in synergism and provide more favorable properties than the single surfactants. At the same time, the 9 presence of polymers in mixtures of surfactants may lead to molecular interactions thereby affecting product stability and activity. For these reasons it is very important to determine the surfactant interactions influence on 1micellization and mixed micellization, as well as polymer-surfactants mixed micelles interactions. In this work we examined self-aggregation of nonionic surfactants, polysorbate 20 (Tween 20, polyoxyethylene octylphenyl ether (Triton X100 and polyoxyethylene-polyoxypropylene block copolymer (Pluronic F68 with ionic surfactant, sodium dodecylsulfate, in aqueous solution at 40ºC using conductometric titration method. It was found that concentration region for mixed micelle formation depends on nonionic surfactant characteristics and its concentration. Formation of surfactants mixed micelles in the presence of nonionic polymer, hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose, and their binding to polymer hydrophobic sites, were investigated too. Analysis of obtained results points to different kinds of interactions in investigated systems, which are crucial for their application. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 46010

  3. System and method for measuring fluorescence of a sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riot, Vincent J

    2015-03-24

    The present disclosure provides a system and a method for measuring fluorescence of a sample. The sample may be a polymerase-chain-reaction (PCR) array, a loop-mediated-isothermal amplification array, etc. LEDs are used to excite the sample, and a photodiode is used to collect the sample's fluorescence. An electronic offset signal is used to reduce the effects of background fluorescence and the noises from the measurement system. An integrator integrates the difference between the output of the photodiode and the electronic offset signal over a given period of time. The resulting integral is then converted into digital domain for further processing and storage.

  4. System and method for measuring fluorescence of a sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riot, Vincent J.

    2017-06-27

    The present disclosure provides a system and a method for measuring fluorescence of a sample. The sample may be a polymerase-chain-reaction (PCR) array, a loop-mediated-isothermal amplification array, etc. LEDs are used to excite the sample, and a photodiode is used to collect the sample's fluorescence. An electronic offset signal is used to reduce the effects of background fluorescence and the noises from the measurement system. An integrator integrates the difference between the output of the photodiode and the electronic offset signal over a given period of time. The resulting integral is then converted into digital domain for further processing and storage.

  5. A Multi-Sample Standoff Multimodal Biometric System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barstow, Del R [ORNL; Patlolla, Dilip Reddy [ORNL; Mann, Christopher J [ORNL; Boehnen, Chris Bensing [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The data captured by existing standoff biometric systems typically has lower biometric recognition performance than their close range counterparts due to imaging challenges, pose challenges, and other factors. To assist in overcoming these limitations systems typically perform in a multi-modal capacity such as Honeywell s Combined Face and Iris (CFAIRS) [21] system. While this improves the systems performance, standoff systems have yet to be proven as accurate as their close range equivalents. We will present a standoff system capable of operating up to 7 meters in range. Unlike many systems such as the CFAIRS our system captures high quality 12 MP video allowing for a multi-sample as well as multi-modal comparison. We found that for standoff systems multi-sample improved performance more than multi-modal. For a small test group of 50 subjects we were able to achieve 100% rank one recognition performance with our system.

  6. System for Packaging Planetary Samples for Return to Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badescu, Mircea; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Backes, paul G.; Sherrit, Stewart; Bao, Xiaoqi; Scott, James S.

    2010-01-01

    A system is proposed for packaging material samples on a remote planet (especially Mars) in sealed sample tubes in preparation for later return to Earth. The sample tubes (Figure 1) would comprise (1) tubes initially having open tops and closed bottoms; (2) small, bellows-like collapsible bodies inside the tubes at their bottoms; and (3) plugs to be eventually used to close the tops of the tubes. The top inner surface of each tube would be coated with solder. The side of each plug, which would fit snugly into a tube, would feature a solder-filled ring groove. The system would include equipment for storing, manipulating, filling, and sealing the tubes. The containerization system (see Figure 2) will be organized in stations and will include: the storage station, the loading station, and the heating station. These stations can be structured in circular or linear pattern to minimize the manipulator complexity, allowing for compact design and mass efficiency. The manipulation of the sample tube between stations is done by a simple manipulator arm. The storage station contains the unloaded sample tubes and the plugs before sealing as well as the sealed sample tubes with samples after loading and sealing. The chambers at the storage station also allow for plug insertion into the sample tube. At the loading station the sample is poured or inserted into the sample tube and then the tube is topped off. At the heating station the plug is heated so the solder ring melts and seals the plug to the sample tube. The process is performed as follows: Each tube is filled or slightly overfilled with sample material and the excess sample material is wiped off the top. Then, the plug is inserted into the top section of the tube packing the sample material against the collapsible bellowslike body allowing the accommodation of the sample volume. The plug and the top of the tube are heated momentarily to melt the solder in order to seal the tube.

  7. Active Fault Diagnosis in Sampled-data Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2015-01-01

    The focus in this paper is on active fault diagnosis (AFD) in closed-loop sampleddata systems. Applying the same AFD architecture as for continuous-time systems does not directly result in the same set of closed-loop matrix transfer functions. For continuous-time systems, the LFT (linear fractional...... transformation) structure in the connection between the parametric faults and the matrix transfer function (also known as the fault signature matrix) applied for AFD is not directly preserved for sampled-data system. As a consequence of this, the AFD methods cannot directly be applied for sampled-data systems....... Two methods are considered in this paper to handle the fault signature matrix for sampled-data systems such that standard AFD methods can be applied. The first method is based on a discretization of the system such that the LFT structure is preserved resulting in the same LFT structure in the fault...

  8. Sodium Oxybate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium oxybate is used to prevent attacks of cataplexy (episodes of muscle weakness that begin suddenly and ... urge to sleep during daily activities, and cataplexy). Sodium oxybate is in a class of medications called ...

  9. Sodium Phosphate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium phosphate is used in adults 18 years of age or older to empty the colon (large intestine, bowel) ... view of the walls of the colon. Sodium phosphate is in a class of medications called saline ...

  10. Sodium fire protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raju, C.; Kale, R.D.

    1979-01-01

    Results of experiments carried out with sodium fires to develop extinguishment techniques are presented. Characteristics, ignition temperature, heat evolution and other aspects of sodium fires are described. Out of the powders tested for extinguishment of 10 Kg sodium fires, sodium bi-carbonate based dry chemical powder has been found to be the best extinguisher followed by large sized vermiculite and then calcium carbonate powders distributed by spray nozzles. Powders, however, do not extinguish large fires effectively due to sodium-concrete reaction. To control large scale fires in a LMFBR, collection trays with protective cover have been found to cause oxygen starvation better than flooding with inert gas. This system has an added advantage in that there is no damage to the sodium facilities as has been in the case of powders which often contain chlorine compounds and cause stress corrosion cracking. (M.G.B.)

  11. Water and steam sampling systems; Provtagningssystem foer vatten och aanga

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellman, Mats

    2009-10-15

    The supervision of cycle chemistry can be divided into two parts, the sampling system and the chemical analysis. In modern steam generating plants most of the chemical analyses are carried out on-line. The detection limits of these analyzers are pushed downward to the ppt-range (parts per trillion), however the analyses are not more correct than the accuracy of the sampling system. A lot of attention has been put to the analyzers and the statistics to interpret the results but the sampling procedures has gained much less attention. This report aims to give guidance of the considerations to be made regarding sampling systems. Sampling is necessary since most analysis of interesting parameters cannot be carried out in- situ on-line in the steam cycle. Today's on-line instruments for pH, conductivity, silica etc. are designed to meet a water sample at a temperature of 10-30 deg C. This means that the sampling system has to extract a representative sample from the process, transport and cool it down to room temperature without changing the characteristics of the fluid. In the literature research work, standards and other reports can be found. Although giving similar recommendations in most aspects there are some discrepancies that may be confusing. This report covers all parts in the sampling system: Sample points and nozzles; Sample lines; Valves, regulating and on-off; Sample coolers; Temperature, pressure and flow rate control; Cooling water; and Water recovery. On-line analyzers connecting to the sampling system are not covered. This report aims to clarify what guidelines are most appropriate amongst the existing ones. The report should also give guidance to the design of the sampling system in order to achieve representative samples. In addition to this the report gives an overview of the fluid mechanics involved in sampling. The target group of this report is owners and operators of steam generators, vendors of power plant equipment, consultants working in

  12. Non-Contact Conductivity Measurement for Automated Sample Processing Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beegle, Luther W.; Kirby, James P.

    2012-01-01

    A new method has been developed for monitoring and control of automated sample processing and preparation especially focusing on desalting of samples before analytical analysis (described in more detail in Automated Desalting Apparatus, (NPO-45428), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 34, No. 8 (August 2010), page 44). The use of non-contact conductivity probes, one at the inlet and one at the outlet of the solid phase sample preparation media, allows monitoring of the process, and acts as a trigger for the start of the next step in the sequence (see figure). At each step of the muti-step process, the system is flushed with low-conductivity water, which sets the system back to an overall low-conductivity state. This measurement then triggers the next stage of sample processing protocols, and greatly minimizes use of consumables. In the case of amino acid sample preparation for desalting, the conductivity measurement will define three key conditions for the sample preparation process. First, when the system is neutralized (low conductivity, by washing with excess de-ionized water); second, when the system is acidified, by washing with a strong acid (high conductivity); and third, when the system is at a basic condition of high pH (high conductivity). Taken together, this non-contact conductivity measurement for monitoring sample preparation will not only facilitate automation of the sample preparation and processing, but will also act as a way to optimize the operational time and use of consumables

  13. Use of robotic systems for radiochemical sample changing and for analytical sample preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delmastro, J.R.; Hartenstein, S.D.; Wade, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    Two uses of the Perkin-Elmer (PE) robotic system will be presented. In the first, a PE robot functions as an automatic sample changer for up to five low energy photon spectrometry (LEPS) detectors operated with a Nuclear Data ND 6700 system. The entire system, including the robot, is controlled by an IBM PC-AT using software written in compiled BASIC. Problems associated with the development of the system and modifications to the robot will be presented. In the second, an evaluation study was performed to assess the abilities of the PE robotic system for performing complex analytical sample preparation procedures. For this study, a robotic system based upon the PE robot and auxiliary devices was constructed and programmed to perform the preparation of final product samples (UO 3 ) for accountability and impurity specification analyses. These procedures require sample dissolution, dilution, and liquid-liquid extraction steps. The results of an in-depth evaluation of all system components will be presented

  14. Ibuprofen analysis in blood samples by palladium particles-impregnated sodium montmorillonite electrodes: Validation using high performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loudiki, A; Boumya, W; Hammani, H; Nasrellah, H; El Bouabi, Y; Zeroual, M; Farahi, A; Lahrich, S; Hnini, K; Achak, M; Bakasse, M; El Mhammedi, M A

    2016-12-01

    The electrochemical detection of ibuprofen has been studied on Palladium-Montmorillonite (Mt) modified carbon paste electrode using differential pulse voltammetry. The optimization of the modifier preparation and the instrumental parameters was investigated. The results indicate that ibuprofen oxidation was favored in the presence of Pd-PdO particles. The quantitative determination of ibuprofen was statistically analyzed and validated using HPLC method. The detection and quantification limits, specificity and precision were found to be acceptable. Finally, the developed method was successfully applied for ibuprofen determination in human blood samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Antioxidant defense system state in blood plasma and heart muscle of rats under the influence of histamine and sodium hypoclorite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. I. Bishko

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a wide spectrum of antihistamine drugs in the pharmaceutical market, however all these chemical preparations cause side effects. Therefore, new alternative ways for histamine detoxication are to be found. For this aim in our experiment sodium hypochlorite was used because its solution possesses strong oxidizing properties. The influence of histamine and sodium hypochlorite on the antioxidant defence system state of blood plasma and cardiac muscle in rats has been researched. It was shown, that the investigated factors result in the disruption of the antioxidant system. It was found that histamine injection in concentration of 1 and 8 μg/kg in plasma leads to the increase of superoxi­de dismutase activity during all the experiment. When studying enzymes, that catalyze hydroperoxides and Н2О2 decomposition it was shown that under the influence of histamine in a dose 1 μg/kg, the glutathione peroxidase activity increased on the 1st day of the experiment. However, on the 7th day of the experiment the increase of both glutathione peroxidase and catalase activity was fixed. The deviation in superoxide dismutase function in rats plasma under the action of sodium hypochlorite has been established. The activity of enzymes that decompose Н2О2 and hydroperoxides were inhibi­ted. Under the influence of histamine in the heart tissues we have stated the disturbance of superoxide dismutase work and increase of catalase activity and decrease of glutathione peroxidase activity. The influence of sodium hypochlorite on the myocardium of intact animals as well as joint influence of sodium hypochlorite and histamine result in the increase of superoxide dismutase and catalase activity and lead to the conside­rable decline of activity of glutathione peroxidase.

  16. Apical extrusion of sodium hypochlorite using different root canal irrigation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Ross P; Baumgartner, J Craig; Sedgley, Christine M

    2011-12-01

    Root canal irrigation carries a risk of extrusion of irrigant into the periapical tissues. The objective of this study was to compare different irrigation systems in matched pairs of teeth prepared to an apical size of 35.06 and 50.06 by measuring the frequency and extent of apical extrusion of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) into a simulated periapical environment. The null hypothesis was tested that there is no difference between systems. Bilaterally matched pairs (n = 10) of single-canal extracted human anterior teeth were instrumented to an apical size of either 35.06 or 50.06. Teeth were embedded in a gel containing the pH-sensitive dye M-cresol purple that changes from yellow at pH 7.4 to purple at pH 9. Root canals were irrigated with 6% NaOCl (pH 11) by using EndoActivator (EA), EndoVac (EV), Rispi-Sonic/MicroMega 1500 (MM), passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI), and syringe irrigation with a slot-tipped needle (SN), so that each tooth underwent all irrigation procedures in a randomized crossover design. Apical extrusion was evaluated by image analyses. The frequency of extrusion was less in teeth with apical preparation size 35.06 (36%) compared with 50.06 (60%) (P = .014) and was dependent on the irrigation system in 35.06 (P = .039) but not 50.06 groups. In the 35.06 group the frequency of extrusion was less for EV than for MM and SN (both P = .029). The extent of extrusion was less for MM compared with PUI (P = .024) and SN (P = .046) in the 35.06 group and greater for SN compared with all other systems in the 50.06 group (P root canal irrigation system and apical preparation size. The extent of extrusion depended on the irrigation system, with syringe and slotted-needle irrigation resulting in the greatest extent of extrusion. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Preformulation studies and optimization of sodium alginate based floating drug delivery system for eradication of Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diós, Péter; Nagy, Sándor; Pál, Szilárd; Pernecker, Tivadar; Kocsis, Béla; Budán, Ferenc; Horváth, Ildikó; Szigeti, Krisztián; Bölcskei, Kata; Máthé, Domokos; Dévay, Attila

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to design a local, floating, mucoadhesive drug delivery system containing metronidazole for Helicobacter pylori eradication. Face-centered central composite design (with three factors, in three levels) was used for evaluation and optimization of in vitro floating and dissolution studies. Sodium alginate (X1), low substituted hydroxypropyl cellulose (L-HPC B1, X2) and sodium bicarbonate (X3) concentrations were the independent variables in the development of effervescent floating tablets. All tablets showed acceptable physicochemical properties. Statistical analysis revealed that tablets with 5.00% sodium alginate, 38.63% L-HPC B1 and 8.45% sodium bicarbonate content showed promising in vitro floating and dissolution properties for further examinations. Optimized floating tablets expressed remarkable floating force. Their in vitro dissolution studies were compared with two commercially available non-floating metronidazole products and then microbiologically detected dissolution, ex vivo detachment force, rheological mucoadhesion studies and compatibility studies were carried out. Remarkable similarity (f1, f2) between in vitro spectrophotometrically and microbiologically detected dissolutions was found. Studies revealed significant ex vivo mucoadhesion of optimized tablets, which was considerably increased by L-HPC. In vivo X-ray CT studies of optimized tablets showed 8h gastroretention in rats represented by an animation prepared by special CT technique. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. A large-scale cryoelectronic system for biological sample banking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirley, Stephen G.; Durst, Christopher H. P.; Fuchs, Christian C.; Zimmermann, Heiko; Ihmig, Frank R.

    2009-11-01

    We describe a polymorphic electronic infrastructure for managing biological samples stored over liquid nitrogen. As part of this system we have developed new cryocontainers and carrier plates attached to Flash memory chips to have a redundant and portable set of data at each sample. Our experimental investigations show that basic Flash operation and endurance is adequate for the application down to liquid nitrogen temperatures. This identification technology can provide the best sample identification, documentation and tracking that brings added value to each sample. The first application of the system is in a worldwide collaborative research towards the production of an AIDS vaccine. The functionality and versatility of the system can lead to an essential optimization of sample and data exchange for global clinical studies.

  19. Microleakage evaluation of adhesive systems following pulp chamber irrigation with sodium hypochlorite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddas, Mohammad Javad; Moosavi, Horieh; Ghavamnasiri, Marjaneh

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims. This in vitro study evaluated the effect of delaying composite resin restorative procedures bonded with total-etch and self-etch adhesive systems on microleakage following root canal irrigation with sodium hy-pochlorite (NaOCl) solution. Materials and methods. The roofs of pulp chambers and roots (1–2 mm below furcation) of 40 human first molar teeth were cut and pulp tissues completely removed. The teeth were randomly divided into two main groups (n = 20). Group E (experimental) was irrigated with 5% NaOCl and group C (control) was left untreated. For the experimental group, after obturation of root canals with gutta-percha and sealing the cavity with Cavit, the specimens were stored in artificialsaliva for two weeks. Then each group was divided into two subgroups according to the total-etch or self-etch adhesive application protocol: Scotchbond Multi-Purpose and Clearfil SE Bond. The specimens were restored with composite resin using each bonding agent: Z250 and Clearfil Photo Core, respectively. Fluid filtration method was used for evaluation of microleakage. Data was analyzed using two-way ANOVA ( α= 0.05). Results. Two types of dentin adhesive systems showed no statistically significant differences in microleakage (P = 0.77). NaOCl-treated groups demonstrated significantly higher microleakage values compared to the non-NaOCl-treated groups (P= 0.001). The interaction between the two factors was not significant (P = 0.78). Conclusion. Differences in inlay temperature had no effect on microleakage. CAD/CAM inlays had lower cement thick-ness than laboratory-made inlays, but this was not related to their microleakage.

  20. Microleakage Evaluation of Adhesive Systems Following Pulp Chamber Irrigation with Sodium Hypochlorite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Javad Moghaddas

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. This in vitro study evaluated the effect of delaying composite resin restorative procedures bonded with total-etch and self-etch adhesive systems on microleakage following root canal irrigation with sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl solution. Materials and methods. The roofs of pulp chambers and roots (1–2 mm below furcation of 40 human first molar teeth were cut and pulp tissues completely removed. The teeth were randomly divided into two main groups (n = 20. Group E (experimental was irrigated with 5% NaOCl and group C (control was left untreated. For the experimental group, after obturation of root canals with gutta-percha and sealing the cavity with Cavit, the specimens were stored in artificial saliva for two weeks. Then each group was divided into two subgroups according to the total-etch or self-etch adhesive application protocol: Scotchbond Multi-Purpose and Clearfil SE Bond. The specimens were restored with composite resin using each bonding agent: Z250 and Clearfil Photo Core, respectively. Fluid filtration method was used for evaluation of microleakage. Data was analyzed using two-way ANOVA (α = 0.05. Results. Two types of dentin adhesive systems showed no statistically significant differences in microleakage (P = 0.77. NaOCl-treated groups demonstrated significantly higher microleakage values compared to the non-NaOCl-treated groups (P = 0.001. The interaction between the two factors was not significant (P = 0.78. Conclusion. Differences in inlay temperature had no effect on microleakage. CAD/CAM inlays had lower cement thickness than laboratory-made inlays, but this was not related to their microleakage.

  1. Trichloroethylene oxidation performance in sodium percarbonate (SPC)/Fe2+ system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Xueke; Gu, Xiaogang; Lu, Shuguang; Qiu, Zhaofu; Sui, Qian; Lin, Kuangfei; Du, Xiaoming

    2014-01-01

    In this study, in-situ chemical oxidation technique employing Fe(II) catalytic sodium percarbonate (SPC) to stimulate the oxidation of trichloroethylene (TCE) in contaminated groundwater remediation was investigated. The effects of various factors including the SPC/TCE/Fe2+ molar ratio, the initial solution pH and the widely found constituents in groundwater matrix such as Cl(-), HCO3(-), SO4(2-) and NO3(-) anions and natural organic matters were evaluated. The experimental results showed that TCE could be completely oxidized in 5 min at 20 degrees C with a SPC/TCE/Fe2+ molar ratio of 5:1:10, indicating the significant effectiveness of the SPC/Fe2+ system for TCE removal. The initial solution pH value (from 3 to 11) has less influence on TCE oxidation rate. In contrast, Cl(-) and HCO3(-) anions had a negative effect on TCE removal in which HCO3(-) possesses a stronger influence than Cl(-), whereas the effects of both SO4(2-) and NO3(-) anions appeared to be negligible. With the 1.0-10 mg/L concentrations of humic acid in solution, slightly inhibitive effect was observed, suggesting that dissolved organic matters consumed less SPC and had a negligible effect on the oxidation of TCE in SPC/Fe2+ system. From the intermediate products' analyses and the released Cl(-) contents from TCE parent contaminant in solution, all the decomposed TCE had completely dechlorinated and led to carbon dioxide and hydrocarbon. In conclusion, Fe(II) catalytic SPC oxidation is a highly promising technique for TCE-contaminated groundwater remediation, but some complex constituents such as HCO3(-), in in-situ groundwater matrix should be carefully considered for its practical application.

  2. A Comet Surface Sample Return System, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed Phase II investigation will focus on the development of spacecraft systems required to obtain a sample from the nucleus of a comet, hermetically seal...

  3. Sample Management System for Heavy Ion Irradiation, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A robotic sample management device and system for the exposure of biological and material specimens to heavy ion beams of the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL)...

  4. Sample Management System for Heavy Ion Irradiation, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A robotic sample management device and system for the exposure of biological and material specimens to heavy ion beams of the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL)...

  5. Importance sampling of rare events in chaotic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leitão, Jorge C.; Parente Lopes, João M.Viana; Altmann, Eduardo G.

    2017-01-01

    Finding and sampling rare trajectories in dynamical systems is a difficult computational task underlying numerous problems and applications. In this paper we show how to construct Metropolis-Hastings Monte-Carlo methods that can efficiently sample rare trajectories in the (extremely rough) phase ...

  6. Identification of continuous-time systems from samples of input ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. This paper presents an introductory survey ofthe methodsthat have been developed for identification of continuous-time systems from samples of input-output data. The two basic approaches may be described as. the indirect method, where first a discrete-time model is estimated from the sampled data and then an ...

  7. Implications of sampling design and sample size for national carbon accounting systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhl, Michael; Lister, Andrew; Scott, Charles T; Baldauf, Thomas; Plugge, Daniel

    2011-11-08

    Countries willing to adopt a REDD regime need to establish a national Measurement, Reporting and Verification (MRV) system that provides information on forest carbon stocks and carbon stock changes. Due to the extensive areas covered by forests the information is generally obtained by sample based surveys. Most operational sampling approaches utilize a combination of earth-observation data and in-situ field assessments as data sources. We compared the cost-efficiency of four different sampling design alternatives (simple random sampling, regression estimators, stratified sampling, 2-phase sampling with regression estimators) that have been proposed in the scope of REDD. Three of the design alternatives provide for a combination of in-situ and earth-observation data. Under different settings of remote sensing coverage, cost per field plot, cost of remote sensing imagery, correlation between attributes quantified in remote sensing and field data, as well as population variability and the percent standard error over total survey cost was calculated. The cost-efficiency of forest carbon stock assessments is driven by the sampling design chosen. Our results indicate that the cost of remote sensing imagery is decisive for the cost-efficiency of a sampling design. The variability of the sample population impairs cost-efficiency, but does not reverse the pattern of cost-efficiency of the individual design alternatives. Our results clearly indicate that it is important to consider cost-efficiency in the development of forest carbon stock assessments and the selection of remote sensing techniques. The development of MRV-systems for REDD need to be based on a sound optimization process that compares different data sources and sampling designs with respect to their cost-efficiency. This helps to reduce the uncertainties related with the quantification of carbon stocks and to increase the financial benefits from adopting a REDD regime.

  8. Vapour pressures, densities, and viscosities of the (water + lithium bromide + potassium acetate) system and (water + lithium bromide + sodium lactate) system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, Antonio de; Donate, Marina; Rodriguez, Juan F.

    2006-01-01

    Measurements of thermophysical properties (vapour pressure, density, and viscosity) of the (water + lithium bromide + potassium acetate) system LiBr:CH 3 COOK = 2:1 by mass ratio and the (water + lithium bromide + sodium lactate) system LiBr:CH 3 CH(OH)COONa = 2:1 by mass ratio were measured. The system, a possible new working fluid for absorption heat pump, consists of absorbent (LiBr + CH 3 COOK) or (LiBr + CH 3 CH(OH)COONa) and refrigerant H 2 O. The vapour pressures were measured in the ranges of temperature and absorbent concentration from T = (293.15 to 333.15) K and from mass fraction 0.20 to 0.50, densities and viscosities were measured from T = (293.15 to 323.15) K and from mass fraction 0.20 to 0.40. The experimental data were correlated with an Antoine-type equation. Densities and viscosities were measured in the same range of temperature and absorbent concentration as that of the vapour pressure. Regression equations for densities and viscosities were obtained with a minimum mean square error criterion

  9. Vapour pressures, densities, and viscosities of the (water + lithium bromide + potassium acetate) system and (water + lithium bromide + sodium lactate) system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucas, Antonio de [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Castilla - La Mancha, Avda. de Camilo Jose Cela s/n, 13004 Ciudad Real (Spain); Donate, Marina [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Castilla - La Mancha, Avda. de Camilo Jose Cela s/n, 13004 Ciudad Real (Spain); Rodriguez, Juan F. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Castilla - La Mancha, Avda. de Camilo Jose Cela s/n, 13004 Ciudad Real (Spain)]. E-mail: juan.rromero@uclm.es

    2006-02-15

    Measurements of thermophysical properties (vapour pressure, density, and viscosity) of the (water + lithium bromide + potassium acetate) system LiBr:CH{sub 3}COOK = 2:1 by mass ratio and the (water + lithium bromide + sodium lactate) system LiBr:CH{sub 3}CH(OH)COONa = 2:1 by mass ratio were measured. The system, a possible new working fluid for absorption heat pump, consists of absorbent (LiBr + CH{sub 3}COOK) or (LiBr + CH{sub 3}CH(OH)COONa) and refrigerant H{sub 2}O. The vapour pressures were measured in the ranges of temperature and absorbent concentration from T = (293.15 to 333.15) K and from mass fraction 0.20 to 0.50, densities and viscosities were measured from T = (293.15 to 323.15) K and from mass fraction 0.20 to 0.40. The experimental data were correlated with an Antoine-type equation. Densities and viscosities were measured in the same range of temperature and absorbent concentration as that of the vapour pressure. Regression equations for densities and viscosities were obtained with a minimum mean square error criterion.

  10. Effects of Dietary Sodium Restriction in Kidney Transplant Recipients Treated With Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System Blockade: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Laura V; Dobrowolski, Linn C; van den Bosch, Jacqueline J O N; Riphagen, Ineke J; Krediet, C T Paul; Bemelman, Frederike J; Bakker, Stephan J L; Navis, Gerjan

    2016-06-01

    In patients with chronic kidney disease receiving renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) blockade, dietary sodium restriction is an often-used treatment strategy to reduce blood pressure (BP) and albuminuria. Whether these effects extend to kidney transplant recipients is unknown. We therefore studied the effects of dietary sodium restriction on BP and urinary albumin excretion (UAE) in kidney transplant recipients receiving RAAS blockade. Two-center randomized crossover trial. Stable outpatient kidney transplant recipients with creatinine clearance > 30mL/min, BP ≥120/80mmHg, receiving stable RAAS blockade therapy. 6-week regular-sodium diet (target, 150mmol/24 h) and a 6-week low-sodium diet (target, 50mmol/24 h). Main outcome parameters were systolic and diastolic BP, UAE, and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) at the end of each diet period. Dietary adherence was assessed by 24-hour urinary sodium excretion. We randomly assigned 23 kidney transplant recipients, of whom 22 (mean age, 58±8 [SD] years; 50% men; mean eGFR, 51±21mL/min/1.73m(2)) completed the study. One patient withdrew from the study because of concerns regarding orthostatic hypotension on the low-sodium diet. Sodium excretion decreased from 164±50mmol/24 h during the regular-sodium diet to 87±55mmol/24 h during the low-sodium diet (mean difference, -77 [95% CI, -110 to -44] mmol/24 h; Padherence to sodium diet was achieved in 86% of patients. In stable kidney transplant recipients receiving RAAS blockade, dietary sodium restriction effectively reduces BP without affecting eGFR. Dietary sodium restriction is relevant to BP management in kidney transplant recipients receiving RAAS blockade. Copyright © 2016 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Sample Acquisition and Handling System from a Remote Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badescu, Mircea; Sherrit, Stewart; Jones, Jack A.

    2011-01-01

    A system has been developed to acquire and handle samples from a suspended remote platform. The system includes a penetrator, a penetrator deployment mechanism, and a sample handler. A gravity-driven harpoon sampler was used for the system, but other solutions can be used to supply the penetration energy, such as pyrotechnic, pressurized gas, or springs. The deployment mechanism includes a line that is attached to the penetrator, a spool for reeling in the line, and a line engagement control mechanism. The penetrator has removable tips that can collect liquid, ice, or solid samples. The handling mechanism consists of a carousel that can store a series of identical or different tips, assist in penetrator reconfiguration for multiple sample acquisition, and deliver the sample to a series of instruments for analysis. The carousel sample handling system was combined with a brassboard reeling mechanism and a penetrator with removable tips. It can attach the removable tip to the penetrator, release and retrieve the penetrator, remove the tip, and present it to multiple instrument stations. The penetrator can be remotely deployed from an aerobot, penetrate and collect the sample, and be retrieved with the sample to the aerobot. The penetrator with removable tips includes sample interrogation windows and a sample retainment spring for unconsolidated samples. The line engagement motor can be used to control the penetrator release and reeling engagement, and to evenly distribute the line on the spool by rocking between left and right ends of the spool. When the arm with the guiding ring is aligned with the spool axis, the line is free to unwind from the spool without rotating the spool. When the arm is perpendicular to the spool axis, the line can move only if the spool rotates.

  12. Upper Gastrointestinal System Bleeding Associated with Mallory-Weiss Syndrome in a Patient with Prosthetic Mitral Valve Using Warfarin Sodium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banu Şahin Yıldız

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Mallory-Weiss syndrome refers to bleeding from tears in the mucosa at the junction of the stomach and esophagus. Bleeding has been recognised as the major treatment-limiting complication in patients with prosthetic mitral valve using anticoagulant treatment. We report that upper gastrointestinal system bleeding associated with Mallory-Weiss syndrome in patient with prosthetic mitral valve using warfarin sodium.

  13. Estimating the Optimal Dosage of Sodium Valproate in Idiopathic Generalized Epilepsy with Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Hooshang Mohammadpour

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is a clinical syndrome in which seizures have a tendency to recur. Sodium valproate is the most effective drug in the treatment of all types of generalized seizures. Finding the optimal dosage (The lowest effective dose of sodium valproate is a real challenge to all neurologists. In this study, a new approach based on Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS was presented for estimating the optimal dosage of sodium valproate in IGE patients.   40 patients with Idiopathic Generalized Epilepsy, who were referred to the neurology department of Mashhad University of Medical Sciences between the years 2006-2011,were included in this study. The function Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS constructs a Fuzzy Inference System (FIS whose membership function parameters are tuned (adjusted using either a back-propagation algorithm alone, or in combination with a least squares type of method (hybrid algorithm. In this study, we usedhybrid method for adjusting the parameters.The R-square of the proposed system was %598 and thePearson correlation coefficient was significant (P 0.05 . Although the accuracy of the model was not high, it wasgood enough to be applied for treating the IGE patients with sodium valproate. This paper presented a new application of ANFIS for estimating the optimal dosage of s odium valproate in IGE patients. Fuzzy set theory plays an important role in dealing with uncertainty when making decisions in medical applications. Collectively, it seems that ANFIS has a high capacity to be applied in medical sciences, especially neurology.

  14. Comparison between ammonia/ammonium sulphate system and sodium chloride in the uranium re-extraction in hydrometallurgic process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brito, J. de; Bruno, J.B.; Conceicao, E.L.H.

    1984-01-01

    The solution systems of ammonia/ammonium sulphate and sodium chloride are compared in the uranium re-extraction. The uranium is presented in organic solvents and the liquid/liquid separation process is used. The results of sulphuric ore lixivium are presented and 0,55g of U 3 O 8 /l are analysed in bench scale and pilot standard, to obtain uranium concentrate. (M.A.C.) [pt

  15. Physical models of mass transport of iron and nickel in liquid sodium systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, B.S.J.; Polley, M.V.; Skyrme, G.

    1975-12-01

    Experimental observations on corrosion of pure iron and nickel specimens in non-isothermal loops containing flowing sodium have been used to derive values of the concentration of dissolved material at the entrance to the test section and diffusion coefficients of the test material in sodium. The former values differ from the saturation value by only 10 -3 ppm, which is small compared to currently recommended solubility values. The phenomenon cannot be explained in terms of circulating particles. Two other possible explanations are also dismissed. The diffusion coefficient values are consistent with the corroding species being atoms, or molecules containing a few atoms. It is also shown that the observations are better explained in terms of boundary layer controlled mass transfer, rather than a surface controlled process. A computer model based on an alternative solubility relationship is shown to produce results which describe well the observed variation of corrosion rate with oxygen concentration, sodium velocity and downstream position. (author)

  16. Sodium nitrite induces acute central nervous system toxicity in guinea pigs exposed to systemic cell-free hemoglobin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buehler, Paul W.; Butt, Omer I. [Laboratory of Biochemistry and Vascular Biology, Division of Hematology, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, Bethesda, MD (United States); D' Agnillo, Felice, E-mail: felice.dagnillo@fda.hhs.gov [Laboratory of Biochemistry and Vascular Biology, Division of Hematology, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2011-06-10

    Highlights: {yields} Toxicological implications associated with the use of NaNO{sub 2} therapy to treat systemic cell-free Hb exposure are not well-defined. {yields} Systemic Hb exposure followed by NaNO{sub 2} infusion induces acute CNS toxicities in guinea pigs. {yields} These CNS effects were not reproduced by the infusion of cell-free Hb or NaNO{sub 2} alone. {yields} NaNO{sub 2}-mediated oxidation of cell-free Hb may play a causative role in the observed CNS changes. -- Abstract: Systemic cell-free hemoglobin (Hb) released via hemolysis disrupts vascular homeostasis, in part, through the scavenging of nitric oxide (NO). Sodium nitrite (NaNO{sub 2}) therapy can attenuate the hypertensive effects of Hb. However, the chemical reactivity of NaNO{sub 2} with Hb may enhance heme- or iron-mediated toxicities. Here, we investigate the effect of NaNO{sub 2} on the central nervous system (CNS) in guinea pigs exposed to systemic cell-free Hb. Intravascular infusion of NaNO{sub 2}, at doses sufficient to alleviate Hb-mediated blood pressure changes, reduced the expression of occludin, but not zona occludens-1 (ZO-1) or claudin-5, in cerebral tight junctions 4 h after Hb infusion. This was accompanied by increased perivascular heme oxygenase-1 expression, neuronal iron deposition, increased astrocyte and microglial activation, and reduced expression of neuron-specific nuclear protein (NeuN). These CNS changes were not observed in animals treated with Hb or NaNO{sub 2} alone. Taken together, these findings suggest that the use of nitrite salts to treat systemic Hb exposure may promote acute CNS toxicity.

  17. Sodium nitrite induces acute central nervous system toxicity in guinea pigs exposed to systemic cell-free hemoglobin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buehler, Paul W.; Butt, Omer I.; D'Agnillo, Felice

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Toxicological implications associated with the use of NaNO 2 therapy to treat systemic cell-free Hb exposure are not well-defined. → Systemic Hb exposure followed by NaNO 2 infusion induces acute CNS toxicities in guinea pigs. → These CNS effects were not reproduced by the infusion of cell-free Hb or NaNO 2 alone. → NaNO 2 -mediated oxidation of cell-free Hb may play a causative role in the observed CNS changes. -- Abstract: Systemic cell-free hemoglobin (Hb) released via hemolysis disrupts vascular homeostasis, in part, through the scavenging of nitric oxide (NO). Sodium nitrite (NaNO 2 ) therapy can attenuate the hypertensive effects of Hb. However, the chemical reactivity of NaNO 2 with Hb may enhance heme- or iron-mediated toxicities. Here, we investigate the effect of NaNO 2 on the central nervous system (CNS) in guinea pigs exposed to systemic cell-free Hb. Intravascular infusion of NaNO 2 , at doses sufficient to alleviate Hb-mediated blood pressure changes, reduced the expression of occludin, but not zona occludens-1 (ZO-1) or claudin-5, in cerebral tight junctions 4 h after Hb infusion. This was accompanied by increased perivascular heme oxygenase-1 expression, neuronal iron deposition, increased astrocyte and microglial activation, and reduced expression of neuron-specific nuclear protein (NeuN). These CNS changes were not observed in animals treated with Hb or NaNO 2 alone. Taken together, these findings suggest that the use of nitrite salts to treat systemic Hb exposure may promote acute CNS toxicity.

  18. Study of the Na-C-O and Na-H-O ternary systems in the sodium rich corner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maupre, J.-P.

    1978-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to provide a contribution to the understanding of the sodium - carbon - oxygen and sodium - hydrogen - oxygen ternary systems in the sodium rich corner. In order to do this the Na-NaH-Na 2 O-NaOH phase diagram was completed and the Na-Na 2 O-Na 2 CO 3 -C phase diagram was outlined. This work is made up of two parts. The first is devoted to a critical literature survey essential to establish correct phase diagrams. The second is an experimental study followed by a discussion collating our finding to the literary data. The basic experimental technique used is differential thermal analysis (DTA) but it has been completed by quenching, X-ray and chemical analysis methods. The proposed phase diagrams imply that Na-NaH-Na 2 O-NaOH and Na-Na 2 O-Na 2 CO 3 -C systems are reciprocal ternary systems. Temperatures of stable pairs reversal are respectively 410 and 690 0 C. The stable pairs are Na-NaOH and Na-Na 2 CO 3 at elevated temperature, Na 2 O-NaH and Na 2 O-C at low temperature [fr

  19. A computational model for the carbon transfer in stainless steel sodium systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casadio, S.; Scibona, G.

    1980-01-01

    A method is proposed of computing the carbon transfer in the type 316, 304 and 321 stainless steels in sodium environment as a function of temperature, exposure time and carbon concentration in the sodium. The method is based on the criteria developed at ANL by introducing some simplifications and takes also into account the correlations obtained at WARD. Calculated carbon profiles are compared both with experimental data and with the results available by the other computer methods. The limits for quantitative predictions of the stainless steel carburization or decarburization exposed in a specific environment are discussed. (author)

  20. Microscopic diagnosis of sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin-fixed stool samples for helminths and intestinal protozoa: a comparison among European reference laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utzinger, J; Botero-Kleiven, S; Castelli, F; Chiodini, P L; Edwards, H; Köhler, N; Gulletta, M; Lebbad, M; Manser, M; Matthys, B; N'Goran, E K; Tannich, E; Vounatsou, P; Marti, H

    2010-03-01

    The present study aimed to compare the diagnostic performance of different European reference laboratories in diagnosing helminths and intestinal protozoa, using an ether-concentration method applied to sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin (SAF)-preserved faecal samples. In total, 102 stool specimens were analysed during a cross-sectional parasitological survey in urban farming communities in Côte d'Ivoire. Five SAF-preserved faecal samples were prepared from each specimen and forwarded to the participating reference laboratories, processed and examined under a microscope adhering to a standard operating procedure (SOP). Schistosoma mansoni (cumulative prevalence: 51.0%) and hookworm (cumulative prevalence: 39.2%) were the predominant helminths. There was excellent agreement (kappa > 0.8; p protozoa were Entamoeba coli (median prevalence: 67.6%), Blastocystis hominis (median prevalence: 55.9%) and Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar (median prevalence: 47.1%). Substantial agreement among reference laboratories was found for E. coli (kappa = 0.69), but only fair or moderate agreement was found for other Entamoeba species, Giardia intestinalis and Chilomastix mesnili. There was only poor agreement for B. hominis, Isospora belli and Trichomonas intestinalis. In conclusion, although common helminths were reliably diagnosed by European reference laboratories, there was only moderate agreement between centres for pathogenic intestinal protozoa. Continued external quality assessment and the establishment of a formal network of reference laboratories is necessary to further enhance both accuracy and uniformity in parasite diagnosis.

  1. Evaluation of Multiple Linear Regression-Based Limited Sampling Strategies for Enteric-Coated Mycophenolate Sodium in Adult Kidney Transplant Recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Emily K; Tett, Susan E; Isbel, Nicole M; McWhinney, Brett; Staatz, Christine E

    2018-04-01

    Although multiple linear regression-based limited sampling strategies (LSSs) have been published for enteric-coated mycophenolate sodium, none have been evaluated for the prediction of subsequent mycophenolic acid (MPA) exposure. This study aimed to examine the predictive performance of the published LSS for the estimation of future MPA area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 12 hours (AUC0-12) in renal transplant recipients. Total MPA plasma concentrations were measured in 20 adult renal transplant patients on 2 occasions a week apart. All subjects received concomitant tacrolimus and were approximately 1 month after transplant. Samples were taken at 0, 0.33, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, 3.5, 4, 6, and 8 hours and 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.25, 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 6, 9, and 12 hours after dose on the first and second sampling occasion, respectively. Predicted MPA AUC0-12 was calculated using 19 published LSSs and data from the first or second sampling occasion for each patient and compared with the second occasion full MPA AUC0-12 calculated using the linear trapezoidal rule. Bias (median percentage prediction error) and imprecision (median absolute prediction error) were determined. Median percentage prediction error and median absolute prediction error for the prediction of full MPA AUC0-12 were multiple linear regression-based LSS was not possible without concentrations up to at least 8 hours after the dose.

  2. 40 CFR 65.113 - Standards: Sampling connection systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... systems or facilities: (i) A waste management unit as defined in 40 CFR 63.111, if the waste management... industrial solid waste, if the process fluids are not hazardous waste as defined in 40 CFR part 261; and (5... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards: Sampling connection systems...

  3. Multi-dimensional passive sampled Port-Hamiltonian systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franken, M.C.J.; Reilink, Rob; Misra, Sarthak; Stramigioli, Stefano

    2010-01-01

    Passivity of virtual environments running in discrete time is a sufficient condition for stability of the system. The framework for passive sampled Port-Hamiltonian systems allows multi-dimensional virtual environments exhibiting internal dynamic behavior to be computed on a discrete medium in a

  4. Chemical and Metallurgy Research (CMR) Sample Tracking System Design Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bargelski, C. J.; Berrett, D. E.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to describe the system architecture of the Chemical and Metallurgy Research (CMR) Sample Tracking System at Los Alamos National Laboratory. During the course of the document observations are made concerning the objectives, constraints and limitations, technical approaches, and the technical deliverables

  5. Fault Tolerant Controllers for Sampled-data Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, H.; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2004-01-01

    A general compensator architecture for fault tolerant control (FTC) for sampled-data systems is proposed. The architecture is based on the YJBK parameterization of all stabilizing controllers, and uses the dual YJBK parameterization to quantify the performance of the fault tolerant system. The FT...

  6. A Novel Theory for Sample Data System Passivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stramigioli, S.; Secchi, C.; Schaft, A.J. van der; Fantuzzi, C.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a novel way to approach the interconnection of a continuous time and a discrete time physical system. This is done in a way which preserve passivity of the coupled system independently of the sampling time T. A direct application is in the field of haptic displays where virtual

  7. Intrinsically passive control using sampled data system passivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stramigioli, Stefano; Barbagli, F.; Prattichizzo, D.; Salisbury, K.

    In this chapter, which is a distilled version of [271], we present a novel way to approach the interconnection of a continuous and a discrete time physical system firstly presented in [270, 268, 257]. This is done in a way which preserves passivity of the coupled system independently of the sampling

  8. Fault tolerant controllers for sampled-data systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2004-01-01

    A general compensator architecture for fault tolerant control (FTC) for sampled-data systems is proposed. The architecture is based on the YJBK parameterization of all stabilizing controllers, and uses the dual YJBK parameterization to quantify the performance of the fault tolerant system. The FTC...

  9. A fast analysis system for forensic DNA reference samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedman, Johannes; Albinsson, Linda; Ansell, Carina; Tapper, Helene; Hansson, Oskar; Holgersson, Stig; Ansell, Ricky

    2008-06-01

    On January 1st, 2006, the Swedish legislation on obtaining DNA reference samples from suspects and the recording of DNA profiles in databases was changed. As a result the number of samples analysed at the Swedish National Laboratory of Forensic Science (SKL) increased from about 4500 in 2005 to more than 25,000 in 2006. To meet this challenge, SKL launched a new analysis system to create an unbroken chain, from sampling to incorporation of a profile in the national DNA database and subsequent automatic generation of digitally signed hit reports. The system integrates logistics, digital data transfer, new functions in LIMS (ForumDNA Version 4, Ida Infront AB) and laboratory automation. Buccal swab samples are secured on a FTA card attached to an identity form, which is barcoded with a unique sample ID. After sampling, the police officer sends a digital request to SKL. The sample is automatically registered in LIMS and processed on delivery. The resulting DNA profiles are automatically classified according to quality using a custom-made expert system. Building the evaluation around mathematical rules makes it reproducible, standardised and minimises manual work and clerk errors. All samples are run in duplicate and the two profiles are compared within LIMS before incorporation in the database. In the first year of operation, the median time for completion of an analysis was 3 days, measured from delivery of the sample to incorporation of the profile in the national DNA database. In spite of the dramatic increase in the number of reference samples there was no backlog.

  10. Injectable nanoparticle-loaded hydrogel system for local delivery of sodium alendronate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Posadowska, U.; Pařízek, Martin; Filová, Elena; Wlodarczyk-Biegun, M.; Kamperman, M.; Bačáková, Lucie; Pamula, E.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 485, 1-2 (2015), s. 31-40 ISSN 0378-5173 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NT13297 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : sodium alendronate * PLGA * nanoparticles Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics Impact factor: 3.994, year: 2015

  11. ACS sampling system: design, implementation, and performance evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Marcantonio, Paolo; Cirami, Roberto; Chiozzi, Gianluca

    2004-09-01

    By means of ACS (ALMA Common Software) framework we designed and implemented a sampling system which allows sampling of every Characteristic Component Property with a specific, user-defined, sustained frequency limited only by the hardware. Collected data are sent to various clients (one or more Java plotting widgets, a dedicated GUI or a COTS application) using the ACS/CORBA Notification Channel. The data transport is optimized: samples are cached locally and sent in packets with a lower and user-defined frequency to keep network load under control. Simultaneous sampling of the Properties of different Components is also possible. Together with the design and implementation issues we present the performance of the sampling system evaluated on two different platforms: on a VME based system using VxWorks RTOS (currently adopted by ALMA) and on a PC/104+ embedded platform using Red Hat 9 Linux operating system. The PC/104+ solution offers, as an alternative, a low cost PC compatible hardware environment with free and open operating system.

  12. Simultaneous determination of trace levels of ethylmercury and methylmercury in biological samples and vaccines using sodium tetra(n-propyl)borate as derivatizing agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibicar, Darija; Logar, Martina; Horvat, Nusa; Horvat, Milena [Jozef Stefan Institute, Department of Environmental Sciences, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Marn-Pernat, Andreja; Ponikvar, Rafael [University Medical Centre, Department of Nephrology, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2007-05-15

    Because of increasing awareness of the potential neurotoxicity of even low levels of organomercury compounds, analytical techniques are required for determination of low concentrations of ethylmercury (EtHg) and methylmercury (MeHg) in biological samples. An accurate and sensitive method has been developed for simultaneous determination of methylmercury and ethylmercury in vaccines and biological samples. MeHg and EtHg were isolated by acid leaching (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}-KBr-CuSO{sub 4}), extraction of MeHg and EtHg bromides into an organic solvent (CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}), then back-extraction into Milli-Q water. MeHg and EtHg bromides were derivatized with sodium tetrapropylborate (NaBPr{sub 4}), collected at room temperature on Tenax, separated by isothermal gas chromatography (GC), pyrolysed, and detected by cold-vapour atomic fluorescence spectrometry (CV AFS). The repeatability of results from the method was approximately 5-10% for EtHg and 5-15% for MeHg. Detection limits achieved were 0.01 ng g{sup -1} for EtHg and MeHg in blood, saliva, and vaccines and 5 ng g{sup -1} for EtHg and MeHg in hair. The method presented has been shown to be suitable for determination of background levels of these contaminants in biological samples and can be used in studies related to the health effects of mercury and its species in man. This work illustrates the possibility of using hair and blood as potential biomarkers of exposure to thiomersal. (orig.)

  13. Electrophoretic extraction of low molecular weight cationic analytes from sodium dodecyl sulfate containing sample matrices for their direct electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinde, Tristan F; Lopez, Thomas D; Dutta, Debashis

    2015-03-03

    While the use of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) in separation buffers allows efficient analysis of complex mixtures, its presence in the sample matrix is known to severely interfere with the mass-spectrometric characterization of analyte molecules. In this article, we report a microfluidic device that addresses this analytical challenge by enabling inline electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) of low molecular weight cationic samples prepared in SDS containing matrices. The functionality of this device relies on the continuous extraction of analyte molecules into an SDS-free solvent stream based on the free-flow zone electrophoresis (FFZE) technique prior to their ESI-MS analysis. The reported extraction was accomplished in our current work in a glass channel with microelectrodes fabricated along its sidewalls to realize the desired electric field. Our experiments show that a key challenge to successfully operating such a device is to suppress the electroosmotically driven fluid circulations generated in its extraction channel that otherwise tend to vigorously mix the liquid streams flowing through this duct. A new coating medium, N-(2-triethoxysilylpropyl) formamide, recently demonstrated by our laboratory to nearly eliminate electroosmotic flow in glass microchannels was employed to address this issue. Applying this surface modifier, we were able to efficiently extract two different peptides, human angiotensin I and MRFA, individually from an SDS containing matrix using the FFZE method and detect them at concentrations down to 3.7 and 6.3 μg/mL, respectively, in samples containing as much as 10 mM SDS. Notice that in addition to greatly reducing the amount of SDS entering the MS instrument, the reported approach allows rapid solvent exchange for facilitating efficient analyte ionization desired in ESI-MS analysis.

  14. 75 FR 52587 - 2009 Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS)/National Automotive Sampling System General...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-26

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 2009 Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS)/National Automotive Sampling System General Estimates System (NASS GES) Updates AGENCY: National Highway Traffic... Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA)--2009 Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) & National...

  15. The Flexible Rare Event Sampling Harness System (FRESHS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratzer, Kai; Berryman, Joshua T.; Taudt, Aaron; Zeman, Johannes; Arnold, Axel

    2014-07-01

    We present the software package FRESHS (http://www.freshs.org) for parallel simulation of rare events using sampling techniques from the 'splitting' family of methods. Initially, Forward Flux Sampling (FFS) and Stochastic Process Rare Event Sampling (SPRES) have been implemented. These two methods together make rare event sampling available for both quasi-static and full non-equilibrium regimes. Our framework provides a plugin system for software implementing the underlying physics of the system of interest. At present, example plugins exist for our framework to steer the popular MD packages GROMACS, LAMMPS and ESPResSo, but due to the simple interface of our plugin system, it is also easy to attach other simulation software or self-written code. Use of our framework does not require recompilation of the simulation program. The modular structure allows the flexible implementation of further sampling methods or physics engines and creates a basis for objective comparison of different sampling algorithms. Our code is designed to make optimal use of available compute resources. System states are managed using standard database technology so as to allow checkpointing, scaling and flexible analysis. The communication within the framework uses plain TCP/IP networking and is therefore suited to high-performance parallel hardware as well as to distributed or even heterogeneous networks of inexpensive machines. For FFS we implemented an automatic interface placement that ensures optimal, nearly constant flux through the interfaces. We introduce 'ghost' (or 'look-ahead') runs that remedy the bottleneck which occurs when progressing to the next interface. FRESHS is open-source, providing a publicly available parallelized rare event sampling system.

  16. Research of pneumatic control transmission system for small irradiation samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai Zhongxiong; Zhang Haibing; Rong Ru; Zhang Tao

    2008-01-01

    In order to reduce the absorbed dose damage for the operator, pneumatic control has been adopted to realize the rapid transmission of small irradiation samples. On/off of pneumatic circuit and directions for the rapid transmission system are controlled by the electrical control part. The main program initializes the system and detects the location of the manual/automatic change-over switch, and call for the corresponding subprogram to achieve the automatic or manual operation. Automatic subprogram achieves the automatic sample transmission; Manual subprogram completes the deflation, and back and forth movement of the radiation samples. This paper introduces in detail the implementation of the system, in terms of both hardware and software design. (authors)

  17. Sampled-data models for linear and nonlinear systems

    CERN Document Server

    Yuz, Juan I

    2014-01-01

    Sampled-data Models for Linear and Nonlinear Systems provides a fresh new look at a subject with which many researchers may think themselves familiar. Rather than emphasising the differences between sampled-data and continuous-time systems, the authors proceed from the premise that, with modern sampling rates being as high as they are, it is becoming more appropriate to emphasise connections and similarities. The text is driven by three motives: ·      the ubiquity of computers in modern control and signal-processing equipment means that sampling of systems that really evolve continuously is unavoidable; ·      although superficially straightforward, sampling can easily produce erroneous results when not treated properly; and ·      the need for a thorough understanding of many aspects of sampling among researchers and engineers dealing with applications to which they are central. The authors tackle many misconceptions which, although appearing reasonable at first sight, are in fact either p...

  18. Fluorescence enhancement effect for the determination of curcumin with yttrium(III)-curcumin-sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Feng; Huang Wei; Wang Yanwei

    2008-01-01

    It is found that the fluorescence of curcumin is greatly enhanced by yttrium(III) (Y 3+ ) in the presence of sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate. Based on this, a sensitive fluorimetric method for the determination of curcumin in aqueous solution is proposed. In the potassium hydrogen phthalate (KHP) buffer, the fluorescence intensity of curcumin is proportional to the concentration of curcumin in the range of 7.37x10 -4 -0.18, 0.18-2.95 μg mL -1 and the detection limit is 0.1583 ng mL -1 . The actual samples are satisfactorily determined. In addition, the interaction mechanism is also studied

  19. Determining the Bayesian optimal sampling strategy in a hierarchical system.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grace, Matthew D.; Ringland, James T.; Boggs, Paul T.; Pebay, Philippe Pierre

    2010-09-01

    Consider a classic hierarchy tree as a basic model of a 'system-of-systems' network, where each node represents a component system (which may itself consist of a set of sub-systems). For this general composite system, we present a technique for computing the optimal testing strategy, which is based on Bayesian decision analysis. In previous work, we developed a Bayesian approach for computing the distribution of the reliability of a system-of-systems structure that uses test data and prior information. This allows for the determination of both an estimate of the reliability and a quantification of confidence in the estimate. Improving the accuracy of the reliability estimate and increasing the corresponding confidence require the collection of additional data. However, testing all possible sub-systems may not be cost-effective, feasible, or even necessary to achieve an improvement in the reliability estimate. To address this sampling issue, we formulate a Bayesian methodology that systematically determines the optimal sampling strategy under specified constraints and costs that will maximally improve the reliability estimate of the composite system, e.g., by reducing the variance of the reliability distribution. This methodology involves calculating the 'Bayes risk of a decision rule' for each available sampling strategy, where risk quantifies the relative effect that each sampling strategy could have on the reliability estimate. A general numerical algorithm is developed and tested using an example multicomponent system. The results show that the procedure scales linearly with the number of components available for testing.

  20. Design of an online spot air sampling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rath, D.P.; Govalkar, Atul; Yadav, S.A.; Mukherjee, Govinda; Murali, S.; Babu, D.A.R.; Prasad, R.S.

    2012-01-01

    In all the alpha handling facilities spot air sampling is essential while clearing a lab consequent to week end ventilation shut down or subsequent to completion of work/operations goes inside the facility. The sampling head is designed for 5 micron particles. Following pints are noticed over a period of such operational activities: Health Physicist goes inside a lab with a half face mask whose protection factor is 10, thereby useful for lab air activity up to ten DACs. Many times HP goes inside the lab when activity is more which is highly unsafe. On many occasions simultaneously a number of samples have to be taken by HP from a large number of laboratories inside the facility or for any special job where continuous radiological protection is required. Based on this it is proposed to design a sampling system which will overcome the above limitations. The design of the sampling head has been carried out which is for 5 micron particle size. The pump which is available in the existing facilities can be utilized. An innovative way of counting for large number of samples is fabricated in the RHC wing, RMD which can count ten samples at a time. Removal and counting of the sample may be carried out in a similar sampling carousel which is being used in RHC Unit, Radiometallurgy wing successfully with a little modification. In the proposed system, three samples can be operated in-line such that health physics intervention during the active operation would be minimum and during alarm situations (i.e. on the DAC level) proper protective equipment shall be advised by health physicist or he may suggest any other protective action. This type of online monitors will help in establishing the airborne activity inside the lab where special jobs are being carried out which will provide maximum protection to the lab personnel as well as to the health physicist who supervises the entire operation

  1. A New Cryogenic Sample Manipulator For SRC's Scienta 2002 System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gundelach, Chad T.; Fisher, Mike V.; Hoechst, Hartmut

    2004-01-01

    We discuss the first bench tests of a sample manipulator which was recently designed at SRC for the Scienta 2002 User system. The manipulator concept utilizes the 10 deg. angular window of the Scienta in the horizontal plane (angle dispersion) by rotating the sample normal around the vertical axis while angular scans along the vertical axis (energy dispersion) are continuous within ±30 deg. relative to the electron lens by rotating the sample around the horizontal axis. With this concept it is possible to precisely map the entire two-dimensional k-space of a crystal by means of stitching together 10 deg. wide stripes centered +15 deg. to -50 deg. relative to the sample normal. Three degrees of translational freedom allow positioning the sample surface at the focal point of the analyzer. Two degrees of rotational freedom are available at this position for manipulating the sample. Samples are mounted to a standard holder and transferred to the manipulator via a load-lock system attached to a prep chamber. The manipulator is configured with a cryogenic cold head, an electrical heater, and a temperature sensor permitting continuous closed-loop operation for 20-380 K

  2. Evaluation of determinative methods for sodium impurities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molinari, Marcelo; Guido, Osvaldo; Botbol, Jose; Ares, Osvaldo

    1988-01-01

    Sodium, universally accepted as heat transfer fluid in fast breeder reactors, requires a special technology for every operation involved in any applicable methodology, due to its well known chemical reactivity. The purpose of this work is: a) to study the sources and effects of chemical species which, as traces, accompany sodium used in the nuclear field; b) to classify, taking into account, the present requirements and resources of the National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA), the procedures found in the literature for determination of the most important impurities which exist in experimental liquid sodium systems and c) to describe the principles of the methods and to evaluate them in order to make a selection. It was concluded the convenience to develop, as a first stage, laboratory procedures to determine carbon, oxygen, hydrogen and non-volatile impurities, which besides serving present needs, will be referential for direct methods with undeferred response. The latter are needed in liquid sodium experimental loops and require, primarily, more complex and extended development. Additionally, a description is made of experimental work performed up-to-now in this laboratory, consisting of a transfer device for sodium sampling and a sodium distillation device, adapted from a previous design, with associated vacuum and inert gas systems. It is intended as a separative technique for indirect determination of oxygen and non-volatile impurities. (Author) [es

  3. Intercomparison of auto- and cross-power spectral density surveillance systems for sodium boiling detection in fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrhardt, J.

    1979-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental investigations on detection systems for small narrow-band components in noise signals were conducted. These detectionn systems are based on the continuous surveillance of the power spectral density for characteristic peaks. Detection sensitivity for auto- and cross-correlation measurements was computed for signals with normally distributed amplitudes in dependence of signal coherence. The derived detection criteria allowed the comparison of auto- and cross-power spectral density surveillance. Theoretical results were confirmed in a number of experimental parameter studies. Special theoretical investigations were done for the optimal detection of local sodium boiling in liquid-metal fast breeder reactors

  4. Disagregation of (U, Pu)O2 fuels in molten sodium nitrate and oxides system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, T.S.

    1976-01-01

    An oxidation process based on the use of an alkali-nitrate melt has been considered as a possible head end step for the reprocessing of FBR spent fuels. The total alkali solubility in the nitrate melt was examined. It is influenced by the temperature. At 500 degC the alkali solubility in the sodium nitrate melt is about 17 mol %. Examining solidified mixture of sodium and nitrate or sodium oxides and nitrite by X-ray diffraction has revealed five unknown lattices. NaNO 3 .xNa 2 O 2 is cubic (a=8.71A), NaNO 2 .xNa 2 O 2 is tetragonal (a=5.939A, c=9.997A), NaNO 2 .xNa 2 O is cubic (a=10.586A). The structure of NaNO 3 .xNa 2 O and NaNO 3 .xNaO 2 could not be determined. The solubility of barium and ruthenium was briefly investigated. The reaction (U,Pu)O 2 with the alkaline sodium nitrate melt proceeds along the grain boundaries of the solid solution. Two steps have been recognized. First (U,Pu)O 2 is oxidized to (U,Pu)Osub(2+x) and in a subsequent step (U,Pu)Osub(2+x) reacts with sodium peroxide to form (U,Pu) 2 O 5 .xNa 2 O 2 . Disaggregation efficiency is a function of temperature, alkali concentration and physical properties of the pellets. High temperature and low alkali concentration lead to high efficiency. The structure of the reaction products (U,Pu)O 2 with alkaline NaNO 3 melt was shown to depend mainly on the alkali concentration. As the alkali concentration is lower than 2 mole % (U,Pu) 2 O 5 . Na 2 O 2 is the dominate phase. (U,Pu) 2 O 5 .3Na 2 O 2 corresponds to 6 mole % and over 11 mole % alkali, (U,Pu) 2 O 5 .xNa 2 O 2 becomes the main product. The solubility of the fuel (U,Pu) in the alkali sodium nitrate melt increases with the alkali concentration up to 6000-8000 ppm for uranium and 1200-1700 ppm for plutonium at 500 degC with only 5 mole % alkali. As a result of high losses of fissile material in the salt bath molten salt process must regarded as uneligible for a general head end step in fuel reprocessing. Nevertheless its application can still be

  5. 2,4-Dinitrophenylhydrazine functionalized sodium dodecyl sulfate-coated magnetite nanoparticles for effective removal of Cd(II) and Ni(II) ions from water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobhanardakani, Soheil; Zandipak, Raziyeh

    2015-07-01

    2,4-Dinitrophenylhydrazine immobilized on sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-coated magnetite and was used for removal of Cd(II) and Ni(II) ions from aqueous solution. The prepared product was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The size of the nanoparticles according to SEM was obtained around 20-35 nm. In batch tests, the effects of pH, contact time, initial metal concentration, and temperature were studied. The kinetic and equilibrium data were modeled with recently developed models. The adsorption kinetics and isotherms were well fitted by the fractal-like pseudo-second-order model and Langmuir-Freundlich model, respectively. Maximum adsorption capacity by this adsorbent is 255.1 mg g(-1) for Cd(II) ion and 319.6 mg g(-1) for Ni(II) ion at pH 7.0 and 25 °C. The method was successfully applied to the removal of metal cations in real samples (tap water, river water, and petrochemical wastewater).

  6. Comparisons of Cardiometabolic Biomarkers, Lifestyle Behaviors, and Dietary Sodium and Potassium Intake in a Representative Sample of Korean Adults with and without Cardio-cerebrovascular Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, JinShil; Park, Eunok

    2017-09-01

    To compare the cardiometabolic condition of obesity, blood pressure (BP), cholesterol, dietary sodium and potassium intake, and lifestyle behaviors of persons with cardio-cerebrovascular diseases, with those who are disease-free in Korea. A secondary data analysis was conducted using a representative sample of Korean adults. Of 10,906 Korean adults (mean age 43.12 ± 0.24 years, women 50.4%), 9,074 were disease-free and 1,520 had hypertension, 137 stroke, and 175 ischemic heart disease. Compared with the disease-free group, obesity, BP, and total cholesterol were higher for the hypertensives. 25.5% of ischemic heart disease group were still smoking; 14.9% of hypertensives were heavy alcohol drinkers. Physical activity was lower in cardio-cerebrovascular diseases than disease-free group. No significant association was found between Na/K ratio adequacy and types of cardio-cerebrovascular diseases. The cardiometabolic condition varied, with hypertensives having a higher prevalence for obesity, high BP, and cholesterol; poorer adherence to the behavioral recommendations was also noted in cardio-cerebrovascular diseases. Such variations in cardiovascular risks would provide implications for addressing vulnerability across groups. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Voltammetric determination of sudan ii in food samples at graphene modified glassy carbon electrode based on the enhancement effect of sodium dodecyl sulfate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, X.; Chen, M.; Chao, M.

    2013-01-01

    Summary: Herein, a novel electrochemical method was de veloped for the determination of Sudan II based on the electrochemical catalytic activity of graphene modified glassy carbon electrode (GME) and the enhancement effect of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). In a pH 6.0 phosphate buffer solution, Sudan II exhibited a pair of well-defined quasi reversible redox peaks at the GME in the presence of 5.0x10/sup -5/ mol L/sup 1/ SDS. The oxidation peak current of Sudan II was linearly proportional to its concentration in a range from 4.0x10/sup -8/ to 4.0x10/sup -6/ mol L/sup 1/, with a linear regression equation of ipa (A) = 3.35 c + 5.96 x 10/sup -6/, r = 0.9988 and a detection limit of 8.0x10/sup -9/ mol L/sup 1/. The recoveries from the standards fortified blank samples were in the range of 94.7% to 97.5% with RSD lower than 4.0%. The novel method has been successfully used to determine Sudan II in food products with satisfactory results. (author)

  8. Computer-controlled sampling system for airborne particulates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, C.F.; Anspaugh, L.R.; Koval, J.S.; Phelps, P.L.; Steinhaus, R.J.

    1975-01-01

    A self-contained, mobile, computer-controlled air-sampling system has been designed and fabricated that also collects and records the data from eight meteorological sensors. The air-samplers are activated automatically when the collected meteorological data meet the criteria specified at the beginning of the data-collection run. The filters from the samplers are intended to collect airborne 239 Pu for later radionuclide analysis and correlation with the meteorological data for the study of resuspended airborne radioactivity and for the development of a predictive model. This paper describes the system hardware, discusses the system and software concepts, and outlines the operational procedures for the system

  9. Sodium in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diet - sodium (salt); Hyponatremia - sodium in diet; Hypernatremia - sodium in diet; Heart failure - sodium in diet ... The body uses sodium to control blood pressure and blood volume. Your body also needs sodium for your muscles and nerves to work ...

  10. Methods to Compose Sodium Fire Extinguishing Equipment on Sodium Test Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, B. H.; Kim, J. M.; Jeong, J. Y.; Choi, B. H

    2008-06-15

    Sodium fire is graded 'D' and it is difficult to extinguish sodium fire. In this report, the characteristics of sodium fire and the methods composing the suitable fire extinguishing systems to suppress fire effectively were described.

  11. Multi-sample integrated TL/OSL reader system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, D.R.; Sutar, S.S.; Datta, D.

    2018-01-01

    In modern societies ionizing radiation measurements using thermo-luminescence (TL) and optically stimulated Luminescence (OSL) has occupied definite space of the applications, extending from medical dosimetry, personnel monitoring, environment monitoring and geological/archaeological dating. The need of low cost multi-sample functional TL/OSL reader system remains integral need of new age researchers. Only few such type of reader systems exist commercially. Considering this, BARC has developed low cost Multi-sample integrated TL-OSL reader (MS-ITOR) system. This reader system will fulfill the need of basic research in TL-OSL radiation dosimetry in India. The MS-ITOR-1 provides all advance TL/OSL features such as NL-TL and NL-OSL. The present paper describes its design and performance in brief

  12. Sampling and Filtering in Photovoltaic System Performance Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Driesse, Anton [PV Performance Labs, Freiburg (Germany); Stein, Joshua S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Photovoltaic and Distributed Systems Integration; Riley, Daniel M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Photovoltaic and Distributed Systems Integration; Carmignani, Craig K. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Photovoltaic and Distributed Systems Integration

    2014-10-01

    The performance of photovoltaic systems must be monitored accurately to ensure profitable long-term operation. The most important signals to be measured—irradiance and temperature, as well as power, current and voltage on both DC and AC sides of the system—contain rapid fluctuations that are not observable by typical monitoring systems. Nevertheless these fluctuations can affect the accuracy of the data that are stored. This report closely examines the main signals in one operating PV system, which were recorded at 2000 samples per second. It analyzes the characteristics and causes of the rapid fluctuations that are found, such as line-frequency harmonics, perturbations from anti-islanding detection, MPPT searching action and others. The operation of PV monitoring systems is then simulated using a wide range of sampling intervals, archive intervals and filtering options to assess how these factors influence data accuracy. Finally several potential sources of error are discussed with real-world examples.

  13. Analysis of bioethanol samples through Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry with a total sample consumption system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Carlos; Lienemann, Charles-Philippe; Todolí, Jose-Luis

    2016-10-01

    Bioethanol real samples have been directly analyzed through ICP-MS by means of the so called High Temperature Torch Integrated Sample Introduction System (hTISIS). Because bioethanol samples may contain water, experiments have been carried out in order to determine the effect of ethanol concentration on the ICP-MS response. The ethanol content studied went from 0 to 50%, because higher alcohol concentrations led to carbon deposits on the ICP-MS interface. The spectrometer default spray chamber (double pass) equipped with a glass concentric pneumatic micronebulizer has been taken as the reference system. Two flow regimes have been evaluated: continuous sample aspiration at 25 μL min- 1 and 5 μL air-segmented sample injection. hTISIS temperature has been shown to be critical, in fact ICP-MS sensitivity increased with this variable up to 100-200 °C depending on the solution tested. Higher chamber temperatures led to either a drop in signal or a plateau. Compared with the reference system, the hTISIS improved the sensitivities by a factor included within the 4 to 8 range while average detection limits were 6 times lower for the latter device. Regarding the influence of the ethanol concentration on sensitivity, it has been observed that an increase in the temperature was not enough to eliminate the interferences. It was also necessary to modify the torch position with respect to the ICP-MS interface to overcome them. This fact was likely due to the different extent of ion plasma radial diffusion encountered as a function of the matrix when working at high chamber temperatures. When the torch was moved 1 mm plasma down axis, ethanolic and aqueous solutions provided statistically equal sensitivities. A preconcentration procedure has been applied in order to validate the methodology. It has been found that, under optimum conditions from the point of view of matrix effects, recoveries for spiked samples were close to 100%. Furthermore, analytical concentrations for real

  14. Multi-dimensional virtual system introduced to enhance canonical sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higo, Junichi; Kasahara, Kota; Nakamura, Haruki

    2017-10-01

    When an important process of a molecular system occurs via a combination of two or more rare events, which occur almost independently to one another, computational sampling for the important process is difficult. Here, to sample such a process effectively, we developed a new method, named the "multi-dimensional Virtual-system coupled Monte Carlo (multi-dimensional-VcMC)" method, where the system interacts with a virtual system expressed by two or more virtual coordinates. Each virtual coordinate controls sampling along a reaction coordinate. By setting multiple reaction coordinates to be related to the corresponding rare events, sampling of the important process can be enhanced. An advantage of multi-dimensional-VcMC is its simplicity: Namely, the conformation moves widely in the multi-dimensional reaction coordinate space without knowledge of canonical distribution functions of the system. To examine the effectiveness of the algorithm, we introduced a toy model where two molecules (receptor and its ligand) bind and unbind to each other. The receptor has a deep binding pocket, to which the ligand enters for binding. Furthermore, a gate is set at the entrance of the pocket, and the gate is usually closed. Thus, the molecular binding takes place via the two events: ligand approach to the pocket and gate opening. In two-dimensional (2D)-VcMC, the two molecules exhibited repeated binding and unbinding, and an equilibrated distribution was obtained as expected. A conventional canonical simulation, which was 200 times longer than 2D-VcMC, failed in sampling the binding/unbinding effectively. The current method is applicable to various biological systems.

  15. Dietary Intake and Sources of Potassium and the Relationship to Dietary Sodium in a Sample of Australian Pre-School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siobhan A. O’Halloran

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the intake and food sources of potassium and the molar sodium:potassium (Na:K ratio in a sample of Australian pre-school children. Mothers provided dietary recalls of their 3.5 years old children (previous participants of Melbourne Infant Feeding Activity and Nutrition Trial. The average daily potassium intake, the contribution of food groups to daily potassium intake, the Na:K ratio, and daily serves of fruit, dairy, and vegetables, were assessed via three unscheduled 24 h dietary recalls. The sample included 251 Australian children (125 male, mean age 3.5 (0.19 (SD years. Mean potassium intake was 1618 (267 mg/day, the Na:K ratio was 1.47 (0.5 and 54% of children did not meet the Australian recommended adequate intake (AI of 2000 mg/day for potassium. Main food sources of potassium were milk (27%, fruit (19%, and vegetable (14% products/dishes. Food groups with the highest Na:K ratio were processed meats (7.8, white bread/rolls (6.0, and savoury sauces and condiments (5.4. Children had a mean intake of 1.4 (0.75 serves of fruit, 1.4 (0.72 dairy, and 0.52 (0.32 serves of vegetables per day. The majority of children had potassium intakes below the recommended AI. The Na:K ratio exceeded the recommended level of 1 and the average intake of vegetables was 2 serves/day below the recommended 2.5 serves/day and only 20% of recommended intake. An increase in vegetable consumption in pre-school children is recommended to increase dietary potassium and has the potential to decrease the Na:K ratio which is likely to have long-term health benefits.

  16. A novel PMT test system based on waveform sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, S.; Ma, L.; Ning, Z.; Qian, S.; Wang, Y.; Jiang, X.; Wang, Z.; Yu, B.; Gao, F.; Zhu, Y.; Wang, Z.

    2018-01-01

    Comparing with the traditional test system based on a QDC and TDC and scaler, a test system based on waveform sampling is constructed for signal sampling of the 8"R5912 and the 20"R12860 Hamamatsu PMT in different energy states from single to multiple photoelectrons. In order to achieve high throughput and to reduce the dead time in data processing, the data acquisition software based on LabVIEW is developed and runs with a parallel mechanism. The analysis algorithm is realized in LabVIEW and the spectra of charge, amplitude, signal width and rising time are analyzed offline. The results from Charge-to-Digital Converter, Time-to-Digital Converter and waveform sampling are discussed in detailed comparison.

  17. 40 CFR 265.1055 - Standards: Sampling connection systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... capture and transport all the purged process fluid to a waste management unit that complies with the... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards: Sampling connection systems. 265.1055 Section 265.1055 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID...

  18. 40 CFR 61.242-5 - Standards: Sampling connecting systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) A waste management unit as defined in 40 CFR 63.111 if the waste management unit is subject to and... municipal or industrial solid waste, if the process fluids are not hazardous waste as defined in 40 CFR part... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards: Sampling connecting systems...

  19. 40 CFR 264.1055 - Standards: Sampling connection systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... operated to capture and transport all the purged process fluid to a waste management unit that complies... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards: Sampling connection systems. 264.1055 Section 264.1055 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID...

  20. Consensus of Multiagent Systems with Sampled Information and Noisy Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao-Jun Tang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider consensus problems of first-order multiagent systems with sampled information and noisy measurements. A distributed stochastic approximation type algorithm is employed to attenuate the measurement noises. We provide conditions under which almost sure strong consensus is guaranteed for fixed and switching directed network topologies. Simulation results are provided to illustrate the theoretical results.

  1. Sampling

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Steven K

    2012-01-01

    Praise for the Second Edition "This book has never had a competitor. It is the only book that takes a broad approach to sampling . . . any good personal statistics library should include a copy of this book." —Technometrics "Well-written . . . an excellent book on an important subject. Highly recommended." —Choice "An ideal reference for scientific researchers and other professionals who use sampling." —Zentralblatt Math Features new developments in the field combined with all aspects of obtaining, interpreting, and using sample data Sampling provides an up-to-date treat

  2. Hidden Sodium

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-03-04

    In this podcast, learn about reducing sodium intake by knowing what to eat and the main sources of sodium in the diet. It's important for a healthy lifestyle.  Created: 3/4/2013 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 3/4/2013.

  3. An Integrated Glucose Sensor with an All-Solid-State Sodium Ion-Selective Electrode for a Minimally Invasive Glucose Monitoring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junko Kojima

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We developed a minimally invasive glucose monitoring system that uses a microneedle to permeate the skin surface and a small hydrogel to accumulate interstitial fluid glucose. The measurement of glucose and sodium ion levels in the hydrogel is required for estimating glucose levels in blood; therefore, we developed a small, enzyme-fixed glucose sensor with a high-selectivity, all-solid-state, sodium ion-selective electrode (ISE integrated into its design. The glucose sensor immobilized glucose oxidase showed a good correlation between the glucose levels in the hydrogels and the reference glucose levels (r > 0.99, and exhibited a good precision (coefficient of variation = 2.9%, 0.6 mg/dL. In the design of the sodium ISEs, we used the insertion material Na0.33MnO2 as the inner contact layer and DD16C5 exhibiting high Na+/K+ selectivity as the ionophore. The developed sodium ISE exhibited high selectivity (\\( \\log \\,k^{pot}_{Na,K} = -2.8\\ and good potential stability. The sodium ISE could measure 0.4 mM (10−3.4 M sodium ion levels in the hydrogels containing 268 mM (10−0.57 M KCl. The small integrated sensor (ϕ < 10 mm detected glucose and sodium ions in hydrogels simultaneously within 1 min, and it exhibited sufficient performance for use as a minimally invasive glucose monitoring system.

  4. Conceptual design of advanced central receiver power systems sodium-cooled receiver concept. Volume 2, Book 1. Commercial plant conceptual design. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-03-01

    The conceptual design of the 100-MW solar tower focus commercial power plant is described in detail. Sodium is pumped up to the top of a tall tower where the receiver is located. The sodium is heated in the receiver and then flows down the tower, through a pressure reducing device, and thence into a large, hot storage tank which is located at ground level and whose size is made to meet a specific thermal energy storage capacity requirement. From this tank, the sodium is pumped by a separate pump, through a system of sodium-to-water steam generators. The steam generator system consists of a separate superheater and reheater operating in parallel and an evaporator unit operating in series with the other two units. The sodium flowing from the evaporator unit is piped to a cold storage tank. From the cold storage tank, sodium is then pumped up to the tip of the tower to complete the cycle. The steam generated in the steam generators is fed to a conventional off-the-shelf, high-efficiency turbine. The steam loop operates in a conventional rankine cycle with the steam generators serving the same purpose as a conventional boiler and water being fed to the evaporator with conventional feedwater pumps. The pressure reducing device (a standard drag valve, for example) serves to mitigate the pressure caused by the static head of sodium and thus allows the large tanks to operate at ambient pressure conditions. (WHK)

  5. Recent Results of the Investigation of a Microfluidic Sampling Chip and Sampling System for Hot Cell Aqueous Processing Streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Julia Tripp; Jack Law; Tara Smith

    2013-10-01

    A Fuel Cycle Research and Development project has investigated an innovative sampling method that could evolve into the next generation sampling and analysis system for metallic elements present in aqueous processing streams. Initially sampling technologies were evaluated and microfluidics sampling chip technology was selected and tested. A conceptual design for a fully automated microcapillary-based system was completed and a robotic automated sampling system was fabricated. The mechanical and sampling operation of the completed sampling system was investigated. In addition, the production of a less expensive, mass produced sampling chip was investigated to avoid chip reuse thus increasing sampling reproducibility/accuracy. The microfluidic-based robotic sampling system’s mechanical elements were tested to ensure analytical reproducibility and the optimum robotic handling of microfluidic sampling chips.

  6. Dietary sodium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graudal, Niels

    2015-01-01

    The 2013 Institute of Medicine (IOM) report "Sodium Intake in Populations: Assessment of Evidence" did not support the current recommendations of the IOM and the American Heart Association (AHA) to reduce daily dietary sodium intake to below 2,300 mg. The report concluded that the population......-based health outcome evidence was not sufficient to define a safe upper intake level for sodium. Recent studies have extended this conclusion to show that a sodium intake below 2,300 mg/day is associated with increased mortality. In spite of this increasing body of evidence, the AHA, Centers for Disease...... Control (CDC), other public health advisory bodies, and major medical journals have continued to support the current policy of reducing dietary sodium....

  7. An automated blood sampling system used in positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksson, L.; Bohm, C.; Kesselberg, M.

    1988-01-01

    Fast dynamic function studies with positron emission tomography (PET), has the potential to give accurate information of physiological functions of the brain. This capability can be realised if the positron camera system accurately quantitates the tracer uptake in the brain with sufficiently high efficiency and in sufficiently short time intervals. However, in addition, the tracer concentration in blood, as a function of time, must be accurately determined. This paper describes and evaluates an automated blood sampling system. Two different detector units are compared. The use of the automated blood sampling system is demonstrated in studies of cerebral blood flow, in studies of the blood-brain barrier transfer of amino acids and of the cerebral oxygen consumption. 5 refs.; 7 figs

  8. Determination of the anionic surfactant di(ethylhexyl) sodium sulfosuccinate in water samples collected from Gulf of Mexico coastal waters before and after landfall of oil from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, May to October, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, James L.; Kanagy, Leslie K.; Furlong, Edward T.; McCoy, Jeff W.; Kanagy, Chris J.

    2011-01-01

    On April 22, 2010, the explosion on and subsequent sinking of the Deepwater Horizon oil drilling platform resulted in the release of crude oil into the Gulf of Mexico. At least 4.4 million barrels had been released into the Gulf of Mexico through July 15, 2010, 10 to 29 percent of which was chemically dispersed, primarily using two dispersant formulations. Initially, the dispersant Corexit 9527 was used, and when existing stocks of that formulation were exhausted, Corexit 9500 was used. Over 1.8 million gallons of the two dispersants were applied in the first 3 months after the spill. This report presents the development of an analytical method to analyze one of the primary surfactant components of both Corexit formulations, di(ethylhexyl) sodium sulfosuccinate (DOSS), the preliminary results, and the associated quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) from samples collected from various points on the Gulf Coast between Texas and Florida. Seventy water samples and 8 field QC samples were collected before the predicted landfall of oil (pre-landfall) on the Gulf Coast, and 51 water samples and 10 field QC samples after the oil made landfall (post-landfall). Samples were collected in Teflon(Registered) bottles and stored at -20(degrees)C until analysis. Extraction of whole-water samples used sorption onto a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) filter to isolate DOSS, with subsequent 50 percent methanol/water elution of the combined dissolved and particulate DOSS fractions. High-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) was used to identify and quantify DOSS by the isotope dilution method, using a custom-synthesized 13C4-DOSS labeled standard. Because of the ubiquitous presence of DOSS in laboratory reagent water, a chromatographic column was installed in the LC/MS/MS between the system pumps and the sample injector that separated this ambient background DOSS contamination from the sample DOSS, minimizing one source of blank contamination

  9. SODIUM DEUTERIUM REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheimer, E.D.; Weisberg, R.A.

    1963-02-26

    This patent relates to a barrier system for a sodium heavy water reactor capable of insuring absolute separation of the metal and water. Relatively cold D/sub 2/O moderator and reflector is contained in a calandria into which is immersed the fuel containing tubes. The fuel elements are cooled by the sodium which flows within the tubes and surrounds the fuel elements. The fuel containing tubes are surrounded by concentric barrier tubes forming annular spaces through which pass inert gases at substantially atmospheric pressure. Header rooms above and below the calandria are provided for supplying and withdrawing the sodium and inert gases in the calandria region. (AEC)

  10. Solar System Samples for Research, Education, and Public Outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, J.; Luckey, M.; McInturff, B.; Kascak, A.; Tobola, K.; Galindo, C.; Allen, C.

    2011-01-01

    In the next two years, during the NASA Year of the Solar System, spacecraft from NASA and our international partners will; encounter a comet, orbit asteroid 4 Vesta, continue to explore Mars with rovers, and launch robotic explorers to the Moon and Mars. We have pieces of all these worlds in our laboratories, and their continued study provides incredibly valuable "ground truth" to complement space exploration missions. Extensive information about these unique materials, as well as actual lunar samples and meteorites, are available for display and education. The Johnson Space Center (JSC) has the unique responsibility to curate NASA's extraterrestrial samples from past and future missions. Curation includes documentation, preservation, preparation, and distribution of samples for research, education, and public outreach.

  11. Estimating rare events in biochemical systems using conditional sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundar, V. S.

    2017-01-01

    The paper focuses on development of variance reduction strategies to estimate rare events in biochemical systems. Obtaining this probability using brute force Monte Carlo simulations in conjunction with the stochastic simulation algorithm (Gillespie's method) is computationally prohibitive. To circumvent this, important sampling tools such as the weighted stochastic simulation algorithm and the doubly weighted stochastic simulation algorithm have been proposed. However, these strategies require an additional step of determining the important region to sample from, which is not straightforward for most of the problems. In this paper, we apply the subset simulation method, developed as a variance reduction tool in the context of structural engineering, to the problem of rare event estimation in biochemical systems. The main idea is that the rare event probability is expressed as a product of more frequent conditional probabilities. These conditional probabilities are estimated with high accuracy using Monte Carlo simulations, specifically the Markov chain Monte Carlo method with the modified Metropolis-Hastings algorithm. Generating sample realizations of the state vector using the stochastic simulation algorithm is viewed as mapping the discrete-state continuous-time random process to the standard normal random variable vector. This viewpoint opens up the possibility of applying more sophisticated and efficient sampling schemes developed elsewhere to problems in stochastic chemical kinetics. The results obtained using the subset simulation method are compared with existing variance reduction strategies for a few benchmark problems, and a satisfactory improvement in computational time is demonstrated.

  12. Safety analysis report for packaging (onsite) sample pig transport system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MCCOY, J.C.

    1999-03-16

    This Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) provides a technical evaluation of the Sample Pig Transport System as compared to the requirements of the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL) Order 5480.1, Change 1, Chapter III. The evaluation concludes that the package is acceptable for the onsite transport of Type B, fissile excepted radioactive materials when used in accordance with this document.

  13. Sampling Transition Pathways in Highly Correlated Complex Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, David

    2004-10-20

    This research grant supported my group's efforts to apply and extend the method of transition path sampling that we invented during the late 1990s. This methodology is based upon a statistical mechanics of trajectory space. Traditional statistical mechanics focuses on state space, and with it, one can use Monte Carlo methods to facilitate importance sampling of states. With our formulation of a statistical mechanics of trajectory space, we have succeeded at creating algorithms by which importance sampling can be done for dynamical processes. In particular, we are able to study rare but important events without prior knowledge of transition states or mechanisms. In perhaps the most impressive application of transition path sampling, my group combined forces with Michele Parrinello and his coworkers to unravel the dynamics of auto ionization of water [5]. This dynamics is the fundamental kinetic step of pH. Other applications concern nature of dynamics far from equilibrium [1, 7], nucleation processes [2], cluster isomerization, melting and dissociation [3, 6], and molecular motors [10]. Research groups throughout the world are adopting transition path sampling. In part this has been the result of our efforts to provide pedagogical presentations of the technique [4, 8, 9], as well as providing new procedures for interpreting trajectories of complex systems [11].

  14. Study of mechanisms and kinetics of Sodium-CO2 interactions. Contribution to the evaluation of an energy conversion system with supercritical CO2 for sodium fast breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gicquel, L.

    2010-01-01

    This PhD study consisted in studying reactive mechanisms and kinetics of sodium-CO 2 interactions, in the frame of the assessment of an energy conversion system with supercritical CO 2 for fast breeder reactors cooled by sodium. The approach was the following. First of all, the interactions between sodium and CO 2 have been brought to light by laboratory experiments associated with products analysis. They have enabled the establishment of a coherent mechanism, in agreement with literature data, and gave preliminary indications on the reaction kinetics. In order to estimate a more detailed reaction kinetics, we tried to approach the phenomenon that appears in the case of a leak in a sodium-CO 2 heat exchanger. Geometry of such heat exchangers is not fixed for the moment, even if the development of compact exchangers is foreseen. Then, free jets of CO 2 in liquid sodium have been modeled in order to obtain, by identification, kinetics parameters of the reaction. Those parameters, estimated with such a geometry, will remain valid with a much complex geometry, that will better represent the real exchanger. An experimental bench has been defined and built to realize those jets. The first laboratory experiments have concluded in the existence of different reactive mechanisms according to the temperature level. A threshold has been brought to light around 500 C. Below this one, reaction appears moderated, or even, slow, with a medium exothermicity, and appears after an induction period that depends on the temperature,and which duration could reach several hours. At contrary, above this threshold, it seems rapid and more exothermic. Below 500 C, sodium oxalate is produced, and then reacts with sodium in an exothermic way, following the reactions: CO 2 + Na →1/4 Na 2 C 2 O 4 + 1/4 CO + 1/4 Na 2 CO 3 (5) 4 Na + Na 2 C 2 O 4 → 3 Na 2 O + CO + C (6) Above 500 C, sodium carbonate is produced, and can then possibly react with sodium in an endothermic way, following the

  15. Compact DD generator based in vivo neutron activation analysis (IVNAA) system to determine sodium concentrations in human bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, Mychaela Dawn; Neumann, Colby R; Zhang, Xinxin; Byrne, Patrick; Liu, Yingzi; Weaver, Connie M; Nie, Linda Huiling

    2018-04-16

    This study presents the development of a non-invasive method for monitoring Na in human bone. Many diseases, such as hypertension and osteoporosis, are closely associated with sodium (Na) retention in the human body. Na retention is generally evaluated by calculating the difference between dietary intake and excretion. There is currently no method to directly quantify Na retained in the body. Bone is a storage for many elements, including Na, which renders bone Na an ideal biomarker to study Na metabolism and retention. Approach: A customized compact deuterium-deuterium (DD) neutron generator was used to produce neutrons for in vivo neutron activation analysis (IVNAA), with a moderator/ reflector/ shielding assembly optimized for human hand irradiation in order to maximize the thermal neutron flux inside the irradiation cave and to limit radiation exposure to the hand and the whole body. Main Results: The experimental results show that the system is able to detect sodium levels in the bone as low as 12 g Na/g dry bone with an effective dose to the body of about 27 μSv. The simulation results agree with the numbers estimated from the experiment. Significance: This is expected to be a feasible method for measuring the change of Na in bone. The low detection limit indicates this will be a useful system to study the association between Na retention and related diseases. © 2018 Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine.

  16. System to determine present elements in oily samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendoza G, Y.

    2004-11-01

    In the Chemistry Department of the National Institute of Nuclear Investigations of Mexico, dedicated to analyze samples of oleaginous material and of another origin, to determine the elements of the periodic table present in the samples, through the Neutron activation analysis technique (NAA). This technique has been developed to determine majority elements in any solid, aqueous, industrial and environmental sample, which consists basically on to irradiate a sample with neutrons coming from the TRIGA Mark III reactor and to carry out the analysis to obtain those gamma spectra that it emits, for finally to process the information, the quantification of the analysis it is carried out in a manual way, which requires to carry out a great quantity of calculations. The main objective of this project is the development of a software that allows to carry out the quantitative analysis of the NAA for the multielemental determination of samples in an automatic way. To fulfill the objective of this project it has been divided in four chapters: In the first chapter it is shortly presented the history on radioactivity and basic concepts that will allow us penetrate better to this work. In the second chapter the NAA is explained which is used in the sample analysis, the description of the process to be carried out, its are mentioned the characteristics of the used devices and an example of the process is illustrated. In the third chapter it is described the development of the algorithm and the selection of the programming language. The fourth chapter it is shown the structure of the system, the general form of operation, the execution of processes and the obtention of results. Later on the launched results are presented in the development of the present project. (Author)

  17. Multi-sensor Aerosol Products Sampling System (MAPSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Petrenko

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Global and local properties of atmospheric aerosols have been extensively observed and measured using both spaceborne and ground-based instruments, especially during the last decade. Unique properties retrieved by the different instruments contribute to an unprecedented availability of the most complete set of complimentary aerosol measurements ever acquired. However, some of these measurements remain underutilized, largely due to the complexities involved in analyzing them synergistically. To characterize the inconsistencies and bridge the gap that exists between the sensors, we have established a Multi-sensor Aerosol Products Sampling System (MAPSS, which consistently samples and generates the spatial statistics (mean, standard deviation, direction and rate of spatial variation, and spatial correlation coefficient of aerosol products from multiple spaceborne sensors, including MODIS (on Terra and Aqua, MISR, OMI, POLDER, CALIOP, and SeaWiFS. Samples of satellite aerosol products are extracted over Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET locations as well as over other locations of interest such as those with available ground-based aerosol observations. In this way, MAPSS enables a direct cross-characterization and data integration between Level-2 aerosol observations from multiple sensors. In addition, the available well-characterized co-located ground-based data provides the basis for the integrated validation of these products. This paper explains the sampling methodology and concepts used in MAPSS, and demonstrates specific examples of using MAPSS for an integrated analysis of multiple aerosol products.

  18. A tracking system for groundwater sampling and data transfer schedules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercier, T.M.

    1990-12-01

    Since groundwater monitoring programs at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant have become more complex and varied and as the occasions to respond to internal and external reporting requirements have become more frequent and time constrained, the need to track groundwater sampling activities and data transfer from the analytical laboratories has become imperative. If backlogs can be caught early, resources can be added or reallocated in the field and in the laboratory in a timely manner to ensure reporting deadlines are met. The tracking system discussed in this paper starts with clear definition of the groundwater monitoring program at the facility. This information is input into base datasets at the beginning of the sampling cycle. As the sampling program progresses, information about well sampling dates and data transfer dates is input into the base datasets. From the base program data and the update data, a status report is periodically generated by a computer program which identifies the type and nature of bottle necks encountered during the implementation of the groundwater monitoring program

  19. Sodium Loop Safety Facility W-2 experiment fuel pin rupture detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, M.A.; Kirchner, T.L.; Meyers, S.C.

    1980-05-01

    The objective of the Sodium Loop Safety Facility (SLSF) W-2 experiment is to characterize the combined effects of a preconditioned full-length fuel column and slow transient overpower (TOP) conditions on breeder reactor (BR) fuel pin cladding failures. The W-2 experiment will meet this objective by providing data in two technological areas: (1) time and location of cladding failure, and (2) early post-failure test fuel behavior. The test involves a seven pin, prototypic full-length fast test reactor (FTR) fuel pin bundle which will be subjected to a simulated unprotected 5 cents/s reactivity transient overpower event. The outer six pins will provide the necessary prototypic thermal-hydraulic environment for the center pin

  20. RELY: A reliability modeling system for analysis of sodium-sulfur battery configurations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hostick, C.J.; Huber, H.D.; Doggett, W.H.; Dirks, J.A.; Dovey, J.F.; Grinde, R.B.; Littlefield, J.S.; Cuta, F.M.

    1987-06-01

    In support of the Office of Energy Storage and Distribution of the US Department of Energy (DOE), Pacific Northwest Laboratory has produced a microcomputer-based software package, called RELY, to assess the impact of sodium-sulfur cell reliability on constant current discharge battery performance. The Fortran-based software operates on IBM microcomputers and IBM-compatibles that have a minimum of 512K of internal memory. The software package has three models that provide the following: (1) a description of the failure distribution parameters used to model cell failure, (2) a Monte Carlo simulation of battery life, and (3) a detailed discharge model for a user-specified battery discharge cycle. 6 refs., 31 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. Sample Acqusition Drilling System for the the Resource Prospector Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacny, K.; Paulsen, G.; Quinn, J.; Smith, J.; Kleinhenz, J.

    2015-12-01

    The goal of the Lunar Resource Prospector Mission (RPM) is to capture and identify volatiles species within the top meter of the lunar regolith. The RPM drill has been designed to 1. Generate cuttings and place them on the surface for analysis by the the Near InfraRed Volatiles Spectrometer Subsystem (NIRVSS), and 2. Capture cuttings and transfer them to the Oxygen and Volatile Extraction Node (OVEN) coupled with the Lunar Advanced Volatiles Analysis (LAVA) subsystem. The RPM drill is based on the Mars Icebreaker drill developed for capturing samples of ice and ice cemented ground on Mars. The drill weighs approximately 10 kg and is rated at ~300 Watt. It is a rotary-percussive, fully autonomous system designed to capture cuttings for analysis. The drill consists of: 1. Rotary-Percussive Drill Head, 2. Sampling Auger, 3. Brushing station, 4. Z-stage, 5. Deployment stage. To reduce sample handling complexity, the drill auger is designed to capture cuttings as opposed to cores. High sampling efficiency is possible through a dual design of the auger. The lower section has deep and low pitch flutes for retaining of cuttings. The upper section has been designed to efficiently move the cuttings out of the hole. The drill uses a "bite" sampling approach where samples are captured in ~10 cm intervals. The first generation drill was tested in Mars chamber as well as in Antarctica and the Arctic. It demonstrated drilling at 1-1-100-100 level (1 meter in 1 hour with 100 Watt and 100 N Weight on Bit) in ice, ice cemented ground, soil, and rocks. The second generation drill was deployed on a Carnegie Mellon University rover, called Zoe, and tested in Atacama in 2012. The tests demonstrated fully autonomous sample acquisition and delivery to a carousel. The third generation drill was tested in NASA GRC's vacuum chamber, VF13, at 10-5 torr and approximately 200 K. It demonstrated successful capture and transfer of icy samples to a crucible. The drill has been modified and

  2. A High Temperature Electrochemical Energy Storage System Based on Sodium Beta-Alumina Solid Electrolyte (Base)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anil Virkar

    2008-03-31

    This report summarizes the work done during the period September 1, 2005 and March 31, 2008. Work was conducted in the following areas: (1) Fabrication of sodium beta{double_prime} alumina solid electrolyte (BASE) using a vapor phase process. (2) Mechanistic studies on the conversion of {alpha}-alumina + zirconia into beta{double_prime}-alumina + zirconia by the vapor phase process. (3) Characterization of BASE by X-ray diffraction, SEM, and conductivity measurements. (4) Design, construction and electrochemical testing of a symmetric cell containing BASE as the electrolyte and NaCl + ZnCl{sub 2} as the electrodes. (5) Design, construction, and electrochemical evaluation of Na/BASE/ZnCl{sub 2} electrochemical cells. (6) Stability studies in ZnCl{sub 2}, SnCl{sub 2}, and SnI{sub 4} (7) Design, assembly and testing of planar stacks. (8) Investigation of the effect of porous surface layers on BASE on cell resistance. The conventional process for the fabrication of sodium ion conducting beta{double_prime}-alumina involves calcination of {alpha}-alumina + Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} + LiNO{sub 3} at 1250 C, followed by sintering powder compacts in sealed containers (platinum or MgO) at {approx}1600 C. The novel vapor phase process involves first sintering a mixture of {alpha}-alumina + yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) into a dense ceramic followed by exposure to soda vapor at {approx}1450 C to convert {alpha}-alumina into beta{double_prime}-alumina. The vapor phase process leads to a high strength BASE, which is also resistant to moisture attack, unlike BASE made by the conventional process. The PI is the lead inventor of the process. Discs and tubes of BASE were fabricated in the present work. In the conventional process, sintering of BASE is accomplished by a transient liquid phase mechanism wherein the liquid phase contains NaAlO{sub 2}. Some NaAlO{sub 2} continues to remain at grain boundaries; and is the root cause of its water sensitivity. In the vapor phase process, Na

  3. Similar effect of sodium nitroprusside and acetylsalicylic acid on antioxidant system improvement in mouse liver but not in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wróbel, Maria; Góralska, Joanna; Jurkowska, Halina; Sura, Piotr

    2017-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyze the relative antioxidant effects of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) in mouse liver and brain. The activity of rhodanese, 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (MPST) and γ-cystathionase (CSE), functioning as antioxidant proteins and capable of producing H 2 S, was investigated in mouse liver and brain after intraperitoneal once a day administration of sodium nitroprusside (5 mg/kg body weight) or acetylsalicylic acid (500 mg/kg body weight) continued for 5 days. The tissues were homogenized and then the obtained supernatants were used for further determinations. At the same time, the levels of sulfane sulfur, reduced and oxidized glutathione, cysteine, cystine, and cystathionine were also studied in these tissues. Both ASA and SNP show a statistically significant increase of sulfurtransferases activities in liver. The mechanism of action of sodium nitroprusside appears to consist in liberation of nitric oxide (NO), an important signaling molecule in the mammalian body. SNP also releases cyanide ions, which are converted in the liver to thiocyanate by the enzyme rhodanese and/or MPST and/or γ-cystathionase - the activities of all the enzymes were elevated in reaction to SNP. The action of γ-cystathionase is dependent upon converting cystathionine to cysteine, a precursor of the major cellular antioxidant, glutathione. Under oxidizing conditions, an increase in cystathionine β-synthase activity might indirectly result in an increase in the antioxidant glutathione level; this was reflected by the increased GSH/GSSG ratio in the liver, but not in the brain, where a trace activity of γ-cystathionase is normally detected. The results of the present investigations show that ASA and SNP may stimulate the GSH-dependent antioxidant system and protect liver cells from oxidative stress. An increased activity of the H 2 S-producing enzymes and the increased GSH/GSSG ratio may lead to an elevated level

  4. 296-B-5 Stack monitoring and sampling system annual system assessment report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ridge, T.M.

    1995-02-01

    The B Plant Administration Manual requires an annual system assessment to evaluate and report the present condition of the sampling and monitoring system associated with Stack 296-B-5 at B Plant. The sampling and monitoring system associated with stack 296-B-5 is functional and performing satisfactorily. This document is an annual assessment report of the systems associated with the 296-B-5 stack

  5. Urinary Sodium and Potassium Excretion and Dietary Sources of Sodium in Maputo, Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Queiroz

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the urinary excretion of sodium and potassium, and to estimate the main food sources of sodium in Maputo dwellers. A cross-sectional evaluation of a sample of 100 hospital workers was conducted between October 2012 and May 2013. Sodium and potassium urinary excretion was assessed in a 24-h urine sample; creatinine excretion was used to exclude unlikely urine values. Food intake in the same period of urine collection was assessed using a 24-h dietary recall. The Food Processor Plus® was used to estimate sodium intake corresponding to naturally occurring sodium and sodium added to processed foods (non-discretionary sodium. Salt added during culinary preparations (discretionary sodium was computed as the difference between urinary sodium excretion and non-discretionary sodium. The mean (standard deviation urinary sodium excretion was 4220 (1830 mg/day, and 92% of the participants were above the World Health Organization (WHO recommendations. Discretionary sodium contributed 60.1% of total dietary sodium intake, followed by sodium from processed foods (29.0% and naturally occurring sodium (10.9%. The mean (standard deviation urinary potassium excretion was 1909 (778 mg/day, and 96% of the participants were below the WHO potassium intake recommendation. The mean (standard deviation sodium to potassium molar ratio was 4.2 (2.4. Interventions to decrease sodium and increase potassium intake are needed in Mozambique.

  6. Expert system for determination of fumonisins in corn samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abramović Biljana F.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available An expert system (ES to solve the problem of choosing an optimal procedure for the determination of fumonisins in corn samples was developed, having in mind that these toxins most frequently contaminate this particular cereal. In constructing the ES use was made of the deterministic approach starting from the assumption that the experts in the field have a profound knowledge about the problem in question. The ES knowledge base contains the solutions that have been published in the pertinent literature, as well as some solutions and recommendations, which we have developed and introduced. On the basis of this information, as well as on the basis of the demanded method detection limit, available equipment, chemicals, as well as the time the experimenter has at his disposal for the determination, the ES proposes a procedure for solving the given analytical problem, starting from sampling, preparation of all the necessary solutions, the appropriate apparatus, probe preparation, the mode of determining results, calculation of the results, and provides a survey of all the relevant literature references. The base of ES is a shell, which can work under a variety of Microsoft Windows operating systems. In the development of ES and its adaptation for users who are not familiar with computer techniques, different tools, which operate with Microsoft Windows operating systems, as well as the tools within Microsoft Office are used.

  7. Active Chemical Sampling System for Underwater Chemical Source Localization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryuichi Takemura

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effect of active water sampling to enhance chemical reception for small underwater robots. The search for a chemical source in a stagnant water environment is not an easy task because the chemical solution released from the source stays in the close vicinity of the source. No signal is obtained even if a robot with chemical sensors is placed a few centimeters from the chemical source. In the system under study, four electrochemical sensors are aligned in front of a suction pipe that draws water samples from the surroundings. Owing to the smooth laminar flow converging to the suction port, the streak of the chemical solution drawn to the sensors is shaped into a thin filamentous form. To prevent the chemical solution from passing between the sensors without touching their surfaces, slits are placed in front of the sensors to guide the incoming chemical solution from different directions to the corresponding sensors. A chemical source can be located by moving the system in the direction of the sensor showing the largest response. It is also shown that the chemical reception at the sensors can be significantly enhanced when the system is wobbled to introduce disturbances.

  8. Passive vs. Parachute System Architecture for Robotic Sample Return Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddock, Robert W.; Henning, Allen B.; Samareh, Jamshid A.

    2016-01-01

    The Multi-Mission Earth Entry Vehicle (MMEEV) is a flexible vehicle concept based on the Mars Sample Return (MSR) EEV design which can be used in the preliminary sample return mission study phase to parametrically investigate any trade space of interest to determine the best entry vehicle design approach for that particular mission concept. In addition to the trade space dimensions often considered (e.g. entry conditions, payload size and mass, vehicle size, etc.), the MMEEV trade space considers whether it might be more beneficial for the vehicle to utilize a parachute system during descent/landing or to be fully passive (i.e. not use a parachute). In order to evaluate this trade space dimension, a simplified parachute system model has been developed based on inputs such as vehicle size/mass, payload size/mass and landing requirements. This model works in conjunction with analytical approximations of a mission trade space dataset provided by the MMEEV System Analysis for Planetary EDL (M-SAPE) tool to help quantify the differences between an active (with parachute) and a passive (no parachute) vehicle concept.

  9. Thermodynamic study of sodium-iron oxides. Part 2. Ternary phase diagram of the Na-Fe-O system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Jintao; Furukawa, Tomohiro; Aoto, Kazumi

    2003-01-01

    Studies on ternary phase diagrams of the Na-Fe-O system have been carried out from the thermodynamic point of view. Thermodynamic data of main ternary Na-Fe oxides Na 4 FeO 3 (s), Na 3 FeO 3 (s), Na 5 FeO 4 (s) and Na 8 Fe 2 O 7 (s) have been assessed. A user database has been created by reviewing literature data together with recent DSC and vapor pressure measurements by the present authors. New ternary phase diagrams of the Na-Fe-O system have been constructed from room temperature to 1000K. Stable conditions of the ternary oxides at 800K were presented in predominance diagram as functions of oxygen pressure and sodium pressure

  10. Rapid discrimination of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria in liquid samples by using NaOH-sodium dodecyl sulfate solution and flow cytometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Wada

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: For precise diagnosis of urinary tract infections (UTI, and selection of the appropriate prescriptions for their treatment, we explored a simple and rapid method of discriminating gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria in liquid samples. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We employed the NaOH-sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS solution conventionally used for plasmid extraction from Escherichia coli and the automated urine particle analyzer UF-1000i (Sysmex Corporation for our novel method. The NaOH-SDS solution was used to determine differences in the cell wall structures between gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, since the tolerance to such chemicals reflects the thickness and structural differences of bacterial cell walls. The UF-1000i instrument was used as a quantitative bacterial counter. We found that gram-negative bacteria, including E. coli, in liquid culture could easily be lysed by direct addition of equal volumes of NaOH-SDS solution. In contrast, Enterococcus faecalis, which is a gram-positive bacterium, could not be completely lysed by the solution. We then optimized the reaction time of the NaOH-SDS treatment at room temperature by using 3 gram-positive and 4 gram-negative bacterial strains and determined that the optimum reaction time was 5 min. Finally, in order to evaluate the generalizability of this method, we treated 8 gram-positive strains and 8 gram-negative strains, or 4 gram-positive and 4 gram-negative strains incubated in voluntary urine from healthy volunteers in the same way and demonstrated that all the gram-positive bacteria were discriminated quantitatively from gram negative bacteria using this method. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Using our new method, we could easily discriminate gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria in liquid culture media within 10 min. This simple and rapid method may be useful for determining the treatment course of patients with UTIs, especially for those without a prior history

  11. Statistical analysis on failure-to-open/close probability of motor-operated valve in sodium system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurisaka, Kenichi

    1998-08-01

    The objective of this work is to develop basic data for examination on efficiency of preventive maintenance and actuation test from the standpoint of failure probability. This work consists of a statistical trend analysis of valve failure probability in a failure-to-open/close mode on time since installation and time since last open/close action, based on the field data of operating- and failure-experience. In this work, the terms both dependent and independent on time were considered in the failure probability. The linear aging model was modified and applied to the first term. In this model there are two terms with both failure rates in proportion to time since installation and to time since last open/close-demand. Because of sufficient statistical population, motor-operated valves (MOV's) in sodium system were selected to be analyzed from the CORDS database which contains operating data and failure data of components in the fast reactors and sodium test facilities. According to these data, the functional parameters were statistically estimated to quantify the valve failure probability in a failure-to-open/close mode, with consideration of uncertainty. (J.P.N.)

  12. Study and evaluation of innovative fuel handling systems for sodium-cooled fast reactors: fuel handling route optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dechelette, Franck; Morin, Franck; Laffont, Guy; Rodriguez, Gilles; Sanseigne, Emmanuel; Christin, Sebastien; Mognot, Xavier; Morcillo, Aurelien

    2014-01-01

    The research for technological improvement and innovation in sodium-cooled fast reactor is a matter of concern in fuel handling systems in a view to perform a better load factor of the reactor thanks to a quicker fuelling/defueling process. An optimized fuel handling route will also limit its investment cost. In that field, CEA has engaged some innovation study either of complete FHR or on the optimization of some specific components. This paper presents the study of three SFR fuel handling route fully described and compared to a reference FHR option. In those three FHR, two use a gas corridor to transfer spent and fresh fuel assembly and the third uses two casks with a sodium pot to evacuate and load an assembly in parallel. All of them are designed for the ASTRID reactor (1500 MWth) but can be extrapolated to power reactors and are compatible with the mutualization of one FHS coupled with two reactors. These three concepts are then inter-compared and evaluated with the reference FHR according to four criteria: performances, risk assessment, investment cost, and qualification time. This analysis reveals that the 'mixed way' FHR presents interesting solutions mainly in terms of design simplicity and time reduction. Therefore its study will be pursued for ASTRID as an alternative option. (authors)

  13. A new system for sodium flux growth of bulk GaN. Part II: in situ investigation of growth processes

    KAUST Repository

    Von Dollen, Paul

    2016-09-09

    We report recent results of bulk GaN crystal growth using the sodium flux method in a new crucible-free growth system. We observed a (0001) Ga face (+c-plane) growth rate >50 µm/h for growth at a N2 overpressure of ~5 MPa and 860 °C, which is the highest crystal growth rate reported for this technique to date. Omega X-ray rocking curve (ω-XRC) measurements indicated the presence of multiple grains, though full width at half maximum (FWHM) values for individual peaks were <100 arcseconds. Oxygen impurity concentrations as measured by secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) were >1020 atoms/cm3. By monitoring the nitrogen pressure decay over the course of the crystal growth, we developed an in situ method that correlates gas phase changes with precipitation of GaN from the sodium-gallium melt. Based on this analysis, the growth rate may have actually been as high as 90 µm/h, as it would suggest GaN growth ceased prior to the end of the run. We also observed gas phase behavior identified as likely characteristic of GaN polynucleation.

  14. A new system for sodium flux growth of bulk GaN. Part II: in situ investigation of growth processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Dollen, Paul; Pimputkar, Siddha; Alreesh, Mohammed Abo; Nakamura, Shuji; Speck, James S.

    2016-12-01

    We report recent results of bulk GaN crystal growth using the sodium flux method in a new crucible-free growth system. We observed a (0001) Ga face (+c-plane) growth rate >50 μm/h for growth at a N2 overpressure of 5 MPa and 860 °C, which is the highest crystal growth rate reported for this technique to date. Omega X-ray rocking curve (ω-XRC) measurements indicated the presence of multiple grains, though full width at half maximum (FWHM) values for individual peaks were 1020 atoms/cm3. By monitoring the nitrogen pressure decay over the course of the crystal growth, we developed an in situ method that correlates gas phase changes with precipitation of GaN from the sodium-gallium melt. Based on this analysis, the growth rate may have actually been as high as 90 μm/h, as it would suggest GaN growth ceased prior to the end of the run. We also observed gas phase behavior identified as likely characteristic of GaN polynucleation.

  15. Water and sodium balance in space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drummer, C; Norsk, P; Heer, M

    2001-01-01

    in the past, is not a consequence of the variable microG. The handling of sodium, however, is considerably affected by microG. Sodium-retaining endocrine systems, such as renin-aldosterone and catecholamines, are much more activated during microG than on Earth. Despite a comparable oral sodium supply, urinary...... sodium excretion is diminished and a considerable amount of sodium is retained-without accumulating in the intravascular space. An enormous storage capacity for sodium in the extravascular space and a mechanism that allows the dissociation between water and sodium handling likely contribute to the fluid...

  16. Multiple planetary systems: Properties of the current sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, Melissa J.; Gomez, Mercedes

    2017-08-01

    We carry out analyses on stellar and planetary properties of multiple exoplanetary systems in the currently available sample. With regards to the stars, we study their temperature, distance from the Sun, and metallicity distributions, finding that the stars that harbour multiple exoplanets tend to have subsolar metallicities, in contrast to metal-rich Hot Jupiter hosts; while non-Hot Jupiter single planet hosts form an intermediate group between these two, with approximately solar metallicities. With regards to the planetary systems, we select those with four or more planets and analyse their configurations in terms of stability (via Hill radii), compactness, and size variations. We find that most planetary pairs are stable, and that the compactness correlates to the size variation: More compact systems have more similarly sized planets and vice versa. We also investigate the spectral energy distributions of the stars hosting multiple exoplanetary systems, seeking infra-red excesses that could indicate the presence of debris disks. These disks would be leftovers from the planetary formation process, and could be considered as analogues of the Solar System's Asteroid or Kuiper belts. We identify potential candidates for disks that are good targets for far infra-red follow-up observations to confirm their existence.

  17. All-polymer microfluidic systems for droplet based sample analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Carl Esben

    In this PhD project, I pursued to develop an all-polymer injection moulded microfluidic platform with integrated droplet based single cell interrogation. To allow for a proper ”one device - one experiment” methodology and to ensure a high relevancy to non-academic settings, the systems presented...... here were fabricated exclusive using commercially relevant fabrication methods such as injection moulding and ultrasonic welding. Further, to reduce the complexity of the final system, I have worked towards an all-in-one device which includes sample loading, priming (removal of air), droplet formation......, droplet packing, imaging and amplification (heating). The project has been broken into sub-projects, in which several devices of simpler application have been developed. Most of these employ gravity for concentrating and packing droplets, which has been made possible by the use of large area chambers...

  18. Standard Format for Chromatographic-polarimetric System small samples assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naranjo, S.; Fajer, V.; Fonfria, C.; Patinno, R.

    2012-01-01

    The treatment of samples containing optically active substances to be evaluated as part of quality control of raw material entering industrial process, and also during the modifications exerted on it to obtain the desired final composition is still and unsolved problem for many industries. That is the case of sugarcane industry. Sometimes the troubles implied are enlarged because samples to be evaluated are not bigger than one milliliter. Reduction of gel beds in G-10 and G-50 chromatographic columns having an inner diameter of 16 mm, instead of 25, and bed heights adjustable to requirements by means of sliding stoppers to increase analytical power were evaluated with glucose and sucrose standards in concentrations from 1 to 10 g/dL, using aliquots of 1 ml without undesirable dilutions that could affect either detection or chromatographic profile. Assays with seaweed extracts gave good results that are shown. It is established the advantage to know concentration of a separated substance by the height of its peak and the savings in time and reagents resulting . Sample expanded uncertainty in both systems is compared. It is also presented several programs for data acquisition, storing and processing. (Author)

  19. LINEAR SOLVATION ENERGY RELATIONSHIPS FOR CHARACTERIZATION OF MLC SYSTEMS WITH SODIUM DODECYL SULPHATE MOBILE PHASES MODIFIED BY ALIPHATIC ALCOHOLS OR CARBOXYLIC ACIDS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Markov, Vadym V.; Boichenko, Alexander P.; Loginova, Lidia P.

    2012-01-01

    The Linear Solvation Energy Relationships (LSER) have been successfully used for the modeling of partition and retention of the set of test compounds in different systems. The properties of micellar chromatographic systems with the mobile phases on the basis of sodium dodecylsulphate modified (ODS)

  20. Procedures for sampling and sample reduction within quality assurance systems for solid biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The objective of this experimental study on sampling was to determine the size and number of samples of biofuels required (taken at two sampling points in each case) and to compare two methods of sampling. The first objective of the sample-reduction exercise was to compare the reliability of various sampling methods, and the second objective was to measure the variations introduced as a result of reducing the sample size to form suitable test portions. The materials studied were sawdust, wood chips, wood pellets and bales of straw, and these were analysed for moisture, ash, particle size and chloride. The sampling procedures are described. The study was conducted in Scandinavia. The results of the study were presented in Leipzig in October 2004. The work was carried out as part of the UK's DTI Technology Programme: New and Renewable Energy.

  1. Sodium Tanshinone IIA Sulfonate Attenuates Scopolamine-Induced Cognitive Dysfunctions via Improving Cholinergic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-Qing Xu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sodium Tanshinone IIA sulfonate (STS is a derivative of Tanshinone IIA (Tan IIA. Tan IIA has been reported to possess neuroprotective effects against Alzheimer’s disease (AD. However, whether STS possesses effect on AD remains unclear. This study aims to estimate whether STS could protect against scopolamine- (SCOP- induced learning and memory deficit in Kunming mice. Morris water maze results showed that oral administration of STS (10 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg and Donepezil shortened escape latency, increased crossing times of the original position of the platform, and increased the time spent in the target quadrant. STS decreased the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE and increased the activity of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT in the hippocampus and cortex of SCOP-treated mice. Oxidative stress results showed that STS increased the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD and decreased the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA and reactive oxygen species (ROS in hippocampus and cortex. In addition, western blot was carried out to detect the expression of apoptosis related proteins (Bcl-2, Bax, and Caspase-3. STS upregulated the protein expression of Bcl-2 and downregulated the proteins expression of Bax and Caspase-3. These results indicated that STS might become a promising therapeutic candidate for attenuating AD-like pathological dysfunction.

  2. Fluorometric determination of proteins using the yttrium(III)-sodium lauryl sulfate-rutin-protein system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Shufang [Key Laboratory of Colloid and Interface Chemistry (Shandong University), Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Yang Jinghe [Key Laboratory of Colloid and Interface Chemistry (Shandong University), Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China)]. E-mail: yjh@sdu.edu.cn; Wu Xia [Key Laboratory of Colloid and Interface Chemistry (Shandong University), Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Wang Fei [Key Laboratory of Colloid and Interface Chemistry (Shandong University), Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Wang Feng [Key Laboratory of Colloid and Interface Chemistry (Shandong University), Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Jia Zhen [Key Laboratory of Colloid and Interface Chemistry (Shandong University), Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China)

    2006-04-15

    It is found that rutin can react with yttrium(III) (Y{sup 3+}), and emits fluorescence of rutin. The intensity is greatly enhanced by proteins in the presence of sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS). Based on this, a new fluorimetric method of determination of proteins is developed. Under optimum conditions, the enhanced intensity of fluorescence is in proportion to the concentration of proteins in the range of 5.0x10{sup -9}-1.0x10{sup -5}g/mL for bovine serum albumin (BSA), 3.0x10{sup -8}-1.0x10{sup -5}g/mL for human serum albumin (HSA) and 1.0x10{sup -7}-2.0x10{sup -5}g/mL for egg albumin (EA). Their detection limits (S/N=3) are 1.6x10{sup -9}, 9.8x10{sup -9} and 2.1x10{sup -8}g/mL, respectively. The interaction mechanism is also studied.

  3. 296-B-10 stack monitoring and sampling system annual system assessment report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ridge, T.M.

    1995-01-01

    B Plant Administration Manual, requires an annual system assessment to evaluate and report the present condition of the sampling and monitoring system associated with stack 296-B-10 at B Plant. The ventilation system of WESF (Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility) is designed to provide airflow patterns so that air movement throughout the building is from areas of lesser radioactivity to areas of greater radioactivity. All potentially contaminated areas are maintained at a negative pressure with respect to the atmosphere so that air flows into the building at all times. The exhaust discharging through the 296-B-10 stack is continuously monitored and sampled using a sampling and monitoring probe assembly located approximately 17.4 meters (57 feet) above the base of the stack. The probe assembly consists of 5 nozzles for the sampling probe and 2 nozzles to monitor the flow. The sampling and monitoring system associated with Stack 296-B-10 is functional and performing satisfactorily

  4. Physical properties of liquid sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberdi Primicia, J.; Martinez Piquer, T.A.

    1977-01-01

    The molten sodium has been the more accepted coolant for the first generation of FBR, by this reason the knowledge of its technology is needed for the development of the next LMFBR. A series of necessary data for designing sodium liquid systems are given. Tables and graphics about the most important physical sodium properties between 1200-1400 degC are gathered. The results have been obtained from equations that relate the properties with temperature using a Fortran IV program. (author) [es

  5. Luminol/CdTe quantum dots/sodium periodate system in conjunction with response-surface methodology for chemiluminometric determination of some tetracyclines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imani-Nabiyyi, Amin; Sorouraddin, Mohammad H.; Amjadi, Mohammad; Naseri, Abdolhossein

    2014-01-01

    A simple and sensitive chemiluminometric method is described for the determination of tetracycline (TC) and oxytetracycline (OTC) in their hydrochloride form on the basis of drastic enhancement of the chemiluminescence (CL) from the luminol/L-cysteine-capped CdTe quantum dots (QDs)/sodium periodate system, caused by the presence of TC and OTC hydrochloride. The method uses pH value at which tetracyclines have proven to be stable. Response surface methodology was exploited for optimizing the experimental conditions. The synthesized QDs were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV–vis spectroscopy, and photoluminescence spectroscopy. A possible mechanism of the CL system was proposed based on the CL spectra and the effect of some specific radical-scavengers on the system. Under the optimum conditions linear dynamic ranges of 5.0×10 −8 –6.0×10 −6 mol L −1 and 5.0×10 −8 –8.0×10 −6 mol L −1 were observed for TC and OTC, respectively with corresponding detection limits of 2.2×10 −8 mol L −1 and 3.0×10 −8 mol L −1 . The precision (RSD%) for five replicate determinations of TC and OTC were respectively no more than 3.4% and 4.0%. The method was satisfactorily applied to the determination of TC.HCl and OTC.HCl in water samples, pharmaceutical formulations, and honey. - Highlights: • A simple, rapid, and sensitive method for determination of some tetracyclines. • Enhancement of CL of luminol/Cys-capped CdTe QDs/NaIO 4 with TC.HCl and OTC.HCl. • No need to chemical, photochemical, or any peculiar pretreatment of the samples. • Measuring the analytes in conditions at which they are stable. • Capable of measuring TCs in pharmaceutical, water, and honey samples

  6. Mars Science Laboratory Sample Acquisition, Sample Processing and Handling Subsystem: A Description of the Sampling Functionality of the System after being on the Surface for Two Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beegle, L. W.; Anderson, R. C.; Abbey, W. J.

    2014-12-01

    The Sample Acquisition/Sample Processing and Handling (SA/SPaH) subsystem for the Mars Science Library (MSL) is a rover-based sampling system. SA/SPaH consists of a powdering drill and a scooping, sieving, and portioning device mounted on a turret at the end of a robotic arm. Curiosity rover preformed several sample acquisitions and processing of solid samples during its first year of operation. Material were processed and delivered to the two analytical instruments, Chemistry and Mineralogy (CheMin) and Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM), both of which required specific particle size for the material delivered to them to perform their analysis to determine its mineralogy and geochemistry content. In this presentation, the functionality of the system will be explained along with the in-situ targets the system has acquire and the samples that were delivered.

  7. A high sodium intake reduces antiproteinuric response to renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system blockade in kidney transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monfá, Elena; Rodrigo, Emilio; Belmar, Lara; Sango, Cristina; Moussa, Fozi; Ruiz San Millán, Juan Carlos; Piñera, Celestino; Fernández-Fresnedo, Gema; Arias, Manuel

    Post-transplant proteinuria is associated with lower graft and patient survival. Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system blockers are used to reduce proteinuria and improve renal outcome. Although it is known that a high salt intake blunts the antiproteinuric effect of ACEI and ARB drugs in non-transplant patients, this effect has not been studied in kidney transplant recipients. To analyse the relationship between sodium intake and the antiproteinuric effect of ACEI/ARB drugs in kidney transplant recipients. We selected 103 kidney transplant recipients receiving ACEI/ARB drugs for more than 6 months due to proteinuria>1 g/day. Proteinuria was analysed at baseline and at 6 months after starting ACEI/ARB treatment. Salt intake was estimated by urinary sodium to creatinine ratio (uNa/Cr). Proteinuria fell to less than 1g/day in 46 patients (44.7%). High uNa/Cr was associated with a smaller proteinuria decrease (r=-0.251, P=.011). The percentage proteinuria reduction was significantly lower in patients in the highest uNa/Cr tertile [63.9% (IQR 47.1%), 60.1% (IQR 55.4%), 38.9% (IQR 85.5%), P=.047]. High uNa/Cr independently relates (OR 2.406 per 100 mEq/g, 95% CI: 1.008-5.745, P=.048) to an antiproteinuric response <50% after renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system blockade. A high salt intake results in a smaller proteinuria decrease in kidney transplant recipients with proteinuria treated with ACEI/ARB drugs. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Nefrología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Vapor and gas sampling of single-shell tank 241-U-104 using the in situ vapor sampling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lockrem, L.L.

    1997-01-01

    The Vapor Issue.Resolution Program tasked the Vapor Team (VT) to collect representative headspace samples from Hanford Site single-shell tank (SST) 241-U-104. This document presents In Situ Vapor Sampling System (ISVS) data resulting from the July 16, 1996 sampling of SST 241-U-104. Analytical results will be presented in separate reports issued by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) which supplied and analyzed the sample media

  9. Vapor and gas sampling of single-shell tank 241-S-106 using the in situ vapor sampling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lockrem, L.L.

    1997-01-01

    The Vapor Issue Resolution Program tasked the Vapor Team (VT) to collect representative headspace samples from Hanford Site single-shell tank (SST) 241-S-106. This document presents In Situ vapor Sampling System (ISVS) data resulting from the June 13, 1996 sampling of SST 241-S-106. Analytical results will be presented in separate reports issued by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) which'supplied and analyzed the sample media

  10. Vapor and gas sampling of single-shell tank 241-S-103 using the in situ vapor sampling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lockrem, L.L.

    1997-01-01

    The Vapor Issue Resolution Program tasked the Vapor Team (VT) to collect representative headspace samples from Hanford Site single-shell tank (SST) 241-S-103. This document presents In Situ Vapor Sampling System (ISVS) data resulting from the June 12, 1996 sampling of SST 241-S-103. Analytical results will be presented in separate reports issued by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) which supplied and analyzed the sample media

  11. Sampling rare events in nonequilibrium and nonstationary systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryman, Joshua T; Schilling, Tanja

    2010-12-28

    Although many computational methods for rare event sampling exist, this type of calculation is not usually practical for general nonequilibrium conditions, with macroscopically irreversible dynamics and away from both stationary and metastable states. A novel method for calculating the time-series of the probability of a rare event is presented which is designed for these conditions. The method is validated for the cases of the Glauber-Ising model under time-varying shear flow, the Kawasaki-Ising model after a quench into the region between nucleation dominated and spinodal decomposition dominated phase change dynamics, and the parallel open asymmetric exclusion process. The method requires a subdivision of the phase space of the system: it is benchmarked and found to scale well for increasingly fine subdivisions, meaning that it can be applied without detailed foreknowledge of the physically important reaction pathways.

  12. A Detector System for Identifying Substances in a Sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    A system for identifying substances in a sample comprises an array of cantilevers (330), at least some of the cantilevers being provided with a recognition layer and adapted to bend if the recognition layer reacts with the substance, and a common-path interferometer for measuring cantilever bending......, said interferometer comprising an array of light sources (312) for emitting spatially coherent light, a transmitter diffractive optical element (319) for splitting the light into a plurality of probing beam sets, each beam set comprising at least a first probing beam and a second probing beam...... for illuminating a first area and a second area of the corresponding cantilever (330); a detector array (334, 336), and a receiver diffractive optical element (329) adapted to collect light reflected from the cantilever array and to form at least two spatially overlapping images of said areas so that interference...

  13. Classifier-Guided Sampling for Complex Energy System Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backlund, Peter B. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Eddy, John P. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This report documents the results of a Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) effort enti tled "Classifier - Guided Sampling for Complex Energy System Optimization" that was conducted during FY 2014 and FY 2015. The goal of this proj ect was to develop, implement, and test major improvements to the classifier - guided sampling (CGS) algorithm. CGS is type of evolutionary algorithm for perform ing search and optimization over a set of discrete design variables in the face of one or more objective functions. E xisting evolutionary algorithms, such as genetic algorithms , may require a large number of o bjecti ve function evaluations to identify optimal or near - optimal solutions . Reducing the number of evaluations can result in significant time savings, especially if the objective function is computationally expensive. CGS reduce s the evaluation count by us ing a Bayesian network classifier to filter out non - promising candidate designs , prior to evaluation, based on their posterior probabilit ies . In this project, b oth the single - objective and multi - objective version s of the CGS are developed and tested on a set of benchm ark problems. As a domain - specific case study, CGS is used to design a microgrid for use in islanded mode during an extended bulk power grid outage.

  14. A titration method for determining individual oxidant concentration in the dual sodium persulfate and hydrogen peroxide oxidation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Chenju; He, Boyu

    2018-05-01

    The use of a dual oxidation system, which combines sodium persulfate (Na 2 S 2 O 8 , SPS) and hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 , HP) is increasing as an in-situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) process for soil and groundwater remediation. An analytical method was assessed in this study for determining individual oxidant concentration in order to understand the interactions, and variations in the concentrations, of SPS and HP in aqueous systems containing both SPS and HP. The iodometric titration method was demonstrated to be capable of measuring total oxidant (SPS + HP) concentration; while the ceric sulfate titration method can be used specifically for measuring HP in the dual oxidation system without interfering with the iodometric titration. Therefore, SPS concentration can be deduced by subtraction of the HP concentration from the total oxidant concentration. Direct iodometric titration for determination of total oxidant at concentration above 20 mM exhibited <8% concentration. Based on the results of indirect determination of SPS in the dual oxidation system, an approximate 10% concentration variation was expected. This research may serve as a reference for measuring oxidant variations in this ISCO dual oxidant application. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Development of an Integrated Suspended Sediment Sampling System - Prototype Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerantzaki, Sofia; Moirogiorgou, Konstantia; Efstathiou, Dionissis; Giannakis, George; Voutsadaki, Stella; Zervakis, Michalis; Sibetheros, Ioannis A.; Zacharias, Ierotheos; Karatzas, George P.; Nikolaidis, Nikolaos P.

    2015-04-01

    The Mediterranean region is characterized by a unique micro-climate and a complex geologic and geomorphologic environment caused by its position in the Alpine orogenesis belt. Unique features of the region are the temporary rivers that are dry streams or streams with very low flow for most of the time over decadal time scales. One of their key characteristics is that they present flashy hydrographs with response times ranging from minutes to hours. It is crucial to monitor flash-flood events and observe their behavior since they can cause environmental degradation of the river's wider location area. The majority of sediment load is transferred during these flash events. Quantification of these fluxes through the development of new measuring devices is of outmost importance as it is the first step for a comprehensive understanding of the water quality, the soil erosion and erosion sources, and the sediment and nutrient transport routes. This work proposes an integrated suspended sediment sampling system which is implemented in a complex semi-arid Mediterranean watershed (i.e. the Koiliaris River Basin of Crete) with temporary flow tributaries and karstic springs. The system consists of sensors monitoring water stage and turbidity, an automated suspended sediment sampler, and an online camera recording video sequence of the river flow. Water stage and turbidity are continuously monitored and stage is converted to flow with the use of a rating curve; when either of these variables exceeds certain thresholds, the pump of the sediment sampler initiates sampling with a rotation proportional to the stage (flow weighted sampling). The water passes through a filter that captures the sediment, the solids are weighted after each storm and the data are converted to a total sediment flux. At the same time, the online camera derives optical measurements for the determination of the two-dimensional river flow velocity and the spatial sediment distribution by analyzing the Hue

  16. Cardiac sodium channelopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Ahmad S; Asghari-Roodsari, Alaleh; Tan, Hanno L

    2010-07-01

    Cardiac sodium channel are protein complexes that are expressed in the sarcolemma of cardiomyocytes to carry a large inward depolarizing current (INa) during phase 0 of the cardiac action potential. The importance of INa for normal cardiac electrical activity is reflected by the high incidence of arrhythmias in cardiac sodium channelopathies, i.e., arrhythmogenic diseases in patients with mutations in SCN5A, the gene responsible for the pore-forming ion-conducting alpha-subunit, or in genes that encode the ancillary beta-subunits or regulatory proteins of the cardiac sodium channel. While clinical and genetic studies have laid the foundation for our understanding of cardiac sodium channelopathies by establishing links between arrhythmogenic diseases and mutations in genes that encode various subunits of the cardiac sodium channel, biophysical studies (particularly in heterologous expression systems and transgenic mouse models) have provided insights into the mechanisms by which INa dysfunction causes disease in such channelopathies. It is now recognized that mutations that increase INa delay cardiac repolarization, prolong action potential duration, and cause long QT syndrome, while mutations that reduce INa decrease cardiac excitability, reduce electrical conduction velocity, and induce Brugada syndrome, progressive cardiac conduction disease, sick sinus syndrome, or combinations thereof. Recently, mutation-induced INa dysfunction was also linked to dilated cardiomyopathy, atrial fibrillation, and sudden infant death syndrome. This review describes the structure and function of the cardiac sodium channel and its various subunits, summarizes major cardiac sodium channelopathies and the current knowledge concerning their genetic background and underlying molecular mechanisms, and discusses recent advances in the discovery of mutation-specific therapies in the management of these channelopathies.

  17. Development of the FFDL system using resonance ionization mass spectrometry for sodium cooled fast reactors. System design for the JOYO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harano, Hideki; Nose, Shoichi; Ito, Kazuhiro

    2000-07-01

    Immediate detection of fuel failure and subsequent precise identification of failed fuel assemblies are extremely important and indispensable for fast reactors from the viewpoint of their safety and reliability as well as the improvement of plant availability. In order to develop the failed fuel detection and location (FFDL) technology, laser resonance ionization spectrometry (RIMS) has been proposed to be applied to the trace analysis of krypton and xenon contained in cover gas. Various promising features have been reported including the results which suggest the feasibility of the method to the on-power real-time monitoring, through the fundamental study using the RIMS device at the nuclear engineering research laboratory (NERL) of the University of Tokyo. Based on the information obtained above, we are developing a new laser FFDL system using RIMS which is planned to be introduced onto the fast experimental reactor JOYO. By the use of the system at the JOYO, isotope analysis can be performed with high sensitivity for not only radioactive but also stable elements in fission product (FP) and tag gas in the cover gas. This permits the improvement of irradiation technology and the immediate identification of failed fuel assemblies. For instance, it is possible to identify burst samples in the breach test of fuel cladding materials during irradiation. From the isotopic composition of the FP nuclides, the burnup of failed fuel can be estimated which allows the preliminary focusing in the FFDL. In this paper, we review the fundamental study using the RIMS device at NERL and report the basic design of the laser FFDL system for the JOYO. (author)

  18. Test Your Sodium Smarts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You may be surprised to learn how much sodium is in many foods. Sodium, including sodium chloride ... foods with little or no salt. Test your sodium smarts by answering these 10 questions about which ...

  19. System consisting of fluorides and chlorides of sodium, strontium and barium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bukhalova, G.A.; Yagub'yan, E.S.; Keropyan, V.V.; Mirsoyanova, N.N.

    1980-01-01

    Simplicial sharing of a prism of the composition of a quaternary reciprocal Na, Sr, Ba long F, Cl system is performed. By visual-polythermal and thermographic methods the surface of liquidus of four tetrahedral sections is studied, and a low-melting region of the system is revealed. The lowest melting quaternary point is at 578 deg C. A dendritic scheme of the system crystallization is constructed. Thermodynamical calculations are performed for reactions occurring at the central points of nonvariant straight lines

  20. SAMSAN- MODERN NUMERICAL METHODS FOR CLASSICAL SAMPLED SYSTEM ANALYSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisch, H. P.

    1994-01-01

    SAMSAN was developed to aid the control system analyst by providing a self consistent set of computer algorithms that support large order control system design and evaluation studies, with an emphasis placed on sampled system analysis. Control system analysts have access to a vast array of published algorithms to solve an equally large spectrum of controls related computational problems. The analyst usually spends considerable time and effort bringing these published algorithms to an integrated operational status and often finds them less general than desired. SAMSAN reduces the burden on the analyst by providing a set of algorithms that have been well tested and documented, and that can be readily integrated for solving control system problems. Algorithm selection for SAMSAN has been biased toward numerical accuracy for large order systems with computational speed and portability being considered important but not paramount. In addition to containing relevant subroutines from EISPAK for eigen-analysis and from LINPAK for the solution of linear systems and related problems, SAMSAN contains the following not so generally available capabilities: 1) Reduction of a real non-symmetric matrix to block diagonal form via a real similarity transformation matrix which is well conditioned with respect to inversion, 2) Solution of the generalized eigenvalue problem with balancing and grading, 3) Computation of all zeros of the determinant of a matrix of polynomials, 4) Matrix exponentiation and the evaluation of integrals involving the matrix exponential, with option to first block diagonalize, 5) Root locus and frequency response for single variable transfer functions in the S, Z, and W domains, 6) Several methods of computing zeros for linear systems, and 7) The ability to generate documentation "on demand". All matrix operations in the SAMSAN algorithms assume non-symmetric matrices with real double precision elements. There is no fixed size limit on any matrix in any

  1. Effects of Dietary Sodium Restriction in Kidney Transplant Recipients Treated With Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System Blockade: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Laura V.; Dobrowolski, Linn C.; van den Bosch, Jacqueline J. O. N.; Riphagen, Ineke J.; Krediet, C. T. Paul; Bemelman, Frederike J.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Navis, Gerjan

    2016-01-01

    In patients with chronic kidney disease receiving renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) blockade, dietary sodium restriction is an often-used treatment strategy to reduce blood pressure (BP) and albuminuria. Whether these effects extend to kidney transplant recipients is unknown. We therefore

  2. Effects of Dietary Sodium Restriction in Kidney Transplant Recipients Treated With Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System Blockade : A Randomized Clinical Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Laura V; Dobrowolski, Linn C; van den Bosch, Jacqueline J O N; Riphagen, Ineke J; Krediet, C T Paul; Bemelman, Frederike J; Bakker, Stephan J L; Navis, Gerjan

    BACKGROUND: In patients with chronic kidney disease receiving renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) blockade, dietary sodium restriction is an often-used treatment strategy to reduce blood pressure (BP) and albuminuria. Whether these effects extend to kidney transplant recipients is unknown.

  3. Angra-1 chlorination system: chlorine gas versus sodium hypochlorite; Sistema de cloracao de Angra I: cloro gasoso versus hipoclorito de sodio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandao, Flavio E. do Rio; Leite, Nelri Ferreira [FURNAS Centrais Eletricas S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia e Combustivel Nuclear

    1996-07-01

    The objective of this paper is to present a study that was developed over the last two years at Angra I Nuclear Power Plant (Brazil). As a result we chose to change the chlorination system , replacing the actual process that utilizes chlorine gas, with on-site generation of sodium hypochlorite from seawater. The work presents the use of chlorine gas and its implications such as: industrial safety, handling, transportation, corrosion, operational and maintenance costs. It also demonstrates the sodium hypochlorite generation process from electrolysis of seawater and its aspects related to: safety operation, maintenance and costs. Also described are several tests done in Angra I utilizing chlorine gas and sodium hypochlorite, that evaluated the performance of the dosage of active chlorine in the intake canals, in the condensers and discharge, following the Brazilian environmental regulations. (author)

  4. Experimental and Numerical Simulation towards Sodium Safety in SFR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponraju, D.; Rao, Hemanth; Das, Sanjay Kumar; Punitha; Nashine, B.K.; Chellapandi, P.

    2013-01-01

    Summary and future program on sodium fire: Past - Design verification of LCT by experiments; Small scale experiments on sodium resistant concrete; Small sodium spray: - Fire senario; - particle distribution. Current activities - Containment code development; Demonstration of LCT system, effective LCT design; Qualification of extinguishers and sodium resistant contrete; LBB justification; Aerosol distribution. Future - Sodium school; HR development in handing sodium systems; Collaboration with AERB, IRSN, CEA and other International Organizations; Design guidelines

  5. A simplified system for doing ICP analysis on radioactive samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCown, J.J.

    1985-11-01

    Methods for setting up equipment to perform analyses on radioactive materials vary considerably from one site to another. Factors include the interests of the group involved, i.e., research vs service work; the type of building containing the lab; the arrangement of the lab for contamination control; previous experiences in operating similar equipment; the local interpretation of safety regulations; and the time and money available for the task. The Chemistry and Analysis group of the Westinghouse Hanford Company performs analytical chemistry in support of many Hanford programs. Samples analyzed cover a wide variety of materials with more than 50% involving radioactivity of one type or another. All of the laboratories in the building are connected to a common exhaust system with ductwork leading to the basement. Double HEPA filtration is provided with the first stage in the basement and the final stage done in the exhaust fan and filter building northwest of the main building. In addition, glove boxes are equipped with small HEPA filters on their outlet providing another stage of filtration. 6 figs

  6. Micellar solubilization in strongly interacting binary surfactant systems. [Binary surfactant systems of: dodecyltrimethylammonium chloride + sodium dodecyl sulfate; benzyldimethyltetradecylammonium chloride + tetradecyltrimethylammonium chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Treiner, C. (Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris (France)); Nortz, M.; Vaution, C. (Faculte de Pharmacie de Paris-sud, Chatenay-Malabry (France))

    1990-07-01

    The apparent partition coefficient P of barbituric acids between micelles and water has been determined in mixed binary surfactant solutions from solubility measurements in the whole micellar composition range. The binary systems chosen ranged from the strongly interacting system dodecyltrimethylammonium chloride + sodium dodecyl sulfate to weakly interacting systems such as benzyldimethyltetradecylammonium chloride + tetradecyltrimethyammonium chloride. In all cases studied, mixed micelle formation is unfavorable to micellar solubilization. A correlation is found between the unlike surfactants interaction energy, as measured by the regular solution parameter {beta} and the solute partition coefficient change upon surfactant mixing. By use of literature data on micellar solubilization in binary surfactant solutions, it is shown that the change of P for solutes which are solubilized by surface adsorption is generally governed by the sign and amplitude of the interaction parameter {beta}.

  7. Purity of EBR-II sodium: 1967--1974

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, C R.F.; Holmes, J T

    1975-12-01

    This report consolidates all information available on radiometric and chemical analyses made on sodium in EBR-II for 1967-1974. Systems, equipment, and techniques used for sampling the sodium are described and evaluated. The behavior of 11 radionuclides, 22 metallic impurities, and 4 nonmetallic impurities measured in EBR-II sodium during this 8-year period are shown graphically, and their trends are discussed with respect to half-life, reactor power level, cold-trap operation, and incursion of foreign material. Sodium-22, /sup 110m/Ag, /sup 113m/In, /sup 137/Cs, /sup 210/Po, and tin clearly show increasing radioactivities or concentrations since 1967. EBR-II cold traps are effective in controlling Bi, Cu, O, H, and /sup 3/H, but they are only partially effective for /sup 137/Cs and appear ineffective for /sup 131/I.

  8. Collecting Evidence to Inform Salt Reduction Policies in Argentina: Identifying Sources of Sodium Intake in Adults from a Population-Based Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Elorriaga

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The maximum content of sodium in selected processed foods (PF in Argentina was limited by a law enacted in 2013. Data about intake of these and other foods are necessary for policy planning, implementation, evaluation, and monitoring. We examined data from the CESCAS I population-based cohort study to assess the main dietary sources among PF and frequency of discretionary salt use by sex, age, and education attainment, before full implementation of the regulations in 2015. We used a validated 34-item FFQ (Food Frequency Questionnaire to assess PF intake and discretional salt use. Among 2127 adults in two Argentinean cities, aged 35–76 years, mean salt intake from selected PFs was 4.7 g/day, higher among male and low education subgroups. Categories of foods with regulated maximum limits provided near half of the sodium intake from PFs. Use of salt (always/often at the table and during cooking was reported by 9% and 73% of the population, respectively, with higher proportions among young people. Reducing salt consumption to the target of 5 g/day may require adjustments to the current regulation (reducing targets, including other food categories, as well as reinforcing strategies such as education campaigns, labeling, and voluntary agreement with bakeries.

  9. Aging phenomena of chitosan and chitosan-diclofenac sodium system detected by low-frequency dielectric spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodek, K H; Bak, G W

    1999-09-01

    The use of natural polymers for design of dosage form has received considerable attention recently, especially from the safety point of view. Among these polymers, chitosan shows very interesting biological, chemical and physical properties which makes it possible to use chitosan for various pharmaceutical applications. Microcrystalline chitosan (MCCh) is a special multifunctional polymeric material existing in the form of either of gelatinous water dispersion or a powder. Thermal aging of chitosan and chitosan-diclofenac sodium mixture have been studied using low-frequency dielectric measurements. The aging was carried out by annealing in ambient atmosphere in the temperature range between 25 degrees C and 100 degrees C. The dielectric losses in the aged samples proved to decrease by about one order of magnitude. The additional measurements of molecular weight distribution and infrared absorption were also carried out for better understanding of nature of the ageing phenomena. Partial evacuation of water, cross-linking and improvement of structural order may be suggested to be a result of thermal aging of the investigated materials.

  10. System of closing relations of a two-fluid model for the HYDRA-IBRAE/LM/V1 code for calculation of sodium boiling in channels of power equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usov, E. V.; Butov, A. A.; Dugarov, G. A.; Kudasov, I. G.; Lezhnin, S. I.; Mosunova, N. A.; Pribaturin, N. A.

    2017-07-01

    The system of equations from a two-fluid model is widely used in modeling thermohydraulic processes during accidents in nuclear reactors. The model includes conservation equations governing the balance of mass, momentum, and energy in each phase of the coolant. The features of heat and mass transfer, as well as of mechanical interaction between phases or with the channel wall, are described by a system of closing relations. Properly verified foreign and Russian codes with a comprehensive system of closing relations are available to predict processes in water coolant. As to the sodium coolant, only a few open publications on this subject are known. A complete system of closing relations used in the HYDRA-IBRAE/LM/V1 thermohydraulic code for calculation of sodium boiling in channels of power equipment is presented. The selection of these relations is corroborated on the basis of results of analysis of available publications with an account taken of the processes occurring in liquid sodium. A comparison with approaches outlined in foreign publications is presented. Particular attention has been given to the calculation of the sodium two-phase flow boiling. The flow regime map and a procedure for the calculation of interfacial friction and heat transfer in a sodium flow with account taken of high conductivity of sodium are described in sufficient detail. Correlations are presented for calculation of heat transfer for a single-phase sodium flow, sodium flow boiling, and sodium flow boiling crisis. A method is proposed for prediction of flow boiling crisis initiation.

  11. Sodium borohydride hydrogen generator using Co–P/Ni foam catalysts for 200 W proton exchange membrane fuel cell system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Taek Hyun; Gang, Byeong Gyu; Kim, Hyuntak; Kwon, Sejin

    2015-01-01

    The response characteristics of electroless-deposited Co–P/Ni foam catalysts for sodium borohydride hydrolysis were investigated. The effect of nickel foam geometry on the properties of the catalysts was evaluated. As the PPI (pores per inch) of the nickel foam increased, the hydrogen generation rate per gram of the deposited catalyst increased due to an increase in surface area. The response characteristics of various catalysts were compared under real operating conditions. When a thin nickel foam with high PPI was used, the response characteristics of the catalyst improved due to an increase in the amount of the deposited catalyst and surface area. Finally, a 200 W PEMFC (proton exchange membrane fuel cell) system using electroless-deposited Co–P/Ni foam (110 PPI) catalyst was investigated. The response time to reach a hydrogen generation rate sufficient for a 200 W PEMFC was 71 s, and the energy density of a 200 W fuel cell system for producing 600 Wh was 252.1 Wh/kg. A fuel cell system using Co–P/Ni foam catalysts can be widely used as a power source for mobile applications due to fast response characteristics and high energy density. - Highlights: • Response characteristics of Co–P/Ni foam catalysts are investigated. • Catalytic activity is improved with increase in PPI (pores per inch) of Ni foam. • Co–P/Ni foam (110 PPI) catalyst has improved response characteristics. • The energy density of a 200 W PEMFC system for producing 600 Wh is 252.1 Wh/kg. • Co–P/Ni foam (110 PPI) catalyst is suitable for fuel cell system.

  12. Solar Central Receiver Hybrid Power Systems sodium-cooled receiver concept. Final report. Volume III. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-01-01

    The overall, long term objective of the Solar Central Receiver Hybrid Power System is to identify, characterize, and ultimately demonstrate the viability and cost effectiveness of solar/fossil, steam Rankine cycle, hybrid power systems that: (1) consist of a combined solar central receiver energy source and a nonsolar energy source at a single, common site, (2) may operate in the base, intermediate, and peaking capacity modes, (3) produce the rated output independent of variations in solar insolation, (4) provide a significant savings (50% or more) in fuel consumpton, and (5) produce power at the minimum possible cost in mills/kWh. It is essential that these hybrid concepts be technically feasible and economically competitive with other systems in the near to mid-term time period (1985-1990) on a commercial scale. The program objective for Phase I is to identify and conceptually characterize solar/fossil steam Rankine cycle, commercial-scale, power plant systems that are economically viable and technically feasible. This volume contains appendices to the conceptual design and systems analysis studies gien in Volume II, Books 1 and 2. (WHK)

  13. System Identification of a Non-Uniformly Sampled Multi-Rate System in Aluminium Electrolysis Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Håkon Viumdal

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Standard system identification algorithms are usually designed to generate mathematical models with equidistant sampling instants, that are equal for both input variables and output variables. Unfortunately, real industrial data sets are often disrupted by missing samples, variations of sampling rates in the different variables (also known as multi-rate systems, and intermittent measurements. In industries with varying events based maintenance or manual operational measures, intermittent measurements are performed leading to uneven sampling rates. Such is the case with aluminium smelters, where in addition the materials fed into the cell create even more irregularity in sampling. Both measurements and feeding are mostly manually controlled. A simplified simulation of the metal level in an aluminium electrolysis cell is performed based on mass balance considerations. System identification methods based on Prediction Error Methods (PEM such as Ordinary Least Squares (OLS, and the sub-space method combined Deterministic and Stochastic system identification and Realization (DSR, and its variants are applied to the model of a single electrolysis cell as found in the aluminium smelters. Aliasing phenomena due to large sampling intervals can be crucial in avoiding unsuitable models, but with knowledge about the system dynamics, it is easier to optimize the sampling performance, and hence achieve successful models. The results based on the simulation studies of molten aluminium height in the cells using the various algorithms give results which tally well with the synthetic data sets used. System identification on a smaller data set from a real plant is also implemented in this work. Finally, some concrete suggestions are made for using these models in the smelters.

  14. Effectiveness of Chlorinated Water, Sodium Hypochlorite, Sodium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluated the efficacy of chlorinated water, sodium hypochlorite solution, sodium chloride solution and sterile distilled water in eliminating pathogenic bacteria on the surfaces of raw vegetables. Lettuce vegetables were dipped in different concentrations of chlorinated water, sodium hypochlorite solution, sodium ...

  15. Preparation and Characterization of Sodium Sulfide Hydrates for Application in Thermochemical Storage Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelands, C.P.M.; Cuypers, R.; Kruit, K.D.; Oversloot, H.P.; Jong, A.J. de; Duvalois, W.; Vliet, L. van; Hoegaerts, C.L.G.

    2015-01-01

    Bottlenecks for realizing a commercial system for thermochemical heat storage (TCS) with hygroscopic salts are the chemical, physical and mechanical stability of the salt under operation conditions. Hence, improved knowledge of thermochemical materials (TCMs) is critical to spur progress in TCS

  16. Analysis of Direct Samples of Early Solar System Aqueous Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolensky, Michael E.; Bodnar, R J.; Fedele, L.; Yurimoto,H.; Itoh, S.; Fries, M.; Steele, A.

    2012-01-01

    Over the past three decades we have become increasingly aware of the fundamental importance of water, and aqueous alteration, on primitive solar-system bodies. Some carbonaceous and ordinary chondrites have been altered by interactions with liquid water within the first 10 million years after formation of their parent asteroids. Millimeter to centimeter-sized aggregates of purple halite containing aqueous fluid inclusions were found in the matrix of two freshly-fallen brecciated H chondrite falls, Monahans (1998, hereafter simply "Monahans") (H5) and Zag (H3-6) (Zolensky et al., 1999; Whitby et al., 2000; Bogard et al., 2001) In order to understand origin and evolution of the aqueous fluids inside these inclusions we much measure the actual fluid composition, and also learn the O and H isotopic composition of the water. It has taken a decade for laboratory analytical techniques to catch up to these particular nanomole-sized aqueous samples. We have recently been successful in (1) measuring the isotopic composition of H and O in the water in a few fluid inclusions from the Zag and Monahans halite, (2) mineralogical characterization of the solid mineral phases associated with the aqueous fluids within the halite, and (3) the first minor element analyses of the fluid itself. A Cameca ims-1270 equipped with a cryo-sample-stage of Hokkaido University was specially prepared for the O and H isotopic measurements. The cryo-sample-stage (Techno. I. S. Corp.) was cooled down to c.a. -190 C using liquid nitrogen at which the aqueous fluid in inclusions was frozen. We excavated the salt crystal surfaces to expose the frozen fluids using a 15 keV Cs+ beam and measured negative secondary ions. The secondary ions from deep craters of approximately 10 m in depth emitted stably but the intensities changed gradually during measurement cycles because of shifting states of charge compensation, resulting in rather poor reproducibility of multiple measurements of standard fluid

  17. High Pressure Atmospheric Sampling Inlet System for Venus or the Gas Giants, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Thorleaf Research, Inc. proposes to develop a miniaturized high pressure atmospheric sampling inlet system for sample acquisition in extreme planetary environments,...

  18. Performance evaluation of communication systems via importance sampling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Remondo Bueno, D.

    2000-01-01

    In the design and development of telecommunication systems, the preparation of experiments can be made more effective by predicting the system performance and its dependence on the different system parameters. This can be done by modeling the system and using performance evaluation methods. This

  19. Analysis of Porphyra membrane transporters demonstrates gene transfer among photosynthetic eukaryotes and numerous sodium-coupled transport systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Cheong Xin; Zäuner, Simone; Wheeler, Glen; Grossman, Arthur R; Prochnik, Simon E; Blouin, Nicolas A; Zhuang, Yunyun; Benning, Christoph; Berg, Gry Mine; Yarish, Charles; Eriksen, Renée L; Klein, Anita S; Lin, Senjie; Levine, Ira; Brawley, Susan H; Bhattacharya, Debashish

    2012-04-01

    Membrane transporters play a central role in many cellular processes that rely on the movement of ions and organic molecules between the environment and the cell, and between cellular compartments. Transporters have been well characterized in plants and green algae, but little is known about transporters or their evolutionary histories in the red algae. Here we examined 482 expressed sequence tag contigs that encode putative membrane transporters in the economically important red seaweed Porphyra (Bangiophyceae, Rhodophyta). These contigs are part of a comprehensive transcriptome dataset from Porphyra umbilicalis and Porphyra purpurea. Using phylogenomics, we identified 30 trees that support the expected monophyly of red and green algae/plants (i.e. the Plantae hypothesis) and 19 expressed sequence tag contigs that show evidence of endosymbiotic/horizontal gene transfer involving stramenopiles. The majority (77%) of analyzed contigs encode transporters with unresolved phylogenies, demonstrating the difficulty in resolving the evolutionary history of genes. We observed molecular features of many sodium-coupled transport systems in marine algae, and the potential for coregulation of Porphyra transporter genes that are associated with fatty acid biosynthesis and intracellular lipid trafficking. Although both the tissue-specific and subcellular locations of the encoded proteins require further investigation, our study provides red algal gene candidates associated with transport functions and novel insights into the biology and evolution of these transporters.

  20. Dietary geraniol by oral or enema administration strongly reduces dysbiosis and systemic inflammation in dextran sulphate sodium-treated mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigia eDe Fazio

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available (Trans-3,7-Dimethyl-2,6-octadien-1-ol, commonly called geraniol (Ge-OH, is an acyclic monoterpene alcohol with well-known anti-inflammatory, antitumoral and antimicrobial properties. It is widely used as a preservative in the food industry and as an antimicrobial agent in animal farming. The present study investigated the role of Ge-OH as an anti-inflammatory and anti-dysbiotic agent in the dextran sulphate sodium (DSS-induced colitis mouse model. Ge-OH was orally administered to C57BL/6 mice at daily doses of 30 and 120mg kg(-1 body weight, starting six days before DSS treatment and ending the day after DSS removal. Furthermore, Ge-OH 120 mg kg(-1 dose body weight was administered via enema during the acute phase of colitis to facilitate its on-site action. The results show that orally or enema-administered Ge-OH is a powerful antimicrobial agent able to prevent colitis-associated dysbiosis and decrease the inflammatory systemic profile of colitic mice. As a whole, Ge-OH strongly improved the clinical signs of colitis and significantly reduced cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 expression in colonocytes and in the gut wall. Ge-OH could be a powerful drug for the treatment of intestinal inflammation and dysbiosis.

  1. Chitosan and Sodium Alginate Combinations Are Alternative, Efficient, and Safe Natural Adjuvant Systems for Hepatitis B Vaccine in Mouse Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbdelAllah, Nourhan H.; Boseila, Abeer A.; Amin, Magdy A.

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis B viral (HBV) infections represent major public health problem and are an occupational hazard for healthcare workers. Current alum-adjuvanted HBV vaccine is the most effective measure to prevent HBV infection. However, the vaccine has some limitations including poor response in some vaccinee and being a frost-sensitive suspension. The goal of our study was to use an alternative natural adjuvant system strongly immunogenic allowing for a reduction in dose and cost. We tested HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) adjuvanted with chitosan (Ch) and sodium alginate (S), both natural adjuvants, either alone or combined with alum in mouse model. Mice groups were immunized subcutaneously with HBsAg adjuvanted with Ch or S, or triple adjuvant formula with alum (Al), Ch, and S, or double formulations with AlCh or AlS. These were compared to control groups immunized with current vaccine formula or unadjuvanted HBsAg. We evaluated the rate of seroconversion, serum HBsAg antibody, IL-4, and IFN-γ levels. The results showed that the solution formula with Ch or S exhibited comparable immunogenic responses to Al-adjuvanted suspension. The AlChS gave significantly higher immunogenic response compared to controls. Collectively, our results indicated that Ch and S are effective HBV adjuvants offering natural alternatives, potentially reducing dose. PMID:27493674

  2. Chitosan and Sodium Alginate Combinations Are Alternative, Efficient, and Safe Natural Adjuvant Systems for Hepatitis B Vaccine in Mouse Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nourhan H. AbdelAllah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B viral (HBV infections represent major public health problem and are an occupational hazard for healthcare workers. Current alum-adjuvanted HBV vaccine is the most effective measure to prevent HBV infection. However, the vaccine has some limitations including poor response in some vaccinee and being a frost-sensitive suspension. The goal of our study was to use an alternative natural adjuvant system strongly immunogenic allowing for a reduction in dose and cost. We tested HBV surface antigen (HBsAg adjuvanted with chitosan (Ch and sodium alginate (S, both natural adjuvants, either alone or combined with alum in mouse model. Mice groups were immunized subcutaneously with HBsAg adjuvanted with Ch or S, or triple adjuvant formula with alum (Al, Ch, and S, or double formulations with AlCh or AlS. These were compared to control groups immunized with current vaccine formula or unadjuvanted HBsAg. We evaluated the rate of seroconversion, serum HBsAg antibody, IL-4, and IFN-γ levels. The results showed that the solution formula with Ch or S exhibited comparable immunogenic responses to Al-adjuvanted suspension. The AlChS gave significantly higher immunogenic response compared to controls. Collectively, our results indicated that Ch and S are effective HBV adjuvants offering natural alternatives, potentially reducing dose.

  3. Fluorometric determination of proteins using the terbium (III)-2-thenoyltrifluoroacetone-sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate-protein system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia Zhen [Key Laboratory of Colloid and Interface Chemistry of Education Ministry, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Department of Chemistry, Dezhou University, Dezhou 253023 (China); Yang Jinghe [Key Laboratory of Colloid and Interface Chemistry of Education Ministry, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China)]. E-mail: yjh@sdu.edu.cn; Wu Xia [Key Laboratory of Colloid and Interface Chemistry of Education Ministry, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Wang Fei [Key Laboratory of Colloid and Interface Chemistry of Education Ministry, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Guo Changying [Key Laboratory of Colloid and Interface Chemistry of Education Ministry, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Liu Shufang [Key Laboratory of Colloid and Interface Chemistry of Education Ministry, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China)

    2006-12-15

    It is found that in hexamethylene tetramine (HMTA)-HCl buffer of pH=8.00, proteins can enhance the fluorescence of terbium (III) (Tb{sup 3+})-2-thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTA)-sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) system. Based on this, a sensitive method for the determination of proteins is proposed. The experiments indicate that under the optimum conditions, the enhanced fluorescence intensity is in proportion to the concentration of proteins in the range of 4.0x10{sup -9}-7.5x10{sup -6}g/mL for bovine serum albumin (BSA), 5.0x10{sup -9}-1.5x10{sup -5}g/mL for human serum albumin (HSA), 1.0x10{sup -8}-7.5x10{sup -6}g/mL for egg albumin (EA). Their detection limits (S/N=3) are 0.5, 0.8 and 2.0ng/mL, respectively. The interaction mechanism is also studied.

  4. Investigation of Fracturing and Adhesion Behavior of Hydroxapatite Coating Formed by Aminoacetic Acid-Sodium Aminoacetate Buffer Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İbrahim Aydın

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Biomaterials utilized in implantation can be categorized into 4 main categories, as ceramics, polymers, metals and composites. Ceramic-based biomaterials are opted for, particularly in the field of orthopedics. These materials, also named as bioceramics, are usually employed by coating them onto the base material, inasmuch as they are far from the mechanical values of bone. In this study, a hydroxyapatite coating that is fully compatible with human blood plasma was applied on Ti6Al4V alloy through a biomimetic technique using aminoacetic acid-sodium aminoacetate buffer system for the first time in the literature, and examinations related thereto were carried out. The surface of the base material Ti6Al4V alloy was activated with various chemicals. Subsequent to activating the surface, a coating process whereby the base material was kept in simulated body fluid for 24, 48, 72, 96 h was carried out. Ultimate microhardness (indentation tests were performed to determine the average indentation depths in maximum load, vickers hardness and elasticity modulus of the coatings obtained by using the biomimetic method, while scratch tests were performed to measure the surface bonding strengths of the coating layers. Furthermore, the fracture toughness values of the coating were calculated. The results obtained through the study are evaluated and discussed.

  5. 291-B-1 stack monitoring and sampling system annual system assessment report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ridge, T.M.

    1994-01-01

    The B Plant 291-B-1 main stack exhausts gaseous effluents to the atmosphere from the 221-B Building canyon and cells, the No. 1 Vessel Ventilation System (VVS1), the 212-B Cask Station cell ventilation system, and, to a limited capacity, the 224-B Building. VVS1 collects offgases from various process tanks in 221-B Building, while the 224-B system maintains a negative pressure in out-of-service, sealed process tanks. B Plant Administration Manual, WHC-CM-7-5, Section 5.30 requires an annual system assessment to evaluate and report the present condition of the sampling and monitoring system associated with Stack 291-B-1 (System Number B977A) at B Plant. The system is functional and performing satisfactorily

  6. On-Board Pressurization Systems for Sample Return Missions Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To-date, the realization of high-performance liquid bipropellant rocket engines for ascent vehicle and sample return applications has largely been hindered by the...

  7. Soil sampling sensor system on a mobile robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Peter M.; Hall, Ernest L.; Zhang, Evan

    2003-10-01

    Determining if a segment of property is suitable for use as an aircraft is a vitally important task that is currently performed by humans. However, this task can also put our people in harms way from land mines, sniper and artillery attacks. The objective of this research is to build a soil survey manipulator that can be carried by a lightweight, portable, autonomous vehicle, sensors and controls to navigate in assault zone. The manipulators permit both surface and sub surface measurements. An original soil sampling tube was constructed with linear actuator as manipulator and standard penetrometer as sampling sensor. The controls provide local control of the robot as well as the soil sampling mechanism. GPS has been selected to perform robot global navigation. The robot was constructed and tested on the test field. The results verified the concepts of using soil sampling robot to survey runway is feasible.

  8. Overflow type sodium sampler for FBTR circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muralidaran, P.; Ganesan, V.; Chandran, K.; Periaswami, G.

    1996-01-01

    Obtaining a representative sample is crucial for getting reliable results in sodium analysis. Sampling liquid sodium reliability is complicated since impurities segregate while cooling. Selective sorption of certain elements calls for use of different crucible materials for various sodium impurities. Sampling methods currently in use such as flow through sampling and dip sampling are not the proper methods as they can not take care of the above problems. An overflow type sampler where the entire sample contained in a crucible can be used for analysis thus obviating problems due to segregation has been developed for use in Fast Breeder Test Reactor (FBTR). This report describes the construction and operation of this sampler. (author)

  9. Formulation in vitro and in vivo evaluation of SRMS-based heterolipid-templated homolipid delivery system for diclofenac sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumuni, Momoh; Attama, A A; Kunle, O O

    2016-01-01

    The sole objective of this work was to design successful dosage oral forms of diclofenac sodium (DiNa)-loaded solid lipid microparticles (SLM) based on solidified reverse micellar solution (SRMS). Hot homogenization technique was employed to prepare DicNa SLM using a mixture goat fat and Phospholipon® 90 G as lipid matrix and Tween®-80 as mobile surfactant. Characterization based on percentage yield, morphology, particle size, zeta potential, percentage encapsulation, pH and stability of SLMs were investigated. Anti-inflammatory, gastrointestinal tract (GIT) sparing effect and pharmacokinetics were carried out in rat model after oral administration. Results showed that the SLMs were spherical and smooth. The optimized formulation (SLM-4) had particle size of 79.40 ± 0.31 µm, polydispersity index of 0.633 ± 0.190, zeta potential of -63.20 ± 0.12 mV and encapsulation efficiency of 91.2 ± 0.1% with good stability after 8 months of storage. The DicNa SLM had sustained release effect with good anti-inflammatory activity. Higher and prolonged plasma DicNa concentration was shown by the SLM-4 compared to pure drug and a conventional sample. These studies demonstrate that DicNa-loaded SLM based on SRMS could be a promising oral formulation for enhanced bioavailability, pharmacologic activity and gastrointestinal sparing effect of the NSAID, DicNa.

  10. Luminol/CdTe quantum dots/sodium periodate system in conjunction with response-surface methodology for chemiluminometric determination of some tetracyclines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imani-Nabiyyi, Amin; Sorouraddin, Mohammad H., E-mail: soruraddin@tabrizu.ac.ir; Amjadi, Mohammad; Naseri, Abdolhossein

    2014-07-01

    A simple and sensitive chemiluminometric method is described for the determination of tetracycline (TC) and oxytetracycline (OTC) in their hydrochloride form on the basis of drastic enhancement of the chemiluminescence (CL) from the luminol/L-cysteine-capped CdTe quantum dots (QDs)/sodium periodate system, caused by the presence of TC and OTC hydrochloride. The method uses pH value at which tetracyclines have proven to be stable. Response surface methodology was exploited for optimizing the experimental conditions. The synthesized QDs were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV–vis spectroscopy, and photoluminescence spectroscopy. A possible mechanism of the CL system was proposed based on the CL spectra and the effect of some specific radical-scavengers on the system. Under the optimum conditions linear dynamic ranges of 5.0×10{sup −8}–6.0×10{sup −6} mol L{sup −1} and 5.0×10{sup −8}–8.0×10{sup −6} mol L{sup −1} were observed for TC and OTC, respectively with corresponding detection limits of 2.2×10{sup −8} mol L{sup −1} and 3.0×10{sup −8} mol L{sup −1}. The precision (RSD%) for five replicate determinations of TC and OTC were respectively no more than 3.4% and 4.0%. The method was satisfactorily applied to the determination of TC.HCl and OTC.HCl in water samples, pharmaceutical formulations, and honey. - Highlights: • A simple, rapid, and sensitive method for determination of some tetracyclines. • Enhancement of CL of luminol/Cys-capped CdTe QDs/NaIO{sub 4} with TC.HCl and OTC.HCl. • No need to chemical, photochemical, or any peculiar pretreatment of the samples. • Measuring the analytes in conditions at which they are stable. • Capable of measuring TCs in pharmaceutical, water, and honey samples.

  11. Ferroelectric and octahedral tilt twin disorder and the lead-free piezoelectric, sodium potassium niobate system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiemer, Jason; Withers, Ray L.; Liu, Yun; Yi, Zhiguo

    2012-01-01

    Using electron diffraction, trends in the local structural behaviour of the K x Na 1−x NbO 3 (KNN x) ‘solid solution’ system are investigated and interpreted using an order/disorder based theoretical framework. At room temperature, electron diffraction shows a single plane of transverse polarised, diffuse intensity perpendicular to [0 1 0] p ⁎ (p for parent sub-structure) across the entire phase diagram, indicative of ferroelectric disorder along the [0 1 0] p direction co-existing with long range ferroelectric order along the orthogonal [1 0 0] p and [0 0 1] p directions. An additional characteristic pattern of diffuse scattering is also observed, involving rods of diffuse intensity running along the [1 0 0] p * and [0 0 1] p * directions of the perovskite sub-structure and indicative of octahedral tilt disorder about the [1 0 0] p and [0 0 1] p axes co-existing with long range ordered octahedral tilting around the [0 1 0] p direction. A possible crystal chemical explanation for the existence of this latter octahedral tilt disorder is explored through bond valence sum calculations. The possible influence of both types of disorder on the previously refined, room temperature space group/s and average crystal structure/s is examined. - Graphical abstract: [−3,0.−1]p zone axis EDP of K 0.46 Na 0.54 NbO 3 indexed according to both the relevant Pcm21 space groups (no subscripts) and the parent perovskite subcell (denoted by a subscript p). Highlights: ► Characterises ferroelectric and octahedral tilt disorder in the KNN solid solution. ► Discusses the possible driving forces for this disorder. ► Discusses the implications of this disorder for physical properties. ► Discusses the effects of this disorder on powder diffraction data.

  12. C-Scan Performance Test of Under-Sodium ultrasonic Waveguide Sensor in Sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joo, Young Sang; Bae, Jin Ho; Kim, Jong Bum

    2011-01-01

    Reactor core and in-vessel structures of a sodium-cooled fast (SFR) are submerged in opaque liquid sodium in the reactor vessel. The ultrasonic inspection techniques should be applied for observing the in-vessel structures under hot liquid sodium. Ultrasonic sensors such as immersion sensors and rod-type waveguide sensors have developed in order to apply under-sodium viewing of the in-vessel structures of SFR. Recently the novel plate-type ultrasonic waveguide sensor has been developed for the versatile application of under-sodium viewing in SFR. In previous studies, the ultrasonic waveguide sensor module was designed and manufactured, and the feasibility study of the ultrasonic waveguide sensor was performed. To improve the performance of the ultrasonic waveguide sensor in the under-sodium application, a new concept of ultrasonic waveguide sensors with a Be coated SS304 plate is suggested for the effective generation of a leaky wave in liquid sodium and the non-dispersive propagation of A 0 -mode Lamb wave in an ultrasonic waveguide sensor. In this study, the C-scan performance of the under-sodium ultrasonic waveguide sensor in sodium has been investigated by the experimental test in sodium. The under-sodium ultrasonic waveguide sensor and the sodium test facility with a glove box system and a sodium tank are designed and manufactured to carry out the performance test of under-sodium ultrasonic waveguide sensor in sodium environment condition

  13. The Sample Handling System for the Mars Icebreaker Life Mission: from Dirt to Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, Arwen; Thompson, Sarah J.; McKay, Christopher P.; Stoker, Carol R.; Zacny, Kris; Paulsen, Gale; Mellerowicz, Bolek; Glass, Brian J.; Wilson, David; Bonaccorsi, Rosalba; hide

    2013-01-01

    The Mars icebreaker life mission will search for subsurface life on mars. It consists of three payload elements: a drill to retrieve soil samples from approx. 1 meter below the surface, a robotic sample handling system to deliver the sample from the drill to the instruments, and the instruments themselves. This paper will discuss the robotic sample handling system.

  14. Identification of continuous-time systems from samples of input ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Identification of process parameters for control purposes must often be done using a digital computer, from samples of input±output observations. On the other hand, the .... As stated earlier, it is convenient to divide the problem into two subproblems. The first of these is the determination of a suitable discrete-time model from ...

  15. 40 CFR 86.509-90 - Exhaust gas sampling system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... equivalent results, and if approved in advance by the Administrator (e.g., a heat exchanger with the CFV-CVS or an electronic flow integrator without a heat exchanger, with the PDP-CVS). (b) Component... dynamics associated with critical flow. Proportional sampling throughout temperature excursions is...

  16. Fiber sample presentation system for spectrophotometer cotton fiber color measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Uster® High Volume Instrument (HVI) is used to class U.S. cotton for fiber color, yielding the industry accepted, cotton-specific color parameters Rd and +b. The HVI examines a 9 square inch fiber sample, and it is also used to test large AMS standard cotton “biscuits” or rectangles. Much inte...

  17. Sodium ordering and the control of magnetism in sodium cobaltate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, D.J.P.; Roger, M.; Tennant, D.A.; Goff, J.P.; Gutmann, M.J.; Hoffmann, J.-U.; Prabhakaran, D.; Shannon, N.; Lake, B.; Deen, P.P.

    2007-01-01

    The long-range three-dimensional ordering of Na + ions was studied in a sample of composition Na 0.75 CoO 2 using single-crystal neutron diffraction. Large-scale numerical simulations reveal the ordering principle for this system, the formation of multi-vacancy charged droplets then order long range, and the structure factors from these defect clusters are in good agreement with the observed neutron diffraction intensities. The electrostatic potential is found to be the dominant factor in determining the sodium ordering and its associated distortion field. The superstructures induce a periodic potential in the CoO 2 , giving potential wells that are larger than the single-particle hopping frequency and so able to localize holes. The results readily explain many of the observed electrical and magnetic properties, including the three dimensionality of the magnetic excitations

  18. Effect of Sodium Ascorbate and Delayed Bonding on the Bond Strength of Silorane and Two-step Self-etch Adhesive Systems in Bleached Enamel

    OpenAIRE

    Abed Kahnemooyi, Mehdi; Ajami, Amir Ahmad; Kimyai, Soodabeh; Pournaghiazar, Fatemeh; Savadi Oskoee, Siavash; Mhammadi Torkani, Mohammad Ali

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims. Studies have shown decreased bond strength of composite resin to human and bovine bleached enamel. This study evaluated the effect of sodium ascorbate and delayed bonding on the bond strength of two adhesive systems to bleached enamel. Materials and methods. The labial surfaces of 150 sound bovine incisor teeth were abraded with abrasive paper. The teeth were randomly divided into 8 groups: A: control; B: bleached with 35% hydrogen peroxide; C: bleached with 3...

  19. An Integrated Tool for System Analysis of Sample Return Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samareh, Jamshid A.; Maddock, Robert W.; Winski, Richard G.

    2012-01-01

    The next important step in space exploration is the return of sample materials from extraterrestrial locations to Earth for analysis. Most mission concepts that return sample material to Earth share one common element: an Earth entry vehicle. The analysis and design of entry vehicles is multidisciplinary in nature, requiring the application of mass sizing, flight mechanics, aerodynamics, aerothermodynamics, thermal analysis, structural analysis, and impact analysis tools. Integration of a multidisciplinary problem is a challenging task; the execution process and data transfer among disciplines should be automated and consistent. This paper describes an integrated analysis tool for the design and sizing of an Earth entry vehicle. The current tool includes the following disciplines: mass sizing, flight mechanics, aerodynamics, aerothermodynamics, and impact analysis tools. Python and Java languages are used for integration. Results are presented and compared with the results from previous studies.

  20. Eigenvalue sensitivity of sampled time systems operating in closed loop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal, Dionisio

    2018-05-01

    The use of feedback to create closed-loop eigenstructures with high sensitivity has received some attention in the Structural Health Monitoring field. Although practical implementation is necessarily digital, and thus in sampled time, work thus far has center on the continuous time framework, both in design and in checking performance. It is shown in this paper that the performance in discrete time, at typical sampling rates, can differ notably from that anticipated in the continuous time formulation and that discrepancies can be particularly large on the real part of the eigenvalue sensitivities; a consequence being important error on the (linear estimate) of the level of damage at which closed-loop stability is lost. As one anticipates, explicit consideration of the sampling rate poses no special difficulties in the closed-loop eigenstructure design and the relevant expressions are developed in the paper, including a formula for the efficient evaluation of the derivative of the matrix exponential based on the theory of complex perturbations. The paper presents an easily reproduced numerical example showing the level of error that can result when the discrete time implementation of the controller is not considered.

  1. 3D correlation NMR spectrum between three distinct heteronuclei for the characterization of inorganic samples: Application on sodium alumino-phosphate materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagashima, Hiroki; Tricot, Grégory; Trébosc, Julien; Lafon, Olivier; Amoureux, Jean-Paul; Pourpoint, Frédérique

    We report here an original NMR sequence allowing the acquisition of 3D correlation NMR spectra between three distinct heteronuclei, among which two are half-integer spin quadrupolar nuclei. Furthermore, as two of them exhibit close Larmor frequency, this experiment was acquired using a standard triple-resonance probe equipped with a commercial frequency splitter. This NMR technique was tested and applied to sodium alumino-phosphate compounds with 31 P as the spin-1/2 nucleus and 23 Na and 27 Al as the close Larmor frequencies isotopes. To the best of our knowledge, such experiment with direct 31 P and indirect 27 Al and 23 Na detection is the first example of 3D NMR experiment in solids involving three distinct heteronuclei. This sequence has first been demonstrated on a mixture of Al(PO 3 ) 3 and NaAlP 2 O 7 crystalline phases, for which a selective observation of NaAlP 2 O 7 is possible through the 3D map edition. This 3D correlation experiment is then applied to characterize mixing and phase segregation in a partially devitrified glass that has been proposed as a material for the sequestration of radioactive waste. The 31 P-{ 23 Na, 27 Al} 3D experiment conducted on the partially devitrified glass material conclusively demonstrates that the amorphous component of the material does not contain aluminum. The as-synthesized material thus presents a poor resistance against water, which is a severe limitation for its application in the radioactive waste encapsulation domain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Fractional excretion of sodium

    Science.gov (United States)

    FE sodium; FENa ... a lab. There, they are examined for salt (sodium) and creatinine levels. Creatinine is a chemical waste ... Chernecky CC, Berger BJ. Excretion fraction of filtered sodium-blood and urine. In: Chernecky CC, Berger BJ, ...

  3. Sodium and Food Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease Cholesterol High Blood Pressure Million Hearts® WISEWOMAN Sodium and Food Sources Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... food [PDF-867K] and how to reduce sodium. Sodium Reduction Is Challenging Types of food matter: More ...

  4. Electrophysiological and Pharmacological Analyses of Nav1.9 Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel by Establishing a Heterologous Expression System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xi; Xiao, Zhen; Xu, Yan; Zhang, Yunxiao; Tang, Dongfang; Wu, Xinzhou; Tang, Cheng; Chen, Minzhi; Shi, Xiaoliu; Chen, Ping; Liang, Songping; Liu, Zhonghua

    2017-01-01

    Nav1. 9 voltage-gated sodium channel is preferentially expressed in peripheral nociceptive neurons. Recent progresses have proved its role in pain sensation, but our understanding of Nav1.9, in general, has lagged behind because of limitations in heterologous expression in mammal cells. In this work, functional expression of human Nav1.9 (hNav1.9) was achieved by fusing GFP to the C-terminal of hNav1.9 in ND7/23 cells, which has been proved to be a reliable method to the electrophysiological and pharmacological studies of hNav1.9. By using the hNav1.9 expression system, we investigated the electrophysiological properties of four mutations of hNav1.9 (K419N, A582T, A842P, and F1689L), whose electrophysiological functions have not been determined yet. The four mutations significantly caused positive shift of the steady-state fast inactivation and therefore increased hNav1.9 activity, consistent with the phenotype of painful peripheral neuropathy. Meanwhile, the effects of inflammatory mediators on hNav1.9 were also investigated. Impressively, histamine was found for the first time to enhance hNav1.9 activity, indicating its vital role in hNav1.9 modulating inflammatory pain. Taken together, our research provided a useful platform for hNav1.9 studies and new insight into mechanism of hNav1.9 linking to pain. PMID:29213238

  5. Effects of sodium and potassium ions on a novel SeO2-B2O3-SiO2-P2O5-CaO bioactive system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trandafir, D. L.; Ponta, O.; Ciceo-Lucacel, R.; Simon, V.

    2015-01-01

    The study is focused on Na2O and/or K2O influence on a new sol-gel derived SeO2-B2O3-SiO2-P2O5-CaO bioactive system. The structural changes induced by Na2O and/or K2O addition were correlated with the samples behavior in simulated biological media. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy were used to characterize the structure and the type of the chemical bonds. The morphology of the samples was characterized through scanning electron microscopy (SEM). XRD results pointed out a prevalent vitreous structure with an incipient hydroxyapatite (HA) crystalline phase. FTIR results revealed a complex network consisting of silicate, phosphate and borate units, as well as the development of both A- and B-type of carbonate-substituted HA. The bioactivity of the samples was tested in vitro following the evolution of the apatite layers self-assembled on the samples surface in simulated body fluid. Their biocompatibility was investigated after samples surface functionalization with protein. The results indicate that sodium and potassium addition improves the biocompatibility by enhancement of protein adherence on samples surface and without to prevent the samples bioactivity.

  6. High Temperature Venus Drill and Sample Delivery System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We proposed to design, build and test a high temperature Pneumatic Drill and Trencher system for Venus subsurface exploration. The Venus Drill and Trencher will be...

  7. Aqueous Two-Phase Systems: A New Approach for the Determination of Brilliant Blue FCF in Water and Food Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabah Shiri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel, simple, and more sensitive spectrophotometric procedure has been developed for the determination of brilliant blue FCF in water and food samples by an aqueous two-phase system (ATPS. In this method, adequate amount of polyethylene glycol/ sodium carbonate (PEG-4000/Na2CO3 was added to aqueous solution for formation of a homogeneous solution. To the mixture solution, suitable amount of Na2CO3 was added, the mixture solution was shaken until the salt was dissolved, and then it was separated into two clear phases easily and rapidly. The target analyte in the water sample was extracted into the polyethylene glycol phase. After extraction, measuring the absorbance at 634 nm was done. The effects of different parameters such as polyethylene glycol (type and concentration, pH, salt (type and amount, centrifuge time, and temperature on the ATPS of dye was investigated and optimum conditions were established. Linear calibration curves were obtained in the range of 0.25–750 ng/mL for brilliant blue FCF under optimum conditions. Detection limit based on three times the standard deviation of the blank (3Sb was 0.12 ng/mL. The relative standard deviation (RSD for 400 ng/mL was 3.14%. The method was successfully applied to the determination of brilliant blue FCF in spiked samples with satisfactory results. The relative recovery was between 96.0 and 102.2%.

  8. Sampling system for pulsed signals. Study of the radioactive lifetimes of excited 32P1/2 and 32P3/2 states of Na, excited by a tunable dye laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, P.; Campos, J.

    1979-01-01

    A system for sampling and averaging repetitive signals in the order of nanoseconds is discussed. The system uses as storage memory a multichannel analyzer operating in multi scaling mode. This instrument is employed for the measurement of atomic level lifetimes using a dye laser to excite the atoms and is applied to the study of lifetimes of the 3 2 P1/2 and 3 2 P3/2 states of sodium. (Author) 32 refs

  9. Estimates and sampling schemes for the instrumentation of accountability systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jewell, W.S.; Kwiatkowski, J.W.

    1976-10-01

    The problem of estimation of a physical quantity from a set of measurements is considered, where the measurements are made on samples with a hierarchical error structure, and where within-groups error variances may vary from group to group at each level of the structure; minimum mean squared-error estimators are developed, and the case where the physical quantity is a random variable with known prior mean and variance is included. Estimators for the error variances are also given, and optimization of experimental design is considered

  10. Sodium-cooled nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berthoud, Georges; Ducros, Gerard; Feron, Damien; Guerin, Yannick; Latge, Christian; Limoge, Yves; Santarini, Gerard; Seiler, Jean-Marie; Vernaz, Etienne; Guidez, Joel; Andrieux, Catherine; Baque, Francois; Bonin, Bernard; Boullis, Bernard; Cabet, Celine; Carre, Frank; Dufour, Philippe; Gauche, Francois; Grouiller, Jean-Paul; Jeannot, Jean-Philippe; Le Flem, Marion; Le Coz, Pierre; Martin, Laurent; Masson, Michel; Mathonniere, Gilles; Nokhamzon, Jean-Guy; Pelletier, Michel; Rodriguez, Gilles; Saez, Manuel; Seran, Jean-Louis; Varaine, Frederic; Zaetta, Alain; Behar, Christophe; Provitina, Olivier; Lecomte, Michael; Forestier, Alain; Bender, Alexandra; Parisot, Jean-Francois; Finot, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    This book first explains the choice of sodium-cooled reactors by outlining the reasons of the choice of fast neutron reactors (fast neutrons instead of thermal neutrons, recycling opportunity for plutonium, full use of natural uranium, nuclear waste optimization, flexibility of fast neutron reactors in nuclear material management, fast neutron reactors as complements of water-cooled reactors), and by outlining the reasons for the choice of sodium as heat-transfer material. Physical, chemical, and neutron properties of sodium are presented. The second part of the book first presents the main design principles for sodium-cooled fast neutron reactors and their core. The third part proposes an historical overview and an assessment of previously operated sodium-cooled fast neutron reactors (French reactors from Rapsodie to Superphenix, other reactors in the world), and an assessment of the main incidents which occurred in these reactors. It also reports the experience and lessons learned from the dismantling of various sodium-cooled fast breeder reactors in the world. The next chapter addresses safety issues (technical and safety aspects related to the use of sodium) and environmental issues (dosimetry, gaseous and liquid releases, solid wastes, and cooling water). Then, various technological aspects of these reactors are addressed: the energy conversion system, main components, sodium chemistry, sodium-related technology, advances in in-service inspection, materials used in reactors and their behaviour, and fuel system. The next chapter addresses the fuel cycle in these reactors: its integrated specific character, report of the French experience in fast neutron reactor fuel processing, description of the transmutation of minor actinides in these reactors. The last chapter proposes an overview of reactors currently projected or under construction in the world, presents the Astrid project, and gives an assessment of the economy of these reactors. A glossary and an index

  11. Sodium vapor deposition onto a horizontal flat plate above liquid sodium surface, (3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudo, Kazuhiko; Hirata, Masaru.

    1978-01-01

    Sodium vapour and sodium mist in the cover gas of a sodium system of a fast breeder reactor cause various problems. In this report, with the results of measurements of sodium mist concentration, the distribution of sodium mist diameter in cover gas was analytically obtained. The analysis was made by using the different nucleus model B. The measurement of the concentration of sodium mist was carried out with a sodium mist pot designed by the author. The experiment was done at the sodium temperature of 400 and 500 degree centigrade. The relations among sodium temperature, upper wall temperature, and the sodium mist concentration in cover gas were obtained. Evaluation of effective condensed nuclear radius in the cover gas was made by the comparison of analysis and experimental results. The results of this evaluation shows the following conclusions. It is impossible to express the distribution of sodium mist diameter by normal distribution or logarithmic normal distribution. Drop of sodium temperature results in the decrease of weight mean radius of generated sodium mist. Drop of upper wall temperature causes the decrease of weight mean radius, and increases sodium mist concentration. (Kato, T.)

  12. Effective enzymatic in situ saccharification of bamboo shoot shell pretreated by dilute alkalic salts sodium hypochlorite/sodium sulfide pretreatment under the autoclave system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Gang-Gang; He, Yu-Cai; Liu, Qiu-Xiang; Kou, Xiao-Qin; Huang, Xiao-Jun; Di, Jun-Hua; Ma, Cui-Luan

    2017-10-01

    In this study, dilute alkali salts (0.6% NaClO, 0.067% Na 2 S) pretreatment at 10% sulfidity under the autoclave system at 120°C for 40min was used for pretreating bamboo shoot shell (BSS). Furthermore, FT-IR, XRD and SEM were employed to characterize the changes in the cellulose structural characteristics (porosity, morphology, and crystallinity) of the pretreated BSS solid residue. After 72h, the reducing sugars and glucose from the enzymatic in situ hydrolysis of 50g/L pretreated BSS in dilute NaClO/Na 2 S media could be obtained at 31.11 and 20.32g/L, respectively. Finally, the obtained BSS-hydrolysates containing alkalic salt NaClO/Na 2 S resulted in slightly negative effects on the ethanol production. Glucose in BSS-hydrolysates was fermented from 20.0 to 0.17g/L within 48h, and an ethanol yield of 0.41g/g glucose, which represents 80.1% of the theoretical yield, was obtained. This study provided an effective strategy for potential utilization of BSS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Elimination of ``memory`` from sample handling and inlet system of a mass spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chastgner, P.

    1991-05-08

    This paper describes a method for preparing the sample handling and inlet system of a mass spectrometer for analysis of a subsequent sample following analysis of a previous sample comprising the flushing of the system interior with supercritical CO{sub 2} and venting the interior. The method eliminates the effect of system ``memory`` on the subsequent analysis, especially following persistent samples such as xenon and krypton.

  14. Evaluation of calcium, magnesium, potassium and sodium in biological samples of male human immunodeficiency virus patients with tuberculosis and diarrhea compared to healthy control subjects in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afridi, Hassan Imran; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Talpur, Farah Naz; Kazi, Naveed; Naeemullah, Faheem Shah; Arain, Sadaf Sadia; Brahman, Kapil Dev

    2013-01-01

    Electrolyte deficiency has been associated with an increased risk of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) disease progression and mortality. This study examined the association between low electrolyte concentrations in blood and scalp hair and the presence of opportunistic infections in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Sixty-two male HIV positive patients (HIV-1) from various cities in Pakistan were recruited to the study. These Patients were divided into two groups according to secondary infections (tuberculosis and high fever with diarrhea), and biological samples (scalp hair, serum, blood and urine) were collected from them. As a comparative control group, 120 healthy subjects (males) of the same age group (31 - 45 years), socio-economic status, localities and dietary habits were also included in the study. The elements in the biological samples were analyzed by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry after microwave-assisted acid digestion. Validity and accuracy of the methodology were checked using certified reference materials (CRMs) and against values obtained by a conventional wet acid digestion method on the same CRMs. The results indicated significantly lower levels of calcium, potassium, magnesium and natrium in all analyzed biological samples (blood, serum and scalp hair) of male patients with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) in comparison to healthy controls (p urine samples of the AIDS patients than in those of the control group. These data offer guidance to clinicians and other professionals investigating the deficiency of electrolytes in biological samples (scalp hair, serum and blood) of AIDS patients in relation to healthy subjects.

  15. Implementation of USP antibody standard for system suitability in capillary electrophoresis sodium dodecyl sulfate (CE-SDS) for release and stability methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esterman, Abbie L; Katiyar, Amit; Krishnamurthy, Girija

    2016-09-05

    Capillary electrophoresis sodium dodecyl sulfate (CE-SDS) is widely used for purity analysis of monoclonal antibody therapeutics for release and stability to demonstrate product consistency and shelf life during the manufacturing and life cycle of the product. CE-SDS method development is focused on exploring the method capability to provide the information about the product purity and product related degradants (fragmentation, aggregation etc.). In order to establish the functionality of the instrumentation, software, and sample preparation; system suitability criteria need to be defined for analytical methods using a well characterized reference standard run under the same protocol and analysis as the test articles. Typically the reference standard is produced using a manufacturing process representative of the clinical material. The qualification, control, and maintenance of in-house reference standards are established through rigorous quality and regulatory guidelines. The U.S. Pharmacopeia (USP) has developed a monoclonal IgG System Suitability Reference Standard to be utilized for assessment of system suitability in CE-SDS methods. In this communication, we evaluate the system suitability acceptance criteria performance of the USP IgG standard using two methods, the recommended USP protocol provided in monograph and a molecule specific Bristol-Myers Squibb (BMS) CE-SDS method. The results from USP IgG standard were compared with two in-house monoclonal antibody reference standards. The data suggest that the USP CE-SDS method may not be suitable for CE-SDS analysis for release and stability of monoclonal antibody therapeutics due to the high level of method induced partial reduction observed for all molecules tested. This high level of fragmentation observed utilizing the USP method will result in reporting lower purity levels, which will impact the overall quality assessment of the molecule. The system suitability criteria recommended by the USP method can be

  16. Sodium Fire Demonstration Facility Design and Operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Youngil; Kim, Jong-Man; Lee, Jewhan; Hong, Jonggan; Yeom, Sujin; Cho, Chungho; Jung, Min-Hwan; Gam, Da-Young; Jeong, Ji-Young

    2014-01-01

    Although sodium has good characteristics such as high heat transfer rate and stable nuclear property, it is difficult to manage because of high reactivity. Sodium is solid at the room temperature and it easily reacts with oxygen resulting in fire due to the reaction heat. Thus, sodium must be stored in a chemically stable place, i.e., an inert gas-sealed or oil filled vessel. When a sodium fire occurs, the Na 2 O of white fume is formed. It is mainly composed of Na 2 O 2 , NaOH, and Na 2 CO 3 , ranging from 0.1 to several tens of micrometers in size. It is known that the particle size increases by aggregation during floating in air. Thus, the protection method is important and should be considered in the design and operation of a sodium system. In this paper, sodium fire characteristics are described, and the demonstration utility of outbreak of sodium fire and its extinguishing is introduced. In this paper, sodium fire characteristics and a demonstration facility are described. The introduced sodium fire demonstration facility is the only training device used to observe a sodium fire and extinguish it domestically. Furthermore, the type of sodium fire will be diversified with the enhancement of the utility. It is expected that this utility will contribute to experience in the safe treatment of sodium by the handlers

  17. 40 CFR 205.171-2 - Test exhaust system sample selection and preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Systems § 205.171-2 Test exhaust system sample selection and preparation. (a)(1) Exhaust systems... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test exhaust system sample selection and preparation. 205.171-2 Section 205.171-2 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY...

  18. 40 CFR 60.482-5 - Standards: Sampling connection systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... process fluid to any of the following systems or facilities: (A) A waste management unit as defined in § 63.111, if the waste management unit is subject to and operated in compliance with the provisions of..., licensed, or registered by a state to manage municipal or industrial solid waste, if the process fluids are...

  19. A sampling scheme intended for tandem measurements of sodium transport and microvillous surface area in the coprodaeal epithelium of hens on high- and low-salt diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayhew, T M; Dantzer, V; Elbrønd, V S; Skadhauge, E

    1990-12-01

    A tissue sampling protocol for combined morphometric and physiological studies on the mucosa of the avian coprodaeum is presented. The morphometric goal is to estimate the surface area due to microvilli at the epithelial cell apex and the proposed scheme is illustrated using material from three White Plymouth Rock hens. The scheme is designed to satisfy sampling requirements for the unbiased estimation of surface areas by vertical sectioning coupled with cycloid test lines and it incorporates a number of useful internal checks. It relies on multi-level sampling with four levels of stereological estimation. At Level I, macroscopic estimates of coprodaeal volume are obtained. Light microscopy is employed at Level II to calculate epithelial volume density. Levels III and IV require low and high power electron microscopy to estimate the surface density of the epithelial apical border and the amplification factor due to microvilli. Worked examples of the calculation steps are provided.

  20. Design of the CERN MEDICIS Collection and Sample Extraction System

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Alexander

    MEDICIS is a new facility at CERN ISOLDE that aims to produce radio-isotopes for medical research. Possible designs for the collection and transport system for the collection of radio-isotopes was investigated. A system using readily available equipment was devised with the the aim of keeping costs to a minimum whilst maintaining the highest safety standards. FLUKA, a Monte Carlo radiation transport code, was used to simulate the radiation from the isotopes to be collected. Of the isotopes to be collected 44Sc was found to give the largest dose by simulating the collection of all isotopes of interest to CERN’s MEDICIS facility, for medical research. The simulations helped guide the amount of shielding used in the final design. Swiss Regulations stipulating allowed activity level of individual isotopes was also considered within the body of the work.

  1. In vitro dissolution studies of sodium diclofenac granules coated with Eudragit L-30D-55 by fluidized-bed system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, O S; Souza, C R F; Oliveira, W P; Rocha, S C S

    2006-07-01

    The objective of this work was to study the dissolution process of sodium diclofenac granules coated with a polymeric suspension of Eudragit L-30D-55 by fluidized bed. Methacrylic acid-methylmetacrylate copolymer, also known as Eudragit, has been used as a pH sensitive coating material to protect drug substances prior to delivery to the human intestines. The sodium diclofenac granules were prepared by wet granulation technology using microcrystalline cellulose (MICROCEL), sodium diclofenac, and polivinilpirrolidone K-30. The granules coating operation was carried out in a fluidized bed with top spraying by a double-fluid nozzle. The dissolutions studies of the coated granules were performed in triplicate in a dissolution test station according to USP XXIII (1995) "in vitro testing requirements" Method A (paddle method, rotation of 100 RPM and temperature fixed at 37 degrees C). The dissolution mediums were 0.1N HCl solution and a pH 6.8 phosphate buffer solution, following the pH change dissolution procedure specified in USP for enteric-coated articles: 2 h of exposure to 750 mL of 0.1N HCl followed by testing in 1000 mL of pH 6.8 phosphate buffer, the pH being adjusted with 250 mL of 0.2 M tribasic sodium phosphate solution. The released amount of sodium diclofenac was periodically determined by UV spectrophotometry at wavelength of 276 nm, using a spectrophotometer UV-VIS HP 8453. The coated product showed gastric resistance properties confirming the feasibility of the fluidized bed for applying enteric coating in granules and pharmaceutical powders.

  2. System for direct introduction of solid samples for the MI-1201 mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzhaliashvili, V.L.; Vakhaniya, G.V.; Melitauri, I.K.; Ordzhonikidze, K.G.; Parulava, L.P.

    1989-01-01

    System for direct introduction of solid compound samples for the MI-1201 mass spectrometer, based on gas ion source is described. The system is designated for isotope analysis of solid compounds and enables to perform quick introduction of examined samples, control of sample input, use small substance quantities for analysis

  3. LGS adaptive optics system with long-pulsed sodium laser on Lijiang 1.8 meter telescope 2014-2016 observation campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Kai; Li, Min; Jiang, Changchun; Wei, Ling; Zheng, Wenjia; Li, Wenru; Ma, Xiaoyu; Zhou, Luchun; Jin, Kai; Bo, Yong; Zuo, Junwei; Wang, Pengyuan; Cheng, Feng; Zhang, Xiaojun; Chen, Donghong; Deng, Jijiang; Gao, Yang; Shen, Yu; Bian, Qi; Yao, Ji; Huang, Jiang; Dong, Ruoxi; Deng, Keran; Peng, Qinjun; Rao, Changhui; Xu, Zuyan; Zhang, Yudong

    2016-07-01

    During 2014-2016, the Laser guide star (LGS) adaptive optics (AO) system observation campaign has been carried out on Lijiang 1.8 meter telescope. During the campaign, two generation LGS AO systems have been developed and installed. In 2014, a long-pulsed solid Sodium prototype laser with 20W@400Hz, a beam transfer optical (BTO) system, and a laser launch telescope (LLT) with 300mm diameter were mounted onto the telescope and moved with telescope azimuth journal. At the same time, a 37-elements compact LGS AO system had been mounted on the Bent-Cassegrain focus and got its first light on observing HIP43963 (mV= 8.18mv) and reached Sr=0.27 in J Band after LGS AO compensation. In 2016, the solid Sodium laser has been upgrade to stable 32W@800Hz while D2a plus D2b repumping is used to increase the photon return, and a totally new LGS AO system with 164-elements Deformable Mirror, Linux Real Time Controller, inner closed loop Tip/tilt mirror, Multiple-PMT tracking detector is established and installed on the telescope. And the throughput for the BTO/LLT is improved nearly 20%. The campaign process, the performance of the two LGS AO systems especially the latter one, the characteristics of the BTO/LLT system and the result are present in this paper.

  4. Creating Agents and Landscapes for Multiagent Systems from Random Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Berger

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available An important goal of modeling human-environment interactions is to provide scientific information to policymakers and stakeholders in order to better support their planning and decision-making processes. Modern technologies in the fields of GIS and data processing, together with an increasing amount of accessible information, have the potential to meet the varying information needs of policymakers and stakeholders. Multiagent modeling holds the promise of providing an enhanced collaborative framework in which planners, modelers, and stakeholders may learn and interact. The fulfillment of this promise, however, depends on the empirical parameterization of multiagent models. Although multiagent models have been widely applied in experimental and hypothetical settings, only few studies have strong linkages to empirical data and the literature on methods of empirical parameterization is still limited. This paper presents a straightforward approach to parameterize multiagent models in applied development research. The parameterization uses a common sampling frame to randomly select observation units for both biophysical measurements and socioeconomic surveys. The biophysical measurements, i.e., soil properties in this study, are then extrapolated over the landscape using multiple regressions and a digital elevation model. The socioeconomic surveys are used to estimate probability functions for key characteristics of human actors, which are then assigned to the model agents with Monte Carlo techniques. This approach generates a landscape and agent populations that are robust and statistically consistent with empirical observations.

  5. Cosmic ray produced sodium and its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves Barbosa, A.

    1981-07-01

    The following topics were presented: calculations of the theoretical production rate of sodium-22 in the atmosphere in order to estimate its activity in rain water; description of the method of chemical separation of sodium and of counting of various radionuclide samples; results obtained for 22 Na, 137 Cs, 144 Ce, 7 Be and 210 Pb and seasonal variations of these radionuclides in rain and river waters; seasonal variations of natural elements, sodium, potassium and uranium in rain and river waters [fr

  6. Identification of sulfur interferences during organotin determination in harbour sediment samples by sodium tetraethyl borate ethylation and gas chromatography-pulsed flame photometric detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Manuel; Lespes, Gäetane; De Gregori, Ida; Pinochet, Hugo; Potin-Gautier, Martine

    2004-08-13

    Because of the high toxicity of organotin compounds and the current regulation about their applications, analytical method usable in routine analysis is required. A speciation procedure based on NaBEt4 ethylation and GC-PFPD analysis has shown to be suitable for the organotin determination. Unfortunately, some matrix effects were observed during the analysis of harbour sediments from Chile. These effects were identified as the alkylation of elemental sulfur and the coelution between the organotin compounds and some dialkylsulfides. The re-optimization of GC parameters and application of solid phase microextraction (SPME) were proposed to solve these analytical problems. Certified reference materials and different harbour sediment samples were analysed in order to evaluate the suitability of the methods for organotin control in complex environment samples.

  7. Development of an automatic sample changer and a data acquisition system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bianchini, Ricardo M.; Estevez, Jorge; Vollmer, Alberto E.; Iglicki, Flora A.

    1999-01-01

    An automatic electro-pneumatic sample changer with a rotating sample holder is described. The changer is coupled through an electronic interface with the data acquisition station. The software to automate the system has been designed. (author)

  8. Liquid sodium pool fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casselman, C.

    1979-01-01

    Experimental sodium pool combustion results have led to a definition of the combustion kinetics, and have revealed the hazards of sodium-concrete contact reactions and the possible ignition of organic matter (paint) by hydration of sodium peroxide aerosols. Analysis of these test results shows that the controlling mechanism is sodium evaporation diffusion. (author)

  9. Performance evaluation of continuous blood sampling system for PET study. Comparison of three detector-systems

    CERN Document Server

    Matsumoto, K; Sakamoto, S; Senda, M; Yamamoto, S; Tarutani, K; Minato, K

    2002-01-01

    To measure cerebral blood flow with sup 1 sup 5 O PET, it is necessary to measure the time course of arterial blood radioactivity. We examined the performance of three different types of continuous blood sampling system. Three kinds of continuous blood sampling system were used: a plastic scintillator-based beta detector (conventional beta detector (BETA)), a bismuth germinate (BGO)-based coincidence gamma detector (Pico-count flow-through detector (COINC)) and a Phoswich detector (PD) composed by a combination of plastic scintillator and BGO scintillator. Performance of these systems was evaluated for absolute sensitivity, count rate characteristic, sensitivity to background gamnra photons, and reproducibility for nylon tube geometry. The absolute sensitivity of the PD was 0.21 cps/Bq for sup 6 sup 8 Ga positrons at the center of the detector. This was approximately three times higher than BETA, two times higher than COINC. The value measured with BETA was stable, even when background radioactivity was incre...

  10. Gradual Reduction in Sodium Content in Cooked Ham, with Corresponding Change in Sensorial Properties Measured by Sensory Evaluation and a Multimodal Machine Vision System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsti Greiff

    Full Text Available The European diet today generally contains too much sodium (Na(+. A partial substitution of NaCl by KCl has shown to be a promising method for reducing sodium content. The aim of this work was to investigate the sensorial changes of cooked ham with reduced sodium content. Traditional sensorial evaluation and objective multimodal machine vision were used. The salt content in the hams was decreased from 3.4% to 1.4%, and 25% of the Na(+ was replaced by K(+. The salt reduction had highest influence on the sensory attributes salty taste, after taste, tenderness, hardness and color hue. The multimodal machine vision system showed changes in lightness, as a function of reduced salt content. Compared to the reference ham (3.4% salt, a replacement of Na(+-ions by K(+-ions of 25% gave no significant changes in WHC, moisture, pH, expressed moisture, the sensory profile attributes or the surface lightness and shininess. A further reduction of salt down to 1.7-1.4% salt, led to a decrease in WHC and an increase in expressible moisture.

  11. Gradual Reduction in Sodium Content in Cooked Ham, with Corresponding Change in Sensorial Properties Measured by Sensory Evaluation and a Multimodal Machine Vision System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiff, Kirsti; Mathiassen, John Reidar; Misimi, Ekrem; Hersleth, Margrethe; Aursand, Ida G

    2015-01-01

    The European diet today generally contains too much sodium (Na(+)). A partial substitution of NaCl by KCl has shown to be a promising method for reducing sodium content. The aim of this work was to investigate the sensorial changes of cooked ham with reduced sodium content. Traditional sensorial evaluation and objective multimodal machine vision were used. The salt content in the hams was decreased from 3.4% to 1.4%, and 25% of the Na(+) was replaced by K(+). The salt reduction had highest influence on the sensory attributes salty taste, after taste, tenderness, hardness and color hue. The multimodal machine vision system showed changes in lightness, as a function of reduced salt content. Compared to the reference ham (3.4% salt), a replacement of Na(+)-ions by K(+)-ions of 25% gave no significant changes in WHC, moisture, pH, expressed moisture, the sensory profile attributes or the surface lightness and shininess. A further reduction of salt down to 1.7-1.4% salt, led to a decrease in WHC and an increase in expressible moisture.

  12. Development of evaluation methodology to assess the sodium fire suppression performance of leak collection tray

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parida, F.C.; Rao, P.M.; Ramesh, S.S.; Somayajulu, P.A.; Malarvizhi, B.; Kannan, S.E. [Engineering Safety Division, Safety Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam - 603102, Tamilnadu (India)

    2005-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: Leakage of hot liquid sodium and its subsequent combustion in the form of a pool cannot be completely ruled out in a Fast breeder Reactor (FBR) plant in spite of provision for adequate safety measures. To protect the plant system from the hazardous effects of flame, heat and smoke, one of the passive protection devices used in FBR plants is the Leak Collection Tray (LCT). The design of LCT is based on immediate channeling of burning liquid sodium on the funnel shaped sloping cover tray (SCT) to the bottom sodium hold-up vessel (SHV) in which self-extinction of the fire occurs due to oxygen starvation. The SCT has one or three drain pipes and air vent pipes depending on the type of design. In each experiment, a known amount ranging from 30 to 40 kg of hot liquid sodium at 550 deg. C was discharged on the LCT in the open air. Continuous on-line monitoring of temperature at strategic locations ({approx} 28 points) was carried out. Colour video-graphy was employed for taking motion pictures of various time-dependent events like sodium dumping, appearance of flame and release of smoke through vent pipes. After self-extinction of sodium fire, the LCT was allowed to cool overnight in an argon atmosphere. Solid samples of sodium debris in the SCT and SHV were collected by manual core drilling machine. The samples were subjected to chemical analysis for determination of unburnt and burnt sodium. The sodium debris removed from SCT and SHV were separately weighed. To assess the performance of the LCT, two different geometrical configurations of SCT, one made up of stainless steel an the other of carbon steel, were used. Three broad phenomena are identified as the basis of evaluation methodology. These are (a) thermal transients, i.e. heating and cooling of the bulk sodium in SCT and SHV respectively, (b) post test sodium debris distribution between SCT and SHV as well as (c) sodium combustion and smoke release behaviour. Under each category

  13. The cryptonephridial system in the mealworm Tenebrio molitor: transport of radioactive potassium, thallium and sodium; a functional and structural study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koefoed, B M

    1975-12-29

    Larvae of the mealworm Tenebrio molitor were injected with radioactive potassium, sodium or thallium solution. It was found that the rectal complex of the animal was labelled with potassium and thallium, but not with sodium. Potassium and thallium labelled the complex to the same level as if the two ions were tracers for each other. Ramsay has found that potassium is actively transported to the complex from the hemocoel and there are reasons to believe that T1+ follows the same pathway. Therefore animals injected with thallium were investigated both by light and electron microscopy. The results suggest that thallium spreads from the hemocoel through the leptophragma to the neighbouring ordinary tubular cells, and in moist mealworms thallium is further found in the perirectal space. Due to diffusion and washing out of thallium during fixation it can not be determined whether T1+ and K+ follow identical pathways, but it is possible to determine how far thallium has penetrated during the experiments.

  14. An optical biosensing film for biochemical oxygen demand determination in seawater with an automatic flow sampling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Lingling; Wang, Xudong; Guo, Guangmei; Wang, Xiaoru; Chen, Xi

    2007-09-01

    An on-line roboticized apparatus, including an optical biosensing film with an automatic flow sampling system, has been developed for biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) determination of seawater. The sensing film employed in the apparatus consisted of an organically modified silicate (ORMOSIL) film embedded with tri(4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline) ruthenium(II) perchlorate. Three species of microorganism cultivated from seawater were immobilized in an ORMOSIL-polyvinyl alcohol matrix. Possible factors affecting BOD determination were studied, including sampling frequency, temperature, pH and sodium chloride concentration. Based on measurements of the linear fluctuant coefficients and the reproducibility of its response to seawater, the BOD apparatus showed the advantages of high veracity and short response time. Generally, the linear fluctuant coefficient (R2) in the BOD range 0.2-40 mg l-1 was 0.9945 when using a glucose/glutamate (GGA) BOD standard solution. A reproducible response for the BOD sensing film of within ±2.8% could be obtained in the 2 mg l-1 GGA solution. The BOD apparatus was applied to the BOD determination of seawater, and the values estimated by this biosensing apparatus correlated well with those determined by the conventional 5 day BOD (BOD5) test.

  15. A sampling system for collecting gas-tight time-series hydrothermal fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, S.; Yang, C.; Ding, K.

    2012-12-01

    It is known that the hydrothermal venting has temporal variations associated with tectonic and geochemical processes. To date, the methods for long-term monitoring of the seafloor hydrothermal systems are rare. A new sampling system has been designed to be deployed at seafloor for long term to collect gas-tight time-series samples from hydrothermal vents. Based on the modular design principle, the sampling system is currently composed of a control module and six sampling modules, which is convenient to be upgraded by adding more sampling modules if needed. The control module consists of a rechargeable battery pack and a circuit board with functions of sampling control, temperature measurement, data storage and communication. Each sampling module has an independent sampling valve, a valve actuator and a sampling cylinder. The sampling cylinder consists of a sample chamber and an accumulator chamber. Compressed nitrogen gas is used to maintain the sample at in-situ pressure. A prototype of the sampling system has been constructed and tested. First, the instrument was tested in a high-pressure vessel at a pressure of 40 MPa. Six sampling modules were successfully triggered and water samples were collected and kept at in-situ pressure after experiment. Besides, the instrument was field tested at the shallow hydrothermal field near off Kueishantao islet (24°51'N, 121°55'E), which is located offshore of northeastern Taiwan, from May 25 to May 28, 2011. The sampling system worked at an automatic mode. Each sampling module was triggered according to the preset time. Time-series hydrothermal fluids have been collected from a shallow hydrothermal vent with a depth of 16 m. The preliminary tests indicated the success of the design and construction of the prototype of the sampling system. Currently, the sampling system is being upgraded by integration of a DC-DC power conversion and serial-to-Ethernet conversion module, so that it can utilize the continuous power supply and

  16. Fundamental study on reaction of lead-bismuth eutectic and sodium. Identification of reaction products and examination of reaction behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Jun-ichi; Hirakawa, Yasushi

    2003-09-01

    A simplified secondary sodium cooling system utilizing lead-bismuth eutectic as an intermediate coolant has been selected as one of candidate systems for the 'Feasibility Studies on Commercialized Fast Reactor System'. In this study, fundamental reaction experiments have been performed to understand a reaction behavior between sodium and lead-bismuth. In order to identify the reaction products and to elucidate a reaction process, sampling and X-ray diffraction analysis of the reaction products are carried out. Following results are obtained. (1) The principal reaction products which formed in sodium and lead-bismuth ternary system are BiNa 3 and Pb 4 Na 15 intermetallic compounds. These two reaction products are identified irrespective of either primary sample content or sampling temperature. (2) Pb 3 Na intermetallic compound is identified in the reaction products for the first time. (3) The principal reaction product which formed in sodium and bismuth binary system is BiNa 3 intermetallic compound. (4) The reaction products which formed in sodium and lead binary system consist of various intermetallic compounds of sodium and lead system. Single phase of an intermetallic compound can not be obtained in this system. Based on these X-ray diffraction analyses, reaction process models of formation and dissolution are proposed. (author)

  17. System design study of a membrane reforming hydrogen production plant using a small sized sodium cooled reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chikazawa, Y.; Konomura, M.; Hori, T.; Sato, H.; Uchida, S.

    2004-01-01

    In this study, a membrane reforming hydrogen production plant using a small sized sodium cooled reactor was designed as one of promising concepts. In the membrane reformer, methane and steam are reformed into carbon dioxide and hydrogen with sodium heat at a temperature 500 deg-C. In the equilibrium condition, steam reforming proceeds with catalyst at a temperature more than 800 deg-C. Using membrane reformers, the steam reforming temperature can be decreased from 800 to 500 deg-C because the hydrogen separation membrane removes hydrogen selectively from catalyst area and the partial pressure of hydrogen is kept much lower than equilibrium condition. In this study, a hydrogen and electric co-production plant has been designed. The reactor thermal output is 375 MW and 25% of the thermal output is used for hydrogen production (70000 Nm 3 /h). The hydrogen production cost is estimated to 21 yen/Nm 3 but it is still higher than the economical goal (17 yen/Nm 3 ). The major reason of the high cost comes from the large size of hydrogen separation reformers because of the limit of hydrogen separation efficiency of palladium membrane. A new highly efficient hydrogen separation membrane is needed to reduce the cost of hydrogen production using membrane reformers. There is possibility of multi-tube failure in the membrane reformers. In future study, a design of measures against tube failure and elemental experiments of reaction between sodium and reforming gas will be needed. (authors)

  18. Determination of oxygen in liquid sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torre, M. de la; Lapena, J.; Galindo, F.; Couchoud, M.; Celis, B. de; Lopez-Araquistain, J.L.

    1976-01-01

    The behaviour is analysed of a device for 'in-line' sampling and vacuum distillation. With this procedure 95 results were obtained for the solubility of oxygen in liquid sodium at temperatures between 125 0 and 300 0 C. The correlation between the concentration of oxygen in a saturation state and the corresponding temperature is represented by: 1g C = 6,17 - 2398/T, where C expressed ppm of oxygen by weight and T is the saturation temperature in 0 K. Reference is also made to the first results obtained with the electrochemical oxygen meter and the system for taking and recording data. (author)

  19. Endothelin A receptor antagonism in experimental congestive heart failure results in augmentation of the renin-angiotensin system and sustained sodium retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirger, John A; Chen, Horng H; Jougasaki, Michihisa; Lisy, Ondrej; Boerrigter, Guido; Cataliotti, Alessandro; Burnett, John C

    2004-01-20

    While both the endothelin-1 (ET-1) and renin-angiotensin systems (RAS) are activated in congestive heart failure (CHF), the temporal sequence of this activation remains unclear. Understanding this pattern of neurohumoral activation may aid in understanding the significance of ET-1 in CHF and provide strategies for ET-1 antagonism. Although acute endothelin (ET) receptor antagonism improves systemic hemodynamics in CHF, clinical trials with chronic ET receptor antagonism report worsening CHF symptoms. In a canine model of progressive left ventricular dysfunction, we demonstrated activation of myocardial and plasma ET-1 without activation of the RAS during transition to overt CHF, suggesting that ET-1 contributes to this transition. We next evaluated the effects of chronic oral ET-A receptor antagonism on neurohumoral function, renal hemodynamics, and sodium excretion in pacing-induced CHF. After 7 days of treatment (n=7) with ET-A receptor antagonism (with LU135252), sodium excretion did not improve in treated versus untreated CHF (n=6). Furthermore, both plasma renin activity and plasma ET-1 increased with ET-A receptor blockade. Activation of the myocardial and plasma ET-1 systems precedes activation of the myocardial and plasma RAS in CHF. ET-A receptor antagonism in experimental CHF further activates the RAS without improving sodium excretion. These findings suggest an important role for ET-1 in the progression of CHF and a potential mechanism for the exacerbation of CHF symptoms observed in clinical trials with chronic ET receptor antagonism. Further studies with combined modulation of the ET and other neurohumoral systems in CHF are required.

  20. Sodium hydride precipitation in sodium cold traps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McPheeters, C.C.; Raue, D.J.

    1979-10-01

    A series of experiments have been performed to test a calculational model for precipitation of NaH in sodium cold traps. The calculational model, called ACTMODEL, is a computer simulation that uses the system geometry and operating conditions as input to calculate a mass transfer coefficient and the distribution of NaH in a cold trap. The ACTMODEL was tested using an analytical cold trap (ACT) that is simple and essentially one-dimensional. The ACT flow and temperature profile may be controlled at any desired condition. The ACT was analyzed destructively after each test to measure the actual NaH distribution. Excellent agreement was obtained between the ACTMODEL simulations and the experiments

  1. Sodium hydride precipitation in sodium cold traps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McPheeters, C.C.; Raue, D.J.

    1980-06-01

    A series of experiments have been performed to test a calculational model for precipitation of NaH in sodium cold traps. The calculational model, called ACTMODEL, is a computer simulation that uses the system geometry and operating conditions as input to calculate a mass-transfer coefficient and the distribution of NaH in a cold trap. The ACTMODEL was tested using an analytical cold trap (ACT) that is simple and essentially one-dimensional. The ACT flow and temperature profile can be controlled at any desired condition. The ACT was analyzed destructively after each test to measure the actual NaH distribution. Excellent agreement was obtained between the ACTMODEL simulations and the experiments. Mass-transfer coefficients ranging upward from 6 x 10 -5 m/s were measured in both packless and packed traps. As much as a fourfold increase in precipitation surface area was observed with increasing amount of NaH deposited. 11 figures, 2 tables

  2. Liquid-liquid equilibrium of water + PEG 8000 + magnesium sulfate or sodium sulfate aqueous two-phase systems at 35°C: experimental determination and thermodynamic modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. D. Castro

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Liquid-liquid extraction using aqueous two-phase systems is a highly efficient technique for separation and purification of biomolecules due to the mild properties of both liquid phases. Reliable data on the phase behavior of these systems are essential for the design and operation of new separation processes; several authors reported phase diagrams for polymer-polymer systems, but data on polymer-salt systems are still relatively scarce. In this work, experimental liquid-liquid equilibrium data on water + polyethylene glycol 8000 + magnesium sulfate and water + polyethylene glycol 8000 + sodium sulfate aqueous two-phase systems were obtained at 35°C. Both equilibrium phases were analyzed by lyophilization and ashing. Experimental results were correlated with a mass-fraction-based NRTL activity coefficient model. New interaction parameters were estimated with the Simplex method. The mean deviations between the experimental and calculated compositions in both equilibrium phases is about 2%.

  3. Cleaning of Sodium in the Cold Trap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Byung Ho; Jeong, Ji Young; Kim, Jong Man; Choi, Byung Hae; Nam, Ho Yun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    The purpose of a cleaning process is to remove the residual sodium adhering to the component walls once it has been properly drained. It is necessary to clean and decontaminate a component, especially the large components of the primary coolant system; such as the intermediate heat exchangers and the primary pump. Improper and inadequate cleaning has in a number of cases resulted in problems in the storage, handling, and reuse of components. Several types of failures due to improper cleaning procedures have been defined in the past. Inadequate and incomplete removal of sodium results in residues which may contain metallic sodium and alkaline compounds such as sodium hydroxide, sodium oxide, sodium carbonate, and various types of alcoholates. Reinsertion of components containing these compounds into a high-temperature sodium system can result in either the intergranular penetration characteristic of a high- oxygen sodium or an accelerated corrosion due to oxygen. The methods used for cleaning sodium equipment depend on the condition and types of equipment to be cleaned and whether the equipment is to be reused. Cleaning methods are needed that will avoid a deleterious local overheating, material surface degradation or deposits, chemical, physical, or mechanical damage, and external effects. This paper discusses a steam-nitrogen gas cleaning method for the routine applications that permits the reuse of the cold trap in sodium.

  4. Cleaning of Sodium in the Cold Trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Byung Ho; Jeong, Ji Young; Kim, Jong Man; Choi, Byung Hae; Nam, Ho Yun

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of a cleaning process is to remove the residual sodium adhering to the component walls once it has been properly drained. It is necessary to clean and decontaminate a component, especially the large components of the primary coolant system; such as the intermediate heat exchangers and the primary pump. Improper and inadequate cleaning has in a number of cases resulted in problems in the storage, handling, and reuse of components. Several types of failures due to improper cleaning procedures have been defined in the past. Inadequate and incomplete removal of sodium results in residues which may contain metallic sodium and alkaline compounds such as sodium hydroxide, sodium oxide, sodium carbonate, and various types of alcoholates. Reinsertion of components containing these compounds into a high-temperature sodium system can result in either the intergranular penetration characteristic of a high- oxygen sodium or an accelerated corrosion due to oxygen. The methods used for cleaning sodium equipment depend on the condition and types of equipment to be cleaned and whether the equipment is to be reused. Cleaning methods are needed that will avoid a deleterious local overheating, material surface degradation or deposits, chemical, physical, or mechanical damage, and external effects. This paper discusses a steam-nitrogen gas cleaning method for the routine applications that permits the reuse of the cold trap in sodium

  5. Intelligent type sodium instrumentations for LMFR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daolong Chen

    1996-01-01

    The constructions and their performances of a lot of newly developed intelligent type sodium instrumentations that consist of the intelligent type sodium flowmeter, the intelligent type immersed sodium flowmeter, the intelligent type sodium manometer and the intelligent type sodium level gauge are described. The graduation characteristic equations for corresponding transducer using the medium temperature as the parameter are given. Because the operating temperature limit of measured medium (sodium) is wide, so the on-line compensation of the temperature effect of their graduation characteristics much be considered. The tests show that these intelligent type sodium instrumentations possess of good linearity. The accurate sodium process parameter (flowrate, pressure and level) measurement data can be obtained by means of their on-line compensation function of the temperature effect. Moreover, these intelligent type sodium instrumentations possess of the self-inspection, the electric shutoff protection, the setting of full-scale, the setting of alarm limits (two upper limits and two lower limits alarms), the thermocouple breaking alarm, each other isolative the 0-10V direct-current analogue output and CENTRONICS standard digital output, and the alarm relay contact output. These intelligent type sodium instrumentations are suitable particularly for the instrument, control and protective systems of LMFR by means of these excellent functions based on microprocessor. The basic error of the intelligent type sodium flowmeter, immersed sodium flowmeter, sodium manometer and sodium level gauge is respectively ±2%, ±2.3%, ±0.3% and ±1.9% of measuring range. (author). 4 refs, 9 figs

  6. Assessment of sodium conductor distribution cable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-06-01

    The study assesses the barriers and incentives for using sodium conductor distribution cable. The assessment considers environmental, safety, energy conservation, electrical performance and economic factors. Along with all of these factors considered in the assessment, the sodium distribution cable system is compared to the present day alternative - an aluminum conductor system. (TFD)

  7. Advanced Ignition System for Hybrid Rockets for Sample Return Missions, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To return a sample from the surface of Mars or any of the larger moons in the solar system will require a propulsion system with a comparatively large delta-V...

  8. Miniature Sample Collection and Delivery System using Gas-Entrained Powder Transport Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop a miniature system for acquisition and delivery of solid samples to landed planetary instruments. This system would entrain powder produced by...

  9. Sodium voiding analysis in Kalimer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Won-Pyo; Jeong, Kwan-Seong; Hahn, Dohee

    2001-01-01

    A sodium boiling model has been developed for calculations of the void reactivity feedback as well as the fuel and cladding temperatures in the KALIMER core after onset of sodium boiling. The sodium boiling in liquid metal reactors using sodium as coolant should be modeled because of phenomenon difference observed from that in light water reactor systems. The developed model is a multiple -bubble slug ejection model. It allows a finite number of bubbles in a channel at any time. Voiding is assumed to result from formation of bubbles that fill the whole cross section of the coolant channel except for liquid film left on the cladding surface. The vapor pressure, currently, is assumed to be uniform within a bubble. The present study is focused on not only demonstration of the sodium voiding behavior predicted by the developed model, but also confirmation on qualitative acceptance for the model. In results, the model catches important phenomena for sodium boiling, while further effort should be made for the complete analysis. (author)

  10. Localized corrosion studies on materials proposed for a safety-grade sodium-to-air decay-heat removal system for fast breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mudali, U.K.; Khatak, H.S.; Dayal, R.K.; Gnanamoorthy, J.B.

    1993-01-01

    The present investigation was carried out to assess the localized corrosion resistance of materials proposed for the construction of the safety-grade sodium-to-air decay-heat removal system for fast breeder reactors. The materials, such as Alloy 800, 9Cr-1 Mo steel, and type 316LN stainless steel, in different microstructural conditions were assessed for pitting and stress-corrosion cracking resistances in a chloride medium. The results indicated that 9Cr-1Mo steel in the normalized and tempered condition can be considered for the above application from the standpoint of corrosion resistance

  11. Set up of an automatic water quality sampling system in irrigation agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Heinz, Emanuel; Kraft, Philipp; Buchen, Caroline; Frede, Hans-Georg; Aquino, Eugenio; Breuer, Lutz

    2014-01-01

    We have developed a high-resolution automatic sampling system for continuous in situ measurements of stable water isotopic composition and nitrogen solutes along with hydrological information. The system facilitates concurrent monitoring of a large number of water and nutrient fluxes (ground, surface, irrigation and rain water) in irrigated agriculture. For this purpose we couple an automatic sampling system with a Wavelength-Scanned Cavity Ring Down Spectrometry System (WS-CRDS) for stable w...

  12. Ultrasonic imaging in liquid sodium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lubeigt, E. [CEA Cadarache, DEN/DTN/STCP/LIET, 13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance Cedex (France); Laboratoire de Mecanique et d' Acoustique, CNRS UPR 7051, 13402 Marseille Cedex 20 (France); Mensah, S.; Chaix, J.F.; Rakotonarivo, S. [Laboratoire de Mecanique et d' Acoustique, CNRS UPR 7051, 13402 Marseille Cedex 20 (France); Gobillot, G. [CEA Cadarache, DEN/DTN/STCP/LIET, 13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance Cedex (France)

    2015-07-01

    The fourth generation of nuclear reactor can use liquid sodium as the core coolant. When the reactor is operating, sodium temperatures can reach up to 600 deg. C. During maintenance periods, when the reactor is shut down, the coolant temperature is reduced to 200 deg. C. Because molten sodium is optically opaque, ultrasonic imaging techniques are developed for maintenance activities. Under-sodium imaging aims at i) checking the health of immersed structures. It should also allow ii) to assess component degradation or damage as cracks and shape defects as well as iii) the detection of lost objects. The under-sodium imaging system has to sustain high temperature (up to 300 deg. C) and hostility of the sodium environment. Furthermore, specific constraints such as transducers characteristics or the limited sensor mobility in the reactor vessel have to be considered. This work focuses on developing a methodology for detecting damages such as crack defects with ultrasound devices. Surface-breaking cracks or deep cracks are sought in the weld area, as welds are more subject to defects. Traditional methods enabled us to detect emerging cracks of submillimeter size with sodium-compatible high-temperature transducer. The presented approach relies on making use of prior knowledge about the environment through the implementation of differential imaging and time-reversal techniques. Indeed, this approach allows to detect a change by comparison with a reference measurement and by focusing back to any change in the environment. It is a means of analysis and understanding of the physical phenomena making it possible to design more effective inspection strategies. Difference between the measured signals reveals the acoustic field scattered by a perturbation (a crack for instance), which may occur between periodical measurements. The imaging method relies on the adequate combination of two computed ultrasonic fields, one forward and one adjoint. The adjoint field, which carries the

  13. 40 CFR 91.414 - Raw gaseous exhaust sampling and analytical system description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... stainless steel or inert material (e.g., polytetrafluoroethylene resin). The use of “gauge savers” or.... (a) Schematic drawing. An example of a sampling and analytical system which may be used for testing... testing under this subpart. (1) Take the sample for all components with one sample probe and split it...

  14. Conceptual design report, Sodium Storage Facility, Fast Flux Test Facility, Project F-031

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shank, D.R.

    1995-01-01

    The Sodium Storage Facility Conceptual Design Report provides conceptual design for construction of a new facility for storage of the 260,000 gallons of sodium presently in the FFTF plant. The facility will accept the molten sodium transferred from the FFTF sodium systems, and store the sodium in a solid state under an inert cover gas until such time as a Sodium Reaction Facility is available for final disposal of the sodium

  15. Reversible Hypokalemia and Bartter-Like Syndrome during Prolonged Systemic Therapy with Colistimethate Sodium in an Adult Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal Eldin, Tarek; Tosone, Grazia; Capuano, Alfredo; Orlando, Raffaele

    2017-12-01

    We present the case of a 58-year-old woman who developed hypokalaemia and metabolic alkalosis 2 weeks after therapy with colistimethate sodium for the treatment of chronic lower limb ulcer infection by extensively drug-resistant (XDR) Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The metabolic changes observed resembled Bartter syndrome, a group of congenital disorders affecting the distal segments of the renal tubules. The metabolic abnormalities reversed spontaneously 6 days after drug discontinuation. Acquired forms of Bartter syndrome have been reported during courses of antibiotic therapy; however, to our knowledge, this is the first documented case associated with colistimethate therapy in an adult.

  16. A computer-controlled continuous air drying and flask sampling system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neubert, R.E.M.; Spijkervet, L.L.; Schut, J.K.; Been, H.; Meijer, H.A.J.

    A computer-controlled continuous air drying and flask sampling system has been developed and is discussed here. This system is set up for taking air samples automatically at remote places. Twenty glass flasks can be connected one by one or in pairs, and they can be filled at preset times, after

  17. 21 CFR 864.3260 - OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... abuse testing. 864.3260 Section 864.3260 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Instrumentation and Accessories § 864.3260 OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing. (a) Identification. An over-the-counter (OTC) test sample collection system for drugs of abuse testing is a device...

  18. Geographical Information Systems (GIS) Mapping of Environmental Samples across College Campuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purvis-Roberts, Kathleen L.; Moeur, Harriet P.; Zanella, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    In this laboratory experiment, students take environmental samples at various locations around the college campuses, take geospatial coordinates with a global position systems (GPS) unit, and map their results on a geo-referenced campus map with geographical information systems (GIS) software. Nitrogen dioxide air pollution sampling is used as an…

  19. Variable-temperature sample system for ion implantation at -192 to +5000C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, C.T.

    1978-04-01

    A variable-temperature sample system based on exchange-gas coupling was developed for ion-implantation use. The sample temperature can be controlled from -192 0 C to +500 0 C with rapid cooling. The system also has provisions for focusing and alignment of the ion beam, electron suppression, temperature monitoring, sample current measuring, and cryo-shielding. Design considerations and operating characteristics are discussed. 5 figures

  20. Isotopic modeling of water and sodium distribution and exchange kinetics in 7 stable hemodialysis patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamoiseau, S.; Bertrou, L.; Pujo, J.M.; Massol, M.

    1988-01-01

    Sequential serum sampling over 24 h. has been performed in 7 hemodialysis patients after simultaneous intra-venous injection of tritiated water and 24 Na. Each time-activity curve fits a biexponential pattern. A compartment analysis leads to describe either a simple but incomplete single compartment model or a much more satisfactory open two-compartment mamillary model featuring 2 intercompartment transfer rate constants k 21 and k 12 , and a loss out of the system, k 01 . These constants can be related to intrabody resistances to sodium and water transfers. Compartment analysis allows a comprehensive quantitated description of the exchange and transfer kinetics of sodium and water throughout the system. Evidence for a sodium reservoir, probably located in bone, can be drawn from the results and leads to propose a strategy for a targetted bone sodium removal [fr

  1. Salt craving: the psychobiology of pathogenic sodium intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Michael J; Na, Elisa S; Johnson, Alan Kim

    2008-08-06

    Ionic sodium, obtained from dietary sources usually in the form of sodium chloride (NaCl, common table salt) is essential to physiological function, and in humans salt is generally regarded as highly palatable. This marriage of pleasant taste and physiological utility might appear fortunate--an appealing taste helps to ensure that such a vital substance is ingested. However, the powerful mechanisms governing sodium retention and sodium balance are unfortunately best adapted for an environment in which few humans still exist. Our physiological and behavioral means for maintaining body sodium and fluid homeostasis evolved in hot climates where sources of dietary sodium were scarce. For many reasons, contemporary diets are high in salt and daily sodium intakes are excessive. High sodium consumption can have pathological consequences. Although there are a number of obstacles to limiting salt ingestion, high sodium intake, like smoking, is a modifiable behavioral risk factor for many cardiovascular diseases. This review discusses the psychobiological mechanisms that promote and maintain excessive dietary sodium intake. Of particular importance are experience-dependent processes including the sensitization of the neural systems underlying sodium appetite and the effects of sodium balance on hedonic state and mood. Accumulating evidence suggests that plasticity within the central nervous system as a result of experience with high salt intake, sodium depletion, or a chronic unresolved sodium appetite fosters enduring changes in sodium related appetitive and consummatory behaviors.

  2. New and conventional evaporative systems in concentrating nitrogen samples prior to isotope-ratio analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lober, R.W.; Reeder, J.D.; Porter, L.K.

    1987-01-01

    Studies were conducted to quantify and compare the efficiencies of various evaporative systems used in evaporating 15 N samples prior to mass spectrometric analysis. Two new forced-air systems were designed and compared with a conventional forced-air system and with an open-air dry bath technique for effectiveness in preventing atmospheric contamination of evaporating samples. The forced-air evaporative systems significantly reduced the time needed to evaporate samples as compared to the open-air dry bath technique; samples were evaporated to dryness in 2.5 h with the forced-air systems as compared to 8 to 10 h on the open-air dry bath. The effectiveness of a given forced-air system to prevent atmospheric contamination of evaporating samples was significantly affected by the flow rate of the air stream flowing over the samples. The average atmospheric contaminant N found in samples evaporated on the open-air dry bath was 0.3 μ N, indicating very low concentrations of atmospheric NH 3 during this study. However, in previous studies the authors have experienced significant contamination of 15 N samples evaporated on an open-air dry bath because the level of contaminant N in the laboratory atmosphere varied and could not be adequately controlled. Average cross-contaminant levels of 0.28, 0.20, and 1.01 μ of N were measured between samples evaporated on the open-air dry bath, the newly-designed forced-air system, and the conventional forced-air system, respectively. The cross-contamination level is significantly higher on the conventional forced-air system than on the other two systems, and could significantly alter the atom % 15 N of high-enriched, low [N] evaporating samples

  3. Nuclear-station post-accident liquid-sampling system: developed by Duke Power Company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burton, D.A.; Birch, M.L.; Orth, W.C.

    1981-01-01

    The accident at Three Mile Island showed that means must be provided to determine the radioactivity levels in high activity liquid and gaseous systems of a nuclear power plant without undue radiation exposure to personnel. The Duke Power Post Accident Liquid Sampling System provides the means for obtaining diluted liquid samples and diluted dissolved gas samples following a reactor accident involving substantial core damage. Their approach yields a straightforward engineering solution at a fraction of the cost of other systems. A description of the system, general design criteria, and color coded flow diagrams are included

  4. [Establishment and Management of Multicentral Collection Bio-sample Banks of Malignant Tumors from Digestive System].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Si; Shen, Junwei; Zhu, Liang; Wu, Chaoqun; Li, Dongliang; Yu, Hongyu; Qiu, Yuanyuan; Zhou, Yi

    2015-11-01

    To establish and manage of multicentral collection bio-sample banks of malignant tumors from digestive system, the paper designed a multicentral management system, established the standard operation procedures (SOPs) and leaded ten hospitals nationwide to collect tumor samples. The biobank has been established for half a year, and has collected 695 samples from patients with digestive system malignant tumor. The clinical data is full and complete, labeled in a unified way and classified to be managed. The clinical and molecular biology researches were based on the biobank, and obtained achievements. The biobank provides a research platform for malignant tumor of digestive system from different regions and of different types.

  5. Summary of HEDL sodium fire tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilliard, R.K.

    1979-01-01

    The sodium fire test program and related studies at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL), covering the period from 1972 to 1978, are described. The program is analytical and experimental in scope, with computer code development and experimental verification. Tests have ranged in size from gram quantity laboratory tests to 1600-kg sodium spills. The experimental work is performed in two facilities: the Large Sodium Fire Facility (LSFF) and the Containment Systems Test Facility (CSTF). The facilities are described and the experimental results summarized. Sodium fire extinguishment tests which verified the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) secondary sodium fire protection system are described and related information on sodium burning rates and smoke release rates are correlated. The burning rates are compared to theoretical predictions based on heat and mass transfer analogy, with good agreement. Comparisons with the SOFIRE-II code are also made. Sodium combustion aerosol properties are defined as to chemical and physical nature, settling in closed vessels and effect of added water vapor. The HAA-38 aerosol behaviour computer code is compared to tests in the 850-m 3 CSTF containment vessel. Sodium spray tests in the CSTF are compared with the SPRAY computer code. An air cleaning program is described, which has the objective of removing high mass concentration sodium combustion aerosols from vented cells and containment buildings. The aerosol mass holding capacity of commercial filters was measured and an aqueous scrubber system is described. The effects of sodium spills on cell structures were investigated, including water release from heated concrete, the reaction of sodium with concrete, the formation and spontaneous recombination of hydrogen, and the ability of steel cell liners to withstand large spills of high temperature sodium without leaking. (author)

  6. Summary of HEDL sodium fire tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillard, R.K.

    1978-10-01

    The sodium fire test program and related studies at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL) are described. The program is analytical and experimental in scope, with computer code development and experimental verification. Tests have ranged in size from gram quantity laboratory tests to 1600-kg sodium spills. The experimental work is performed in two facilities: the Large Sodium Fire Facility (LSFF) and the Containment Systems Test Facility (CSTF). Sodium fire extinguishment tests which verified the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) secondary sodium fire protection system are described and related informaion on sodium burning rates and smoke release rates are correlated. The burning rates are compared to theoretical predictions based on heat and mass transfer analogy, with good agreement. Comparisons with the SOFIRE-II code are also made. Sodium combustion aerosol properties are defined as to chemical and physical nature, settling in closed vessels and effect of added water vapor. The HAA-3B aerosol behavior computer code is compared to tests in the 850-m 3 CSTF containment vessel. Sodium spray tests in the CSTF are compared with the SPRAY computer code. An air cleaning program is described, which has the objective of removing high mass concentration sodium combustion aerosols from vented cells and containment buildings. The aerosol mass holding capacity of commercial filters was measured and an aqueous scrubber system is described. The effects of sodium spills on cell structures were investigated, including water release from heated concrete, the reaction of sodium with concrete, the formation and spontaneous recombination of hydrogen, and the ability of steel cell liners to withstand large spills of high temperature sodium without leaking

  7. Adiabatic flame temperature of sodium combustion and sodium-water reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okano, Y.; Yamaguchi, A.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, background information of sodium fire and sodium-water reaction accidents of LMFBR (liquid metal fast breeder reactor) is mentioned at first. Next, numerical analysis method of GENESYS is described in detail. Next, adiabatic flame temperature and composition of sodium combustion are analyzed, and affect of reactant composition, such oxygen and moisture, is discussed. Finally, adiabatic reaction zone temperature and composition of sodium-water reaction are calculated, and affects of reactant composition, sodium vaporization, and pressure are stated. Chemical equilibrium calculation program for generic chemical system (GENESYS) is developed in this study for the research on adiabatic flame temperature of sodium combustion and adiabatic reaction zone temperature of sodium-water reaction. The maximum flame temperature of the sodium combustion is 1,950 K at the standard atmospheric condition, and is not affected by the existence of moisture. The main reaction product is Na 2 O (l) , and in combustion in moist air, with NaOH (g) . The maximum reaction zone temperature of the sodium-water reaction is 1,600 K, and increases with the system pressure. The main products are NaOH (g) , NaOH (l) and H2 (g) . Sodium evaporation should be considered in the cases of sodium-rich and high pressure above 10 bar

  8. Adiabatic flame temperature of sodium combustion and sodium-water reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okano, Y.; Yamaguchi, A. [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2001-07-01

    In this paper, background information of sodium fire and sodium-water reaction accidents of LMFBR (liquid metal fast breeder reactor) is mentioned at first. Next, numerical analysis method of GENESYS is described in detail. Next, adiabatic flame temperature and composition of sodium combustion are analyzed, and affect of reactant composition, such oxygen and moisture, is discussed. Finally, adiabatic reaction zone temperature and composition of sodium-water reaction are calculated, and affects of reactant composition, sodium vaporization, and pressure are stated. Chemical equilibrium calculation program for generic chemical system (GENESYS) is developed in this study for the research on adiabatic flame temperature of sodium combustion and adiabatic reaction zone temperature of sodium-water reaction. The maximum flame temperature of the sodium combustion is 1,950 K at the standard atmospheric condition, and is not affected by the existence of moisture. The main reaction product is Na{sub 2}O{sub (l)}, and in combustion in moist air, with NaOH{sub (g)}. The maximum reaction zone temperature of the sodium-water reaction is 1,600 K, and increases with the system pressure. The main products are NaOH{sub (g)}, NaOH{sub (l)} and H2{sub (g)}. Sodium evaporation should be considered in the cases of sodium-rich and high pressure above 10 bar.

  9. Diclofenac sodium overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002630.htm Diclofenac sodium overdose To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Diclofenac sodium is a prescription medicine used to relieve pain ...

  10. Sodium Ferric Gluconate Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium ferric gluconate injection is used to treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of ... are also receiving the medication epoetin (Epogen, Procrit). Sodium ferric gluconate injection is in a class of ...

  11. Naproxen sodium overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002507.htm Naproxen sodium overdose To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Naproxen sodium is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) used ...

  12. Sodium carbonate poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium carbonate (known as washing soda or soda ash) is a chemical found in many household and ... products. This article focuses on poisoning due to sodium carbonate. This article is for information only. Do ...

  13. Sodium hydroxide poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium hydroxide is a very strong chemical. It is also known as lye and caustic soda. This ... poisoning from touching, breathing in (inhaling), or swallowing sodium hydroxide. This article is for information only. Do ...

  14. Docusate Sodium and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... live chat Live Help Fact Sheets Share Docusate Sodium Friday, 01 April 2016 In every pregnancy, a ... This sheet talks about whether exposure to docusate sodium may increase the risk for birth defects over ...

  15. Sodium pumping: pump problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guer, M.; Guiton, P.

    Information on sodium pumps for LMFBR type reactors is presented concerning ring pump design, pool reactor pump design, secondary pumps, sodium bearings, swivel joints of the oscillating annulus, and thermal shock loads

  16. ELTA: Citatrademark: Sodium measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauvais, O.

    2002-01-01

    ELTA is pleased to present its last model of Sodium analyzers: CITA 2340: Automatically controlled sodium meter, integrating more automation and performances results respecting costs and wastes reduction. (authors)

  17. 27 CFR 21.128 - Sodium (metallic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Bunsen burner until the flame is no longer colored. Moisten the wire loop with hydrochloric acid and dip it into the sample. Hold the wire in the Bunsen flame and note the color. Sodium produces a golden...

  18. DIETARY SODIUM ADHERENCE IS POOR IN CHRONIC HEART FAILURE PATIENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basuray, Anupam; Dolansky, Mary; Josephson, Richard; Sattar, Abdus; Grady, Ellen M.; Vehovec, Anton; Gunstad, John; Redle, Joseph; Fang, James; Hughes, Joel W.

    2015-01-01

    Background We sought to determine the rates and predictors of dietary sodium restriction, while evaluating the reliability of the 24-hour urine collection as a tool to estimate dietary sodium intake in heart failure (HF) patients. Methods and Results We evaluated the 24-hour urinary sodium excretion of 305 outpatients with HF and reduced ejection fraction who were educated on following a sodium diet. The mean sodium excretion using a single sample from each participant was 3.15 ± 1.58 grams, and 23% were adherent to the sodium excretion of 3.21 ± 1.20 grams and lower adherence rates to the sodium and creatinine showed poor reproducibility between samples. Conclusions In this chronic HF population, sodium consumption probably exceeds recommended amounts, particularly in men and those with higher BMI. Urine analyses were not highly reproducible, suggesting variation in both diet and urine collection. PMID:25576680

  19. Preliminary level 2 specification for the nested, fixed-depth sampling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BOGER, R.M.

    1999-01-01

    This preliminary Level 2 Component Specification establishes the performance, design, development, and test requirements for the in-tank sampling system which will support the BNFL contract in the final disposal of Hanford's High Level Wastes (HLW) and Low Activity Wastes (LAW). The PHMC will provide Low Activity Wastes (LAW) tank wastes for final treatment by BNFL from double-shell feed tanks. Concerns about the inability of the baseline ''grab'' sampling to provide large volume samples within time constraints has led to the development of a nested, fixed-depth sampling system. This sampling system will provide large volume? representative samples without the environmental, radiation exposure, and sample volume Impacts of the current base-line ''grab'' sampling method. This preliminary Level 2 Component Specification is not a general specification for tank sampling, but is based on a ''record of decision'', AGA (HNF-SD-TWR-AGA-001 ), the System Specification for the Double Shell Tank System (HNF-SD-WM-TRD-O07), and the BNFL privatization contract

  20. SCADA based radioactive sample bottle delivery system for fuel reprocessing project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaushik, Subrat; Munj, Niket; Chauhan, R.K.; Kumar, Pramod; Mishra, A.C.

    2011-01-01

    Radioactive samples of process streams need to be analyzed in centralized control lab for measuring concentration of heavy elements as well as activity at various stages of re-processing plants. The sample is taken from biologically shielded process cells remotely through sampling blisters in sample bottles. These are then transferred to control lab located about 50 meters using vacuum transfer system. The bottle movement is tracked from origin to destination in rich HMI SCADA system using Infra-red non contact type proximity sensors located along sampling line and these sensors are connected to PLC in a fail-safe mode. The sample bottle travels at a speed of 10 m/s under vacuum motive force and the detection time is of the order of 1 mS. The contact time Flow meters have been used to know the air flow in sampling line

  1. Ultra-High-Throughput Sample Preparation System for Lymphocyte Immunophenotyping Point-of-Care Diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, David I; Murthy, Shashi K; Russom, Aman

    2016-10-01

    Point-of-care (POC) microfluidic devices often lack the integration of common sample preparation steps, such as preconcentration, which can limit their utility in the field. In this technology brief, we describe a system that combines the necessary sample preparation methods to perform sample-to-result analysis of large-volume (20 mL) biopsy model samples with staining of captured cells. Our platform combines centrifugal-paper microfluidic filtration and an analysis system to process large, dilute biological samples. Utilizing commercialization-friendly manufacturing methods and materials, yielding a sample throughput of 20 mL/min, and allowing for on-chip staining and imaging bring together a practical, yet powerful approach to microfluidic diagnostics of large, dilute samples. © 2016 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  2. Preliminary level 2 specification for the nested, fixed-depth sampling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BOGER, R.M.

    1999-05-26

    This revision 1 Level 2 Specification establishes the performance, design, development, and test requirements for a sampling system and for an at-tank analysis system that will support the BNFL, Inc. privatization contract in the final disposal of Hanford's high level waste (HLW) and low activity waste (LAW). The sampling system will quickly provide large volume, representative waste samples for validating the chemical, radiological, and physical properties of the tank waste without the exposure and time concerns of the baseline grab sampling method. The on-line sensors of the at-tank analysis system will provide data from which the mixing or settling status of the waste can be assessed. This revision 1 document includes functions, requirement, and specifications for the at-tank analysis system, the results of the preliminary outline design, and the FY 1998 validation testing. The sample container filling system will comply with RCRA criteria for samples with volatile organic constituents, include empty container and swipe input ports, use Hanford's Steel Pig radioactive sample package, comply with Hanford's flammable gas criteria, and have the means to recover from broken sample containers.

  3. Target Tracking of a Linear Time Invariant System under Irregular Sampling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Xue-Bo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Due to event-triggered sampling in a system, or maybe with the aim of reducing data storage, tracking many applications will encounter irregular sampling time. By calculating the matrix exponential using an inverse Laplace transform, this paper transforms the irregular sampling tracking problem to the problem of tracking with time-varying parameters of a system. Using the common Kalman filter, the developed method is used to track a target for the simulated trajectory and video tracking. The results of simulation experiments have shown that it can obtain good estimation performance even at a very high irregular rate of measurement sampling time.

  4. Sodium sieving in children.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rusthoven, E.; Krediet, R.T.; Willems, J.L.; Monnens, L.A.H.; Schroder, C.H.

    2005-01-01

    Sodium sieving is a consequence of dissociation between the amount of water and sodium transported over the peritoneal membrane. This dissociation occurs in the presence of aquaporin-mediated water transport. Sieving of sodium can be used as a rough measure for aquaporin-mediated water transport.

  5. Sodium sieving in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rusthoven, Esther; Krediet, Raymond T.; Willems, Hans L.; Monnens, Leo A.; Schröder, Cornelis H.

    2005-01-01

    Sodium sieving is a consequence of dissociation between the amount of water and sodium transported over the peritoneal membrane. This dissociation occurs in the presence of aquaporin-mediated water transport. Sieving of sodium can be used as a rough measure for aquaporin-mediated water transport.

  6. Renin-sodium profile and renal prostaglandins in the pathogenesis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Renin-sodium profile and renal prostaglandins in the pathogenesis of systemic arterial hypertension in blacks. L. Somova, J. Mufunda. Thirteen black women with systemic (essential) arterial hypertension, age-matched with normotensives, were examined during two protocols inducing sodium depletion and sodium loading ...

  7. Qualification of tribological materials and coatings for use in sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.N.; Farwick, D.G.

    1980-01-01

    This paper describes some of the essential performance measures used to qualify materials for tribological applications in liquid sodium environments and summarizes relative properties of some of the newer tribological materials now qualified for use in sodium systems

  8. Sodium concentration of water from softeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarows, S A; Fusilier, W E; Weder, A B

    1997-01-27

    To determine whether water is safe for consumption after it has passed through a water softener and whether there are any health and environmental implications of cationic water softeners. Sodium concentration was measured in 59 water samples that had passed through a water softener and was compared with the sodium concentration of 5 samples from 4 different local municipal sources. The mean +/- SD sodium concentration of softened well water was 278 +/- 186 mg/L (range, 46-1219 mg/L). There were 10 (17%) households with sodium levels greater than 400 mg/L. The mean +/- SD sodium concentration of municipal, nonsoftened water was 110 +/- 98 mg/L (range, 0-253 mg/L). Softened well water in our area on average contained a 2.5-times-higher concentration of sodium than local municipal water, comparable with previous reports. It is unlikely that the increased sodium from softened water would have any health risks for most people. This may not be true for people on severely sodium-restricted diets.

  9. Effect of sodium lactate /sodium diacetate in combination with sodium nitrite on physiochemical, microbial properties and sensory evaluation of cow sausage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habib Sedghi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Sodium nitrite has been always considered as one of the common additives due to its antibacterial effects on Clostridium botulinum and meat products' color, however it produces cancer creating nitrosamine. Recently, organic acids and their salts such as lactates have been employed as antimicrobial compounds. Lactates also improve organileptic properties including color, texture and taste and antioxidant properties. Sodium lactate causes to more reduction of anaerobic spore former bacteria than nitrite, inhibits botulin produced by Clostridium botulinum. Sodium lactate produces a permanent reddish pink color through reduction of deoxymygloboline and producing deoxymyoglobuline. In this study, the decrease of sodium nitrite amount from 120ppm to 15ppm by adding sodium lactate / sodium diacetate led to achieve an acceptable product. The best results revealed through adding 3.0625% of sodium lactate / sodium diacetate in combination with 30ppm sodium nitrite. Results also exhibited more reduction of pathogens' growth than nitrite, enhanced flavor slightly, but unable to produce reddish pink color as produced by nitrite. Results also exhibited that sodium lactate / diacetate cause to retard in microbial growth, reducing chemical change, enhance sensory properties, partially improvement in taste and texture. Although inappropriate color demonstrated sodium lactate / diacetate's inability in red pink color production in 4th sample (contains 15 ppm nitrite, its synergy effect in combination with sodium nitrite on nitroso myoglobuline production has been proven, led to sodium nitrite reduction in sausages.

  10. Development of the DNAA system for screening environmental samples to measure fissile material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Gil Hoon; Park, Il-Jin; Kim, J.G.; Min, Gyungsik; Kim, Sunha; Chung, Yongsam

    2008-01-01

    The DNAA system made up of pneumatic transport system, neutron detector assembly, and signal processing equipment was installed in the High-flux Advanced Neutron Application Reactor (HANARO). The optimized position of the detector in the delayed neutron counting (DNC) system was evaluated at a distance 15.1 cm from center of the DNC system with 18 He-3 detectors using MCNP simulation. The system shows excellent linearity from 0.67 ng to 713 ng U-235, and reproducibility of 1.26% standard deviation for the various mass groups of U-235 samples. The DNAA system shows detection efficiency of ∼30% and U-235 detection limit of 1ng. This system can be used on a screening method to assist the environmental sample analysis and to protect the clean room from elevated levels of fissile material that might be in routine samples. (author)

  11. Comparisons of sampling procedures and time of sampling for the detection of Salmonella in Danish infected chicken flocks raised in floor systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gradel, K.O.; Andersen, J.; Madsen, M.

    2002-01-01

    Bacteriological follow-up samples were taken from 41 chicken (Gallus gallus) flocks in floor systems, where Salmonella enterica (Salmonella) had been detected either directly in bacteriological samples or indirectly by serological samples. Three types of follow-up samples were compared to each...... other within each flock: 1) 5 pairs of socks, analysed as 5 samples, 2) 2 pairs of socks, analysed as one sample, and 3) 60 faecal samples, analysed as one pooled sample. Agreement between sampling methods was evaluated by the following statistical tests: 'Kappa', 'The adjusted rand', McNemar"s test...... in detecting S. enterica as the 60 faecal samples. In broiler flocks, 5 pairs of socks were used both in the routine samples taken at about 3 weeks of age for the establishment of infection of the flock, and as one of the follow-up samples taken shortly before slaughter age, which means that the only notable...

  12. Laser heating of aqueous samples on a micro-optical-electro-mechanical system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Neil Reginald; Kennedy, Ian

    2013-02-05

    A system of heating a sample on a microchip includes the steps of providing a microchannel flow channel in the microchip; positioning the sample within the microchannel flow channel, providing a laser that directs a laser beam onto the sample for heating the sample; providing the microchannel flow channel with a wall section that receives the laser beam and enables the laser beam to pass through wall section of the microchannel flow channel without being appreciably heated by the laser beam; and providing a carrier fluid in the microchannel flow channel that moves the sample in the microchannel flow channel wherein the carrier fluid is not appreciably heated by the laser beam.

  13. Functional morphology of the neuroendocrine sodium influx-stimulating peptide system of the pond snail, Lymnaea stagnalis, studied by in situ hybridization and immunocytochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boer, H H; Montagne-Wajer, C; van Minnen, J; Ramkema, M; de Boer, P

    1992-06-01

    The functional morphology of the neuroendocrine system producing sodium influx-stimulating (SIS) peptide in the pond snail, Lymnaea stagnalis, was studied by in situ hybridization and immunocytochemistry. The SIS-peptide, which is 76 amino acids long, stimulates sodium uptake from the ambient medium. Two synthetic DNA probes were used for in situ hybridization. The nucleotide sequences were chosen from the cDNA structure; they encode amino acids 8-17 and 64-73, respectively. SIS-peptide sequences 10-20 and 67-76 were synthesized and antibodies were raised to them and affinity-purified. In addition to these antibodies, a monoclonal antibody raised to a bioactive, high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC)-purified brain extract was used for immunocytochemistry. Paraffin sections of central nervous systems and of whole snails were studied. The SIS-peptide system could be identified as the previously described yellow cell (YC) system by comparing alternate sections treated with the DNA probes, stained with the antibodies, or stained with alcian blue-alcian yellow. SIS-peptide neurons (approximately 45) occur in the ganglia of the visceral ring and in the proximal parts of visceral nerves. Axons run in the nerves of these and in several nerves of other ganglia. Numerous axon branches penetrate the perineurium forming a vast central neurohemal area. The SIS-peptide system innervates the pericardium, the nephridial gland, the reno-pericardial canal, the ureter, the spermoviduct and gonadal acini, the anterior aorta, the ventral buccal artery, and the penis protractor muscle.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Developable images produced by x-rays using the nickel-hypophosphite system. 2: Exposure and development parameters for sodium hypophosphite

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, C. E.; Philipp, W. H.; Marsik, S. J.

    1972-01-01

    Crystalline sodium hypophosphite was X-irradiated and then treated with an ammoniacal nickel hypophosphite solution. Treatment resulted in the precipitation of nickel metal. The yield of nickel metal varied directly with particle size, sample weight, X-ray voltage, target current, exposure time, and development time. These findings show the process to be potentially useful in X-ray type photography. The half-life for the latent image species was found to be relatively short; but this is not critical in most X-ray photography applications. Furthermore, the work can be interpreted on the basis that a hydrogen atom is involved in the mechanism and indicates that the autocatalytic development step may be self-poisoning.

  15. Computer system for environmental sample analysis and data storage and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brauer, F.P.; Fager, J.E.

    1976-01-01

    A mini-computer based environmental sample analysis and data storage system has been developed. The system is used for analytical data acquisition, computation, storage of analytical results, and tabulation of selected or derived results for data analysis, interpretation and reporting. This paper discussed the structure, performance and applications of the system

  16. 'Adaptive Importance Sampling for Performance Evaluation and Parameter Optimization of Communication Systems'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Remondo Bueno, D.; Srinivasan, R.; Nicola, V.F.; van Etten, Wim; Tattje, H.E.P.

    2000-01-01

    We present new adaptive importance sampling techniques based on stochastic Newton recursions. Their applicability to the performance evaluation of communication systems is studied. Besides bit-error rate (BER) estimation, the techniques are used for system parameter optimization. Two system models

  17. Electrochemical properties of polyaniline-modified sodium vanadate nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy Channu, V.S.; Holze, Rudolf; Yeo, In-Hyeong; Mho, Sun-il; Kalluru, Rajamohan R.

    2011-01-01

    Sodium vanadate nanomaterials were synthesized at different pH-values of a sodium hydroxide solution of vanadium pentoxide. Polyaniline-modified sodium vanadate nanomaterials were prepared at room temperature and at 3 C by a chemical polymerization method. The crystal structure and phase purity of the samples have been examined by powder XRD. The samples were identified as HNaV 6 O 16 .4H 2 O and Na 1.1 V 3 O 7.9 . The electrochemical measurements show that polyaniline-modified sodium vanadate hydrated nanomaterials provide higher current density than the sodium vanadate nanomaterials. (orig.)

  18. Development of a new multiple sampling trawl with autonomous opening/closing net control system for sampling juvenile pelagic fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oozeki, Yoshioki; Hu, Fuxiang; Tomatsu, Chiaki; Kubota, Hiroshi

    2012-03-01

    A new multiple layer sampling trawl with an autonomous net opening/closing control system was developed to sample pelagic juvenile fish quantitatively. The new trawl system, based on the Matsuda-Oozeki-Hu Trawl (MOHT), has a rigid-frame 3.3 m high and 2.35 m wide and five nets of 11.0 m length with a rectangular mouth of 2.22 m×1.81 m (4 m2 mouth area; large-scale prototype). A cambered V-shape depressor is hung below the frame and two bridles are attached at the midpoint of the side frames. A net-release controller is used, which not only controls the net release mechanism but also records the net depth, temperature and flow rate during net towing. The controller sends stored command signals to the net release mechanism as depth settings and/or time settings and does not require any commands from the surface through a conducting cable or by acoustic signals. Two other models were constructed before the construction of the large-scale prototype, which are a small-scale prototype (2 m2 mouth area) for testing the net release mechanism and a 1/4-scale model of the large-scale prototype for flume tank tests. Flume tank tests with the 1/4-scale model showed that the frame leaned forward at a tilt angle from 5 to 15 degrees at towing speeds from 0.8 to 1.4 m s-1. Opened nets closed smoothly and sequentially nets were completely opened when the trigger was released by the command. Net depth rarely changed even during changes in towing speed. Sea trials both by the small-scale and the large-scale prototype demonstrated the same towing characteristics expected from the flume tank tests. The newly developed multiple layer opening/closing MOHT (MOC-MOHT) is considered to be suitable for quantitative layer sampling of juvenile fish.

  19. Tank vapor sampling and analysis data package for tank 241-C-106 waste retrieval sluicing system process test phase III, sampled March 28, 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LOCKREM, L.L.

    1999-01-01

    This data package presents sampling data and analytical results from the March 28, 1999, vapor sampling of Hanford Site single-shell tank 241-C-106 during active sluicing. Samples were obtained from the 296-C-006 ventilation system stack and ambient air at several locations. Characterization Project Operations (CPO) was responsible for the collection of all SUMMATM canister samples. The Special Analytical Support (SAS) vapor team was responsible for the collection of all triple sorbent trap (TST), sorbent tube train (STT), polyurethane foam (PUF), and particulate filter samples collected at the 296-C-006 stack. The SAS vapor team used the non-electrical vapor sampling (NEVS) system to collect samples of the air, gases, and vapors from the 296-C-006 stack. The SAS vapor team collected and analyzed these samples for Lockheed Martin Hanford Corporation (LMHC) and Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) in accordance with the sampling and analytical requirements specified in the Waste Retrieval Sluicing System Vapor Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) for Evaluation of Organic Emissions, Process Test Phase III, HNF-4212, Rev. 0-A, (LMHC, 1999). All samples were stored in a secured Radioactive Materials Area (RMA) until the samples were radiologically released and received by SAS for analysis. The Waste Sampling and Characterization Facility (WSCF) performed the radiological analyses. The samples were received on April 5, 1999

  20. Post-Formation Sodium Loss on the Moon: A Bulk Estimate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, P.; Killen, R. M.; Airapetian, V.; Petro, N. E.; Mandell, A. M.

    2018-01-01

    The Moon and Earth are generally similar in terms of composition, but there exist variations in the abundance of certain elements among the two bodies. These differences are a likely consequence of differing physical evolution of the two bodies over the solar system's history. While previous works have assumed this may be due to conditions during the Moonâ€"TM"s formation, we explore the likelihood that the observed depletion in Sodium in lunar samples may be partially due to post-formation mechanisms. Solar effects, loss from a primordial atmosphere and impacts are some of the dominant post-formation mechanisms that we examine. We describe how our past and current modeling efforts indicate that a significant fraction of the observed depletion of sodium in lunar samples relative to a bulk silicate earth composition may have been due to solar activity, atmospheric loss and impacts. Using profiles of sodium abundances from lunar crustal samples may thus serve as a powerful tool towards exploring conditions on the Moon's surface throughout solar system history. Conditions on the Moon immediately after formation may still be recorded in the lunar crust and may provide a window towards interpreting observations from some of the first rocky exoplanets that will be most amenable to characterization. Potential spatial variation of sodium in the lunar crust may be a relevant consideration for future sample return efforts. Sodium Depletion in the Lunar Crust: Lunar

  1. A portable molecular-sieve-based CO2 sampling system for radiocarbon measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palonen, V

    2015-12-01

    We have developed a field-capable sampling system for the collection of CO2 samples for radiocarbon-concentration measurements. Most target systems in environmental research are limited in volume and CO2 concentration, making conventional flask sampling hard or impossible for radiocarbon studies. The present system captures the CO2 selectively to cartridges containing 13X molecular sieve material. The sampling does not introduce significant under-pressures or significant losses of moisture to the target system, making it suitable for most environmental targets. The system also incorporates a significantly larger sieve container for the removal of CO2 from chambers prior to the CO2 build-up phase and sampling. In addition, both the CO2 and H2O content of the sample gas are measured continuously. This enables in situ estimation of the amount of collected CO2 and the determination of CO2 flux to a chamber. The portable sampling system is described in detail and tests for the reliability of the method are presented.

  2. Stability of i.v. admixture containing metoclopramide, diphenhydramine hydrochloride, and dexamethasone sodium phosphate in 0.9% sodium chloride injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kintzel, Polly E; Zhao, Ting; Wen, Bo; Sun, Duxin

    2014-12-01

    The chemical stability of a sterile admixture containing metoclopramide 1.6 mg/mL, diphenhydramine hydrochloride 2 mg/mL, and dexamethasone sodium phosphate 0.16 mg/mL in 0.9% sodium chloride injection was evaluated. Triplicate samples were prepared and stored at room temperature without light protection for a total of 48 hours. Aliquots from each sample were tested for chemical stability immediately after preparation and at 1, 4, 8, 24, and 48 hours using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis. Metoclopramide, diphenhydramine hydrochloride, and dexamethasone sodium phosphate were selectively monitored using multiple-reaction monitoring. Samples were diluted differently for quantitation using three individual LC-MS/MS methods. To determine the drug concentration of the three compounds in the samples, three calibration curves were constructed by plotting the peak area or the peak area ratio versus the concentration of the calibration standards of each tested compound. Apixaban was used as an internal standard. Linearity of the calibration curve was evaluated by the correlation coefficient r(2). Constituents of the admixture of metoclopramide 1.6 mg/mL, diphenhydramine hydrochloride 2 mg/mL, and dexamethasone sodium phosphate 0.16 mg/mL in 0.9% sodium chloride injection retained more than 90% of their initial concentrations over 48 hours of storage at room temperature without protection from light. The observed variability in concentrations of these three compounds was within the limits of assay variability. An i.v. admixture containing metoclopramide 1.6 mg/mL, diphenhydramine hydrochloride 2 mg/mL, and dexamethasone sodium phosphate 0.16 mg/mL in 0.9% sodium chloride injection was chemically stable for 48 hours when stored at room temperature without light protection. Copyright © 2014 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Immobilization of sodium nitrate waste with polymers: Topical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franz, E.M.; Heiser, J.H. III; Colombo, P.

    1987-04-01

    This report describes the development of solidification systems for sodium nitrate waste. Sodium nitrate waste was solidified in the polymers polyethylene, polyester-styrene (PES), and water-extendible polyester-styrene (WEP). Evaluations were made of the properties of waste forms containing various amounts of sodium nitrate by leaching immersion in water, measuring compressive strengths and by the EPA Extraction Procedure. Results of the leaching test are presented as cumulative fraction leached (CFL), incremental leaching rate, and average leaching indices (LI). For waste forms containing 30 to 70 wt% sodium nitrate, the CFL ranged from 9.0 x 10 -3 to 7.3 x 10 -1 and the LI from 11 to 7.8. After ninety days immersion in water, the compressive strengths ranged from 720 psi to 2550 psi. The nitrate releases from these samples using the EPA Extraction Procedure were below 500 ppM. The nitrate releases from PES waste forms were similar to those from polyethylene waste forms at the same waste loadings. The compressive yield strengths, measured after ninety-day immersion in water, ranged between 2070 and 7710 psi. In the case of WEP waste forms, only 30 wt% loaded samples passed the immersion test. 23 refs., 24 figs., 12 tabs

  4. On the existence of sodium methyl in liquid sodium at 6500C. Influence on the transfer of carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelerin, Joel; Chaigneau, Marcel

    1977-01-01

    Nine hydrocarbons C 1 to C 4 are observed by the action of water on different samples of sodium. Some of them (C 3 -C 4 ) had never been observed before this: their origins are examined. When the carbon content of sodium grows, the volume of these hydrocarbons grows too, except for methane. This gas could come from some carbides like Al 4 C 3 , or Be 2 C and sodium methyl would not be involved in carbon transfer into liquid sodium [fr

  5. Sodium fast reactor power monitoring using {sup 20}F tagging agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coulon, R.; Normand, S. [CEA, LIST, Laboratoire Capteurs et Architectures Electroniques, Centre de Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France); Ban, G. [ENSICAEN, F-14050 Caen (France); Dumarcher, V.; Brau, H. P.; Barbot, L.; Domenech, T.; Kondrasovs, V.; Corre, G.; Frelin, A. M.; Montagu, T.; Dautremer, T.; Barat, E.

    2009-07-01

    This work deals with the use of gamma spectrometry to monitor the fourth generation sodium fast reactor (SFR) power. Simulation part has shown that power monitoring in short response time and with high accuracy is possible measuring delayed gamma emitters produced in the liquid sodium. An experimental test is under preparation at French SFR Phenix experimental reactor to validate simulation studies. Physical calculations have been done to correlate gamma activity to the released thermal power. Gamma emitter production rate in the reactor core was calculated with technical and nuclear data as sodium velocity, atomic densities, neutron spectra and incident neutron cross-sections of fission reactions, and also sodium activation reactions producing gamma emitters. Then, a thermal hydraulic transfer function was used for taking into account primary sodium flow in our calculations. Gamma spectra were then determined by Monte-Carlo simulations. The experiment will be set during the reactor 'ultimate testing'. The Delayed Neutron Detection (DND) system cell has been chosen as the best available primary sodium sample for gamma power monitoring on Phenix reactor due to short sodium transit time from reactor core to measurement sample and homogenized sampling in the reactor hot pool. The main gamma spectrometer is composed of a coaxial high purity germanium diode (HPGe) coupled with a transistor reset preamplifier. The signal is then processed by a digital signal processing system (called Adonis) which always gives optimum answer even for high count rate and various time activity measurements. For power monitoring problematic, use of a short decay period gamma emitter as the {sup 20}F will allow to obtain a very fast response system without cumulative and flow distortion effects. These works introduce advantages and performances of this new power monitoring system for future SFR. (authors)

  6. System and method for liquid extraction electrospray-assisted sample transfer to solution for chemical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kertesz, Vilmos; Van Berkel, Gary J.

    2016-07-12

    A system for sampling a surface includes a surface sampling probe comprising a solvent liquid supply conduit and a distal end, and a sample collector for suspending a sample collection liquid adjacent to the distal end of the probe. A first electrode provides a first voltage to solvent liquid at the distal end of the probe. The first voltage produces a field sufficient to generate electrospray plume at the distal end of the probe. A second electrode provides a second voltage and is positioned to produce a plume-directing field sufficient to direct the electrospray droplets and ions to the suspended sample collection liquid. The second voltage is less than the first voltage in absolute value. A voltage supply system supplies the voltages to the first electrode and the second electrode. The first electrode can apply the first voltage directly to the solvent liquid. A method for sampling for a surface is also disclosed.

  7. Estimation of functional failure probability of passive systems based on adaptive importance sampling method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Baosheng; Wang Dongqing; Zhang Jianmin; Jiang Jing

    2012-01-01

    In order to estimate the functional failure probability of passive systems, an innovative adaptive importance sampling methodology is presented. In the proposed methodology, information of variables is extracted with some pre-sampling of points in the failure region. An important sampling density is then constructed from the sample distribution in the failure region. Taking the AP1000 passive residual heat removal system as an example, the uncertainties related to the model of a passive system and the numerical values of its input parameters are considered in this paper. And then the probability of functional failure is estimated with the combination of the response surface method and adaptive importance sampling method. The numerical results demonstrate the high computed efficiency and excellent computed accuracy of the methodology compared with traditional probability analysis methods. (authors)

  8. Status of the design and safety project for the sodium-cooled fast reactor as a generation IV nuclear energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niwa, Hajime; Fiorini, Gian-Luigi; Sim, Yoon-Sub; Lennox, Tom; Cahalan, James E.

    2005-01-01

    The Design and Safety Project Management Board (DSPMB) was established under the Sodium Cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) System Steering Committee (SSC) in the Generation IV international Forum. The DSPMB will promote collaborative R and D activities on reactor core design, and safety assessment for candidate systems, and also integrate these results together with those from other PMBs such as advanced fuel and component to a whole fast reactor system in order to develop high performance systems that will satisfy the goals of Generation IV nuclear energy systems. The DSPMB has formulated the present R and D schedules for this purpose. Two SFR concepts were proposed: a loop-type system with primarily a MOX fuel core and a pool-type system with a metal fuel core. Study of innovative systems and their evaluation will also be included. The safety project will cover both the safety assessment of the design and the preparation of the methods/tools to be used for the assessment. After a rather short viability phase, the project will move to the performance phase for development of performance data and design optimization of conceptual designs. This paper describes the schedules, work packages and tasks for the collaborative studies of the member countries. (author)

  9. A Permanent Multilevel Monitoring and Sampling System in the Coastal Groundwater Mixing Zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xin; Kwok, King Lun; Liu, Yi; Jiao, Jimmy

    2017-07-01

    To study the spatial and temporal variability of water dynamics and chemical reactions within the coastal groundwater mixing zones (CGMZs), high-resolution periodical and spatial groundwater sampling within CGMZs is needed. However, current samplers and sampling systems may require heavy driving machines to install. There is also possible contamination from the metal materials for current samplers and sampling systems. Here, a permanent multilevel sampling system is designed to sample coastal groundwater within CGMZs. This cost-effective system consists of metal-free materials and can be installed easily. The system is tested in Po Sam Pai and Tingkok, Tolo Harbor and Hong Kong. Major ions, nutrients, stable isotopes and radium and radon isotopes were analyzed and the data provided scientific information to study the fresh-saltwater interface fluctuations, and temporal variations and spatial heterogeneity of geochemical processes occurred within CGMZs. The reliable spatial and temporal data from the sampling system demonstrate that the system functions well and can provide scientific data for coastal aquifer studies. © 2017, National Ground Water Association.

  10. Automated sample exchange and tracking system for neutron research at cryogenic temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rix, J. E.; Weber, J. K. R.; Santodonato, L. J.; Hill, B.; Walker, L. M.; McPherson, R.; Wenzel, J.; Hammons, S. E.; Hodges, J.; Rennich, M.; Volin, K. J.

    2007-01-01

    An automated system for sample exchange and tracking in a cryogenic environment and under remote computer control was developed. Up to 24 sample "cans" per cycle can be inserted and retrieved in a programed sequence. A video camera acquires a unique identification marked on the sample can to provide a record of the sequence. All operations are coordinated via a LABVIEW™ program that can be operated locally or over a network. The samples are contained in vanadium cans of 6-10mm in diameter and equipped with a hermetically sealed lid that interfaces with the sample handler. The system uses a closed-cycle refrigerator (CCR) for cooling. The sample was delivered to a precooling location that was at a temperature of ˜25K, after several minutes, it was moved onto a "landing pad" at ˜10K that locates the sample in the probe beam. After the sample was released onto the landing pad, the sample handler was retracted. Reading the sample identification and the exchange operation takes approximately 2min. The time to cool the sample from ambient temperature to ˜10K was approximately 7min including precooling time. The cooling time increases to approximately 12min if precooling is not used. Small differences in cooling rate were observed between sample materials and for different sample can sizes. Filling the sample well and the sample can with low pressure helium is essential to provide heat transfer and to achieve useful cooling rates. A resistive heating coil can be used to offset the refrigeration so that temperatures up to ˜350K can be accessed and controlled using a proportional-integral-derivative control loop. The time for the landing pad to cool to ˜10K after it has been heated to ˜240K was approximately 20min.

  11. Sodium safety manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, D.J.; Gardiner, R.L.

    1980-09-01

    The sodium safety manual is based upon more than a decade of experience with liquid sodium at Berkeley Nuclear Laboratories (BNL). It draws particularly from the expertise and experience developed in the course of research work into sodium fires and sodium water reactions. It draws also on information obtained from the UKAEA and other sodium users. Many of the broad principles will apply to other Establishments but much of the detail is specific to BNL and as a consequence its application at other sites may well be limited. Accidents with sodium are at best unpleasant and at worst lethal in an extremely painful way. The object of this manual is to help prevent sodium accidents. It is not intended to give detailed advice on specific precautions for particular situations, but rather to set out the overall strategy which will ensure that sodium activities will be pursued safely. More detail is generally conveyed to staff by the use of local instructions known as Sodium Working Procedures (SWP's) which are not reproduced in this manual although a list of current SWP's is included. Much attention is properly given to the safe design and operation of larger facilities; nevertheless evidence suggests that sodium accidents most frequently occur in small-scale work particularly in operations associated with sodium cleaning and special care is needed in all such cases. (U.K.)

  12. Report of sodium cavitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murai, Hitoshi; Shima, Akira; Oba, Toshisaburo; Kobayashi, Ryoji; Hashimoto, Hiroyuki

    1975-01-01

    The damage of components for LMFBRs due to sodium cavitation is serious problem. This report summarizes the following items, (1) mechanism of the incipience of sodium cavitation, (2) damage due to sodium cavitation, (3) detection method for sodium cavitation, and (4) estimation method for sodium cavitation by the comparison with water cavitation. Materials were collected from the reports on liquid metal cavitation, sodium cavitation and water cavitation published from 1965 to now. The mechanism of the incipience of sodium cavitation cavitation parameters (mean location, distributed amount or occurrence aspect and stability), experiment of causing cavitation with Venturi tube, and growth of bubbles within superheated sodium. The sodium cavitation damage was caused by magnetostriction vibration method and with Venturi tube. The state of damage was investigated with the cavitation performance of a sodium pump, and the damage was examined in view of the safety of LMFBR plants. Sodium cavitation was detected with acoustic method, radiation method, and electric method. The effect of physical property of liquid on incipient cavitation was studied. These are thermodynamic effect based on quasistatic thermal equilibrium condition and the effect of the physical property of liquid based on bubble dynamics. (Iwase, T.)

  13. Sample Handling System for in-situ Powder X-ray Diffraction Instruments., Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation is a Powder Handling System (PHS) that will deliver powdered samples to in situ planetary XRD instruments and provide unique means of...

  14. Miniaturized In Situ Atmospheric Probe Sampling Inlet System for Uranus or Saturn, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Thorleaf Research, Inc. proposes to develop a miniaturized in situ atmospheric probe sampling inlet system for measuring chemical and isotopic composition of the...

  15. O2/CO Ignition System for Mars Sample Return Missions, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Returning a geological sample from the surface of Mars will require an ascent propulsion system with a comparatively large velocity change (delta-V) capability due...

  16. Adaptive importance sampling for probabilistic validation of advanced driver assistance systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gietelink, O.J.; Schutter, B. de; Verhaegen, M.

    2006-01-01

    We present an approach for validation of advanced driver assistance systems, based on randomized algorithms. The new method consists of an iterative randomized simulation using adaptive importance sampling. The randomized algorithm is more efficient than conventional simulation techniques. The

  17. O2/CO Ignition System for Mars Sample Return Missions Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Returning a geological sample from the surface of Mars will require an ascent propulsion system with a comparatively large velocity change (delta-V) capability due...

  18. Miniaturized, Low Power Cryogenic Inlet System with Sampling Probes for Titan, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Thorleaf Research, Inc. proposes to develop a miniature, low power cryogenic inlet system with sampling probes for Titan. This addresses a key technology gap for...

  19. Improved Rock Core Sample Break-off, Retention and Ejection System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed effort advances the design of an innovative core sampling and acquisition system with improved core break-off, retention and ejection features. The...

  20. Improved Rock Core Sample Break-off, Retention and Ejection System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed effort advances the design of an innovative core sampling and acquisition system with improved core break-off, retention and ejection features. Phase 1...

  1. Improved Rock Core Sample Break-off, Retention and Ejection System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed effort advances the design of an innovative core sampling and acquisition system with improved core break-off, retention and ejection features. The...

  2. Improved Rock Core Sample Break-off, Retention and Ejection System, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed effort advances the design of an innovative core sampling and acquisition system with improved core break-off, retention and ejection features. Phase 1...

  3. Operability test procedure for the Rotary Mode Core Sampling System Exhausters 3 and 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WSaldo, E.J.

    1995-01-01

    This document provides a procedure for performing operability testing of the Rotary Mode Core Sampling System Exhausters 3 ampersand 4. Upon completion of testing activities an operability testing report will be issued

  4. Recent results of the investigation of a micro-fluidic sampling chip and sampling system for hot cell aqueous processing streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tripp, J.; Smith, T.; Law, J. [Idaho National Laboratory: P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    A Fuel Cycle Research and Development project has investigated an innovative sampling method that could evolve into the next generation sampling and analysis system for metallic elements present in aqueous processing streams. Initially sampling technologies were evaluated and micro-fluidic sampling chip technology was selected and tested. A conceptual design for a fully automated microcapillary-based system was completed and a robotic automated sampling system was fabricated. The mechanical and sampling operation of the completed sampling system was investigated. Different sampling volumes have been tested. It appears that the 10 μl volume has produced data that had much smaller relative standard deviations than the 2 μl volume. In addition, the production of a less expensive, mass produced sampling chip was investigated to avoid chip reuse thus increasing sampling reproducibility/accuracy. The micro-fluidic-based robotic sampling system's mechanical elements were tested to ensure analytical reproducibility and the optimum robotic handling of micro-fluidic sampling chips. (authors)

  5. 40 CFR 86.309-79 - Sampling and analytical system; schematic drawing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...; schematic drawing. 86.309-79 Section 86.309-79 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Procedures § 86.309-79 Sampling and analytical system; schematic drawing. (a) Any variation from the... only with prior approval by the Administrator. (b) Schematic drawing. (1) An example of a sampling and...

  6. Design aspects of automation system for initial processing of fecal samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawant, Pramilla D.; Prabhu, Supreetha P.; Suja, A.; Wankhede, Sonal; Chaudhary, Seema; Rao, D.D.; Pradeepkumar, K.S.; Das, A.P.; Badodkar, B.D.

    2014-01-01

    The procedure for initial handling of the fecal samples at Bioassay Lab., Trombay is as follows: overnight fecal samples are collected from the worker in a kit consisting of a polythene bag placed in a wide mouth polythene container closed with an inner lid and a screw cap. Occupational worker collects the sample in the polythene bag. On receiving the sample, the polythene container along with the sample is weighed, polythene bag containing fecal sample is lifted out of the container using a pair of tongs placed inside a crucible and ashed inside a muffle furnace at 450℃. After complete ashing, the crucible containing white ash is taken-up for further radiochemical processing. This paper describes the various steps in developing a prototype automated system for initial handling of fecal samples. The proposed system for handling and processing of fecal samples is proposed to automate the above. The system once developed will help eliminate manual intervention till the ashing stage and reduce the biological hazard involved in handling such samples mentioned procedure

  7. Intelligent type sodium instrumentations for LMFBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Daolong

    1996-07-01

    The constructions and performances of lots of newly developed intelligent type sodium instrumentations are described. The graduation characteristic equations for corresponding transducer using the medium temperature as the parameter are given. These intelligent type sodium instrumentations are possessed of good linearity. The accurate measurement data of sodium process parameters (flowrate, pressure and level) can be obtained by means of their on-line compensation function of the temperature effect. Moreover, these intelligent type sodium instrumentations are possessed of the self-inspection, the electric shutoff protection, the setting of full-scale, the setting of alarm limits (two upper limits and two lower limits alarms), the thermocouple breaking alarm, mutual isolative the 0∼10 V direct-current analogue output and the CENTRONICS standard digital output, and the alarm relay contact output. Theses intelligent type sodium instrumentations are suitable particularly for the instrument, control and protective systems of LMFBR by means of these excellent functions based on microprocessor. The basic errors of the intelligent type sodium flowmeter, immersed sodium flowmeter, sodium manometer and sodium level gauge are +-2%, +-2.3%, +-0.3% and +-1.9% of measuring ranges respectively. (9 figs.)

  8. Non-aqueous removal of sodium from reactor components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welch, F.H.; Steele, O.P.

    1978-01-01

    Reactor components from sodium-cooled systems. whether radioactive or not, must have the sodium removed before they can be safely handled for 1) disposal, 2) examination and test, or 3) decontamination, repair, and requalification. In the latter two cases, the sodium must be removed in a manner which will not harm the component. and prevent future use. Two methods for sodium removal using non-aqueous techniques have been studied extensively in the U.S.A. in the past few years: the Alcohol Process, which uses a fully denatured ethanol to react away the sodium; and the Evaporative Process, which uses heat and vacuum to evaporate the sodium from the component

  9. Effect of zone and crops rotation on Ischaemum rugosum and resistance to bispyribac-sodium in Ariari, Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Plaza, G.; Hernández, F.A.

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this research were to evaluate (1) weed species presented in rice fields in relation to the geographical zone and crop rotation and (2) the resistance level of Ischaemum rugosum to the herbicide bispyribac-sodium. For the first objective, were sampled 79 commercial fields of rice to establish weed density, coverage, and rotation system in the evaluated fields with record of bispyribac-sodium application of at least five years. To reach the second objective, the seeds were co...

  10. The Effect of Pneumatic Tube Systems on the Hemolysis of Biochemistry Blood Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakirca, Gokhan; Erdal, Huseyin

    2017-05-01

    Pneumatic tube systems (PTSs) are widely used in many hospitals because they lead to reduced turnaround times and cost efficiency. However, PTSs may affect the quality of the blood samples transported to the laboratory. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the PTS used in our hospital on the hemolysis of the biochemical blood samples transported to the laboratory. A total of 148 samples were manually transported to the laboratory by hospital staff, 148 samples were transported with the PTS, and 113 were transported with the PTS without use of sponge-rubber inserts (PTSws). Hemolysis rates and the levels of biochemical analytes for the different transportation methods were compared. No significant difference was found between the samples transported manually and with the PTS with regard to hemolysis rate and the levels of biochemical analytes. However, the samples transported with the PTSws showed a significant difference compared with the samples transported manually and with the PTS with regard to hemolysis rate and potassium and lactate dehydrogenase levels. The percentages of the samples that exceeded the permissible threshold for the hemolysis among the samples transported manually, with the PTS, and with the PTSws were 10%, 8%, and 47%, respectively. A PTS can be used safely for transporting biochemistry blood samples to the laboratory. However, a sponge-rubber insert that holds sample tubes must be used with the PTS to prevent the hemolysis of blood samples. Copyright © 2016 Emergency Nurses Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Integrating a sampling oscilloscope card and spectroscopy ADCs in a data acquisition system

    CERN Document Server

    Maartensson, L

    2001-01-01

    A high-rate sampling oscilloscope card has been integrated into an existing data acquisition system for spectroscopy ADCs. Experiments where pulse-shape analyses are important have then been made possible. Good performance characteristics of the integrated system have been achieved. Spectroscopy ADC data together with pulse-shape data sampled 512 times at 100 MHz are saved to hard disk at event rates up to about 1 kHz with low dead time losses.

  12. Baseline Design Compliance Matrix for the Rotary Mode Core Sampling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LECHELT, J.A.

    2000-10-17

    The purpose of the design compliance matrix (DCM) is to provide a single-source document of all design requirements associated with the fifteen subsystems that make up the rotary mode core sampling (RMCS) system. It is intended to be the baseline requirement document for the RMCS system and to be used in governing all future design and design verification activities associated with it. This document is the DCM for the RMCS system used on Hanford single-shell radioactive waste storage tanks. This includes the Exhauster System, Rotary Mode Core Sample Trucks, Universal Sampling System, Diesel Generator System, Distribution Trailer, X-Ray Cart System, Breathing Air Compressor, Nitrogen Supply Trailer, Casks and Cask Truck, Service Trailer, Core Sampling Riser Equipment, Core Sampling Support Trucks, Foot Clamp, Ramps and Platforms and Purged Camera System. Excluded items are tools such as light plants and light stands. Other items such as the breather inlet filter are covered by a different design baseline. In this case, the inlet breather filter is covered by the Tank Farms Design Compliance Matrix.

  13. Estimating 24-hour urinary sodium excretion from casual urinary sodium concentrations in Western populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, Ian J; Dyer, Alan R; Chan, Queenie

    2013-01-01

    High intakes of dietary sodium are associated with elevated blood pressure levels and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. National and international guidelines recommend reduced sodium intake in the general population, which necessitates population-wide surveillance. We assessed...... the utility of casual (spot) urine specimens in estimating 24-hour urinary sodium excretion as a marker of sodium intake in the International Cooperative Study on Salt, Other Factors, and Blood Pressure. There were 5,693 participants recruited in 1984-1987 at the ages of 20-59 years from 29 North American...... and European samples. Participants were randomly assigned to test or validation data sets. Equations derived from casual urinary sodium concentration and other variables in the test data were applied to the validation data set. Correlations between observed and estimated 24-hour sodium excretion were 0...

  14. Set up of an automatic water quality sampling system in irrigation agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz, Emanuel; Kraft, Philipp; Buchen, Caroline; Frede, Hans-Georg; Aquino, Eugenio; Breuer, Lutz

    2013-12-23

    We have developed a high-resolution automatic sampling system for continuous in situ measurements of stable water isotopic composition and nitrogen solutes along with hydrological information. The system facilitates concurrent monitoring of a large number of water and nutrient fluxes (ground, surface, irrigation and rain water) in irrigated agriculture. For this purpose we couple an automatic sampling system with a Wavelength-Scanned Cavity Ring Down Spectrometry System (WS-CRDS) for stable water isotope analysis (δ2H and δ18O), a reagentless hyperspectral UV photometer (ProPS) for monitoring nitrate content and various water level sensors for hydrometric information. The automatic sampling system consists of different sampling stations equipped with pumps, a switch cabinet for valve and pump control and a computer operating the system. The complete system is operated via internet-based control software, allowing supervision from nearly anywhere. The system is currently set up at the International Rice Research Institute (Los Baños, The Philippines) in a diversified rice growing system to continuously monitor water and nutrient fluxes. Here we present the system's technical set-up and provide initial proof-of-concept with results for the isotopic composition of different water sources and nitrate values from the 2012 dry season.

  15. Removal of sodium from the component of the sodium purification loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Byung Ho; Jeong, Kyung Chai; Jeong, Ji Young; Kim, Jong Man; Choi, Byung Hae; Nam, Ho Yun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    The purpose of a cleaning process is to remove the residual sodium adhering to the component walls once it has been properly drained. It is necessary to clean and decontaminate a component, especially the large components of the primary coolant system; such as the intermediate heat exchangers and the primary pump. Improper and inadequate cleaning has in a number of cases resulted in problems in the storage, handling, and reuse of components. Several types of failures due to improper cleaning procedures have been defined in the past. Inadequate and incomplete removal of sodium results in residues which may contain metallic sodium and alkaline compounds such as sodium hydroxide, sodium oxide, sodium carbonate, and various types of alcoholates. Reinsertion of components containing these compounds into a high-temperature sodium system can result in either the intergranular penetration characteristic of a high-oxygen sodium or an accelerated corrosion due to oxygen. The methods used for cleaning sodium equipment depend on the condition and types of equipment to be cleaned and whether the equipment is to be reused. Cleaning methods are needed that will avoid a deleterious local overheating, material surface degradation or deposits, chemical, physical, or mechanical damage, and external effects. This paper discusses a steam-nitrogen gas cleaning method for the routine applications that permits the reuse of the cold trap in sodium.

  16. Removal of sodium from the component of the sodium purification loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Byung Ho; Jeong, Kyung Chai; Jeong, Ji Young; Kim, Jong Man; Choi, Byung Hae; Nam, Ho Yun

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of a cleaning process is to remove the residual sodium adhering to the component walls once it has been properly drained. It is necessary to clean and decontaminate a component, especially the large components of the primary coolant system; such as the intermediate heat exchangers and the primary pump. Improper and inadequate cleaning has in a number of cases resulted in problems in the storage, handling, and reuse of components. Several types of failures due to improper cleaning procedures have been defined in the past. Inadequate and incomplete removal of sodium results in residues which may contain metallic sodium and alkaline compounds such as sodium hydroxide, sodium oxide, sodium carbonate, and various types of alcoholates. Reinsertion of components containing these compounds into a high-temperature sodium system can result in either the intergranular penetration characteristic of a high-oxygen sodium or an accelerated corrosion due to oxygen. The methods used for cleaning sodium equipment depend on the condition and types of equipment to be cleaned and whether the equipment is to be reused. Cleaning methods are needed that will avoid a deleterious local overheating, material surface degradation or deposits, chemical, physical, or mechanical damage, and external effects. This paper discusses a steam-nitrogen gas cleaning method for the routine applications that permits the reuse of the cold trap in sodium

  17. The installation of a multiport ground-water sampling system in the 300 Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilmore, T.J.

    1989-06-01

    In 1988, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory installed a multiport groundwater sampling system in well 399-1-20, drilled north of the 300 Area on the Hanford Site in southwestern Washington State. The purpose of installing the multiport system is to evaluate methods of determining the vertical distribution of contaminants and hydraulic heads in ground water. Well 399-1-20 is adjacent to a cluster of four Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) ground-water monitoring wells. This proximity makes it possible to compare sampling intervals and head measurements between the multiport system and the RCRA monitoring wells. Drilling and installation of the multiport system took 42 working days. Six sampling ports were installed in the upper unconfined aquifer at depths of approximately 120, 103, 86, 74, 56, and 44 feet. The locations of the sampling ports were determined by the hydrogeology of the area and the screened intervals of adjacent ground-water monitoring wells. The system was installed by backfilling sand around the sampling ports and isolating the ports with bentonite seals. The method proved adequate. For future installation, however, development and evaluation of an alternative method is recommended. In the alternative method suggested, the multiport system would be placed inside a cased and screened well, using packers to isolate the sampling zones. 4 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  18. A high-throughput continuous sample introduction interface for microfluidic chip-based capillary electrophoresis systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Qun; Xu, Guang-Ming; Fang, Zhao-Lun

    2002-03-15

    The development of efficient sample introduction and pretreatment systems for microfluidic chip-based analytical systems is important for their application to real-life samples. In this work, world-to-chip interfacing was achieved by a novel flow-through sampling reservoir featuring a guided overflow design. The flow-through reservoir was fabricated on a 30 x 60 x 3 mm planar glass chip of crossed-channel design used for capillary electrophoresis separations. The 20-microL sample reservoir was produced from a section of plastic pipet tip and fixed at one end of the sampling channel. Sample change was performed by pumping 80-microL samples sandwiched between air segments at approximately 0.48 mL/min flow rate through the flow-through reservoir, introduced from an access hole on the bottom side of the chip. A filter paper collar wrapped tightly around the reservoir guided the overflowing sample solution into a plastic trough surrounding the reservoir and then to waste. The performance of the system was demonstrated in the separation and determination of FITC-labeled arginine, glycine, phenylalanine, and glutamic acid with LIF detection, by continuously introducing a train of different samples through the system without electrical interruption. Employing a separation channel of 4 cm (2-cm effective separation length) and 1.4-kV separation voltage, maximum throughputs of 80/h were achieved with <4.1% carryover and precisions ranging from 1.5% for arginine to 2.6% RSD (n = 11) for glycine. The sampling system was tested in the continuous monitoring of the derivatizing process of amino acids by FITC over a period of 4 h, involving 166 analytical cycles. An outstanding overall precision of 4.8% RSD (n = 166) was achieved for the fluorescein internal standard.

  19. Radian remote sampling system digital processor system. Software detail documentation: Pittsburgh Energy Research Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-11-01

    Software documentation for the DART data acquisition system is provided. This system runs on a minicomputer. After an overview of the system and file structures, the various subprograms are discussed individually; flow charts are included. 37 figures. (RWR)

  20. Comparative evaluation of human pulp tissue dissolution by different concentrations of chlorine dioxide, calcium hypochlorite and sodium hypochlorite: An in vitro study

    OpenAIRE

    Sonali Taneja; Neha Mishra; Shubhra Malik

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Irrigation plays an indispensable role in removal of tissue remnants and debris from the complicated root canal system. This study compared the human pulp tissue dissolution by different concentrations of chlorine dioxide, calcium hypochlorite and sodium hypochlorite. Materials and Methods: Pulp tissue was standardized to a weight of 9 mg for each sample. In all,60 samples obtained were divided into 6 groups according to the irrigating solution used- 2.5% sodium hypochlorite...