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Sample records for sodium sampling system

  1. Sodium sampling and impurities determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Docekal, J.; Kovar, C.; Stuchlik, S.

    1980-01-01

    Samples may be obtained from tubes in-built in the sodium facility and further processed or they are taken into crucibles, stored and processed later. Another sampling method is a method involving vacuum distillation of sodium, thus concentrating impurities. Oxygen is determined by malgamation, distillation or vanadium balance methods. Hydrogen is determined by the metal diaphragm extraction, direct extraction or amalgamation methods. Carbon is determined using dry techniques involving burning a sodium sample at 1100 degC or using wet techniques by dissolving the sample with an acid. Trace amounts of metal impurities are determined after dissolving sodium in ethanol. The trace metals are concentrated and sodium excess is removed. (M.S.)

  2. Coulometric sodium chloride removal system with Nafion membrane for seawater sample treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grygolowicz-Pawlak, Ewa; Sohail, Manzar; Pawlak, Marcin; Neel, Bastien; Shvarev, Alexey; de Marco, Roland; Bakker, Eric

    2012-07-17

    Seawater analysis is one of the most challenging in the field of environmental monitoring, mainly due to disparate concentration levels between the analyte and the salt matrix causing interferences in a variety of analytical techniques. We propose here a miniature electrochemical sample pretreatment system for a rapid removal of NaCl utilizing the coaxial arrangement of an electrode and a tubular Nafion membrane. Upon electrolysis, chloride is deposited at the Ag electrode as AgCl and the sodium counterions are transported across the membrane. This cell was found to work efficiently at potentials higher than 400 mV in both stationary and flow injection mode. Substantial residual currents observed during electrolysis were found to be a result of NaCl back diffusion from the outer side of the membrane due to insufficient permselectivity of the Nafion membrane. It was demonstrated that the residual current can be significantly reduced by adjusting the concentration of the outer solution. On the basis of ion chromatography results, it was found that the designed cell used in flow injection electrolysis mode reduced the NaCl concentration from 0.6 M to 3 mM. This attempt is very important in view of nutrient analysis in seawater where NaCl is a major interfering agent. We demonstrate that the pretreatment of artificial seawater samples does not reduce the content of nitrite or nitrate ions upon electrolysis. A simple diffusion/extraction steady state model is proposed for the optimization of the electrolysis cell characteristics.

  3. Development of failed fuel detection and location system in sodium-cooled large reactor. Sampling method of failed fuels under the slit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aizawa, Kousuke; Fujita, Kaoru; Kamide, Hideki; Kasahara, Naoto

    2010-01-01

    A conceptual design study of Japan Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (JSFR) is in progress as an issue of the 'Fast Reactor Cycle Technology Development (FaCT)' project in Japan. JSFR adopts a Selector-Valve mechanism for the failed fuel detection and location (FFDL) system. The Selector-Valve FFDL system identifies failed fuel subassemblies by sampling sodium from each fuel subassembly outlet and detecting fission product. One of the JSFR design features is employing an upper internal structure (UIS) with a radial slit, in which an arm of fuel handling machine can move and access the fuel assemblies under the UIS. Thus, JSFR cannot place sampling nozzles right above the fuel subassemblies located under the slit. In this study, the sampling method for indentifying under-slit failed fuel subassemblies has been demonstrated by water experiments. (author)

  4. Carbon transport in sodium systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin Espigares, M.; Lapena, J.; La Torre, M. de

    1983-01-01

    Carbon activities in dynamic non isothermal sodium system are determined using an equilibratium method. Foils of Fe-18 w% Cr-8 W% Ni alloy with low carbon content (in the as received condition) are exposed to dynamic liquid sodium in the temperature range between 450 0 C and 700 0 C. The analysis was used to evaluate the carburization-decarburization behaviour of type 304 stainless steel exposed to sodium. (author)

  5. PG BN 1600 sodium fire protection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bar, J.; Urbancik, L.

    1978-12-01

    A design was developed of a fire protection system for steam generator of a 1600 MW sodium cooled fast reactor (BN-1600). Chemical reactions are described of liquid sodium with atmospheric components and solid materials coming into contact with sodium in its release from the steam generator, and in safeguarding protection against sodium fires. The requirements for the purity of nitrogen as an atmosphere inert to liquid sodium are given. Characteristics and basic parameters are shown of level and spray fires, elementary terms are explained concerning the properties of aerosols formed during fires, the methods and means of release signalling and fire alarm are described as are fire precautions using fire-fighting equipment, modifying the support tank and the cell bottom and building sewage pits. The design of the system comprises an alarm system for liquid sodium using point and line electric contact sensors and flame photometer based aerosol sensors as well as a fire-fighting system based on the system of channelling liquid sodium into emergency discharge tanks filled with an inert gas, a set of fire extinguishers and other fire fighting material, and measures for the elimination of sodium fire consequences. (J.B.)

  6. Under sodium ultrasonic imaging system for PFBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patankar, V.H.; Lalwani, S.K.; Agashe, A.A.

    2014-01-01

    Under Sodium UltraSonic Scanner (USUSS) has been developed to detect the growth and protrusion of fuel sub-assemblies of PFBR, submerged in liquid sodium by using the ultrasonic imaging technique during reactor shut-down when liquid sodium is at 180 ℃. The imaging is carried out prior to every Fuel handling operation. Electronics Division, BARC has designed and developed an 8-Channel Ultrasonic Imaging System (UIS) which consists of 4 downward viewing and 4 side viewing ultrasonic transducers alongwith pulser-receiver, signal processing electronics hardware and software. An automated mechanical scanner developed by IGCAR houses sodium immersible transducers to image the fuel sub assemblies. The system has been successfully tested with dummy protruding and grown FSAs, submerged under liquid sodium. Such ultrasonic imaging systems are not available to India from international market. The USUSS developed indigenously has all the features available in similar systems developed by other countries. After every imaging campaign, the mechanical scanner containing ultrasonic transducers is stored in the Argon filled storage-pit. Before every campaign of USUSS, it is necessary to check the healthiness of the sodium immersible and contaminated ultrasonic transducers, as the under-sodium scanner is decontaminated once in five years. For this purpose, a novel Non Contact Ultrasonic Inspection System (NCUIS) has been designed and developed by Electronics Division, BARC to check the functionality of the high-temperature and contaminated transducers of USUSS, using air-coupled ultrasonic technique. (author)

  7. Determination of chloride and sulphur in sodium by ion chromatography and its application to PFBR sodium samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijayalakshmi, S.; Ushalakshmi, K.

    2011-01-01

    Analytical method using ion chromatography was developed for the determination of chloride and sulphur in sodium. In this method, sodium was dissolved in water and various sulphur species present in the sample was oxidized to sulphate using hydrogen peroxide. Carbon dioxide gas was passed through the solution to convert sodium hydroxide to carbonate solution. The resulting sample solution was analysed using suppressed Ion chromatography employing carbonate eluent. This method was applied to the analysis of sodium samples procured for prototype fast breeder reactor. (author)

  8. Operator decision support system for sodium loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kwang Hyeang; Park, Kyu Ho; Kim, Tak Kon; Jo, Choong Ho; Seong, Kyeong A; Lee, Keon Myeong; Kim, Yeong Dal; Kim, Chang Beom; Kim, Jong Kyu; Jo, Hee Chang; Lee, Ji Hyeong; Jeong, Yoon Soo; Chio, Jong Hyeong; Jeong, Bong Joon; Hong, Joon Seong; Kim, Bong Wan; Seong, Byeong Hak [Korea Advanced Institute Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-07-01

    The objective of this study is to develop an operator decision support system by computerizing the sodium circuit. This study developed graphical display interface for the control panel which provides the safety control of equipment, the recognition of experimental process states and sodium circuit states. In this study, basic work to develop an operator decision support real-time expert system for sodium loop was carried out. Simplification of control commands and effective operation of various real-time data and signals by equipment code standardization are studied. The cost ineffectiveness of the single processor structure provides the ground for the development of cost effective parallel processing system. The important tasks of this study are (1) design and implementation of control state surveillance panel of sodium loop, (2) requirement analysis of operator support real-time expert system for sodium loop, (3) design of standard code rule for operating equipment and research on the cost effective all purpose parallel processing system and (4) requirement analysis of expert system and design of control state variables and user interface for experimental process. 10 refs., 36 figs., 20 tabs.

  9. Monju secondary heat transport system sodium leak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Takeo; Hiroi, Hiroshi; Usami, Shin; Iwata, Koji.

    1996-01-01

    On December 8, 1995, the sodium leakage from the secondary heat transport system (SHTS) occurred in the piping room of the reactor auxiliary building in Monju. The secondary sodium leaked through a temperature sensor, due to the breakaway of the tip of the well tube of the sensor installed near the outlet of the intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) in the C loop of SHTS. The reactor core remained cooled and thus, from the viewpoint of radiological hazards, the safety of the reactor was secured. There were no adverse effects for operating personnel or the surrounding environment. The cause of the well tube failure is considered to result from high cycle fatigue due to flow induced vibrations. Delay in draining the sodium from the leaking loop increased the consequential effects from sodium combustion products. (author)

  10. [Determination of sodium, magnesium, calcium, lithium and strontium in natural mineral drinking water by microwave plasma torch spectrometer with nebulization sample introduction system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wei; Xiong, Hai-long; Feng, Guo-dong; Yu, Ai-min; Chen, Huan-wen

    2014-06-01

    The microwave plasma torch (MPT) was used as the emission light source. Aqueous samples were introduced with a nebulizer and a desolvation system. A method for the determination of Na, Mg, Ca, Li and Sr in natural mineral drinking water by argon microwave plasma torch spectrometer (ArMPT spectrometer) was established. The effects of microwave power, flow rate of carrier gas and support gas were investigated in detail and these parameters were optimized. Under the optimized condition, the experiments for the determination of Na, Mg, Ca, Li and Sr in 11 kinds of bottled mineral drinking water were carried out by ArMPT spectrometer. The limit-of-detection (LOD) of Na, Mg, Ca, Li and Sr was found to be 4.4, 21, 56, 11 and 84 μg x mL(-1), respectively. Relative standard deviation (n = 6) was in the range of 1.30%-5.45% and standard addition recoveries were in the range of 84.6%-98.5%. MPT spectrometer was simpler, more convenient and of lower cost as compared to ICP unit. MPT spectrometer demonstrated its rapid analysis speed, accuracy, sensitivity and simultaneous multi element analysis ability during the analysis process. The results showed that MPT spectrometer was suitable for metal elements detection for natural mineral drinking water. This approach provides not only one way for resisting the illegal dealings, but also a security for the quality of drinking water. Moreover, the usability of MPT spectrometer in the field of food security; drug safety; clinical diagnostic is promised.

  11. Sodium-NaK engineering handbook. Volume III. Sodium systems, safety, handling, and instrumentation. [LMFBR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foust, O J [ed.

    1978-01-01

    The handbook is intended for use by present and future designers in the Liquid Metals Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) Program and by the engineering and scientific community performing other type investigation and exprimentation requiring high-temperature sodium and NaK technology. The arrangement of subject matter progresses from a technological discussion of sodium and sodium--potassium alloy (NaK) to discussions of varius categories and uses of hardware in sodium and NaK systems. Emphasis is placed on sodium and NaK as heat-transport media. Sufficient detail is included for basic understanding of sodium and NaK technology and of technical aspects of sodium and NaK components and instrument systems. Information presented is considered adequate for use in feasibility studies and conceptual design, sizing components and systems, developing preliminary component and system descriptions, identifying technological limitations and problem areas, and defining basic constraints and parameters.

  12. Sodium-water reaction product flow system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirataki, K; Wada, H

    1978-11-18

    Purpose: To provide the subject equipments wherein thermal insulating layers which neither exfoliate nor react by the impact due to high temperature sodium and hydrogen gas and are used for mitigating the thermal impact are provided on the inner surfaces of the emission system equipments, thereby preventing the destruction of the emission system equipments. Constitution: Thermal insulating layers are formed on the inner surfaces of sodium-water reaction product emission system equipments, that is, the inner surface of the emission system pipeline, that of the accommodation vessel and the surface of the cyclone separator, by film treatment, coating or heat resisting coating, and these surfaces are covered with the layers. Each of the layers is made of a material which does not cause a rapid reaction with high temperature sodium or hydrogen gas nor exfoliates and is withstandable for several seconds in which the thermal impact of at least the emission system comes into question, and its thickness is more than one capable of securing the necessary thermal resistance computed by the thermal impact analysis of the emission system.

  13. Sodium-water reaction product flow system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirataki, Koji; Wada, Hozumi.

    1978-01-01

    Purpose: To provide the subject equipments wherein thermal insulating layers which neither exfoliate nor react by the impact due to high temperature sodium and hydrogen gas and are used for mitigating the thermal impact are provided on the inner surfaces of the emission system equipments, thereby preventing the destruction of the emission system equipments. Constitution: Thermal insulating layers are formed on the inner surfaces of sodium-water reaction product emission system equipments, that is, the inner surface of the emission system pipeline, that of the accommodation vessel and the surface of the cyclone separator, by film treatment, coating or heat resisting coating, and these surfaces are covered with the layers. Each of the layers is made of a material which does not cause a rapid reaction with high temperature sodium or hydrogen gas nor exfoliates and is withstandable for several seconds in which the thermal impact of at least the emission system comes into question, and its thickness is more than one capable of securing the necessary thermal resistance computed by the thermal impact analysis of the emission system. (Yoshihara, H.)

  14. System of lithium, sodium, and strontium bromides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litvinova, G.N.; Yagub'yan, E.S.; Bukhalova, G.A.

    1988-01-01

    The visual-polythermal and partially differential thermal methods of analysis have been applied to investigate the meltability diagram of the Li 2 Br 2 -Na 2 Br 2 -SrBr 2 ternary system. Three fields of crystallization belonging to strontium bromide, to the compound LiSr 2 Br 5 and solid solutions of lithium and sodium bromides are found. Two points complying with nonvariant equilibria are discovered

  15. An investigation of sodium iodide solubility in sodium-stainless steel systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagawa, Norihiko; Tashiro, Suguru

    1996-01-01

    Sodium iodide and major constituents of stainless steel in sodium are determined by using the steel capsules to obtain a better understanding on contribution of the constituents to the apparent iodide solubility in sodium. The capsule loaded with 20 g sodium and 0.1 - 0.3 g powder of sodium iodide is heated at its upper part in a furnace and cooled at its bottom on brass plates to establish a large temperature gradient along the capsule tube. After a given period of equilibration, the iodide and constituents are fixed in solidified sodium by quick quenching of the capsules. Sodium samples are taken from the sectioned capsule tube and submitted to sodium dissolution by vaporized water for determination of the iodine and to vacuum distillation for determination of the metal elements. Iron and nickel concentrations are observed to be lower in the samples at higher iodine concentrations. Chromium and manganese concentrations are seen to be insensitive to the iodine concentrations. The observations can be interpreted by a model that sodium oxide combines with metal iodide in sodium to form a complex compound and with consideration that the compound will fall and deposit onto the bottom of the capsule by thermal diffusion. (author)

  16. Research and application of sampling and analysis method of sodium aerosol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Xiaochen; Guo Qingzhou; Wen Ximeng

    1998-01-01

    Method of sampling-analysis for sodium aerosol is researched. The vacuum sampling technology is used in the sampling process, and the analysis method adopted is volumetric analysis and atomic absorption. When the absolute content of sodium is in the rang of 0.1 mg to 1.0 mg, the deviation of results between volumetric analysis and atomic absorption is less than 2%. The method has been applied in a sodium aerosol removal device successfully. The analysis range, accuracy and precision can meet the requirements for researching sodium aerosol

  17. Introduction of sample tubes with sodium azide as a preservative for ethyl glucuronide in urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luginbühl, Marc; Weinmann, Wolfgang; Al-Ahmad, Ali

    2017-09-01

    Ethyl glucuronide (EtG) is a direct alcohol marker, which is widely used for clinical and forensic applications, mainly for abstinence control. However, the instability of EtG in urine against bacterial degradation or the post-collectional synthesis of EtG in contaminated samples may cause false interpretation of EtG results in urine samples. This study evaluates the potential of sodium azide in tubes used for urine collection to hinder degradation of ethyl glucuronide by bacterial metabolism taking place during growth of bacterial colonies. The tubes are part of a commercial oral fluid collection device. The sampling system was tested with different gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial species previously observed in urinary tract infections, such as Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterecoccus faecalis, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Inhibition of bacterial growth by sodium azide, resulting in lower numbers of colony forming units compared to control samples, was observed for all tested bacterial species. To test the prevention of EtG degradation by the predominant pathogen in urinary tract infection, sterile-filtered urine and deficient medium were spiked with EtG, and inoculated with E. coli prior to incubation for 4 days at 37 °C in tubes with and without sodium azide. Samples were collected every 24 hours, during four consecutive days, whereby the colony forming units (CFU) were counted on Columbia blood agar plates, and EtG was analyzed by LC-MS/MS. As expected, EtG degradation was observed when standard polypropylene tubes were used for the storage of contaminated samples. However, urine specimens collected in sodium azide tubes showed no or very limited bacterial growth and no EtG degradation. As a conclusion, sodium azide is useful to reduce bacterial growth of gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. It inhibits the degradation of EtG by E. coli and can be used for

  18. Effects of sodium azide on the abundance of prokaryotes and viruses in marine samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Winter

    Full Text Available Flow cytometry is set to become the standard method for enumerating prokaryotes and viruses in marine samples. However, the samples need to be flash-frozen in liquid nitrogen directly after aldehyde fixation. Because liquid nitrogen may not always be available, we tested the potential of sodium azide as a preservative for prokaryotes and viruses in marine samples as a possible alternative. For that we conducted incubation experiments with untreated and sodium azide treated marine water samples at 4°C and room temperature. The data indicate that sodium azide cannot be used to maintain marine samples used for the enumeration of prokaryotes and viruses.

  19. Structure-rheology relations in sodium caseinate containing systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruis, H.G.M.

    2007-01-01

    The general aim of the work described in this thesis was to investigate structure-rheologyrelations for dairy related products, focusing on model systems containing sodium caseinate. The acid inducedgelationof sodium caseinate, of sodium caseinate stabilized emulsions, and the effect of shear on the

  20. Sodium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Table salt is a combination of two minerals - sodium and chloride Your body needs some sodium to work properly. It helps with the function ... in your body. Your kidneys control how much sodium is in your body. If you have too ...

  1. The replacement of an electromagnetic primary sodium sampling pump in the Fast Flux Test Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grygiel, M.L.; McCargar, C.G.

    1985-01-01

    On November 16, 1984 a leak was discovered in one of the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) Primary Sodium Sampling System electromagnetic pumps. The leak was discovered in the course of routine cell entry to investigate a shorted trace heat element. The purpose of this paper is to describe the circumstances surrounding the occurrence of the leak, the actions taken to replace the damaged pump and the additional steps which were necessary to return the plant to power. In addition, the processes involved in producing the leak are described briefly. The relative ease of recovery from this incident is indicative of the overall feasibility of the Liquid Metal Reactor (LMR) operational concept

  2. CNEN experience on bellows for sodium system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gai, A.; Casalini, P.

    1980-01-01

    In Italy work on the breeder reactors is being carried out in three main areas: The PEC reactor; Construction of the components for the Creys-Malville plant, the testing in support of this, and work on the SPX reactor; Standardized industrial supplies. With regard to the PEC reactor, design work for the system and a part of the components is being conducted mainly in Italy by CNEN and NIRA, with the experimental testing in support being conducted in Italy and abroad. With regard to the Creys-Malville plant and the SPX reactor programs, activities for the supply of the components and testing in support of them are being conducted within a tight framework of agreements between the research organizations and Italian and French industries. Finally, the standardized industrial supplies are developing autonomously, without any major research and development involvement. The differences in methodologies, procedures and organizations involved in the three above mentioned work areas and the relative limitation of activities conducted in the breeder reactor area in Italy have made the carrying out of a systematic, organic program for the use of sodium bellows impossible. In particular, until today no sodium testing program has been carried out on this component in Italy

  3. CNEN experience on bellows for sodium system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gai, A; Casalini, P

    1980-02-01

    In Italy work on the breeder reactors is being carried out in three main areas: The PEC reactor; Construction of the components for the Creys-Malville plant, the testing in support of this, and work on the SPX reactor; Standardized industrial supplies. With regard to the PEC reactor, design work for the system and a part of the components is being conducted mainly in Italy by CNEN and NIRA, with the experimental testing in support being conducted in Italy and abroad. With regard to the Creys-Malville plant and the SPX reactor programs, activities for the supply of the components and testing in support of them are being conducted within a tight framework of agreements between the research organizations and Italian and French industries. Finally, the standardized industrial supplies are developing autonomously, without any major research and development involvement. The differences in methodologies, procedures and organizations involved in the three above mentioned work areas and the relative limitation of activities conducted in the breeder reactor area in Italy have made the carrying out of a systematic, organic program for the use of sodium bellows impossible. In particular, until today no sodium testing program has been carried out on this component in Italy.

  4. Detection system of sodium oxide vapors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hundal, Rolv.

    1976-01-01

    The description is given of a sodium oxide vapor detection system which comprises a containment, a light source located to send a light beam into and through this containment and a photodetector located to intercept the light from the source after it has covered a given path through the containment. In response to the intensity of the incident light, the photodetector produces an output signal representative of it. The feature of this device is a first polarizer located near the light source, along the path of the light coming from it and designed to polarize the light projected through the containment in a given plane, and a second polarizer located near the photodetector, along the path of the polarized light and designed virtually to prevent all the light rays whose orientation differs from the given polarization plane from reaching the photodetector [fr

  5. Structure-rheology relations in sodium caseinate containing systems

    OpenAIRE

    Ruis, H.G.M.

    2007-01-01

    The general aim of the work described in this thesis was to investigate structure-rheologyrelations for dairy related products, focusing on model systems containing sodium caseinate. The acid inducedgelationof sodium caseinate, of sodium caseinate stabilized emulsions, and the effect of shear on the structure formation was characterized. Special attention was given to the sol-gel transition point, which was defined by a frequency independent loss tangent. It was shown that the sol-gel transit...

  6. 105-DR Large sodium fire facility soil sampling data evaluation report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adler, J.G.

    1996-01-01

    This report evaluates the soil sampling activities, soil sample analysis, and soil sample data associated with the closure activities at the 105-DR Large Sodium Fire Facility. The evaluation compares these activities to the regulatory requirements for meeting clean closure. The report concludes that there is no soil contamination from the waste treatment activities

  7. Determination of sodium in biological samples by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parwate, D.V.; Garg, A.N.

    1981-01-01

    Sodium is one of the most essential elements needed for metabolic processes amongst human beings. It is consumed in the form of sodium chloride but it is also present in edible plant leaves. Sodium is mostly analyzed by flame photometric method, a destructive and time consuming technique. Sodium has been determined in some green leave vegetables samples-palak, radish, khatta palak (ambat chuka), chaulai leaves, chauli bean covers and its seeds by instrumental neutron activation analysis. The method involves irradiation of samples with thermal neutrons from 241 Am-Be source and counting 24 Na activity (half life 15 hr) from the reaction 23 Na(n,γ) 24 Na. Activity due to 1.37 MeV photopeak was counted with a NaI(Tl) crystal coupled to gamma ray spectrometer. Green leaves of the vegetables were thoroughly washed, dried at constant temperature and powdered. Bowen's Kale powder was used as standard for measuring sodium abundances. About 2g each of samples and the standard were packed in polythene vials. They were irradiated for 24 hrs, delayed by 1 hr and then counted for 20 mts. It is found that radish leaves are most enriched in sodium (14.0 +-0.45%) amongst four leave samples analyzed. For three different parts of chaulai leaves, bean covers and seeds, sodium contents are 1.38%, 1820 and 1010 ppm. Palak contains 2.84 +-0.29% while khatta palak contains only 4210 +- 830 ppm sodium. All values reported here are for dry weight samples and are means of three replicate measurements with standard deviation. (author)

  8. Specialists' meeting on bellows for sodium systems. Summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1980-02-01

    The Specialists' Meeting on Bellows for Sodium Systems was sponsored by the IAEA on the recommendation of the International Working Group on Fast Reactors (IWGFR) was attended by participants and observers from France, the Federal Republic of Germany, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom and the IAEA. The purpose of the meeting was to provide forum for exchanging views on application of bellows for FBR use, problems found in service in sodium systems, design and fabrication of bellows for sodium systems and studies necessary for estimation and improvement of reliability of bellows in long term use under the condition of high temperature sodium. The technical parts of the meeting were divided into five major sessions, as follows: Experience of Bellows Applications for Sodium Systems; Design and Analysis; Fabrication; In-Service Inspection and Repair; Research Work.

  9. Specialists' meeting on bellows for sodium systems. Summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-02-01

    The Specialists' Meeting on Bellows for Sodium Systems was sponsored by the IAEA on the recommendation of the International Working Group on Fast Reactors (IWGFR) was attended by participants and observers from France, the Federal Republic of Germany, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom and the IAEA. The purpose of the meeting was to provide forum for exchanging views on application of bellows for FBR use, problems found in service in sodium systems, design and fabrication of bellows for sodium systems and studies necessary for estimation and improvement of reliability of bellows in long term use under the condition of high temperature sodium. The technical parts of the meeting were divided into five major sessions, as follows: Experience of Bellows Applications for Sodium Systems; Design and Analysis; Fabrication; In-Service Inspection and Repair; Research Work

  10. Software Configuration Management Plan for the Sodium Removal System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HILL, L.F.

    2000-01-01

    This document establishers the Software Configuration Management Plan (SCMP) for the software associated with the control system of the Sodium Removal System (SRS) located in the Interim Examination and Maintenance (IEM Cell) Facility of the FFTF Flux Test

  11. Sodium Hydroxide and Calcium Hydroxide Hybrid Oxygen Bleaching with System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doelle, K.; Bajrami, B.

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates the replacement of sodium hydroxide in the oxygen bleaching stage using a hybrid system consisting of sodium hydroxide calcium hydroxide. Commercial Kraft pulping was studied using yellow pine Kraft pulp obtained from a company in the US. The impact of sodium hydroxide, calcium hydroxide hybrid system in regard to concentration, reaction time and temperature for Kraft pulp was evaluated. The sodium hydroxide and calcium hydroxide dosage was varied between 0% and 15% based on oven dry fiber content. The bleaching reaction time was varied between 0 and 180 minutes whereas the bleaching temperature ranged between 70 °C and 110 °C. The ability to bleach pulp was measured by determining the Kappa number. Optimum bleaching results for the hybrid system were achieved with 4% sodium hydroxide and 2% calcium hydroxide content. Beyond this, the ability to bleach pulp decreased.

  12. Development of KALIMER auxiliary sodium and cover gas management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Sang Woon; Hwang, Sung Tae

    1996-11-01

    The objectives of this report are to develop and to describe the auxiliary liquid metal and cover gas management systems of KALIMER. the system includes following system: (1) Auxiliary liquid metal system (2) Inert gas receiving and processing system (3) Impurity monitoring and analysis system. Auxiliary liquid metal and cover gas management system of KALIMER was developed. Functions of each systems and design basis were describes. The auxiliary liquid metal system receives, transfers, and purifies all sodium used in the plant. The system furnishes the required sodium quantity at the pressure, temperature, flow rate, and purity specified by the interfacing system. The intermediated sodium processing subsystem (ISPS) provides continuous purification of IHTS sodium, as well as performs the initial fill operation for both the IHTS and reactor vessel. The primary sodium processing subsystem provides purification (cold trapping) for sodium used in the reactor vessel. The inert gas receiving and processing (IGRP) system provides liquefied and ambient gas storage, delivers inert gases of specified composition and purity at regulated flow rates and pressures to points of usage throughout the KALIMER, and accepts the contaminated gases through its vacuum facilities for storage and transfer to the gas radwaste system. Three gases are used in the KALIMER: helium, argon, and nitrogen. 11 tabs., 12 figs. (Author)

  13. Development of KALIMER auxiliary sodium and cover gas management system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Sang Woon; Hwang, Sung Tae [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-11-01

    The objectives of this report are to develop and to describe the auxiliary liquid metal and cover gas management systems of KALIMER. the system includes following system: (1) Auxiliary liquid metal system (2) Inert gas receiving and processing system (3) Impurity monitoring and analysis system. Auxiliary liquid metal and cover gas management system of KALIMER was developed. Functions of each systems and design basis were describes. The auxiliary liquid metal system receives, transfers, and purifies all sodium used in the plant. The system furnishes the required sodium quantity at the pressure, temperature, flow rate, and purity specified by the interfacing system. The intermediated sodium processing subsystem (ISPS) provides continuous purification of IHTS sodium, as well as performs the initial fill operation for both the IHTS and reactor vessel. The primary sodium processing subsystem provides purification (cold trapping) for sodium used in the reactor vessel. The inert gas receiving and processing (IGRP) system provides liquefied and ambient gas storage, delivers inert gases of specified composition and purity at regulated flow rates and pressures to points of usage throughout the KALIMER, and accepts the contaminated gases through its vacuum facilities for storage and transfer to the gas radwaste system. Three gases are used in the KALIMER: helium, argon, and nitrogen. 11 tabs., 12 figs. (Author).

  14. Introduction of Sodium Fire Extinguishing System for STELLA-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gam, Dayoung; Kim, Jong-Man; Jung, Min-Hwan; Eoh, Jae-Hyuk; Jeong, Eoh Jiyoung

    2015-01-01

    This characteristic is a big advantage as a thermal transfer fluid. However, the high reactivity of sodium, especially with water and oxygen, and white aerosol in the event of fire can cause serious accidents. Thus, large sodium facility needs a specific-developed fire extinguishing system for a safe experiment. Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) has conducted sodium heat transfer experiments using the facility named the Sodium Integral Effect Test Loop for Safety Simulation and Assessment (STELLA-1). STELLA-1 fully equipped a sodium fire extinguishing system for the safe experiment and fire spread prevention. In this paper, a preparation of the fire extinguishing system of STELLA-1 facility is introduced. This paper can provide an example of how to design a sodium fire extinguishing system for a large sodium experiment facility. In this paper, a preparation of the fire extinguishment system for STELLA-1 as a large sodium experiment facility was introduced and explained. For safe operation of the liquid sodium utility, it is important to equip specific-developed fire extinguishing system because of the chemical characteristics of sodium. Operators should know the process and operating manual before conducting an experiment to prevent hazardous situation. Though the dry chemical extinguishing agent put out the fire target, removing agent at high temperature state can cause re-combustion. Thus, extinguishment confirmation work should be conducted after sufficient cooling time to stabilize the surface. And in case of fire at a sealed room, a method making the percentage of oxygen low(injecting nitrogen gas or argon gas) is effective

  15. Introduction of Sodium Fire Extinguishing System for STELLA-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gam, Dayoung; Kim, Jong-Man; Jung, Min-Hwan; Eoh, Jae-Hyuk; Jeong, Eoh Jiyoung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    This characteristic is a big advantage as a thermal transfer fluid. However, the high reactivity of sodium, especially with water and oxygen, and white aerosol in the event of fire can cause serious accidents. Thus, large sodium facility needs a specific-developed fire extinguishing system for a safe experiment. Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) has conducted sodium heat transfer experiments using the facility named the Sodium Integral Effect Test Loop for Safety Simulation and Assessment (STELLA-1). STELLA-1 fully equipped a sodium fire extinguishing system for the safe experiment and fire spread prevention. In this paper, a preparation of the fire extinguishing system of STELLA-1 facility is introduced. This paper can provide an example of how to design a sodium fire extinguishing system for a large sodium experiment facility. In this paper, a preparation of the fire extinguishment system for STELLA-1 as a large sodium experiment facility was introduced and explained. For safe operation of the liquid sodium utility, it is important to equip specific-developed fire extinguishing system because of the chemical characteristics of sodium. Operators should know the process and operating manual before conducting an experiment to prevent hazardous situation. Though the dry chemical extinguishing agent put out the fire target, removing agent at high temperature state can cause re-combustion. Thus, extinguishment confirmation work should be conducted after sufficient cooling time to stabilize the surface. And in case of fire at a sealed room, a method making the percentage of oxygen low(injecting nitrogen gas or argon gas) is effective.

  16. 105-DR Large Sodium Fire Facility decontamination, sampling, and analysis plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knaus, Z.C.

    1995-01-01

    This is the decontamination, sampling, and analysis plan for the closure activities at the 105-DR Large Sodium Fire Facility at Hanford Reservation. This document supports the 105-DR Large Sodium Fire Facility Closure Plan, DOE-RL-90-25. The 105-DR LSFF, which operated from about 1972 to 1986, was a research laboratory that occupied the former ventilation supply room on the southwest side of the 105-DR Reactor facility in the 100-D Area of the Hanford Site. The LSFF was established to investigate fire fighting and safety associated with alkali metal fires in the liquid metal fast breeder reactor facilities. The decontamination, sampling, and analysis plan identifies the decontamination procedures, sampling locations, any special handling requirements, quality control samples, required chemical analysis, and data validation needed to meet the requirements of the 105-DR Large Sodium Fire Facility Closure Plan in compliance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act

  17. EBR-II water-to-sodium leak detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wrightson, M.M.; McKinley, K.; Ruther, W.E.; Holmes, J.T.

    1976-01-01

    The water-to-sodium leak detection system installed at EBR-II in April, 1975, is described in detail. Topics covered include operational characteristics, maintenance problems, alarm functions, background hydrogen level data, and future plans for refinements to the system. Particular emphasis is given to the failures of eight of the ten leak detectors due to sodium-to-vacuum leakage, and the program anticipated for complete recovery of the system

  18. Enhanced osteoconductivity of sodium-substituted hydroxyapatite by system instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang Cho, Jung; Um, Seung-Hoon; Su Yoo, Dong; Chung, Yong-Chae; Hye Chung, Shin; Lee, Jeong-Cheol; Rhee, Sang-Hoon

    2014-07-01

    The effect of substituting sodium for calcium on enhanced osteoconductivity of hydroxyapatite was newly investigated. Sodium-substituted hydroxyapatite was synthesized by reacting calcium hydroxide and phosphoric acid with sodium nitrate followed by sintering. As a control, pure hydroxyapatite was prepared under identical conditions, but without the addition of sodium nitrate. Substitution of calcium with sodium in hydroxyapatite produced the structural vacancies for carbonate ion from phosphate site and hydrogen ion from hydroxide site of hydroxyapatite after sintering. The total system energy of sodium-substituted hydroxyapatite with structural defects calculated by ab initio methods based on quantum mechanics was much higher than that of hydroxyapatite, suggesting that the sodium-substituted hydroxyapatite was energetically less stable compared with hydroxyapatite. Indeed, sodium-substituted hydroxyapatite exhibited higher dissolution behavior of constituent elements of hydroxyapatite in simulated body fluid (SBF) and Tris-buffered deionized water compared with hydroxyapatite, which directly affected low-crystalline hydroxyl-carbonate apatite forming capacity by increasing the degree of apatite supersaturation in SBF. Actually, sodium-substituted hydroxyapatite exhibited markedly improved low-crystalline hydroxyl-carbonate apatite forming capacity in SBF and noticeably higher osteoconductivity 4 weeks after implantation in calvarial defects of New Zealand white rabbits compared with hydroxyapatite. In addition, there were no statistically significant differences between hydroxyapatite and sodium-substituted hydroxyapatite on cytotoxicity as determined by BCA assay. Taken together, these results indicate that sodium-substituted hydroxyapatite with structural defects has promising potential for use as a bone grafting material due to its enhanced osteoconductivity compared with hydroxyapatite. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Sampling system and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, David L.; Lyles, Brad F.; Purcell, Richard G.; Hershey, Ronald Lee

    2013-04-16

    The present disclosure provides an apparatus and method for coupling conduit segments together. A first pump obtains a sample and transmits it through a first conduit to a reservoir accessible by a second pump. The second pump further conducts the sample from the reservoir through a second conduit.

  20. Sodium intake and dietary sources of sodium in a sample of undergraduate students from Novi Sad, Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    Data on sodium intake and sources of sodium in the diet in Serbia are limited. The aim of this study was to estimate the sodium intake and identify the sources of sodium in the diet of undergraduate students attending the University of Novi Sad. Students completed a questionnaire to gather data on their gender, age and university faculty attended, and then a 24 h dietary recall. The sodium intake of the students was calculated using the dietary recall data and data on the sodium content of foods. The contribution of different food groups as well as of specific foodstuffs to the total sodium intake was calculated. The mean estimated sodium intake of the students was 3,938.5 ± 1,708.1 mg/day. The sodium intake of 89.1% of the surveyed students exceeded the guideline for sodium intake, the majority of the sodium coming from processed foods (78.9% of the total sodium intake). The food groups that contributed the most to the total sodium intake of the students were meat and meat products (21.7%) and cereals and cereal-based products (18.6%). Bread and other bakery products were responsible for 13.1% of the total sodium intake. High sodium intake in students of the University of Novi Sad puts them at high risk of developing high blood pressure. The food industry should work towards reformulating products with high sodium content, especially bread and other bakery products. Efforts should be taken to reduce sodium intake among undergraduate students in Novi Sad.

  1. sodium

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Les initiatives de réduction de la consommation de sel qui visent l'ensemble de la population et qui ciblent la teneur en sodium des aliments et sensibilisent les consommateurs sont susceptibles de réduire la consommation de sel dans toutes les couches de la population et d'améliorer la santé cardiovasculaire. Ce projet a ...

  2. Hydrogen generation systems utilizing sodium silicide and sodium silica gel materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Andrew P.; Melack, John M.; Lefenfeld, Michael

    2015-07-14

    Systems, devices, and methods combine reactant materials and aqueous solutions to generate hydrogen. The reactant materials can sodium silicide or sodium silica gel. The hydrogen generation devices are used in fuels cells and other industrial applications. One system combines cooling, pumping, water storage, and other devices to sense and control reactions between reactant materials and aqueous solutions to generate hydrogen. Multiple inlets of varied placement geometries deliver aqueous solution to the reaction. The reactant materials and aqueous solution are churned to control the state of the reaction. The aqueous solution can be recycled and returned to the reaction. One system operates over a range of temperatures and pressures and includes a hydrogen separator, a heat removal mechanism, and state of reaction control devices. The systems, devices, and methods of generating hydrogen provide thermally stable solids, near-instant reaction with the aqueous solutions, and a non-toxic liquid by-product.

  3. Modeling and Validation of Sodium Plugging for Heat Exchangers in Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferroni, Paolo [Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, Cranberry Township, PA (United States). Global Technology Development; Tatli, Emre [Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, Cranberry Township, PA (United States); Czerniak, Luke [Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, Cranberry Township, PA (United States); Sienicki, James J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Chien, Hual-Te [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Yoichi, Momozaki [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Bakhtiari, Sasan [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-06-29

    The project “Modeling and Validation of Sodium Plugging for Heat Exchangers in Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor Systems” was conducted jointly by Westinghouse Electric Company (Westinghouse) and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), over the period October 1, 2013- March 31, 2016. The project’s motivation was the need to provide designers of Sodium Fast Reactors (SFRs) with a validated, state-of-the-art computational tool for the prediction of sodium oxide (Na2O) deposition in small-diameter sodium heat exchanger (HX) channels, such as those in the diffusion bonded HXs proposed for SFRs coupled with a supercritical CO2 (sCO2) Brayton cycle power conversion system. In SFRs, Na2O deposition can potentially occur following accidental air ingress in the intermediate heat transport system (IHTS) sodium and simultaneous failure of the IHTS sodium cold trap. In this scenario, oxygen can travel through the IHTS loop and reach the coldest regions, represented by the cold end of the sodium channels of the HXs, where Na2O precipitation may initiate and continue. In addition to deteriorating HX heat transfer and pressure drop performance, Na2O deposition can lead to channel plugging especially when the size of the sodium channels is small, which is the case for diffusion bonded HXs whose sodium channel hydraulic diameter is generally below 5 mm. Sodium oxide melts at a high temperature well above the sodium melting temperature such that removal of a solid plug such as through dissolution by pure sodium could take a lengthy time. The Sodium Plugging Phenomena Loop (SPPL) was developed at ANL, prior to this project, for investigating Na2O deposition phenomena within sodium channels that are prototypical of the diffusion bonded HX channels envisioned for SFR-sCO2 systems. In this project, a Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) model capable of simulating the thermal-hydraulics of the SPPL test

  4. Carbon and nitrogen transport in sodium systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schrock, S.L.; Shiels, S.A.; Bagnall, C.

    1976-01-01

    Materials for the liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactor will be exposed to high temperature sodium for time periods up to 30 years. One consequence of this exposure will be changes in the interstitial element concentrations of the alloys and concomitant alterations in their mechanical behavior characteristics. Several ongoing technology programs have as their objective a quantitative definition of the rate and extent of this interstitial movement. The paper summarizes the status of these programs and reports in detail on the results of a recently completed, USERDA funded program at the Advanced Reactors Division of Westinghouse. These results, while substantiating earlier reported trends on interstitial movement, indicate the problem is not as severe as initially estimated. Moreover, the present wastage allowance for most reactor components contains sufficient conservatism to compensate for changes in mechanical strength resulting from this change in interstitial concentration

  5. Hydrogen generation systems and methods utilizing sodium silicide and sodium silica gel materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallace, Andrew P.; Melack, John M.; Lefenfeld, Michael

    2017-12-19

    Systems, devices, and methods combine thermally stable reactant materials and aqueous solutions to generate hydrogen and a non-toxic liquid by-product. The reactant materials can sodium silicide or sodium silica gel. The hydrogen generation devices are used in fuels cells and other industrial applications. One system combines cooling, pumping, water storage, and other devices to sense and control reactions between reactant materials and aqueous solutions to generate hydrogen. Springs and other pressurization mechanisms pressurize and deliver an aqueous solution to the reaction. A check valve and other pressure regulation mechanisms regulate the pressure of the aqueous solution delivered to the reactant fuel material in the reactor based upon characteristics of the pressurization mechanisms and can regulate the pressure of the delivered aqueous solution as a steady decay associated with the pressurization force. The pressure regulation mechanism can also prevent hydrogen gas from deflecting the pressure regulation mechanism.

  6. Determination of radiocesium in environmental water samples using copper ferro(II)cyanide and sodium tetraphenylborate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popov, L.; Kuleff, I.; Djingova, R.

    2006-01-01

    A procedure for the radiochemical separation and radiochemical purification of radiocesium ( 134 Cs and 137 Cs) in bulk environmental water samples is proposed. Radiocesium was removed from the water by cation-exchange with copper ferro(II)cyanide and was purified by precipitation with sodium tetraphenylborate. The influence of the concentration of potassium in the water sample on the chemical yield was investigated. The validation of the proposed method was carried out by analyzing reference materials. The application of the method was demonstrated with the determination of the concentration of radiocesium in water samples from rivers around NPP 'Kozloduy', Bulgaria, Danube and Ogosta. (author)

  7. Air-cleaning systems for sodium-fire-aerosol control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilliard, R.K.; Muhlestein, L.D.

    1982-05-01

    A development program has been carried out at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL) with the purpose of developing and proof testing air cleaning components and systems for use under severe sodium fire conditions, including those involving high levels of radioactivity. The air cleaning components tested can be classified as either dry filters or aqueous scrubbers. Test results are presented

  8. PFR experience of bellows operating in sodium systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodgson, D.

    1980-01-01

    Although there was little operating experience with bellows in sodium systems available during the design phase of the UK 250 MWe prototype fast reactor, bellows were extensively utilised to seal valves and to overcome the problems of differential thermal movements in several important applications. However, because of this lack of operational experience in sodium and the non-availability of design codes it was considered prudent not to install bellows in situations where failure could possibly initiate events of unpredictable proportions, or in positions where replacement following failure would be extremely difficult i.e. involving complete shutdown of the reactor over an extended period (in excess of six months) and/or necessitate removal of large quantities of primary sodium from the reactor vessel. This paper describes some of the bellows units installed in the PFR and the performance achieved during six years of reactor operation

  9. Neutral sodium/bicarbonate/sulfate hot waters in geothermal systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahon, W.A.J. (Dept. of Industrial and Scientific Research, Wairakei, New Zealand); Klyen, L.E.; Rhode, M.

    1980-03-01

    The least understood thermal water is a near neutral water which contains varying amounts of bicarbonate and sulfate as the major anions, low concentrations of chloride (< 30 ppM) and sodium as the major cation. In the past this water has been referred to as a sodium bicarbonate water but present studies suggest that the quantities of bicarbonate and sulfate in this water type are frequently of the same order. Of particular interest is the distribution and position of the sodium/bicarbonate/sulfate water in the same and different systems. Many hot springs in Indonesia, for example, discharge water of this composition. Present studies indicate that this water type can originate from high temperature reservoirs which form the secondary steam heated part of a normal high temperature geothermal system. The hydrological conditions producing these waters in geothermal systems are investigated and the relationship between the water type and vapor dominated systems is discussed. It is suggested that the major water type occurring in the so called vapor dominated parts of geothermal systems is this water. The water does not simply represent steam condensate, rather it consists essentially of meteoric water which has been steam heated. The water composition results from the interaction of carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide with meteoric water and the rocks confining this water in the aquifer.

  10. Analysis of Furaneol in tomato using dynamic headspace sampling with sodium sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttery, R G; Takeoka, G R; Naim, M; Rabinowitch, H; Nam, Y

    2001-09-01

    High-flow dynamic headspace sampling with excess anhydrous sodium sulfate was found to be an effective method of isolating Furaneol from fresh tomatoes. Quantitative analysis was carried out by gas chromatography using maltol as internal standard. Furaneol was found in the highest concentrations (660-1100 ppb) in the summer crop of home-grown tomatoes and in some of the greenhouse hydroponically grown tomatoes, which are ripened on the plant before being transported to the supermarkets. Furaneol was found in the lowest concentrations (38-180 ppb) in the common ethylene-ripened, field-grown, supermarket tomatoes.

  11. Improvement of a sample preparation method assisted by sodium deoxycholate for mass-spectrometry-based shotgun membrane proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yong; Lin, Haiyan; Liu, Zhonghua; Wang, Kunbo; Yan, Yujun

    2014-11-01

    In current shotgun-proteomics-based biological discovery, the identification of membrane proteins is a challenge. This is especially true for integral membrane proteins due to their highly hydrophobic nature and low abundance. Thus, much effort has been directed at sample preparation strategies such as use of detergents, chaotropes, and organic solvents. We previously described a sample preparation method for shotgun membrane proteomics, the sodium deoxycholate assisted method, which cleverly circumvents many of the challenges associated with traditional sample preparation methods. However, the method is associated with significant sample loss due to the slightly weaker extraction/solubilization ability of sodium deoxycholate when it is used at relatively low concentrations such as 1%. Hence, we present an enhanced sodium deoxycholate sample preparation strategy that first uses a high concentration of sodium deoxycholate (5%) to lyse membranes and extract/solubilize hydrophobic membrane proteins, and then dilutes the detergent to 1% for a more efficient digestion. We then applied the improved method to shotgun analysis of proteins from rat liver membrane enriched fraction. Compared with other representative sample preparation strategies including our previous sodium deoxycholate assisted method, the enhanced sodium deoxycholate method exhibited superior sensitivity, coverage, and reliability for the identification of membrane proteins particularly those with high hydrophobicity and/or multiple transmembrane domains. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Investigation of sodium area conflagrations and testing of a protective system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, F; Menzenhauer, P; Peppler, W [Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe (F.R. Germany). Inst. fuer Reaktorentwicklung

    1975-12-01

    During research and development work on the SNR-300 sodium-cooled fast reactor the consequences and confinement of sodium fires occurring in enclosures were studied. The behavior of liquid sodium during fires and the behavior of an inherently ready-for-operation protective system are described. Theoretical considerations on the behavior of burning liquid sodium are compared with experimental results. A protective system for large facilities is presented and the use of extinguishing powders is reviewed.

  13. Technical Information on the Carbonation of the EBR-II Reactor, Summary Report Part 1: Laboratory Experiments and Application to EBR-II Secondary Sodium System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven R. Sherman

    2005-04-01

    Residual sodium is defined as sodium metal that remains behind in pipes, vessels, and tanks after the bulk sodium metal has been melted and drained from such components. The residual sodium has the same chemical properties as bulk sodium, and differs from bulk sodium only in the thickness of the sodium deposit. Typically, sodium is considered residual when the thickness of the deposit is less than 5-6 cm. This residual sodium must be removed or deactivated when a pipe, vessel, system, or entire reactor is permanently taken out of service, in order to make the component or system safer and/or to comply with decommissioning regulations. As an alternative to the established residual sodium deactivation techniques (steam-and-nitrogen, wet vapor nitrogen, etc.), a technique involving the use of moisture and carbon dioxide has been developed. With this technique, sodium metal is converted into sodium bicarbonate by reacting it with humid carbon dioxide. Hydrogen is emitted as a by-product. This technique was first developed in the laboratory by exposing sodium samples to humidified carbon dioxide under controlled conditions, and then demonstrated on a larger scale by treating residual sodium within the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) secondary cooling system, followed by the primary cooling system, respectively. The EBR-II facility is located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) in southeastern Idaho, U.S.A. This report is Part 1 of a two-part report. It is divided into three sections. The first section describes the chemistry of carbon dioxide-water-sodium reactions. The second section covers the laboratory experiments that were conducted in order to develop the residual sodium deactivation process. The third section discusses the application of the deactivation process to the treatment of residual sodium within the EBR-II secondary sodium cooling system. Part 2 of the report, under separate cover, describes the application of the technique to residual sodium

  14. Development of hydrogen storage systems using sodium alanate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lozano Martinez, Gustavo Adolfo

    2010-12-06

    In this work, hydrogen storage systems based on sodium alanate were studied, modelled and optimised, using both experimental and theoretical approaches. The experimental approach covered investigations of the material from mg scale up to kg scale in demonstration test tanks, while the theoretical approach discussed modelling and simulation of the hydrogen sorption process in a hydride bed. Both approaches demonstrated the strong effect of heat transfer on the sorption behaviour of the hydride bed and led to feasible methods to improve and optimise the volumetric and gravimetric capacities of hydrogen storage systems. The applied approaches aimed at an optimal integration of sodium alanate material in practical hydrogen storage systems. First, it was experimentally shown that the size of the hydride bed influences the hydrogen sorption behaviour of the material. This is explained by the different temperature profiles that are developed inside the hydride bed during the sorptions. In addition, in a self-constructed cell it was possible to follow the hydrogen sorptions and the developed temperature profiles within the bed. Moreover, the effective thermal conductivity of the material was estimated in-situ in this cell, given very good agreement with reported values of ex-situ measurements. It was demonstrated that the effective thermal conductivity of the hydride bed can be enhanced by the addition of expanded graphite. This enhancement promotes lower temperature peaks during the sorptions due to faster heat conduction through the bed, which in addition allows faster heat transfer during sorption. Looking towards simulations and further evaluations, empirical kinetic models for both hydrogen absorption and desorption of doped sodium alanate were developed. Based on the results of the model, the optimal theoretical pressure-temperature conditions for hydrogen sorptions were determined. A new approach is proposed for the mass balance of the reactions when implementing

  15. Development of real time visual evaluation system for sodium transient thermohydraulic experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanigawa, Shingo

    1990-01-01

    A real time visual evaluation system, the Liquid Metal Visual Evaluation System (LIVES), has been developed for the Plant Dynamics Test Loop facility at O-arai Engineering Center. This facility is designed to provide sodium transient thermohydraulic experimental data not only in a fuel subassembly but also in a plant wide system simulating abnormal or accident conditions in liquid metal fast breeder reactors. Since liquid metal sodium is invisible, measurements to obtain experimental data are mainly conducted by numerous thermo couples installed at various locations in the test sections and the facility. The transient thermohydraulic phenomena are a result of complicated interactions among global and local scale three-dimensional phenomena, and short- and long-time scale phenomena. It is, therefore, difficult to grasp intuitively thermohydraulic behaviors and to observe accurately both temperature distribution and flow condition solely by digital data or various types of analog data in evaluating the experimental results. For effectively conducting sodium transient experiments and for making it possible to observe exactly thermohydraulic phenomena, the real time visualization technique for transient thermohydraulics has been developed using the latest Engineering Work Station. The system makes it possible to observe and compare instantly the experiment and analytical results while experiment or analysis is in progress. The results are shown by not only the time trend curves but also the graphic animations. This paper shows an outline of the system and sample applications of the system. (author)

  16. Restraining Sodium Volatilization in the Ferric Bauxite Direct Reduction System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wentao Hu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Direct reduction is an emerging utilization technology of ferric bauxite. However, it requires much more sodium carbonate than ordinary bauxite does. The volatilization is one of the most significant parts of sodium carbonate consumption, as reported in previous studies. Based on the new direct reduction method for utilization of ferric bauxite, this paper has systematically investigated factors including heating temperature, heating time, and sodium carbonate dosage influencing sodium volatilization. For the purpose of reducing sodium volatilization, the Box–Benhken design was employed, and the possibility of separating iron and sodium after direct reduction was also investigated.

  17. Prompt Burst Energetics in the oxide/sodium system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reil, K.O.; Young, M.F.

    1979-01-01

    A series of twelve Prompt Burst Energetics (PBE) experiments utilizing fresh uranium dioxide fuel pins in stagnant sodium coolant has been performed in Sandia Laboratories' Annular Core Pulse Reactor (ACPR). Results and analysis described in the paper include: observation of FCIs (pressures up to 32 MPa) in the UO 2 /Na system, some apparently triggered by small pressure transients (2 MPa); prediction of failure times via the pin model EXPAND; observed thermal-to-mechanical energy conversion ratios up to approximately 0.4%; and identification of potential reactivity effects caused by the pre- and post-failure motion of fuel

  18. Role of the serotoninergic system in the sodium appetite control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís C. Reis

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The present article reviews the role of the serotoninergic system in the regulation of the sodium appetite. Data from the peripheral and icv administration of serotoninergic (5-HTergic agents showed the participation of 5-HT2/3 receptors in the modulation of sodium appetite. These observations were extended with the studies carried out after brain serotonin depletion, lesions of DRN and during blockade of 5-HT2A/2C receptors in lateral parabrachial nucleus (LPBN. Brain serotonin depletion and lesions of DRN increased the sodium appetite response, in basal conditions, after sodium depletion and hypovolemia or after beta-adrenergic stimulation as well. These observations raised the hypothesis that the suppression of ascending pathways from the DRN, possibly, 5-HTergic fibers, modifies the angiotensinergic or sodium sensing mechanisms of the subfornical organ involved in the control of the sodium appetite. 5-HTergic blockade in LPBN induced to similar results, particularly those regarded to the natriorexigenic response evoked by volume depletion or increase of the hypertonic saline ingestion induced by brain angiotensinergic stimulation. In conclusion, many evidences lead to acceptation of an integrated participation resulting of an interaction, between DRN and LPBN, for the sodium appetite control.Este artigo revisa o papel do sistema serotoninérgico no controle do apetite ao sódio. Dados derivados da administração periférica e icv de agentes serotoninérgicos demonstraram a participação de receptores 5-HT2/3 na modulação do apetite ao sódio. Estas observações foram estendidas com os estudos realizados após a depleção cerebral de serotonina, lesões do NDR e durante o bloqueio 5-HT2A/2C no núcleo parabraquial lateral (NPBL. A depleção cerebral de serotonina e as lesões do NDR aumentaram o apetite ao sódio, em condições basais, após depleção de sódio, durante a hipovolemia ou após a estimulação beta-adrenérgica. Estas

  19. Dynamic response of the EBR-II secondary sodium system to postulated leaks of steam and water into sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivas, S.; Chopra, P.S.; Stone, C.C.

    1976-01-01

    The paper presents evaluations of the dynamic response of a steam generator system to postulated leaks of steam and water into sodium. This work is part of a comprehensive fail-safe analysis of the EBR-II steam generator system

  20. Effects of alternative label formats on choice of high- and low-sodium products in a New Zealand population sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Rachael; Hoek, Janet; Hedderley, Duncan

    2012-05-01

    Dietary sodium reduction is a cost-effective public health intervention to reduce chronic disease. In response to calls for further research into front-of-pack labelling systems, we examined how alternative sodium nutrition label formats and nutrition claims influenced consumers' choice behaviour and whether consumers with or without a diagnosis of hypertension differed in their choice patterns. An anonymous online experiment in which participants viewed ten choice sets featuring three fictitious brands of baked beans with varied label formats and nutritional profiles (high and low sodium) and indicated which brand in each set they would purchase if shopping for this product. Participants were recruited from New Zealand's largest online nationwide research panel. Five hundred people with self-reported hypertension and 191 people without hypertension aged 18 to 79 years. The addition of a front-of-pack label increased both groups' ability to discriminate between products with high and low sodium, while the Traffic Light label enabled better identification of the high-sodium product. Both front-of-pack formats enhanced discrimination in the presence of a reduced salt claim, but the Traffic Light label also performed better than the Percentage Daily Intake label in moderating the effect of the claim for the high-sodium product. Front-of-pack labels, particularly those with simple visual cues, enhance consumers' ability to discriminate between high- and low-sodium products, even when those products feature nutrition claims.

  1. Clinch River breeder reactor sodium fire protection system design and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, K.W.; Boasso, C.J.; Kaushal, N.N.

    1984-01-01

    To assure the protection of the public and plant equipment, improbable accidents were hypothesized to form the basis for the design of safety systems. One such accident is the postulated failure of the Intermediate Heat Transfer System (IHTS) piping within the Steam Generator Building (SGB), resulting in a large-scale sodium fire. This paper discusses the design and development of plant features to reduce the consequences of the accident to acceptable levels. Additional design solutions were made to mitigate the sodium spray contribution to the accident scenario. Sodium spill tests demonstrated that large sodium leaks can be safely controlled in a sodium-cooled nuclear power plant

  2. Evaluation of Equations for Predicting 24-Hour Urinary Sodium Excretion from Casual Urine Samples in Asian Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitton, Clare; Gay, Gibson Ming Wei; Lim, Raymond Boon Tar; Tan, Linda Wei Lin; Lim, Wei-Yen; van Dam, Rob M

    2016-08-01

    The collection of 24-h urine samples for the estimation of sodium intake is burdensome, and the utility of spot urine samples in Southeast Asian populations is unclear. We aimed to assess the validity of prediction equations with the use of spot urine concentrations. A sample of 144 Singapore residents of Chinese, Malay, and Indian ethnicity aged 18-79 y were recruited from the Singapore Health 2 Study conducted in 2014. Participants collected urine for 24 h in multiple small bottles on a single day. To determine the optimal collection time for a spot urine sample, a 1-mL sample was taken from a random bottle collected in the morning, afternoon, and evening. Published equations and a newly derived equation were used to predict 24-h sodium excretion from spot urine samples. The mean ± SD concentration of sodium from the 24-h urine sample was 125 ± 53.4 mmol/d, which is equivalent to 7.2 ± 3.1 g salt. Bland-Altman plots showed good agreement at the group level between estimated and actual 24-h sodium excretion, with biases for the morning period of -3.5 mmol (95% CI: -14.8, 7.8 mmol; new equation) and 1.46 mmol (95% CI: -10.0, 13.0 mmol; Intersalt equation). A larger bias of 25.7 mmol (95% CI: 12.2, 39.3 mmol) was observed for the Tanaka equation in the morning period. The prediction accuracy did not differ significantly for spot urine samples collected at different times of the day or at a random time of day (P = 0.11-0.76). This study suggests that the application of both our own newly derived equation and the Intersalt equation to spot urine concentrations may be useful in predicting group means for 24-h sodium excretion in urban Asian populations. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  3. Design of a microemulsion-based drug delivery system for diclofenac sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kkizibash, N.A.; Asif, S.; Nazar, M.F.; Alenizi, D.; Shah, S.S.

    2011-01-01

    A microemulsion-based drug delivery system has been designed for Diclofenac Sodium(DS) comprising Span 60, 1-Propanol, Water, and Lemon Oil. The microemulsion system has been characterized by a pseudo-ternary phase diagram using the water titration method. The properties and structure of this system have been studied by the use of refractive index, electrical conductivity, viscosity and UV-Visible spectroscopy. The conductivity (s) and viscosity (k nu) measurements have provided evidence for percolation behavior with variation in F (weight fraction of aqueous phase). This phase transition corresponds to the structural change from water-in-oil to a bicontinuous microemulsion system. The percolation threshold (FC) obtained from conductivity measurements was in accordance with that obtained by viscosity measurements. Five microemulsion samples were selected and the changes in microstructure after incorporation of the drug, Diclofenac Sodium (DS) were examined by centrifugation, conductivity measurements, viscosity measurements and spectroscopic studies. The conductivity measurements showed that DS-loaded samples have higher conductivity values when compared to non-loaded samples. It was also found that DS is inter facially active. In addition, loading of DS had no negative effect on the stability of the system. (author)

  4. Corrosion Inhibition by Sodium Gluconate-Zn2+-DTPMP System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Manjula

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The inhibition efficiency of a phosphonic acid, Diethylene Triamine Pentamethylene Phosphonic acid (DTPMP in controlling corrosion of carbon steel immersed in an aqueous solution containing 60 ppm of Cl- has been evaluated by weight loss method in the absence and presence of Zn2+. The formulation consisting of DTPMP and Zn2+ has excellent inhibition efficiency (IE. A synergistic effect is noticed between Zn2+ and DTPMP. Addition of sodium gluconate (SG enhances the IE of Zn2+ and DTPMP system. The DTPMP-Zn2+-SG system function as a mixed inhibitor as revealed by polarization study. AC impedance spectrum, optical and atomic force micrographs reveal the formation of a protective film on the metal surface. FTIR spectra reveal that the protective film consists of Fe2+-DTPMP complex, Fe2+-SG complex and Zn(OH2.

  5. Fast reactor sodium systems operation experience and 'leak-before-break' criterion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanenko, V.N.; Zybin, V.A.

    1996-01-01

    In the paper sodium leakage detection systems used at fast reactors are described. Requirements on their main characteristics (sensitivity, response lime) are formulated. Results of tests are presented on studying the parameters of sodium leak detection systems including experiments on the measurement of size distribution of aerosol particles that have passed through sodium systems thermal insulation after leak initiation. Comparison of these data with dispersion of particles formed at free burning is carried out. Experience of real leaks that occurred at fast reactor sodium systems is analyzed. It has been shown that initiation and development of real leaks do not always follow the theoretical scheme. A substantial role of human factor for sodium systems reliability relative to sodium leaks is stressed. (author)

  6. Viscosity of melts in the sodium borosilicate system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tait, J.C.; Mandolesi, D.L.; Rummens, H.E.C.

    1984-01-01

    The viscosities of a series of glasses in the sodium borosilicate system (5-35Na 2 O, 5-35B 2 O 3 , 45-80SiO 2 mol%) have been determined between 950 and 1500 deg C, using a rotating bob viscometer. A simplex lattice experimental design was used to define a series of compositions suitable for numerical analysis of the data. The viscosity data were fitted using the Fulcher equation for each composition. Nonlinear regression analysis of the viscosities at constant temperatures gave expressions for the variation in viscosity as a function of composition. The results are displayed as isoviscosity contours on the Na 2 O-B 2 O 3 -SiO 2 composition diagram. The viscosity behaviour as a function of composition is discussed in terms of structural bonding in the melt. (author)

  7. Development and demonstration of sodium fire mitigation system in the SAPFIRE facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Himeno, Y.; Miyahara, S.; Morii, T.; Sasaki, K.

    1989-01-01

    Flow pattern of a realistic sodium leak from the sodium piping equipped with jackets and thermal insulator was experimentally investigated. Then, based on this result, the fire mitigation system consisting of an inclined liner, a drain piping, and a smothering tank has been developed. The performance of the system was, in final, validated in the large-scale sodium leak and fire test in the SAPFIRE facility. (author)

  8. Determination of butyltins in environmental samples using sodium tetraethylborate derivatisation: characterisation and minimisation of interferences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowles, Karl C.; Tiltman, Matt D.; Apte, Simon C.; Hales, Leigh T.; Kalman, John

    2004-01-01

    Interferences affecting the determination of butyltin species by sodium tetraethylborate (STEB) derivatisation followed by purge-trap preconcentration were systematically studied using synthetic solutions, natural water samples and sediment extracts. Substances that did not cause interferences included most common cations (apart from those metal ions listed below), anions, metalloids and polar organic compounds. Natural organic matter (NOM) specifically interfered with tributyltin (TBT) due to a mechanism involving partitioning of the butyltin to the hydrophobic portions of the NOM. The metal ions Ag(I) (≥2 μM), Cd(II) (≥2 μM), Cu(II) (≥0.5 μM) interfered predominantly with the determination of monobutyltin (MBT) due to catalytic degradation of the STEB reagent. Pb(II) (≥14 μM) interfered with butyltin determination by an unknown mechanism. Other interferences to the purge-trap method were shown to occur in the presence of chelating agents (e.g. EDTA) or hydrophobic liquids such as diesel fuel. A mixture comprising methanol (MeOH), EDTA and Mn(II) was used to partially mask the effect of interfering NOM and metals. Spike recoveries (mean±S.D. of n=7 different samples) of MBT, dibutyltin (DBT) and TBT in contaminated natural water samples were improved from 70±36,90±11 and 91±24 to 102±10,98±3 and 98±4%, respectively. Spike recoveries (mean±S.D. of n=5 different samples) of MBT, DBT and TBT in aliquots of sediment extracts were improved from 86±17,79±18 and 59±32 to 97±6.2,103±3.6 and 103±5.0%, respectively. The ability to analyse larger aliquots of sediment extracts in the presence of the masking mixture improved the detection limit four-fold if MBT and DBT determination was required and 10-fold if only TBT determination was required

  9. Core sampling system spare parts assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, E.J.

    1995-01-01

    Soon, there will be 4 independent core sampling systems obtaining samples from the underground tanks. It is desirable that these systems be available for sampling during the next 2 years. This assessment was prepared to evaluate the adequacy of the spare parts identified for the core sampling system and to provide recommendations that may remediate overages or inadequacies of spare parts

  10. Sodium intake in a cross-sectional, representative sample of New York City adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angell, Sonia Y; Yi, Stella; Eisenhower, Donna; Kerker, Bonnie D; Curtis, Christine J; Bartley, Katherine; Silver, Lynn D; Farley, Thomas A

    2014-12-01

    We estimated sodium intake, which is associated with elevated blood pressure, a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, and assessed its association with related variables among New York City adults. In 2010 we conducted a cross-sectional, population-based survey of 1656 adults, the Heart Follow-Up Study, that collected self-reported health information, measured blood pressure, and obtained sodium, potassium, and creatinine values from 24-hour urine collections. Mean daily sodium intake was 3239 milligrams per day; 81% of participants exceeded their recommended limit. Sodium intake was higher in non-Hispanic Blacks (3477 mg/d) and Hispanics (3395 mg/d) than in non-Hispanic Whites (3066 mg/d; both P < .05). Higher sodium intake was associated with higher blood pressure in adjusted models, and this association varied by race/ethnicity. Higher sodium intake among non-Hispanic Blacks and Hispanics than among Whites was not previously documented in population surveys relying on self-report. These results demonstrate the feasibility of 24-hour urine collection for the purposes of research, surveillance, and program evaluation.

  11. Robotic system for process sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyches, G.M.

    1985-01-01

    A three-axis cartesian geometry robot for process sampling was developed at the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) and implemented in one of the site radioisotope separations facilities. Use of the robot reduces personnel radiation exposure and contamination potential by routinely handling sample containers under operator control in a low-level radiation area. This robot represents the initial phase of a longer term development program to use robotics for further sample automation. Preliminary design of a second generation robot with additional capabilities is also described. 8 figs

  12. Ancient Systems of Sodium/Potassium Homeostasis as Predecessors of Membrane Bioenergetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibrova, D V; Galperin, M Y; Koonin, E V; Mulkidjanian, A Y

    2015-05-01

    Cell cytoplasm of archaea, bacteria, and eukaryotes contains substantially more potassium than sodium, and potassium cations are specifically required for many key cellular processes, including protein synthesis. This distinct ionic composition and requirements have been attributed to the emergence of the first cells in potassium-rich habitats. Different, albeit complementary, scenarios have been proposed for the primordial potassium-rich environments based on experimental data and theoretical considerations. Specifically, building on the observation that potassium prevails over sodium in the vapor of inland geothermal systems, we have argued that the first cells could emerge in the pools and puddles at the periphery of primordial anoxic geothermal fields, where the elementary composition of the condensed vapor would resemble the internal milieu of modern cells. Marine and freshwater environments generally contain more sodium than potassium. Therefore, to invade such environments, while maintaining excess of potassium over sodium in the cytoplasm, primordial cells needed means to extrude sodium ions. The foray into new, sodium-rich habitats was the likely driving force behind the evolution of diverse redox-, light-, chemically-, or osmotically-dependent sodium export pumps and the increase of membrane tightness. Here we present a scenario that details how the interplay between several, initially independent sodium pumps might have triggered the evolution of sodium-dependent membrane bioenergetics, followed by the separate emergence of the proton-dependent bioenergetics in archaea and bacteria. We also discuss the development of systems that utilize the sodium/potassium gradient across the cell membranes.

  13. Sodium Variable Conductance Heat Pipe for Radioisotope Stirling Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarau, Calin; Anderson, William G.; Walker, Kara

    2009-01-01

    In a Stirling radioisotope system, heat must continually be removed from the General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules to maintain the modules and surrounding insulation at acceptable temperatures. Normally, the Stirling convertor provides this cooling. If the converter stops in the current system, the insulation is designed to spoil, preventing damage to the GPHS, and also ending the mission. An alkali-metal Variable Conductance Heat Pipe (VCHP) has been designed to allow multiple stops and restarts of the Stirling convertor in an Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG). When the Stirling convertor is turned off, the VCHP will activate when the temperatures rises 30 C above the setpoint temperature. A prototype VCHP with sodium as the working fluid was fabricated and tested in both gravity aided and against gravity conditions for a nominal heater head temperature of 790 C. The results show very good agreement with the predictions and validate the model. The gas front was located at the exit of the reservoir when heater head temperature was 790 C while cooling was ON, simulating an operating Advanced Stirling Converter (ASC). When cooling stopped, the temperature increased by 30 C, allowing the gas front to move past the radiator, which transferred the heat to the case. After resuming the cooling flow, the front returned at the initial location turning OFF the VCHP. The against gravity working conditions showed a colder reservoir and faster transients.

  14. Conceptual Design of Liquid Sodium Charging and Draining System of STELLA-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Chungho; Nam, Ho-Yun; Kim, Jong-Man; Ko, Yung Joo; Kim, Byeongyeon; Cho, Youngil; Eoh, Jeahyuk; Yoon, Jung; Kim, Hyungmo; Lee, Hyeong-Yeon; Lee, Yong Bum; Jeong, Ji-Young; Kim, Jong-Bum [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    STELLA program consist of two phases. In the first phase of the program, separated effects tests for demonstrating the thermal-hydraulic performances of major components such as a decay heat exchanger (DHX), Natural-draft sodium-to-air heat exchanger (AHX) of the decay heat removal system, and mechanical sodium pump of the primary heat transport system (PHTS) had been successfully performed using STELLA-1 in 2015. Now is the time for us to proceed to the second phase of STELLA program. In the second phase, to demonstrate thermal-hydraulic performances and safety features and to produce base data for the specific design approval for the PGSFR (Prototype Generation IV Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor) which will be constructed by 2028 in Korea, integral effects tests will be carried out using the STELLA-2 test facility which is underway with detailed design and will be constructed in 2018. To establish the maintenance easiness of test facility and to prevent a de-functionalization of elementary sodium component located under the main experimental sodium loops, arrangement area was separated the sodium charging and draining piping area from main system experimental piping area. The operation margin of test facility and the best use of electro-magnetic pumps were established according to employ connecting line between RV charging piping and main experimental system charging piping. To prevent liquid sodium inflow into the piping of gas supply system, the overflow line was employed in sodium expansion tanks of PHDRS and ADHRS, RV, and reservoirs of IHTS.

  15. Conceptual Design of Liquid Sodium Charging and Draining System of STELLA-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Chungho; Nam, Ho-Yun; Kim, Jong-Man; Ko, Yung Joo; Kim, Byeongyeon; Cho, Youngil; Eoh, Jeahyuk; Yoon, Jung; Kim, Hyungmo; Lee, Hyeong-Yeon; Lee, Yong Bum; Jeong, Ji-Young; Kim, Jong-Bum

    2016-01-01

    STELLA program consist of two phases. In the first phase of the program, separated effects tests for demonstrating the thermal-hydraulic performances of major components such as a decay heat exchanger (DHX), Natural-draft sodium-to-air heat exchanger (AHX) of the decay heat removal system, and mechanical sodium pump of the primary heat transport system (PHTS) had been successfully performed using STELLA-1 in 2015. Now is the time for us to proceed to the second phase of STELLA program. In the second phase, to demonstrate thermal-hydraulic performances and safety features and to produce base data for the specific design approval for the PGSFR (Prototype Generation IV Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor) which will be constructed by 2028 in Korea, integral effects tests will be carried out using the STELLA-2 test facility which is underway with detailed design and will be constructed in 2018. To establish the maintenance easiness of test facility and to prevent a de-functionalization of elementary sodium component located under the main experimental sodium loops, arrangement area was separated the sodium charging and draining piping area from main system experimental piping area. The operation margin of test facility and the best use of electro-magnetic pumps were established according to employ connecting line between RV charging piping and main experimental system charging piping. To prevent liquid sodium inflow into the piping of gas supply system, the overflow line was employed in sodium expansion tanks of PHDRS and ADHRS, RV, and reservoirs of IHTS

  16. Instrumentation and Control Systems for Sodium thermal hydraulic Experiment Loop for Finned-tube sodium-to-Air heat exchanger (SELFA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Byeong Yeon; Kim, Hyung Mo; Cho, Youn Gil; Kim, Jong Man; Ko, Yung Joo; Kang, Byeong Su; Jung, Min Hwan; Jeong, Ji Young [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    A forced-draft sodium-to-air heat exchanger (FHX) is a part of decay heat removal system (DHRS) in Prototype Gen-IV Sodium-cooled fast reactor (PGSFR), which is being developed at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). Sodium thermal hydraulic Experiment Loop for Finned-tube sodium-to-Air heat exchanger (SELFA) is a test facility for verification and validation of the design code for a forced-draft sodium-to-air heat exchanger (FHX). In this paper, we have provided design and fabrication features for the instrumentation and control systems of SELFA. In general, the instrumentation systems and control systems are coupled for measurement and control of process variables. Instrumentation systems have been designed for investigating thermal-hydraulic characteristics of FHX and control systems have been designed to control the main components (e.g. electromagnetic pumps, heaters, valves etc.) required for test in SELFA. In this paper, we have provided configurations of instrumentation and control systems for Sodium thermal hydraulic Experiment Loop for Finned-tube sodium-to-Air heat exchanger (SELFA). The instrumentation and control systems of SELFA have been implemented based on the expected operation ranges and lesson learned from operational experience of 'Sodium integral effect test loop for safety simulation and assessment-1' (STELLA-1)

  17. Structure and ionic transport studies of sodium borophosphate glassy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anantha, P.S.; Hariharan, K.

    2005-01-01

    Sodium borophosphate glasses of composition (mol%) 50Na 2 O-50[xB 2 O 3 -(1-x)P 2 O 5 ], 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.8 have been prepared by melt quenching method and characterized through XRD, DSC, FTIR and impedance spectroscopy techniques. The glass transition temperature increases with the substitution of B 2 O 3 due to the cross-linking of the network and the FTIR study shows the presence of different structural units in the network. The ionic conductivity study as a function of composition of B 2 O 3 shows increment in conductivity with two conductivity maxima at 10 and 30 mol% of B 2 O 3 and conductivity variations with temperature follow an Arrhenius type behaviour. Transport numbers evaluated for ions and electrons show that Na + ions are the mobile species in the investigated systems. The frequency dependence of the electric conductivity follows a simple power law feature. The analysis of various electrical parameters as a function of temperature in different complex planes shows that the charge transport occurs by the hopping mechanism

  18. A new system for sodium flux growth of bulk GaN. Part I: System development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Dollen, Paul; Pimputkar, Siddha; Alreesh, Mohammed Abo; Albrithen, Hamad; Suihkonen, Sami; Nakamura, Shuji; Speck, James S.

    2016-12-01

    Though several methods exist to produce bulk crystals of gallium nitride (GaN), none have been commercialized on a large scale. The sodium flux method, which involves precipitation of GaN from a sodium-gallium melt supersaturated with nitrogen, offers potentially lower cost production due to relatively mild process conditions while maintaining high crystal quality. We successfully developed a novel apparatus for conducting crystal growth of bulk GaN using the sodium flux method which has advantages with respect to prior reports. A key task was to prevent sodium loss or migration from the growth environment while permitting N2 to access the growing crystal. We accomplished this by implementing a reflux condensing stem along with a reusable capsule containing a hermetic seal. The reflux condensing stem also enabled direct monitoring of the melt temperature, which has not been previously reported for the sodium flux method. Furthermore, we identified and utilized molybdenum and the molybdenum alloy TZM as a material capable of directly containing the corrosive sodium-gallium melt. This allowed implementation of a crucible-free system, which may improve process control and potentially lower crystal impurity levels. Nucleation and growth of parasitic GaN ("PolyGaN") on non-seed surfaces occurred in early designs. However, the addition of carbon in later designs suppressed PolyGaN formation and allowed growth of single crystal GaN. Growth rates for the (0001) Ga face (+c-plane) were up to 14 μm/h while X-ray omega rocking (ω-XRC) curve full width half-max values were 731″ for crystals grown using a later system design. Oxygen levels were high, >1019 atoms/cm3, possibly due to reactor cleaning and handling procedures.

  19. Prediction of sodium critical heat flux (CHF) in annular channel using grey systems theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Tao; Su Guanghui; Zhang Weizhong; Qiu Suizheng; Jia Dounan

    2001-01-01

    Using grey systems theory and experimental data obtained from sodium boiling test loop in China, the grey mutual analysis of some parameters influencing sodium CHF is carried out, and the CHF values are predicted by GM(1, 1) model. The GM(1, h) model is established for CHF prediction, and the predicted CHF values are good agreement with the experimental data

  20. Water sample-collection and distribution system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, R. R.

    1978-01-01

    Collection and distribution system samples water from six designated stations, filtered if desired, and delivers it to various analytical sensors. System may be controlled by Water Monitoring Data Acquisition System or operated manually.

  1. Preliminary conceptual design of the secondary sodium circuit-eliminated JSFR (Japan Sodium Fast Reactor) adopting a supercritical CO2 turbine system (2). Turbine system and plant size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kisohara, Naoyuki; Sakamoto, Yoshihiko; Kotake, Shoji

    2014-09-01

    Research and development of the supercritical CO 2 (S-CO 2 ) cycle turbine system is underway in various countries for further improvement of the safety and economy of sodium-cooled fast reactors. The Component Design and Balance-Of-Plant (CD and BOP) of the Generation IV International Nuclear Forum (Gen-IV) has addressed this study, and their analytical and experimental results have been discussed between the relevant countries. JAEA, who is a member of the CD and BOP, has performed a design study of an S-CO 2 gas turbine system applied to the Japan Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (JSFR). In this study, the S-CO 2 cycle turbine system was directly connected to the primary sodium system of the JSFR to eliminate the secondary sodium circuit, aiming for further economical improvement. This is because there is no risk of sodium-water reaction in the S-CO 2 cycle turbine system of SFRs. This report describes the system configuration, heat/mass balance, and main components of the S-CO 2 turbine system, based on the JSFR specifications. The layout of components and piping in the reactor and turbine buildings were examined and the dimensions of the buildings were estimated. The study has revealed that the reactor and turbine buildings could be reduced by 7% and 40%, respectively, in comparison with those in the existing JSFR design with the secondary sodium circuit employing the steam turbine. The cycle thermal was also calculated as 41.9-42.3%, which is nearly the same as that of the JSFR with the water/steam system. (author)

  2. Assurance of sodium concentration measurement on line in water supply to the secondary system in Atucha I and II nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ormando, Miguel-Angel; Galarza, Guillermo-Dario

    2012-09-01

    Sodium measurement is used for quality control in high purity water application, to monitor break-through of mixed bed ion exchanger, condenser leaks and also to prevent caustic corrosion in turbines. The measurement principle is based on a selective electrode that responds to Nernst equation. The samples were measured in Swan's Trace Sodium/Conductivity Analyzer, Model 2114 July 1993. The aim of this work was to present a method in order to assure sodium concentration measurement on line using the ion selective method for water supply to the secondary system. Conductivity, less sensitive but more reliable than sodium analysis, is an overall quality parameter of water. It is traditionally used to back-up sodium analyzer and is sensitive to any ionic impurities. (authors)

  3. Device for sampling sodium from a circuit with a view to dosing its impurities (1963); Dispositif de prelevement de sodium sur un cuicuit en vue du dosage des impuretes (1063)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sannier, J; Vingot, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1963-07-01

    The device described was developed with the two following essential conditions in mind: - absence of any pollution during the sampling operation and the transfer to the analysis apparatus; - simultaneous extraction of several samples, each one remaining representative of the sodium in the circuit. The sampling is therefore carried out completely in a vacuum in a Pyrex-glass apparatus, this limiting the sodium temperature to a maximum of 240 deg. C. The samples are in the form of bulbs sealed in vacuo containing 2 to 3 grams of sodium each. The analysis of the oxygen by the amalgamation technique, carried out on samples obtained by this method show a very satisfactory reproducibility for concentrations of under 20 ppm. (authors) [French] Le dispositif decrit a ete mis au point compte tenu des deux imperatifs essentiels suivants: - absence de toute pollution pendant les operations de prelevement et de transport vers l'appareil d'analyse; - obtention simultanee de plusieurs echantillons, chacun restant representatif du sodium du circuit. A cet effet, le prelevement est effectue entierement sous vide dans un appareillage en verre Pyrex, ce qui limite la temperature du sodium a 240 deg. C. Les echantillons se presentent sous la forme d'ampoules scellees sous vide et contenant chacune 2 a 3 grammes de sodium. L'analyse de l'oxygene par la technique d'amalgamation, effectuee sur des echantillons preleves par cette methode, revele une reproductibilite tres satisfaisante, dans le domaine des teneurs inferieures a 20 ppm. (auteurs)

  4. A Consistent System for Coding Laboratory Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sih, John C.

    1996-07-01

    A formal laboratory coding system is presented to keep track of laboratory samples. Preliminary useful information regarding the sample (origin and history) is gained without consulting a research notebook. Since this system uses and retains the same research notebook page number for each new experiment (reaction), finding and distinguishing products (samples) of the same or different reactions becomes an easy task. Using this system multiple products generated from a single reaction can be identified and classified in a uniform fashion. Samples can be stored and filed according to stage and degree of purification, e.g. crude reaction mixtures, recrystallized samples, chromatographed or distilled products.

  5. Effect of sodium borohydride synthesis on NaBH4-H2 system economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabakoglu, F. oeznur; Kurtulus, Guelbahar

    2007-01-01

    The hazards and negative impacts of fossil fuel usage on environment and the prospect of fossil fuel depletion in near future have urged scientists to search for and use clean energy sources and alternative fuels. Hydrogen is the best fuel among others, which can minimize the effects of global warming. Although it is currently more expensive than other fuels, it will be cheaper following further developments in hydrogen technologies from production till end-use. Hydrogen storage is a critical issue in terms of safety and economics of hydrogen energy system. Chemical hydrides are an attractive hydrogen storage method due to their potential of achieving high volumetric and gravimetric storage densities. Among chemical hydrides, sodium borohydride (NaBH 4 ) is given a big attention, due to its 10.8% theoretical hydrogen storage capacity. Hydrogen, which can be released by sodium borohydride hydrolysis reaction on-site, can be used in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) at anode. on the other hand, sodium borohydride solution can be used directly in a borohydride fuel cell (DBFC) at anode. Like the other chemical hydrides, sodium borohydride has been an expensive material up to now, constituting a major obstacle to commercialization of sodium borohydride as a hydrogen storage method. This paper aims to give an approximate estimation process cost of the NaBH 4 -H 2 system by taking into account both the energy and raw material costs, starting with sodium borohydride production till recycling of it. Two different methods to synthesize sodium borohydride are analyzed and their effects on total cost are compared. It was found that the usage of Bayer process to synthesize sodium borohydride makes the overall sodium borohydride - hydrogen system cost higher than the total cost of the alternative process which starts with the production of sodium borohydride from borax decahydrate. (authors)

  6. Quantitation of yeast total proteins in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis sample buffer for uniform loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheen, Hyukho

    2016-04-01

    Proteins in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) sample buffer are difficult to quantitate due to SDS and reducing agents being in the buffer. Although acetone precipitation has long been used to clean up proteins from detergents and salts, previous studies showed that protein recovery from acetone precipitation varies from 50 to 100% depending on the samples tested. Here, this article shows that acetone precipitates proteins highly efficiently from SDS-PAGE sample buffer and that quantitative recovery is achieved in 5 min at room temperature. Moreover, precipitated proteins are resolubilized with urea/guanidine, rather than with SDS. Thus, the resolubilized samples are readily quantifiable with Bradford reagent without using SDS-compatible assays. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Design of the US-CRBRP sodium/water reaction pressure relief system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruger, G.B.; Murdock, T.B.; Rodwell, E.; Sane, J.O.

    1976-01-01

    Protection against intermediate sodium system overpressure from the sodium/water reaction associated with large leaks within the CRBRP Steam Generators is provided by the sodium/water reaction pressure relief system (SWRPRS). This system consists of rupture disks connected to the intermediate sodium piping adjacent to the inlet to the superheater and outlet from the evaporator modules. The rupture discs relieve into piping that leads to reaction produce separator tanks, which in turn are vented to a centrifugal separator and flare stack arranged to burn hydrogen gas exhausting into the atmosphere. Analyses have been conducted using the TRANSWRAP Computer Code to predict the system pressures and flow rates during the large leak event. Experimental tests to be conducted in the large leak test rig (LLTR) will be used to confirm the analysis techniques used in the design

  8. Development of a transfer model for design of sodium purification systems for Fast Breeder Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khatcheressian, N.

    2013-01-01

    Operating a Sodium Fast Reactor (SFR) in reliable and safe conditions requires to master the quality of the sodium fluid coolant, regarding oxygen and hydrogen impurities contents. A cold trap is a purification unit in SFR, designed for maintaining oxygen and hydrogen contents within acceptable limits. The purification of these impurities is based on crystallization of sodium hydride on cold walls and sodium oxide or hydride on wire mesh packing. Indeed, as oxygen and hydrogen solubilities are nearly nil at temperatures close to the sodium fusion point, i.e. 97.8 C, on line sodium purification can be performed by crystallization of sodium oxide and hydride from liquid sodium flows. However, the management of cold trap performances is necessary to prevent from unforeseen maintenance operations, which could induce shut-down of the reactor. It is thus essential to understand how a cold trap fills up with impurities crystallization in order to optimize the design of this system and to overcome any problems during nominal operation. The objective is to develop a design and simulation tool for cold traps able to predict the location and the amount of the impurities deposited. Crystallization model involve phenomena coupling in a porous medium with hydrodynamics, heat and mass transfer, distinguishing nucleation and growth phases for each impurity. It enables to understand how thermo hydraulic conditions and growing impurities interact on each other. This analysis will adapt operating and management conditions in order to optimize purification requirements. (author) [fr

  9. Planetary Sample Caching System Design Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Curtis; Younse, Paulo; Backes, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Potential Mars Sample Return missions would aspire to collect small core and regolith samples using a rover with a sample acquisition tool and sample caching system. Samples would need to be stored in individual sealed tubes in a canister that could be transfered to a Mars ascent vehicle and returned to Earth. A sample handling, encapsulation and containerization system (SHEC) has been developed as part of an integrated system for acquiring and storing core samples for application to future potential MSR and other potential sample return missions. Requirements and design options for the SHEC system were studied and a recommended design concept developed. Two families of solutions were explored: 1)transfer of a raw sample from the tool to the SHEC subsystem and 2)transfer of a tube containing the sample to the SHEC subsystem. The recommended design utilizes sample tool bit change out as the mechanism for transferring tubes to and samples in tubes from the tool. The SHEC subsystem design, called the Bit Changeout Caching(BiCC) design, is intended for operations on a MER class rover.

  10. Sodium distiller II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves, A.C.; Castro, P.M. e; Torres, A.R.; Correa, S.M.

    1990-01-01

    A sodium distiller allows the evaluation of the sodium purity, contained in plants and circuits of Fast Reactors. The sodium distillers of the IEN Reactor's Department was developed initially as a prototype, for the testing of the distillation process and in a second step, as a equipment dedicated to attendance the operation of these circuits. This last one was build in stainless steel, with external heat, rotating crucible of nickel for four samples, purge system for pipe cleaning and a sight glass that permits the observation of the distillation during all the operation. The major advantage of this equipment is the short time to do a distillation operation, which permits its routine utilization. As a consequence of the development of the distillers and its auxiliary systems an important amount of new information was gathered concerning components and systems behaviour under high temperature, vacuum and sodium. (author)

  11. Evaluation of sampling methods for measuring exposure to volatile inorganic acids in workplace air. Part 2: Sampling capacity and breakthrough tests for sodium carbonate-impregnated filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demange, Martine; Oury, Véronique; Rousset, Davy

    2011-11-01

    In France, the MétroPol 009 method used to measure workplace exposure to inorganic acids, such as HF, HCl, and HNO3, consists of a closed-face cassette fitted with a prefilter to collect particles, and two sodium carbonate-impregnated filters to collect acid vapor. This method was compared with other European methods during the development of a three-part standard (ISO 21438) on the determination of inorganic acids in workplace air by ion chromatography. Results of this work, presented in a companion paper, led to a need to go deeper into the performance of the MétroPol 009 method regarding evaluation of the breakthrough of the acids, both alone and in mixtures, interference from particulate salts, the amount of sodium carbonate required to impregnate the sampling filter, the influence of sampler components, and so on. Results enabled improvements to be made to the sampling device with respect to the required amount of sodium carbonate to sample high HCl or HNO3 concentrations (500 μL of 5% Na2CO3 on each of two impregnated filters). In addition, a PVC-A filter used as a prefilter in a sampling device showed a propensity to retain HNO3 vapor so a PTFE filter was considered more suitable for use as a prefilter. Neither the material of the sampling cassette (polystyrene or polypropylene) nor the sampling flowrate (1 L/min or 2 L/min) influenced the performance of the sampling device, as a recovery of about 100% was achieved in all experiments for HNO3, HCl, and HF, as well as HNO3+HF and HNO3+HCl mixtures, over a wide range of concentrations. However, this work points to the possibility of interference between an acid and salts of other acids. For instance, interference can occur through interaction of HNO3 with chloride salts: the stronger the acid, the greater the interference. Methods based on impregnated filters are reliable for quantitative recovery of inorganic volatile acids in workplace atmosphere but are valuable only in the absence of interferents.

  12. Sodium leak detection system for liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modarres, D.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes a device for detecting sodium leaks from a reactor vessel of a liquid sodium cooled nuclear reactor the reactor vessel being concentrically surrounded by a a containment vessel so as to define an airtight gap containing argon. It comprises: a light source for generating a first light beam, the first light beam having first and second predominant wavelengths, the first wavelength being substantially equal to an absorption line of sodium and the second wavelength being chosen such that it is not absorbed by sodium and argon; an optical multiplexer optically coupled to the light source; optically coupled to the multiplexer, each of the sensors being embedded in the containment vessel of the reactor, each of the sensors projecting the first light beam into the gap and collecting the first light beam after it has reflected off of a surface of the reactor vessel; a beam splitter optically coupled to each of the sensors through the multiplexer, the beam splitter splitting the first light beam into second and third light beams of substantially equal intensities; a first filter dispersed within a path of second light beam for filtering the second wavelength out of the third light beam; first and second detector beams disposed with in the paths of the second and third light beams so as to detect the intensities of the second and third light beams, respectively; and processing means connected to the first and second detector means for calculating the amount of the first wavelength which is absorbed when passing through the argon

  13. Design of sodium cooled reactor systems and components for maintainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, R.W.; Charnock, H.O.; McBride, J.P.

    1978-09-01

    Special maintenability problems associated with the design and operation of sodium cooled reactor plants are discussed. Some examples of both good and bad design practice are introduced from the design of the FFTF plant and other plants. Subjects include design for drainage, cleaning, decontamination, access, component removal, component disassembly and reassembly, remote tooling, jigs, fixtures, and design for minimizing radiation exposure of maintenance personnel. Check lists are included

  14. Development of sodium leak detection technology using laser resonance ionization mass spectrometry. Design and functional test using prototype sodium detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoyama, Takafumi; Ito, Chikara; Harano, Hideki; Okazaki, Koki; Watanabe, Kenichi; Iguchi, Tetsuo

    2009-01-01

    In a sodium-cooled fast reactor, highly sensitive technology is required to detect small amounts of sodium leaking from the cooling system piping or components. The conventional sodium leak detectors have a fundamental difficulty in improving the detection sensitivity for a sodium leak because of the presence of salinity ( 23 NaCl) in the atmosphere around the components and piping of cooling systems. In order to overcome this problem, an innovative technology has been developed to selectively detect the radioactive sodium ( 22 Na) produced by a neutron reaction in the primary cooling system using Laser Resonance Ionization Mass Spectrometry (RIMS). In this method, sodium ions produced with the two processes of (1) atomization of sodium aerosols and (2) resonance ionization of sodium atom, are detected selectively using a time-of-flight mass spectrometer. The 22 Na can be distinguished from the stable isotope ( 23 Na) by mass spectrometry, which is the advantage of RIMS comparing to the other methods. The design and the construction of the prototype system based on fundamental experiments are shown in the paper. The aerodynamic lens was newly introduced, which can transfer aerosols at atmospheric pressure into a vacuum chamber while increasing the aerosol density at the same time. Furthermore, the ionization process was applied by using the external electric field after resonance exciting from the ground level to the Rydberg level in order to increase the ionization efficiency. The preliminary test results using the stable isotope ( 23 Na) showed that prototype system could easily detect sodium aerosol of 100 ppb, equivalent to the sensitivity of the conventional detectors. (author)

  15. Nitrogen gas extinguisher system as a countermeasure against a sodium fire at Monju

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, M.; Ikeda, M.; Kikuchi, H.

    2001-01-01

    Monju is a prototype sodium cooled FBR in Japan and occurred a sodium leakage incident in the secondary heat transport system on Dec. 8, 1995. The cause of the sodium leakage was a thermocouple well tube failure resulting from high cycle fatigue due to flow-induced vibration. The investigative research revealed that this type of flow-induced vibration was not a well-known Von Karman vortex shedding, but a symmetric vortex shedding. In the light of lessons from the sodium leakage incident, Monju will take several improvements in order to enhance the safety and reliability of the plant. A nitrogen gas extinguisher system will be installed at Monju as one of countermeasures against sodium fires. The basic design specifications of the system were determined by some experiments. Three kinds of experiment were conducted with the object of confirming; (1) an oxygen concentration to suppress the sodium fire, (2) a nitrogen gas mixing efficiency to decrease the oxygen concentration, and (3) a nitrogen gas feed rate to prevent air in-leak from the outside to keep the low oxygen atmosphere. This paper reports these tests which were performed to determine the design specification of the system. (authors)

  16. Nitrogen gas extinguisher system as a countermeasure against a sodium fire at Monju

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, M; Ikeda, M [MONJU Construction Office, Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (Japan); Kikuchi, H [Kobe Shipyard, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd, Kobe (Japan)

    2001-07-01

    Monju is a prototype sodium cooled FBR in Japan and occurred a sodium leakage incident in the secondary heat transport system on Dec. 8, 1995. The cause of the sodium leakage was a thermocouple well tube failure resulting from high cycle fatigue due to flow-induced vibration. The investigative research revealed that this type of flow-induced vibration was not a well-known Von Karman vortex shedding, but a symmetric vortex shedding. In the light of lessons from the sodium leakage incident, Monju will take several improvements in order to enhance the safety and reliability of the plant. A nitrogen gas extinguisher system will be installed at Monju as one of countermeasures against sodium fires. The basic design specifications of the system were determined by some experiments. Three kinds of experiment were conducted with the object of confirming; (1) an oxygen concentration to suppress the sodium fire, (2) a nitrogen gas mixing efficiency to decrease the oxygen concentration, and (3) a nitrogen gas feed rate to prevent air in-leak from the outside to keep the low oxygen atmosphere. This paper reports these tests which were performed to determine the design specification of the system. (authors)

  17. Sodium nitrate-cerium nitrate-water ternary system at 25 deg C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedorenko, T.P.; Onishchenko, M.K.

    1978-01-01

    Solubility isotherm of sodium nitrate-cerium nitrate-water system at 25 deg C consists of three crystallization branches of initial salts and double compound of the composition 2NaNO 3 xCe(NO 3 ) 3 x2H 2 O. Sodium nitrate introduced in the solution strengthens complexing. Physico-chemical characteristics are in a good agreement with solubility curve

  18. RaPToRS Sample Delivery System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henchen, Robert; Shibata, Kye; Krieger, Michael; Pogozelski, Edward; Padalino, Stephen; Glebov, Vladimir; Sangster, Craig

    2010-11-01

    At various labs (NIF, LLE, NRL), activated material samples are used to measure reaction properties. The Rapid Pneumatic Transport of Radioactive Samples (RaPToRS) system quickly and safely moves these radioactive samples through a closed PVC tube via airflow. The carrier travels from the reaction chamber to the control and analysis station, pneumatically braking at the outlet. A reversible multiplexer routes samples from various locations near the shot chamber to the analysis station. Also, the multiplexer allows users to remotely load unactivated samples without manually approaching the reaction chamber. All elements of the system (pneumatic drivers, flow control valves, optical position sensors, multiplexers, Geiger counters, and release gates at the analysis station) can be controlled manually or automatically using a custom LabVIEW interface. A prototype is currently operating at NRL in Washington DC. Prospective facilities for Raptors systems include LLE and NIF.

  19. Modular microfluidic system for biological sample preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Klint A.; Mariella, Jr., Raymond P.; Bailey, Christopher G.; Ness, Kevin Dean

    2015-09-29

    A reconfigurable modular microfluidic system for preparation of a biological sample including a series of reconfigurable modules for automated sample preparation adapted to selectively include a) a microfluidic acoustic focusing filter module, b) a dielectrophoresis bacteria filter module, c) a dielectrophoresis virus filter module, d) an isotachophoresis nucleic acid filter module, e) a lyses module, and f) an isotachophoresis-based nucleic acid filter.

  20. A Sample Delivery System for Planetary Missions

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The project will develop, test and characterize the performance of a prototype /sample delivery system (SDS) implemented as an end effector on a robotic arm capable...

  1. Rotary Mode Core Sample System availability improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, W.W.; Bennett, K.L.; Potter, J.D.; Cross, B.T.; Burkes, J.M.; Rogers, A.C.

    1995-01-01

    The Rotary Mode Core Sample System (RMCSS) is used to obtain stratified samples of the waste deposits in single-shell and double-shell waste tanks at the Hanford Site. The samples are used to characterize the waste in support of ongoing and future waste remediation efforts. Four sampling trucks have been developed to obtain these samples. Truck I was the first in operation and is currently being used to obtain samples where the push mode is appropriate (i.e., no rotation of drill). Truck 2 is similar to truck 1, except for added safety features, and is in operation to obtain samples using either a push mode or rotary drill mode. Trucks 3 and 4 are now being fabricated to be essentially identical to truck 2

  2. Sampling system for a boiling reactor NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zabelin, A.I.; Yakovleva, E.D.; Solov'ev, Yu.A.

    1976-01-01

    Investigations and pilot running of the nuclear power plant with a VK-50 boiling reactor reveal the necessity of normalizing the design system of water sampling and of mandatory replacement of the needle-type throttle device by a helical one. A method for designing a helical throttle device has been worked out. The quantitative characteristics of depositions of corrosion products along the line of reactor water sampling are presented. Recommendations are given on the organizaton of the sampling system of a nuclear power plant with BWR type reactors

  3. A novel atmospheric tritium sampling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Lailai; Xia, Zhenghai; Gu, Shaozhong; Zhang, Dongxun; Bao, Guangliang; Han, Xingbo; Ma, Yuhua; Deng, Ke; Liu, Jiayu; Zhang, Qin; Ma, Zhaowei; Yang, Guo; Liu, Wei; Liu, Guimin

    2018-06-01

    The health hazard of tritium is related to its chemical form. Sampling different chemical forms of tritium simultaneously becomes significant. Here a novel atmospheric tritium sampling system (TS-212) was developed to collect the tritiated water (HTO), tritiated hydrogen (HT) and tritiated methane (CH3T) simultaneously. It consisted of an air inlet system, three parallel connected sampling channels, a hydrogen supply module, a methane supply module and a remote control system. It worked at air flow rate of 1 L/min to 5 L/min, with temperature of catalyst furnace at 200 °C for HT sampling and 400 °C for CH3T sampling. Conversion rates of both HT and CH3T to HTO were larger than 99%. The collecting efficiency of the two-stage trap sets for HTO was larger than 96% in 12 h working-time without being blocked. Therefore, the collected efficiencies of TS-212 are larger than 95% for tritium with different chemical forms in environment. Besides, the remote control system made sampling more intelligent, reducing the operator's work intensity. Based on the performance parameters described above, the TS-212 can be used to sample atmospheric tritium in different chemical forms.

  4. Sampling from a system-theoretic viewpoint

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meinsma, Gjerrit; Mirkin, Leonid

    2009-01-01

    This paper studies a system-theoretic approach to the problem of reconstructing an analog signal from its samples. The idea, borrowed from earlier treatments in the control literature, is to address the problem as a hybrid model-matching problem in which performance is measured by system norms. The

  5. Dietary Sodium Suppresses Digestive Efficiency via the Renin-Angiotensin System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidemann, Benjamin J; Voong, Susan; Morales-Santiago, Fabiola I; Kahn, Michael Z; Ni, Jonathan; Littlejohn, Nicole K; Claflin, Kristin E; Burnett, Colin M L; Pearson, Nicole A; Lutter, Michael L; Grobe, Justin L

    2015-06-11

    Dietary fats and sodium are both palatable and are hypothesized to synergistically contribute to ingestive behavior and thereby obesity. Contrary to this hypothesis, C57BL/6J mice fed a 45% high fat diet exhibited weight gain that was inhibited by increased dietary sodium content. This suppressive effect of dietary sodium upon weight gain was mediated specifically through a reduction in digestive efficiency, with no effects on food intake behavior, physical activity, or resting metabolism. Replacement of circulating angiotensin II levels reversed the effects of high dietary sodium to suppress digestive efficiency. While the AT1 receptor antagonist losartan had no effect in mice fed low sodium, the AT2 receptor antagonist PD-123,319 suppressed digestive efficiency. Correspondingly, genetic deletion of the AT2 receptor in FVB/NCrl mice resulted in suppressed digestive efficiency even on a standard chow diet. Together these data underscore the importance of digestive efficiency in the pathogenesis of obesity, and implicate dietary sodium, the renin-angiotensin system, and the AT2 receptor in the control of digestive efficiency regardless of mouse strain or macronutrient composition of the diet. These findings highlight the need for greater understanding of nutrient absorption control physiology, and prompt more uniform assessment of digestive efficiency in animal studies of energy balance.

  6. Small sodium-to-gas leak behavior in relation to LMFBR leak detection system design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopenfeld, J.; Taylor, G.R.; James, L.A.

    1976-01-01

    Various aspects of sodium-to-gas leaks which must be considered in the design of leak detection systems for LMFBR's are discussed. Attention is focused primarily on small, weeping type leaks. Corrosion rates of steels in fused sodium hydroxide and corrosion damage observed at the site of small leaks lead to the conclusion that the sodium-gas reaction products could attack the primary hot leg piping at rates up to 0.08 mils per hour. Based on theoretical considerations of the corrosion mechanism and on visual observations of pipe topography following small sodium leak tests, it is concluded that pipe damage will be manifested by the formation of small detectable leaks prior to the appearance of larger leaks. The case for uniform pipe corrosion along the pipe circumference or along a vertical section of the pipe is also examined. Using a theoretical model for the gravity flow of sodium and reaction products along the pipe surface and a mass transport controlled corrosion process, it is shown that below sodium leak rates of about 30 g/hr for the primary piping corrosion damage will not extend beyond one radius distance from the leak site. A method of estimating the time delay between the initiation of such leaks and the development of a larger leak due to increased pipe stresses resulting from corrosion is presented

  7. Candidate sample acquisition systems for the Rosetta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnani, P.G.; Gerli, C.; Colombina, G.; Vielmo, P.

    1989-01-01

    The Comet Nucleus Sample Return (CNSR) mission, one of the four cornerstones of the ESA scientific program, is one of the most complex space ventures within the next century, both from technological and deep space exploration point of view. In the Rosetta scenario the sample acquisition phase represents the most critical point for the global mission's success. The proposed paper illustrates the main results obtained in the context of the CNSR-SAS ongoing activity. The main areas covered are related to: (1) sample properties characterization (comet soil model, physical/chemical properties, reference material for testing); (2) concepts identification for coring, shovelling, harpooning and anchoring; (3) preferred concept (trade off among concepts, identification of the preferred configuration); and (4) proposed development activity for gaining the necessary confidence before finalizing the CNSR mission. Particular emphasis will be given to the robotic and flexibility aspects of the identified sample acquisition systems (SAS) configuration, intended as a means for the overall system performance enhancement

  8. An improved sampling system installed for reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finsterwalder, L.; Zeh, H.

    1979-03-01

    Sampling devices are needed for taking representative samples from individual process containers during the reprocessing of irradiated fuel. The aqueous process stream in a reprocessing plant frequently contains, in addition to the dissolved radioactive materials, more or less small quantities of solid matter fraction of fuel material still remaining undissolved, insoluble fission-, corrosion-, or degradation products as well, in exceptional cases, ion exchange resin or silica gel. The solid matter is deposited partly on the upper surfaces of the sampling system and the radiation due to this makes maintenance and repair of the sampler more difficult. The purpose of the development work was to reduce the chance of accident and the maintenance costs and to lower the radiation exposure of the personnel. A new sampling system was developed and is described. (author)

  9. 5C.07: A METHOD TO ESTIMATE 24-HOUR SODIUM EXCRETION THROUGH SPOT URINE SAMPLES AND ITS APPLICATION VALUE FOR TARGET-ORGAN DAMAGE ASSESSMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H; Zhao, L; Xi, Y; Sun, N

    2015-06-01

    24-h urine sodium excretion is considered the most reliable method to evaluate the salt intakes. However, this method is cumbersome. So we want to develop formulas to estimate 24-h urinary sodium excretion using spot urinary samples in Chinese hypertensive population and explore the application value of this method in salt intake assessment and target organ damage. 1. We enrolled 510 cases of hospitalized patients with hypertension, 2/3 of them were arranged randomly to formula group to develop a new formula and the remainings were used to test the performance of the formula. All participants were instructed to collect a 24-h urine sample, a second morning voiding urine sample (SMU), and a post-meridiem urine sample in the late afternoon or early evening, prior to the evening meal (PMU). All samples were sent to measure sodium and creatinine concentration.2. We compared the differences of office blood pressure, 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure and left ventricular hypertrophy, vascular stiffness and urine protein among groups of different sodium intake. 24hour sodium excretion formulas was obtained using SMU and PMU respectively, which have good cosistency. The difference between the estimated and measured values in sodium excretion is 12.66mmol/day (SMU) and 9.41mmol/day (PM), to be equal to 0.7 g (SMU) and 0.6 g (PM) salt intake. Comparing with Kawasaki and Tanaka method, the new formula shows the lower degree of deviation, and higher accuracy and precision. Blood pressure of high urinary sodium group is higher than that in low urinary sodium group (P < 0.05). Left ventricular hypertrophy and urinary albumin/creatinine aggravated with the salt intake increase, this has eliminated the influence of other factors. All of morphologies of the relationship between ambulatory arterial stiffness index, pulse wave velocity and carotid intima-media thickness with quartiles of sodium intake resembled a J-shaped curve. In Chinese hypertensive population, the

  10. Sampling system for in vivo ultrasound images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jorgen Arendt; Mathorne, Jan

    1991-01-01

    Newly developed algorithms for processing medical ultrasound images use the high frequency sampled transducer signal. This paper describes demands imposed on a sampling system suitable for acquiring such data and gives details about a prototype constructed. It acquires full clinical images...... at a sampling frequency of 20 MHz with a resolution of 12 bits. The prototype can be used for real time image processing. An example of a clinical in vivo image is shown and various aspects of the data acquisition process are discussed....

  11. Experimental determination of the phase diagram of the system sodium-sodium hydride up to 9000C and hydrogen pressures up to 800 bar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klostermeier, W.

    1978-01-01

    In the present work part of the sodium-sodium hydride system phase diagram has been studied at high temperatures (up to 900 0 C) and high hydrogen pressures (up to 1000 bar). The absorption isothermal curves recorded at temperatures between 650 0 C and 900 0 C show an increase in hydride solubility in sodium from 5.5 mol% at 650 0 to 19 mol% at 900 0 C. The melting point of sodium hydride has been measured giving the value 632 0 C with a hydrogen equilibrium pressure of 106 bar. In the mixing gap region the plateau equilibrium pressure, which is independent of composition, and his temperature dependence have been obtained. The enthalpy and entropy of melting are determined. (GSCH) [de

  12. The equilibrium hydrogen pressure-temperature diagram for the liquid sodium-hydrogen-oxygen system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knights, C.F.; Whittingham, A.C.

    1982-01-01

    The underlying equilibria in the sodium-hydrogen-oxygen system are presented in the form of a completmentary hydrogen equilibrium pressure-temperature diagram, constructed by using published data and supplemented by experimental measurements of hydrogen equilibrium pressures over condensed phases in the system. Possible applications of the equilibrium pressure-temperature phase diagram limitations regarding its use are outlined

  13. Ultrasonic instrument for continuous measurement of liquid levels in sodium systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehmer, L.S.

    1975-01-01

    An ultrasonic level measurement system which provides a continuous digital readout over a range of 3-180 inches, was tested in 500 0 F liquid sodium. The system proved to be accurate and reliable, required no initial warm-up period and experienced no long term drift. Modifications can extend the present operating temperatures to greater than 1200 0 F

  14. On sampling and modeling complex systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsili, Matteo; Mastromatteo, Iacopo; Roudi, Yasser

    2013-01-01

    The study of complex systems is limited by the fact that only a few variables are accessible for modeling and sampling, which are not necessarily the most relevant ones to explain the system behavior. In addition, empirical data typically undersample the space of possible states. We study a generic framework where a complex system is seen as a system of many interacting degrees of freedom, which are known only in part, that optimize a given function. We show that the underlying distribution with respect to the known variables has the Boltzmann form, with a temperature that depends on the number of unknown variables. In particular, when the influence of the unknown degrees of freedom on the known variables is not too irregular, the temperature decreases as the number of variables increases. This suggests that models can be predictable only when the number of relevant variables is less than a critical threshold. Concerning sampling, we argue that the information that a sample contains on the behavior of the system is quantified by the entropy of the frequency with which different states occur. This allows us to characterize the properties of maximally informative samples: within a simple approximation, the most informative frequency size distributions have power law behavior and Zipf’s law emerges at the crossover between the under sampled regime and the regime where the sample contains enough statistics to make inferences on the behavior of the system. These ideas are illustrated in some applications, showing that they can be used to identify relevant variables or to select the most informative representations of data, e.g. in data clustering. (paper)

  15. The design and commissioning of cold trap purifying system of hydrogen meter sodium loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Zhaoyi; Jia Baoshan; Chen Xiaoming; Pan Fengguo

    1993-01-01

    The design feature and parameters of cold trap purifying system of hydrogen meter sodium loop and its commissioning results are reported and discussed. In order to adjust the flow easily,. the cold trap purifying system is arranged in the exit of the electromagnetic pump. It is composed of regenerator and the cold trap. The regenerator is above the cold trap. The high temperature sodium in the main-loop flows through the regenerator, in the entrance of the cold trap, its temperature is reduced to 180 degree C. After entering into the cold trap, the sodium flows to the purifying region by side, when it arrives the bottom of the trap, its temperature is reduced to 110 degree C. The cold trap is cooled by air. The temperature of the clean sodium rises nearby the main-loop's by the regenerator, and then it returns to the entrance of the electromagnetic pump. According to the commissioning results, the sodium's temperature of the cold trap could be reduced to 110 degree C by reducing the flow of the cold trap purifying system and the temperature of the main-loop, or increasing the air flow and cutting off the power supply of its heating. The authors think that the latter is more conformable with the design stipulation and with the requirement of the hydrogen meter experiment, and it can meet the requirements of the operation of the Nuclear Power Plant

  16. Blood Sample Transportation by Pneumatic Transportation Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, Mads; Lund, Merete E; Titlestad, Kjell

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pneumatic transportation systems (PTSs) are increasingly used for transportation of blood samples to the core laboratory. Many studies have investigated the impact of these systems on different types of analyses, but to elucidate whether PTSs in general are safe for transportation...... analysis, and the hemolysis index). CONCLUSIONS: Owing to their high degree of heterogeneity, the retrieved studies were unable to supply evidence for the safety of using PTSs for blood sample transportation. In consequence, laboratories need to measure and document the actual acceleration forces...

  17. Limited sampling strategies drawn within 3 hours postdose poorly predict mycophenolic acid area-under-the-curve after enteric-coated mycophenolate sodium.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winter, B.C. de; Gelder, T. van; Mathôt, R.A.A.; Glander, P.; Tedesco-Silva, H.; Hilbrands, L.B.; Budde, K.; Hest, R.M. van

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies predicted that limited sampling strategies (LSS) for estimation of mycophenolic acid (MPA) area-under-the-curve (AUC(0-12)) after ingestion of enteric-coated mycophenolate sodium (EC-MPS) using a clinically feasible sampling scheme may have poor predictive performance. Failure of

  18. Air sampling system for airborne surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jupiter, C.; Tipton, W.J.

    1975-01-01

    An air sampling system has been designed for installation on the Beechcraft King Air A-100 aircraft as a part of the Aerial Radiological Measuring System (ARMS). It is intended for both particle and whole gas sampling. The sampling probe is designed for isokinetic sampling and is mounted on a removable modified escape hatch cover, behind the co-pilot's seat, and extends about two feet forward of the hatch cover in the air stream lines. Directly behind the sampling probe inside the modified hatch cover is an expansion chamber, space for a 5-inch diameter filter paper cassette, and an optional four-stage cascade impactor for particle size distribution measurements. A pair of motors and blower pumps provide the necessary 0.5 atmosphere pressure across the type MSA 1106 B glass fiber filter paper to allow a flow rate of 50 cfm. The MSA 1106 B filter paper is designed to trap sub-micrometer particles with a high efficiency; it was chosen to enable a quantitative measurement of airborne radon daughters, one of the principal sources of background signals when radiological surveys are being performed. A venturi section and pressure gauges allow air flow rate measurements so that airborne contaminant concentrations may be quantified. A whole gas sampler capable of sampling a cubic meter of air is mounted inside the aircraft cabin. A nuclear counting system on board the aircraft provides capability for α, β and γ counting of filter paper samples. Design data are presented and types of survey missions which may be served by this system are described

  19. Construction within cooling system of a sodium cooler reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    A procedure is described for the manufacture and the construction of a bundle of a large number of pipes, at least near their outer ends lying practically evenly spaced which pipes lie with one of their outermost ends in a pipe plate and with their other outer ends in a second pipe plate, where the procedure involves placing at or near the derived place a means for holding the bundle of pipes, as well as eventually holding a pipe plate with stub pipes near the outer ends of the bundle of pipes, the successive attachment by means of welding of the pipes in the plate of the above mentioned assembly with the stub pipes, characterized in that to each of the pipes in the bundle is welded to an outer end directly a corresponding short pipe which is also welded to a pipe end of a stub pipe, so that a connection is made by the short pipe which lies between the outer end of the pipe in the bundle and the stub pipe. Such a construction is used in the heat exchanger of sodium cooled reactors. (G.C.)

  20. The LITA Drill and Sample Delivery System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsen, G.; Yoon, S.; Zacny, K.; Wettergreeng, D.; Cabrol, N. A.

    2013-12-01

    The Life in the Atacama (LITA) project has a goal of demonstrating autonomous roving, sample acquisition, delivery and analysis operations in Atacama, Chile. To enable the sample handling requirement, Honeybee Robotics developed a rover-deployed, rotary-percussive, autonomous drill, called the LITA Drill, capable of penetrating to ~80 cm in various formations, capturing and delivering subsurface samples to a 20 cup carousel. The carousel has a built-in capability to press the samples within each cup, and position target cups underneath instruments for analysis. The drill and sample delivery system had to have mass and power requirements consistent with a flight system. The drill weighs 12 kg and uses less than 100 watt of power to penetrate ~80 cm. The LITA Drill auger has been designed with two distinct stages. The lower part has deep and gently sloping flutes for retaining powdered sample, while the upper section has shallow and steep flutes for preventing borehole collapse and for efficient movement of cuttings and fall back material out of the hole. The drill uses the so called 'bite-sampling' approach that is samples are taken in short, 5-10 cm bites. To take the first bite, the drill is lowered onto the ground and upon drilling of the first bite it is then retracted into an auger tube. The auger with the auger tube are then lifted off the ground and positioned next to the carousel. To deposit the sample, the auger is rotated and retracted above the auger tube. The cuttings retained on the flutes are either gravity fed or are brushed off by a passive side brush into the cup. After the sample from the first bite has been deposited, the drill is lowered back into the same hole to take the next bite. This process is repeated until a target depth is reached. The bite sampling is analogous to peck drilling in the machining process where a bit is periodically retracted to clear chips. If there is some fall back into the hole once the auger has cleared the hole, this

  1. Analysis of carbon transport in the EBR-II and FFTF primary sodium systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snyder, R.B.; Natesan, K.; Kassner, T.F.

    1976-01-01

    An analysis of the carburization-decarburization behavior of austenitic stainless steels in the primary heat-transport systems of the EBR-II and FFTF has been made that is based upon a kinetic model for the diffusion process and the surface area of steel in contact with flowing sodium at various temperatures in the two systems. The analysis was performed for operating conditions that result in sodium outlet temperatures of 474 and 566 0 C in the FFTF and 470 0 C in the EBR-II. If there was no external source of carbon to the system, i.e., other than the carbon initially present in the steel and the sodium, the dynamic-equilibrium carbon concentrations calculated for the FFTF primary sodium were approximately 0.025 and approximately 0.065 ppm for the 474 and 566 0 C outlet temperatures, respectively, and approximately 0.018 ppm for the EBR-II primary system. The analysis indicated that a carbon-source rate of approximately 250 g/y would be required to increase the carbon concentration of the EBR-II sodium to the measured range of approximately 0.16--0.19 ppm. An evaluation of possible carbon sources and the amount of carbonaceous material introduced into the reactor cover gas and sodium suggests that the magnitude of the calculated contamination rate is reasonable. For a 566 0 C outlet temperature, carbonaceous material would have to be introduced into the FFTF primary system at a rate approximately 4--6 times higher than in EBR-II to achieve the same carbon concentration in the sodium in the two systems. Since contamination rates of approximately 1500 g/y are unlikely, high-temperature fuel cladding in the FFTF should exhibit decarburization similar to that observed in laboratory loop systems, in contrast to the minimal compositional changes that result after exposure of Type 316 stainless steel to EBR-II sodium at temperatures between approximately 625 and 650 0 C

  2. Determination of Sodium Benzoate and Potassium Sorbate in “Doogh” Samples in Post Market Surveillance in Iran 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Akbari-adergani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Sodium benzoate and potassium sorbate are two major chemical preservatives which are used in Doogh (Iranian traditional dairy drink. In this study, a total of 27 commercial brands of highly consumed of Doogh samples were analyzed. The means and standard deviation for concentration of these preservatives based on HPLC results for analysis of benzoate and sorbate were 195·9 (SD 1·8 and 328·8 (SD 2·1 mg.Kg-1 respectively. The minimum and maximum of benzoate content in various brands were 18.3 and 2345.1 mg.Kg-1 and for sorbate were not detected and 4961.3 mg.Kg-1 respectively. The study revealed that there was not significant difference in preservative concentration in the samples that belonged to various dates. However, a few samples had a high preservative concentration, which could be a risk factor for human health, especially when their intake was being occurred by various foodstuffs simultaneously.

  3. Improvements to the sodium supply system of a nuclear reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevallier, Rene; Marchais, Christian.

    1981-01-01

    This invention concerns an improvement to the sodium supply system of a nuclear reactor core and, in particular, concerns the area included between the outlet of the primary circulation pumps and the core proper. A simplified structure and a lightening of all this linking area between the circulation pumps and the distribution tank under the core is achieved and this results in a very significant reduction in the risks of deterioration and in a definite increase in the reliability of the reactor. The invention is therefore an improvement to the sodium supply system of the nuclear reactor core vessel with incorporated exchangers, in which the cool sodium, after passing through the primary exchangers, is collected in a ring compartment from whence it is taken up by the pumps and moved to at least one pipe reaching a distribution tank located under the reactor core [fr

  4. Distribution and function of voltage-gated sodium channels in the nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Ou, Shao-Wu; Wang, Yun-Jie

    2017-11-02

    Voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) are the basic ion channels for neuronal excitability, which are crucial for the resting potential and the generation and propagation of action potentials in neurons. To date, at least nine distinct sodium channel isoforms have been detected in the nervous system. Recent studies have identified that voltage-gated sodium channels not only play an essential role in the normal electrophysiological activities of neurons but also have a close relationship with neurological diseases. In this study, the latest research findings regarding the structure, type, distribution, and function of VGSCs in the nervous system and their relationship to neurological diseases, such as epilepsy, neuropathic pain, brain tumors, neural trauma, and multiple sclerosis, are reviewed in detail.

  5. Operation of the water-to-sodium leak detection system at the experimental breeder reactor II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osterhout, M.M.

    1978-01-01

    A water-to-sodium leak detection system was installed at the Experimental Breeder Reactor II in April 1975. The system is designed for early detection of steam generator leaks, using hydrogen meters at the sodium outlets of the evaporators and superheaters. The leak detectors operate by measuring the rate of diffusion of hydrogen from the liquid sodium through a nickel membrane into a dynamic vacuum system. The advantages of this detection system are rapid response time, high sensitivity, stability, and reliability. The system was operated on an experimental basis for the first two years. During this period, data were obtained on detector stability, reliability, maintenance needs, computer interface requirements, calibration, and background hydrogen-level fluctuations. A generic defect in the original detectors was also discovered, requiring redesign of the units. When the new units were installed and proven to be reliable, the system was made fully operational. The data from the hydrogen meters are now used as the primary basis for detection of water-to-sodium leaks

  6. Sodium technology handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-09-01

    This document was published as a textbook for the education and training of personnel working for operations and maintenances of sodium facilities including FBR plants and those engaged in R and D activities related to sodium technology. This handbook covers the following technical areas. Properties of sodium. Compatibilities of sodium with materials. Thermalhydraulics and structural integrity. Sodium systems and components. Sodium instrumentations. Sodium handling technology. Sodium related accident evaluation and countermeasures for FBRs. Operation, maintenance and repair technology of sodium facilities. Safety measures related to sodium. Laws, regulations and internal rules related to sodium. The plannings and discussions of the handbook were made in the Sodium Technology Education Committee organized in O-arai Engineering Center consisting of the representatives of the related departments including Tsuruga headquarters. Experts in various departments participated in writing individual technical subjects. (author)

  7. Conceptual design study on simplified and safer cooling systems for sodium cooled FBRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayafune, Hiroki; Shimakawa, Yoshio; Ishikawa, Hiroyasu; Kubota, Kenichi; Kobayashi, Jun; Kasai, Shigeo

    2000-06-01

    The objective of this study is to create the FBR plant concepts increasing economy and safety for the Phase-I 'Feasibility Studies on Commercialized Fast Reactor System'. In this study, various concepts of simplified 2ry cooling system for sodium cooled FBRs are considered and evaluated from the view points of technological feasibility, economy, and safety. The concepts in the study are considered on the basis of the following points of view. 1. To simplify 2ry cooling system by moderating and localizing the sodium-water reaction in the steam generator of the FBRs. 2. To simplify 2ry cooling system by eliminating the sodium-water reaction using integrated IHX-SG unit. 3. To simplify 2ry cooling system by eliminating the sodium-water reaction using a power generating system other than the steam generator. As the result of the study, 12 concepts and 3 innovative concepts are proposed. The evaluation study for those concepts shows the following technical prospects. 1. 2 concepts of integrated IHX-SG unit can eliminate the sodium-water reaction. Separated IHX and SG tubes unit using Lead-Bismuth as the heat transfer medium. Integrated IHX-SG unit using copper as the heat transfer medium. 2. Cost reduction effect by simplified 2ry cooling system using integrated IHX-SG unit is estimated 0 to 5%. 3. All of the integrated IHX-SG unit concepts have more weight and larger size than conventional steam generator unit. The weight of the unit during transporting and lifting would limit capacity of heat transfer system. These evaluation results will be compared with the results in JFY 2000 and used for the Phase-II study. (author)

  8. Development of a remote data acquisition and graphic display system for the sodium rigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajendran, A.; Sylvia, J.I.; Swaminathan, K.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a Remote Data Acquisition System for Sodium Rigs. Seven data loggers, an alarm monitor and a PLC are geographically distributed in two sodium rigs over a distance of 500 m. A serial data highway based on RS485 transceivers has been constructed to remotely acquire data from these stations. The field stations are connected to the data highway in a multi drop fashion. A PC/AT computer on the same bus remotely acquires and monitors the data from the field stations. (author). 3 refs., 2 figs

  9. Formation and hydraulic effects of deposits in high temperature sodium coolant systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yunker, W.

    1976-01-01

    Deposition of sodium impurities in the high temperature (600 0 C), high flow (Reynolds Number approximately equal to 8 x 10 4 ) regions of a sodium coolant circuit is being studied to determine its possible hydraulic effects. Increases in flow impedance (pressure drop/volume flow 2 ) of up to 30 percent have been detected in an annular flow sensor. The apparatus and preliminary results of these tests are presented. Continuing tests are to specifically identify the materials involved and the system conditions under which the formations occur

  10. Preliminary studies of the dynamic stiffness modules of soil samples from the Solvay Sodium Plant waste landfill in Krakow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilecka Elżbieta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of laboratory tests for determining the dynamic modules of the elasticity M and the shear G, for soil samples from the landfill of the closed Solvay Sodium Plant in Krakow. The tests were performed using a triaxial apparatus equipped with “bender” piezoelements. The samples subjected to these tests were taken from two boreholes, located in the area known as the “white seas”, whose formation is the result of Solvay Plant activity throughout the 20th century. The location of the test holes was planned at the place in which a road known as the “Łagiewnicka route” was planned. Studies on soil stiffness were also conducted as part of the one of the dissertation from 2008 to 2010 in the Cracow University of Technology. The results of these tests and the results of the laboratory tests that are presented in the article will be used in the designing of a computer model. This model is intended to help in assessing the dynamic impact of motor vehicle traffic on the planned Łagiewnicka route on the structure of the existing buildings located in the former Solvay Plant.

  11. 40 CFR 141.41 - Special monitoring for sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special monitoring for sodium. 141.41... and Prohibition on Lead Use § 141.41 Special monitoring for sodium. (a) Suppliers of water for... distribution system for the determination of sodium concentration levels; samples must be collected and...

  12. Structural basis for the transformation pathways of the sodium naproxen anhydrate-hydrate system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bond, Andrew; Cornett, Claus; Larsen, Flemming Hofmann

    2014-01-01

    to the monohydrate (MH) and anhydrate (AH) structures, provide a basis to rationalize the observed transformation pathways in the sodium (S)-naproxen anhydrate-hydrate system. All structures contain Na(+)/carboxylate/H2O sections, alternating with sections containing the naproxen molecules. The structure of DH...

  13. Fast reactor shield sensitivity studies for steel--sodium--iron systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oblow, E.M.; Weisbin, C.R.

    1977-01-01

    A study was made of the adequacy of the current ENDF/B-IV sodium and iron neutron cross section data files for fast reactor shield design work. Experimental data from 21 fast reactor shield configurations containing large thicknesses of steel, sodium, and iron were analyzed with discrete ordinates calculations and sensitivity methods to assess the data files. This study represents the largest full-scale sensitivity analysis of benchmark quality experimental data to date. Included in the sensitivity studies were the results of the new cross section adjustment algorithms added to the FORSS code system. Conclusions were drawn about the need for more accurate data for sodium and iron elastic and discrete inelastic cross sections above 1 MeV and the values of the total cross section in the vicinity of important minima

  14. Texture and anisotropy in the bismuth sodium titanate system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fancher, Christoher M.

    Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3 has received interest as a potential replacement for lead containing ferroelectrics. However, the piezoelectric response of pure Bi0.5Na0.5TiO 3 does not compare to the strong piezoelectric response of lead based piezoelectrics. To increase the piezoelectric response, Bi0.5Na 0.5TiO3 has been alloyed with BaTiO3 and K 0.5Na0.5NbO3. Another route to enhance the response is to take advantage of the anisotropic properties by inducing a preferred crystallographic orientation. Both routes were used to investigate the effect a crystallographic texture has on the strain response of Bi0.5Na 0.5TiO3-based ceramics. A crystallographic texture was induced by templated grain growth of pure phase Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3 templates using the tape casting method to orient template particles relative to the tape cast normal. Sintered Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3-based materials developed a strong (00l)pc fiber texture relative to the tape cast normal, with no preferential alignment relative to the tape cast plane. Textured Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3-(5)BaTiO3 showed a piezoelectric response of 245 pC/N, a better than 50% enhancement from the 150 pC/N response of randomly oriented samples. The Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3-(5)BaTiO3-(2)K 0.5Na0.5NbO3 (x,y) system has been shown to undergo electric-field-induced phase transformation from a pseudocubic to polar phase. For (7,2) a strong 8.7 multiples of a random distribution (MRD) crystallographic texture increased the macroscopic strain response by 50%. Applying the electric field perpendicular to the fiber texture axis reduces the macroscopic strain response of textured (7,2) by 17%. The affect field direction has on the electric-field-induced phase transformations of textured (7,2) was investigated using in situ electric field dependent diffraction. In situ diffraction data showed the high strain response of textured (7,2) can be attributed to a reversible pseudocubic to tetragonal transformation. The field-induced tetragonal phase nucleates preferentially with a

  15. The inhibitory effect of sodium thiocyanate and sodium percarbonate ratios on microorganism growth in raw milk samples as an effective treatment to extend milk quality during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supreena Srisaikham

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Preservation of raw milk quality by activation of lactoperoxidase system (LPs was studied for the inhibition of microorganism growth. The antimicrobial effects of LPs were examined by measuring thiocyanate (SCN- concentration, lactoperoxidase (LP activity, milk composition, total bacterial count (TBC and coliform count (CC. All parameters were analyzed at 0 h and at 25°C and 30°C as a control. Thus, the experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of 2 different temperatures (25°C vs 30°C and 4 ratios of NaSCN:2Na2CO3 3H2O2 (0:0, 7:15, 14:30 and 21:45 mg/L on milk samples (both uninoculated raw milk samples and Escherichia coli (E. coli inoculated milk samples with 8 replicates per run using 0-12 h incubation time in vitro assay. The runs were conducted on the same 4 NaSCN:2Na2CO3 3H2O2 ratios and different temperature and time of incubation were used. The results showed that the milk SCN- concentration and LP activity increased with increasing NaSCN:2Na2CO3 3H2O2 ratios. Milk compositions retained the quality of normal milk fat, protein, lactose, solid-not-fat (SNF and total solid (TS contents, and they were not significantly affected by the LPs activation. An obvious effect of the LP activated milk was the inhibition of TBC in uninoculated raw milk samples for 6 to 12 h both at 25°C and 30°C, and for 6 to 9 h in E. coil inoculated milk samples, whereas CC (6 h at 25°C and at least 3 h at 30°C for both uninoculated and E. coil inoculated milk samples. It is concluded that improved preservation of milk can be achieved through the addition of 14:30 and 21:45 mg/L of NaSCN:2Na2CO3 3H2O2 in uninoculated and E. coil inoculated milk samples respectively, to extend milk quality during storage.

  16. Designing an enhanced groundwater sample collection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schalla, R.

    1994-10-01

    As part of an ongoing technical support mission to achieve excellence and efficiency in environmental restoration activities at the Laboratory for Energy and Health-Related Research (LEHR), Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) provided guidance on the design and construction of monitoring wells and identified the most suitable type of groundwater sampling pump and accessories for monitoring wells. The goal was to utilize a monitoring well design that would allow for hydrologic testing and reduce turbidity to minimize the impact of sampling. The sampling results of the newly designed monitoring wells were clearly superior to those of the previously installed monitoring wells. The new wells exhibited reduced turbidity, in addition to improved access for instrumentation and hydrologic testing. The variable frequency submersible pump was selected as the best choice for obtaining groundwater samples. The literature references are listed at the end of this report. Despite some initial difficulties, the actual performance of the variable frequency, submersible pump and its accessories was effective in reducing sampling time and labor costs, and its ease of use was preferred over the previously used bladder pumps. The surface seals system, called the Dedicator, proved to be useful accessory to prevent surface contamination while providing easy access for water-level measurements and for connecting the pump. Cost savings resulted from the use of the pre-production pumps (beta units) donated by the manufacturer for the demonstration. However, larger savings resulted from shortened field time due to the ease in using the submersible pumps and the surface seal access system. Proper deployment of the monitoring wells also resulted in cost savings and ensured representative samples

  17. Effect of a passive sonic irrigation system on elimination of Enterococcus faecalis from root canal systems of primary teeth, using different concentrations of sodium hypochlorite: An in vitro evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Afshari

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. This in vitro study aimed to compare the antibacterial effect of different concentrations of sodium hypochlorite on elimination of Enterococcus faecalis from root canal systems of primary teeth with or without a passive sonic irrigation system (EndoActivator. Methods. The root canals of 120 extracted single-rooted primary incisors were prepared using the crown-down technique. The teeth were autoclaved and inoculated with E. faecalis. The infected samples were then randomly divided into 6 experimental groups of 15 and positive and negative control groups as follows: group 1: 0.5% sodium hypochlorite solution; group 2: 2.5% sodium hypochlorite solution; group 3: 5% sodium hypochlorite solution; group 4: 0.5% sodium hypochlorite solution + sonic activation; group 5: 2.5% sodium hypochlorite solution + sonic activation; and group 6: 5% sodium hypochlorite solution + sonic activation. Microbiological samples were collected before and after disinfection procedures and the colony-forming units were counted. Statistical analyses were performed using the two-way ANOVA and post hoc Duncan's tests in cases of significant difference. Results. There were no significant differences between the groups in any of the variables (concentration of antiseptic or use of sonic irrigation system. Conclusion. Use of passive sonic irrigation systems in endodontic treatment of single-rooted primary teeth is of no benefit compared to regular needle irrigation. The results of this study also recommends use of lower concentrations of sodium hypochlorite solution (0.5% for irrigation of the root canal system rather than higher concentrations given approximately equal efficacy.

  18. Aersol particle losses in sampling systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, B.J.; Wong, F.S.; Ortiz, C.A.; Anand, N.K.; McFarland, A.R.

    1993-01-01

    When aerosols are sampled from stacks and ducts, it is usually necessary to transport them from the point of sampling to a location of collection or analysis. Losses of aerosol particles can occur in the inlet region of the probe, in straight horizontal and vertical tubes and in elbows. For probes in laminary flow, the Saffman lift force can cause substantial losses of particles in a short inlet region. An empirical model has been developed to predict probe inlet losses, which are often on the order of 40% for 10 μm AED particles. A user-friendly PC computer code, DEPOSITION, has been setup to model losses in transport systems. Experiments have been conducted to compare the actual aerosol particle losses in transport systems with those predicted by the DEPOSITION code

  19. Mobile Variable Depth Sampling System Design Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BOGER, R.M.

    2000-01-01

    A design study is presented for a mobile, variable depth sampling system (MVDSS) that will support the treatment and immobilization of Hanford LAW and HLW. The sampler can be deployed in a 4-inch tank riser and has a design that is based on requirements identified in the Level 2 Specification (latest revision). The waste feed sequence for the MVDSS is based on Phase 1, Case 3S6 waste feed sequence. Technical information is also presented that supports the design study

  20. Mobile Variable Depth Sampling System Design Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BOGER, R.M.

    2000-08-25

    A design study is presented for a mobile, variable depth sampling system (MVDSS) that will support the treatment and immobilization of Hanford LAW and HLW. The sampler can be deployed in a 4-inch tank riser and has a design that is based on requirements identified in the Level 2 Specification (latest revision). The waste feed sequence for the MVDSS is based on Phase 1, Case 3S6 waste feed sequence. Technical information is also presented that supports the design study.

  1. Design evaluation on sodium piping system and comparison of the design codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dong Won; Jeong, Ji Young; Lee, Yong Bum; Lee, Hyeong Yeon

    2015-01-01

    A large-scale sodium test loop of STELLA-1 (Sodium integral effect test loop for safety simulation and assessment) with two main piping systems has been installed at KAERI. In this study, design evaluations on the main sodium piping systems in STELLA-1 have been conducted according to the DBR (design by rule) codes of the ASME B31.1 and RCC-MRx RB-3600. In addition, design evaluations according to the DBA (design by analysis) code of the ASME Section III Subsection NB-3200 have been conducted. The evaluation results for the present piping systems showed that results from the DBR codes were more conservative than those from the DBA code, and among the DBR codes, the non-nuclear code of the ASME B31.1 was more conservative than the French nuclear DBR code of the RCC-MRx RB-3600. The conservatism on the DBR codes of the ASME B31.1 and RCC-MRx RB-3600 was quantified based on the present sodium piping analyses.

  2. Design evaluation on sodium piping system and comparison of the design codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dong Won; Jeong, Ji Young; Lee, Yong Bum; Lee, Hyeong Yeon [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-03-15

    A large-scale sodium test loop of STELLA-1 (Sodium integral effect test loop for safety simulation and assessment) with two main piping systems has been installed at KAERI. In this study, design evaluations on the main sodium piping systems in STELLA-1 have been conducted according to the DBR (design by rule) codes of the ASME B31.1 and RCC-MRx RB-3600. In addition, design evaluations according to the DBA (design by analysis) code of the ASME Section III Subsection NB-3200 have been conducted. The evaluation results for the present piping systems showed that results from the DBR codes were more conservative than those from the DBA code, and among the DBR codes, the non-nuclear code of the ASME B31.1 was more conservative than the French nuclear DBR code of the RCC-MRx RB-3600. The conservatism on the DBR codes of the ASME B31.1 and RCC-MRx RB-3600 was quantified based on the present sodium piping analyses.

  3. Characterization of sodium phenytoin co-gelled with titania for a controlled drug-release system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, T.; Quintana, P.; Ortiz-Islas, E.; Vinogradova, E.; Manjarrez, J.; Aguilar, D.H.; Castillo-Ocampo, P.; Magana, C.; Azamar, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    Sodium phenytoin, C 15 H 11 N 2 NaO 2 , in several concentrations was co-gelled with titania (TiO 2 ), by a sol-gel process. This technique is a promising method to encapsulate several drugs, in this case, phenytoin is an anticonvulsant used to control epileptic seizures. Samples were prepared by adding different concentrations (X = 50, 100, 200 and 250 mg per 20 g of titania matrix) of sodium phenytoin (Ph) to a solution of titanium n-butoxide. The resulting titania-Ph-X materials were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transformed infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Brunauer-Emmet-Teller (BET) surface areas. The porous nanomaterials showed a wide range of particle size, from 10 to 210 nm, with a mean pore diameter of 5 nm. X-ray diffraction showed an amorphous structure of the prepared samples

  4. Design compliance matrix waste sample container filling system for nested, fixed-depth sampling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BOGER, R.M.

    1999-01-01

    This design compliance matrix document provides specific design related functional characteristics, constraints, and requirements for the container filling system that is part of the nested, fixed-depth sampling system. This document addresses performance, external interfaces, ALARA, Authorization Basis, environmental and design code requirements for the container filling system. The container filling system will interface with the waste stream from the fluidic pumping channels of the nested, fixed-depth sampling system and will fill containers with waste that meet the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) criteria for waste that contains volatile and semi-volatile organic materials. The specifications for the nested, fixed-depth sampling system are described in a Level 2 Specification document (HNF-3483, Rev. 1). The basis for this design compliance matrix document is the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) desk instructions for design Compliance matrix documents (PI-CP-008-00, Rev. 0)

  5. A Study on Renin-Angiotensin System and Total Exchangeable Sodium in Hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choe, Kang Won; Park, Jung Sik; Lee, Jung Sang; Koh, Chang Soon

    1976-01-01

    The etiologic role of renin-angiotensin system and sodium-volume status in the pathophysiology of various forms of hypertension was investigated. Plasma renin activity (PRA) was measured by radioimmunoassay, while sodium-volume status was evaluated by the determination of total exchangeable sodium(NaE) using isotope dilution method. The subjects consisted of 25 controls, 24 patients with essential hypertension, 22 patients with chronic renal failure (13 with hypertension, 9 without hypertension) and 14 patients with malignant hypertension. The results were as follows: 1) An inverse correlation between NaE and PRA was noted in control subjects (r=-0.598, p 0.1) 3) Absolute value of PRA was not deviated significantly from control group (2.53±1.416 ng/ml/hr) except in malignant hypertension (6.09±2.042, p 0.1). It is suggested that renin-angiotensin system plays a predominant role in the pathogenesis of malignant hypertension and in hypertension of chronic renal failure, though sodium retention is also contributing factor. PRA variation in essential hypertension does not appear to be associated with any consistent change in Na-volume status, suggesting the existence of another mechanism in the genesis of hypertension and PRA variation.

  6. Measurement of carbon thermodynamic activity in sodium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlov, F A; Zagorulko, Yu I; Kovalev, Yu P; Alekseev, V V [Institute of Physics and Power Engineering, Obninsk (USSR)

    1980-05-01

    The report presents the brief outline on system of carbon activity detecting system in sodium (SCD), operating on the carbon-permeable membrane, of the methods and the results of testing it under the experimental circulating loop conditions. The results of carbon activity sensor calibration with the use of equilibrium samples of XI8H9, Fe -8Ni, Fe -12Mn materials are listed. The behaviour of carbon activity sensor signals in sodium under various transitional conditions and hydrodynamic perturbation in the circulating loop, containing carbon bearing impurities in the sodium flow and their deposits on the surfaces flushed by sodium, are described. (author)

  7. Development of a Neutron Flux Monitoring System for Sodium-cooled Fast Reactors

    OpenAIRE

    Verma, Vasudha

    2017-01-01

    Safety and reliability are one of the key objectives for future Generation IV nuclear energy systems. The neutron flux monitoring system forms an integral part of the safety design of a nuclear reactor and must be able to detect any irregularities during all states of reactor operation. The work in this thesis mainly concerns the detection of in-core perturbations arising from unwanted movements of control rods with in-vessel neutron detectors in a sodium-cooled fast reactor. Feasibility stud...

  8. Sodium alginate hydrogel-based bioprinting using a novel multinozzle bioprinting system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Seung-Joon; Choi, Jaesoon; Park, Yong-Doo; Hong, Soyoung; Lee, Jung Joo; Ahn, Chi Bum; Choi, Hyuk; Sun, Kyung

    2011-11-01

    Bioprinting is a technology for constructing bioartificial tissue or organs of complex three-dimensional (3-D) structure with high-precision spatial shape forming ability in larger scale than conventional tissue engineering methods and simultaneous multiple components composition ability. It utilizes computer-controlled 3-D printer mechanism or solid free-form fabrication technologies. In this study, sodium alginate hydrogel that can be utilized for large-dimension tissue fabrication with its fast gelation property was studied regarding material-specific printing technique and printing parameters using a multinozzle bioprinting system developed by the authors. A sodium alginate solution was prepared with a concentration of 1% (wt/vol), and 1% CaCl(2) solution was used as cross-linker for the gelation. The two materials were loaded in each of two nozzles in the multinozzle bioprinting system that has a total of four nozzles of which the injection speed can be independently controlled. A 3-D alginate structure was fabricated through layer-by-layer printing. Each layer was formed through two phases of printing, the first phase with the sodium alginate solution and the second phase with the calcium chloride solution, in identical printing pattern and speed condition. The target patterns were lattice shaped with 2-mm spacing and two different line widths. The nozzle moving speed was 6.67 mm/s, and the injection head speed was 10 µm/s. For the two different line widths, two injection needles with inner diameters of 260 and 410 µm were used. The number of layers accumulated was five in this experiment. By varying the nozzle moving speed and the injection speed, various pattern widths could be achieved. The feasibility of sodium alginate hydrogel free-form formation by alternate printing of alginate solution and sodium chloride solution was confirmed in the developed multinozzle bioprinting system. © 2011, Copyright the Authors. Artificial Organs © 2011, International

  9. Electrospun gelatin/sodium bicarbonate and poly(lactide-co-ε-caprolactone)/sodium bicarbonate nanofibers as drug delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Qingqing; Williams, Gareth R; Wu, Huanling; Liu, Kailin; Li, Heyu; Zhu, Li-Min

    2017-12-01

    In this work, we report electrospun nanofibers made of model hydrophobic (poly(lactide-co-ε-caprolactone); PLCL) and hydrophilic (gelatin) polymers. We explored the effect on drug release of the incorporation of sodium bicarbonate (SB) into these fibers, using the potent antibacterial agent ciprofloxacin as a model drug. The fibers prepared are smooth and have relatively uniform diameters lying between ca. 600 and 850nm. The presence of ciprofloxacin in the fibers was confirmed using IR spectroscopy. X-ray diffraction showed the drug to be incorporated into the fibers in the amorphous form. In vitro drug release studies revealed that, as expected, more rapid drug release was seen with gelatin fibers than those made of PLCL, and a greater final release percentage was obtained. The inclusion of SB in the gelatin fibers imparts them with pH sensitivity: gelatin/SB fibers showed faster release at pH5 than pH7.4, while fibers without SB gave the same release profiles at both pHs. The PLCL fibers have no pH sensitivity, even when SB was included, as a result of their hydrophobic structure precluding the ingress of solvent. In vitro cell culture studies showed that all the fibers are able to promote cell proliferation. The ciprofloxacin loaded fibers are effective in inhibiting Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus growth in antibacterial tests. Thus, the gelatin-based fibers can be used as pH-responsive drug delivery systems, with potential applications for instance in the treatment of tumor resection sites. Should these become infected, the pH would drop, resulting in ciprofloxacin being released and the infection halted. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Preliminary conceptual design of the secondary sodium circuit-eliminated JSFR (Japan Sodium Fast Reactor) adopting a supercritical CO2 turbine system (1). Sodium/CO2 heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kisohara, Naoyuki; Sakamoto, Yoshihiko; Kotake, Shoji

    2014-09-01

    Research and development of the supercritical CO 2 (S-CO 2 ) cycle turbine system is underway in various countries for further improvement of the safety and economy of sodium-cooled fast reactors. The Component Design and Balance-Of-Plant (CD and BOP) of the Generation IV International Nuclear Forum (Gen-IV) has addressed this study, and their analytical and experimental results have been discussed between the relevant countries. JAEA, who is a member of the CD and BOP, has performed a design study of an S-CO 2 gas turbine system applied to the Japan Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (JSFR). In this study, the S-CO 2 cycle turbine system was directly connected to the primary sodium system of the JSFR to eliminate the secondary sodium circuit, aiming for further economical improvement. This is because there is no risk of sodium-water reaction in the S-CO 2 cycle turbine system of SFRs. The Na/CO 2 heat exchanger is one of the key components for the secondary sodium system eliminated SFR, and this report describes its structure and the safety in case of CO 2 leak. A Printed Circuit Heat Exchanger (PCHE), which has a greater heat transfer performance, is employed to the heat exchanger. Another advantage of the PCHE is to limit the area affected by a leak of CO 2 because of its partitioned flow path structure. A SiC/SiC ceramic composite material is used for the PCHE to prevent crack growth and to reduce thermal stress. The Na/CO 2 heat exchanger has been designed in such a way that a number of small heat transfer modules are combined in the vessel in consideration of manufacture and repair. The primary sodium pump is installed in the center of the heat exchanger vessel. CO 2 leak events in the heat exchanger have been also evaluated, and it revealed that no significant effect has arisen on the core or the primary sodium boundary. (author)

  11. Study of lanthanum nitrate-sodium tetrametaphosphate-water system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emel'yanov, O.V.; Bojko, K.M.

    1978-01-01

    The system La(NO 3 ) 3 -Na 4 P 4 O 12 -H 2 O has been studied using the solubility method, pH- and conductometry. Found are subsequent formation of the main phases of alternate composition and neutral salt La 4 (P 4 O 12 ) 3 , which is solved in Na 4 P 4 O 12 excess which is a result of complex formation. The soluble complexes of the composition Na 5 [La(P 4 O 12 ) 2 ] are obtained. The extracted complexes are investigated using the methods of paper chromatography, thermography roentgenography and IR-spectroscopy

  12. Ion Dynamics Study of Potato Starch + Sodium Salts Electrolyte System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuhina Tiwari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of different anions, namely, SCN−, I−, and ClO4−, on the electrical properties of starch-based polymer electrolytes has been studied. Anion size and conductivity are having an inverse trend indicating systems to be predominantly anionic conductor. Impact of anion size and multiplet forming tendency is reflected in number of charge carriers and mobility, respectively. Ion dynamics study reveals the presence of different mechanisms in different frequency ranges. Interestingly, superlinear power law (SLPL is found to be present at <5 MHz frequency, which is further confirmed by dielectric data.

  13. Direct determination of arsenic in soil samples by fast pyrolysis–chemical vapor generation using sodium formate as a reductant followed by nondispersive atomic fluorescence spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, Xuchuan; Zhang, Jingya; Bu, Fanlong

    2015-09-01

    This new study shows for the first time that sodium formate can react with trace arsenic to form volatile species via fast pyrolysis – chemical vapor generation. We found that the presence of thiourea greatly enhanced the generation efficiency and eliminated the interference of copper. We studied the reaction temperature, the volume of sodium formate, the reaction acidity, and the carried argon rate using nondispersive atomic fluorescence spectrometry. Under optimal conditions of T = 500 °C, the volumes of 30% sodium formate and 10% thiourea were 0.2 ml and 0.05 ml, respectively. The carrier argon rate was 300 ml min{sup −1} and the detection limit and precision of arsenic were 0.39 ng and 3.25%, respectively. The amount of arsenic in soil can be directly determined by adding trace amount of hydrochloric acid as a decomposition reagent without any sample pretreatment. The method was successfully applied to determine trace amount of arsenic in two soil-certified reference materials (GBW07453 and GBW07450), and the results were found to be in agreement with certified reference values. - Highlights: • Sodium formate can react with trace arsenic to form volatile species via pyrolysis–chemical vapor generation. • Thiourea can enhance the generation efficiency and eliminate the interference of copper. • Arsenic in soil Sample can be directly determined without sample pretreatment.

  14. Study of lanthanum nitrate-sodium tetrametaphosphate-water system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emel' yanov, O V; Boiko, K M [Kievskii Gosudarstvennyj Univ. (Ukrainian SSR)

    1978-10-01

    The system La(NO/sub 3/)/sub 3/-Na/sub 4/P/sub 4/O/sub 12/-H/sub 2/O has been studied using the solubility method, pH- and conductometry. Found are subsequent formation of the main phases of alternate composition and neutral salt La/sub 4/(P/sub 4/O/sub 12/)/sub 3/, which is solved in Na/sub 4/P/sub 4/O/sub 12/ excess which is a result of complex formation. The soluble complexes of the composition Na/sub 5/(La(P/sub 4/O/sub 12/)/sub 2/) are obtained. The extracted complexes are investigated using the methods of paper chromatography, thermography roentgenography and IR-spectroscopy.

  15. Phase behavior, rheological characteristics and microstructure of sodium caseinate-Persian gum system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Farzad; Kadkhodaee, Rassoul; Emadzadeh, Bahareh; Phillips, Glyn O

    2018-01-01

    In this study, the phase behavior of sodium caseinate-Persian gum mixtures was investigated. The effect of thermodynamic incompatibility on phase distribution of sodium caseinate fractions as well as the flow behavior and microstructure of the biopolymer mixtures were also studied. The phase diagram clearly demonstrated the dominant effect of Persian gum on the incompatibility of the two biopolymers. SDS-PAGE electrophoresis indicated no selective fractionation of sodium caseinate subunits between equilibrium phases upon de-mixing. The microstructure of mixtures significantly changed depending on their position within the phase diagram. Fitting viscometric data to Cross and Bingham models revealed that the apparent viscosity, relaxation time and shear thinning behavior of the mixtures is greatly influenced by the volume ratio and concentration of the equilibrium phases. There is a strong dependence of the flow behavior of sodium caseinate-Persian gum mixtures on the composition of the equilibrium phases and the corresponding microstructure of the system. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Design study on simplification of secondary sodium cooling system for sodium cooled FBRs. Study result from JFY2000 to JFY2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hori, Toru; Kawasaki, Nobuchika; Konomura, Mamoru

    2002-09-01

    For the 'Feasibility Studies on Commercialized Fast Reactor System' , various concepts with the simplified secondary sodium cooling system were designed, and the feasibility of technical issues was evaluated by focusing on improvement of economy and safety, especially elimination or mitigation of sodium-water direct interaction on heat transfer tube failure accident. In JFY 2000, 8 concepts with inert intermediate media were evaluated from standpoints of economy, safety, and structure integrity. And as promising candidates, the Pb-Bi pool type SG and the Pb-Bi tube type SG (concentric triple-walled tube) were selected, which had low cost compared with conventional IHX and SG system, and had potential of eliminating sodium-water direct interaction by separation of sodium and water tube zone. In JFY 2001, for the Pb-Bi tube type SG, important technical issues on 'Pb-Bi triple-walled tube specification suitable for safety demand', 'safety frame work corresponded to tube failure accident', and 'measures for Pb-Bi leakage into primary sodium loop' were studied, and the SG concept was constructed. In order to eliminate the design supposition of guillotine failure, available design measures for tube specification were tried to extract. But based on vibration characteristics of Pb-Bi triple-walled tube, the time required difference between outer and inner tube failure could not increase largely compared with known double-walled tube. The Pb-Bi tube type SG had potential of cost reduction (81% of cooling system, and 97% of plant), compared with conventional IHX and SG. But finally it was judged that design study on this type SG would not be executed after JFY 2002, due to impossibility of eliminating the design supposition of guillotine failure. (author)

  17. Sampled Data Systems Passivity and Discrete Port-Hamiltonian Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stramigioli, Stefano; Secchi, Cristian; Schaft, Arjan J. van der; Fantuzzi, Cesare

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we present a novel way to approach the interconnection of a continuous and a discrete time physical system. This is done in a way which preserves passivity of the coupled system independently of the sampling time T. This strategy can be used both in the field of telemanipulation, for

  18. 1 kWe sodium borohydride hydrogen generation system Part II: Reactor modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Jinsong; Zheng, Yuan; Gore, Jay P; Mudawar, Issam; Fisher, Timothy

    2007-01-01

    Sodium borohydride (NaBH4) hydrogen storage systems offer many advantages for hydrogen storage applications. The physical processes inside a NaBH4 packed bed reactor involve multi-component and multi-phase flow and multi-mode heat and mass transfer. These processes are also coupled with reaction kinetics. To guide reactor design and optimization, a reactor model involving all of these processes is desired. A onedimensional numerical model in conjunction with the assumption of homogeneous cata...

  19. The vanadium/oxygen system in the analysis of sodium for oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, J.A.J.; Price, W.B.

    1981-05-01

    An investigation of the V-O-Na system at 1023 K is described for oxygen in sodium contents of 5 to 25 ppm. Electron spectroscopy combined with depth profiling is used to determine the vanadium/oxygen ratios inwards from the surface of vanadium foil and these ratios are compared with theoretical predictions. The validity of the vanadium wire technique as an analytical method is examined and a model for the vanadium oxidation is suggested. (author)

  20. Validation and Assessment of Three Methods to Estimate 24-h Urinary Sodium Excretion from Spot Urine Samples in High-Risk Elder Patients of Stroke from the Rural Areas of Shaanxi Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wenxia; Yin, Xuejun; Zhang, Ruijuan; Liu, Furong; Yang, Danrong; Fan, Yameng; Rong, Jie; Tian, Maoyi; Yu, Yan

    2017-10-11

    Background : 24-h urine collection is regarded as the "gold standard" for monitoring sodium intake at the population level, but ensuring high quality urine samples is difficult to achieve. The Kawasaki, International Study of Sodium, Potassium, and Blood Pressure (INTERSALT) and Tanaka methods have been used to estimate 24-h urinary sodium excretion from spot urine samples in some countries, but few studies have been performed to compare and validate these methods in the Chinese population. Objective : To compare and validate the Kawasaki, INTERSALT and Tanaka formulas in predicting 24-h urinary sodium excretion using spot urine samples in 365 high-risk elder patients of strokefrom the rural areas of Shaanxi province. Methods : Data were collected from a sub-sample of theSalt Substitute and Stroke Study. 365 high-risk elder patients of stroke from the rural areas of Shaanxi province participated and their spot and 24-h urine specimens were collected. The concentrations of sodium, potassium and creatinine in spot and 24-h urine samples wereanalysed. Estimated 24-h sodium excretion was predicted from spot urine concentration using the Kawasaki, INTERSALT, and Tanaka formulas. Pearson correlation coefficients and agreement by Bland-Altman method were computed for estimated and measured 24-h urinary sodium excretion. Results : The average 24-h urinary sodium excretion was 162.0 mmol/day, which representing a salt intake of 9.5 g/day. Three predictive equations had low correlation with the measured 24-h sodium excretion (r = 0.38, p h sodium excretion were observed (all p h sodium excretion. Conclusion : The Kawasaki, INTERSALT and Tanaka methods for estimation of 24-h urinary sodium excretion from spot urine specimens were inadequate for the assessment of sodium intake at the population level in high-risk elder patients of stroke from the rural areas of Shaanxi province, although the Kawasaki method was the least biased compared with the other two methods.

  1. Report and analysis on 'PR and PP evaluation. Example sodium fast reactor full system case study'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagara, Hiroshi; Inoue, Naoko; Kawakubo, Yoko; Watahiki, Masaru

    2011-01-01

    The Generation IV (GEN IV) Nuclear Energy Systems International Forum (GIF) Proliferation Resistance and Physical Protection Working Group (PRPP WG) was established in December 2002 in order to develop the PR and valuation methodology for GEN IV nuclear energy systems. In the final report of 'PR and PP Evaluation: Example Sodium Fast Reactor (ESFR) Full System Case Study,' issued in October 2009, the demonstration study of PR and PP evaluation with the qualitative approach are summarized using ESFR with four scenario threats. The present paper reviews and analyzes some results of the ESFR case study, and identifies the challenges and direction for the PR and PP evaluation methodology with quantitative approach. (author)

  2. Aerobot Sampling and Handling System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Honeybee Robotics proposes to: ?Derive and document the functional and technical requirements for Aerobot surface sampling and sample handling across a range of...

  3. Windows base sodium liquid high-speed measuring system software development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolokol'tsev, M.V.

    2005-01-01

    This work describes software creation process, that allows to realize data capture from the sodium liquid parameter measuring system, information processing and imaging in the real-time operation mode, retrieval, visualization and documentation of the information in post-startup period as well. Nonstandard decision is described: creation of high-speed data capture system, based on Windows and relatively inexpensive hardware component. Technical description (enterprise classes, interface elements) of the developed and introduced enclosures, realizing data capture and post-startup information visualization are given. (author)

  4. Comparison of the Remineralizing Effects of Sodium Fluoride and Bioactive Glass Using Bioerodible Gel Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attiguppe Ramashetty Prabhakar

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. A carious lesion is the accumulation of numerous episodes of de- and remineralization, rather than a unidirectional demineralization process. Tooth destruction can be arrested or reversed by the frequent delivery of fluoride or calcium/phosphorous ions to the tooth surface. The present study compared and evaluated the remineralization potential of sodium fluoride and bioactive glass delivered through a bioerodible gel system. Materials and methods. Longitudinal sections of artificial carious lesions, created at the gingivofacial surface of 64 primary maxillary incisors were photographed under a polarized light microscope and quantified for demineralization. The sections were repositioned into the tooth form and randomly mounted in sets of four that simulated an arch form. The teeth were divided into 4 groups: 1 sodium fluoride films, 2 bioactive glass films, 3 control films placed interproximally and 4 nontreatment group. Following exposure to artificial saliva for 30 days, the lesions were again photographed and quantified as above. The recorded values were statistically analyzed using Student’s paired t-test for intragroup comparison, one-way ANOVA and Post-Hoc Tukey’s test for pairwise comparison. Results. The sodium fluoride and bioactive gel groups showed significant remineralization compared with the control groups (P < 0.001. Conclusion. Bioerodible gel films can be used to deliver remineralizing agents to enhance remineralization.

  5. Conceptual design of advanced central receiver power systems sodium-cooled receiver concept. Volume 2, Book 2. Appendices. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-03-01

    The appendices include: (A) design data sheets and P and I drawing for 100-MWe commercial plant design, for all-sodium storage concept; (B) design data sheets and P and I drawing for 100-MWe commercial plant design, for air-rock bed storage concept; (C) electric power generating water-steam system P and I drawing and equipment list, 100-MWe commercial plant design; (D) design data sheets and P and I drawing for 281-MWe commercial plant design; (E) steam generator system conceptual design; (F) heat losses from solar receiver surface; (G) heat transfer and pressure drop for rock bed thermal storage; (H) a comparison of alternative ways of recovering the hydraulic head from the advanced solar receiver tower; (I) central receiver tower study; (J) a comparison of mechanical and electromagnetic sodium pumps; (K) pipe routing study of sodium downcomer; and (L) sodium-cooled advanced central receiver system simulation model. (WHK)

  6. Efficacy of systemic diclofenac sodium on intravitreal concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panahi, Yunes; Naderi, Mostafa; Jadidi, Khosrow; Hoseini, Hadise; Abrishami, Mojtaba

    2018-02-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), as an alternative, are replacing corticosteroids in ocular inflammatory diseases. Diclofenac has been used mainly topically, and recent focus has been on intravitreal delivery. Both of these methods have been shown to have complications in long-term application. To assess the efficacy of slow release oral diclofenac sodium on intravitreal concentration in experimental model of chemically injured eyes. In an experimental double-masked clinical trial, right eyes of 24 albino rabbits were chemically injured by 1 N NaOH. One hour after chemical injury, 10 cc suspension gavage containing 100 mg slow release diclofenac sodium was administered in all cases. 2, 4, 6, 12, 24, 48 h after gavage, vitreous samples were obtained in all cases. Intravitreal concentration of diclofenac sodium was evaluated in all samples using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. Intravitreal diclofenac levels by oral intake were enhanced by the inflammation in all the measurements. In inflamed eyes, diclofenac concentration was ten times more than control eye (2.658 ± 0.344 vs. 0.242 ± 0.0279 and 1.617 ± 0.527 vs. 0.148 ± 0.095; in 2 and 4 h, respectively). After 6 h, diclofenac concentration was statistically different, although it reduced below 1 μg/ml. Diclofenac is delivered to the inflamed eye more than healthy eye. It seems that by oral diclofenac consumption, it is possible to make a significant intravitreal concentration.

  7. EBR-II secondary sodium loop Plugging Temperature Indicator control system upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, R.B.; Gehrman, R.L.

    1995-01-01

    The Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) secondary sodium coolant loop Plugging Temperature Indicator (PTI) control system was upgraded in 1993 to a real-time computer based system. This was done to improve control, to remove obsolete and high maintenance equipment, and to provide a graphical CRT based operator interface. A goal was to accomplish this inexpensively using small, reliable computer and display hardware with a minimum of purchased software. This paper describes the PTI system, the upgraded control system and its operator interface, and development methods and tools. The paper then assesses how well the system met its goals, discusses lessons learned and operational improvements noted, and provides some recommendations and suggestions on applying small real-time control systems of this type

  8. Sodium deoxycholate-decorated zein nanoparticles for a stable colloidal drug delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagliardi, Agnese; Paolino, Donatella; Iannone, Michelangelo; Palma, Ernesto; Fresta, Massimo; Cosco, Donato

    2018-01-01

    The use of biopolymers is increasing in drug delivery, thanks to the peculiar properties of these compounds such as their biodegradability, availability, and the possibility of modulating their physico-chemical characteristics. In particular, protein-based systems such as albumin are able to interact with many active compounds, modulating their biopharmaceutical properties. Zein is a protein of 20-40 kDa made up of many hydrophobic amino acids, generally regarded as safe (GRAS) and used as a coating material. In this investigation, zein was combined with various surfactants in order to obtain stable nanosystems by means of the nanoprecipitation technique. Specific parameters, eg, temperature, pH value, Turbiscan Stability Index, serum stability, in vitro cytotoxicity and entrapment efficiency of various model compounds were investigated, in order to identify the nanoformulation most useful for a systemic drug delivery application. The use of non-ionic and ionic surfactants such as Tween 80, poloxamer 188, and sodium deoxycholate allowed us to obtain nanoparticles characterized by a mean diameter of 100-200 nm when a protein concentration of 2 mg/mL was used. The surface charge was modulated by means of the protein concentration and the nature of the stabilizer. The most suitable nanoparticle formulation to be proposed as a colloidal drug delivery system was obtained using sodium deoxycholate (1.25% w/v) because it was characterized by a narrow size distribution, a good storage stability after freeze-drying and significant feature of retaining lipophilic and hydrophilic compounds. The sodium deoxycholate-coated zein nanoparticles are stable biocompatible colloidal carriers to be used as useful drug delivery systems.

  9. Sodium technology at EBR-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, J.T.; Smith, C.R.F.; Olson, W.H.

    1976-01-01

    Since the installation of purity monitoring systems in 1967, the control of the purity of the primary and secondary sodium and cover gas systems at the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) has been excellent. A rigorous monitoring program is being used to assure that operating limits for more than 25 chemical and radioactive impurities are not exceeded. The program involves the use of sophisticated sampling and analysis techniques and on-line monitors for both sodium and cover gas systems. Sodium purity control is accomplished by essentially continuous cold trapping of a small side stream of the total circulating sodium. The cold traps have been found to be very effective for the removal of the major chemical impurities (oxygen and hydrogen) and tritium but are almost ineffective for 131 I and 137 Cs that enter the sodium from fuel cladding breaks. Purging with pure argon maintains the cover gas purity

  10. A Geology Sampling System for Small Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naids, Adam J.; Hood, Anthony D.; Abell, Paul; Graff, Trevor; Buffington, Jesse

    2016-01-01

    Human exploration of microgravity bodies is being investigated as a precursor to a Mars surface mission. Asteroids, comets, dwarf planets, and the moons of Mars all fall into this microgravity category and some are being discussed as potential mission targets. Obtaining geological samples for return to Earth will be a major objective for any mission to a small body. Currently, the knowledge base for geology sampling in microgravity is in its infancy. Humans interacting with non-engineered surfaces in microgravity environment pose unique challenges. In preparation for such missions a team at the NASA Johnson Space Center has been working to gain experience on how to safely obtain numerous sample types in such an environment. This paper describes the type of samples the science community is interested in, highlights notable prototype work, and discusses an integrated geology sampling solution.

  11. A Geology Sampling System for Microgravity Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Anthony; Naids, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Human exploration of microgravity bodies is being investigated as a precursor to a Mars surface mission. Asteroids, comets, dwarf planets, and the moons of Mars all fall into this microgravity category and some are been discussed as potential mission targets. Obtaining geological samples for return to Earth will be a major objective for any mission to a microgravity body. Currently the knowledge base for geology sampling in microgravity is in its infancy. Humans interacting with non-engineered surfaces in microgravity environment pose unique challenges. In preparation for such missions a team at the NASA Johnson Space Center has been working to gain experience on how to safely obtain numerous sample types in such an environment. This paper describes the type of samples the science community is interested in, highlights notable prototype work, and discusses an integrated geology sampling solution.

  12. Determination of the sodium, aluminium, potassium, manganese, magnesium, bromine, cadmium and chlorine concentration values in the whole blood samples of human cancer using neutron activation analysis facility of the second Egyptian research reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. F. Soliman

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Neutron activation analysis (NAA using the Second Egyptian Research Reactor (ETRR-2 has been utilized to analyze whole blood samples. The National Cancer Institute of Egypt provided us with 18 blood samples (11 breast, 2 prostate, 2 colon, 1 pancreatic, 1 ovarian and a random sample of normal person to estimate the concentration values of Sodium, Aluminium, Potassium, Manganese, Magnesium, Bromine, Chlorine. The pneumatic irradiation rabbit system (PIRS built in the vertical thermal column of the ETRR-2 reactor is used for short time irradiation at constant power. Elemental concentrations were estimated from measurements of the gamma-ray spectra of the product short lived isotopes in the samples. The calculated thermal to epithermal neutron flux ratio was found to be 196 at irradiation position. The tabulated concentrations were calculated by using k0-neutron activation analysis (k0NAA standardization method.

  13. Determination of inorganic mercury and total mercury in biological and environmental samples by flow injection-cold vapor-atomic absorption spectrometry using sodium borohydride as the sole reducing agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rio Segade, Susana; Tyson, Julian F.

    2003-01-01

    A simple, fast, precise and accurate method to determine inorganic mercury and total mercury in biological and environmental samples was developed. The optimized flow-injection mercury system permitted the separate determination of inorganic mercury and total mercury using sodium borohydride as reducing agent. Inorganic mercury was selectively determined after reduction with 10 -4 % w/v sodium borohydride, while total mercury was determined after reduction with 0.75% w/v sodium borohydride. The calibration graphs were linear up to 30 ng ml -1 . The detection limits of the method based on three times the standard deviation of the blank were 24 and 3.9 ng l -1 for total mercury and inorganic mercury determination, respectively. The relative standard deviation was less than 1.5% for a 10 ng ml -1 mercury standard. As a means of checking method performance, deionized water and pond water samples were spiked with methylmercury and inorganic mercury; quantitative recovery for total mercury and inorganic mercury was obtained. The accuracy of the method was verified by analyzing alkaline and acid extracts of five biological and sediment reference materials. Microwave-assisted extraction procedures resulted in higher concentrations of recovered mercury species, lower matrix interference with mercury determination and less time involved in sample treatment than conventional extraction procedures. The standard addition method was only needed for calibration when biological samples were analyzed. The detection limits were in the range of 1.2-19 and 6.6-18 ng g -1 in biological and sediment samples for inorganic mercury and total mercury determination, respectively

  14. Sample Return Systems for Extreme Environments

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In Phase I we were able to demonstrate that sample return missions utilizing high velocity penetrators (0.1- 1 km/s) could provide substantial new capabilities for...

  15. Standardized sampling system for reactor coolants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Divine, J.R.; Munson, L.F.; Nelson, J.L.; McDowell, R.L.; Jankowski, M.W.

    1982-09-01

    A three-pronged approach was developed to reach the objectives of acceptable coolant sampling, assessment of occupational exposure from corrosion products, and model development for the transport and buildup of corrosion products. Emphasis is on sampler design

  16. Sample Return Systems for Extreme Environments

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed work seeks to design, develop and test a hard impact penetrator/sampler that can withstand the hard impact and enable the sample to be returned to...

  17. A molecular dynamics simulation of sodium pentadecyl sulphonate (SPDS)/water system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsenyan, L.H.; Poghosyan, A.H.; Shahinyan, A.A.

    2008-07-01

    We have carried out a molecular dynamics simulation of a sodium pentadecylsulfonate (SPDS)/water system consisting of 64PDS/1200water and 512PDS/9000water molecules, correspondingly. The overall simulation time for both cases reaches up to 60ns and the simulation was performed using the NAMD code with CHARMM27 force field. The main parameters of the system have been calculated and compared with available X-ray diffraction findings. For large system, after a couple of ns, we receive the molecule's hydrocarbon chains tilt in the opposite sense in layers and reducing the system size leads to the decrease of the average angle between bilayer normal and chain vector. At the end of 50ns of a simulation run we achieve the crystalline-like structure of hydrocarbon packing. For both cases, we obtain tilted hydrocarbon chains packing and the average angle between bilayer normal and chain vector is estimated to be about 13 deg. and 10 deg. (author)

  18. Design Evaluation of a Piping System in the SELFA Sodium Test Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Seok-Kwon; Jo, Young-Chul; Lee, Hyeong-Yeon; Jeong, Ji-Young [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    In this study, design evaluations on the SELFA piping system has been conducted according to the ASME B31.1 and RCC-MRx RD-3600. The conservatism of the two codes was quantified based on the evaluation results. It was shown that B31.1 was more conservative for the sustained loads while less conservative for thermal expansion loads when compare with those of RD-3600. However, all the evaluation results according to the two codes were within the code allowables. There are two main piping systems in the SELFA test loop. In this study, the integrity of the SELFA piping system has been evaluated according to the two design-by-rule (DBR) codes of ASME B31.1 and RCC-MRx RD-3600. B31.1 is an industry design code for power piping while RD-3600 is a class 3 nuclear DBR code. The conservatism of the two codes was quantified based on the evaluation results as per the two DBR codes. The sodium test facility of the SELFA is under construction at KAERI for the investigation of thermo-hydraulic behavior of finned-tube sodium-to-air heat exchanger.

  19. The Corrosion Inhibition Characteristics of Sodium Nitrite Using an On-line Corrosion Rate Measurement System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Mal-Yong; Kang, Dae-Jin; Moon, Jeon-Soo

    2015-01-01

    An on-line corrosion rate measurement system was developed using a personal computer, a data acquisition board and program, and a 2-electrode corrosion probe. Reliability of the developed system was confirmed with through comparison test. With this system, the effect of sodium nitrite (NaNO 2 ) as a corrosion inhibitor were studied on iron and aluminum brass that were immersed in sodium chloride (NaCl) solution. Corrosion rate was measured based on the linear polarization resistance method. The corrosion rates of aluminum brass and iron in 1% NaCl solutions were measured to be 0.290 mm per year (mmpy) and 0.2134 mmpy, respectively. With the addition of 200 ppm of NO 2 - , the corrosion rates decreased to 0.0470 mmpy and 0.0254 mmpy. The addition of NO 2 - caused a decrease in corrosion rates of both aluminum brass and iron, yet the NO 2 - acted as a more effective corrosion inhibitor for iron. than aluminum brass

  20. Liquid sodium technology research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, W.C.; Lee, Y.W.; Nam, H.Y.; Chun, S.Y.; Kim, J.; Won, S.Y.

    1982-01-01

    This report describes the technology of impurity control and measurement of liquid sodium, problems associated with material degradation and change of heat transfer characteristics in liquid sodium, and the conceptual design of multipurpose sodium test loop. Discussion and the subsequent analysis are also made with regard to the test results for the sodium-H 2 0 reaction and its effects on the system. (author)

  1. Rapid surface sampling and archival record system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barren, E.; Penney, C.M.; Sheldon, R.B. [GE Corporate Research and Development Center, Schenectady, NY (United States)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    A number of contamination sites exist in this country where the area and volume of material to be remediated is very large, approaching or exceeding 10{sup 6} m{sup 2} and 10{sup 6} m{sup 3}. Typically, only a small fraction of this material is actually contaminated. In such cases there is a strong economic motivation to test the material with a sufficient density of measurements to identify which portions are uncontaminated, so extensively they be left in place or be disposed of as uncontaminated waste. Unfortunately, since contamination often varies rapidly from position to position, this procedure can involve upwards of one million measurements per site. The situation is complicated further in many cases by the difficulties of sampling porous surfaces, such as concrete. This report describes a method for sampling concretes in which an immediate distinction can be made between contaminated and uncontaminated surfaces. Sample acquisition and analysis will be automated.

  2. Analytical Chemistry Division's sample transaction system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanton, J.S.; Tilson, P.A.

    1980-10-01

    The Analytical Chemistry Division uses the DECsystem-10 computer for a wide range of tasks: sample management, timekeeping, quality assurance, and data calculation. This document describes the features and operating characteristics of many of the computer programs used by the Division. The descriptions are divided into chapters which cover all of the information about one aspect of the Analytical Chemistry Division's computer processing

  3. DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF MUCOADHESIVE DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM OF MONTELUKAST SODIUM

    OpenAIRE

    N. G. Raghavendra Rao; V. B. Suryakar

    2011-01-01

    The Montelukast sodium is a leukotrine receptor antagonist used for the maintenance treatment of asthma, chronic asthma attacks and to relieve symptoms of seasonal allergies. The biological half life of montelukast sodium is 2.5 to 5.5 hrs and poor bioavailability upto 64%. Because of poor bioavailability of montelukast sodium by oral route, there is a need to increase its bioavailability by formulating it into buccal dosage forms. Hence, montelukast sodium is a suitable drug for buccal dosa...

  4. Performance test of SAUNA xenon mobile sampling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Dan; Yang Bin; Yang Weigeng; Jia Huaimao; Wang Shilian; Li Qi; Zhao Yungang; Fan Yuanqing; Chen Zhanying; Chang Yinzhong; Liu Shujiang; Zhang Xinjun; Wang Jun

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the structure and basic functions of SAUNA noble gas xenon mobile sampling system are introduced. The sampling capability of this system is about 2.2 mL per day, as a result from a 684-h operation. The system can be transported to designated locations conveniently to collect xenon sample for routine or emergency environment monitoring. (authors)

  5. Sodium separation from the cover gas system of the PEC reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antoni, R.; Picone, G.; Valentini, P.; Bandiera, P.G.; Barilli, L.

    1977-01-01

    The problem of separation of sodium vapours and aerosols from argon was studied. The study generally dealt with the realisation and application on the CNEN sodium loops of sodium vapour traps, which normally have a discontinuous working and treat limited argon flow. Those experiences were utilised for NIRA industrial applications. A possible application of these type of traps was shown for the PEC reactor

  6. Overall system description and safety characteristics of Prototype Gen IV Sodium Cooled Fast Reactor in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Jae Woon; Chang, Jin Wook; Lim, Jae Yong; Cheon, Jin Sik; Lee, Tae Ho; Kim, Sung Kyun; Lee, Kwi Lim; Joo, Hyung Kook

    2016-01-01

    The Prototype Gen IV sodium cooled fast reactor (PGSFR) has been developed for the last 4 years, fulfilling the technology demonstration of the burning capability of transuranic elements included in light water reactor spent nuclear fuel. The PGSFR design has been focused on the robustness of safety systems by enhancing inherent safety characteristics of metal fuel and strengthening passive safety features using natural circulation and thermal expansion. The preliminary safety information document as a major outcome of the first design phase of PGSFR development was issued at the end of 2015. The project entered the second design phase at the beginning of 2016. This paper summarizes the overall structures, systems, and components of nuclear steam supply system and safety characteristics of the PGSFR. The research and development activities to demonstrate the safety performance are also briefly introduced in the paper

  7. Overall System Description and Safety Characteristics of Prototype Gen IV Sodium Cooled Fast Reactor in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaewoon Yoo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The Prototype Gen IV sodium cooled fast reactor (PGSFR has been developed for the last 4 years, fulfilling the technology demonstration of the burning capability of transuranic elements included in light water reactor spent nuclear fuel. The PGSFR design has been focused on the robustness of safety systems by enhancing inherent safety characteristics of metal fuel and strengthening passive safety features using natural circulation and thermal expansion. The preliminary safety information document as a major outcome of the first design phase of PGSFR development was issued at the end of 2015. The project entered the second design phase at the beginning of 2016. This paper summarizes the overall structures, systems, and components of nuclear steam supply system and safety characteristics of the PGSFR. The research and development activities to demonstrate the safety performance are also briefly introduced in the paper.

  8. Development of the Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor R and D and Technology Monitoring System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dong Uk; Won, Byung Chool; Kim, Young In; Hahn, Do Hee

    2008-01-01

    This study presents a R and D performance monitoring system that is applicable for managing the generation IV sodium-cooled fast reactor development. The prime goal of this system is to furnish project manager with reliable and accurate information of status of progress, performance and resource allocation, and attain traceability and visibility of project implementation for effective project management. In this study, the work breakdown structure, the related schedule and the expected outputs were established to derive the interfaces between projects and the above parameters was loaded PCs. The R and D performance monitoring system is composed of about 750 R and D activities within 'Development of Basic Key Technologies for Gen IV SFR' project in 2007. The Microsoft Project Professional software was used to monitor the progress, evaluate the results and analyze the resource distribution to activities

  9. Development of the Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor R and D and Technology Monitoring System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dong Uk; Won, Byung Chool; Kim, Young In; Hahn, Do Hee

    2008-01-15

    This study presents a R and D performance monitoring system that is applicable for managing the generation IV sodium-cooled fast reactor development. The prime goal of this system is to furnish project manager with reliable and accurate information of status of progress, performance and resource allocation, and attain traceability and visibility of project implementation for effective project management. In this study, the work breakdown structure, the related schedule and the expected outputs were established to derive the interfaces between projects and the above parameters was loaded PCs. The R and D performance monitoring system is composed of about 750 R and D activities within 'Development of Basic Key Technologies for Gen IV SFR' project in 2007. The Microsoft Project Professional software was used to monitor the progress, evaluate the results and analyze the resource distribution to activities.

  10. Vibration analysis for IHTS piping system of LMR conveying hot liquid sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, Gyeong Hoi; Lee, Hyeong Yeon; Lee, Jae Han

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, the vibration characteristics of IHTS(Intermediate Heat Transfer System) piping system of LMR(Liquid Metal Reactor) conveying hot liquid sodium are investigated to eliminate the pipe supports for economic reasons. To do this, a 3-dimensional straight pipe element and a curved pipe element conveying fluid are formulated using the dynamic stiffness method of the wave approach and coded to be applied to any complex piping system. Using this method, the dynamic characteristics including the natural frequency, the frequency response functions, and the dynamic instability due to the pipe internal flow velocity are analyzed. As one of the design parameters, the vibration energy flow is also analyzed to investigate the disturbance transmission paths for the resonant excitation and the non-resonant excitations

  11. Systems and methods for self-synchronized digital sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, Jr., John R. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    Systems and methods for self-synchronized data sampling are provided. In one embodiment, a system for capturing synchronous data samples is provided. The system includes an analog to digital converter adapted to capture signals from one or more sensors and convert the signals into a stream of digital data samples at a sampling frequency determined by a sampling control signal; and a synchronizer coupled to the analog to digital converter and adapted to receive a rotational frequency signal from a rotating machine, wherein the synchronizer is further adapted to generate the sampling control signal, and wherein the sampling control signal is based on the rotational frequency signal.

  12. User's manual of BISHOP. A Bi-Phase, Sodium-Hydrogen-Oxygen system, chemical equilibrium calculation program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okano, Yasushi; Yamaguchi, Akira

    2001-07-01

    In an event of sodium leakage in liquid metal fast breeder reactors, liquid sodium flows out of piping, and droplet combustion might occur under a certain environmental condition. The combustion heat and reaction products should be evaluated in the sodium fire analysis codes for investigating the influence of the sodium leak age and fire incident. In order to analyze the reaction heat and products, the multi-phase chemical equilibrium calculation program for a sodium, oxygen and hydrogen system has been developed. The developed numerical program is named BISHOP, which denotes 'Bi-Phase, Sodium-Hydrogen-Oxygen, Chemical Equilibrium Calculation Program'. The Gibbs free energy minimization method is used because of the following advantages. Chemical species are easily added and changed. A variety of thermodynamic states, such as isothermal and isentropic changes, can be dealt with in addition to constant temperature and pressure processes. In applying the free energy minimization method to solve the multi-phase sodium reaction system, three new numerical calculation techniques are developed. One is theoretical simplification of phase description in equation system, the other is to extend the Gibbs free energy minimization method to a multi-phase system, and the last is to establish the efficient search for the minimum value. The reaction heat and products at the equilibrium state can be evaluated from the initial conditions, such as temperature, pressure and reactants, using BISHOP. This report describes the thermochemical basis of chemical equilibrium calculations, the system of equations, simplification models, and the procedure to prepare input data and usage of BISHOP. (author)

  13. Consensus of heterogeneous multi-agent systems based on sampled data with a small sampling delay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Na; Wu Zhi-Hai; Peng Li

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, consensus problems of heterogeneous multi-agent systems based on sampled data with a small sampling delay are considered. First, a consensus protocol based on sampled data with a small sampling delay for heterogeneous multi-agent systems is proposed. Then, the algebra graph theory, the matrix method, the stability theory of linear systems, and some other techniques are employed to derive the necessary and sufficient conditions guaranteeing heterogeneous multi-agent systems to asymptotically achieve the stationary consensus. Finally, simulations are performed to demonstrate the correctness of the theoretical results. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  14. Methodology for Extraction of Remaining Sodium of Used Sodium Containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Minhwan; Kim, Jongman; Cho, Youngil; Jeong, Jiyoung

    2014-01-01

    Sodium used as a coolant in the SFR (Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor) reacts easily with most elements due to its high reactivity. If sodium at high temperature leaks outside of a system boundary and makes contact with oxygen, it starts to burn and toxic aerosols are produced. In addition, it generates flammable hydrogen gas through a reaction with water. Hydrogen gas can be explosive within the range of 4.75 vol%. Therefore, the sodium should be handled carefully in accordance with standard procedures even though there is a small amount of target sodium remainings inside the containers and drums used for experiment. After the experiment, all sodium experimental apparatuses should be dismantled carefully through a series of draining, residual sodium extraction, and cleaning if they are no longer reused. In this work, a system for the extraction of the remaining sodium of used sodium drums has been developed and an operation procedure for the system has been established. In this work, a methodology for the extraction of remaining sodium out of the used sodium container has been developed as one of the sodium facility maintenance works. The sodium extraction system for remaining sodium of the used drums was designed and tested successfully. This work will contribute to an establishment of sodium handling technology for PGSFR. (Prototype Gen-IV Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor)

  15. Validation and Assessment of Three Methods to Estimate 24-h Urinary Sodium Excretion from Spot Urine Samples in High-Risk Elder Patients of Stroke from the Rural Areas of Shaanxi Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenxia Ma

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: 24-h urine collection is regarded as the “gold standard” for monitoring sodium intake at the population level, but ensuring high quality urine samples is difficult to achieve. The Kawasaki, International Study of Sodium, Potassium, and Blood Pressure (INTERSALT and Tanaka methods have been used to estimate 24-h urinary sodium excretion from spot urine samples in some countries, but few studies have been performed to compare and validate these methods in the Chinese population. Objective: To compare and validate the Kawasaki, INTERSALT and Tanaka formulas in predicting 24-h urinary sodium excretion using spot urine samples in 365 high-risk elder patients of strokefrom the rural areas of Shaanxi province. Methods: Data were collected from a sub-sample of theSalt Substitute and Stroke Study. 365 high-risk elder patients of stroke from the rural areas of Shaanxi province participated and their spot and 24-h urine specimens were collected. The concentrations of sodium, potassium and creatinine in spot and 24-h urine samples wereanalysed. Estimated 24-h sodium excretion was predicted from spot urine concentration using the Kawasaki, INTERSALT, and Tanaka formulas. Pearson correlation coefficients and agreement by Bland-Altman method were computed for estimated and measured 24-h urinary sodium excretion. Results: The average 24-h urinary sodium excretion was 162.0 mmol/day, which representing a salt intake of 9.5 g/day. Three predictive equations had low correlation with the measured 24-h sodium excretion (r = 0.38, p < 0.01; ICC = 0.38, p < 0.01 for the Kawasaki; r = 0.35, p < 0.01; ICC = 0.31, p < 0.01 for the INTERSALT; r = 0.37, p < 0.01; ICC = 0.34, p < 0.01 for the Tanaka. Significant biases between estimated and measured 24-h sodium excretion were observed (all p < 0.01 for three methods. Among the three methods, the Kawasaki method was the least biased compared with the other two methods (mean bias: 31.90, 95% Cl: 23.84, 39

  16. Fluid sample collection and distribution system. [qualitative analysis of aqueous samples from several points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, R. L. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A multipoint fluid sample collection and distribution system is provided wherein the sample inputs are made through one or more of a number of sampling valves to a progressive cavity pump which is not susceptible to damage by large unfiltered particles. The pump output is through a filter unit that can provide a filtered multipoint sample. An unfiltered multipoint sample is also provided. An effluent sample can be taken and applied to a second progressive cavity pump for pumping to a filter unit that can provide one or more filtered effluent samples. The second pump can also provide an unfiltered effluent sample. Means are provided to periodically back flush each filter unit without shutting off the whole system.

  17. Salt (sodium chloride) content of retail samples of Nigerian white bread: implications for the daily salt intake of normotensive and hypertensive adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwanguma, B C; Okorie, C H

    2013-10-01

    Bread has been identified as a major contributor to the excessive salt (sodium chloride) intake of consumers in many countries, some of which have very high incidences of hypertension and related cardiovascular complications, such as stroke. This has prompted a global rise in interest in the salt content of breads produced and consumed in many other countries. The sodium contents of retail samples of 100 brands of Nigerian white bread were determined by photometry with a view to estimating the relative contribution of bread to the recommended daily sodium intake of both normotensive and hypertensive adults in the country. The salt content of the bread samples varied extensively, ranging from 0.51 g per 100 g (0.51%) to 1.8 g per 100 g (1.8%). The average salt content was 1.36 g per 100 g. Based on an estimated consumption of six slices of bread (about 180 g) per meal of bread, this equates to a daily intake of between 0.99 g and 3.33 g of salt from bread alone. This represents between 19.8% and 66.6% of the recommended daily allowance of 5 g for normotensive adults, and between 24.75% and 83.25% of the recommended daily allowance of 4 g for hypertensive adults. The consumption of some brands of bread by normotensive and hypertensive adults puts them at great risk of exceeding their recommended daily allowance for salt. Thus, there is an urgent need to regulate the amount of salt added to bread. In the interim, compelling bakers to declare the salt content of their products on the packaging could help consumers, especially hypertensive adults, avoid brands with a high salt content. © 2013 The Authors Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  18. Sodium fill of FFTF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waldo, J.B.; Greenwell, R.K.; Keasling, T.A.; Collins, J.R.; Klos, D.B.

    1980-02-01

    With construction of the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) completed, the first major objective in the startup program was to fill the sodium systems. A sodium fill sequence was developed to match construction completion, and as systems became available, they were inerted, preheated, and filled with sodium. The secondary sodium systems were filled first while dry refueling system testing was in progress in the reactor vessel. The reactor vessel and the primary loops were filled last. This paper describes the methods used and some of the key results achieved for this major FFTF objective

  19. Sample preparation system for microfluidic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosier, Bruce P [San Francisco, CA; Crocker, Robert W [Fremont, CA; Patel, Kamlesh D [Dublin, CA; Harnett, Cindy K [Livermore, CA

    2007-05-08

    An apparatus that couples automated injection with flow feedback to provide nanoliter accuracy in controlling microliter volumes. The apparatus comprises generally a source of hydraulic fluid pressure, a fluid isolator joined to the outlet of the hydraulic pressure source and a flow sensor to provide pressure-driven analyte metering. For operation generally and particularly in microfluidic systems the hydraulic pressure source is typically an electrokinetic (EK) pump that incorporates gasless electrodes. The apparatus is capable of metering sub-microliter volumes at flowrates of 1 100 .mu.L/min into microsystem load pressures of up to 1000 50 psi, respectively. Flowrates can be specified within 0.5 .mu.L/min and volumes as small as 80 nL can be metered.

  20. Comparative evaluation of topical Sodium fusidate cream in common pyodermas with topical gentamicin ointment and systemic antibiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy AK

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: One hundred cases of common pyodermas consisting of four groups, namely impetigo, furunculosis and chronic folliculitis were taken. Each group containing twenty five cases were divided again into three subgroups. From each group, 15 were treated with 2 percent Sodium fusidate cream, 5 were with 0.1 percent Gentamycin sulphate cream and the rest 5 with systemic Erythromycin stearate. In the group of Impetigo, Bockhart′s Impetigo and Furunculosis, topical Sodium fusidate cream showed excellent result, better than Gentamycin topical and equal to that of systemic Erythromycin stearate.

  1. Lagoa Real design. Description and evaluation of sampling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashizume, B.K.

    1982-10-01

    This report describes the samples preparation system of drilling from Lagoa Real Design, aiming obtainment representative fraction of the half from drilling outlier. The error of sampling + analysis and analytical accuracy was obtainment by delayed neutron analysis. (author)

  2. Extreme Environment Sampling System Deployment Mechanism, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Future Venus or Comet mission architectures may feature robotic sampling systems comprised of a Sampling Tool and Deployment Mechanism. Since 2005, Honeybee has been...

  3. Agreement of the Kato-Katz test established by the WHO with samples fixed with sodium acetate analyzed at 6 months to diagnose intestinal geohelminthes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfredo Fernández-Niño, Julián; David Ramírez, Juan; Consuelo López, Myriam; Inés Moncada, Ligia; Reyes, Patricia; Darío Heredia, Rubén

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of the Kato-Katz test (WHO version) with stool samples from a rural area, fixed with sodium acetate (SAF). The Kato-Katz test was used to compare unfixed samples (conventional test) with the same samples containing SAF fixative at time 0 and at 6 months. The study included stools from 154 subjects. A marginally statistically significant decrease in prevalence was estimated only for hookworm, when comparing unfixed samples versus the SAF fixed samples read at 6 months (p=0.06). A significant reduction in parasite load was found for hookworm (p<0.01) and Trichuris trichiura (p<0.01) between the unfixed and the fixed sample read at 6 months, but not for Ascaris lumbricoides (p=0.10). This research suggests that the SAF fixative solution is a good option for transporting samples for diagnosis, especially in rural areas in developing countries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of curing conditions on the structure of sodium carboxymethyl starch/mineral matrix system: FT-IR investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczmarska, Karolina; Grabowska, Beata; Bobrowski, Artur; Cukrowicz, Sylwia

    2018-04-24

    Strength properties of the microwave cured molding sands containing binders in a form of the aqueous solution of sodium carboxymethyl starch (CMS-Na) are higher than the same molding composition cured by conventional heating. Finding the reason of this effect was the main purpose in this study. Structural changes caused by both physical curing methods of molding sands systems containing mineral matrix (silica sand) and polymer water-soluble binder (CMS-Na) were compared. It was shown, by means of the FT-IR spectroscopic studies, that the activation of the polar groups in the polymer macromolecules structure as well as silanol groups on the mineral matrix surfaces was occurred in the microwave radiation. Binding process in microwave-cured samples was an effect of formation the hydrogen bonds network between hydroxyl and/or carbonyl groups present in polymer and silanol groups present in mineral matrix. FT-IR studies of structural changes in conventional and microwave cured samples confirm that participation of hydrogen bonds is greater after microwave curing than conventional heating. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Short Communication: A Simple Method for Performing Worm-Egg Counts on Sodium Acetate Formaldehyde-Preserved Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne Melrose

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Kato Katz method is the most common way of performing worm-egg counts on human faecal samples, but it must be done in the field using freshly collected samples. This makes it difficult to use in remote, poorly accessible situations. This paper describes a simple method for egg counts on preserved samples collected in the field and sent to a central location for further processing.

  6. Effect of Sodium Ascorbate and Delayed Bonding on the Bond Strength of Silorane and Two-step Self-etch Adhesive Systems in Bleached Enamel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Abed Kahnemooyi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. Studies have shown decreased bond strength of composite resin to human and bovine bleached enamel. This study evaluated the effect of sodium ascorbate and delayed bonding on the bond strength of two adhesive systems to bleached enamel. Materials and methods. The labial surfaces of 150 sound bovine incisor teeth were abraded with abrasive paper. The teeth were randomly divided into 8 groups: A: control; B: bleached with 35% hydrogen peroxide; C: bleached with 35% hydrogen peroxide + sodium ascorbate gel; and D: bleached with 35% hydrogen peroxide + delayed bonding. In groups A‒D, silorane adhesive system and Filtek silorane composite resin were used. In groups E‒H, the same preparation methods of groups A‒D were used. Two-step self-etch Clearfil SE Bond adhesive systems and AP-X composite resin were administered. Shear bond strength of each group was measured. Two samples were prepared for each surface preparation for ultrastructural evaluation. Two-way ANOVA and Tukey test were used for data analysis at P<0.05. Results. The interaction between the adhesive system type and surface preparation protocol was significant (P=0.014, with significant differences in shear bond strengths in terms of the adhesive systems (P<0.01. There were significant differences in shear bond strength in terms of surface preparation techniques irrespective of the adhesive system (P<0.01. Conclusion. The results showed that bleaching with 35% hydrogen peroxide decreased the shear bond strength values with both adhesive systems, and a one-week delay in bonding and 10% sodium ascorbate for 10 minutes restored the bond strength in both adhesive systems.

  7. Automatic remote sampling and delivery system incorporating decontamination and disposal of sample bottles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savarkar, V.K.; Mishra, A.K.; Bajpai, D.D.; Nair, M.K.T.

    1990-01-01

    The present generation of reprocessing plants have sampling and delivery systems that have to be operated manually with its associated problems. The complete automation and remotisation of sampling system has hence been considered to reduce manual intervention and personnel exposure. As a part of this scheme an attempt to automate and remotise various steps in sampling system has been made. This paper discusses in detail the development work carried out in this area as well as the tests conducted to incorporate the same in the existing plants. (author). 3 figs

  8. Development and evaluation of diclofenac sodium thermorevesible subcutaneous drug delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, Fazli; Iqbal, Zafar; Khan, Jamshaid A; Khan, Abad; Khuda, Fazli; Ahmad, Lateef; Khan, Amirzada; Khan, Abbas; Dayoo, Abdullah; Roohullah

    2012-12-15

    The objective of current work was to develop and evaluate thermoreversible subcutaneous drug delivery system for diclofenac sodium. The poloxamer 407, methyl cellulose, hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose and polyethylene glycol were used alone and in combination in different ratios to design the delivery system. The physical properties like Tsol-gel, viscosity, clarity of solution and gel were evaluated. The in vitro release of the drug delivery system was evaluated using membrane less method and the drug release kinetics and mechanism was predicted by applying various mathematical models to the in vitro dissolution data. Rabbits were used as in vivo model following subcutaneous injection to predict various pharmacokinetics parameters by applying Pk-Summit software. The in vitro and in vivo data revealed that the system consisting of the poloxamer 407 in concentration of 20% (DP20) was the most capable formulation for extending the drug release and maintaining therapeutic blood level of DS for longer duration (144 h). The data obtained for drug content after autoclaving the solutions indicate that autoclaving results in 6% degradation of DS. The data also suggested that the studied polymers poloxamer, MC and PG are good candidate to extend the drug release possessing a unique thermoreversible property. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Microbial Growth in the Magnesium- Chloride - Sodium- Sulphate Ion System: Implications for Habitability in Terrestrial and Extraterrestrial Salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loudon, C. M.; Aka, S.; Cockell, C. S.

    2017-12-01

    Icy moons in the outer solar system are key targets in the search for extra-terrestrial life as there is evidence that they harbour subsurface oceans. Observational evidence of icy moons such as Europa suggest that these likely brine oceans should be composed of chloride and sulphate salts. The effects of the ions that compose these salts on biology and how the interactions between them can create geochemical and geophysical barriers to life are poorly understood. Here we present an in depth study of four microorganisms grown in solutions with varying combinations of the magnesium- chloride- sodium- sulphate ions. We find that the ion composition of the brine solution can have a large effect on growth. Whilst the water activity must be permissible for growth we found that this alone could not predict the effects of the ions on growth, chaotropic effects and ion specific effects influenced by the specific physiology of organisms are also evident. For this reason we conclude that simply knowing which salts are present on icy moons is not sufficient information to determine their potential habitibility. A full sample of any brine ocean would need to be studied to fully determine the potential for biology on these outer solar system satellites.

  10. Structural basis for the transformation pathways of the sodium naproxen anhydrate–hydrate system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Andrew D.; Cornett, Claus; Larsen, Flemming H.; Qu, Haiyan; Raijada, Dhara; Rantanen, Jukka

    2014-01-01

    Crystal structures are presented for two dihydrate polymorphs (DH-I and DH-II) of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug sodium (S)-naproxen. The structure of DH-I is determined from twinned single crystals obtained by solution crystallization. DH-II is obtained by solid-state routes, and its structure is derived using powder X-ray diffraction, solid-state 13C and 23Na MAS NMR, and molecular modelling. The validity of both structures is supported by dispersion-corrected density functional theory (DFT-D) calculations. The structures of DH-I and DH-II, and in particular their relationships to the monohydrate (MH) and anhydrate (AH) structures, provide a basis to rationalize the observed transformation pathways in the sodium (S)-naproxen anhydrate–hydrate system. All structures contain Na+/carboxylate/H2O sections, alternating with sections containing the naproxen molecules. The structure of DH-I is essentially identical to MH in the naproxen region, containing face-to-face arrangements of the naphthalene rings, whereas the structure of DH-II is comparable to AH in the naproxen region, containing edge-to-face arrangements of the naphthalene rings. This structural similarity permits topotactic transformation between AH and DH-II, and between MH and DH-I, but requires re-organization of the naproxen molecules for transformation between any other pair of structures. The topotactic pathways dominate at room temperature or below, while the non-topotactic pathways become active at higher temperatures. Thermochemical data for the dehydration processes are rationalized in the light of this new structural information. PMID:25295174

  11. Structural basis for the transformation pathways of the sodium naproxen anhydrate–hydrate system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew D. Bond

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Crystal structures are presented for two dihydrate polymorphs (DH-I and DH-II of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug sodium (S-naproxen. The structure of DH-I is determined from twinned single crystals obtained by solution crystallization. DH-II is obtained by solid-state routes, and its structure is derived using powder X-ray diffraction, solid-state 13C and 23Na MAS NMR, and molecular modelling. The validity of both structures is supported by dispersion-corrected density functional theory (DFT-D calculations. The structures of DH-I and DH-II, and in particular their relationships to the monohydrate (MH and anhydrate (AH structures, provide a basis to rationalize the observed transformation pathways in the sodium (S-naproxen anhydrate–hydrate system. All structures contain Na+/carboxylate/H2O sections, alternating with sections containing the naproxen molecules. The structure of DH-I is essentially identical to MH in the naproxen region, containing face-to-face arrangements of the naphthalene rings, whereas the structure of DH-II is comparable to AH in the naproxen region, containing edge-to-face arrangements of the naphthalene rings. This structural similarity permits topotactic transformation between AH and DH-II, and between MH and DH-I, but requires re-organization of the naproxen molecules for transformation between any other pair of structures. The topotactic pathways dominate at room temperature or below, while the non-topotactic pathways become active at higher temperatures. Thermochemical data for the dehydration processes are rationalized in the light of this new structural information.

  12. Structural basis for the transformation pathways of the sodium naproxen anhydrate-hydrate system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Andrew D; Cornett, Claus; Larsen, Flemming H; Qu, Haiyan; Raijada, Dhara; Rantanen, Jukka

    2014-09-01

    Crystal structures are presented for two dihydrate polymorphs (DH-I and DH-II) of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug sodium (S)-naproxen. The structure of DH-I is determined from twinned single crystals obtained by solution crystallization. DH-II is obtained by solid-state routes, and its structure is derived using powder X-ray diffraction, solid-state (13)C and (23)Na MAS NMR, and molecular modelling. The validity of both structures is supported by dispersion-corrected density functional theory (DFT-D) calculations. The structures of DH-I and DH-II, and in particular their relationships to the monohydrate (MH) and anhydrate (AH) structures, provide a basis to rationalize the observed transformation pathways in the sodium (S)-naproxen anhydrate-hydrate system. All structures contain Na(+)/carboxylate/H2O sections, alternating with sections containing the naproxen molecules. The structure of DH-I is essentially identical to MH in the naproxen region, containing face-to-face arrangements of the naphthalene rings, whereas the structure of DH-II is comparable to AH in the naproxen region, containing edge-to-face arrangements of the naphthalene rings. This structural similarity permits topotactic transformation between AH and DH-II, and between MH and DH-I, but requires re-organization of the naproxen molecules for transformation between any other pair of structures. The topotactic pathways dominate at room temperature or below, while the non-topotactic pathways become active at higher temperatures. Thermochemical data for the dehydration processes are rationalized in the light of this new structural information.

  13. Modulation of the cardiac sodium/bicarbonate cotransporter by the renin angiotensin aldosterone system: pathophysiological consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Giusti, Verónica C; Ciancio, María C; Orlowski, Alejandro; Aiello, Ernesto A

    2013-01-01

    The sodium/bicarbonate cotransporter (NBC) is one of the major alkalinizing mechanisms in the cardiomyocytes. It has been demonstrated the existence of at least two functional isoforms, one that promotes the co-influx of 1 molecule of Na(+) per 1 molecule of HCO(-) 3 (electroneutral isoform; NBCn1) and the other one that generates the co-influx of 1 molecule of Na(+) per 2 molecules of HCO(-) 3 (electrogenic isoform; NBCe1). Both isoforms are important to maintain intracellular pH (pH i ) and sodium concentration ([Na(+)] i ). In addition, NBCe1 generates an anionic repolarizing current that modulates the action potential duration (APD). The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) is implicated in the modulation of almost all physiological cardiac functions and is also involved in the development and progression of cardiac diseases. It was reported that angiotensin II (Ang II) exhibits an opposite effect on NBC isoforms: it activates NBCn1 and inhibits NBCe1. The activation of NBCn1 leads to an increase in pH i and [Na(+)] i , which indirectly, due to the stimulation of reverse mode of the Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger (NCX), conduces to an increase in the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration. On the other hand, the inhibition of NBCe1 generates an APD prolongation, potentially representing a risk of arrhythmias. In the last years, the potentially altered NBC function in pathological scenarios, as cardiac hypertrophy and ischemia-reperfusion, has raised increasing interest among investigators. This review attempts to draw the attention on the relevant regulation of NBC activity by RAAS, since it modulates pH i and [Na(+)] i , which are involved in the development of cardiac hypertrophy, the damage produced by ischemia-reperfusion and the generation of arrhythmic events, suggesting a potential role of NBC in cardiac diseases.

  14. MODULATION OF THE CARDIAC SODIUM/BICARBONATE COTRANSPORTER BY THE RENIN ANGIOTENSIN ALDOSTERONE SYSTEM: PATHOPHYSIOLOGICAL CONSEQUENCES.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Celeste De Giusti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The sodium/bicarbonate cotransporter (NBC is one of the major alkalinizing mechanisms in the cardiomyocytes. It has been demonstrated the existence of at least two functional isoforms, one that promotes the co-influx of 1 molecule of Na+ per 1 molecule of HCO3- (electroneutral isoform; NBCn1 and the other one that generates the co-influx of 1 molecule of Na+ per 2 molecules of HCO3- (electrogenic isoform; NBCe1. Both isoforms are important to maintain intracellular pH (pHi and sodium concentration ([Na+]i. In addition, NBCe1 generates an anionic repolarizing current that modulates the action potential duration (APD. The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS is implicated in the modulation of almost all physiological cardiac functions and is also involved in the development and progression of cardiac diseases. It was reported that angiotensin II (Ang II exhibits an opposite effect on NBC isoforms: it activates NBCn1 and inhibits NBCe1. The activation of NBCn1 leads to an increase in pHi and [Na+]i, which indirectly, due to the stimulation of reverse mode of the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCX, conduces to an increase in the intracellular Ca2+ concentration. On the other hand, the inhibition of NBCe1 generates an APD prolongation, potentially representing a risk of arrhythmias. In the last years, the potentially altered NBC function in pathological scenarios, as cardiac hypertrophy and ischemia-reperfusion, has raised increasing interest among investigators. This review attempts to draw the attention on the relevant regulation of NBC activity by RAAS, since it modulates pHi and [Na+]i, which are involved in the development of cardiac hypertrophy, the damage produced by ischemia-reperfusion and the generation of arrhythmic events, suggesting a potential role of NBC in cardiac diseases.

  15. Combustion of sodium in the open atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morewith, H A; Johnson, R P; Nelson, C T; Otter, J M [Energy System Group, Rockwell International, Rockwell (United States)

    1979-03-01

    A series of sodium fire tests has been conducted in ambient air at a meteorological test site. This test series was designed to simulate hypothetical accidents which might occur in the heat transport system of an LMFBR. Measurements of concentration, agglomeration, fallout, and chemical species of the sodium combustion products were made as a function of downwind distance. In each of the first two tests, {approx}23 kg of 540 deg. C sodium was sprayed as a fan of 250-{mu}m sodium drops across the wind, from heights of 5 or 6 m. Each release took a few minutes. A dense sodium combustion product aerosol was formed, and quickly agglomerated to large (100 to 660 {mu}m) diameter particles. More than 50% of the aerosol mass fell out within several hundred meters of the release point. Two additional tests were performed by releasing sodium through 9.5-mm diameter jets at a height of 30 m. In each test, the sodium jet was aimed horizontally across the wind, and followed a downward parabolic trajectory, releasing burning sodium drops along its track. Again, close-in fallout due to large agglomerates was observed. A substantial amount of unburned sodium fell 30 m to the ground, where it burned. In a third type of test, sodium was burned for 60 min as pool in a 1.5m{sup 2} burn pan at 9 m/s wind velocity. Approximately 30% of the combustion products became airborne. Large agglomerates fell out as they moved downwind, depositing 1 kg/m{sup 2} at 1 m downwind from the edge of the pan. Chemical analysis of the samples indicated that the sodium fires produced mainly Na{sub 2}O, and that the conversion of NaOH was slow. Comparison were made with COMRADEX-IV code models, which are appropriate for calculating deposition and concentrations for downwind distances between 10{sup 2} and 10{sup 4} m. (author)

  16. Combustion of sodium in the open atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morewith, H.A.; Johnson, R.P.; Nelson, C.T.; Otter, J.M.

    1979-01-01

    A series of sodium fire tests has been conducted in ambient air at a meteorological test site. This test series was designed to simulate hypothetical accidents which might occur in the heat transport system of an LMFBR. Measurements of concentration, agglomeration, fallout, and chemical species of the sodium combustion products were made as a function of downwind distance. In each of the first two tests, ∼23 kg of 540 deg. C sodium was sprayed as a fan of 250-μm sodium drops across the wind, from heights of 5 or 6 m. Each release took a few minutes. A dense sodium combustion product aerosol was formed, and quickly agglomerated to large (100 to 660 μm) diameter particles. More than 50% of the aerosol mass fell out within several hundred meters of the release point. Two additional tests were performed by releasing sodium through 9.5-mm diameter jets at a height of 30 m. In each test, the sodium jet was aimed horizontally across the wind, and followed a downward parabolic trajectory, releasing burning sodium drops along its track. Again, close-in fallout due to large agglomerates was observed. A substantial amount of unburned sodium fell 30 m to the ground, where it burned. In a third type of test, sodium was burned for 60 min as pool in a 1.5m 2 burn pan at 9 m/s wind velocity. Approximately 30% of the combustion products became airborne. Large agglomerates fell out as they moved downwind, depositing 1 kg/m 2 at 1 m downwind from the edge of the pan. Chemical analysis of the samples indicated that the sodium fires produced mainly Na 2 O, and that the conversion of NaOH was slow. Comparison were made with COMRADEX-IV code models, which are appropriate for calculating deposition and concentrations for downwind distances between 10 2 and 10 4 m. (author)

  17. Indirect spectrophotometric determination of sodium ceftriaxone with n-propyl alcohol-ammonium sulfate-water system by extraction flotation of copper(II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei; Zhang, Yan; Li, Quanmin

    2008-05-01

    Although the determination methods of sodium ceftriaxone has been increasingly reported, these methods have their inherent limits preventing them from being broadly applied in common laboratories. In order to circumvent this problem, a rapid and simple method for the indirect spectrophotometric determination of sodium ceftriaxone is reported. Sodium ceftriaxone was degraded completely in the presence of 0.20 mol/l sodium hydroxide in boiling water bath for 20 min. The thiol group (-SH) of the degradation product (I) of sodium ceftriaxone could reduce cupric to cuprous ions, and the resulting which was precipitated with the thiol group (-SH) of the degradation product (II) at pH 4.0. By determining the residual amount of copper (II), the indirect determination of sodium ceftriaxone can be achieved. Standard curve of sodium ceftriaxone versus the flotation yield of copper(II) showed that sodium ceftriaxone could be determined in low concentrations. The linear range of sodium ceftriaxone was 0.70-32 microg/ml and the detection limit evaluated by calibration curve (3sigma/k) was found to be 0.60 microg/ml. A simple and efficient method was developed and it has been successfully applied to the determination of sodium ceftriaxone in human serum and urine samples, respectively. It is expected that this method will find broad applications in the detection of cephalosporin derivatives with similar structure.

  18. Calculation of noise attenuation coefficient for leaks in the system sodium-water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yugaj, V.S.; Kozlov, F.A.; Sorokina, T.G.

    1986-01-01

    In this report the authors present the calculation results for sound attenuation coefficient on hydrogen bubbles in sodium and show a calculation method of attenuation coefficient for different temperatures of sodium in the 1-200 kHz range frequencies [fr

  19. Selective extraction of chromium(VI) using a leaching procedure with sodium carbonate from some plant leaves, soil and sediment samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elci, Latif, E-mail: elci@pamukkale.edu.tr [Department of Chemistry, Pamukkale University, 20017 Denizli (Turkey); Divrikli, Umit; Akdogan, Abdullah; Hol, Aysen; Cetin, Ayse [Department of Chemistry, Pamukkale University, 20017 Denizli (Turkey); Soylak, Mustafa [Department of Chemistry, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey)

    2010-01-15

    Speciation of chromium in some plant leaves, soil and sediment samples was carried out by selective leaching of Cr(VI) using a sodium carbonate leaching procedure. Total chromium from the samples was extracted using aqua regia and oxidative acid digestion, respectively. The concentrations of chromium species in the extracts were determined using by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). Uncoated graphite furnace tubes were used as an atomizer. Due to the presence of relatively high amounts of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} in the resulting samples, the possible influences of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} on the absorbance signals were checked. There is no interference of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} on the chromium absorbance up to 0.1 mol L{sup -1} Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}. A limit of detection (LOD) for determination of Cr(VI) in 0.1 Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} solution by GFAAS was found to be 0.93 {mu}g L{sup -1}. The procedure was applied to environmental samples. The relative standard deviation, R.S.D. as precision for 10 replicate measurements of 20 {mu} L{sup -1} Cr in processed soil sample was 4.2%.

  20. Selective extraction of chromium(VI) using a leaching procedure with sodium carbonate from some plant leaves, soil and sediment samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elci, Latif; Divrikli, Umit; Akdogan, Abdullah; Hol, Aysen; Cetin, Ayse; Soylak, Mustafa

    2010-01-15

    Speciation of chromium in some plant leaves, soil and sediment samples was carried out by selective leaching of Cr(VI) using a sodium carbonate leaching procedure. Total chromium from the samples was extracted using aqua regia and oxidative acid digestion, respectively. The concentrations of chromium species in the extracts were determined using by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). Uncoated graphite furnace tubes were used as an atomizer. Due to the presence of relatively high amounts of Na(2)CO(3) in the resulting samples, the possible influences of Na(2)CO(3) on the absorbance signals were checked. There is no interference of Na(2)CO(3) on the chromium absorbance up to 0.1 mol L(-1) Na(2)CO(3). A limit of detection (LOD) for determination of Cr(VI) in 0.1 Na(2)CO(3) solution by GFAAS was found to be 0.93 microg L(-1). The procedure was applied to environmental samples. The relative standard deviation, R.S.D. as precision for 10 replicate measurements of 20 microL(-1) Cr in processed soil sample was 4.2%.

  1. ANL small-sample calorimeter system design and operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, C.T.; Perry, R.B.; Lewis, R.N.; Jung, E.A.; Haumann, J.R.

    1978-07-01

    The Small-Sample Calorimetric System is a portable instrument designed to measure the thermal power produced by radioactive decay of plutonium-containing fuels. The small-sample calorimeter is capable of measuring samples producing power up to 32 milliwatts at a rate of one sample every 20 min. The instrument is contained in two packages: a data-acquisition module consisting of a microprocessor with an 8K-byte nonvolatile memory, and a measurement module consisting of the calorimeter and a sample preheater. The total weight of the system is 18 kg

  2. Phase Diagrams of the Aqueous Two-Phase Systems of Poly(ethylene glycol/Sodium Polyacrylate/Salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adalberto Pessoa Junior

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Aqueous two-phase systems consisting of polyethylene glycol (PEG, sodium polyacrylate (NaPAA, and a salt have been studied. The effects of the polymer size, salt type (NaCl, Na2SO4, sodium adipate and sodium azelate and salt concentrations on the position of the binodal curve were investigated. The investigated PEG molecules had a molar mass of 2,000 to 8,000 g/mol, while that of NaPAA was 8,000 g/mol. Experimental phase diagrams, and tie lines and calculated phase diagrams, based on Flory-Huggins theory of polymer solutions are presented. Due to strong enthalpic and entropic balancing forces, the hydrophobicity of the added salt has a strong influence on the position of the binodal, which could be reproduced by model calculations.

  3. Two-Stage Variable Sample-Rate Conversion System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkacenko, Andre

    2009-01-01

    A two-stage variable sample-rate conversion (SRC) system has been pro posed as part of a digital signal-processing system in a digital com munication radio receiver that utilizes a variety of data rates. The proposed system would be used as an interface between (1) an analog- todigital converter used in the front end of the receiver to sample an intermediatefrequency signal at a fixed input rate and (2) digita lly implemented tracking loops in subsequent stages that operate at v arious sample rates that are generally lower than the input sample r ate. This Two-Stage System would be capable of converting from an input sample rate to a desired lower output sample rate that could be var iable and not necessarily a rational fraction of the input rate.

  4. Modification of both d33 and TC in a potassium-sodium niobate ternary system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bo; Wu, Jiagang; Xiao, Dingquan; Zhu, Jianguo

    2015-12-28

    In this work, we simultaneously achieved a giant d33 and a high TC in a lead-free piezoelectric ternary system of (1-x-y)K0.48Na0.52NbO3-xBiFeO3-yBi0.5Na0.5ZrO3 {(1-x-y)KNN-xBF-yBNZ}. Owing to the rhombohedral-orthorhombic-tetragonal (R-O-T) phase coexistence and the enhanced dielectric and ferroelectric properties, the ceramics with a composition of (x = 0.006, y = 0.04) show a giant d33 of ∼428 pC N(-1) together with a TC of ∼318 °C, thereby proving that the design of ternary systems is an effective way to achieve both high d33 and high TC in KNN-based materials. In addition, a good thermal stability for piezoelectricity was also observed in these ceramics (e.g., d33 > 390 pC N(-1), T ≤ 300 °C). This is the first time such a good comprehensive performance in potassium-sodium niobate materials has been obtained. As a result, we believe that this type of material system with both giant d33 and high TC is a promising candidate for high-temperature piezoelectric devices.

  5. Challenges and innovative technologies on fuel handling systems for future sodium-cooled fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chassignet, Mathieu; Dumas, Sebastien; Penigot, Christophe; Prele, Gerard; Capitaine, Alain; Rodriguez, Gilles; Sanseigne, Emmanuel; Beauchamp, Francois

    2011-01-01

    The reactor refuelling system provides the means of transporting, storing, and handling reactor core subassemblies. The system consists of the facilities and equipment needed to accomplish the scheduled refuelling operations. The choice of a FHS impacts directly on the general design of the reactor vessel (primary vessel, storage, and final cooling before going to reprocessing), its construction cost, and its availability factor. Fuel handling design must take into account various items and in particular operating strategies such as core design and management and core configuration. Moreover, the FHS will have to cope with safety assessments: a permanent cooling strategy to prevent fuel clad rupture, plus provisions to handle short-cooled fuel and criteria to ensure safety during handling. In addition, the handling and elimination of residual sodium must be investigated; it implies specific cleaning treatment to prevent chemical risks such as corrosion or excess hydrogen production. The objective of this study is to identify the challenges of a SFR fuel handling system. It will then present the range of technical options incorporating innovative technologies under development to answer the GENERATION IV SFR requirements. (author)

  6. A THz Tomography System for Arbitrarily Shaped Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stübling, E.; Bauckhage, Y.; Jelli, E.; Fischer, B.; Globisch, B.; Schell, M.; Heinrich, A.; Balzer, J. C.; Koch, M.

    2017-10-01

    We combine a THz time-domain spectroscopy system with a robotic arm. With this scheme, the THz emitter and receiver can be positioned perpendicular and at defined distance to the sample surface. Our system allows the acquisition of reflection THz tomographic images of samples with an arbitrarily shaped surface.

  7. Noncontact inspection laser system for characterization of piezoelectric samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez, F.J.; Frutos, J. de

    2004-01-01

    In this work measurements on a piezoelectric sample in dynamic behavior were taken, in particular, around the frequencies of resonance for the sample where the nonlineal effects are accentuated. Dimension changes in the sample need to be studied as that will allow a more reliable characterization of the piezoelectric samples. The goal of this research is to develop an inspection system able to obtain measurements, using a noncontact laser displacement transducer, also able to visualize, in three-dimensional graphic environment, the displacement that takes place in a piezoelectric sample surface. In resonant mode, the vibration mode of the sample is visualized

  8. Sodium outleakage detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casselman, C.

    1979-01-01

    Effective detection of outleakage from sodium facilities permits timely intervention capable of limiting the consequences of such leakage. Two types of detection systems are described: local and overall detection. The use of two independent systems in sodium facilities is recommended. (author)

  9. On the sample transport time of a pneumatic transfer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Yoshihide

    1983-01-01

    The counts accumulated in measuring system are affected by the variations in transport time of the sample on cyclic activation experiments with a mechanical sample transfer system. In use of the pneumatic transfer system, which has been set up, the transport time is variable according to the differences as follows: The form, size and weight of samples, the pneumatic pressure and so on. Comprehending the relationships between the transpot time and these variable factors is essentially important to make experiments with this transfer system. (author)

  10. Sodium Velocity Maps on Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, A. E.; Killen, R. M.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the current work was to measure two-dimensional maps of sodium velocities on the Mercury surface and examine the maps for evidence of sources or sinks of sodium on the surface. The McMath-Pierce Solar Telescope and the Stellar Spectrograph were used to measure Mercury spectra that were sampled at 7 milliAngstrom intervals. Observations were made each day during the period October 5-9, 2010. The dawn terminator was in view during that time. The velocity shift of the centroid of the Mercury emission line was measured relative to the solar sodium Fraunhofer line corrected for radial velocity of the Earth. The difference between the observed and calculated velocity shift was taken to be the velocity vector of the sodium relative to Earth. For each position of the spectrograph slit, a line of velocities across the planet was measured. Then, the spectrograph slit was stepped over the surface of Mercury at 1 arc second intervals. The position of Mercury was stabilized by an adaptive optics system. The collection of lines were assembled into an images of surface reflection, sodium emission intensities, and Earthward velocities over the surface of Mercury. The velocity map shows patches of higher velocity in the southern hemisphere, suggesting the existence of sodium sources there. The peak earthward velocity occurs in the equatorial region, and extends to the terminator. Since this was a dawn terminator, this might be an indication of dawn evaporation of sodium. Leblanc et al. (2008) have published a velocity map that is similar.

  11. Sodium fire suppression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malet, J C [DSN/SESTR, Centre de Cadarache, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    1979-03-01

    Ignition and combustion studies have provided valuable data and guidelines for sodium fire suppression research. The primary necessity is to isolate the oxidant from the fuel, rather than to attempt to cool the sodium below its ignition temperature. Work along these lines has led to the development of smothering tank systems and a dry extinguishing powder. Based on the results obtained, the implementation of these techniques is discussed with regard to sodium fire suppression in the Super-Phenix reactor. (author)

  12. Sodium fire suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malet, J.C.

    1979-01-01

    Ignition and combustion studies have provided valuable data and guidelines for sodium fire suppression research. The primary necessity is to isolate the oxidant from the fuel, rather than to attempt to cool the sodium below its ignition temperature. Work along these lines has led to the development of smothering tank systems and a dry extinguishing powder. Based on the results obtained, the implementation of these techniques is discussed with regard to sodium fire suppression in the Super-Phenix reactor. (author)

  13. A novel storage system for cryoEM samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scapin, Giovanna; Prosise, Winifred W; Wismer, Michael K; Strickland, Corey

    2017-07-01

    We present here a new CryoEM grid boxes storage system designed to simplify sample labeling, tracking and retrieval. The system is based on the crystal pucks widely used by the X-ray crystallographic community for storage and shipping of crystals. This system is suitable for any cryoEM laboratory, but especially for large facilities that will need accurate tracking of large numbers of samples coming from different sources. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Estimating the Optimal Dosage of Sodium Valproate in Idiopathic Generalized Epilepsy with Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayyeh Lotfi Noghabi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Epilepsy is a clinical syndrome in which seizures have a tendency to recur. Sodium valproate is the most effective drug in the treatment of all types of generalized seizures. Finding the optimal dosage (the lowest effective dose of sodium valproate is a real challenge to all neurologists. In this study, a new approach based on Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS was presented for estimating the optimal dosage of sodium valproate in IGE (Idiopathic Generalized Epilepsy patients. Methods: 40 patients with Idiopathic Generalized Epilepsy, who were referred to the neurology department of Mashhad University of Medical Sciences between the years 2006-2011, were included in this study. The function Adaptive Neuro- Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS constructs a Fuzzy Inference System (FIS whose membership function parameters are tuned (adjusted using either a back-propagation algorithm alone, or in combination with the least squares type of method (hybrid algorithm. In this study, we used hybrid method for adjusting the parameters. Methods: The R-square of the proposed system was %598 and the Pearson correlation coefficient was significant (P 0.05. Although the accuracy of the model was not high, it wasgood enough to be applied for treating the IGE patients with sodium valproate. Discussion: This paper presented a new application of ANFIS for estimating the optimal dosage of sodium valproate in IGE patients. Fuzzy set theory plays an important role in dealing with uncertainty when making decisions in medical applications. Collectively, it seems that ANFIS has a high capacity to be applied in medical sciences, especially neurology.

  15. Parametric Effect of Sodium Hydroxide and Sodium Carbonate on the Potency of a Degreaser

    OpenAIRE

    Babatope Abimbola Olufemi

    2016-01-01

    Experimental and statistical analysis was carried out on the comparative effect of sodium hydroxide and sodium carbonate on the potency of a laboratory produced degreaser in this work. The materials used include; octadecyl benzene sulphonic acid, sodium hydroxide, sodium carbonate, sodium metasilicate, carboxyl methyl cellulose (C.M.C), formadelhyde, perfume, colourant and distilled water. Different samples of degreaser were produced with varying composition of sodium hydroxide and sodium car...

  16. Importance sampling of rare events in chaotic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leitão, Jorge C.; Parente Lopes, João M.Viana; Altmann, Eduardo G.

    2017-01-01

    space of chaotic systems. As examples of our general framework we compute the distribution of finite-time Lyapunov exponents (in different chaotic maps) and the distribution of escape times (in transient-chaos problems). Our methods sample exponentially rare states in polynomial number of samples (in......Finding and sampling rare trajectories in dynamical systems is a difficult computational task underlying numerous problems and applications. In this paper we show how to construct Metropolis-Hastings Monte-Carlo methods that can efficiently sample rare trajectories in the (extremely rough) phase...... both low- and high-dimensional systems). An open-source software that implements our algorithms and reproduces our results can be found in reference [J. Leitao, A library to sample chaotic systems, 2017, https://github.com/jorgecarleitao/chaospp]....

  17. System for Packaging Planetary Samples for Return to Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badescu, Mircea; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Backes, paul G.; Sherrit, Stewart; Bao, Xiaoqi; Scott, James S.

    2010-01-01

    A system is proposed for packaging material samples on a remote planet (especially Mars) in sealed sample tubes in preparation for later return to Earth. The sample tubes (Figure 1) would comprise (1) tubes initially having open tops and closed bottoms; (2) small, bellows-like collapsible bodies inside the tubes at their bottoms; and (3) plugs to be eventually used to close the tops of the tubes. The top inner surface of each tube would be coated with solder. The side of each plug, which would fit snugly into a tube, would feature a solder-filled ring groove. The system would include equipment for storing, manipulating, filling, and sealing the tubes. The containerization system (see Figure 2) will be organized in stations and will include: the storage station, the loading station, and the heating station. These stations can be structured in circular or linear pattern to minimize the manipulator complexity, allowing for compact design and mass efficiency. The manipulation of the sample tube between stations is done by a simple manipulator arm. The storage station contains the unloaded sample tubes and the plugs before sealing as well as the sealed sample tubes with samples after loading and sealing. The chambers at the storage station also allow for plug insertion into the sample tube. At the loading station the sample is poured or inserted into the sample tube and then the tube is topped off. At the heating station the plug is heated so the solder ring melts and seals the plug to the sample tube. The process is performed as follows: Each tube is filled or slightly overfilled with sample material and the excess sample material is wiped off the top. Then, the plug is inserted into the top section of the tube packing the sample material against the collapsible bellowslike body allowing the accommodation of the sample volume. The plug and the top of the tube are heated momentarily to melt the solder in order to seal the tube.

  18. Partitioning of L-methionine in aqueous two-phase systems containing poly(propylene glycol) and sodium phosphate salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salabat, Alireza, E-mail: a-salabat@araku.ac.ir [Chemistry Department, Arak University, P.O. Box 38156-879, Arak (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sadeghi, Rahmat [Department of Chemistry, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj, Kurdistan 66135 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moghadam, Somayeh Tiani [Chemistry Department, Arak University, P.O. Box 38156-879, Arak (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jamehbozorg, Bahman [Department of Chemistry, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj, Kurdistan 66135 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    Highlights: > Thermodynamics parameters for partitioning of L-methionine in ATPS. > Investigation of different effects on partition coefficient of the amino acid. > Propose the best condition for L-methionine partitioning. - Abstract: The partitioning behavior of L-methionine has been studied in aqueous two-phase systems of (poly(propylene glycol) + sodium phosphate salts + H{sub 2}O) at different temperatures. The salts used were sodium di-hydrogen phosphate (NaH{sub 2}PO{sub 4}), di-sodium hydrogen phosphate (Na{sub 2}HPO{sub 4}) and tri-sodium phosphate (Na{sub 3}PO{sub 4}). The effects of tie line length, salt type, and temperature on the partition coefficient of this amino acid have been studied. In addition, thermodynamic parameters ({Delta}H{sup o}, {Delta}S{sup o} and {Delta}G{sup o}) as a function of temperature were calculated. The results showed that increasing tie line length led to decreasing of the partition coefficient. We also showed that the partition coefficients of the amino acid in the systems containing Na{sub 3}PO{sub 4} are greater than the other two salts. Moreover, it is verified that increasing temperature led to decreasing the partition coefficient. The experimental partition coefficient data are correlated using a modified virial-type model.

  19. Partitioning of L-methionine in aqueous two-phase systems containing poly(propylene glycol) and sodium phosphate salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salabat, Alireza; Sadeghi, Rahmat; Moghadam, Somayeh Tiani; Jamehbozorg, Bahman

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Thermodynamics parameters for partitioning of L-methionine in ATPS. → Investigation of different effects on partition coefficient of the amino acid. → Propose the best condition for L-methionine partitioning. - Abstract: The partitioning behavior of L-methionine has been studied in aqueous two-phase systems of (poly(propylene glycol) + sodium phosphate salts + H 2 O) at different temperatures. The salts used were sodium di-hydrogen phosphate (NaH 2 PO 4 ), di-sodium hydrogen phosphate (Na 2 HPO 4 ) and tri-sodium phosphate (Na 3 PO 4 ). The effects of tie line length, salt type, and temperature on the partition coefficient of this amino acid have been studied. In addition, thermodynamic parameters (ΔH o , ΔS o and ΔG o ) as a function of temperature were calculated. The results showed that increasing tie line length led to decreasing of the partition coefficient. We also showed that the partition coefficients of the amino acid in the systems containing Na 3 PO 4 are greater than the other two salts. Moreover, it is verified that increasing temperature led to decreasing the partition coefficient. The experimental partition coefficient data are correlated using a modified virial-type model.

  20. Active Fault Diagnosis in Sampled-data Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2015-01-01

    The focus in this paper is on active fault diagnosis (AFD) in closed-loop sampleddata systems. Applying the same AFD architecture as for continuous-time systems does not directly result in the same set of closed-loop matrix transfer functions. For continuous-time systems, the LFT (linear fractional...... transformation) structure in the connection between the parametric faults and the matrix transfer function (also known as the fault signature matrix) applied for AFD is not directly preserved for sampled-data system. As a consequence of this, the AFD methods cannot directly be applied for sampled-data systems....... Two methods are considered in this paper to handle the fault signature matrix for sampled-data systems such that standard AFD methods can be applied. The first method is based on a discretization of the system such that the LFT structure is preserved resulting in the same LFT structure in the fault...

  1. Development of numerical simulation system for thermal-hydraulic analysis in fuel assembly of sodium-cooled fast reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohshima, Hiroyuki; Uwaba, Tomoyuki [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (4002 Narita, O-arai, Ibaraki 311-1393, Japan) (Japan); Hashimoto, Akihiko; Imai, Yasutomo [NDD Corporation (1-1-6 Jounan, Mito, Ibaraki 310-0803, Japan) (Japan); Ito, Masahiro [NESI Inc. (4002 Narita, O-arai, Ibaraki 311-1393, Japan) (Japan)

    2015-12-31

    A numerical simulation system, which consists of a deformation analysis program and three kinds of thermal-hydraulics analysis programs, is being developed in Japan Atomic Energy Agency in order to offer methodologies to clarify thermal-hydraulic phenomena in fuel assemblies of sodium-cooled fast reactors under various operating conditions. This paper gives the outline of the system and its applications to fuel assembly analyses as a validation study.

  2. First application of the Bailey Control Micro-Z system. Control of sodium purity in the Super Phenix reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hureau, J.-C.

    1979-01-01

    The system for testing the purity of sodium in the Super Phenix reactor at Crey-Malville is one of the very first applications of the 'μz' Bailey Control system which, as is generally known, uses a microprocessor on each regulator. This characteristic is cleverly exploited here for discontinuous regulation, in stages, of an analog parameter: temperature, with a quite remarkable flexibility of use and an extremely reduced volume of equipment [fr

  3. Use of robotic systems for radiochemical sample changing and for analytical sample preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delmastro, J.R.; Hartenstein, S.D.; Wade, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    Two uses of the Perkin-Elmer (PE) robotic system will be presented. In the first, a PE robot functions as an automatic sample changer for up to five low energy photon spectrometry (LEPS) detectors operated with a Nuclear Data ND 6700 system. The entire system, including the robot, is controlled by an IBM PC-AT using software written in compiled BASIC. Problems associated with the development of the system and modifications to the robot will be presented. In the second, an evaluation study was performed to assess the abilities of the PE robotic system for performing complex analytical sample preparation procedures. For this study, a robotic system based upon the PE robot and auxiliary devices was constructed and programmed to perform the preparation of final product samples (UO 3 ) for accountability and impurity specification analyses. These procedures require sample dissolution, dilution, and liquid-liquid extraction steps. The results of an in-depth evaluation of all system components will be presented

  4. Water and steam sampling systems; Provtagningssystem foer vatten och aanga

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellman, Mats

    2009-10-15

    The supervision of cycle chemistry can be divided into two parts, the sampling system and the chemical analysis. In modern steam generating plants most of the chemical analyses are carried out on-line. The detection limits of these analyzers are pushed downward to the ppt-range (parts per trillion), however the analyses are not more correct than the accuracy of the sampling system. A lot of attention has been put to the analyzers and the statistics to interpret the results but the sampling procedures has gained much less attention. This report aims to give guidance of the considerations to be made regarding sampling systems. Sampling is necessary since most analysis of interesting parameters cannot be carried out in- situ on-line in the steam cycle. Today's on-line instruments for pH, conductivity, silica etc. are designed to meet a water sample at a temperature of 10-30 deg C. This means that the sampling system has to extract a representative sample from the process, transport and cool it down to room temperature without changing the characteristics of the fluid. In the literature research work, standards and other reports can be found. Although giving similar recommendations in most aspects there are some discrepancies that may be confusing. This report covers all parts in the sampling system: Sample points and nozzles; Sample lines; Valves, regulating and on-off; Sample coolers; Temperature, pressure and flow rate control; Cooling water; and Water recovery. On-line analyzers connecting to the sampling system are not covered. This report aims to clarify what guidelines are most appropriate amongst the existing ones. The report should also give guidance to the design of the sampling system in order to achieve representative samples. In addition to this the report gives an overview of the fluid mechanics involved in sampling. The target group of this report is owners and operators of steam generators, vendors of power plant equipment, consultants working in

  5. Non-Contact Conductivity Measurement for Automated Sample Processing Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beegle, Luther W.; Kirby, James P.

    2012-01-01

    A new method has been developed for monitoring and control of automated sample processing and preparation especially focusing on desalting of samples before analytical analysis (described in more detail in Automated Desalting Apparatus, (NPO-45428), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 34, No. 8 (August 2010), page 44). The use of non-contact conductivity probes, one at the inlet and one at the outlet of the solid phase sample preparation media, allows monitoring of the process, and acts as a trigger for the start of the next step in the sequence (see figure). At each step of the muti-step process, the system is flushed with low-conductivity water, which sets the system back to an overall low-conductivity state. This measurement then triggers the next stage of sample processing protocols, and greatly minimizes use of consumables. In the case of amino acid sample preparation for desalting, the conductivity measurement will define three key conditions for the sample preparation process. First, when the system is neutralized (low conductivity, by washing with excess de-ionized water); second, when the system is acidified, by washing with a strong acid (high conductivity); and third, when the system is at a basic condition of high pH (high conductivity). Taken together, this non-contact conductivity measurement for monitoring sample preparation will not only facilitate automation of the sample preparation and processing, but will also act as a way to optimize the operational time and use of consumables

  6. Process and system for stirring liquid sodium flowing through the primary circuit of a steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabregue, J.P.

    1982-01-01

    The invention concerns the stirring of the liquid sodium of a steam generator comprising a primary circuit composed of an elongated vessel through which the liquid sodium flows, a secondary circuit composed of a number of tubes extending inside the long cyclindrical vessel. The process consists in imparting simultaneously to the liquid sodium, during its passage through the cylindrical vessel, a movement of continuous rotation about the longitudinal axis of the cylindrical vessel and an alternating series of radial movements, centripetal and centrifugal, in relation to the longitudinal axis, so that each unit quantity of the sodium comes into contact with a large number of tubes. The application particularly concerns steam generators for nuclear power stations [fr

  7. [Sodium intake during pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delemarre, F M; Franx, A; Knuist, M; Steegers, E A

    1999-10-23

    International studies have yielded contradictory results on efficacy of a sodium-restricted diet during pregnancy in preventing and curing hypertension of pregnancy. In the Netherlands three studies have been performed to investigate the value of dietary sodium restriction in pregnancy; they concerned epidemiology, prevention and treatment. Midwives often prescribed this dietary intervention. Urinary sodium excretion was not related to blood pressure changes in pregnancy. Dietary sodium restriction from the third month of pregnancy onwards did not reduce the incidence of pregnancy-induced hypertension. Maternal side effects were a decreased intake of nutrients, decreased maternal weight gain, lowered plasma volume and stimulation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. A dietary sodium restriction in women with early symptoms of pregnancy-induced hypertension showed no therapeutic effect on blood pressure. There is no place for dietary sodium restriction in the prevention or treatment of hypertension in pregnancy.

  8. Sodium fire protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raju, C.; Kale, R.D.

    1979-01-01

    Results of experiments carried out with sodium fires to develop extinguishment techniques are presented. Characteristics, ignition temperature, heat evolution and other aspects of sodium fires are described. Out of the powders tested for extinguishment of 10 Kg sodium fires, sodium bi-carbonate based dry chemical powder has been found to be the best extinguisher followed by large sized vermiculite and then calcium carbonate powders distributed by spray nozzles. Powders, however, do not extinguish large fires effectively due to sodium-concrete reaction. To control large scale fires in a LMFBR, collection trays with protective cover have been found to cause oxygen starvation better than flooding with inert gas. This system has an added advantage in that there is no damage to the sodium facilities as has been in the case of powders which often contain chlorine compounds and cause stress corrosion cracking. (M.G.B.)

  9. Aqueous two-phase (polyethylene glycol + sodium sulfate) system for caffeine extraction: Equilibrium diagrams and partitioning study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo Sampaio, Daniela de; Mafra, Luciana Igarashi; Yamamoto, Carlos Itsuo; Forville de Andrade, Eriel; Oberson de Souza, Michèle; Mafra, Marcos Rogério; Castilhos, Fernanda de

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Binodal curves of PEG (400, 4000 and 6000) + Na_2SO_4 ATPS were determined. • Tie-lines were experimentally determined for aqueous (PEG 400 + Na_2SO_4) system. • Influence of caffeine on LLE of aqueous (PEG 400 + Na_2SO_4) system was investigated. • Partitioning of caffeine in aqueous (PEG 400 + Na_2SO_4) system was investigated. • Caffeine partition showed to be dependent on temperature and TLL. - Abstract: Environmental friendly methods for liquid–liquid extraction have been taken into account due to critical conditions and ecotoxicological effects potentially produced by organic solvents applied in traditional methods. Liquid–liquid extraction using aqueous two phase systems (ATPSs) presents advantages when compared to traditional liquid–liquid extraction. (Polyethylene glycol (PEG) + sodium sulfate + water) ATPS was applied to study partition of caffeine. Binodal curves for ATPSs composed of PEG of different molecular weights (400 g · mol"−"1, 4000 g · mol"−"1 and 6000 g · mol"−"1) sodium sulfate + water were determined by cloud point method at three different temperatures (293.15, 313.15 and 333.15) K. Liquid–liquid equilibrium (LLE) data (tie-lines, slope of the tie-line and tie-lines length) were obtained applying a gravimetric method proposed by Merchuck and co-workers at the same temperatures for aqueous (PEG 400 + sodium sulfate) and aqueous (PEG 400 + sodium sulfate + caffeine) systems. Reliability of the experimental tie-line (TL) data was evaluated using the equations reported by Othmer–Tobias and satisfactory linearity was obtained. Concerning to aqueous (PEG + sodium sulfate) system, the results pointed out that the higher PEG molecular weight the largest is the heterogeneous region. Moreover, temperature showed not to be relevant on binodal curves behavior, but it influenced on tie-line slopes. Partitioning of caffeine in aqueous (PEG 400 + sodium sulfate) system was investigated at different temperatures

  10. Fires of sodium installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajek, L.; Tlalka, R.

    1984-01-01

    A survey is presented of the literature dealing with fires of sodium installations between 1974 and 1981. Also described are three experimental fires of ca 50 kg of sodium in an open area, monitored by UJV Rez. The experimental conditions of the experiments are described and a phenomenological description is presented of the course of the fires. The experiments showed a relationship between wind velocity in the area surrounding the fire and surface temperature of the sodium flame. Systems analysis methods were applied to sodium area, spray and tube fires. (author)

  11. System for Earth Sample Registration SESAR: Services for IGSN Registration and Sample Metadata Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, S.; Lehnert, K. A.; Coleman, R. J.

    2011-12-01

    SESAR, the System for Earth Sample Registration, is an online registry for physical samples collected for Earth and environmental studies. SESAR generates and administers the International Geo Sample Number IGSN, a unique identifier for samples that is dramatically advancing interoperability amongst information systems for sample-based data. SESAR was developed to provide the complete range of registry services, including definition of IGSN syntax and metadata profiles, registration and validation of name spaces requested by users, tools for users to submit and manage sample metadata, validation of submitted metadata, generation and validation of the unique identifiers, archiving of sample metadata, and public or private access to the sample metadata catalog. With the development of SESAR v3, we placed particular emphasis on creating enhanced tools that make metadata submission easier and more efficient for users, and that provide superior functionality for users to manage metadata of their samples in their private workspace MySESAR. For example, SESAR v3 includes a module where users can generate custom spreadsheet templates to enter metadata for their samples, then upload these templates online for sample registration. Once the content of the template is uploaded, it is displayed online in an editable grid format. Validation rules are executed in real-time on the grid data to ensure data integrity. Other new features of SESAR v3 include the capability to transfer ownership of samples to other SESAR users, the ability to upload and store images and other files in a sample metadata profile, and the tracking of changes to sample metadata profiles. In the next version of SESAR (v3.5), we will further improve the discovery, sharing, registration of samples. For example, we are developing a more comprehensive suite of web services that will allow discovery and registration access to SESAR from external systems. Both batch and individual registrations will be possible

  12. Ibuprofen analysis in blood samples by palladium particles-impregnated sodium montmorillonite electrodes: Validation using high performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loudiki, A; Boumya, W; Hammani, H; Nasrellah, H; El Bouabi, Y; Zeroual, M; Farahi, A; Lahrich, S; Hnini, K; Achak, M; Bakasse, M; El Mhammedi, M A

    2016-12-01

    The electrochemical detection of ibuprofen has been studied on Palladium-Montmorillonite (Mt) modified carbon paste electrode using differential pulse voltammetry. The optimization of the modifier preparation and the instrumental parameters was investigated. The results indicate that ibuprofen oxidation was favored in the presence of Pd-PdO particles. The quantitative determination of ibuprofen was statistically analyzed and validated using HPLC method. The detection and quantification limits, specificity and precision were found to be acceptable. Finally, the developed method was successfully applied for ibuprofen determination in human blood samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. A large-scale cryoelectronic system for biological sample banking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirley, Stephen G.; Durst, Christopher H. P.; Fuchs, Christian C.; Zimmermann, Heiko; Ihmig, Frank R.

    2009-11-01

    We describe a polymorphic electronic infrastructure for managing biological samples stored over liquid nitrogen. As part of this system we have developed new cryocontainers and carrier plates attached to Flash memory chips to have a redundant and portable set of data at each sample. Our experimental investigations show that basic Flash operation and endurance is adequate for the application down to liquid nitrogen temperatures. This identification technology can provide the best sample identification, documentation and tracking that brings added value to each sample. The first application of the system is in a worldwide collaborative research towards the production of an AIDS vaccine. The functionality and versatility of the system can lead to an essential optimization of sample and data exchange for global clinical studies.

  14. Effect of sodium hypochlorite on typical biofilms formed in drinking water distribution systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Huirong; Zhu, Xuan; Wang, Yuxin; Yu, Xin

    2017-04-01

    Human health and biological safety problems resulting from urban drinking water pipe network biofilms pollution have attracted wide concern. Despite the inclusion of residual chlorine in drinking water distribution systems supplies, the bacterium is a recalcitrant human pathogen capable of forming biofilms on pipe walls and causing health risks. Typical drinking water bacterial biofilms and their response to different concentrations of chlorination was monitored. The results showed that the four bacteria all formed single biofilms susceptible to sodium hypochlorite. After 30 min disinfection, biomass and cultivability decreased with increasing concentration of disinfectant but then increased in high disinfectant doses. PMA-qPCR results indicated that it resulted in little cellular damage. Flow cytometry analysis showed that with increasing doses of disinfectant, the numbers of clusters increased and the sizes of clusters decreased. Under high disinfectant treatment, EPS was depleted by disinfectant and about 0.5-1 mg/L of residual chlorine seemed to be appropriate for drinking water treatment. This research provides an insight into the EPS protection to biofilms. Resistance of biofilms against high levels of chlorine has implications for the delivery of drinking water.

  15. Pantoprazole Sodium Loaded Microballoons for the Systemic Approach: In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Pravin; Kumar, Manish; Kaushik, Darpan

    2017-09-01

    Purpose: Various floating and pulsatile drug delivery systems suffer from variations in the gastric transit time affecting the bioavailability of drugs. The objective of the study was to develop Pantoprazole Sodium (PAN) microballoons that may prolong the gastric residence time and could enhance the drug bioavailability. Methods: Microballoons were prepared using Eudragit ® L100 by adopting emulsion solvent diffusion method with non-effervescent approach, in vitro studies were performed and the in vivo evaluation was carried out employing ethanol induced ulceration method. Optimization and validation were carried out through Design Expert ® software. Results: The results demonstrate an increase in percentage yield, buoyancy, encapsulation efficacy and swelling. Particles were in the size range 80-100 µm following zero order release pattern. SEM study revealed their rough surface with spherical shape, internal cavity and porous walls. DSC thermo gram confirms the encapsulation of drug in amorphous form. Significant anti ulcer activity was observed for the prepared microballoons. The calculated ulcer index and protection were 0.20±0.05 and 97.43 % respectively for LRS-O (optimized formulation). Conclusion: This kind of pH dependent drug delivery may provide an efficient dosage regimen with enhanced patient compliance.

  16. Correction of Sample-Time Error for Time-Interleaved Sampling System Using Cubic Spline Interpolation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Guo-jie

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Sample-time errors can greatly degrade the dynamic range of a time-interleaved sampling system. In this paper, a novel correction technique employing a cubic spline interpolation is proposed for inter-channel sample-time error compensation. The cubic spline interpolation compensation filter is developed in the form of a finite-impulse response (FIR filter structure. The correction method of the interpolation compensation filter coefficients is deduced. A 4GS/s two-channel, time-interleaved ADC prototype system has been implemented to evaluate the performance of the technique. The experimental results showed that the correction technique is effective to attenuate the spurious spurs and improve the dynamic performance of the system.

  17. Robust H2 performance for sampled-data systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rank, Mike Lind

    1997-01-01

    Robust H2 performance conditions under structured uncertainty, analogous to well known methods for H∞ performance, have recently emerged in both discrete and continuous-time. This paper considers the extension into uncertain sampled-data systems, taking into account inter-sample behavior. Convex...... conditions for robust H2 performance are derived for different uncertainty sets...

  18. Identification of continuous-time systems from samples of input ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. This paper presents an introductory survey of the methods that have been developed for identification of continuous-time systems from samples of input±output data. The two basic approaches may be described as (i) the indirect method, where first a discrete-time model is estimated from the sampled data and then ...

  19. Sample Management System for Heavy Ion Irradiation, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A robotic sample management device and system for the exposure of biological and material specimens to heavy ion beams of the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL)...

  20. Sample Management System for Heavy Ion Irradiation, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A robotic sample management device and system for the exposure of biological and material specimens to heavy ion beams of the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL)...

  1. Crystalline phase of sodium germanate system determined by x-ray diffraction and 23Na magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussin, R.; Holland, D.; Dupree, R.

    2000-01-01

    Crystalline products of sodium germanate glasses system with composition from 10 mol% to 50 mol% Na 2 O have been investigated using 23 Na magic angle spinning (MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction (XRD). Fitting of the 23 Na NMR spectra of the crystalline phases concerning different crystallographically sodium atom in sodium germanate system are reasonably reproducible as observed by the spectra obtained. The line shape simulations of the 23 Na NMR spectra yielded NMR quadrupolar parameters such as nuclear quadrupole coupling constants (C Q ), asymmetry parameters (η), and isotropic chemical shifts (δ i ). 23 Na NMR isotropic chemical shift may also provide further information on the structural environment of the sodium atom. A simple correlation between structure and NMR parameters to be tested can be used to probe the structure of sodium germanate glasses. The experimental 23 Na chemical shifts correlate well with an empirical shift parameter based on the total oxygen-cation bond valence and Na-O distances of all oxygen atoms in the first coordination sphere of the sodium cation. In this study the different phases in the sodium germanate system were identified. These results show that 23 Na NMR can provide examples of the types of structural information for sodium germanate system. (Author)

  2. High-resolution gel electrophoresis and sodium dodecyl sulphate-agarose gel electrophoresis on urine samples for qualitative analysis of proteinuria in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giori, Luca; Tricomi, Flavia Marcella; Zatelli, Andrea; Roura, Xavier; Paltrinieri, Saverio

    2011-07-01

    The aims of the current study were to assess whether sodium dodecyl sulphate-agarose gel electrophoresis (SDS-AGE) and high-resolution electrophoresis (HRE) can identify dogs with a urinary protein-to-creatinine ratio (UPC ratio) >0.2 and whether HRE can provide preliminary information about the type of proteinuria, using SDS-AGE as a reference method. HRE and SDS-AGE were conducted on 87 urine samples classified according to the International Renal Interest Society as non-proteinuric (NP; UPC ratio: 0.51; 40/87). SDS-AGE and HRE were positive in 14 out of 32 and 3 out of 32 NP samples and in 52 out of 55 and 40 out of 55 samples with a UPC ratio >0.20, respectively. The concordance between HRE or SDS and UPC ratio was comparable (κ = 0.59; κ = 0.55). However, specificity (90%) and positive likelihood ratio (7.76) were higher for HRE than for SDS-AGE (56% and 2.16) while sensitivity was lower (73% vs. 94%). The analysis of HRE results revealed that a percentage of albumin >41.4% and an albumin/α(1)-globulin ratio (alb/α(1) ratio) >1.46 can identify samples classified by SDS-AGE as affected by glomerular proteinuria while a percentage of α(1)-globulin >40.8% and an alb/α(1) ratio HRE could misclassify samples with a UPC ratio higher or lower than 0.20. Therefore, UPC ratio must always be determined before conducting these tests. The percentage of albumin and α(1)-globulin or the alb/α(1) ratio determined by HRE can provide preliminary information about the origin of proteinuria.

  3. FFTF sodium and cover gas characterization and purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCown, J.J.; Bloom, G.R.; Meadows, G.E.; Mettler, G.W.

    1980-02-01

    The FFTF Primary and Secondary Heat Transport System (HTS) sodium is purified with cold traps which have packed crystallizers and external economizers. The Primary HTS cold trap is NaK cooled and the Secondary HTS cold traps are air cooled. The FFTF cold traps have maintained high purity in the sodium since sodium fill. Plant operational procedures during fill and initial sodium heatup to 800 0 F were controlled to assure low release rates of impurities to the sodium. The FFTF sodium systems are monitored by plugging temperature indicators and by several sampling methods. During reactor fill and non-fueled operations at 400 to 800 0 F, impurity changes in the sodium were followed by continuous plugging indicator coverage, by exposing wires and foils to measure carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, and by bulk sample analysis of all other trace constituents. The sampling and analysis methods and data are presented, impurity excursions in the cover gas and sodium are described, and impurity trends are discussed

  4. Cold-starting portable microenergy system. Autonomous fuel cell system using sodium borohydride as an energy source; Kaltstartfaehiges portables Mikroenergiesystem. Autarkes BZ-System mit Natriumborhydrid als Energietraeger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groos, Ulf; Koch, Wolfgang [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Solare Energiesysteme (ISE), Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany)

    2012-10-15

    A project consortium led by Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Solare Energiesysteme ISE developed an autonomous micro energy system (AMES) with an output of 100 W{sub el} as a charging station for applications in emergency medicine. The system is designed for a wide temperature range of -15 to +50 degC during startup, operation, and shutoff. The cold starting fuel cell system is in accordance with current standards and is suited for serial production. It can be operated with common hydrogen stores, e.g. gas flasks or metal hydrides, or else with a specially developed hydrogen generator based on sodium borohydride. (orig.)

  5. Effects of Dietary Sodium Restriction in Kidney Transplant Recipients Treated With Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System Blockade: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Laura V; Dobrowolski, Linn C; van den Bosch, Jacqueline J O N; Riphagen, Ineke J; Krediet, C T Paul; Bemelman, Frederike J; Bakker, Stephan J L; Navis, Gerjan

    2016-06-01

    In patients with chronic kidney disease receiving renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) blockade, dietary sodium restriction is an often-used treatment strategy to reduce blood pressure (BP) and albuminuria. Whether these effects extend to kidney transplant recipients is unknown. We therefore studied the effects of dietary sodium restriction on BP and urinary albumin excretion (UAE) in kidney transplant recipients receiving RAAS blockade. Two-center randomized crossover trial. Stable outpatient kidney transplant recipients with creatinine clearance > 30mL/min, BP ≥120/80mmHg, receiving stable RAAS blockade therapy. 6-week regular-sodium diet (target, 150mmol/24 h) and a 6-week low-sodium diet (target, 50mmol/24 h). Main outcome parameters were systolic and diastolic BP, UAE, and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) at the end of each diet period. Dietary adherence was assessed by 24-hour urinary sodium excretion. We randomly assigned 23 kidney transplant recipients, of whom 22 (mean age, 58±8 [SD] years; 50% men; mean eGFR, 51±21mL/min/1.73m(2)) completed the study. One patient withdrew from the study because of concerns regarding orthostatic hypotension on the low-sodium diet. Sodium excretion decreased from 164±50mmol/24 h during the regular-sodium diet to 87±55mmol/24 h during the low-sodium diet (mean difference, -77 [95% CI, -110 to -44] mmol/24 h; Padherence to sodium diet was achieved in 86% of patients. In stable kidney transplant recipients receiving RAAS blockade, dietary sodium restriction effectively reduces BP without affecting eGFR. Dietary sodium restriction is relevant to BP management in kidney transplant recipients receiving RAAS blockade. Copyright © 2016 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Does the renin-angiotensin system determine the renal and systemic hemodynamic response to sodium in patients with essential hypertension?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    vanPaassen, P; deZeeuw, D; Navis, G; deJong, PE

    Many patients with essential hypertension respond to a high dietary sodium intake with a rise in blood pressure. Experimental evidence suggests that the renal hemodynamic response to sodium determines, at least partially, this rise in blood pressure. Our aim was to clarify the role of the

  7. Metrological certification of systems to monitor the seal integrity of fuel-element cladding based on exposed fuel in sodium-cooled fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eliseev, A.V.; Filonov, V.S.; Ushakov, V.M.; Belov, S.P.; Pedyash, B.V.; Zemtsev, B.V.; Skorikov, N.V.

    1992-01-01

    In sodium-cooled fast reactors, the clad monitoring system for seal integrity of the fuel element cladding is practically the only source of operator information on the serviceability of fuel elements in the core. The monitoring system can be used as the basis for critical decisions whether the reactor must be shut down of whether operation can continue, but only if the meterologically provided measurements are reliable. This article describes a method developed for certifying working rods on the basis of the domestic standard. The method includes a combined irradiation of the sample and the rod to be certified in an arbitrary field of a plutonium-beryllium neutron source with an output rate greater than 10 8 sec -1 , which is mounted in a paraffin moderator. The positive results of the metrological certification of the system to monitor cladding seal integrity leads the authors to recommend this method for other current and planned sodium-cooled fast reactors. 6 refs., 2 tabs

  8. Simulation experiments for a large leak sodium-water reaction analysis. Volume 4. IHTS/relief system simulation tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ploeger, D.W.

    1978-09-01

    Tests were performed in which a simplified 1/8-scale model of the intermediate heat transfer system and relief system of a LMFBR was subjected to a simulated sodium-water reaction in a steam generator. Pressures in the intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) and in the pipe were measured. The flow of water through the relief system was photographed and its velocity was measured. The forces on the relief system elbows resulting from the fluid flow were also measured. The tests were performed primarily to validate pulse propagation codes used for design and for direct use as design data

  9. Microscopic diagnosis of sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin-fixed stool samples for helminths and intestinal protozoa: a comparison among European reference laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utzinger, J; Botero-Kleiven, S; Castelli, F; Chiodini, P L; Edwards, H; Köhler, N; Gulletta, M; Lebbad, M; Manser, M; Matthys, B; N'Goran, E K; Tannich, E; Vounatsou, P; Marti, H

    2010-03-01

    The present study aimed to compare the diagnostic performance of different European reference laboratories in diagnosing helminths and intestinal protozoa, using an ether-concentration method applied to sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin (SAF)-preserved faecal samples. In total, 102 stool specimens were analysed during a cross-sectional parasitological survey in urban farming communities in Côte d'Ivoire. Five SAF-preserved faecal samples were prepared from each specimen and forwarded to the participating reference laboratories, processed and examined under a microscope adhering to a standard operating procedure (SOP). Schistosoma mansoni (cumulative prevalence: 51.0%) and hookworm (cumulative prevalence: 39.2%) were the predominant helminths. There was excellent agreement (kappa > 0.8; p protozoa were Entamoeba coli (median prevalence: 67.6%), Blastocystis hominis (median prevalence: 55.9%) and Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar (median prevalence: 47.1%). Substantial agreement among reference laboratories was found for E. coli (kappa = 0.69), but only fair or moderate agreement was found for other Entamoeba species, Giardia intestinalis and Chilomastix mesnili. There was only poor agreement for B. hominis, Isospora belli and Trichomonas intestinalis. In conclusion, although common helminths were reliably diagnosed by European reference laboratories, there was only moderate agreement between centres for pathogenic intestinal protozoa. Continued external quality assessment and the establishment of a formal network of reference laboratories is necessary to further enhance both accuracy and uniformity in parasite diagnosis.

  10. Evaluation of Multiple Linear Regression-Based Limited Sampling Strategies for Enteric-Coated Mycophenolate Sodium in Adult Kidney Transplant Recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Emily K; Tett, Susan E; Isbel, Nicole M; McWhinney, Brett; Staatz, Christine E

    2018-04-01

    Although multiple linear regression-based limited sampling strategies (LSSs) have been published for enteric-coated mycophenolate sodium, none have been evaluated for the prediction of subsequent mycophenolic acid (MPA) exposure. This study aimed to examine the predictive performance of the published LSS for the estimation of future MPA area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 12 hours (AUC0-12) in renal transplant recipients. Total MPA plasma concentrations were measured in 20 adult renal transplant patients on 2 occasions a week apart. All subjects received concomitant tacrolimus and were approximately 1 month after transplant. Samples were taken at 0, 0.33, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, 3.5, 4, 6, and 8 hours and 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.25, 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 6, 9, and 12 hours after dose on the first and second sampling occasion, respectively. Predicted MPA AUC0-12 was calculated using 19 published LSSs and data from the first or second sampling occasion for each patient and compared with the second occasion full MPA AUC0-12 calculated using the linear trapezoidal rule. Bias (median percentage prediction error) and imprecision (median absolute prediction error) were determined. Median percentage prediction error and median absolute prediction error for the prediction of full MPA AUC0-12 were multiple linear regression-based LSS was not possible without concentrations up to at least 8 hours after the dose.

  11. Vapour pressures, densities, and viscosities of the (water + lithium bromide + potassium acetate) system and (water + lithium bromide + sodium lactate) system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, Antonio de; Donate, Marina; Rodriguez, Juan F.

    2006-01-01

    Measurements of thermophysical properties (vapour pressure, density, and viscosity) of the (water + lithium bromide + potassium acetate) system LiBr:CH 3 COOK = 2:1 by mass ratio and the (water + lithium bromide + sodium lactate) system LiBr:CH 3 CH(OH)COONa = 2:1 by mass ratio were measured. The system, a possible new working fluid for absorption heat pump, consists of absorbent (LiBr + CH 3 COOK) or (LiBr + CH 3 CH(OH)COONa) and refrigerant H 2 O. The vapour pressures were measured in the ranges of temperature and absorbent concentration from T = (293.15 to 333.15) K and from mass fraction 0.20 to 0.50, densities and viscosities were measured from T = (293.15 to 323.15) K and from mass fraction 0.20 to 0.40. The experimental data were correlated with an Antoine-type equation. Densities and viscosities were measured in the same range of temperature and absorbent concentration as that of the vapour pressure. Regression equations for densities and viscosities were obtained with a minimum mean square error criterion

  12. Sample-hold and analog multiplexer for multidetector systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goswami, G C; Ghoshdostidar, M R; Ghosh, B; Chaudhuri, N [North Bengal Univ., Darjeeling (India). Dept. of Physics

    1982-08-15

    A new sample-hold circuit with an analog multiplexer system is described. Designed for multichannel acquistion of data from an air shower array, the system is being used for accurate measurements of pulse heights from 16 channels by the use of a single ADC.

  13. Chemical and Metallurgy Research (CMR) Sample Tracking System Design Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bargelski, C. J.; Berrett, D. E.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to describe the system architecture of the Chemical and Metallurgy Research (CMR) Sample Tracking System at Los Alamos National Laboratory. During the course of the document observations are made concerning the objectives, constraints and limitations, technical approaches, and the technical deliverables

  14. Fault tolerant controllers for sampled-data systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2004-01-01

    A general compensator architecture for fault tolerant control (FTC) for sampled-data systems is proposed. The architecture is based on the YJBK parameterization of all stabilizing controllers, and uses the dual YJBK parameterization to quantify the performance of the fault tolerant system. The FTC...

  15. An Automated Sample Processing System for Planetary Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Juancarlos; Lasnik, James; Roark, Shane; Beegle, Luther

    2012-01-01

    An Automated Sample Processing System (ASPS) for wet chemistry processing of organic materials on the surface of Mars has been jointly developed by Ball Aerospace and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The mechanism has been built and tested to demonstrate TRL level 4. This paper describes the function of the system, mechanism design, lessons learned, and several challenges that were overcome.

  16. KINETICS OF POLYMERIZATION OF METHYL METHACRYLATE INITIATED BY COPPER POLYPROPYLENE—BASED POLY(OXIME—IMIDODIACETATE)—SODIUM SULFITE SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WUJinyuan; YANGChaoxiong; 等

    1992-01-01

    The aqueous polymerization of methyl methacrylate intiated by copper polypropylene-based poly(oxime-imidodiacetate)(P-Cu)-sodium sulfite system has been investigated.The overall rate of polymerization(Rp) was found to be Rp=5.8×1012e-84.1KJ/RT[MMA]1.4[P-Cu]0[Na2SO3]0.50 A mechanism of “coordination-proton transfer”for the production of initiating species was proposed and discussed.

  17. Physical models of mass transport of iron and nickel in liquid sodium systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, B.S.J.; Polley, M.V.; Skyrme, G.

    1975-12-01

    Experimental observations on corrosion of pure iron and nickel specimens in non-isothermal loops containing flowing sodium have been used to derive values of the concentration of dissolved material at the entrance to the test section and diffusion coefficients of the test material in sodium. The former values differ from the saturation value by only 10 -3 ppm, which is small compared to currently recommended solubility values. The phenomenon cannot be explained in terms of circulating particles. Two other possible explanations are also dismissed. The diffusion coefficient values are consistent with the corroding species being atoms, or molecules containing a few atoms. It is also shown that the observations are better explained in terms of boundary layer controlled mass transfer, rather than a surface controlled process. A computer model based on an alternative solubility relationship is shown to produce results which describe well the observed variation of corrosion rate with oxygen concentration, sodium velocity and downstream position. (author)

  18. Calculational model and code for corrosion products transfer in sodium systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iizawa, Katsuyuki; Kikuchi, Takao; Nihei, Isao; Horie, Junnosuke

    1987-01-01

    The parameters to predict LMFBR radioactive CP behaviour are obtained by fitting the model to the release rates and distribution of deposits in experimental sodium loops. Analysis of the downstream effect for Co-60 deposition confirms that the mechanism controlling Co-60 transfer is diffusion through the boundary sublayer in the flowing sodium. On the other hand, analysis of Mn-54 deposition suggests that the controlling mechanism for this nuclide is probably an intermediate case between diffusion-control in the liquid and reaction-control at steel surfaces. The super-stoichiometric release of Mn-54 and the sub-stoichiometric release of Co-60 are interpreted from their model parameters as being likely related to their solubilities in sodium. The computer code developed for this model is named PSYCHE. (orig./HP)

  19. Study of the Na-C-O and Na-H-O ternary systems in the sodium rich corner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maupre, J.-P.

    1978-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to provide a contribution to the understanding of the sodium - carbon - oxygen and sodium - hydrogen - oxygen ternary systems in the sodium rich corner. In order to do this the Na-NaH-Na 2 O-NaOH phase diagram was completed and the Na-Na 2 O-Na 2 CO 3 -C phase diagram was outlined. This work is made up of two parts. The first is devoted to a critical literature survey essential to establish correct phase diagrams. The second is an experimental study followed by a discussion collating our finding to the literary data. The basic experimental technique used is differential thermal analysis (DTA) but it has been completed by quenching, X-ray and chemical analysis methods. The proposed phase diagrams imply that Na-NaH-Na 2 O-NaOH and Na-Na 2 O-Na 2 CO 3 -C systems are reciprocal ternary systems. Temperatures of stable pairs reversal are respectively 410 and 690 0 C. The stable pairs are Na-NaOH and Na-Na 2 CO 3 at elevated temperature, Na 2 O-NaH and Na 2 O-C at low temperature [fr

  20. Sodium nitrite induces acute central nervous system toxicity in guinea pigs exposed to systemic cell-free hemoglobin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buehler, Paul W.; Butt, Omer I. [Laboratory of Biochemistry and Vascular Biology, Division of Hematology, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, Bethesda, MD (United States); D' Agnillo, Felice, E-mail: felice.dagnillo@fda.hhs.gov [Laboratory of Biochemistry and Vascular Biology, Division of Hematology, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2011-06-10

    Highlights: {yields} Toxicological implications associated with the use of NaNO{sub 2} therapy to treat systemic cell-free Hb exposure are not well-defined. {yields} Systemic Hb exposure followed by NaNO{sub 2} infusion induces acute CNS toxicities in guinea pigs. {yields} These CNS effects were not reproduced by the infusion of cell-free Hb or NaNO{sub 2} alone. {yields} NaNO{sub 2}-mediated oxidation of cell-free Hb may play a causative role in the observed CNS changes. -- Abstract: Systemic cell-free hemoglobin (Hb) released via hemolysis disrupts vascular homeostasis, in part, through the scavenging of nitric oxide (NO). Sodium nitrite (NaNO{sub 2}) therapy can attenuate the hypertensive effects of Hb. However, the chemical reactivity of NaNO{sub 2} with Hb may enhance heme- or iron-mediated toxicities. Here, we investigate the effect of NaNO{sub 2} on the central nervous system (CNS) in guinea pigs exposed to systemic cell-free Hb. Intravascular infusion of NaNO{sub 2}, at doses sufficient to alleviate Hb-mediated blood pressure changes, reduced the expression of occludin, but not zona occludens-1 (ZO-1) or claudin-5, in cerebral tight junctions 4 h after Hb infusion. This was accompanied by increased perivascular heme oxygenase-1 expression, neuronal iron deposition, increased astrocyte and microglial activation, and reduced expression of neuron-specific nuclear protein (NeuN). These CNS changes were not observed in animals treated with Hb or NaNO{sub 2} alone. Taken together, these findings suggest that the use of nitrite salts to treat systemic Hb exposure may promote acute CNS toxicity.

  1. Sodium nitrite induces acute central nervous system toxicity in guinea pigs exposed to systemic cell-free hemoglobin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buehler, Paul W.; Butt, Omer I.; D'Agnillo, Felice

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Toxicological implications associated with the use of NaNO 2 therapy to treat systemic cell-free Hb exposure are not well-defined. → Systemic Hb exposure followed by NaNO 2 infusion induces acute CNS toxicities in guinea pigs. → These CNS effects were not reproduced by the infusion of cell-free Hb or NaNO 2 alone. → NaNO 2 -mediated oxidation of cell-free Hb may play a causative role in the observed CNS changes. -- Abstract: Systemic cell-free hemoglobin (Hb) released via hemolysis disrupts vascular homeostasis, in part, through the scavenging of nitric oxide (NO). Sodium nitrite (NaNO 2 ) therapy can attenuate the hypertensive effects of Hb. However, the chemical reactivity of NaNO 2 with Hb may enhance heme- or iron-mediated toxicities. Here, we investigate the effect of NaNO 2 on the central nervous system (CNS) in guinea pigs exposed to systemic cell-free Hb. Intravascular infusion of NaNO 2 , at doses sufficient to alleviate Hb-mediated blood pressure changes, reduced the expression of occludin, but not zona occludens-1 (ZO-1) or claudin-5, in cerebral tight junctions 4 h after Hb infusion. This was accompanied by increased perivascular heme oxygenase-1 expression, neuronal iron deposition, increased astrocyte and microglial activation, and reduced expression of neuron-specific nuclear protein (NeuN). These CNS changes were not observed in animals treated with Hb or NaNO 2 alone. Taken together, these findings suggest that the use of nitrite salts to treat systemic Hb exposure may promote acute CNS toxicity.

  2. A computational model for the carbon transfer in stainless steel sodium systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casadio, S.; Scibona, G.

    1980-01-01

    A method is proposed of computing the carbon transfer in the type 316, 304 and 321 stainless steels in sodium environment as a function of temperature, exposure time and carbon concentration in the sodium. The method is based on the criteria developed at ANL by introducing some simplifications and takes also into account the correlations obtained at WARD. Calculated carbon profiles are compared both with experimental data and with the results available by the other computer methods. The limits for quantitative predictions of the stainless steel carburization or decarburization exposed in a specific environment are discussed. (author)

  3. ACS sampling system: design, implementation, and performance evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Marcantonio, Paolo; Cirami, Roberto; Chiozzi, Gianluca

    2004-09-01

    By means of ACS (ALMA Common Software) framework we designed and implemented a sampling system which allows sampling of every Characteristic Component Property with a specific, user-defined, sustained frequency limited only by the hardware. Collected data are sent to various clients (one or more Java plotting widgets, a dedicated GUI or a COTS application) using the ACS/CORBA Notification Channel. The data transport is optimized: samples are cached locally and sent in packets with a lower and user-defined frequency to keep network load under control. Simultaneous sampling of the Properties of different Components is also possible. Together with the design and implementation issues we present the performance of the sampling system evaluated on two different platforms: on a VME based system using VxWorks RTOS (currently adopted by ALMA) and on a PC/104+ embedded platform using Red Hat 9 Linux operating system. The PC/104+ solution offers, as an alternative, a low cost PC compatible hardware environment with free and open operating system.

  4. Development of early core anomaly detection system by using in-sodium microphone in JOYO. Fundamental characteristics test of in-sodium microphone in water and examination of improvement of detection accuracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komai, Masafumi

    2001-07-01

    Fast reactor core anomalies can be detected in near real-time with acoustic sensors. An acoustic detection system senses an in-core anomaly immediately from the fast acoustic signals that propagate through the sodium coolant. One example of a detectable anomaly is sodium boiling due to local blockage in a sub-assembly; the slight change in background acoustic signals can be detected. A key advantage of the acoustic detector is that it can be located outside the core. The location of the anomaly in the core can be determined by correlating multiple acoustic signals. This report describes the testing and fundamental characteristics of a microphone suitable for use in the sodium coolant and examines methods to improve the system's S/N ratio. Testing in water confirmed that the in-sodium microphone has good impulse and wide band frequency responses. These tests used impulse and white noise signals that imitate acoustic signals from boiling sodium. Correlation processing of multiple microphone signals to improve S/N ratio is also described. (author)

  5. Controlling a sample changer using the integrated counting system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deacon, S.; Stevens, M.P.

    1985-06-01

    Control of the Sample Changer from a counting system can be achieved by using a Scaler Timer type 6255 and Sample Changer Control Interface type 6263. The interface used, however, has quite complex circuitry. The application therefore lends itself to the use of another 6000 Series module the Integrated Counting System (ICS). Using this unit control is carried out through a control program written in BASIC for the Commodore PET (or any other device with an IEEE-488 interface). The ICS then controls the sample changer through an interface unit which is relatively simple. A brief description of how ICS controls the sample changer is given. The control program is then described, firstly the running options are given, followed by a program description listing and flowchart. (author)

  6. Controlling a sample changer using the integrated counting system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deacon, S; Stevens, M P

    1985-06-01

    Control of the Sample Changer from a counting system can be achieved by using a Scaler Timer type 6255 and Sample Changer Control Interface type 6263. The interface used, however, has quite complex circuitry. The application therefore lends itself to the use of another 6000 Series module-the Integrated Counting System (ICS). Using this unit control is carried out through a control program written in BASIC for the Commodore PET (or any other device with an IEEE-488 interface). The ICS then controls the sample changer through an interface unit which is relatively simple. A brief description of how ICS controls the sample changer is given. The control program is then described; first the running options are given, followed by a program description listing and flowchart.

  7. Electrophoretic extraction of low molecular weight cationic analytes from sodium dodecyl sulfate containing sample matrices for their direct electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinde, Tristan F; Lopez, Thomas D; Dutta, Debashis

    2015-03-03

    While the use of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) in separation buffers allows efficient analysis of complex mixtures, its presence in the sample matrix is known to severely interfere with the mass-spectrometric characterization of analyte molecules. In this article, we report a microfluidic device that addresses this analytical challenge by enabling inline electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) of low molecular weight cationic samples prepared in SDS containing matrices. The functionality of this device relies on the continuous extraction of analyte molecules into an SDS-free solvent stream based on the free-flow zone electrophoresis (FFZE) technique prior to their ESI-MS analysis. The reported extraction was accomplished in our current work in a glass channel with microelectrodes fabricated along its sidewalls to realize the desired electric field. Our experiments show that a key challenge to successfully operating such a device is to suppress the electroosmotically driven fluid circulations generated in its extraction channel that otherwise tend to vigorously mix the liquid streams flowing through this duct. A new coating medium, N-(2-triethoxysilylpropyl) formamide, recently demonstrated by our laboratory to nearly eliminate electroosmotic flow in glass microchannels was employed to address this issue. Applying this surface modifier, we were able to efficiently extract two different peptides, human angiotensin I and MRFA, individually from an SDS containing matrix using the FFZE method and detect them at concentrations down to 3.7 and 6.3 μg/mL, respectively, in samples containing as much as 10 mM SDS. Notice that in addition to greatly reducing the amount of SDS entering the MS instrument, the reported approach allows rapid solvent exchange for facilitating efficient analyte ionization desired in ESI-MS analysis.

  8. Cryogenic Liquid Sample Acquisition System for Remote Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahaffy, Paul; Trainer, Melissa; Wegel, Don; Hawk, Douglas; Melek, Tony; Johnson, Christopher; Amato, Michael; Galloway, John

    2013-01-01

    There is a need to acquire autonomously cryogenic hydrocarbon liquid sample from remote planetary locations such as the lakes of Titan for instruments such as mass spectrometers. There are several problems that had to be solved relative to collecting the right amount of cryogenic liquid sample into a warmer spacecraft, such as not allowing the sample to boil off or fractionate too early; controlling the intermediate and final pressures within carefully designed volumes; designing for various particulates and viscosities; designing to thermal, mass, and power-limited spacecraft interfaces; and reducing risk. Prior art inlets for similar instruments in spaceflight were designed primarily for atmospheric gas sampling and are not useful for this front-end application. These cryogenic liquid sample acquisition system designs for remote space applications allow for remote, autonomous, controlled sample collections of a range of challenging cryogenic sample types. The design can control the size of the sample, prevent fractionation, control pressures at various stages, and allow for various liquid sample levels. It is capable of collecting repeated samples autonomously in difficult lowtemperature conditions often found in planetary missions. It is capable of collecting samples for use by instruments from difficult sample types such as cryogenic hydrocarbon (methane, ethane, and propane) mixtures with solid particulates such as found on Titan. The design with a warm actuated valve is compatible with various spacecraft thermal and structural interfaces. The design uses controlled volumes, heaters, inlet and vent tubes, a cryogenic valve seat, inlet screens, temperature and cryogenic liquid sensors, seals, and vents to accomplish its task.

  9. Sampled-data models for linear and nonlinear systems

    CERN Document Server

    Yuz, Juan I

    2014-01-01

    Sampled-data Models for Linear and Nonlinear Systems provides a fresh new look at a subject with which many researchers may think themselves familiar. Rather than emphasising the differences between sampled-data and continuous-time systems, the authors proceed from the premise that, with modern sampling rates being as high as they are, it is becoming more appropriate to emphasise connections and similarities. The text is driven by three motives: ·      the ubiquity of computers in modern control and signal-processing equipment means that sampling of systems that really evolve continuously is unavoidable; ·      although superficially straightforward, sampling can easily produce erroneous results when not treated properly; and ·      the need for a thorough understanding of many aspects of sampling among researchers and engineers dealing with applications to which they are central. The authors tackle many misconceptions which, although appearing reasonable at first sight, are in fact either p...

  10. Rapid surface sampling and archival record system (RSSAR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barren, E.; Bracco, A.; Dorn, S.B.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose is to develop a rapid surface (concrete, steel) contamination measurement system that will provide a ''quick-look'' indication of contamination areas, an archival record, and an automated analysis. A bulk sampling oven is also being developed. The sampling device consists of a sampling head, a quick look detector, and an archiving system (sorbent tube). The head thermally desorbs semi-volatiles, such as PCBs, oils, etc., from concrete and steel surfaces; the volatilized materials are passed through a quick-look detector. Sensitivity of the detector can be attenuated for various contaminant levels. Volatilized materials are trapped in a tube filled with adsorbent. The tubes are housed in a magazine which also archives information about sampling conditions. Analysis of the tubes can be done at a later date. The concrete sampling head is fitted with a tungsten-halogen lamp; in laboratory experiments it has extracted model contaminants by heating the top 4mm of the surface to 250 C within 100-200 s. The steel sampling head has been tested on different types of steels and has extracted model contaminants within 30 s. A mathematical model of heat and mass transport in concrete has been developed. Rate of contaminant removal is at maximum when the moisture content is about 100 kg/m 3 . The system will be useful during decontamination and decommissioning operations

  11. Research of pneumatic control transmission system for small irradiation samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai Zhongxiong; Zhang Haibing; Rong Ru; Zhang Tao

    2008-01-01

    In order to reduce the absorbed dose damage for the operator, pneumatic control has been adopted to realize the rapid transmission of small irradiation samples. On/off of pneumatic circuit and directions for the rapid transmission system are controlled by the electrical control part. The main program initializes the system and detects the location of the manual/automatic change-over switch, and call for the corresponding subprogram to achieve the automatic or manual operation. Automatic subprogram achieves the automatic sample transmission; Manual subprogram completes the deflation, and back and forth movement of the radiation samples. This paper introduces in detail the implementation of the system, in terms of both hardware and software design. (authors)

  12. System design description for sampling fuel in K basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, R.B.

    1996-01-01

    This System Design Description provides: (1) statements of the Spent Nuclear Fuel Projects (SNFP) needs requiring sampling of fuel in the K East and K West Basins, (2) the sampling equipment functions and requirements, (3) a general work plan and the design logic being followed to develop the equipment, and (4) a summary description of the design for the sampling equipment. The report summarizes the integrated application of both the subject equipment and the canister sludge sampler in near-term characterization campaigns at K Basins

  13. A New Cryogenic Sample Manipulator For SRC's Scienta 2002 System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gundelach, Chad T.; Fisher, Mike V.; Hoechst, Hartmut

    2004-01-01

    We discuss the first bench tests of a sample manipulator which was recently designed at SRC for the Scienta 2002 User system. The manipulator concept utilizes the 10 deg. angular window of the Scienta in the horizontal plane (angle dispersion) by rotating the sample normal around the vertical axis while angular scans along the vertical axis (energy dispersion) are continuous within ±30 deg. relative to the electron lens by rotating the sample around the horizontal axis. With this concept it is possible to precisely map the entire two-dimensional k-space of a crystal by means of stitching together 10 deg. wide stripes centered +15 deg. to -50 deg. relative to the sample normal. Three degrees of translational freedom allow positioning the sample surface at the focal point of the analyzer. Two degrees of rotational freedom are available at this position for manipulating the sample. Samples are mounted to a standard holder and transferred to the manipulator via a load-lock system attached to a prep chamber. The manipulator is configured with a cryogenic cold head, an electrical heater, and a temperature sensor permitting continuous closed-loop operation for 20-380 K

  14. Essential Oils and Their Constituents Targeting the GABAergic System and Sodium Channels as Treatment of Neurological Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ze-Jun Wang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils and the constituents in them exhibit different pharmacological activities, such as antinociceptive, anxiolytic-like, and anticonvulsant effects. They are widely applied as a complementary therapy for people with anxiety, insomnia, convulsion, pain, and cognitive deficit symptoms through inhalation, oral administration, and aromatherapy. Recent studies show that essential oils are emerging as a promising source for modulation of the GABAergic system and sodium ion channels. This review summarizes the recent findings regarding the pharmacological properties of essential oils and compounds from the oils and the mechanisms underlying their effects. Specifically, the review focuses on the essential oils and their constituents targeting the GABAergic system and sodium channels, and their antinociceptive, anxiolytic, and anticonvulsant properties. Some constituents target transient receptor potential (TRP channels to exert analgesic effects. Some components could interact with multiple therapeutic target proteins, for example, inhibit the function of sodium channels and, at the same time, activate GABAA receptors. The review concentrates on perspective compounds that could be better candidates for new drug development in the control of pain and anxiety syndromes.

  15. KINETICS OF POLYMERIZATION OF METHYL METHACRYLATE INITIATED BY COPPER POLYPROPYLENE-BASED POLYAMIDOXIME-SODIUM SULFITE SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Jinyuan; YANG Yiguang; YANG Chaoxiong

    1992-01-01

    The aqueous polymerization of methyl methacrylate initiated by copper polypropylene-based polyamidoxime ( PPAO - Cu ) - sodium sulfite system was investigated . The overall rate of polymerization (Rp) is Rp=9.7 × 1012 e-21, 200/RT [MMA]0.88 [ Na2 SO 3 ]0.50 The length of the induction period (τ) is inversely proportional to the concentration of sodium sulfite and independent of the amount of polymer supported copper and the concentration of monomer. It could be expressed as follows:1τ=1.2× 1012e-15,600/RT[ Na2SO3] =KτRi The polymerization is initiated by a primary radical generated from the redox reaction rather than induced by "coordination-proton transfer" mechanism.

  16. Injectable nanoparticle-loaded hydrogel system for local delivery of sodium alendronate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Posadowska, U.; Pařízek, Martin; Filová, Elena; Wlodarczyk-Biegun, M.; Kamperman, M.; Bačáková, Lucie; Pamula, E.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 485, 1-2 (2015), s. 31-40 ISSN 0378-5173 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NT13297 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : sodium alendronate * PLGA * nanoparticles Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics Impact factor: 3.994, year: 2015

  17. Evaluation of determinative methods for sodium impurities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molinari, Marcelo; Guido, Osvaldo; Botbol, Jose; Ares, Osvaldo

    1988-01-01

    Sodium, universally accepted as heat transfer fluid in fast breeder reactors, requires a special technology for every operation involved in any applicable methodology, due to its well known chemical reactivity. The purpose of this work is: a) to study the sources and effects of chemical species which, as traces, accompany sodium used in the nuclear field; b) to classify, taking into account, the present requirements and resources of the National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA), the procedures found in the literature for determination of the most important impurities which exist in experimental liquid sodium systems and c) to describe the principles of the methods and to evaluate them in order to make a selection. It was concluded the convenience to develop, as a first stage, laboratory procedures to determine carbon, oxygen, hydrogen and non-volatile impurities, which besides serving present needs, will be referential for direct methods with undeferred response. The latter are needed in liquid sodium experimental loops and require, primarily, more complex and extended development. Additionally, a description is made of experimental work performed up-to-now in this laboratory, consisting of a transfer device for sodium sampling and a sodium distillation device, adapted from a previous design, with associated vacuum and inert gas systems. It is intended as a separative technique for indirect determination of oxygen and non-volatile impurities. (Author) [es

  18. Indigenous development of automated metallographic sample preparation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulkarni, A.P.; Pandit, K.M.; Deshmukh, A.G.; Sahoo, K.C.

    2005-01-01

    Surface preparation of specimens for Metallographic studies on irradiated material involves a lot of remote handling of radioactive material by skilled manpower. These are laborious and man-rem intensive activities and put limitations on number of samples that can be prepared for the metallographic studies. To overcome these limitations, automated systems have been developed for surface preparation of specimens in PIE division. The system includes (i) Grinding and polishing stations (ii) Water jet cleaning station (iii) Ultrasonic cleaning stations (iv) Drying station (v) Sample loading and unloading station (vi) Dispenser for slurries and diluents and (vii) Automated head for movement of the sample holder disc from one station to other. System facilities the operator for programming/changing sequence of the sample preparations including remote changing of grinding/polishing discs from the stations. Two such systems have been installed and commissioned in Hot Cell for PIE Division. These are being used for preparation of irradiated samples from nuclear fuels and structural components. This development has increased the throughput of metallography work and savings in terms of (man-severts) radiation exposure to operators. This presentation will provide details of the challenges in undertaking this developmental work. (author)

  19. Voltammetric determination of sudan ii in food samples at graphene modified glassy carbon electrode based on the enhancement effect of sodium dodecyl sulfate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, X.; Chen, M.; Chao, M.

    2013-01-01

    Summary: Herein, a novel electrochemical method was de veloped for the determination of Sudan II based on the electrochemical catalytic activity of graphene modified glassy carbon electrode (GME) and the enhancement effect of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). In a pH 6.0 phosphate buffer solution, Sudan II exhibited a pair of well-defined quasi reversible redox peaks at the GME in the presence of 5.0x10/sup -5/ mol L/sup 1/ SDS. The oxidation peak current of Sudan II was linearly proportional to its concentration in a range from 4.0x10/sup -8/ to 4.0x10/sup -6/ mol L/sup 1/, with a linear regression equation of ipa (A) = 3.35 c + 5.96 x 10/sup -6/, r = 0.9988 and a detection limit of 8.0x10/sup -9/ mol L/sup 1/. The recoveries from the standards fortified blank samples were in the range of 94.7% to 97.5% with RSD lower than 4.0%. The novel method has been successfully used to determine Sudan II in food products with satisfactory results. (author)

  20. A Comparison of Fluoride Uptake by Sound Enamel Following Application of Sodium Fluoride Mouthrinses and APF Gels Produced in Iran with Standardized Foreign Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Kowsari

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this investigation is to compare the extent of fluoride uptake by sound enamel following application of two commercial mouthrinses containing sodium fluoride (0.2% and a topical gel containing APF (1.23% produced in Iran with those of foreign standardized ones. Sixty extracted premolars were used. Each tooth was divided into two lingual and buccal halves, one half as control, the other one as experimental. Enamel biopsy technique (two- step acid etching was used to determine the concentration of fluoride and calcium in each sample. For data comparison and fluoride uptake estimation, the depths of layers with the use of linear regression analysis were standardized to 25 and 50um. The analysis showed that in Iranian mouthrinse no. 1, there is linear correlation between fluoride concentration and enamel depth, in both control and experimental group at the first and second layers, while, in other groups, this correlation was observed just at the first layer (superficial enamel layer. The greatest fluoride uptake was seen at Iranian mouthrinse no.2 and the least was seen at foreign mouthrinse no. 3. From among two APF gels, the greatest uptake was observed at gel no. 1 (Iranian. The results showed that all three Iranian products increase fluoride content of enamel, moreover the level of fluoride uptake, while applying Iranian products, in comparison with foreign ones, shows considerable increase.

  1. Sampling

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Steven K

    2012-01-01

    Praise for the Second Edition "This book has never had a competitor. It is the only book that takes a broad approach to sampling . . . any good personal statistics library should include a copy of this book." —Technometrics "Well-written . . . an excellent book on an important subject. Highly recommended." —Choice "An ideal reference for scientific researchers and other professionals who use sampling." —Zentralblatt Math Features new developments in the field combined with all aspects of obtaining, interpreting, and using sample data Sampling provides an up-to-date treat

  2. Fluorescence enhancement effect for the determination of curcumin with yttrium(III)-curcumin-sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Feng; Huang Wei; Wang Yanwei

    2008-01-01

    It is found that the fluorescence of curcumin is greatly enhanced by yttrium(III) (Y 3+ ) in the presence of sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate. Based on this, a sensitive fluorimetric method for the determination of curcumin in aqueous solution is proposed. In the potassium hydrogen phthalate (KHP) buffer, the fluorescence intensity of curcumin is proportional to the concentration of curcumin in the range of 7.37x10 -4 -0.18, 0.18-2.95 μg mL -1 and the detection limit is 0.1583 ng mL -1 . The actual samples are satisfactorily determined. In addition, the interaction mechanism is also studied

  3. Computer-controlled sampling system for airborne particulates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, C.F.; Anspaugh, L.R.; Koval, J.S.; Phelps, P.L.; Steinhaus, R.J.

    1975-01-01

    A self-contained, mobile, computer-controlled air-sampling system has been designed and fabricated that also collects and records the data from eight meteorological sensors. The air-samplers are activated automatically when the collected meteorological data meet the criteria specified at the beginning of the data-collection run. The filters from the samplers are intended to collect airborne 239 Pu for later radionuclide analysis and correlation with the meteorological data for the study of resuspended airborne radioactivity and for the development of a predictive model. This paper describes the system hardware, discusses the system and software concepts, and outlines the operational procedures for the system

  4. Low sodium diet (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for you. Look for these words on labels: low-sodium, sodium-free, no salt added, sodium-reduced, ... for you. Look for these words on labels: low-sodium, sodium-free, no salt added, sodium-reduced, ...

  5. Methods to Compose Sodium Fire Extinguishing Equipment on Sodium Test Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, B H; Kim, J M; Jeong, J Y; Choi, B H

    2008-06-15

    Sodium fire is graded 'D' and it is difficult to extinguish sodium fire. In this report, the characteristics of sodium fire and the methods composing the suitable fire extinguishing systems to suppress fire effectively were described.

  6. Methods to Compose Sodium Fire Extinguishing Equipment on Sodium Test Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, B. H.; Kim, J. M.; Jeong, J. Y.; Choi, B. H.

    2008-06-01

    Sodium fire is graded 'D' and it is difficult to extinguish sodium fire. In this report, the characteristics of sodium fire and the methods composing the suitable fire extinguishing systems to suppress fire effectively were described

  7. Analysis of bioethanol samples through Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry with a total sample consumption system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Carlos; Lienemann, Charles-Philippe; Todolí, Jose-Luis

    2016-10-01

    Bioethanol real samples have been directly analyzed through ICP-MS by means of the so called High Temperature Torch Integrated Sample Introduction System (hTISIS). Because bioethanol samples may contain water, experiments have been carried out in order to determine the effect of ethanol concentration on the ICP-MS response. The ethanol content studied went from 0 to 50%, because higher alcohol concentrations led to carbon deposits on the ICP-MS interface. The spectrometer default spray chamber (double pass) equipped with a glass concentric pneumatic micronebulizer has been taken as the reference system. Two flow regimes have been evaluated: continuous sample aspiration at 25 μL min- 1 and 5 μL air-segmented sample injection. hTISIS temperature has been shown to be critical, in fact ICP-MS sensitivity increased with this variable up to 100-200 °C depending on the solution tested. Higher chamber temperatures led to either a drop in signal or a plateau. Compared with the reference system, the hTISIS improved the sensitivities by a factor included within the 4 to 8 range while average detection limits were 6 times lower for the latter device. Regarding the influence of the ethanol concentration on sensitivity, it has been observed that an increase in the temperature was not enough to eliminate the interferences. It was also necessary to modify the torch position with respect to the ICP-MS interface to overcome them. This fact was likely due to the different extent of ion plasma radial diffusion encountered as a function of the matrix when working at high chamber temperatures. When the torch was moved 1 mm plasma down axis, ethanolic and aqueous solutions provided statistically equal sensitivities. A preconcentration procedure has been applied in order to validate the methodology. It has been found that, under optimum conditions from the point of view of matrix effects, recoveries for spiked samples were close to 100%. Furthermore, analytical concentrations for real

  8. Dietary Intake and Sources of Potassium and the Relationship to Dietary Sodium in a Sample of Australian Pre-School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siobhan A. O’Halloran

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the intake and food sources of potassium and the molar sodium:potassium (Na:K ratio in a sample of Australian pre-school children. Mothers provided dietary recalls of their 3.5 years old children (previous participants of Melbourne Infant Feeding Activity and Nutrition Trial. The average daily potassium intake, the contribution of food groups to daily potassium intake, the Na:K ratio, and daily serves of fruit, dairy, and vegetables, were assessed via three unscheduled 24 h dietary recalls. The sample included 251 Australian children (125 male, mean age 3.5 (0.19 (SD years. Mean potassium intake was 1618 (267 mg/day, the Na:K ratio was 1.47 (0.5 and 54% of children did not meet the Australian recommended adequate intake (AI of 2000 mg/day for potassium. Main food sources of potassium were milk (27%, fruit (19%, and vegetable (14% products/dishes. Food groups with the highest Na:K ratio were processed meats (7.8, white bread/rolls (6.0, and savoury sauces and condiments (5.4. Children had a mean intake of 1.4 (0.75 serves of fruit, 1.4 (0.72 dairy, and 0.52 (0.32 serves of vegetables per day. The majority of children had potassium intakes below the recommended AI. The Na:K ratio exceeded the recommended level of 1 and the average intake of vegetables was 2 serves/day below the recommended 2.5 serves/day and only 20% of recommended intake. An increase in vegetable consumption in pre-school children is recommended to increase dietary potassium and has the potential to decrease the Na:K ratio which is likely to have long-term health benefits.

  9. Monte Carlo importance sampling optimization for system reliability applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campioni, Luca; Vestrucci, Paolo

    2004-01-01

    This paper focuses on the reliability analysis of multicomponent systems by the importance sampling technique, and, in particular, it tackles the optimization aspect. A methodology based on the minimization of the variance at the component level is proposed for the class of systems consisting of independent components. The claim is that, by means of such a methodology, the optimal biasing could be achieved without resorting to the typical approach by trials

  10. Technology for sodium purity control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Ji Young; Kim, B. H.; Kim, T. J. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-10-01

    When sodium is used as heat transfer fluid, the plugging in coolant flow, the corrosion of structure material and the transfer of radioactive material caused by the impurities in sodium are worth considerable. Accordingly, these impurities must be monitored and controlled continuously by sodium purification devices in the heat transfer system which sodium is used as coolant. Sodium purification loop was constructed for the purpose of accumulating the technology for purity control of the coolant, developing and verifying further efficient instruments for sodium purification. The plugging meter and the cold trap is used as the implement for measuring and controlling the oxygen and the hydrogen, the main impurities in sodium coolant. They are capable of excellent performance as the implements which could detect and monitor the impurities to the concentration limit required for nuclear reactor. Sodium purification loop could be used variably according to the experimental purpose. 18 refs., 34 figs., 8 tabs. (Author)

  11. Multi-dimensional virtual system introduced to enhance canonical sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higo, Junichi; Kasahara, Kota; Nakamura, Haruki

    2017-10-01

    When an important process of a molecular system occurs via a combination of two or more rare events, which occur almost independently to one another, computational sampling for the important process is difficult. Here, to sample such a process effectively, we developed a new method, named the "multi-dimensional Virtual-system coupled Monte Carlo (multi-dimensional-VcMC)" method, where the system interacts with a virtual system expressed by two or more virtual coordinates. Each virtual coordinate controls sampling along a reaction coordinate. By setting multiple reaction coordinates to be related to the corresponding rare events, sampling of the important process can be enhanced. An advantage of multi-dimensional-VcMC is its simplicity: Namely, the conformation moves widely in the multi-dimensional reaction coordinate space without knowledge of canonical distribution functions of the system. To examine the effectiveness of the algorithm, we introduced a toy model where two molecules (receptor and its ligand) bind and unbind to each other. The receptor has a deep binding pocket, to which the ligand enters for binding. Furthermore, a gate is set at the entrance of the pocket, and the gate is usually closed. Thus, the molecular binding takes place via the two events: ligand approach to the pocket and gate opening. In two-dimensional (2D)-VcMC, the two molecules exhibited repeated binding and unbinding, and an equilibrated distribution was obtained as expected. A conventional canonical simulation, which was 200 times longer than 2D-VcMC, failed in sampling the binding/unbinding effectively. The current method is applicable to various biological systems.

  12. Intercomparison of auto- and cross-power spectral density surveillance systems for sodium boiling detection in fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrhardt, J.

    1979-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental investigations on detection systems for small narrow-band components in noise signals were conducted. These detectionn systems are based on the continuous surveillance of the power spectral density for characteristic peaks. Detection sensitivity for auto- and cross-correlation measurements was computed for signals with normally distributed amplitudes in dependence of signal coherence. The derived detection criteria allowed the comparison of auto- and cross-power spectral density surveillance. Theoretical results were confirmed in a number of experimental parameter studies. Special theoretical investigations were done for the optimal detection of local sodium boiling in liquid-metal fast breeder reactors

  13. A novel PMT test system based on waveform sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, S.; Ma, L.; Ning, Z.; Qian, S.; Wang, Y.; Jiang, X.; Wang, Z.; Yu, B.; Gao, F.; Zhu, Y.; Wang, Z.

    2018-01-01

    Comparing with the traditional test system based on a QDC and TDC and scaler, a test system based on waveform sampling is constructed for signal sampling of the 8"R5912 and the 20"R12860 Hamamatsu PMT in different energy states from single to multiple photoelectrons. In order to achieve high throughput and to reduce the dead time in data processing, the data acquisition software based on LabVIEW is developed and runs with a parallel mechanism. The analysis algorithm is realized in LabVIEW and the spectra of charge, amplitude, signal width and rising time are analyzed offline. The results from Charge-to-Digital Converter, Time-to-Digital Converter and waveform sampling are discussed in detailed comparison.

  14. Control System Radioactive Contamination in Food Samples in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grabowski, D.; Kurowski, W.; Muszynski, W.; Rubel, B.; Smagala, G.; Swietochowska, J.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The analyses of the level of radioactive contamination in food samples are carried out by the Service for Measurements of Radioactive Contamination (SMRC) in Poland. The Service was brought into existence in 1961. The Service comprises of a network of measurement stations and the Centre of Radioactive Contamination Measurements (CRCM). The duty of the Centre is being executed by the Central Laboratory for Radiological Protection (CLRP). The uniform methods of sampling are used in measurement stations. All important foodstuff: milk, meat, vegetables, fruit, cereals are controlled in the Service stations. The radiochemical and spectrometric methods are used to determine the activity of radioactive isotopes. The standard equipment of the measurement station is the measurement system type SAPOS-90 and multichannel analyser with scintillation or germanium detector. The structure of the Service, kinds of samples tested by each station, program of sampling in normal and during accident situation are presented in this paper. (author)

  15. Disagregation of (U, Pu)O2 fuels in molten sodium nitrate and oxides system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, T.S.

    1976-01-01

    An oxidation process based on the use of an alkali-nitrate melt has been considered as a possible head end step for the reprocessing of FBR spent fuels. The total alkali solubility in the nitrate melt was examined. It is influenced by the temperature. At 500 degC the alkali solubility in the sodium nitrate melt is about 17 mol %. Examining solidified mixture of sodium and nitrate or sodium oxides and nitrite by X-ray diffraction has revealed five unknown lattices. NaNO 3 .xNa 2 O 2 is cubic (a=8.71A), NaNO 2 .xNa 2 O 2 is tetragonal (a=5.939A, c=9.997A), NaNO 2 .xNa 2 O is cubic (a=10.586A). The structure of NaNO 3 .xNa 2 O and NaNO 3 .xNaO 2 could not be determined. The solubility of barium and ruthenium was briefly investigated. The reaction (U,Pu)O 2 with the alkaline sodium nitrate melt proceeds along the grain boundaries of the solid solution. Two steps have been recognized. First (U,Pu)O 2 is oxidized to (U,Pu)Osub(2+x) and in a subsequent step (U,Pu)Osub(2+x) reacts with sodium peroxide to form (U,Pu) 2 O 5 .xNa 2 O 2 . Disaggregation efficiency is a function of temperature, alkali concentration and physical properties of the pellets. High temperature and low alkali concentration lead to high efficiency. The structure of the reaction products (U,Pu)O 2 with alkaline NaNO 3 melt was shown to depend mainly on the alkali concentration. As the alkali concentration is lower than 2 mole % (U,Pu) 2 O 5 . Na 2 O 2 is the dominate phase. (U,Pu) 2 O 5 .3Na 2 O 2 corresponds to 6 mole % and over 11 mole % alkali, (U,Pu) 2 O 5 .xNa 2 O 2 becomes the main product. The solubility of the fuel (U,Pu) in the alkali sodium nitrate melt increases with the alkali concentration up to 6000-8000 ppm for uranium and 1200-1700 ppm for plutonium at 500 degC with only 5 mole % alkali. As a result of high losses of fissile material in the salt bath molten salt process must regarded as uneligible for a general head end step in fuel reprocessing. Nevertheless its application can still be

  16. Authentication Assurance Level Application to the Inventory Sampling Measurement System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devaney, Mike M.; Kouzes, Richard T.; Hansen, Randy R.; Geelhood, Bruce D.

    2001-01-01

    This document concentrates on the identification of a standardized assessment approach for the verification of security functionality in specific equipment, the Inspection Sampling Measurement System (ISMS) being developed for MAYAK. Specifically, an Authentication Assurance Level 3 is proposed to be reached in authenticating the ISMS

  17. Optimal relaxed causal sampler using sampled-date system theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shekhawat, Hanumant; Meinsma, Gjerrit

    This paper studies the design of an optimal relaxed causal sampler using sampled data system theory. A lifted frequency domain approach is used to obtain the existence conditions and the optimal sampler. A state space formulation of the results is also provided. The resulting optimal relaxed causal

  18. Industrial variographic analysis for continuous sampling system validation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engström, Karin; Esbensen, Kim Harry

    2017-01-01

    Karin Engström, LKAB mining, Kiruna, Sweden, continues to present illuminative cases from process industry. Here she reveals more from her ongoing PhD project showing application of variographic characterisation for on-line continuous control of process sampling systems, including the one...

  19. Determination of the anionic surfactant di(ethylhexyl) sodium sulfosuccinate in water samples collected from Gulf of Mexico coastal waters before and after landfall of oil from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, May to October, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, James L.; Kanagy, Leslie K.; Furlong, Edward T.; McCoy, Jeff W.; Kanagy, Chris J.

    2011-01-01

    On April 22, 2010, the explosion on and subsequent sinking of the Deepwater Horizon oil drilling platform resulted in the release of crude oil into the Gulf of Mexico. At least 4.4 million barrels had been released into the Gulf of Mexico through July 15, 2010, 10 to 29 percent of which was chemically dispersed, primarily using two dispersant formulations. Initially, the dispersant Corexit 9527 was used, and when existing stocks of that formulation were exhausted, Corexit 9500 was used. Over 1.8 million gallons of the two dispersants were applied in the first 3 months after the spill. This report presents the development of an analytical method to analyze one of the primary surfactant components of both Corexit formulations, di(ethylhexyl) sodium sulfosuccinate (DOSS), the preliminary results, and the associated quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) from samples collected from various points on the Gulf Coast between Texas and Florida. Seventy water samples and 8 field QC samples were collected before the predicted landfall of oil (pre-landfall) on the Gulf Coast, and 51 water samples and 10 field QC samples after the oil made landfall (post-landfall). Samples were collected in Teflon(Registered) bottles and stored at -20(degrees)C until analysis. Extraction of whole-water samples used sorption onto a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) filter to isolate DOSS, with subsequent 50 percent methanol/water elution of the combined dissolved and particulate DOSS fractions. High-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) was used to identify and quantify DOSS by the isotope dilution method, using a custom-synthesized 13C4-DOSS labeled standard. Because of the ubiquitous presence of DOSS in laboratory reagent water, a chromatographic column was installed in the LC/MS/MS between the system pumps and the sample injector that separated this ambient background DOSS contamination from the sample DOSS, minimizing one source of blank contamination

  20. An Integrated Glucose Sensor with an All-Solid-State Sodium Ion-Selective Electrode for a Minimally Invasive Glucose Monitoring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junko Kojima

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We developed a minimally invasive glucose monitoring system that uses a microneedle to permeate the skin surface and a small hydrogel to accumulate interstitial fluid glucose. The measurement of glucose and sodium ion levels in the hydrogel is required for estimating glucose levels in blood; therefore, we developed a small, enzyme-fixed glucose sensor with a high-selectivity, all-solid-state, sodium ion-selective electrode (ISE integrated into its design. The glucose sensor immobilized glucose oxidase showed a good correlation between the glucose levels in the hydrogels and the reference glucose levels (r > 0.99, and exhibited a good precision (coefficient of variation = 2.9%, 0.6 mg/dL. In the design of the sodium ISEs, we used the insertion material Na0.33MnO2 as the inner contact layer and DD16C5 exhibiting high Na+/K+ selectivity as the ionophore. The developed sodium ISE exhibited high selectivity (\\( \\log \\,k^{pot}_{Na,K} = -2.8\\ and good potential stability. The sodium ISE could measure 0.4 mM (10−3.4 M sodium ion levels in the hydrogels containing 268 mM (10−0.57 M KCl. The small integrated sensor (ϕ < 10 mm detected glucose and sodium ions in hydrogels simultaneously within 1 min, and it exhibited sufficient performance for use as a minimally invasive glucose monitoring system.

  1. Conceptual design of advanced central receiver power systems sodium-cooled receiver concept. Volume 2, Book 1. Commercial plant conceptual design. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-03-01

    The conceptual design of the 100-MW solar tower focus commercial power plant is described in detail. Sodium is pumped up to the top of a tall tower where the receiver is located. The sodium is heated in the receiver and then flows down the tower, through a pressure reducing device, and thence into a large, hot storage tank which is located at ground level and whose size is made to meet a specific thermal energy storage capacity requirement. From this tank, the sodium is pumped by a separate pump, through a system of sodium-to-water steam generators. The steam generator system consists of a separate superheater and reheater operating in parallel and an evaporator unit operating in series with the other two units. The sodium flowing from the evaporator unit is piped to a cold storage tank. From the cold storage tank, sodium is then pumped up to the tip of the tower to complete the cycle. The steam generated in the steam generators is fed to a conventional off-the-shelf, high-efficiency turbine. The steam loop operates in a conventional rankine cycle with the steam generators serving the same purpose as a conventional boiler and water being fed to the evaporator with conventional feedwater pumps. The pressure reducing device (a standard drag valve, for example) serves to mitigate the pressure caused by the static head of sodium and thus allows the large tanks to operate at ambient pressure conditions. (WHK)

  2. Hidden Sodium

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-03-04

    In this podcast, learn about reducing sodium intake by knowing what to eat and the main sources of sodium in the diet. It's important for a healthy lifestyle.  Created: 3/4/2013 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 3/4/2013.

  3. Dietary sodium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graudal, Niels

    2015-01-01

    The 2013 Institute of Medicine (IOM) report "Sodium Intake in Populations: Assessment of Evidence" did not support the current recommendations of the IOM and the American Heart Association (AHA) to reduce daily dietary sodium intake to below 2,300 mg. The report concluded that the population...

  4. An automated blood sampling system used in positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksson, L.; Bohm, C.; Kesselberg, M.

    1988-01-01

    Fast dynamic function studies with positron emission tomography (PET), has the potential to give accurate information of physiological functions of the brain. This capability can be realised if the positron camera system accurately quantitates the tracer uptake in the brain with sufficiently high efficiency and in sufficiently short time intervals. However, in addition, the tracer concentration in blood, as a function of time, must be accurately determined. This paper describes and evaluates an automated blood sampling system. Two different detector units are compared. The use of the automated blood sampling system is demonstrated in studies of cerebral blood flow, in studies of the blood-brain barrier transfer of amino acids and of the cerebral oxygen consumption. 5 refs.; 7 figs

  5. Real-Time Remediation Utilizing The Backpack Sodium Iodide System And The U.S. EPA Triad Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John R. Giles; Michael V. Carpenter; Lyle G. Roybal; C. P. Oertel; J. J. Jacobson; D. L. Eaton; G. L. Schwendiman

    2006-01-01

    Real-time characterization during remediation activities is being accomplished at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) with the use of the backpack sodium iodide system (BaSIS). The BaSIS is comprised of a 3-in. by 5-in. sodium iodide (NaI) detector, differential corrected global positioning system (GPS), and portable computer, integrated into a lightweight backpack deployment platform. The system is operated with specialized software that allows the operator and/or remediation field manager to view data as they are collected. Upon completion of planned excavation stages, the area is surveyed for residual radiological contamination. After data collection is complete, data is available to the remediation field manager as a contour map showing the area(s) that require further excavation. The use of real-time measurement systems, rapid turn-around time of data, and dynamic work strategy support the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Triad approach. Decisions are made in real-time as to the need for further remediation. This paper describes the BaSIS system calibration, testing and use, and outlines negotiations with the appropriate CERCLA regulatory agencies (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Idaho Department of Environmental Quality, and U.S. Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office) to allow the use of real-time instrumentation during the remediation process, and for confirmation surveys. By using the BaSIS in such a manner, the INL seeks to demonstrate compliance with remediation objectives

  6. A model system using confocal fluorescence microscopy for examining real-time intracellular sodium ion regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jacqueline A; Collings, David A; Glover, Chris N

    2016-08-15

    The gills of euryhaline fish are the ultimate ionoregulatory tissue, achieving ion homeostasis despite rapid and significant changes in external salinity. Cellular handling of sodium is not only critical for salt and water balance but is also directly linked to other essential functions such as acid-base homeostasis and nitrogen excretion. However, although measurement of intracellular sodium ([Na(+)]i) is important for an understanding of gill transport function, it is challenging and subject to methodological artifacts. Using gill filaments from a model euryhaline fish, inanga (Galaxias maculatus), the suitability of the fluorescent dye CoroNa Green as a probe for measuring [Na(+)]i in intact ionocytes was confirmed via confocal microscopy. Cell viability was verified, optimal dye loading parameters were determined, and the dye-ion dissociation constant was measured. Application of the technique to freshwater- and 100% seawater-acclimated inanga showed salinity-dependent changes in branchial [Na(+)]i, whereas no significant differences in branchial [Na(+)]i were determined in 50% seawater-acclimated fish. This technique facilitates the examination of real-time changes in gill [Na(+)]i in response to environmental factors and may offer significant insight into key homeostatic functions associated with the fish gill and the principles of sodium ion transport in other tissues and organisms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Remote sampling system in reprocessing: present and future perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcha, J.S.; Balakrishnan, V.P.; Rao, M.K.

    1990-01-01

    For the process and inventory control of the reprocessing plant operation it is essential to analyse the samples from the various process vessels to assess the plant performance and take corrective action if needed in the operating parameters. In view of the very high radioactive inventory in the plant, these plants are operated remotely behind thick shielding. The liquid sampling also has to be carried out by remote techniques only as no direct approach is feasible. A vacuum assisted air lift method is employed for the purpose of obtaining samples from remotely located process vessels. A brief description of the present technique, the design criteria, various interlocks and manual operations involved during sampling and despatching the same to the analytical laboratory is given in the paper. A design approach for making the sampling system, a fully automated remote operation has been attempted in this paper. Utilisation of custom built robots and dedicated computer for the various operations and interlocks has been visualised to ensure a complete remotised system for the adoption in future plants. (author). 2 figs., 2 tabs

  8. Sodium-coupled neutral amino acid (System N/A) transporters of the SLC38 gene family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, Bryan; Erickson, Jeffrey D

    2004-02-01

    The sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporters (SNAT) of the SLC38 gene family resemble the classically-described System A and System N transport activities in terms of their functional properties and patterns of regulation. Transport of small, aliphatic amino acids by System A subtypes (SNAT1, SNAT2, and SNAT4) is rheogenic and pH sensitive. The System N subtypes SNAT3 and SNAT5 also countertransport H(+), which may be key to their operation in reverse, and have narrower substrate profiles than do the System A subtypes. Glutamine emerges as a favored substrate throughout the family, except for SNAT4. The SLC38 transporters undoubtedly play many physiological roles including the transfer of glutamine from astrocyte to neuron in the CNS, ammonia detoxification and gluconeogenesis in the liver, and the renal response to acidosis. Probing their regulation has revealed additional roles, and recent work has considered SLC38 transporters as therapeutic targets in neoplasia.

  9. Comparison of the efficacy of a hydrogen peroxide dry-mist disinfection system and sodium hypochlorite solution for eradication of Clostridium difficile spores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbut, F; Menuet, D; Verachten, M; Girou, E

    2009-06-01

    To compare a hydrogen peroxide dry-mist system and a 0.5% hypochlorite solution with respect to their ability to disinfect Clostridium difficile-contaminated surfaces in vitro and in situ. Prospective, randomized, before-after trial. Two French hospitals affected by C. difficile. In situ efficacy of disinfectants was assessed in rooms that had housed patients with C. difficile infection. A prospective study was performed at 2 hospitals that involved randomization of disinfection processes. When a patient with C. difficile infection was discharged, environmental contamination in the patient's room was evaluated before and after disinfection. Environmental surfaces were sampled for C. difficile by use of moistened swabs; swab samples were cultured on selective plates and in broth. Both disinfectants were tested in vitro with a spore-carrier test; in this test, 2 types of material, vinyl polychloride (representative of the room's floor) and laminate (representative of the room's furniture), were experimentally contaminated with spores from 3 C. difficile strains, including the epidemic clone ribotype 027-North American pulsed-field gel electrophoresis type 1. There were 748 surface samples collected (360 from rooms treated with hydrogen peroxide and 388 from rooms treated with hypochlorite). Before disinfection, 46 (24%) of 194 samples obtained in the rooms randomized to hypochlorite treatment and 34 (19%) of 180 samples obtained in the rooms randomized to hydrogen peroxide treatment showed environmental contamination. After disinfection, 23 (12%) of 194 samples from hypochlorite-treated rooms and 4 (2%) of 180 samples from hydrogen peroxide treated rooms showed environmental contamination, a decrease in contamination of 50% after hypochlorite decontamination and 91% after hydrogen peroxide decontamination (P disinfection system is significantly more effective than 0.5% sodium hypochlorite solution at eradicating C. difficile spores and might represent a new

  10. Solar System Samples for Research, Education, and Public Outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, J.; Luckey, M.; McInturff, B.; Kascak, A.; Tobola, K.; Galindo, C.; Allen, C.

    2011-01-01

    In the next two years, during the NASA Year of the Solar System, spacecraft from NASA and our international partners will; encounter a comet, orbit asteroid 4 Vesta, continue to explore Mars with rovers, and launch robotic explorers to the Moon and Mars. We have pieces of all these worlds in our laboratories, and their continued study provides incredibly valuable "ground truth" to complement space exploration missions. Extensive information about these unique materials, as well as actual lunar samples and meteorites, are available for display and education. The Johnson Space Center (JSC) has the unique responsibility to curate NASA's extraterrestrial samples from past and future missions. Curation includes documentation, preservation, preparation, and distribution of samples for research, education, and public outreach.

  11. Neuro-genetic system for optimization of GMI samples sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitta Botelho, A C O; Vellasco, M M B R; Hall Barbosa, C R; Costa Silva, E

    2016-03-01

    Magnetic sensors are largely used in several engineering areas. Among them, magnetic sensors based on the Giant Magnetoimpedance (GMI) effect are a new family of magnetic sensing devices that have a huge potential for applications involving measurements of ultra-weak magnetic fields. The sensitivity of magnetometers is directly associated with the sensitivity of their sensing elements. The GMI effect is characterized by a large variation of the impedance (magnitude and phase) of a ferromagnetic sample, when subjected to a magnetic field. Recent studies have shown that phase-based GMI magnetometers have the potential to increase the sensitivity by about 100 times. The sensitivity of GMI samples depends on several parameters, such as sample length, external magnetic field, DC level and frequency of the excitation current. However, this dependency is yet to be sufficiently well-modeled in quantitative terms. So, the search for the set of parameters that optimizes the samples sensitivity is usually empirical and very time consuming. This paper deals with this problem by proposing a new neuro-genetic system aimed at maximizing the impedance phase sensitivity of GMI samples. A Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP) Neural Network is used to model the impedance phase and a Genetic Algorithm uses the information provided by the neural network to determine which set of parameters maximizes the impedance phase sensitivity. The results obtained with a data set composed of four different GMI sample lengths demonstrate that the neuro-genetic system is able to correctly and automatically determine the set of conditioning parameters responsible for maximizing their phase sensitivities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Improved mixing and sampling systems for vitrification melter feeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebadian, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    This report summarizes the methods used and results obtained during the progress of the study of waste slurry mixing and sampling systems during fiscal year 1977 (FY97) at the Hemispheric Center for Environmental Technology (HCET) at Florida International University (FIU). The objective of this work is to determine optimal mixing configurations and operating conditions as well as improved sampling technology for defense waste processing facility (DWPF) waste melter feeds at US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. Most of the research on this project was performed experimentally by using a tank mixing configuration with different rotating impellers. The slurry simulants for the experiments were prepared in-house based on the properties of the DOE sites' typical waste slurries. A sampling system was designed to withdraw slurry from the mixing tank. To obtain insight into the waste mixing process, the slurry flow in the mixing tank was also simulated numerically by applying computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods. The major parameters investigated in both the experimental and numerical studies included power consumption of mixer, mixing time to reach slurry uniformity, slurry type, solids concentration, impeller type, impeller size, impeller rotating speed, sampling tube size, and sampling velocities. Application of the results to the DWPF melter feed preparation process will enhance and modify the technical base for designing slurry transportation equipment and pipeline systems. These results will also serve as an important reference for improving waste slurry mixing performance and melter operating conditions. These factors will contribute to an increase in the capability of the vitrification process and the quality of the waste glass

  13. MarsVac: Pneumatic Sampling System for Planetary Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacny, K.; Mungas, G.; Chu, P.; Craft, J.; Davis, K.

    2008-12-01

    We are proposing a Mars Sample Return scheme whereby a sample of regolith is acquired directly into a Mars Ascent Vehicle using a pneumatic system. Unlike prior developments that used suction to collect fines, the proposed system uses positive pressure to move the regolith. We envisage 3 pneumatic tubes to be embedded inside the 3 legs of the lander. Upon landing, the legs will burry themselves into the regolith and the tubes will fill up with regolith. With one puff of gas, the regolith can be lifted into a sampling chamber onboard of the Mars Ascent Vehicle. An additional chamber can be opened to acquire atmospheric gas and dust. The entire MSR will require 1) an actuator to open/close sampling chamber and 2) a valve to open gas cylinder. In the most recent study related to lunar excavation and funded under the NASA SBIR program we have shown that it is possible lift over 3000 grams of soil with only 1 gram of gas at 1atm. Tests conducted under Mars atmospheric pressure conditions (5 torr). In September of 2008, we will be performing tests at 1/6thg (Moon) and 1/3g (Mars) to determine mass lifting efficiencies in reduced gravities.

  14. Estimating rare events in biochemical systems using conditional sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundar, V. S.

    2017-01-01

    The paper focuses on development of variance reduction strategies to estimate rare events in biochemical systems. Obtaining this probability using brute force Monte Carlo simulations in conjunction with the stochastic simulation algorithm (Gillespie's method) is computationally prohibitive. To circumvent this, important sampling tools such as the weighted stochastic simulation algorithm and the doubly weighted stochastic simulation algorithm have been proposed. However, these strategies require an additional step of determining the important region to sample from, which is not straightforward for most of the problems. In this paper, we apply the subset simulation method, developed as a variance reduction tool in the context of structural engineering, to the problem of rare event estimation in biochemical systems. The main idea is that the rare event probability is expressed as a product of more frequent conditional probabilities. These conditional probabilities are estimated with high accuracy using Monte Carlo simulations, specifically the Markov chain Monte Carlo method with the modified Metropolis-Hastings algorithm. Generating sample realizations of the state vector using the stochastic simulation algorithm is viewed as mapping the discrete-state continuous-time random process to the standard normal random variable vector. This viewpoint opens up the possibility of applying more sophisticated and efficient sampling schemes developed elsewhere to problems in stochastic chemical kinetics. The results obtained using the subset simulation method are compared with existing variance reduction strategies for a few benchmark problems, and a satisfactory improvement in computational time is demonstrated.

  15. Resonance ionization mass spectrometry system for measurement of environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pibida, L.; McMahon, C.A.; Noertershaeuser, W.; Bushaw, B.A.

    2002-01-01

    A resonance ionization mass spectrometry (RIMS) system has been developed at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) for sensitive and selective determination of radio-cesium in the environment. The overall efficiency was determined to be 4x10-7 with a combined (laser and mass spectrometer) selectivity of 108 for both 135Cs and 137Cs with respect to 133Cs. RIMS isotopic ratio measurements of 135Cs/ 137Cs were performed on a nuclear fuel burn-up sample and compared to measurements on a similar system at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and to conventional thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS). Results of preliminary RIMS investigations on a freshwater lake sediment sample are also discussed

  16. The role of sodium-poly(acrylates) with different weight-average molar mass in phosphate-free laundry detergent builder systems

    OpenAIRE

    Milojević, Vladimir S.; Ilić-Stojanović, Snežana; Nikolić, Ljubiša; Nikolić, Vesna; Stamenković, Jakov; Stojiljković, Dragan

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the synthesis of sodium-poly(acrylate) was performed by polymerization of acrylic acid in the water solution with three different contents of potassium-persulphate as an initiator. The obtained polymers were characterized by using HPLC and GPC analyses in order to define the purity and average molar mass of poly(acrylic acid). In order to investigate the influence of sodium-poly(acrylate) as a part of carbonate/zeolite detergent builder system, secondary washing characteristics...

  17. Safety analysis report for packaging (onsite) sample pig transport system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MCCOY, J.C.

    1999-01-01

    This Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) provides a technical evaluation of the Sample Pig Transport System as compared to the requirements of the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL) Order 5480.1, Change 1, Chapter III. The evaluation concludes that the package is acceptable for the onsite transport of Type B, fissile excepted radioactive materials when used in accordance with this document

  18. Safety analysis report for packaging (onsite) sample pig transport system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MCCOY, J.C.

    1999-03-16

    This Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) provides a technical evaluation of the Sample Pig Transport System as compared to the requirements of the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL) Order 5480.1, Change 1, Chapter III. The evaluation concludes that the package is acceptable for the onsite transport of Type B, fissile excepted radioactive materials when used in accordance with this document.

  19. Sampling Transition Pathways in Highly Correlated Complex Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, David

    2004-10-20

    This research grant supported my group's efforts to apply and extend the method of transition path sampling that we invented during the late 1990s. This methodology is based upon a statistical mechanics of trajectory space. Traditional statistical mechanics focuses on state space, and with it, one can use Monte Carlo methods to facilitate importance sampling of states. With our formulation of a statistical mechanics of trajectory space, we have succeeded at creating algorithms by which importance sampling can be done for dynamical processes. In particular, we are able to study rare but important events without prior knowledge of transition states or mechanisms. In perhaps the most impressive application of transition path sampling, my group combined forces with Michele Parrinello and his coworkers to unravel the dynamics of auto ionization of water [5]. This dynamics is the fundamental kinetic step of pH. Other applications concern nature of dynamics far from equilibrium [1, 7], nucleation processes [2], cluster isomerization, melting and dissociation [3, 6], and molecular motors [10]. Research groups throughout the world are adopting transition path sampling. In part this has been the result of our efforts to provide pedagogical presentations of the technique [4, 8, 9], as well as providing new procedures for interpreting trajectories of complex systems [11].

  20. Liquid sodium oxygenmeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakes, D.; Fresl, M.; Svoboda, V.

    1979-02-01

    The results of test runs of two design varieties of liquid sodium oxygenmeter in sodium loops are described. The accuracy and sensitivity are discussed reached using this instrument within 1 and 10 p.p.m. of oxygen concentration. A change in the used reference system is proposed based on practical experiences and thermochemical calculations. Ceramic electrolyte corrosion is analysed and the possible interpretation of the corrosion effect on the galvanic cell electromotive force is suggested. (author)

  1. System to determine present elements in oily samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendoza G, Y.

    2004-11-01

    In the Chemistry Department of the National Institute of Nuclear Investigations of Mexico, dedicated to analyze samples of oleaginous material and of another origin, to determine the elements of the periodic table present in the samples, through the Neutron activation analysis technique (NAA). This technique has been developed to determine majority elements in any solid, aqueous, industrial and environmental sample, which consists basically on to irradiate a sample with neutrons coming from the TRIGA Mark III reactor and to carry out the analysis to obtain those gamma spectra that it emits, for finally to process the information, the quantification of the analysis it is carried out in a manual way, which requires to carry out a great quantity of calculations. The main objective of this project is the development of a software that allows to carry out the quantitative analysis of the NAA for the multielemental determination of samples in an automatic way. To fulfill the objective of this project it has been divided in four chapters: In the first chapter it is shortly presented the history on radioactivity and basic concepts that will allow us penetrate better to this work. In the second chapter the NAA is explained which is used in the sample analysis, the description of the process to be carried out, its are mentioned the characteristics of the used devices and an example of the process is illustrated. In the third chapter it is described the development of the algorithm and the selection of the programming language. The fourth chapter it is shown the structure of the system, the general form of operation, the execution of processes and the obtention of results. Later on the launched results are presented in the development of the present project. (Author)

  2. The effects of temperature on the leaching behavior of cement waste forms: The cement/sodium sulfate system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuhrmann, M.; Pietrzak, R.; Heiser, J.; Franz, E.M.; Colombo, P.

    1989-10-01

    The leaching mechanisms of simulated low-level radioactive waste forms are being determined as support for development of an accelerated leach test. Two approaches are being used: (1) comparisons of leaching data with results of a model that describes diffusion from a finite cylinder, and (2) observation of the leaching process at temperatures between 20 degree C and 65 degree C. To provide results that can be used for modeling, leaching at elevated temperatures must change neither the leaching mechanism nor the structural controls of leaching such as the porosity. Releases of 137 Cs, 85 Sr, calcium, sodium and potassium from portland cement containing sodium sulfate, as a simulated evaporator sludge, have been determined under a variety of experimental conditions. Data from the leach tests were compared to model results for diffusion from the finite cylinder. While most leaching appears to be diffusion controlled, notable exceptions occur. For all samples activation energies ranging between 6 and 11 Kcal/mole have been calculated from the relationship of the effective diffusion coefficient to increasing temperature, close to the expected value of 5 Kcal/mole for diffusion. 11 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  3. Study of mechanisms and kinetics of Sodium-CO2 interactions. Contribution to the evaluation of an energy conversion system with supercritical CO2 for sodium fast breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gicquel, L.

    2010-01-01

    This PhD study consisted in studying reactive mechanisms and kinetics of sodium-CO 2 interactions, in the frame of the assessment of an energy conversion system with supercritical CO 2 for fast breeder reactors cooled by sodium. The approach was the following. First of all, the interactions between sodium and CO 2 have been brought to light by laboratory experiments associated with products analysis. They have enabled the establishment of a coherent mechanism, in agreement with literature data, and gave preliminary indications on the reaction kinetics. In order to estimate a more detailed reaction kinetics, we tried to approach the phenomenon that appears in the case of a leak in a sodium-CO 2 heat exchanger. Geometry of such heat exchangers is not fixed for the moment, even if the development of compact exchangers is foreseen. Then, free jets of CO 2 in liquid sodium have been modeled in order to obtain, by identification, kinetics parameters of the reaction. Those parameters, estimated with such a geometry, will remain valid with a much complex geometry, that will better represent the real exchanger. An experimental bench has been defined and built to realize those jets. The first laboratory experiments have concluded in the existence of different reactive mechanisms according to the temperature level. A threshold has been brought to light around 500 C. Below this one, reaction appears moderated, or even, slow, with a medium exothermicity, and appears after an induction period that depends on the temperature,and which duration could reach several hours. At contrary, above this threshold, it seems rapid and more exothermic. Below 500 C, sodium oxalate is produced, and then reacts with sodium in an exothermic way, following the reactions: CO 2 + Na →1/4 Na 2 C 2 O 4 + 1/4 CO + 1/4 Na 2 CO 3 (5) 4 Na + Na 2 C 2 O 4 → 3 Na 2 O + CO + C (6) Above 500 C, sodium carbonate is produced, and can then possibly react with sodium in an endothermic way, following the

  4. Sodium Oxybate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or give your sodium oxybate to anyone else; selling or sharing it is against the law. Store ... dehydrogenase deficiency (an inherited condition in which certain substances build up in the body and cause retardation ...

  5. Sodium Azide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Exposure to a large amount of sodium azide by any route may cause these other health effects as well: Convulsions Low blood pressure Loss of consciousness Lung injury Respiratory failure leading to death Slow heart rate ...

  6. A study on fission product retention capability in a sodium coolant system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satoh, K.; Kubo, S.; Hashiguchi, Y.; Itooka, S.; Akatsu, Y.; Miyagi, K.; Wakamatsu, M.; Endo, H.; Tachino, T.

    1992-01-01

    Three kinds of separate model tests have been performed using water and air, focusing on the transport behavior of FP gas bubbles from subassembly outlets into a cover gas region, to study the dominant processes regarding the retention for volatiles ejected with inert gas into sodium after fuel failures. In the case that whole fuel pin failures occurring coherently in a subassembly were assumed, a periodic formation of globules was observed at the subassembly outlet. The globules rapidly broke up into small bubbles of less than 10 mm in mean diameter. The small bubbles at the top region had a tendency to be coalesced during rising through the upper plenum. As the coolant flow rate increased, bubble deformation and breakup were accelerated, but the bubble transport time did not vary remarkably. It is expected that bubbles in sodium would play in a similar way as in the water test, and the importance of the bubble behavior for the retention capability of volatiles has been confirmed. (author)

  7. A tracking system for groundwater sampling and data transfer schedules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercier, T.M.

    1990-12-01

    Since groundwater monitoring programs at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant have become more complex and varied and as the occasions to respond to internal and external reporting requirements have become more frequent and time constrained, the need to track groundwater sampling activities and data transfer from the analytical laboratories has become imperative. If backlogs can be caught early, resources can be added or reallocated in the field and in the laboratory in a timely manner to ensure reporting deadlines are met. The tracking system discussed in this paper starts with clear definition of the groundwater monitoring program at the facility. This information is input into base datasets at the beginning of the sampling cycle. As the sampling program progresses, information about well sampling dates and data transfer dates is input into the base datasets. From the base program data and the update data, a status report is periodically generated by a computer program which identifies the type and nature of bottle necks encountered during the implementation of the groundwater monitoring program

  8. Catalytic conversion of corncob and corncob pretreatment hydrolysate to furfural in a biphasic system with addition of sodium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qing, Qing; Guo, Qi; Zhou, Linlin; Wan, Yilun; Xu, Youqing; Ji, Huilong; Gao, Xiaohang; Zhang, Yue

    2017-02-01

    Catalytic conversion of corncob pretreatment hydrolysate and raw corncob into furfural in a modified biphasic system by SO 4 2- /SnO 2 - MMT solid catalyst has been developed. The influence of the organic solvent type, organic to water phase ratio, sodium chloride concentration, reaction temperature and time on the furfural production were comparatively evaluated. The results showed that furfural yields of 81.7% and 66.1% were achieved at 190°C for 15mins and 190°C for 20mins, respectively, for corncob pretreatment hydrolysate and raw corncob by this solid catalyst. The solid catalyst used in this study exhibited good stability and high efficiency applied in the modified biphasic system in addition to excellent recyclability. The proposed catalytic system displayed high performance for catalytic conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into important platform chemicals and has great potential in industrial application. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. High maternal sodium intake alters sex-specific renal renin-angiotensin system components in newborn Wistar offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, D R R; Lopes, K L; Heimann, J C; Furukawa, L N S

    2016-01-28

    This study aimed to evaluate the systemic and renal renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) at birth in male and female offspring and in mothers fed a high sodium diet (HSD) before and during gestation. Female Wistar rats were fed a HSD (8.0% NaCl) or a normal sodium diet (1.3% NaCl) from 8 weeks of age until delivery of their first litter. Maternal body weight, tail blood pressure, and food and water intake were evaluated. The litter sizes were assessed, and the body and kidney weights of the offspring were measured. Both mothers and offspring were euthanized immediately following the birth of the pups to evaluate plasma renin activity (PRA), renal renin content (RRC), renal angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity, renal angiotensin (Ang) II content, serum aldosterone (ALDO) levels, and renal cortical and medullary renin messenger RNA expression. In mothers in the HSD group, water intake and kidney mass were higher, whereas renal ACE activity, Ang II, PRA, ALDO and RRC were decreased. In the offspring of HSD-fed dams, the body and kidney mass were lower in both genders, renal ACE activity was lower in females and renal Ang II was lower in males. PRA, RRC, renin gene expression and ALDO levels did not differ between the groups of offspring. The data presented herein showed that a maternal HSD during pregnancy induces low birth weight and a sex-specific response in the RAAS in offspring.

  10. Compact DD generator based in vivo neutron activation analysis (IVNAA) system to determine sodium concentrations in human bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, Mychaela Dawn; Neumann, Colby R; Zhang, Xinxin; Byrne, Patrick; Liu, Yingzi; Weaver, Connie M; Nie, Linda Huiling

    2018-04-16

    This study presents the development of a non-invasive method for monitoring Na in human bone. Many diseases, such as hypertension and osteoporosis, are closely associated with sodium (Na) retention in the human body. Na retention is generally evaluated by calculating the difference between dietary intake and excretion. There is currently no method to directly quantify Na retained in the body. Bone is a storage for many elements, including Na, which renders bone Na an ideal biomarker to study Na metabolism and retention. Approach: A customized compact deuterium-deuterium (DD) neutron generator was used to produce neutrons for in vivo neutron activation analysis (IVNAA), with a moderator/ reflector/ shielding assembly optimized for human hand irradiation in order to maximize the thermal neutron flux inside the irradiation cave and to limit radiation exposure to the hand and the whole body. Main Results: The experimental results show that the system is able to detect sodium levels in the bone as low as 12 g Na/g dry bone with an effective dose to the body of about 27 μSv. The simulation results agree with the numbers estimated from the experiment. Significance: This is expected to be a feasible method for measuring the change of Na in bone. The low detection limit indicates this will be a useful system to study the association between Na retention and related diseases. © 2018 Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine.

  11. The role of dietary sodium intake on the modulation of T helper 17 cells and regulatory T cells in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massaro, Laura; Barbati, Cristiana; Vomero, Marta; Ceccarelli, Fulvia; Spinelli, Francesca Romana; Riccieri, Valeria; Spagnoli, Alessandra; Alessandri, Cristiano; Desideri, Giovambattista; Conti, Fabrizio

    2017-01-01

    We aimed at investigating whether the frequency and function of T helper 17 (Th17) and regulatory T cells (Treg) are affected by a restriction of dietary sodium intake in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We enrolled RA and SLE patients not receiving drugs known to increase urinary sodium excretion. Patients underwent a dietary regimen starting with a restricted daily sodium intake followed by a normal-sodium daily intake. The timepoints were identified at baseline (T0), after 3 weeks of low-sodium dietary regimen (T3), after 2 weeks of normal-sodium dietary regimen (T5). On these visits, we measured the 24-hour urinary sodium excretion, the frequency and function of Th17 and Treg cells in the peripheral blood, the serum levels of cytokines. Analysis of urinary sodium excretion confirmed adherence to the dietary regimen. In RA patients, a trend toward a reduction in the frequencies of Th17 cells over the low-sodium dietary regimen followed by an increase at T5 was observed, while Treg cells exhibited the opposite trend. SLE patients showed a progressive reduction in the percentage of Th17 cells that reached a significance at T5 compared to T0 (p = 0.01) and an increase in the percentage of Treg cells following the low-sodium dietary regimen at both T1 and T3 compared to T0 (p = 0.04 and p = 0.02, respectively). No significant apoptosis or proliferation modulation was found. In RA patients, we found a reduction at T5 compared to T0 in serum levels of both TGFβ (p = 0.0016) and IL-9 (p = 0.0007); serum IL-9 levels were also reduced in SLE patients at T5 with respect to T0 (p = 0.03). This is the first study investigating the effects of dietary sodium intake on adaptive immunity. Based on the results, we hypothesize that a restricted sodium dietary intake may dampen the inflammatory response in RA and SLE patients. PMID:28877244

  12. Urinary Sodium and Potassium Excretion and Dietary Sources of Sodium in Maputo, Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Queiroz

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the urinary excretion of sodium and potassium, and to estimate the main food sources of sodium in Maputo dwellers. A cross-sectional evaluation of a sample of 100 hospital workers was conducted between October 2012 and May 2013. Sodium and potassium urinary excretion was assessed in a 24-h urine sample; creatinine excretion was used to exclude unlikely urine values. Food intake in the same period of urine collection was assessed using a 24-h dietary recall. The Food Processor Plus® was used to estimate sodium intake corresponding to naturally occurring sodium and sodium added to processed foods (non-discretionary sodium. Salt added during culinary preparations (discretionary sodium was computed as the difference between urinary sodium excretion and non-discretionary sodium. The mean (standard deviation urinary sodium excretion was 4220 (1830 mg/day, and 92% of the participants were above the World Health Organization (WHO recommendations. Discretionary sodium contributed 60.1% of total dietary sodium intake, followed by sodium from processed foods (29.0% and naturally occurring sodium (10.9%. The mean (standard deviation urinary potassium excretion was 1909 (778 mg/day, and 96% of the participants were below the WHO potassium intake recommendation. The mean (standard deviation sodium to potassium molar ratio was 4.2 (2.4. Interventions to decrease sodium and increase potassium intake are needed in Mozambique.

  13. 296-B-5 Stack monitoring and sampling system annual system assessment report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ridge, T.M.

    1995-02-01

    The B Plant Administration Manual requires an annual system assessment to evaluate and report the present condition of the sampling and monitoring system associated with Stack 296-B-5 at B Plant. The sampling and monitoring system associated with stack 296-B-5 is functional and performing satisfactorily. This document is an annual assessment report of the systems associated with the 296-B-5 stack

  14. Vapor and gas sampling of single-shell tank 241-B-102 using the in situ vapor sampling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lockrem, L.L.

    1997-01-01

    The Vapor Issue Resolution Program tasked the Vapor Team (the team) to collect representative headspace samples from Hanford Site single-shell tank (SST) 241-B-102. This document presents sampling data resulting from the April 18, 1996 sampling of SST 241-B-102. Analytical results will be presented in a separate report issued by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), which supplied and analyzed the sampling media. The team, consisting of Sampling and Mobile Laboratories (SML) and Special Analytical Studies (SAS) personnel, used the vapor sampling system (VSS) to collect representative samples of the air, gases, and vapors from the headspace of SST 241-B-102 with sorbent traps and SUMMA canisters

  15. Raman distributed sensor system for temperature monitoring and leak detection in sodium circuits of FBR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandian, C.; Kasinathan, M.; Sosamma, S.; Babu Rao, C.; Jayakumar, T.; Murali, N.; Paunikar, V.; Kumar, S.; Rajan, K. K.; Raj, B. [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India)

    2009-07-01

    Leak detection in coolant loops of nuclear reactors is critical for the safety and performance of the reactors. The feasibility of using Raman distributed temperature sensor (RDTS) has been studied on a 30 m test loop. Temperature in sodium circuits of fast Breeder Reactor (FBR) exceeds 550 C degrees, gold coated fiber is chosen as sensor fibers. Leak is simulated through an artificial micro fissure integrated in the test loop with provision for controlled leak rate. The results are discussed in the paper. The temperature response of RDTS is compared to the conventional thermocouple and their performance was found comparable. The feasibility of detecting the temperature differential of a controlled leak with RDTS is demonstrated

  16. Sodium Loop Safety Facility W-2 experiment fuel pin rupture detection system. [LMFBR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, M.A.; Kirchner, T.L.; Meyers, S.C.

    1980-05-01

    The objective of the Sodium Loop Safety Facility (SLSF) W-2 experiment is to characterize the combined effects of a preconditioned full-length fuel column and slow transient overpower (TOP) conditions on breeder reactor (BR) fuel pin cladding failures. The W-2 experiment will meet this objective by providing data in two technological areas: (1) time and location of cladding failure, and (2) early post-failure test fuel behavior. The test involves a seven pin, prototypic full-length fast test reactor (FTR) fuel pin bundle which will be subjected to a simulated unprotected 5 cents/s reactivity transient overpower event. The outer six pins will provide the necessary prototypic thermal-hydraulic environment for the center pin.

  17. Sodium Loop Safety Facility W-2 experiment fuel pin rupture detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, M.A.; Kirchner, T.L.; Meyers, S.C.

    1980-05-01

    The objective of the Sodium Loop Safety Facility (SLSF) W-2 experiment is to characterize the combined effects of a preconditioned full-length fuel column and slow transient overpower (TOP) conditions on breeder reactor (BR) fuel pin cladding failures. The W-2 experiment will meet this objective by providing data in two technological areas: (1) time and location of cladding failure, and (2) early post-failure test fuel behavior. The test involves a seven pin, prototypic full-length fast test reactor (FTR) fuel pin bundle which will be subjected to a simulated unprotected 5 cents/s reactivity transient overpower event. The outer six pins will provide the necessary prototypic thermal-hydraulic environment for the center pin

  18. A new concept of hydrogen production system for sodium cooled FBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagiri, Toshio; Aoto, Kazumi; Hoshiya, Taiji

    2004-01-01

    A new thermo-chemical and electrolytic hybrid hydrogen production process (thermo-chemical and electrolytic Hybrid Hydrogen process in Lower Temperature range: HHLT) is newly proposed by the Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) to realize the hydrogen production from water by using the heat generation of sodium cooled Fast Breeding Reactor (FBR). The HHLT process is based on the sulfuric acid (H 2 SO 4 ) synthesis and decomposition processes developed earlier (Westinghouse process), and sulfur trioxide (SO 3 ) decomposition process of HHLT is facilitated by electrolysis with ionic oxygen conductive solid electrolyte to reduce operating temperature 200degC-300degC lower than Westinghouse process. Decomposition processes of SO 3 were confirmed with the cell voltage lower than 0.5 V at 500degC-600degC using 8mol yttria stabilized zirconia (8molYSZ) solid electrolyte and platinum electrode. Therefore, total voltage required for HHLT is expected to be lower than 1.0 V, because the voltage required for sulfuric acid synthesis is about 0.5V. Thermal efficiency of HHLT based on chemical reactions was roughly estimated to be within the range of 35% to 55% under the influence of H 2 SO 4 concentration and heat recovery. These results show the possibility of development of a new hydrogen production process which needs low splitting voltage and has high efficiency at around 500degC, utilizing the heat generation of sodium cooled FBR. SO 3 splitting with the voltage lower than 0.5V was confirmed at about 500degC experimentally, and ideal thermal efficiency of the cycle based on chemical reactions was evaluated. Furthermore, test apparatus to substantiate whole process of HHLT was manufactured. (author)

  19. Procedures for sampling and sample-reduction within quality assurance systems for solid biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-04-15

    The bias introduced when sampling solid biofuels from stockpiles or containers instead of from moving streams is assessed as well as the number and size of samples required to represent accurately the bulk sample, variations introduced when reducing bulk samples into samples for testing, and the usefulness of sample reduction methods. Details are given of the experimental work carried out in Sweden and Denmark using sawdust, wood chips, wood pellets, forestry residues and straw. The production of a model European Standard for quality assurance of solid biofuels is examined.

  20. Standard Format for Chromatographic-polarimetric System small samples assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naranjo, S.; Fajer, V.; Fonfria, C.; Patinno, R.

    2012-01-01

    The treatment of samples containing optically active substances to be evaluated as part of quality control of raw material entering industrial process, and also during the modifications exerted on it to obtain the desired final composition is still and unsolved problem for many industries. That is the case of sugarcane industry. Sometimes the troubles implied are enlarged because samples to be evaluated are not bigger than one milliliter. Reduction of gel beds in G-10 and G-50 chromatographic columns having an inner diameter of 16 mm, instead of 25, and bed heights adjustable to requirements by means of sliding stoppers to increase analytical power were evaluated with glucose and sucrose standards in concentrations from 1 to 10 g/dL, using aliquots of 1 ml without undesirable dilutions that could affect either detection or chromatographic profile. Assays with seaweed extracts gave good results that are shown. It is established the advantage to know concentration of a separated substance by the height of its peak and the savings in time and reagents resulting . Sample expanded uncertainty in both systems is compared. It is also presented several programs for data acquisition, storing and processing. (Author)

  1. Thermodynamic study of sodium-iron oxides. Part 2. Ternary phase diagram of the Na-Fe-O system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Jintao; Furukawa, Tomohiro; Aoto, Kazumi

    2003-01-01

    Studies on ternary phase diagrams of the Na-Fe-O system have been carried out from the thermodynamic point of view. Thermodynamic data of main ternary Na-Fe oxides Na 4 FeO 3 (s), Na 3 FeO 3 (s), Na 5 FeO 4 (s) and Na 8 Fe 2 O 7 (s) have been assessed. A user database has been created by reviewing literature data together with recent DSC and vapor pressure measurements by the present authors. New ternary phase diagrams of the Na-Fe-O system have been constructed from room temperature to 1000K. Stable conditions of the ternary oxides at 800K were presented in predominance diagram as functions of oxygen pressure and sodium pressure

  2. Assertion based verification methodology for HDL designs of primary sodium pump speed and eddy current flow measurement systems of PFBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misra, M.K.; Menon, Saritha P.; Thirugnana Murthy, D.

    2013-01-01

    With the growing complexity and size of digital designs, functional verification has become a huge challenge. The validation and testing process accounts for a significant percentage of the overall development effort and cost for electronic systems. Many studies have shown that up to 70% of the design development time and resources are spent on functional verification. Functional errors manifest themselves very early in the design flow, and unless they are detected upfront, they can result in severe consequences - both financially and from a safety viewpoint. This paper covers the various types of verification methodologies and focuses on Assertion Based Verification Methodology for HDL designs, taking as case studies, the Primary Sodium Pump Speed and Eddy Current Flow Measurement Systems of PFBR. (author)

  3. Study and Evaluation of Innovative Fuel Handling Systems for Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactors: Fuel Handling Route Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franck Dechelette

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The research for technological improvement and innovation in sodium-cooled fast reactor is a matter of concern in fuel handling systems in a view to perform a better load factor of the reactor thanks to a quicker fuelling/defueling process. An optimized fuel handling route will also limit its investment cost. In that field, CEA has engaged some innovation study either of complete FHR or on the optimization of some specific components. This paper presents the study of three SFR fuel handling route fully described and compared to a reference FHR option. In those three FHR, two use a gas corridor to transfer spent and fresh fuel assembly and the third uses two casks with a sodium pot to evacuate and load an assembly in parallel. All of them are designed for the ASTRID reactor (1500 MWth but can be extrapolated to power reactors and are compatible with the mutualisation of one FHS coupled with two reactors. These three concepts are then intercompared and evaluated with the reference FHR according to four criteria: performances, risk assessment, investment cost, and qualification time. This analysis reveals that the “mixed way” FHR presents interesting solutions mainly in terms of design simplicity and time reduction. Therefore its study will be pursued for ASTRID as an alternative option.

  4. A new system for sodium flux growth of bulk GaN. Part II: in situ investigation of growth processes

    KAUST Repository

    Von Dollen, Paul

    2016-09-09

    We report recent results of bulk GaN crystal growth using the sodium flux method in a new crucible-free growth system. We observed a (0001) Ga face (+c-plane) growth rate >50 µm/h for growth at a N2 overpressure of ~5 MPa and 860 °C, which is the highest crystal growth rate reported for this technique to date. Omega X-ray rocking curve (ω-XRC) measurements indicated the presence of multiple grains, though full width at half maximum (FWHM) values for individual peaks were <100 arcseconds. Oxygen impurity concentrations as measured by secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) were >1020 atoms/cm3. By monitoring the nitrogen pressure decay over the course of the crystal growth, we developed an in situ method that correlates gas phase changes with precipitation of GaN from the sodium-gallium melt. Based on this analysis, the growth rate may have actually been as high as 90 µm/h, as it would suggest GaN growth ceased prior to the end of the run. We also observed gas phase behavior identified as likely characteristic of GaN polynucleation.

  5. A new system for sodium flux growth of bulk GaN. Part II: in situ investigation of growth processes

    KAUST Repository

    Von Dollen, Paul; Pimputkar, Siddha; Alreesh, Mohammed Abo; Nakamura, Shuji; Speck, James S.

    2016-01-01

    We report recent results of bulk GaN crystal growth using the sodium flux method in a new crucible-free growth system. We observed a (0001) Ga face (+c-plane) growth rate >50 µm/h for growth at a N2 overpressure of ~5 MPa and 860 °C, which is the highest crystal growth rate reported for this technique to date. Omega X-ray rocking curve (ω-XRC) measurements indicated the presence of multiple grains, though full width at half maximum (FWHM) values for individual peaks were <100 arcseconds. Oxygen impurity concentrations as measured by secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) were >1020 atoms/cm3. By monitoring the nitrogen pressure decay over the course of the crystal growth, we developed an in situ method that correlates gas phase changes with precipitation of GaN from the sodium-gallium melt. Based on this analysis, the growth rate may have actually been as high as 90 µm/h, as it would suggest GaN growth ceased prior to the end of the run. We also observed gas phase behavior identified as likely characteristic of GaN polynucleation.

  6. Statistical analysis on failure-to-open/close probability of motor-operated valve in sodium system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurisaka, Kenichi

    1998-08-01

    The objective of this work is to develop basic data for examination on efficiency of preventive maintenance and actuation test from the standpoint of failure probability. This work consists of a statistical trend analysis of valve failure probability in a failure-to-open/close mode on time since installation and time since last open/close action, based on the field data of operating- and failure-experience. In this work, the terms both dependent and independent on time were considered in the failure probability. The linear aging model was modified and applied to the first term. In this model there are two terms with both failure rates in proportion to time since installation and to time since last open/close-demand. Because of sufficient statistical population, motor-operated valves (MOV's) in sodium system were selected to be analyzed from the CORDS database which contains operating data and failure data of components in the fast reactors and sodium test facilities. According to these data, the functional parameters were statistically estimated to quantify the valve failure probability in a failure-to-open/close mode, with consideration of uncertainty. (J.P.N.)

  7. Flame photometric detection of sodium leaks: Tests on a fullscale model for the control gear sodium rig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grundy, B.R.; Knowles, P.

    1971-01-01

    The proposed arrangement for detecting sodium leaks from the large flanges of the Control Gear Sodium Rig (Test Section No. 8, MCTR) at REML is to jacket then in a secondary containment from which air samples will be continuously pumped. Pipework feeds the air to a flame photometer which responds if soditun is present. To prove that sodium smoke could be transferred through the system, tests were performed on a fullscale model by burning small amounts of sodium in different jackets. Large signals free from fluctuations were obtained in all tests, peak response occurring in 2 1/4 minutes or less. The signal quickly cleared after isolating the appropriate vessel. A waiting period of several hours was sufficient to reduce the signal to zero, no cleaning of pipework, etc being necessary. In contrast, samples of two lagging materials heated to 400 °C gave no response with the photometer at maximum sensitivity. (author)

  8. Procedures for sampling and sample reduction within quality assurance systems for solid biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The objective of this experimental study on sampling was to determine the size and number of samples of biofuels required (taken at two sampling points in each case) and to compare two methods of sampling. The first objective of the sample-reduction exercise was to compare the reliability of various sampling methods, and the second objective was to measure the variations introduced as a result of reducing the sample size to form suitable test portions. The materials studied were sawdust, wood chips, wood pellets and bales of straw, and these were analysed for moisture, ash, particle size and chloride. The sampling procedures are described. The study was conducted in Scandinavia. The results of the study were presented in Leipzig in October 2004. The work was carried out as part of the UK's DTI Technology Programme: New and Renewable Energy.

  9. Adoption of nitrogen power conversion system for small scale ultra-long cycle fast reactor eliminating intermediate sodium loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Seok Bin; Seo, Han; Bang, In Cheol

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • N 2 power conversion system for both safety and thermal performance aspects. • Sensitivity studies of several controlled parameters on N 2 power conversion system. • The elimination of the intermediate loop increased the cycle thermal efficiency. • The elimination of the intermediate loop expects economic advantages. - Abstract: As one of SFRs, the ultra-long cycle fast reactor with a power rating of 100 MW e (UCFR-100) was introduced for a 60-year operation. As an alternative to the traditional steam Rankine cycle for the power conversion system, gas based Brayton cycle has been considered for UCFR-100. Among Supercritical CO 2 (S-CO 2 ), Helium (He), Nitrogen (N 2 ) as candidates for the power conversion system for UCFR-100, an N 2 power conversion system was chosen considering both safety and thermal performance aspects. The elimination of the intermediate sodium loop could be achieved due to the safety and stable characteristics of nitrogen working fluid. In this paper, sensitivity studies with respect to several controlled parameters on N 2 power conversion system were performed to optimize the system. Furthermore, the elimination of the intermediate loop was evaluated with respect to its impact on the thermodynamic performance and other aspects.

  10. LINEAR SOLVATION ENERGY RELATIONSHIPS FOR CHARACTERIZATION OF MLC SYSTEMS WITH SODIUM DODECYL SULPHATE MOBILE PHASES MODIFIED BY ALIPHATIC ALCOHOLS OR CARBOXYLIC ACIDS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Markov, Vadym V.; Boichenko, Alexander P.; Loginova, Lidia P.

    2012-01-01

    The Linear Solvation Energy Relationships (LSER) have been successfully used for the modeling of partition and retention of the set of test compounds in different systems. The properties of micellar chromatographic systems with the mobile phases on the basis of sodium dodecylsulphate modified (ODS)

  11. 296-B-10 stack monitoring and sampling system annual system assessment report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ridge, T.M.

    1995-01-01

    B Plant Administration Manual, requires an annual system assessment to evaluate and report the present condition of the sampling and monitoring system associated with stack 296-B-10 at B Plant. The ventilation system of WESF (Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility) is designed to provide airflow patterns so that air movement throughout the building is from areas of lesser radioactivity to areas of greater radioactivity. All potentially contaminated areas are maintained at a negative pressure with respect to the atmosphere so that air flows into the building at all times. The exhaust discharging through the 296-B-10 stack is continuously monitored and sampled using a sampling and monitoring probe assembly located approximately 17.4 meters (57 feet) above the base of the stack. The probe assembly consists of 5 nozzles for the sampling probe and 2 nozzles to monitor the flow. The sampling and monitoring system associated with Stack 296-B-10 is functional and performing satisfactorily

  12. Physical properties of liquid sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberdi Primicia, J.; Martinez Piquer, T.A.

    1977-01-01

    The molten sodium has been the more accepted coolant for the first generation of FBR, by this reason the knowledge of its technology is needed for the development of the next LMFBR. A series of necessary data for designing sodium liquid systems are given. Tables and graphics about the most important physical sodium properties between 1200-1400 degC are gathered. The results have been obtained from equations that relate the properties with temperature using a Fortran IV program. (author) [es

  13. A statistical analysis on failure-to open/close probability of pneumatic valve in sodium cooling systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurisaka, Kenichi

    1999-11-01

    The objective of this study is to develop fundamental data for examination on efficiency of preventive maintenance and surveillance test from the standpoint of failure probability. In this study, as a major standby component, a pneumatic valve in sodium cooling systems was selected. A statistical analysis was made about a trend of valve in sodium cooling systems was selected. A statistical analysis was made about a trend of valve failure-to-open/close (FTOC) probability depending on number of demands ('n'), time since installation ('t') and standby time since last open/close action ('T'). The analysis is based on the field data of operating- and failure-experiences stored in the Component Reliability Database and Statistical Analysis System for LMFBR's (CORDS). In the analysis, the FTOC probability ('P') was expressed as follows: P=1-exp{-C-En-F/n-λT-aT(t-T/2)-AT 2 /2}. The functional parameters, 'C', 'E', 'F', 'λ', 'a' and 'A', were estimated with the maximum likelihood estimation method. As a result, the FTOC probability is almost expressed with the failure probability being derived from the failure rate under assumption of the Poisson distribution only when valve cycle (i.e. open-close-open cycle) exceeds about 100 days. When the valve cycle is shorter than about 100 days, the FTOC probability can be adequately estimated with the parameter model proposed in this study. The results obtained from this study may make it possible to derive an adequate frequency of surveillance test for a given target of the FTOC probability. (author)

  14. Vapor and gas sampling of single-shell tank 241-S-106 using the in situ vapor sampling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lockrem, L.L.

    1997-01-01

    The Vapor Issue Resolution Program tasked the Vapor Team (VT) to collect representative headspace samples from Hanford Site single-shell tank (SST) 241-S-106. This document presents In Situ vapor Sampling System (ISVS) data resulting from the June 13, 1996 sampling of SST 241-S-106. Analytical results will be presented in separate reports issued by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) which'supplied and analyzed the sample media

  15. Vapor and gas sampling of single-shell tank 241-U-104 using the in situ vapor sampling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lockrem, L.L.

    1997-01-01

    The Vapor Issue.Resolution Program tasked the Vapor Team (VT) to collect representative headspace samples from Hanford Site single-shell tank (SST) 241-U-104. This document presents In Situ Vapor Sampling System (ISVS) data resulting from the July 16, 1996 sampling of SST 241-U-104. Analytical results will be presented in separate reports issued by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) which supplied and analyzed the sample media

  16. Vapor and gas sampling of single-shell tank 241-S-103 using the in situ vapor sampling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lockrem, L.L.

    1997-01-01

    The Vapor Issue Resolution Program tasked the Vapor Team (VT) to collect representative headspace samples from Hanford Site single-shell tank (SST) 241-S-103. This document presents In Situ Vapor Sampling System (ISVS) data resulting from the June 12, 1996 sampling of SST 241-S-103. Analytical results will be presented in separate reports issued by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) which supplied and analyzed the sample media

  17. Luminol/CdTe quantum dots/sodium periodate system in conjunction with response-surface methodology for chemiluminometric determination of some tetracyclines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imani-Nabiyyi, Amin; Sorouraddin, Mohammad H.; Amjadi, Mohammad; Naseri, Abdolhossein

    2014-01-01

    A simple and sensitive chemiluminometric method is described for the determination of tetracycline (TC) and oxytetracycline (OTC) in their hydrochloride form on the basis of drastic enhancement of the chemiluminescence (CL) from the luminol/L-cysteine-capped CdTe quantum dots (QDs)/sodium periodate system, caused by the presence of TC and OTC hydrochloride. The method uses pH value at which tetracyclines have proven to be stable. Response surface methodology was exploited for optimizing the experimental conditions. The synthesized QDs were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV–vis spectroscopy, and photoluminescence spectroscopy. A possible mechanism of the CL system was proposed based on the CL spectra and the effect of some specific radical-scavengers on the system. Under the optimum conditions linear dynamic ranges of 5.0×10 −8 –6.0×10 −6 mol L −1 and 5.0×10 −8 –8.0×10 −6 mol L −1 were observed for TC and OTC, respectively with corresponding detection limits of 2.2×10 −8 mol L −1 and 3.0×10 −8 mol L −1 . The precision (RSD%) for five replicate determinations of TC and OTC were respectively no more than 3.4% and 4.0%. The method was satisfactorily applied to the determination of TC.HCl and OTC.HCl in water samples, pharmaceutical formulations, and honey. - Highlights: • A simple, rapid, and sensitive method for determination of some tetracyclines. • Enhancement of CL of luminol/Cys-capped CdTe QDs/NaIO 4 with TC.HCl and OTC.HCl. • No need to chemical, photochemical, or any peculiar pretreatment of the samples. • Measuring the analytes in conditions at which they are stable. • Capable of measuring TCs in pharmaceutical, water, and honey samples

  18. Fluorometric determination of proteins using the yttrium(III)-sodium lauryl sulfate-rutin-protein system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Shufang; Yang Jinghe; Wu Xia; Wang Fei; Wang Feng; Jia Zhen

    2006-01-01

    It is found that rutin can react with yttrium(III) (Y 3+ ), and emits fluorescence of rutin. The intensity is greatly enhanced by proteins in the presence of sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS). Based on this, a new fluorimetric method of determination of proteins is developed. Under optimum conditions, the enhanced intensity of fluorescence is in proportion to the concentration of proteins in the range of 5.0x10 -9 -1.0x10 -5 g/mL for bovine serum albumin (BSA), 3.0x10 -8 -1.0x10 -5 g/mL for human serum albumin (HSA) and 1.0x10 -7 -2.0x10 -5 g/mL for egg albumin (EA). Their detection limits (S/N=3) are 1.6x10 -9 , 9.8x10 -9 and 2.1x10 -8 g/mL, respectively. The interaction mechanism is also studied

  19. Fluorometric determination of proteins using the yttrium(III)-sodium lauryl sulfate-rutin-protein system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Shufang [Key Laboratory of Colloid and Interface Chemistry (Shandong University), Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Yang Jinghe [Key Laboratory of Colloid and Interface Chemistry (Shandong University), Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China)]. E-mail: yjh@sdu.edu.cn; Wu Xia [Key Laboratory of Colloid and Interface Chemistry (Shandong University), Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Wang Fei [Key Laboratory of Colloid and Interface Chemistry (Shandong University), Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Wang Feng [Key Laboratory of Colloid and Interface Chemistry (Shandong University), Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Jia Zhen [Key Laboratory of Colloid and Interface Chemistry (Shandong University), Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China)

    2006-04-15

    It is found that rutin can react with yttrium(III) (Y{sup 3+}), and emits fluorescence of rutin. The intensity is greatly enhanced by proteins in the presence of sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS). Based on this, a new fluorimetric method of determination of proteins is developed. Under optimum conditions, the enhanced intensity of fluorescence is in proportion to the concentration of proteins in the range of 5.0x10{sup -9}-1.0x10{sup -5}g/mL for bovine serum albumin (BSA), 3.0x10{sup -8}-1.0x10{sup -5}g/mL for human serum albumin (HSA) and 1.0x10{sup -7}-2.0x10{sup -5}g/mL for egg albumin (EA). Their detection limits (S/N=3) are 1.6x10{sup -9}, 9.8x10{sup -9} and 2.1x10{sup -8}g/mL, respectively. The interaction mechanism is also studied.

  20. Classifier-Guided Sampling for Complex Energy System Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backlund, Peter B. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Eddy, John P. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This report documents the results of a Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) effort enti tled "Classifier - Guided Sampling for Complex Energy System Optimization" that was conducted during FY 2014 and FY 2015. The goal of this proj ect was to develop, implement, and test major improvements to the classifier - guided sampling (CGS) algorithm. CGS is type of evolutionary algorithm for perform ing search and optimization over a set of discrete design variables in the face of one or more objective functions. E xisting evolutionary algorithms, such as genetic algorithms , may require a large number of o bjecti ve function evaluations to identify optimal or near - optimal solutions . Reducing the number of evaluations can result in significant time savings, especially if the objective function is computationally expensive. CGS reduce s the evaluation count by us ing a Bayesian network classifier to filter out non - promising candidate designs , prior to evaluation, based on their posterior probabilit ies . In this project, b oth the single - objective and multi - objective version s of the CGS are developed and tested on a set of benchm ark problems. As a domain - specific case study, CGS is used to design a microgrid for use in islanded mode during an extended bulk power grid outage.

  1. Sampling rare events in nonequilibrium and nonstationary systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryman, Joshua T; Schilling, Tanja

    2010-12-28

    Although many computational methods for rare event sampling exist, this type of calculation is not usually practical for general nonequilibrium conditions, with macroscopically irreversible dynamics and away from both stationary and metastable states. A novel method for calculating the time-series of the probability of a rare event is presented which is designed for these conditions. The method is validated for the cases of the Glauber-Ising model under time-varying shear flow, the Kawasaki-Ising model after a quench into the region between nucleation dominated and spinodal decomposition dominated phase change dynamics, and the parallel open asymmetric exclusion process. The method requires a subdivision of the phase space of the system: it is benchmarked and found to scale well for increasingly fine subdivisions, meaning that it can be applied without detailed foreknowledge of the physically important reaction pathways.

  2. Chitosan-sodium lauryl sulfate nanoparticles as a carrier system for the in vivo delivery of oral insulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsayed, Amani; Al-Remawi, Mayyas; Qinna, Nidal; Farouk, Asim; Al-Sou'od, Khaldoun A; Badwan, Adnan A

    2011-09-01

    The present work explores the possibility of formulating an oral insulin delivery system using nanoparticulate complexes made from the interaction between biodegradable, natural polymer called chitosan and anionic surfactant called sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS). The interaction between chitosan and SLS was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The nanoparticles were prepared by simple gelation method under aqueous-based conditions. The nanoparticles were stable in simulated gastric fluids and could protect the encapsulated insulin from the GIT enzymes. Additionally, the in vivo results clearly indicated that the insulin-loaded nanoparticles could effectively reduce the blood glucose level in a diabetic rat model. However, additional formulation modifications are required to improve insulin oral bioavailability.

  3. A high sodium intake reduces antiproteinuric response to renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system blockade in kidney transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monfá, Elena; Rodrigo, Emilio; Belmar, Lara; Sango, Cristina; Moussa, Fozi; Ruiz San Millán, Juan Carlos; Piñera, Celestino; Fernández-Fresnedo, Gema; Arias, Manuel

    Post-transplant proteinuria is associated with lower graft and patient survival. Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system blockers are used to reduce proteinuria and improve renal outcome. Although it is known that a high salt intake blunts the antiproteinuric effect of ACEI and ARB drugs in non-transplant patients, this effect has not been studied in kidney transplant recipients. To analyse the relationship between sodium intake and the antiproteinuric effect of ACEI/ARB drugs in kidney transplant recipients. We selected 103 kidney transplant recipients receiving ACEI/ARB drugs for more than 6 months due to proteinuria>1 g/day. Proteinuria was analysed at baseline and at 6 months after starting ACEI/ARB treatment. Salt intake was estimated by urinary sodium to creatinine ratio (uNa/Cr). Proteinuria fell to less than 1g/day in 46 patients (44.7%). High uNa/Cr was associated with a smaller proteinuria decrease (r=-0.251, P=.011). The percentage proteinuria reduction was significantly lower in patients in the highest uNa/Cr tertile [63.9% (IQR 47.1%), 60.1% (IQR 55.4%), 38.9% (IQR 85.5%), P=.047]. High uNa/Cr independently relates (OR 2.406 per 100 mEq/g, 95% CI: 1.008-5.745, P=.048) to an antiproteinuric response <50% after renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system blockade. A high salt intake results in a smaller proteinuria decrease in kidney transplant recipients with proteinuria treated with ACEI/ARB drugs. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Nefrología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Design and Integrity Evaluation of High-temperature Piping Systems in the STELLA-2 Sodium Test Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Seok-Kwon; Lee, Hyeong-Yeon; Eoh, JaeHyuk; Kim, Jong-Bum; Jeong, Ji-Young [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Ju, Yong-Sun [KOASIS Inc., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    In this study, elevated temperature design and integrity evaluation have been conducted using two different piping design codes for the high-temperature piping systems of sodium integral effect test loop for safety simulation and assessment(STELLA-2) being developed by KAERI(Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute). The design code of ASME B31.1 for power piping and French nuclear grade piping design guideline, RCC-MRx RD-3600 were applied, and conservatism of those codes was quantified based on the piping integrity evaluation results. The piping system of Model DHRS, Model IHTS and PSLS are to be installed in STELLA-2. The integrity evaluation results for the three piping systems according to the two design codes showed that integrity of the piping system was confirmed. As a code comparison result, ASME B31.1 was shown to be more conservative for sustained loads while RD-3600 was more conservative for thermal loads compared to B31.1.

  5. Test Your Sodium Smarts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You may be surprised to learn how much sodium is in many foods. Sodium, including sodium chloride ... foods with little or no salt. Test your sodium smarts by answering these 10 questions about which ...

  6. Experimental and Numerical Simulation towards Sodium Safety in SFR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponraju, D.; Rao, Hemanth; Das, Sanjay Kumar; Punitha; Nashine, B.K.; Chellapandi, P.

    2013-01-01

    Summary and future program on sodium fire: Past - Design verification of LCT by experiments; Small scale experiments on sodium resistant concrete; Small sodium spray: - Fire senario; - particle distribution. Current activities - Containment code development; Demonstration of LCT system, effective LCT design; Qualification of extinguishers and sodium resistant contrete; LBB justification; Aerosol distribution. Future - Sodium school; HR development in handing sodium systems; Collaboration with AERB, IRSN, CEA and other International Organizations; Design guidelines

  7. Potentiation of Sodium Metabisulfite Toxicity by Propylene Glycol in Both in Vitro and in Vivo Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Yoo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Many consumer products used in our daily lives result in inhalation exposure to a variety of chemicals, although the toxicities of the active ingredients are not well known; furthermore, simultaneous exposure to chemical mixtures occurs. Sodium metabisulfite (SM and propylene glycol (PG are used in a variety of products. Both the cytotoxicity and the sub-acute inhalation toxicity of each chemical and their mixtures were evaluated. Assays for cell viability, membrane damage, and lysosome damage demonstrated that SM over 100 μg/ml induced significant cytotoxicity; moreover, when PG, which was not cytotoxic, was mixed with SM, the cytotoxicity of the mixture was enhanced. Solutions of 1, 5, and 20% SM, each with 1% PG solution, were prepared, and the whole body of rats was exposed to aerosols of the mixture for 6 h/day, 5 days/week for 2 weeks. The rats were sacrificed 1 (exposure group or 7 days (recovery group after termination of the exposure. The actual concentration of SM in the low-, medium-, and high-exposure groups was 3.91 ± 1.26, 35.73 ± 6.01, and 80.98 ± 5.47 mg/m3, respectively, and the actual concentration of PG in each group was 6.47 ± 1.25, 8.68 ± 0.6, and 8.84 ± 1.77 mg/m3. The repeated exposure to SM and PG caused specific clinical signs including nasal sound, sneeze, and eye irritation which were not found in SM single exposure. In addition, the body weight of treatment group rats decreased compared to that of the control group rats in a time-dependent manner. The total protein concentration and lactate dehydrogenase activity in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF increased. Histopathological analysis of the lungs, liver, and nasal cavity was performed. Adverse effects were observed in the nasal cavity, with squamous cell metaplasia identified in the front of the nasal cavity in all high-exposure groups, which completely recovered 7 days after exposure was terminated. Whereas inhalation of SM for 2 weeks only reduced

  8. Effects of Dietary Sodium Restriction in Kidney Transplant Recipients Treated With Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System Blockade: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Laura V.; Dobrowolski, Linn C.; van den Bosch, Jacqueline J. O. N.; Riphagen, Ineke J.; Krediet, C. T. Paul; Bemelman, Frederike J.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Navis, Gerjan

    2016-01-01

    In patients with chronic kidney disease receiving renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) blockade, dietary sodium restriction is an often-used treatment strategy to reduce blood pressure (BP) and albuminuria. Whether these effects extend to kidney transplant recipients is unknown. We therefore

  9. Effects of Dietary Sodium Restriction in Kidney Transplant Recipients Treated With Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System Blockade : A Randomized Clinical Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Laura V; Dobrowolski, Linn C; van den Bosch, Jacqueline J O N; Riphagen, Ineke J; Krediet, C T Paul; Bemelman, Frederike J; Bakker, Stephan J L; Navis, Gerjan

    BACKGROUND: In patients with chronic kidney disease receiving renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) blockade, dietary sodium restriction is an often-used treatment strategy to reduce blood pressure (BP) and albuminuria. Whether these effects extend to kidney transplant recipients is unknown.

  10. Coolant-fuel interaction in Sodium-cooled Fast Reactors: Structural investigations of The Na-An-O (An = U, Np, Pu) systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A.L.; Raison, P.E.; Bykov, D.M.; Konings, R.J.; Caciuffo, R.; Cheetham, A.K.

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear energy has the potential to provide Europe with a secure and sustainable electricity supply at a competitive price and to make a significant contribution to the reduction of greenhouse gases emissions. The interest for Sodium-cooled-Fast-spectrum Reactors (SFRs), when compared to Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs), lies in their more efficient management of plutonium and other actinides as well as their ability to use almost all of the energy in the natural uranium versus 1% utilized in thermal spectrum systems. The high fuel efficiency of fast reactors could greatly dampen concerns about fuel supply. But these reactors have also several drawbacks when compared to PWRs (i.e sodium fire, Na reaction with O2 and H2O, interaction of sodium with oxide fuels). Their development at an industrial scale needs therefore an exhaustive safety assessment that comprises both experimental work and development of sophisticated modelling tools able to describe the reactor behaviour in normal or incidental conditions

  11. Sodium cooled fast reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hokkyo, N; Inoue, K; Maeda, H

    1968-11-21

    In a sodium cooled fast neutron reactor, an ultrasonic generator is installed at a fuel assembly hold-down mechanism positioned above a blanket or fission gas reservoir located above the core. During operation of the reactor an ultrsonic wave of frequency 10/sup 3/ - 10/sup 4/ Hz is constantly transmitted to the core to resonantly inject the primary bubble with ultrasonic energy to thereby facilitate its growth. Hence, small bubbles grow gradually to prevent the sudden boiling of sodium if an accident occurs in the cooling system during operation of the reactor.

  12. Structural analyses on piping systems of sodium reactors. 2. Eigenvalue analyses of hot-leg pipelines of large scale sodium reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuhashi, Ichiro; Kasahara, Naoto

    2002-01-01

    Two types of finite element models analyzed eigenvalues of hot-leg pipelines of a large-scale sodium reactor. One is a beam element model, which is usual for pipe analyses. The other is a shell element model to evaluate particular modes in thin pipes with large diameters. Summary of analysis results: (1) A beam element model and a order natural frequency. A beam element model is available to get the first order vibration mode. (2) The maximum difference ratio of beam mode natural frequencies was 14% between a beam element model with no shear deformations and a shell element model. However, its difference becomes very small, when shear deformations are considered in beam element. (3) In the first order horizontal mode, the Y-piece acts like a pendulum, and the elbow acts like the hinge. The natural frequency is strongly affected by the bending and shear rigidities of the outer supporting pipe. (4) In the first order vertical mode, the vertical sections of the outer and inner pipes moves in the axial-directional piston mode, the horizontal section of inner pipe behaves like the cantilever, and the elbow acts like the hinge. The natural frequency is strongly affected by the axial rigidity of outer supporting pipe. (5) Both effective masses and participation factors were small for particular shell modes. (author)

  13. A simplified system for doing ICP analysis on radioactive samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCown, J.J.

    1985-11-01

    Methods for setting up equipment to perform analyses on radioactive materials vary considerably from one site to another. Factors include the interests of the group involved, i.e., research vs service work; the type of building containing the lab; the arrangement of the lab for contamination control; previous experiences in operating similar equipment; the local interpretation of safety regulations; and the time and money available for the task. The Chemistry and Analysis group of the Westinghouse Hanford Company performs analytical chemistry in support of many Hanford programs. Samples analyzed cover a wide variety of materials with more than 50% involving radioactivity of one type or another. All of the laboratories in the building are connected to a common exhaust system with ductwork leading to the basement. Double HEPA filtration is provided with the first stage in the basement and the final stage done in the exhaust fan and filter building northwest of the main building. In addition, glove boxes are equipped with small HEPA filters on their outlet providing another stage of filtration. 6 figs

  14. Collecting Evidence to Inform Salt Reduction Policies in Argentina: Identifying Sources of Sodium Intake in Adults from a Population-Based Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Elorriaga

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The maximum content of sodium in selected processed foods (PF in Argentina was limited by a law enacted in 2013. Data about intake of these and other foods are necessary for policy planning, implementation, evaluation, and monitoring. We examined data from the CESCAS I population-based cohort study to assess the main dietary sources among PF and frequency of discretionary salt use by sex, age, and education attainment, before full implementation of the regulations in 2015. We used a validated 34-item FFQ (Food Frequency Questionnaire to assess PF intake and discretional salt use. Among 2127 adults in two Argentinean cities, aged 35–76 years, mean salt intake from selected PFs was 4.7 g/day, higher among male and low education subgroups. Categories of foods with regulated maximum limits provided near half of the sodium intake from PFs. Use of salt (always/often at the table and during cooking was reported by 9% and 73% of the population, respectively, with higher proportions among young people. Reducing salt consumption to the target of 5 g/day may require adjustments to the current regulation (reducing targets, including other food categories, as well as reinforcing strategies such as education campaigns, labeling, and voluntary agreement with bakeries.

  15. Extinction of sodium fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malet, J.C.; Spagna, F.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents how, starting from a knowledge of sodium ignition and burning, principles for extinction (smothering catch trays, leak recuperation systems, powders) can be developed. These techniques applied in Superphenix 1 and PEC reactors have been tested in the ESMERALDA experimental program which is a joint French/Italian project. (author)

  16. The determination of hydrogen in sodium by vacuum extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi Linkun; Wan Gang; Wen Ximeng; Sun Shiping; Jia Yunteng

    1993-05-01

    A method to determine the hydrogen in sodium is introduced. The sodium sample, which is less than 7 g, is put into a thin iron capsule in argon atmosphere, the capsule is sealed by electron beam welding and heated to 700 degree C in a vacuum system with pressure less than 10 -5 Pa, then the hydrogen released from the vacuum system can be determined. The determining limit by this method is 20 ∼ 150 μg and the standard deviation is 20%. This method uses electron beam welding to replace the argon are welding and combines the off-line sampling with on-line measuring. It is an easier off-line measurement to determine hydrogen in sodium

  17. Micellar solubilization in strongly interacting binary surfactant systems. [Binary surfactant systems of: dodecyltrimethylammonium chloride + sodium dodecyl sulfate; benzyldimethyltetradecylammonium chloride + tetradecyltrimethylammonium chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Treiner, C. (Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris (France)); Nortz, M.; Vaution, C. (Faculte de Pharmacie de Paris-sud, Chatenay-Malabry (France))

    1990-07-01

    The apparent partition coefficient P of barbituric acids between micelles and water has been determined in mixed binary surfactant solutions from solubility measurements in the whole micellar composition range. The binary systems chosen ranged from the strongly interacting system dodecyltrimethylammonium chloride + sodium dodecyl sulfate to weakly interacting systems such as benzyldimethyltetradecylammonium chloride + tetradecyltrimethyammonium chloride. In all cases studied, mixed micelle formation is unfavorable to micellar solubilization. A correlation is found between the unlike surfactants interaction energy, as measured by the regular solution parameter {beta} and the solute partition coefficient change upon surfactant mixing. By use of literature data on micellar solubilization in binary surfactant solutions, it is shown that the change of P for solutes which are solubilized by surface adsorption is generally governed by the sign and amplitude of the interaction parameter {beta}.

  18. System Identification of a Non-Uniformly Sampled Multi-Rate System in Aluminium Electrolysis Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Håkon Viumdal

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Standard system identification algorithms are usually designed to generate mathematical models with equidistant sampling instants, that are equal for both input variables and output variables. Unfortunately, real industrial data sets are often disrupted by missing samples, variations of sampling rates in the different variables (also known as multi-rate systems, and intermittent measurements. In industries with varying events based maintenance or manual operational measures, intermittent measurements are performed leading to uneven sampling rates. Such is the case with aluminium smelters, where in addition the materials fed into the cell create even more irregularity in sampling. Both measurements and feeding are mostly manually controlled. A simplified simulation of the metal level in an aluminium electrolysis cell is performed based on mass balance considerations. System identification methods based on Prediction Error Methods (PEM such as Ordinary Least Squares (OLS, and the sub-space method combined Deterministic and Stochastic system identification and Realization (DSR, and its variants are applied to the model of a single electrolysis cell as found in the aluminium smelters. Aliasing phenomena due to large sampling intervals can be crucial in avoiding unsuitable models, but with knowledge about the system dynamics, it is easier to optimize the sampling performance, and hence achieve successful models. The results based on the simulation studies of molten aluminium height in the cells using the various algorithms give results which tally well with the synthetic data sets used. System identification on a smaller data set from a real plant is also implemented in this work. Finally, some concrete suggestions are made for using these models in the smelters.

  19. Aging phenomena of chitosan and chitosan-diclofenac sodium system detected by low-frequency dielectric spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodek, K H; Bak, G W

    1999-09-01

    The use of natural polymers for design of dosage form has received considerable attention recently, especially from the safety point of view. Among these polymers, chitosan shows very interesting biological, chemical and physical properties which makes it possible to use chitosan for various pharmaceutical applications. Microcrystalline chitosan (MCCh) is a special multifunctional polymeric material existing in the form of either of gelatinous water dispersion or a powder. Thermal aging of chitosan and chitosan-diclofenac sodium mixture have been studied using low-frequency dielectric measurements. The aging was carried out by annealing in ambient atmosphere in the temperature range between 25 degrees C and 100 degrees C. The dielectric losses in the aged samples proved to decrease by about one order of magnitude. The additional measurements of molecular weight distribution and infrared absorption were also carried out for better understanding of nature of the ageing phenomena. Partial evacuation of water, cross-linking and improvement of structural order may be suggested to be a result of thermal aging of the investigated materials.

  20. Analysis of Direct Samples of Early Solar System Aqueous Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolensky, Michael E.; Bodnar, R J.; Fedele, L.; Yurimoto,H.; Itoh, S.; Fries, M.; Steele, A.

    2012-01-01

    Over the past three decades we have become increasingly aware of the fundamental importance of water, and aqueous alteration, on primitive solar-system bodies. Some carbonaceous and ordinary chondrites have been altered by interactions with liquid water within the first 10 million years after formation of their parent asteroids. Millimeter to centimeter-sized aggregates of purple halite containing aqueous fluid inclusions were found in the matrix of two freshly-fallen brecciated H chondrite falls, Monahans (1998, hereafter simply "Monahans") (H5) and Zag (H3-6) (Zolensky et al., 1999; Whitby et al., 2000; Bogard et al., 2001) In order to understand origin and evolution of the aqueous fluids inside these inclusions we much measure the actual fluid composition, and also learn the O and H isotopic composition of the water. It has taken a decade for laboratory analytical techniques to catch up to these particular nanomole-sized aqueous samples. We have recently been successful in (1) measuring the isotopic composition of H and O in the water in a few fluid inclusions from the Zag and Monahans halite, (2) mineralogical characterization of the solid mineral phases associated with the aqueous fluids within the halite, and (3) the first minor element analyses of the fluid itself. A Cameca ims-1270 equipped with a cryo-sample-stage of Hokkaido University was specially prepared for the O and H isotopic measurements. The cryo-sample-stage (Techno. I. S. Corp.) was cooled down to c.a. -190 C using liquid nitrogen at which the aqueous fluid in inclusions was frozen. We excavated the salt crystal surfaces to expose the frozen fluids using a 15 keV Cs+ beam and measured negative secondary ions. The secondary ions from deep craters of approximately 10 m in depth emitted stably but the intensities changed gradually during measurement cycles because of shifting states of charge compensation, resulting in rather poor reproducibility of multiple measurements of standard fluid

  1. Effectiveness of Chlorinated Water, Sodium Hypochlorite, Sodium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluated the efficacy of chlorinated water, sodium hypochlorite solution, sodium chloride solution and sterile distilled water in eliminating pathogenic bacteria on the surfaces of raw vegetables. Lettuce vegetables were dipped in different concentrations of chlorinated water, sodium hypochlorite solution, sodium ...

  2. The Safeguards analysis applied to the RRP. Automatic sampling authentication system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Sawako; Nakashima, Shinichi; Iwamoto, Tomonori

    2004-01-01

    The sampling for analysis from vessels and columns at the Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant (RRP) is performed mostly by the automatic sampling system. The safeguards sample for the verification also will be taken using these sampling systems and transfer to the OSL though the pneumatic transfer network owned and controlled by operator. In order to maintaining sample integrity and continuity of knowledge (CoK) for throughout the sample processing. It is essential to develop and establish the authentication measures for the automatic sampling system including transfer network. We have developed the Automatic Sampling Authentication System (ASAS) under consultation by IAEA. This paper describes structure, function and concept of ASAS. (author)

  3. High Pressure Atmospheric Sampling Inlet System for Venus or the Gas Giants, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Thorleaf Research, Inc. proposes to develop a miniaturized high pressure atmospheric sampling inlet system for sample acquisition in extreme planetary environments,...

  4. Using heterologous expression systems to characterize potassium and sodium transport activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Alonso; Benito, Begoña; Cagnac, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    The expression of plant transporters in simple well-characterized cell systems is an irreplaceable technique for gaining insights into the kinetic and energetic features of plant transporters. Among all the available expression systems, yeast cells offer the highest simplicity and have the capacity to mimic the in vivo properties of plant transporters. Here, we describe the use of yeast mutants to express K(+) and Na(+) plant transporters and discuss some experimental problems that can produce misleading results.

  5. Sodium butyrate suppresses angiotensin II-induced hypertension by inhibition of renal (pro)renin receptor and intrarenal renin-angiotensin system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Zhu, Qing; Lu, Aihua; Liu, Xiaofen; Zhang, Linlin; Xu, Chuanming; Liu, Xiyang; Li, Haobo; Yang, Tianxin

    2017-09-01

    Butyrate, a short-chain fatty acid, is the end product of the fermentation of complex carbohydrates by the gut microbiota. Recently, sodium butyrate (NaBu) has been found to play a protective role in a number of chronic diseases. However, it is still unclear whether NaBu has a therapeutic potential in hypertension. The present study was aimed to investigate the role of NaBu in angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced hypertension and to further explore the underlying mechanism. Ang II was infused into uninephrectomized Sprague-Dawley rats with or without intramedullary infusion of NaBu for 14 days. Mean arterial blood pressure was recorded by the telemetry system. Renal tissues, serum samples, and 24-h urine samples were collected to examine renal injury and the regulation of the (pro)renin receptor (PRR) and renin. Intramedullary infusion of NaBu in Sprague-Dawley rats lowered the Ang II-induced mean arterial pressure from 129 ± 6 mmHg to 108 ± 4 mmHg (P renal injury, including urinary albumin, glomerulosclerosis, and renal fibrosis, as well as the expression of inflammatory mediators tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin 6. The renal expression of PRR, angiotensinogen, angiotensin I-converting enzyme and the urinary excretion of soluble PRR, renin, and angiotensinogen were all increased by Ang II infusion but decreased by NaBu treatment. In cultured innermedullary collecting duct cells, NaBu treatment attenuated Ang II-induced expression of PRR and renin. These results demonstrate that NaBu exerts an antihypertensive action, likely by suppressing the PRR-mediated intrarenal renin-angiotensin system.

  6. Sodium borohydride hydrogen generator using Co–P/Ni foam catalysts for 200 W proton exchange membrane fuel cell system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Taek Hyun; Gang, Byeong Gyu; Kim, Hyuntak; Kwon, Sejin

    2015-01-01

    The response characteristics of electroless-deposited Co–P/Ni foam catalysts for sodium borohydride hydrolysis were investigated. The effect of nickel foam geometry on the properties of the catalysts was evaluated. As the PPI (pores per inch) of the nickel foam increased, the hydrogen generation rate per gram of the deposited catalyst increased due to an increase in surface area. The response characteristics of various catalysts were compared under real operating conditions. When a thin nickel foam with high PPI was used, the response characteristics of the catalyst improved due to an increase in the amount of the deposited catalyst and surface area. Finally, a 200 W PEMFC (proton exchange membrane fuel cell) system using electroless-deposited Co–P/Ni foam (110 PPI) catalyst was investigated. The response time to reach a hydrogen generation rate sufficient for a 200 W PEMFC was 71 s, and the energy density of a 200 W fuel cell system for producing 600 Wh was 252.1 Wh/kg. A fuel cell system using Co–P/Ni foam catalysts can be widely used as a power source for mobile applications due to fast response characteristics and high energy density. - Highlights: • Response characteristics of Co–P/Ni foam catalysts are investigated. • Catalytic activity is improved with increase in PPI (pores per inch) of Ni foam. • Co–P/Ni foam (110 PPI) catalyst has improved response characteristics. • The energy density of a 200 W PEMFC system for producing 600 Wh is 252.1 Wh/kg. • Co–P/Ni foam (110 PPI) catalyst is suitable for fuel cell system.

  7. Test plan for the Sample Transfer Canister system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flanagan, B.D.

    1998-01-01

    The Sample Transfer Canister will be used by the Waste Receiving and Processing Facility (WRAP) for the transport of small quantity liquid samples that meet the definition of a limited quantity radioactive material, and may also be corrosive and/or flammable. These samples will be packaged and shipped in accordance with the US Department of Transportation (DOT) regulation 49 CFR 173.4, ''Exceptions for small quantities.'' The Sample Transfer Canister is of a ''French Can'' design, intended to be mated with a glove box for loading/unloading. Transport will typically take place north of the Wye Barricade between WRAP and the 222-S Laboratory. The Sample Transfer Canister will be shipped in an insulated ice chest, but the ice chest will not be a part of the small quantity package during prototype testing

  8. Design development of robotic system for on line sampling in fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balasubramanian, G.R.; Venugopal, P.R.; Padmashali, G.K.

    1990-01-01

    This presentation describes the design and developmental work that is being carried out for the design of an automated sampling system for fast reactor fuel reprocessing plants. The plant proposes to use integrated sampling system. The sample is taken across regular process streams from any intermediate hold up pot. A robot system is planned to take the sample from the sample pot, transfer it to the sample bottle, cap the bottle and transfer the bottle to a pneumatic conveying station. The system covers a large number of sample pots. Alternate automated systems are also examined (1). (author). 4 refs., 2 figs

  9. Transport of radioactive corrosion products in primary system of sodium-cooled fast breeder reactor 'MONJU'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matuo, Youichirou; Hasegawa, Masanori; Maegawa, Yoshiharu; Miyahara, Shinya

    2011-01-01

    Radioactive corrosion products (CP) are primary cause of personal radiation exposure during maintenance work at FBR plants with no breached fuel. The PSYCHE code has been developed based on the Solution-Precipitation model for analysis of CP transfer behavior. We predicted and analyzed the CP solution and precipitation behavior of MONJU to evaluate the applicability of the PSYCHE code to MONJU, using the parameters verified in the calculations for JOYO. From the calculation result pertaining to the MONJU system, distribution of 54 Mn deposited in the primary cooling system over 20 years of operation is predicted to be approximately 7 times larger than that of 60 Co. In particular, predictions show a notable tendency for 54 Mn precipitation to be distributed in the primary pump and cold-leg. The calculated distribution of 54 Mn and 60 Co in the primary cooling system of MONJU agreed with tendencies of measured distribution of JOYO. (author)

  10. Performance evaluation of communication systems via importance sampling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Remondo Bueno, D.

    2000-01-01

    In the design and development of telecommunication systems, the preparation of experiments can be made more effective by predicting the system performance and its dependence on the different system parameters. This can be done by modeling the system and using performance evaluation methods. This

  11. Sodium conducting polymer electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skaarup, S.; West, K. (eds.)

    1989-04-01

    This section deals with the aspects of ionic conduction in general as well as specific experimental results obtained for sodium systems. The conductivity as a function of temperature and oxygen/metal ratio are given for the systems NaI, NaCF/sub 3/SO/sub 3/ and NaClO/sub 4/ plus polyethylene oxide. Attempts have been made to produce mixed phase solid electrolytes analogous to the lithium systems that have worked well. These consist of mixtures of polymer and a solid electrolyte. The addition of both nasicon and sodium beta alumina unexpectedly decreases the ionic conductivity in contrast to the lithium systems. Addition of the nonconducting silica AEROSIL in order to increase the internal surface area has the effect of retarding the phase transition at 60 deg. C, but does not enhance the conductivity. (author) 23 refs.

  12. SODIUM ABSORPTION SYSTEMS TOWARD SN Ia 2014J ORIGINATE ON INTERSTELLAR SCALES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeda, K.; Nogami, D. [Department of Astronomy, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa-Oiwake-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Tajitsu, A. [Subaru Telescope, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 650 North A’ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Kawabata, K. S. [Hiroshima Astrophysical Science Center, Hiroshima University, Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Foley, R. J. [Astronomy Department, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1002 W. Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Honda, S.; Arai, A. [Nishi-Harima Astronomical Observatory, Center for Astronomy, University of Hyogo, 407-2, Nishigaichi, Sayo-cho, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5313 (Japan); Moritani, Y.; Ishigaki, M.; Nomoto, K.; Schramm, M. [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Tanaka, M.; Aoki, W. [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Hashimoto, O. [Gunma Astronomical Observatory, Takayama, Gunma 377-0702 (Japan); Simon, J. D. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, 813 Santa Barbara St, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Phillips, M. M. [Carnegie Observatories, Las Campanas Observatory, Casilla 601, La Serena (Chile); Yamanaka, M. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Konan University, Okamoto, Kobe, Hyogo 658-8501 (Japan); Milisavljevic, D.; Soderberg, A. M. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Mazzali, P. A., E-mail: keiichi.maeda@kusastro.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool L3 5RF (United Kingdom); and others

    2016-01-10

    Na i D absorbing systems toward Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) have been intensively studied over the last decade with the aim of finding circumstellar material (CSM), which is an indirect probe of the progenitor system. However, it is difficult to deconvolve CSM components from non-variable, and often dominant, components created by interstellar material (ISM). We present a series of high-resolution spectra of SN Ia 2014J from before maximum brightness to ≳250 days after maximum brightness. The late-time spectrum provides unique information for determining the origin of the Na i D absorption systems. The deep late-time observation allows us to probe the environment around the SN at a large scale, extending to ≳40 pc. We find that a spectrum of diffuse light in the vicinity, but not directly in the line of sight, of the SN has absorbing systems nearly identical to those obtained for the “pure” SN line of sight. Therefore, basically all Na i D systems seen toward SN 2014J must originate from foreground material that extends to at least ∼40 pc in projection and none at the CSM scale. A fluctuation in the column densities at a scale of ∼20 pc is also identified. After subtracting the diffuse, “background” spectrum, the late-time Na i D profile along the SN line of sight is consistent with profiles near maximum brightness. The lack of variability on a ∼1 year timescale is consistent with the ISM interpretation for the gas.

  13. 291-B-1 stack monitoring and sampling system annual system assessment report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ridge, T.M.

    1994-01-01

    The B Plant 291-B-1 main stack exhausts gaseous effluents to the atmosphere from the 221-B Building canyon and cells, the No. 1 Vessel Ventilation System (VVS1), the 212-B Cask Station cell ventilation system, and, to a limited capacity, the 224-B Building. VVS1 collects offgases from various process tanks in 221-B Building, while the 224-B system maintains a negative pressure in out-of-service, sealed process tanks. B Plant Administration Manual, WHC-CM-7-5, Section 5.30 requires an annual system assessment to evaluate and report the present condition of the sampling and monitoring system associated with Stack 291-B-1 (System Number B977A) at B Plant. The system is functional and performing satisfactorily

  14. An experience with in-service fabrication and inspection of austenitic stainless steel piping in high temperature sodium system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravi, S., E-mail: sravi@igcar.gov.in; Laha, K.; Sakthy, S.; Mathew, M.D.; Bhaduri, A.K.

    2015-04-01

    Highlights: • Procedure for changing 304L SS pipe to 316L SS in sodium loop has been established. • Hot leg made of 304L SS was isolated from existing cold leg made of 316LN SS. • Innovative welding was used in joining the new 316L SS pipe with existing 316LN SS. • The old components of 304L SS piping have been integrated with the new piping. - Abstract: A creep testing facility along with dynamic sodium loop was installed at Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam, India to assess the creep behavior of fast reactor structural materials in flowing sodium. Type 304L austenitic stainless steel was used in the low cross section piping of hot-leg whereas 316LN austenitic stainless steel in the high cross section cold-leg of the sodium loop. The intended service life of the sodium loop was 10 years. The loop has performed successfully in the stipulated time period. To enhance its life time, it has been decided to replace the 304L piping with 316L piping in the hot-leg. There were more than 300 welding joints involved in the integration of cold-leg with the new 316L hot-leg. Continuous argon gas flow was maintained in the loop during welding to avoid contamination of sodium residue with air. Several innovative welding procedures have been adopted for joining the new hot-leg with the existing cold-leg in the presence of sodium residue adopting TIG welding technique. The joints were inspected for 100% X-ray radiography and qualified by performing tensile tests. The components used in the discarded hot-leg were retrieved, cleaned and integrated in the renovated loop. A method of cleaning component of sodium residue has been established. This paper highlights the in-service fabrication and inspection of the renovation.

  15. Toxicology of plutonium-sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hackett, P.L.

    1982-01-01

    Scenarios for liquid-metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) accidents predict the loss of sodium coolant, with subsequent core melt-down and release of mixed sodium-fuel aerosols [Na-(PuU)O 2 ] into the environment. Studies in other laboratories demonstrated that mixed aerosols of Na 2 O-PuO 2 were more readily transported from the lung than PuO 2 aerosols. We therefore devised a continuous aerosol-generating system for animal exposures in which laser-generated fuel aerosols were swept through sodium vapor to form sodium-fuel aerosols. These fuel and sodium-fuel aerosols were compared with regard to their physicochemical properties and their biological behavior following inhalation studies in rats and dogs

  16. Water simulation of sodium reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grewal, S.S.; Gluekler, E.L.

    1981-01-01

    The thermal hydraulic simulation of a large sodium reactor by a scaled water model is examined. The Richardson Number, friction coefficient and the Peclet Number can be closely matched with the water system at full power and the similarity is retained for buoyancy driven flows. The simulation of thermal-hydraulic conditions in a reactor vessel provided by a scaled water experiment is better than that by a scaled sodium test. Results from a correctly scaled water test can be tentatively extrapolated to a full size sodium system

  17. Overflow type sodium sampler for FBTR circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muralidaran, P.; Ganesan, V.; Chandran, K.; Periaswami, G.

    1996-01-01

    Obtaining a representative sample is crucial for getting reliable results in sodium analysis. Sampling liquid sodium reliability is complicated since impurities segregate while cooling. Selective sorption of certain elements calls for use of different crucible materials for various sodium impurities. Sampling methods currently in use such as flow through sampling and dip sampling are not the proper methods as they can not take care of the above problems. An overflow type sampler where the entire sample contained in a crucible can be used for analysis thus obviating problems due to segregation has been developed for use in Fast Breeder Test Reactor (FBTR). This report describes the construction and operation of this sampler. (author)

  18. Innovation on Energy Power Technology (7)Development and Practical Application of Sodium-Sulfur Battery for Electric Energy Storage System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachi, Hideki

    Sodium-Sulfur battery (NAS battery), which has more than 3 times of energy density compared with the conventional lead-acid battery and can be compactly established, has a great installation effects as a distributed energy storage system in the urban area which consumes big electric power. For the power company, NAS battery contributes to the load leveling, the supply capability up at the peak period, the efficient operation of the electric power equipment and the reduction of the capital expenditure. And for the customer, it is possible to enjoy the reduction of the electricity charges by utilizing nighttime electric power and the securing of a security. The contribution to the highly sophisticated information society where the higher electric power quality is desired, mainly office buildings and factories by the progress of IT, is very big. Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) developed the elementary technology of NAS battery from 1984 and ended the development of practical battery which has long-term durability and the safety and the performance verification of the megawatt scale. Finally TEPCO accomplished the practical application and commercialization of the stationary energy storage technology by NAS battery. In this paper, we introduces about conquered problems until practical application and commercialization.

  19. Fluorometric determination of proteins using the terbium (III)-2-thenoyltrifluoroacetone-sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate-protein system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia Zhen [Key Laboratory of Colloid and Interface Chemistry of Education Ministry, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Department of Chemistry, Dezhou University, Dezhou 253023 (China); Yang Jinghe [Key Laboratory of Colloid and Interface Chemistry of Education Ministry, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China)]. E-mail: yjh@sdu.edu.cn; Wu Xia [Key Laboratory of Colloid and Interface Chemistry of Education Ministry, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Wang Fei [Key Laboratory of Colloid and Interface Chemistry of Education Ministry, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Guo Changying [Key Laboratory of Colloid and Interface Chemistry of Education Ministry, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Liu Shufang [Key Laboratory of Colloid and Interface Chemistry of Education Ministry, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China)

    2006-12-15

    It is found that in hexamethylene tetramine (HMTA)-HCl buffer of pH=8.00, proteins can enhance the fluorescence of terbium (III) (Tb{sup 3+})-2-thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTA)-sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) system. Based on this, a sensitive method for the determination of proteins is proposed. The experiments indicate that under the optimum conditions, the enhanced fluorescence intensity is in proportion to the concentration of proteins in the range of 4.0x10{sup -9}-7.5x10{sup -6}g/mL for bovine serum albumin (BSA), 5.0x10{sup -9}-1.5x10{sup -5}g/mL for human serum albumin (HSA), 1.0x10{sup -8}-7.5x10{sup -6}g/mL for egg albumin (EA). Their detection limits (S/N=3) are 0.5, 0.8 and 2.0ng/mL, respectively. The interaction mechanism is also studied.

  20. Study on MAs transmutation of accelerator-driven system sodium-cooled fast reactor loaded with metallic fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Song; Yang Yongwei

    2007-01-01

    Through the analysis of the effect of heavy metal actinides on the effective multiplication constant (k eff ) of the core in accelerator-driven system (ADS) sodium-cooled fast reactor loaded with metallic fuel, we gave the method for determining fuel components. the characteristics of minor actinides (MAs) transmutation was analyzed in detail. 3D burn-up code COUPLE, which couples MCNP4c3 and ORIGEN2, was applied to the neutron simulation and burn up calculation. The results of optimized scheme shows that adjusting the proportion of 239 Pu and maintaining the value during the burn-up cycle is an efficient method of designing k eff and keeping stable during the burn-up cycle. Spallation neutrons lead to the neutron spectrum harder at inner core than that at outer core. It is in favor of improving MA's fission cross sections and the capture-to-fission ratio. The total MAs transmutation support ratio 8.3 achieves excellent transmutation effect. For higher flux at inner core leads to obvious differences on transmutation efficiency,only disposing MAs at inner core is in favor of decreasing the loading mass and improving MAs transmutation effect. (authors)

  1. Sodium hydroxide injection passivation work for the reactor water clean-up system in a new ABWR plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, Tung-Jen; Lu, Ju-Huang

    2012-09-01

    Several studies have identified that Co-58 and Co-60 as the primary source of radiation build up on out-of-core components in new BWR plants. The deposition rate of Co on stainless steel and carbon steel is shown to be controlled mainly by the thickness of oxide films and its morphology formed through pretreatment. The passivation treatment was implemented accordingly at Lungmen unit 1 in an ABWR plant in September 2010. It is determined that the passivation conditions should be maintained at the temperature of 180∼230 deg. C, pH of 8.0∼8.5 and dissolved oxygen content over 400 ppb. The films would provide effective protection against radioactive deposition. The application of the pre-filming process on piping before the pre-operation is done during the flow induced vibration test (FIV) period. The protectiveness of stable magnetite can be increased by the pH control under the specific condition. The pre-filming control process and evaluation of passivation effectiveness is discussed in detail based on the surface analysis of the passivated specimens. Many efforts have been devoted to sodium hydroxide injection method for pH control of the system through the filter demineralizer under smooth operation. A comparison of test specimens on the properties of oxide film formed between laboratory and in-plant tests through alkaline treatment are also shown in this report. (authors)

  2. Investigation of Fracturing and Adhesion Behavior of Hydroxapatite Coating Formed by Aminoacetic Acid-Sodium Aminoacetate Buffer Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İbrahim Aydın

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Biomaterials utilized in implantation can be categorized into 4 main categories, as ceramics, polymers, metals and composites. Ceramic-based biomaterials are opted for, particularly in the field of orthopedics. These materials, also named as bioceramics, are usually employed by coating them onto the base material, inasmuch as they are far from the mechanical values of bone. In this study, a hydroxyapatite coating that is fully compatible with human blood plasma was applied on Ti6Al4V alloy through a biomimetic technique using aminoacetic acid-sodium aminoacetate buffer system for the first time in the literature, and examinations related thereto were carried out. The surface of the base material Ti6Al4V alloy was activated with various chemicals. Subsequent to activating the surface, a coating process whereby the base material was kept in simulated body fluid for 24, 48, 72, 96 h was carried out. Ultimate microhardness (indentation tests were performed to determine the average indentation depths in maximum load, vickers hardness and elasticity modulus of the coatings obtained by using the biomimetic method, while scratch tests were performed to measure the surface bonding strengths of the coating layers. Furthermore, the fracture toughness values of the coating were calculated. The results obtained through the study are evaluated and discussed.

  3. Method of processing waste sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimoyashiki, Shigehiro; Takahashi, Kazuo.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To enable safety store of waste sodium in the form of intermetallic compounds. Method: Waste sodium used in a reactor is mixed with molten metal under an inert gas atmosphere and resulted intermetallic compounds are stored in a closely sealed container to enable quasi-permanent safety store as inert compound. Used waste sodium particularly, waste sodium in the primary system containing radioactive substances is charged in a waste sodium melting tank having a heater on the side, the tank is evacuated by a vacuum pump and then sealed with gaseous argon supplied from a gaseous argon tank, and waste sodium is melted under heating. The temperature and the amount of the liquid are measured by a thermometer and a level meter respectively. While on the other hand, molten metal such as Sn, Pb and Zn having melting point above 300 0 C are charged in a metal melting tank and heated by a heater. The molten sodium and the molten metals are charged into a mixing tank and agitated to mix by an induction type agitator. Sodium vapors in the tank are collected by traps. The air in the tank is replaced with gaseous argon. The molten mixture is closely sealed in a drum can and cooled to solidify for safety storage. (Seki, T.)

  4. Interactions Between Flavonoid-Rich Extracts and Sodium Caseinate Modulate Protein Functionality and Flavonoid Bioaccessibility in Model Food Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elegbede, Jennifer L; Li, Min; Jones, Owen G; Campanella, Osvaldo H; Ferruzzi, Mario G

    2018-05-01

    With growing interest in formulating new food products with added protein and flavonoid-rich ingredients for health benefits, direct interactions between these ingredient classes becomes critical in so much as they may impact protein functionality, product quality, and flavonoids bioavailability. In this study, sodium caseinate (SCN)-based model products (foams and emulsions) were formulated with grape seed extract (GSE, rich in galloylated flavonoids) and green tea extract (GTE, rich in nongalloylated flavonoids), respectively, to assess changes in functional properties of SCN and impacts on flavonoid bioaccessibility. Experiments with pure flavonoids suggested that galloylated flavonoids reduced air-water interfacial tension of 0.01% SCN dispersions more significantly than nongalloylated flavonoids at high concentrations (>50 μg/mL). This observation was supported by changes in stability of 5% SCN foam, which showed that foam stability was increased at high levels of GSE (≥50 μg/mL, P < 0.05) but was not affected by GTE. However, flavonoid extracts had modest effects on SCN emulsion. In addition, galloylated flavonoids had higher bioaccessibility in both SCN foam and emulsion. These results suggest that SCN-flavonoid binding interactions can modulate protein functionality leading to difference in performance and flavonoid bioaccessibility of protein-based products. As information on the beneficial health effects of flavonoids expands, it is likely that usage of these ingredients in consumer foods will increase. However, the necessary levels to provide such benefits may exceed those that begin to impact functionality of the macronutrients such as proteins. Flavonoid inclusion within protein matrices may modulate protein functionality in a food system and modify critical consumer traits or delivery of these beneficial plant-derived components. The product matrices utilized in this study offer relevant model systems to evaluate how fortification with flavonoid

  5. C-Scan Performance Test of Under-Sodium ultrasonic Waveguide Sensor in Sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joo, Young Sang; Bae, Jin Ho; Kim, Jong Bum

    2011-01-01

    Reactor core and in-vessel structures of a sodium-cooled fast (SFR) are submerged in opaque liquid sodium in the reactor vessel. The ultrasonic inspection techniques should be applied for observing the in-vessel structures under hot liquid sodium. Ultrasonic sensors such as immersion sensors and rod-type waveguide sensors have developed in order to apply under-sodium viewing of the in-vessel structures of SFR. Recently the novel plate-type ultrasonic waveguide sensor has been developed for the versatile application of under-sodium viewing in SFR. In previous studies, the ultrasonic waveguide sensor module was designed and manufactured, and the feasibility study of the ultrasonic waveguide sensor was performed. To improve the performance of the ultrasonic waveguide sensor in the under-sodium application, a new concept of ultrasonic waveguide sensors with a Be coated SS304 plate is suggested for the effective generation of a leaky wave in liquid sodium and the non-dispersive propagation of A 0 -mode Lamb wave in an ultrasonic waveguide sensor. In this study, the C-scan performance of the under-sodium ultrasonic waveguide sensor in sodium has been investigated by the experimental test in sodium. The under-sodium ultrasonic waveguide sensor and the sodium test facility with a glove box system and a sodium tank are designed and manufactured to carry out the performance test of under-sodium ultrasonic waveguide sensor in sodium environment condition

  6. Development of a sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis reference method for the analysis and identification of fish species in raw and heat-processed samples : A collaborative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pineiro, C.; Barros-Velazquez, J.; Perez-Martin, R.I.

    1999-01-01

    A collaborative study was carried out in seven European labs with the aim of achieving a sodium dodecyl sulfate- polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) standard operation procedure to identify fish species in raw and cooked samples. Urea and SDS-containing solutions were evaluated...... silver stained, yielded good results and afforded higher reproducibility, thus allowing a better matching of results among the laboratories participating in this collaborative study. Under the optimized technical conditions described above, all the fish species tested, either raw and cooked, yielded...... seemed not to be influenced so much by the state of the sample (raw, cooked at 60 degrees C, cooked at 85 degrees C). Desalting, ultrafiltration or treatment with RNase/DNase did not improve the discriminatory power of the protein patterns. Commercial homogeneous 15% ExcelGels, especially when they were...

  7. The Sample Handling System for the Mars Icebreaker Life Mission: from Dirt to Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, Arwen; Thompson, Sarah J.; McKay, Christopher P.; Stoker, Carol R.; Zacny, Kris; Paulsen, Gale; Mellerowicz, Bolek; Glass, Brian J.; Wilson, David; Bonaccorsi, Rosalba; hide

    2013-01-01

    The Mars icebreaker life mission will search for subsurface life on mars. It consists of three payload elements: a drill to retrieve soil samples from approx. 1 meter below the surface, a robotic sample handling system to deliver the sample from the drill to the instruments, and the instruments themselves. This paper will discuss the robotic sample handling system.

  8. The development of neutron activation, sample transportation and γ-ray counting routine system for numbers of geological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata Shin-nosuke; Tanaka, Tsuyoshi; Minami, Masayo

    2001-01-01

    A new gamma-ray counting and data processing system for non-destructive neutron activation analysis has been set up in Radioisotope Center in Nagoya University. The system carry out gamma-ray counting, sample change and data processing automatically, and is able to keep us away from parts of complicated operations in INAA. In this study, we have arranged simple analytical procedure that makes practical works easier than previous. The concrete flow is described from the reparation of powder rock samples to gamma-ray counting and data processing by the new INAA system. Then it is run over that the analyses used two Geological Survey of Japan rock reference samples JB-1a and JG-1a in order to evaluate how the new analytical procedure give any speediness and accuracy for analyses of geological materials. Two United States Geological Survey reference samples BCR-1 and G-2 used as the standard respectively. Twenty two elements for JB-1a and 25 elements for JG-1a were analyzed, the uncertainty are <5% for Na, Sc, Fe, Co, La, Ce, Sm, Eu, Yb, Lu, Hf, Ta and Th, and of <10% for Cr, Zn, Cs, Ba, Nd, Tb and U. This system will enable us to analyze more than 1500 geologic samples per year. (author)

  9. Formation of mixed hydroxides in the thorium chloride-iron chloride-sodium hydroxide system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krivokhatskij, A.S.; Prokudina, A.F.; Sapozhnikova, T.V.

    1976-01-01

    The process of formation of mixed hydroxides in the system thorium chloride-iron chloride-NaOH was studied at commensurate concentrations of Th and Fe in solution (1:1 and 1:10 mole fractions, respectively) with ionic strength 0.3, 2.1, and 4.1, created with the electrolyte NaCl, at room temperature 22+-1degC. By the methods of chemical, potentiometric, thermographic, and IR-spectrometric analyses, it was shown that all the synthesized precipitates are mechanical mixtures of two phases - thorium hydroxide and iron hydroxide - and not a new hydrated compound. The formal solubility of the precipitates of mixed hydroxides was determined. It was shown that the numerical value of the formal solubility depends on the conditions of formation and age of the precipitates

  10. Luminol/CdTe quantum dots/sodium periodate system in conjunction with response-surface methodology for chemiluminometric determination of some tetracyclines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imani-Nabiyyi, Amin; Sorouraddin, Mohammad H., E-mail: soruraddin@tabrizu.ac.ir; Amjadi, Mohammad; Naseri, Abdolhossein

    2014-07-01

    A simple and sensitive chemiluminometric method is described for the determination of tetracycline (TC) and oxytetracycline (OTC) in their hydrochloride form on the basis of drastic enhancement of the chemiluminescence (CL) from the luminol/L-cysteine-capped CdTe quantum dots (QDs)/sodium periodate system, caused by the presence of TC and OTC hydrochloride. The method uses pH value at which tetracyclines have proven to be stable. Response surface methodology was exploited for optimizing the experimental conditions. The synthesized QDs were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV–vis spectroscopy, and photoluminescence spectroscopy. A possible mechanism of the CL system was proposed based on the CL spectra and the effect of some specific radical-scavengers on the system. Under the optimum conditions linear dynamic ranges of 5.0×10{sup −8}–6.0×10{sup −6} mol L{sup −1} and 5.0×10{sup −8}–8.0×10{sup −6} mol L{sup −1} were observed for TC and OTC, respectively with corresponding detection limits of 2.2×10{sup −8} mol L{sup −1} and 3.0×10{sup −8} mol L{sup −1}. The precision (RSD%) for five replicate determinations of TC and OTC were respectively no more than 3.4% and 4.0%. The method was satisfactorily applied to the determination of TC.HCl and OTC.HCl in water samples, pharmaceutical formulations, and honey. - Highlights: • A simple, rapid, and sensitive method for determination of some tetracyclines. • Enhancement of CL of luminol/Cys-capped CdTe QDs/NaIO{sub 4} with TC.HCl and OTC.HCl. • No need to chemical, photochemical, or any peculiar pretreatment of the samples. • Measuring the analytes in conditions at which they are stable. • Capable of measuring TCs in pharmaceutical, water, and honey samples.

  11. Sodium in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diet - sodium (salt); Hyponatremia - sodium in diet; Hypernatremia - sodium in diet; Heart failure - sodium in diet ... Too much sodium in the diet may lead to: High blood pressure in some people A serious buildup of fluid in people with heart failure , cirrhosis of ...

  12. Formulation in vitro and in vivo evaluation of SRMS-based heterolipid-templated homolipid delivery system for diclofenac sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumuni, Momoh; Attama, A A; Kunle, O O

    2016-01-01

    The sole objective of this work was to design successful dosage oral forms of diclofenac sodium (DiNa)-loaded solid lipid microparticles (SLM) based on solidified reverse micellar solution (SRMS). Hot homogenization technique was employed to prepare DicNa SLM using a mixture goat fat and Phospholipon® 90 G as lipid matrix and Tween®-80 as mobile surfactant. Characterization based on percentage yield, morphology, particle size, zeta potential, percentage encapsulation, pH and stability of SLMs were investigated. Anti-inflammatory, gastrointestinal tract (GIT) sparing effect and pharmacokinetics were carried out in rat model after oral administration. Results showed that the SLMs were spherical and smooth. The optimized formulation (SLM-4) had particle size of 79.40 ± 0.31 µm, polydispersity index of 0.633 ± 0.190, zeta potential of -63.20 ± 0.12 mV and encapsulation efficiency of 91.2 ± 0.1% with good stability after 8 months of storage. The DicNa SLM had sustained release effect with good anti-inflammatory activity. Higher and prolonged plasma DicNa concentration was shown by the SLM-4 compared to pure drug and a conventional sample. These studies demonstrate that DicNa-loaded SLM based on SRMS could be a promising oral formulation for enhanced bioavailability, pharmacologic activity and gastrointestinal sparing effect of the NSAID, DicNa.

  13. 40 CFR 86.509-90 - Exhaust gas sampling system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... have an accuracy and precision of ±1 °C (1.8 °F). (3) The pressure gauges shall have an accuracy and... of the test by more than ±5 percent. (The volumetric sample flow rate shall be varied inversely with...

  14. Fiber sample presentation system for spectrophotometer cotton fiber color measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Uster® High Volume Instrument (HVI) is used to class U.S. cotton for fiber color, yielding the industry accepted, cotton-specific color parameters Rd and +b. The HVI examines a 9 square inch fiber sample, and it is also used to test large AMS standard cotton “biscuits” or rectangles. Much inte...

  15. The potential reproductive, neurobehavioral and systemic effects of soluble sodium tungstate exposure in Sprague-Dawley rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McInturf, S.M.; Bekkedal, M.Y.V.; Wilfong, E.; Arfsten, D.; Chapman, G.; Gunasekar, P.G.

    2011-01-01

    The debate on tungsten (W) is fostered by its continuous usage in military munitions. Reports demonstrate W solubilizes in soil and can migrate into drinking water supplies and, therefore, is a potential health risk to humans. This study evaluated the reproductive, systemic and neurobehavioral effects of sodium tungstate (NaW) in rats following 70 days of daily pre-and postnatal exposure via oral gavage to 5, 62.5 and 125 mg/kg/day of NaW through mating, gestation and weaning (PND 0-20). Daily administration of NaW produced no overt evidence of toxicity and had no apparent effect on mating success or offspring physical development. Distress vocalizations were elevated in F 1 offspring from the high dose group, whereas righting reflex showed unexpected sex differences where males demonstrated faster righting than females; however, the effects were not dose-dependent. Locomotor activity was affected in both low and high-dose groups of F 1 females. Low-dose group showed increased distance traveled, more time in ambulatory movements and less time in stereotypic behavior than controls or high dose animals. The high-dose group had more time in stereotypical movements than controls, and less time resting than controls and the lowest exposure group. Maternal retrieval was not affected by NaW exposure. Tungsten analysis showed a systemic distribution of NaW in both parents and offspring, with preferential uptake within the immune organs, including the femur, spleen and thymus. Histopathological evidence suggested no severe chronic injury or loss of function in these organs. However, the heart showed histological lesions, histiocytic inflammation from minimal to mild with cardiomyocyte degeneration and necrosis in several P 0 animals of 125 mg NaW dose group. The result of this study suggests that pre and postnatal exposure to NaW may produce subtle neurobehavioral effects in offspring related to motor activity and emotionality.

  16. Sodium ordering and the control of magnetism in sodium cobaltate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, D.J.P.; Roger, M.; Tennant, D.A.; Goff, J.P.; Gutmann, M.J.; Hoffmann, J.-U.; Prabhakaran, D.; Shannon, N.; Lake, B.; Deen, P.P.

    2007-01-01

    The long-range three-dimensional ordering of Na + ions was studied in a sample of composition Na 0.75 CoO 2 using single-crystal neutron diffraction. Large-scale numerical simulations reveal the ordering principle for this system, the formation of multi-vacancy charged droplets then order long range, and the structure factors from these defect clusters are in good agreement with the observed neutron diffraction intensities. The electrostatic potential is found to be the dominant factor in determining the sodium ordering and its associated distortion field. The superstructures induce a periodic potential in the CoO 2 , giving potential wells that are larger than the single-particle hopping frequency and so able to localize holes. The results readily explain many of the observed electrical and magnetic properties, including the three dimensionality of the magnetic excitations

  17. Ferroelectric and octahedral tilt twin disorder and the lead-free piezoelectric, sodium potassium niobate system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiemer, Jason; Withers, Ray L.; Liu, Yun; Yi, Zhiguo

    2012-01-01

    Using electron diffraction, trends in the local structural behaviour of the K x Na 1−x NbO 3 (KNN x) ‘solid solution’ system are investigated and interpreted using an order/disorder based theoretical framework. At room temperature, electron diffraction shows a single plane of transverse polarised, diffuse intensity perpendicular to [0 1 0] p ⁎ (p for parent sub-structure) across the entire phase diagram, indicative of ferroelectric disorder along the [0 1 0] p direction co-existing with long range ferroelectric order along the orthogonal [1 0 0] p and [0 0 1] p directions. An additional characteristic pattern of diffuse scattering is also observed, involving rods of diffuse intensity running along the [1 0 0] p * and [0 0 1] p * directions of the perovskite sub-structure and indicative of octahedral tilt disorder about the [1 0 0] p and [0 0 1] p axes co-existing with long range ordered octahedral tilting around the [0 1 0] p direction. A possible crystal chemical explanation for the existence of this latter octahedral tilt disorder is explored through bond valence sum calculations. The possible influence of both types of disorder on the previously refined, room temperature space group/s and average crystal structure/s is examined. - Graphical abstract: [−3,0.−1]p zone axis EDP of K 0.46 Na 0.54 NbO 3 indexed according to both the relevant Pcm21 space groups (no subscripts) and the parent perovskite subcell (denoted by a subscript p). Highlights: ► Characterises ferroelectric and octahedral tilt disorder in the KNN solid solution. ► Discusses the possible driving forces for this disorder. ► Discusses the implications of this disorder for physical properties. ► Discusses the effects of this disorder on powder diffraction data.

  18. Analytical study of sodium combustion phenomena under sodium leak accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Byung Ho; Jeong, J. Y.; Jeong, K. C.; Kim, T. J.; Choi, J. H.

    2001-12-01

    The rise of temperature and pressure, the release of aerosol in the buildings as a result of sodium fire must be considered for the safety measures of LMR. Therefore for the safety of the LMR, it is necessary to understand the characteristics of sodium fire, resulting from the various type of leakage. ASSCOPS(Analysis of Simultaneous Sodium Combustion in Pool and Spray) is the computer code for the analysis of the thermal consequence of sodium leak and fire in LMR that has been developed by Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute(JNC) in Japan. In this study, a preliminary analysis of sodium leak and fire accidents in S/G building of KALIMER is made by using ASSCOPS code. Various phenomena of interest are spray and pool burning, peak pressure, temperature change, local structure temperature, aerosol behavior, drain system into smothering tank, ventilation characteristics at each cell with the safety venting system and nitrogen injection system. In this calculation, the dimension of the S/G building was chosen in accordance with the selected options of LMR name KALIMER(Korea). As a result of this study, it was shown that subsequent effect of sodium fire depended upon whether the sodium continued to leak from the pipe or not, whether the ventilation system was running, whether the inert gas injection system was provided, whether the sodium on floor was drained into the smothering tank or not, whether the building was sealed or not, etc. Specially the excessive rise of pressure into each cell was prevented by installing the pressure release plates on wall of the building

  19. Eigenvalue sensitivity of sampled time systems operating in closed loop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal, Dionisio

    2018-05-01

    The use of feedback to create closed-loop eigenstructures with high sensitivity has received some attention in the Structural Health Monitoring field. Although practical implementation is necessarily digital, and thus in sampled time, work thus far has center on the continuous time framework, both in design and in checking performance. It is shown in this paper that the performance in discrete time, at typical sampling rates, can differ notably from that anticipated in the continuous time formulation and that discrepancies can be particularly large on the real part of the eigenvalue sensitivities; a consequence being important error on the (linear estimate) of the level of damage at which closed-loop stability is lost. As one anticipates, explicit consideration of the sampling rate poses no special difficulties in the closed-loop eigenstructure design and the relevant expressions are developed in the paper, including a formula for the efficient evaluation of the derivative of the matrix exponential based on the theory of complex perturbations. The paper presents an easily reproduced numerical example showing the level of error that can result when the discrete time implementation of the controller is not considered.

  20. Sampling system for pulsed signals. Study of the radioactive lifetimes of excited 32P1/2 and 32P3/2 states of Na, excited by a tunable dye laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, P.; Campos, J.

    1979-01-01

    A system for sampling and averaging repetitive signals in the order of nanoseconds is discussed. The system uses as storage memory a multichannel analyzer operating in multi scaling mode. This instrument is employed for the measurement of atomic level lifetimes using a dye laser to excite the atoms and is applied to the study of lifetimes of the 3 2 P1/2 and 3 2 P3/2 states of sodium. (Author) 32 refs

  1. Aqueous Two-Phase Systems: A New Approach for the Determination of Brilliant Blue FCF in Water and Food Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabah Shiri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel, simple, and more sensitive spectrophotometric procedure has been developed for the determination of brilliant blue FCF in water and food samples by an aqueous two-phase system (ATPS. In this method, adequate amount of polyethylene glycol/ sodium carbonate (PEG-4000/Na2CO3 was added to aqueous solution for formation of a homogeneous solution. To the mixture solution, suitable amount of Na2CO3 was added, the mixture solution was shaken until the salt was dissolved, and then it was separated into two clear phases easily and rapidly. The target analyte in the water sample was extracted into the polyethylene glycol phase. After extraction, measuring the absorbance at 634 nm was done. The effects of different parameters such as polyethylene glycol (type and concentration, pH, salt (type and amount, centrifuge time, and temperature on the ATPS of dye was investigated and optimum conditions were established. Linear calibration curves were obtained in the range of 0.25–750 ng/mL for brilliant blue FCF under optimum conditions. Detection limit based on three times the standard deviation of the blank (3Sb was 0.12 ng/mL. The relative standard deviation (RSD for 400 ng/mL was 3.14%. The method was successfully applied to the determination of brilliant blue FCF in spiked samples with satisfactory results. The relative recovery was between 96.0 and 102.2%.

  2. Identification of impurities in sodium and its purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subbotin, B.I.; Voltchkov, L.G.; Kozlov, F.A.; Zagorulko, Yu.I.; Kuznetsov, E.K.

    1976-01-01

    The paper presents some investigation results on sodium technology. In particular, a description is given of a calculation method for evaluation of sodium-cover gas-impurities equilibrium compositions as well as experimental results on development of methods for sodium sampling, equipment for non-metallic impurities (oxygen, hydrogen, carbon) constant control in sodium. The investigation results on sodium purification with cold traps are presented

  3. Micro Sampling System for Highly Radioactive Specimen by Laser Ablation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Sun Ho; Ha, Yeong Keong; Han, Ki Chul; Park, Yang Soon; Jee, Kwang Yong; Kim, Won Ho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-03-15

    Shielded laser ablation system composed of laser system, image analyser, XYZ translator with motion controller, ablation chamber, manipulator and various optics was designed. Nd:YAG laser which can be tunable from 1064 nm to 266 nm was selected as light source. CCD camera(< x 200) was chosen to analyze a crater less than 50 un in diameter. XYZ translator was composed of three linear stage which can travel 50 w with a minimum movement of 1 {mu}m and motion controller. Before the performance test, each part of system was optically aligned. To perform the ablation test, the specimen was ablated by 50 {mu}m interval and observed by image analyser The shape of crater was almost round, indicating laser beam has homogeneous energy distribution. The resolution and magnification of image system were compatible with the design.

  4. Preliminary Studies of Two-Phase Reactive Process of Sodium-CO2 in S-CO2 Power Conversion Cycle Coupled to SFR System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Hwa Young; Ahn, Yoon Han; Lee, You Ho; Lee, Jeong Ik

    2013-01-01

    As a competing alternative to the steam Rankine cycle, the supercritical CO 2 (S-CO 2 ) Brayton cycle has been highlighted due to its high thermal efficiency, compact turbomachinery and heat exchangers sizes, and the reduced risk of SWRs. While the reduced risk of an SWR is considered as the one of most pronounced benefits of S-CO 2 Brayton cycle, there is still an interaction problem between liquid sodium and CO 2 . Although the chemical interaction between liquid sodium and CO 2 demonstrates less serious potential risks than those of a SWR, the Na/CO 2 interaction should be understood to evaluate safety and reliability of Intermediate Heat eXchanger (IHX). A noticeable characteristic of the reaction environment is that there is a large pressure difference between the liquid sodium and CO 2 side by about 1 and 200 bar, respectively. This would imply that the presence of a micro-crack in a heat exchanger tube will cause a high-pressure leak of CO 2 into liquid sodium side. Although the Na/CO 2 interaction may play an important role in the safety of the SFR reactor system, there has not yet been any research on understanding Na/CO 2 reaction by leakage through IHX. For this problem, the Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST) research team is studying the mechanism of CO 2 leakage and Na/CO 2 interaction in more details. The KAIST research team developed the MATLAB code, KAIST H XD, which can be used to design and evaluate performance of a heat exchanger of an S-CO 2 cycle. The size of heat exchanger and the amount of CO 2 in the cycle are calculated from the KAIST H XD code to estimate the amount of reaction products in Na/CO 2 interaction as well as liquid sodium

  5. Mixed species radioiodine air sampling readout and dose assessment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Distenfeld, C.H.; Klemish, J.R. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    This invention provides a simple, reliable, inexpensive and portable means and method for determining the thyroid dose rate of mixed airborne species of solid and gaseous radioiodine without requiring highly skilled personnel, such as health physicists or electronics technicians. To this end, this invention provides a means and method for sampling a gas from a source of a mixed species of solid and gaseous radioiodine for collection of the mixed species and readout and assessment of the emissions therefrom by cylindrically, concentrically and annularly molding the respective species around a cylindrical passage for receiving a conventional probe-type Geiger-Mueller radiation detector

  6. Estimates and sampling schemes for the instrumentation of accountability systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jewell, W.S.; Kwiatkowski, J.W.

    1976-10-01

    The problem of estimation of a physical quantity from a set of measurements is considered, where the measurements are made on samples with a hierarchical error structure, and where within-groups error variances may vary from group to group at each level of the structure; minimum mean squared-error estimators are developed, and the case where the physical quantity is a random variable with known prior mean and variance is included. Estimators for the error variances are also given, and optimization of experimental design is considered

  7. The sodium coolant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, G.

    2004-01-01

    The sodium is the best appropriate coolant for the fast neutrons reactors technology. Thus the fast neutrons reactors development is intimately bound to the sodium technology. This document presents the sodium as a coolant point of view: atomic structure and characteristics, sodium impacts on the fast neutron reactors technology, chemical properties of the sodium and the consequences, quality control in a nuclear reactor, sodium treatment. (A.L.B.)

  8. Sodium vapor deposition onto a horizontal flat plate above liquid sodium surface, (3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudo, Kazuhiko; Hirata, Masaru.

    1978-01-01

    Sodium vapour and sodium mist in the cover gas of a sodium system of a fast breeder reactor cause various problems. In this report, with the results of measurements of sodium mist concentration, the distribution of sodium mist diameter in cover gas was analytically obtained. The analysis was made by using the different nucleus model B. The measurement of the concentration of sodium mist was carried out with a sodium mist pot designed by the author. The experiment was done at the sodium temperature of 400 and 500 degree centigrade. The relations among sodium temperature, upper wall temperature, and the sodium mist concentration in cover gas were obtained. Evaluation of effective condensed nuclear radius in the cover gas was made by the comparison of analysis and experimental results. The results of this evaluation shows the following conclusions. It is impossible to express the distribution of sodium mist diameter by normal distribution or logarithmic normal distribution. Drop of sodium temperature results in the decrease of weight mean radius of generated sodium mist. Drop of upper wall temperature causes the decrease of weight mean radius, and increases sodium mist concentration. (Kato, T.)

  9. Use the Bar Code System to Improve Accuracy of the Patient and Sample Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Shu-Hsia; Yeh, Huy-Pzu; Chi, Kun-Hung; Ku, Hsueh-Chen

    2018-01-01

    In time and correct sample collection were highly related to patient's safety. The sample error rate was 11.1%, because misbranded patient information and wrong sample containers during January to April, 2016. We developed a barcode system of "Specimens Identify System" through process of reengineering of TRM, used bar code scanners, add sample container instructions, and mobile APP. Conclusion, the bar code systems improved the patient safety and created green environment.

  10. Monitoring of macrophage accumulation in statin-treated atherosclerotic mouse model using sodium iodide symporter imaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Ran Ji; Kim, Min Hwan; Woo, Sang-Keun; Kim, Kwang Il; Lee, Tae Sup; Choi, Yang-Kyu; Kang, Joo Hyun; Lim, Sang Moo; Lee, Yong Jin

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Macrophages play a key role in atherosclerotic plaque formation in atherosclerosis, but its detailed understanding has poorly investigated until now. Thus, we sought to demonstrate a noninvasive technique for macrophage tracking to atherosclerotic lesions in apolipoprotein E −/− (ApoE −/− ) mice with an imaging system based on sodium iodide symporter (NIS) gene coupled with 99m Tc-single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Methods and results: Macrophage cells (RAW264.7) were stably transduced with retrovirus expressing NIS gene (RAW-NIS). In RAW-NIS cells, uptake of 125 I was higher than the parental cells. [ 18 F]FDG signals in the aorta at 30 weeks on an ApoE −/− mice with high cholesterol diet were higher (1.7 ± 0.12% injected dose (ID)) than those in control group (0.84 ± 0.06% ID). Through 99m Tc-SPECT/computed tomography (CT), in the RAW-NIS cell injected group, the 99m Tc-pertechnetate uptake in aorta was higher than control groups. However, according to atorvastatin treatment, RAW-NIS cell recruitment reduced to the aorta. Area of 99m Tc-pertechnetate uptake was positively correlated with immunostaining results against macrophage antigen (CD68). Cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein levels of atorvastatin-treated group showed lower than those of atorvastatin-untreated group, but did not reach statistical difference. Conclusions: This novel approach to tracking macrophages to atherosclerotic plaques in vivo can be applied for studies of arterosclerotic vascular disease.

  11. Electrophysiological and Pharmacological Analyses of Nav1.9 Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel by Establishing a Heterologous Expression System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Zhou

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Nav1. 9 voltage-gated sodium channel is preferentially expressed in peripheral nociceptive neurons. Recent progresses have proved its role in pain sensation, but our understanding of Nav1.9, in general, has lagged behind because of limitations in heterologous expression in mammal cells. In this work, functional expression of human Nav1.9 (hNav1.9 was achieved by fusing GFP to the C-terminal of hNav1.9 in ND7/23 cells, which has been proved to be a reliable method to the electrophysiological and pharmacological studies of hNav1.9. By using the hNav1.9 expression system, we investigated the electrophysiological properties of four mutations of hNav1.9 (K419N, A582T, A842P, and F1689L, whose electrophysiological functions have not been determined yet. The four mutations significantly caused positive shift of the steady-state fast inactivation and therefore increased hNav1.9 activity, consistent with the phenotype of painful peripheral neuropathy. Meanwhile, the effects of inflammatory mediators on hNav1.9 were also investigated. Impressively, histamine was found for the first time to enhance hNav1.9 activity, indicating its vital role in hNav1.9 modulating inflammatory pain. Taken together, our research provided a useful platform for hNav1.9 studies and new insight into mechanism of hNav1.9 linking to pain.

  12. Drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms syndrome associated with use of phenytoin, divalproex sodium, and phenobarbital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brizendine, Christina E; Naik, Paras J

    2013-03-15

    A probable case of drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) associated with consecutive use of three medications for seizure control is reported. A 36-year-old woman was treated at a community hospital for a mild fever (37.9°C) and diffuse raised maculopapular rash with erythema. Three weeks previously, she had been diagnosed with a seizure disorder and initiated on phenytoin (dose unknown) at that time; about two weeks later, she developed a rash, prompting a switch from phenytoin to extended-release divalproex sodium 250 mg orally twice daily. During the week after discontinuation of phenytoin, the rash was improving, but about five days after the initiation of divalproex therapy, she had worsening rash and pruritus requiring urgent treatment; the divalproex was discontinued, and phenobarbital 30 mg three times daily was initiated for continued seizure control. Despite the discontinuation of phenytoin and divalproex, the patient's hepatic function worsened over five days, and phenobarbital therapy was discontinued. With continued deterioration of the patient's condition to fulminant hepatic failure, a transfer to a liver transplant facility was arranged. The use of the adverse reaction probability scale of Naranjo et al. in this case yielded a score of 8, indicating a probable relationship between DRESS and the serial use of phenytoin, divalproex, and phenobarbital. After receiving phenytoin for treatment of seizure disorder, a 36-year-old woman developed a fever and maculopapular rash with erythema. This reaction continued even after drug therapy was switched to extended-release divalproex and then phenobarbital. The patient's liver function deteriorated despite discontinuation of all seizure medications.

  13. Sodium Fire Demonstration Facility Design and Operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Youngil; Kim, Jong-Man; Lee, Jewhan; Hong, Jonggan; Yeom, Sujin; Cho, Chungho; Jung, Min-Hwan; Gam, Da-Young; Jeong, Ji-Young

    2014-01-01

    Although sodium has good characteristics such as high heat transfer rate and stable nuclear property, it is difficult to manage because of high reactivity. Sodium is solid at the room temperature and it easily reacts with oxygen resulting in fire due to the reaction heat. Thus, sodium must be stored in a chemically stable place, i.e., an inert gas-sealed or oil filled vessel. When a sodium fire occurs, the Na 2 O of white fume is formed. It is mainly composed of Na 2 O 2 , NaOH, and Na 2 CO 3 , ranging from 0.1 to several tens of micrometers in size. It is known that the particle size increases by aggregation during floating in air. Thus, the protection method is important and should be considered in the design and operation of a sodium system. In this paper, sodium fire characteristics are described, and the demonstration utility of outbreak of sodium fire and its extinguishing is introduced. In this paper, sodium fire characteristics and a demonstration facility are described. The introduced sodium fire demonstration facility is the only training device used to observe a sodium fire and extinguish it domestically. Furthermore, the type of sodium fire will be diversified with the enhancement of the utility. It is expected that this utility will contribute to experience in the safe treatment of sodium by the handlers

  14. Near-Optimal Detection in MIMO Systems using Gibbs Sampling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten; Hassibi, Babak; Dimakis, Georgios Alexandros

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we study a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) Gibbs sampler for solving the integer least-squares problem. In digital communication the problem is equivalent to preforming Maximum Likelihood (ML) detection in Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) systems. While the use of MCMC methods...... sampler provides a computationally efficient way of achieving approximative ML detection in MIMO systems having a huge number of transmit and receive dimensions. In fact, they further suggest that the Markov chain is rapidly mixing. Thus, it has been observed that even in cases were ML detection using, e...

  15. 40 CFR 205.171-2 - Test exhaust system sample selection and preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Systems § 205.171-2 Test exhaust system sample selection and preparation. (a)(1) Exhaust systems... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test exhaust system sample selection and preparation. 205.171-2 Section 205.171-2 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY...

  16. 46 CFR 161.002-15 - Sample extraction smoke detection systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sample extraction smoke detection systems. 161.002-15..., CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT Fire-Protective Systems § 161.002-15 Sample extraction smoke detection systems. The smoke detecting system must consist of a means for...

  17. All-polymer microfluidic systems for droplet based sample analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Carl Esben

    In this PhD project, I pursued to develop an all-polymer injection moulded microfluidic platform with integrated droplet based single cell interrogation. To allow for a proper ”one device - one experiment” methodology and to ensure a high relevancy to non-academic settings, the systems presented ...

  18. A sampling scheme intended for tandem measurements of sodium transport and microvillous surface area in the coprodaeal epithelium of hens on high- and low-salt diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayhew, T M; Dantzer, V; Elbrønd, V S; Skadhauge, E

    1990-12-01

    A tissue sampling protocol for combined morphometric and physiological studies on the mucosa of the avian coprodaeum is presented. The morphometric goal is to estimate the surface area due to microvilli at the epithelial cell apex and the proposed scheme is illustrated using material from three White Plymouth Rock hens. The scheme is designed to satisfy sampling requirements for the unbiased estimation of surface areas by vertical sectioning coupled with cycloid test lines and it incorporates a number of useful internal checks. It relies on multi-level sampling with four levels of stereological estimation. At Level I, macroscopic estimates of coprodaeal volume are obtained. Light microscopy is employed at Level II to calculate epithelial volume density. Levels III and IV require low and high power electron microscopy to estimate the surface density of the epithelial apical border and the amplification factor due to microvilli. Worked examples of the calculation steps are provided.

  19. Solid phase extraction method for the determination of lead, nickel, copper and manganese by flame atomic absorption spectrometry using sodium bispiperdine-1,1'-carbotetrathioate (Na-BPCTT) in water samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rekha, D.; Suvardhan, K.; Kumar, J. Dilip; Subramanyam, P.; Prasad, P. Reddy; Lingappa, Y.; Chiranjeevi, P.

    2007-01-01

    A novel column solid phase extraction procedure was developed for the determination of lead, nickel, copper and manganese in various water samples by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) after preconcentration on sodium bispiperdine-1,1'-carbotetrathioate (Na-BPCTT) supported by Amberlite XAD-7. The sorbed element was subsequently eluted with 1 M nitric acid and the acid eluates are analysed by Flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). Various parameters such as pH, amount of adsorbent, eluent type and volume, flow-rate of the sample solution, volume of the sample solution and matrix interference effect on the retention of the metal ions have been studied. The optimum pH for the sorption of above mentioned metal ions was about 6.0 ± 0.2. The loading capacity of adsorbent for Pb, Cu, Ni and Mn were found to 28, 26, 22 and 20 x 10 -6 g/mL, respectively. The recoveries of lead, copper, nickel and manganese under optimum conditions were found to be 96.7-99.2 at the 95% confident level. The limit of detection was 3.0, 3.2, 2.8 and 3.6 x 10 -6 g/mL for lead, copper, nickel and manganese, respectively by applying a preconcentration factor 50. The proposed enrichment method was applied for metal ions in various water samples. The results were obtained are good agreement with reported method

  20. Sodium fast reactors energy conversion systems. Na-CO2 interaction. Comparison with Na-water interaction of conventional water Rankine cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latge, Christian; Simon, Nicole

    2006-01-01

    The Sodium Fast Reactor is a very promising candidate for the development of Fast Neutron Reactors. It is well known owing to its wide development since the 1950's, throughout all countries involved in the development of nuclear power plants. The development of Sodium-cooled fast neutron reactors is possible due to its very attractive sodium, nuclear, physical and even some of its chemical properties. Nevertheless, the operational feedback has shown that the concept has several drawbacks: difficulties for In-Service Inspection and Repair operations due to the sodium opacity and possible detrimental effects of its reactivity with air and water when the heat conversion is performed with a conventional Rankine cycle. Moreover, the various design projects have shown some difficulties in enhancing its competitiveness with regards to existing NPPs without any new innovative options, i.e. the possibility of suppressing the intermediate circuits and/or the development of an optimized energy conversion system. The Supercritical CO 2 Brayton Cycle option for the energy conversion has been widely suggested because of its high thermodynamic efficiency (over 40%), its potential compactness of the Balance Of Plant equipment due to the small-sized turbo machinery system, and for its applicability to both Direct or Indirect Cycle (Na, PbBi, He) assuming the hypothesis that the Supercritical CO 2 -Na interaction has less serious potential consequences than sodium-water consequences in the conventional Rankine cycle. Within the framework of the SMFR (Small Modular Fast Reactor) project, developed jointly by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL-USA), the 'Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique' (CEA) and Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA, formerly Japan Nuclear Cycle development), this option has been selected and investigated. This paper deals with the study of the interaction between Na and CO 2 , based on a literature review: the result of this study will allow the definition of R and D

  1. Asynchronous sampled-data approach for event-triggered systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Magdi S.; Memon, Azhar M.

    2017-11-01

    While aperiodically triggered network control systems save a considerable amount of communication bandwidth, they also pose challenges such as coupling between control and event-condition design, optimisation of the available resources such as control, communication and computation power, and time-delays due to computation and communication network. With this motivation, the paper presents separate designs of control and event-triggering mechanism, thus simplifying the overall analysis, asynchronous linear quadratic Gaussian controller which tackles delays and aperiodic nature of transmissions, and a novel event mechanism which compares the cost of the aperiodic system against a reference periodic implementation. The proposed scheme is simulated on a linearised wind turbine model for pitch angle control and the results show significant improvement against the periodic counterpart.

  2. Image acquisition system using on sensor compressed sampling technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Pravir Singh; Choi, Gwan Seong

    2018-01-01

    Advances in CMOS technology have made high-resolution image sensors possible. These image sensors pose significant challenges in terms of the amount of raw data generated, energy efficiency, and frame rate. This paper presents a design methodology for an imaging system and a simplified image sensor pixel design to be used in the system so that the compressed sensing (CS) technique can be implemented easily at the sensor level. This results in significant energy savings as it not only cuts the raw data rate but also reduces transistor count per pixel; decreases pixel size; increases fill factor; simplifies analog-to-digital converter, JPEG encoder, and JPEG decoder design; decreases wiring; and reduces the decoder size by half. Thus, CS has the potential to increase the resolution of image sensors for a given technology and die size while significantly decreasing the power consumption and design complexity. We show that it has potential to reduce power consumption by about 23% to 65%.

  3. Design of the CERN MEDICIS Collection and Sample Extraction System

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Alexander

    MEDICIS is a new facility at CERN ISOLDE that aims to produce radio-isotopes for medical research. Possible designs for the collection and transport system for the collection of radio-isotopes was investigated. A system using readily available equipment was devised with the the aim of keeping costs to a minimum whilst maintaining the highest safety standards. FLUKA, a Monte Carlo radiation transport code, was used to simulate the radiation from the isotopes to be collected. Of the isotopes to be collected 44Sc was found to give the largest dose by simulating the collection of all isotopes of interest to CERN’s MEDICIS facility, for medical research. The simulations helped guide the amount of shielding used in the final design. Swiss Regulations stipulating allowed activity level of individual isotopes was also considered within the body of the work.

  4. Event Processing and Variable Part of Sample Period Determining in Combined Systems Using GA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strémy, Maximilián; Závacký, Pavol; Jedlička, Martin

    2011-01-01

    This article deals with combined dynamic systems and usage of modern techniques in dealing with these systems, focusing particularly on sampling period design, cyclic processing tasks and related processing algorithms in the combined event management systems using genetic algorithms.

  5. Cosmic ray produced sodium and its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves Barbosa, A.

    1981-07-01

    The following topics were presented: calculations of the theoretical production rate of sodium-22 in the atmosphere in order to estimate its activity in rain water; description of the method of chemical separation of sodium and of counting of various radionuclide samples; results obtained for 22 Na, 137 Cs, 144 Ce, 7 Be and 210 Pb and seasonal variations of these radionuclides in rain and river waters; seasonal variations of natural elements, sodium, potassium and uranium in rain and river waters [fr

  6. Effective enzymatic in situ saccharification of bamboo shoot shell pretreated by dilute alkalic salts sodium hypochlorite/sodium sulfide pretreatment under the autoclave system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Gang-Gang; He, Yu-Cai; Liu, Qiu-Xiang; Kou, Xiao-Qin; Huang, Xiao-Jun; Di, Jun-Hua; Ma, Cui-Luan

    2017-10-01

    In this study, dilute alkali salts (0.6% NaClO, 0.067% Na 2 S) pretreatment at 10% sulfidity under the autoclave system at 120°C for 40min was used for pretreating bamboo shoot shell (BSS). Furthermore, FT-IR, XRD and SEM were employed to characterize the changes in the cellulose structural characteristics (porosity, morphology, and crystallinity) of the pretreated BSS solid residue. After 72h, the reducing sugars and glucose from the enzymatic in situ hydrolysis of 50g/L pretreated BSS in dilute NaClO/Na 2 S media could be obtained at 31.11 and 20.32g/L, respectively. Finally, the obtained BSS-hydrolysates containing alkalic salt NaClO/Na 2 S resulted in slightly negative effects on the ethanol production. Glucose in BSS-hydrolysates was fermented from 20.0 to 0.17g/L within 48h, and an ethanol yield of 0.41g/g glucose, which represents 80.1% of the theoretical yield, was obtained. This study provided an effective strategy for potential utilization of BSS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Dynamic Acquisition and Retrieval Tool (DART) for Comet Sample Return : Session: 2.06.Robotic Mobility and Sample Acquisition Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badescu, Mircea; Bonitz, Robert; Kulczycki, Erick; Aisen, Norman; Dandino, Charles M.; Cantrell, Brett S.; Gallagher, William; Shevin, Jesse; Ganino, Anthony; Haddad, Nicolas; hide

    2013-01-01

    The 2011 Decadal Survey for planetary science released by the National Research Council of the National Academies identified Comet Surface Sample Return (CSSR) as one of five high priority potential New Frontiers-class missions in the next decade. The main objectives of the research described in this publication are: develop a concept for an end-to-end system for collecting and storing a comet sample to be returned to Earth; design, fabricate and test a prototype Dynamic Acquisition and Retrieval Tool (DART) capable of collecting 500 cc sample in a canister and eject the canister with a predetermined speed; identify a set of simulants with physical properties at room temperature that suitably match the physical properties of the comet surface as it would be sampled. We propose the use of a dart that would be launched from the spacecraft to impact and penetrate the comet surface. After collecting the sample, the sample canister would be ejected at a speed greater than the comet's escape velocity and captured by the spacecraft, packaged into a return capsule and returned to Earth. The dart would be composed of an inner tube or sample canister, an outer tube, a decelerator, a means of capturing and retaining the sample, and a mechanism to eject the canister with the sample for later rendezvous with the spacecraft. One of the significant unknowns is the physical properties of the comet surface. Based on new findings from the recent Deep Impact comet encounter mission, we have limited our search of solutions for sampling materials to materials with 10 to 100 kPa shear strength in loose or consolidated form. As the possible range of values for the comet surface temperature is also significantly different than room temperature and testing at conditions other than the room temperature can become resource intensive, we sought sample simulants with physical properties at room temperature similar to the expected physical properties of the comet surface material. The chosen

  8. Cholesteric lyomesophases based on sodium N-lauroyl asparte: characterization of new system by nuclear magnetic resonance and polarizing microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melo, M.V.M.C. de.

    1982-01-01

    Lyomesophases based on di-sodium N-lauroyl aspartate (SNLA), bi-carboxilated amphiphile obtained from the reaction of n-lauroyl chloride with aspartic acid in racemic or levo form are studies. The different mesophases were characterized by 2 H and 23 Na NMR and by polarizing microscopy. (M.J.C.) [pt

  9. Phase behaviour and molecular dynamics in the binary system of sodium perchlorate and 1,2-propanediamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terashima, Yukio; Takeda, Kiyoshi; Honda, Makoto

    2011-01-01

    The phase and glass transition behaviour in a binary mixture of sodium perchlorate and 1,2-propanediamine {(NaClO 4 ) x (12PDA) 1-x , x 4 ) 1 (12PDA) 4 and (NaClO 4 ) 2 (12PDA) 5 . The concentration dependence of the glass transition point shows a sigmoid curve implying an underlying anomaly.

  10. Development of Sodium Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jong Hyun; Nam, H. Y.; Kim, T. J.; Jeong, K. C.; Park, J. H.; Kim, B. H.; Jeong, J. Y.; Kim, J. M.; Choi, B. H.; Kim, B. S.

    2003-02-01

    The basic P and ID and fabrication method for IHTS simplification experiment were prepared for the experimental apparatus. In order to investigate the later phase of a SWR event, an experimental apparatus was designed and manufactured. The 620 data set have been obtained in the experiment of free surface fluctuation and an experimental correlation for the critical gas entertainment condition is additionally developed. For development of water into sodium leak detection technology, the properties from leak noises were extracted, and the tools for analyzing acoustic noises were constructed. The state-of-the-art on the flow and differential pressure measuring techniques in the piping system is investigated to develop new techniques which are applicable to high temperature sodium flow environment. The plan for the minimization of errors in temperature measurement was drawn up by analysing the error factors in temperature measurement. And the countermeasures for the minimization of errors in temperature measurement due to complex heat transfer were prepared

  11. Experimental investigations on heat content of supercooled sodium acetate trihydrate by a simple heat loss method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kong, Weiqiang; Dannemand, Mark; Johansen, Jakob Berg

    2016-01-01

    Sodium acetate trihydrate is a phase change material that can be used for long term heat storage in solar heating systems because of its relatively high heat of fusion, a melting temperature of 58 °C and its ability to supercool stable. In practical applications sodium acetate trihydrate tend to ......, 0.3–0.5 % (wt.%) Xanthan Gum or 1–2% (wt.%) of some solid or liquid polymers as additives had significantly higher heat contents compared to samples of sodium acetate trihydrate suffering from phase separation....

  12. Development of evaluation methodology to assess the sodium fire suppression performance of leak collection tray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parida, F.C.; Rao, P.M.; Ramesh, S.S.; Somayajulu, P.A.; Malarvizhi, B.; Kannan, S.E.

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Leakage of hot liquid sodium and its subsequent combustion in the form of a pool cannot be completely ruled out in a Fast breeder Reactor (FBR) plant in spite of provision for adequate safety measures. To protect the plant system from the hazardous effects of flame, heat and smoke, one of the passive protection devices used in FBR plants is the Leak Collection Tray (LCT). The design of LCT is based on immediate channeling of burning liquid sodium on the funnel shaped sloping cover tray (SCT) to the bottom sodium hold-up vessel (SHV) in which self-extinction of the fire occurs due to oxygen starvation. The SCT has one or three drain pipes and air vent pipes depending on the type of design. In each experiment, a known amount ranging from 30 to 40 kg of hot liquid sodium at 550 deg. C was discharged on the LCT in the open air. Continuous on-line monitoring of temperature at strategic locations (∼ 28 points) was carried out. Colour video-graphy was employed for taking motion pictures of various time-dependent events like sodium dumping, appearance of flame and release of smoke through vent pipes. After self-extinction of sodium fire, the LCT was allowed to cool overnight in an argon atmosphere. Solid samples of sodium debris in the SCT and SHV were collected by manual core drilling machine. The samples were subjected to chemical analysis for determination of unburnt and burnt sodium. The sodium debris removed from SCT and SHV were separately weighed. To assess the performance of the LCT, two different geometrical configurations of SCT, one made up of stainless steel an the other of carbon steel, were used. Three broad phenomena are identified as the basis of evaluation methodology. These are (a) thermal transients, i.e. heating and cooling of the bulk sodium in SCT and SHV respectively, (b) post test sodium debris distribution between SCT and SHV as well as (c) sodium combustion and smoke release behaviour. Under each category

  13. Development of evaluation methodology to assess the sodium fire suppression performance of leak collection tray

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parida, F.C.; Rao, P.M.; Ramesh, S.S.; Somayajulu, P.A.; Malarvizhi, B.; Kannan, S.E. [Engineering Safety Division, Safety Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam - 603102, Tamilnadu (India)

    2005-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: Leakage of hot liquid sodium and its subsequent combustion in the form of a pool cannot be completely ruled out in a Fast breeder Reactor (FBR) plant in spite of provision for adequate safety measures. To protect the plant system from the hazardous effects of flame, heat and smoke, one of the passive protection devices used in FBR plants is the Leak Collection Tray (LCT). The design of LCT is based on immediate channeling of burning liquid sodium on the funnel shaped sloping cover tray (SCT) to the bottom sodium hold-up vessel (SHV) in which self-extinction of the fire occurs due to oxygen starvation. The SCT has one or three drain pipes and air vent pipes depending on the type of design. In each experiment, a known amount ranging from 30 to 40 kg of hot liquid sodium at 550 deg. C was discharged on the LCT in the open air. Continuous on-line monitoring of temperature at strategic locations ({approx} 28 points) was carried out. Colour video-graphy was employed for taking motion pictures of various time-dependent events like sodium dumping, appearance of flame and release of smoke through vent pipes. After self-extinction of sodium fire, the LCT was allowed to cool overnight in an argon atmosphere. Solid samples of sodium debris in the SCT and SHV were collected by manual core drilling machine. The samples were subjected to chemical analysis for determination of unburnt and burnt sodium. The sodium debris removed from SCT and SHV were separately weighed. To assess the performance of the LCT, two different geometrical configurations of SCT, one made up of stainless steel an the other of carbon steel, were used. Three broad phenomena are identified as the basis of evaluation methodology. These are (a) thermal transients, i.e. heating and cooling of the bulk sodium in SCT and SHV respectively, (b) post test sodium debris distribution between SCT and SHV as well as (c) sodium combustion and smoke release behaviour. Under each category

  14. Development of an automatic sample changer and a data acquisition system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bianchini, Ricardo M.; Estevez, Jorge; Vollmer, Alberto E.; Iglicki, Flora A.

    1999-01-01

    An automatic electro-pneumatic sample changer with a rotating sample holder is described. The changer is coupled through an electronic interface with the data acquisition station. The software to automate the system has been designed. (author)

  15. An optical biosensing film for biochemical oxygen demand determination in seawater with an automatic flow sampling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Lingling; Wang, Xudong; Guo, Guangmei; Wang, Xiaoru; Chen, Xi

    2007-09-01

    An on-line roboticized apparatus, including an optical biosensing film with an automatic flow sampling system, has been developed for biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) determination of seawater. The sensing film employed in the apparatus consisted of an organically modified silicate (ORMOSIL) film embedded with tri(4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline) ruthenium(II) perchlorate. Three species of microorganism cultivated from seawater were immobilized in an ORMOSIL-polyvinyl alcohol matrix. Possible factors affecting BOD determination were studied, including sampling frequency, temperature, pH and sodium chloride concentration. Based on measurements of the linear fluctuant coefficients and the reproducibility of its response to seawater, the BOD apparatus showed the advantages of high veracity and short response time. Generally, the linear fluctuant coefficient (R2) in the BOD range 0.2-40 mg l-1 was 0.9945 when using a glucose/glutamate (GGA) BOD standard solution. A reproducible response for the BOD sensing film of within ±2.8% could be obtained in the 2 mg l-1 GGA solution. The BOD apparatus was applied to the BOD determination of seawater, and the values estimated by this biosensing apparatus correlated well with those determined by the conventional 5 day BOD (BOD5) test.

  16. Sodium Exposure Tests on Limestone Concrete Used as Sacrificial Protection Layer in FBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parida, F.C.; Das, S.K.; Sharma, A.K.; Rao, P.M.; Ramesh, S.S.; Somayajulu, P.A.; Malarvizhi, B.; Kasinathan, N.

    2006-01-01

    Hot sodium coming in contact with structural concrete in case of sodium leak in FBR system cause damage as a result of thermo-chemical attack by burning sodium. In addition, release of free and bound water from concrete leads to generation of hydrogen gas, which is explosive in nature. Hence limestone concrete, as sacrificial layer on the structural concrete in FBR, needs to be qualified. Four concrete blocks of dimension 600 mm x 600 mm x 300 mm with 300 mm x 300 mm x 150 mm cavity were cast and subjected to controlled sodium exposure tests. They have composition of ordinary portland cement, water, fine and coarse aggregate of limestone in the ratio of 1: 0.58: 2.547: 3.817. These blocks were subjected to preliminary inspection by ultrasonic pulse velocity technique and rebound hammer tests. Each block was exposed for 30 minutes to about 12 kg of liquid sodium (∼ 120 mm liquid column) at 550 deg. C in open air, after which sodium was sucked back from the cavity of the concrete block into a sodium tank. On-line temperature monitoring was carried out at strategic locations of sodium pool and concrete block. After removing sodium from the cavity and cleaning the surfaces, rebound hammer testing was carried out on each concrete block at the same locations where data were taken earlier at pre-exposed stage. The statistical analysis of rebound hammer data revealed that one of the concrete block alone has undergone damage to the extent of 16%. The loss of mass occurred for all the four blocks varied from 0.6 to 2.4% due to release of water during the test duration. Chemical analysis of sodium in concrete samples collected from cavity floor of each block helped in generation of depth profiles of sodium monoxide concentration for each block. From this it is concluded that a bulk penetration of sodium up to 30 mm depth has taken place. However it was also observed that at few local spots, sodium penetrated into concrete up to 50 mm. Cylindrical core samples of 50 mm x 150

  17. Investigation of structure and magnetic properties of cobalt-nickel and manganese ferrites nanoparticles synthesized in direct micelles of sodium dodecyl sulphate system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedosyuk, V.M.; Mirgorod, Yu.A.

    2016-01-01

    Results of investigation of the crystal structure and magnetic properties of the nanoparticles of transition metals ferrites (cobalt, nickel, manganese) synthesized by unified methods using direct sodium dodecyl sulfate micelles are presented. Crystal structure of the samples was investigated by X-ray diffraction on DRON-3M (in the CuKa-radiation). Particle size was investigated by transmission electron microscopy on microscope JEOL JEM-1011 (accelerating voltage 100 kV). All powders contain nanoparticles of the same size in the range 2-6 nm. Magnetic properties of the samples were estimated from temperature and field dependences of the magnetization. All samples exhibit properties of superparamagnets with different blocking temperatures below 45 K. (authors).

  18. Performance evaluation of continuous blood sampling system for PET study. Comparison of three detector-systems

    CERN Document Server

    Matsumoto, K; Sakamoto, S; Senda, M; Yamamoto, S; Tarutani, K; Minato, K

    2002-01-01

    To measure cerebral blood flow with sup 1 sup 5 O PET, it is necessary to measure the time course of arterial blood radioactivity. We examined the performance of three different types of continuous blood sampling system. Three kinds of continuous blood sampling system were used: a plastic scintillator-based beta detector (conventional beta detector (BETA)), a bismuth germinate (BGO)-based coincidence gamma detector (Pico-count flow-through detector (COINC)) and a Phoswich detector (PD) composed by a combination of plastic scintillator and BGO scintillator. Performance of these systems was evaluated for absolute sensitivity, count rate characteristic, sensitivity to background gamnra photons, and reproducibility for nylon tube geometry. The absolute sensitivity of the PD was 0.21 cps/Bq for sup 6 sup 8 Ga positrons at the center of the detector. This was approximately three times higher than BETA, two times higher than COINC. The value measured with BETA was stable, even when background radioactivity was incre...

  19. Liquid sodium pool fires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casselman, C [DSN/SESTR, Centre de Cadarache, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    1979-03-01

    Experimental sodium pool combustion results have led to a definition of the combustion kinetics, and have revealed the hazards of sodium-concrete contact reactions and the possible ignition of organic matter (paint) by hydration of sodium peroxide aerosols. Analysis of these test results shows that the controlling mechanism is sodium evaporation diffusion. (author)

  20. Liquid sodium pool fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casselman, C.

    1979-01-01

    Experimental sodium pool combustion results have led to a definition of the combustion kinetics, and have revealed the hazards of sodium-concrete contact reactions and the possible ignition of organic matter (paint) by hydration of sodium peroxide aerosols. Analysis of these test results shows that the controlling mechanism is sodium evaporation diffusion. (author)

  1. 40 CFR 90.421 - Dilute gaseous exhaust sampling and analytical system description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... gas mixture temperature, measured at a point immediately ahead of the critical flow venturi, must be... analytical system description. (a) General. The exhaust gas sampling system described in this section is... requirements are as follows: (1) This sampling system requires the use of a Positive Displacement Pump—Constant...

  2. Acute renal failure with sodium-glucose-cotransporter-2 inhibitors: Analysis of the FDA adverse event report system database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlman, A; Heyman, S N; Matok, I; Stokar, J; Muszkat, M; Szalat, A

    2017-12-01

    Sodium-glucose-cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors have recently been approved for the treatment of type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM). It has been proposed that these agents could induce acute renal failure (ARF) under certain conditions. This study aimed to evaluate the association between SGLT2-inhibitors and ARF in the FDA adverse event report system (FAERS) database. We analyzed adverse event cases submitted to FAERS between January 2013 and September 2016. ARF cases were identified using a structured medical query. Medications were identified using both brand and generic names. During the period evaluated, 18,915 reports (out of a total of 3,832,015 registered in FAERS) involved the use of SGLT2-inhibitors. SGLT2-inhibitors were reportedly associated with ARF in 1224 of these cases (6.4%), and were defined as the "primary" or "secondary" cause of the adverse event in 96.8% of these cases. The proportion of reports with ARF among reports with SGLT2 inhibitor was almost three-fold higher compared to reports without these drugs (ROR 2.88, 95% CI 2.71-3.05, p SGLT2-inhibitors was significantly greater than the proportion of ARF among cases with T2DM without SGLT2-inhibitors (ROR 1.68, 95% CI 1.57-1.8, p SGLT2-inhibitors, canagliflozin was associated with a higher proportion of reports of renal failure (7.3%), compared to empagliflozin and dapagliflozin (4.7% and 4.8% respectively, p SGLT2-inhibitors are associated with an increase in the proportion of reports of ARF compared to other medications. SGLT2-inhibitor agents may differ from one another in their respective risk for ARF. Copyright © 2017 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Octopamine increases the excitability of neurons in the snail feeding system by modulation of inward sodium current but not outward potassium currents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szabó Henriette

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although octopamine has long been known to have major roles as both transmitter and modulator in arthropods, it has only recently been shown to be functionally important in molluscs, playing a role as a neurotransmitter in the feeding network of the snail Lymnaea stagnalis. The synaptic potentials cannot explain all the effects of octopamine-containing neurons on the feeding network, and here we test the hypothesis that octopamine is also a neuromodulator. Results The excitability of the B1 and B4 motoneurons in the buccal ganglia to depolarising current clamp pulses is significantly (P IA current and a sustained IK delayed-rectifier current, but neither was modulated by octopamine in any of these three buccal neurons. The fast inward current was eliminated in sodium – free saline and so is likely to be carried by sodium ions. 10 μM octopamine enhanced this current by 33 and 45% in the B1 and B4 motoneurons respectively (P Conclusion We conclude that octopamine is also a neuromodulator in snails, changing the excitability of the buccal neurons. This is supported by the close relationship from the voltage clamp data, through the quantitative simulation, to the action potential threshold, changing the properties of neurons in a rhythmic network. The increase in inward sodium current provides an explanation for the polycyclic modulation of the feeding system by the octopamine-containing interneurons, making feeding easier to initiate and making the feeding bursts more intense.

  4. Gradual Reduction in Sodium Content in Cooked Ham, with Corresponding Change in Sensorial Properties Measured by Sensory Evaluation and a Multimodal Machine Vision System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsti Greiff

    Full Text Available The European diet today generally contains too much sodium (Na(+. A partial substitution of NaCl by KCl has shown to be a promising method for reducing sodium content. The aim of this work was to investigate the sensorial changes of cooked ham with reduced sodium content. Traditional sensorial evaluation and objective multimodal machine vision were used. The salt content in the hams was decreased from 3.4% to 1.4%, and 25% of the Na(+ was replaced by K(+. The salt reduction had highest influence on the sensory attributes salty taste, after taste, tenderness, hardness and color hue. The multimodal machine vision system showed changes in lightness, as a function of reduced salt content. Compared to the reference ham (3.4% salt, a replacement of Na(+-ions by K(+-ions of 25% gave no significant changes in WHC, moisture, pH, expressed moisture, the sensory profile attributes or the surface lightness and shininess. A further reduction of salt down to 1.7-1.4% salt, led to a decrease in WHC and an increase in expressible moisture.

  5. Gradual Reduction in Sodium Content in Cooked Ham, with Corresponding Change in Sensorial Properties Measured by Sensory Evaluation and a Multimodal Machine Vision System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiff, Kirsti; Mathiassen, John Reidar; Misimi, Ekrem; Hersleth, Margrethe; Aursand, Ida G

    2015-01-01

    The European diet today generally contains too much sodium (Na(+)). A partial substitution of NaCl by KCl has shown to be a promising method for reducing sodium content. The aim of this work was to investigate the sensorial changes of cooked ham with reduced sodium content. Traditional sensorial evaluation and objective multimodal machine vision were used. The salt content in the hams was decreased from 3.4% to 1.4%, and 25% of the Na(+) was replaced by K(+). The salt reduction had highest influence on the sensory attributes salty taste, after taste, tenderness, hardness and color hue. The multimodal machine vision system showed changes in lightness, as a function of reduced salt content. Compared to the reference ham (3.4% salt), a replacement of Na(+)-ions by K(+)-ions of 25% gave no significant changes in WHC, moisture, pH, expressed moisture, the sensory profile attributes or the surface lightness and shininess. A further reduction of salt down to 1.7-1.4% salt, led to a decrease in WHC and an increase in expressible moisture.

  6. Determination of oxygen in liquid sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torre, M. de la; Lapena, J.; Galindo, F.; Couchoud, M.; Celis, B. de; Lopez-Araquistain, J.L.

    1976-01-01

    The behaviour is analysed of a device for 'in-line' sampling and vacuum distillation. With this procedure 95 results were obtained for the solubility of oxygen in liquid sodium at temperatures between 125 0 and 300 0 C. The correlation between the concentration of oxygen in a saturation state and the corresponding temperature is represented by: 1g C = 6,17 - 2398/T, where C expressed ppm of oxygen by weight and T is the saturation temperature in 0 K. Reference is also made to the first results obtained with the electrochemical oxygen meter and the system for taking and recording data. (author)

  7. Small liquid sodium leaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufresne, J.; Rochedereux, Y.; Antonakas, D.; Casselman, C.; Malet, J.C.

    1986-05-01

    Usually, pessimistic considerations inassessing the safety of secondary sodium loops in LMFBR reactor lead to assume guillotine rupture releasing a large amount of sodium estimate the consequences of large sodium fires. In order to reduce these consequences, one has to detect the smallest leak as soon as possible and to evaluate the future of an initial small leak. Analysis of the relationship between crack size and sodium outflow rate; Analysis of a sodium pipe with a small open crack

  8. Sodium magnetic resonance imaging. Development of a 3D radial acquisition technique with optimized k-space sampling density and high SNR-efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagel, Armin Michael

    2009-01-01

    A 3D radial k-space acquisition technique with homogenous distribution of the sampling density (DA-3D-RAD) is presented. This technique enables short echo times (TE 23 Na-MRI, and provides a high SNR-efficiency. The gradients of the DA-3D-RAD-sequence are designed such that the average sampling density in each spherical shell of k-space is constant. The DA-3D-RAD-sequence provides 34% more SNR than a conventional 3D radial sequence (3D-RAD) if T 2 * -decay is neglected. This SNR-gain is enhanced if T 2 * -decay is present, so a 1.5 to 1.8 fold higher SNR is measured in brain tissue with the DA-3D-RAD-sequence. Simulations and experimental measurements show that the DA-3D-RAD sequence yields a better resolution in the presence of T 2 * -decay and less image artefacts when B 0 -inhomogeneities exist. Using the developed sequence, T 1 -, T 2 * - and Inversion-Recovery- 23 Na-image contrasts were acquired for several organs and 23 Na-relaxation times were measured (brain tissue: T 1 =29.0±0.3 ms; T 2s * ∼4 ms; T 2l * ∼31 ms; cerebrospinal fluid: T 1 =58.1±0.6 ms; T 2 * =55±3 ms (B 0 =3 T)). T 1 - und T 2 * -relaxation times of cerebrospinal fluid are independent of the selected magnetic field strength (B0 = 3T/7 T), whereas the relaxation times of brain tissue increase with field strength. Furthermore, 23 Na-signals of oedemata were suppressed in patients and thus signals from different tissue compartments were selectively measured. (orig.)

  9. Evaluation of materials for retention of sodium and core debris in reactor systems. Annual progress report, September 1977-December 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swanson, D.G.; Zehms, E.H.; McClelland, J.D.; Meyer, R.A.; van Paassen, H.L.L.

    1978-12-01

    This report considers some of the consequences of a hypothetical core disruptive accident in a nuclear reactor. The interactions expected between molten core debris, liquid sodium, and materials that might be employed in an ex-vessel sacrificial-bed or in the reactor building are discussed. Experimental work performed for NRC by Sandia Laboratories and Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory on the interactions between liquid sodium and basalt concrete is reviewed. Studies of molten steel interactions with concrete at Sandia Laboratories and molten UO 2 interactions with concrete at The Aerospace Corporation are also discussed. The potential of MgO for use in core containment is discussed and refractory materials other than MgO are reviewed. Finally, results from earlier experiments with molten core debris and various materials performed at The Aerospace Corporation are presented

  10. System design study of a membrane reforming hydrogen production plant using a small sized sodium cooled reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chikazawa, Y.; Konomura, M.; Hori, T.; Sato, H.; Uchida, S.

    2004-01-01

    In this study, a membrane reforming hydrogen production plant using a small sized sodium cooled reactor was designed as one of promising concepts. In the membrane reformer, methane and steam are reformed into carbon dioxide and hydrogen with sodium heat at a temperature 500 deg-C. In the equilibrium condition, steam reforming proceeds with catalyst at a temperature more than 800 deg-C. Using membrane reformers, the steam reforming temperature can be decreased from 800 to 500 deg-C because the hydrogen separation membrane removes hydrogen selectively from catalyst area and the partial pressure of hydrogen is kept much lower than equilibrium condition. In this study, a hydrogen and electric co-production plant has been designed. The reactor thermal output is 375 MW and 25% of the thermal output is used for hydrogen production (70000 Nm 3 /h). The hydrogen production cost is estimated to 21 yen/Nm 3 but it is still higher than the economical goal (17 yen/Nm 3 ). The major reason of the high cost comes from the large size of hydrogen separation reformers because of the limit of hydrogen separation efficiency of palladium membrane. A new highly efficient hydrogen separation membrane is needed to reduce the cost of hydrogen production using membrane reformers. There is possibility of multi-tube failure in the membrane reformers. In future study, a design of measures against tube failure and elemental experiments of reaction between sodium and reforming gas will be needed. (authors)

  11. Cleaning of Sodium in the Cold Trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Byung Ho; Jeong, Ji Young; Kim, Jong Man; Choi, Byung Hae; Nam, Ho Yun

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of a cleaning process is to remove the residual sodium adhering to the component walls once it has been properly drained. It is necessary to clean and decontaminate a component, especially the large components of the primary coolant system; such as the intermediate heat exchangers and the primary pump. Improper and inadequate cleaning has in a number of cases resulted in problems in the storage, handling, and reuse of components. Several types of failures due to improper cleaning procedures have been defined in the past. Inadequate and incomplete removal of sodium results in residues which may contain metallic sodium and alkaline compounds such as sodium hydroxide, sodium oxide, sodium carbonate, and various types of alcoholates. Reinsertion of components containing these compounds into a high-temperature sodium system can result in either the intergranular penetration characteristic of a high- oxygen sodium or an accelerated corrosion due to oxygen. The methods used for cleaning sodium equipment depend on the condition and types of equipment to be cleaned and whether the equipment is to be reused. Cleaning methods are needed that will avoid a deleterious local overheating, material surface degradation or deposits, chemical, physical, or mechanical damage, and external effects. This paper discusses a steam-nitrogen gas cleaning method for the routine applications that permits the reuse of the cold trap in sodium

  12. Experimental performance evaluation of two stack sampling systems in a plutonium facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glissmeyer, J.A.

    1992-04-01

    The evaluation of two routine stack sampling systems at the Z-Plant plutonium facility operated by Rockwell International for USERDA is part of a larger study, sponsored by Rockwell and conducted by Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories, of gaseous effluent sampling systems. The gaseous effluent sampling systems evaluated are located at the main plant ventilation stack (291-Z-1) and at a vessel vent stack (296-Z-3). A preliminary report, which was a paper study issued in April 1976, identified many deficiencies in the existing sampling systems and made recommendations for corrective action. The objectives of this experimental evaluation of those sampling systems were as follows: Characterize the radioactive aerosols in the stack effluents; Develop a tracer aerosol technique for validating particulate effluent sampling system performance; Evaluate the performance of the existing routine sampling systems and their compliance with the sponsor's criteria; and Recommend corrective action where required. The tracer aerosol approach to sampler evaluation was chosen because the low concentrations of radioactive particulates in the effluents would otherwise require much longer sampling times and thus more time to complete this evaluation. The following report describes the sampling systems that are the subject of this study and then details the experiments performed. The results are then presented and discussed. Much of the raw and finished data are included in the appendices

  13. Intelligent type sodium instrumentations for LMFR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daolong Chen

    1996-01-01

    The constructions and their performances of a lot of newly developed intelligent type sodium instrumentations that consist of the intelligent type sodium flowmeter, the intelligent type immersed sodium flowmeter, the intelligent type sodium manometer and the intelligent type sodium level gauge are described. The graduation characteristic equations for corresponding transducer using the medium temperature as the parameter are given. Because the operating temperature limit of measured medium (sodium) is wide, so the on-line compensation of the temperature effect of their graduation characteristics much be considered. The tests show that these intelligent type sodium instrumentations possess of good linearity. The accurate sodium process parameter (flowrate, pressure and level) measurement data can be obtained by means of their on-line compensation function of the temperature effect. Moreover, these intelligent type sodium instrumentations possess of the self-inspection, the electric shutoff protection, the setting of full-scale, the setting of alarm limits (two upper limits and two lower limits alarms), the thermocouple breaking alarm, each other isolative the 0-10V direct-current analogue output and CENTRONICS standard digital output, and the alarm relay contact output. These intelligent type sodium instrumentations are suitable particularly for the instrument, control and protective systems of LMFR by means of these excellent functions based on microprocessor. The basic error of the intelligent type sodium flowmeter, immersed sodium flowmeter, sodium manometer and sodium level gauge is respectively ±2%, ±2.3%, ±0.3% and ±1.9% of measuring range. (author). 4 refs, 9 figs

  14. Sodium hydride precipitation in sodium cold traps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McPheeters, C.C.; Raue, D.J.

    1979-10-01

    A series of experiments have been performed to test a calculational model for precipitation of NaH in sodium cold traps. The calculational model, called ACTMODEL, is a computer simulation that uses the system geometry and operating conditions as input to calculate a mass transfer coefficient and the distribution of NaH in a cold trap. The ACTMODEL was tested using an analytical cold trap (ACT) that is simple and essentially one-dimensional. The ACT flow and temperature profile may be controlled at any desired condition. The ACT was analyzed destructively after each test to measure the actual NaH distribution. Excellent agreement was obtained between the ACTMODEL simulations and the experiments

  15. Sodium hydride precipitation in sodium cold traps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McPheeters, C.C.; Raue, D.J.

    1980-06-01

    A series of experiments have been performed to test a calculational model for precipitation of NaH in sodium cold traps. The calculational model, called ACTMODEL, is a computer simulation that uses the system geometry and operating conditions as input to calculate a mass-transfer coefficient and the distribution of NaH in a cold trap. The ACTMODEL was tested using an analytical cold trap (ACT) that is simple and essentially one-dimensional. The ACT flow and temperature profile can be controlled at any desired condition. The ACT was analyzed destructively after each test to measure the actual NaH distribution. Excellent agreement was obtained between the ACTMODEL simulations and the experiments. Mass-transfer coefficients ranging upward from 6 x 10 -5 m/s were measured in both packless and packed traps. As much as a fourfold increase in precipitation surface area was observed with increasing amount of NaH deposited. 11 figures, 2 tables

  16. Advanced Ignition System for Hybrid Rockets for Sample Return Missions, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To return a sample from the surface of Mars or any of the larger moons in the solar system will require a propulsion system with a comparatively large delta-V...

  17. Conceptual design report, Sodium Storage Facility, Fast Flux Test Facility, Project F-031

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shank, D.R.

    1995-01-01

    The Sodium Storage Facility Conceptual Design Report provides conceptual design for construction of a new facility for storage of the 260,000 gallons of sodium presently in the FFTF plant. The facility will accept the molten sodium transferred from the FFTF sodium systems, and store the sodium in a solid state under an inert cover gas until such time as a Sodium Reaction Facility is available for final disposal of the sodium

  18. Assessment of sodium conductor distribution cable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-06-01

    The study assesses the barriers and incentives for using sodium conductor distribution cable. The assessment considers environmental, safety, energy conservation, electrical performance and economic factors. Along with all of these factors considered in the assessment, the sodium distribution cable system is compared to the present day alternative - an aluminum conductor system. (TFD)

  19. Analysis format and evaluation methods for effluent particle sampling systems in nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwendiman, L.C.; Glissmeyer, J.A.

    1976-06-01

    Airborne effluent sampling systems for nuclear facilities are frequently designed, installed, and operated without a systematic approach which discloses and takes into account all the circumstances and conditions which would affect the validity and adequacy of the sample. Without a comprehensive check list or something similar, the designer of the system may not be given the important information needed to provide a good design. In like manner, an already operating system may be better appraised. Furthermore, the discipline of a more formal approach may compel the one who will use the system to make sure he knows what he wants and can thus give the designer the needed information. An important consideration is the criteria to be applied to the samples to be taken. This analysis format consists of a listing of questions and statements calling forth the necessary information required to analyze a sampling system. With this information developed, one can proceed with an evaluation, the methodology of which is also discussed in the paper. Errors in probe placement, failure to sample at the proper rate, delivery line losses, and others are evaluated using mathematical models and empirically derived relationships. Experimental methods are also described for demonstrating that quality sampling will be achieved. The experiments include using a temporary, simple, but optimal sample collection system to evaluate the more complex systems. The use of tracer particles injected in the stream is also discussed. The samples obtained with the existing system are compared with those obtained by the temporary, optimal system

  20. Simultaneous determination of copper, cobalt, and mercury ions in water samples by solid-phase extraction using carbon nanotube sponges as adsorbent after chelating with sodium diethyldithiocarbamate prior to high performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Zhou, Jia-Bin; Wang, Xia; Wang, Zhen-Hua; Zhao, Ru-Song

    2016-06-01

    Recently, a sponge-like material called carbon nanotube sponges (CNT sponges) has drawn considerable attention because it can remove large-area oil, nanoparticles, and organic dyes from water. In this paper, the feasibility of CNT sponges as a novel solid-phase extraction (SPE) adsorbent for the enrichment and determination of heavy metal ions (Co(2+), Cu(2+), and Hg(2+)) was investigated for the first time. Sodium diethyldithiocarbamate (DDTC) was used as the chelating agent and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for the final analysis. Important factors which may influence extraction efficiency of SPE were optimized, such as the kind and volume of eluent, volume of DDTC, sample pH, flow rate, etc. Under the optimized conditions, wide range of linearity (0.5-400 μg L(-1)), low limits of detection (0.089~0.690 μg L(-1); 0.018~0.138 μg), and good repeatability (1.27~3.60 %, n = 5) were obtained. The developed method was applied for the analysis of the three metal ions in real water samples, and satisfactory results were achieved. All of these findings demonstrated that CNT sponges will be a good choice for the enrichment and determination of target ions at trace levels in the future.